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Sample records for bacteraemia predicts one-year

  1. Predicting the Career Involvement of Women One Year After College Graduation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, Linda P.

    A 1980 study was conducted to determine those factors (educational background, career plans, family influence, parental background, and career salience) predictive of women's career involvement one year after college graduation. A second analysis further differentiated between the groups on the variable "commitment to working." Participants were…

  2. Derivation and validation of clinical prediction rules for reduced vancomycin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Han, J H; Bilker, W B; Edelstein, P H; Mascitti, K B; Lautenbach, E

    2013-01-01

    Reduced vancomycin susceptibility (RVS) may lead to poor clinical outcomes in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. We conducted a cohort study of 392 patients with S. aureus bacteraemia within a university health system. The association between RVS, as defined by both Etest [vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >1·0 μg/ml] and broth microdilution (vancomycin MIC ≥1·0 μg/ml), and patient and clinical variables were evaluated to create separate predictive models for RVS. In total, 134 (34·2%) and 73 (18·6%) patients had S. aureus isolates with RVS by Etest and broth microdilution, respectively. The final model for RVS by Etest included methicillin resistance [odds ratio (OR) 1·51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·97-2·34], non-white race (OR 0·67, 95% CI 0·42-1·07), healthcare-associated infection (OR 0·56, 95% CI 0·32-0·96), and receipt of any antimicrobial therapy ≤30 days prior to the culture date (OR 3·06, 95% CI 1·72-5·44). The final model for RVS by broth microdilution included methicillin resistance (OR 2·45, 95% CI 1·42-4·24), admission through the emergency department (OR 0·54, 95% CI 0·32-0·92), presence of an intravascular device (OR 2·24, 95% CI 1·30-3·86), and malignancy (OR 0·51, 95% CI 0·26-1·00). The availability of an easy and rapid clinical prediction rule for early identification of RVS can be used to help guide the timely and individualized management of these serious infections. PMID:22490228

  3. One-Year Real-Time Operational Prediction Intervals for Direct Normal Irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Y.; Carreira Pedro, H. T.; Coimbra, C. F.

    2015-12-01

    This work describes an algorithm to generate intra-hour prediction intervals (PIs) for the highly-variable direct normal irradiance, which is the energy source for the concentrated solar power technologies. The prediction intervals are generated using a Multi-layer Stochastic-Learning Model (MSLM), which is developed based on methods such as: sky imaging techniques, support vector machine and artificial neural network. The MSLM is trained using one year of co-located, high-quality irradiance and sky image recording in Folsom, California. In addition to being validated with historical data, the algorithm has been generating operational PI forecasts in real-time for that observatory since July 1st 2014. In the real-time scenario, without re-training or significant maintenance, the hybrid model consistently provides valid PI (PICP > 92%) and outperforms the reference persistence model (PICP ~ 85%) regardless of weather condition. This work has great impact in the field of solar energy to potentially facilitate the level of solar penetration in the grid with significantly reduced integration costs.

  4. Risk Prediction of One-Year Mortality in Patients with Cardiac Arrhythmias Using Random Survival Forest

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Fen; Cai, Yun-Peng; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Li, Ye; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Existing models for predicting mortality based on traditional Cox proportional hazard approach (CPH) often have low prediction accuracy. This paper aims to develop a clinical risk model with good accuracy for predicting 1-year mortality in cardiac arrhythmias patients using random survival forest (RSF), a robust approach for survival analysis. 10,488 cardiac arrhythmias patients available in the public MIMIC II clinical database were investigated, with 3,452 deaths occurring within 1-year followups. Forty risk factors including demographics and clinical and laboratory information and antiarrhythmic agents were analyzed as potential predictors of all-cause mortality. RSF was adopted to build a comprehensive survival model and a simplified risk model composed of 14 top risk factors. The built comprehensive model achieved a prediction accuracy of 0.81 measured by c-statistic with 10-fold cross validation. The simplified risk model also achieved a good accuracy of 0.799. Both results outperformed traditional CPH (which achieved a c-statistic of 0.733 for the comprehensive model and 0.718 for the simplified model). Moreover, various factors are observed to have nonlinear impact on cardiac arrhythmias prognosis. As a result, RSF based model which took nonlinearity into account significantly outperformed traditional Cox proportional hazard model and has great potential to be a more effective approach for survival analysis. PMID:26379761

  5. Bacteraemia predictive factors among general medical inpatients: a retrospective cross-sectional survey in a Japanese university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Sayato; Uehara, Yuki; Fujibayashi, Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Osamu; Hisaoka, Teruhiko; Naito, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The precise criteria for obtaining blood cultures have not been established; they depend on the physician's judgement. We examined clinical parameters to determine predictive factors of bacteraemia and the need for blood cultures among general medical inpatients. Design A retrospective cross-sectional survey. Setting A Japanese university hospital. Participants All general inpatients who had blood cultures taken from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2012. Main Measures Clinical information at or just before blood culture sampling was extracted from medical charts. Factors potentially predictive of bacteraemia were analysed using Fisher's exact test, followed by multivariable logistic regression model analysis. Main Results A total of 200 patients (male: female=119:81, 64.3±19.1 years old) comprised this study; 57 (28.5%) had positive blood culture results. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that age >60 years (OR=2.75, 95% CI 1.23 to 6.48, p=0.015), female sex (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 4.67, p=0.038), pulse rate >90 bpm (OR=5.18, 95% CI 2.25 to 12.48, p<0.001) and neutrophil percentage >80% (OR=3.61, 95% CI 1.71 to 8.00, p=0.001) were independent risk factors for positive blood culture results. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of this model was 0.796. Conclusions Our results emphasise the importance of taking blood cultures if the pulse rate is >90 bpm, in elderly patients and in women, and for ordering a differential white cell count. PMID:27388348

  6. Predicting One-Year Mortality in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: An Analysis of the China Peritoneal Dialysis Registry

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xue-Ying; Zhou, Jian-Hui; Cai, Guang-Yan; Tan, Ni-Na; Huang, Jing; Xie, Xiang-Cheng; Tang, Li; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate basic clinical features of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, their prognostic risk factors, and to establish a prognostic model for predicting their one-year mortality. A national multi-center cohort study was performed. A total of 5,405 new PD cases from China Peritoneal Dialysis Registry in 2012 were enrolled in model group. All these patients had complete baseline data and were followed for one year. Demographic and clinical features of these patients were collected. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to analyze prognostic risk factors and establish prognostic model. A validation group was established using 1,764 new PD cases between January 1, 2013 and July 1, 2013, and to verify accuracy of prognostic model. Results indicated that model group included 4,453 live PD cases and 371 dead cases. Multivariate survival analysis showed that diabetes mellitus (DM), residual glomerular filtration rate (rGFR), , SBP, Kt/V, high PET type and Alb were independently associated with one-year mortality. Model was statistically significant in both within-group verification and outside-group verification. In conclusion, DM, rGFR, SBP, Kt/V, high PET type and Alb were independent risk factors for short-term mortality in PD patients. Prognostic model established in this study accurately predicted risk of short-term death in PD patients. PMID:26019685

  7. Brooding and reflection: Rumination predicts suicidal ideation at one-year follow up in a community sample

    PubMed Central

    Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The cognitive processes underlying suicidal thinking and behavior are not well-understood. The present study examined brooding and reflection, two dimensions of rumination, as predictors of suicidal ideation among a community sample of 1,134 adults. Participants completed self-report measures of rumination and depression, and a semi-structured clinical interview that included an assessment of suicidal ideation, at baseline and one-year follow up. Brooding was more strongly related to degree of ideation at baseline than was reflection. However, both brooding and reflection predicted whether an individual thought about suicide at one-year follow up, even after adjusting for baseline suicidal ideation. Symptoms of depression mediated the relationship between brooding and ideation but not between reflection and ideation. Implications for the nature of thought processes that result in suicidal thinking are discussed. PMID:17825248

  8. Development of a metabolites risk score for one-year mortality risk prediction in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Andrea; Mazza, Tommaso; Tavano, Francesca; Gioffreda, Domenica; Mattivi, Fulvio; Andriulli, Angelo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Pazienza, Valerio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Survival among patients with adenocarcinoma pancreatic cancer (PDCA) is highly variable, which ranges from 0% to 20% at 5 years. Such a wide range is due to tumor size and stage, as well other patients' characteristics. We analyzed alterations in the metabolomic profile, of PDCA patients, which are potentially predictive of patient's one-year mortality. Experimental design A targeted metabolomic assay was conducted on serum samples of patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Statistical analyses were performed only for those 27 patients with information on vital status at follow-up and baseline clinical features. Random Forest analysis was performed to identify all metabolites and clinical variables with the best capability to predict patient's mortality risk at one year. Regression coefficients were estimated from multivariable Weibull survival model, which included the most associated metabolites. Such coefficients were used as weights to build a metabolite risk score (MRS) which ranged from 0 (lowest mortality risk) to 1 (highest mortality risk). The stability of these weights were evaluated performing 10,000 bootstrap resamplings. Results MRS was built as a weighted linear combination of the following five metabolites: Valine (HR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.11–1.71 for each standard deviation (SD) of 98.57), Sphingomyeline C24:1 (HR = 2.66, 95%CI: 1.30–21.09, for each SD of 20.67), Lysine (HR = 0.36, 95%CI: 0.03–0.77, for each SD of 51.73), Tripentadecanoate TG15 (HR = 0.25, 95%CI: 0.01–0.82, for each SD of 2.88) and Symmetric dimethylarginine (HR = 2.24, 95%CI: 1.28–103.08, for each SD of 0.62), achieving a very high discrimination ability (survival c-statistic of 0.855, 95%CI: 0.816–0.894). Such association was still present even after adjusting for the most associated clinical variables (confounders). Conclusions The mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling of serum represents a valid tool for discovering novel candidate biomarkers with

  9. Better Adherence to Treatment Recommendations in Heart Failure Predicts Improved Cognitive Function at a One Year Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Treatment non-adherence is common in heart failure and associated with poor health outcomes in this population. Recent cross-sectional work in heart failure and past work in other medical populations suggests cognitive function is a key determinant of patient’s ability to adhere to treatment recommendations. However, it is also possible that treatment adherence is an important modifier and predictor of cognitive function, though no study has examined this possibility and we sought to do so in a sample of heart failure patients. Methods 115 patients with heart failure self-reported adherence to treatment recommendations. The Modified Mini Mental State Examination (3MS), Trail Making Test parts A and B, and the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) assessed cognitive function. These procedures were performed at baseline and a 12-month follow-up. Results Global cognition and memory abilities improved over the 12-month period. Regression analyses controlling for baseline and medical and demographic factors showed better baseline treatment adherence predicted improved 12-month performances on the 3MS and CVLT-II. Adherence to medication and diet regimens and smoking abstinence emerged as the most important contributors. Conclusions Better treatment adherence predicted improved cognition one-year later in HF. Prospective studies that utilize objective assessments of treatment adherence are needed to confirm our findings and examine whether improved treatment adherence preserves cognitive function in heart failure. PMID:25352233

  10. One-Year Prediction of Pain Killer Use among At-Risk Older Teens and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Barnett, Elizabeth; Lisha, Nadra; Sun, Ping

    2012-01-01

    The leading substance of misuse among teens after tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana is the use of pain killers. Very few longitudinal studies on prediction of pain killer use have been conducted among teens. This study examined the 1-year prediction of self-reported last 30-day pain killer use controlling for baseline 30-day painkiller use among…

  11. Use of early indicators in rehabilitation process to predict one-year mortality in elderly hip fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Dubljanin-Raspopović, Emilija; Markovic Denić, Ljiljana; Marinković, Jelena; Grajić, Mirko; Tomanovic Vujadinović, Sanja; Bumbaširević, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Hip fractures remain one of the most devastating injuries in the elderly. Early prediction of outcome following hip fracture potentially results in more efficient health care. The aims of this study were to explore predictors of ambulation status at hospital discharge in patients ≥65 years of age operated on for fracture of the hip, and to investigate the impact of ambulation status at hospital discharge on 1-year mortality after hip fracture. We studied 344 patients who underwent surgery for hip fracture during a 12 month period. Multivariate regression analysis was used to explore predictive factors for ambulatory status at discharge, and 1-year mortality adjusted on important baseline variables. Cumulative 1-year mortality was significantly lower for patients in the ambulatory group when compared to patients in the non-ambulatory group. Patients who were older, had severe cognitive impairment, lower functional level before injury, and in whom postoperative delirium and pressure ulcers occurred had a higher chance of not recovering their gait ability at hospital discharge, and being dead 1 year after hip fracture. Inability to walk at hospital discharge and presence of delirium are independent predictors of 1-year mortality. Every effort should be made to assure early mobilisation after hip fracture surgery, and prevention, prompt recognition and treatment of postoperative complications is important in order to facilitate better short-and long-term outcome. PMID:23233176

  12. Clostridium tetani bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Hallit, Rabih Riad; Afridi, Muhammad; Sison, Raymund; Salem, Elie; Boghossian, Jack; Slim, Jihad

    2013-01-01

    Tetanus is a neuromuscular disease in which Clostridium tetani exotoxin (tetanospasmin) produces muscle spasms, incapacitating its host. To our knowledge, C. tetani bacteraemia has never been reported in the literature. The ideal management of this entity remains unresolved given that there is no literature to guide the therapy. PMID:22977074

  13. Progress and prediction of occupational performance in women with distal radius fractures: a one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tove Lise; Dekkers, Merete Klindt

    2013-03-01

    Abstract To describe the occupational performance and pain during the first year after a distal radius fracture, an observational follow-up study was performed among 37 mainly elderly Danish women. They were assessed at cast removal and reassessed at three and 12 months post-injury with COPM, DASH, and validated questions on pain. The number of performance problems fell from median 18 at cast removal to median 3 at 12 months. COPM performance and satisfaction scores improved significantly to 8.6 and 9.2 at 12 months. Also the DASH score improved significantly to 14.2 at 12 months. The largest improvements in occupational performance and disability took place within the first three months. Pain decreased significantly during the follow-up period. In spite of these positive results, at 12 months 78% of the women still had performance problems and 62% still had some degree of pain due to the fracture. At cast removal, a number of ≥10 performance problems at 12 months could be predicted in women with ≥20 performance problems (RR 2.41) or with a pain intensity described as "moderate" or worse (RR 3.71). The findings of this study suggest that occupational therapy services might still be of relevance perhaps as follow-up sessions through the first year post-injury. PMID:23216334

