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Sample records for baclofen pretreatment enhances

  1. Intrathecal baclofen as adjuvant therapy to enhance the effect of spinal cord stimulation in neuropathic pain: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lind, Göran; Meyerson, Björn A; Winter, Jaleh; Linderoth, Bengt

    2004-08-01

    Only about 60-70% of well selected patients with neuropathic pain syndromes of peripheral origin enjoy sufficient pain relief with spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Since recent animal experiments have demonstrated that the GABA-B receptor is pivotal in the effect of SCS on certain neuropathic symptoms, the use of baclofen as an adjunct to stimulation emerged as an option in patients not responding satisfactorily to SCS. Forty-eight patients with neuropathic pain of peripheral origin responding poorly to SCS were enrolled in a study with intrathecal baclofen; in a few cases adenosine was also tried. Twenty patients reported significant pain reduction at bolus trials and were offered implantation of a drug pump. Seven patients subsequently had pumps implanted together with SCS and four had pumps alone. Three patients had only peroral baclofen therapy as an adjunct to SCS. The 14 patients continuing with baclofen therapy as an adjunct to SCS, or alone, were followed for an average of 35 months after pump implant. The group with SCS+pump n=5; 2 explanted) reported an average decrease of pain ratings from VAS 82 to 33. The group with i.t. baclofen only had a pain decrease from VAS 63 to 33, while the three patients with peroral baclofen+SCS had less benefit from drug therapy. Adjunctive drug therapy for patients with unsatisfactory pain relief by SCS may offer a possibility to enhance pain alleviation. PMID:15207519

  2. Structural modifications of lignocellulosics by pretreatments to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gharpuray, M.M.; Lee, Y.F.; Fan, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    In this work an evaluation was made of a wide variety of single and multiple pretreatment methods for enhancing the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. A multiple pretreatment consisted of a physical pretreatment followed by a chemical pretreatment. The structural features of wheat straw, including the specific surface area, crystallinity index, and lignin content, were measured to understand the mechanism of the enhancement in the hyrolysis rate upon pretreatment. It has been found that, in general, multiple pretreatments were not promising, since the hydrolysis rates rarely exceeded those achieved by single pretreatments. Ball-milling pretreatment was found to be effective in increasing the specific surface area and decreasing the crystallinity index. Treatment with ethylene glycol was highly effective in increasing the specific surface area, in addition to a high degree of delignification. Peracetic acid pretreatment was highly effective in delignifying substrate. Among multiple pretreatments, those involving peracetic acid treatment generally had lower crystallinity indices and lignin content values. The relationship between the hydrolysis rate and the set of structural features indicated that an increase in surface area and a decrease in the crystallinity and lignin content enhance the hydrolysis; the specific surface area is the most influential of the structural features, followed by the lignin content. (Refs. 23).

  3. Pharmacokinetic Alteration of Baclofen by Multiple Oral Administration of Herbal Medicines in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Park, Gi-Young; Shin, Soyoung; Seo, Won Sik; Shin, Jeong Cheol; Choi, Jin Ho; Weon, Kwon-Yeon; Min, Byung Sun; Upadhyay, Mahesh; Zhao, Bing Tian; Woo, Mi Hee; Kwon, So Hee

    2014-01-01

    The potential pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction of conventional western drug, baclofen, and oriental medications Oyaksungisan (OY) and Achyranthes bidentata radix (AB) extract for the treatment of spasticity has been evaluated. Rats were pretreated with distilled water (DW), OY, or AB extract by oral administration every day for 7 days. After 10 min of the final dose of DW or each herbal medication, baclofen (1 mg/kg) was given by oral administration and plasma concentrations of baclofen were determined by LC/MS/MS. The plasma baclofen concentration-time profiles were then analyzed by noncompartmental analysis and a population PK model was developed. Baclofen was rapidly absorbed, showed biexponential decline with elimination half-life of 3.42–4.10 hr, and mostly excreted into urine. The PK of baclofen was not affected by AB extract pretreatment. However, significantly lower maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and longer time to reach Cmax (Tmax) were observed in OY pretreated rats without changes in the area under the curve (AUC) and the fraction excreted into urine (Furine). The absorption rate (Ka) of baclofen was significantly decreased in OY pretreated rats. These data suggested that repeated doses of OY might delay the absorption of baclofen without changes in extent of absorption, which needs further evaluation for clinical significance. PMID:25530781

  4. The positive allosteric GABAB receptor modulator rac-BHFF enhances baclofen-mediated analgesia in neuropathic mice.

    PubMed

    Zemoura, Khaled; Ralvenius, William T; Malherbe, Pari; Benke, Dietmar

    2016-09-01

    Neuropathic pain is associated with impaired inhibitory control of spinal dorsal horn neurons, which are involved in processing pain signals. The metabotropic GABAB receptor is an important component of the inhibitory system and is highly expressed in primary nociceptors and intrinsic dorsal horn neurons to control their excitability. Activation of GABAB receptors with the orthosteric agonist baclofen effectively reliefs neuropathic pain but is associated with severe side effects that prevent its widespread application. The recently developed positive allosteric GABAB receptor modulators lack most of these side effects and are therefore promising drugs for the treatment of pain. Here we tested the high affinity positive allosteric modulator rac-BHFF for its ability to relief neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve in mice. rac-BHFF significantly increased the paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation in healthy mice, indicating an endogenous GABABergic tone regulating the sensitivity to mechanical stimuli. Surprisingly, rac-BHFF displayed no analgesic activity in neuropathic mice although GABAB receptor expression was not affected in the dorsal horn as shown by quantitative receptor autoradiography. However, activation of spinal GABAB receptors by intrathecal injection of baclofen reduced hyperalgesia and its analgesic effect was considerably potentiated by co-application of rac-BHFF. These results indicate that under conditions of neuropathic pain the GABAergic tone is too low to provide a basis for allosteric modulation of GABAB receptors. However, allosteric modulators would be well suited as an add-on to reduce the dose of baclofen required to achieve analgesia. PMID:27108932

  5. [Lethal intoxication with baclofen].

    PubMed

    Dukova, O A; Pokrovsky, A A; Melent'ev, A V; Krasnov, E A; Suvorova, E V; Efremov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to select and develop simpler methods for the quantitative determination of baclofen in blood with the use of HPLC and tandem MS (MS-MS) techniques and its qualitative determination in cadaveric organs by the GC/MS technique. These mathods were shown to be suitable for the purpose of forensic medical analysis, clinical, toxicological, and therapeutic monitoring. The special emphasis is laid on the methods used to investigate the biological materials obtained from the subjects who died from baclofen intoxication. PMID:25874317

  6. Enhancing methane production of Chlorella vulgaris via thermochemical pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Lara; Mahdy, Ahmed; Timmers, Rudolphus A; Ballesteros, Mercedes; González-Fernández, Cristina

    2013-12-01

    To enhance the anaerobic digestion of Chlorella vulgaris, thermochemical pretreatments were conducted. All pretreatments markedly improved solubilisation of carbohydrates. Thermal treatments and thermal treatments combined with alkali resulted in 5-fold increase of soluble carbohydrates while thermal treatment with acid addition enhanced by 7-fold. On the other hand, proteins were only solubilized with thermo-alkaline conditions applied. Likewise, all the pretreatments tested improved methane production. Highest anaerobic digestion was accomplished by thermal treatment at 120°C for 40 min without any chemical addition. As a matter of fact, hydrolysis constant rate was doubled under this condition. According to the energetic analysis, energy input was higher than the extra energy gain at the solid concentration employed. Nevertheless, higher biomass organic load pretreatment may be an option to achieve positive energetic balances. PMID:24096280

  7. Pretreatment of Cottage Cheese to Enhance Biogas Production

    PubMed Central

    Salgaonkar, Bhakti; Mutnuri, Srikanth

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the possibility of pretreating selected solid fraction of an anaerobic digester treating food waste to lower the hydraulic retention time and increase the methane production. The study investigated the effect of different pretreatments (thermal, chemical, thermochemical and enzymatic) for enhanced methane production from cottage cheese. The most effective pretreatments were thermal and enzymatic. Highest solubilisation of COD was observed in thermal pretreatment, followed by thermochemical. In single enzyme systems, lipase at low concentration gave significantly higher methane yield than for the experiments without enzyme additions. The highest lipase dosages decreased methane yield from cottage cheese. However, in case of protease enzyme an increase in concentration of the enzyme showed higher methane yield. In the case of mixed enzyme systems, pretreatment at 1 : 2 ratio of lipase : protease showed higher methane production in comparison with 1 : 1 and 2 : 1 ratios. Methane production potentials for different pretreatments were as follows: thermal 357 mL/g VS, chemical 293 mL/g VS, and thermochemical 441 mL/g VS. The average methane yield from single enzyme systems was 335 mL/g VS for lipase and 328 mL/g VS for protease. Methane potentials for mixed enzyme ratios were 330, 360, and 339 mL/g VS for 1 : 1, 1 : 2, and 2 : 1 lipase : protease, respectively. PMID:24995288

  8. Enhanced coal hydrogasification via oxidative pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.J.

    1992-04-16

    The gasification of coal char by hydrogen is much slower than in steam or carbon dioxide; moreover, hydrogasification rate in pure hydrogen decreases sharply with conversion for most carbons. To overcome this kinetic behavior, the oxidation of the char prior to and during hydrogasification has been investigated as a means of enhancing hydro gasification rate. Kinetic rate studies under well-characterized conditions have been complemented by careful surface analyses to characterize oxygen on the char surface prior to and during hydrogasification.

  9. Enhanced fermentable sugar production from kitchen waste using various pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Hafid, Halimatun Saadiah; Rahman, Nor'Aini Abdul; Md Shah, Umi Kalsom; Baharudin, Azhari Samsu

    2015-06-01

    The kitchen waste fraction in municipal solid waste contains high organic matter particularly carbohydrate that can contribute to fermentable sugar production for subsequent conversion to bioethanol. This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of single and combination pretreatments of kitchen waste by liquid hot water, mild acid pretreatment of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and enzymatic hydrolysis (glucoamylase). The maximum total fermentable sugar produced after combination pretreatment by 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase consisted of 93.25 g/L glucose, 0.542 g/L sucrose, 0.348 g/L maltose, and 0.321 g/L fructose. The glucose released by the combination pretreatment method was 0.79 g glucose/g KW equivalent to 79% of glucose conversion. The effects of the pre-treatment on kitchen waste indicated that the highest solubilization was 40% by the combination method of 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase. The best combination pre-treatment gave concentrations of lactic acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid of 11.74 g/L, 6.77 g/L, and 1.02 g/L, respectively. The decrease of aliphatic absorbance bands of polysaccharides at 2851 and 2923 cm(-1) and the increase on structures of carbonyl absorbance bands at 1600 cm(-1) reflects the progress of the kitchen waste hydrolysis to fermentable sugars. Overall, 1.5% HCl and glucoamylase treatment was the most profitable process as the minimum selling price of glucose was USD 0.101/g kitchen waste. Therefore, the combination pretreatment method was proposed to enhance the production of fermentable sugar, particularly glucose from kitchen waste as the feedstock for bioethanol production. PMID:25900092

  10. Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs

    SciTech Connect

    W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

    2002-06-01

    Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

  11. Comparison of industrially viable pretreatments to enhance soybean straw biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Emir; Muñoz, María J; Martín, Ricardo; Caro, Ildefonso; Curbelo, Caridad; Díaz, Ana B

    2015-10-01

    This study explores acid and alkaline pretreatments in order to enhance soybean straw biodegradability. The effects of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide for different pretreatment times at 30°C and 121°C on biomass dissolution and the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The highest total conversion to reducing sugars of 93.9% was attained when soybean straw was pretreated with acid (4% H2SO4, 121°C, 1 h) and subsequently subjected to the enzymatic process. However, conversion of 86.5%, were reached only with the hydrolysis of the pretreated residue using mild conditions, (0.5% NaOH, 30°C, 48 h), involving the reduction cost of the process. In addition to this, this result was dramatically decreased when pectinase was removed from the enzyme cocktail. It has been also demonstrated that the reduction of the enzyme loading to less than half allowed obtaining about 96% of the reducing sugars attained with the highest enzyme dose. PMID:26164601

  12. Intrathecal Baclofen Pump for Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To conduct an evidence-based analysis of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen for spasticity. The Technology Spasticity is a motor disorder characterized by tight or stiff muscles that may interfere with voluntary muscle movements and is a problem for many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury (SCI), cerebral palsy (CP), and acquired brain injury (ABI).(1). Increased tone and spasm reduces mobility and independence, and interferes with activities of daily living, continence and sleep patterns. Spasticity may also be associated with significant pain or discomfort (e.g., due to poor fit in braces, footwear, or wheelchairs), skin breakdown, contractures, sleep disorders and difficulty in transfer. Goals of treatment are to decrease spasticity in order to improve range of motion, facilitate movement, reduce energy expenditure and reduce risk of contractures. Existing treatments include physical therapy, oral medications, injections of phenol or botulinum toxin, or surgical intervention. Baclofen is the oral drug most frequently prescribed for spasticity in cases of SCI and MS.(1) Baclofen is a muscle relaxant and antispasticity drug. In the brain, baclofen delivered orally has some supraspinal activity that may contribute to clinical side effects. The main adverse effects of oral baclofen include sedation, excessive weakness, dizziness, mental confusion, and somnolence.(2) The incidence of adverse effects is reported to range from 10% to 75%.(2) Ochs et al. estimated that approximately 25-30% of SCI and MS patients fail to respond to oral baclofen.(3;4) Adverse effects appear to be dose-related and may be minimized by initiating treatment at a low dose and gradually titrating upwards.(2) Adverse effects usually appear at doses >60 mg/day.(2) The rate of treatment discontinuation due to intolerable adverse effects has generally been reported to range from 4% to 27%.(2) When baclofen is

  13. [Enhancement of sewage sludge anaerobic digestibility by thermal hydrolysis pretreatment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-jun; Wang, Wei

    2005-01-01

    Biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments of thermo-hydrolyzed sewage sludge are carried out to investigate the effects of thermal hydrolysis on the digestibility of sewage sludge. The results show that thermal hydrolysis pretreatment can facilitate the dissolving of organic solid in sludge, and soluble organics hydrolyzed into low molecular organics, in which volatile fat acids accounted for 30% - 40 % of soluble COD, so the digestibility of sewage sludge remarkably improved. The optimum pretreatment temperature and holding time were 170 degrees C and 30 minutes, under which the total COD removal rate enhanced from original 38.11% to 56.78%, and biogas production rate of COD in feeding sludge from 160mL/g to 250mL/g. PMID:15859411

  14. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse by steam explosion pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kling, S.H.; Neto, C.C.; Ferrara, M.A.; Torres, J.C.R.; Magalhaes, D.B.; Ryu, D.D.Y.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the possibility of applying a steam explosion pretreatment process to sugarcane bagasse was investigated, and the effectiveness of the pretreatment in terms of hemicellulose solubilization and enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis was determined. The steam requirement for the pretreatment was also investigated at the pilot-plant scale, and these results are presented.

  15. Sludge pretreatment chemistry evaluation: Enhanced sludge washing separation factors

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, N.G.

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the work conducted in Fiscal Year 1994 by the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Tank Waste Treatment Science Task. The main purpose of this task, is to provide the technical basis and scientific understanding to support TWRS baseline decisions and actions, such as the development of an enhanced sludge washing process to reduce the volume of waste that will require high-level waste (HLW) vitrification. One objective within the Sludge Pretreatment Chemistry Evaluation Subtask was to establish wash factors for various SST (single-shell tank) sludges. First, analytical data were compiled from existing tank waste characterization reports. These data were summarized on tank-specific worksheets that provided a uniform format for reviewing and comparing data, as well as the means to verify whether the data set for each tank was complete. Worksheets were completed for 27 SST wastes. The analytical water wash data provided tank-specific information about the fraction of each component that dissolves with water, i.e., an estimate of tank-specific wash factors for evaluating tank-by-tank processing. These wash data were then used collectively to evaluate some of the wash factors that are assumed for the overall SST waste inventory; specifically, wash factors for elements that would be found primarily in sludges. The final step in this study was to incorporate the characterization and wash factor data into a spreadsheet that provides insight into the effect of enhanced sludge washing on individual tank sludges as well as for groups of sludges that may be representative of different waste types. Spreadsheet results include the estimated mass and percentage of each element that would be removed with washing and leaching. Furthermore, estimated compositions are given of the final wash and leach streams and residual solids, in terms of both concentration and dry weight percent.

  16. Baclofen for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Possible Role of Comorbid Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Morley, K.C.; Baillie, A.; Leung, S.; Addolorato, G.; Leggio, L.; Haber, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To conduct a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Methods: Out of 69 participants consecutively screened, 42 alcohol-dependent patients were randomized to receive placebo, baclofen 30 mg/day or baclofen 60 mg/day for 12 weeks. All subjects were offered BRENDA, a structured psychosocial therapy for alcohol dependence that seeks to improve motivation for change, enhance strategies to prevent relapse and encourage compliance with treatment. Results: Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that alcohol consumption (heavy drinking days, drinks per drinking day) significantly reduced across all three groups during the treatment period. There were no statistically significant advantages to treatment on time to first heavy drinking day (relapse) (P = 0.08), nor time to first drink (lapse) (P = 0.18). A post hoc analysis stratifying according to whether there had been a comorbid anxiety disorder, revealed a beneficial effect of baclofen 30 mg/day versus placebo on time to lapse and relapse (P < 0.05). There was also a beneficial effect for baclofen 60 mg/day relative to placebo on time to relapse in this comorbid group (P < 0.05). Both doses of baclofen were well tolerated. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions: In spite of the small sample for a 3-arm clinical trial, this study suggests a specific role of baclofen in alcohol-dependent individuals with comorbid anxiety. Replication in larger, fully-powered studies is required. PMID:25246489

  17. Fungal pretreatment of non-sterile miscanthus for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Vasco-Correa, Juliana; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yebo

    2016-03-01

    Miscanthus was pretreated with the fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora under non-sterile conditions, using sterile miscanthus that had been previously colonized with the fungus as the inoculum. Inoculum ratios equal to or greater than 30% yielded a successful pretreatment, enhancing the enzymatic digestibility of miscanthus by 3- to 4-fold over that of raw miscanthus, which was comparable with the fungal pretreatment under sterile conditions. This enhanced digestibility was linearly correlated with lignin degradation. Although cellulose loss of up to 13% was observed for the successful non-sterile pretreatments, the final glucose yield was 3-4 times higher than that of raw miscanthus and comparable to that of the sterile pretreated miscanthus. A time course study showed that maximum glucose yield can be achieved with a pretreatment time of 21 days. PMID:26722811

  18. Use of new endophytic fungi as pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Ibarra, David; Eugenio, María E

    2015-11-01

    New endophytic fungi are assessed for the first time as pretreatment to enhance saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus wood. The fungi are all laccase-producing ascomycetes and were isolated from eucalyptus trees in Spain. After five endophytes had been assayed alone or in combination with white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62, three were pre-selected. To improve sugar production, an autohydrolysis pretreatment was performed before or after fungal treatment. Pretreatment increased sugar production 2.7 times compared to non-pretreated wood. When fungal and autohydrolysis pretreatments were combined, a synergistic increase in saccharification was observed in all cases. Endophytic fungi Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. produced greater enhancements in saccharification than Trametes sp. I-62 (increase in sugar yields of 8.5, 8.0 and 6.0 times, respectively), demonstrating the high potential of these new endophytic fungi for saccharification enhancement. PMID:26255602

  19. Steam pretreatment of agricultural residues facilitates hemicellulose recovery while enhancing enzyme accessibility to cellulose.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Richard P; Arantes, Valdeir; Saddler, Jack

    2015-06-01

    The origins of lignocellulosic biomass and the pretreatment used to enhance enzyme accessibility to the cellulosic component are known to be strongly influenced by various substrate characteristics. To assess the impact that fibre properties might have on enzymatic hydrolysis, seven agricultural residues were characterised before and after steam pretreatment using a single pretreatment condition (190°C, 5min, 3% SO2) previously shown to enhance fractionation and hydrolysis of the cellulosic component of corn stover. When the fibre length, width and coarseness, viscosity, water retention value and cellulose crystallinity were monitored, no clear correlation was observed between any single substrate characteristic and the substrate's ease of enzymatic hydrolysis. However, the amount of hemicellulose that was solubilised during pretreatment correlated (r(2)=0.98) with the effectiveness of enzyme hydrolysis of each pretreated substrate. Simons's staining, to measure the cellulose accessibility, showed good correlation (r(2)=0.83) with hemicellulose removal and the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:25780906

  20. Enhancing biogas production of corn stover by fast pyrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Deli; Wu, Houkai; Yi, Weiming; Fu, Peng; Li, Yongjun; Li, Zhihe

    2016-10-01

    A new thermo-chemical pretreatment by a lower temperature fast pyrolysis (LTFP) was applied to promote anaerobic digestion (AD) efficiency of corn stover (CS). The pretreatment experiment was performed by a fluidized bed pyrolysis reactor at 180, 200 and 220°C with a carrier gas flow rate of 4 and 3m(3)/h. The components characteristics, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images and Crystal Intensity (CrI) of the pretreated CS were tested to explore effectiveness of the pretreatment. The results showed that the cumulative methane production at 180°C for 4 and 3m(3)/h were 199.8 and 200.3mL/g TS, respectively. As compared to the untreated CS, the LTFP pretreatment significantly (a<0.05) increased the methane production by 18.07% and 18.33%, respectively. Methane production was well fitted by the Gompertz models, and the maximum methane potential and AD efficiency was obtained at 180°C for 3m(3)/h. PMID:27420161

  1. Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble) biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1) acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2) this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose. PMID:22074910

  2. Elucidating the Role of Ferrous Ion Cocatalyst in Enhancing Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H.; Donohoe, B. S.; Vinzant, T. B.; Ciesielski, P. N.; Wang, W.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Zeng, Y.; Johnson, D. K.; Ding, S. Y.; Himmel, M. E.; Tucker, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble) biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe{sup 2+} ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe{sup 2+} ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe{sup 2+} ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1) acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2) this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

  3. Enhanced mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste by thermal pretreatment: Substrate versus digestate heating.

    PubMed

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan; Panico, Antonio; Yeh, Daniel H; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Food waste (FW) represents a source of high potential renewable energy if properly treated with anaerobic digestion (AD). Pretreating the substrates could yield a higher biomethane production in a shorter time. In this study, the effects of thermal (heating the FW in a separate chamber) and thermophilic (heating the full reactor content containing both FW and inoculum) pretreatments at 50, 60, 70 and 80°C prior to mesophilic AD were studied through a series of batch experiments. Pretreatments at a lower temperature (50°C) and a shorter time (<12h) had a positive effect on the AD process. The highest enhancement of the biomethane production with an increase by 44-46% was achieved with a thermophilic pretreatment at 50°C for 6-12h or a thermal pretreatment at 80°C for 1.5h. Thermophilic pretreatments at higher temperatures (>55°C) and longer operating times (>12h) yielded higher soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs), but had a negative effect on the methanogenic activity. The thermal pretreatments at the same conditions resulted in a lower solubilization of COD. Based on net energy calculations, the enhanced biomethane production is sufficient to heat up the FW for the thermal, but not for the thermophilic pretreatment. PMID:26272711

  4. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of food waste by thermal and ozonation pretreatment methods.

    PubMed

    Ariunbaatar, Javkhlan; Panico, Antonio; Frunzo, Luigi; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco

    2014-12-15

    Treatment of food waste by anaerobic digestion can lead to an energy production coupled to a reduction of the volume and greenhouse gas emissions from this waste type. According to EU Regulation EC1774/2002, food waste should be pasteurized/sterilized before or after anaerobic digestion. With respect to this regulation and also considering the slow kinetics of the anaerobic digestion process, thermal and chemical pretreatments of food waste prior to mesophilic anaerobic digestion were studied. A series of batch experiments to determine the biomethane potential of untreated as well as pretreated food waste was carried out. All tested conditions of both thermal and ozonation pretreatments resulted in an enhanced biomethane production. The kinetics of the anaerobic digestion process were, however, accelerated by thermal pretreatment at lower temperatures (<120 °C) only. The best result of 647.5 ± 10.6 mlCH4/gVS, which is approximately 52% higher as compared to the specific biomethane production of untreated food waste, was obtained with thermal pretreatment at 80 °C for 1.5 h. On the basis of net energy calculations, the enhanced biomethane production could cover the energy requirement of the thermal pretreatment. In contrast, the enhanced biomethane production with ozonation pretreatment is insufficient to supply the required energy for the ozonator. PMID:25169646

  5. Baclofen into the lateral parabrachial nucleus induces hypertonic sodium chloride intake during cell dehydration

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Activation of GABAB receptors with baclofen into the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) induces ingestion of water and 0.3 M NaCl in fluid replete rats. However, up to now, no study has investigated the effects of baclofen injected alone or combined with GABAB receptor antagonist into the LPBN on water and 0.3 M NaCl intake in rats with increased plasma osmolarity (rats treated with an intragastric load of 2 M NaCl). Male Wistar rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted bilaterally into the LPBN were used. Results In fluid replete rats, baclofen (0.5 nmol/0.2 μl), bilaterally injected into the LPBN, induced ingestion of 0.3 M NaCl (14.3 ± 4.1 vs. saline: 0.2 ± 0.2 ml/210 min) and water (7.1 ± 2.9 vs. saline: 0.6 ± 0.5 ml/210 min). In cell-dehydrated rats, bilateral injections of baclofen (0.5 and 1.0 nmol/0.2 μl) into the LPBN induced an increase of 0.3 M NaCl intake (15.6 ± 5.7 and 21.5 ± 3.5 ml/210 min, respectively, vs. saline: 1.7 ± 0.8 ml/210 min) and an early inhibition of water intake (3.5 ± 1.4 and 6.7 ± 2.1 ml/150 min, respectively, vs. saline: 9.2 ± 1.4 ml/150 min). The pretreatment of the LPBN with 2-hydroxysaclofen (GABAB antagonist, 5 nmol/0.2 μl) potentiated the effect of baclofen on 0.3 M NaCl intake in the first 90 min of test and did not modify the inhibition of water intake induced by baclofen in cell-dehydrated rats. Baclofen injected into the LPBN did not affect blood pressure and heart rate. Conclusions Thus, injection of baclofen into the LPBN in cell-dehydrated rats induced ingestion of 0.3 M NaCl and inhibition of water intake, suggesting that even in a hyperosmotic situation, the blockade of LPBN inhibitory mechanisms with baclofen is enough to drive rats to drink hypertonic NaCl, an effect independent of changes in blood pressure. PMID:23642235

  6. Baclofen blocks yohimbine-induced increases in ethanol-reinforced responding in rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keith L; Nickel, Melissa M; Bielak, Justin T

    2016-05-01

    Chronic or repeated stress increases alcohol consumption. The GABA-B agonist baclofen decreases alcohol consumption and may be most effective for individuals with comorbid anxiety/stress disorders. The present study sought to determine if baclofen blocks stress-induced increases in ethanol self-administration as modeled by repeated yohimbine injections in rats. Rats were trained to respond for 15% w/v ethanol in operant chambers using a method that applies neither water deprivation nor saccharin/sucrose fading. Following training, the rats received 6 injections of 1.25mg/kg yohimbine were given immediately prior to the operant sessions during a 2-week time period. Subsequently, some rats were pair-matched to receive either 1.25mg/kg yohimbine or saline in the presence of 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg baclofen prior to sessions. Acquisition of ethanol self-administration was poor. Pretreatment with yohimbine consistently increased responding across repeated injections. Yohimbine's effect on ethanol intake unexpectedly diverged from the effect on responding as the rats failed to consume all reinforcers earned. Smaller doses of baclofen paired with saline injections had no effect on ethanol responding; only 3mg/kg baclofen reduced ethanol self-administration. The smallest baclofen dose of 0.3mg/kg failed to block the yohimbine-induced increase in self-administration. The large baclofen dose of 3mg/kg continued to suppress ethanol self-administration when given with yohimbine. Baclofen 1mg/kg blocked the effect of yohimbine even though it had no effect when given in the absence of yohimbine. Exposure to high ethanol concentrations may induce self-administration only in certain conditions. The dissociation between responding and intake suggests that repeated yohimbine injections may initiate other behavioral or physiological mechanisms that confound its effects as a pharmacological stressor. Furthermore, an optimal baclofen dose range may specifically protect against stress

  7. Steam explosion pretreatment for enhancing biogas production of late harvested hay.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Alexander; Lizasoain, Javier; Theuretzbacher, Franz; Agger, Jane W; Rincón, María; Menardo, Simona; Saylor, Molly K; Enguídanos, Ramón; Nielsen, Paal J; Potthast, Antje; Zweckmair, Thomas; Gronauer, Andreas; Horn, Svein J

    2014-08-01

    Grasslands are often abandoned due to lack of profitability. Extensively cultivating grassland for utilization in a biogas-based biorefinery concept could mend this problem. Efficient bioconversion of this lignocellulosic biomass requires a pretreatment step. In this study the effect of different steam explosion conditions on hay digestibility have been investigated. Increasing severity in the pretreatment induced degradation of the hemicellulose, which at the same time led to the production of inhibitors and formation of pseudo-lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis showed that the maximum glucose yields were obtained under pretreatment at 220 °C for 15 min, while higher xylose yields were obtained at 175 °C for 10 min. Pretreatment of hay by steam explosion enhanced 15.9% the methane yield in comparison to the untreated hay. Results indicate that hay can be effectively converted to methane after steam explosion pretreatment. PMID:24929812

  8. Correlates of Baclofen Effectiveness in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Lekhansh; Shukla, Tulika; Bokka, Spandana; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek; Murthy, Pratima; Chand, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201) or Baclofen (348). ‘Time to first drink’ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75) and Acamprosate group (M = 3.73, SD = 2.19); t (547) = 2.45, P = 0.01. Initial regression analysis with six predictor variables (average daily alcohol units, current age, age at onset of dependence, family history, duration of dependence and dose of baclofen in mg/day) showed significant correlation of outcome variable with only two predictor variables — dose of baclofen and average daily intake. Using the hierarchical method it was found that ‘dose of baclofen’ and ‘average alcohol intake’ explain a significant amount of variance in ‘time to first drink’. [F (1, 345) = 182.8, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.52, R2adjusted = 0.51]. This information can be used to select patients in long term longitudinal studies and may explain variable results seen in clinical trials of baclofen done earlier. PMID:26664095

  9. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p<0.05) in terms of SCOD parameter, but not for raw OMW (p>0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (p<0.05). Anaerobic

  10. Enhanced saccharification of biologically pretreated wheat straw for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    López-Abelairas, M; Lu-Chau, T A; Lema, J M

    2013-02-01

    The biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with white-rot fungi for the production of bioethanol is an alternative to the most used physico-chemical processes. After biological treatment, a solid composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin-this latter is with a composition lower than that found in the initial substrate-is obtained. On the contrary, after applying physico-chemical methods, most of the hemicellulose fraction is solubilized, while cellulose and lignin fractions remain in the solid. The optimization of the combination of cellulases and hemicellulases required to saccharify wheat straw pretreated with the white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus was carried out in this work. The application of the optimal dosage made possible the increase of the sugar yield from 33 to 54 %, and at the same time the reduction of the quantity of enzymatic mixture in 40 %, with respect to the initial dosage. The application of a pre-hydrolysis step with xylanases was also studied. PMID:23306886

  11. Low melting point pyridinium ionic liquid pretreatment for enhancing enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Uju; Nakamoto, Aya; Shoda, Yasuhiro; Goto, Masahiro; Tokuhara, Wataru; Noritake, Yoshiyuki; Katahira, Satoshi; Ishida, Nobuhiro; Ogino, Chiaki; Kamiya, Noriho

    2013-05-01

    The potential of 1-hexylpyridinium chloride ([Hpy][Cl]), to pretreat cellulosic feedstocks was investigated using microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) and Bagasse at 80 °C or 100 °C. Short [Hpy][Cl] pretreatments, <30 min, at lower temperature accelerate subsequent enzymatic saccharification of Avicel. Over 95% conversion of pretreated Avicel to glucose was attained after 24h enzymatic saccharification under optimal conditions, whereas regenerated Bagasse showed 1-3-fold higher conversion than untreated biomass. FT-IR analysis of both Avicel and Bagasse samples pretreated with [Hpy][Cl] or 1-ethyl-3-methyimidazolium acetate ([Emim][OAc]) revealed that these ionic liquids behaved differently during pretreatment. [Hpy][Cl] pretreatment for an extended duration (180 min) released mono- and disaccharides without using cellulase enzymes, suggesting [Hpy][Cl] has capability for direct saccharification of cellulosic feedstocks. On the basis of the results obtained, [Hpy][Cl] pretreatment enhanced initial reaction rates in enzymatic saccharification by either crystalline polymorphic alteration of cellulose or partial degradation of the crystalline cellulosic fraction in biomass. PMID:22850175

  12. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of cotton stalk by pretreatment with a microbial consortium (MC1).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xufeng; Ma, Lei; Wen, Boting; Zhou, Dayun; Kuang, Meng; Yang, Weihua; Cui, Zongjun

    2016-05-01

    Microbial pretreatment is beneficial in some anaerobic digestion systems, but the consortia used to date have not been able to effectively increase methane production from cotton stalk. In this study, a thermophilic microbial consortium (MC1) was used for pretreatment in order to enhance biogas and methane production yields. The results indicated that the concentrations of soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile organic products increased significantly in the early stages of pretreatment. Ethanol, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid were the predominant volatile organic products in the MC1 hydrolysate. Biogas and methane production yields from cotton stalk were significantly increased following MC1 pretreatment. In addition, the methane production rate from the treated cotton stalk was greater than that from the untreated sample. PMID:26896713

  13. Local Phase Separation of Co-solvents Enhances Pretreatment of Biomass for Bioenergy Applications.

    PubMed

    Mostofian, Barmak; Cai, Charles M; Smith, Micholas Dean; Petridis, Loukas; Cheng, Xiaolin; Wyman, Charles E; Smith, Jeremy C

    2016-08-31

    Pretreatment facilitates more complete deconstruction of plant biomass to enable more economic production of lignocellulosic biofuels and byproducts. Various co-solvent pretreatments have demonstrated advantages relative to aqueous-only methods by enhancing lignin removal to allow unfettered access to cellulose. However, there is a limited mechanistic understanding of the interactions between the co-solvents and cellulose that impedes further improvement of such pretreatment methods. Recently, tetrahydrofuran (THF) has been identified as a highly effective co-solvent for the pretreatment and fractionation of biomass. To elucidate the mechanism of the THF-water interactions with cellulose, we pair simulation and experimental data demonstrating that enhanced solubilization of cellulose can be achieved by the THF-water co-solvent system at equivolume mixtures and moderate temperatures (≤445 K). The simulations show that THF and water spontaneously phase separate on the local surface of a cellulose fiber, owing to hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the hydrophilic cellulose faces and stacking of THF molecules on the hydrophobic faces. Furthermore, a single fully solvated cellulose chain is shown to be preferentially bound by water molecules in the THF-water mixture. In light of these findings, co-solvent reactions were performed on microcrystalline cellulose and maple wood to show that THF significantly enhanced cellulose deconstruction and lignocellulose solubilization at simulation conditions, enabling a highly versatile and efficient biomass pretreatment and fractionation method. PMID:27482599

  14. Indirect electroreduction as pretreatment to enhance biodegradability of metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Saidi, I; Soutrel, I; Floner, D; Fourcade, F; Bellakhal, N; Amrane, A; Geneste, F

    2014-08-15

    The removal of metronidazole, a biorecalcitrant antibiotic, by coupling an electrochemical reduction with a biological treatment was examined. Electroreduction was performed in a home-made flow cell at -1.2V/SCE on graphite felt. After only one pass through the cell, analysis of the electrolyzed solution showed a total degradation of metronidazole. The biodegradability estimated from the BOD5/COD ratio increased from 0.07 to 0.2, namely below the value usually considered as the limit of biodegradability (0.4). In order to improve these results, indirect electrolysis of metronidazole was performed with a titanium complex known to reduce selectively nitro compounds into amine. The catalytic activity of the titanium complex towards electroreduction of metronidazole was shown by cyclic voltammetry analyses. Indirect electrolysis led to an improvement of the biodegradability from 0.07 to 0.42. To confirm the interest of indirect electroreduction to improve the electrochemical pretreatment, biological treatment was then carried out on activated sludge after direct and indirect electrolyses; different parameters were followed during the culture such as pH, TOC and metronidazole concentration. Both electrochemical processes led to a more efficient biodegradation of metronidazole compared with the single biological treatment, leading to an overall mineralization yield for the coupling process of 85%. PMID:24968253

  15. R(+)-Baclofen, but Not S(−)-Baclofen, Alters Alcohol Self-Administration in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lorrai, Irene; Maccioni, Paola; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Racemic baclofen [(±)-baclofen] has repeatedly been reported to suppress several ­alcohol-motivated behaviors, including alcohol drinking and alcohol ­self-administration, in rats and mice. Recent data suggested that baclofen may have bidirectional, stereospecific effects, with the more active enantiomer, R(+)-baclofen, suppressing alcohol intake and the less active enantiomer, S(−)-baclofen, stimulating alcohol intake in mice. The present study was designed to investigate whether this enantioselectivity of baclofen effects may also extend to the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rats. To this end, selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats were initially trained to lever respond on a fixed ratio 4 (FR4) schedule of reinforcement for alcohol (15%, v/v) in daily 30-min sessions. Once responding had stabilized, rats were tested with vehicle, (±)-baclofen (3 mg/kg), R(+)-baclofen (0.75, 1.5, and 3 mg/kg), and S(−)-baclofen (6, 12, and 24 mg/kg) under the FR4 schedule of reinforcement. Treatment with 3 mg/kg (±)-baclofen reduced the number of lever responses for alcohol and estimated amount of self-administered alcohol by approximately 60% in comparison to vehicle treatment. R(+)-baclofen was approximately twice as active as (±)-baclofen: treatment with 1.5 mg/kg R(+)-baclofen decreased both variables to an extent similar to that of the decreasing effect of 3 mg/kg (±)-baclofen. Conversely, treatment with all doses of S(−)-baclofen failed to affect alcohol self administration. These results (a) confirm that non-sedative doses of (±)-baclofen effectively suppressed the reinforcing properties of alcohol in sP rats and (b) apparently do not extend to operant alcohol self-administration in sP rats the capability of S(−)-baclofen to stimulate alcohol drinking in mice. PMID:27148096

  16. Heat and Radiofrequency Plasma Glow Discharge Pretreatment of a Titanium Alloy: Eveidence for Enhanced Osteoinductive Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rapuano, Bruce E.; Singh, Herman; Boskey, Adele L.; Doty, Stephen B.; MacDonald, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that orthopedic and implant longevity can be improved by optimizing fixation, or direct bone-implant contact, through the stimulation of new bone formation around the implant. The purpose of this study was to determine whether heat (600°C) or radiofrequency plasma glow discharge (RFGD) pretreatment of Ti6Al4V stimulated calcium-phosphate mineral formation in cultures of attached MC3T3 osteoprogenitor cells with or without a fibronectin coating. Calcium-phosphate mineral was analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/electron dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDAX) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). RFGD and heat pretreatments produced a general pattern of increased total soluble calcium levels, although the effect of heat pretreatment was greater than that of RFGD. SEM/EDAX showed the presence of calcium-and phosphorus-containing particles on untreated and treated disks that were more numerous on fibronectin-coated disks. These particles were observed earliest (1 week) on RFGD-pretreated surfaces. FTIR analyses showed that the heat pretreatment produced a general pattern of increased levels of apatite mineral at 2–4 weeks; a greater effect was observed for fibronectin-coated disks compared to uncoated disks. The observed findings suggest that heat pretreatment of Ti6Al4V increased the total mass of the mineral formed in MC3T3 osteoprogenitor cell cultures more than RFGD while the latter pretreatment hastened the early deposition of mineral. These findings help to support the hypothesis that the pretreatments enhance the osteoinductive properties of the alloy. PMID:23494951

  17. Biological treatment of a high strength wastewater enhanced by chemical pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, P.; Hung, Y.T.

    1995-12-31

    Biological treatment has been established to be one of the most economic means for the treatment of industrial wastewater. However inhibition of the biomass while treating wastewater containing significant concentration of toxics and heavy metals has been the deterrent for the application of this method. Reducing the toxicity by pretreatment could render the wastewater more amenable to biodegradation. In this research project, biodegradation of a high strength oily wastewater containing solvents and heavy metals was studied employing 9 activated sludge reactor experiments. Initial TOC of the wastewater was determined to be 8,500 mg/L. Enhancement of the biodegradation process by pretreating the wastewater was also studied. Pretreatment techniques employed were: (A) Coagulation using a 400 ppm solution of Ferric Chloride and (B) coagulation followed by chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by ferrous ions. A period of 24 hours was allowed as settling time during coagulation and as reaction time during chemical oxidation. 10 reactors containing varying concentrations of the wastewater were seeded with different dosages of Liquid Live Microorganisms (LLMO). Reaction time allowed for the biodegradation experiments was 48 hours. TOC removal by pretreatment alone was approximately 12% after coagulation and approximately 20% after coagulation and oxidation. Results are presented for the varying experimental conditions studied. TOC removal by biodegradation was observed to be significantly enhanced by pretreatment.

  18. Enhanced coal hydrogasification via oxidative pretreatment. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.J.

    1992-04-16

    The gasification of coal char by hydrogen is much slower than in steam or carbon dioxide; moreover, hydrogasification rate in pure hydrogen decreases sharply with conversion for most carbons. To overcome this kinetic behavior, the oxidation of the char prior to and during hydrogasification has been investigated as a means of enhancing hydro gasification rate. Kinetic rate studies under well-characterized conditions have been complemented by careful surface analyses to characterize oxygen on the char surface prior to and during hydrogasification.

  19. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic materials in excess sludge by bioaugmentation and pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuansheng; Hao, Xiaodi; Wang, Jimin; Cao, Yali

    2016-03-01

    This study attempted to enhance anaerobic conversion of lignocellulosic materials in excess sludge by bioaugmentation and pretreatment. The results reveal that highly active lignocellulolytic microorganisms (Clostridium stercorarium and Bacteroides cellulosolvens) could be enriched from anaerobic sludge in ordinarily operated anaerobic digester (AD). Inoculating these microorganisms into AD could substantially enhance the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose. However, this effect of bioaugmentation was shielded for raw excess sludge due to lignin incrustation in native biosolids. For this problem, pretreatments including acid, alkali, thermal and ultrasonic methods were effectively used to deconstruct the lignin incrustation, in which thermal pretreatment was demonstrated to be the most effective one. Then, pretreatment associated with bioaugmentation was successfully used to enhance the energy conversion of lignocellulosic materials, which resulted in the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin to 68.8-78.2%, 77.4-89% and 15.4-33.7% respectively and thus increased the CH4 production by 210-246%, compared with ordinary AD. PMID:26712660

  20. Enhanced hepatic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells after pretreatment with injured liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Sadia; Shams, Sulaiman; Ali Nasir, Ghazanfar; Khan, Mohsin; Javaid Awan, Sana; Khan, Shaheen N; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2011-01-01

    Liver failure represents a serious challenge for cell based therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess potential for regeneration of fibrotic liver; however, there is a dire need to improve their hepatic differentiation. This study examines a pretreatment strategy to augment the differentiation potential of MSCs towards hepatic lineage. MSCs were isolated from C57BL/6 wild type mice and were characterized by flow cytometry for CD44 (92.4%), CD90 (96.6%), CD105 (94.7%), CD45 (0.8%) and CD34 (1.4%) markers. To improve the differentiation potential of MSCs towards hepatic lineage, cells were pretreated with injured liver tissue in an in-vitro model, which resulted in high expression of albumin, cytokeratin 8, 18, TAT and HNF1α as compared to untreated MSCs. The efficacy of pretreated MSCs was evaluated by preparing in-vivo mouse model with liver fibrosis by intraperitoneal administration of CCl(4). Pretreated MSCs were transplanted in the left lateral lobe of mice with liver fibrosis and showed enhanced localization and differentiation abilities after 1 month. The expression for cytokeratin 8, 18, albumin and Bcl-xl was up-regulated and that of HGF, Bax and Caspase- 3 was down-regulated in animals transplanted with pretreated MSCs. Sirus red staining also confirmed a significant reduction in the fibrotic area in liver tissue transplanted with pretreated MSCs as compared to untreated MSCs and was concomitant with improved serum levels of bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Therefore, it was concluded that pretreatment with injured liver tissue augment homing and hepatic differentiation abilities of MSCs and provides an improved procedure for the treatment of liver fibrosis. PMID:20943307

  1. Optimization of the alkaline pretreatment of rice straw for enhanced methane yield.

    PubMed

    Song, Zilin; Yang, Gaihe; Han, Xinhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin

    2013-01-01

    The lime pretreatment process for rice straw was optimized to enhance the biodegradation performance and increase biogas yield. The optimization was implemented using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken experimental design. The effects of biodegradation, as well as the interactive effects of Ca(OH)2 concentration, pretreatment time, and inoculum amount on biogas improvement, were investigated. Rice straw compounds, such as lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, were significantly degraded with increasing Ca(OH)2 concentration. The optimal conditions for the use of pretreated rice straw in anaerobic digestion were 9.81% Ca(OH)2 (w/w TS), 5.89 d treatment time, and 45.12% inoculum content, which resulted in a methane yield of 225.3 mL/g VS. A determination coefficient (R(2)) of 96% was obtained, indicating that the model used to predict the anabolic digestion process shows a favorable fit with the experimental parameters. PMID:23509824

  2. Optimization of the Alkaline Pretreatment of Rice Straw for Enhanced Methane Yield

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zilin; Yang, Gaihe; Han, Xinhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Ren, Guangxin

    2013-01-01

    The lime pretreatment process for rice straw was optimized to enhance the biodegradation performance and increase biogas yield. The optimization was implemented using response surface methodology (RSM) and Box-Behnken experimental design. The effects of biodegradation, as well as the interactive effects of Ca(OH)2 concentration, pretreatment time, and inoculum amount on biogas improvement, were investigated. Rice straw compounds, such as lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, were significantly degraded with increasing Ca(OH)2 concentration. The optimal conditions for the use of pretreated rice straw in anaerobic digestion were 9.81% Ca(OH)2 (w/w TS), 5.89 d treatment time, and 45.12% inoculum content, which resulted in a methane yield of 225.3 mL/g VS. A determination coefficient (R2) of 96% was obtained, indicating that the model used to predict the anabolic digestion process shows a favorable fit with the experimental parameters. PMID:23509824

  3. Enhancing the hydrolysis and methane production potential of mixed food waste by an effective enzymatic pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Esra Uçkun; Trzcinski, Antoine P; Liu, Yu

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a fungal mash rich in hydrolytic enzymes was produced by solid state fermentation (SSF) of waste cake in a simple and efficient manner and was further applied for high-efficiency hydrolysis of mixed food wastes (FW). The enzymatic pretreatment of FW with this fungal mash resulted in 89.1 g/L glucose, 2.4 g/L free amino nitrogen, 165 g/L soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and 64% reduction in volatile solids within 24h. The biomethane yield and production rate from FW pretreated with the fungal mash were found to be respectively about 2.3 and 3.5-times higher than without pretreatment. After anaerobic digestion of pretreated FW, a volatile solids removal of 80.4±3.5% was achieved. The pretreatment of mixed FW with the fungal mash produced in this study is a promising option for enhancing anaerobic digestion of FW in terms of energy recovery and volume reduction. PMID:25722182

  4. Enhanced methane production from microalgal biomass by anaerobic bio-pretreatment.

    PubMed

    He, Shuai; Fan, Xiaolei; Katukuri, Naveen Reddy; Yuan, Xianzheng; Wang, Fei; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of microalgal biomass is one of the most energy efficient technologies to convert microalgae to biofuels. In order to improve the biogas productivity, breaking up the tough and rigid cell wall of microalgae by pretreatment is necessary. In this work, Bacillus licheniformis, a facultative anaerobic bacterial with hydrolytic and acidogenic activities, was adopted to pretreat Chlorella sp. In the established pretreatment process, pure bacterial culture (0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 8%, v/v) were used to pretreat Chlorella sp. under anaerobic condition at 37°C for 60 h. The soluble chemical oxygen demands (SCOD) content was increased by 16.4-43.4%, while volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were improved by 17.3-44.2%. Furthermore, enhancement of methane production (9.2-22.7%) was also observed in subsequent AD. The results indicated that the more dosages of bacteria were used to pretreat the microalgal biomass in the range of 1-8%, the more methane was produced. PMID:26773949

  5. Effect of nitric acid on pretreatment and fermentation for enhancing ethanol production of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ilgook; Lee, Bomi; Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Sun-A; Han, Jong-In

    2014-01-01

    In this study, nitric acid (HNO₃) was evaluated as an acid catalyst for rice straw pretreatment, and, after neutralization, as a sole nitrogen source for subsequent fermentation. Response surface methodology was used to obtain optimal pretreatment condition with respect to HNO₃ concentration (0.2-1.0%), temperature (120-160 °C) and reaction time (1-20 min). In a condition of 0.65% HNO₃, 158.8 °C and 5.86 min, a maximum xylose yield of 86.5% and an enzymatic digestibility of 83.0% were achieved. The sugar solution that contained nitrate derived from the acid catalyst supported the enhancement of ethanol yield by Pichia stipitis from 10.92 g/L to 14.50 g/L. The results clearly reveal that nitric acid could be used not only as a pretreatment catalyst, but also as a nitrogen source in the fermentation process for bioethanol production. It is anticipated that the HNO₃-based pretreatment can reduce financial burden on the cellulosic bioethanol industry by simplifying after-pretreatment-steps as well as providing a nitrogen source. PMID:24274544

  6. Baclofen and Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    LeTourneau, Jennifer L.; Hagg, Daniel S.; Smith, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Benzodiazepine treatment of life-threatening gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) withdrawal is frequently unsatisfactory. Animal studies suggest strongly that treatment with GABAB agonists, such as baclofen, will be a more effective strategy. Methods A case report from the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of the university tertiary care hospital. Results A 61-year-old woman was admitted to the medical ICU for severe withdrawal symptoms from chronic GHB use. This manifested as delirium, tremor, and seizures despite only small decreases in GHB dose and treatment with benzodiazepines. The addition of baclofen allowed the rapid sequential decreases in the GHB dose without seizure or delirium and resulted in long-term improvement of her tremor. Conclusions Baclofen, a GABAB agonist, may be a useful agent in the treatment of severe GHB withdrawal. PMID:18266111

  7. Baclofen for narcolepsy with cataplexy: two cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elliott Kyung; Douglass, Alan Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by daytime hypersomnolence. Those with cataplexy have spells of muscle weakness precipitated by strong emotions, especially laughter or surprise. Cataplexy treatments include antidepressants or a GABA-B agonist, gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB). GHB is the most effective treatment for cataplexy, but is expensive and can have significant side effects. A recent report of a murine model of narcolepsy-cataplexy suggests R-baclofen has potential efficacy against cataplexy. We report on two narcolepsy patients with multiple daily cataplexy episodes, one of whom had been effectively treated with GHB, but had to discontinue it for unrelated medical reasons. Both subsequently tried baclofen and experienced almost complete resolution of cataplexy. This report suggests baclofen can be an effective treatment for cataplexy in humans and warrants further study. PMID:26251634

  8. Intrauterine baclofen exposure: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lisa R; Almeida, Pamela G; Worden, Susan; Huttner, Kenneth M

    2004-08-01

    Maternal use of the antispasmodic baclofen during pregnancy is an uncommon clinical scenario and leads to uncertainty regarding neonatal risks. We present a team-based, peripartum management plan designed for safe monitoring and minimizing the risk of neonatal withdrawal after unusual drug exposure. Incorporating the expertise of neonatology, nursing, pharmacy, neurology, and the lactation service, as well as parental input, this consensus approach was implemented in a case of maternal oral baclofen use with a successful outcome for the infant and family. PMID:15286268

  9. Enhancing anaerobic digestibility and phosphorus recovery of dairy manure through microwave-based thermochemical pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ying; Hu, Zhenhu; Wen, Zhiyou

    2009-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion and struvite precipitation are two effective ways of treating dairy manure for recovering biogas and phosphorus. Anaerobic digestion of dairy manure is commonly limited by slow fiber degradation, while struvite precipitation is limited by the availability of orthophosphate. The aim of this work is to study the possibility of using microwave-based thermochemical pretreatment to simultaneously enhance manure anaerobic digestibility (through fiber degradation) and struvite precipitation (through phosphorus solubilization). Microwave heating combined with different chemicals (NaOH, CaO, H(2)SO(4), or HCl) enhanced solubilization of manure and degradation of glucan/xylan in dairy manure. However, sulfuric acid-based pretreatment resulted in a low anaerobic digestibility, probably due to the sulfur inhibition and Maillard side reaction. The pretreatments released 20-40% soluble phosphorus and 9-14% ammonium. However, CaO-based pretreatment resulted in lower orthophosphate releases and struvite precipitation efficiency as calcium interferes with phosphate to form calcium phosphate. Collectively, microwave heating combined with NaOH or HCl led to a high anaerobic digestibility and phosphorus recovery. Using these two chemicals, the performance of microwave- and conventional-heating in thermochemical pretreatment was further compared. The microwave heating resulted in a better performance in terms of COD solubilization, glucan/xylan reduction, phosphorus solubilization and anaerobic digestibility. Lastly, temperature and heating time used in microwave treatment were optimized. The optimal values of temperature and heating time were 147 degrees C and 25.3 min for methane production, and 135 degrees C and 26 min for orthophosphate release, respectively. PMID:19555991

  10. [Enhancement for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge pretreated by microwave and its combined processes ].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-bao; Ni, Xiao-tang; Wei, Yuan-song; Tong, Juan; Wang, Ya-wei

    2014-09-01

    To improve anaerobic digestion and dewatering of sludge, impacts of sludge pretreated by microwave (MW) and its combined processes on sludge anaerobic digestion and dewatering were investigated. The results showed that microwave and its combined processes could effectively enhance anaerobic sludge digestion. Not only the cumulative methane production in the test of the MW-H2O2-alkaline (0. 2) was increased by 13. 34% compared with the control, but also its methane production rate was much higher than that of the control. Compared with the single MW process, the addition of both H2O2 and alkaline enhanced the solubilization of particle COD( >0. 45 micron) , indicating that synergistically generated soluble organics were faster to biodegrade which resulted in the enhancement of anaerobic digestion. The MW-acid process was effective in improving sludge dewaterability, e. g. , Capillary Suction Time (CST) at only 9. 85 s. The improvement of sludge dewatering was significantly correlated with sludge physical properties such as zeta potential, surface charge density and particle size. Under different sludge pretreatment conditions, the sludge dewatering after anaerobic digestion was similar, though the difference of sludge dewatering to some degrees was observed for pretreated sludge. PMID:25518665

  11. Electron beam pretreatment of switchgrass to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis to produce sugars for biofuels.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Smith; Bergey, N Scott; Salamanca-Cardona, Lucia; Stipanovic, Arthur; Driscoll, Mark

    2014-01-16

    Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to value added products such as ethanol and other platform chemicals is enhanced by pretreatment, which reduces the crystallinity and molecular weight of cell wall polymers, thus increasing the available reaction sites. In this study, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was pretreated with high energy electron beam (EB) irradiation to reduce its recalcitrance and achieve higher sugar conversion rates during treatment with cellulases and β-glucosidase. Conversion rates to sugars were compared before and after hot water (HW) extraction of EB-treated and control samples of switchgrass. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was employed to determine peak degradation temperature of these EB-treated biomass samples before and after HW extraction, and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used as a rapid technique to determine cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin contents in the samples. TGA data confirm previously reported results that EB pretreatment reduces the molecular weight and crystallinity of cellulose and hemicellulose. This leaves hemicellulose more amenable to HW extraction and creates more cellulase-accessible sites, as shown by NIR and glucose yield data, respectively. Hemicellulose content was reduced from 30.2 to 16.9% after HW extraction and 1000 kGy EB treatment, and ultimate glucose yield after cellulase hydrolysis increased more than 4-fold. This study provides evidence that when EB pretreatment is utilized in combination with HW extraction, higher conversion rates and yields of glucose can be obtained from the cellulosic fraction of switchgrass. PMID:24188854

  12. Enhanced Solid-State Biogas Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass by Organosolv Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Mirmohamadsadeghi, Safoora; Zamani, Akram; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2014-01-01

    Organosolv pretreatment was used to improve solid-state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) for methane production from three different lignocellulosic substrates (hardwood elm, softwood pine, and agricultural waste rice straw). Pretreatments were conducted at 150 and 180°C for 30 and 60 min using 75% ethanol solution as an organic solvent with addition of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The statistical analyses showed that pretreatment temperature was the significant factor affecting methane production. Optimum temperature was 180°C for elmwood while it was 150°C for both pinewood and rice straw. Maximum methane production was 152.7, 93.7, and 71.4 liter per kg carbohydrates (CH), which showed up to 32, 73, and 84% enhancement for rice straw, elmwood, and pinewood, respectively, compared to those from the untreated substrates. An inverse relationship between the total methane yield and the lignin content of the substrates was observed. Kinetic analysis of the methane production showed that the process followed a first-order model for all untreated and pretreated lignocelluloses. PMID:25243134

  13. Baclofen prevents the elevated plus maze behavior and BDNF expression during naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Pedrón, Valeria T; Varani, André P; Balerio, Graciela N

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we have shown that baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, prevents the somatic expression and reestablishes the dopamine and μ-opioid receptors levels, modified during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in male and female mice. There are no previous reports regarding sex differences in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the expression of BDNF in morphine-withdrawn mice. The present study analyses the behavioral and biochemical variations during morphine withdrawal in mice of both sexes, and whether these variations are prevented with baclofen. Swiss-Webster albino prepubertal mice received morphine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily, for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, one group of morphine-treated mice received naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of morphine to precipitate withdrawal. A second group received baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) before naloxone administration. The EPM behavior was measured during 15 min after naloxone injection. The expression of BDNF-positive cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. Withdrawn male mice showed a higher percentage of time spent and number of entries to the open arms compared to withdrawn female mice. Baclofen prevented this behavior in both sexes. BDNF expression decreased in the AcbC, BNST, CeC, and CA3 of the hippocampus while increased in the BLA of morphine withdrawn male. Baclofen pretreatment prevented the BDNF expression observed in morphine withdrawn male mice in all the brain areas studied except in the CeC. Baclofen prevention of the EPM behavior associated to morphine withdrawal could be partially related to changes in BDNF expression. PMID:26789010

  14. Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy: Benefits and Complications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdolsek, Helena Aniansson; Olesch, Christine; Antolovich, Giuliana; Reddihough, Dinah

    2011-01-01

    Background: Spasticity and dystonia in children with cerebral palsy has been treated with intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB) at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia (RCH) since 1999. Methods: The records of children having received or still receiving ITB during the period September 1999 until August 2005 were studied to evaluate…

  15. Techno-economic evaluation of ultrasound and thermal pretreatments for enhanced anaerobic digestion of municipal waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Nakhla, George; Ray, Madhumita B

    2012-03-01

    To enhance the anaerobic digestion of municipal waste-activated sludge (WAS), ultrasound, thermal, and ultrasound+thermal (combined) pretreatments were conducted using three ultrasound specific energy inputs (1000, 5000, and 10,000 kJ/kg TSS) and three thermal pretreatment temperatures (50, 70 and 90°C). Prior to anaerobic digestion, combined pretreatments significantly improved volatile suspended solid (VSS) reduction by 29-38%. The largest increase in methane production (30%) was observed after 30 min of 90°C pretreatment followed by 10,000 kJ/kg TSS ultrasound pretreatment. Combined pretreatments improved the dimethyl sulfide (DMS) removal efficiency by 42-72% but did not show any further improvement in hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) removal when compared with ultrasound and thermal pretreatments alone. Economic analysis showed that combined pretreatments with 1000 kJ/kg TSS specific energy and differing thermal pretreatments (50-90°C) can reduce operating costs by $44-66/ton dry solid when compared to conventional anaerobic digestion without pretreatments. PMID:22088959

  16. Towards a metagenomic understanding on enhanced biomethane production from waste activated sludge after pH 10 pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the effects of pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of sludge waste from wastewater treatment plants is becoming increasingly important, as impetus moves towards the utilization of sludge for renewable energy production. Although the field of sludge pretreatment has progressed significantly over the past decade, critical questions concerning the underlying microbial interactions remain unanswered. In this study, a metagenomic approach was adopted to investigate the microbial composition and gene content contributing to enhanced biogas production from sludge subjected to a novel pretreatment method (maintaining pH at 10 for 8 days) compared to other documented methods (ultrasonic, thermal and thermal-alkaline). Results Our results showed that pretreated sludge attained a maximum methane yield approximately 4-fold higher than that of the blank un-pretreated sludge set-up at day 17. Both the microbial and metabolic consortium shifted extensively towards enhanced biodegradation subsequent to pretreatment, providing insight for the enhanced methane yield. The prevalence of Methanosaeta thermophila and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus, together with the functional affiliation of enzymes-encoding genes suggested an acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis pathway. Additionally, an alternative enzymology in Methanosaeta was observed. Conclusions This study is the first to provide a microbiological understanding of improved biogas production subsequent to a novel waste sludge pretreatment method. The knowledge garnered will assist the design of more efficient pretreatment methods for biogas production in the future. PMID:23506434

  17. Enhanced extraction of patchouli alcohol from Pogostemon cablin by microwave radiation-accelerated ionic liquid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ling; Jin, Ronghua; Liu, Yinghu; An, Min; Chen, Shi

    2011-11-15

    A microwave radiation-accelerated ionic liquid pretreatment (MRAILP) was developed to enhance extraction of patchouli alcohol from Pogostemon cablin. 1-N-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(4)mim]Cl) was selected as microwave absorbing and cellulose dissolution medium and microwave was applied to accelerate sample dissolution. The conditions of MRAILP including particle size, solvent, microwave pretreatment time and power and the ratio of ionic liquid (IL) to sample were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction yield of patchouli alcohol by the MRAILP was 1.94%, which has increased by 166% compared with microwave-assisted extraction. The recovery was in the range of 95.71-103.7% with relative standard deviation lower than 3.0%. It was a novel alternative extraction method for the fast extraction and determination of patchouli alcohol from Pogostemon cablin. PMID:21982506

  18. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw by gamma irradiation-alkaline pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-06-01

    Pretreatment of wheat straw with gamma irradiation and NaOH was performed to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw for production of reducing sugar. The results showed that the irradiation of wheat straw at 50 kGy decreased the yield of reducing sugar, however, the reducing sugar yield increased with increasing dose from 50 kGy to 400 kGy. The irradiation of wheat straw at 100 kGy can significantly decrease NaOH consumption and treatment time. The reducing sugar yield could reach 72.67% after irradiation at 100 kGy and 2% NaOH treatment for 1 h. The combined pretreatment of wheat straw by gamma radiation and NaOH immersion can increase the solubilization of hemicellulose and lignin as well as the accessible surface area for enzyme molecules.

  19. Alkaline-sulfite pretreatment and use of surfactants during enzymatic hydrolysis to enhance ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Jéssica Faria; Ferraz, André; Aguiar, André

    2016-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a by-product from the sugar and ethanol industry which contains approximately 70 % of its dry mass composed by polysaccharides. To convert these polysaccharides into fuel ethanol it is necessary a pretreatment step to increase the enzymatic digestibility of the recalcitrant raw material. In this work, sugarcane bagasse was pretreated by an alkaline-sulfite chemithermomechanical process for increasing its enzymatic digestibility. Na2SO3 and NaOH ratios were fixed at 2:1, and three increasing chemical loads, varying from 4 to 8 % m/m Na2SO3, were used to prepare the pretreated materials. The increase in the alkaline-sulfite load decreased the lignin content in the pretreated material up to 35.5 % at the highest chemical load. The pretreated samples presented enhanced glucose yields during enzymatic hydrolysis as a function of the pretreatment severity. The maximum glucose yield (64 %) was observed for the samples pretreated with the highest chemical load. The use of 2.5 g l(-1) Tween 20 in the hydrolysis step further increased the glucose yield to 75 %. Semi-simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of the pretreated materials indicated that the ethanol yield was also enhanced as a function of the pretreatment severity. The maximum ethanol yield was 56 ± 2 % for the sample pretreated with the highest chemical load. For the sample pretreated with the lowest chemical load (2 % m/m NaOH and 4 % m/m Na2SO3), adding Tween 20 during the hydrolysis process increased the ethanol yield from 25 ± 3 to 39.5 ± 1 %. PMID:26718203

  20. Effects of the GABAB Receptor-Positive Modulators CGP7930 and rac-BHFF in Baclofen- and γ-Hydroxybutyrate-Discriminating Pigeons

    PubMed Central

    France, Charles P.; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.

    2012-01-01

    In vivo effects of GABAB receptor-positive modulators suggest them to have therapeutic potential to treat central nervous system disorders such as anxiety and drug abuse. Although these effects are thought to be mediated by positive modulation of GABAB receptors, such modulation has been examined primarily in vitro. This study further examined the in vivo properties of the GABAB receptor-positive modulators 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl) phenol (CGP7930) and (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF). In pigeons discriminating baclofen from saline, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) produced 100% baclofen-appropriate responding, and the GABAB antagonist 3-aminopropyl(dimethoxymethyl) phosphinic acid (CGP35348) blocked the effects of both drugs. CGP7930 and rac-BHFF produced at most 41 and 74% baclofen-appropriate responding, respectively, and enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen, but not of GHB. In pigeons discriminating GHB from saline, CGP7930 and rac-BHFF produced at most 1 and 49% GHB-appropriate responding, respectively, and enhanced the effects of baclofen, but not of GHB. Enhancement of the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen by rac-BHFF and CGP7930 is further evidence of their effectiveness as GABAB receptor-positive modulators in vivo. Furthermore, lack of complete substitution of the positive modulators rac-BHFF and CGP7930 for baclofen and GHB suggests that their discriminative stimulus effects differ from those of GABAB receptor agonists. Finally, together with converging evidence that the GABAB receptor populations mediating the effects of baclofen and GHB are not identical, the present findings suggest that these populations differ in their susceptibility to positive modulatory effects. Such differences could allow for more selective therapeutic targeting of the GABAB system. PMID:22319197

  1. Effects of the GABAB receptor-positive modulators CGP7930 and rac-BHFF in baclofen- and γ-hydroxybutyrate-discriminating pigeons.