  14. One-year adherence to oral antihyperglycemic medication and risk prediction of patient outcomes for adults with diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Carola A.; Rapold, Roland; Brüngger, Beat; Reich, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Medication adherence is essential in preventing adverse intermediate outcomes, but little is known on hard outcomes. The aims of this study were to determine the 1-year adherence to oral antihyperglycemic drugs (OADs) and to predict the risk of subsequent health outcomes among (non)adherent patients with diabetes. Using a large Swiss healthcare claims database from 2011 to 2014, we identified all patients aged ≥18 years with diabetes and treated with at least 1 OAD prescription. Adherence to OADs was measured as the proportion of days covered (PDC) over 1 year and subdivided into 2 categories: adherent (PDC ≥ 80%), nonadherent (PDC < 80%). We estimated the relative risk of hospitalization and mortality at follow-up using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Based on a sample of 26,713 patients, adherence to OADs was quite low: 42% of the patients achieved a PDC of ≥80% during the 1-year observation period. A 7% reduction in the hospitalization risk and a 10% reduction in the risk of mortality could be observed in adherent patients compared to nonadherent patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89–0.97]; HR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.82–0.99]). Subgroup analysis showed that an intensified diabetes therapy had no significant influence on the risk of both outcomes in adherent patients. Poor medication adherence increases the risk of subsequent hospitalizations and premature mortality in patient with diabetes, regardless of disease severity and comorbidities. This emphasizes the need for an earlier identification of patients with poor medication adherence. The awareness of physicians and patients regarding the importance of adherence in diabetes treatment should be increased. PMID:27368004

  15. Mortality and One-Year Functional Outcome in Elderly and Very Old Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries: Observed and Predicted

    PubMed Central

    Røe, Cecilie; Skandsen, Toril; Manskow, Unn; Ader, Tiina; Anke, Audny

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate mortality and functional outcome in old and very old patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and compare to the predicted outcome according to the internet based CRASH (Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head injury) model based prediction, from the Medical Research Council (MRC). Methods. Prospective, national multicenter study including patients with severe TBI ≥65 years. Predicted mortality and outcome were calculated based on clinical information (CRASH basic) (age, GCS score, and pupil reactivity to light), as well as with additional CT findings (CRASH CT). Observed 14-day mortality and favorable/unfavorable outcome according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale at one year was compared to the predicted outcome according to the CRASH models. Results. 97 patients, mean age 75 (SD 7) years, 64% men, were included. Two patients were lost to follow-up; 48 died within 14 days. The predicted versus the observed odds ratio (OR) for mortality was 2.65. Unfavorable outcome (GOSE < 5) was observed at one year follow-up in 72% of patients. The CRASH models predicted unfavorable outcome in all patients. Conclusion. The CRASH model overestimated mortality and unfavorable outcome in old and very old Norwegian patients with severe TBI. PMID:26688614

  16. Mortality and One-Year Functional Outcome in Elderly and Very Old Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injuries: Observed and Predicted.

    PubMed

    Røe, Cecilie; Skandsen, Toril; Manskow, Unn; Ader, Tiina; Anke, Audny

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate mortality and functional outcome in old and very old patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and compare to the predicted outcome according to the internet based CRASH (Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head injury) model based prediction, from the Medical Research Council (MRC). Methods. Prospective, national multicenter study including patients with severe TBI ≥ 65 years. Predicted mortality and outcome were calculated based on clinical information (CRASH basic) (age, GCS score, and pupil reactivity to light), as well as with additional CT findings (CRASH CT). Observed 14-day mortality and favorable/unfavorable outcome according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale at one year was compared to the predicted outcome according to the CRASH models. Results. 97 patients, mean age 75 (SD 7) years, 64% men, were included. Two patients were lost to follow-up; 48 died within 14 days. The predicted versus the observed odds ratio (OR) for mortality was 2.65. Unfavorable outcome (GOSE < 5) was observed at one year follow-up in 72% of patients. The CRASH models predicted unfavorable outcome in all patients. Conclusion. The CRASH model overestimated mortality and unfavorable outcome in old and very old Norwegian patients with severe TBI. PMID:26688614

  17. Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath Condensate Are Not Predictive for Pulmonary Exacerbations in Children with Cystic Fibrosis: Results of a One-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    van Horck, Marieke; Alonso, Ariel; Wesseling, Geertjan; de Winter—de Groot, Karin; van Aalderen, Wim; Hendriks, Han; Winkens, Bjorn; Rijkers, Ger; Jöbsis, Quirijn; Dompeling, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Background Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is characterized by chronically inflamed airways, and inflammation even increases during pulmonary exacerbations. These adverse events have an important influence on the well-being, quality of life, and lung function of patients with CF. Prediction of exacerbations by inflammatory markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) combined with early treatment may prevent these pulmonary exacerbations and may improve the prognosis. Aim To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of a set of inflammatory markers in EBC to predict pulmonary exacerbations in children with CF. Methods In this one-year prospective observational study, 49 children with CF were included. During study visits with an interval of 2 months, a symptom questionnaire was completed, EBC was collected, and lung function measurements were performed. The acidity of EBC was measured directly after collection. Inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were measured using high sensitivity bead based flow immunoassays. Pulmonary exacerbations were recorded during the study and were defined in two ways. The predictive power of inflammatory markers and the other covariates was assessed using conditionally specified models and a receiver operating characteristic curve (SAS version 9.2). In addition, k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm was applied (SAS version 9.2). Results Sixty-five percent of the children had one or more exacerbations during the study. The conditionally specified models showed an overall correct prediction rate of 55%. The area under the curve (AUC) was equal to 0.62. The results obtained with the KNN algorithm were very similar. Conclusion Although there is some evidence indicating that the predictors outperform random guessing, the general diagnostic accuracy of EBC acidity and the EBC inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and MIF is low. At present it is not possible to

  18. External validation of the Hospital-patient One-year Mortality Risk (HOMR) model for predicting death within 1 year after hospital admission

    PubMed Central

    van Walraven, Carl; McAlister, Finlay A.; Bakal, Jeffrey A.; Hawken, Steven; Donzé, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background: Predicting long-term survival after admission to hospital is helpful for clinical, administrative and research purposes. The Hospital-patient One-year Mortality Risk (HOMR) model was derived and internally validated to predict the risk of death within 1 year after admission. We conducted an external validation of the model in a large multicentre study. Methods: We used administrative data for all nonpsychiatric admissions of adult patients to hospitals in the provinces of Ontario (2003–2010) and Alberta (2011–2012), and to the Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston (2010–2012) to calculate each patient’s HOMR score at admission. The HOMR score is based on a set of parameters that captures patient demographics, health burden and severity of acute illness. We determined patient status (alive or dead) 1 year after admission using population-based registries. Results: The 3 validation cohorts (n = 2 862 996 in Ontario, 210 595 in Alberta and 66 683 in Boston) were distinct from each other and from the derivation cohort. The overall risk of death within 1 year after admission was 8.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.7% to 8.8%). The HOMR score was strongly and significantly associated with risk of death in all populations and was highly discriminative, with a C statistic ranging from 0.89 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.91) to 0.92 (95% CI 0.91 to 0.92). Observed and expected outcome risks were similar (median absolute difference in percent dying in 1 yr 0.3%, interquartile range 0.05%–2.5%). Interpretation: The HOMR score, calculated using routinely collected administrative data, accurately predicted the risk of death among adult patients within 1 year after admission to hospital for nonpsychiatric indications. Similar performance was seen when the score was used in geographically and temporally diverse populations. The HOMR model can be used for risk adjustment in analyses of health administrative data to predict long-term survival among hospital patients

  19. [Bacteraemia and sepsis].

    PubMed

    Kern, W V

    2011-02-01

    Recent news in the field of bloodstream infection and sepsis relevant for the practitioner include the recommendation in the newly revised German sepsis guideline to introduce selective intestinal decontamination with non-absorbable antimicrobial substances for the prevention of secondary infections in ventilated patients. This intervention, however, remains controversial because there are indications of unfavourable effects (increased development of resistance), and because the effect size has been rather low. Other news indicate not only that procalcitonin can be reasonably used as an aid to determine the duration of antibiotic treatment in community-acquired respiratory infection and pneumonia. A procalcitonin-based algorithm can also be used in critical care patients to shorten the duration of antibiotic administration without worsening outcomes. Recent data indicate that E. coli and S. aureus continue to be the most frequent pathogens isolated in bloodstream infection. The proportion of E. coli strains producing extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) is increasing. New epidemiologic evidence shows that infections with this pathogen, resistant to many standard antibiotics, are associated with an increased mortality rate, similar to infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSRA). The incidence of MRSA bacteraemia in Germany can now be estimated better as it has become a notifiable infection. PMID:21271477

  20. Glycated Hemoglobin Independently Predicts Stroke Recurrence within One Year after Acute First-Ever Non-Cardioembolic Strokes Onset in A Chinese Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shuolin; Shi, Yuzhi; Wang, Chunxue; Jia, Qian; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yilong; Liu, Liping; Wang, Yongjun

    2013-01-01

    Objective Hyperglycemia is related to stroke. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can reflect pre-stroke glycaemia status. However, the information on the direct association between HbA1c and recurrence after non-cardioembolic acute ischemic strokes is rare and there is no consistent conclusion. Methods The ACROSS-China database comprised of 2186 consecutive first-ever acute ischemic stroke patients with baseline HbA1c values. After excluding patients who died from non-stroke recurrence and patients lost to follow up, 1817 and 1540 were eligible for 3-month and 1-year analyses, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression was performed to evaluate the associations between HbA1c and 3-month and 1-year stroke recurrence. Results The HbA1c values at admission were divided into 4 levels by quartiles: Q1 (<5.5%); Q2 (5.5 to <6.1%); Q3 (6.1% to <7.2%); and Q4 (≥7.2%). The cumulative recurrence rates were 8.3% and 11.0% for 3 months and 1 year, respectively. In multivariate analyses, when compared with Q1, the adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) were 2.83 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.26) in Q3 and 3.71(95% CI 1.68-8.21) in Q4 for 3-month stroke recurrence; 3.30 (95% CI 1.31-8.34) in Q3 and 3.35 (95% CI 1.36-8.21) in Q4 for 1-year stroke recurrence. Adding fasting plasma glucose in the multivariate analyses did not modify the association: AHRs were 2.75 (95% CI 1.24-6.11) in Q3 and 3.67 (95% CI 1.59-8.53) in Q4 for 3-month analysis; AHRs were 3.08 (95% CI 1.10-8.64) in Q3 and 3.31(95% CI 1.35-8.14) in Q4 for 1-year analysis. Conclusions A higher “normal” HbA1c level reflecting pre-stroke glycaemia status independently predicts stroke recurrence within one year after non-cardioembolic acute ischemic stroke onset. HbA1c is recommended as a routine test in acute ischemic stroke patients. PMID:24236195

  1. A model to predict survival at one month, one year, and five years after liver transplantation based on pretransplant clinical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thuluvath, Paul J; Yoo, Hwan Y; Thompson, Richard E

    2003-05-01

    Reliable models that could predict outcome of liver transplantation (LT) may guide physicians to advise their patients of immediate and late survival chances and may help them to optimize organ use. The objective of this study was to develop user-friendly models to predict short and long-term mortality after LT in adults based on pre-LT recipient characteristics. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) transplant registry (n = 38,876) from 1987 to 2001 was used to develop and validate the model. Two thirds of patients were randomized to develop the model (the modeling group), and the remaining third was randomized to cross-validate (the cross-validation group) it. Three separate models, using multivariate logistic regression analysis, were created and validated to predict survival at 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years. Using the total severity scores of patients in the modeling group, a predictive model then was created, and the predicted probability of death as a function of total score then was compared in the cross-validation group. The independent variables that were found to be very significant for 1 month and 1 year survival were age, body mass index (BMI), UNOS status 1, etiology, serum bilirubin (for 1 month and 1 year only), creatinine, and race (only for 5 years). The actual deaths in the cross-validation group followed very closely the predicted survival graph. The chi-squared goodness-of-fit test confirmed that the model could predict mortality reliably at 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years. We have developed and validated user-friendly models that could reliably predict short-term and long-term survival after LT. PMID:12740799

  2. Early insulin resistance predicts weight gain and waist circumference increase in first-episode psychosis--A one year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Keinänen, Jaakko; Mantere, Outi; Kieseppä, Tuula; Mäntylä, Teemu; Torniainen, Minna; Lindgren, Maija; Sundvall, Jouko; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    First-episode psychosis (FEP) is associated with weight gain during the first year of treatment, and risk of abdominal obesity is particularly increased. To identify early risk markers of weight gain and abdominal obesity, we investigated baseline metabolic differences in 60 FEP patients and 27 controls, and longitudinal changes during the first year of treatment in patients. Compared to controls at baseline, patients had higher low-density lipoprotein, triglyceride and apolipoprotein B levels, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A-I but no difference in body mass index or waist circumference. At 12-month follow-up, 60.6% of patients were overweight or obese and 58.8% had abdominal obesity. No significant increase during follow-up was seen in markers of glucose and lipid metabolism or blood pressure, but increase in C-reactive protein between baseline and 12-month follow-up was statistically significant. Weight increase was predicted by baseline insulin resistance and olanzapine use, while increase in waist circumference was predicted by baseline insulin resistance only. In conclusion, insulin resistance may be an early marker of increased vulnerability to weight gain and abdominal obesity in young adults with FEP. Olanzapine should be avoided as a first-line treatment in FEP due to the substantial weight increase it causes. In addition, the increase in the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity was accompanied by the emergence of low-grade systemic inflammation. PMID:26589392

  3. Prognostic Utility of Biomarkers in Predicting of One-Year Outcomes in Patients with Aortic Stenosis Treated with Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Parenica, Jiri; Nemec, Petr; Tomandl, Josef; Ondrasek, Jiri; Pavkova-Goldbergova, Monika; Tretina, Martin; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Littnerova, Simona; Poloczek, Martin; Pokorny, Petr; Spinar, Jindrich; Cermakova, Zdenka; Miklik, Roman; Malik, Petr; Pes, Ondrej; Lipkova, Jolana; Tomandlova, Marie; Kala, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the work was to find biomarkers identifying patients at high risk of adverse clinical outcomes after TAVI and SAVR in addition to currently used predictive model (EuroSCORE). Background There is limited data about the role of biomarkers in predicting prognosis, especially when TAVI is available. Methods The multi-biomarker sub-study included 42 consecutive high-risk patients (average age 82.0 years; logistic EuroSCORE 21.0%) allocated to TAVI transfemoral and transapical using the Edwards-Sapien valve (n = 29), or SAVR with the Edwards Perimount bioprosthesis (n = 13). Standardized endpoints were prospectively followed during the 12-month follow-up. Results The clinical outcomes after both TAVI and SAVR were comparable. Malondialdehyde served as the best predictor of a combined endpoint at 1 year with AUC (ROC analysis) = 0.872 for TAVI group, resp. 0.765 (p<0.05) for both TAVI and SAVR groups. Increased levels of MDA, matrix metalloproteinase 2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP1), ferritin-reducing ability of plasma, homocysteine, cysteine and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine were all predictors of the occurrence of combined safety endpoints at 30 days (AUC 0.750–0.948; p<0.05 for all). The addition of MDA to a currently used clinical model (EuroSCORE) significantly improved prediction of a combined safety endpoint at 30 days and a combined endpoint (0–365 days) by the net reclassification improvement (NRI) and the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) (p<0.05). Cystatin C, glutathione, cysteinylglycine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, nitrite/nitrate and MMP9 did not prove to be significant. Total of 14.3% died during 1-year follow-up. Conclusion We identified malondialdehyde, a marker of oxidative stress, as the most promising predictor of adverse outcomes during the 30-day and 1-year follow-up in high-risk patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis treated with TAVI. The development of a clinical

  4. VALIDATION OF A MODIFIED-MULTIDIMENSIONAL PROGNOSTIC INDEX (m-MPI) INCLUDING THE MINI NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT SHORT-FORM (MNA-SF) FOR THE PREDICTION OF ONE-YEAR MORTALITY IN HOSPITALIZED ELDERLY PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    SANCARLO, D.; D’ONOFRIO, G.; FRANCESCHI, M.; SCARCELLI, C.; NIRO, V.; ADDANTE, F.; COPETTI, M.; FERRUCCI, L.; FONTANA, L.; PILOTTO, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The mortality prediction represents a key factor in the managing of elderly hospitalized patients. Since in older subjects mortality results from a combination of biological, functional, nutritional, psychological and environmental factors, a Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI) that predict short- and long-term mortality based on a standardized comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) has recently been developed and validated. Objective This study compares the accuracy in predicting the mortality of the MPI with a modified version of the MPI (m-MPI) that included the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF) instead of the standard MNA. Design This prospective study with a one-year follow-up included 4088 hospitalized patients aged 65 years and older. A standardized CGA that included information on functional (Activities of Daily Living, ADL and Instrumental-ADL), cognitive (Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire), risk of pressure sore (Exton-Smith Scale), comorbidities (CIRS Index), medications, living status and nutritional status (MNA and MNA-SF) was used to calculate the MPI using a previously validated algorithm. Results Higher MPI values were significantly associated with higher mortality rates with a close agreement between the estimated and the observed mortality both after 1-month (MPI1=2.8% versus m-MPI1=2.8%, p=0.946; MPI2=8.9% versus m-MPI2=9%, p=0.904; MPI3=21.9% versus m-MPI3=21.9, p=0.978) and 1-year of follow-up (MPI1=10.8% versus m-MPI1=10.5%, p=0.686; MPI2=27.3% versus m-MPI2=28%, p=0.495; MPI3=52.8% versus m-MPI3=52.7%, p=0.945). The estimated areas under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves suggested a clinically negligible difference between the two indices. Conclusion The m-MPI is as sensitive as the MPI in stratifying hospitalized elderly patients into groups at varying risk of short- and long-term mortality, but with fewer items. PMID:21369662

  5. Predictors of bacteraemia among febrile infants in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayoola, Omolola O; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Osinusi, Kikelomo

    2002-09-01

    Fever is a common complaint in infancy, and bacteraemia is one of the more serious causes of such fever. However, there exists scanty data on risk of bacteraemia among febrile infants of developing countries and what clinical predictors, if any, could identify those febrile infants with bacteraemia. To address this issue, 102 infants aged 1-12 month(s) attending the Children's Emergency Ward of University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, with rectal temperatures of > or = 38 degrees C and with a negative history of antimicrobial use for at least one week prior to presentation, were studied to identify clinical predictors of bacteraemia. Infants, meeting the eligibility criteria of the study, underwent a full clinical evaluation and had blood cultures done for aerobic organisms by standard methods. Over 38% of the infants had bacteraemia. Escherichia coli (35.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (33.3%), and Klebsiella spp. (10.3%) of positive cultures were commonly isolated. Three variables, age of < or = 6 months, restlessness, and a white cell count of >15,000/mm3, were significant independent predictors of bacteraemia. Each of these variables was associated with a 3-6-fold increase in risk of bacteraemia (age of < or = 6 months: odds ratio 3.2, p = 0.017; restlessness: odds ratio 6.3, p = 0.019; and white cell count of >15,000/mm3: odds ratio 5.4, p = 0.024). The variables, in combination, correctly classified 70% of the infants into 'bacteraemia' or 'no bacteraemia'. It is concluded that; in the setting of the study, about 4 in 10 febrile infants would have a positive blood culture for aerobic organisms and that age of < or = 6 months, restlessness, and a white cell count of > or = 15,000/mm3 are associated with a significantly increased risk of bacteraemia. Clinicians practising in such a setting need to be aware of the increased risk of bacteraemia in infants with these clinical features. PMID:12430758

  6. Cognitive Development: One-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Cognitive Development: One-Year-Old Page Content Article Body As you ... range of activities, and she’ll select the ones that are challenging but not completely beyond her ...

  7. Anaerobic bacteraemia: a 10-year retrospective epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    De Keukeleire, Steven; Wybo, Ingrid; Naessens, Anne; Echahidi, Fedoua; Van der Beken, Mieke; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Vermeulen, Stefan; Piérard, Denis

    2016-06-01

    In order to identify current trends in anaerobic bacteraemia, a 10-year retrospective study was performed in the University Hospital Brussel, Belgium. All clinically relevant bacteraemia detected from 2004 until 2013 were included. Medical records were reviewed in an attempt to define clinical parameters that might be associated with the occurrence of anaerobic bacteraemia. 437 of the isolated organisms causing anaerobic bacteraemia were thawed, subcultured and reanalyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). There were an average of 33 cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per year during 2004-2008 compared to an average of 27 cases per year during 2009-2013 (P = 0.017), corresponding to a decrease by 19% between the first and the latter period. Also, the total number of cases of anaerobic bacteraemia per 100,000 patient days decreased from 17.3 in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 13.7 in the period 2009 to 2013 (P = 0.023). Additionally, the mean incidence of anaerobic bacteraemia decreased during the study period (1.27/1000 patients in 2004 vs. 0.94/1000 patients in 2013; P = 0.008). In contrast, the proportion of isolated anaerobic bacteraemia compared to the number of all bacteraemia remained stable at 5%. Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides spp. accounted for 47.1% of the anaerobes, followed by 14.4% Clostridium spp., 12.6% non-spore-forming Gram-positive rods, 10.5% anaerobic cocci, 8.2% Prevotella spp. and other Gram-negative rods and 7.1% Fusobacterium spp. The lower gastrointestinal tract (47%) and wound infections (10%) were the two most frequent sources for bacteraemia, with the origin remaining unknown in 62 cases (21%). The overall mortality rate was 14%. Further studies focusing on the antimicrobial susceptibility and demographic background of patients are needed to further objectify the currently observed trends. PMID:26923749

  8. Predictors of in-hospital mortality in elderly patients with bacteraemia admitted to an Internal Medicine ward

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases are a common cause of increased morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. Bacteraemia in the elderly is a difficult diagnosis and a therapeutic challenge due to age-related vicissitudes and to their comorbidities. The main purpose of the study was to assess independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality among the elderly with bacteraemia admitted to an Internal Medicine Ward. Methods Overall, a cohort of 135 patients, 65 years of age and older, with bacteraemia were retrospectively studied. Data related to demographic information, comorbidities, clinical parameters on admission, source and type of infection, microorganism isolated in the blood culture, laboratory data and empirical antibiotic treatment was recorded from each patient. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify independent predictors of all-cause in-hospital mortality. Results Of these 135 patients, 45.9% were women. The most common infections in this group of patients were urinary tract infections (46.7%). The main microorganisms isolated in the blood cultures were Escherichia coli (14.9%), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (12.0%), non-MRSA (11.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.1%) and Enterococcus faecalis (8.0%). The in-hospital mortality was 22.2%. Independent prognostic factors associated with in-hospital mortality were age ≥ 85 years, chronic renal disease, bacteraemia of unknown focus and cognitive impairment at admission (OR, 2.812 [95% CI, 1.039-7.611; p = 0.042]; OR, 6.179 [95% CI, 1.840-20.748; p = 0.003]; OR, 8.673 [95% CI, 1.557-48.311; p = 0.014] and OR, 3.621 [95% CI, 1.226-10.695; p = 0.020], respectively). By multivariate analysis appropriate antibiotic therapy was not associated with lower odds of mortality. Conclusion Bacteraemia in the elderly has a high mortality rate. There are no set of signs or clinical features that can predict bacteraemia in the elderly. However, older age (≥ 85 years), chronic renal

  9. Bacteraemia due to tribe Proteeae: a review of 132 cases during a decade (1991-2000).

    PubMed

    Kim, Baek-Nam; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun-Hee; Ryu, Jiso

    2003-01-01

    To characterize the clinical features of bacteraemia due to tribe Proteeae, 132 cases among 130 patients from 1991 to 2000 were analysed. The organisms included the Proteus species in 63 cases (P. mirabilis in 41, P. penneri in 2 and P. vulgaris in 20), the Providencia species in 8 (P. rettgeri in 3 and P. stuartii 5) and Morganella morganii in 61. Morganella bacteraemia occurred more frequently in the hospital (70.5%). Biliary and hepatic diseases were predominant in cases with Morganella bacteraemia while cardiovascular, urological and neurological diseases were more common in cases with Proteus bacteraemia. Biliary drainage catheters had more frequently been placed in cases with Morganella bacteraemia (39.3%, p < 0.001), and urinary catheters more frequently in cases with Proteus bacteraemia (17.5%). Biliary infection was most common in cases with Morganella bacteraemia (49.2%), while urinary tract infection (UTI) was most common in cases with Proteus bacteraemia (47.6%). Mortality directly related to bacteraemia due to tribe Proteeae was 20.8% (22.6, 50.0 and 15.0% for Proteus, Providencia and Morganella bacteraemia, respectively). In conclusion, Morganella bacteraemia was most frequently associated with biliary infection, while Proteus bacteraemia was most frequently with UTI. Providencia bacteraemia was relatively uncommon and it can be associated with infections other than UTI. PMID:12693558

  10. SIRIO: One year of station keeping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palutan, F.; Trumpy, S.

    1979-01-01

    The strategy followed in maintaining the station point and the results achieved are described. The method used for orbit determination is presented. Azimuth and elevation data from SHF antennas were used as input for the determination. An estimation of the uncertainty of the orbit was given and a comparison was made between determinations performed using the method here described and determinations performed using VHF ranging data. Also, the difference in using data from a single SHF station or two stations was shown. In the area of attitude determination, a study was carried out for predicting the spacecraft spin axis precession. The model used was explained and then the agreement between predicted and measured attitude outlined.

  11. The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) database

    PubMed Central

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Østergaard, Christian; Søgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia registries from five developed countries on three continents. The main purpose of the DACOBAN database is to study surveillance, risk, and prognosis. Sex- and age-specific data on background populations enables the computation of incidence rates. In addition, the high number of patients facilitates studies of rare microorganisms. Thus far, studies on Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, computer algorithms for the classification of bacteremic episodes, and prognosis and risk in relation to socioeconomic factors have been published. PMID:25258557

  12. Fibrosis with Inflammation at One Year Predicts Transplant Functional Decline

    PubMed Central

    Park, Walter D.; Griffin, Matthew D.; Cornell, Lynn D.; Cosio, Fernando G.

    2010-01-01

    Lack of knowledge regarding specific causes for late loss of kidney transplants hampers improvements in long-term allograft survival. Kidney transplants with both interstitial fibrosis and subclinical inflammation but not fibrosis alone after 1 year have reduced survival. This study tested whether fibrosis with inflammation at 1 year associates with decline of renal function in a low-risk cohort and characterized the nature of the inflammation. We studied 151 living-donor, tacrolimus/mycophenolate-treated recipients without overt risk factors for reduced graft survival. Transplants with normal histology (n = 86) or fibrosis alone (n = 45) on 1-year protocol biopsy had stable renal function between 1 and 5 years, whereas those with both fibrosis and inflammation (n = 20) exhibited a decline in GFR and reduced graft survival. Immunohistochemistry confirmed increased interstitial T cells and macrophages/dendritic cells in the group with both fibrosis and inflammation, and there was increased expression of transcripts related to innate and cognate immunity. Pathway- and pathologic process–specific analyses of microarray profiles revealed that potentially damaging immunologic activities were enriched among the overexpressed transcripts (e.g., Toll-like receptor signaling, antigen presentation/dendritic cell maturation, IFN-γ–inducible response, cytotoxic T lymphocyte–associated and acute rejection–associated genes). Therefore, the combination of fibrosis and inflammation in 1-year protocol biopsies associates with reduced graft function and survival as well as a rejection-like gene expression signature, even among recipients with no clinical risk factors for poor outcomes. Early interventions aimed at altering rejection-like inflammation may improve long-term survival of kidney allografts. PMID:20813870

  13. Acute pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia caused by Veillonella during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Yagihashi, Yusuke; Arakaki, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia caused by Veillonella species during pregnancy. Veillonella is part of the normal flora from the oral cavity, gut and vagina. However, because Veillonella is usually isolated from cultures of clinical specimens as part of commensal flora, it is frequently regarded as a contaminant. In the present case, Veillonella was isolated from the patient's urine and blood samples that showed evidence of pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia. We found that ureteral stenting is an extremely effective therapeutic option for pregnant woman with hydronephrosis and clear signs and symptoms of urosepsis. PMID:23125301

  14. Acute pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia caused by Veillonella during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Yagihashi, Yusuke; Arakaki, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia caused by Veillonella species during pregnancy. Veillonella is part of the normal flora from the oral cavity, gut and vagina. However, because Veillonella is usually isolated from cultures of clinical specimens as part of commensal flora, it is frequently regarded as a contaminant. In the present case, Veillonella was isolated from the patient's urine and blood samples that showed evidence of pyelonephritis and secondary bacteraemia. We found that ureteral stenting is an extremely effective therapeutic option for pregnant woman with hydronephrosis and clear signs and symptoms of urosepsis. PMID:23125301