    PubMed

    Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C

    2012-05-01

    In vivo effects of GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators suggest them to have therapeutic potential to treat central nervous system disorders such as anxiety and drug abuse. Although these effects are thought to be mediated by positive modulation of GABA(B) receptors, such modulation has been examined primarily in vitro. This study further examined the in vivo properties of the GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl) phenol (CGP7930) and (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF). In pigeons discriminating baclofen from saline, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) produced 100% baclofen-appropriate responding, and the GABA(B) antagonist 3-aminopropyl(dimethoxymethyl) phosphinic acid (CGP35348) blocked the effects of both drugs. CGP7930 and rac-BHFF produced at most 41 and 74% baclofen-appropriate responding, respectively, and enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen, but not of GHB. In pigeons discriminating GHB from saline, CGP7930 and rac-BHFF produced at most 1 and 49% GHB-appropriate responding, respectively, and enhanced the effects of baclofen, but not of GHB. Enhancement of the discriminative stimulus effects of baclofen by rac-BHFF and CGP7930 is further evidence of their effectiveness as GABA(B) receptor-positive modulators in vivo. Furthermore, lack of complete substitution of the positive modulators rac-BHFF and CGP7930 for baclofen and GHB suggests that their discriminative stimulus effects differ from those of GABA(B) receptor agonists. Finally, together with converging evidence that the GABA(B) receptor populations mediating the effects of baclofen and GHB are not identical, the present findings suggest that these populations differ in their susceptibility to positive modulatory effects. Such differences could allow for more selective therapeutic targeting of the GABA(B) system. PMID:22319197

  2. Baclofen-assisted detoxification from opiates. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Krystal, J H; McDougle, C J; Kosten, T R; Price, L H; Aghajanian, G K; Charney, D S

    1992-01-01

    In an open label pilot study, five opiate-dependent patients underwent baclofen-assisted opiate detoxification after abrupt discontinuation of methadone. Patients received baclofen in oral doses up to 80 mg/day, and all patients subjectively reported some reduction in discomfort. However, 3 of 5 (60%) patients could not complete detoxification with baclofen, primarily because of insufficient suppression of vomiting, myalgias, and headache. These patients successfully completed their detoxification with clonidine. These findings suggest that, in the dose range studied, baclofen is of limited use as a primary treatment for opiate dependence, although adjunctive roles for this medication in detoxification should be explored. PMID:1324986

  3. Epirubicin pretreatment enhances NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hui; Dong, Ying; Wu, Jing; Qiao, Yuan; Zhu, Ge; Jin, Haofan; Cui, Jiuwei; Li, Wei; Liu, Yong-Jun; Chen, Jingtao; Song, Yanqiu

    2016-01-01

    Anthracycline-based chemotherapy is a conventional treatment for breast cancer. However, it can negatively affect host immune function and thereby impair patients’ quality of life. Boosting the host immune system and reducing the adverse effect of chemotherapy are important for effective cancer treatment. Natural killer (NK) cells stimulate immune responses against cancer; autologous immune enhancement therapy with NK cells prolongs patient survival without significant adverse effects. This study investigated the effects of combined treatment with the anthracycline agent epirubicin (EPI) and NK cells on human breast cancer cells. NK cells were obtained by autologous adoptive cell transfer from breast cancer patients and amplified for 14 days in vitro. The cytotoxicity of NK cells against breast cancer cells was higher following EPI (5.0 μg/ml) pretreatment than without EPI pretreatment or application of EPI alone. The expression of NKG2D ligands [unique long 16-binding protein (ULBP) 1, ULBP2, and major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A] in breast cancer cells was upregulated by pretreatment with EPI, which also increased the secretion of interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α and expression of perforin and granzyme B in NK cells. These results indicate that EPI-NK cell treatment has synergistic cytotoxic effects against breast cancer cells, and suggest that anthracycline-based chemotherapy and NK cell-based immunotherapy can be combined for more effective breast cancer treatment. PMID:27158340

  4. Evaluation of enhanced coagulation pretreatment to improve ozone oxidation efficiency in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wert, Eric C; Gonzales, Sarah; Dong, Mei Mei; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L

    2011-10-15

    Enhanced coagulation (EC) using ferric chloride was evaluated as a pretreatment process to improve the efficiency of ozone (O3) for the oxidation of trace organic contaminants in wastewater. At the applied dosages (10-30 mg/L as Fe), EC pretreatment removed between 10 and 47% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the three wastewaters studied. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed that EC preferentially removed higher apparent molecular weight (AMW) compounds. Subsequent O3 testing was performed using an O3:DOC ratio of 1. Results showed that O3 exposures were similar even though the required doses were reduced by 10-47% by the EC pretreatment process. Hydroxyl radical (HO·) exposure, measured by parachlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), showed 10% reduction when using a FeCl3 dose of 30 mg/L, likely due to the lower O3 dose and decreased production of HO· during the initial phase of O3 decomposition (t<30 s). The oxidation of 13 trace organic contaminants (including atenolol, carbamazepine, DEET, diclofenac, dilantin, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, meprobamate, naproxen, primidone, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan, and trimethoprim) was evaluated after EC and O3 treatment. EC was ineffective at removing any of the contaminants, while O3 oxidation reduced the concentration of compounds according to their reaction rate constants with O3 and HO·. PMID:21855954

  5. Enhancing post aerobic digestion of full-scale anaerobically digested sludge using free nitrous acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qilin; Zhou, Xu; Peng, Lai; Wang, Dongbo; Xie, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2016-05-01

    Post aerobic digestion of anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) has been extensively applied to the wastewater treatment plants to enhance sludge reduction. However, the degradation of ADS in the post aerobic digester itself is still limited. In this work, an innovative free nitrous acid (HNO2 or FNA)-based pretreatment approach is proposed to improve full-scale ADS degradation in post aerobic digester. The post aerobic digestion was conducted by using an activated sludge to aerobically digest ADS for 4 days. Degradations of the FNA-treated (treated at 1.0 and 2.0 mg N/L for 24 h) and untreated ADSs were then determined and compared. The ADS was degraded by 26% and 32%, respectively, in the 4-day post aerobic digestion period while being pretreated at 1.0 and 2.0 mg HNO2-N/L. In comparison, only 20% of the untreated ADS was degraded. Economic analysis demonstrated that the implementation of FNA pretreatment can be economically favourable or not depending on the sludge transport and disposal cost. PMID:26901471

  6. Enhanced biohydrogen and subsequent biomethane production from sugarcane bagasse using nano-titanium dioxide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Omid; Zilouei, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Nano-titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) under ultraviolet irradiation (UV) followed by dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was used to enhance the production of biohydrogen and biomethane in a consecutive dark fermentation and anaerobic digestion. Different concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1g nanoTiO2/L under different UV times of 30, 60, 90 and 120min were used. Sulfuric acid (2%v/v) at 121°C was used for 15, 30 and 60min to hydrolyze the pretreated bagasse. For acidic hydrolysis times of 15, 30 and 60min, the highest total free sugar values were enhanced by 260%, 107%, and 189%, respectively, compared to samples without nanoTiO2 pretreatment. The highest hydrogen production samples for the same acidic hydrolysis times showed 88%, 127%, and 25% enhancement. The maximum hydrogen production of 101.5ml/g VS (volatile solids) was obtained at 1g nanoTiO2/L and 120min UV irradiation followed by 30min acid hydrolysis. PMID:27208737

  7. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  8. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  9. General, kappa, delta and mu opioid receptor antagonists mediate feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist baclofen in the ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens shell in rats: reciprocal and regional interactions.

    PubMed

    Miner, Patricia; Shimonova, Lyudmila; Khaimov, Arthur; Borukhova, Yaffa; Ilyayeva, Ester; Ranaldi, Robert; Bodnar, Richard J

    2012-03-14

    Food intake is significantly increased following administration of agonists of GABA and opioid receptors into the nucleus accumbens shell (NACs) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects mu-opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Correspondingly, general or selective opioid receptor antagonist pretreatment within the VTA or NACs differentially affects GABA agonist-induced feeding elicited from the same site. Regional interactions have been evaluated in feeding studies by administering antagonists in one site prior to agonist administration in a second site. Thus, opioid antagonist-opioid agonist and GABA antagonist-GABA agonist feeding interactions have been identified between the VTA and NACs. However, pretreatment with GABA-A or GABA-B receptor antagonists in the VTA failed to affect mu opioid agonist-induced feeding elicited from the NACs, and correspondingly, these antagonists administered in the NACs failed to affect mu opioid-induced feeding elicited from the VTA. To evaluate whether regional and reciprocal VTA and NACs feeding interactions occur for opioid receptor modulation of GABA agonist-mediated feeding, the present study examined whether feeding elicited by the GABA-B agonist, baclofen microinjected into the NACs was dose-dependently blocked by pretreatment with general (naltrexone: NTX), mu (beta-funaltrexamine: BFNA), kappa (nor-binaltorphamine: NBNI) or delta (naltrindole: NTI) opioid antagonists in the VTA, and correspondingly, whether VTA baclofen-induced feeding was dose-dependently blocked by NACs pretreatment with NTX, BFNA, NBNI or NTI in rats. Bilateral pairs of cannulae aimed at the VTA and NACs were stereotaxically implanted in rats, and their food intakes were assessed following vehicle and baclofen (200 ng) in each site. Baclofen produced similar magnitudes of increased food intake following VTA and NACs treatment. Baclofen

  10. Pretreating porcine sperm with lipase enhances developmental competence of embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yinghui; Fan, Junhua; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Kui

    2016-08-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been widely applied in humans, mice, and some domestic animals to cure human infertility, or produce genetically superior or genetically engineered animals. However, the production efficiency of ICSI in pigs remains quite low. In this study, we developed a new sperm pretreatment method to improve production efficiency of ICSI in pigs. Experiment 1 revealed that pretreating porcine sperm with 2.5 mg/ml lipase before ICSI operation, not only can reduce the adhesion between sperm and the injection pipette without adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the operating medium, but also significantly improve male pronuclei (MPN) formation rate (55.56% vs. 40.00% (0 mg/ml), 42.59% (5.0 mg/ml), 40.00% (10.0 mg/ml), P < 0.05) and enhance developmental competence of ICSI embryos (26.03% vs. 10.87% (0 mg/ml), 10.00% (5.0 mg/ml), 10.13% (10.0 mg/ml), P < 0.05). Experiment 2 showed that this method has a higher MPN formation rate (50.47% vs. 30.78%, P < 0.05) and blastocyst rate (18.81% vs. 7.41%, P < 0.05) than the PVP method, and was better than the Triton X-100 treatment method (50.47% vs. 46.23%, 18.81% vs. 12.75%). Therefore, pretreating porcine sperm with 2.5 mg/ml lipase before ICSI operation is highly recommended, instead of adding PVP in the operating medium. PMID:26443110

  11. Enhanced L-lysine production from pretreated beet molasses by engineered Escherichia coli in fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Chen, Kequan; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Hong; Qian, Juan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-08-01

    Faster sugar consumption rate and low-cost nitrogen source are required for the chemical biosynthesis using molasses. Five pretreatment methods were applied to beet molasses prior to fermentation through engineered Escherichia coli, respectively, and corn steep liquid was used as an organic nitrogen source to replace expensive yeast extract. Furthermore, the effects of different feeding strategy in fed-batch fermentation on L-lysine production were investigated. The experimental results showed that combined tricalcium phosphate, sulfuric acid, and activated carbon pretreatment method (TPSA) pretreatment could improve the sugar consumption rate most greatly, and the initial total sugar concentration of 35 g/L from TPSA-pretreated beet molasses gave the best results with respect to L-lysine production, dry cell weight concentration, and L-lysine yield in batch fermentation. Moreover, a mixture of low-cost corn steep liquid and yeast extract containing equal amount of nitrogen could be used as the organic nitrogen source for effective L-lysine fermentation, and constant speed feeding strategy of TPSA-pretreated beet molasses promoted L-lysine production by engineered E. coli. The TPSA-pretreated beet molasses had a sugar consumption rate of 1.75 g/(L h), and a L-lysine yield of 27.81% was achieved, compared with the theoretical yield of 62% by glucose. It was clarified that the pretreatment significantly enhanced the conversion of sugars in beet molasses to L-lysine. PMID:25899726

  12. Prewashing enhances the liquid hot water pretreatment efficiency of waste wheat straw with high free ash content.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Wu, Xinxing; Huang, Yang; Lai, Chenhuan; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    The effect of prewashing process prior to the liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of high free ash content waste wheat straw (WWS) was investigated. It was found that prewashing process decreased the ash content of WWS greatly, from 29.48% to 9.82%. This contributed to the lower pH value of prehydrolyzate and higher xylan removal in the following LHW pretreatment. More importantly, the prewashing process effectively increased the cellulose enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of pretreated WWS, from 53.04% to 84.15%. The acid buffering capacity (ABC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of raw and prewashed WWS were examined. The majority of free ash removal from WWS by prewashing resulted in the decrease of the ABC of the WWS from 211.74 to 61.81mmol/pH-kg, and potentially enhancing the efficiency of the follow-up LHW pretreatment. PMID:27540635

  13. Enhanced hydrogenolysis conversion of cellulose to C2-C3 polyols via alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingrui; Wang, Hua; Han, Jinyu; Niu, Yufei

    2012-06-20

    Alkaline pretreatment was applied to enhance hydrogenolysis conversion of cellulose to C2-C3 polyols. The alkali cellulose was obtained by treating cellulose with different concentration of NaOH solution. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that the cleavage of cellulose chains occurs and the amorphous part is increased after alkaline treatment, which means the alkali cellulose has more accessible structure. Moreover, the absorbed NaOH crystal in alkali cellulose could make the further reaction perform in weak basic condition. When hydrogenolysis of alkali cellulose over Ru/C was conducted at 433 K, 59.23% of the substrate was converted with 1,2-propanediol and ethylene glycol as main products, whereas the corresponding conversion rate of untreated cellulose was 25.05% and no C2-C3 polyols were detected. These preliminary results suggested the advantages of activating the cellulose by alkaline pretreatment and potentials for efficient conversion of cellulose. Finally the plausible mechanism was also discussed. PMID:24750765

  14. Enhancement of biohydrogen production from brewers' spent grain by calcined-red mud pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jishi; Zang, Lihua

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigated the utilization of calcined-red mud (CRM) pretreatment to enhance fermentative hydrogen yields from brewers' spent grain (BSG). The BSG samples were treated with different concentrations (0.0-20g/L) of CRM at 55°C for 48h, before the biohydrogen process with heat-treated anaerobic sludge inoculum. The highest specific hydrogen production of 198.62ml/g-VS was obtained from the BSG treated with 10g/L CRM, with the corresponding lag time of 10.60h. Hydrogen yield increments increased by 67.74%, compared to the control tests without CRM. The results demonstrated that the CRM could hydrolyze more cellulose and further provided adequate broth and suitable pH value for efficient fermentative hydrogen. The model-based analysis showed that the modified Gompertz model presented a better fit for the experimental data than the first-order model. PMID:26950758

  15. Enhanced detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by pretreatment of cell monolayers with polyethylene glycol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    To improve quantification of very low levels of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in samples of tissue, ovarian fluid, or natural water supplies, we tested the ability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to enhance the sensitivity and speed of the plaque assay system. We compared 4, 7, and 10% solutions of PEG of molecular weight 6,000, 8,000, or 20,000 applied at selected volumes and for various durations. When cell monolayers of epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC), fathead minnow (FHM), chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214), and bluegill fry (BF2) were pretreated with 7% PEG-20,000, they produced 4-17-fold increases in plaque assay titers of IHNV. The plaque assay titers of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, chum salmon reovirus, and chinook salmon paramyxovirus were also enhanced by exposure of CHSE-214 cells to PEG, but the titers of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and Oncorhynchus masou virus were not substantially changed. Plaques formed by IHNV on PEG-treated EPC cells incubated at 15°C had a larger mean diameter at 6 d than those on control cells at 8 d; this suggests the assay could be shortened by use of PEG. Pretreatment of EPC cell monolayers with PEG enabled detection of IHNV in some samples that appeared negative with untreated cells. For example, when ovarian fluid samples from chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were inoculated onto untreated monolayers of EPC cells, IHNV was detected in only 11 of 51 samples; 17 of the samples were positive when PEG-treated EPC cells were used.PDF

  16. Enhancement of enzymatic saccharification of corn stover with sequential Fenton pretreatment and dilute NaOH extraction.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Cai; Ding, Yun; Xue, Yu-Feng; Yang, Bin; Liu, Feng; Wang, Cheng; Zhu, Zheng-Zhong; Qing, Qing; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Cheng; Tao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Ping

    2015-10-01

    In this study, an effective method by the sequential Fenton pretreatment and dilute NaOH extraction (FT-AE) was chosen for pretreating corn stover. Before dilute NaOH (0.75 wt%) extraction at 90 °C for 1h, Fenton reagent (0.95 g/L of FeSO4 and 29.8 g/L of H2O2) was employed to pretreat CS at a solid/liquid ratio of 1/20 (w/w) at 35 °C for 30 min. The changes in the cellulose structural characteristics (porosity, morphology, and crystallinity) of the pretreated solid residue were correlated with the enhancement of enzymatic saccharification. After being enzymatically hydrolyzed for 72 h, the reducing sugars and glucose from the hydrolysis of 60 g/L FT-AE-CS pretreated could be obtained at 40.96 and 23.61 g/L, respectively. Finally, the recovered hydrolyzates containing glucose had no inhibitory effects on the ethanol fermenting microorganism. In conclusion, the sequential Fenton pretreatment and dilute NaOH extraction has high potential application in future. PMID:26142999

  17. Glycerol as an ionic liquid co-solvent for pretreatment of rice hulls to enhance glucose and xylose yield.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Joan G; Coronella, Charles J

    2014-08-01

    Rice hulls, a widely-available secondary agricultural residue, can be pretreated with ionic liquids (IL) prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to enhance glucose and xylose yields. The high cost of ILs is a deterrent to commercial deployment at present. ILs 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium formate, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate were investigated for rice hull pretreatment. Effects of diluting ILs with glycerol were investigated for biomass pretreatment efficacy, and for solvent recovery. When diluted with 50% glycerol, rice hulls treated in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium formate was found to give glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis better than rice hulls treated in pure 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium formate. Dilution in glycerol resulted in an increased rate of solvent recovery after pretreatment, as much as six times that when pure 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium formate was used. Diluting 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium formate with 50% glycerol was found to decrease solvent viscosity at the pretreatment temperature (110 °C) helping explain improved biomass pretreatment. PMID:24950092

  18. Enhanced cellulase hydrolysis of eucalyptus waste fibers from pulp mill by Tween80-assisted ferric chloride pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liheng; Fu, Shiyu

    2013-04-01

    Pretreatment combining FeCl3 and Tween80 was performed for cellulose-to-ethanol conversion of eucalyptus alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping waste fibers (EAWFs). The FeCl3 pretreatment alone showed a good effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of EAWFs, but inhibited enzyme activity to some extent. A surfactant, Tween80, added during FeCl3 pretreatment was shown to significantly enhance enzyme reaction by eluting enzymatic inhibitors such as iron(III) that are present at the surface of the pretreated biomass. Treatment temperature, liquid-solid ratio, treatment time, FeCl3 concentration, and Tween80 dosage for pretreatment were optimized as follows: 180 °C, 8:1, 30 min, 0.15 mol/L, and 1% (w/v). Pretreated EAWFs under such optimal conditions provided enzymatic glucose (based on 100 g of oven-dried feedstock) and substrate enzymatic digestibility of EAWFs of 34.8 g and 91.3% after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively, with an initial cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g substrate. PMID:23480567

  19. Helically agitated mixing in dry dilute acid pretreatment enhances the bioconversion of corn stover into ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dry dilute acid pretreatment at extremely high solids loading of lignocellulose materials demonstrated promising advantages of no waste water generation, less sugar loss, and low steam consumption while maintaining high hydrolysis yield. However, the routine pretreatment reactor without mixing apparatus was found not suitable for dry pretreatment operation because of poor mixing and mass transfer. In this study, helically agitated mixing was introduced into the dry dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover and its effect on pretreatment efficiency, inhibitor generation, sugar production, and bioconversion efficiency through simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation (SSF) were evaluated. Results The overall cellulose conversion taking account of cellulose loss in pretreatment was used to evaluate the efficiency of pretreatment. The two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model on dry pretreatment was established and applied to analyze the mixing mechanism. The results showed that the pretreatment efficiency was significantly improved and the inhibitor generation was reduced by the helically agitated mixing, compared to the dry pretreatment without mixing: the ethanol titer and yield from cellulose in the SSF reached 56.20 g/L and 69.43% at the 30% solids loading and 15 FPU/DM cellulase dosage, respectively, corresponding to a 26.5% increase in ethanol titer and 17.2% increase in ethanol yield at the same fermentation conditions. Conclusions The advantage of helically agitated mixing may provide a prototype of dry dilute acid pretreatment processing for future commercial-scale production of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:24387051

  20. BACLOFEN IN THE TREATMENT OF PERSISTENT HICCUP: A CASE SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Mirijello, Antonio; Addolorato, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Cristina; Ferrulli, Anna; Vassallo, Gabriele; Antonelli, Mariangela; Leggio, Lorenzo; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent hiccup is a worrying symptom both for patients, because of reduced quality of life, and for physicians, because of frustration for unsuccessful treatments. Aim To test baclofen administration for the treatment of persistent hiccup. Methods We report a series of seven patients affected by persistent hiccup successfully treated with baclofen. Results Hiccup stopped in all patients after a single administration of the drug. Conclusions Baclofen is a GABAB receptor agonist. It is conceivable that the reduction of dopamine release by GABAB receptor stimulation is able to interrupt hiccup's reflex arc. PMID:23834241

  1. Ultrasonic and thermal pretreatments to enhance the anaerobic bioconversion of olive husks.

    PubMed

    Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Mescia, D; Mininni, G

    2013-11-01

    Olive husks, typical solid by-products from the olive oil industry, were selected to carry out anaerobic digestion tests. Before digestion, olive husks were subjected to ultrasonic or thermal pretreatments in order to release the organic matter into solution. Both sonication and thermal pretreatment allowed to solubilize the particulate matter with 22% and 72% increase in soluble organics of olive husks, respectively. Nevertheless, such pretreatments caused the release of unwanted molecules in solution, with the related risks of inhibition of the methanogenic process. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests on olive husks mixed with olive-mill wastewater and dairy wastewater, either pretreated or not, showed that ultrasound pretreatment resulted in 15% increase in volatile solids reduction and a 13% increase in biogas production, while after thermal pretreatment no benefits were observed. PMID:24035286

  2. Thermo-chemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for enhancing saccharification of catalpa sawdust.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shuguang; Zhang, Guangming; Zhang, Panyue; Li, Fan; Fan, Shiyang; Li, Juan

    2016-04-01

    To improve the reducing sugar production from catalpa sawdust, thermo-chemical pretreatments were examined and the chemicals used including NaOH, Ca(OH)2, H2SO4, and HCl. The hemicellulose solubilization and cellulose crystallinity index (CrI) were significantly increased after thermo-alkaline pretreatments, and the thermo-Ca(OH)2 pretreatment showed the best improvement for reducing sugar production comparing to other three pretreatments. The conditions of thermo-Ca(OH)2 pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were systematically optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the reducing sugar yield increased by 1185.7% comparing to the control. This study indicates that the thermo-Ca(OH)2 pretreatment is ideal for the saccharification of catalpa sawdust and that catalpa sawdust is a promising raw material for biofuel. PMID:26802185

  3. Intra-Accumbens Baclofen, But Not Muscimol, Increases Second Order Instrumental Responding for Food Reward in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pulman, Kim G. T.; Somerville, Elizabeth M.; Clifton, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of either GABAA or GABAB receptors within the nucleus accumbens shell strongly enhances food intake in rats. However the effects of subtype-selective stimulation of GABA receptors on instrumental responses for food reward are less well characterized. Here we contrast the effects of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol and GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on instrumental responding for food using a second order reinforcement schedule. Bilateral intra-accumbens administration of baclofen (220–440 pmol) stimulated responding but a higher dose (660 pmol) induced stereotyped oral behaviour that interfered with responding. Baclofen (220–660 pmol) also stimulated intake of freely available chow. Muscimol (220–660 pmol) was without effect on responding for food on this schedule but did stimulate intake of freely available chow. Unilateral administration of either baclofen or muscimol (220 pmol) induced similar patterns of c-fos immunoreactivity in several hypothalamic sites but differed in its induction in the central nucleus of the amygdala. We conclude that stimulation of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats produces clearly distinguishable effects on operant responding for food. PMID:22808090

  4. Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of sugarcane bagasse pretreated by combining O2 and NaOH.

    PubMed

    Bi, Shuaizhu; Peng, Lincai; Chen, Keli; Zhu, Zhengliang

    2016-08-01

    Sugarcane bagasse pretreated by combining O2 and NaOH with different variables was conducted to improve its enzymatic digestibility and sugar recovery, and the results were compared with sole NaOH pretreatment. Lignin removal for O2-NaOH pretreatment was around 10% higher than that for sole NaOH pretreatment under the same conditions, and O2-NaOH pretreatment resulted in higher glucan recovery in the solid remain. Subsequently, O2-NaOH pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented more efficient enzymatic digestibility than sole NaOH pretreatment. Under the moderate pretreatment conditions of combining 1% NaOH and 0.5MPa O2 at 80°C for 120min, a high glucan conversion of 95% was achieved after 48h enzymatic hydrolysis. Coupled with the operations of pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, an admirable total sugar recovery of 89% (glucose recovery of 93% and xylose recovery of 84%) was obtained. The susceptibility of the substrates to enzymatic digestibility was explained by their physical and chemical characteristics. PMID:27208740

  5. Hot compressed water pretreatment of oil palm fronds to enhance glucose recovery for production of second generation bio-ethanol.

    PubMed

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Lee, Keat Teong; Bhatia, Subhash

    2010-10-01

    This work presents the pretreatment of oil palm fronds (OPF) using hot compressed water (HCW) to enhance sugar recovery in enzymatic hydrolysis. A central, composite rotatable design was used to optimize the effect of reaction temperature, reaction time and liquid-solid ratio on the pretreatment process. All variables were found to significantly affect the glucose yield. A quadratic polynomial equation was used to model glucose yield by multiple regression analysis, using response surface methodology (RSM). Using a 10 bar pressurized reactor, the optimum conditions for pretreatment of OPF were found at 178 degrees C, 11.1 min and a liquid-solid ratio of 9.6. The predicted glucose yield was 92.78 wt.% at the optimum conditions. Experimental verification of the optimum conditions gave a glucose yield in good agreement with the estimated value of the model. PMID:20471249

  6. Nitric oxide pre-treatment enhances atheroma component highlighting in vivo with ICAM-1 targeted echogenic liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kee, Patrick H.; Kim, Hyunggun; Huang, Shaoling; Laing, Susan T.; Moody, Melanie R.; Vela, Deborah; Klegerman, Melvin E.; McPherson, David D.

    2014-01-01

    We present an ultrasound technique to detect the inflammatory changes in developing atheroma. We used contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging (CEUS) with 1) ICAM-1 targeted microbubbles, a molecule of adhesion involved in the inflammatory processes into the lesions of atheroma in New Zealand White rabbits, 2) a pre-treatment with NO-loaded microbubbles and US activation at the site of the endothelium in order to enhance the permeability of the arterial wall and the penetration of the ICAM-1 targeted microbubbles. Following this procedure, the acoustic enhancement is increased by 1.2 fold. NO-ELIP pretreatment with ultrasound activation can potentially facilitate the subsequent penetration of targeted ELIP into the arterial wall, thus allowing improved detection of inflammatory changes in developing atheroma. PMID:24613216

  7. Nitric oxide pretreatment enhances atheroma component highlighting in vivo with intercellular adhesion molecule-1-targeted echogenic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kee, Patrick H; Kim, Hyunggun; Huang, Shaoling; Laing, Susan T; Moody, Melanie R; Vela, Deborah; Klegerman, Melvin E; McPherson, David D

    2014-06-01

    We present an ultrasound technique for the detection of inflammatory changes in developing atheromas. We used contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging with (i) microbubbles targeted to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a molecule of adhesion involved in inflammatory processes in lesions of atheromas in New Zealand White rabbits, and (ii) pretreatment with nitric oxide-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound activation at the site of the endothelium to enhance the permeability of the arterial wall and the penetration of ICAM-1-targeted microbubbles. This procedure increases acoustic enhancement 1.2-fold. Pretreatment with nitric oxide-loaded echogenic liposomes and ultrasound activation can potentially facilitate the subsequent penetration of targeted echogenic liposomes into the arterial wall, thus allowing improved detection of inflammatory changes in developing atheromas. PMID:24613216

  8. A Novel Approach To Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2006-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our second year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. As our second year progress is intimately related to our earlier work, the report is presented in that context to provide better overall understanding of the progress made. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly

  9. A NOVEL APPROACH TO MINERAL CARBONATION: ENHANCING CARBONATION WHILE AVOIDING MINERAL PRETREATMENT PROCESS COST

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. McKelvy; Andrew V.G. Chizmeshya; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamadallah Bearat

    2005-10-01

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. Herein, we report our first year progress in exploring a novel approach that offers the potential to substantially enhance carbonation reactivity while bypassing pretreatment activation. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the

  10. Evaluation of various fungal pretreatment of switchgrass for enhanced saccharification and simultaneous enzyme production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production, the treatment effectiveness may vary with different fungal strains in regard to biomass loss, sugar yield, enzyme loading, and co-product yield. In this study, 25 different fungal strains were screened for pretreatment ...

  11. Biological pretreatment of corn stover by Phlebia brevispora for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and efficient ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment, as the first step towards conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to ethanol remains one of the main barriers to commercial success. Typically, harsh methods are used to pretreat lignocellulosic biomass prior to its breakdown to sugars by enzymes, which also result in fermentation in...

  12. Startup pattern and performance enhancement of pilot-scale biofilm process for raw water pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Feng, Li-Juan; Yang, Qi; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-11-01

    The quality of raw water is getting worse in developing countries because of the inadequate treatment of municipal sewage, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff. Aiming at the biofilm enrichment and pollutant removal, two pilot-scale biofilm reactors were built with different biological carriers. Results showed that compared with the blank carrier, the biofilm was easily enriched on the biofilm precoated carrier and less nitrite accumulation occurred. The removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N, DOC and UV254 increased under the aeration condition, and a optimum DO level for the adequate nitrification was 1.0-2.6mgL(-1) with the suitable temperature range of 21-22°C. Study on the trihalomethane prediction model indicated that the presentence of algae increased the risk of disinfection by-products production, which could be effectively controlled via manual algae removing and light shading. In this study, the performance of biofilm pretreatment process could be enhanced under the optimized condition of DO level and biofilm carrier. PMID:25233473

  13. Microbial community dynamics linked to enhanced substrate availability and biogas production of electrokinetically pre-treated waste activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, Maria; Crauwels, Sam; Houtmeyers, Sofie; Meerbergen, Ken; Van Geel, Maarten; Lievens, Bart; Appels, Lise

    2016-10-01

    The restricted hydrolytic degradation rate of complex organic matter presents a considerable challenge in anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Within this context, application of pre-treatment of digester substrate has potential for improved waste management and enhanced biogas production. Anaerobic degradation of untreated or electrokinetically pre-treated WAS was performed in two pilot-scale digesters for 132days. WAS electrokinetically pre-treated with energy input 0.066kJ/kg sludge was used in a first phase of operation and WAS pre-treated with energy input 0.091kJ/kg sludge was used in a second phase (each phase lasted at least three hydraulic retention times). Substrate characteristics before and after pre-treatment and effects on biogas digester performance were comprehensively analysed. To gain insights into influences of altered substrate characteristics on microbial communities, the dynamics within the bacterial and archaeal communities in the two digesters were investigated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing (pyrosequencing) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Specific primers targeting dominant operation taxonomic units (OTUs) and members of the candidate phylum Cloacimonetes were designed to further evaluate their abundance and dynamics in the digesters. Electrokinetic pre-treatment significantly improved chemical oxygen demand (COD) and carbohydrate solubility and increased biogas production by 10-11% compared with untreated sludge. Compositional similarity of the bacterial community during initial operation and diversification during later operation indicated gradual adaptation of the community to the higher solubility of organic material in the pre-treated substrate. Further analyses revealed positive correlations between gene abundance of dominant OTUs related to Clostridia and Cloacimonetes and increased substrate availability and biogas production. Among the methanogens, the genus Methanosaeta dominated in both digesters. Overall, the

  14. Biological pretreatment enhances biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin Yunqin; Wang Dehan; Wang Lishang

    2010-09-01

    High efficient resource recovery from pulp and paper sludge (PPS) has been the focus of attention. The objective of this research was to develop a bio-pretreatment process prior to anaerobic digestion of PPS to improve the methane productivity. Active and inactive mushroom compost extracts (MCE) were used for pretreating PPS, followed by anaerobic digestion with monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL). Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed bioreactors, 1-L capacity with 700 ml useful capacity. Optimal amount of active MCE for organics' solubilization in the step of pretreatment was 250 A.U./gVS( sludge). Under this condition, the PPS floc structure was well disrupted, resulting in void rate and fibre size diminishment after pretreatment. In addition, SCOD and VS removal were found to be 56% and 43.6%, respectively, after anaerobic digestion, being the peak value of VFA concentration determined as 1198 mg acetic acid L(-1). The anaerobic digestion efficiency of PPS with and without pretreatment was evaluated. The highest methane yield under optimal pretreatment conditions was 0.23 m(3) CH4/kgVS(add), being 134.2% of the control. The results indicated that MCE bio-pretreatment could be a cost-effective and environmentally sound method for producing methane from PPS. PMID:20147578

  15. Alkali pretreatment enhances biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper sludge.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunqin; Wang, Dehan; Wu, Shaoquan; Wang, Chunmin

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this research was to develop an alkali pretreatment process prior to anaerobic digestion (AD) of pulp and paper sludge (PPS) to improve the methane productivity. Different concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution were used to pretreat PPS, and then followed by AD of PPS and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL). Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed bioreactors, 1L capacity with 700 mL worked. Optimal amount of sodium hydroxide for organics solubilization in the step of pretreatment was 8 g NaOH/100g TS(sludge). Under this condition, the PPS flocs structure was well disrupted resulting in the void rate and fiber size decreased after pretreatment, and SCOD increased up to 83% as well as the peak value of VFA concentration attained 1040 mg acetic acid/L during AD. The AD efficiency of PPS with and without pretreatment was evaluated. The highest methane yield under optimal pretreatment condition was 0.32 m(3) CH(4)/kg VS(removal), 183.5% of the control. The results indicated that alkali/NaOH pretreatment could be an effective method for improving methane yield with PPS. PMID:19464792

  16. Enhancement of methane production in mesophilic anaerobic digestion of secondary sewage sludge by advanced thermal hydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Abelleira-Pereira, Jose M; Pérez-Elvira, Sara I; Sánchez-Oneto, Jezabel; de la Cruz, Roberto; Portela, Juan R; Nebot, Enrique

    2015-03-15

    Studies on the development and evolution of anaerobic digestion (AD) pretreatments are nowadays becoming widespread, due to the outstanding benefits that these processes could entail in the management of sewage sludge. Production of sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming an extremely important environmental issue. The work presented in this paper is a continuation of our previous studies with the aim of understanding and developing the advanced thermal hydrolysis (ATH) process. ATH is a novel AD pretreatment based on a thermal hydrolysis (TH) process plus hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition that takes advantage of a peroxidation/direct steam injection synergistic effect. The main goal of the present research was to compare the performance of TH and ATH, conducted at a wide range of operating conditions, as pretreatments of mesophilic AD with an emphasis on methane production enhancement as a key parameter and its connection with the sludge solubilization. Results showed that both TH and ATH patently improved methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP (biochemical methane potential) tests in comparison with BMP control tests (raw secondary sewage sludge). Besides other interesting results and discussions, a promising result was obtained since ATH, operated at temperature (115 °C), pretreatment time (5 min) and pressure (1 bar) considerably below those typically used in TH (170 °C, 30 min, 8 bar), managed to enhance the methane production in subsequent mesophilic BMP tests [biodegradability factor (fB) = cumulative CH4production/cumulative CH4production (Control) = 1.51 ± 0.01] to quite similar levels than conventional TH pretreatment [fB = 1.52 ± 0.03]. PMID:25682559

  17. Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur B; Kuglarz, Mariusz; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using 0-3% H2SO4, NaOH or H2O2 at 121-180°C prior to enzymatic hydrolysis. The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of hemp material pretreated with 3% H2O2 resulted in the highest overall sugar yield (73.5%), maximum succinic acid titer (21.9 g L(-1)), as well as the highest succinic acid yield (83%). Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid. PMID:25682224

  18. Enhancement of electric field-mediated gene delivery through pretreatment of tumors with a hyperosmotic mannitol solution.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, J; Mossop, B; Yuan, F

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields can enhance interstitial transport of plasmid DNA (pDNA) in solid tumors. However, the extent of enhancement is still limited. To this end, the effects of cellular resistance to electric field-mediated gene delivery were investigated. The investigation used two tumor cell lines (4T1 (a murine mammary carcinoma) and B16.F10 (a metastatic subline of B16 murine melanoma)) either in suspensions or implanted in two in vivo models (dorsal skin-fold chamber (DSC) and hind leg). The volume fraction of cells was altered by pretreatment with a hyperosmotic mannitol solution (1 M). It was observed that the pretreatment reduced the volumes of 4T1 and B16.F10 cells, suspended in an agarose gel, by 50 and 46%, respectively, over a 20-min period, but did not cause significant changes ex vivo in volumes of hind-leg tumor tissues grown from the same cells in mice. The mannitol pretreatment in vivo improved electric field-mediated gene delivery in the hind-leg tumor models, in terms of reporter gene expression, but resulted in minimal enhancement in pDNA electrophoresis over a few microns distance in the DSC tumor models. These data demonstrated that hyperosmotic mannitol solution could effectively improve electric field-mediated gene delivery around individual cells in vivo by increasing the extracellular space. PMID:20847751

  19. Enhanced biomethane potential from wheat straw by low temperature alkaline calcium hydroxide pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan

    2015-08-01

    A factorially designed experiment to examine the effectiveness of Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, enzyme addition and particle size, on the mesophilic (35 °C) anaerobic digestion of wheat straw was conducted. Experiments used a 48 h pre-treatment with Ca(OH)2 7.4% (w/w), addition of Accellerase®-1500, with four particle sizes of wheat straw (1.25, 2, 3 and 10mm) and three digestion time periods (5, 15 and 30 days). By combining particle size reduction and Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment, the average methane potential was increased by 315% (from 48 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1) to 202 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1)) after 5 days of anaerobic digestion compared to the control. Enzyme addition or Ca(OH)2 pre-treatment with 3, 2 and 1.25 mm particle sizes had 30-day batch yields of between 301 and 335 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1). Alkali pre-treatment of 3mm straw was shown to have the most potential as a cost effective pre-treatment and achieved 290 NmL-CH4 g-VS(-1), after only 15 days of digestion. PMID:25898087

  20. Topochemical pretreatment of wood biomass to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of polysaccharides to sugars.

    PubMed

    Mou, Hong-Yan; Orblin, Elina; Kruus, Kristiina; Fardim, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The surface chemistry of milled birch and pine wood pretreated by ionic liquid, hydrothermal and hydrotropic methods, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis was studied in this work. Surface coverage by lignin was measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used to describe the surface chemical composition after pretreatment in detail, and the morphology after pretreatment was investigated by FE-SEM. Ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) pretreatment at room temperature made the samples swell but did not dissolve the wood. Comparing the surface coverage by lignin, both in the case of birch and pine wood, hydrotropic worked best to remove the lignin hampering enzymatic hydrolysis. ToF-SIMS supported this finding, and showed that in birch, the carbohydrates were degraded more than in pine after hydrotropic pretreatment. The glucose yield of birch was improved by hydrotropic pretreatment from 5.1% to 83.9%, more significantly than in case of pine. PMID:23774220

  1. Enhanced Ethanol and Biogas Production from Pinewood by NMMO Pretreatment and Detailed Biomass Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zilouei, Hamid; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    N-Methyl morpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) is an environmentally friendly and commercially applied cellulose solvent that is suggested for pretreatment of lignocelluloses to improve biofuel productions. However, the underlying mechanisms of the improvements have been poorly understood yet. In an attempt to investigate the mechanisms, pinewood powder and chips were pretreated with 85% (w/w) NMMO at 120°C for 1–15 h. The pretreatment improved ethanol production yield from 7.2% (g/g) for the untreated wood powder to 68.1–86.1% (g/g) and from 1.7% (g/g) for the untreated wood chips to 12.6–51.2% (g/g) of theoretical yield. Similarly, the biogas yields of untreated wood chips and powder were improved from 21 and 66 (mL/g volatile solids) by 3.5–6.8- and 2.6–3.4-folds, respectively. SEM micrographs indicated major increase in the wood porosity by the pretreatment, which would confirm increase in the water swelling capacity as well as enzyme adsorption. The analysis of X-ray diffraction showed considerable reduction in the cellulose crystallinity by the pretreatment, while FTIR spectroscopy results indicated reduction of lignin on the wood surface by the pretreatment. PMID:25162014

  2. A Novel Approach to Mineral Carbonation: Enhancing Carbonation While Avoiding Mineral Pretreatment Process Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew V. G. Chizmeshya; Michael J. McKelvy; Kyle Squires; Ray W. Carpenter; Hamdallah Bearat

    2007-06-21

    Known fossil fuel reserves, especially coal, can support global energy demands for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO{sub 2} emissions can be overcome. Unlike other CO{sub 2} sequestration candidate technologies that propose long-term storage, mineral sequestration provides permanent disposal by forming geologically stable mineral carbonates. Carbonation of the widely occurring mineral olivine (e.g., forsterite, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) is a large-scale sequestration process candidate for regional implementation, which converts CO{sub 2} into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO{sub 3}). The primary goal is cost-competitive process development. As the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is key to economic viability. Recent studies at the U.S. DOE Albany Research Center have established that aqueous-solution carbonation using supercritical CO{sub 2} is a promising process; even without olivine activation, 30-50% carbonation has been achieved in an hour. Mechanical activation (e.g., attrition) has accelerated the carbonation process to an industrial timescale (i.e., near completion in less than an hour), at reduced pressure and temperature. However, the activation cost is too high to be economical and lower cost pretreatment options are needed. We have discovered that robust silica-rich passivating layers form on the olivine surface during carbonation. As carbonation proceeds, these passivating layers thicken, fracture and eventually exfoliate, exposing fresh olivine surfaces during rapidly-stirred/circulating carbonation. We are exploring the mechanisms that govern carbonation reactivity and the impact that (1) modeling/controlling the slurry fluid-flow conditions, (2) varying the aqueous ion species/size and concentration (e.g., Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cl-, HCO{sub 3}{sup -}), and (3) incorporating select sonication offer to enhance exfoliation and carbonation. Thus

  3. Methane enhancement through oxidative cleavage and alkali solubilization pre-treatments for corn stover with anaerobic activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Muhammad; Ding, Weimin; Bi, Jinhua; Mehryar, Esmaeil; Talha, Zahir Ahmed Ali; Huang, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, thermo-chemical pre-treatment was adopted to evaluate methane production potential from corn stover by co-digesting it with anaerobic activated sludge. Three chemicals H2O2, Ca(OH)2 and NaOH were selected with two levels of concentration. All thermo-chemical pre-treatments were found significant (P<0.05) to enhance lignocellulosic digestibility and methane production. The results indicated that the methane yield by H2O2-1, H2O2-2, and NaOH-2 treated corn stover were 293.52, 310.50 and 279.42ml/g.VS which were 57.18%, 66.27% and 49.63% higher than the untreated corn stover respectively. In the previous studies pre-treatment time was reported in days but our method had reduced it to about one hour. H2O2-2 and NaOH-2 treatments remained prominent to increase lignocellulosic degradation vigorously up to 45% and 42% respectively. Process biochemistry during the anaerobic digestion process was taken into consideration to optimize the most feasible thermo-chemical pre-treatment for corn stover. PMID:26512865

  4. Rapid selection and identification of Miscanthus genotypes with enhanced glucan and xylan yields from hydrothermal pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Because many Miscanthus genotypes can be cultivated with relatively high productivity and carbohydrate content, Miscanthus has great potential as an energy crop that can support large scale biological production of biofuels. Results In this study, batch hydrothermal pretreatment at 180°C for 35 min followed by enzymatic hydrolysis was shown to give the highest total sugar yields for Miscanthus x giganteus cv. Illinois planted in Illinois. High throughput pretreatment at 180°C for 35 min and 17.5 min followed by co-hydrolysis in a multi-well batch reactor identified two varieties out of 80 that had significantly higher sugar yields from pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis than others. The differences in performance were then related to compositions of the 80 varieties to provide insights into desirable traits for Miscanthus that enhance sugar yields. Conclusions High throughput pretreatment and co-hydrolysis (HTPH) rapidly identified promising genotypes from a wide range of Miscanthus genotypes, including hybrids of Miscanthus sacchariflorus/M. sinensis and Miscanthus lutarioriparius, differentiating the more commercially promising species from the rest. The total glucan plus xylan content in Miscanthus appeared to influence both mass and theoretical yields, while lignin and ash contents did not have a predictable influence on performance. PMID:22863302

  5. Intrathecal baclofen for management of spastic cerebral palsy: multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Gilmartin, R; Bruce, D; Storrs, B B; Abbott, R; Krach, L; Ward, J; Bloom, K; Brooks, W H; Johnson, D L; Madsen, J R; McLaughlin, J F; Nadell, J

    2000-02-01

    Intrathecal baclofen infusion has demonstrated effectiveness in decreasing spasticity of spinal origin. Oral antispasticity medication is minimally effective or not well tolerated in cerebral palsy. This study assessed the effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen in reducing spasticity in cerebral palsy. Candidates were screened by randomized, double-blind, intrathecal injections of baclofen and placebo. Responders were defined as those who experienced an average reduction of 1.0 in the lower extremities on the Ashworth Scale for spasticity. Responders received intrathecal baclofen via the SynchroMed System and were followed for up to 43 months. Fifty-one patients completed screening and 44 entered open-label trials. Lower-extremity spasticity decreased from an average baseline score of 3.64 to 1.90 at 39 months. A decrease in upper extremity spasticity was evidenced over the same study period. Forty-two patients reported adverse events. Most common reports were hypotonia, seizures (no new onset), somnolence, and nausea or vomiting. Fifty-nine percent of the patients experienced procedural or system-related events. Spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy can be treated effectively by continuous intrathecal baclofen. Adverse events, although common, were manageable. PMID:10695888

  6. Enhancement of biomass conversion in catalytic fast pyrolysis by microwave-assisted formic acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yu; Li, Guangyu; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Ning; Xiao, Bo; Li, Jian; Wang, Yujue

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated microwave-assisted formic acid (MW-FA) pretreatment as a possible way to improve aromatic production from catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignocellulosic biomass. Results showed that short duration of MW-FA pretreatment (5-10min) could effectively disrupt the recalcitrant structure of beech wood and selectively remove its hemicellulose and lignin components. This increased the accessibility of cellulose component of biomass to subsequent thermal conversion in CFP. Consequently, the MW-FA pretreated beech wood produced 14.0-28.3% higher yields (26.4-29.8C%) for valuable aromatic products in CFP than the untreated control (23.2C%). In addition, the yields of undesired solid residue (char/coke) decreased from 33.1C% for the untreated control to 28.6-29.8C% for the MW-FA pretreated samples. These results demonstrate that MW-FA pretreatment can provide an effective way to improve the product distribution from CFP of lignocellulose. PMID:27176672

  7. Enhancement of the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse by steam pretreatment impregnated with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, Sarita Cândida; Vaz Rossell, Carlos Eduardo; de Moraes Rocha, George Jackson; Zacchi, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to steam pretreatment impregnated with hydrogen peroxide. Analyses were performed using 2(3) factorial designs and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed at two different solid concentrations and with washed and unwashed material to evaluate the importance of this step for obtaining high cellulose conversion. Similar cellulose conversion were obtained at different conditions of pretreatment and hydrolysis. When the cellulose was hydrolyzed using the pretreated material in the most severe conditions of the experimental design (210 °C, 15 min and 1.0% hydrogen peroxide), and using 2% (w/w) water-insoluble solids (WIS), and 15 FPU/g WIS, the cellulose conversion was 86.9%. In contrast, at a milder pretreatment condition (190 °C, 15 min and 0.2% hydrogen peroxide) and industrially more realistic conditions of hydrolysis (10% WIS and 10 FPU/g WIS), the cellulose conversion reached 82.2%. The step of washing the pretreated material was very important to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars. PMID:22753357

  8. The transcriptomes of dormant leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperature are differentially affected by a germination-enhancing pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Foley, Michael E; Chao, Wun S; Horvath, David P; Doğramaci, Münevver; Anderson, James V

    2013-04-15

    Seed dormancy is an important stage in the life cycle of many non-domesticated plants, often characterized by the temporary failure to germinate under conditions that normally favor the process. Pre-treating dormant imbibed seeds at a constant temperate accelerated germination of leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperatures. However, dormant seeds will also germinate without a pre-treatment, albeit at a much slower rate, which gives rise to longer periods of imbibition before germination. Transcriptome analyses on seeds exposed to prolonged imbibition highlighted pathways associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and interacting networks of genes involved in plant defense. In addition to the many pathways associated with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis enriched with down-regulated genes upon germination, there were also numerous pathways enriched with up-regulated genes associated with energy metabolism, such as glycolysis. Transcriptome data further suggest that metabolism and signaling by the plant hormones ethylene, gibberellin, and abscisic acid are involved in the developmental transition from dormancy to germination. More specifically, sub-network enrichment analysis identified ABI3 as a central hub of a sub-network at germination including several down-regulated genes such as DELLA (i.e., RGL2), which represses gibberellin signaling processes required for germination. The 595-fold increase in the expression of ACC oxidase (ACO4) at germination also suggests an important role for ethylene biosynthesis in germinating leafy surge seeds. Furthermore, the 10-578-fold difference in expression of many genes such as HY5 and Histone H3 between two populations at germination, which were treated with and without a constant temperature germination-enhancing pretreatment, revealed disparate impacts on various biosynthetic, growth, signaling, and response processes. Overall, our results indicate a constant temperature pretreatment (20°C for 21d) is not required for

  9. Effect on Ca(OH)2 pretreatment to enhance biogas production of organic food waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junoh, H.; Yip, CH; Kumaran, P.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 pretreatment in optimizing COD solubilisation and methane production through anaerobic digestion process. Two different parameters, chemical concentration (40-190 mEq/L) and pretreatment time (1-6 hours) were used to pretreat food waste. A central composite design and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied in obtaining the optimized condition for COD solubilisation. Result showed COD solubilisation was optimized at 166.98 mEq/L (equivalent to 6.1 g Ca(OH)2/L) for 1 hour. These conditions were applied through biomethane potential test with methane production of 864.19 mL/g VSdestructed and an increase of 20.0% as compared to untreated food waste.

  10. Hydrothermal pretreatment enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and glucose production from oil palm biomass.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present works investigate hydrothermal pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber in a batch tube reactor system with temperature and time range from 170 to 250°C and 10 to 20min, respectively. The behavior of soluble sugars, acids, furans, and phenols dramatically changed over treatment severities as determined by HPLC. The cellulose-rich treated solids were analyzed by SEM, WAXD, and BET surface area. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed from both pretreated slurries and washed solid, and data obtained suggested that tannic acid derived from lignin degradation was a potential cellulase inhibitor. Both partial removal of hemicellulose and migration of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment caused structural changes on the cellulose-hemicellulose-lignin matrix, resulting in the opening and expansion of specific surface area and pore volume. The current results provided important factors that maximize conversion of cellulose to glucose from oil palm biomass by hydrothermal process. PMID:25460995

  11. Enhancement of volatile fatty acids production from rice straw via anaerobic digestion with chemical pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Gwon Woo; Kim, Ilgook; Jung, Kwonsu; Seo, Charles; Han, Jong-In; Chang, Ho Nam; Kim, Yeu-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Rice straw is one of the most abundant renewable biomass sources and was selected as the feedstock for the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from which microbial biodiesel can be produced. Two kinds of chemical pretreatments involving nitric acid and sodium hydroxide were investigated at 150 °C with 20 min of reaction time. The nitric acid pretreatment generated the most hemicellulose hydrolyzate, while significant reduction of the lignin occurred with sodium hydroxide pretreatment. Anaerobic digestion of 20 g/L rice straw yielded 6.00 and 7.09 g VFAs/L with 0.5% HNO3 and 2% NaOH, respectively. The VFAs yield with 2% NaOH was 0.35 g/g. PMID:25764527

  12. Performance and enhanced mechanism of a novel bio-diatomite biofilm pretreatment process treating polluted raw water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-feng; Feng, Li-juan; Wang, Sha-fei; Yang, Qi; Xu, Xiang-yang; Zhu, Liang

    2015-09-01

    A lab-scale novel bio-diatomite biofilm process (BDBP) was established for the polluted raw water pretreatment in this study. Results showed that a shorter startup period of BDBP system was achieved under the completely circulated operation mode, and the removal efficiencies of nitrogen and disinfection by-product precursor were effective at low hydraulic retention time of 2-4 h due to high biomass attached to the carrier and diatomite. A maximum NH4(+)-N oxidation potential predicted by modified Stover-Kincannon model was 333.3 mg L(-1) d(-1) in the BDBP system, which was 4.7 times of that in the control reactor. Results demonstrated that the present of bio-diatomite favors the accumulation of functional microbes in the oligotrophic niche, and the pollutants removal performance of this novel process was enhanced for polluted raw water pretreatment. PMID:26000837

  13. Intrathecal baclofen pump – a viable therapeutic option in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Saira S; Hoskins, Iffath; Azhar, Salman

    2010-01-01

    Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid analogue, is used as a muscle relaxant and antispasmodic to relieve symptoms in patients with intractable spasticity arising from cerebral or spinal aetiology such as in traumatic brain injury or multiple sclerosis. As it is often used in women of reproductive age, it is imperative to know the safety and associated maternal and fetal risks. The Food and Drug Administration has assigned the drug to Pregnancy Category C because of the lack of controlled data in humans. Animal studies have revealed an increased incidence of omphalocele if used in doses several times the recommended human dose. Baclofen should only be given during pregnancy when the benefits outweigh the risks. Baclofen is considered compatible with breast feeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Baclofen reduces fat intake under binge-type conditions.

    PubMed

    Buda-Levin, Ariel; Wojnicki, Francis H E; Corwin, Rebecca L

    2005-09-15

    The GABA-B agonist baclofen reduces drug self-administration in rats and has shown promise clinically in the treatment of substance abuse. Baclofen generally does not reduce food intake in non-binge feeding protocols. In this study, baclofen was tested in a fat-binge protocol. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups (B: binge; FM: fat-matched; C: chow). B received a bowl of vegetable shortening for 2 h on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (MWF) and continuous access to powdered chow (regular chow) in all phases. FM had continuous access to a regular chow+shortening mixture (FM chow) that provided the same proportion of shortening and regular chow that the B rats consumed in all phases. In addition, FM had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening; C rats had continuous access to the regular chow in all phases. In addition, C had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; in phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening. Baclofen (1.0, 1.8 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced shortening intake regardless of access condition. Baclofen had no effect on, or stimulated, FM and regular chow intake. These results demonstrate that baclofen can reduce fat intake in rats under binge-type conditions. Furthermore, these results indicate that bingeing, as modeled in our protocol, is different from other forms of food intake and may share similarities with substance abuse. PMID:16140347

  15. Chemical characterization and hydrothermal pretreatment of Salicornia bigelovii straw for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and bioethanol potential.

    PubMed

    Cybulska, Iwona; Chaturvedi, Tanmay; Brudecki, Grzegorz P; Kádár, Zsófia; Meyer, Anne S; Baldwin, Robert M; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2014-02-01

    Salicornia bigelovii straw was characterized and evaluated as a potential lignocellulosic bioethanol feedstock. S. bigelovii used in the study was grown in the United Arab Emirates using saltwater (40ppt) for irrigation. Salt removal was performed prior to pretreatment to protect the processing equipment and avoid inhibition of enzymes and yeast. Composition of the washed biomass was comparable to traditional lignocellulosic biomasses with relatively high glucan and xylan content (26 and 22g/100gDM, respectively) but with lower lignin content (7g/100gDM). The washed feedstock was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment, producing highly digestible (up to 92% glucan-to-glucose conversion) and fermentable (up to 100% glucose-to-ethanol conversion) fiber fractions. Liquid fractions obtained in the pretreatment did not show inhibition towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No significant differences among the enzymatic convertibility and microbial fermentability of the fibers as well as low xylose recoveries suggest that lower severity pretreatment conditions could be exploited for S. bigelovii. PMID:24362358

  16. Ball milling pretreatment of oil palm biomass for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2014-08-01

    Oil palm biomass, namely empty fruit bunch and frond fiber, were pretreated using a planetary ball mill. Particle sizes and crystallinity index values of the oil palm biomass were significantly reduced with extended ball mill processing time. The treatment efficiency was evaluated by the generation of glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields from the pretreatment process compared to the amount of sugars from raw materials. Glucose and xylose contents were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. An increasing trend in glucose and xylose yield as well as total sugar conversion yield was observed with decreasing particle size and crystallinity index. Oil palm frond fiber exhibited the best material yields using ball milling pretreatment with generated glucose, xylose, and total sugar conversion yields of 87.0, 81.6, and 85.4%, respectively. In contrast, oil palm empty fruit bunch afforded glucose and xylose of 70.0 and 82.3%, respectively. The results obtained in this study showed that ball mill-treated oil palm biomass is a suitable pretreatment method for high conversion of glucose and xylose. PMID:24908052

  17. Comparative study of different alcoholate pretreatments for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing; Yan, Qiuli; Fu, Jing; Lv, Xiaojing; Xiong, Chunjiang; Lin, Jianghai; Liu, Zehuan

    2016-07-01

    Pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) with alcoholates, sodium methoxide (CH3ONa), potassium methoxide (CH3OK) and sodium ethoxide (C2H5ONa), was investigated. Analyses of lignocellulose composition and enzymatic saccharification indicated that C2H5ONa showed the highest enzymatic efficiency of 102.1%. The response surface optimization of C2H5ONa pretreatment showed that under optimal conditions (4% of C2H5ONa, 121°C, 1h), 65.4% of lignin was removed and the enzymatic efficiency reached 105.2%. Hydrolysis of SCB with cellulases and xylanase at a ratio of 4:1 showed the strongest synergism with reducing sugar production of 21g/L and conversion rates of cellulose and xylan reaching 110.4% and 94.5%, respectively. These results indicated that C2H5ONa is a promising alkali to pretreat SCB and the synergism between cellulases and xylanase has a significant effect on enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated SCB. PMID:27035479

  18. Pretreatment of spent mushroom substrate for enhancing the conversion of fermentable sugar.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songqing; Lan, Yanjiao; Wu, Zhimao; Peng, Yan; Chen, Siqi; Huang, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, Xiong; Zhang, Lingling; Zou, Shuangquan

    2013-11-01

    To develop a cost-effective biopesticide, spent mushroom substrate (SMS) extract was studied as a potential carbon source for cultivating Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Several pretreatments were compared to determine the optimal method for degrading cellulose to produce reducing sugars, including dilute sulfuric acid (0.5-2.0% v/v, 50-121°C, 1h), sodium hydroxide (0.5-2% w/v, 50-121°C, 1h), calcium hydroxide (0.2-4% w/v, 50-121°C, 1h), and hot water (50-121°C, 1h). Pretreatment was followed by standard enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Results showed that the highest cellulose degradation was obtained using 2% dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment at 121°C for 1h, resulting in a high yield of reducing sugar (284.24 g/kg SMS). Sporulation was also highest using the same pretreatment. Use of SMS is not only an alternative way to commercialize Bt-based biopesticide, but also a potential solution for the environmental pollution associated with accumulation of the spent substrate of the mushroom industry. PMID:24047726

  19. Enhancing cellulose accessibility of corn stover by deep eutectic solvent pretreatment for butanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Chao; Ding, Ji-Cai; Han, Rui-Zhi; Dong, Jin-Jun; Ni, Ye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an effective corn stover (CS) pretreatment method was developed for biobutanol fermentation. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs), consisted of quaternary ammonium salts and hydrogen donors, display similar properties to room temperature ionic liquid. Seven DESs with different hydrogen donors were facilely synthesized. Choline chloride:formic acid (ChCl:formic acid), an acidic DES, displayed excellent performance in the pretreatment of corn stover by removal of hemicellulose and lignin as confirmed by SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis. After optimization, glucose released from pretreated CS reached 17.0 g L(-1) and yield of 99%. The CS hydrolysate was successfully utilized in butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864, achieving butanol titer of 5.63 g L(-1) with a yield of 0.17 g g(-1) total sugar and productivity of 0.12 g L(-1)h(-1). This study demonstrates DES could be used as a promising and biocompatible pretreatment method for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuel. PMID:26597485

  20. Fungal pretreatment of albizia chips for enhanced biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Albizia biomass is a forestry waste, and holds a great potential in biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD). However, low methane yields from albizia chips were observed due to their recalcitrant structure. In this study, albizia chips were pretreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermisp...

  1. [Intrathecal baclofen therapy and management of severe spasticity].