  15. PNA-FISH assays for early targeted bacteraemia treatment.

    PubMed

    Parcell, B J; Orange, G V

    2013-11-01

    PNA-FISH S. aureus/CNS and GNR Traffic Light assays were compared with standard culture methods for identifying bacteraemia in 156 blood cultures from 131 patients. Results correlated with final culture results in 153 cultures. Retrospective case note review revealed that earlier targeted treatment would have occurred in 10.7% of cases. PMID:24055387

  16. Concurrent bacteraemia and malaria in febrile Nigerian infants.

    PubMed

    Ayoola, Omolola O; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Osinusi, Kikelomo

    2005-01-01

    In the tropics, febrile illnesses are often presumed to be due to malaria, because of its endemicity, and treatment can lead to delay in diagnosis or failure to detect severe infections such as bacteraemia. This study sought to determine the prevalence of bacteraemia and malaria parasitaemia in febrile post-neonatal infants (age 1-12 months) at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, and the bacterial aetiological agents of bacteraemia in the infants. Therefore, 102 infants aged 1-12 months who presented with fever with a negative history of antimicrobial use in the week prior to presentation were evaluated and had blood cultures done for the detection of aerobic organisms by standard methods and blood films for malaria parasites. Bacteraemia was found in 38.2% of the infants, malaria parasitaemia was found in 46.1%. The most common organisms isolated were Escherichia coli (35.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (33.3%) and Klebsiella spp. (10.3%). Febrile children should be investigated for the presence of bacterial infection even if the blood film for malaria parasites is positive. Where laboratory facilities are not available, consideration should be given to the use of both anti-malarial therapy and empiric antibiotic therapy in the management of febrile infants, depending on the clinician's judgement. PMID:15712544

  17. Butyricimonas virosa bacteraemia and bowel disease: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Enemchukwu, C U; Ben-Faras, H; Gialanella, P; Szymczak, W A; Nosanchuk, J D; Madaline, T F

    2016-09-01

    Only two cases of human infection with the anaerobic Gram-negative bacillus Butyricimonas virosa have been previously reported. We describe the case of a 69-year-old man with B. virosa and diverticulitis, further supporting an association of bacteraemia with this pathogen to bowel disease. We also summarize the characteristics of the previously described cases. PMID:27408738

  18. 40 CFR 51.262 - Extension beyond one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extension beyond one year. 51.262... Extension beyond one year. (a) Any compliance schedule or revision of it extending over a period of more than one year from the date of its adoption by the State agency must provide for legally...

  19. 40 CFR 51.262 - Extension beyond one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Extension beyond one year. 51.262... Extension beyond one year. (a) Any compliance schedule or revision of it extending over a period of more than one year from the date of its adoption by the State agency must provide for legally...

  20. 40 CFR 51.262 - Extension beyond one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extension beyond one year. 51.262... Extension beyond one year. (a) Any compliance schedule or revision of it extending over a period of more than one year from the date of its adoption by the State agency must provide for legally...

  1. 40 CFR 51.262 - Extension beyond one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extension beyond one year. 51.262... Extension beyond one year. (a) Any compliance schedule or revision of it extending over a period of more than one year from the date of its adoption by the State agency must provide for legally...

  2. When sepsis persists: a review of MRSA bacteraemia salvage therapy.

    PubMed

    Kullar, Ravina; Sakoulas, George; Deresinski, Stan; van Hal, Sebastiaan J

    2016-03-01

    MRSA bacteraemia (MRSAB), including infective endocarditis, carries a high mortality rate, with up to 50% of patients failing initial therapy with vancomycin and requiring salvage therapy. Persistent MRSAB can be difficult to successfully eliminate, especially when source control is not possible due to an irremovable focus or the bacteraemia still persists despite surgical intervention. Although vancomycin and daptomycin are the only two antibiotics approved by the US FDA for the treatment of patients with MRSAB as monotherapy, the employment of novel strategies is required to effectively treat patients with persistent MRSAB and these may frequently involve combination drug therapy. Treatment strategies that are reviewed in this manuscript include vancomycin combined with a β-lactam, daptomycin-based therapy, ceftaroline-based therapy, linezolid-based therapy, quinupristin/dalfopristin, telavancin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-based therapy and fosfomycin-based therapy. We recommend that combination antibiotic therapy be considered for use in MRSAB salvage treatment. PMID:26565015

  3. 40 CFR 761.219 - One-year exception reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.219 One-year exception reporting. (a) A disposer of PCB waste shall submit a One-year Exception Report to the EPA Regional Administrator for the Region in... disposal date when the following occurs: (1) The disposal facility receives PCBs or PCB Items on a...

  4. 40 CFR 761.219 - One-year exception reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.219 One-year exception reporting. (a) A disposer of PCB waste shall submit a One-year Exception Report to the EPA Regional Administrator for the Region in... disposal date when the following occurs: (1) The disposal facility receives PCBs or PCB Items on a...

  5. Corynebacterium minutissimum pyelonephritis with associated bacteraemia: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nasir M; Ahmad, Khalid M

    2005-12-01

    We report a case of Corynebacterium minutissimum pyelonephritis with associated bacteraemia in an immunocompetent adult. The patient was successfully treated with a 14-day course of intravenous vancomycin. We review the clinical features of all the reported cases of invasive C. minutissimum infections with bacteraemia. PMID:16321644

  6. [Bordetella bronchiseptica recurrent bacteraemia in a patient with bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Echeverri-Toro, Lina; Arango, Andrés; Ospina, Sigifredo; Agudelo, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of recurrent bacteraemia caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica in an immunocompromised patient with a history of allogenic bone marrow transplantation for myelodysplastic syndrome, who was admitted to hospital with febrile syndrome. Bordetella bronchiseptica is an uncommon human pathogen which mainly affects immunocompromised patients, being a rare cause of bacteraemia. PMID:26849691

  7. Lack of 1-3-B-D-glucan detection in adults with bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Anne; Parize, Perrine; Angebault, Cécile; Lécuyer, Hervé; Lortholary, Olivier; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    Bacteraemia was reported to be associated with false-positive 1→3-β-D-glucan (BG) assay results. We thus prospectively assessed the reactivity of the BG (Fungitell) in samples of 21 adults with bacteraemia: . BG was negative in all and is s therefore an unlikely cause of false positive BG in adults. PMID:25541560

  8. Community-onset bacteraemia of unknown origin: clinical characteristics, epidemiology and outcome.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, C; Cobos-Trigueros, N; Feher, C; Morata, L; De La Calle, C; Marco, F; Almela, M; Soriano, A; Mensa, J; Del Rio, A; Martinez, J A

    2014-11-01

    Bacteraemia of unknown origin is prevalent and has a high mortality rate. However, there are no recent reports focusing on this issue. From 2005 to 2011, all episodes of community onset bacteraemia of unknown origin (CO-BSI), diagnosed at a 700-bed university hospital were prospectively included. Risk factors for Enterobactericeae resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GCR-E), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp, and predictors of mortality were assessed by logistic regression. Out of 4,598 consecutive episodes of CO-BSI, 745 (16.2 %) were of unknown origin. Risk factors for S. aureus were male gender (OR 2.26; 1.33-3.83), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.71; 1.01-2.91) and intravenous drug addiction (OR 17.24; 1.47-202); for P. aeruginosa were male gender (OR 2.19; 1.10-4.37) and health-care associated origin (OR 9.13; 3.23-25.83); for 3GCR-E was recent antibiotic exposure (OR 2.53; 1.47-4.35), while for enterococci, it was recent hospital admission (OR 3.02; 1.64-5.55). Seven and 30-day mortality were 8.1 % and 13.4 %, respectively. Age over 65 years (OR 2.13; 1.28-3.55), an ultimately or rapidly fatal underlying disease (OR 4.15; 2.23-7.60), bone marrow transplantation (OR 4.07; 1.24-13.31), absence of fever (OR 4.45; 2.25-8.81), shock on presentation (OR 10.48; 6.05-18.15) and isolation of S. aureus (OR 2.01; 1.00-4.04) were independently associated with mortality. In patients with bacteraemia of unknown origin, a limited number of clinical characteristics may be useful to predict its aetiology and to choose the appropriate empirical treatment. Although no modifiable prognostic factors have been found, management optimization of S. aureus should be considered a priority in this setting. PMID:24907852

  9. Bacteraemia and antibiotic-resistant pathogens in community acquired pneumonia: risk and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Torres, Antoni; Cillóniz, Catia; Ferrer, Miquel; Gabarrús, Albert; Polverino, Eva; Villegas, Santiago; Marco, Francesc; Mensa, Josep; Menéndez, Rosario; Niederman, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The sensitivity of blood cultures in the diagnosis of bacteraemia for community-acquired pneumonia is low. Recommendations, by guidelines, to perform blood cultures are discordant. We aimed to determine the incidence, microbial aetiology, risk factors and outcomes of bacteraemic patients with community-acquired pneumonia, including cases with antibiotic-resistant pathogens (ARP). A prospective, observational study was undertaken on consecutive adult patients admitted to the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona (Barcelona, Spain) with community-acquired pneumonia and blood cultures were obtained. Of the 2892 patients included, bacteraemia was present in 297 (10%) patients; 30 (10%) of whom had ARP (multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and an extended spectrum of beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae). In multivariate analyses, pleuritic pain, C-reactive protein ≥21.6 mg·dL(-1) and intensive care unit admissions were independently associated with bacteraemia, while prior antibiotic treatment and pneumococcal vaccine were protective factors. The risk factors for ARP bacteraemia were previous antibiotics and C-reactive protein <22.2 mg·dL(-1), while pleuritic pain was the only protective factor in the multivariate analysis. Bacteraemia (excluding ARP), appropriate empiric treatment, neurological disease, arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction <250, pneumonia severity index risk classes IV and V, and intensive care unit admission were independently associated with a 30-day hospital mortality in the multivariate analysis. Inappropriate therapy was more frequent in ARP bacteraemia, compared with other bacteraemias (27% versus 3%, respectively, p<0.001). Antibiotic therapy protected against bacteraemia, but increased specifically the risk of bacteraemia from ARP due to the inappropriate coverage of these pathogens. Identifying patients at risk of ARP bacteraemia would help in

  10. One-year clinical evaluation of bonded amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Mahler, D B; Engle, J H; Simms, L E; Terkla, L G

    1996-03-01

    Using one selected amalgam bonding agent, the authors evaluated bonded and unbonded restorations in clinical service. Based on postoperative sensitivity one to two weeks after placement and marginal fracture at one year, no difference was found between the bonded and unbonded restorations. Furthermore, some technical difficulties were experienced with use of the bonding agent. PMID:8819781

  11. The National Special Education Alliance: One Year Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The National Special Education Alliance (a national network of local computer resource centers associated with Apple Computer, Inc.) consists, one year after formation, of 24 non-profit support centers staffed largely by volunteers. The NSEA now reaches more than 1000 disabled computer users each month and more growth in the future is expected.…

  12. Change in Neuropsychological Functioning over One Year in Youth at Clinical High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Woodberry, Kristen A.; McFarlane, William R.; Giuliano, Anthony J.; Verdi, Mary B.; Cook, William L.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Seidman, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders are associated with significant neuropsychological (NP) impairments. Yet the onset and developmental evolution of these impairments remains incompletely characterized. This study examined NP functioning over one year in a sample of youth at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis participating in a treatment study. We assessed functioning across six cognitive domains at two time points in a sample of 53 CHR and 32 healthy comparison (HC) subjects. Linear regression of HC one-year scores was used to predict one-year performance for CHR from baseline scores and relevant demographic variables. We used raw scores and MANOVAs of the standardized residuals to test for progressive impairment over time. NP functioning of CHR at one year fell significantly below predicted levels. Effects were largest and most consistent for a failure of normative improvement on tests of executive function. CHR who reached the highest positive symptom rating (6, severe and psychotic) on the Structured Interview of Prodromal Syndromes after the baseline assessment (n = 10/53) demonstrated a particularly large (d= −1.89), although non-significant, discrepancy between observed and predicted one-year verbal memory test performance. Findings suggest that, although much of the cognitive impairment associated with psychosis is present prior to the full expression of the psychotic syndrome, some progressive NP impairments may accompany risk for psychosis and be greatest for those who develop psychotic level symptoms. PMID:23434505

  13. Second United States Microgravity Laboratory: One Year Report. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasse, M (Editor); McCauley, D. (Editor); Walker, C. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document reports the one year science results for the important and highly successful Second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2). The USML-2 mission consisted of a pressurized Spacelab module where the crew performed experiments. The mission also included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together, about 36 major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, combustion, and the growth of protein crystals. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive Space Station era.

  14. Second United States Microgravity Laboratory: One Year Report. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasse, M. (Editor); McCauley, D. (Editor); Walker, C. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document reports the one year science results for the important and highly successful Second United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2). The USML-2 mission consisted of a pressurized Spacelab module where the crew performed experiments. The mission also included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together, about 36 major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, combustion, and the growth of protein crystals. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive Space Station era.

  15. Third United States Microgravity Payload: One Year Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currieri, P. A. (Compiler); McCauley, D. (Compiler); Walker, C. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document reports the one year science results for the Third United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-3). The USMP-3 major experiments were on a support structure in the Space Shuttle's payload bay and operated almost completely by the Principal Investigators through telescience. The mission included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together about seven major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as low temperature physics, solidification, and combustion. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive space station era.

  16. Fourth United States Microgravity Payload: One Year Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, E. C. (Compiler); Curreri, P. A. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the one year science results for the Fourth United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4). The USMP-4 major experiments were on a support structure in the Space Shuttle's payload bay and operated almost completely by the Principal Investigators through telescience. The mission included a Glovebox where the crew performed additional experiments for the investigators. Together about eight major scientific experiments were performed, advancing the state of knowledge in fields such as low temperature physics, solidification, and combustion. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity and provide a look forward to a highly productive Space Station era.