    PubMed

    Naito, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    Continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen (ITB), via implanted pump, is a powerful tool in the management of severe spasticity in neurological disorders. The advantages of ITB therapy are that it is non-destructive, reversible, and programmable, allowing for neuromodulation. Patients reported significant subjective improvements and decreases in muscle tone after baclofen injection, but excessive doses of ITB resulted in motor weakness. Few complications and adverse effects were reported. ITB therapy appears to be a promising treatment to improve residual motor control in patients with severe spasticity. PMID:25200576

  2. Scoliosis, spinal fusion, and intrathecal baclofen pump implantation.

    PubMed

    Scannell, Brian; Yaszay, Burt

    2015-02-01

    This article reviews the incidence, management, and complications of scoliosis in patients with cerebral palsy. Treatment of scoliosis in patients with cerebral palsy includes both nonoperative and operative management and often the decision to proceed with surgery is a multidisciplinary decision. Because of severe spasticity, many of these patients undergo intrathecal baclofen pump placement before, during, or after posterior spinal fusion. The complication rates can be high with intrathecal baclofen pump placement, but many patients can have significant benefit with this therapy. PMID:25479781

  3. Pretreatment with laccase and a phenolic mediator degrades lignin and enhances saccharification of Eucalyptus feedstock

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biofuel production from lignocellulosic material is hampered by biomass recalcitrance towards enzymatic hydrolysis due to the compact architecture of the plant cell wall and the presence of lignin. The purpose of this work is to study the ability of an industrially available laccase-mediator system to modify and remove lignin during pretreatment of wood (Eucalyptus globulus) feedstock, thus improving saccharification, and to analyze the chemical modifications produced in the whole material and especially in the recalcitrant lignin moiety. Results Up to 50% lignin removal from ground eucalypt wood was attained by pretreatment with recombinant Myceliophthora thermophila laccase and methyl syringate as mediator, followed by alkaline peroxide extraction in a multistage sequence. The lignin removal directly correlated with increases (approximately 40%) in glucose and xylose yields after enzymatic hydrolysis. The pretreatment using laccase alone (without mediator) removed up to 20% of lignin from eucalypt wood. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the pretreated wood revealed modifications of the lignin polymer, as shown by lignin markers with shortened side chains and increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl ratio. Additional information on the chemical modifications produced was obtained by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of the whole wood swollen in dimethylsulfoxide-d6. The spectra obtained revealed the removal of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin units, although with a preferential removal of the former, and the lower number of aliphatic side-chains per phenylpropane unit (involved in main β-O-4ʹ and β-βʹ inter-unit linkages), in agreement with the pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry results, without a substantial change in the wood polysaccharide signals. However, the most noticeable modification observed in the spectra was the formation of Cα-oxidized syringyl lignin units during the enzymatic treatment. Further insight into

  4. Differential development of tolerance to the functional and behavioral effects of repeated baclofen treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, T J R; Smith, H R; Porrino, L J

    2013-05-01

    Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor agonist, has been used clinically to treat muscle spasticity, rigidity and pain. More recently, interest in the use of baclofen as an addiction medicine has grown, with promising preclinical cocaine and amphetamine data and demonstrated clinical benefit from alcohol and nicotine studies. Few preclinical investigations, however, have utilized chronic dosing of baclofen, which is important given that tolerance can occur to many of its effects. Thus the question of whether chronic treatment of baclofen maintains the efficacy of acute doses is imperative. The neural substrates that underlie the effects of baclofen, particularly those after chronic treatment, are also not known. In the present study, therefore, rats were treated with either a) vehicle, b) acute baclofen (5 mg/kg) or c) chronic baclofen (5 mg/kg, t.i.d. for 5 days). The effects of acute and chronic baclofen administration, compared to vehicle, were assessed using locomotor activity and changes in brain glucose metabolism (a measure of functional brain activity). Acute baclofen significantly reduced locomotor activity (horizontal and total distance traveled), while chronic baclofen failed to affect locomotor activity. Acute baclofen resulted in significantly lower rates of local cerebral glucose utilization throughout many areas of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, caudate putamen, septum and hippocampus. The majority of these functional effects, with the exception of the caudate putamen and septum, were absent in animals chronically treated with baclofen. Despite the tolerance to the locomotor and functional effects of baclofen following repeated treatment, these persistent effects on functional activity in the caudate putamen and septum may provide insights into the way in which baclofen alters the reinforcing effects of abused substances such as cocaine, alcohol, and methamphetamine both in humans and animal models. PMID:23500188

  5. Rheological properties of sewage sludge during enhanced anaerobic digestion with microwave-H2O2 pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jibao; Yu, Dawei; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Min; Wang, Yawei; Wei, Yuansong; Tong, Juan

    2016-07-01

    The rheological behavior of sludge is of serious concern in anaerobic digestion. This study investigated the rheological properties of sewage sludge during enhanced anaerobic digestion with microwave-H2O2 pretreatment (MW-H2O2). The results showed that MW-H2O2 pretreatment resulted in the improvement of sludge flowability and weakening of its viscoelastic properties. Further positive effects on the rheological properties of digested sludge during anaerobic digestion were observed. The flowability was improved with a low level of apparent viscosity. The decrease of the consistency index and increase of the flow behavior index indicated that the strength of the inner structures and non-Newtonian flow characteristics of digested sludge weakened. Both the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) decreased, indicating that the viscoelastic behavior became weak. These effects were possibly attributed to the changes of the digested sludge micro-structures, such as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This study concluded that anaerobic digestion for treating sewage sludge combined with pretreatment is a more favorable option than single anaerobic digestion from the perspective of rheology. PMID:27085155

  6. Unraveling the Structural Modifications in Lignin of Arundo donax Linn. during Acid-Enhanced Ionic Liquid Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    You, Tingting; Zhang, Liming; Guo, Siqin; Shao, Lupeng; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-23

    Solid acid-enhanced ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment is of paramount importance for boosting the yield of sugars from biomass cost-effectively and environmentally friendly. To unravel the chemical and supramolecular structural changes of lignin after pretreatment, IL-acid lignin (ILAL) and subsequent residual cellulolytic enzyme lignin (RCEL) were isolated from Arundo donax Linn. The structural features were compared with those of the corresponding milled wood lignin (MWL). Results indicated that the pretreatment caused loss of β-O-4', β-β', β-1' linkages and formation of condensed structures in lignin. A preferential breakdown of G-type lignin may have occurred, evidenced by an increased S/G ratio revealed by 2D HSQC NMR analysis. It was determined that the depolymerization of β-O-4' linkage, lignin recondensation, and cleavage of ferulate-lignin ether linkages took place. Moreover, a simulation module was first developed to define morphological changes in lignin based on AFM and TEM analyses. Briefly, tree branch like aggregates was destroyed to monodisperse particles. PMID:26621450

  7. A new approach of microalgal biomass pretreatment using deep eutectic solvents for enhanced lipid recovery for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidong; Alam, Md Asraful; Pan, Ying; Wu, Jingcheng; Wang, Zhongming; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-10-01

    The biomass of Chlorella sp. was pretreated with three different aqueous deep eutectic solvents (aDESs), i.e. aqueous choline chloride-oxalic acid (aCh-O), aqueous choline chloride-ethylene glycol (aCh-EG) and aqueous urea-acetamide (aU-A). The effect of aDESs pretreatment of microalgae biomass was evaluated in terms of lipid recovery rate, total carbohydrate content, fatty acid composition, and thermal chemical behavior of biomass. Results indicated that, lipid recovery rate was increased from 52.03% of untreated biomass to 80.90%, 66.92%, and 75.26% of the biomass treated by aCh-O, aCh-EG and aU-A, respectively. However, there were no major changes observed in fatty acid profiles of both untreated and treated biomass, specifically palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid and stearic acid under various pretreatments. Furthermore, characterizations of untreated and treated biomass were carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to understand the enhanced lipids recovery. PMID:27359060

  8. Enhancing methane production of corn stover through a novel way: sequent pretreatment of potassium hydroxide and steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianghao; Zhang, Ruihong; Siddhu, Muhammad Abdul Hanan; He, Yanfeng; Wang, Wen; Li, Yeqing; Chen, Chang; Liu, Guangqing

    2015-04-01

    Getting over recalcitrance of lignocellulose is effective way to fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass. In current work, different pretreatments were applied to enhance the digestibility of corn stover (CS). Results showed that steam explosion (SE)-treated CS produced maximal methane yield (223.2 mL/gvs) at 1.2 MPa for 10 min, which was 55.2% more than untreated (143.8 mL/gvs). Whereas 1.5% KOH-treated CS produced maximum methane yield of 208.6 mL/gvs, and significantly (α<0.05) improved 45.1% with respect to untreated. Sequent pretreatment of potassium hydroxide and steam explosion (SPPE) (1.5% KOH-1.2 MPa, 10 min) achieved a very significant (α<0.01) improvement (80.0%) of methane yield (258.8 mL/gvs) compared with untreated CS. Methane production could be well explained by the first-order and modified Gompertz models. Besides, SEM, FTIR, and XRD analyses validated structural changes of CS after SPPE. SPPE might be a promising method to pretreat CS in the future AD industry. PMID:25681690

  9. Ultrasonic pretreatment for enhanced saccharification and fermentation of ethanol production from corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalbo-Lomboy, Melissa T.

    The 21st Century human lifestyle has become heavily dependent on hydrocarbon inputs. Energy demand and the global warming effects due to the burning of fossil fuels have continued to increase. Rising awareness of the negative environmental and economic impacts of hydrocarbon dependence has led to a resurgence of interest in renewable energy sources such as ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known to be a cleaner and renewable source of energy relative to gasoline. Many studies have agreed that fuel ethanol has reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has larger overall energy benefits compared to gasoline. Currently, the majority of the fuel ethanol in the United States is produced from corn using dry-grind milling process. The typical dry-grind ethanol plant incorporates jet cooking using steam to cook the corn slurry as pretreatment for saccharification; an energy intensive step. In aiming to reduce energy usage, this study evaluated the use of ultrasonics as an alternative to jet cooking. Ultrasonic batch experiments were conducted using a Branson 2000 Series bench-scale ultrasonic unit operating at a frequency of 20 kHz and a maximum output of 2.2 kW. Corn slurry was sonicated at varying amplitudes from 192 to 320 mumpeak-to-peak(p-p) for 0-40 seconds. Enzyme stability was investigated by adding enzyme (STARGEN(TM)001) before and after sonication. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) images and particle size distribution analysis showed a nearly 20-fold size reduction by disintegration of corn particles due to ultrasonication. The results also showed a 30% improvement in sugar release of sonicated samples relative to the control group (untreated). The efficiency exceeded 100% in terms of relative energy gain from the additional sugar released due to ultrasonication compared to the ultrasonic energy applied. Interestingly, enzymatic activity was enhanced when sonicated at low and medium power. This result suggested that ultrasonic energy did not denature the enzymes

  10. Use of anaerobic hydrolysis pretreatment to enhance ultrasonic disintegration of excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianjin; Zhu, Tong; Shen, Yang; Chai, Tianyu; Xie, Yuanhua; You, Meiyan; Wang, Youzhao

    2016-01-01

    To improve the excess sludge disintegration efficiency, reduce the sludge disintegration cost, and increase sludge biodegradability, a combined pretreatment of anaerobic hydrolysis (AH) and ultrasonic treatment (UT) was proposed for excess sludge. Results showed that AH had an advantage in dissolving flocs, modifying sludge characteristics, and reducing the difficulty of sludge disintegration, whereas UT was advantageous in damaging cell walls, releasing intracellular substances, and decomposing macromolecular material. The combined AH-UT process was an efficient method for excess sludge pretreatment. The optimized solution involved AH for 3 days, followed by UT for 10 min. After treatment, chemical oxygen demand, protein, and peptidoglycan concentrations reached 3,949.5 mg O2/L, 752.5 mg/L and 619.1 mg/L, respectively. This work has great significance for further engineering applications, namely, reducing energy consumption, increasing the sludge disintegration rate, and improving the biochemical properties of sludge. PMID:26942542

  11. Biological pre-treatment: Enhancing biogas production using the highly cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Mutschlechner, Mira; Illmer, Paul; Wagner, Andreas Otto

    2015-09-01

    With regard to renewable sources of energy, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass has long been recognized as a desirable endeavor. However, the highly heterogeneous structure of lignocellulose restricts the exploitation of its promising potential in biogas plants. Hence, effective pre-treatment methods are decisive prerequisites to overcome these challenges in order to improve the utilization ratio of (ligno) cellulosic substrates during fermentation. In the present study, the application of Trichoderma viride in an aerobic upstream process prior to anaerobic digestion led up to a threefold increase in the yield of methane and total gas in a lab-scale investigation. Due to its highly efficient cellulolytic activities, T. viride seemed to be responsible for an improved nutrient availability that positively influenced the anaerobic microbiocenosis. Aerobic pre-treatment of organic matter with T. viride is therefore a promising solution to achieve higher methane yields and degradation performances without any additional energy demand, nor undesired by-product inhibition. PMID:26013693

  12. Enhancement of pigment extraction from B. braunii pretreated using CO2 rapid depressurization.

    PubMed

    Uquiche, Edgar; Antilaf, Ivette; Millao, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Extraction of compounds from microalgae requires cell disruption as a pretreatment to increase extraction yield. Botryococcus braunii is a microalga with a significant content of carotenoids and other antioxidant compounds, such as chlorophylls. Cell disruption of B. braunii using CO2 rapid depressurization was studied as a pretreatment for the extraction of carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments. We studied the effect of temperature (21-49°C) and pressure (6-13MPa) during static compression on pigment recovery with supercritical CO2 at 40°C, 30MPa and solvent flow of 4.7LNPT/min. Within the experimental region, the extraction yield of carotenoids and chlorophylls increased by 2.4- and 2.2-fold respectively. Static compression conditions of high pressure and low temperature increased the extraction of carotenoids and especially chlorophylls. We selected 21°C and 13MPa as the cell disruption condition, which produced 1.91g/kg d.s. of carotenoids and 14.03mg/kg d.s. of chlorophylls. Pretreated microalga gave a 10-fold higher chlorophyll extraction yield compared to the untreated sample. While for carotenoids and tocopherols were 1.25 and 1.14-fold higher, respectively. Additionally, antioxidant activity of pretreated microalga (33.22mmol TE/kg oil) was significantly higher than the value for the untreated samples (29.11mmol TE/kg oil) (p≤0.05). Confocal microscopy images showed morphological differences between micro-colonies with and without disruption treatment, suggesting that partial cell disruption by rapid depressurization improved the extraction of microalga compounds. PMID:26991281

  13. Enhanced bioethanol production from yellow poplar by deacetylation and oxalic acid pretreatment without detoxification.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Chandan; Lee, Hong-Joo; Lee, Jae-Won

    2015-02-01

    In order to produce ethanol from yellow poplar, deacetylation was performed using sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Optimal deacetylation conditions were determined by a response surface methodology. The highest acetic acid concentration obtained was 7.06 g/L when deacetylation was performed at 60 °C for 80 min with 0.8% NaOH. Acetic acid was recovered by electrodialysis from the deacetylated hydrolysate. The oxalic acid pretreatment of deacetylated biomass was carried out and the hydrolysate directly used for ethanol production without detoxification. Ethanol yields ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 g/g and the highest ethanol yield was obtained when pretreatment was carried out at 150 °C with 50 mM oxalic acid. The highest ethanol concentration obtained from pretreated biomass was 27.21 g/L at 170 °C, using a 50 mM of oxalic acid for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Overall, 20.31 g of ethanol was obtained by hydrolysate and SSF from 100 g of deacetylated yellow poplar. PMID:25205056

  14. Review of Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy for Spastic and Rigidity Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obringer, S. John; Coffey, Kenneth M.

    2002-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen therapy, a treatment for cerebral palsy and other spastic and rigidity disorders, is showing promise as an effective intervention. This article synthesizes both the medical and rehabilitation conceptual literature to update educators and related service providers as to the efficacy of this intervention. Implications for…

  15. Pretreatment Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI Improves Prediction of Early Distant Metastases in Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Shy-Chyi; Lin, Chien-Yu; Huang, Bing-Shen; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Ku, Yi-Kang; Hsu, Cheng-Lung; Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Li, Cheng-He; Tseng, Hsiao-Jung; Liao, Chun-Ta; Liu, Ho-Ling; Sung, Kyunghyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identification of early distant metastases (DM) in patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) plays an important role in selecting the most appropriate treatment approach. Here, we sought to investigate the predictive value of distinct MRI parameters for the detection of early DM. Between November 2010 and June 2011, a total of 51 newly diagnosed NPC patients were included. All of the study participants were followed until December 2014 at a single institution after completion of therapy. DM was defined as early when they were detected on pretreatment FDG-PET scans or within 6 months after initial diagnosis. The following parameters were tested for their ability to predict early DM: pretreatment FDG-PET standardized uptake value (SUV), MRI-derived AJCC tumor staging, tumor volume, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) values. The DCE-derived ve was defined as the volume fraction of the extravascular, extracellular space. Compared with patients without early DM, patients with early DM had higher SUV, tumor volume, DCE mean (median) ve, ve skewness, ve kurtosis, and the largest mean ve selected among sequential slices (P < 0.05). No differences were identified when early DM were defined only according to the results of pretreatment FDG-PET. Among different quantitative DCE parameters, the mean ve had the highest area under curve (AUC, 0.765). However, the AUCs of SUV, tumor volume, mean ve, ve skewness, ve kurtosis, or the largest mean ve selected among the sequential slices did not differ significantly from one another (P = 0.82). Taken together, our results suggest that DCE-derived ve may be a useful parameter in combination with SUV and tumor volume for predicting early DM. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI may be complementary to FDG-PET for selecting the most appropriate treatment approach in NPC patients. PMID:26871776

  16. The Use of Very High-Doses of Baclofen for the Treatment of Alcohol-Dependence: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Baclofen, particularly high-dose baclofen, has recently emerged as a treatment of major interest for alcohol-dependence. However, baclofen has many potentially dangerous side effects, and the maximal dose of baclofen that may be used is a matter of discussion. Here, the author analyses the medical charts of the last 100 patients seen in his clinic, 17 of whom have been taking a very high dose of baclofen, which is to say, more than 300 mg/day. The analysis of the charts shows that the very high-doses baclofen were justified in almost all the cases. Side effects are analyzed. PMID:25346700

  17. Pulsed electric field pretreatment of rapeseed green biomass (stems) to enhance pressing and extractives recovery.

    PubMed

    Yu, X; Gouyo, T; Grimi, N; Bals, O; Vorobiev, E

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) pretreatment on the valorization of extractives (proteins and polyphenols) from rapeseed green biomass (stems) by pressing. The effect of pressure, electric field strength and pulse number on the juice expression yield, total polyphenols and total proteins content in the expressed juices were studied. Experiments conducted under optimal conditions (E = 8 kV/cm, tPEF = 2 ms, P = 10 bar) permitted to increase the juice expressed yield from 34% to 81%. Significant increases in total polyphenols content (0.48 vs. 0.10 g GAE/100g DM), in total proteins content (0.14 vs. 0.07 g BSA/100g DM) and in consolidation coefficient (9.0 × 10(-8) vs. 2.2 × 10(-8)m(2)/s) were also observed after PEF pretreatment. The recovered press cake was well dehydrated with an increase of dry matter content from 8.8% to 53.0%. PMID:26341008

  18. Tissue specific response of Miscanthus×giganteus to dilute acid pretreatment for enhancing cellulose digestibility.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhe; Zhang, Xun; Ling, Zhe; Sun, Run-Cang; Xu, Feng

    2016-12-10

    The recalcitrance in grasses varies according to cell type and tissue. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment was performed on Miscanthus×giganteus internodes that include rind and pith regions which showing heterogeneous structural and chemical changes. Pretreatment on pith effectively hydrolyzed 73.33% hemicelluloses and separated cohesive cell walls from the compound middle lamella due to lignin migration. Lignin droplets with an average diameter of 49.5±29.3nm were concurrently coalesced on wall surface, that in turn exposed more microfibrils deep in walls to be enzymatically hydrolyzed reaching 82.55%. By contrast, the rind with a relatively intergrated cell structure was covered by larger lignin droplets (101.2±44.1nm) and filled with inaccessible microfibrils limiting enzymatic sacchrification (31.50%). Taken together, the cellulose digestibility of biomass was not majorly influenced by cellulose crystallinity, while it was strongly correlated with the positive effects of hemicelluloses degradation, lignin redistribution, cellulose exposure and loosening cell wall structure. PMID:27577916

  19. Evaluation of thermochemical pretreatment and continuous thermophilic condition in rice straw composting process enhancement.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad; Abdul Aziz, Hamidi

    2013-04-01

    The effects of thermochemical pretreatment and continuous thermophilic conditions on the composting of a mixture of rice straw residue and cattle manure were investigated using a laboratory-scale composting reactor. Results indicate that the composting period of rice straw can be shortened to less than 10 days by applying alkali pre-treatment and continuous thermophilic composting conditions. The parameters obtained on day 9 of this study are similar to the criteria level published by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. The moisture content, organic matter reduction, pH level, electrical conductivity, total organic carbon reduction, soluble chemical oxygen demand reduction, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and germination index were 62.07%, 16.99%, 7.30%, 1058 μS/cm, 17.00%, 83.43%, 2.06%, 16.75%, and 90.33%, respectively. The results of this study suggest that the application of chemical-biological integrated processes under thermophilic conditions is a novel method for the rapid degradation and maturation of rice straw residue. PMID:23428821

  20. Enhanced radiation-induced cell killing by Herbimycin A pre-treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Miho; Hirayama, Ryoichi; Druzhinin, Sergey; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2009-12-01

    Herbimycin A (HA), as in Geldanamycin, binds to conserved pockets of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) and inhibits its chaperone functions. Hsp90 plays an integral role in cancer cell growth and survival, because it maintains the stability of several key proteins by its chaperone's activity. It is known that some of the proteins associated with radiation responses are functionally stabilized by Hsp90. In this study, we investigated the effect of HA on radiosensitivity in human cancer cells and the mechanism related to the sensitization. In order to gain a mechanistic insight of this sensitization, we examined repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in irradiated human cancer cells pre-treated with HA, as unrepaired DSBs are thought to be the main cause of radiation-induced cell death. Cellular radiosensitivity was determined by clonogenic assay, and the DSB rejoining kinetics was examined by constant field gel electrophoresis. SQ-5, a lung squamous carcinoma cell line, showed synergistic increase in radiosensitivity when cells were pre-treated with HA. In addition, HA significantly inhibited repair of radiation-induced DSBs. These results suggest that the combination of HA and ionizing radiation may be a useful therapeutic strategy for treating certain cancer cells.

  1. Synergistic effect and application of xylanases as accessory enzymes to enhance the hydrolysis of pretreated bagasse.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Geisa A L; Takasugi, Yusaku; Jia, Lili; Mori, Yutaro; Noda, Shuhei; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Kamiya, Noriho

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the new trend in the second-generation ethanol industry is to use mild pretreatments, in order to reduce costs and to keep higher content of hemicellulose in the biomass. Nevertheless, a high enzyme dosage is still required in the conversion of (hemi)cellulose. The interaction between cellulases and xylanases seems to be an effective alternative to reduce enzyme loading in the saccharification process. At first, to evaluate the synergism of xylanases on bagasse degradation, we have produced two xylanases from glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10) and three xylanases from glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11), from two thermophilic organisms, Thermobifida fusca and Clostridium thermocellum, and one mesophilic organism, Streptomyces lividans. Peracetic acid (PAA) pretreated bagasse was used as substrate. The combination of XynZ-C (GH10, from C. thermocellum), and XlnB (GH11, from S. lividans) presented the highest degree of synergy after 6h (3.62). However, the combination of XynZ-C and Xyn11A (GH11, from T. fusca) resulted in the highest total yield of reducing sugars. To evaluate the synergism between xylanases and cellulases, commercial cellulase preparation from Trichoderma reesei was combined with the selected xylanases, XynZ-C and Xyn11A. About 2-fold increase was observed in the concentration of reducing sugars, when both xylanases, XynZ-C and Xyn11A, were added together with T. reesei cellulases in the reaction mixture. PMID:25837503

  2. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pretreatment: effect of volatile to total solids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Duan, Xu; Chen, Jianguang; Fang, Kuo; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-06-01

    In this study the effect of volatile to total solids (VS/TS) on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) pretreated by alkaline, thermal and thermal-alkaline strategies was studied. Experimental results showed that the production of methane from sludge was increased with VS/TS. When anaerobic digesters were fed with sludge pretreated by the thermal-alkaline method, the average methane yield was improved from 2.8 L/d at VS/TS 0.35 to 4.7 L/d at VS/TS 0.56. Also, the efficiency of VS reduction during sludge anaerobic digestion varied between 18.9% and 45.6%, and increased gradually with VS/TS. Mechanism investigation of VS/TS on WAS anaerobic digestion suggested that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, activities of key enzymes related to sludge hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis, and the ratio of Archaea to Bacteria were all increased with VS/TS, showing good agreement with methane production. PMID:26698921

  3. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Jun Wei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Microaeration pretreatment was effective for brown water and food waste mixture. ► The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms. ► Enhanced solubilization, acidification and breakdown of SCFAs to acetate. ► Microaeration pretreatment improved methane yield by 10–21%. ► Nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration. - Abstract: Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O{sub 2}/L{sub R}-d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was

  4. Combined free nitrous acid and hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances methane production via organic molecule breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Batstone, Damien; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy using combined free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance methane production from WAS, with the mechanisms investigated bio-molecularly. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated with FNA alone (1.54 mg N/L), H2O2 alone (10–80 mg/g TS), and their combinations followed by biochemical methane potential tests. Combined FNA and H2O2 pre-treatment substantially enhanced methane potential of WAS by 59–83%, compared to 13–23% and 56% with H2O2 pre-treatment alone and FNA pre-treatment alone respectively. Model-based analysis indicated the increased methane potential was mainly associated with up to 163% increase in rapidly biodegradable fraction with combined pre-treatment. The molecular weight distribution and chemical structure analyses revealed the breakdown of soluble macromolecules with the combined pre-treatment caused by the deamination and oxidation of the typical functional groups in proteins, polysaccharides and phosphodiesters. These changes likely improved the biodegradability of WAS. PMID:26565653

  5. Combined free nitrous acid and hydrogen peroxide pre-treatment of waste activated sludge enhances methane production via organic molecule breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Qilin; Ye, Liu; Batstone, Damien; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-11-01

    This study presents a novel pre-treatment strategy using combined free nitrous acid (FNA i.e. HNO2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance methane production from WAS, with the mechanisms investigated bio-molecularly. WAS from a full-scale plant was treated with FNA alone (1.54 mg N/L), H2O2 alone (10-80 mg/g TS), and their combinations followed by biochemical methane potential tests. Combined FNA and H2O2 pre-treatment substantially enhanced methane potential of WAS by 59-83%, compared to 13-23% and 56% with H2O2 pre-treatment alone and FNA pre-treatment alone respectively. Model-based analysis indicated the increased methane potential was mainly associated with up to 163% increase in rapidly biodegradable fraction with combined pre-treatment. The molecular weight distribution and chemical structure analyses revealed the breakdown of soluble macromolecules with the combined pre-treatment caused by the deamination and oxidation of the typical functional groups in proteins, polysaccharides and phosphodiesters. These changes likely improved the biodegradability of WAS.

  6. SO2-catalyzed steam pretreatment enhances the strength and stability of softwood pellets.

    PubMed

    Tooyserkani, Zahra; Kumar, Linoj; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Saddler, Jack; Bi, Xiaotao T; Lim, C Jim; Lau, Anthony; Melin, Staffan

    2013-02-01

    Densification can partially resolve the logistical challenges encountered when large volumes of biomass are required for bioconversion processes to benefit from economies-of-scale. Despite the higher bulk density of pellets, their lower mechanical strength and sensitivity to moisture are still recurring issues hindering long term transportation and storage. In this study, we have evaluated the potential benefits of SO(2)-catalyzed steam treatment to achieve both the needed size reduction prior to pelletization while improving the stability of the produced pellets. This pretreatment substantially reduced the particle size of the woodchips eliminating any further grinding. The treated pellets had a higher density and exhibited a two-time higher mechanical strength compared to untreated pellets. Despite a higher moisture adsorption capacity, treated pellets remained intact even under highly humid conditions. The high heating values, low ash content and good overall carbohydrate recovery of treated pellets indicated their potential suitability for both biochemical and thermochemical applications. PMID:23347905

  7. Enhanced enzymatic saccharification of pretreated biomass using glycerol thermal processing (GTP).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Barone, Justin R; Renneckar, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Biomass was heated (200-240°C) in the presence of glycerol, for 4-12 min, under shear to disrupt the native cell wall architecture. The impact of this method, named glycerol thermal processing (GTP), on saccharification efficiency of the hardwood Liquidambar styraciflua, and a control cellulose sample was studied as a function of treatment severity. Furthermore, the enzymatic conversion of samples with varying compositions was studied after extraction of the structural polymers. Interestingly, the sweet gum processed materials crystallinity index increased by 10% of the initial value. The experiments revealed that the residual lignin was not a barrier to limiting the digestibility of cellulose after pretreatment yielding up to 70% glucose based on the starting wood material. Further xylan removal greatly improved the cellulose hydrolysis rate, converting nearly 70% of the cellulose into glucose within 24h, and reaching 78% of ultimate glucan digestibility after 72 h. PMID:26384086

  8. Pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine enhanced uptake and retention of BSH in brain tumor.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, F; Yamamoto, T; Nakai, K; Zaboronok, A; Matsuda, M; Akutsu, H; Ishikawa, E; Shirakawa, M; Matsumura, A

    2014-06-01

    To determine the influence of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) on boron biodistribution after sulfhydryl borane (BSH) administration for boron neutron capture therapy, the effectiveness of the combination of BSO with sulfhydril- (BSH) and non-sulfhydril (B12H12 and BNH3) boron compounds, and the interval between BSO and BSH administration, the retention of boron in tissues have been evaluated using a 9L rat tumor model. Simultaneous administration of BSH and BSO showed significantly higher boron accumulation compared to that without BSO, however there was no difference in tissue boron level between B12H12 and BNH3 administration with BSO or without BSO. The longer interval (6h) between BSH and BSO administration related to the highest boron concentration in the brain and subcutaneous tumors compared to shorter intervals (0.5, 3h). Boron concentration in subcutaneous and brain tumors was maintained for 6 and 12h after the administration of BSH following BSO pretreatment. PMID:24731546

  9. Comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation pretreatment for enhanced virus removal using microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bintuan; Clifford, Dennis A; Chellam, Shankararaman

    2005-08-01

    This research studied virus removal by iron electrocoagulation (EC) followed by microfiltration (MF) in water treatment using the MS2 bacteriophage as a tracer virus. In the absence of EC, MF alone achieved less than a 0.5-log removal of MS2 virus, but, as the iron-coagulant dosage increased, the log virus removal increased dramatically. More than 4-log virus removal, as required by the Surface Water Treatment Rule, was achieved with 6-9 mg/L Fe(3+). The experimental data indicated that at lower iron dosages and pH (< approximately 8 mgFe/L and pH 6.3 and 7.3) negatively charged MS2 viruses first adsorbed onto the positively charged iron hydroxide floc particles before being removed by MF. At higher iron dosages and pH (> approximately 9 mgFe/L and pH 8.3), virus removal was attributed predominantly to enmeshment and subsequent removal by MF. Additionally, the experimental data showed no obvious influence of ionic strength in the natural water range of 10(-7)-10(-2)M on MS2 virus removal by EC-MF. Finally, EC pretreatment significantly outperformed chemical coagulation pretreatment for virus removal. The proposed mechanism for this improved performance by EC is that locally higher iron and virus concentrations and locally lower pH near the anode improved MS2 enmeshment by iron flocs as well as adsorption of MS2 viruses onto the iron floc particles. PMID:16024063

  10. Suitability of magnetic nanoparticle immobilised cellulases in enhancing enzymatic saccharification of pretreated hemp biomass

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research focused on pretreatment of biomass, production of fermentable sugars and their consumption to produce ethanol. The main goal of the work was to economise the production process cost of fermentable sugars. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to investigate enzyme hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose and hemp hurds (natural cellulosic substrate) using free and immobilised enzymes. Cellulase from Trichoderma reesei was immobilised on an activated magnetic support by covalent binding and its activity was compared with that of the free enzyme to hydrolyse microcrystalline cellulose and hemp hurds on the basis of thermostability and reusability. Results Up to 94% protein binding was achieved during immobilisation of cellulase on nanoparticles. Successful binding was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The free and immobilised enzymes exhibited identical pH optima (pH 4.0) and differing temperature optima at 50°C and 60°C, respectively. The K M values obtained for the free and immobilised enzymes were 0.87 mg/mL and 2.6 mg/mL respectively. The immobilised enzyme retained 50% enzyme activity up to five cycles, with thermostability at 80°C superior to that of the free enzyme. Optimum hydrolysis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) with free and immobilised enzymes was 88% and 81%, respectively. With pretreated hemp hurd biomass (HHB), the free and immobilised enzymes resulted in maximum hydrolysis in 48 h of 89% and 93%, respectively. Conclusion The current work demonstrated the advantages delivered by immobilised enzymes by minimising the consumption of cellulase during substrate hydrolysis and making the production process of fermentable sugars economical and feasible. The activity of cellulase improved as a result of the immobilisation, which provided a better stability at higher temperatures. The immobilised enzyme provided an advantage over the free enzyme through the reusability and longer

  11. Baclofen for stroke patients with persistent hiccups: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The results of preclinical studies suggest that baclofen may be useful in the treatment of stroke patients with persistent hiccups. This study was aimed to assess the possible efficacy of baclofen for the treatment of persistent hiccups after stroke. Methods In total, 30 stroke patients with persistent hiccups were randomly assigned to receive baclofen (n = 15) or a placebo (n = 15) in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. Participants in the baclofen group received 10 mg baclofen 3 times daily for 5 days. Participants assigned to the placebo group received 10 mg placebo 3 times daily for 5 days. The primary outcome measure was cessation of hiccups. Secondary outcome measures included efficacy in the two groups and adverse events. Results All 30 patients completed the study. The number of patients in whom the hiccups completely stopped was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (relative risk, 7.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.91–25.62; P = 0.003). Furthermore, efficacy was higher in the baclofen group than in the placebo group (P < 0.01). No serious adverse events were documented in either group. One case each of mild transient drowsiness and dizziness was present in the baclofen group. Conclusions Baclofen was more effective than a placebo for the treatment of persistent hiccups in stroke patients. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Register: ChiCTR-TRC-13004554 PMID:25052238

  12. Severe Central Sleep Apnea Associated With Chronic Baclofen Therapy: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Pierre-Yves; Joyeux-Faure, Marie; Gentina, Thibaut; Launois, Sandrine H; d'Ortho, Marie Pia; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Gagnadoux, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid-B agonist with muscle-relaxant properties, is widely used in patients with severe spasticity. In animals, baclofen has been shown to decrease respiratory drive. In humans, however, use of baclofen at the standard dose did not significantly impair sleep-disordered breathing in a susceptible population of snorers. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the role of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence. We describe severe central sleep apnea (CSA) in four patients with none of the conditions commonly associated with CSA who were receiving chronic baclofen therapy for alcohol withdrawal. In one patient, baclofen withdrawal was associated with a complete resolution of CSA. Three patients were treated by adaptive servo-ventilation while continuing their treatment with baclofen. Given the increasing number of patients receiving baclofen for alcohol withdrawal treatment, physicians should be aware that these patients might be affected by severe CSA. Future studies are required to determine the mechanisms, prevalence, and treatment modalities of sleep-disordered breathing associated with baclofen usage. PMID:27157226

  13. Exendin-4 Pretreated Adipose Derived Stem Cells Are Resistant to Oxidative Stress and Improve Cardiac Performance via Enhanced Adhesion in the Infarcted Heart

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yujing; Wang, Liman; Liu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Junjie; Chen, Yundai; Wang, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were largely generated after myocardial ischemia, severely impaired the adhesion and survival of transplanted stem cells. In this study, we aimed to determine whether Exendin-4 pretreatment could improve the adhesion and therapeutic efficacy of transplanted adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) in ischemic myocardium. In vitro, H2O2 was used to provide ROS environments, in which ADSCs pretreated with Exendin-4 were incubated. ADSCs without pretreatment were used as control. Then, cell adhesion and viability were analyzed with time. Compared with control ADSCs, Exendin-4 treatment significantly increased the adhesion of ADSCs in ROS environment, while reduced intracellular ROS and cell injury as determined by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining live/Dead staining, lactate dehydrogenase-release assay and MTT assay. Western Blotting demonstrated that ROS significantly decreased the expression of adhesion-related integrins and integrin-related focal adhesion proteins, which were significantly reversed by Exendin-4 pretreatment and followed by decreases in caspase-3, indicating that Exendin-4 may facilitate cell survival through enhanced adhesion. In vivo, myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by the left anterior descending artery ligation in SD rats. Autologous ADSCs with or without Exendin-4 pretreatment were injected into the border area of infarcted hearts, respectively. Multi-techniques were used to assess the beneficial effects after transplantation. Longitudinal bioluminescence imaging and histological staining revealed that Exendin-4 pretreatment enhanced the survival and differentiation of engrafted ADSCs in ischemic myocardium, accompanied with significant benefits in cardiac function, matrix remodeling, and angiogenesis compared with non-pretreated ADSCs 4 weeks post-transplantation. In conclusion, transplantation of Exendin-4 pretreated ADSCs significantly improved cardiac performance and can be an innovative approach in the

  14. Exendin-4 pretreated adipose derived stem cells are resistant to oxidative stress and improve cardiac performance via enhanced adhesion in the infarcted heart.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianfeng; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Yan; Yin, Yujing; Wang, Liman; Liu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Junjie; Chen, Yundai; Wang, Changyong

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were largely generated after myocardial ischemia, severely impaired the adhesion and survival of transplanted stem cells. In this study, we aimed to determine whether Exendin-4 pretreatment could improve the adhesion and therapeutic efficacy of transplanted adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) in ischemic myocardium. In vitro, H2O2 was used to provide ROS environments, in which ADSCs pretreated with Exendin-4 were incubated. ADSCs without pretreatment were used as control. Then, cell adhesion and viability were analyzed with time. Compared with control ADSCs, Exendin-4 treatment significantly increased the adhesion of ADSCs in ROS environment, while reduced intracellular ROS and cell injury as determined by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining live/Dead staining, lactate dehydrogenase-release assay and MTT assay. Western Blotting demonstrated that ROS significantly decreased the expression of adhesion-related integrins and integrin-related focal adhesion proteins, which were significantly reversed by Exendin-4 pretreatment and followed by decreases in caspase-3, indicating that Exendin-4 may facilitate cell survival through enhanced adhesion. In vivo, myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by the left anterior descending artery ligation in SD rats. Autologous ADSCs with or without Exendin-4 pretreatment were injected into the border area of infarcted hearts, respectively. Multi-techniques were used to assess the beneficial effects after transplantation. Longitudinal bioluminescence imaging and histological staining revealed that Exendin-4 pretreatment enhanced the survival and differentiation of engrafted ADSCs in ischemic myocardium, accompanied with significant benefits in cardiac function, matrix remodeling, and angiogenesis compared with non-pretreated ADSCs 4 weeks post-transplantation. In conclusion, transplantation of Exendin-4 pretreated ADSCs significantly improved cardiac performance and can be an innovative approach in the

  15. [Treatment of severe tetanus by repeated intrathecal injections of baclofen].

    PubMed

    Vitris, M; Saissy, J M; Demaziere, J; Seck, M; Ndiaye, M; Gaye, N; Marcoux, L

    1991-01-01

    A case of tétanos was treated through intrathecal injections of baclofen. This new technique was pioneered in Anglo-saxon countries and has made it possible in the present case to success fully treat a Mollaret's third-stage generalized tetanus, without a tracheotomy or controlled ventilation. Because of its simplicity low cost, this technique could be another way of treating African tetanus. PMID:1842757

  16. Simultaneous pretreatment and saccharification: green technology for enhanced sugar yields from biomass using a fungal consortium.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Saurabh Sudha; Haw, Jung-Rim; Kalyani, Dayanand; Kalia, Vipin C; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-03-01

    Two different biomasses were subjected to simultaneous pretreatment and saccharification (SPS) using a cocktail of hydrolytic and oxidizing enzymes. Application of a novel laccase as a detoxifying agent caused the removal of 49.8% and 32.6% of phenolic contents from the soaked rice straw and willow, respectively. Hydrolysis of soaked substrates using a newly developed fungal consortium resulted in saccharification yield of up to 74.2% and 63.6% for rice straw and willow, respectively. A high saccharification yield was obtained with soaked rice straw and willow without using any hazardous chemicals. The efficiency of each step related to SPS was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. The suitability of the developed SPS process was further confirmed by converting the hydrolysate from the process into bioethanol with 72.4% sugar conversion efficiency. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the development of a less tedious, single-pot, and eco-friendly SPS methodology. PMID:25514402

  17. Enhancing ethanol production from thermophilic and mesophilic solid digestate using ozone combined with aqueous ammonia pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianlong; Xi, Jiang; Ai, Ping; Yu, Liang; Zhai, Hong; Yan, Shuiping; Zhang, Yanlin

    2016-05-01

    Pretreatment with ozone combined with aqueous ammonia was used to recover residual organic carbon from recalcitrant solid digestate for ethanol production after anaerobic digestion (AD) of rice straw. Methane yield of AD at mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, and ethanol production of solid digestate were investigated. The results showed that the methane yield at thermophilic temperature was 72.2% higher than that at mesophilic temperature under the same conditions of 24days and 17% solid concentration. And also the ethanol production efficiency of solid digestate after thermophilic process was 24.3% higher than that of solid digestate after mesophilic process. In this study, the optimal conditions for integrated methane and ethanol processes were determined as 55°C, 17% solid concentration and 24days. 58.6% of glucose conversion, 142.8g/kg of methane yield and 65.2g/kg of ethanol yield were achieved, and the highest net energy balance was calculated as 6416kJ/kg. PMID:26868156

  18. Pretreatment of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) Suspension Cultures with Methyl Jasmonate Enhances Elicitation of Activated Oxygen Species.

    PubMed Central

    Kauss, H.; Jeblick, W.; Ziegler, J.; Krabler, W.

    1994-01-01

    Suspension-cultured cells of parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) were used to demonstrate an influence of jasmonic acid methyl ester (JAME) on the elicitation of activated oxygen species. Preincubation of the cell cultures for 1 d with JAME greatly enhanced the subsequent induction by an elicitor preparation from cell walls of Phytophtora megasperma f. sp. glycinea (Pmg elicitor) and by the polycation chitosan. Shorter preincubation times with JAME were less efficient, and the effect was saturated at about 5 [mu]M JAME. Treatment of the crude Pmg elicitor with trypsin abolished induction of activated oxygen species, an effect similar to that seen with elicitation of coumarin secretion. These results suggest that JAME conditioned the parsley suspension cells in a time-dependent manner to become more responsive to elicitation, reminiscent of developmental effects caused by JAME in whole plants. It is interesting that pretreatment of the parsley cultures with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic and 5-chlorosalicylic acid only slightly enhanced the elicitation of activated oxygen species, whereas these substances greatly enhanced the elicitation of coumarin secretion. Therefore, these presumed inducers of systemic acquired resistance exhibit a specificity different from JAME. PMID:12232189

  19. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1995-01-01

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  20. Pretreatment of microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1995-01-10

    Methods are described for pretreating microbial sludges to break cells and disrupt organic matter. One method involves the use of sonication, and another method involves the use of shear forces. The pretreatment of sludge enhances bioconversion of the organic fraction. This allows for efficient dewatering of the sludge and reduces the cost for final disposal of the waste.

  1. A novel stepwise pretreatment on corn stalk by alkali deacetylation and liquid hot water for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis and energy utilization efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Xu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    A novel stepwise pretreatment on corn stalk (CS) by alkali deacetylation combined with liquid hot water (LHW) was investigated to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis. After deacetylated treatment, strength of alkali deacetylation of CS was from 1.79% to 91.34% which was subsequently pretreated by LHW with severity from 3.27 to 4.27. It was found that higher strength of alkali deacetylation could reduce both the degradation of hemicellulose and inhibitors formation in liquid hot water pretreatment (LHWP). Enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was confirmed to be affected by LHW pretreatment severity (PS) and strength of alkali treatment. This combined pretreatment of alkali deacetylation and LHW could not only increase glucose yield, but also enhance energy utilization efficiency. The maximum enzymatic hydrolysis of 87.55%±3.64 with the ratio of glucose yield to energy input at 50.39gglucosekJ(-1) was obtained when strength of alkali deacetylation at 84.96% with PS at 3.97 were used. PMID:26967334

  2. Pretreatment Evaluation with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography for Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Poor Conspicuity on Conventional Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Yeong; Rhim, Hyunchul; Cha, Dong Ik; Choi, Dongil; Kim, Young-sun; Lim, Hyo Keun; Cho, Seong Whi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether pretreatment evaluation with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is effective for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with poor conspicuity on conventional ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was waived. From June 2008 to July 2011, 82 patients having HCCs (1.2 ± 0.4 cm) with poor conspicuity on planning US for RFA were evaluated with CEUS prior to percutaneous RFA. We analyzed our database, radiologic reports, and US images in order to determine whether the location of HCC candidates on planning US coincide with that on CEUS. To avoid incomplete ablation, percutaneous RFA was performed only when HCC nodules were identified on CEUS. The rate of technical success was assessed. The cumulative rate of local tumor progression was estimated with the use of the Kaplan-Meier method (mean follow-up: 24.0 ± 13.0 months). Results Among 82 patients, 73 (89%) HCCs were identified on CEUS, whereas 9 (11%) were not. Of 73 identifiable HCCs on CEUS, the location of HCC on planning US corresponded with that on CEUS in 64 (87.7%), whereas the location did not correspond in 9 (12.3%) HCCs. Technical success was achieved for all 73 identifiable HCCs on CEUS in a single (n = 72) or two (n = 1) RFA sessions. Cumulative rates of local tumor progression were estimated as 1.9% and 15.4% at 1 and 3 years, respectively. Conclusion Pretreatment evaluation with CEUS is effective for percutaneous RFA of HCCs with poor conspicuity on conventional US. PMID:24043968

  3. Baclofen-induced neurotoxicity in a patient with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Hemachandar

    2016-05-01

    Baclofen, predominantly excreted by the kidneys is accumulated in patients with renal insufficiency leading to the central nervous system toxicity. Here the author reports a patient with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) who developed drowsiness and became unresponsive within a day after taking single 10 mg dose of baclofen. Patient improved completely after two sessions of HD. PMID:27215257

  4. Baclofen overdose from possible intrinsic malfunction of SynchroMed II pump.

    PubMed

    Davanzo, Justin R; Rizk, Elias

    2015-08-01

    This is a case report illustrating an overdose of baclofen in a 10-year-old boy due to a likely malfunction of a SynchroMed II pump. This ultimately necessitated a pump replacement. One-year follow-up showed no further incidents of baclofen overdose, with multiple pump refills. PMID:25978532

  5. Lasting reduction of severe spasticity after ending chronic treatment with intrathecal baclofen.

    PubMed Central

    Dressnandt, J; Conrad, B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether the dose of intrathecal baclofen necessary for a sufficient reduction of muscle tone and spasms changes during treatment of severe spasticity. METHODS--A group of 27 patients received intrathecal baclofen for 61 (SD 18) months. RESULTS--Spasticity remained absent or strongly reduced after stopping the intrathecal baclofen infusion in seven patients. The dose of baclofen could be reduced to 40% of that dose which was originally necessary in 10 patients. The dose remained the same or increased slightly in 10 patients. Possible reasons for the continuing reduction of spasticity after terminating long term intrathecal baclofen infusion in some patients could be: lasting morphological changes in spinal cord neurons by second messenger controlled modulation of gene expression, a toxic effect of baclofen on spinal neurons, muscular atrophy, inflammation due to the catheter, or progression of multiple sclerosis. CONCLUSIONS--A higher initial daily dose of intrathecal baclofen might lead to a faster, lasting suppression of spasticity and the development of spastic symptoms might even be prevented by pre-emptive treatment with baclofen in patients with newly acquired lesions of the spinal cord. PMID:8708647

  6. Characterization of pre- and postsynaptic actions of (-)-baclofen in the guinea-pig hippocampus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, M.; Matsuo, T.; Ogata, N.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of (-)-baclofen on evoked potentials in the hippocampus were examined through intracellular recordings from guinea-pig brain slices. The evoked responses were recorded in two fibre connections within the hippocampus: the Schaffer collateral/commissural-CA1 pyramidal cell, and the mossy fibre-CA3 pyramidal cell. The Schaffer collateral/commissural-CA1 response was suppressed by (-)-baclofen in concentrations over 2 X 10(-5)M, whereas (+)-baclofen, an inactive isomer, in a concentration of 10(-4)M had no effect on the response. A compound action potential of Schaffer collateral/commissural axons was unaffected by (-)-baclofen even at 10(-4)M, a concentration that almost completely depressed the evoked response in the CA1 pyramidal cell. The mossy fibre-CA3 response was not inhibited by (-)-baclofen (10(-4)M). The depressant action of (-)-baclofen on the Schaffer collateral/commissural-CA1 response was unaffected by bicuculline (10(-4)M), whereas the direct membrane effects of (-)-baclofen were antagonized by bicuculline (10(-5)M). It is suggested that (-)-baclofen may modulate neuronal transmission through presynaptic recognition sites possibly by decreasing transmitter release from nerve terminals and also may directly regulate the endogenous neuronal excitability through an activation of the postsynaptic recognition sites. PMID:2988681

  7. Synergetic pretreatment of sewage sludge by microwave irradiation in presence of H2O2 for enhanced anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Prorot, Audrey; Marin, Juan; Droste, Ronald L; Kennedy, Kevin J

    2008-11-01

    A microwave-enhanced advanced hydrogen peroxide oxidation process (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) was studied in order to investigate the synergetic effects of MW irradiation on H(2)O(2) treated waste activated sludges (WAS) in terms of mineralization (permanent stabilization), sludge disintegration/solubilization, and subsequent anaerobic biodegradation as well as dewaterability after digestion. Thickened WAS sample pretreated with 1gH(2)O(2)/g total solids (TS) lost 11-34% of its TS, total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total biopolymers (humic acids, proteins and sugars) via advanced oxidation. In a temperature range of 60-120 degrees C, elevated MW temperatures (>80 degrees C) further increased the decomposition of H(2)O(2) into OH* radicals and enhanced both oxidation of COD and solubilization of particulate COD (>0.45 micron) of WAS indicating that a synergetic effect was observed when both H(2)O(2) and MW treatments were combined. However, at all temperatures tested, MW/H(2)O(2) treated samples had lower first-order mesophilic (33+/-2 degrees C) biodegradation rate constants and ultimate (after 32 days of digestion) methane yields (mL per gram sample) compared to control and MW irradiated WAS samples, indicating that synergistically (MW/H(2)O(2)-AOP) generated soluble organics were slower to biodegrade or more refractory than those generated during MW irradiation. PMID:18783812

  8. Fate of antibiotic resistance bacteria and genes during enhanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by microwave pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tong, Juan; Liu, Jibao; Zheng, Xiang; Zhang, Junya; Ni, Xiaotang; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-10-01

    The fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated during the sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) with microwave-acid (MW-H), microwave (MW) and microwave-H2O2-alkaline (MW-H2O2) pretreatments. Results showed that combined MW pretreatment especially for the MW-H pretreatment could efficiently reduce the ARB concentration, and most ARG concentrations tended to attenuate during the pretreatment. The subsequent AD showed evident removal of the ARB, but most ARGs were enriched after AD. Only the concentration of tetX kept continuous declination during the whole sludge treatment. The total ARGs concentration showed significant correlation with 16S rRNA during the pretreatment and AD. Compared with unpretreated sludge, the AD of MW and MW-H2O2 pretreated sludge presented slightly better ARB and ARGs reduction efficiency. PMID:26970692

  9. The effects of baclofen and cholinergic drugs on upbeat and downbeat nystagmus.

    PubMed Central

    Dieterich, M; Straube, A; Brandt, T; Paulus, W; Büttner, U

    1991-01-01

    The GABAergic drug baclofen and the cholinergic drug physostigmine were administered to patients with upbeat and downbeat nystagmus. Baclofen (orally, 5 mg three times daily) reduced nystagmus slow phase velocity and distressing oscillopsia by 25-75% in four out of five patients (two upbeat nystagmus; two downbeat nystagmus). Physostigmine (1 mg single intravenous injection) increased nystagmus in five additional patients with downbeat (1) or positional downbeat nystagmus (4) for a duration of 15-20 minutes. The different interactions of baclofen and physostigmine on neurotransmission subserving vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex could account for these effects. The response to baclofen appears to be a GABA-B-ergic effect with augmentation of the physiological inhibitory influence of the vestibulo-cerebellum on the vestibular nuclei. Similarly baclofen has an inhibitory effect on the velocity storage mechanism. Cholinergic action may cause the increment of nystagmus by physostigmine. PMID:1654396

  10. The safety of baclofen in pregnancy: intrathecal therapy in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Catherine M; Keenan, Elizabeth; Jarrett, Louise; Buckley, Lisa; Stevenson, Valerie L

    2008-05-01

    Intrathecal baclofen is a GABA-receptor agonist and one of the mainstay treatments of severe spasticity due to multiple sclerosis (MS). The authors report a case on the use of intrathecal baclofen administered using a Medtronic Synchromed II infusion pump. A healthy male infant (2.68 kg, Apgars 9 and 10) was born at 36 weeks gestation by cesarean section, under general anesthetic. This is the fifth reported case of intrathecal baclofen administered during pregnancy and adds to the knowledge that thus far it is relatively safe in pregnancy and may in fact be safer for the infant than oral baclofen. This is the first case report of the use of intrathecal baclofen in pregnancy and MS. PMID:18562512

  11. Enhancing enzymolysis and fermentation efficiency of sugarcane bagasse by synergistic pretreatment of Fenton reaction and sodium hydroxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A study on the synergistic pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) using Fenton reaction and NaOH extraction was conducted. The optimized process conditions for Fenton pretreatment were 10% (w/w) of H2O2, 20mM of Fe(2+), pH 2.5, pretreatment time 6h, and pretreatment temperature 55°C. Sequential pretreatments were performed in combination with NaOH extraction (NaOH 1% (w/w), 80°C, 5% of solid loading, 1h). Among all the pretreatments, Fenton pretreatment followed by NaOH extraction had the highest efficiency of 64.7% and 108.3% for enzymolysis and simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) with an ethanol concentration of 17.44g/L. The analyses by the scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that Fenton pretreatment disrupts the structure of SCB to facilitate the degradation of lignin by NaOH. The overall data suggest that this combinatorial strategy is a promising process for SCB pretreatment. PMID:27213578

  12. Population Pharmacokinetics of Oral Baclofen in Pediatric Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    He, Yang; Brunstrom-Hernandez, Janice E.; Thio, Liu Lin; Lackey, Shellie; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Kuroda, Maxine M.; Stashinko, Elaine; Hoon, Alexander H.; Vargus-Adams, Jilda; Stevenson, Richard D.; Lowenhaupt, Stephanie; McLaughlin, John F.; Christensen, Ana; Dosa, Nienke P.; Butler, Maureen; Schwabe, Aloysia; Lopez, Christina; Roge, Desiree; Kennedy, Diane; Tilton, Ann; Krach, Linda E.; Lewandowski, Andrew; Dai, Hongying; Gaedigk, Andrea; Leeder, J. Steven; Jusko, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral baclofen and assess impact of patient-specific covariates in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in order to support its clinical use. Subjects design Children (2-17 years of age) with CP received a dose of titrated oral baclofen from 2.5 mg 3 times a day to a maximum tolerated dose of up to 20 mg 4 times a day. PK sampling followed titration of 10-12 weeks. Serial R- and S-baclofen plasma concentrations were measured for up to 16 hours in 49 subjects. Population PK modeling was performed using NONMEM 7.1 (ICON PLC; Ellicott City, Maryland). Results R- and S-baclofen showed identical concentration-time profiles. Both baclofen enantiomers exhibited linear and dose/kg-proportional PK, and no sex differences were observed. Average baclofen terminal half-life was 4.5 hours. A 2-compartment PK model with linear elimination and transit absorption steps adequately described concentration-time profiles of both baclofen enantiomers. The mean population estimate of apparent clearance/F was 0.273 L/h/kg with 33.4% inter-individual variability (IIV), and the apparent volume of distribution (Vss/F) was 1.16 L/kg with 43.9% IIV. Delayed absorption was expressed by a mean transit time of 0.389 hours with 83.7% IIV. Body weight, a possible genetic factor, and age were determinants of apparent clearance in these children. Conclusion The PK of oral baclofen exhibited dose-proportionality and were adequately described by a 2-compartment model. Our population PK findings suggest that baclofen dosage can be based on body weight (2 mg/kg per day) and the current baclofen dose escalation strategy is appropriate in the treatment of children with CP older than 2 years of age. PMID:24607242

  13. Enhanced hydrolysis and methane yield by applying microaeration pretreatment to the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jun Wei; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Microaeration has been used conventionally for the desulphurization of biogas, and recently it was shown to be an alternative pretreatment to enhance hydrolysis of the anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Previous studies on microaeration pretreatment were limited to the study of substrates with complex organic matter, while little has been reported on its effect on substrates with higher biodegradability such as brown water and food waste. Due to the lack of consistent microaeration intensities, previous studies were not comparable and thus inconclusive in proving the effectiveness of microaeration to the overall AD process. In this study, the role of microaeration pretreatment in the anaerobic co-digestion of brown water and food waste was evaluated in batch-tests. After a 4-day pretreatment with 37.5 mL-O2/L(R)-d added to the liquid phase of the reactor, the methane production of substrates were monitored in anaerobic conditions over the next 40 days. The added oxygen was consumed fully by facultative microorganisms and a reducing environment for organic matter degradation was maintained. Other than higher COD solubilization, microaeration pretreatment led to greater VFA accumulation and the conversion of other short chain fatty acids to acetate. This could be due to enhanced activities of hydrolytic and acidogenic bacteria and the degradation of slowly biodegradable compounds under microaerobic conditions. This study also found that the nature of inoculum influenced the effects of microaeration as a 21% and 10% increase in methane yield was observed when pretreatment was applied to inoculated substrates, and substrates without inoculum, respectively. PMID:23290270

  14. BACLOFEN, RACLOPRIDE, AND NALTREXONE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECT INTAKE OF FAT/SUCROSE MIXTURES UNDER LIMITED ACCESS CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wong, KJ; Wojnicki, FHW; Corwin, RLW

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone, the dopamine 2-like (D2) antagonist raclopride, and the GABAB agonist baclofen on consumption of fat/sucrose mixtures (FSM) using a limited access protocol. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to two schedules of access (Daily [D] or Intermittent [I]) to an optional FSM. Each FSM was created by whipping 3.2% (L), 10% (M), or 32% (H) powdered sugar into 100% vegetable shortening in a w/w manner (n=10 per group). One-hour intakes of the IL and IM groups were significantly greater than intakes of the respective DL and DM groups, thus fulfilling our operational definition of binge-type eating in these groups. Baclofen reduced intakes of the L and M mixtures regardless of access schedule, but failed to reduce intake of the H mixture. Naltrexone reduced intake in all groups, but potency was greater in IL rats than in DL rats. Furthermore, potency was attenuated in Intermittent rats, but enhanced in Daily rats, at higher sucrose concentrations. Raclopride reduced intake in the DL and stimulated intake in the IL groups, reduced intake in both M groups, and was without effect in both H groups. These results indicate that fat/sucrose mixtures containing relatively low concentrations of sucrose allow distinctions to be made between: 1) intakes stimulated by different access schedules and 2) opioid and dopaminergic modulation of those intakes. These results also suggest that brief bouts of food consumption involving fatty, sugar-rich foods may prove to be particularly resistant to pharmacological intervention. PMID:19217918

  15. Differential Effects of Sodium Oxybate and Baclofen on EEG, Sleep, Neurobehavioral Performance, and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Vienne, Julie; Lecciso, Gianpaolo; Constantinescu, Irina; Schwartz, Sophie; Franken, Paul; Heinzer, Raphaël; Tafti, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sodium oxybate (SO) is a GABAB agonist used to treat the sleep disorder narcolepsy. SO was shown to increase slow wave sleep (SWS) and EEG delta power (0.75-4.5 Hz), both indexes of NREM sleep (NREMS) intensity and depth, suggesting that SO enhances recuperative function of NREM. We investigated whether SO induces physiological deep sleep. Design: SO was administered before an afternoon nap or before the subsequent experimental night in 13 healthy volunteers. The effects of SO were compared to baclofen (BAC), another GABAB receptor agonist, to assess the role of GABAB receptors in the SO response. Measurements and Results: As expected, a nap significantly decreased sleep need and intensity the subsequent night. Both drugs reversed this nap effect on the subsequent night by decreasing sleep latency and increasing total sleep time, SWS during the first NREMS episode, and EEG delta and theta (0.75-7.25 Hz) power during NREMS. The SO-induced increase in EEG delta and theta power was, however, not specific to NREMS and was also observed during REM sleep (REMS) and wakefulness. Moreover, the high levels of delta power during a nap following SO administration did not affect delta power the following night. SO and BAC taken before the nap did not improve subsequent psychomotor performance and subjective alertness, or memory consolidation. Finally, SO and BAC strongly promoted the appearance of sleep onset REM periods. Conclusions: The SO-induced EEG slow waves seem not to be functionally similar to physiological slow waves. Our findings also suggest a role for GABAB receptors in REMS generation. Citation: Vienne J; Lecciso G; Constantinescu I; Schwartz S; Franken P; Heinzer R; Tafti M. Differential effects of sodium oxybate and baclofen on EEG, sleep, neurobehavioral performance, and memory. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1071–1084. PMID:22851803

  16. Enhanced Dissolution of Rh from RhZn3 Formed Through Zn Vapor Pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Hideaki; Maeda, Masafumi

    2012-06-01

    A Rh-Zn compound was synthesized by exposing Rh to a fixed pressure of Zn vapor. After keeping Rh and Zn in a sealed container for 10 days at 1173 K and 1093 K (900 °C and 820 °C), respectively, an unreported compound was obtained. Its chemical composition was determined to be RhZn3, and X-ray diffraction analysis revealed it to have a face-centered tetragonal structure ( a = b = 3.78 Å and c = 3.88 Å). The dissolution rate of Rh from the RhZn3 in hydrochloric acid was measured using a channel flow, double-electrode method, and it was found to be more than 100 times greater than that from pure Rh. The result verified the possibility of a Rh recovery process in which Rh is exposed to Zn vapor prior to acid leaching to enhance its dissolution.

  17. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  18. ULTRASOUND PRETREATMENT OF ELEMENTAL IRON: KINETIC STUDIES OF DEHALOGENATION REACTION ENHANCEMENT AND SURFACE EFFECTS. (R828598C743)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work presents data showing the kinetic improvement afforded by ultrasound pretreatment and illustrates the physical and chemical changes that take place at the iron surface. First-order rate constants improved as much as 78% with 2 h of ultrasound pretreatment. Scann...

  19. A combined sodium phosphate and sodium sulfide pretreatment for enhanced enzymatic digestibility and delignification of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Qing, Qing; Zhou, Linlin; Guo, Qi; Huang, Meizi; He, Yucai; Wang, Liqun; Zhang, Yue

    2016-10-01

    Na3PO4 and Na2S were employed as efficient alkaline catalysts for the pretreatment of corn stover. To systematically obtain optimal conditions, the effects of critical pretreatment parameters including sodium phosphate concentration (1-4%), sulfidity (0-20%), pretreatment temperature (100-120°C), and reaction time (20-60min) on the reducing sugar yield of pretreated substrates were evaluated in a lab-scale using the response surface methodology. Pretreated under the sodium phosphate concentration of 4%, sulfidity of 10%, temperature of 120°C, and reaction time of 40min, the reducing sugar yield and glucose yield of the pretreated corn stover achieved 91.11% and 64.01%, respectively, with a moderate enzyme loading of 30FPU/g substrate. Additionally, a strong correlation (R(2)=0.971 and R(2)=0.954) between the delignification and the reducing sugar yield (or glucose yield) was observed by this pretreatment method. These results evidently support that the combined Na3PO4-Na2S pretreatment is an effective and feasible method for processing lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:27371793

  20. Pretreatment by NaOH swelling and then HCl regeneration to enhance the acid hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose.

    PubMed

    Sun, Binzhe; Peng, Gege; Duan, Lian; Xu, Aihua; Li, Xiaoxia

    2015-11-01

    A simple pretreatment method, NaOH swelling at a low temperature and then HCl regeneration, was developed for depolymerization of cellulose to glucose. Cellulose was transformed into amorphous hydrogel during the treatment; and due to the easy diffusion of H(+) and Cl(-) ions into the cellulose hydrogel network as well as the strong ability of Cl(-) to disrupt the massive hydrogen bond, the hydrolysis rate was greatly enhanced. The method is effective for α-cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, filter paper, ramie fiber and absorbent cotton. Even at a high α-cellulose concentration of 50g/L, 29.1% yield of glucose was still obtained within 10min at 160°C under microwave irradiation, where up to 16.2g/L of glucose solution was given. The influence of NaOH concentration, HCl concentration, hydrolysis temperature and time on the hydrolysis rate was investigated. The structure of cellulose hydrogel was also studied to confirm the reaction mechanism. PMID:26280097

  1. Olanzapine and baclofen for the treatment of intractable hiccups.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Amy N; Ehret Leal, Julie; Brzezinski, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    Intractable hiccups are a relatively uncommon condition characterized by involuntary, spasmodic contractions of the diaphragm. This type of hiccups generally has a duration of more than 1 month. We describe a 59-year-old kidney transplant recipient with a complicated medical history (atrial fibrillation, chronic renal failure, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gastroesophageal reflux, gout, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnea) who developed intractable hiccups that significantly affected his quality of life. Despite an extensive gastrointestinal and pulmonary evaluation, and treatment failures with several different drug regimens--metoclopramide, desipramine, amantadine, cyclobenzaprine, phenytoin, and lorazepam--his hiccups were eventually controlled with a combination of baclofen and low-dose olanzapine therapy. Baclofen is a c-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analog that contains a phenylethylamine moiety. It is hypothesized that having both GABA and phenylethylamine properties activates inhibitory neurotransmitters, most notably GABA, which may in turn block the hiccup stimulus. The exact mechanism through which olanzapine is effective in patients with hiccups is not fully understood. It is thought that the effect is, in part, due to serotonin augmenting phrenic motoneuronal activity on the reflex arcs involved in the generation of hiccups within the spinal cord. In addition, since olanazapine is a dopamine antagonist, particularly a dopamine D₂-receptor antagonist, this could also have played a role in its effectiveness in treating our patient. Strong evidence for a specific treatment regimen for intractable hiccups is lacking in the primary literature. Our case report adds to the available literature, as there are currently no published data on the use of combination therapy for the treatment of intractable hiccups, and the combination of baclofen and olanzapine significantly improved our patient's quality of life. PMID:24551889

  2. Pretreatment of baicalin and wogonoside with glycoside hydrolase: A promising approach to enhance anticancer potential

    PubMed Central

    YU, CHUNHAO; ZHANG, ZHIYU; ZHANG, HAIJIANG; ZHEN, ZHONG; CALWAY, TYLER; WANG, YUNWEI; YUAN, CHUN-SU; WANG, CHONG-ZHI

    2013-01-01

    Previous phytochemical studies showed that the major flavonoids in Scutellaria baicalensis are baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside and wogonin. The two glycosides (baicalin and wogonoside) can be transformed into their aglycons (baicalein and wogonin), which possess positive anticancer potential. In this study, we used glycosidase to catalyze flavonoids in S. baicalensis to enhance the herb’s anticancer activities. Our HPLC data showed that, using the optimized conditions obtained in our experiments (20 U/g of cellulase, 50ºC, pH 4.8 and treatment for 8 h), there was a marked transformation from the two glycosides to their aglycons. The anticancer activity was subsequently evaluated using a series of S. baicalensis extracts in which variable lengths of glycosidase treatment time were used. Combining analytical and bioassay results, we observed that the higher the aglycon content, the stronger the antiproliferation effects. Compared to the untransformed control, 8 h of glycosidase catalyzing significantly increased antiproliferative activity on human colorectal and breast cancer cells, and its cancer cell growth inhibition is, in part, mediated by cell cycle arrest at the S-phase and induction of apoptosis. Data from this study suggest that using glycosidase to catalyze S. baicalensis offers a promising approach to increase its anticancer activity. PMID:24026776

  3. Intrathecal baclofen for the treatment of spasticity of cerebral origin.

    PubMed

    Disabato, Jennifer; Ritchie, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Nurses monitoring children receiving intrathecal baclofen therapy can assist with management of these patients by being aware of possible complications related to a change in tone, medication withdrawal, or overdose. The tone management team relies on family care providers, school nurses, ambulatory clinic nurses, and outside physical and occupational therapists to provide information and updates on changes in patient status as needed. Close collaboration and communication regarding the child and his/her response to ITB is essential to providing safe and effective care for this challenging population of patients. PMID:12715404

  4. Biomass pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  5. Baclofen reduces binge eating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Rebecca L; Boan, Jarol; Peters, Kathryn F; Ulbrecht, Jan S

    2012-09-01

    Baclofen has shown promise in treating substance use disorders and also reduced binge frequency in an open-label trial. This placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study further assessed the effects of baclofen on binge eating. Twelve individuals who self-reported binge eating completed the study. Data were collected during a run-in period (no drug or placebo), placebo phase (48 days), and baclofen phase (titrated up to 60 mg daily or the maximum tolerated dose, 48 days). All the participants were exposed to all conditions. Participants completed a binge diary daily, and the Binge Eating Scale (BES), Food Craving Inventory-II (FCI-II), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at regular intervals throughout the study. Baclofen significantly reduced binge frequency relative to placebo and run-in (P<0.05). This confirms results from the previous open-label trial. Baclofen also produced slight, but significant, increases in depression symptomatology as assessed by the HADS. Binge severity (BES scores) and craving (FCI-II scores) were significantly reduced during placebo and baclofen phases, that is both measures exhibited significant placebo effects. Tiredness, fatigue, and upset stomach were the most commonly reported side-effects. These results indicate that baclofen may be a useful treatment for binge eating in some patients. PMID:22854310

  6. Multi-Center Trial of Baclofen for Abstinence Initiation in Severe Cocaine Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Roberta; Biswas, Kousick; Childress, Anna-Rose; Shoptaw, Steve; Fudala, Paul J.; Gorgon, Liza; Montoya, Ivan; Collins, Joseph; McSherry, Frances; Li, Shou-Hua; Chiang, Nora; Alathari, Husam; Watson, Donnie; Liberto, Joseph; Beresford, Thomas; Stock, Christopher; Wallace, Christopher; Gruber, Valerie; Elkashef, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Background Cocaine dependence is a major public health problem for which there is no FDA-approved pharmacological treatment. Baclofen is a GABAB receptor agonist that in preclinical and early pilot clinical trials has shown promise for the treatment of cocaine dependence. The purpose of this multi-site, double-blind study, was to compare the safety and efficacy of baclofen (60 mg/day) versus placebo in an 8-week treatment of individuals with severe cocaine dependence. The primary outcome measure was subjects' self-reported cocaine use substantiated by urine benzoylecgonine (BE). Analysis of the data did not show a significant difference between the groups treated with baclofen and placebo. The current results do not support a role for 60mg baclofen in treating cocaine dependence in the population studied. The contrast of this result to earlier, preclinical and human pilot data with baclofen may reflect the trial's focus on severe cocaine-dependent users, and/or the need for a higher baclofen dose. Baclofen's potential as a relapse prevention agent was not tested by the current design, but may be a useful target for future studies. PMID:19414226

  7. [GABAB receptor as therapeutic target for drug addiction: from baclofen to positive allosteric modulators].

    PubMed

    Agabio, Roberta; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The present paper summarizes experimental and clinical data indicating the therapeutic potential of the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, in the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and substance use disorder (SUD). Multiple preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of baclofen to suppress alcohol drinking (including binge- and relapse-like drinking), oral alcohol self-administration, and intravenous self-administration of cocaine, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, morphine, and heroin in rodents. Some randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) and case reports support the efficacy of baclofen in suppressing alcohol consumption, craving for alcohol, and alcohol withdrawal symptomatology in alcohol-dependent patients. Data from RCTs and open studies investigating baclofen efficacy on SUD are currently less conclusive. Interest in testing high doses of baclofen in AUD and SUD treatment has recently emerged. Preclinical research has extended the anti-addictive properties of baclofen to positive allosteric modulators of the GABAB receptor (GABAB PAMs). In light of their more favourable side effect profile (compared to baclofen), GABAB PAMs may represent a major step forward in a GABAB receptor-based pharmacotherapy of AUD and SUD. PMID:26093587

  8. Microbial community structure in a thermophilic aerobic digester used as a sludge pretreatment process for the mesophilic anaerobic digestion and the enhancement of methane production.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Park, Sang Kyu; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2013-10-01

    An effective two-stage sewage sludge digestion process, consisting of thermophilic aerobic digestion (TAD) followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), was developed for efficient sludge reduction and methane production. Using TAD as a biological pretreatment, the total volatile suspended solid reduction (VSSR) and methane production rate (MPR) in the MAD reactor were significantly improved. According to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, the results indicated that the dominant bacteria species such as Ureibacillus thermophiles and Bacterium thermus in TAD were major routes for enhancing soluble organic matter. TAD pretreatment using a relatively short SRT of 1 day showed highly increased soluble organic products and positively affected an increment of bacteria populations which performed interrelated microbial metabolisms with methanogenic species in the MAD; consequently, a quantitative real-time PCR indicated greatly increased Methanosarcinales (acetate-utilizing methanogens) in the MAD, resulting in enhanced methane production. PMID:23419990

  9. Effects of intrathecal baclofen on lumbosacral and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Kofler, M; Donovan, W H; Loubser, P G; Berić, A

    1992-04-01

    We analyzed lumbosacral and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials in three spinal cord injury patients undergoing evaluation of intrathecal baclofen infusion for management of spasticity. The cauda equina propagating root wave (R wave) and conus medullaris postsynaptic responses (S and P waves) were analyzed before and during baclofen infusion. Baclofen abolished the concomitantly recorded H-reflex and markedly suppressed the P wave amplitude and area. The S wave amplitude and area were suppressed to a lesser degree. In contrast, there were no significant changes in cortical somatosensory evoked potentials. PMID:1565243

  10. L-baclofen-sensitive GABAB binding sites in the medial vestibular nucleus localized by immunocytochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstein, G. R.; Martinelli, G. P.; Cohen, B.

    1992-01-01

    L-Baclofen-sensitive GABAB binding sites in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) were identified immunocytochemically and visualized ultrastructurally in L-baclofen-preinjected rats and monkeys, using a mouse monoclonal antibody with specificity for the p-chlorophenyl moiety of baclofen. Saline-preinjected animals showed no immunostain. In drug-injected animals, there was evidence for both pre- and postsynaptic GABAergic inhibition in MVN mediated by GABAB receptors. These neural elements could be utilized in control of velocity storage in the vestibulo-ocular reflex.

  11. [Anesthetic Management of an Adrenoleukodystrophy Patient for Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yuichi; Takahashi, Kei; Yamamoto, Yuko; Ogata, Tokiko; Arai, Takero; Okuda, Yasuhisa

    2016-04-01

    A 34-year-old man with adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) was scheduled for pump system insertion of intrathecal baclofen therapy under general anesthesia. ALD, a rare genetic disorder, is associated with a total body increase in long chain fatty acids caused by defective degradation, and includes various nervous system abnormalities, muscular weakness, in addition to adrenal insufficiency. He had contracture of the both legs, and muscular weakness of the left hand, and Mallampati class III, but no respiratory disability. In the operating room, we administered hydrocortisone 100 mg for steroid coverage, and low-dose midazolam, and fentanyl. As spontaneous breathing remained, we could easily see epiglottis and arytenoid cartilage by McGRATH. Therefore we selected rapid-induction of anesthesia with thiamylal, and rocuronium 40 mg, under cricoid pressure. We avoided propofol. Anesthsia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil, monitoring BIS and train of four. No more rocuronium was administered, and anesthesia was uneventful. Intrathecal baclofen therapy is given to patients who have severe contracture. When we selected general anesthesia, we should be aware of the possibility of muscular weakness, and cannot intubate cannot ventilate scenario. PMID:27188115

  12. Facile, room-temperature pre-treatment of rice husks with tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide: Enhanced enzymatic and acid hydrolysis yields.

    PubMed

    Lau, B B Y; Luis, E T; Hossain, M M; Hart, W E S; Cencia-Lay, B; Black, J J; To, T Q; Aldous, L

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous solutions of tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide have been evaluated as pretreatment media for rice husks, prior to sulphuric acid hydrolysis or cellulase enzymatic hydrolysis. Varying the water:tetrabutylphosphonium hydroxide ratio varied the rate of delignification, as well as silica, lignin and cellulose solubility. Pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide dissolved the rice husk and the regenerated material was thus heavily disrupted. Sulphuric acid hydrolysis of 60wt%-treated samples yielded the highest amount of glucose per gram of rice husk. Solutions with good lignin and silica solubility but only moderate to negligible cellulose solubility (10-40wt% hydroxide) were equally effective as pre-treatment media for both acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. However, pre-treatment with 60wt% hydroxide solutions was incompatible with downstream enzymatic hydrolysis. This was due to significant incorporation of phosphonium species in the regenerated biomass, which significantly inhibited the activity of the cellulase enzymes. PMID:26342336

  13. Incorporation of flavonoid derivatives or pentagalloyl glucose into lignin enhances cell wall saccharification following mild alkaline or acidic pretreatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Partial substitution of normal monolignols with phenolic precursors from other metabolic pathways may improve the susceptibility of lignified biomass to chemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification for biofuel production. Flavonoids and gallate esters readily undergo oxidative coupling react...

  14. Enhancement of adoptive T cell transfer with single low dose pretreatment of doxorubicin or paclitaxel in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Hui-Yen; Chang, Ya-Fang; Hwang, Jeng-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Ex vivo expansion of CD8+ T-cells has been a hindrance for the success of adoptive T cell transfer in clinic. Currently, preconditioning with chemotherapy is used to modulate the patient immunity before ACT, however, the tumor microenvironment beneficial for transferring T cells may also be damaged. Here preconditioning with single low dose of doxorubicin or paclitaxel combined with fewer CD8+ T-cells was investigated to verify whether the same therapeutic efficacy of ACT could be achieved. An E.G7/OT1 animal model that involved adoptive transfer of OVA-specific CD8+ T-cells transduced with a granzyme B promoter-driven firefly luciferase and tomato fluorescent fusion reporter gene was used to evaluate this strategy. The result showed that CD8+ T-cells were activated and sustained longer in mice pretreated with one low-dose Dox or Tax. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy was found in Dox or Tax combined with 2×106 CD8+ T-cells and achieved the same level of tumor growth inhibition as that of 5×106 CD8+ T-cells group. Notably, reduced numbers of Tregs and myeloid derived suppressor cells were shown in combination groups. By contrast, the number of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes and IL-12 were increased. The NF-κB activity and immunosuppressive factors such as TGF-β, IDO, CCL2, VEGF, CCL22, COX-2 and IL-10 were suppressed. This study demonstrates that preconditioning with single low dose Dox or Tax and combined with two fifth of the original CD8+ T-cells could improve the tumor microenvironment via suppression of NF-κB and its related immunosuppressors, and activate more CD8+ T-cells which also stay longer. PMID:26683520

  15. Biologically pretreated sugarcane top as a potential raw material for the enhancement of gaseous energy recovery by two stage biohythane process.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a suitable pretreatment method to enhance the microbial degradation of lignocellulosic biomass and to maximize the overall energy recovery by using biohythane process. An efficient and eco-friendly biological pretreatment was used. Maximum lignin removal using biological pretreatment of sugarcane top was 60.4% w/w after 21d incubation at 28°C in static condition. Confocal microscopy observation and FTIR analysis confirmed the removal of lignin from sugarcane top. The maximum hydrogen production rate (Rm), hydrogen production potential (P) and lag time (λ) using pretreated sugarcane top were 16.76mL/g-VS/h, 87.40mL/g-VS and 3.38h respectively. The maximum methane production potential using spent medium of dark fermentation was 180.86mL/g-VS with the lag time of 2.9d. The overall gaseous energy recovery was 37.7% which is 54% higher than that of the untreated one. PMID:27469089

  16. Sexual Dysfunction Associated With Intrathecal Baclofen Use: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Saval, April; Chiodo, Anthony E

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: Intrathecal baclofen is considered standard treatment for severe spasticity of spinal cord and cerebral origin. Recognized side effects include fatigue and constipation. There are few reported findings of sexual dysfunction in men and none in women. Methods: Two case reports. Results: A male and a female patient with spasticity treated with intrathecal baclofen were recognized to have sexual dysfunction side effects from treatment. On reduction of the intrathecal baclofen dose, complete return to baseline sexual function was achieved for both subjects. Conclusions: Intrathecal baclofen can impair sexual function and ejaculation in some patients. Clinicians should be aware of this risk and ask about it during routine clinic follow-up for spasticity. Dosing adjustments need to be considered in these patients. PMID:18533420

  17. Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Leaflets and Rachis to Enhance Enzymatic Digestibility and Bioethanol Potential.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chuanji; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Cybulska, Iwona; Brudecki, Grzegorz P; Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2015-01-01

    Date palm residues are one of the most promising lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production in the Middle East. In this study, leaflets and rachis were subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of the biomass for enzymatic conversion. Evident morphological, structural, and chemical changes were observed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy after pretreatment. High glucan (>90% for both leaflets and rachis) and xylan (>75% for leaflets and >79% for rachis) recovery were achieved. Under the optimal condition of hydrothermal pretreatment (210°C/10 min) highly digestible (glucan convertibility, 100% to leaflets, 78% to rachis) and fermentable (ethanol yield, 96% to leaflets, 80% to rachis) solid fractions were obtained. Fermentability test of the liquid fractions proved that no considerable inhibitors to Saccharomyces cerevisiae were produced in hydrothermal pretreatment. Given the high sugar recovery, enzymatic digestibility, and ethanol yield, production of bioethanol by hydrothermal pretreatment could be a promising way of valorization of date palm residues in this region. PMID:26347878

  18. Hydrothermal Pretreatment of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Leaflets and Rachis to Enhance Enzymatic Digestibility and Bioethanol Potential

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chuanji; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye; Cybulska, Iwona; Brudecki, Grzegorz P.; Frankær, Christian Grundahl; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard

    2015-01-01

    Date palm residues are one of the most promising lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production in the Middle East. In this study, leaflets and rachis were subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of the biomass for enzymatic conversion. Evident morphological, structural, and chemical changes were observed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy after pretreatment. High glucan (>90% for both leaflets and rachis) and xylan (>75% for leaflets and >79% for rachis) recovery were achieved. Under the optimal condition of hydrothermal pretreatment (210°C/10 min) highly digestible (glucan convertibility, 100% to leaflets, 78% to rachis) and fermentable (ethanol yield, 96% to leaflets, 80% to rachis) solid fractions were obtained. Fermentability test of the liquid fractions proved that no considerable inhibitors to Saccharomyces cerevisiae were produced in hydrothermal pretreatment. Given the high sugar recovery, enzymatic digestibility, and ethanol yield, production of bioethanol by hydrothermal pretreatment could be a promising way of valorization of date palm residues in this region. PMID:26347878

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated alcohol-withdrawal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vikram K.; Girish, K.; Lakshmi, Pandit; Vijendra, R.; Kumar, Ajay; Harsha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the first-line drugs in alcohol-withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist, controls withdrawal symptoms without causing significant adverse effects. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in the management of uncomplicated AWS. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, open label, standard controlled, parallel group study of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in 60 participants with uncomplicated AWS. Clinical efficacy was measured by the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for alcohol (CIWA-Ar) scores. Lorazepam was used as supplement medication if withdrawal symptoms could not be controlled effectively by the study drugs alone. Both direct and indirect medical costs were considered and the CEA was analyzed in both patient's perspective and third-party perspective. Results: The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) in patient's perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 5,308.61 and Rs. 2,951.95 per symptom-free day, respectively. The ACER in third-party perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 895.01 and Rs. 476.29 per symptom-free day, respectively. Participants on chlordiazepoxide had more number of symptom-free days when compared with the baclofen group on analysis by Mann-Whitney test (U = 253.50, P = 0.03). Conclusion: Both study drugs provided relief of withdrawal symptoms. Chlordiazepoxide was more cost-effective than baclofen. Baclofen was relatively less effective and more expensive than chlordiazepoxide. PMID:25097273

  20. Baclofen promotes alcohol abstinence in alcohol dependent cirrhotic patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, L.; Ferrulli, A.; Zambon, A.; Caputo, F.; Kenna, G.A.; Swift, R.M.; Addolorato, G.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), either alone or in combination, count for more than two thirds of all liver diseases in the Western world. There is no safe level of drinking in HCV-infected patients and the most effective goal for these patients is total abstinence. Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, represents a promising pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence (AD). Previously, we performed a randomized clinical trial (RCT), which demonstrated the safety and efficacy of baclofen in patients affected by AD and cirrhosis. The goal of this post-hoc analysis was to explore baclofen's effect in a subgroup of alcohol-dependent HCV-infected cirrhotic patients. Any patient with HCV infection was selected for this analysis. Among the 84 subjects randomized in the main trial, 24 alcohol-dependent cirrhotic patients had a HCV infection; 12 received baclofen 10mg t.i.d. and 12 received placebo for 12-weeks. With respect to the placebo group (3/12, 25.0%), a significantly higher number of patients who achieved and maintained total alcohol abstinence was found in the baclofen group (10/12, 83.3%; p=0.0123). Furthermore, in the baclofen group, compared to placebo, there was a significantly higher increase in albumin values from baseline (p=0.0132) and a trend toward a significant reduction in INR levels from baseline (p=0.0716). In conclusion, baclofen was safe and significantly more effective than placebo in promoting alcohol abstinence, and improving some LFTs (i.e. albumin, INR) in alcohol-dependent HCV-infected cirrhotic patients. Baclofen may represent a clinically relevant alcohol pharmacotherapy for these patients. PMID:22244707

  1. Baclofen in the short-term maintenance treatment of benzodiazepine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Lekhansh; Kandasamy, Arun; Kesavan, Muralidharan; Benegal, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence is a significant public health problem. Apart from the long-term tapering doses of BZD, no others drugs are available for the maintenance treatment of BZD dependence. Baclofen has been used in alcohol and other drug dependence as long-term anti-craving agent. Since alcohol and BZD act through the GABA receptor, we attempted to study the effect of Baclofen as maintenance treatment in a series of five cases with BZD dependence. PMID:25540541

  2. Combined pretreatment using alkaline hydrothermal and ball milling to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of oil palm mesocarp fiber.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Hirata, Satoshi; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2014-10-01

    Hydrothermal pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber was conducted in tube reactor at treatment severity ranges of log Ro = 3.66-4.83 and partial removal of hemicellulose with migration of lignin was obtained. Concerning maximal recovery of glucose and xylose, 1.5% NaOH was impregnated in the system and subsequent ball milling treatment was employed to improve the conversion yield. The effects of combined hydrothermal and ball milling pretreatments were evaluated by chemical composition changes by using FT-IR, WAXD and morphological alterations by SEM. The successful of pretreatments were assessed by the degree of enzymatic digestibility of treated samples. The highest xylose and glucose yields obtained were 63.2% and 97.3% respectively at cellulase loadings of 10 FPU/g-substrate which is the highest conversion from OPMF ever reported. PMID:25058299

  3. [Instrumentation and Application of a Portable Pretreating System for a Speedy Plasmon-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Detection Towards Food Safety].

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei-quan; He, Jian; Liu, Guo-kun; Chen, Hong-ju; Zeng, Yong-ming; Tian, Zhong-qun

    2015-04-01

    The present paper developed a portable and fast sample pretreatment apparatus. It has many virtues like being portable, low power consumption and convenient operation, short extraction time and sound repeatability. Therefore, it can meet the requirements of on-site rapid detection pretreatment. The apparatus consists of four functional modules: ultrasonic extraction unit, heating unit, exhaust gas evaporation and absorption unit and control system. In addition, LED control panel and alarm device were designed. The whole treatment process needs three steps: ultrasonic extraction, liquid-liquid extraction and solvent evaporation by heating and pumping. For test of this apparatus performance, three real samples (pepper powder, pepper oil, bean sauce) containing banned additive Rhodamine B were taken as experiment objects. Compared with conventional laboratory pretreatment method, the PERS spectra achieved by two methods were little changed, but the experiment time was halved. In addition, the test results showed relative standard deviation less than ±5%. PMID:26197611

  4. Arsenite pretreatment enhances the cytotoxicity of mitomycin C in human cancer cell lines via increased NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Yiling; Ho, I-C.; Su, P.-F.; Lee, T.-C. . E-mail: bmtcl@ibms.sinica.edu.tw

    2006-08-01

    Arsenic is an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of patients with refractory or relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia. The use of arsenic for treating solid tumors, particularly in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, has been extensively studied. Here, we report that arsenite-resistant human lung cancer CL3R15 cells constitutively overexpress NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), an enzyme responsible for activation of mitomycin C (MMC), and are more susceptible to MMC cytotoxicity than parental CL3 cells. The effects of arsenite pretreatment on NQO1 induction were examined in CL3, H1299, H460, and MC-T2 cells. Arsenite pretreatment significantly enhanced the expression of NQO1 and susceptibility to MMC in CL3, H1299, and MC-T2 cells, but not in H460 cells that express high endogenous levels of NQO1. Alternatively, arsenic pretreatment reduced adriamycin sensitivity of CL3 cells. Arsenite-mediated MMC susceptibility was abrogated by dicumarol (DIC), an NQO1 inhibitor, indicating that NQO1 is one of the key regulators of arsenite-mediated MMC susceptibility. Various cancer cell lines showed different basal levels of NQO1 activity and a different capacity for NQO1 induction in response to arsenite treatment. However, overall, there was a positive correlation between induced NQO1 activity and MMC susceptibility in cells pretreated with various doses of arsenite. These results suggest that arsenite may increase NQO1 activity and thus enhance the antineoplastic activity of MMC. In addition, our results also showed that inhibition of NQO1 activity by DIC reversed the arsenite resistance of CL3R15 cells.

  5. Unusual placement of intrathecal baclofen pumps: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Devine, Oliver; Harborne, Andrew; Lo, William B; Weinberg, Daniel; Ciras, Mahesh; Price, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen delivery via implantable pump represents an important modality for symptomatic relief in patients with chronic spasticity. Pumps are routinely implanted subcutaneously in the anterior abdominal wall. We describe two unusual cases where skin-related complications necessitated revision surgery in order to relocate the pump to alternative sites. The first patient was an international power canoeist, whose strenuous exercise programme interfered with his pump's original siting. The second patient was a cachectic university student with a history of cerebral palsy, who maintained low body mass despite attempted weight gain. The relocation of these two intrathecal devices to the medial compartment of the right thigh and right iliac fossa, respectively, is described. PMID:26592253

  6. Enhancement of enzymatic hydrolysis and Klason lignin removal of corn stover using photocatalyst-assisted ammonia pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Chang Geun; Wang, Chao; Yu, Chenxu; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2013-03-01

    Photocatalyst-assisted ammonia pretreatment was explored to improve lignin removal of the lignocellulosic biomass for effective sugar conversion. Corn stover was treated with 5.0-12.5 wt.% ammonium hydroxide, two different photocatalysts (TiO(2) and ZnO) in the presence of molecular oxygen in a batch reactor at 60 °C. Various solid-to-liquid ratios (1:20-1:50) were also tested. Ammonia pretreatment assisted by TiO(2)-catalyzed photo-degradation removed 70 % of Klason lignin under the optimum condition (12.5 % ammonium hydroxide, 60 °C, 24 h, solid/liquid=1:20, photocatalyst/biomass=1:10 with oxygen atmosphere). The enzymatic digestibilities of pretreated corn stover were 85 % for glucan and 75 % for xylan with NH(3)-TiO(2)-treated solid and 82 % for glucan and 77 % for xylan with NH(3)-ZnO-treated solid with 15 filter paper units/g-glucan of cellulase and 30 cellobiase units/g-glucan of β-glucosidase, a 2-13 % improvement over ammonia pretreatment alone. PMID:23329141

  7. Enhancement of bio-oil production via pyrolysis of wood biomass by pretreatment with H2SO4.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shogo; Matsuno, Ryo; Grause, Guido; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2015-02-01

    In this work, a Japanese cedar wood sample was treated during the first step at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure using several concentrations of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in a stirred flask. During this pretreatment C-O bonds of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were cleaved. The second step involved the pyrolysis of the pretreated wood sample at 550 °C in a quartz glass tube reactor. A maximum oil yield of 46.8 wt% with the minimum char yield of 10.1 wt% was obtained by the treatment with 3 M H2SO4, whereas untreated wood samples resulted in a 30.1 wt% yield of oil. The main components in the oils were levoglucosan and tar. These results suggest that moderate acid pretreatment produced shorter chain units of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, thereby facilitating the conversion into oil by pyrolysis. The results of thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy supported the presence of shorter chain units in the pretreated wood samples. PMID:25451777

  8. The transcriptomes of dormant leafy spurge seeds under alternating temperature are differentially affected by a germination-enhancing pretreatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy is an important stage in the life cycle of many non-domesticated plants, often characterized by the temporary failure to germinate under conditions that normally favor the process. Pre-treating dormant imbibed seeds at a constant temperate accelerated germination of leafy spurge seeds ...

  9. Baclofen and severe alcohol dependence: an uncertain harm-benefit balance as of early 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol dependence is a severe, chronic illness. Even the best-assessed drugs used to maintain abstinence are poorly effective. Some patients remain dependent after several treatment attempts. Baclofen has been tested for its capacity to reduce craving for alcohol. We reviewed the data available as of early 2013, using the standard Prescrire methodology, in order to assess the harm-benefit balance of baclofen in maintaining abstinence or moderation in alcohol-dependent patients. Two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials conducted by the same team tested baclofen 30 mg/day in 123 alcohol-dependent patients referred to alcohol treatment centres. After 1 or 3 months of followup, more patients remained abstinent in the baclofen group than in the placebo group. In another double-blind, randomised trial, baclofen 30 mg/day was not more effective than placebo in 80 alcohol-dependent patients recruited through advertisements, many of whom were seeking treatment for the first time. Three uncontrolled retrospective series reported the results obtained in 300 alcohol-dependent patients, most of whom were in treatment failure. They were treated with high, escalating doses of baclofen (on average about 150 mg per day, up to 400 mg per day) with the intention of reducing their craving for alcohol. After 3 to 24 months of follow-up, about half of the patients reported moderate or zero alcohol consumption. At moderate doses, baclofen has been used since the 1970s in the treatment of certain forms of muscle spasticity. The main adverse effects reported in this setting were drowsiness (especially early during treatment) and various neuropsychiatric disorders such as dizziness, euphoria, depression, headache, paraesthesias, speech disorders, ataxia and insomnia. The adverse effects of high-dose baclofen are mainly based on monitoring of hundreds of alcohol-dependent patients, 69 reports to French pharmacovigilance centres in 2011, and cases of overdose or accidental

  10. Effects of baclofen on motor units paralysed by chronic cervical spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Häger-Ross, Charlotte K.; Klein, Cliff S.

    2010-01-01

    Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptorB agonist, is used to reduce symptoms of spasticity (hyperreflexia, increases in muscle tone, involuntary muscle activity), but the long-term effects of sustained baclofen use on skeletal muscle properties are unclear. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether baclofen use and paralysis due to cervical spinal cord injury change the contractile properties of human thenar motor units more than paralysis alone. Evoked electromyographic activity and force were recorded in response to intraneural stimulation of single motor axons to thenar motor units. Data from three groups of motor units were compared: 23 paralysed units from spinal cord injured subjects who take baclofen and have done so for a median of 7 years, 25 paralysed units from spinal cord injured subjects who do not take baclofen (median: 10 years) and 45 units from uninjured control subjects. Paralysed motor unit properties were independent of injury duration and level. With paralysis and baclofen, the median motor unit tetanic forces were significantly weaker, twitch half-relaxation times longer and half maximal forces reached at lower frequencies than for units from uninjured subjects. The median values for these same parameters after paralysis alone were comparable to control data. Axon conduction velocities differed across groups and were slowest for paralysed units from subjects who were not taking baclofen and fastest for units from the uninjured. Greater motor unit weakness with long-term baclofen use and paralysis will make the whole muscle weaker and more fatigable. Significantly more paralysed motor units need to be excited during patterned electrical stimulation to produce any given force over time. The short-term benefits of baclofen on spasticity (e.g. management of muscle spasms that may otherwise hinder movement or social interactions) therefore have to be considered in relation to its possible long-term effects on muscle rehabilitation

  11. Bidirectional enantioselective effects of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen in two mouse models of excessive ethanol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Chelsea R.; Blasingame, Shelby N.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen has been studied extensively in preclinical models of alcohol use disorders, yet results on its efficacy have been uncertain. Racemic baclofen, which is used clinically, can be broken down into separate enantiomers of the drug. Baclofen has been shown to produce enantioselective effects in behavioral assays including those modeling reflexive and sexual behavior. The current studies sought to characterize the enantioselective effects of baclofen in two separate models of ethanol consumption. The first was a Drinking-in-the-Dark procedure that provides “binge-like” ethanol access to mice by restricting access to a two hour period, three hours into the dark cycle. The second was a two-bottle choice procedure that utilized selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring 1 (HAP1) mice to model chronic ethanol access. HAP1 mice are selectively bred to consume pharmacologically relevant amounts of ethanol in a 24-hour two-bottle choice paradigm. The results showed that baclofen yields enantioselective effects on ethanol intake in both models, and that these effects are bidirectional. Total ethanol intake was decreased by R(+)- baclofen, while total intake was increased by S(-)-baclofen in the binge-like and chronic drinking models. Whereas overall binge-like saccharin intake was significantly reduced by R(+)- baclofen, chronic intake was not significantly altered. S(-)- baclofen did not significantly alter saccharin intake. Neither enantiomer significantly affected locomotion during binge-like reinforcer consumption. Collectively, these results demonstrate that baclofen produces enantioselective effects on ethanol consumption. More importantly, the modulation of consumption is bidirectional. The opposing enantioselective effects may explain some of the variance seen in published baclofen literature. PMID:25557834

  12. Bidirectional enantioselective effects of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen in two mouse models of excessive ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Kasten, Chelsea R; Blasingame, Shelby N; Boehm, Stephen L

    2015-02-01

    The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen has been studied extensively in preclinical models of alcohol-use disorders, yet results on its efficacy have been uncertain. Racemic baclofen, which is used clinically, can be broken down into separate enantiomers of the drug. Baclofen has been shown to produce enantioselective effects in behavioral assays, including those modeling reflexive and sexual behavior. The current studies sought to characterize the enantioselective effects of baclofen in two separate models of ethanol consumption. The first was a Drinking-in-the-Dark procedure that provides "binge-like" ethanol access to mice by restricting access to a 2-h period, 3 h into the dark cycle. The second was a two-bottle choice procedure that utilized selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring 1 (HAP1) mice to model chronic ethanol access. HAP1 mice are selectively bred to consume pharmacologically relevant amounts of ethanol in a 24-h two-bottle choice paradigm. The results showed that baclofen yields enantioselective effects on ethanol intake in both models, and that these effects are bidirectional. Total ethanol intake was decreased by R(+)-baclofen, while total intake was increased by S(-)-baclofen in the binge-like and chronic drinking models. Whereas overall binge-like saccharin intake was significantly reduced by R(+)-baclofen, chronic intake was not significantly altered. S(-)-baclofen did not significantly alter saccharin intake. Neither enantiomer significantly affected locomotion during binge-like reinforcer consumption. Collectively, these results demonstrate that baclofen produces enantioselective effects on ethanol consumption. More importantly, the modulation of consumption is bidirectional. The opposing enantioselective effects may explain some of the variance seen in published baclofen literature. PMID:25557834

  13. Enhanced lignin biodegradation by a laccase-overexpressed white-rot fungus Polyporus brumalis in the pretreatment of wood chips.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Sun-Hwa; Cho, Myung-Kil; Kim, Myungkil; Jung, Sang-Min; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-11-01

    The laccase gene of Polyporus brumalis was genetically transformed to overexpress its laccase. The transformants exhibited increased laccase activity and effective decolorization of the dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R than the wild type. When the transformants were pretreated with wood chips from a red pine (softwood) and a tulip tree (hardwood) for 15 and 45 days, they showed higher lignin-degradation activity as well as higher wood-chip weight loss than the wild type. When the wood chips treated with the transformant were enzymatically saccharified, the highest sugar yields were found to be 32.5 % for the red pine wood and 29.5 % for the tulip tree wood, on the basis of the dried wood weights, which were 1.6-folds higher than those for the wild type. These results suggested that overexpression of the laccase gene from P. brumalis significantly contributed to the pretreatment of lignocellulose for increasing sugar yields. PMID:23975277

  14. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of dilute alkaline-pretreated corn stover for enhanced butanol production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jin-Jun; Ding, Ji-Cai; Zhang, Yun; Ma, Li; Xu, Guo-Chao; Han, Rui-Zhi; Ni, Ye

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process was applied for biobutanol production by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864 from corn stover (CS). The key influential factors in SSF process, including corn steep liquor concentration, dry biomass and enzyme loading, SSF temperature, inoculation size and pre-hydrolysis time were optimized. In 5-L bioreactor with SSF process, butanol titer and productivity of 12.3 g/L and 0.257 g/L/h were achieved at 48 h, which were 20.6% and 21.2% higher than those in separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), respectively. The butanol yield reached 0.175 g/g pretreated CS in SSF, representing 50.9% increase than that in SHF (0.116 g/g pretreated CS). This study proves the feasibility of efficient and economic production of biobutanol from CS by SSF. PMID:26764423

  15. Comparative transcriptome analyses indicate enhanced cellular protection against FMDV in PK15 cells pretreated with IFN-γ.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yin; Zhu, Zesen; Chang, Huiyun; Liu, Zaixin; Liu, Jing; Chen, Huiyong

    2016-07-25

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) can induce a host antiviral response to foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate the mechanism of IFN-γ anti FMDV infection in host cells, high-throughput RNA sequencing was analyzed for systemic changes in gene expression profiles in PK15 cells infected by FMDV with or without IFN-γ pretreatment. More than 25 million reads, covering 1.2-1.5 Gb, were analyzed from each experiment panel. FMDV challenge altered the transcription of genes involved in positively and negatively regulating cell death or apoptosis; however, the expected immune suppression response was not obvious. IFN-γ pretreatment combined with FMDV infection normalized the increase in apoptosis. Furthermore, the transcription factors required for IFN-γ functioning, STAT1 and IRF1 were up-regulated by IFN-γ pretreatment and stimulated downstream IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). These induced ISGs are mainly responsible for antigen processing, antigen presentation or antiviral defense. Interestingly, a synergistic effect on some ISGs, including OAS1, OAS2, MX1, MX2, RIG-I and IFIT1, was observed in the combined treatment compared to the IFN-γ treatment alone. The suggested effects identified by RNA sequencing were consistent with cellular morphology changes and confirmed by related protein markers. This is the first report exploring transcriptome alterations introduced by FMDV infection with or without IFN-γ pretreatment. The identified key host genes that control cell survival in vitro broaden our comprehensive understanding of how IFN-γ inhibits FMDV infection and may shed light on developing improved FMD control approaches. PMID:27018244

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of municipal organic wastes and pre-treatment to enhance biogas production from waste.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenxi; Champagne, Pascale; Anderson, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    Co-digestion and pre-treatment have been recognized as effective, low-cost and commercially viable approaches to reduce anaerobic digestion process limitations and improve biogas yields. In our previous batch-scale study, fat, oil, and grease (FOG) was investigated as a suitable potential co-substrate, and thermo-chemical pre-treatment (TCPT) at pH = 10 and 55 °C improved CH4 production from FOG co-digestions. In this project, co-digestions with FOG were studied in bench-scale two-stage thermophilic semi-continuous flow co-digesters with suitable TCPT (pH = 10, 55 °C). Overall, a 25.14 ± 2.14 L/d (70.2 ± 1.4% CH4) biogas production was obtained, which was higher than in the two-stage system without pre-treatment. The results could provide valuable fundamental information to support full-scale investigations of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal organic wastes. PMID:24473318

  17. Enhancement of sludge anaerobic biodegradability by combined microwave-H2O2 pretreatment in acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Eswari, Parvathy; Kavitha, S; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick-Tae; Banu, J Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the sludge disintegration and reduce the cost of microwave (MW) pretreatment. Thermodynamic analysis of MW hydrolysis revealed the best fit with a first-order kinetic model at a specific energy of 18,600 kJ/kg total solids (TS). Combining H2O2 with MW resulted in a significant increment in solubilization from 30 to 50 % at 18,600 kJ/kg TS. The pH of H2O2-assisted MW-pretreated sludge (MW + H2O2) was in the alkaline range (pH 9-10), and it made the sludge unfavorable for subsequent anaerobic digestion and inhibits methane production. In order to nullify the alkaline effect caused by the MW + H2O2 combination, the addition of acid was considered for pH adjustment. H2O2-assisted MW-pretreated sludge in acidic conditions (MW + H2O2 + acid) showed a maximum methane production of 323 mL/g volatile solids (VS) than others during anaerobic biodegradability. A cost analysis of this study reveals that MW + H2O2 + acid was the most economical method with a net profit of 59.90 €/t of sludge. PMID:27026550

  18. Use of Cupriavidus basilensis-aided bioabatement to enhance fermentation of acid-pretreated biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium beijerinckii.

    PubMed

    Agu, Chidozie Victor; Ujor, Victor; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2016-09-01

    Lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitors (LDMICs) prevent efficient fermentation of Miscanthus giganteus (MG) hydrolysates to fuels and chemicals. To address this problem, we explored detoxification of pretreated MG biomass by Cupriavidus basilensis ATCC(®)BAA-699 prior to enzymatic saccharification. We document three key findings from our test of this strategy to alleviate LDMIC-mediated toxicity on Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 during fermentation of MG hydrolysates. First, we demonstrate that growth of C. basilensis is possible on furfural, 5-hydroxymethyfurfural, cinnamaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, syringaldehyde, vanillin, and ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic and vanillic acid, as sole carbon sources. Second, we report that C. basilensis detoxified and metabolized ~98 % LDMICs present in dilute acid-pretreated MG hydrolysates. Last, this bioabatement resulted in significant payoffs during acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by C. beijerinckii: 70, 50 and 73 % improvement in ABE concentration, yield and productivity, respectively. Together, our results show that biological detoxification of acid-pretreated MG hydrolysates prior to fermentation is feasible and beneficial. PMID:27400988

  19. Baclofen differentially mediates fructose-conditioned flavor preference and quinine-conditioned flavor avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Rotella, Francis M; Vig, Vishal; Olsson, Kerstin; Pagirsky, Jeremy; Aminov, Alon; Kohen, Ilanna; Bodnar, Richard J

    2016-03-15

    Rats display both fructose-conditioned flavor preference (CFP) and quinine conditioned flavor avoidance (CFA). Dopamine (D1 and D2), muscarinic and nicotinic, but not NMDA or opioid receptor antagonists reduced fructose-CFP expression. Dopamine D1, dopamine D2, muscarinic or NMDA, but not opioid or nicotinic receptor antagonists reduced fructose-CFP acquisition. Dopamine D1, NMDA, nicotinic or opioid, but not dopamine D2 or muscarinic receptor antagonists enhanced quinine-CFA acquisition. Baclofen (BAC), a GABAB receptor agonist, alternately enhances or reduces feeding under specific conditions. The present study examined whether systemic BAC administration mediated fructose-CFP expression and acquisition or quinine-CFA acquisition. Fructose-CFP expression studies trained rats with one flavor (CS+) in 8% fructose and 0.2% saccharin and a second (CS-) flavor in 0.2% saccharin, followed by vehicle (VEH) and BAC (0.5-5 mg/kg) preceding 2-bottle (CS+, CS-) 0.2% saccharin choice tests. Fructose-CFP acquisition studies administered VEH or BAC (3 or 5 mg/kg) prior to CS+ and CS- training sessions followed by six 2-bottle (CS+, CS-) 0.2% saccharin choice tests. Quinine-CFA acquisition studies administered VEH or BAC (3 or 5 mg/kg) prior to CS- (8% fructose+0.2% saccharin) and CS+ (fructose+saccharin+0.030% quinine) training sessions followed by six 2-bottle (CS-, CS+) fructose+saccharin choice tests. BAC (3 mg/kg) minimally (66%) reduced fructose-CFP expression. BAC failed to alter fructose-CFP acquisition. Quinine-CFA acquisition was enhanced by the 5 mg/kg BAC dose (15-25%) relative to VEH (34-48%). These data implicate GABAB receptor signaling in acquisition of quinine avoidance with minimal or no effects upon fructose preferences. PMID:26852956

  20. A novel combined pretreatment of ball milling and microwave irradiation for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huadong; Li, Hongqiang; Luo, Hao; Xu, Jian

    2013-02-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was performed as a mode substrate to investigate its potential ability of bioconversion in a novel combined pretreatment of ball milling (BM) and/or microwave irradiation (MWI). The variation of structure characteristics of MCC before/after pretreatment were investigated, including crystallinity index (CrI), size of crystal (S(C)), specific surface area (SSA) and degree of polymerization (DP). Their correlation with the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis was differentiated by an optimized equation which indicated the rate of hydrolysis was much more sensitive to CrI than SSA and DP. To achieve the same or higher glucose yield of BM for 3h and 6h, BM for 1h with MWI for 20min could save 54.8% and 77.40% energy consumption, respectively. Moreover, chemicals were not required in this process. It is concluded that the combination of BM and short time MWI is an environment-friendly, economical and effective approach to treat biomass. PMID:23306114

  1. Enhancing bio-butanol production from biomass of Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 with sequential alkali pretreatment and acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Guo, Wanqian; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ren, Nanqi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a successful butanol production method using alkali and acid pretreated biomass of Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6. The butanol concentration, yield, and productivity were 13.1g/L, 0.58mol/mol sugar, 0.66g/L/h, respectively. Nearly 2.93L/L of biohydrogen was produced during the acidogenesis phase in ABE fermentation. The hydrogen yield and productivity were 0.39mol/mol sugar and 104.2g/L/h respectively. In addition, the high glucose consumption efficiency (97.5%) suggests that the hydrolysate pretreated with NaOH (1%) followed by H2SO4 (3%) did not contain inhibitors to the fermentation. It was also discovered that an excess amount of nitrogen sources arising from hydrolysis of highly concentrated microalgal biomass negatively affected the butanol production. This work demonstrates the technical feasibility of producing butanol from sustainable third-generation feedstock (i.e., microalgal biomass). PMID:26528906

  2. Characterization and Properties of Electroless Nickel Plated Poly (ethylene terephthalate) Nonwoven Fabric Enhanced by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Yamin; Lu, Canhui; Liang, Mei; Zhang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    In order to develop a more economical pretreatment method for electroless nickel plating, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma at atmospheric pressure was used to improve the hydrophilicity and adhesion of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) nonwoven fabric. The properties of the PET nonwoven fabric including its liquid absorptive capacity (WA), aging behavior, surface chemical composition, morphology of the surface, adhesion strength, surface electrical resistivity and electromagnetic interference (EMI)- shielding effectiveness (SE) were studied. The liquid absorptive capacity (WA) increased due to the incorporation of oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing functional groups on the surface of PET nonwoven fabric after DBD air-plasma treatment. The surface morphology of the nonwoven fibers became rougher after plasma treatment. Therefore, the surface was more prone to absorb tin sensitizer and palladium catalyst to form an active layer for the deposition of electroless nickel. SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements indicated that a uniform coating of nickel was formed on the PET nonwoven fabric. The average EMI-SE of Ni-plating of PET nonwoven fabric maintained a relatively stable value (38.2 dB to 37.3 dB) in a frequency range of 50 MHz to 1500 MHz. It is concluded that DBD is feasible for pretreatment of nonwoven fabric for electroless nickel plating to prepare functional material with good EMI-SE properties.

  3. KMnO4-Fe(II) pretreatment to enhance Microcystis aeruginosa removal by aluminum coagulation: Does it work after long distance transportation?

    PubMed

    Qi, Jing; Lan, Huachun; Miao, Shiyu; Xu, Qiang; Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-01-01

    KMnO4-Fe(II) pretreatment was proposed to enhance Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) removal by aluminum (Al) coagulation in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in our previous study. This study aims to optimize this process and evaluate the feasibility of using the process at water sources, which are usually far away from DWTPs. The optimum molar ratio of KMnO4 to Fe(II) [Formula: see text] is observed to be 1:3 with respect to algae removal and residual manganese (Mn) control. As indicated from flow cytometer analysis, KMnO4 at <20 μM promisingly maintains cell integrity, with damaged cell ratios of below 10%. KMnO4 at 30 and 60 μM damages M. aeruginosa cells more significantly and the damaged cell ratios increase to 21% and 34% after 480 min. The intracellular organic matter (IOM) release can be controlled by the subsequent introduction of Fe(II) to quench residual KMnO4. KMnO4-Fe(II) pretreatment at the KMnO4 dose of 10 μM dramatically enhances the algae removal by over 70% compared to that by Al coagulation, even if KMnO4 and Fe(II) are introduced 480 min prior to the addition of Al2(SO4)3. The Al doses can be reduced by more than half to achieve the same algae removal. Furthermore, the deposition of the tiny Fe-Mn precipitates formed rarely occurs, as indicated by a settleability evaluation prior to Al addition. The KMnO4-Fe(II) process can be sequentially dosed at intake points in water sources to achieve moderate inactivation of algae cells and to enhance algae removal in DWTPs thereafter. PMID:26479785

  4. Efficacy of High-Dose Baclofen for Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Bulimia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Sébastien; Lalanne, Laurence; Riegert, Myriam; Bertschy, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    High-dose baclofen is a promising treatment for alcohol use disorder, with a specific action on craving. A more general action on craving in other addictive disorders has been suggested based on the hypothesis of a common neurobiological pathway in addictions. We report the case of a woman with both alcohol use disorder and bulimia nervosa. There was a positive response to high-dose baclofen on alcohol craving, but no response on food craving. The case illustrates that craving could be differentially responsive to anti-craving drugs. PMID:26457456

  5. Intrathecal baclofen treatment in dystonic cerebral palsy: a randomized clinical trial: the IDYS trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dystonic cerebral palsy is primarily caused by damage to the basal ganglia and central cortex. The daily care of these patients can be difficult due to dystonic movements. Intrathecal baclofen treatment is a potential treatment option for dystonia and has become common practice. Despite this widespread adoption, high quality evidence on the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on daily activities is lacking and prospective data are needed to judge the usefulness and indications for dystonic cerebral palsy. The primary aim of this study is to provide level one clinical evidence for the effects of intrathecal baclofen treatment on the level of activities and participation in dystonic cerebral palsy patients. Furthermore, we hope to identify clinical characteristics that will predict a beneficial effect of intrathecal baclofen in an individual patient. Methods/Design A double blind placebo-controlled multi-center randomized clinical trial will be performed in 30 children with dystonic cerebral palsy. Patients aged between 4 and 25 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of dystonic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Functioning Classification System level IV or V, with lesions in the cerebral white matter, basal ganglia or central cortex and who are eligible for intrathecal baclofen treatment will be included. Group A will receive three months of continuous intrathecal baclofen treatment and group B will receive three months of placebo treatment, both via an implanted pump. After this three month period, all patients will receive intrathecal baclofen treatment, with a follow-up after nine months. The primary outcome measurement will be the effect on activities of and participation in daily life measured by Goal Attainment Scaling. Secondary outcome measurements on the level of body functions include dystonia, spasticity, pain, comfort and sleep-related breathing disorders. Side effects will be monitored and we will study whether patient characteristics

  6. Enhanced TiC/SiC Ohmic contacts by ECR hydrogen plasma pretreatment and low-temperature post-annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingbing; Qin, Fuwen; Wang, Dejun

    2015-11-01

    We proposed an electronic cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave hydrogen plasma pretreatment (HPT) for moderately doped (1 × 1018 cm-3) SiC surfaces and formed ideal TiC/SiC Ohmic contacts with significantly low contact resistivity (1.5 × 10-5 Ω cm2) after low-temperature annealing (600 °C). This is achieved by reducing barrier height at TiC/SiC interface because of the release of pinned Fermi level by surface flattening and SiC surface states reduction after HPT, as well as the generation of donor-type carbon vacancies, which reduced the depletion-layer width for electron tunneling after annealing. Interface band structures were analyzed to elucidate the mechanism of Ohmic contact formations.

  7. Optimization of reverse-flow, two-temperature, dilute-acid pretreatment to enhance biomass conversion to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Torget, R.; Hatzis, C.; Hayward, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    A reverse-flow, two-temperature dilute-acid prehydrolysis process of commercial yellow poplar sawdust using two percolation reactors was designed to simulate countercurrent flow of the biomass solids and prehydrolysis liquor, and to exploit the xylan biphasic kinetics. Lower temperatures (150-174{degrees}C) are initially applied to hydrolyze the easily hydrolyzable xylan, and higher temperatures (180-204{degrees}C) are applied to hydrolyze the remaining xylan. Two reactors were used to optimize each temperature range, using varying concentrations of sulfuric acid from 0.073-0.73 wt% and reaction times. Yields of soluble xylose, as high as 97% of theoretical, expressed as monomeric and oligomeric xylose, have been achieved with only 2.9% of the xylan being degraded to furfural, at concentrations of total potential sugar between 2.4 and 3.7 wt% before flashing. Depending on the combined severity of the acid concentration, residence time of the solids and liquor, and temperature of prehydrolysis, 81-100% of the hemicellulose, 3-32% of the glucans, and up to 46% of the Klason lignin could be solubilized. The lignocellulosic substrate produced from the pretreatment is readily converted to ethanol at a yield of approximately 91% of theoretical, with ethanol concentrations of up to 4.0 wt% in 55 h via a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. In terms of xylose recovery and ethanol production level and rate, the present results are far superior to those previously reported using a single-temperature, dilute-acid pretreatment. 42 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. GABAB Receptor Agonist R-Baclofen Reverses Social Deficits and Reduces Repetitive Behavior in Two Mouse Models of Autism.

    PubMed

    Silverman, J L; Pride, M C; Hayes, J E; Puhger, K R; Butler-Struben, H M; Baker, S; Crawley, J N

    2015-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core behavioral criteria, unusual reciprocal social interactions and communication, and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Excitatory/inhibitory imbalance is a prominent hypothesis for the etiology of autism. The selective GABAB receptor agonist R-baclofen previously reversed social deficits and reduced repetitive behaviors in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, and Arbaclofen improved some clinical symptoms in some Fragile X and ASD patients. To evaluate R-baclofen in a broader range of mouse models of ASD, we tested both the R-baclofen enantiomer and the less potent S-baclofen enantiomer in two inbred strains of mice that display low sociability and/or high repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. R-baclofen treatment reversed social approach deficits in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR), reduced repetitive self-grooming and high marble burying scores in BTBR, and reduced stereotyped jumping in C58/J (C58), at nonsedating doses. S-baclofen produced minimal effects at the same doses. These findings encourage investigations of R-baclofen in other preclinical model systems. Additional clinical studies may be warranted to further evaluate the hypothesis that the GABAB receptor represents a promising pharmacological target for treating appropriately stratified subsets of individuals with ASD. PMID:25754761

  9. Effect of Intrathecal Baclofen Concentration on Spasticity Control: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Saval, April; Chiodo, Anthony E

    2008-01-01

    Background/Objective: Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) has been shown to be an effective treatment for severe spasticity of spinal or cerebral origin. Although most patients respond well to an ITB trial, there are often difficulties in achieving and/or maintaining such effectiveness with ITB pump treatment. There are few published guidelines for dosing efficacy and no studies looking at the effect of concentration of ITB on spasticity management. Methods: Case series of 3 adults with severe spasticity treated with ITB pump: a 44-year-old man with C7 tetraplegia using a 40-mL Medtronic SynchroMed II pump with 500-μg/mL concentration; a 35-year-old woman with traumatic brain injury with right spastic hemiplegia using a 18-mL Medtronic SynchroMed EL pump with 2,000-μg/mL concentration; and a 43-year-old woman with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy using a 40-mL Medtronic SynchroMed II pump with 2,000-μg/mL concentration. Results: After reducing ITB concentrations in the pump, either as part of a standard protocol for dye study to assess the integrity of pump and catheter system or secondary to plateau in therapeutic efficacy, patients experienced temporary, significant reduction in spasticity based on range of motion, Modified Ashworth scores, and verbal feedback. Conclusions: Decreasing the concentration of ITB seems to affect spasticity control. Further research in this area is needed for those patients with refractory spasticity to optimize efficacy of ITB therapy. PMID:18959357

  10. Effect of permeation enhancer pretreatment on the iontophoresis of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) through human epidermal membrane (HEM).

    PubMed

    Smyth, Hugh D C; Becket, Gordon; Mehta, Samir

    2002-05-01

    A 2 x 2 factorial design was performed to determine the effect of a permeation enhancer (oleic acid/propylene glycol), iontophoresis (2 V), and the combination of the two treatments on the permeation enhancement of a model peptide, LHRH (luteinizing hormone releasing hormone), through human epidermal membrane (HEM). In parallel studies, TEAB (tetraethylammonium bromide, a small ionic solute) and sucrose (an electroosmotic flow marker) were also investigated. Structural changes in the HEM were monitored via conductance measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy experiments. LHRH enhancement due to enhancer in combination with iontophoresis (I + E; 29.5 times passive permeability, P), was greater than during iontophoresis alone (I; 14.3) and enhancer treatment alone (E; 3.5). I + E had an additive effect of I and E, indicating the mechanisms of action of the individual enhancement strategies were likely to be located at different sites in the skin. Also, no synergistic enhancement was observed with I + E for either TEAB or sucrose. For TEAB, permeability enhancement due to I (approximately 1400) was much higher than that due to E (14.9), and no additive effect could be detected. For sucrose, E had no effect on either passive or iontophoretic permeability, eliminating the possibility that electroosmosis could explain increases in LHRH permeability. Evidence of synergy between E and I was found, with conductance measurements indicating that I + E synergistically increased the membrane permeability to conducting ions (Na+ and Cl-). It appears these pathways were not available for transport for the solutes used in the current study. DSC and IR investigations showed significant changes in stratum corneum lipid structure following E treatment but not following I. These findings probably arise from the localized action of iontophoresis compared with the bulk action of enhancer. In summary, increased LHRH delivery through HEM in

  11. Effects of baclofen and naltrexone, alone and in combination, on the consumption of palatable food in male rats.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Murray, Susan; Gold, Mark S

    2014-10-01

    Excess consumption of palatable food has been shown to affect reward-related brain regions, and pharmaceutical treatments for drug addiction may also be effective in treating overeating of such foods. The GABA-B agonist baclofen and opioid antagonist naltrexone have both been used to treat addiction, and have been shown to suppress intake of certain foods. The combination of these drugs has shown to be more effective in reducing alcohol consumption than either drug alone. The present study assessed the effects of naltrexone and baclofen, alone and in combination, on intake of foods comprised of various macronutrients. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 12-hr daily access to chow and a fat emulsion, sugar-fat emulsion, or a sugar solution for 21 days. Rats were then administered (intraperitoneal) baclofen-naltrexone combinations (0.1 mg/kg naltrexone and 1.0 mg/kg baclofen, 1.0 mg/kg naltrexone and 1.8 mg/kg baclofen), and naltrexone (0.1, 1.0 mg/kg) and baclofen (1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) alone. The high dose of the baclofen-naltrexone combination reduced palatable food intake in both the fat and sugar-fat groups compared with vehicle, without affecting chow consumption in these groups. Naltrexone showed little significant effects on intake of either palatable food or chow. Baclofen also reduced palatable food intake in the fat and fat-sugar groups, but differences were only noted between the low and high dose. The combination of baclofen and naltrexone may be a useful tool in selectively targeting the consumption of high-fat and sugar- and fat-rich foods. PMID:25069013

  12. Enhancing digestion efficiency of POME in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor with ozonation pretreatment and cycle time reduction.

    PubMed

    Chaiprapat, Sumate; Laklam, Tanyaluk

    2011-03-01

    Ozonation pretreatment was applied to palm oil mill effluent (POME) prior to anaerobic digestion using the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). Ozonation increased BOD/COD by 37.9% with a COD loss of only 3.3%. At organic loads of 6.48-12.96 kg COD/m(3)/d, feeding with non-ozonated POME caused a system failure. The ozonated POME gave significantly higher TCOD removal at loadings 6.52 and 9.04 kg COD/m(3)/d but failed to sustain the operation at loading 11.67 kg COD/m(3)/d. Effects of cycle time (CT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were determined using quadratic regression model. The generated response surface and contour plot showed that at this high load conditions (6.52-11.67 kg COD/m(3)/d), longer HRT and shorter CT gave the ASBR higher organic removal efficiency and methane yield. The model was able to satisfactorily describe the relationship of these two key operating parameters. PMID:21215615

  13. Characterisation of water hyacinth with microwave-heated alkali pretreatment for enhanced enzymatic digestibility and hydrogen/methane fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Song, Wenlu; Ding, Lingkan; Xie, Binfei; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-04-01

    Microwave-heated alkali pretreatment (MAP) was investigated to improve enzymatic digestibility and H2/CH4 production from water hyacinth. SEM revealed that MAP deconstructed the lignocellulose matrix and swelled the surfaces of water hyacinth. XRD indicated that MAP decreased the crystallinity index from 16.0 to 13.0 because of cellulose amorphisation. FTIR indicated that MAP effectively destroyed the lignin structure and disrupted the crystalline cellulose to reduce crystallinity. The reducing sugar yield of 0.296 g/gTVS was achieved at optimal hydrolysis conditions (microwave temperature = 190°C, time = 10 min, and cellulase dosage = 5 wt%). The sequentially fermentative hydrogen and methane yields from water hyacinth with MAP and enzymatic hydrolysis were increased to 63.9 and 172.5 mL/gTVS, respectively. The energy conversion efficiency (40.0%) in the two-stage hydrogen and methane cogeneration was lower than that (49.5%) in the one-stage methane production (237.4 mL/gTVS) from water hyacinth with MAP and enzymatic hydrolysis. PMID:25668753

  14. Thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulose to enhance methane fermentation. I. Monosaccharide and furfurals hydrothermal decomposition and product formation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, K.D.; McCarty, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    Over a pH range 1-4 and temperatures from 170 to 230/sup 0/C, the decomposition rates of xylose, galactose, mannose, glucose, 2-furfural, and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) were pseudo first order. The effect of temperature and pH on the pseudo first-order decomposition rate constants was modeled using the Arrhenius equation and acid-base catalysis, respectively. Decomposition rates of the monosaccharides were minimum at a pH 2-2.5. Above pH 2.5, the monosaccharide decomposition was base catalyzed, with acid catalysis occurring at a pH of less than 2 for glucose. The furfurals were subject to acid catalysis at below ca. pH 3.5. The hydrothermal conversion of glucose to its decomposition products during thermochemical pretreatment can be modeled as a combination of series and parallel reactions. The formation rates of identified soluble products from glucose decomposition, 5-HMF and levulinic acid, were also functions of temperature and pH. The rate of 5-HMF formation relative to glucose decomposition decreased as the pH increased from 2.0 to 4.0, with levulinic acid formation only detected when the pH was 2.5 or less. For glucose decomposition, humic solids accounted for ca. 20% of the decomposition products.

  15. Enhanced degradation of azo dye by nanoporous-copper-decorated Mg-Cu-Y metallic glass powder through dealloying pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xuekun; Li, Ran; Zong, Jingzhen; Zhang, Ying; Li, Haifei; Zhang, Tao

    2014-06-01

    A controllable uniform nanoporous copper (NPC) layer was synthesized on the surface of the ball-milled powder of Mg65Cu25Y10 metallic glass by dealloying. The morphology, the elemental surface composition and the phase structure of the powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry, respectively. The composite powder with a core-shell structure shows higher degradation efficiency of the azo dye of Direct Blue 6 than the untreated powder and the pure NPC. The improved performance can be attributed to the strong synergistic effect between the NPC layer and the metallic glass matrix, because the nanoporous structure provides large surface area for the adsorption of the dye molecules and three-dimensional diffusion channels of reaction masses, as well as the dissolution acceleration of the active atoms through local galvanic cell reaction. This tunable pretreatment is a promising surface activation method for novel chemical applications of metallic glasses.

  16. Baclofen-responsive hiccups after esophageal stenting for malignancy-related dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishal; De, Arka; Lamoria, Sandeep; Lamba, Brinder Mohan Singh

    2016-04-01

    Hiccups can have multiple causes, including esophageal lesions. Hiccups after insertion of self-expanding metallic stents have been reported occasionally following stenting for lesions of the gastroesophageal junction. We report a patient who developed hiccups after insertion of a stent for squamous cell carcinoma of the proximal esophagus. The hiccups responded only to the initiation of baclofen therapy. PMID:27034549

  17. Formulation and evaluation of gastroretentive microballoons containing baclofen for a floating oral controlled drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Dube, T S; Ranpise, N S; Ranade, A N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to fabricate and evaluate a multiparticulate oral gastroretentive dosage form of baclofen characterized by a central large cavity (hollow core) promoting unmitigated floatation with practical applications to alleviate the signs and symptoms of spasticity and muscular rigidity. Solvent diffusion and evaporation procedure were applied to prepare floating microspheres with a central large cavity using various combinations of ethylcellulose (release retardant) and HPMC K4M (release modifier) dissolved in a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (2:1). The obtained microspheres (700-1000 µm) exhibit excellent floating ability (86 ± 2.00%) and release characteristics with entrapment efficiency of 95.2 ± 0.32%. Microspheres fabricated with ethylcellulose to HPMC K4M in the ratio 8.5:1.5 released 98.67% of the entrapped drug in 12 h. Muscle relaxation caused by baclofen microspheres impairs the rotarod performance for more than 12 h. Abdominal X-ray images showed that the gastroretention period of the floating barium sulfate- labeled microspheres was no less than 10 h. The buoyant baclofen microspheres provide a promising gastroretentive drug delivery system to deliver baclofen in spastic patients with a sustained release rate. PMID:24730440

  18. [Continuous intrathecal infusion of baclofen. A new therapeutic method for spasticity].

    PubMed

    Berg-Johnsen, J; Røste, G K; Solgaard, T; Lundar, T

    1998-09-10

    Intrathecal administration of baclofen is now generally accepted as a powerful treatment of spasticity caused by spinal lesions. 35 patients with severe spasticity, 29 of spinal origin and six of supraspinal origin resistant to conservative treatment, had a programmable pump (Synchromed, Medtronic) for continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion implanted. The patients were followed-up for an average of 29 months (0-68). The initial effect of the treatment was positive for all patients; spasms were less frequent, there was remission of pain caused by cramps, and in some cases improved ambulation. In five patients, however, the pump was later removed: in two patients the pump ceased to be effective, two patients became infected, and one experienced multiple catheter problems. Problems with the catheter was the most common complication experienced, and this was seen in nine patients. Three patients died of the underlying disease. The majority of patients became accommodated to intrathecal baclofen and it was necessary to administer increasingly larger doses to maintain the clinical effect. Long-term control of spinal spasticity by intrathecal baclofen can be achieved in most patients, but close follow-up is necessary for assessing efficacy and refilling the pump. PMID:9772811

  19. Influence of Baclofen on Laryngeal and Spinal Motor Drive During Cough in the Anesthetized Cat

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Daniel; Pitts, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The antitussive properties of (±) baclofen on laryngeal muscle activities have not been determined. The hypothesis of this study was that administration of (±) baclofen would suppress upper airway muscle motor activity in a dose-dependent manner during cough. Study Design This is a prospective, preclinical, hypothesis-driven, paired design. Methods Electromyograms of the parasternal, rectus abdominis, thyroarytenoid, posterior cricoarytenoid, and thyrohyoid were measured, along with esophageal pressure. Cough was elicited by mechanical stimulation of the lumen of the intrathoracic trachea in spontaneously breathing cats. Results Baclofen (±) (3–10 µg kg−1 i.a.) induced decreases in the electromyogram amplitude of the rectus abdominis motor drive during coughing, the inspiratory and active expiratory (E1) phases of cough, and cough number per epoch. There was no effect of (±) baclofen on the EMG amplitudes of any of the laryngeal muscles, the parasternal, or the duration of the passive expiratory (E2) phase. Conclusions Results from the present study indicate differential control mechanisms for laryngeal and inspiratory motor drive during cough, providing evidence of a control system regulating laryngeal activity and inspiratory spinal drive that is divergent from the control of expiratory spinal motoneurons. PMID:23670824

  20. Baclofen-responsive hiccups after esophageal stenting for malignancy-related dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    De, Arka; Lamoria, Sandeep; Lamba, Brinder Mohan Singh

    2016-01-01

    Hiccups can have multiple causes, including esophageal lesions. Hiccups after insertion of self-expanding metallic stents have been reported occasionally following stenting for lesions of the gastroesophageal junction. We report a patient who developed hiccups after insertion of a stent for squamous cell carcinoma of the proximal esophagus. The hiccups responded only to the initiation of baclofen therapy. PMID:27034549

  1. Baclofen reversed thermal place preference in rats with chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Salte, K; Lea, G; Franek, M; Vaculin, S

    2016-06-20

    Chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve was used as an animal model of neuropathic pain. Instead of frequently used reflex-based tests we used an operant thermal place preference test to evaluate signs of neuropathic pain and the effect of baclofen administration in rats with neuropathy. Chronic constriction injury was induced by four loose ligations of the sciatic nerve. Thermal place preference (45 °C vs. 22 °C and 45 °C vs. 11 °C) was measured after the ligation and after the administration of baclofen in sham and experimental rats. Rats with the chronic constriction injury spent significantly less time on the colder plate compared to sham operated animals at the combination 45 °C vs. 11 °C. After administration of baclofen (10 mg/kg s.c.), the aversion to the colder plate in rats with chronic constriction injury disappeared. At the combination 45 °C vs. 22 °C, no difference in time spent on colder and/or warmer plate was found between sham and experimental animals. These findings show the importance of cold allodynia evaluation in rats with chronic constriction injury and the effectiveness of baclofen in this neuropathic pain model. PMID:26447518

  2. Nipping cue reactivity in the bud: baclofen prevents limbic activation elicited by subliminal drug cues.

    PubMed

    Young, Kimberly A; Franklin, Teresa R; Roberts, David C S; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Suh, Jesse J; Wetherill, Reagan R; Wang, Ze; Kampman, Kyle M; O'Brien, Charles P; Childress, Anna Rose

    2014-04-01

    Relapse is a widely recognized and difficult to treat feature of the addictions. Substantial evidence implicates cue-triggered activation of the mesolimbic dopamine system as an important contributing factor. Even drug cues presented outside of conscious awareness (i.e., subliminally) produce robust activation within this circuitry, indicating the sensitivity and vulnerability of the brain to potentially problematic reward signals. Because pharmacological agents that prevent these early cue-induced responses could play an important role in relapse prevention, we examined whether baclofen-a GABAB receptor agonist that reduces mesolimbic dopamine release and conditioned drug responses in laboratory animals-could inhibit mesolimbic activation elicited by subliminal cocaine cues in cocaine-dependent individuals. Twenty cocaine-dependent participants were randomized to receive baclofen (60 mg/d; 20 mg t.i.d.) or placebo. Event-related BOLD fMRI and a backward-masking paradigm were used to examine the effects of baclofen on subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues. Sexual and aversive cues were included to examine specificity. We observed that baclofen-treated participants displayed significantly less activation in response to subliminal cocaine (vs neutral) cues, but not sexual or aversive (vs neutral) cues, than placebo-treated participants in a large interconnected bilateral cluster spanning the ventral striatum, ventral pallidum, amygdala, midbrain, and orbitofrontal cortex (voxel threshold p < 0.005; cluster corrected at p < 0.05). These results suggest that baclofen may inhibit the earliest type of drug cue-induced motivational processing-that which occurs outside of awareness-before it evolves into a less manageable state. PMID:24695721

  3. Acute cocaine induced deficits in cognitive performance in rhesus macaque monkeys treated with baclofen

    PubMed Central

    Porrino, Linda J.; Hampson, Robert E.; Opris, Ioan; Deadwyler, Samuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Acute and/or chronic exposure to cocaine can affect cognitive performance, which may influence rate of recovery during treatment. Objective Effects of the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen were assessed for potency to reverse the negative influence of acute, pre-session, intravenous (IV) injection of cocaine on cognitive performance in Macaca mulatta nonhuman primates. Methods Animals were trained to perform a modified delayed match to sample (DMS) task incorporating two types of trials with varying degrees of cognitive load that had different decision requirements in order to correctly utilize information retained over the delay interval. The effects of cocaine (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/kg, IV) alone and in combination with baclofen (0.29 and 0.40 mg/kg, IV) were examined with respect to sustained performance levels. Brain metabolic activity during performance of the task was assessed using PET imaged uptake of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose. Results Acute cocaine injections produced a dose-dependent decline in DMS performance selective for trials of high cognitive load. The GABA-receptor agonist baclofen, co-administered with cocaine, reversed task performance back to nondrug (saline IV) control levels. Simultaneous assessment of PET-imaged brain metabolic activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) showed alterations by cocaine compared to PFC metabolic activation in nondrug (saline, IV) control DMS sessions, but like performance, PFC activation was returned to control levels by baclofen (0.40 mg/kg, IV) injected with cocaine. Conclusions The results show that baclofen, administered at a relatively high dose, reversed the cognitive deficits produced by acute cocaine intoxication that may have implications for use in chronic drug exposure. PMID:22836369

  4. Effects of baclofen and raclopride on reinstatement of cocaine self-administration in the rat.

    PubMed

    Froger-Colléaux, Christelle; Castagné, Vincent

    2016-04-15

    At present there is no satisfactory treatment against relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Relapse can be modeled in laboratory animals using reinstatement procedures, whereby previously extinguished self-administration for a drug is reinstated by different factors, such as exposure to cues or drug priming. It is thought that activation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor complexes could represent a promising approach to pharmacotherapy for diminishing relapse potential with drugs possessing reinforcing properties. The effects of baclofen (a prototypic GABAB receptor agonist) on cue-induced cocaine reinstatement were evaluated in the rat with or without a priming injection of cocaine. The effects of raclopride (an antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors) were also evaluated. Cue-induced reinstatement under vehicle resulted in a significant increase in the number of presses on the active lever, as compared with extinction lever responding. This effect was accentuated in rats receiving a priming injection of cocaine (cocaine-plus-cue-induced reinstatement). Baclofen, at doses without effects on food-motivated operant behavior (2.5 and 5mg/kg i.p.), dose-dependently decreased the number of active lever presses during cue-induced reinstatement. Baclofen had slightly weaker effects on cocaine-plus-cue-induced reinstatement. Raclopride (0.08 and 0.15 mg/kg s.c.) had similar effects against cue-induced reinstatement although it failed to inhibit cocaine-plus-cue-induced reinstatement at the lower dose. Baclofen dose-dependently and selectively decreased reinstatement of cocaine self-administration. The data obtained provide support for the potential anti-craving efficacy of baclofen in the treatment of cocaine drug-seeking. PMID:26948316

  5. In vivo release of dopamine from rat striatum, substantia nigra and prefrontal cortex: differential modulation by baclofen.