  17. Equestrian injuries--a one year prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    McLatchie, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    A one year prospective study of equestrian injuries was carried out in an area where horse riding is a popular pursuit. 115 persons suffered injury--eighty females and thirty-five males of whom sixty were under fifteen years of age. No fatalities were recorded and there were 0.2 injuries per 100 rides. Most injuries were minor and to the musculo-skeletal system. Visceral and cerebral injuries were not common but the former were life threatening in all cases. It is concluded that young riders should be supervised. PMID:465903

  18. Psychological Support Operations and the ISS One-Year Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beven, G.; Vander Ark, S. T.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Since NASA began human presence on the International Space Station (ISS) in November 1998, crews have spent two to seven months onboard. In March 2015 NASA and Russia embarked on a new era of ISS utilization, with two of their crewmembers conducting a one-year mission onboard ISS. The mission has been useful for both research and mission operations to better understand the human, technological, mission management and staffing challenges that may be faced on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. The work completed during the first 42 ISS missions provided the basis for the pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight work completed by NASA's Space Medicine Operations Division, while our Russian colleagues provided valuable insights from their long-duration mission experiences with missions lasting 10-14 months, which predated the ISS era. Space Medicine's Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) provided pre-flight training, evaluation, and preparation as well as in-flight psychological support for the NASA crewmember. While the BHP team collaboratively planned for this mission with the help of all ISS international partners within the Human Behavior and Performance Working Group to leverage their collective expertise, the US and Russian BHP personnel were responsible for their respective crewmembers. The presentation will summarize the lessons and experience gained within the areas identified by this Working Group as being of primary importance for a one-year mission.

  19. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, one year on

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Mike J; Menz, Hylton B; Borthwick, Alan M; Landorf, Karl B

    2009-01-01

    Journal of Foot and Ankle Research was launched one year ago, and a number of its key achievements are highlighted in this editorial. Although the journal is underpinned by professional bodies associated with the podiatry professions in the UK and Australasia, its content is aimed at the wider foot and ankle research community. Nevertheless, the journal's achievements over the past year reflect the development of research in the profession of podiatry. From this perspective, the journal may be viewed as contributing to the overall attainment of some of the profession's key goals and strategic aims over the last decade, across the UK and Australasia. The journal has also witnessed policy changes in the last year, and these are discussed - notably, the decision not to accept case reports for publication. We also report on a few of the key metrics, providing readers with a summary of the journal's performance over the last year. PMID:19906292

  20. MRP II (material requirements planning): one year later.

    PubMed

    Tull, W L; Norman, R L

    1994-08-01

    This article addresses the continued need for the behavior change process that must be managed long after materiel requirements planning (MRP II) implementation. Mason & Hanger, Pantex Plant is the final assembly and dismantlement facility for all United States nuclear weapons. On October 1, 1990, Mason & Hanger implemented a full production cutover to MRP II. One year later, following class A certification, the MRP II implementation team is still actively managing the change process through education and training programs and overall continuous improvement initiatives. Actual behavior change problems are identified together with the proven solutions implemented in a government-owned, contractor-operated facility environment. Performance measurements ranging from senior management planning to shop floor accomplishments and cost variance reports are shown as normal management tools used to identify target improvement areas. PMID:10135462

  1. One Year of FOS Measurements in CMS Experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szillási, Zoltán; Buontempo, Salvatore; Béni, Noémi; Breglio, Giovanni; Cusano, Andrea; Laudati, Armando; Giordano, Michele; Saccomanno, Andrea; Druzhkin, Dmitry; Tsirou, Andromachi

    Results are presented on the activity carried out by our research group, in collaboration with the SME Optosmart s.r.l. (an Italian spin-off company), on the application of Fiber Optic Sensor (FOS) techniques to monitor high-energy physics (HEP) detectors. Assuming that Fiber Bragg Grating sensors (FBGs) radiation hardness has been deeply studied for other field of application, we have applied the FBG technology to the HEP research domain. We present here the experimental evidences of the solid possibility to use such a class of sensors also in HEP detector very complex environmental side conditions. In particular we present more than one year data results of FBG measurements in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment set up at the CERN, where we have monitored temperatures (within CMS core) and strains in different locations by using FBG sensors during the detector operation with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collisions and high magnetic field. FOS data and FOS readout system stability and reliability is demonstrated, with continuous 24/24 h 7/7d data taking under severe and complex side conditions.

  2. Functional Outcomes: One Year after a Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Ketki D.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Holm, Margo B.; Callaway, Clifton W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The study aim was to characterize the time-course of recovery in impairments, activity limitations, participation restrictions, disability, and quality of life during the first year after cardiac arrest. Secondarily, the study described the associations between the instruments used to measure each of these domains. Methods. Measures of global disability (Cerebral Performance Category, CPC, Modified Rankin Scale, mRS), quality of life, activity limitations, participation restrictions, and affective and cognitive impairments were administered to 29 participants 1, 6, and 12 months after cardiac arrest. Results. Global measures of disability indicated recovery between one month and one year after cardiac arrest (mean CPC: 2.1 versus 1.69,  P < 0.05; mean mRS: 2.55 versus 1.83, P < 0.05). While global measures of disability were moderately associated with participation, they were poorly associated with other measures. The cohort endorsed depressive symptomatology throughout the year but did not have detectable cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Recovery from cardiac arrest is multifaceted and recovery continues for months depending upon the measures being used. Measures of global disability, reintegration into the community, and quality of life yield different information. Future clinical trials should include a combination of measures to yield the most complete representation of recovery after cardiac arrest. PMID:26421282

  3. [Pediamécum: one year of experience].

    PubMed

    Piñeiro Pérez, R; Martínez Fernández-Llamazares, C; Calvo Rey, C; Piñeiro Pérez, A P; Criado Vega, E A; Bravo Acuña, J; Cabrera García, L; Mellado Peña, M J

    2014-10-01

    In 2011, the Spanish Association of Pediatrics decided to support the most ambitious project of its newly created Committee for Medicinal Products: Pediamécum. This is the first free on-line database with information on medicinal products for pediatric use in Spain. The web page http://pediamecum.es/ started on December 17 December 2012. One year later, Pediamécum includes 580 registered drugs. The website achieved more than one million page views by the end of 2013. Because of the first anniversary of Pediamécum, a survey was performed to request the feeling of users. Four hundred eighty-three responses were obtained. Ninety-five percent believed that it is easy to navigate through the web, and 74% said that their doubts about the use of medicines in children were always resolved. The overall rating of Pediamécum is 7.5/10. The aims of Pediamécum are being accomplished; which is reflected essentially due to it becoming a useful tool for all professionals who care for children in their daily clinical practice. PMID:24857432

  4. Shigella sonnei bacteraemia occurring in a young man with shigellosis.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Andrew; McGrath, Christian; Johnson, Douglas; Burrell, Louise M

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old man presented with a 6-day history of diarrhoea, abdominal cramps and fever. Blood cultures were initially reported as positive for Escherichia coli using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Contrast CT of the abdomen and pelvis revealed pancolitis and terminal ileal thickening. The patient was treated empirically with ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. Stool cultures were positive for Shigella sonnei. Subsequent testing on the initial blood culture correctly identified the organism as S. sonnei. On further questioning, the patient reported unprotected men who have sex with men (MSM) 3 months previously. His symptoms resolved during his 3-day admission, and he was discharged on 14 days of ciprofloxacin. He remains well. This case highlights that shigellosis is increasingly seen in MSM, with no history of travel, and may result in bacteraemia. This case also highlights the benefits (rapid identification of organisms) and limitations (inability to distinguish between E. coli and Shigella spp) of new technologies such as MALDI-TOF. PMID:25920737

  5. Functional decline in older adults one year after hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Helvik, Anne-Sofie; Selbæk, Geir; Engedal, Knut

    2013-01-01

    We studied the change in personal ability to perform the activities of daily living (P-ADL) one year after hospitalization (T2) of patients at least 65 years old at baseline (T1). The study included 363 (175 men) medical inpatients with age range 65-98 (mean 80.2, SD 7.5) years. Information was collected at baseline and at a 12 month follow-up using Lawton and Brody's physical self-maintenance scale (PSMS) (termed the P-ADL score), as the dependent variable, and the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD) and the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire as independent variables. For the total sample, the mean P-ADL was significantly worsened from T1 to T2 (mean change 0.5, SD 2.8; p<0.01). In a fully adjusted linear regression analysis, worsened P-ADL from T1 to T2 was independently associated with cognitive impairment at T1, increasing cognitive impairment from T1 to T2, the tendency to fall between T1 and T2, increase in depressive symptoms from T1 to T2, poor physical QOL at T1 and change toward a poorer QOL from T1 to T2. In conclusion, worse P-ADL at T2 was, independently of age and baseline P-ADL, associated with impaired cognitive function and QOL related to physical ability at baseline, as well as worsening depression, cognition and QOL from T1 to T2. Our findings highlight the importance of applying results from screening measures of cognitive function and emotional health when planning care for older people after hospitalization. PMID:23806790

  6. The Martian North Polar Cap in Summer - One Year Later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In the middle of January 2001, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) completed one Mars year in its 380 km-high (236 mi) mapping orbit. The mapping orbit was originally achieved in late February 1999. In March of that year, MGS conducted a series of operations in preparation for full-up mapping, first calibrating its scientific instruments and then operating in a mode in which the high gain antenna was held fixed against the body of the spacecraft. During this Fixed High Gain Antenna period, 'contingency science' observations were made in case the high gain antenna failed to properly deploy. The wide angle view of the martian north polar cap shown on the left was acquired on March 13, 1999, during early northern summer. The image on the right was acquired almost exactly one Mars year later, on January 26, 2001. The light-toned surfaces are residual water ice that remains through the summer season. The nearly circular band of dark material surrounding the cap consists mainly of sand dunes formed and shaped by wind. The north polar cap is roughly 1100 kilometers (680 miles) across. Close inspection will show that there are differences in the frost cover between the two images (for example, in the upper center of each image, and on the left edge center). Although these changes appear small, they are in fact quite large--the change in frost covering is equivalent to the amount of frost that would be evaporated (in the case of areas that are darker) or deposited (in areas where frost is still on the ground) in almost 5 months. What gives rise to such large changes in the heat budget for the polar caps from one year to the next is not known. Changes in the coloration and brightness of the polar cap suggest dust, deposited perhaps by dust storms during critical periods of the year, may play an important role.

  7. The Two Micron All Sky Survey: One Year of Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutri, R. M.

    1998-05-01

    The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) began routine operations from its northern facility on Mt. Hopkins, AZ one year ago, and from its southern facility on Cerro Tololo, Chile in March of this year. At each site, 50-inch telescopes equipped with identical 3-channel cameras, are systematically imaging the sky in three near infrared wavelength bands, J (1.25mu m), H (1.65mu m) and K_s (2.17mu m). To date, over 10,000 deg(2) of sky have been observed. Ongoing processing and calibration of the survey image data produces three data products: 1) an Image Atlas that will eventually contain approximately one million 512x1024 pixel images (1 arcsec/pix) in the three colors, covering the full sky, 2) a highly complete and reliable catalog that will contain ~ 300 million point sources having SNR>10 photometry at J<=15.8, H<=15.1 and K_s<=14.3 mag. and an astrometric accuracy <0.5arcsec RMS, and 3) a catalog of approximately one million resolved sources, primarily galaxies, having SNR>10 photometric accuracy at J<=15.5, H<=14.8 and K_s<=13.5 mag. Incremental releases of these data products to the community are scheduled to begin in the Spring of 1999. A brief report on the current status and outlook for 2MASS will be given, along with analyses that demonstrate that the survey is achieving, if not exceeding its stated performance goals. Results of several pilot studies that are supporting 2MASS survey validation are presented as a preview of the tremendous scientific opportunities that will be available with the 2MASS databases. Key among these are investigations of the lowest mass objects in the solar neighborhood, probes of the structure of the Milky Way, and of the local universe, and the search for populations of extremely red active galactic nuclei.

  8. Stability of driving fear acquisition pathways over one year.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J E; Deane, F P; Podd, J V

    1999-10-01

    The present study was conducted in response to increasing concerns about the potential unreliability of retrospective accounts in assessing the origins of fears and phobias. Some investigators [e.g. Menzies, R.G., & Clarke, J.C. (1993). The etiology of fear of heights and its relationship to severity and individual response patterns. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 355-365; Kirkby, K.C., Menzies, R.G., Daniels, B.A., & Smith, K.L. (1995). Aetiology of spider phobia: Classificatory differences between two origins instruments. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 955-958; King, N.J., Gullone, E., & Ollendick, T.H. (1998). Etiology of childhood phobias: current status of Rachman's three pathways theory. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 297-309.] have questioned the reliability of retrospective reports at a single assessment point, although the test-retest reliability of such accounts has yet to be examined. The aim of the present study was to conduct a one-year follow-up of the subclinical driving-fearful sample studied by Taylor and Deane [Taylor, J. E., & Deane, F. P. (1999). Acquisition and severity of driving-related fears. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 435-449.] to primarily investigate, the stability of fear onset ascriptions and fear severity over time. 85 respondents completed a questionnaire which assessed fear origins, anxiety response patterns, and additional fear-relevant events occurring over the year. The results suggest that retrospective accounts of fear onset may be quite unstable over time, although this instability does not clearly appear to be related to intervening events, and limitations of the study make these results inconclusive. Fear-relevant negative thinking worsened over time, while physiological reactions and general anxiety remained relatively stable. The theoretical, methodological and clinical implications of the findings are discussed, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:10472710

  9. One Year of Data of Scimpi Borehole Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insua, T. L.; Moran, K.; Kulin, I.; Farrington, S.; Newman, J. B.; Riedel, M.; Scherwath, M.; Heesemann, M.; Pirenne, B.; Iturrino, G. J.; Masterson, W.; Furman, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Simple Cabled Instrument for Measuring Parameters In-Situ (SCIMPI) is a new subseafloor observatory designed to study dynamic processes in the subseabed using a simple and low-cost approach compared to a Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK). SCIMPI was successfully installed at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1416 during IODP Expedition 341S in May 2013. SCIMPI is designed to measure pore pressure, temperature and electrical resistivity over time in a borehole. The first SCIMPI prototype comprises nine modules joined in a single array by flexible cables. Multiple floats keep the system taut against a sinker bar weight located on SCIMPI and resting on the bottom of the borehole. All the modules record temperature and electrical resistivity, and three are also equipped with pressure sensors. Currently, SCIMPI operates as an autonomous instrument with a data logger that is recovered using an ROV. The second recovery of the SCIMPI data logger took place during the Ocean Networks Canada maintenance cruise, Wiring the Abyss 2014, on May 25th, 2014. The pressure sensor data show a stable trend in which tidal effects are observed in through the one year deployment. The temperature measurements in all the modules became stable over time with smaller variations over the last several months. The only temperature sensor differing from this trend is the shallowest, located at 8 meters below seafloor. This module shows a sudden spike of ~20°C that on April 5th, 2014, an event that was repeated several times from April 25th until recovery of modules. The electrical resistivity sensors show variations over time that could be related to gas hydrate dynamics at the Site. Interpretation of these data is speculative at this time but borehole-sealing processes as well as the formation of gas hydrate are potential processes influencing the recordings. SCIMPI will soon be connected to Ocean Networks Canada's NEPTUNE observatory at Clayoquot Slope node to