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, M.; Machado, A.; Cano, J.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effect of baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, on the release of dopamine from the striatum (ST), substantia nigra (SN) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the rat was examined by intracerebral microdialysis. 2. Perfusion of baclofen 50 microM did not affect the striatal release of dopamine. However, dopamine release was markedly reduced in the SN and PFC. 3. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid output increased in the ST and decreased in the SN and PFC when baclofen was perfused through the microdialysis probe. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels were not affected in any experimental condition by baclofen perfusion. 4. The results suggest that GABAB receptors modulate the release of dopamine in the SN and PFC, but do not affect the striatal release of dopamine, which indicates that the role of GABA receptor activation is different in the dopaminergic terminals of the ST and PFC. PMID:7689406

  6. Enhancement of Natural Killer Cell Cytotoxicity by Sodium/Iodide Symporter Gene-Mediated Radioiodine Pretreatment in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Jung Eun; Hwang, Mi-Hye; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Lee, Sang-Woo; Lee, Jaetae; Zeon, Seok Kil; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    A phase II study of NK cell therapy in treatment of patients with recurrent breast cancer has recently been reported. However, because of the complexities of tumor microenvironments, effective therapeutic effects have not been achieved in NK cell therapy. Radioiodine (I-131) therapy inhibits cancer growth by inducing the apoptosis and necrosis of cancer cells. Furthermore, it can modify cancer cell phenotypes and enhance the effect of immunotherapy against cancer cells. The present study showed that I-131 therapy can modulate microenvironment of breast cancer and improve the therapeutic effect by enhancing NK cell cytotoxicity to the tumor cells. The susceptibility of breast cancer cells to NK cell was increased by precedent I-131 treatment in vitro. Tumor burden in mice treated with I-131 plus NK cell was significantly lower than that in mice treated with NK cell or I-131 alone. The up-regulation of Fas, DR5 and MIC A/B on irradiated tumor cells could be the explanation for the enhancement of NK cell cytotoxicity to tumor cells. It can be applied to breast cancer patients with iodine avid metastatic lesions that are non-responsive to conventional treatments. PMID:23940545

  7. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in alcohol-dependent patients receiving high-dose baclofen.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Olga; Hellweg, Rainer; Müller, Christian A

    2016-06-30

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive and other psychiatric disorders. Also, interactions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic compounds and BDNF have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate serum levels of BDNF over time in alcohol-dependent patients receiving individually titrated high-dose treatment (30-270mg/d) with the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen or placebo for up to 20 weeks. Serum levels of BDNF were measured in patients of the baclofen/placebo group at baseline (t0), 2 weeks after reaching individual high-dose of baclofen/placebo treatment (t1) and after termination of study medication (t2) in comparison to carefully matched healthy controls. No significant differences in serum levels of BDNF between the baclofen and the placebo group or healthy controls were found at t0, t1, or at t2. Based on these findings, it seems unlikely that baclofen exerts a direct effect on serum levels of BDNF in alcohol-dependent patients. Future studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of action of baclofen and its possible relationship to BDNF in alcohol use disorders. PMID:27107672

  8. Influence of intraventricular application of baclofen on arterial blood pressure and neurotransmitter concentrations in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rats.

    PubMed

    Czell, David; Efe, Turgay; Preuss, Matthias; Schofer, Markus D; Becker, Ralf

    2012-02-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a key site for regulating neuroendocrine functions in the magnocellular part and autonomic activities in the parvocellular part. Its anatomical proximity to the third ventricle could be a good target for intrathecal injection of baclofen. We investigated the correlation of intrathecal application of baclofen (a specific GABAB receptor agonist) and the release of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopac, homovanillinic acid (HVA), glutamate and aspartate from the PVN. The decomposition products HVA, dopa and dopac of norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine, respectively, were used as parameters for the secretion of dopamine. We implanted a microdialysis probe in the PVN of 25 Wistar rats. In 13 rats, 1.5 μg baclofen was injected in the lateral ventricle and the equivalent quantity of Ringer's lactate solution injected in the remaining 12 rats as a control group. Neurotransmitters and amino acids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. There was a conspicuous but not significant effect of baclofen concerning the secretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopac, glutamate and aspartate from the PVN. A significant increase in HVA concentration was observed only in rats treated with baclofen compared with the control group. These findings suggest that baclofen influences the secretion of neurotransmitters and amino acids involved in autonomic activities mediated by GABAB receptors. PMID:21984200

  9. Electric field-enhanced transport across phase boundaries and membranes and its potential use in sample pretreatment for bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Kubán, Pavel; Slampová, Andrea; Bocek, Petr

    2010-03-01

    Separation techniques, such as electrodialysis, electroextraction, electro-membrane extraction and extraction across phase interfaces, are reviewed and discussed as methods for sample cleanup and preconcentration. This survey clearly shows that electromigration of ionic species across phase interfaces, especially across supported liquid membranes, may be very selective and is strongly dependent on the chemical composition of these interfaces. Thus, electric field-enhanced transport across chemically tailored liquid membranes may open new perspectives in preparative analytical chemistry. This review offers comprehensive survey of related literature and discussion of the topic, which may stimulate interest of experts and practitioners in bioanalysis. PMID:20191542

  10. Prospective Randomized Study of Oral Diazepam and Baclofen on Spasticity in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Laisram, Nonica; Wadhwa, Ranjan Kumar; Kothari, Shashank Yashwant

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common form of CP. Diazepam and Baclofen are the most commonly used oral drugs to manage spasticity. Study was designed to evaluate and compare their effects and safety in CP children. Aim Study was aimed to assess and compare outcome of oral Diazepam and Baclofen in spastic cerebral palsy children in terms of extent of reduction of spasticity and side effects profile. Materials and Methods Randomized prospective follow-up study was done for one year after giving Diazepam and Baclofen in weekly incremental doses upto recommended maximum dose to 60 children for three months. Two primary outcome measures were spasticity reduction and adverse effect profile. Spasticity reduction was measured by Modified Ashworth’s Scale (MAS) and Range of Motion improvement (ROM). Results After random allocation, there was no baseline difference between groups. Mean MAS score improved from 1.96±0.4 at baseline to 1.63±0.40 and 1.41± 0.36 at 1 month and 3 months for Diazepam and from 1.84±0.64 to 1.57±0.59 and 1.31± 0.48 respectively for Baclofen. Within the group reduction was significant with p-value = 0.0001. Intergroup comparison showed no statistically significant difference with p-value of 0.48 and 0.22 at 1 and 3 months. Baseline ROM showed significant improvement at 1 and 3 months with p value of 0.004 and 0.001 for Diazepam and 0.01 and 0.000 for Baclofen respectively with no statistically significant difference among two groups. Drowsiness was most common observed side effect in both the groups. Conclusion Patients showed significant improvement in spasticity as measured by Mean MAS score and range of motion in Diazepam as well as Baclofen group. Both drugs were found safe for use in children. Study couldn’t establish any difference between the two drugs. However studies with bigger sample size and longer follow- up assessing functional improvement in patients will be required in near future. PMID:27504360

  11. Intrathecal baclofen therapy for spasticity of cerebral origin: cerebral palsy and brain injury.

    PubMed

    Nuttin, B; Ivanhoe, C; Albright, L; Dimitrijevic, M; Saltuari, L

    1999-04-01

    Spasticity affects approximately 66% of individuals with cerebral palsy and 14% of the 100,000 individuals who, each year, experience brain injury in the US. This spasticity interferes with motor function and limits range of motion. It may cause pain and impede mobility, transfers, activities of daily living, sitting posture, and sleep. In addition, spasticity can contribute to the formation of pressure sores and joint contractures and make nursing or caregiving difficult. Several treatment options are available for intractable spasticity. For some diagnoses, oral medications are still the treatment of choice, while in other settings injection therapy may be more appropriate. If, however, they are ineffective or cause too many side effects, intrathecal baclofen therapy (ITB) may be a valuable alternative. ITB is effective, nondestructive, titratable, and reversible. In addition, it is associated with fewer CNS-related side effects than oral Lioresal (Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland). Intrathecal baclofen therapy may improve range of motion, facilitate movement, reduce the patient's expenditure of energy, facilitate nursing, reduce the risk of developing contractures, and, in some cases, diminish pain resulting from spasticity and/or spasms. It also may improve speech, gait, upper extremity function, and activities of daily living, including communication, eating, dressing, hygiene, and other aspects of self-care. A recent study shows that treatment with intrathecal baclofen reduces the need for corrective orthopedic surgeries. Patient selection should be done in a multidisciplinary spasticity setting, where the expertise for different treatment modalities is available. Patients must be screened for response to the drug prior to implantation of the drug delivery pump. Maintenance doses for intrathecal baclofen range from 22 to 1400 μg/day, with most patients adequately maintained on 90-703 μg/day. Complications, while rare, are most often related to the

  12. A green and efficient technology for the degradation of cellulosic materials: structure changes and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of natural cellulose pretreated by synergistic interaction of mechanical activation and metal salt.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Huang, Zuqiang; Lu, Yinghua; Sun, Guosong; Yang, Mei; Huang, Aimin; Hu, Huayu; Zhu, Yuanqin

    2015-02-01

    A new technology for the pretreatment of natural cellulose was developed, which combined mechanical activation (MA) and metal salt treatments in a stirring ball mill. Different valent metal nitrates were used to investigate the changes in degree of polymerization (DP) and crystallinity index (CrI) of cellulose after MA+metal salt (MAMS) pretreatment, and Al(NO3)3 showed better pretreatment effect than NaNO3 and Zn(NO3)2. The destruction of morphological structure of cellulose was mainly resulted from intense ball milling, and the comparative studies on the changes of DP and crystal structure of MA and MA+Al(NO3)3 pretreated cellulose samples showed a synergistic interaction of MA and Al(NO3)3 treatments with more effective changes of structural characteristics of MA+Al(NO3)3 pretreated cellulose and substantial increase of reducing sugar yield in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. In addition, the results indicated that the presence of Al(NO3)3 had significant enhancement for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. PMID:25490099

  13. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  14. Pretreatment Evaluation of Microcirculation by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predicts Survival in Primary Rectal Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Alexander Friedrich; Piringer, Gudrun; Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner; Saely, Christoph Hubert; Lukas, Peter; Öfner, Dietmar

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of the perfusion index (PI), a microcirculatory parameter estimated from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability, to predict overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with primary rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients with stage cT3 rectal cancer requiring neoadjuvant chemoradiation were investigated with DCE-MRI before start of therapy. Contrast-enhanced dynamic T{sub 1} mapping was obtained, and a simple data analysis strategy based on the calculation of the maximum slope of the tissue concentration–time curve divided by the maximum of the arterial input function was used as a measure of tumor microcirculation (PI), which integrates information on both flow and permeability. Results: In 39 patients (47.0%), T downstaging (ypT0-2) was observed. During a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 71 ± 29 months, 58 patients (69.9%) survived, and disease-free survival was achieved in 45 patients (54.2%). The mean PI (PImean) averaged over the group of nonresponders was significantly higher than for responders. Additionally, higher PImean in age- and gender-adjusted analyses was strongly predictive of therapy nonresponse. Most importantly, PImean strongly and significantly predicted disease-free survival (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.85 [ 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.54; P<.001)]; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.81 [1.30-2.51]; P<.001) as well as overall survival (unadjusted HR 1.42 [1.02-1.99], P=.040; HR adjusted for age and sex, 1.43 [1.03-1.98]; P=.034). Conclusions: This analysis identifies PImean as a novel biomarker that is predictive for therapy response, disease-free survival, and overall survival in patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer.

  15. Enhanced reactivation of ultraviolet-damaged herpes virus in ultraviolet pretreated skin fibroblasts of cancer prone donors

    SciTech Connect

    Coppey, J.; Menezes, S.

    1981-01-01

    An enhanced reactivation of ultraviolet-damaged (u.v. at 254 nm) unclear replicating double-stranded DNA viruses occurs when corresponding host cells are treated with radiation or carcinogens prior to infection. This phenomenon seems to be due to an induced DNA repair activity the nature of which is yet unknown. The u.v.-induced enhanced reactivation (ER) of u.v.-damaged herpes simplex virus (u.v. - HSV) was compared in dividing skin fibroblasts of 30 donors either normal or afflicted by genetic disorders, some of which confer a high risk for sunlight induced skin cancers. Cultures were exposed to a single dose of 1.0-25 J.m-2 from 0-60 h before infection with u.v.-HSV (at about 10-3 survival) and the rate of viral production was determined. ER was maximal for a 36 h time interval in all lines. The u.v. dose eliciting maximal ER was 15 J.m-2 in fibroblasts from normal donors, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) heterozygotes, Mibelli's porokeratosis, diffused naevomatosis, Down's syndrome, xerodermoids, XP variants and epidermodysplasia verruciformis. However, in the latter 3 cases, ER was almost 10 times more pronounced than in the normal cases. The u.v. dose eliciting maximal ER was 0.1, 0.3 and 2 J.m-2 in excision deficient XP fibroblasts from groups A, D and C, respectively, 2.5 J.m-2 in 11961 fibroblasts and 5 J.m-2 in fibroblast lines from cockayne s syndrome.

  16. Detergent pretreatment of solid phase globular proteins in ELISA`s. Enhanced antigenicity and subsequent sensitivity. Final report, September 1989-September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, G.C.; Bouhmadouche, M.; Williamson, M.L.

    1994-10-01

    Methods for pretreatment and rejuvenation of preimmobilized globular proteins used in immunodiagnostics were investigated using reagents routinely used in ELISA`s. Rabbit and goat gamma globulins, functioning as antigens, and antibodies on non-covalent, and covalent solid surfaces, were monitored for detergent mediated desorption, denaturation, non-specific binding and altered antigenicity. The results from fourteen commercially supplied polyvinyl- and polystyrene-derivatized microtiter plates coated with antibody or antigenic lgG were compared with commercial microtiter diagnostic plates with preimmobilized lgG. Wash solutions had no effect on immobilized gamma globulins when the solid phase protein functioned as an antibody on covalent or noncovalent surfaces. In addition to tween 20 removing up to 50% of noncovalently bound protein additional binding sites are apparently exposed on solid phase antigens, evident by an increase in signal, which cannot be explained by nonspecific binding. However, no increase in signal was evident when antigen was preimmobilized covalently. The role of between 20 and other reagent components in ELISA-based assays are explored. The screening of noncovalent preimmobilized antigen coated surfaces prior to use for deteraent mediated enhancement is suggested.

  17. Enhanced self-cleaning, antibacterial and UV protection properties of nano TiO2 treated textile through enzymatic pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Montazer, Majid; Seifollahzadeh, Samira

    2011-01-01

    Textile materials can be treated with some enzymes to improve their functionality. The usual enzymatic treatment hydrolyzes the textile surfaces that leads to increase the functional groups. Here, the polyester/wool fabric as a blend of fibers fabric was selected and treated with the two different types of enzymes to increase the surface activity with a propose of higher nano-TiO(2) adsorption. The fabric was first treated with proteases and lipases to hydrolyze the wool and the polyester surfaces, respectively. It has been then dipped into an ultrasound bath containing nano TiO(2) and cross-linking agent followed by curing. The cross-linking agent, butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), also assisted to enhance the nano-particles adsorption and stabilization on the fabric surface. The self-cleaning properties of the fabrics were examined through evaluating the color removal from the stained fabric with Acid Blue 113. The antibacterial properties were determined by reduction growth of a Gram-negative bacteria E. coli. and the UV protection was assessed by UV-reflectance spectrum. The SEM pictures and EDX spectrums of some samples were also reported. PMID:21388383

  18. Fabrication of TiO2-modified polytetrafluoroethylene ultrafiltration membranes via plasma-enhanced surface graft pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yingjia; Chi, Lina; Zhou, Weili; Yu, Zhenjiang; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Zhang, Zhenjia; Jiang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Surface hydrophilic modification of polymer ultrafiltration membrane using metal oxide represents an effective yet highly challenging solution to improve water flux and antifouling performance. Via plasma-enhanced graft of poly acryl acid (PAA) prior to coating TiO2, we successfully fixed TiO2 functional thin layer on super hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. The characterization results evidenced TiO2 attached on the PTFE-based UF membranes through the chelating bidentate coordination between surface-grafted carboxyl group and Ti4+. The TiO2 surface modification may greatly reduce the water contact angle from 115.8° of the PTFE membrane to 35.0° without degradation in 30-day continuous filtration operations. The novel TiO2/PAA/PTFE membranes also exhibited excellent antifouling and self-cleaning performance due to the intrinsic hydrophilicity and photocatalysis properties of TiO2, which was further confirmed by the photo-degradation of MB under Xe lamp irradiation.

  19. Enhanced mixotrophic growth of microalga Chlorella sp. on pretreated swine manure for simultaneous biofuel feedstock production and nutrient removal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Du, Zhenyi; Mohr, Michael; Chen, Paul; Zhu, Jun; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2012-12-01

    The objectives were to assess the feasibility of using fermented liquid swine manure (LSM) as nutrient supplement for cultivation of Chlorella sp. UMN271, a locally isolated facultative heterotrophic strain, and to evaluate the nutrient removal efficiencies by alga compared with those from the conventionally decomposed LSM-algae system. The results showed that addition of 0.1% (v/v) acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively, could promote algal growth, enhance nutrient removal efficiencies and improve total lipids productivities during a 7-day batch cultivation. Similar results were observed when the acidogenic fermentation was applied to the sterilized and raw digested LSM rich in volatile fatty acids (VFAs). High algal growth rate (0.90 d(-1)) and fatty acid content (10.93% of the dry weight) were observed for the raw VFA-enriched manure sample. Finally, the fatty acid profile analyses showed that Chlorella sp. grown on acidogenically digested manure could be used as a feedstock for high-quality biodiesel production. PMID:23073091

  20. A review of sodium oxybate and baclofen in the treatment of sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark A; Guilleminault, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Studies examining GABA(B) receptor agonists have reported effects on sleep including decreased sleep onset latency (SOL), increased sleep consolidation and increases in slow wave sleep (SWS). γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is proposed to act as a GABA(B) receptor agonist; however, the mechanism of action of GHB is controversial. In addition, the GABA(B) receptor agonist, baclofen, has also been proposed to exert similar effects on sleep. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the human clinical studies of sodium oxybate and baclofen regarding sleep and the treatment of sleep disorders including narcolepsy and insomnia, as well as other disorders involving disrupted sleep such as fibromyalgia. PMID:21476957

  1. Treatment of Classic Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN) with Deferiprone and Intrathecal Baclofen

    PubMed Central

    Pratini, Napala R.; Sweeters, Nancy; Vichinsky, Elliott; Neufeld, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) describes a heterogeneous family of diseases characterized by high brain iron, particularly in the basal ganglia. The most common manifestation of childhood NBIA is classic Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN), a severe, progressive type of autosomal recessive neuroaxonal dystrophy characterized by early onset of symptoms (as opposed to atypical PKAN, with average onset age 14 years). There is currently no established therapy for the disease. Intrathecal baclofen has been reported to improve ease of care and dystonia in PKAN patients. Deferiprone, an iron chelator, has been shown to be safe and tolerable in PKAN patients, as well as effective in reducing brain iron accumulation as measured by MRI. This case report highlights the potency of combining ITB and oral deferiprone in a patient with classic PKAN. Although treatment with deferiprone alone was not attempted, this combination therapy appears to be more efficacious than treatment with only intrathecal baclofen. PMID:23370589

  2. Detection of compatibility between baclofen and excipients with aid of infrared spectroscopy and chemometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojek, Barbara; Wesolowski, Marek; Suchacz, Bogdan

    2013-12-01

    In the paper infrared (IR) spectroscopy and multivariate exploration techniques: principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were applied as supportive methods for the detection of physicochemical incompatibilities between baclofen and excipients. In the course of research, the most useful rotational strategy in PCA proved to be varimax normalized, while in CA Ward's hierarchical agglomeration with Euclidean distance measure enabled to yield the most interpretable results. Chemometrical calculations confirmed the suitability of PCA and CA as the auxiliary methods for interpretation of infrared spectra in order to recognize whether compatibilities or incompatibilities between active substance and excipients occur. On the basis of IR spectra and the results of PCA and CA it was possible to demonstrate that the presence of lactose, β-cyclodextrin and meglumine in binary mixtures produce interactions with baclofen. The results were verified using differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry/differential thermogravimetry and X-ray powder diffraction analyses.

  3. Chronic Intrathecal Baclofen Administration for the Treatment of Severe Generalized Tetanus via a Synchromed Infusion Pump.

    PubMed

    Deibert, E; Bhardwaj, A; Staats, P S; Ulatowski, J A

    1998-01-01

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) data indicate that the incidence of tetanus in the United States is highest among the elderly. Conventional therapies for the control of accompanying generalized muscle spasms include large doses of oral or intravenous GABA agonists as antispasticity agents. We describe a case of an elderly patient with severe symptoms of tetanus who developed a prolonged encephalopathy and ventilatory insufficiency with oral baclofen and benzodiazepine therapy. Intrathecal baclofen adequately controlled her severe extensor spasms, facilitated her ventilatory management, and did not compromise her mental status during her extended convalescence. Accordingly, we report the first placement of a permanent implanted infusion pump for this disease. This modality offers advantage for continuous long-term titration of medication for spasms or rigidity control without the systemic sedative effects of conventional therapy. PMID:22150880

  4. Intraventricular versus Intrathecal Baclofen for SecondaryDystonia: A Comparison of Complications

    PubMed Central

    Rocque, Brandon G.; Albright, A. Leland

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is an effective treatment for secondary dystonia. However, in many patients with dystonia, placement of an intrathecal catheter is difficult due to anatomic anomalies or spinal fusion. Intraventricular baclofen (IVB) has been shown to be an effective alternate route for drug delivery in a small series of patients. Objective To present the largest series of IVB cases to date, and compare the complication rate to that of a concurrent cohort of ITB cases. Methods The senior author’s series of IVB cases were reviewed. All contemporaneous cases of ITB for dystonia were reviewed as a control group. Data were collected by retrospective medical records review. Results Thirty IVB patients and 33 ITB patients were identified. Mean follow up was 15 and 16 months, respectively. IVB patients were younger, more commonly underweight, and had more severe dystonia, though no difference between groups was significant. Eleven patients (37%) experienced complications in the IVB group, and 16 (48%) in the ITB group. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed an odds ratio of 0.67 (95% CI 0.30–1.48, p=0.31) in favor of IVB. Adjusting for age and underweight status yielded an odds ratio of 0.64 (95% CI 0.29–1.42, p=0.27) in favor of IVB. There were 7 catheter or leak-related complications in the ITB group and 2 in the IVB group (p=0.15). Conclusion Intraventricular baclofen is as safe as intrathecal baclofen. There may be a lower risk of catheter or leak-related complications with IVB, though this study was too small to show significance. PMID:22555626

  5. Indwelling intrathecal catheter with subcutaneous abdominal reservoir: a viable baclofen delivery system in severely cachectic patients.

    PubMed

    Waqar, Mueez; Ellenbogen, Jonathan R; Kumar, Ram; Sneade, Christine; Zebian, Bassel; Williams, Dawn; Pettorini, Benedetta L

    2014-10-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is a reversible treatment that reduces muscle tone to ameliorate spasticity and dystonia in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). The resulting decrease in energy expenditure allows patients to gain much-needed weight, albeit temporarily. Modern techniques require sufficient abdominal musculature and subcutaneous fat to permit the implantation of an indwelling pump. In patients with extremely low muscle bulk, visceral pumps may be impractical or impossible, with increased risks of dehiscence and infection. The authors describe a variation of the classical procedure in a young patient with severe cachexia. A 10-year-old boy with spastic-dystonic quadriplegic CP was admitted to the neuromedical unit. Numerous drug trials had failed, and surgical intervention was deemed necessary but was complicated by his cachectic body habitus. The authors inserted a lumbar intrathecal catheter and subcutaneously tunneled it to the anterolateral abdomen, where it was connected to a subcutaneous injection port. Baclofen was continuously infused into the subcutaneous port using a noncoring needle connected to an external pump. The needle and line were changed every 5 days to minimize the risk of sepsis. Although other techniques, such as intraventricular baclofen delivery, have been described, these are largely dependent upon sufficient musculature to support a visceral pump. A subcutaneous injection port system represents an alternative approach that reduces the risk of sepsis and may be better tolerated in cachectic patients. PMID:25084089

  6. Pisa-Like Syndrome Under Baclofen in a Patient With Spastic Hemiparesis due to Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Cannas, Antonino; Solla, Paolo; Mascia, Marcello; Muroni, Antonella; Floris, Gian Luca; Borghero, Giuseppe; Orofino, Gianni; Meloni, Mario; Marrosu, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In its original description, Pisa syndrome was reported as an iatrogenic dystonia of the trunk caused by neuroleptic drugs. However, sometimes, not dystonic lateral flexion of the trunk is described as Pisa syndrome. These observations support the possibility of a drug-induced lateral flexion of the trunk with clinical presentation similar to Pisa syndrome, although with a different etiology and pathophysiology. Here, we describe the case of a male patient, with a previous ischemic stroke and residual spastic hemiparesis to the right side, who subacutely developed a dramatic lateral flexion of trunk (approximately 45° to the right) a few days after the introduction of Baclofen (5 mg 3 times per day). After the discontinuation of baclofen, a full recovery of the correct posture was obtained. In this respect, our case is paradigmatic: it is drug-induced but not clearly dystonic in its manifestation. Baclofen reduces the spasticity depressing the monosinaptic and polisinaptic reflex in the spinal cord by stimulating Gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA-B) receptors, which inhibit the release of excitatory amino acids, glutamate and aspartate. We believe that the definition of Pisa syndrome for these forms, not clearly dystonic, might be not completely appropriate, but they should be defined more correctly as Pisa-like syndromes. PMID:26366969

  7. Microwave Pretreatment For Hydrolysis Of Cellulose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; George, Clifford E.; Lightsey, George R.

    1993-01-01

    Microwave pretreatment enhances enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic wastes into soluble saccharides used as feedstocks for foods, fuels, and other products. Low consumption of energy, high yield, and low risk of proposed hydrolysis process incorporating microwave pretreatment makes process viable alternative to composting.

  8. One-Pot Synthesis of (S)-Baclofen via Aldol Condensation of Acetaldehyde with Diphenylprolinol Silyl Ether Mediated Asymmetric Michael Reaction as a Key Step.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Okamura, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    An efficient asymmetric total synthesis of (S)-baclofen was accomplished via a one-pot operation from commercially available materials using sequential reactions, such as aldol condensation of acetaldehyde, diphenylprolinol silyl ether mediated asymmetric Michael reaction of nitromethane, Kraus-Pinnick oxidation, and Raney Ni reduction. Highly enantioenriched baclofen was obtained in one pot with a good yield over four reactions. PMID:26636719

  9. Baclofen activates voltage-dependent and 4-aminopyridine sensitive K+ conductance in guinea-pig hippocampal pyramidal cells maintained in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, M.; Matsuo, T.; Ogata, N.

    1985-01-01

    The ionic mechanism underlying the effect of (-)-baclofen in the hippocampus was investigated using guinea-pig brain slices. (-)-Baclofen either perfused or applied directly by microiontophoresis hyperpolarized the membrane and decreased the membrane input resistance of pyramidal cells in a dose-dependent manner. The value of the reversal potential for the baclofen-induced hyperpolarization, as estimated from the current-voltage relationships, was about -95mV. The reversal potential of the baclofen-induced hyperpolarization measured directly coincided with that for the post-burst hyperpolarization which is known to result from an activation of Ca2+-activated K+ conductance. The amplitude of the baclofen-induced hyperpolarization was increased in low K+ (1.24 mM) medium whereas the hyperpolarization was decreased or abolished in high K+ (12.4 and 25 mM). Low Cl- (10.2 mM) medium had no noticeable effect on the baclofen-induced hyperpolarization. The effect of baclofen was antagonized by a low dose of 4-aminopyridine (5 X 10(-6) M) whereas it was unaffected by picrotoxin (2 X 10(-5) M). These results strongly suggest that the effect of baclofen is mediated by an increase in K+ conductance. PMID:2988680

  10. Enhancement of anaerobic digestion efficiency of wastewater sludge and olive waste: Synergistic effect of co-digestion and ultrasonic/microwave sludge pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, B Aylin; Yenigün, Orhan; Erdinçler, Ayşen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonic and microwave pre-treatment on biogas production from the anaerobic co-digestion of olive pomace and wastewater sludges. It was found that co-digestion of wastewater sludge with olive pomace yielded around 0.21 L CH4/g VS added, whereas the maximum methane yields from the mono-digestion of olive pomace and un-pretreated wastewater sludges were 0.18 and 0.16L CH4/g VS added. In the same way, compared to mono-digestion of these substrates, co-digestion increased methane production by 17-31%. The microwave and ultrasonic pre-treatments applied to sludge samples prior to co-digestion process led to further increase in the methane production by 52% and 24%, respectively, compared to co-digestion with un-pretreated wastewater sludge. The highest biogas and methane yields were obtained from the co-digestion of 30 min microwave pre-treated wastewater sludges and olive pomace to be 0.46 L/g VS added and 0.32 L CH4/g VS added, respectively. PMID:26320815

  11. Alkali-based pretreatments distinctively extract lignin and pectin for enhancing biomass saccharification by altering cellulose features in sugar-rich Jerusalem artichoke stem.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yuezhou; Xie, Guanghui

    2016-05-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (JA) has been known as a potential nonfood feedstock for biofuels. Based on systems analysis of total 59 accessions, both soluble sugar and ash could positively affect biomass digestibility after dilute sodium hydroxide pretreatment (A). In this study, one representative accession (HEN-3) was used to illustrate its enzymatic digestibility with pretreatments of ultrasonic-assisted dilute sodium hydroxide (B), alkaline peroxide (C), and ultrasonic-assisted alkaline peroxide (D). Pretreatment D exhibited the highest hexose release rate (79.4%) and total sugar yield (10.4 g/L), which were 2.4 and 2.6 times higher, respectively, than those of the control. The analysis of cellulose crystalline index (CrI), cellulose degree of polymerization (DP), thermal behavior and SEM suggested that alkali-based pretreatments could distinctively extract lignin and pectin polymers, leading to significant alterations of cellulose CrI and DP for high biomass saccharification. Additionally, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) could significant reduce the generation of fermentation inhibitors during alkali-based pretreatments. PMID:26918836

  12. Combined pretreatment with hot compressed water and wet disk milling opened up oil palm biomass structure resulting in enhanced enzymatic digestibility.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Hirata, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2015-10-01

    Combined pretreatment with hot compressed water and wet disk milling was performed with the aim to reduce the natural recalcitrance of oil palm biomass by opening its structure and provide maximal access to cellulase attack. Oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber were first hydrothermally pretreated at 150-190° C and 10-240 min. Further treatment with wet disk milling resulted in nanofibrillation of fiber which caused the loosening of the tight biomass structure, thus increasing the subsequent enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose. The effectiveness of the combined pretreatments was evaluated by chemical composition changes, power consumption, morphological alterations by SEM and the enzymatic digestibility of treated samples. At optimal pretreatment process, approximately 88.5% and 100.0% of total sugar yields were obtained from oil palm empty fruit bunch and oil palm frond fiber samples, which only consumed about 15.1 and 23.5 MJ/kg of biomass, respectively. PMID:26125612

  13. Pretreatment of human cervicovaginal mucus with pluronic F127 enhances nanoparticle penetration without compromising mucus barrier properties to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Ensign, Laura M; Lai, Samuel K; Wang, Ying-Ying; Yang, Ming; Mert, Olcay; Hanes, Justin; Cone, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Mucosal drug delivery nanotechnologies are limited by the mucus barrier that protects nearly all epithelial surfaces not covered with skin. Most polymeric nanoparticles, including polystyrene nanoparticles (PS), strongly adhere to mucus, thereby limiting penetration and facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that PS rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), if the CVM has been pretreated with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated, nonmucoadhesive nanoparticles (PS-PEG) did not change in F127-pretreated CVM, implying that F127 did not significantly alter the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM, indicating that the presence of F127 did not reduce adhesive interactions between CVM and the virions. In contrast to treatment with a surfactant that has been approved for vaginal use as a spermicide (nonoxynol-9 or N9), there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for 1 week. Pluronic F127 pretreatment holds potential as a method to safely improve the distribution, retention, and efficacy of nanoparticle formulations without compromising CVM barrier properties to pathogens. PMID:25347518

  14. Low cost CaCl₂ pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhancement of textile dyes adsorption and subsequent biodegradation of adsorbed dyes under solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Avinash A; Lade, Harshad S; Patil, Swapnil M; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2013-03-01

    Pretreatments to sugarcane bagasse (SCB) such as CaCl2, alkali, ammonia, steam and milling showed 91%, 46%, 47%, 42% and 56% adsorption of Solvent Red 5B (SR5B); 92%, 57%, 58%, 56% and 68% adsorption of simulated dyes mixture (SDM), and 86%, 45%, 49%, 44% and 56% adsorption of a real textile effluent (RTE), respectively. However, the untreated SCB showed 32%, 38% and 30% adsorption of SR5B, SDM and RTE, respectively. Adsorption of SR5B on CaCl2 pretreated SCB follows pseudo-second order kinetics. SEM and FTIR analysis reveals the delignification of CaCl2 pretreated SCB. SR5B, SDM and RTE adsorbed on CaCl2, alkali, ammonia, steam and milling pretreated SCB were decolorized under solid state fermentation using isolated Providencia staurti strain EbtSPG. Tray bioreactor study showed 86% American Dye Manufacturers Institute (ADMI) removal of RTE in 72h. Biodegradation of adsorbed SR5B was confirmed using FTIR, HPLC and HPTLC. PMID:23411459

  15. Pretreatment of Human Cervicovaginal Mucus with Pluronic F127 Enhances Nanoparticle Penetration without Compromising Mucus Barrier Properties to Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal drug delivery nanotechnologies are limited by the mucus barrier that protects nearly all epithelial surfaces not covered with skin. Most polymeric nanoparticles, including polystyrene nanoparticles (PS), strongly adhere to mucus, thereby limiting penetration and facilitating rapid clearance from the body. Here, we demonstrate that PS rapidly penetrate human cervicovaginal mucus (CVM), if the CVM has been pretreated with sufficient concentrations of Pluronic F127. Importantly, the diffusion rate of large polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated, nonmucoadhesive nanoparticles (PS–PEG) did not change in F127-pretreated CVM, implying that F127 did not significantly alter the native pore structure of CVM. Additionally, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) remains adherent in F127-pretreated CVM, indicating that the presence of F127 did not reduce adhesive interactions between CVM and the virions. In contrast to treatment with a surfactant that has been approved for vaginal use as a spermicide (nonoxynol-9 or N9), there was no increase in inflammatory cytokine release in the vaginal tract of mice after daily application of 1% F127 for 1 week. Pluronic F127 pretreatment holds potential as a method to safely improve the distribution, retention, and efficacy of nanoparticle formulations without compromising CVM barrier properties to pathogens. PMID:25347518

  16. Pretreatment of cultured preadipocytes with arachidonic acid during the differentiation phase without a cAMP-elevating agent enhances fat storage after the maturation phase.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ferdous; Syeda, Pinky Karim; Nartey, Michael Nii N; Rahman, Mohammad Shahidur; Islam, Mohammad Safiqul; Nishimura, Kohji; Jisaka, Mitsuo; Shono, Fumiaki; Yokota, Kazushige

    2016-03-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) and the related prostanoids exert complex effects on the adipocyte differentiation depending on the culture conditions and life stages. Here, we investigated the effect of the pretreatment of cultured 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with exogenous AA during the differentiation phase without 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a cAMP-elevating agent, on the storage of fats after the maturation phase. This pretreatment with AA stimulated appreciably adipogenesis after the maturation phase as evident with the up-regulated gene expression of adipogenic markers. The stimulatory effect of the pretreatment with AA was attenuated by the co-incubation with each of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors. Among exogenous prostanoids and related compounds, the pretreatment with MRE-269, a selective agonist of the IP receptor for prostaglandin (PG) I2, strikingly stimulated the storage of fats in adipocytes. The gene expression analysis of arachidonate COX pathway revealed that the transcript levels of inducible COX-2, membrane-bound PGE synthase-1, and PGF synthase declined more greatly in cultured preadipocytes treated with AA. By contrast, the expression levels of COX-1, cytosolic PGE synthase, and PGI synthase remained constitutive. The treatment of cultured preadipocytes with AA resulted in the decreased synthesis of PGE2 and PGF2α serving as anti-adipogenic PGs although the biosynthesis of pro-adipogenic PGI2 was up-regulated during the differentiation phase. Moreover, the gene expression levels of EP4 and FP, the respective prostanoid receptors for PGE2 and PGF2α, were gradually suppressed by the supplementation with AA, whereas that of IP for PGI2 remained relatively constant. Collectively, these results suggest the predominant role of endogenous PGI2 in the stimulatory effect of the pretreatment of cultured preadipoccytes with AA during the differentiation phase without IBMX on adipogenesis after the maturation phase. PMID:26928048

  17. Ultrasound Guidance for Technically Challenging Intrathecal Baclofen Pump Refill: Three Cases and Procedure Description.

    PubMed

    Maneyapanda, Mithra B; Chang Chien, George C; Mattie, Ryan; Amorapanth, Prin; Reger, Christopher; McCormick, Zachary L

    2016-09-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy is a common treatment used to reduce spasticity due to neurologic disorders and injuries. A variety of factors can increase the difficulty of ITB pump refill. Excess subcutaneous fat overlying the pump, spasticity, suboptimal positioning, pump rotation or inversion, and scar formation over the reservoir fill port can create challenges during pump refill. As a result, multiple unsuccessful attempts at accessing the reservoir fill port can be painful and increase the risk of infection, particularly when repeat skin puncture is required. Blind attempts to refill a pump in challenging cases may also result in subcutaneous injection or pocket fill, resulting in a potentially fatal baclofen withdrawal syndrome. We describe 3 successful ITB pump refills in technically challenging cases when using ultrasound guidance. This represents an innovative approach to using ultrasound guidance to facilitate ITB refill in adults with intractable spasticity. We present these new clinical data with a literature review of potential complications related to inaccurate pump refill procedures and discuss the utility of ultrasound guidance for preventing such adverse events. PMID:27003203

  18. Controlled Study of the Effects of Continuous Intrathecal Baclofen Infusion in Non-Ambulant Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Richard E.; Gray, Natalie; Vloeberghs, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To measure changes in children with severe spastic cerebral palsy (CP) after continuous intrathecal baclofen (ITB) infusion over 18 months and to compare the results with those of a comparison group awaiting treatment. Method: Thirty-eight children with severe spastic CP considered suitable for ITB were assessed when first seen, just before…

  19. Intrathecal Baclofen in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Finding Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoving, Marjanke A.; van Raak, Elisabeth P. M.; Spincemaille, Geert H. J. J.; Palmans, Liesbeth J.; Sleypen, Frans A. M.; Vles, Johan S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy can be very effective in the treatment of intractable spasticity, but its effectiveness and safety have not yet been thoroughly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aims of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study were to select children eligible for continuous ITB…

  20. Enhancing the recovery of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) oil by mechanical pressing: Moisture content, particle size, high pressure and enzymatic pre-treatment effects.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, Onyinye; Gordon, Michael H; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2016-03-01

    Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) tuber contains oil that is high in monounsaturated fatty acids, and this oil makes up about 23% of the tuber. The study aimed at evaluating the impact of several factors and enzymatic pre-treatment on the recovery of pressed tiger nut oil. Smaller particles were more favourable for pressing. High pressure pre-treatment did not increase oil recovery but enzymatic treatment did. The highest yield obtained by enzymatic treatment prior to mechanical extraction was 33% on a dry defatted basis, which represents a recovery of 90% of the oil. Tiger nut oil consists mainly of oleic acid; its acid and peroxide values reflect the high stability of the oil. PMID:26471565

  1. Baclofen, a GABABR Agonist, Ameliorates Immune-Complex Mediated Acute Lung Injury by Modulating Pro-Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shunying; Merchant, Michael L.; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D.; McLeish, Kenneth R.; Lederer, Eleanor D.; Torres-Gonzalez, Edilson; Fraig, Mostafa; Barati, Michelle T.; Lentsch, Alex B.; Roman, Jesse; Klein, Jon B.; Rane, Madhavi J.

    2015-01-01

    Immune-complexes play an important role in the inflammatory diseases of the lung. Neutrophil activation mediates immune-complex (IC) deposition-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Components of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) signaling, including GABA B receptor 2 (GABABR2), GAD65/67 and the GABA transporter, are present in the lungs and in the neutrophils. However, the role of pulmonary GABABR activation in the context of neutrophil-mediated ALI has not been determined. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine whether administration of a GABABR agonist, baclofen would ameliorate or exacerbate ALI. We hypothesized that baclofen would regulate IC-induced ALI by preserving pulmonary GABABR expression. Rats were subjected to sham injury or IC-induced ALI and two hours later rats were treated intratracheally with saline or 1 mg/kg baclofen for 2 additional hours and sacrificed. ALI was assessed by vascular leakage, histology, TUNEL, and lung caspase-3 cleavage. ALI increased total protein, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin-1 receptor associated protein (IL-1R AcP), in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Moreover, ALI decreased lung GABABR2 expression, increased phospho-p38 MAPK, promoted IκB degradation and increased neutrophil influx in the lung. Administration of baclofen, after initiation of ALI, restored GABABR expression, which was inhibited in the presence of a GABABR antagonist, CGP52432. Baclofen administration activated pulmonary phospho-ERK and inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IκB degradation. Additionally, baclofen significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1βAcP release and promoted BAL neutrophil apoptosis. Protective effects of baclofen treatment on ALI were possibly mediated by inhibition of TNF-α- and IL-1β-mediated inflammatory signaling. Interestingly, GABABR2 expression was regulated in the type II pneumocytes in lung tissue sections from lung injured patients, further suggesting a

  2. Enhanced in Vitro and in Vivo Performance of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd Alloy Achieved with APTES Pretreatment for Drug-Eluting Vascular Stent Application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Pei; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Qiuping; Xi, Tingfei; Chen, Ming; Guan, Shaokang

    2016-07-20

    Bioabsorbable magnesium alloys are becoming prominent as temporary functional implants, as they avoid the risks generated by permanent metallic implants such as persistent inflammation and late restenosis. Nevertheless, the overfast corrosion of Mg alloys under physiological conditions hinders their wider application as medical implant materials. Here we investigate a simple one-step process to introduce a cross-linked 3-amino-propyltrimethoxysilane (APTES) silane physical barrier layer on the surface of Mg-Zn-Y-Nd alloys prior to electrostatic spraying with rapamycin-eluting poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) layer. Surface microstructure was characterized by scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Nanoscratch test verified the superior adhesion strength of PLGA coating in the group pretreated with APTES. Electrochemical tests combined with long-term immersion results suggested that the preferable in vitro anticorrosion behavior could be achieved by dense APTES barrier. Cell morphology and proliferation data demonstrated that APTES pretreated group resulted in remarkably preferable compatibility for both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. On the basis of excellent in vitro mechenical property, the animal study on the APTES pretreated Mg-Zn-Y-Nd stent implanted into porcine coronary arteries confirmed benign tissue compatibility as well as re-endothelialization without thrombogenesis or in-stent restenosis at six-month followup. PMID:27331417

  3. Initial study of coal pretreatment and coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Vaillancourt, M.; Turner, T.F.; Fahy, L.J.

    1991-09-01

    This document describes research performed in accordance with task 3.3.1 in the 1989--1990 annual research plan under cooperative agreement number DE-FC21-86MC11076. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for enhancing liquid yields by integrating coal pretreatment and coprocessing technologies. The process tested involved pretreatment of coal to a very low moisture content and partial decarboxylation in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor by contact with hot C0{sub 2} or a C0{sub 2} and superheated steam mixture. The pretreated coal was then coprocessed with a heavy, coal-derived oil in a 2-inch screw pyrolysis reactor to produce dried coal with a higher calorific value and an upgraded oil. Six pretreatment tests and seven coprocessing tests were conducted independently with two separate systems being utilized: one system for the pretreatment tests and the other system for the coprocessing tests. The test program included evaluating alternative pretreatment gases, temperatures, and residence times in combination with different coprocessing temperatures and residence times. Pretreatment and coprocessing studies were performed on Herrin Results of the integrated pretreatment and coprocessing operations were evaluated and compared with the coprocessing of raw coal. The results indicate that a solid product is formed with a higher calorific content than the starting coal and that an upgraded oil is generated.

  4. Initial study of coal pretreatment and coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Vaillancourt, M.; Turner, T.F.; Fahy, L.J.

    1991-09-01

    This document describes research performed in accordance with task 3.3.1 in the 1989--1990 annual research plan under cooperative agreement number DE-FC21-86MC11076. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for enhancing liquid yields by integrating coal pretreatment and coprocessing technologies. The process tested involved pretreatment of coal to a very low moisture content and partial decarboxylation in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor by contact with hot C0[sub 2] or a C0[sub 2] and superheated steam mixture. The pretreated coal was then coprocessed with a heavy, coal-derived oil in a 2-inch screw pyrolysis reactor to produce dried coal with a higher calorific value and an upgraded oil. Six pretreatment tests and seven coprocessing tests were conducted independently with two separate systems being utilized: one system for the pretreatment tests and the other system for the coprocessing tests. The test program included evaluating alternative pretreatment gases, temperatures, and residence times in combination with different coprocessing temperatures and residence times. Pretreatment and coprocessing studies were performed on Herrin Results of the integrated pretreatment and coprocessing operations were evaluated and compared with the coprocessing of raw coal. The results indicate that a solid product is formed with a higher calorific content than the starting coal and that an upgraded oil is generated.

  5. Studies in the primate on the analgetic effects associated with intrathecal actions of opiates, alpha-adrenergic agonists and baclofen.

    PubMed

    Yaksh, T L; Reddy, S V

    1981-06-01

    The effects of intrathecally administered opiates (morphine sulfate and meperidine), alpha-adrenergic agonists (clonidine and ST-91) and baclofen were examined on the shock titration threshold of macaque monkeys chronically prepared with intrathecal (I) or epidural (E) catheters. Spinal opiates produced a long-lasting analgesia which was antagonized by naloxone. The order of potency was I morphine greater than I meperidine greater than E meperidine greater than E morphine. Clonidine and ST-91, also produced a dose-dependent, long-lasting elevation in the shock titration threshold, antagonized by phentolamine, but not naloxone. L-baclofen, but not D-baclofen, resulted in a dose-dependent elevation of shock titration threshold, which was not antagonized by naloxone. Repeated administration at 24-h intervals over a 7-day period of morphine, clonidine or baclofen, resulted in a significant reduction in the analgetic effects of each drug. Cross tolerance between the three classes of agents was not observed. Intrathecal co-administration of inactive doses of ST-91 and morphine resulted in a near maximal increase in the shock titration threshold, which failed to show any significant tolerance over 21 days. Intrathecal ST-91 and morphine produced no change in either muscle strength, tendon reflexes, respiratory rate, urine formation, or the ability to locomote. Baclofen, in contrast, produced a dose-dependent decrease in muscle strength. That the intrathecal drugs did not produce anesthesia was demonstrated by their failure to block the avoidance response to ensuing ear shock cued by a light tactile stimulus applied to the hind paw. These results clearly indicate that a powerful analgesia can be produced by selectively activating adrenergic, opiate, and baclofenergic receptor systems in the spinal cord. PMID:6112935

  6. Baclofen suppresses binge eating of pure fat but not a sugar-rich or sweet-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Berner, Laura A.; Bocarsly, Miriam E.; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Avena, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Baclofen is a gamma-aminobutyric-acid-B (GABA-B) agonist that is known to reduce the intake of some drugs of abuse. Binge eating of sugar or fat has been shown to have behavioral and neurochemical similarities to drug abuse, and may be special cases suggestive of natural addiction. In order to determine whether a treatment for drug abuse would have an effect on binge eating, and if so, which type of food intake might be affected, the present study compared the effects of baclofen on binge eating sucrose, fat, and a sweet-fat combination. Rats were maintained for 21 days on a schedule of 12-h daily access to (1) a 10% sucrose solution, (2) vegetable fat, or (3) a commercially available sweet-fat chow. A fourth group had only 2-h daily access to vegetable fat. All four experimental groups, plus a control group, had free access to water and standard rodent chow. Food intake was then measured following i.p. administration of baclofen (0, 0.6, 1.0, or 1.8 mg/kg). Results showed that while there was no effect of drug on standard chow intake of rats in any group, baclofen stimulated binge eating of sweet-fat food, suppressed binge eating of pure fat (vegetable shortening) in the group with 2-h access, and had no effect on sucrose binges. These results support previous findings of a suppressive effect of baclofen on binge eating of fat and introduce a new finding that the drug differentially affects binge eating of sucrose and a sugar-fat combination. PMID:19752722

  7. Baclofen suppresses binge eating of pure fat but not a sugar-rich or sweet-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Berner, Laura A; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2009-10-01

    Baclofen is a γ-aminobutyric acid-B agonist that is known to reduce the intake of some drugs of abuse. Binge eating of sugar or fat has been shown to have behavioral and neurochemical similarities to drug abuse, and may be special cases suggestive of natural addiction. To determine whether a treatment for drug abuse would have an effect on binge eating, and if so, which type of food intake might be affected, this study compared the effects of baclofen on binge eating sucrose, fat, and a sweet-fat combination. Rats were maintained for 21 days on a schedule of 12-h daily access to (i) a 10% sucrose solution, (ii) vegetable fat, or (iii) a commercially available sweet-fat chow. A fourth group had only 2-h daily access to vegetable fat. All four experimental groups, plus a control group, had ad libitum access to water and standard rodent chow. Food intake was then measured after intraperitoneal administration of baclofen (0, 0.6, 1.0, or 1.8 mg/kg). Results showed that although there was no effect of drug on standard chow intake of rats in any group, baclofen stimulated binge eating of sweet-fat food, suppressed binge eating of pure fat (vegetable shortening) in the group with 2-h access, and had no effect on sucrose binges. These results support earlier findings of a suppressive effect of baclofen on binge eating of fat and introduce a new finding that the drug differentially affects binge eating of sucrose and a sugar-fat combination. PMID:19752722

  8. Solids Control in Sludge Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C., Weber, C.F., Hunt, R.D., Dillow, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Sludge pretreatment will likely involve washing, followed by caustic or acidic leaching and washing of sludge residues after leaching. The principal goal of pretreatment is to obtain a low-volume high-activity waste stream and a high-volume low-activity waste stream. Also, some waste constituents such as chromium and phosphate can be included in glass formulations only at very low concentrations; therefore, it is desirable to remove them from high-level waste streams. Two aspects of sludge treatment and subsequent separations should be well delineated and predictable: (1) the distribution of chemical species between aqueous solutions and solids and (2) potential problems due to chemical interactions that could result in process difficulties or safety concerns.Before any treatment technology is adopted, it must be demonstrated that the process can be carried out as planned. Three pretreatment methods were considered in the Tri-Party (Washington State Ecology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy) negotiations: (1) sludge washing with corrosion- inhibiting water, (2) Enhanced Sludge Washing, and (3)acidic dissolution with separations processes. Enhanced Sludge Washing is the baseline process. In Enhanced Sludge Washing, sludge is first washed with corrosion-inhibiting water; it is then leached with caustic (sodium hydroxide solution) and washed again with corrosion- inhibiting water. The initial concern is whether a pretreatment technique is effective in separating sludge components. This can be evaluated by bench-scale tests with sludge specimens from underground storage tanks. The results give data on the distribution of important species such as aluminum, phosphate, and radionuclides between wash and leach solutions and solid sludge residues.

  9. Pre-treatment of central venous catheters with the cathelicidin BMAP-28 enhances the efficacy of antistaphylococcal agents in the treatment of experimental catheter-related infection.

    PubMed

    Cirioni, Oscar; Giacometti, Andrea; Ghiselli, Roberto; Bergnach, Cristina; Orlando, Fiorenza; Mocchegiani, Federico; Silvestri, Carmela; Licci, Alberto; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Zanetti, Margherita; Saba, Vittorio; Scalise, Giorgio

    2006-09-01

    An in vitro antibiotic susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus biofilms developed on 96-well polystyrene tissue culture plates was performed to elucidate the activity of the 27 residues cathelicidin peptide BMAP-28, quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D), linezolid, and vancomycin. Efficacy studies were performed in a rat model of staphylococcal CVC infection. Silastic catheters were implanted into the superior cava. Twenty-four hours after implantation the catheters were filled with BMAP-28. Thirty minutes later rats were challenged via the CVC with 1.0x10(6) CFU of S. aureus strain Smith diffuse. Administration of antibiotics into the CVC at a concentration equal to the MBC observed using adherent cells, or at a much higher concentration (1024 microg/mL) began 24 h later. The inhibition activities of all antibiotics against adherent bacteria were at least two-four-fold lower that against freely growing cells. When antibiotics were used in BMAP-28 pre-treated wells, they showed higher activities. The in vivo studies showed that when CVCs were pre-treated with BMAP-28 or with a high dose of antibiotics, biofilm bacterial load was reduced from 10(7) to 10(3) CFU/mL and bacteremia reduced from 10(3) to 10(1) CFU/mL. When CVCs were treated with both BMAP-28 and antibiotics, biofilm bacterial load was further decreased to 10(1) CFU/mL and bacteremia was not detected. These results suggest that CVC pre-treated with BMAP-28 represents an attractive choice for the treatment of device-related infections caused by staphylococci. PMID:16621147

  10. GABAB Receptor-Positive Modulators: Enhancement of GABAB Receptor Agonist Effects In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    France, Charles P.; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo effects of GABAB receptor-positive modulators suggest that they have therapeutic potential for treating central nervous system disorders such as anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Although these effects generally are thought to be mediated by positive modulation of GABAB receptors, such modulation has been examined primarily in vitro. The present study was aimed at further examining the in vivo positive modulatory properties of the GABAB receptor-positive modulators, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropyl) phenol (CGP7930) and (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF). Both compounds enhanced loss of righting induced by baclofen in mice. However, CGP7930 was less effective and rac-BHFF was less potent for enhancing loss of righting induced by γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), which, like baclofen, has GABAB receptor agonist properties. In contrast with baclofen- and GHB-induced loss of righting, the hypothermic effects of baclofen and GHB were not enhanced by rac-BHFF but were enhanced by CGP7930 only at doses that produced hypothermia when given alone. CGP7930-induced hypothermia was not attenuated by the GABAB receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl(diethoxymethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP35348), at doses that blocked baclofen-induced hypothermia, and was not increased by the nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, at doses that increased the hypothermic effects of baclofen and GHB. The results provide evidence that CGP7930 and rac-BHFF act in vivo as positive modulators at GABAB receptors mediating loss of righting, but not at GABAB receptors mediating hypothermia. Conceivably, CGP7930, but not rac-BHFF, acts as an allosteric agonist at these latter receptors. Taken together, the results provide further evidence of pharmacologically distinct GABAB receptor subtypes, possibly allowing for a more selective therapeutic interference with the GABAB system. PMID:20628000

  11. Effects of baclofen on mechanical noxious and innocuous transmission in the spinal dorsal horn of the adult rat: in vivo patch-clamp analysis.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Kaori; Katafuchi, Toshihiko; Yoshimura, Megumu

    2013-11-01

    The effects of a GABAB agonist, baclofen, on mechanical noxious and innocuous synaptic transmission in the substantia gelatinosa (SG) were investigated in adult rats with the in vivo patch-clamp technique. Under current-clamp conditions, perfusion with baclofen (10 μm) on the surface of the spinal cord caused hyperpolarisation of SG neurons and a decrease in the number of action potentials elicited by pinch and touch stimuli applied to the receptive field of the ipsilateral hindlimb. The suppression of action potentials was preserved under blockade of postsynaptic G-proteins, although baclofen-induced hyperpolarisation was completely blocked. These findings suggest presynaptic effects of baclofen on the induced action potentials. Under voltage-clamp conditions, application of baclofen reduced the frequency, but not the amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), whereas the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP55845 increased the frequency of mEPSCs without affecting the amplitude. Furthermore, application of a GABA uptake inhibitor, nipecotic acid, decreased the frequency of mEPSCs; this effect was blocked by CGP55845, but not by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline. Both the frequency and the amplitude of the pinch-evoked barrage of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were suppressed by baclofen in a dose-dependent manner. The frequency and amplitude of touch-evoked EPSCs was also suppressed by baclofen, but the suppression was significantly smaller than that of pinch-evoked EPSCs. We conclude that mechanical noxious transmission is presynaptically blocked through GABAB receptors in the SG, and is more effectively suppressed than innocuous transmission, which may account for a part of the mechanism of the efficient analgesic effects of baclofen. PMID:23961926

  12. Lime pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shushien

    Lignocellulose is a valuable alternative energy source. The susceptibility of lignocellulosic biomass to enzymatic hydrolysis is constrained due to its structural features, so pretreatment is essential to enhance enzymatic digestibility. Of the chemicals used as pretreatment agents, it has been reported that alkalis improve biomass digestibility significantly. In comparison with other alkalis such as NaOH and ammonia, lime (calcium hydroxide) has many advantages; it is very inexpensive, is safe, and can be recovered by carbonating wash water. The effects of lime pretreatment were explored on switchgrass and poplar wood, representing herbaceous and woody biomass, respectively. The effects of pretreatment conditions (time, temperature, lime loading, water loading, particle size, and oxygen pressure) have been systematically studies. Lime alone enhances the digestibility of switchgrass significantly; under the recommended conditions, the 3-d total sugar (glucose + xylose) yields of lime-treated switchgrass were 7 times that of untreated sample. When treating poplar wood, lime must be combined with oxygen to achieve high digestibility; oxidative lime pretreatment increased the 3-d total sugar yield of poplar wood to 12 times that of untreated sample. In a fundamental study, to determine why lime pretreatment is effective, the effects of three structural features on enzymatic digestibility were studied: lignin content, acetyl content, and crystallinity index (CrI). Poplar wood was treated with peracetic acid, potassium hydroxide, and ball milling to produce model lignocelluloses with a broad spectrum of lignin contents, acetyl contents, and CrI, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed on the model lignocelluloses to determine the digestibility. Correlations between lignin/carbohydrate ratio, acetyl/carbohydrate ratio, CrI and digestibility were developed. The 95% prediction intervals show that the correlations predict the 1-h and 3-d total sugar conversions of

  13. Risk factors for baclofen pump infection in children: a multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Spader, Heather S; Bollo, Robert J; Bowers, Christian A; Riva-Cambrin, Jay

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Intrathecal baclofen infusion systems to manage severe spasticity and dystonia are associated with higher infection rates in children than in adults. Factors unique to this population, such as poor nutrition and physical limitations for pump placement, have been hypothesized as the reasons for this disparity. The authors assessed potential risk factors for infection in a multivariate analysis. METHODS Patients who underwent implantation of a programmable pump and intrathecal catheter for baclofen infusion at a single center between January 1, 2000, and March 1, 2012, were identified in this retrospective cohort study. The primary end point was infection. Potential risk factors investigated included preoperative (i.e., demographics, body mass index [BMI], gastrostomy tube, tracheostomy, previous spinal fusion), intraoperative (i.e., surgeon, antibiotics, pump size, catheter location), and postoperative (i.e., wound dehiscence, CSF leak, and number of revisions) factors. Univariate analysis was performed, and a multivariate logistic regression model was created to identify independent risk factors for infection. RESULTS A total of 254 patients were evaluated. The overall infection rate was 9.8%. Univariate analysis identified young age, shorter height, lower weight, dehiscence, CSF leak, and number of revisions within 6 months of pump placement as significantly associated with infection. Multivariate analysis identified young age, dehiscence, and number of revisions as independent risk factors for infection. CONCLUSIONS Young age, wound dehiscence, and number of revisions were independent risk factors for infection in this pediatric cohort. A low BMI and the presence of either a gastrostomy or tracheostomy were not associated with infection and may not be contraindications for this procedure. PMID:26919315

  14. Nandrolone-pretreatment enhances cardiac beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression and reverses heart contractile down-regulation in the post-stress period of acute-stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Penna, Claudia; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Mancardi, Daniele; Spaccamiglio, Angela; Racca, Silvia; Pagliaro, Pasquale

    2007-10-01

    To investigate whether nandrolone decanoate (ND)-pretreatment can modulate (1) beta-adrenoceptor expression and (2) myocardial contractility in response to beta-adrenoceptors stimulation with isoproterenol (ISO), in hearts of both normal and stressed rats. Rats were treated with 15 mg/(kgday) of Deca-Durabolin (ND, 1 ml i.m.) or with vehicle (oil) for 14 days. The day after the last injection, the dose-response to ISO (1 x 10(-8), 5 x 10(-8) and 10(-7)M), was studied in isolated rat hearts harvested from unstressed animals (unstressed+vehicle (control) or unstressed+ND) or from stressed animals (stressed+vehicle or stressed+ND): acute stress protocol consisted in restrain for 1h immediately before sacrifice. ND-pretreatment increased beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression. In baseline conditions all hearts had a similar left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and maximum rate of increase of LVDP (dP/dt(max)). In hearts of unstressed+vehicle or unstressed+ND, ISO caused a similar increase in LVDP (+90-100%) and dP/dt(max) (+120-150%). However, hearts of stressed+vehicle animals showed a marked depression of inotropic response to ISO (i.e. for ISO 1 x 10(-8),-55% in LVDP response versus unstressed). Yet, in hearts of stressed+ND-animals the effect of stress was reversed, showing the highest response to ISO (i.e. for ISO 1 x 10(-7), +30% LVDP response versus unstressed). The ND-induced beta(2)-adrenoceptor overexpression does not affect ISO-response in unstressed animals. However, acute stress induces a down-regulation of ISO-response, which is reversed by ND-pretreatment. Since the physiological post-stress down-regulation of adrenergic-response is absent after nandrolone treatment, the heart may be exposed to a sympathetic over-stimulation. This might represent a risk for cardiovascular incidents in anabolic steroid addicts under stressing conditions. PMID:17611100

  15. Understanding the cellulolytic system of Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 and enhancing saccharification of pretreated sugarcane bagasse by supplementation with pectinase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase.