  10. Transient bacteraemia due to Chryseobacterium indologenes in an immunocompetent patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Silvano; Russo, E; De Simone, G; Gioia, R; Noviello, S; Vitolo, M; Rega, M R; Massari, A; Posteraro, L

    2015-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency unit with diffuse headache, visus reduction, and paraesthesias of the trigeminal area and the left hand. Three days after admission she showed shaking chills, vomiting, and sudden onset of fever (39·4°C). Blood cultures were performed soon after fever onset. Fever persisted for the whole day, decreasing slowly after 12 hours. No empirical antibiotic treatment was started in order to better define the diagnosis. Fever completely disappeared the day after. Two blood cultures for aerobes were positive for Chryseobacterium indologenes. The patient was discharged with the diagnosis of transient bacteraemia and transferred to the neurology unit for further investigations. C. indologenes infections are described in 31 studies with a total of 171 cases (pneumonia and bacteraemia being the most frequent). Our case is the first report of transient bacteraemia caused by C. indologenes in an immunocompetent, non-elderly patient without needing medical devices. PMID:25096711

  11. Lack of BCG vaccination and other risk factors for bacteraemia in severely malnourished children with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Chisti, M J; Salam, M A; Ahmed, T; Shahid, A S M S B; Shahunja, K M; Faruque, A S G; Bardhan, P K; Hossain, M I; Islam, M M; Das, S K; Huq, S; Shahrin, L; Huq, E; Chowdhury, F; Ashraf, H

    2015-03-01

    We sought to examine the factors associated with bacteraemia and their outcome in children with pneumonia and severe acute malnutrition (SAM). All SAM children of either sex, aged 0-59 months, admitted to the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh with radiologically confirmed pneumonia from April 2011 to July 2012 were enrolled (n = 405). Comparison was made between pneumonic SAM children with (cases = 18), and without (controls = 387) bacteraemia. The death rate was significantly higher in cases than controls (28% vs. 8%, P < 0·01). In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, the SAM children with pneumonia and bacteraemia more often had a history of lack of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination (odds ratio 7·39, 95% confidence interval 1·67-32·73, P < 0·01). The results indicate the importance of continuation of BCG vaccination which may provide benefit beyond its primary purpose. PMID:24892696

  12. Risk factors and outcome for colistin-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis bacteraemia in patients without previous colistin exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-C; Lee, Y-T; Yang, Y-S; Chen, C-T; Chiu, C-H; Yin, T; Kuo, S-C; Chen, T-L; Lin, J-C; Wang, F-D; Fung, C-P; Chang, F-Y

    2015-08-01

    The clinical characteristics of patients with colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacteraemia have been documented, but those of patients with bacteraemia caused by other Acinetobacter species remain unknown. Previous exposure to colistin has been shown to be associated with the emergence of colistin resistance, but may be not the only predisposing factor. In the current study, we highlight the risk and outcome of patients without previous exposure to colistin who acquired colistin-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis (ColRAN) bacteraemia. This 11-year single-centre retrospective study analysed 58 patients with ColRAN bacteraemia and 213 patients with colistin-susceptible A. nosocomialis (ColSAN) bacteraemia. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined with an agar dilution method. The clonal relationship of ColRAN isolates was determined with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. A conjugation mating-out assay was conducted to delineate the potential transfer of colistin resistance genes. Multivariable analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for ColRAN bacteraemia. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was independently associated with ColRAN bacteraemia (OR 3.04; 95% CI 1.45-6.37; p 0.003). Patients with ColRAN bacteraemia had higher APACHE II scores, but the two groups showed no significant differences in 14-day mortality (10.3% vs. 10.3%) or 28-day mortality (15.5% vs. 15.0%). ColRAN isolates had greater resistance than ColSAN isolates to all antimicrobial agents except for ciprofloxacin (0% vs. 6.6%). There were 16 different ColRAN pulsotypes, and two major clones were found. Colistin resistance did not transfer to colistin-susceptible A. baumannii or A. nosocomialis. These results show that COPD is an independent risk factor for acquisition of ColRAN bacteraemia. The mortality rates were similar between patients with ColRAN and ColSAN bacteraemia. PMID:25980356

  13. Clinical and microbiological profile of persistent coagulase-negative staphylococcal bacteraemia in neonates.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, G; Fouzas, S; Giormezis, N; Giannakopoulos, I; Tzifas, S; Foka, A; Anastassiou, D E; Spiliopoulou, I; Mantagos, S

    2011-11-01

    An atypical pattern of coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CoNS) sepsis, characterized by persistence despite aggressive antibiotic therapy, has been described in neonates cared for in neonatal intensive-care units. Our aim was to analyse the clinical, microbiological and molecular determinants of this persistent CoNS bacteraemia. Neonates with late-onset CoNS bacteraemia were studied for a 2-year period. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, microbiological and molecular data were compared between neonates with persistent (≥3 consecutive positive blood cultures) and non-persistent CoNS bacteraemia. Twenty-nine infants with persistent and 43 with non-persistent bacteraemia were identified, with no significant differences regarding demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups. Of a total of 170 CoNS isolates, 80 showed biofilm production (54 persistent and 26 non-persistent; p 0.013), whereas 127 were positive for the icaA and icaD genes (74 persistent and 53 non-persistent; p 0.598). Sixty ica-positive isolates did not produce slime, whereas 13 ica-negative isolates showed biofilm production. Endotracheal intubation and the presence of central vascular catheters were significant risk factors for persistent bacteraemia, but, in a logistic regression model, only biofilm production was significantly related to the persistent form of the disease (p 0.005). In this study, persistent CoNS sepsis in neonates requiring intensive care was not related to most of the known clinical risk factors, and it was associated with severe thrombocytopenia. Isolates associated with persistent bacteraemia were more likely to produce biofilm, independently of the presence of the ica operon. PMID:21463392

  14. Clinical consequences of using PNA-FISH in Staphylococcal bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Laub, R R; Knudsen, J D

    2014-04-01

    To optimize patient treatment and rational use of antimicrobials, it is important to provide fast information on findings in blood-cultures (BCs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of using peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) on positive BCs containing Gram-positive cocci in clusters to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) on the prescribed antimicrobial therapy and on the number of contacts between microbiologist and clinician. All cases of positive BCs in our laboratory with SA or CoNS in the year 2011 were identified and the charts were reviewed retrospectively. The group of patients with BCs tested with PNA-FISH was compared to the group of patients with untested BCs. A total of 200 patients with SA and 725 patients with CoNS were included. The mean number of contacts was 0.82 when PNA-FISH showed CoNS and 1.39 when PNA-FISH was not done (p < 0.0001). More patients were recommended appropriate antimicrobial therapy for SA bacteraemia in the PNA-FISH group (98.0%) than in the non-PNA-FISH group (89.4 %) (p = 0.025). The percentage treated with dicloxacillin was 29.6 in the PNA-FISH group, and 8.2 in the non-PNA-FISH group (p = 0.0003). The use of PNA-FISH on BCs in this study was associated with more appropriate and narrow spectrum antimicrobial therapy for patients with SA in an area with low prevalence of methicillin-resistant SA, and a lower number of contacts between clinical microbiologist and clinician about BCs with CoNS as contaminants. PMID:24129501

  15. EDITORIAL: Celebrating one year of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2008-03-01

    The one-year anniversary is a critical milestone for a new journal. At that point there are enough articles published to begin to define the scope and readership, yet generally not enough of a track-record for the full community to regard the new entrant as a fixture and a source of 'must read' material. Environmental Research Letters (ERL) has set itself a particularly large and interesting challenge: to help connect the vast community of environmental researchers, practitioners, activists, and interested informed observers. ERL and its partner online resource base and community website, environmentalresearchweb, fills a major void: a single locus for rapid publication of peer-reviewed and highly interdisciplinary material spanning literally every aspect of environmental research and thought. The wide range of material that falls squarely into the purview of ERL—from restoration ecology to global change science and politics, to toxicology and environmental justice, to environmental and social impacts of energy conversion—illustrate just how diverse a 'community' we hope to serve. Thanks to an exceptional editorial staff and board, and a diverse range of fascinating contributed papers, ERL is off to a particularly fast start. ERL has both a small advisory board and a larger editorial board. The board serves several functions, beginning with the traditional one of taking the lead on reviews of papers in such a dizzying array of areas. This task alone is a challenge because of the commitment ERL has made to exceptionally rapid publication: a goal of 90 days from submission to online publication for accepted papers. This goal, which we have generally met, includes the publication of complementary (but not always complimentary) 500 1000 word commentaries on a number of papers. To accomplish this alone the editorial board, and the reviewers, have been heroic, and deserve a huge round of applause. IOP Publishing too, has been truly wonderful in making this happen

  16. EDITORIAL: Celebrating one year of Environmental Research Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2008-03-01

    The one-year anniversary is a critical milestone for a new journal. At that point there are enough articles published to begin to define the scope and readership, yet generally not enough of a track-record for the full community to regard the new entrant as a fixture and a source of 'must read' material. Environmental Research Letters (ERL) has set itself a particularly large and interesting challenge: to help connect the vast community of environmental researchers, practitioners, activists, and interested informed observers. ERL and its partner online resource base and community website, environmentalresearchweb, fills a major void: a single locus for rapid publication of peer-reviewed and highly interdisciplinary material spanning literally every aspect of environmental research and thought. The wide range of material that falls squarely into the purview of ERL—from restoration ecology to global change science and politics, to toxicology and environmental justice, to environmental and social impacts of energy conversion—illustrate just how diverse a 'community' we hope to serve. Thanks to an exceptional editorial staff and board, and a diverse range of fascinating contributed papers, ERL is off to a particularly fast start. ERL has both a small advisory board and a larger editorial board. The board serves several functions, beginning with the traditional one of taking the lead on reviews of papers in such a dizzying array of areas. This task alone is a challenge because of the commitment ERL has made to exceptionally rapid publication: a goal of 90 days from submission to online publication for accepted papers. This goal, which we have generally met, includes the publication of complementary (but not always complimentary) 500 1000 word commentaries on a number of papers. To accomplish this alone the editorial board, and the reviewers, have been heroic, and deserve a huge round of applause. IOP Publishing too, has been truly wonderful in making this happen

  17. Frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization among patients suffering from methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Nadia; Izhar, Mateen; Mehdi, Naima

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine rate of nasal colonization in Patients suffering from bacteraemia caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in a tertiary ca re, University Teaching Hospital (Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore) from October 2010 to August 2011. Nasal swabs were taken from patients suffering from MRSA bacteraemia and were plated on mannitol salt agar plates to isolate Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) which were then tested for oxacillin susceptibility. Results: Nasal colonization was present in 52.5% of patients suffering from MRSA bacteraemia. Conclusion: Nasal colonization rates with MRSA were high among patients suffering from MRSA bacteraemia especially in those undergoing dialysis or surgical procedures. Therefore, screening and nasal decolonization should be practiced in hospitals. PMID:24550968

  18. First report of Actinomyces europaeus bacteraemia result from a breast abscess in a 53-year-old man

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report of Actinomyces europaeus bacteraemia in a 53-year-old man. The bacteraemia was the result of a breast abscess. Identification was established by matrix-assisted desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry and confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The patient was treated with surgical drainage and penicillin for 4 weeks; the patient did not experience any relapse during 6 months of follow-up. PMID:26110063

  19. Determinants of pain and functioning in knee osteoarthritis: a one-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Helminen, Eeva-Eerika; Sinikallio, Sanna H; Valjakka, Anna L; Väisänen-Rouvali, Rauni H; Arokoski, Jari PA

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of pain and disability in knee osteoarthritis. Design: A one-year prospective analysis of determinants of pain and functioning in knee osteoarthritis. Study setting: Primary care providers in a medium-sized city. Patients: A total of 111 patients aged from 35 to 75 with clinical symptoms and radiographic grading (Kellgren-Lawrence 2–4) of knee osteoarthritis who participated in a randomized controlled trial. Main measures: The outcome measures were self-reported pain and function, which were recorded at 0, 3 and 12 months. Disease-specific pain and functioning were assessed using the pain and function subscales of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index. Generic physical and mental functioning were assessed using the RAND-36 subscales for function, and physical and mental component summary scores. Possible baseline predictors for these outcomes were 1) demographic, socioeconomic and disease-related variables, and 2) psychological measures of resources, distress, fear of movement and catastrophizing. Results: Multivariate linear mixed model analyses revealed that normal mood at baseline measured with the Beck Anxiety Inventory predicted significantly better results in all measures of pain (WOMAC P=0.02) and function (WOMAC P=0.002, RAND-36 P=0.002) during the one-year follow-up. Psychological resource factors (pain self-efficacy P=0.012, satisfaction with life P=0.002) predicted better function (RAND-36). Pain catastrophizing predicted higher WOMAC pain levels (P=0.013), whereas fear of movement (kinesiophobia) predicted poorer functioning (WOMAC P=0.046, RAND-36 P=0.024). Conclusions: Multiple psychological factors in people with knee osteoarthritis pain are associated with the development of disability and longer term worse pain. PMID:27496698

  20. Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteraemia: Epidemiology, clinical characteristics and its' association with severe immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Dhanoa, Amreeta; Fatt, Quek Kia

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen associated with bacteraemia especially in immunosuppressed patients. However, there is limited data specifically describing the clinical characteristics and outcome amongst the immunosuppressed patients. Methods A total of 56,707 blood culture samples and 5,450 stool samples were received by the microbiology laboratory at a tertiary referral hospital in Malaysia, during a 4-year study period. Out of these samples, 55 non-duplicate NTS isolates were identified from blood and 121 from stool. A retrospective analysis of the 55 patients with NTS bacteraemia was then conducted to determine the predominant NTS serovars causing bacteraemia and its' blood invasive potential, epidemiological data, clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility. Patients were then grouped as immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed to determine the association of severe immunosuppression on clinical features. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 15.0) using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's exact test or Chi-squared test. The odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The P-value < 0.05 (two-tailed) was taken as the level of significance. Results Out of 55 NTS bacteraemia cases identified, 81.8% (45/55) were community-acquired. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis had the highest blood invasiveness. An extra-intestinal focus of infection was noted in 30.9% (17/55) of the patients, most commonly involving the lungs and soft tissue. 90.9% (50/55) of the patients had an underlying disease and 65.5% (36/55) of the patients had severe clinical immunosuppressive condition with malignancy and HIV being the most common. Immunosuppressed patients had higher mortality (P = 0.04), presented more commonly with primary bacteraemia (P = 0.023), leukopenia (P = 0.001) and opportunistic infections (P = 0.01). In