    PubMed

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Cota, Júnio; Hoffmam, Zaira Bruna; Paixão, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Cairo, João Paulo Lourenço Franco; Lima, Deise Juliana; Squina, Fábio Marcio; Ruller, Roberto; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    Supplementation of cellulase cocktails with accessory enzymes can contribute to a higher hydrolytic capacity in releasing fermentable sugars from plant biomass. This study investigated which enzymes were complementary to the enzyme set of Trichoderma harzianum in the degradation of sugarcane bagasse. Specific activities of T. harzianum extract on different substrates were compared with the extracts of Penicillium echinulatum and Trichoderma reesei, and two commercial cellulase preparations. Complementary analysis of the secretome of T. harzianum was also used to identify which enzymes were produced during growth on pretreated sugarcane bagasse. These analyses enabled the selection of the enzymes pectinase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase (AF) to be further investigated as supplements to the T. harzianum extract. The effect of enzyme supplementation on the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse saccharification was evaluated using response surface methodology. The supplementation of T. harzianum enzymatic extract with pectinase and AF increased the efficiency of hydrolysis by up to 116%. PMID:23391738

  16. Fe3O4@Graphene Oxide@Ag Particles for Surface Magnet Solid-Phase Extraction Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SMSPE-SERS): From Sample Pretreatment to Detection All-in-One.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yi; Deng, Rong; Yang, Liyuan; Yu, Shihua; Xu, Shuping; Xu, Weiqing

    2016-06-01

    A multifunctional magnetic graphene surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was fabricated successfully by the layer-by-layer assembly of silver and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles (NPs) on the magnetic ferroferric oxide particles (Fe3O4@GO@Ag). This ternary particle possesses magnetic properties, SERS activity, and adsorption ability simultaneously. Owing to the multifunction of this Fe3O4@GO@Ag ternary complex, we put forward a new method called a surface magnetic solid-phase extraction (SMSPE) technique, for the SERS detections of pesticide residues on the fruit peels. SMSPE integrates many sample pretreatment procedures, such as surface extraction, separation sample, and detection, all-in-one. So this method shows great superiority in simplicity, rapidity, and high efficiency above other standard methods. The whole detection process can be finished within 20 min including the sample pretreatment and SERS detection. Owing to the high density of Ag NPs, the detection sensitivity is high enough that the lowest detectable concentrations are 0.48 and 40 ng/cm(2) for thiram and thiabendazole, which are much lower than the maximal residue limits in fruit prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This multifunctional ternary particle and its corresponding analytical method have been proven to be applicable for practical samples and also valuable for other surface analysis. PMID:27191584

  17. GREET Pretreatment Module

    SciTech Connect

    Adom, Felix K.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo

    2014-09-01

    A wide range of biofuels and biochemicals can be produced from biomass via different pretreatment technologies that yield sugars. This report documents the material and energy flows that occur when fermentable sugars from four lignocellulosic feedstocks (corn stover, miscanthus, switchgrass, and poplar) are produced via dilute acid pretreatment and ammonia fiber expansion. These flows are documented for inclusion in the pretreatment module of the Greenhouses Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model. Process simulations of each pretreatment technology were developed in Aspen Plus. Material and energy consumption data from Aspen Plus were then compiled in the GREET pretreatment module. The module estimates the cradle-to-gate fossil energy consumption (FEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with producing fermentable sugars. This report documents the data and methodology used to develop this module and the cradle-to-gate FEC and GHG emissions that result from producing fermentable sugars.

  18. Baclofen Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease, epilepsy, ulcers, a stroke, a rheumatic disease, cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, or a psychiatric condition.tell your ... Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by ...

  19. Baclofen Oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. ...

  20. The GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, contributes to three distinct varieties of amnesia in the human brain - A detailed case report.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Adam; Hoefeijzers, Serge; Milton, Fraser; Dewar, Michaela; Carr, Melanie; Streatfield, Claire

    2016-01-01

    We describe a patient in whom long-term, therapeutic infusion of the selective gamma-amino-butyric acid type B (GABAB) receptor agonist, baclofen, into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gave rise to three distinct varieties of memory impairment: i) repeated, short periods of severe global amnesia, ii) accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF), evident over intervals of days and iii) a loss of established autobiographical memories. This pattern of impairment has been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), in particular the subtype of Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA). The amnesic episodes and accelerated forgetting remitted on withdrawal of baclofen, while the autobiographical amnesia (AbA) persisted. This exceptional case highlights the occurrence of 'non-standard' forms of human amnesia, reflecting the biological complexity of memory processes. It suggests a role for GABAB signalling in the modulation of human memory over multiple time-scales and hints at its involvement in 'epileptic amnesia'. PMID:26599496

  1. R-Baclofen Reverses a Social Behavior Deficit and Elevated Protein Synthesis in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Mei; Huang, Tianjian; Kader, Michael; Krych, Leland; Xia, Zengyan; Burlin, Thomas; Zeidler, Zachary; Zhao, Tingrui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common known inherited form of intellectual disability and the single genomic cause of autism spectrum disorders. It is caused by the absence of a fragile X mental retardation gene (Fmr1) product, FMRP, an RNA-binding translation suppressor. Elevated rates of protein synthesis in the brain and an imbalance between synaptic signaling via glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are both considered important in the pathogenesis of FXS. In a mouse model of FXS (Fmr1 knockout [KO]), treatment with R-baclofen reversed some behavioral and biochemical phenotypes. A remaining crucial question is whether R-baclofen is also able to reverse increased brain protein synthesis rates. Methods: To answer this question, we measured regional rates of cerebral protein synthesis in vivo with the L-[1-14C]leucine method in vehicle- and R-baclofen–treated wildtype and Fmr1 KO mice. We further probed signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis. Results: Acute R-baclofen administration corrected elevated protein synthesis and reduced deficits on a test of social behavior in adult Fmr1 KO mice. It also suppressed activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, particularly in synaptosome-enriched fractions, but it had no effect on extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 activity. Ninety min after R-baclofen treatment, we observed an increase in metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 expression in the frontal cortex, a finding that may shed light on the tolerance observed in human studies with this drug. Conclusions: Our results suggest that treatment via activation of the GABA (GABA receptor subtype B) system warrants further study in patients with FXS. PMID:25820841

  2. Efficacy of intraoperative vancomycin powder use in intrathecal baclofen pump implantation procedures: single institutional series in a high risk population.

    PubMed

    Ghobrial, George M; Thakkar, Vismay; Singhal, Saurabh; Oppenlander, Mark E; Maulucci, Christopher M; Harrop, James S; Jallo, Jack; Prasad, Srinivas; Saulino, Michael; Sharan, Ashwini D

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to assess the efficacy of intraoperative vancomycin powder in intrathecal baclofen pump placement patients, a high risk population. A retrospective review was conducted using prospectively collected data at an academic tertiary care unit. The neurosurgical adult patient population was queried for all intrathecal baclofen pump implantation procedures. Patients were then reviewed for the use of intraoperative crystalline vancomycin powder. Those with a history of prior surgical site infection, chronic systemic infections or osteomyelitis were excluded. Anhydrous, crystalline vancomycin was utilized in the wound bed after completion of implantation, distributed evenly in the case of multiple incisions. Patients received 500 mg or 1,000 mg of crystallized vancomycin, evenly distributed through the wound layers based on a 70 kg weight cutoff. Intraoperative institutional standards of infection prophylaxis were unchanged throughout the study period. Infection rate of baclofen pump placement prior to the use of vancomycin powder from 2001-2009 at the same institution was monitored. Wound infection rate was tracked for a 12 month postoperative period. Six patients out of 26 baclofen pump implantations (23%) in this cohort were identified to have seven infections despite vancomycin powder placement in the lumbar and catheter wounds. Prior infection rates have been investigated for intrathecal drug delivery systems from 2001 to 2009 at the same institution with an overall infection rate of 3% (8/274). The use of vancomycin powder in patients with implants in this series did not reduce infection rates compared to published historical controls, and was elevated compared to institutional controls. Further prospective study of this high risk patient population is warranted. PMID:24938386

  3. Modulation of TLR3/TLR4 inflammatory signaling by the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen in glia and immune cells: relevance to therapeutic effects in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Tadhg; Fitzpatrick, John-Mark; Kuijper, Teun; Cryan, John F.; O’Toole, Orna; O’Leary, Olivia F.; Downer, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    The GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, is used to treat muscle tightness and cramping caused by spasticity in a number of disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS), but its precise mechanism of action is unknown. Neuroinflammation drives the central pathology in MS and is mediated by both immunoreactive glial cells and invading lymphocytes. Furthermore, a body of data indicates that the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family of innate immune receptors is implicated in MS progression. In the present study we investigated whether modulation of GABAB receptors using baclofen can exert anti-inflammatory effects by targeting TLR3 and(or) TLR4-induced inflammatory signaling in murine glial cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy control individuals and patients with the relapse-remitting (RR) form of MS. TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation promoted the nuclear sequestration of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in murine glia, while TLR4, but not TLR3, promoted pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in PBMCs isolated from both healthy donors and RR-MS patients. Importantly, this effect was exacerbated in RR-MS patient immune cells. We present further evidence that baclofen dose-dependently attenuated TLR3- and TLR4-induced inflammatory signaling in primary glial cells. Pre-exposure of PBMCs isolated from healthy donors to baclofen attenuated TLR4-induced TNF-α expression, but did not affect TLR4-induced TNF-α expression in RR-MS patient PBMCs. Interestingly, mRNA expression of the GABAB receptor was reduced in PBMCs from RR-MS donors when compared to healthy controls, an effect that might contribute to the differential sensitivity to baclofen seen in healthy and RR-MS patient cells. Overall these findings indicate that baclofen differentially regulates TLR3 and TLR4 signaling in glia and immune cells, and offers insight on the role of baclofen in the treatment of neuroinflammatory disease states including MS. PMID:26283920

  4. Pretreatment of CO oxidation catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannorman, John D.

    1988-01-01

    CO oxidation catalysts with high activity in the range of 25 C to 100 C are important for long-life, closed-cycle operation of pulsed carbon dioxide 2 lasers. A reductive pretreatment with either CO or H sub 2 was shown to significantly enhance the activity of a commerically-available platinum on tin (IV) oxide (Pt/SnO2) catalyst relative to an oxidative or inert pretreatment or no pretreatment. Pretreatment at temperatures of 175 C and above caused an initial dip in observed CO or O sub 2 loss or CO sub 2 formation in a test gas mixture of 1 percent CO and 0.5 percent O sub 2 in a He gas matrix before a steady-state yield was obtained. This dip was found to be caused by dehydration of the surface of the catalyst and was readily eliminated by humidifying the catalyst or the test gas mixture. It was also found that too much moisture resulted in a lower overall yield of CO sub 2. Under similar conditions, it is hypothesized that the effect of the humidification is to increase the concentration of OH groups on the surface of the catalyst. The effect of having high concentration of CO sub 2 in the test gas mixture upon the loss of CO and O sub 2 as well as the effect of periods of relaxation of the catalyst under non-test gas conditions was studied. The purpose of these studies was to gain an insight into the mechanism of CO oxidation on this type of catalyst.

  5. Simultaneous detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals including conjugates in municipal wastewater and sludge with enhanced sample pretreatment and UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Ben, Weiwei; Yuan, Xiangjuan; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Qiang, Zhimin

    2015-08-01

    The co-existence of free and conjugated estrogens and the interference from complex matrices often lead to largely variable detected concentrations and sometimes even negative removal efficiencies of typical endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, a highly selective and sensitive method was developed for simultaneous extraction, elution, and detection of 12 EDCs (i.e., 4 free estrogens, 6 conjugated estrogens, and 2 phenolic compounds) in municipal wastewater and sludge. Sample pretreatment and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection were optimized to improve the detection selectivity and sensitivity. The results indicate that the additional purification process was highly effective in reducing the matrix interference, and the limits of quantification reached as low as 0.04-2.2 ng L(-1) in wastewater and 0.05-4.9 ng g(-1) in sludge for all target EDCs. The developed method was successfully applied to explore the behavior of target EDCs in a local WWTP. The conjugates occupied a considerable portion (4.3-76.9% in molar ratio) of each related estrogen in the influent. Most of the target EDCs could not be completely removed in WWTPs, thus posing a potential threat to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26161687

  6. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of mild alkali pre-treated rice straw at high-solid loadings using in-house cellulases in a bench scale system.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhuri; Balasubramanian, Velmurugan; James, Jisha P

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, scale-up systems for cellulase production and enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated rice straw at high-solid loadings were designed, fabricated and tested in the laboratory. Cellulase production was carried out using tray fermentation at 45 °C by Aspergillus terreus in a temperature-controlled humidity chamber. Enzymatic hydrolysis studies were performed in a horizontal rotary drum reactor at 50 °C with 25 % (w/v) solid loading and 9 FPU g(-1) substrate enzyme load using in-house as well commercial cellulases. Highly concentrated fermentable sugars up to 20 % were obtained at 40 h with an increased saccharification efficiency of 76 % compared to laboratory findings (69.2 %). These findings demonstrate that we developed a simple and less energy intensive bench scale system for efficient high-solid saccharification. External supplementation of commercial β-glucosidase and hemicellulase ensured better hydrolysis and further increased the saccharification efficiency by 14.5 and 20 %, respectively. An attempt was also made to recover cellulolytic enzymes using ultrafiltration module and nearly 79-84 % of the cellulases and more than 90 % of the sugars were recovered from the saccharification mixture. PMID:26941245

  7. Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Activities in this project are aimed at overcoming barriers associated with high capital and operating costs and sub-optimal sugar yields resulting from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass.

  8. Baclofen and velocity storage: a model of the effects of the drug on the vestibulo-ocular reflex in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, B; Helwig, D; Raphan, T

    1987-01-01

    1. Baclofen had a characteristic effect on vestibular and optokinetic nystagmus in rhesus monkeys. Each aspect of nystagmus that is dependent on the velocity-storage mechanism in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (v.o.r.) was altered by the drug: (a) Baclofen reduced the dominant time constant of the v.o.r. in a dose-dependent manner up to 5 mg/kg, the highest dosage used. The alteration in v.o.r. time constant began within 15 min of injection, was maximal between 1 and 4 h, and lasted for 14-18 h. This effect mirrors changes in plasma levels of baclofen after oral doses in humans (Faigle, Keberle & Agen, 1980). (b) Slow-phase velocities of steady-state nystagmus induced by rotation about axes tilted from the vertical (off-vertical axis rotation, o.v.a.r.) were reduced after baclofen and could not be maintained at previous levels. (c) There was a dose-dependent decline in the steady-state gain of optokinetic nystagmus (o.k.n.), and at the highest dosages little o.k.n. was induced. In parallel, the peak velocity and falling time constant of optokinetic after-nystagmus (o.k.a.n.) were reduced. Since baclofen is a GABA agonist, systems utilizing GABA and acting on GABAB receptors appear to produce inhibitory control of velocity storage. 2. The step gain of the v.o.r., measured at the beginning and end of constant-velocity rotation in darkness, was unaffected by baclofen, as were saccades, quick phases of nystagmus, and the ability to hold positions of fixation or to generate linear slow phases of nystagmus. This indicates that it is possible to use baclofen to manipulate the dominant time constant of the v.o.r. and of o.k.a.n. in relative isolation from effects on other oculomotor components. 3. Baclofen caused a dose-dependent reduction in the initial jump in eye velocity at the onset of o.k.n., suggesting that the initial jump is also under inhibitory control of GABAB receptors. However, there were still occasional slow phases with velocities up to 30-40 deg/s after

  9. Baclofen and velocity storage: a model of the effects of the drug on the vestibulo-ocular reflex in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B; Helwig, D; Raphan, T

    1987-12-01

    1. Baclofen had a characteristic effect on vestibular and optokinetic nystagmus in rhesus monkeys. Each aspect of nystagmus that is dependent on the velocity-storage mechanism in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (v.o.r.) was altered by the drug: (a) Baclofen reduced the dominant time constant of the v.o.r. in a dose-dependent manner up to 5 mg/kg, the highest dosage used. The alteration in v.o.r. time constant began within 15 min of injection, was maximal between 1 and 4 h, and lasted for 14-18 h. This effect mirrors changes in plasma levels of baclofen after oral doses in humans (Faigle, Keberle & Agen, 1980). (b) Slow-phase velocities of steady-state nystagmus induced by rotation about axes tilted from the vertical (off-vertical axis rotation, o.v.a.r.) were reduced after baclofen and could not be maintained at previous levels. (c) There was a dose-dependent decline in the steady-state gain of optokinetic nystagmus (o.k.n.), and at the highest dosages little o.k.n. was induced. In parallel, the peak velocity and falling time constant of optokinetic after-nystagmus (o.k.a.n.) were reduced. Since baclofen is a GABA agonist, systems utilizing GABA and acting on GABAB receptors appear to produce inhibitory control of velocity storage. 2. The step gain of the v.o.r., measured at the beginning and end of constant-velocity rotation in darkness, was unaffected by baclofen, as were saccades, quick phases of nystagmus, and the ability to hold positions of fixation or to generate linear slow phases of nystagmus. This indicates that it is possible to use baclofen to manipulate the dominant time constant of the v.o.r. and of o.k.a.n. in relative isolation from effects on other oculomotor components. 3. Baclofen caused a dose-dependent reduction in the initial jump in eye velocity at the onset of o.k.n., suggesting that the initial jump is also under inhibitory control of GABAB receptors. However, there were still occasional slow phases with velocities up to 30-40 deg/s after

  10. Pre-Treatment Whole Blood Gene Expression Is Associated with 14-Week Response Assessed by Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Infliximab-Treated Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    MacIsaac, Kenzie D.; Baumgartner, Richard; Kang, Jia; Loboda, Andrey; Peterfy, Charles; DiCarlo, Julie; Riek, Jonathan; Beals, Chan

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 30% of rheumatoid arthritis patients achieve inadequate response to anti-TNF biologics. Attempts to identify molecular biomarkers predicting response have met with mixed success. This may be attributable, in part, to the variable and subjective disease assessment endpoints with large placebo effects typically used to classify patient response. Sixty-one patients with active RA despite methotrexate treatment, and with MRI-documented synovitis, were randomized to receive infliximab or placebo. Blood was collected at baseline and genome-wide transcription in whole blood was measured using microarrays. The primary endpoint in this study was determined by measuring the transfer rate constant (Ktrans) of a gadolinium-based contrast agent from plasma to synovium using MRI. Secondary endpoints included repeated clinical assessments with DAS28(CRP), and assessments of osteitis and synovitis by the RAMRIS method. Infliximab showed greater decrease from baseline in DCE-MRI Ktrans of wrist and MCP at all visits compared with placebo (P<0.001). Statistical analysis was performed to identify genes associated with treatment-specific 14-week change in Ktrans. The 256 genes identified were used to derive a gene signature score by averaging their log expression within each patient. The resulting score correlated with improvement of Ktrans in infliximab-treated patients and with deterioration of Ktrans in placebo-treated subjects. Poor responders showed high expression of activated B-cell genes whereas good responders exhibited a gene expression pattern consistent with mobilization of neutrophils and monocytes and high levels of reticulated platelets. This gene signature was significantly associated with clinical response in two previously published whole blood gene expression studies using anti-TNF therapies. These data provide support for the hypothesis that anti-TNF inadequate responders comprise a distinct molecular subtype of RA characterized by differences in pre-treatment

  11. Resolution of Enantiomers of (RS)-Baclofen by Ligand-Exchange Thin-Layer Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manisha; Malik, Poonam; Bhushan, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    A new chromatographic method has been developed for direct enantioresolution of (RS)-baclofen by ligand-exchange thin-layer chromatography (TLC) adopting two different approaches; (A) TLC plates were prepared by mixing the ligand exchange reagents (LER) with silica gel slurry and the chromatograms were developed with different achiral solvents or solvents having no chiral additive, and (B) the LER consisting of Cu(II)-l-amino acid complex was used as chiral mobile phase additive and the plain plates of silica gel having no chiral selector were used. Cu(II) acetate and fourl-amino acids (namely,l-tryptophan,l-histidine,l-proline andl-phenylalanine) were used for the preparation of LERs. Spots were located by the use of iodine vapor. Effect of temperature and the mole ratio of Cu(II)-to-amino acid on enantioresolution were also studied. The results for the two methods have been compared, and the issue of involvement of the Cu(II) cation for the best performance of the two methods has been discussed with respect to the same mobile phase.l-Trp proved to be a good ligand using a common mobile phase in each case. PMID:26896346

  12. Intrathecal baclofen therapy for spasticity: A compliance-based study to indicate effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; Alkhani, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy using a programmable battery-based pump is a well-recognized option in the treatment of patients with refractory spasticity. Improvements in clinical scale scores for muscle spasticity among this heterogeneous group of patients may not reflect the functional benefits of this therapeutic option. The aim of our study is to report the efficacy of ITB therapy by setting the patient's compliance at the 2-year follow-up after pump implantation as an indicator of treatment efficacy, as appreciated by the patients or their caregivers. Methods: A cohort of 31 patients admitted for ITB therapy was studied. Treatment and follow-up expenses were supported by national health services. Compliance to follow-up visits 2 years after implantation was used as an indicator of treatment efficacy. Results: Twenty-seven patients (mean age: 28.8 ± 19.3 years) were included in the study. At the 2-year post-implantation set point, 20 patients continued to comply with the treatment program. Those 20 patients reported at least moderate improvements in their symptoms, which justified treatment compliance. Conclusion: At the 2-year follow-up post-implantation set point, nearly 3 of 4 patients (74.1%) continued to comply with the treatment, indicating treatment efficacy. PMID:27602250

  13. Baclofen reestablishes striatal and cortical dopamine concentrations during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Silvina L; Kemmling, Alma K; Balerio, Graciela N

    2003-03-01

    The present study analyzes the effects of baclofen (BAC) on mice brain neurochemical alterations during the morphine (MOR) withdrawal syndrome. Male Swiss-Webster albino mice (27-33 g) were rendered dependent by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of MOR (2mg/kg), twice daily for 9 days. On day 10, the dependent animals were divided into two groups: one receiving naloxone (NAL; 6 mg/kg i.p.) to precipitate the withdrawal syndrome 60 min after the last dose of MOR and the other received BAC (2mg/kg, i.p.) followed by NAL (6 mg/kg, i.p.), injected 30 and 60 min after the last dose of MOR, respectively. Ten minutes after these treatments, mice were killed by decapitation and the striatum, cortex and hippocampus were dissected to determine endogenous concentrations of dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Striatal DA, dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) concentrations as well as cortical DA concentrations of the withdrawal groups decreased significantly with respect to the control groups. BAC attenuated the decrease in DA and DOPAC concentrations observed during the withdrawal, without modifying per se the control DA concentrations. No changes on 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations were observed during the MOR abstinence syndrome. The prevention caused by BAC on the decreased concentrations of DA induced by MOR withdrawal could have a therapeutic interest for the management of withdrawal syndrome. PMID:12470702

  14. Combination of acamprosate and baclofen as a promising therapeutic approach for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hajj, Rodolphe; Milet, Aude; Toulorge, Damien; Cholet, Nathalie; Laffaire, Julien; Foucquier, Julie; Robelet, Sandra; Mitry, Richard; Guedj, Mickael; Nabirotchkin, Serguei; Chumakov, Ilya; Cohen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the loss of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons but which involves the loss of additional neurotransmitter pathways. Mono- or polytherapeutic interventions in PD patients have declining efficacy long-term and no influence on disease progression. The systematic analysis of available genetic and functional data as well as the substantial overlap between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and PD features led us to repurpose and explore the effectiveness of a combination therapy (ABC) with two drugs – acamprosate and baclofen – that was already effective in AD animal models, for the treatment of PD. We showed in vitro that ABC strongly and synergistically protected neuronal cells from oxidative stress in the oxygen and glucose deprivation model, as well as dopaminergic neurons from cell death in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model. Furthermore, we showed that ABC normalised altered motor symptoms in vivo in 6-OHDA-treated rats, acting by protecting dopaminergic cell bodies and their striatal terminals. Interestingly, ABC also restored a normal behaviour pattern in lesioned rats suggesting a symptomatic effect, and did not negatively interact with L-dopa. Our results demonstrate the potential value of combining repurposed drugs as a promising new strategy to treat this debilitating disease. PMID:26542636

  15. BACLOFEN, RACLOPRIDE, AND NALTREXONE DIFFERENTIALLY REDUCE SOLID FAT EMULSION INTAKE UNDER LIMITED ACCESS CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    RE, Rao; FHE, Wojnicki; J, Coupland; S, Ghosh; RLW, Corwin

    2009-01-01

    Previous work in rats has demonstrated that an Intermittent (Monday, Wednesday, Friday) schedule of access promotes binge-type consumption of 100% vegetable shortening during a 1-hour period of availability. The present study used novel shortening-derived stable solid emulsions of various fat concentrations. These emulsions were the consistency of pudding and did not demonstrate oil and water phase separation previously reported with oil-based liquid emulsions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped according to schedule of access (Daily or Intermittent) to one of three concentrations (18%, 32%, 56%) of solid fat emulsion. There were no significant Intermittent vs. Daily differences in amount consumed, due to high intakes in all groups. This indicated the acceptability of the emulsions. Baclofen (GABA-B agonist) and raclopride (D2-like antagonist) both significantly reduced emulsion intake in all Daily groups, but only in the 56% fat Intermittent group. Naltrexone (opioid antagonist), in contrast, significantly reduced 32% and 56% fat emulsion intake in the Intermittent, as well as the Daily groups. These results indicate that the fat intake reducing effects of GABAB activation and D2 blockade depend upon fat concentration and schedule of fat access, while the fat intake reducing effects of opioid blockade depend upon fat concentration but not schedule of access. PMID:18353432

  16. Enantiodifferentiation of chiral baclofen by β-cyclodextrin using capillary electrophoresis: A molecular modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliman, FakhrEldin O.; Elbashir, Abdalla A.

    2012-07-01

    Using capillary electrophoresis baclofen (BF) enantiomers were separated only in the presence of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) as a chiral selector when added to the background electrolyte. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques were used to determine the structure of the BF-βCD inclusion complexes. From the MS data BF was found to form a 1:1 complex with α- and βCD, while the NMR data suggest location of the aromatic ring of BF into the cyclodextrin cavity. A molecular modeling study, using the semiempirical PM6 calculations was used to investigate the mechanism of enantiodifferentiation of BF with cyclodextrins. Optimization of the structures of the complexes by PM6 method indicated that separation is obtained in the presence of β-CD due to a large binding energy difference (ΔΔE) of 46.8 kJ mol-1 between S-BF-βCD and R-BF-βCD complexes. In the case of αCD complexes ΔΔE was 1.3 kJ mol-1 indicating poor resolution between the two enantiomers. Furthermore, molecular dynamic simulations show that the formation of more stable S-BF-βCD complex compared to R-BF-β-CD complex is primarily due to differences in intermolecular hydrogen bonding.

  17. Treatment failure of intrathecal baclofen and supra-additive effect of nabiximols in multiple sclerosis-related spasticity: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Trampe, Nadine; Chan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS)-related spasticity is associated with disability and impairment in quality of life. We report on a patient with secondary progressive MS and spastic tetraparesis (Expanded Disability Status Scale score 8.5). The right arm exhibited flexor spasticity resulting in functional disability despite multimodal symptomatic treatment. Intrathecal baclofen led to side effects despite decreasing efficacy. Low-dose nabiximols improved spasticity and function with recovery of daily-life activities and spasticity-related symptoms. Reduction of intrathecal baclofen ameliorated adverse drug reactions. Add-on cannabinoid therapy was effective in therapy-refractory spasticity with supra-additive effect in combining intrathecal baclofen and nabiximols, hypothetically explained by mutually complementing mechanisms of action. PMID:23634192

  18. The involvement of NMDA receptor/NO/cGMP pathway in the antidepressant like effects of baclofen in mouse force swimming test.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Zolfaghari, Samira; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-01-26

    In the current study, the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) system in the antidepressant-like effects of baclofen was evaluated by using animal model in forced swimming test. Followed by an open field test for the evaluation of locomotor activity, the immobility time for mice in force swimming test was recorded. Only the last four min was analyzed. Administration of Baclofen (0.5 and 1mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the immobility interval in the FST. Prior administration of l-arginine (750mg/kg, i.p.,) a nitric oxide synthase substrate or sildenafil (5mg/kg, i.p.) a phosphodiesterase 5 into mice suppressed the antidepressant-like activity of baclofen (1mg/kg, i.p.).Co-treatment of 7-nitroindazole (50mg/kg, i.p.,) an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, L-NAME (10mg/kg, i.p.,) a non-specific inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase or MK-801 (0.05mg/kg, i.p.) an NMDA receptor antagonist with subeffective dose of baclofen (0.1mg/kg, i.p.), reduced the immobility time in the FST as compared to the drugs when used alone. Co-administrated of lower doses of MK-801 (0.01mg/kg) or l-NAME (1mg/kg) failed to effect immobility time however, simultaneous administration of these two agents in same dose with subeffective dose of baclofen (0.1mg/kg, i.p.), minimized the immobility time in the FST. Thus, our results support the role of NMDA receptors and l-arginine-NO-GMP pathway in the antidepressant-like action of baclofen. PMID:26679225

  19. Pretreatment methods for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaoyang; Huang, Fang

    2014-09-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass, such as wood, grass, agricultural, and forest residues, are potential resources for the production of bioethanol. The current biochemical process of converting biomass to bioethanol typically consists of three main steps: pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation. For this process, pretreatment is probably the most crucial step since it has a large impact on the efficiency of the overall bioconversion. The aim of pretreatment is to disrupt recalcitrant structures of cellulosic biomass to make cellulose more accessible to the enzymes that convert carbohydrate polymers into fermentable sugars. This paper reviews several leading acidic, neutral, and alkaline pretreatments technologies. Different pretreatment methods, including dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), steam explosion pretreatment (SEP), organosolv, liquid hot water (LHW), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), sodium hydroxide/lime pretreatments, and ozonolysis are intensively introduced and discussed. In this minireview, the key points are focused on the structural changes primarily in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin during the above leading pretreatment technologies. PMID:24972651

  20. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, C.J.; Nagle, N.J.

    1998-07-28

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion. 1 fig.

  1. Pretreatment of high solid microbial sludges

    DOEpatents

    Rivard, Christopher J.; Nagle, Nicholas J.

    1998-01-01

    A process and apparatus for pretreating microbial sludges in order to enhance secondary anaerobic digestion. The pretreatment process involves disrupting the cellular integrity of municipal sewage sludge through a combination of thermal, explosive decompression and shear forces. The sludge is pressurized and pumped to a pretreatment reactor where it is mixed with steam to heat and soften the sludge. The pressure of the sludge is suddenly reduced and explosive decompression forces are imparted which partially disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Shear forces are then applied to the sludge to further disrupt the cellular integrity of the sludge. Disrupting cellular integrity releases both soluble and insoluble organic constituents and thereby renders municipal sewage sludge more amenable to secondary anaerobic digestion.

  2. PRETREATING THORIUM FOR ELECTROPLATING

    DOEpatents

    Beach, J.G.; Schaer, G.R.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for pretreating a thorium surface prior to electroplating the surface. The pretreatment steps of the invention comprise cleaning by vapor blasting the surface, anodically pickling in a 5 to 15% by volume aqueous hydrochloric acid bath with a current of 125 to 250 amp/sq ft for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, chemically pickling the surface in a 5 to 15% by volume of aqueous sulfuric acid for 3 to 5 min at room temperature, and rinsing the surface with water.

  3. Baclofen and adenosine inhibition of synaptic transmission at CA3-CA1 synapses display differential sensitivity to K+ channel blockade.

    PubMed

    Skov, Jane; Andreasen, Mogens; Hablitz, John J; Nedergaard, Steen

    2011-05-01

    The metabotropic GABA(B) and adenosine A(1) receptors mediate presynaptic inhibition through regulation of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, whereas K(+) channel regulation is believed to have no role at the CA3-CA1 synapse. We show here that the inhibitory effect of baclofen (20 μM) and adenosine (300 μM) on field EPSPs are differentially sensitive to Cs(+) (3.5 mM) and Ba(2+) (200 μM), but not 4-aminopyridine (100 μM). Barium had no effect on paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) in itself, but gave significant reduction (14 ± 5%) when applied in the presence of baclofen, but not adenosine, suggesting that the effect is presynaptic and selective on the GABA(B) receptor-mediated response. The effect of Ba(2+) on PPF was not mimicked by tertiapin (30 nM), indicating that the underlying mechanism does not involve GIRK channels. Barium did not affect PPF in slices from young rats (P7-P8), suggesting developmental regulation. The above effects of Ba(2+) on adult tissue were reproduced when measuring evoked whole-cell EPSCs from CA1 pyramidal neurons: PPF was reduced by 22 ± 3% in the presence of baclofen and unaltered in adenosine. In contrast, Ba(2+) caused no significant change in frequency or amplitude of miniature EPSCs. The Ba(2+)-induced reduction of PPF was antagonized by LY341495, suggesting metabotropic glutamate receptor involvement. We propose that these novel effects of Ba(2+) and Cs(+) are exerted through blockade of inwardly rectifying K(+) channels in glial cells, which are functionally interacting with the GABA(B) receptor-dependent glutamate release that generates heterosynaptic depression. PMID:21274618

  4. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition. PMID:26298257

  5. Pregnancy in a quadriplegic patient treated with continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion to manage her severe spasticity. Case report.

    PubMed

    Delhaas, E M; Verhagen, J

    1992-07-01

    A report on pregnancy in a quadriplegic patient treated with a high dose of 1000 mcg/24 h continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion using an implanted drug delivery system (Synchromed, Medtronic, USA). Spasticity could be managed up to the 35th week of gestation. However, uterine contractions evoke enormous spastic symptoms which we, even with maximum values of the spasticity scales, could not classify. The recurrence of spasticity was associated with autonomic dysregulation. With continuous epidurally infused bupivacaine (11.25 mg/h) adequate relaxation could be reached and gestation was terminated by a primary caesarean section. A healthy girl was born (2040 g, Apgar 9 and 10). PMID:1508570

  6. Neurosurgical Management of Childhood Spasticity: Functional Posterior Rhizotomy and Intrathecal Baclofen Infusion Therapy

    PubMed Central

    MOROTA, Nobuhito; IHARA, Satoshi; OGIWARA, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    A paradigm shift is currently ongoing in the treatment of spasticity in childhood in Japan. Functional posterior rhizotomy (FPR), which was first introduced to Japan in 1996, is best indicated for children with spastic cerebral palsy, regardless of the clinical severity of spasticity. Surgery is generally carried out in the cauda equina, where the posterior root is separated from the anterior one, and neurophysiological procedures are used to judge which nerve root/rootlet should be cut. The outcome of FPR is favorable for reducing spasticity in the long-term follow-up. Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) treatment for childhood spasticity was approved in 2007 in Japan and the number of children undergoing ITB pump implantation has been gradually increasing. ITB treatment is best indicated for children with severe spasticity, especially those with dystonia, regardless of the pathological background. Since it is a surgery performed to implant foreign bodies, special attention should be paid to avoid perioperative complications such as CSF leakage, meningitis, and mechanical failure. Severely disabled children with spasticity would benefit most from ITB treatment. We would especially like to emphasize the importance of a strategic approach to the treatment of childhood spasticity. The first step is to reduce spasticity by FPR, ITB, and botulinum toxin injection. The second step is to aim for functional improvement after controlling spasticity. Traditional orthopedic surgery and neuro-rehabilitation form the second step of treatment. The combination of these treatments that allows them to complement each other is the key to a successful treatment of childhood spasticity. PMID:26227057

  7. The enhanced removal of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-product precursors using integrated permanganate oxidation and powdered activated carbon adsorption pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chu, Wenhai; Yao, Dechang; Gao, Naiyun; Bond, Tom; Templeton, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Pilot-scale tests were performed to reduce the formation of a range of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection by-products (C-, N-DBPs), by removing or transforming their precursors, with an integrated permanganate oxidation and powdered activated carbon adsorption (PM-PAC) treatment process before conventional water treatment processes (coagulation-sedimentation-filtration, abbreviated as CPs). Compared with the CPs, PM-PAC significantly enhanced the removal of DOC, DON, NH3(+)-N, and algae from 52.9%, 31.6%, 71.3%, and 83.6% to 69.5%, 61.3%, 92.5%, and 97.5%, respectively. PM pre-oxidation alone and PAC pre-adsorption alone did not substantially reduce the formation of dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, N-nitrosodimethylamine and dichloroacetamide. However, the PM-PAC integrated process significantly reduced the formation of both C-DBPs and N-DBPs by 60-90% for six C-DBPs and 64-93% for six N-DBPs, because PM oxidation chemically altered the molecular structures of nitrogenous organic compounds and increased the adsorption capacity of the DBP precursors, thus highlighting a synergistic effect of PM and PAC. PM-PAC integrated process is a promising drinking water technology for the reduction of a broad spectrum of C-DBPs and N-DBPs. PMID:26065622

  8. Targeting key metabolic points for an enhanced phytoremediation of wastewaters pre-treated by the photo-Fenton process using Solanum nigrum L.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Jorge; Ferraz, Pedro; Gouveia, Carlota; Azevedo, Frederico; Neves, Simão; Fidalgo, Fernanda; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-10-01

    Several physiological, biochemical and molecular biology responses were analysed in Solanum nigrum L. plants exposed for 28 days to an effluent that resulted from the photo-Fenton treatment of a highly concentrated pesticide and systemic fungicide aqueous solution, containing metalaxyl as active compound (150mgL(-1)), in order to pinpoint metabolic steps for a future increase of these plants' capacity to deal with the chemical process by-products. Although plants suffered oxidative stress, as indicated by increased membrane damage and a negative effect on plant biomass, they absorbed the excess iron and acted on the resulting by-products present in the effluent after the photo-Fenton process. Nitrogen assimilation and metallothionein gene expression were down regulated, while glutathione biosynthesis increased. These results suggest an enhanced nitrogen assimilation and/or metallothionein accumulation as relevant key points for further plant improvement in order to increase the efficiency of this innovative strategy that considers integration of the photo-Fenton process (as chemical primary treatment) with S. nigrum L. plants (as biological remediation post-treatment) for heavily polluted wastewaters. PMID:26057079

  9. Pre-Treatment of platinum resistant ovarian cancer cells with an MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor prior to cisplatin enhances cytotoxicity as determined by high content screening.

    PubMed

    Laios, Alexandros; Mohamed, Bashir M; Kelly, Lynn; Flavin, Richard; Finn, Stephen; McEvoy, Lynda; Gallagher, Michael; Martin, Cara; Sheils, Orla; Ring, Martina; Davies, Anthony; Lawson, Margaret; Gleeson, Noreen; D'Arcy, Tom; d'Adhemar, Charles; Norris, Lucy; Langhe, Ream; Saadeh, Feras Abu; O'Leary, John J; O'Toole, Sharon A

    2013-01-01

    Platinum resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in ovarian cancer. We previously identified matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) as a potential therapeutic target of chemoresistant disease. A2780cis (cisplatin-resistant) and A2780 (cisplatin-sensitive) ovarian carcinoma cell lines were used. The cytotoxic effect of MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R)-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl) amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S) alone or in combination with cisplatin was determined using high content screening. Protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Co-incubation of cisplatin and an MMP-9/MMP-2 inhibitor, (2R)-2-[(4-Biphenylsulfonyl) amino]-3 phenylpropionic acid (C21H19NO4S) resulted in significantly greater cytotoxicity as compared to either treatment alone in a cisplatin resistant MMP-9 overexpressing cell line; A2780cis. In addition, pre-incubating with MMP-9i prior to cisplatin further enhances the cytotoxic effect. No significant difference was observed in MMP-9 protein in tissue but a trend towards increased MMP-9 was observed in recurrent serum. We propose that MMP-9/MMP-2i may be utilized in the treatment of recurrent/chemoresistant ovarian cancers that overexpress MMP-9 mRNA but its role in vivo remains to be evaluated. PMID:23340649

  10. Intra-nucleus accumbens shell injections of R(+)- and S(-)-baclofen bidirectionally alter binge-like ethanol, but not saccharin, intake in C57Bl/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Chelsea R.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    The GABAB agonist baclofen has been widely researched clinically and preclinically as a treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). However, the efficacy of baclofen remains uncertain. The clinically used racemic compound can be separated into separate enantiomers. These enantiomers have produced different profiles in behavioral assays, with the S- compound often being ineffective compared to the R- compound, or the S- compound antagonizing the effects of the R- compound. We have previously demonstrated that the R(+)-baclofen enantiomer decreases binge-like ethanol intake in the Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) paradigm, whereas the S(-)-baclofen enantiomer increases ethanol intake. One area implicated in drug abuse is the nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh).The current study sought to define the role of the NACsh in the enantioselective effects of baclofen on binge-like ethanol consumption by directly microinjecting each enantiomer into the structure. Following bilateral cannulation of the NACsh, C57Bl/6J mice were given 5 days of access to ethanol or saccharin for 2 hours, 3 hours into the dark cycle. On Day 5 mice were given an injection of aCSF, 0.02 R(+)-, 0.04R(+)-, 0.08 S(-)-, or 0.16 S(-)-baclofen (μg/side dissolved in 200nl of aCSF). It was found that the R(+)-baclofen dose-dependently decreased ethanol consumption, whereas the high S(-)-baclofen dose increased ethanol consumption, compared to the aCSF group. Saccharin consumption was not affected. These results further confirm that GABAB receptors and the NACsh shell are integral in mediating ethanol intake. They also demonstrate that baclofen displays bidirectional, enantioselective effects which are important when considering therapeutic uses of the drug. PMID:25026094

  11. Tumor Metabolism and Perfusion in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Pretreatment Multimodality Imaging With {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Schoeder, Heiko; Lee, Nancy Y.; Stambuk, Hilda E.; Wang Ya; Fury, Matthew G.; Patel, Senehal G.; Pfister, David G.; Shah, Jatin P.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Shukla-Dave, Amita

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI), and {sup 18}F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([{sup 18}F]FDG PET) of nodal metastases in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) for assessment of tumor biology. Additionally, pretreatment multimodality imaging was evaluated for its efficacy in predicting short-term response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Metastatic neck nodes were imaged with {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET in 16 patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC, before treatment. Short-term patient radiological response was evaluated at 3 to 4 months. Correlations among {sup 1}H-MRS (choline concentration relative to water [Cho/W]), DCE-MRI (volume transfer constant [K{sup trans}]; volume fraction of the extravascular extracellular space [v{sub e}]; and redistribution rate constant [k{sub ep}]), and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET (standard uptake value [SUV] and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) were calculated using nonparametric Spearman rank correlation. To predict short-term responses, logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between Cho/W and TLG ({rho} = 0.599; p = 0.031). Cho/W correlated negatively with heterogeneity measures of standard deviation std(v{sub e}) ({rho} = -0.691; p = 0.004) and std(k{sub ep}) ({rho} = -0.704; p = 0.003). Maximum SUV (SUVmax) values correlated strongly with MRI tumor volume ({rho} = 0.643; p = 0.007). Logistic regression indicated that std(K{sup trans}) and SUVmean were significant predictors of short-term response (p < 0.07). Conclusion: Pretreatment multimodality imaging using {sup 1}H-MRS, DCE-MRI, and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET is feasible in HNSCC patients with nodal metastases. Additionally, combined DCE-MRI and [{sup 18}F]FDG PET parameters were predictive of short-term response to treatment.

  12. Client Perceptions of Pretreatment Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindsvatter, Aaron; Osborn, Cynthia J.; Bubenzer, Donald; Duba, Jill D.

    2010-01-01

    The authors suggest that when counselors have a rich understanding of pretreatment changes, they are better able to assist clients in capitalizing on such changes. The current study examined client perceptions of pretreatment changes. Thirty-six clients completed Q-sorts pertaining to pretreatment changes they experienced. Four factors pertaining…

  13. Melatonin pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effects of exogenous mitochondria against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through suppression of mitochondrial permeability transition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chen, Yen-Ta; Yang, Chih-Chao; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chua, Sarah; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tien-Hung; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Lee, Mel S; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that melatonin (Mel) enhances exogenous mitochondria (Mito) treatment against rodent hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In vitro study utilized three groups of hepatocytes (i.e. nontreatment, menadione, and menadione-melatonin treatment, 4.0 × 10(5) each), while in vivo study used adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 40) equally divided into sham-control (SC), IR (60-min left-lobe ischemia + 72-hr reperfusion), IR-Mel (melatonin at 30 min/6/8 hr after reperfusion), IR-Mito (mitochondria 15,000 μg/rat 30 min after reperfusion), and IR-Mel-Mito. Following menadione treatment in vitro, oxidative stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein), apoptotic (cleaved caspase-3/PARP), DNA damage (γ-H2AX/CD90/XRCC1), mitochondria damage (cytosolic cytochrome c) biomarkers, and mitochondrial permeability transition were found to be lower, whereas mitochondrial cytochrome c were found to be higher in hepatocytes with melatonin treatment compared to those without (all P < 0.001). In vivo study demonstrated highest liver injury score and serum AST in IR group, but lowest in SC group and higher in IR-Mito group than that in groups IR-Mel and IR-Mel-Mito, and higher in IR-Mel group than that in IR-Mel-Mito group after 72-hr reperfusion (all P < 0.003). Protein expressions of inflammatory (TNF-α/NF-κB/IL-1β/MMP-9), oxidative stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein), apoptotic (caspase-3/PARP/Bax), and mitochondria damage (cytosolic cytochrome c) biomarkers displayed an identical pattern, whereas mitochondria integrity marker (mitochondrial cytochrome c) showed an opposite pattern compared to that of liver injury score (all P < 0.001) among five groups. Microscopically, expressions of apoptotic nuclei, inflammatory (MPO(+) /CD68(+) /CD14(+) cells), and DNA damage (γ-H2AX(+) cells) biomarkers exhibited an identical pattern compared to that of liver injury score (all P < 0.001) among five groups. Melatonin-supported mitochondria treatment offered an additional

  14. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering

  15. Sequential extrusion-microwave pretreatment of switchgrass and big bluestem.

    PubMed

    Karunanithy, C; Muthukumarappan, K; Gibbons, W R

    2014-02-01

    Developing an effective and economical biomass pretreatment method is a significant roadblock to meeting the ever growing demand for transportation fuels. Earlier studies with different feedstocks revealed that in the absence of chemicals, neither extrusion nor microwave could be standalone pretreatments. However, there is potential that the advantages of these individual methods can be harnessed in a sequential pretreatment process. Accordingly, switchgrass and big bluestem were extruded and then subject to microwave pretreatment, under optimal conditions that had been separately determined in prior studies. Pretreated biomass was then subject to enzymatic hydrolysis to understand the effectiveness of the sequential pretreatment on sugar recovery and generation of fermentation inhibitors. Statistical analysis confirmed that moisture content, microwave power level, and exposure time (and their interactions) had significant influence on sugar recovery. Sequential pretreatment of switchgrass (25% moisture, 450W and 2.5min) resulted in a maximum glucose, xylose, and total sugar recovery of 52.6%, 75.5%, and 59.2%, respectively. This was higher by 1.27 and 2.71, 1.21 and 4.60, and 1.25 and 2.87 times compared to extrusion alone and the unpretreated control, respectively. The same sequential pretreatment conditions achieved maximum glucose, xylose, and total sugar recovery of 83.2%, 92.1%, and 68.1%, respectively, for big bluestem. This was 1.14 and 4.1, 1.18 and 2.7, and 1.20 and 3.0 times higher than extrusion alone and the unpretreated control, respectively. This sequential pretreatment process did not aggravate acetic acid formation over levels observed with the individual pretreatments. Furthermore, furfural, HMF, and formic acid were not detected in any of the treatments. Although the sequential pretreatment process enhanced sugar recovery without increasing the levels of potential fermentation inhibitors, the increased energy input for the microwave treatment may

  16. Biomass shock pretreatment

    DOEpatents

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  17. Reducing biomass recalcitrance via mild sodium carbonate pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Mirmohamadsadeghi, Safoora; Chen, Zhu; Wan, Caixia

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of mild sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of different feedstocks (i.e., corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass). The results showed that sodium carbonate pretreatment markedly enhanced the sugar yields of the tested biomass feedstocks. The pretreated corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass gave the glucose yields of 95.1%, 62.3%, and 81.3%, respectively, after enzymatic hydrolysis. The above glucose yields of pretreated feedstocks were 2-4 times that of untreated ones. The pretreatment also enhanced the xylose yields, 4 times for corn stover and 20 times for both Miscanthus and switchgrass. Sodium carbonate pretreatment removed 40-59% lignin from the tested feedstocks while preserving most of cellulose (<5% cellulose loss). Corn stover appeared to be least resistant to breakdown by Na2CO3 and enzymatic hydrolysis. Our study indicated that mild sodium carbonate pretreatment was effective for reducing biomass recalcitrance and subsequently improving the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:26972025

  18. (Enhanced coal hydrogasification via oxidative pretreatment)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Work during the ninth period of the grant period focused on continuous addition of oxygen to hydrogen during gasification, on active surface area measurements, and on overall analysis of the data collected on the project.

  19. Bioflocculant from pre-treated sludge and its applications in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junyuan; Ma, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Potentials of alkaline-thermal (ALT) pre-treated sludge as a bioflocculant were studied in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment. When incubated with this ALT pre-treated sludge, dry solids (DS) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of typical wastewater activated sludge reached 22.5% and 3.4×10(12)m/kg, respectively, which were much better than that obtained with conventional chemical flocculants. Sludge dewatering was further improved when both the bioflocculant and conventional polyaluminum chloride (PAC) were used simultaneously. Charge neutralization and inter-particle bridging were proposed as the reasons for the enhanced performance in the case of the combined use. With swine wastewater, the bioflocculant could remove COD, ammonium and turbidity by 45.2%, 41.8% and 74.6% when incubated with 20mg/L at pH 8.0. This study suggested that the ALT pre-treated sludge has a great potential as an alternative bioflocculant to conventional flocculants in sludge dewatering and swine wastewater pretreatment. PMID:26259686

  20. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  1. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  2. Hydrophobic character of pretreated coal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, R.; Ye, Y.; Miller, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Increased hydrophobicity and hence the flotability of coals of different rank has been observed for CO/sub 2/ pretreatment and/or controlled thermal pretreatment. DRIFT- and ATR-FTIR and XPS techniques have been used to determine the surface chemical characteristics in order to evaluate coal hydrophobicity. These results agree very well with those determined by traditional methods. The enhanced hydrophobicity of CO/sub 2/-treated coal is attributed to the high specific affinity of coal for CO/sub 2/ which results in the displacement of pore water and hydration water by CO/sub 2/ and on pressure release leads to nanobubble formation at the coal surface in aqueous suspension. Increased hydrophobicity of lignite by thermal treatment arises from the removal of pore water, hydration water and some organic OH functional groups as well as the diffusion of volatile matter to the surface and the reorientation of surface functional groups.

  3. Upgrading of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant by adding a moving bed biofilm reactor as pre-treatment and ozonation followed by biofiltration for enhanced COD reduction: design and operation experience.

    PubMed

    Kaindl, Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    A paper mill producing 500,000 ton of graphic paper annually has an on-site wastewater treatment plant that treats 7,240,000 m³ of wastewater per year, mechanically first, then biologically and at last by ozonation. Increased paper production capacity led to higher COD load in the mill effluent while production of higher proportions of brighter products gave worse biodegradability. Therefore the biological capacity of the WWTP needed to be increased and extra measures were necessary to enhance the efficiency of COD reduction. The full scale implementation of one MBBR with a volume of 1,230 m³ was accomplished in 2000 followed by another MBBR of 2,475 m³ in 2002. An ozonation step with a capacity of 75 kg O₃/h was added in 2004 to meet higher COD reduction demands during the production of brighter products and thus keeping the given outflow limits. Adding a moving bed biofilm reactor prior to the existing activated sludge step gives: (i) cost advantages when increasing biological capacity as higher COD volume loads of MBBRs allow smaller reactors than usual for activated sludge plants; (ii) a relief of strain from the activated sludge step by biological degradation in the MBBR; (iii) equalizing of peaks in the COD load and toxic effects before affecting the activated sludge step; (iv) a stable volume sludge index below 100 ml/g in combination with an optimization of the activated sludge step allows good sludge separation--an important condition for further treatment with ozone. Ozonation and subsequent bio-filtration pre-treated waste water provide: (i) reduction of hard COD unobtainable by conventional treatment; (ii) controllable COD reduction in a very wide range and therefore elimination of COD-peaks; (iii) reduction of treatment costs by combination of ozonation and subsequent bio-filtration; (iv) decrease of the color in the ozonated wastewater. The MBBR step proved very simple to operate as part of the biological treatment. Excellent control of the COD

  4. A review on alkaline pretreatment technology for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Seok; Lee, Y Y; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The native form of lignocellulosic biomass is resistant to enzymatic breakdown. A well-designed pretreatment that can promote enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass with reasonable processing cost is therefore necessary. To this end, a number of different types of pretreatment technologies have been developed with a common goal of making biomass more susceptible to enzymatic saccharification. Among those, a pretreatment method using alkaline reagent has emerged as one of the most viable process options due primarily to its strong pretreatment effect and relatively simple process scheme. The main features of alkaline pretreatment are that it selectively removes lignin without degrading carbohydrates, and increases porosity and surface area, thereby enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis. In this review, the leading alkaline pretreatment technologies are described and their features and comparative performances are discussed from a process viewpoint. Attempts were also made to give insights into the chemical and physical changes of biomass brought about by pretreatment. PMID:26341010

  5. Efficiency of single stage- and two stage pretreatment in biomass with different lignin content.

    PubMed

    Kärcher, M A; Iqbal, Y; Lewandowski, I; Senn, T

    2016-07-01

    In current study the enzymatic glucose yields of miscanthus and wheat straw were compared after single stage- and two stage pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid at different pretreatment severities. Glucose yields after two stage pretreatment were higher than after single stage pretreatment in miscanthus. Whereas wheat straw had higher glucose yields after single stage pretreatment. The study shows that two stage pretreatment has a negative effect on glucose yield in biomass with low not-acid-degradable lignin content and a positive one in biomass with high not-acid-degradable lignin content. The not-acid-degradable lignin fraction offers a higher degree of protection of the whole lignin structure against chemical attacks by mineral acids. More severe pretreatment conditions were needed to achieve a sufficient breakup of the lignin structure. But more severe conditions enhance resin formation, leading to lower enzyme activity and reduced carbohydrate yields. PMID:27067673

  6. Deep eutectic solvent pretreatment and subsequent saccharification of corncob.

    PubMed

    Procentese, Alessandra; Johnson, Erin; Orr, Valerie; Garruto Campanile, Anna; Wood, Jeffery A; Marzocchella, Antonio; Rehmann, Lars

    2015-09-01

    Ionic liquid (ILs) pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass has attracted broad scientific interest, despite high costs, possible toxicity and energy intensive recycling. An alternative group of ionic solvents with similar physicochemical properties are deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Corncob residues were pretreated with three different DES systems: choline chloride and glycerol, choline chloride and imidazole, choline chloride and urea. The pretreated biomass was characterised in terms of lignin content, sugars concentration, enzymatic digestibility and crystallinity index. A reduction of lignin and hemicellulose content resulted in increased crystallinity of the pretreated biomass while the crystallinity of the cellulose fraction could be reduced, depending on DES system and operating conditions. The subsequent enzymatic saccharification was enhanced in terms of rate and extent. A total of 41 g fermentable sugars (27 g glucose and 14 g xylose) could be recovered from 100g corncob, representing 76% (86% and 63%) of the initially available carbohydrates. PMID:26005926

  7. Comparison of Ultrasonic and CO2 Laser Pretreatment Methods on Enzyme Digestibility of Corn Stover

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Zi-Luan; Zuo, Li-Li

    2012-01-01

    To decrease the cost of bioethanol production, biomass recalcitrance needs to be overcome so that the conversion of biomass to bioethanol becomes more efficient. CO2 laser irradiation can disrupt the lignocellulosic physical structure and reduce the average size of fiber. Analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area, and the microstructure of corn stover were used to elucidate the enhancement mechanism of the pretreatment process by CO2 laser irradiation. The present work demonstrated that the CO2 laser had potential to enhance the bioconversion efficiency of lignocellulosic waste to renewable bioethanol. The saccharification rate of the CO2 laser pretreatment was significantly higher than ultrasonic pretreatment, and reached 27.75% which was 1.34-fold of that of ultrasonic pretreatment. The results showed the impact of CO2 laser pretreatment on corn stover to be more effective than ultrasonic pretreatment. PMID:22605970

  8. Comparison of ultrasonic and CO₂laser pretreatment methods on enzyme digestibility of corn stover.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shuang-Qi; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Zi-Luan; Zuo, Li-Li

    2012-01-01

    To decrease the cost of bioethanol production, biomass recalcitrance needs to be overcome so that the conversion of biomass to bioethanol becomes more efficient. CO(2) laser irradiation can disrupt the lignocellulosic physical structure and reduce the average size of fiber. Analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area, and the microstructure of corn stover were used to elucidate the enhancement mechanism of the pretreatment process by CO(2) laser irradiation. The present work demonstrated that the CO(2) laser had potential to enhance the bioconversion efficiency of lignocellulosic waste to renewable bioethanol. The saccharification rate of the CO(2) laser pretreatment was significantly higher than ultrasonic pretreatment, and reached 27.75% which was 1.34-fold of that of ultrasonic pretreatment. The results showed the impact of CO(2) laser pretreatment on corn stover to be more effective than ultrasonic pretreatment. PMID:22605970

  9. Sequential acid-/alkali-pretreatment of empty palm fruit bunch fiber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

    2012-04-01

    Pretreatment processes are key technologies for generating fermentable sugars based on lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, we developed a novel method for empty palm fruit bunch fiber (EPFBF) using sequential pretreatment with dilute acid and then alkali. Dilute sulfuric acid was used in the first step, which removed 90% of the hemicellulose and 32% of the lignin, but left most of the cellulose under the optimum pretreatment condition. Sodium hydroxide was then applied in the second step, which extracted lignin effectively with a 70% delignification yield, partially disrupting the ordered fibrils of the EPFBF and thus enhancing the enzyme digestibility of the cellulose. The sequentially pretreated biomass consisted of 82% cellulose, less than 1% hemicellulose, and 30% lignin content afterward. The pretreated biomasses morphologically revealed rough, porous, and irregularly ordered surfaces for enhancing enzyme digestibility. These results indicate that the sequentially acid/alkali-pretreated EPFBF could be broadly useful as a novel biomass. PMID:22306078

  10. The remarkable enhancement of CO-pretreated CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 supported catalyst for the reduction of NO with CO: the formation of surface synergetic oxygen vacancy.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Yu, Qiang; Li, Shan-Shan; Wan, Hai-Qin; Liu, Lian-Jun; Qi, Lei; Liu, Bin; Gao, Fei; Dong, Lin; Chen, Yi

    2011-05-01

    NO reduction by CO was investigated over CuO/γ-Al2O3, Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3, and CuOMn2O3/γ-Al2O3 model catalysts before and after CO pretreatment at 300 °C. The CO-pretreated CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst exhibited higher catalytic activity than did the other catalysts. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Raman, and H2-temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) results, as well as our previous studies, the possible interaction model between dispersed copper and manganese oxide species as well as γ-Al2O3 surface has been proposed. In this model, Cu and Mn ions occupied the octahedral vacant sites of γ-Al2O3, with the capping oxygen on top of the metal ions to keep the charge conservation. For the fresh CuO/γ-Al2O3 and Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalysts, the -Cu-O-Cu- and -Mn-O-Mn- species were formed on the surface of γ-Al2O3, respectively; but for the fresh CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, -Cu-O-Mn- species existed on the surface of -Al2O3. After CO pretreatment, -Cu-□-Cu- and -Mn-□-Mn- (□ represents surface oxygen vacancy (SOV)) species would be formed in CO-pretreated CuO/γ-Al2O3 and CO-pretreated Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalysts, respectively; whereas -Cu-□-Mn- species existed in CO-pretreated CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3. Herein, a new concept, surface synergetic oxygen vacancy (SSOV), which describes the oxygen vacancy formed between the individual Mn and Cu ions, is proposed for CO-pretreated CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst. In addition, the role of SSOV has also been approached by NO temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and in situ FTIR experiments. The FTIR results of competitive adsorption between NO and CO on all the CO-pretreated CuO/γ-Al2O3, Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3, and CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 samples demonstrated that NO molecules mainly were adsorbed on Mn2+ and CO mainly on Cu+ sites. The current study suggests that the properties of the SSOVs in CO-pretreated CuO-Mn2O3/γ-Al2O3 catalyst were significantly

  11. Baclofen ameliorates spatial working memory impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via up-regulation of HCN2 expression in the PFC in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pan; Chen, Cheng; Lu, Yun; Fu, TianLi; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; Li, Changjun; He, Zhi; Guo, Lianjun

    2016-07-15

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes memory deficits and increases the risk of vascular dementia (VD) through several biologically plausible pathways. However, whether CCH causes prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent spatial working memory impairments and Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, could ameliorate the impairments is still not clear especially the mechanisms underlying the process. In this study, rats were subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO) to induce CCH. Two weeks later, rats were treated with 25mg/kg Baclofen (intraperitioneal injection, i.p.) for 3 weeks. Spatial working memory was evaluated in a Morris water maze using a modified delayed matching-to-place (DMP) procedure. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to quantify the protein levels and protein localization. Our results showed that 2VO caused striking spatial working memory impairments, accompanied with a decreased HCN2 expression in PFC, but the protein levels of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5, a neuron specific protein), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin (SYP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), parvalbumin (PV) and HCN1 were not distinguishably changed as compared with sham-operated rats. Baclofen treatment significantly improved the spatial working memory impairments caused by 2VO, accompanied with a reversion of 2VO-induced down-regulation of HCN2. Furthermore, there was a co-localization of HCN2 subunits and parvalbumin-positive neurons in PFC. Therefore, HCN2 may target inhibitory interneurons that is implicated in working memory processes, which may be a possible mechanism of the up-regulation of HCN2 by Baclofen treatment that reliefs spatial working memory deficits in rats with CCH. PMID:27085590

  12. Validated Method for the Quantification of Baclofen in Human Plasma Using Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Limon Khatun; Cordero, Rosa Elena; Nutt, David; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Turton, Samuel; Durant, Claire; Wilson, Sue; Paterson, Sue

    2016-03-01

    A highly sensitive and fully validated method was developed for the quantification of baclofen in human plasma. After adjusting the pH of the plasma samples using a phosphate buffer solution (pH 4), baclofen was purified using mixed mode (C8/cation exchange) solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. Endogenous water-soluble compounds and lipids were removed from the cartridges before the samples were eluted and concentrated. The samples were analyzed using triple-quadrupole liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with triggered dynamic multiple reaction monitoring mode for simultaneous quantification and confirmation. The assay was linear from 25 to 1,000 ng/mL (r(2) > 0.999; n = 6). Intraday (n = 6) and interday (n = 15) imprecisions (% relative standard deviation) were <5%, and the average recovery was 30%. The limit of detection of the method was 5 ng/mL, and the limit of quantification was 25 ng/mL. Plasma samples from healthy male volunteers (n = 9, median age: 22) given two single oral doses of baclofen (10 and 60 mg) on nonconsecutive days were analyzed to demonstrate method applicability. PMID:26538544

  13. Intrathecal baclofen: Its effect on symptoms and activities of daily living in severe spasticity due to spinal cord injuries: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jagatsinh, Yogendrasinh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Spasticity is a major problem related to spinal cord injuries. Use of intrathecal baclofen with an implanted pump seems a very useful mode of therapy in patients in whom oral antispasmodic agents are either not effective or produce intolerable side-effects. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients with mean age 50 years (range 32-72 years) had intrathecal baclofen pump implanted for the severe spasticity of spinal origin. One patient died following implantation of pump due to natural causes and was not included in the study. The patients were followed up for mean 22 months (range, one to five years). Results: All 24 patients showed improvement in their spasm following the procedure. Improvement was noted in pain (12), sleep disturbance (20) and sphincter control (14). Patients had improvement in activities of daily living such as feeding ability (10), self care (10), indoor and outdoor mobility (19), and driving (4). One patient had catheter leakage immediately after the surgery and required change of catheter. The radio telemetry allows very good adjustment of the dose according the individual patients needs. Conclusion: Intrathecal baclofen pump improves the symptoms of spasm and also the quality of life. It helps the patient to live more independently. It is not an irreversible surgery for the patient and hence it is very useful in the changing the dynamics in this group of patients. PMID:19753179

  14. Microwave-assisted synthesis and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of diastereomers of (R,S)-baclofen using ten chiral derivatizing reagents designed from trichloro-s-triazine.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Ravi; Dixit, Shuchi

    2010-10-01

    Four dichloro-s-triazine (DCT) and five monochloro-s-triazine (MCT) chiral derivatizing reagents (CDRs) were synthesized by incorporating amino acid amide moieties as chiral auxiliaries in trichloro-s-triazine and its 6-methoxy derivative, respectively. Another MCT reagent was synthesized by substitution of two chlorine atoms with two different amino acid amides in trichloro-s-triazine. These reagents were used for synthesis of diastereomers of (R,S)-baclofen under microwave irradiation (i.e. 60 s at 85% power using DCT reagents and 90 s at 85% power using MCT reagents). The diastereomers were separated on a reversed-phase C18 column using mixtures of methanol with aqueous trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) with UV detection at 230 nm. The separation behavior in terms of retention times and resolutions obtained for the two sets of diastereomers prepared with DCT and MCT reagents were compared among themselves and among the two groups. Longer retention times and better resolutions were observed with DCT reagents as compared to MCT reagents. The calibration curves were linear for both (R)- and (S)-baclofen in the concentration range 50-500 μg/ml. The average regression was 0.999 for both (R)- and (S)-baclofen. The RSD for (R)-baclofen was 0.40-0.86% for intra-day precision and 0.60-1.40% for inter-day precision and these values for (S)-baclofen were 0.52-0.75% and 0.64-1.32%, respectively. The recovery was 97.2-98.9% for (R)- and 97.0-98.9% for (S)-baclofen. The limit of detection was 1.63 ng/ml and 1.52 ng/ml for (R)- and (S)-baclofen, respectively. PMID:20817188

  15. Centralized industrial waste pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, L.H.; Cunningham, D.P.

    1991-11-01

    Four years ago, the Sanitary District of Washington County, Maryland asked the Economic Development Commission and the elected officials what if' the district researched the potential for a centralized industrial waste treatment facility for the county. The reason: about a dozen privately and publicly owned industrial parks cover almost 809 ha (2,000 ac) of Washington County. Most of them opened during the 1980s and all of them are within minutes of two superhighways. The county, which has 120,000 residents, is also home to 20 trucking companies and the main lines of CSX, Conrail, and Norfolk Southern, the largest railroads east of the Mississippi River. The county is home to Mack Trucks Engine and Transmissions facility, Rohr Industries (formally Fairchild Industries), Citicorp Credit Services, Rust-Oleum, Certain-teed PVC products, and many more. Because the county has a strong economic base, reasonable property taxes, and an exceptionally clean environment, the idea for an industrial pretreatment facility was met with enthusiasm from both parties and, therefore, the idea became a concept for planning in winter 1987-88. Plans for serving targeted industries and for isolating and controlling individual wastes discharges are discussed.

  16. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes.

    PubMed

    López Torres, M; Espinosa Lloréns, Ma del C

    2008-11-01

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH)2), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH)2/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m3CH4/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW. PMID:18068345

  17. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez Torres, M. Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-11-15

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH){sub 2}), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH){sub 2}/L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW.

  18. Optimization and evaluation of alkaline potassium permanganate pretreatment of corncob.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijuan; Cui, Youzhi; Cai, Rui; Liu, Xueqiang; Zhang, Cuiying; Xiao, Dongguang

    2015-03-01

    Alkaline potassium permanganate solution (APP) was applied to the pretreatment of corncob with a simple and effective optimization of APP concentration, reaction time, temperature and solid to liquid ratio (SLR). The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 2% (w/v) potassium permanganate with SLR of 1:10 treating for 6h at 50°C. This simple one-step treatment resulted in significant 94.56% of the cellulose and 81.47% of the hemicellulose recoveries and 46.79% of the lignin removal of corncob. The reducing sugar in the hydrolysate from APP-pretreated corncob was 8.39g/L after 12h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was 1.44 and 1.29 folds higher than those from raw and acid pretreated corncobs. Physical characteristics, crystallinity and structure of the pretreated corncob were analyzed and assessed by SEM, XRD and FTIR. The APP pretreatment process was novel and enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose by affecting composition and structural features. PMID:25585256

  19. Biomass pretreatment: fundamentals toward application.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Valery B; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Berlin, Alex; Levin, David B

    2011-01-01

    Development of sustainable energy systems based on renewable biomass feedstocks is now a global effort. Lignocellulosic biomass contains polymers of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, bound together in a complex structure. Liquid biofuels, such as ethanol, can be made from biomass via fermentation of sugars derived from the cellulose and hemicellulose within lignocellulosic materials, but the biomass must be subjected to pretreatment processes to liberate the sugars needed for fermentation. Production of value-added co-products along-side biofuels through integrated biorefinery processes creates the need for selectivity during pretreatment. This paper presents a survey of biomass pretreatment technologies with emphasis on concepts, mechanism of action and practicability. The advantages and disadvantages, and the potential for industrial applications of different pretreatment technologies are the highlights of this paper. PMID:21624451

  20. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  1. The anaerobic digestion of biologically and physicochemically pretreated oily wastewater.

    PubMed

    Peng, Liyu; Bao, Meidan; Wang, Qingfeng; Wang, Fangchao; Su, Haijia

    2014-01-01

    To enhance the degradation of oily wastewater and its biogas production, a biological-physicochemical pretreatment was introduced prior to the anaerobic digestion system. The digestion thereafter proceeded more efficiently due to the inoculation by oil degrading bacteria (Bacillus). A 2-stage pre-mixing is more effective than directly mixing. The effects on the methane production were also investigated by pre-treatment with ultrasonic (US) treatment, combined with citric acid (CA) addition. US pre-treatment was found to improve the initial methane production, and CA pre-treatment could maintain this improvement during the whole digestion stage. Pre-mixing Bacillus at 9 wt.% inoculation, combined with US for 10 min and a CA concentration of 500 mg/L provided the optimum conditions. The most effective enhancement of methane yield was 1100.46 ml/g VS, exceeding that of the control by 280%. The change of coenobium shape and fatty acid content further proved that such pretreatment of oily wastewater can facilitate digestion. PMID:24240183

  2. Intensification of biogas production using pretreatment based on hydrodynamic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pankaj N; Gogate, Parag R; Csoka, Levente; Dregelyi-Kiss, Agota; Horvath, Miklos

    2016-05-01

    The present work investigates the application of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) for the pretreatment of wheat straw with an objective of enhancing the biogas production. The hydrodynamic cavitation reactor is based on a stator and rotor assembly. The effect of three different speeds of rotor (2300, 2500, 2700 rpm), wheat straw to water ratios (0.5%, 1% and 1.5% wt/wt) and also treatment times as 2, 4 and 6 min have been investigated in the work using the design of experiments (DOE) approach. It was observed that the methane yield of 31.8 ml was obtained with untreated wheat straw whereas 77.9 ml was obtained with HC pre-treated wheat straw confirming the favourable changes during the pre-treatment. The combined pre-treatment using KOH and HC gave maximum yield of biogas as 172.3 ml. Overall, it has been established that significant enhancement in the biogas production can be obtained due to the pretreatment using HC which can also be further intensified by combination with chemical treatment. PMID:26639635

  3. Improving methane production from digested manure biofibers by mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Frison, A; Raga, R; Angelidaki, I

    2016-09-01

    Animal manure digestion is associated with limited methane production, due to the high content in fibers, which are hardly degradable lignocellulosic compounds. In this study, different mechanical and thermal alkaline pretreatment methods were applied to partially degradable fibers, separated from the effluent stream of biogas reactors. Batch and continuous experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of these pretreatments. In batch experiments, the mechanical pretreatment improved the degradability up to 45%. Even higher efficiency was shown by applying thermal alkaline pretreatments, enhancing fibers degradability by more than 4-fold. In continuous experiments, the thermal alkaline pretreatment, using 6% NaOH at 55°C was proven to be the most efficient pretreatment method as the methane production was increased by 26%. The findings demonstrated that the methane production of the biogas plants can be increased by further exploiting the fraction of the digested manure fibers which are discarded in the post-storage tank. PMID:27268439

  4. Comparative data on effects of leading pretreatments and enzyme loadings and formulations on sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, Charles; Balan, Venkatech; Dale, Bruce E.; Elander, Richard; Falls, Matthew; Hames, Bonnie; Holtzapple, Mark; Ladisch, Michael R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Mosier, Nathan; Pallapolu, Venkata R.; Shi, Jian; Warner, Ryan E.

    2011-06-16

    Dilute sulfuric acid (DA), sulfur dioxide (SO2), liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), and lime pretreatments were applied to Alamo, Dacotah, and Shawnee switchgrass. Application of the same analytical methods and material balance approaches facil-itated meaningful comparisons of glucose and xylose yields from combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Use of a common supply of cellulase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase also eased comparisons. All pretreatments enhanced sugar recovery from pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis substantially compared to untreated switchgrass. Adding beta-glucosidase was effective early in enzy-matic hydrolysis while cellobiose levels were high but had limited effect on longer term yields at the enzyme loadings applied. Adding xylanase improved yields most for higher pH pretreatments where more xylan was left in the solids. Harvest time had more impact on performance than switchgrass variety, and microscopy showed changes in different features could impact performance by different pretreatments.

  5. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanenko, Olga

    The objectives of this work are to test the application of steam pretreatment to direct coal liquefaction, to investigate the reaction of model compounds with water, and to explore the use of zeolites in these processes. Previous work demonstrated the effectiveness of steam pretreatment in a subsequent flash pyrolysis. Apparently, subcritical steam ruptures nearly all of the ether cross links, leaving a partially depolymerized structure. It was postulated that very rapid heating of the pretreated coal to liquefaction conditions would be required to preserve the effects of such treatment. Accordingly, a method was adopted in which coal slurry is injected into a hot autoclave containing solvent. Since oxygen is capable of destroying the pretreatment effect, precautions were taken for its rigorous exclusion. Tests were conducted with Illinois No. 6 coal steam treated at 340sp°C, 750 psia for 15 minutes. Both raw and pretreated samples were liquified in deoxygenated tetralin at high severity (400sp°C, 30 min.) and low severity (a: 350sp°C, 30 min., and b: 385sp°C, 15 min.) conditions under 1500 psia hydrogen. Substantial improvement in liquid product quality was obtained and the need for rapid heating and oxygen exclusion demonstrated. Under low severity conditions, the oil yield was more than doubled, going from 12.5 to 29 wt%. Also chemistry of the pretreatment process was studied using aromatic ethers as model compounds. alpha-Benzylnaphthyl ether (alpha-BNE), alpha-naphthylmethyl phenyl (alpha-NMPE), and 9-phenoxyphenanthrene were exposed to steam and inert gas at pretreatment conditions and in some cases to liquid water at 315sp°C. alpha-BNE and alpha-NMPE showed little difference in conversion in inert gas and in steam. Hence, these compounds are poor models for coal in steam pretreatment. Thermally stable 9-phenoxyphenanthrene, however, was completely converted in one hour by liquid water at 315sp°C. At pretreatment conditions mostly rearranged starting

  6. Intrathecal baclofen withdrawal syndrome caused by low residual volume in the pump reservoir: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Rigoli, Gianfranco; Terrini, Giovanni; Cordioli, Zeno

    2004-12-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is an effective treatment for spasticity caused by spinal or cerebral pathologies. Severe withdrawal symptoms can result, however, if ITB is abruptly withdrawn as a result of equipment malfunctions or human error. We describe 2 cases of severe ITB withdrawal syndrome. In the first case, the symptoms appeared 5 months after pump placement, when residual volume was 2.0 mL; in the second case, symptoms appeared 2 months after the replacement of a new pump, when residual volume was 0.9 mL. In both cases, there was no evidence of system malfunction or human error. The syndrome occurred from up to 72 hours before the scheduled refilling procedure, and the residual volume in the Medtronic SynchroMed EL pump reservoir was either at, or significantly lower than, the recommended 2 mL. These cases suggest that the SynchroMed EL pump reservoir should be refilled, to avoid potentially serious consequences, when the residual volume is not lower than 3 mL by programming the alarm to sound at a volume larger than the recommended 2 mL. PMID:15605349

  7. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL), recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change during

  8. Chemical and physicochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass: a review.

    PubMed

    Brodeur, Gary; Yau, Elizabeth; Badal, Kimberly; Collier, John; Ramachandran, K B; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Overcoming the recalcitrance (resistance of plant cell walls to deconstruction) of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals. The recalcitrance is due to the highly crystalline structure of cellulose which is embedded in a matrix of polymers-lignin and hemicellulose. The main goal of pretreatment is to overcome this recalcitrance, to separate the cellulose from the matrix polymers, and to make it more accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. Reports have shown that pretreatment can improve sugar yields to higher than 90% theoretical yield for biomass such as wood, grasses, and corn. This paper reviews different leading pretreatment technologies along with their latest developments and highlights their advantages and disadvantages with respect to subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. The effects of different technologies on the components of biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) are also reviewed with a focus on how the treatment greatly enhances enzymatic cellulose digestibility. PMID:21687609

  9. Hazard Analysis for the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Robin S.; Geeting, John GH; Lawrence, Wesley E.; Young, Jonathan

    2008-07-10

    The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) is designed to perform a demonstration on an engineering scale to confirm the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility (PTF) leaching and filtration process equipment design and sludge treatment process. The system will use scaled prototypic equipment to demonstrate sludge water wash, caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, and filtration. Unit operations to be tested include pumping, solids washing, chemical reagent addition and blending, heating, cooling, leaching, filtration, and filter cleaning. In addition, the PEP will evaluate potential design changes to the ultrafiltration process system equipment to potentially enhance leaching and filtration performance as well as overall pretreatment throughput. The skid-mounted system will be installed and operated in the Processing Development Laboratory-West at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  10. Chemical and Physicochemical Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Brodeur, Gary; Yau, Elizabeth; Badal, Kimberly; Collier, John; Ramachandran, K. B.; Ramakrishnan, Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Overcoming the recalcitrance (resistance of plant cell walls to deconstruction) of lignocellulosic biomass is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals. The recalcitrance is due to the highly crystalline structure of cellulose which is embedded in a matrix of polymers-lignin and hemicellulose. The main goal of pretreatment is to overcome this recalcitrance, to separate the cellulose from the matrix polymers, and to make it more accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis. Reports have shown that pretreatment can improve sugar yields to higher than 90% theoretical yield for biomass such as wood, grasses, and corn. This paper reviews different leading pretreatment technologies along with their latest developments and highlights their advantages and disadvantages with respect to subsequent hydrolysis and fermentation. The effects of different technologies on the components of biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) are also reviewed with a focus on how the treatment greatly enhances enzymatic cellulose digestibility. PMID:21687609

  11. Can Delignification Decrease Cellulose Digestibility in Acid Pretreated Corn Stover?

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizawa, C. I.; Jeoh, T.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Johnson, D. K.; Davis, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    It has previously been shown that the improved digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover is at least partially due to the removal of xylan and the consequent increase in accessibility of the cellulose to cellobiohydrolase enzymes. We now report on the impact that lignin removal has on the accessibility and digestibility of dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Samples of corn stover were subjected to dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment with and without simultaneous (partial) lignin removal. In addition, some samples were completely delignified after the pretreatment step using acidified sodium chlorite. The accessibility and digestibility of the samples were tested using a fluorescence-labeled cellobiohydrolase (Trichoderma reesei Cel7A) purified from a commercial cellulase preparation. Partial delignification of corn stover during dilute acid pretreatment was shown to improve cellulose digestibility by T. reesei Cel7A; however, decreasing the lignin content below 5% (g g{sup -1}) by treatment with acidified sodium chlorite resulted in a dramatic reduction in cellulose digestibility. Importantly, this effect was found to be enhanced in samples with lower xylan contents suggesting that the near complete removal of xylan and lignin may cause aggregation of the cellulose microfibrils resulting in decreased cellulase accessibility.

  12. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    A petroleum vacuum resid (1,000 F+) was pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions and the pretreated resids (host oils) were then coprocessed with coal. The fraction of coal converted to soluble products and the yield of pentane-soluble oils were determined after coprocessing. The phenolic oxygen concentration of the oil product provided a means for estimating the fraction of coal liquids in the products; oils originating from coal had much higher concentrations of phenolic oxygen than those originating from petroleum. Resids that were pretreated by mild temperature hydrogenation reactions, where cracking was suppressed, became better host oils; when these pretreated resids were coprocessed with coal, more of the mixture was converted to tetrahydrofuran-soluble products. Depending on the pretreatment, the pentane-soluble oil yields following thermal coprocessing were either significantly lower or slightly higher than the oil yields obtained with untreated resid. The yield of oils was strongly affected by the concentration of coal in the feed. The presence of small amounts, less than 33% of coal, enhanced the conversion of petroleum resid to oils during coprocessing, although the increases were small. 91 refs.

  13. Efficient Synthesis of β-Aryl-γ-lactams and Their Resolution with (S)-Naproxen: Preparation of (R)- and (S)-Baclofen.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Balbás, Iris J; Valentín-Guevara, Berenice; López-Mendoza, Estefanía; Linzaga-Elizalde, Irma; Ordoñez, Mario; Román-Bravo, Perla

    2015-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of enantiomerically-pure β-aryl-γ-lactams is described. The principal feature of this synthesis is the practical resolution of β-aryl-γ-lactams with (S)-Naproxen. The procedure is based on the Michael addition of nitromethane to benzylidenemalonates, which was easily obtained, followed by the reduction of the γ-nitroester in the presence of Raney nickel and the subsequent saponification/decarboxylation reaction. The utility of this methodology was highlighted by the preparation of enantiomerically-pure (R)- and (S)-Baclofen hydrochloride. PMID:26690390

  14. Long-term follow-up for lumbar intrathecal baclofen catheters placed using the paraspinal subfascial technique.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Saumitra K; Rubin, Benjamin A; Harter, David H

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is a valuable therapeutic option for patients with spasticity and dystonia. The techniques that place an ITB pump catheter into the subcutaneous fat of a lumbar incision are well described. Because patients who require ITB often have low body fat content, they may be predisposed to catheter-related complications. The senior author used a novel technique to place the catheter in a paraspinal subfascial fashion, and the short-term results were previously published. That study demonstrated no development of hardware erosions, catheter migrations, or CSF leaks within an average follow-up of 5 months. This study followed up on those initial findings by looking at the long-term outcomes since this technique was introduced. METHODS Using the institutional review board-approved protocol, the electronic medical records were reviewed retrospectively for all patients who underwent paraspinal subfascial catheter placement by the senior author. Patients received follow-up with the surgeon at 2 weeks postoperatively and were followed routinely by their physiatrist thereafter. RESULTS Of the 43 patients identified as having undergone surgery by the senior author using the paraspinal subfascial technique between July 2010 and February 2014, 12 patients (27.9%) required reoperation. There were 5 patients (11.6%) who had complications related to the catheter or lumbar incision. No hardware erosions or CSF leaks were identified. These patients received a median follow-up of 3.0 years, with 30 of 43 patients receiving follow-up over 2.0 years. CONCLUSION This follow-up study suggests that the technique of paraspinal subfascial catheter placement translates to long-term decreases in CSF leakage and complications from erosion, infection, and also catheter malfunctions. It does not seem to affect the overall rate of complications. PMID:26588457

  15. Comparative study of sulfite pretreatments for robust enzymatic saccharification of corn cob residue

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Corn cob residue (CCR) is a kind of waste lignocellulosic material with enormous potential for bioethanol production. The moderated sulphite processes were used to enhance the hydrophily of the material by sulfonation and hydrolysis. The composition, FT-IR spectra, and conductometric titrations of the pretreated materials were measured to characterize variations of the CCR in different sulfite pretreated environments. And the objective of this study is to compare the saccharification rate and yield of the samples caused by these variations. Results It was found that the lignin in the CCR (43.2%) had reduced to 37.8%, 38.0%, 35.9%, and 35.5% after the sulfite pretreatment in neutral, acidic, alkaline, and ethanol environments, respectively. The sulfite pretreatments enhanced the glucose yield of the CCR. Moreover, the ethanol sulfite sample had the highest glucose yield (81.2%, based on the cellulose in the treated sample) among the saccharification samples, which was over 10% higher than that of the raw material (70.6%). More sulfonic groups and weak acid groups were produced during the sulfite pretreatments. Meanwhile, the ethanol sulfite treated sample had the highest sulfonic group (0.103 mmol/g) and weak acid groups (1.85 mmol/g) in all sulfite treated samples. In FT-IR spectra, the variation of bands at 1168 and 1190 cm-1 confirmed lignin sulfonation during sulfite pretreatment. The disappearance of the band at 1458 cm-1 implied the methoxyl on lignin had been removed during the sulfite pretreatments. Conclusions It can be concluded that the lignin in the CCR can be degraded and sulfonated during the sulfite pretreatments. The pretreatments improve the hydrophility of the samples because of the increase in sulfonic group and weak acid groups, which enhances the glucose yield of the material. The ethanol sulfite pretreatment is the best method for lignin removal and with the highest glucose yield. PMID:23206858

  16. Review of feedstock pretreatment strategies for improved anaerobic digestion: From lab-scale research to full-scale application.

    PubMed

    Carrere, Hélène; Antonopoulou, Georgia; Affes, Rim; Passos, Fabiana; Battimelli, Audrey; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Ferrer, Ivet

    2016-01-01

    When properly designed, pretreatments may enhance the methane potential and/or anaerobic digestion rate, improving digester performance. This paper aims at providing some guidelines on the most appropriate pretreatments for the main feedstocks of biogas plants. Waste activated sludge was firstly investigated and implemented at full-scale, its thermal pretreatment with steam explosion being most recommended as it increases the methane potential and digestion rate, ensures sludge sanitation and the heat needed is produced on-site. Regarding fatty residues, saponification is preferred for enhancing their solubilisation and bioavailability. In the case of animal by-products, this pretreatment can be optimised to ensure sterilisation, solubilisation and to reduce inhibition linked to long chain fatty acids. With regards to lignocellulosic biomass, the first goal should be delignification, followed by hemicellulose and cellulose hydrolysis, alkali or biological (fungi) pretreatments being most promising. As far as microalgae are concerned, thermal pretreatment seems the most promising technique so far. PMID:26384658

  17. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic

  18. Pretreatment for cellulose hydrolysis by carbon dioxide explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Y.; Lin, H.M.; Tsao, G.T.

    1998-11-01

    Cellulosic materials were treated with supercritical carbon dioxide to increase the reactivity of cellulose, thereby to enhance the rate and the extent of cellulose hydrolysis. In this pretreatment process, the cellulosic materials such as Avicel, recycled paper mix, sugarcane bagasse and the repulping waste of recycled paper are placed in a reactor under pressurized carbon dioxide at 35 C for a controlled time period. Upon an explosive release of the carbon dioxide pressure, the disruption of the cellulosic structure increases the accessible surface area of the cellulosic substrate to enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicate that supercritical carbon dioxide is effective for pretreatment of cellulose. An increase in pressure facilitates the faster penetration of carbon dioxide molecules into the crystalline structures, thus more glucose is produced from cellulosic materials after the explosion as compared to those without the pretreatment. This explosion pretreatment enhances the rate of cellulosic material hydrolysis as well as increases glucose yield by as much as 50%. Results from the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation tests also show the increase in the available carbon source from the cellulosic materials for fermentation to produce ethanol. As an alternative method, this supercritical carbon dioxide explosion has a possibility to reduce expense compared with ammonia explosion, and since it is operated at the low temperature, it will not cause degradation of sugars such as those treated with steam explosion due to the high-temperature involved.

  19. Treatment of severe, disabling spasticity with continuous intrathecal baclofen therapy following acquired brain injury: the experience of a tertiary institution in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhe Min; Law, Jia Hao; King, Nicolas Kon Kam; Rajeswaran, Deshan Kumar; Soh, Samantha; Rao, Jai Prashanth; Ng, Wai Hoe; Chua, Karen Sui Geok

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy is a proven, effective treatment for disabling cortical spasticity. We describe the first local series of five patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) who received ITB and were followed up for 63.8 months. METHODS A retrospective review of medical and rehabilitation records of patients who received ITB therapy was carried out. Data studied included baseline demographic and injury variables, implantation data, spasticity and function, ITB dosage over time and complications. RESULTS From 2006 to 2010, a total of five patients received ITB therapy via implanted pumps about 39.4 months after ABI. Four out of five patients experienced significant reductions in their lower limb spasticity scores and improvements in global function and dependency. One patient had minor adverse events associated with baclofen-related sedation. The mean ITB dose at one year was 182.7 ± 65.6 mcg/day. CONCLUSION Our preliminary study showed encouraging long-term outcomes and safety for ITB therapy after ABI-related intractable spasticity. Individual ITB responses over time were variable, with gender differences. The outcomes experienced by our centre were comparable to those in the general ABI population, supporting the efficacy of ITB therapy for chronic disabling spasticity. PMID:26831310

  20. Impact of pretreatments on morphology and enzymatic saccharification of shedding bark of Melaleuca leucadendron.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ibrahim Nasser; Santoso, Shella Permatasari; Tran-Nguyen, Phuong Lan; Huynh, Lien Huong; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2013-07-01

    The effects of subcritical water (SCW) and dilute acid pretreatments on the shedding bark of Melaleuca leucadendron (paper bark tree, PBT) biomass morphology, crystallinity index (CrI) and enzymatic saccharification were studied. The morphology of PBT bark was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. SCW pretreatment mainly extracted amorphous parts of the biomass hence its CrI increased, partial decrystallization of cellulose and exposing of intact nanofibers of cellulose were observed for SCW pretreatment at 180°C. On the other hand, dilute acid pretreatment at 160°C exhibited a large decrease in CrI, an increase in surface area, a decrease in lignin content and decrystallization of cellulose as well as the peel-off and degradation of some nanofiber bundles. Dilute acid and SCW pretreatments of PBT biomass resulted in about 4.5 fold enhancement in glucose release relative to the untreated one. PMID:23697662

  1. Bladder stones – red herring for resurgence of spasticity in a spinal cord injury patient with implantation of Medtronic Synchromed pump for intrathecal delivery of baclofen – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul M; Oo, Tun; Hughes, Peter L; Singh, Gurpreet; Watt, John WH; Sett, Pradipkumar

    2003-01-01

    Background Increased spasms in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, whose spasticity was previously well controlled with intrathecal baclofen therapy, are due to (in order of frequency) drug tolerance, increased stimulus, low reservoir volume, catheter malfunction, disease progression, human error, and pump mechanical failure. We present a SCI patient, in whom bladder calculi acted as red herring for increased spasticity whereas the real cause was spontaneous extrusion of catheter from intrathecal space. Case Presentation A 44-year-old male sustained a fracture of C5/6 and incomplete tetraplegia at C-8 level. Medtronic Synchromed pump for intrathecal baclofen therapy was implanted 13 months later to control severe spasticity. The tip of catheter was placed at T-10 level. The initial dose of baclofen was 300 micrograms/day of baclofen, administered by a simple continuous infusion. During a nine-month period, he required increasing doses of baclofen (875 micrograms/day) to control spasticity. X-ray of abdomen showed multiple radio opaque shadows in the region of urinary bladder. No malfunction of the pump was detected. Therefore, increased spasticity was attributed to bladder stones. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy of bladder stones was carried out successfully. Even after removal of bladder stones, this patient required further increases in the dose of intrathecal baclofen (950, 1050, 1200 and then 1300 micrograms/day). Careful evaluation of pump-catheter system revealed that the catheter had extruded spontaneously and was lying in the paraspinal space at L-4, where the catheter had been anchored before it entered the subarachnoid space. A new catheter was passed into the subarachnoid space and the tip of catheter was located at T-8 level. The dose of intrathecal baclofen was decreased to 300 micrograms/day. Conclusion Vesical calculi acted as red herring for resurgence of spasticity. The real cause for increased spasms was spontaneous extrusion of whole length of

  2. Fast Enzymatic Saccharification of Switchgrass After Pretreatment with Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hua; Baker, Gary A; Cowins, Janet V.

    2010-01-01

    The pretreatment of cellulose using ionic liquids (ILs) has been shown to be an effective method for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose; this technique affords a fast and complete saccharification of cellulose into reducing sugars (Dadi et al., Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006; 95:904 910; Liu and Chen, Chinese Sci Bull. 2006; 51:2432 2436; Zhao et al., J Biotechnol. 2009; 139:47 54). Motivated by these advances, this study examines the effect of IL-pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of purified xylan (as a model system of hemicellulose) and switchgrass (as a real lignocellulose). The IL-pretreatment resulted in no improvement in the hydrolysis of xylan. The likely reason is that pure xylan has a low degree of polymerization (DP), and is readily biodegraded even without any pretreatment. However, in real cellulosic materials (such as switchgrass), xylan is entrapped within the cellulosic matrix, and cannot be conveniently accessed by enzymes. Our data demonstrate that the IL-pretreatment of switchgrass significantly improved the enzymatic saccharification of both cellulose (96% D-glucose yield in 24 h) and xylan (63% D-xylose yield in 24 h). The compositional analysis of switchgrass suggests a lower lignin content after IL-pretreatment. In addition, the infrared spectrum of regenerated switchgrass indicates a lower substrate crystallinity, whereas the enzyme adsorption isotherm further implies that the regenerated substrate is more accessible to enzymes. This study has further confirmed that ILpretreatment is an effective tool in enhancing the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass, and allowing a more complete saccharification.

  3. Effects of pre-treatment technologies on dark fermentative biohydrogen production: A review.

    PubMed

    Bundhoo, M A Zumar; Mohee, Romeela; Hassan, M Ali

    2015-07-01

    Biohydrogen production from dark fermentation of lignocellulosic materials represents a huge potential in terms of renewable energy exploitation. However, the low hydrogen yield is currently hindering its development on industrial scale. This study reviewed various technologies that have been investigated for enhancing dark fermentative biohydrogen production. The pre-treatment technologies can be classified based on their applications as inoculum or substrates pre-treatment or they can be categorised into physical, chemical, physicochemical and biological based on the techniques used. From the different technologies reviewed, heat and acid pre-treatments are the most commonly studied technologies for both substrates and inoculum pre-treatment. Nevertheless, these two technologies need not necessarily be the most suitable since across different studies, a wide array of other emerging techniques as well as combined technologies have yielded positive findings. To date, there exists no perfect technology for either inoculum or substrate pre-treatment. Although the aim of inoculum pre-treatment is to suppress H2-consumers and enrich H2-producers, many sporulating H2-consumers survive the pre-treatment while some non-spore H2-producers are inhibited. Besides, several inoculum pre-treatment techniques are not effective in the long run and repeated pre-treatment may be required for continuous suppression of H2-consumers and sustained biohydrogen production. Furthermore, many technologies employed for substrates pre-treatment may yield inhibitory compounds that can eventually decrease biohydrogen production. Consequently, much research needs to be done to find out the best technology for both substrates and inoculum pre-treatment while also taking into consideration the energetic, economic and technical feasibility of implementing such a process on an industrial scale. PMID:25881150

  4. Dilute acid and autohydrolysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    Exposure of cellulosic biomass to temperatures of about 120-210 degrees C can remove most of the hemicellulose and produce cellulose-rich solids from which high glucose yields are possible with cellulase enzymes. Furthermore, the use of dilute sulfuric acid in this pretreatment operation can increase recovery of hemicellulose sugars substantially to about 85-95% of the maximum possible versus only about 65% if no acid is employed. The use of small-diameter tubes makes it possible to employ high solids concentrations similar to those preferred for commercial operations, with rapid heat-up, good temperature control, and accurate closure of material balances. Mixed reactors can be employed to pretreat larger amounts of biomass than possible in such small-diameter tubes, but solids concentrations are limited to about 15% or less to provide uniform temperatures. Pretreatment of large amounts of biomass at high solids concentrations is best carried out using direct steam injection and rapid pressure release, but closure of material balances in such "steam gun" devices is more difficult. Although flow of water alone or containing dilute acid is not practical commercially, such flow-through configurations provide valuable insight into biomass deconstruction kinetics not possible in the batch tubes, mixed reactors, or steam gun systems. PMID:19768619

  5. Comminution employing liquid nitrogen pretreatments

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, S.C. . Dept. of Civil Engineering and Mechanics); Hippo, E.J. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes)

    1990-11-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a methodology that will lead to the establishment of an effective, efficient technique for ultrafine grinding of coal. We believe that the key to successful coal grinding is strongly dependent upon the change of the brittleness of coal under a freezing temperature pretreatment. Furthermore, a cryogenic grinding process may provide the basis for the development of advanced technologies involving the separation of the pyritic minerals from coal. Specific objectives of the program are to: determine the effect of low temperature pretreatments on the microfracture development along the coal/pyrite interface and on the fracture resistance (brittleness) of coal. Specifically, we intend to examine the effect of direct contact of coal with liquid nitrogen, dry ice, and dry-iced acetone. Also, we intend to study pyrite liberation as a result of these treatments; determine the fracture resistance of coal under different low temperature pretreatments; determine the relationships between the fracture resistance of coal and the effectiveness of a grinding process; determine the effect of the frozen coal grinding on the pyrite liberation; evaluate factors which might effect process design, scale-up, and economics; and make a first pass economic assessment of the process. 15 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Pretreatment of Siam weed stem by several chemical methods for increasing the enzymatic digestibility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Zhang, Lihua; Liu, Dehua

    2010-05-01

    Siam weed [Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & Robinson], an invasive exotic weed in China, was proposed as a feedstock for bioethanol production. This would be a promising way of using for an invasive weed that needs management and control. It was found that the glucan content of the weed stem was similar to that of sugarcane bagasse, but higher than those of corn stover and wheat straw. Several chemical pretreatment methods were applied to the weed stem to increase its enzymatic digestibility. Mild sulfuric acid (<120 degrees C) or alkali pretreatment did not markedly increase the enzymatic digestibility. However, peracetic acid (PAA) pretreatment dramatically enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis of the weed stem. Compared to some other common agricultural residues, the weed stem was more difficult to pretreat and digest by cellulase. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra analysis indicated that the cellulose-related bands became more intensive after pretreatment, especially for PAA-pretreated samples. According to X-ray diffraction spectra, the biomass solids had higher crystallinity indices after pretreatment, although these indices were similar for all of the pretreated samples. PMID:20349449

  7. Reuse of microalgae grown in full-scale wastewater treatment ponds: Thermochemical pretreatment and biogas production.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Felix, Leonardo; Rocha, Hemyle; Pereira, Jackson de Oliveira; de Aquino, Sérgio

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed thermochemical pretreatment of microalgae harvested from a full-scale wastewater treatment pond prior to its anaerobic digestion using acid and alkaline chemical doses combined with thermal pretreatment at 80°C. Results indicated that alkaline and thermal pretreatment contributed mostly to glycoprotein and pectin solubilisation; whilst acid pretreatment solubilised mostly hemicellulose, with lower effectiveness for proteins. Regarding the anaerobic biodegradability, biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests showed that final methane yield was enhanced after almost all pretreatment conditions when compared to non-pretreated microalgae, with the highest increase for thermochemical pretreatment at the lowest dose (0.5%), i.e. 82% and 86% increase for alkaline and acid, respectively. At higher doses, salt toxicity was revealed by K(+) concentrations over 5000mg/L. All BMP data from pretreated biomass was successfully described by the modified Gompertz model and optimal condition (thermochemical 0.5% HCl) showed an increase in final methane yield and the process kinetics. PMID:26990398

  8. Improving the conversion of biomass in catalytic fast pyrolysis via white-rot fungal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanqing; Zeng, Yelin; Zuo, Jiane; Ma, Fuying; Yang, Xuewei; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yujue

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of white-rot fungal pretreatment on corn stover conversion in catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). Corn stover pretreated by white-rot fungus Irpex lacteus CD2 was fast pyrolyzed alone (non-CFP) and with ZSM-5 zeolite (CFP) in a semi-batch pyroprobe reactor. The fungal pretreatment considerably increased the volatile product yields (predominantly oxygenated compounds) in non-CFP, indicating that fungal pretreatment enhances the corn stover conversion in fast pyrolysis. In the presence of ZSM-5 zeolite, these oxygenated volatiles were further catalytically converted to aromatic hydrocarbons, whose yield increased from 10.03 wt.% for the untreated corn stover to 11.49 wt.% for the pretreated sample. In contrast, the coke yield decreased from 14.29 to 11.93 wt.% in CFP following the fungal pretreatment. These results indicate that fungal pretreatment can enhance the production of valuable aromatics and decrease the amount of undesired coke, and thus has a beneficial effect on biomass conversion in CFP. PMID:23506976

  9. Improved interface quality and luminescence capability of InGaN/GaN quantum wells with Mg pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhengyuan; Shen, Xiyang; Xiong, Huan; Li, Qingfei; Kang, Junyong; Fang, Zhilai; Lin, Feng; Yang, Bilan; Lin, Shilin; Shen, Wenzhong; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2016-02-01

    Interface modification of high indium content InGaN/GaN quantum wells was carried out by Mg pretreatment of the GaN barrier surface. The indium in the Mg-pretreated InGaN layer was homogeneously distributed, making the interfaces abrupt. The improved interface quality greatly enhanced light emission capacity. The cathodoluminescence intensity of the Mg-pretreated InGaN/GaN quantum wells was correspondingly much stronger than those of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells without Mg pretreatment.

  10. Thermochemical pretreatment of underutilized woody biomass for manufacturing wood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaez Samaniego, Manuel Raul

    Prescribed fires, one method for reducing hazardous fuel loads from forest lands in the US, are limited by geographical, environmental, and social impacts. Mechanical operations are an alternative type of fuel treatment but these processes are constrained by the difficulty of economically harvesting and/or using large amounts of low-value woody biomass. Adoption and integration of new technologies into existing wood composite facilities offer better utilization of this material. A pretreatment that enables integration of technologies in a typical composite facility will aid with diversification of product portfolio (e.g. wood composites, fuel pellets, liquid fuels, chemicals). Hot water extraction (HWE) is an option for wood pretreatment. This work provides a fundamental understanding of the physicochemical changes to wood resulting from HWE, and how these changes impact processing and performance of composites. Specific objectives were to: 1) review literature on studies related to the manufacture of composites produced with thermally pretreated wood, 2) manufacture wood plastic composites (WPC) and particleboard using HWE wood and evaluate the impacts of pretreatment on product properties, 3) develop an understanding of the effect of HWE on lignin properties, specifically lignin at the cells surface level after migration from cell walls and middle lamella, 4) discern the influence of lignin on the fiber surface on processing WPCs, and, 5) investigate the effect of changing the pretreatment environment (inert gas instead of water) on lignin behavior. Results show that HWE enhances the resistance of both WPCs and particleboard to water with positive or no effect on mechanical properties. Reduction of hemicelluloses and lignin property changes are suggested as the main reasons for enhancing interaction between wood fiber and resins during composite processing. Lignin on the surface of particles after HWE interacts with thermoplastics during WPCs compounding, thus

  11. [Pretreatment of industrial lignin and catalytic conversion into phenol].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongshui; Luo, Hao; Li, Hongqiang; Xu, Jian

    2014-05-01

    Recent concerns about the gradual depletion of conventional fossil resources and the pressure from global climate change have accentuated the need for new alternative feedstock. As one of the main components in biomass, lignin is the second most abundant natural polymer after cellulose, and has the potential to serve as a sustainable source of energy and organic carbon to replace petroleum-based chemicals. Efficient conversion of lignin into high value-added chemicals is crucial to improve the economic feasibility of biomass refinery. In the present study, several pretreatment technologies on industrial lignin were carried out to enhance phenol production. A microwave irradiation assisted biphasic reaction system was used to convert pretreated industrial lignin into phenolic compounds. Lignin conversion, reaction temperature, time and pretreatment method, were optimized. The highest phenol yield was 8.14% obtained from lignin pretreated by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate at 400 W for 60 min in a biophasic system catalyze by 1-aminoethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. PMID:25118400

  12. The Use of Clay-Polymer Nanocomposites in Wastewater Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Rytwo, Giora

    2012-01-01

    Some agricultural effluents are unsuitable for discharge into standard sewage-treatment plants: their pretreatment is necessary to avoid clogging of the filtering devices by colloidal matter. The colloidal stability of the effluents is mainly due to mutual repulsive forces that keep charged particles in suspension. Pretreatment processes are based on two separate stages: (a) neutralization of the charges (“coagulation”) and (b) bridging between several small particles to form larger aggregates that sink, leaving clarified effluent (“flocculation”). The consequent destabilization of the colloidal suspension lowers total suspended solids (TSSs), turbidity, and other environmental quality parameters, making the treatments that follow more efficient. Clay-based materials have been widely used for effluent pretreatment and pollutant removal. This study presents the use of nanocomposites, comprised of an anchoring particle and a polymer, as “coagoflocculants” for the efficient and rapid reduction of TSS and turbidity in wastewater with a high organic load. The use of such particles combines the advantages of coagulant and flocculant by neutralizing the charge of the suspended particles while bridging between them and anchoring them to a denser particle (the clay mineral), enhancing their precipitation. Very rapid and efficient pretreatment is achieved in one single treatment step. PMID:22454607

  13. The Effect of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment on the Bioconversion of Tomato Processing Waste to Fermentable Sugars and Biogas.

    PubMed

    Allison, Brittany J; Cádiz, Juan Canales; Karuna, Nardrapee; Jeoh, Tina; Simmons, Christopher W

    2016-08-01

    Tomato pomace is an abundant lignocellulosic waste stream from industrial tomato processing and therefore a potential feedstock for production of renewable biofuels. However, little research has been conducted to determine if pretreatment can enhance release of fermentable sugars from tomato pomace. Ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging pretreatment technology for lignocellulosic biomass to increase enzymatic digestibility and biofuel yield while utilizing recyclable chemicals with low toxicity. In this study, pretreatment of tomato pomace with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) was investigated. Changes in pomace enzymatic digestibility were affected by pretreatment time and temperature. Certain pretreatment conditions significantly improved reducing sugar yield and hydrolysis time compared to untreated pomace. Compositional analyses suggested that pretreatment primarily removed water-soluble compounds and enriched for lignocellulose in pomace, with only subtle changes to the composition of the lignocellulose. While tomato pomace was effectively pretreated with [C2mim][OAc] to improve enzymatic digestibility, as of yet, unknown factors in the pomace caused ionic liquid pretreatment to negatively affect anaerobic digestion of pretreated material. This result, which is unique compared to similar studies on IL pretreatment of grasses and woody biomass, highlights the need for additional research to determine how the unique chemical composition of tomato pomace and other lignocellulosic fruit residues may interact with ionic liquids to generate inhibitors for downstream fermentation to biofuels. PMID:27039400

  14. Method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzhiyil, Najeeb M.; Brown, Robert C.; Dalluge, Dustin Lee

    2015-08-18

    The present invention relates to a method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass containing alkali and/or alkaline earth metal (AAEM). The method comprises providing a lignocellulosic biomass containing AAEM; determining the amount of the AAEM present in the lignocellulosic biomass; identifying, based on said determining, the amount of a mineral acid sufficient to completely convert the AAEM in the lignocellulosic biomass to thermally-stable, catalytically-inert salts; and treating the lignocellulosic biomass with the identified amount of the mineral acid, wherein the treated lignocellulosic biomass contains thermally-stable, catalytically inert AAEM salts.

  15. Bio-pretreatment of municipal solid waste prior to landfilling and its kinetics.

    PubMed

    Mahar, Rasool Bux; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Huan; Nie, Yongfeng

    2009-06-01

    The conventional landfilling does not promote sustainable waste management due to uncontrolled emissions which potentially degrade the environment. Pretreatment of municipal solid waste prior to landfilling significantly enhances waste stabilization, reduces the emissions and provides many advantages. Therefore, pretreatment of municipal solid waste methods were investigated. The major objectives of biological pretreatment are to degrade most easily degradable organic matters of MSW in a short duration under controlled conditions so as to produce desired quality for landfill. To investigate the suitable pretreatment method prior to landfilling for developing countries four pretreatment simulators were developed in the laboratory: (i) anaerobic simulator (R(1)), (ii) aerobic pretreatment simulator by natural convection of air (R(2)), (iii) aerobic pretreatment simulator by natural convection of air with leachate recirculation (R(3)) and (iv) forced aeration and leachate recirculation (R(4)). During the pretreatment organic matter, elemental composition, i.e., carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and settlement were determined for bench scale experiments. A two-component kinetic model is proposed for the biodegradation of organic matter. Biodegradation kinetic constants were determined for readily and slowly degradable organic matter. The biodegradation of organic matter efficiency in terms of kinetic rate constants for the pretreatment simulators was observed as R(4) > R(3) > R(2) > R(1). Biodegradation rate constants for readily degradable matter in simulators R(4) and R(3) were 0.225 and 0.222 per day. R(3) and R(4) simulators were more effective in reducing methane emissions about 45% and 55%, respectively, as compared to anaerobic simulator R(1). Pretreatment of MSW, by natural convection of air with leachate recirculation R(3) is sustainable method to reduce the emissions and to stabilize the waste prior to landfilling. PMID:18923914

  16. Comparative efficiency of different pretreatment methods on enzymatic digestibility of Parthenium sp.

    PubMed

    Pandiyan, K; Tiwari, Rameshwar; Rana, Sarika; Arora, Anju; Singh, Surender; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Nain, Lata

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Parthenium sp. as a feedstock for enzymatic saccharification was investigated by using chemical and biological pretreatment methods. Mainly chemical pretreatments (acid and alkali) were compared with biological pretreatment with lignolytic fungi Marasmiellus palmivorus PK-27. Structural and chemical changes as well as crystallinity of cellulose were examined through scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infra red and X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively after pretreatment. Total reducing sugar released during enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrates was also evaluated. Among the pretreatment methods, alkali (1% NaOH) treated substrate showed high recovery of acid perceptible polymerised lignin (7.53 ± 0.5 mg/g) and significantly higher amount of reducing sugar (513.1 ± 41.0 mg/gds) compared to uninoculated Parthenium (163.4 ± 21.2) after 48 h of hydrolysis. This is the first report of lignolytic enzyme production from M. palmivorus, prevalent in oil palm plantations in Malaysia and its application in biological delignification of Parthenium sp. Alkali (1% NaOH) treatment proves to be the suitable method of pretreatment for lignin recovery and enhanced yield of reducing sugar which may be used for bioethanol production from Parthenium sp. PMID:23824667

  17. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure and corn stover with biological and chemical pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yufang; Li, Xiujin; Yu, Liang; Zou, Dexun; Yuan, Hairong

    2015-12-01

    Biological and chemical pretreatment methods using liquid fraction of digestate (LFD), ammonia solution (AS), and NaOH were compared in the process of mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cattle manure and corn stover. The results showed that LFD pretreatment could achieve the same effect as the chemical pretreatment (AS, NaOH) at the performance of anaerobic digestion (AD). Compared with the untreated corn stover, the cumulative biomethane production (CBP) and the volatile solid (VS) removal rate of three pretreatment methods were increased by 25.40-30.12% and 14.48-16.84%, respectively, in the co-digestion of cattle manure and corn stover. T80 was 20-37.14% shorter than that of the control test (35 ± 1 days). LFD pretreatment not only achieved the same effect as chemical pretreatment, but also reduced T80 and improved buffer capacity of anaerobic digestion system. Therefore, this study provides meaningful insight for exploring efficient pretreatment strategy to stabilize and enhance AD performance for practical application. PMID:26409855

  18. An effective chemical pretreatment method for lignocellulosic biomass with substituted imidazoles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yuzhi; Realff, Matthew J; Sohn, Minjeong; Lee, Jay H; Bommarius, Andreas S

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant naturally renewable organic resource for biofuel production. Because of its recalcitrance to enzymatic degradation, pretreatment is a crucial step before hydrolysis of the feedstock. A variety of pretreatment methods have been developed and intensively studied to achieve optimal yield without imposing significant adverse impact on the environment. Herein, we present a novel chemical pretreatment method using substituted heterocycles with low temperature and short residence time requirements. 1-Methylimidazole (MI) is a precursor to some imidazolium-based ionic liquids. In this study, its potential utilization as a biomass pretreatment agent is being investigated for the first time. At mild conditions, such as 25°C for 5 min at ambient pressure, a substantial increase in the hydrolysis rate throughout the entire course of conversion for cellulose substrate was obtained. Furthermore, the pretreatment effectiveness of MI on both untreated and steam-exploded lignocellulosic biomass including loblolly pine, switchgrass, and sugarcane bagasse has been studied and MI was found to be an efficient delignifier. Remarkable rate enhancement was also observed for the non-woody lignocellulosic substrates after a short period of MI pretreatment at ambient conditions. The mechanism of MI pretreatment is explored through analysis of cellulose physical properties including crystallinity index, degree of polymerization, accessibility, and lignin dissolution quantification. PMID:25311613

  19. Ultrasonic and Thermal Pretreatments on Anaerobic Digestion of Petrochemical Sludge: Dewaterability and Degradation of PAHs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Weizhong; Wong, Jonathan W. C.; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yan, Binghua; Zhang, Xueying; Jia, Honghua

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge dewaterability and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion were studied. Results showed that the total biogas production volume in the thermal pretreatment system was 4 and 5 times higher than that in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system, and the corresponding volatile solid removal efficiencies reached 28%, 15%, and 8%. Phenanthrene, paranaphthalene, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthene, and benzopyrene removal rates reached 43.3%, 55.5%, 30.6%, 42.9%, and 41.7%, respectively, in the thermal pretreatment system, which were much higher than those in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system. Moreover, capillary suction time (CST) of sludge increased after pretreatment, and then reduced after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved after anaerobic digestion. The decrease of protein and polysaccharide in the sludge could improve sludge dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that thermal pretreatment might be a promising enhancement method for petrochemical sludge solubilization, thus contributing to degradation of the PAHs, biogas production, and improvement of dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. PMID:26327510

  20. Ultrasonic and Thermal Pretreatments on Anaerobic Digestion of Petrochemical Sludge: Dewaterability and Degradation of PAHs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Weizhong; Wong, Jonathan W C; Yong, Xiaoyu; Yan, Binghua; Zhang, Xueying; Jia, Honghua

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different pretreatment methods on sludge dewaterability and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion were studied. Results showed that the total biogas production volume in the thermal pretreatment system was 4 and 5 times higher than that in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system, and the corresponding volatile solid removal efficiencies reached 28%, 15%, and 8%. Phenanthrene, paranaphthalene, fluoranthene, benzofluoranthene, and benzopyrene removal rates reached 43.3%, 55.5%, 30.6%, 42.9%, and 41.7%, respectively, in the thermal pretreatment system, which were much higher than those in the ultrasound pretreatment and in the control system. Moreover, capillary suction time (CST) of sludge increased after pretreatment, and then reduced after 20 days of anaerobic digestion, indicating that sludge dewaterability was greatly improved after anaerobic digestion. The decrease of protein and polysaccharide in the sludge could improve sludge dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. This study suggested that thermal pretreatment might be a promising enhancement method for petrochemical sludge solubilization, thus contributing to degradation of the PAHs, biogas production, and improvement of dewaterability during petrochemical sludge anaerobic digestion. PMID:26327510

  1. Experimental investigation of ionic liquid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse with 1,3-dimethylimadazolium dimethyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Bahrani, Samaneh; Raeissi, Sona; Sarshar, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    In this study, an imidazolium-based ionic liquid (IL), 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate ([Mmim][DMP]), was applied for pretreating sugarcane bagasse to produce bioethanol. The main goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of bagasse pretreatment with this IL, and to verify the effect of different operational parameters on the pretreatment process. Results indicated that temperature and duration of IL-pretreatment have optimum values. Within the range investigated, a maximum fermentable sugar conversion of 70.38% was achieved with this IL at 120°C and 120min. The corresponding value was 28.65% for the untreated biomass. The main cause for the observed enhancement in enzymatic hydrolysis was the reduction of cellulose crystallinity in the IL-pretreated biomass, as compared to the untreated sample, because it resulted in higher accessibility of the enzymes to the biomass after pretreatment. Moreover, the results indicated that aqueous [Mmim][DMP] mixtures are not as effective for pretreatment as the pure IL. PMID:25804532

  2. Wash water waste pretreatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Investigations were completed on wash waters based on each candidate personal cleansing agent. Evaluations of coagulants, antifoam agents, and the effect of promising antifoams on the chemical precipitation were included. Based on these evaluations two candidate soaps as well as their companion antifoam agents were selected for further work. Operating parameters included the effect of soap concentration, ferric chloride concentration, duration of mixing, and pore size of depth filters on the degree of soap removal. The effect of pressure on water flow through filter cartridges and on the rate of decline of water flow was also investigated. The culmination of the program was the recommendation of a pretreatment concept based on chemical precipitation followed by pressure filtration.

  3. Liquid hot water pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production accompanying with high valuable products.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xinshu; Wang, Wen; Yu, Qiang; Qi, Wei; Wang, Qiong; Tan, Xuesong; Zhou, Guixiong; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-01-01

    Pretreatment is an essential prerequisite to overcome recalcitrance of biomass and enhance the ethanol conversion efficiency of polysaccharides. Compared with other pretreatment methods, liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment not only reduces the downstream pressure by making cellulose more accessible to the enzymes but minimizes the formation of degradation products that inhibit the growth of fermentative microorganisms. Herein, this review summarized the improved LHW process for different biomass feedstocks, the decomposition behavior of biomass in the LHW process, the enzymatic hydrolysis of LHW-treated substrates, and production of high value-added products and ethanol. Moreover, a combined process producing ethanol and high value-added products was proposed basing on the works of Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion to make LHW pretreatment acceptable in the biorefinery of cellulosic ethanol. PMID:26403722

  4. The effect of pretreatment conditions on structural, morphological and catalytic properties of TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocemba, Ireneusz; Nadajczyk, Justyna; Rynkowski, Jacek; Maniukiewicz, Waldemar

    2014-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment conditions in reductive and oxidative atmosphere on physicochemical properties and catalytic activity of TiO2 was studied. TiO2 was characterized using: XRD, SEM, TPR-H2, O2 and CO chemisorption methods, and tested in the reaction of CO oxidation in air. Experimental results indicated that the kind of pretreatment conditions has a significant influence on structural properties and activity of the studied oxide. It was claimed that pretreatment in hydrogen favors anatase → rutile transformation. Moreover, rutile was more easily reducible than the anatase phase despite its high thermodynamic stability. Catalytic tests showed that pretreatment in hydrogen enhances conversion of CO more than annealing in oxygen atmosphere.

  5. The effect of alkaline pretreatment methods on cellulose structure and accessibility.

    PubMed

    Bali, Garima; Meng, Xianzhi; Deneff, Jacob I; Sun, Qining; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of different alkaline pretreatments on cellulose structural features and accessibility are compared and correlated with the enzymatic hydrolysis of Populus. The pretreatments are shown to modify polysaccharides and lignin content to enhance the accessibility for cellulase enzymes. The highest increase in the cellulose accessibility was observed in dilute sodium hydroxide, followed by methods using ammonia soaking and lime (Ca(OH)2 ). The biggest increase of cellulose accessibility occurs during the first 10 min of pretreatment, with further increases at a slower rate as severity increases. Low temperature ammonia soaking at longer residence times dissolved a major portion of hemicellulose and exhibited higher cellulose accessibility than high temperature soaking. Moreover, the most significant reduction of degree of polymerization (DP) occurred for dilute sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and ammonia pretreated Populus samples. The study thus identifies important cellulose structural features and relevant parameters related to biomass recalcitrance. PMID:25421020

  6. GABAergic neural activity involved in salicylate-induced auditory cortex gain enhancement.

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Lobarinas, E; Deng, A; Goodey, R; Stolzberg, D; Salvi, R J; Sun, W

    2011-08-25

    Although high doses of sodium salicylate impair cochlear function, it paradoxically enhances sound-evoked activity in the auditory cortex (AC) and augments acoustic startle reflex responses, neural and behavioral metrics associated with hyperexcitability and hyperacusis. To explore the neural mechanisms underlying salicylate (SS)-induced hyperexcitability and "increased central gain," we examined the effects of GABA receptor agonists and antagonists on SS-induced hyperexcitability in the AC and startle reflex responses. Consistent with our previous findings, local or systemic application of SS significantly increased the amplitude of sound-evoked AC neural activity, but generally reduced spontaneous activity in the AC. Systemic injection of SS also significantly increased the acoustic startle reflex. S-baclofen or R-baclofen, GABA-B agonists, which suppressed sound-evoked AC neural firing rate and local field potentials, also suppressed the SS-induced enhancement of the AC field potential and the acoustic startle reflex. Local application of vigabatrin, which enhances GABA concentration in the brain, suppressed the SS-induced enhancement of AC firing rate. Systemic injection of vigabatrin also reduced the SS-induced enhancement of acoustic startle reflex. Collectively, these results suggest that the sound-evoked behavioral and neural hyperactivity induced by SS may arise from a SS-induced suppression of GABAergic inhibition in the AC. PMID:21664433

  7. Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment of Cellulosic Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngmi; Hendrickson, Rick; Mosier, Nathan S.; Ladisch, Michael R.

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for fuel ethanol production. However, the lignocellulose is recalcitrant to enzymatic hydrolysis because of its structural complexity. Controlled-pH liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment of cellulosic feedstock improves its enzymatic digestibility by removing hemicellulose and making the cellulose more accessible to cellulase enzymes. The removed hemicellulose is solubilized in the liquid phase of the pretreated feedstock as oligosaccharides. Formation of monomeric sugars during the LHW pretreatment is minimal. The LHW pretreatment is carried out by cooking the feedstock in process water at temperatures between 160 and 190°C and at a pH of 4-7. No additional chemicals are needed. This chapter presents the detailed procedure of the LHW pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

  8. Effect of progesterone pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in the male Fischer (F344/NCr) rat.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, N; Barter, R A; Uno, H; Waalkes, M P

    1993-01-01

    A previous report has indicated that progesterone pretreatment can markedly reduce cadmium toxicity in male NAW mice. Therefore we examined the effects of progesterone pretreatment on cadmium toxicity in male Fischer (F344/NCr) rats. A single sc injection of 20 mumol CdCl2/kg proved nonlethal over 24 hr but caused the typical spectrum of testicular lesions in these rats. However, when rats were pretreated with progesterone (100 mg/kg, sc, -48, -24, and 0 hr) and then given cadmium (20 mumol CdCl2/kg, 0 hr), this dose of cadmium proved very toxic, unexpectedly causing a 53% mortality. Progesterone pretreatment had no effect on cadmium-induced testicular lesions in surviving rats. Significant elevations in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, indicative of hepatotoxicity, were also observed in progesterone-pretreated rats given cadmium as compared to rats given cadmium alone. Progesterone pretreatment had no effect on the distribution of cadmium to liver, kidney, or testes. Progesterone pretreatment also had no effect on the cadmium-induced increases in hepatic or renal metallothionein (MT) or hepatic or testicular MT mRNA levels. In contrast, levels of the testicular cadmium-binding protein (TCBP) in progesterone-pretreated rats were doubled. These results indicate that, contrary to previously reported data for the mouse, progesterone pretreatment increased the lethality of cadmium in male Fischer (F344/NCr) rats and had no effect on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. The mechanism by which progesterone enhanced cadmium toxicity, especially cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, deserves further study. PMID:8430418

  9. The effect of pretreatment with terpenes on transdermal iontophoretic delivery of arginine vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Nair, Vinod B; Panchagnula, Ramesh

    2004-07-01

    This study investigates the effects of terpenes and iontophoresis on the in vitro permeation of arginine vasopressin (AVP) through rat skin and the biophysical changes induced by the chemical enhancers in the stratum corneum (SC) lipids by FT-IR spectroscopy. Pretreatment with terpenes (e.g. 5% w/v, carvone, pulegone, cineole and menthol in EtOH:W (2:1) system) increased (P < 0.05) the flux of AVP in comparison to control (not pretreated with enhancer) but was not significantly different (P > 0.05) in comparison to iontophoresis. Amongst different terpenes studied maximum enhancement ratio was observed with cineole. In combination, iontophoresis did not further increase (P > 0.05) the permeation of AVP through the enhancer pretreated epidermis in comparison to pretreatment with enhancer or iontophoresis alone. Hence it was concluded that although the combination was effective in flux enhancement compared to control, there was no synergism in action between terpenes and iontophoresis. FT-IR spectroscopic studies revealed that EtOH:W (2:1) system is not effective in lipid extraction. The area under the symmetric and asymmetric stretching peaks at 2850 and 2920 cm(-1) revealed that at the concentration used terpenes did not extract any lipids from the epidermis. The mode of action of terpenes is attributed to the breaking of hydrogen bonds between the ceramide head groups of lipids in the SC leading to greater fluidization of the SC lipids. PMID:15231435

  10. Characterization of lignin derived from water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment of poplar wood at elevated temperatures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Libing; Yan, Lishi; Wang, Zheming; Laskar, Dhrubojyoti D.; Swita, Marie S.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, flowthrough pretreatment of biomass has high potential to valorize lignin derivatives to high-value products, which is vital to enhance the economy of biorefinery plants. Comprehensive understanding of lignin behaviors and solubilization chemistry in aqueous pretreatment such as water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment is of fundamental importance to achieve the goal of providing flexible platform for lignin utilization. In this study, the effects of flowthrough pretreatment conditions on lignin separation from poplar wood were reported as well as the characteristics of three sub-sets of lignin produced from the pretreatment, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL),more » recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), and recovered soluble lignin in pretreatment liquid (RSL). Both the water-only and 0.05% (w/w) sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed at temperatures from 160 to 270°C on poplar wood in a flowthrough reactor system for 2-10 min. Results showed that water-only flowthrough pretreatment primarily removed syringyl (S units). Increased temperature and/or the addition of sulfuric acid enhanced the removal of guaiacyl (G units) compared to water-only pretreatments at lower temperatures, resulting in nearly complete removal of lignin from the biomass. Results also suggested that more RISL was recovered than ReL and RSL in both dilute acid and water-only flowthrough pretreatment at elevated temperatures. NMR spectra of the RISL revealed significant β-O-4 cleavage, α-β deoxygenation to form cinnamyl-like end groups, and slight β-5 repolymerization in both water-only and dilute acid flowthrough pretreatments. In conclusion, elevated temperature and/or dilute acid greatly enhanced lignin removal to almost 100% by improving G unit removal besides S unit removal in flowthrough system. A new lignin chemistry transformation pathway was proposed and revealed the complexity of lignin structural change

  11. Elastin Calcification and its Prevention with Aluminum Chloride Pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Vyavahare, Narendra; Ogle, Matthew; Schoen, Frederick J.; Levy, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Elastin, an abundant structural protein present in the arterial wall, is prone to calcification in a number of disease processes including porcine bioprosthetic heart valve calcification and atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of elastin calcification are not completely elucidated. In the present work, we demonstrated calcification of purified elastin in rat subdermal implants (Ca2+ = 89.73 ± 9.84 μg/mg after 21 days versus control, unimplanted Ca2+ = 0.16 ± 0.04 μg/mg). X-ray diffraction analysis along with resolution enhanced FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated the mineral phase to be a poorly crystalline hydroxyapatite. We investigated the time course of calcification, the effect of glutaraldehyde crosslinking on calcification, and mechanisms of inhibition of elastin calcification by pretreatment with aluminum chloride (AlCl3). Glutaraldehyde pretreatment did not affect calcification (Ca2+ = 89.06 ± 17.93 μg/mg for glutaraldehyde crosslinked elastin versus Ca2+ = 89.73 ± 9.84 μg/mg for uncrosslinked elastin). This may be explained by radioactive (3H) glutaraldehyde studies showing very low reactivity between glutaraldehyde and elastin. Our results further demonstrated that AlCl3 pretreatment of elastin led to complete inhibition of elastin calcification using 21-day rat subdermal implants, irrespective of glutaraldehyde crosslinking (Ca2+ = 0.73–2.15 μg/mg for AlCl3 pretreated elastin versus 89.73 ± 9.84 for untreated elastin). The AlCl3 pretreatment caused irreversible binding of aluminum ions to elastin, as assessed by atomic emission spectroscopy. Moreover, aluminum ion binding altered the spatial configuration of elastin as shown by circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy studies, suggesting a net structural change including a reduction in the extent of β sheet structures and an increase in coil-turn conformations. Thus, it is concluded that purified elastin calcifies in rat

  12. Pretreated sugar cane bagasse as a model for cattle feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Ramos, L.P.; Deschamps, F.C.

    1995-12-31

    Pretreatment under mild conditions in the presence of water (solvolysis) or aqueous orthophosphoric acid (phosphorolysis) was used to increase the nutritional value of sugar cane bagasse for cattle feeding. The best pretreatment conditions were defined as those in which the highest in situ degradability rates (ruminal digestion) were achieved with the least energy consumption and/or production of inhibitory products. Heating sugar cane bagasse up to 197{degrees}C (13.5 atm) at a 4:1 (w/w) water ratio was shown to be a compromised condition for solvolysis, as higher temperatures would require more energy consumption without adding too much to the already high 60% ruminal degradability of the residue in relation to its dry weight. These rates of degradability were shown to be further enhanced to almost 70% by adding 2.9% (w/w) orthophosphoric acid as an acid catalyst. A mathematical treatment of the kinetic data describing ruminal digestion of each of the pretreated residues was also developed in this study.

  13. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass benefits from lignin removal, relocation, and/or modification during hydrothermal pretreatment. Phase transition, depolymerization/repolymerization, and solubility effects may all influence these lignin changes. To better understand how lignin is altered, Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides wood samples and cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) isolated from P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides were subjected to batch and flowthrough pretreatments. The residual solids and liquid hydrolysate were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR, compositional analysis, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Changes in the structure of the solids recovered after the pretreatment of CEL and the production of aromatic monomers point strongly to depolymerization and condensation being primary mechanisms for lignin extraction and redeposition. The differences in lignin removal and phenolic compound production from native P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides and CEL suggested that lignin-carbohydrate interactions increased lignin extraction and the extractability of syringyl groups relative to guaiacyl groups. Conclusions These insights into delignification during hydrothermal pretreatment point to desirable pretreatment strategies and plant modifications. Because depolymerization followed by repolymerization appears to be the dominant mode of lignin modification, limiting the residence time of depolymerized lignin moieties in the bulk liquid phase should reduce lignin content in pretreated biomass. In addition, the increase in lignin removal in the presence of polysaccharides suggests that increasing lignin-carbohydrate cross-links in biomass would increase delignification during pretreatment. PMID:23902789

  14. White-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biohydrogen production: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Zelun; Wang, Hui

    2014-07-01

    This paper demonstrates biohydrogen production was enhanced by white-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw (WS) through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Wheat straw was pretreated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium at 30 °C under solid state fermentation for 12 days, and lignin was removed about 28.5 ± 1.3 %. Microscopic structure observation combined thermal gravity and differential thermal gravity analysis further showed that the lignocellulose structure obviously disrupted after fungal pretreatment. Subsequently, the pretreated WS and crude cellulases prepared from Trichoderma atroviride were applied in SSF for hydrogen production using Clostridium perfringens. The maximum hydrogen yield was obtained to be 78.5 ± 3.4 ml g(-1)-pretreated WS, which was about 1.8-fold than the unpretreated group. Furthermore, the modified Gompertz model was applied study the progress of cumulative H(2) production. This work developed a novel bio-approach to improve fermentative H(2) yield from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:24429553

  15. The effect of H2O and pretreatment on the activity of a Pt/SnO2 catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannorman, John D.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Schryer, Jacqueline; Schryer, David R.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Sidney, Barry D.

    1990-01-01

    CO oxidation catalysts with high activity at 25 C to 100 C are important for long-life, closed-cycle operation of pulsed CO2 lasers. A reductive pretreatment with either CO or H2 has been shown to significantly enhance the activity of a commercially available platinum on tin (IV) oxide (Pt/SnO2) catalyst relative to an oxidative or inert pretreatment or no pretreatment. Pretreatment at temperatures of 175 C and above causes an initial dip in the observed CO2 yield before the steady-state yield is attained. This dip has been found to be caused by dehydration of the catalyst during pretreatment and is readily eliminated by humidifying the catalyst or the reaction gas mixture. It is hypothesized that the effect of humidification is to increase the concentration of OH groups on the catalyst surface which play a role in the reaction mechanism.