  1. One Year Medical Outcomes and ED Recidivism Following ED Observation for Cocaine-Associated Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca; Walton, Maureen A.; Weber, Jim Edward; O'Broin, Samantha; Tripathi, Shanti P; Maio, Ronald F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Chest pain is the most common complaint among cocaine users who present to the ED seeking care and many hospital resources are applied to stratify cocaine users in regard to future cardiac morbidity and mortality. Little is known about the longitudinal cardiac and non cardiac medical outcomes of cocaine users who have been stratified to an ED observation period following their ED visit. Objectives to examine one-year cardiac outcomes in a low-intermediate risk sample of patients with cocaine- associated chest pain in an urban ED, as well as to examine ED recidivism one year for cardiac and non-cardiac complaints. Methods Prospective consecutive cohort study of patients (18–60 years) who presented to an urban Level 1 ED with cocaine-associated chest pain and were risk stratified to low-intermediate cardiac risk. Exclusion criteria: EKG suggestive of AMI, elevated serum cardiac markers, history of AMI or CABG, hemodynamic instability, unstable angina. Baseline interviews using validated measures of health functioning, and substance use were conducted during CPOU stay, and 3, 6, and 12 months. ED utilization during the study year was abstracted from medical chart. Zero-Inflated Poisson regression analyses were conducted to predict recurrent ED visits. Results 219 participants (73% participation) were enrolled, 65% returned to the ED post index visit; 23% returned for chest pain, of these 66% had a positive cocaine urine screen. No patient had an AMI within the one year follow up period. Patients with continued cocaine use were more likely to have a recurrent ED visit (p<0.001) but these repeat visits were most often related to musculoskeletal pain (21%), and injury (30%) rather than potential cardiac complaints. Conclusions Patients with cocaine-associated chest pain who are low to intermediate cardiac risk and complete a CPOU protocol have less then 1% rate of MI in the subsequent 12-months. PMID:18824277

  2. Vascular graft infections and role of PET/CT in patients with persistent bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Shahani, Lokesh

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic vascular graft infection although a rare complication of vascular reconstruction surgery; has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The author presents two patients with prosthetic aortic graft presenting as fever and methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia without any other localising sign of infection. Both patients had a history of postoperative wound infection after their graft placement. Patients remained persistently bacteraemic on appropriate antimicrobial therapy making the clinician suspicious of a vascular graft infection. A [18 F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d glucose positron emission tomography associated to CT scan was used to identify the prosthetic vascular graft infection and since both patients were high-risk surgical candidates, a conservative medical approach was used. They were treated with 6 weeks of nafcillin and rifampin, followed by long-term doxycycline for suppression. This highlights the importance of considering vascular graft infection in patients with recurrent and persistent bacteraemia despite adequate therapy. PMID:25777486

  3. The Effect of Breastfeeding and Stimulation in the Home on Cognitive Development in One-Year-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Seaneen; Stewart, Moira; Dunne, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Research on the effects of breastfeeding on child cognitive development has produced conflicting results, and many studies do not account for infant stimulation in the home. The aim of this study is to determine whether breastfeeding predicts enhanced cognitive development in one-year-old infants after controlling for the main socio-economic and…

  4. Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia in a Tropical Setting: Patient Outcome and Impact of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, Emma K.; Hongsuwan, Maliwan; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Shah, Krupal R.; Srisomang, Pramot; Mahavanakul, Weera; Wacharaprechasgul, Therapon; Fowler, Vance G.; West, T. Eoin; Teerawatanasuk, Nitaya; Becher, Harald; White, Nicholas J.; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Day, Nicholas P.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Most information on invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections comes from temperate countries. There are considerable knowledge gaps in epidemiology, treatment, drug resistance and outcome of invasive S. aureus infection in the tropics. Methods A prospective, observational study of S. aureus bacteraemia was conducted in a 1000-bed regional hospital in northeast Thailand over 1 year. Detailed clinical data were collected and final outcomes determined at 12 weeks, and correlated with antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of infecting isolates. Principal Findings Ninety-eight patients with S. aureus bacteraemia were recruited. The range of clinical manifestations was similar to that reported from temperate countries. The prevalence of endocarditis was 14%. The disease burden was highest at both extremes of age, whilst mortality increased with age. The all-cause mortality rate was 52%, with a mortality attributable to S. aureus of 44%. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was responsible for 28% of infections, all of which were healthcare-associated. Mortality rates for MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) were 67% (18/27) and 46% (33/71), respectively (p = 0.11). MRSA isolates were multidrug resistant. Only vancomycin or fusidic acid would be suitable as empirical treatment options for suspected MRSA infection. Conclusions S. aureus is a significant pathogen in northeast Thailand, with comparable clinical manifestations and a similar endocarditis prevalence but higher mortality than industrialised countries. S. aureus bacteraemia is frequently associated with exposure to healthcare settings with MRSA causing a considerable burden of disease. Further studies are required to define setting-specific strategies to reduce mortality from S. aureus bacteraemia, prevent MRSA transmission, and to define the burden of S. aureus disease and emergence of drug resistance throughout the developing world. PMID:19180198

  5. Streptococcus gallinaceus bacteraemia in an abattoir worker presenting with a febrile illness.

    PubMed

    Balm, Michelle N D; Truong, Han T; Choudhary, Anwar S; Robinson, Geoffrey M; Blackmore, Timothy K

    2006-07-01

    Streptococcus gallinaceus is a newly described species of viridans streptococci, previously only identified as causing disease in broiler chickens. This organism was recovered in pure culture from blood taken from a New Zealand abattoir worker presenting with a febrile illness. This first report of bacteraemia caused by S. gallinaceus in a human may help the understanding of the ecology of this recently described organism. PMID:16772426

  6. 12 CFR 4.74 - One-year post-employment restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false One-year post-employment restrictions. 4.74... RESTRICTIONS FOR SENIOR EXAMINERS One-Year Restrictions on Post-Employment Activities of Senior Examiners § 4.74 One-year post-employment restrictions. An officer or employee of the OCC who serves as the...

  7. 12 CFR 336.12 - One-year post-employment restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One-year post-employment restriction. 336.12... GENERAL POLICY FDIC EMPLOYEES One-Year Restriction on Post-Employment Activities of Senior Examiners § 336.12 One-year post-employment restriction. (a) Prohibition. An officer or employee of the FDIC...

  8. 12 CFR 4.74 - One-year post-employment restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One-year post-employment restrictions. 4.74... RESTRICTIONS FOR SENIOR EXAMINERS One-Year Restrictions on Post-Employment Activities of Senior Examiners § 4.74 One-year post-employment restrictions. An officer or employee of the OCC who serves as the...

  9. 12 CFR 336.12 - One-year post-employment restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false One-year post-employment restriction. 336.12... GENERAL POLICY FDIC EMPLOYEES One-Year Restriction on Post-Employment Activities of Senior Examiners § 336.12 One-year post-employment restriction. (a) Prohibition. An officer or employee of the FDIC...

  10. 12 CFR 336.12 - One-year post-employment restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false One-year post-employment restriction. 336.12... GENERAL POLICY FDIC EMPLOYEES One-Year Restriction on Post-Employment Activities of Senior Examiners § 336.12 One-year post-employment restriction. (a) Prohibition. An officer or employee of the FDIC...

  11. 12 CFR 4.74 - One-year post-employment restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false One-year post-employment restrictions. 4.74... RESTRICTIONS FOR SENIOR EXAMINERS One-Year Restrictions on Post-Employment Activities of Senior Examiners § 4.74 One-year post-employment restrictions. An officer or employee of the OCC who serves as the...

  12. Case-case-control study on factors associated with vanB vancomycin-resistant and vancomycin-susceptible enterococcal bacteraemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterococci are a major cause of healthcare-associated infection. In Australia, vanB vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is the predominant genotype. There are limited data on the factors linked to vanB VRE bacteraemia. This study aimed to identify factors associated with vanB VRE bacteraemia, and compare them with those for vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) bacteraemia. Methods A case-case-control study was performed in two tertiary public hospitals in Victoria, Australia. VRE and VSE bacteraemia cases were compared with controls without evidence of enterococcal bacteraemia, but may have had infections due to other pathogens. Results All VRE isolates had vanB genotype. Factors associated with vanB VRE bacteraemia were urinary catheter use within the last 30 days (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.09-7.53), an increase in duration of metronidazole therapy (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.17-2.33), and a higher Chronic Disease Score specific for VRE (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.05-2.77). Factors linked to VSE bacteraemia were a history of gastrointestinal disease (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.05-4.99) and an increase in duration of metronidazole therapy (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48). Admission into the haematology/oncology unit was associated with lower odds of VSE bacteraemia (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.74). Conclusions This is the largest case-case-control study involving vanB VRE bacteraemia. Factors associated with the development of vanB VRE bacteraemia were different to those of VSE bacteraemia. PMID:24973797

  13. Descriptive epidemiology of Escherichia coli bacteraemia in England, April 2012 to March 2014.

    PubMed

    Bou-Antoun, Sabine; Davies, John; Guy, Rebecca; Johnson, Alan P; Sheridan, Elizabeth A; Hope, Russell J

    2016-09-01

    We determined the incidence, risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility associated with Escherichia coli bacteraemia in England over a 24 month period. Case data were obtained from the national mandatory surveillance database, with susceptibility data linked from LabBase2, a voluntary national microbiology database. Between April 2012 and March 2014, 66,512 E. coli bacteraemia cases were reported. Disease incidence increased by 6% from 60.4 per 100,000 population in 2012-13 to 63.5 per 100,000 population in 2013-14 (p < 0.0001). Rates of E. coli bacteraemia varied with patient age and sex, with 70.5% (46,883/66,512) of cases seen in patients aged ≥ 65 years and 52.4% (33,969/64,846) of cases in females. The most common underlying cause of bacteraemia was infection of the genital/urinary tract (41.1%; 27,328/66,512), of which 98.4% (26,891/27,328) were urinary tract infections (UTIs). The majority of cases (76.1%; 50,617/66,512) had positive blood cultures before or within two days of admission and were classified as community onset cases, however 15.7% (10,468/66,512) occurred in patients who had been hospitalised for over a week. Non-susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, third-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam, gentamicin and carbapenems were 18.4% (8,439/45,829), 10.4% (4,256/40,734), 10.2% (4,694/46,186), 9.7% (4,770/49,114) and 0.2% (91/42,986), respectively. Antibiotic non-susceptibility was higher in hospital-onset cases than for those presenting from the community (e.g. ciprofloxacin non-susceptibility was 22.1% (2,234/10,105) for hospital-onset vs 17.4% (5,920/34,069) for community-onset cases). Interventions to reduce the incidence of E. coli bacteraemia will have to target the community setting and UTIs if substantial reductions are to be realised. PMID:27608263

  14. Bacteraemia during Transurethral Resection of the Prostate: What Are the Risk Factors and Is It More Common than We Think?

    PubMed Central

    West, Robert; Bhattarai, Selina; Eardley, Ian; Sandoe, Jonathan A. T.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the microbial causes, incidence, duration, risk factors and clinical implications of bacteraemia occurring during transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) surgery to better inform prophylaxis strategies. An ethically approved, prospective, cohort study of patients undergoing TURP was conducted. Clinical information and follow-up details were collected using standardized data collection sheets. Blood was obtained for culture at 6 different time points peri-procedure. Standard of care antibiotic prophylaxis was given prior to surgery. Bacteriuria was assessed in a pre-procedure urine sample. Histopathology from all prostate chips was assessed for inflammation and malignancy. 73 patients were consented and 276 blood samples obtained. No patients developed symptomatic bacteraemia during the procedure, 17 patients developed asymptomatic bacteraemia (23.2%). Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common organisms cultured. 10 minutes after the start of the TURP, the odds ratio (OR) of developing bacteraemia was 5.38 (CI 0.97–29.87 p = 0.05), and 20 minutes after the start of the procedure, the OR was 6.46 (CI 1.12–37.24, p = 0.03), compared to before the procedure. We also found an association between the development of intra-operative bacteraemia and recent antibiotic use (OR 4.34, CI 1.14–16.62, p = 0.032), the presence of a urinary catheter (OR 4.92, CI 1.13–21.51, p = 0.034) and a malignant histology (OR 4.90, CI 1.30–18.46, p = 0.019). There was no statistical relationship between pre-operative urine culture results and blood culture results. This study shows that asymptomatic bacteraemia is commonly caused by TURP and occurs in spite of antibiotic prophylaxis. Our findings challenge the commonly held view that urine is the primary source of bacteraemia in TURP-associated sepsis and raise the possibility of occult prostatic infection as a cause of bacteraemia. More work will be needed to

  15. Preoperative administration of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse reduces the risk of bacteraemia associated with intra-alveolar tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Ugwumba, Chinedu U; Adeyemo, Wasiu L; Odeniyi, Olalekan M; Arotiba, Godwin T; Ogunsola, Folasade T

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of preoperative 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash on the risk of bacteraemia following routine intra-alveolar tooth extraction. The study was a randomized controlled clinical study of 101 subjects who underwent intra-alveolar dental extractions under local anaesthesia. Subjects were randomly assigned to either chlorhexidine or a control group. The chlorhexidine group had 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash administered for 1 min before any dental manipulation, and the control group had a mouthrinse of sterile water. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 1 min and 15 min after the dental extractions. Subculture and further identification of the isolated bacteria were performed by conventional microbiological techniques. There was a statistically significant difference in the incidence of bacteraemia between the control group (52.4%) and chlorhexidine group (27.1%) (P = 0.012). Bacteraemia was most frequently detected at 1 min after extraction (33.3%). Of the 30 subjects who had positive blood culture at 1 min, bacteraemia persisted in 8 (26.7%) of the subjects after 15 min. Bacteria isolated included Staphylococcus aureus, Actinomycetes naesulendi, Prevotella species, Streptococcus spp., and Acinetobacter iwoffii. Routine use of 0.20% chlorhexidine mouthwash before dental extraction is recommended to reduce the risk of bacteraemia following tooth extraction. PMID:25028067

  16. 29 CFR 2530.200b-4 - One-year break in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false One-year break in service. 2530.200b-4 Section 2530.200b-4... General Provisions § 2530.200b-4 One-year break in service. (a) Computation period. (1) Under sections 202... that an employee incurs a one-year break in service for a computation period or periods if the...