  16. Pretreatment imaging of peripheral vascular malformations

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joshua B; Cogswell, Petrice M; McKusick, Michael A; Binkovitz, Larry A; Riederer, Stephen J; Young, Phillip M

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral vascular malformations (VMs) are complex and diverse vascular lesions which require individualized pretreatment planning. Pretreatment imaging using various modalities, especially magnetic resonance imaging and time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography, is a valuable tool for classifying peripheral VMs to allow proper diagnosis, demonstrate complete extent, identify the nidus, and distinguish between low-flow and high-flow dynamics that determines the treatment approach. We discuss pretreatment imaging findings in four patients with peripheral VMs and how diagnostic imaging helped guide management. PMID:25625123

  17. Integrated analysis of hydrothermal flow through pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of hydrothermal flowthrough (FT) pretreatment severity on pretreatment and solubilization performance metrics was evaluated for three milled feedstocks (corn stover, bagasse, and poplar) and two conversion systems (simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using yeast and fungal cellulase, and fermentation by Clostridium thermocellum). Results Compared to batch pretreatment, FT pretreatment consistently resulted in higher XMG recovery, higher removal of non-carbohydrate carbon and higher glucan solubilization by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). XMG recovery was above 90% for FT pretreatment below 4.1 severity but decreased at higher severities, particularly for bagasse. Removal of non-carbohydrate carbon during FT pretreatment increased from 65% at low severity to 80% at high severity for corn stover, and from 40% to 70% for bagasse and poplar. Solids obtained by FT pretreatment were amenable to high conversion for all of the feedstocks and conversion systems examined. The optimal time and temperature for FT pretreatment on poplar were found to be 16 min and 210°C. At these conditions, SSF glucan conversion was about 85%, 94% of the XMG was removed, and 62% of the non carbohydrate mass was solubilized. Solubilization of FT-pretreated poplar was compared for C. thermocellum fermentation (10% inoculum), and for yeast-fungal cellulase SSF (5% inoculum, cellulase loading of 5 and 10 FPU/g glucan supplemented with β-glucosidase at 15 and 30 U/g glucan). Under the conditions tested, which featured low solids concentration, C. thermocellum fermentation achieved faster rates and more complete conversion of FT-pretreated poplar than did SSF. Compared to SSF, solubilization by C. thermocellum was 30% higher after 4 days, and was over twice as fast on ball-milled FT-pretreated poplar. Conclusions XMG removal trends were similar between feedstocks whereas glucan conversion trends were significantly different, suggesting that

  18. Tanshinone IIA Pretreatment Renders Free Flaps against Hypoxic Injury through Activating Wnt Signaling and Upregulating Stem Cell-Related Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zihan; Zhang, Zhenxin; Wu, Lijun; Sun, Yaowen; Guo, Yadong; Qin, Gaoping; Mu, Shengzhi; Fan, Ronghui; Wang, Benfeng; Gao, Wenjie

    2014-01-01

    Partial or total flap necrosis after flap transplantation is sometimes clinically encountered in reconstructive surgery, often as a result of a period of hypoxia that exceeds the tolerance of the flap tissue. In this study, we determine whether tanshinone IIA (TSA) pretreatment can protect flap tissue against hypoxic injury and improve its viability. Primary epithelial cells isolated from the dorsal skin of mice were pretreated with TSA for two weeks. Cell counting kit-8 and Trypan Blue assays were carried out to examine the proliferation of TSA-pretreated cells after exposure to cobalt chloride. Then, Polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to determine the expression of β-catenin, GSK-3β, SOX2, and OCT4 in TSA-treated cells. In vivo, after mice were pretreated with TSA for two weeks, a reproducible ischemic flap model was implemented, and the area of surviving tissue in the transplanted flaps was measured. Immunohistochemistry was also conducted to examine the related biomarkers mentioned above. Results show that epidermal cells, pretreated with TSA, showed enhanced resistance to hypoxia. Activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in TSA-pretreated cells was characterized by the upregulation of β-catenin and the downregulation of GSK-3β. The expression of SOX2 and OCT4 controlled by Wnt signaling were also found higher in TSA pretreated epithelial cells. In the reproducible ischaemic flap model, pretreatment with TSA enhanced resistance to hypoxia and increased the area of surviving tissue in transplanted flaps. The expression of Wnt signaling pathway components, stem-cell related biomarkers, and CD34, which are involved in the regeneration of blood vessels, was also upregulated in TSA-pretreated flap tissue. The results show that TSA pretreatment protects free flaps against hypoxic injury and increases the area of surviving tissue by activating Wnt signaling and upregulating stem cell-related biomarkers. PMID:25302618

  19. Thermo-chemical pre-treatment to solubilize and improve anaerobic biodegradability of press mud.

    PubMed

    López González, Lisbet Mailin; Vervaeren, Han; Pereda Reyes, Ileana; Dumoulin, Ann; Romero Romero, Osvaldo; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-03-01

    Different pre-treatment severities by thermo-alkaline conditions (100°C, Ca(OH)2) on press mud were evaluated for different pre-treatment time and lime loading. COD solubilization and the methane yield enhancement were assessed. The biochemical methane potential was determined in batch assays under mesophilic conditions (37±1°C). The best pre-treatment resulted in a surplus of 72% of methane yield, adding 10g Ca(OH)2 100g(-1)TS(-1) for 1h. Pre-treatment also increased the COD solubilization, but the optimal severity for COD solubilization as determined by response surface methodology did not ensure the highest methane production. Inhibitory effects on anaerobic digestion were noticed when the severity was increased. These results demonstrate the relevance of thermo-alkaline pre-treatment severity in terms of both lime loading and pre-treatment time to obtain optimal anaerobic biodegradability of lignocellulosic biomass from press mud. PMID:23353040

  20. Comparison of different pretreatments for the production of bioethanol and biomethane from corn stover and switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Papa, G; Rodriguez, S; George, A; Schievano, A; Orzi, V; Sale, K L; Singh, S; Adani, F; Simmons, B A

    2015-05-01

    In this study the efficiency of mild ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment and pressurized hot water (PHW) is evaluated and compared in terms of bioethanol and biomethane yields, with corn stover (CS) and switchgrass (SG) as model bioenergy crops. Both feedstocks pretreated with the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [C2C1Im][OAc] at 100°C for 3h exhibited lower glucose yield that those treated with harsher pretreatment conditions previously used. Compared to PHW, IL pretreatment demonstrated higher bioethanol yields; moreover IL pretreatment enhanced biomethane production. Taking into consideration both bioethanol and biomethane productions, results indicated that when using IL pretreatment, the total energy produced per kg of total solids was higher compared to untreated biomasses. Specifically energy produced from CS and SG was +18.6% and +34.5% respectively, as compared to those obtained by hot water treatment, i.e. +2.3% and +23.4% for CS and SG, respectively. PMID:25725408

  1. Substrate-Specific Development of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia by Using Chemically Pretreated Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Joshua, Chijioke; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities that deconstruct plant biomass have broad relevance in biofuel production and global carbon cycling. Biomass pretreatments reduce plant biomass recalcitrance for increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. We exploited these chemical pretreatments to study how thermophilic bacterial consortia adapt to deconstruct switchgrass (SG) biomass of various compositions. Microbial communities were adapted to untreated, ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated, and ionic-liquid (IL)-pretreated SG under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study biomass deconstruction by microbial consortia. After microbial cultivation, gravimetric analysis of the residual biomass demonstrated that both AFEX and IL pretreatment enhanced the deconstruction of the SG biomass approximately 2-fold. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) experiments and acetyl bromide-reactive-lignin analysis indicated that polysaccharide hydrolysis was the dominant process occurring during microbial biomass deconstruction, and lignin remaining in the residual biomass was largely unmodified. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon libraries revealed that although the dominant taxa across these chemical pretreatments were consistently represented by members of the Firmicutes, the Bacteroidetes, and Deinococcus-Thermus, the abundance of selected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) varied, suggesting adaptations to the different substrates. Combining the observations of differences in the community structure and the chemical and physical structure of the biomass, we hypothesize specific roles for individual community members in biomass deconstruction. PMID:25261509

  2. Substrate-Specific Development of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia by Using Chemically Pretreated Switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Eichorst, Stephanie A; Joshua, Chijioke; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities that deconstruct plant biomass have broad relevance in biofuel production and global carbon cycling. Biomass pretreatments reduce plant biomass recalcitrance for increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. We exploited these chemical pretreatments to study how thermophilic bacterial consortia adapt to deconstruct switchgrass (SG) biomass of various compositions. Microbial communities were adapted to untreated, ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated, and ionic-liquid (IL)-pretreated SG under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study biomass deconstruction by microbial consortia. After microbial cultivation, gravimetric analysis of the residual biomass demonstrated that both AFEX and IL pretreatment enhanced the deconstruction of the SG biomass approximately 2-fold. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) experiments and acetyl bromide-reactive-lignin analysis indicated that polysaccharide hydrolysis was the dominant process occurring during microbial biomass deconstruction, and lignin remaining in the residual biomass was largely unmodified. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon libraries revealed that although the dominant taxa across these chemical pretreatments were consistently represented by members of the Firmicutes, the Bacteroidetes, and Deinococcus-Thermus, the abundance of selected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) varied, suggesting adaptations to the different substrates. Combining the observations of differences in the community structure and the chemical and physical structure of the biomass, we hypothesize specific roles for individual community members in biomass deconstruction. PMID:25261509

  3. Effect of Ca(OH)2 pretreatment on extruded rice straw anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Zhang, Yalei; Zhou, Xuefei

    2015-11-01

    It has been proven that extrusion can change the structure of rice straw and increase biogas production, but the effect of a single pretreatment is limited. Ca(OH)2 pretreatment was used to enhance the enzyme hydrolysis and biogas production of extruded rice straw. After Ca(OH)2 pretreatment, the glucose and xylose conversion rates in enzymatic hydrolysis increased from 36.0% and 22.4% to 66.8% and 50.2%, respectively. The highest biogas production observed in 8% and 10% Ca(OH)2 pretreated rice straw reached 564.7mL/g VS and 574.5mL/g VS, respectively, which are 34.3% and 36.7% higher than the non-Ca(OH)2-loaded sample. The Ca(OH)2 pretreatment can effectively remove the lignin and increase the fermentable sugar content. The structural changes in the extruded rice straw have also been analyzed by XRD, FTIR, and SEM. Considering all of the results, an 8% Ca(OH)2 loading rate is the best option for the pretreatment of extruded rice straw. PMID:26231131

  4. Effects of green liquor pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Gu, Feng; Wang, Wangxia; Jing, Lei; Jin, Yongcan

    2013-12-01

    Green liquor (Na2S+Na2CO3, GL) pretreatment is a proven pathway to improve the enzymatic saccharification for the production of bioethanol. In this work, the effects of GL pretreatment on the chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of rice straw at various total titratable alkali (TTA) charge and temperature were investigated. The GL pretreatment showed excellent performance in high polysaccharides retention and delignification selectivity. Under the optimized GL pretreatment condition (4% TTA charge, 20% sulfidity and 140°C), 92.5% of glucan, 82.4% of xylan and 81.6% of arabinan in rice straw were recovered with a delignification of 39.4%. The maximum sugar yields of 83.9%, 69.6% and 78.0%, respectively for glucan, xylan and total sugar, were achieved at the same GL pretreatment condition with an enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g-substrate. The results suggested that GL pretreatment is a practicable method for rice straw to enhance enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production. PMID:24128400

  5. Thermal Pretreatment For TRU Waste Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, T.; Aoyama, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2008-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency conducted a study on thermal treatment of TRU waste to develop a removal technology for materials that are forbidden for disposal. The thermal pretreatment in which hot nitrogen and/or air is introduced to the waste is a process of removing combustibles, liquids, and low melting point metals from PVC wrapped TRU waste. In this study, thermal pretreatment of simulated waste was conducted using a desktop thermal treatment vessel and a laboratory scale thermal pretreatment system. Combustibles and low melting point metals are effectively separated from wastes by choosing appropriate temperature of flowing gases. Combustibles such as papers, PVC, oil, etc. were removed and low melting point metals such as zinc, lead, and aluminum were separated from the simulated waste by the thermal pretreatment. (authors)

  6. Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment of biomass is essential for breaking apart highly ordered and crystalline plant cell walls and loosening the lignin and hemicellulose conjugation to cellulose microfibrills, thereby facilitating enzyme accessibility and adsorption and reducing costs of downstream saccharification proces...

  7. Extrusion Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jun; Rehmann, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol has shown environmental, economic and energetic advantages in comparison to bioethanol produced from sugar or starch. However, the pretreatment process for increasing the enzymatic accessibility and improving the digestibility of cellulose is hindered by many physical-chemical, structural and compositional factors, which make these materials difficult to be used as feedstocks for ethanol production. A wide range of pretreatment methods has been developed to alter or remove structural and compositional impediments to (enzymatic) hydrolysis over the last few decades; however, only a few of them can be used at commercial scale due to economic feasibility. This paper will give an overview of extrusion pretreatment for bioethanol production with a special focus on twin-screw extruders. An economic assessment of this pretreatment is also discussed to determine its feasibility for future industrial cellulosic ethanol plant designs. PMID:25334065

  8. Heat and Radiofrequency Plasma Glow Discharge Pretreatment of a Titanium Alloy Promote Bone Formation and Osseointegration

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Daniel E.; Rapuano, Bruce E.; Vyas, Parth; Lane, Joseph M.; Meyers, Kathleen; Wright, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic and dental implants manifest increased failure rates when inserted into low density bone. We determined whether chemical pretreatments of a titanium alloy implant material stimulated new bone formation to increase osseointegration in vivo in trabecular bone using a rat model. Titanium alloy rods were untreated or pretreated with heat (600°C) or radiofrequency plasma glow discharge (RFGD). The rods were then coated with the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (1 nM) or left uncoated and surgically implanted into the rat femoral medullary cavity. Animals were euthanized 3 or 6 weeks later, and femurs were removed for analysis. The number of trabeculae in contact with the implant surface, surface contact between trabeculae and the implant, and the length and area of bone attached to the implant were measured by histomorphometry. Implant shear strength was measured by a pull-out test. Both pretreatments and fibronectin enhanced the number of trabeculae bonding with the implant and trabeculae-to-implant surface contact, with greater effects of fibronectin observed with pretreated compared to untreated implants. RFGD pretreatment modestly increased implant shear strength, which was highly correlated (r2 = 0.87 – 0.99) with measures of trabecular bonding for untreated and RFGD-pretreated implants. In contrast, heat pretreatment increased shear strength 3 to 5-fold for both uncoated and fibronectin-coated implants at 3 and 6 weeks, suggesting a more rapid increase in implant-femur bonding compared to the other groups. In summary, our findings suggest that the heat and RFGD pretreatments can promote the osseointegration of a titanium alloy implant material. PMID:23649564

  9. Fundamental studies of water pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1990-01-01

    The goals of this project are to gain understanding of the chemistry of water or steam coal pretreatments and to assess the importance of such pretreatments on subsequent coal liquefaction. For the achievement of these goals, coals, modified coals and model-polymers will be treated with water or stream. This study will include three coals, five modifications (dried, demineralized, ion-exchanged, Ca-loaded, Ba-loaded), three polymers and two polymer modifications (e.g. acid chlorides, amides). Experiments will be performed to investigate both conventional steam pretreatment and the possibility of using the CO/H{sub 2}O system of Ross and coworkers as a pretreatment method. The main experimental variables will be sample type and temperature. Detailed characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products from the pretreatment stage will be done. This will include analysis of gases of GC or FT-IR, liquids by capillary GC, FT-IR and FIMS, and residues by solvent swelling, solvent extraction, and elemental analysis. Selected residues will also be evaluated by a standard liquefaction test. Analysis of the raw coals and pretreatment samples will be performed using the above techniques to study changes in the crosslinking, donatable hydrogen, heteroatom composition, evolved gases, functional group composition, extraction yields, molecular weight distributions, etc. Standard tubing bomb liquefaction tests will be used to determine the effect of pretreatment on coal reactivity toward coal liquefaction. A previously developed model for coal liquefaction, the FG-DVC liquefaction model, will be used (after appropriate modifications) to model the physics and chemistry of water pretreatment. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Fundamental studies of water pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1990-01-01

    The goals of this project are to gain understanding of the chemistry of water or steam coal pretreatments and to assess the importance of such pretreatments on subsequent coal liquefaction. Coals, modified coals and model-polymers will be treated with water or steam. This study will include three coals, five modifications (dried, demineralized, ion-exchanged, Ca-loaded, Ba-loaded), three polymers and two polymer modifications (e.g. acid chlorides, amides). Experiments will be performed to investigate both conventional steam pretreatment and the possibility of using the CO/H{sub 2}O system of Ross and coworkers as a pretreatment method. The main experimental variables will be sample type and temperature. Detailed characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products from the pretreatment stage will be done. This will include analysis of gases by GC or FT-IR, liquids by capillary GC, FT-IR and FIMS, and residues by solvent swelling, solvent extraction, and elemental analysis. Selected residues will also be evaluated by a standard liquefaction test. Analysis of the raw coals and pretreatment samples will be performed using the above techniques to study changes in the crosslinking, donatable hydrogen, heteroatom composition, evolved gases, functional group composition, extraction yields, molecular weight distributions, etc. Standard tubing bomb liquefaction tests will be used to determine the effect of pretreatment on coal reactivity toward coal liquefaction. A previously developed model for coal liquefaction, the FG-DVC liquefaction model, will be used (after appropriate modifications) to model the physics and chemistry of water pretreatment. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Fundamental studies of water pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Kroo, E.; Solomon, P.R.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of this project are to gain an understanding of the chemistry of water or steam coal pretreatments and to assess the importance of such pretreatments on subsequent coal liquefaction. For the achievement of these goals, coals, modified coals and model-polymers will be treated with water or steam. This study will include three coals, five modifications (dried, demineralized, ion-exchanged, Ca-loaded, Ba-loaded), three polymers and two polymer modifications (e.g., acid chlorides, amides). Experiments will be performed to investigate both conventional steam pretreatment and the possibility of using the CO/H{sub 2}O system of Ross and coworkers as a pretreatment method. The main experimental variables will be sample type and temperature. Detailed characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products from the pretreatment stage will be done. This will include analysis of gases by GC or FT-IR, liquids by capillary GC, FT-IR and FIMS, and residues by solvent swelling, solvent extraction, and elemental analysis. Selected residues will also be evaluated by a standard liquefaction test. Analysis of the raw coals and pretreatment samples will be performed using the above techniques to study changes in the crosslinking, donatable hydrogen, heteroatom composition, evolved gases, functional group composition, extraction yields, molecular weight distributions, etc. Standard tubing bomb liquefaction tests will be used to determine the effect of pretreatment on coal reactivity toward coal liquefaction. A previously developed model for coal liquefaction, the FG-DVC liquefaction model, will be used (after appropriate modifications) to model the physics and chemistry of water pretreatment.

  12. Enzymolysis kinetics and structural characteristics of rice protein with energy-gathered ultrasound and ultrasound assisted alkali pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Li, Suyun; Yang, Xue; Zhang, Yanyan; Ma, Haile; Qu, Wenjuan; Ye, Xiaofei; Muatasim, Rahma; Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi

    2016-07-01

    This research investigated the structural characteristics and enzymolysis kinetics of rice protein which was pretreated by energy-gathered ultrasound and ultrasound assisted alkali. The structural characteristics of rice protein before and after the pretreatment were performed with surface hydrophobicity and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). There was an increase in the intensity of fluorescence spectrum and changes in functional groups after the pretreatment on rice protein compared with the control (without ultrasound and ultrasound assisted alkali processed), thus significantly enhancing efficiency of the enzymatic hydrolysis. A simplified kinetic equation for the enzymolysis model with the impeded reaction of enzyme was deduced to successfully describe the enzymatic hydrolysis of rice protein by different pretreatments. The initial observed rate constants (Kin,0) as well as ineffective coefficients (kimp) were proposed and obtained based on the experimental observation. The results showed that the parameter of kin,0 increased after ultrasound and ultrasound assisted alkali pretreatments, which proved the effects of the pretreatments on the substrate enhancing the enzymolysis process and had relation to the structure changes of the pretreatments on the substrate. Furthermore, the applicability of the simplified model was demonstrated by the enzymatic hydrolysis process for other materials. PMID:26964926

  13. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    PubMed

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. PMID:23587728

  14. Thermo-chemical pretreatment of rice straw for further processing for levulinic acid production.

    PubMed

    Elumalai, Sasikumar; Agarwal, Bhumica; Sangwan, Rajender S

    2016-10-01

    A variety of pretreatment protocols for rice straw fiber reconstruction were evaluated under mild conditions (upto 0.2%wt. and 121°C) with the object of improving polymer susceptibility to chemical attack while preserving carbohydrate sugars for levulinic acid (LA) production. Each of the protocols tested significantly enhanced pretreatment recoveries of carbohydrate sugars and lignin, and a NaOH protocol showed the most promise, with enhanced carbohydrate preservation (upto 20% relative to the other protocols) and more effective lignin dissolution (upto 60%). Consequently, post-pretreatment fibers were evaluated for LA preparation using an existing co-solvent system consisting of HCl and THF, in addition supplementation of DMSO was attempted, in order to improve final product recovery. In contrast to pretreatment response, H2SO4 protocol fibers yielded highest LA conc. (21%wt. with 36% carbohydrate conversion efficiency) under the modest reaction conditions. Apparent spectroscopic analysis witnessed for fiber destruction and delocalization of inherent constituents during pretreatment protocols. PMID:27371796

  15. Decline of phosphorus, copper, and zinc in anaerobic lagoon columns receiving pretreated influent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a 15-month meso-scale column study, we evaluated the effect of manure pretreatment on reduction of total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in swine lagoons using (i) enhanced solid–liquid separation with polymer (SS) and (i...

  16. MDMA pretreatment leads to mild chronic unpredictable stress-induced impairments in spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Jacobi I; Raudensky, Jamie; Tonkiss, John; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2009-10-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a drug of abuse worldwide and a selective serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin. An important factor in the risk of drug abuse and relapse is stress. Although multiple parallels exist between MDMA abuse and stress, including effects on 5-HTergic neurotransmission, few studies have investigated the consequences of combined exposure to MDMA and chronic stress. Therefore, rats were pretreated with MDMA and exposed 7 days later to 10 days of mild chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). MDMA pretreatment was hypothesized to enhance the effects of CUS leading to enhanced 5-HT transporter (SERT) depletion in the hippocampus and increased anxiety and cognitive impairment. Whereas MDMA alone increased anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze, CUS alone or in combination with MDMA pretreatment did not increase anxiety-like behavior. In contrast, MDMA pretreatment led to CUS-induced learning impairment in the Morris water maze but not an enhanced depletion of hippocampal SERT protein. These results show that prior exposure to MDMA leads to stress-induced impairments in learning behavior that is not otherwise observed with stress alone and appear unrelated to an enhanced depletion of SERT. PMID:19824774

  17. Fungal pretreatment of switchgrass for improved saccharification and simultaneous enzyme production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal pretreatment of switchgrass involving solid state fermentation (SSF) to improve saccharification and simultaneously produce enzymes as co-products was investigated in this study. The results revealed that the fungus Pycnoporus sp. SYBC-L3 can significantly degrade lignin and enhance enzymatic...

  18. [Using UV pretreatment to enhance biofiltration of chlorobenzene].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhuo-wei; Lin, Wen-wen; Jiang, Yi-feng; Chen, Jian-meng; Zhang, Li-li; Zhang, Hua

    2010-05-01

    Purification of chlorobenzene by ultraviolet-biotrickling filter (UV-BTF) was studied in this paper. The light source and the biofilm carrier were an ozone producing lamp with a maximum emission (> 99%) at 185nm and the ether-based polyurethane foam (PU-foam), respectively. When the residence time were 92, 69 and 46s, with the chlorobenzene concentration of 600 mg x m(-3), the average removal efficiencies were 99%, 95% and 80%, respectively while the maximum removal load was 59.6 g x (m3 x h)(-1). The biofilm formed in the UV-BTF was 20 d, shorter than that of the sole BTF (27 d). Compared with the sole BTF, the UV-BTF had strong resistance to load shock. When the residence time was shortened to 30s, the removal efficiency of UV-BTF achieved over 75%, higher than that of sole BTF (25%). Considering the mechanism of the UV-BTF process, the UV converted the chlorobenzene into more soluble and biodegradable intermediates, thus the removal load by BTF decreased. Meanwhile, the ozone produced during the UV photolysis could control the microorganism growth in the BTF, keeping the whole system in optimal operation. PMID:20623846

  19. Effects of Surfactants and Microwave-assisted Pretreatment of Orange Peel on Extracellular Enzymes Production by Aspergillus japonicus PJ01.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-jun; Xia, Jin-lan; Shan, Yang; Nie, Zhen-yuan; Wang, Fei-ran

    2015-06-01

    The effects of surfactants and microwave pretreatment of orange peel powder (OPP) on the production of pectinase, cellulase, and xylanase by Aspergillus japonicus PJ01 in submerged fermentation were investigated. The results showed that when OPP was pretreated only by microwave (630 W, 9 min, and liquid/solid ratio 5), the activities of exo-pectinase, carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), xylanase, and filter paper cellulase (FPase) were increased by 11.8, 20.6, 16.2, and 24.0 %, respectively, and when OPP was pretreated by microwave at the same conditions cited above plus PEG 4000 at the concentration of 3 g/L, the activities of the above four enzymes were enhanced by 40.2, 30.3, 40.4, and 40.0 % after 84-h cultivation, respectively. It is suggested a synergistic effect between microwave and surfactant treatment in enhancing the multiextracellular enzymes production by OPP fermentation of A. japonicus PJ01. Chemical composition and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis displayed that the microwave pretreatment of OPP led to the decrease of hemicellulose and essential oil contents. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that OPP surface after microwave pretreatment became porous and more susceptible to be invaded by A. japonicus. The results demonstrated that pretreatment of OPP by surfactant PEG 4000 and microwave irradiation as environment-friendly way was cost-effective in enhancing the multienzyme production from agricultural waste orange peel. PMID:25920331

  20. Advanced concepts in biomass production and biological pretreatment. Annual report, April 1988 to March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hiler, E.A.

    1989-04-01

    The overall objective of the research is to investigate fundamental processes for enhancing the efficiency of methane from sorghum systems. The report provides specifics of research activities in the Texas A and M biomass and biological pretreatment program sponsored by Gas Research Institute and co-funded by Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Four research groups, each with specific tasks, are involved in the project: biomass production, quantity and quality, biological pretreatment and processing, long-term effects of land application of digester effluent, and systems modeling and analysis.

  1. Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Z.; Brewer, M.; Brown, I.; Komvopoulos, K.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment. 6 figures.

  2. Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Zhu; Brewer, Marilee; Brown, Ian; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment.

  3. Microwave pretreatment of switchgrass for bioethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshwani, Deepak Radhakrishin

    Lignocellulosic materials are promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. These materials include agricultural residues, cellulosic waste such as newsprint and office paper, logging residues, and herbaceous and woody crops. However, the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass necessitates a pretreatment step to improve the yield of fermentable sugars. The overall goal of this dissertation is to expand the current state of knowledge on microwave-based pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Existing research on bioenergy and value-added applications of switchgrass is reviewed in Chapter 2. Switchgrass is an herbaceous energy crop native to North America and has high biomass productivity, potentially low requirements for agricultural inputs and positive environmental impacts. Based on results from test plots, yields in excess of 20 Mg/ha have been reported. Environmental benefits associated with switchgrass include the potential for carbon sequestration, nutrient recovery from run-off, soil remediation and provision of habitats for grassland birds. Published research on pretreatment of switchgrass reported glucose yields ranging from 70-90% and xylose yields ranging from 70-100% after hydrolysis and ethanol yields ranging from 72-92% after fermentation. Other potential value-added uses of switchgrass include gasification, bio-oil production, newsprint production and fiber reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Research on microwave-based pretreatment of switchgrass and coastal bermudagrass is presented in Chapter 3. Pretreatments were carried out by immersing the biomass in dilute chemical reagents and exposing the slurry to microwave radiation at 250 watts for residence times ranging from 5 to 20 minutes. Preliminary experiments identified alkalis as suitable chemical reagents for microwave-based pretreatment. An evaluation of different alkalis identified sodium hydroxide as the most effective alkali reagent. Under optimum pretreatment

  4. Characterization of pilot-scale dilute acid pretreatment performance using deacetylated corn stover

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dilute acid pretreatment is a promising process technology for the deconstruction of low-lignin lignocellulosic biomass, capable of producing high yields of hemicellulosic sugars and enhancing enzymatic yields of glucose as part of a biomass-to-biofuels process. However, while it has been extensively studied, most work has historically been conducted at relatively high acid concentrations of 1 - 4% (weight/weight). Reducing the effective acid loading in pretreatment has the potential to reduce chemical costs both for pretreatment and subsequent neutralization. Additionally, if acid loadings are sufficiently low, capital requirements associated with reactor construction may be significantly reduced due to the relaxation of requirements for exotic alloys. Despite these benefits, past efforts have had difficulty obtaining high process yields at low acid loadings without supplementation of additional unit operations, such as mechanical refining. Results Recently, we optimized the dilute acid pretreatment of deacetylated corn stover at low acid loadings in a 1-ton per day horizontal pretreatment reactor. This effort included more than 25 pilot-scale pretreatment experiments executed at reactor temperatures ranging from 150 – 170°C, residence times of 10 – 20 minutes and hydrolyzer sulfuric acid concentrations between 0.15 – 0.30% (weight/weight). In addition to characterizing the process yields achieved across the reaction space, the optimization identified a pretreatment reaction condition that achieved total xylose yields from pretreatment of 73.5% ± 1.5% with greater than 97% xylan component balance closure across a series of five runs at the same condition. Feedstock reactivity at this reaction condition after bench-scale high solids enzymatic hydrolysis was 77%, prior to the inclusion of any additional conversion that may occur during subsequent fermentation. Conclusions This study effectively characterized a range of pretreatment reaction

  5. Evaluation of hydrotropic pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Devendra, Leena P; Kiran Kumar, M; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-08-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol from biomass is considered as a promising alternative to fossil fuels, providing a sustainable option for fuels production in an environmentally compatible manner. The presence of lignin poses a significant challenge for obtaining biofuels and bioproducts from biomass. Part of that problem involves understanding fundamental aspects of lignin structure which can provide a pathway for the development of improved technologies for biomass conversion. Hydrotropic pretreatment has several attractive features that make it an attractive alternative for biofuel production. This review highlights the recent developments on hydrotropic pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic biomass on a molecular structure basis for recalcitrance, with emphasis on lignin concerning chemical structure, transformation and recalcitrance. The review also evaluates the hydrotropic delignification in comparison to alkaline delignification on lignin reduction and surface coverage by lignin. The effect of hydrotrope pretreatment on enzymatic saccharification has also been discussed. PMID:27013188

  6. Enzymatic pretreatment for preparing starch nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    LeCorre, Déborah; Vahanian, Elina; Dufresne, Alain; Bras, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Starch nanocrystals (SNCs) are crystalline platelets resulting from the acid hydrolysis of starch. A limiting factor for their more widespread use is their preparation duration. Therefore, this study investigates the possibility of developing an enzymatic pretreatment of starch to reduce the acid hydrolysis duration. A screening of three types of enzymes, namely, α-amylase, β-amylase, and glucoamylase, is proposed, and the latter was selected for a pretreatment. Compared with the regular kinetics of hydrolysis for preparing SNC, that of pretreated starch was much faster. The extent of hydrolysis normally reached in 24 h was obtained after only 6 h, and the regular final yield (15% after 5 days) was reached in 45 h. AFM and X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that the obtained nanoparticles were indeed SNC. PMID:22133316

  7. Efficiency of whole bowel irrigation with and without metoclopramide pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Scharman, E J; Lembersky, R; Krenzelok, E P

    1994-05-01

    Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) with a polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS) is a gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination procedure used after selected ingestions of toxic substances. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of WBI, with and without metoclopramide pretreatment, to clear the GI tract of foreign bodies using previously established WBI end points, ie, the presence of a clear effluent or the administration of 2 L/h PEG-ELS for 5 hours. Eleven healthy, adult, male volunteers participated in this controlled, two-phase, blinded, crossover study. Ten fluorescent coffee beans were ingested after an overnight fast followed 1 hour later by 10 mg of metoclopramide syrup or an equivalent volume of placebo; 30 minutes later, WBI with PEG-ELS was begun at 2 L/h. All volunteers received 10 L of PEG-ELS during a 5-hour period. No statistically significant difference (P > .05) was found between the two pretreatments. For the metoclopramide group, the mean number of beans passed was equal to 3.8 (+/- 2.5 standard deviation [SD]; 1 to 8 R); the mean number at clear effluent was equal to 2.3. For the placebo group, the mean number of beans passed was equal to 3.5 (+/- 1.9 SD; 2 to 7 R), and the mean number at clear effluent was equal to 2.3. In conclusion, the presence of a clear effluent or the administration of 10 L of PEG-ELS are not valid markers for the termination of WBI if complete elimination of a foreign body is required. Pretreatment with 10 mg of oral metoclopramide does not enhance the efficiency of WBI. PMID:8179735

  8. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of thermal pretreated sludge: role of microbial community structure and correlation with process performances.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, M C; Braguglia, C M; Gianico, A; Mininni, G; Nakamura, K; Rossetti, S

    2015-01-01

    Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment coupled with Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (TAD) for Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) treatment is a promising combination to improve biodegradation kinetics during stabilization. However, to date there is a limited knowledge of the anaerobic biomass composition and its impact on TAD process performances. In this study, the structure and dynamics of the microbial communities selected in two semi-continuous anaerobic digesters, fed with untreated and thermal pretreated sludge, were investigated. The systems were operated for 250 days at different organic loading rate. 16S rRNA gene clonal analysis and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses allowed us to identify the majority of bacterial and archaeal populations. Proteolytic Coprothermobacter spp. and hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter spp. living in strict syntrophic association were found to dominate in TAD process. The establishment of a syntrophic proteolytic pathway was favoured by the high temperature of the process and enhanced by the thermal pretreatment of the feeding sludge. Proteolytic activity, alone or with thermal pretreatment, occurred during TAD as proven by increasing concentration of soluble ammonia and soluble COD (sCOD) during the process. However, the availability of a readily biodegradable substrate due to pretreatment allowed to significant sCOD removals (more than 55%) corresponding to higher biogas production in the reactor fed with thermal pretreated sludge. Microbial population dynamics analysed by FISH showed that Coprothermobacter and Methanothermobacter immediately established a stable syntrophic association in the reactor fed with pretreated sludge in line with the overall improved TAD performances observed under these conditions. PMID:25462756

  9. Ultrasonic pretreatment in lipase-catalyzed synthesis of structured lipids with high 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol content.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-lei; Dong, Xu-yan; Wei, Fang; Wang, Xiang; Lv, Xin; Zhong, Juan; Wu, Lin; Quek, Siew-young; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Production of structured lipid 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO), from tripalmitin (PPP) and oleic acid (OA) using lipases and ultrasonic pretreatment was conducted. Factors influencing both the ultrasonic conditions and enzymatic reaction were investigated. Optimum conditions could be attained with 6 min pretreatment time, 50% ultrasonic power, 3 s/9 s (work/pause) cycle of ultrasonic pulse, 1:8 PPP/OA molar ratio, 12% enzyme dosage and 50 °C temperature of. At the optimum conditions, the OPO yield of 51.8% could be achieved in 4h. Studies showed that the OPO content increased to 35.9% in 1h with ultrasonic pretreatment, in comparison to 4h without ultrasonic pretreatment. Reuse of Lipozyme RM IM for 10 cycles under ultrasonic irradiation did not cause essential damage to its lipase activity. Reaction kinetic model fitted well with the proposed Ping-Pong mechanism. The apparent kinetic constant (Vm'/K₂) of ultrasound pretreatment reaction was 2.52 times higher than the conventional mechanical stirring, indicating that ultrasound pretreatment enhanced the substrates affinity to the enzyme. This study confirmed that ultrasonic pretreatment was more efficient in OPO production than conventional mechanical agitation. PMID:25453210

  10. Effect of passive and iontophoretic skin pretreatments with terpenes on the in vitro skin transport of piroxicam.

    PubMed

    Doliwa, A; Santoyo, S; Ygartua, P

    2001-10-23

    The enhancing effect of several terpenes (thymol, menthone and 1,8-cineole) in the percutaneous permeation of piroxicam (Px), either passive or iontophoretically, was investigated. These terpenes were applied, on the skin membrane, as a passive and iontophoretic skin pretreatment. Px was delivered from carbopol gels containing hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (2% w/w Px). An increase in Px flux values, both passive and iontophoretic after skin pretreatment with 5% terpenes/50% EtOH, was found to be in the following order: thymol>menthone>1,8-cineole. Iontophoretic skin pretreatment with terpenes produced a slight increase in the passive flux of Px, in comparison with the passive skin pretreatment. This result indicated that iontophoresis could modify the skin morphology and consequently, increase the passive transport of Px. However, when Px was transported iontophoretically, passive skin pretreatment with terpenes, produced higher flux values than iontophoretic skin pretreatment. These results could be explained by the fact that with the iontophoretic pretreatment, terpenes could penetrate into the skin and limitate the movement of the ionized species, across the skin, during the iontophoretic experiments. The amount of Px retained in the skin after all experiments was related to flux values across skin. PMID:11604256

  11. Pretreatment standards: categorical regulations on the horizon.

    PubMed

    Casaday, J E

    1991-10-01

    As Congress writes aggressive wastewater laws and EPA tightens its regulatory grip, the question of whether to fight or compromise becomes even more pressing for the textile rental industry. As Congress moves forward on the reauthorization of the Clean Water Act, EPA's authority to issue pretreatment standards could be greatly strengthened. Categorical pretreatment standards would set national limits on the concentrations of various pollutants that are being discharged to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs). As EPA lays out its recommendations to Congress, perhaps it's time for the textile rental industry to reevaluate its position on categorical standards. PMID:10115028

  12. Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product Pretreatment Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Cleanser, Detergent, Personal Care Product, and Pretreatment Evaluation & Selection task is to identify the optimal combination of personal hygiene products, crew activities, and pretreatment strategies to provide the crew with sustainable life support practices and a comfortable habitat. Minimal energy, mass, and crew time inputs are desired to recycle wastewater during long duration missions. This document will provide a brief background on the work this past year supporting the ELS Distillation Comparison Test, issues regarding use of the hygiene products originally chosen for the test, methods and results used to select alternative products, and lessons learned from testing.

  13. Progressive deconstruction of Arundo donax Linn. to fermentable sugars by acid catalyzed ionic liquid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    You, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Li-Ming; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Acid enhanced ionic liquid (IL) 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4 mim]Cl) pretreatment has shown great potential for boosting the yield of sugars from biomass cost-effectively and environmental-friendly. Pretreatment with shorter processing time will promote the commercial viability. In this work, pretreatment of reduced Amberlyst catalysis time of 34 min was demonstrated to be the most effective among time-varying pretreatments, evidenced by partial removal of hemicellulose and cellulose crystal transformation of Arundo donax Linn. A higher fermentable sugar concentration of 10.42 g/L (2% substrate) was obtained after 72 h of saccharification than the others. Total processing time to reach 92% glucose yield was cut down to approximately 26 h. Progressive deconstruction of crop cell wall was occurred with increased catalysis time by gradual releasing of H3O(+) of Amberlyst. However, vast lignin re-deposited polymers on fibers could hinder further enzymatic hydrolysis. These discoveries provide new insights into a more economic pretreatment for bioethanol production. PMID:26363822

  14. Insights on the solubilization products after combined alkaline and ultrasonic pre-treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xinbo; Wang, Chong; Trzcinski, Antoine Prandota; Lin, Leonard; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-03-01

    This work provides insights on the solubilization products after a simultaneous combination of alkaline and ultrasonic (ALK+ULS) pre-treatment of sewage sludge. Soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) increased from 1200 to 11,000 mg/L after such treatment. Organics with molecular weight around 5.6 kDa were solubilized because of the synergistic effect of ultrasound and alkali. Organics with molecular weight larger than 300 kDa increased from 7.8% to 60%, 16% and 42.3% after ULS, ALK and ALK+ULS treatment, respectively. Excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy analysis identified soluble microbial product-like and humic acid-like matters as the main solubilization products. Sludge anaerobic biodegradability was significantly enhanced with the simultaneous application of ALK+ULS pre-treatment. ALK+ULS pre-treatment resulted in 37.8% biodegradability increase compared to the untreated sludge. This value was higher compared to the biodegradability increase induced by individual ALK pre-treatment (5.7%) or individual ULS pre-treatment (20.7%) under the same conditions applied. PMID:25766017

  15. Improving production of volatile fatty acids from food waste fermentation by hydrothermal pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Wang, Kun; Yang, Yuqiang; Shen, Dongsheng; Wang, Meizhen; Mo, Han

    2014-11-01

    Food waste (FW) was pretreated by a hydrothermal method and then fermented for volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production. The soluble substance in FW increased after hydrothermal pretreatment (⩽200 °C). Higher hydrothermal temperature would lead to mineralization of the organic compounds. The optimal temperature for organic dissolution was 180 °C, at which FW dissolved 42.5% more soluble chemical oxygen demand than the control. VFA production from pretreated FW fermentation was significantly enhanced compared with the control. The optimal hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C with a VFA yield of 0.908 g/g VSremoval. Butyrate and acetate were the prevalent VFAs followed by propionate and valerate. FW fermentation was inhibited after 200 °C pretreatment. The VFAs were extracted from the fermentation broth by liquid-liquid extraction. The VFA recovery was 50-70%. Thus, 0.294-0.411 g VFAs could be obtained per gram of hydrothermally pretreated FW (in dry weight) by this method. PMID:25218204

  16. Heat-pretreatment and enzymolysis behavior of the lotus seed protein.

    PubMed

    Pan, A-Dan; Zeng, Hong-Yan; Alain, Gohi Bi Foua Claude; Feng, Bo

    2016-06-15

    Lotus seed protein (LSP) was heat-pretreated before enzymolysis in order to seek a greater degree of hydrolysis (DH) during enzymatic hydrolysis. The parameters including substrate concentration, temperature, pH, and papain concentration were optimized by response surface methodology in the enzymolysis of the heat-pretreated LSP. The influence of substrate concentration on the non-pretreated LSP enzymolysis was assessed, and the enzymolysis was found to obey the Haldane model with inhibition by LSP substrate. The initial concentration of non-pretreated LSP was inferred theoretically to be 11.07 g/L in order to avoid substrate inhibition. On the other hand, Chrastil model was fitted and the diffusion resistance constant values were in the range of 0.5-0.6 for the diffusion-controlled encounter of enzyme and substrate, implying that diffusion was a rate-limiting step. The heat-pretreatment at 60 °C for 60 min could increase the DH of the LSP, which enhanced the efficiency of the enzymolysis by papain. PMID:26868570

  17. Short Term, Low Dose Simvastatin Pretreatment Alters Memory Immune Function Following Secondary Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    PubMed

    Smelser, Lisa K; Walker, Callum; Burns, Erin M; Curry, Michael; Black, Nathanael; Metzler, Jennifer A; McDowell, Susan A; Bruns, Heather A

    2016-01-01

    Statins are potent modulators of immune responses, resulting in their ability to enhance host survival from primary bacterial infections. Alterations in primary immune responses that may be beneficial for survival following infection may also result in alterations in the generation of the immunologic memory response and subsequently affect immune responses mounted during secondary bacterial infection. In this study, we report that levels of total serum IgG2c, following primary infection, were decreased in simvastatin pretreated mice, and investigate the effect of simvastatin treatment, prior to primary infection, on immune responses activated during secondary S. aureus infection. A secondary infection model was implemented whereby simvastatin pretreated and control mice were reinfected with S. aureus 14 days after primary infection, with no additional simvastatin treatment, and assessed for survival and alterations in immune function. While survivability to secondary S. aureus infection was not different between simvastatin pretreated and control mice, memory B and T lymphocyte functions were altered. Memory B cells, isolated 14 days after secondary infection, from simvastatin pretreated mice and stimulated ex vivo produced increased levels of IgG1 compared to memory B cells isolated from control mice, while levels of IgM and IgG2c remained similar. Furthermore, memory B and T lymphocytes from simvastatin pretreated mice exhibited a decreased proliferative response when stimulated ex vivo compared to memory cells isolated from control mice. These findings demonstrate the ability of a short term, low dose simvastatin treatment to modulate memory immune function. PMID:26927218

  18. Biomethane production and physicochemical characterization of anaerobically digested teff (Eragrostis tef) straw pretreated by sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Chufo, Akiber; Yuan, Hairong; Zou, Dexun; Pang, Yunzhi; Li, Xiujin

    2015-04-01

    The biogas production potential and biomethane content of teff straw through pretreatment by NaOH was investigated. Different NaOH concentrations (1%, 2%, 4% and 6%) were used for each four solid loadings (50, 65, 80 and 95 g/L). The effects of NaOH as pretreatment factor on the biodegradability of teff straw, changes in main compositions and enhancement of anaerobic digestion were analyzed. The result showed that, using 4% NaOH for pretreatment in 80 g/L solid loading produced 40.0% higher total biogas production and 48.1% higher biomethane content than the untreated sample of teff straw. Investigation of changes in chemical compositions and physical microstructure indicated that there was 4.3-22.1% total lignocellulosic compositions removal after three days pretreatment with NaOH. The results further revealed that NaOH pretreatment changed the structural compositions and lignin network, and improved biogas production from teff straw. PMID:25656865

  19. Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham

    2012-07-01

    Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave® reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

  20. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge through microwave pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Siles, J A; Martín, M A; Chica, A F; Estévez-Pastor, F S; Toro-Baptista, E

    2016-07-15

    Sewage sludge generated in the activated sludge process is a polluting waste that must be treated adequately to avoid important environmental impacts. Traditional management methods, such as landfill disposal or incineration, are being ruled out due to the high content in heavy metal, pathogens, micropolluting compounds of the sewage sludge and the lack of use of resources. Anaerobic digestion could be an interesting treatment, but must be improved since the biomethanisation of sewage sludge entails low biodegradability and low methane production. A microwave pre-treatment at pilot scale is proposed to increase the organic matter solubilisation of sewage sludge and enhance the biomethanisation yield. The operational variables of microwave pre-treatment (power and specific energy applied) were optimised by analysing the physicochemical characteristics of sewage sludge (both total and soluble fraction) under different pre-treatment conditions. According to the variation in the sCOD and TN concentration, the optimal operation variables of the pre-treatment were fixed at 20,000 J/g TS and 700 W. A subsequent anaerobic digestion test was carried out with raw and pre-treated sewage sludge under different conditions (20,000 J/g TS and 700 W; 20,000 J/g TS and 400 W; and 30,000 J/g TS and 400 W). Although stability was maintained throughout the process, the enhancement in the total methane yield was not high (up to 17%). Nevertheless, very promising improvements were determined for the kinetics of the process, where the rG and the OLR increased by 43% and 39%, respectively, after carrying out a pre-treatment at 20,000 J/g TS and 700 W. PMID:27107391

  1. [Study on the advanced pre-treatments of reclaimed water used for groundwater recharge].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu-Tuan; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Xuan; Zhao, Gang

    2012-03-01

    To prevent groundwater contamination, pretreatments of reclaimed water are needed before the groundwater recharge. In this study, five treatments, including ultrafiltration (UF), ozonation, magnetic ion exchange (MIEX), UF coupled with ozonation and MIEX coupled with ozonation, were evaluated for their purification efficiencies of the reclaimed water and their influences on the following soil aquifer treatments. For organic matters in the secondary effluents, identified as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), 20% DOC and 10% SUVA are removed by MIEX treatment with dose of 5 mL x L(-1), while only 10% DOC and no SUVA are removed by UF, but neither of these two pretreatments enhance the purification of soil aquifer treatments. Differently, SUVA of the secondary effluents are removed by 60%-79% by ozonation alone or coupled with UF/MIEX, increasing the biodegradability of the reclaimed water. These pretreatments significantly enhance the removal of organic matters by the following soil aquifer with DOC in the final effluents reducing to 1-2 mg x L(-1). For nitrogen, MIEX can remove 25% NO3(-) -N, and ozonation can remove 72% NH4(+) -N. The soil aquifer treatment could efficiently remove NH4(+) -N to below 0.5 mg x L(-1), while no obvious removal is detected for NO3(-) -N. In conclusion, more attentions should be paid to the organic matters and NO3(-) -N during the pretreatments of reclaimed water. Among all the pretreatments tested here, ozonation coupled with MIEX is capable of increasing the biodegradability of the reclaimed water and removing NO3(-) -N, which is a good choice for the pretreatment of groundwater recharge. PMID:22624368

  2. Sensitized photolysis as pretreatment to biological degradation of trichlorobenzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Hyoun.

    1991-01-01

    The role of photolysis as pretreatment process was examined for the biological degradation of trichlorobenzenes (TCBs), namely 1,2,3-, 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzenes. Initially, direct and indirect photolysis experiments were conducted using aqueous solutions with 1% acetonitrile of the three isomers of trichlorobenzenes with and without sensitizers. The sensitizers used were Fenton's reagent, nitrite, triethylamine, humic acid and TiO{sub 2}. The photochemical experiments were performed using laboratory simulated sunlight and the kinetic rates for these processes were calculated. The effect of photolysis on the biological degradation chlorobenzenes were examined using a chemical activation system (CAS) which consists of EDTA, ferrous sulfate, ascorbic acid, catalase and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in potassium phosphate buffer (monobasic) and a primary sewage effluent. Initially, kinetic rates by CAS biodegradation and primary sewage were obtained and compared. In general, the rates of biodegradation were greater in the test media with catalase. The rate of transformation in CAS was enhanced in the order: monoCB < 1,2,3-TCB < 1,2,4-TCB < 1,3,5-TCB; whereas, when CAS was used as a control, the kinetic rates in the presence of catalase increased in the sequence: 1,2,3-TCB, 1,3,5-TCB < 1,2,4-TCB < MonoCB. Photolysis studied in concert with the biological systems showed significant enhancement of the degradation rate of trichlorobenzenes. The photolysis rates were higher for those with sensitized photolysis. This study shows that photolysis can be used as a pretreatment of enhancing biodegradation of trichlorobenzenes in aqueous systems.

  3. Solar assisted alkali pretreatment of garden biomass: Effects on lignocellulose degradation, enzymatic hydrolysis, crystallinity and ultra-structural changes in lignocellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S.P.M. Prince; Vaidya, Atul N.; Das, Sera; Wate, Satish R.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • SAAP is an efficient and economic means of pretreatment. • SAAP was found to be efficient in lignin and hemicellulose removal. • SAAP enhanced the enzymatic hydrolysis. • FTIR, XRD and SEM provided vivid understanding about the mode of action of SAAP. • Mass balance closer of 98% for pretreated GB confirmed the reliability of SAAP. - Abstract: A comprehensive study was carried out to assess the effectiveness of solar assisted alkali pretreatment (SAAP) on garden biomass (GB). The pretreatment efficiency was assessed based on lignocellulose degradation, conversion of cellulose into reducing sugars, changes in the ultra-structure and functional groups of lignocellulose and impact on the crystallinity of cellulose, etc. SAAP was found to be efficient for the removal of lignin and hemicellulose that facilitated enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. FTIR and XRD studies provided details on the effectiveness of SAAP on lignocellulosic moiety and crystallinity of cellulose. Scanning electron microscopic analysis showed ultra-structural disturbances in the microfibrils of GB as a result of pretreatment. The mass balance closer of 97.87% after pretreatment confirmed the reliability of SAAP pretreatment. Based on the results, it is concluded that SAAP is not only an efficient means of pretreatment but also economical as it involved no energy expenditure for heat generation during pretreatment.

  4. The lesion of dorsolateral funiculus changes the antiallodynic effect of the intrathecal muscimol and baclofen in distinct phases of neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation in rats.

    PubMed

    Dias, Quintino Moura; Prado, Wiliam A

    2016-06-01

    The abnormal firing of damaged primary afferents and the changes in the central nervous system (CNS) play important role in the initiation and maintenance phases of neuropathic pain. These phases of neuropathic pain involve changes in the GABAergic control of descending pathways that travel through the dorsolateral funiculus (DLF). The present study shows that unilateral DLF lesion increased the antiallodynic effect of muscimol (0.2μg/5μL) (a GABAA receptor agonist) in the initiation, but not maintenance phase of the mechanical allodynia induced by a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) of the ipsilateral hindpaw of rats. The unilateral DLF lesion increased the antiallodynic effect of baclofen (0.8μg/5μL) (a GABAB receptor agonist) in the initiation phase and reduced your effect in the maintenance phase of the mechanical allodynia induced by a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) of the ipsilateral paw of rats. The unilateral DLF lesion significantly reduced the proallodynic effect of an intrathecal injection of phaclofen (30μg/5μL) (a GABAB receptor antagonist), but not bicuculline (0.3μg/5μL) (a GABAA receptor antagonist). The effect of DLF lesion on the proallodynic effect of phaclofen was observed in the maintenance, but not in the initiation phase of the mechanical allodynia induced by SNL. We than conclude that the spinal GABAergic neurotransmission is negatively modulated by DLF using GABAA and GABAB receptors, in the initiation phase of mechanical allodynia induced by SNL. In addition, the integrity of DLF is necessary for the effectiveness of GABAergic transmission that occurs via spinal GABAB, but not GABAA receptors, in the maintenance phase of mechanical allodynia induced by SNL. PMID:27063286

  5. The need for and provision of intrathecal baclofen therapy for the management of spasticity in England: an assessment of the Hospital Episode Statistics database

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Rajesh C; Duarte, Rui V; Valyi, Andrea; Eldabe, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the uptake of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) following commissioning of this therapy by the National Health Service (NHS) England in April 2013. The specific objectives of this study were: (i) to explore the gap between the need for and the actual provision of ITB services; and (ii) to compare England figures with other European countries with comparable data available. Setting Data for ITB -related procedures were obtained from the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database from 2009/2010 to 2013/2014. Participants Patients receiving ITB for the management of spasticity. Results The available data for implantation of ITB from 2009/2010 to 2013/2014 for the treatment of spasticity due to varied aetiologies show that there has not been an increase in uptake of this therapy. The estimated need for this treatment based on the incidence and prevalence of conditions susceptible to ITB therapy is between 4.6 and 5.7 per million population. Our analysis of the data available from the HES database showed that the actual number of implants is around 3.0 per million population. The same period 2009–2014 has seen an increase in the delivery of other neuromodulation techniques including spinal cord stimulation, deep brain stimulation and sacral nerve stimulation. Conclusions There is a considerable gap between the need for and provision of ITB figures nationally. Additionally, within the same area, we have observed important differences in the ITB service delivery between the various trusts. The reasons for this can be multifactorial, including individual experience and opinions, organisational structures, resource and financial limitations. Further research analysing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of this treatment in the UK might inform the development of Technology Appraisal Guidance for ITB, potentially leading to an improvement in service provision. PMID:26129634

  6. Pretreatment of non-sterile, rotted silage maize straw by the microbial community MC1 increases biogas production.

    PubMed

    Hua, Binbin; Dai, Jiali; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Huan; Yuan, Xufeng; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

    2016-09-01

    Using microbial community MC1 to pretreat lignocellulosic materials increased the yield of biogas production, and the substrate did not need to be sterilized, lowering the cost. Rotted silage maize straw carries many microbes. To determine whether such contamination affects MC1, rotted silage maize straw was pretreated with MC1 prior to biogas production. The decreases in the weights of unsterilized and sterilized rotted silage maize straw were similar, as were their carboxymethyl cellulase activities. After 5d pretreatment, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction results indicated that the proportions of five key strains in MC1 were the same in the unsterilized and sterilized groups; thus, MC1 was resistant to microbial contamination. However, its resistance to contamination decreased as the degradation time increased. Following pretreatment, volatile fatty acids, especially acetic acid, were detected, and MC1 enhanced biogas yields by 74.7% compared with the untreated group. PMID:27289062

  7. Evaluation of microwave-assisted pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass immersed in alkaline glycerol for fermentable sugars production.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ana Belen; Moretti, Marcia Maria de Souza; Bezerra-Bussoli, Carolina; Carreira Nunes, Christiane da Costa; Blandino, Ana; da Silva, Roberto; Gomes, Eleni

    2015-06-01

    A pretreatment with microwave irradiation was applied to enhance enzyme hydrolysis of corn straw and rice husk immersed in water, aqueous glycerol or alkaline glycerol. Native and pretreated solids underwent enzyme hydrolysis using the extract obtained from the fermentation of Myceliophthora heterothallica, comparing its efficiency with that of the commercial cellulose cocktail Celluclast®. The highest saccharification yields, for both corn straw and rice husk, were attained when biomass was pretreated in alkaline glycerol, method that has not been previously reported in literature. Moreover, FTIR, TG and SEM analysis revealed a more significant modification in the structure of corn straw subjected to this pretreatment. Highest global yields were attained with the crude enzyme extract, which might be the result of its content in a great variety of hydrolytic enzymes, as revealed zymogram analysis. Moreover, its hydrolysis efficiency can be improved by its supplementation with commercial β-glucosidase. PMID:25795445

  8. The induction of menadione stress tolerance in the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis, through cold pretreatment and modulation of the ascorbate and glutathione pools.

    PubMed

    Madadkar Haghjou, Maryam; Colville, Louise; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    The effect of cold pretreatment on menadione tolerance was investigated in the cells of the marine microalga, Dunaliella viridis. In addition, the involvement of ascorbate and glutathione in the response to menadione stress was tested by treating cell suspensions with l-galactono-1,4-lactone, an ascorbate precursor, and buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Menadione was highly toxic to non cold-pretreated cells, and caused a large decrease in cell number. Cold pretreatment alleviated menadione toxicity and cold pretreated cells accumulated lower levels of reactive oxygen species, and had enhanced antioxidant capacity due to increased levels of β-carotene, reduced ascorbate and total glutathione compared to non cold-pretreated cells. Cold pretreatment also altered the response to l-galactono-1,4-lactone and buthionine sulfoximine treatments. Combined l-galactono-1,4-lactone and menadione treatment was lethal in non-cold pretreated cells, but in cold-pretreated cells it had a positive effect on cell numbers compared to menadione alone. Overall, exposure of Dunaliella cells to cold stress enhanced tolerance to subsequent oxidative stress induced by menadione. PMID:25240268

  9. Chemical pretreatment of coal in a stirred ball mill

    SciTech Connect

    Birlingmair, D.; Burkhart, L.; Tampy, G.; Pollard, J.

    1988-06-01

    Techniques were studied to alter and control the surface chemistry of ultrafine coal and mineral particles during comminution in a stirred ball mill to enhance liberation and subsequent physical separation. Three-phase (kerosene-liquid-solid) contact angle measurements were taken with kerosene as the oil phase; with acidic, basic, neutral, and sodium dithionite solutions constituting the aqueous phase, and organic-rich and mineral-rich fractions of Upper Freeport coal constituting the solid phase. The hydrophobic/hydrophilic effect of the aqueous solutions on the organic-rich and mineral-rich fractions was compared to the results of microbubble froth flotation. Continuous microbubble column flotation experiments were also conducted and the effect of several variables investigated. In general, slow feed rates, high frother concentration and high frit pressure yielded better results. The use of oxone, a peroxygen triple salt, as a chemical reagent during grinding and pretreatment prior to beneficiation, was explored. The acidic surface functional oxygen groups were studied to more fully understand the changes on coal samples affected by chemical pretreatment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Lignocellulose pretreatment severity - relating pH to biomatrix opening.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mads; Meyer, Anne S

    2010-12-31

    In cellulose-to-ethanol processes a physico-chemical pretreatment of the lignocellulosic feedstock is a crucial prerequisite for increasing the amenability of the cellulose to enzymatic attack. Currently published pretreatment strategies span over a wide range of reaction conditions involving different pH values, temperatures, types of catalysts and holding times. The consequences of the pretreatment on lignocellulosic biomass are described with special emphasis on the chemical alterations of the biomass during pretreatment, especially highlighting the significance of the pretreatment pH. We present a new illustration of the pretreatment effects encompassing the differential responses to the pH and temperature. A detailed evaluation of the use of severity factor calculations for pretreatment comparisons signifies that the multiple effects of different pretreatment factors on the subsequent monosaccharide yields after enzymatic hydrolysis cannot be reliably compared by a one-dimensional severity factor, even within the same type of pretreatment strategy. However, a quantitative comparison of published data for wheat straw pretreatment illustrates that there is some correlation between the hydrolysis yields (glucose and xylose) and the pretreatment pH, but no correlation with the pretreatment temperature (90-200°C). A better recognition and understanding of the factors affecting biomatrix opening, and use of more standardized evaluation protocols, will allow for the identification of new pretreatment strategies that improve biomass utilization and permit rational enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose. PMID:20460178

  11. Solvent pretreatment of feed coal for briquetting

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.M.; Miller, M.R.

    1980-11-25

    Solvent pretreating of coal fines prior to briquetting results in coal briquettes which have no added binder and which will withstand weathering conditions better than binder containing briquettes. The solvents are generally described as organic Lewis base solvents which are capable of electron donor action, and include among others, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and ethylene diamine.

  12. Fundamental studies of water pretreatment of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1991-10-25

    During the seventh quarter, water pretreatment experiments were done at lower pressures (1000 psig), with early H{sub 2}O injection or continuous H{sub 2}O injection, and with demineralized coals. In addition, a set of blank experiments was done with all four coals in helium at the following conditions: 350{degrees}C; 4000 psig; 20 minutes. An additional experiment was done with the Zap lignite at atmospheric pressure. Helium was used instead of nitrogen since it can be obtained in highly pure grades. The purpose of the blank experiments is to determine how much of the water pretreatment process is a thermal and/or pressure effort. The residues from the standard water pretreatment experiments with Illinois and Pittsburgh coals were subjected to analysis by TG-FTIR, solvent extraction, solvent swelling, oxygen reactivity index and donor solvent liquefaction. The pyridine extractables were analyzed. With regard to liquefaction behavior, improvements in the yields of oils and toluene solubles are observed for selected Illinois and Pittsburgh coals at longer pretreatment times ({ge} 60 minutes).

  13. Electrolytic pretreatment unit gaseous effluent conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Putnam, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    The electrolytic pretreatment of urine is an advanced process that eliminates the need for handling and storing the highly corrosive chemicals that are normally used in water reclamation systems. The electrolytic pretreatment process also converts the organic materials in urine to gases (N2 and O2) that can be used to replenish those lost to space by leakage, venting, and air lock operations. The electrolytic process is more than a pretreatment, since it decreases the urine solids content by approximately one third, thus reducing the load and eventual solids storage requirements of the urine processing system. The evolved gases from the pretreatment step cannot, however, be returned directly to the atmosphere of a spacecraft without first removing several impurities including hydrogen, chlorine, and certain organic compounds. A treatment concept was developed that would decrease the impurities in the gas stream that emanates from an electrolysis unit to levels sufficiently low to allow the conditioned gas stream to be safely discharged to a spacecraft atmosphere. Two methods were experimentally demonstrated that can accomplish the desired cleanup. The bases of the two methods are, repectively: (1) raw urine scrubbing and (2) silica gel sorption.

  14. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass using Fenton chemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pretreatment is a necessary step in “biomass to biofuel conversion” due to the recalcitrant nature of lignocellulosic biomass. White-rot fungi utilize peroxidases and hydrogen peroxide (in vivo Fenton chemistry) to degrade lignin. In an attempt to mimic this process, solution phase Fenton chemistry ...

  15. Effect of dentin pretreatment and curing mode on the microtensile bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Seung-Hyun; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Son, Sung-Ae; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim was to evaluate the effect of curing mode and different dentin surface pretreatment on microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of self-adhesive resin cements. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-six extracted human permanent molars were sectioned horizontally exposing flat dentin surface. The teeth were divided into 12 groups (3 teeth/group) according to the dentin surface pretreatment methods (control, 18% EDTA, 10% Polyacrylic acid) and curing mode (self-curing vs. light-curing) of cement. After pretreatment, composite resin blocks were cemented with the following: (a) G-CEM LinkAce; (b) RelyX U200, followed by either self-curing or light-curing. After storage, the teeth were sectioned and µTBS test was performed using a microtensile testing machine. The data was statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA, Student T-test and Scheffe's post-hoc test at P<.05 level. RESULTS For G-CEM LinkAce cement groups, polyacrylic acid pretreatment showed the highest µTBS in the self-cured group. In the light-cured group, no significant improvements were observed according to the dentin surface pretreatment. There were no significant differences between curing modes. Both dentin surface pretreatment methods helped to increase the µTBS of RelyX U200 resin cement significantly and degree of pretreatment effect was similar. No significant differences were found regarding curing modes except control groups. In the comparisons of two self-adhesive resin cements, all groups within the same pretreatment and curing mode were significantly different excluding self-cured control groups. CONCLUSION Selecting RelyX U200 used in this study and application of dentin surface pretreatment with EDTA and polyacrylic acid might be recommended to enhance the bond strength of cement to dentin. PMID:26330979

  16. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  17. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  18. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  19. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  20. 40 CFR 408.14 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard establishes the... Catfish Processing Subcategory § 408.14 Pretreatment standards for existing sources. Any existing...

  1. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  2. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  3. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  4. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  5. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  6. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  7. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  8. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  9. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  10. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...

  11. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  12. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  13. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  14. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  15. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  16. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  17. 40 CFR 408.74 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.74 Pretreatment standards for...

  18. 40 CFR 408.54 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.54 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  19. 40 CFR 408.44 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment standard... Alaskan Crab Meat Processing Subcategory § 408.44 Pretreatment standards for existing sources....

  20. 40 CFR 408.64 - Pretreatment standards for existing sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... publicly owned treatment works must comply with 40 CFR part 403. In addition, the following pretreatment... Alaskan Whole Crab and Crab Section Processing Subcategory § 408.64 Pretreatment standards for...