  17. 29 CFR 2530.200b-4 - One-year break in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false One-year break in service. 2530.200b-4 Section 2530.200b-4... General Provisions § 2530.200b-4 One-year break in service. (a) Computation period. (1) Under sections 202... that an employee incurs a one-year break in service for a computation period or periods if the...

  18. 29 CFR 2530.200b-4 - One-year break in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false One-year break in service. 2530.200b-4 Section 2530.200b-4... General Provisions § 2530.200b-4 One-year break in service. (a) Computation period. (1) Under sections 202... that an employee incurs a one-year break in service for a computation period or periods if the...

  19. 29 CFR 2530.200b-4 - One-year break in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false One-year break in service. 2530.200b-4 Section 2530.200b-4... General Provisions § 2530.200b-4 One-year break in service. (a) Computation period. (1) Under sections 202... that an employee incurs a one-year break in service for a computation period or periods if the...

  20. 29 CFR 2530.200b-4 - One-year break in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false One-year break in service. 2530.200b-4 Section 2530.200b-4... General Provisions § 2530.200b-4 One-year break in service. (a) Computation period. (1) Under sections 202... that an employee incurs a one-year break in service for a computation period or periods if the...

  1. One-year status of homeless mentally ill clients who completed a transitional residential program.

    PubMed

    Murray, R; Baier, M; North, C; Lato, M; Eskew, C

    1997-02-01

    Of 228 homeless, severely persistently mentally ill clients admitted within a 5 1/2 year period to a transitional residential program, 179 (79%) remained in contact with staff for at least one year post-discharge. Housing was maintained by 141 (78%) of the clients for at least one year. Entitlements increased from admission, to discharge, to one year post-discharge. Clients maintaining contact for at least one year post-discharge were likely to have participated in two or more day treatment programs during residence. Success of the Program may be partly attributed to the staff's vigilance in maintaining post-discharge client contact. PMID:9061262

  2. Empirical third-generation cephalosporin therapy for adults with community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia: Impact of revised CLSI breakpoints.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Lee, Chung-Hsun; Li, Ming-Chi; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Lee, Ching-Chi

    2016-04-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) [ceftriaxone (CRO) and cefotaxime (CTX)] have remarkable potency against Enterobacteriaceae and are commonly prescribed for the treatment of community-onset bacteraemia. However, clinical evidence supporting the updated interpretive criteria of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) is limited. Adults with community-onset monomicrobial Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia treated empirically with CRO or CTX were recruited. Clinical information was collected from medical records and CTX MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method. Eligible patients (n=409) were categorised into de-escalation (260; 63.6%), no switch (115; 28.1%) and escalation (34; 8.3%) groups according to the type of definitive antibiotics. Multivariate regression revealed five independent predictors of 28-day mortality: fatal co-morbidities based on McCabe classification [odds ratio (OR)=19.96; P<0.001]; high Pitt bacteraemia score (≥4) at bacteraemia onset (OR=13.91; P<0.001); bacteraemia because of pneumonia (OR=5.45; P=0.007); de-escalation after empirical therapy (OR=0.28; P=0.03); and isolates with a CTX MIC≤1mg/L (OR=0.17; P=0.02). Of note, isolates with a CTX MIC≤8mg/L (indicated as susceptible by previous CLSI breakpoints) were not associated with mortality. Furthermore, clinical failure and 28-day mortality rates had a tendency to increase with increasing CTX MIC (γ=1.00; P=0.01). Conclusively, focusing on patients with community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteraemia receiving empirical 3GC therapy, the present study provides clinically critical evidence to validate the proposed reduction in the susceptibility breakpoint of CTX to MIC≤1mg/L. PMID:27005458

  3. C10X polymorphism in the CARD8 gene is associated with bacteraemia

    PubMed Central

    Asfaw Idosa, Berhane; Sahdo, Berolla; Balcha, Ermias; Kelly, Anne; Söderquist, Bo; Särndahl, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is an intracellular multi-protein complex that triggers caspase-1 mediated maturation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β); one of the most potent mediators of inflammation and a major cytokine produced during severe infections, like sepsis. However, the excessive cytokine levels seem to stage for tissue injury and organ failure, and high levels of IL-1β correlates with severity and mortality of sepsis. Instead, recent data suggest caspase-1 to function as a guardian against severe infections. CARD8 has been implied to regulate the synthesis of IL-1β via interaction to caspase-1. In recent years, polymorphism of CARD8 (C10X) per se or in combination with NLRP3 (Q705K) has been implicated with increased risk of inflammation. The aim was to investigate the correlation of these polymorphisms with severe blood stream infection. Human DNA was extracted from blood culture bottles that were found to be positive for microbial growth (i.e. patients with bacteraemia). Polymorphisms Q705K in the NLRP3 gene and C10X in the CARD8 gene were genotyped using TaqMan genotyping assay. The results were compared to healthy controls and to samples from patients with negative cultures. The polymorphism C10X was significantly over-represented among patients with bacteraemia as compared to healthy controls, whereas patients with negative blood culture were not associated with a higher prevalence. No association was observed with polymorphism Q705K of NLRP3 in either group of patients. Patients carrying polymorphism C10X in the CARD8 gene are at increased risk of developing bacteraemia and severe inflammation. PMID:25400921

  4. [Follow-up after non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteraemia is important due to risk of endovascular infection].

    PubMed

    Sydenham, Thomas Vognbjerg; Andersen, Åse Bengård

    2015-01-26

    An 81-year-old male with atherosclerosis had an episode of bacteraemia with Salmonella dublin six weeks prior to admission to hospital. He presented with confusion, fever and abdominal pain. Blood cultures revealed S. dublin, and an 18F-fluor deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography showed aortitis. Ceftriaxon and ciprofloxacin was administered. The patient was not a candidate for surgery and two weeks later he died from multiple organ failure. Follow-up visits with blood cultures after the first bacteraemia episode might have allowed for earlier diagnosis of the relapse. PMID:25612984

  5. Flavimonas oryzihabitans (CDC group Ve-2) bacteraemia associated with Hickman catheters.

    PubMed

    Conlu, A; Rothman, J; Staszewski, H; Schoch, P E; Domenico, P; Quadri, S M; Cunha, B A

    1992-04-01

    Flavimonas oryzihabitans is a potential pathogen that may infect patients who have major medical illnesses, especially those who are undergoing surgery or have indwelling venous catheters in situ. Flavimonas oryzihabitans has been isolated from a wide range of body sites, and the portals of entry are major wounds or implanted foreign materials. We report two cases of F. oryzihabitans bacteraemia associated with the use of Hickman catheters for administration of the patients' chemotherapeutic agents. However, a common source for these infections could not be demonstrated. PMID:1350605

  6. Catheter-related bacteraemia and infective endocarditis caused by Kocuria species.

    PubMed

    Lai, C C; Wang, J Y; Lin, S H; Tan, C K; Wang, C Y; Liao, C H; Chou, C H; Huang, Y T; Lin, H I; Hsueh, P R

    2011-02-01

    We describe five patients with positive blood culture for Kocuria species. Three patients had catheter-related bacteraemia and one had infective endocarditis caused by Kocuria kristinae, and one had a K. marina isolate, which was considered to be a contaminant. Identification of the isolates was further confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. In conclusion, Kocuria species are an unusual cause of infection in immunocompromised patients. Accurate identification with molecular methods is imperative for the diagnosis of these unusual pathogens. PMID:20218989

  7. 12 CFR 336.12 - One-year post-employment restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false One-year post-employment restriction. 336.12 Section 336.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF....12 One-year post-employment restriction. (a) Prohibition. An officer or employee of the FDIC...

  8. 12 CFR 336.12 - One-year post-employment restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false One-year post-employment restriction. 336.12 Section 336.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF....12 One-year post-employment restriction. (a) Prohibition. An officer or employee of the FDIC...

  9. 77 FR 9664 - Funds for Leadership Training in Pediatric Dentistry's Current Grantees; One-Year Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Dentistry's Current Grantees; One-Year Extension AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA... Pediatric Dentistry's (T17) Current Grantees. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration... a one-year project period. CFDA Number: 93.110. Current Project Period: 7/1/2007 through...

  10. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

  11. 12 CFR 4.74 - One-year post-employment restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false One-year post-employment restrictions. 4.74... FUNCTIONS, AVAILABILITY AND RELEASE OF INFORMATION, CONTRACTING OUTREACH PROGRAM, POST-EMPLOYMENT RESTRICTIONS FOR SENIOR EXAMINERS One-Year Restrictions on Post-Employment Activities of Senior Examiners §...

  12. The utility of procalcitonin in the prediction of serious bacterial infection in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Sm, Matha; Sn, Rahiman; Bg, Gelbart; Td, Duke

    2016-09-01

    To determine utility of procalcitonin (PCT) for the prediction of bacterial infection in critically ill children, we analysed the relationship between serum PCT, cultures and other laboratory markers of bacterial sepsis or viral infection in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). The outcome measures were levels of PCT in proven bacteraemia, pneumonia and viral respiratory infection; and comparison of PCT to immature to total neutrophil ratio (ITR) in prediction of bacteraemia. In 420 children with suspected sepsis, 1,226 serum PCT levels were analysed. Children with bacteraemia had a higher median PCT (2.03 ng/ml, interquartile range [IQR] 0.67-42.4) than those who did not have bacteraemia (0.82 ng/ml, IQR 0.295-2.87) (P=0.033). PCT was a significant but only moderate predictor of bacteraemia (AUC 0.65). In 866 episodes of suspected sepsis where paired PCT and ITR were performed, the median ITR in children with bacteraemia was 0.19 ng/ml (IQR 0.04-0.35), and the median PCT was 6.5 ng/ml (IQR 0.71-61.8). PCT was a marginally better predictor of bacteraemia (AUC 0.69) than the ITR (AUC 0.66). In children with viral respiratory tract infection only, the median PCT was 1.26 ng/ml (0.35-5.5), and in those with likely bacterial pneumonia the median PCT was 0.80 ng/ml (IQR 0.28-1.70). In a heterogeneous population of children in a tertiary PICU, PCT measured at a single timepoint was a moderate predictor of proven bacteraemia. In our population PCT did not reliably identify localised bacterial infection or distinguish bacterial from viral respiratory infection. PMID:27608345

  13. Persistent bacteraemia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin in a patient with erythrodermic psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bakri, Faris G; Al-Hommos, Nisreen Abu; Shehabi, Asem; Naffa, Randa G; Cui, Longzhu; Hiramatsu, Keiich

    2007-01-01

    A 49-y-old male with erythrodermic psoriasis developed persistent bacteraemia for 3 months due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus despite antimicrobial therapy. The skin was the likely focus. Three consecutive isolates from the blood and 1 from the nose were identical and had vancomycin MIC of 4 mg/l. PMID:17464871

  14. Comparison of the detection of periodontal pathogens in bacteraemia after tooth brushing by culture and molecular techniques

    PubMed Central

    Figuero, Elena; González, Itziar; O´Connor, Ana; Diz, Pedro; Álvarez, Maximiliano; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence and amounts of periodontal pathogens detected in bacteraemia samples after tooth brushing-induced by means of four diagnostic technique, three based on culture and one in a molecular-based technique, have been compared in this study. Material and Methods Blood samples were collected from thirty-six subjects with different periodontal status (17 were healthy, 10 with gingivitis and 9 with periodontitis) at baseline and 2 minutes after tooth brushing. Each sample was analyzed by three culture-based methods [direct anaerobic culturing (DAC), hemo-culture (BACTEC), and lysis-centrifugation (LC)] and one molecular-based technique [quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)]. With culture any bacterial isolate was detected and quantified, while with qPCR only Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were detected and quantified. Descriptive analyses, ANOVA and Chi-squared tests, were performed. Results Neither BACTEC nor qPCR detected any type of bacteria in the blood samples. Only LC (2.7%) and DAC (8.3%) detected bacteraemia, although not in the same patients. Fusobacterium nucleatum was the most frequently detected bacterial species. Conclusions The disparity in the results when the same samples were analyzed with four different microbiological detection methods highlights the need for a proper validation of the methodology to detect periodontal pathogens in bacteraemia samples, mainly when the presence of periodontal pathogens in blood samples after tooth brushing was very seldom. Key words:Bacteraemia, periodontitis, culture, PCR, tooth brushing. PMID:26946197

  15. Vibrio cholerae non-O1 bacteraemia: description of three cases in the Netherlands and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Engel, Madelon F; Muijsken, Mariette A; Mooi-Kokenberg, Esther; Kuijper, Ed J; van Westerloo, David J

    2016-04-14

    Vibrio cholerae non-O1 serogroup (VCNO) bacteraemia is a severe condition with a high case-fatality rate. We report three cases diagnosed in the Netherlands, identified during a national microbiological congress, and provide a literature review on VCNO bacteraemia. A search strategy including synonyms for 'VCNO' and 'bacteraemia' was applied to PubMed, Medline, Web of Science and Embase databases. The three cases were reported in elderly male patients after fish consumption and/or surface water contact. The literature search yielded 82 case reports on 90 cases and six case series. Thirty case reports were from Asia (30/90; 33%), concerned males (67/90; 74%), and around one third (38/90; 42%) involved a history of alcohol abuse and/or liver cirrhosis The presenting symptom often was gastroenteritis (47/90; 52%) which occurred after seafood consumption in 32% of the cases (15/47).Aside from the most frequent symptom being fever, results of case series concurred with these findings. Published cases also included rare presentations e.g. endophthalmitis and neonatal meningitis. Based on the limited data available, cephalosporins seemed the most effective treatment. Although mainly reported in Asia, VCNO bacteraemia occurs worldwide. While some risk factors for VCNO were identified in this study, the source of infection remains often unclear. Clinical presentation may vary greatly and therefore a quick microbiological diagnosis is indispensable. PMID:27104237

  16. 10 to 1: Bugs Win in NASA Study, One-Year Mission Video Miniseries Highlights Microbes

    NASA Video Gallery

    Bugs are winning out, and that’s a good thing according to NASA’s Human Research Program. As part of NASA’s One-Year Mission, researchers are studying how microbes living on astronauts’ skin, insid...

  17. One-Year Mortality in Older Patients with Cancer: Development and External Validation of an MNA-Based Prognostic Score

    PubMed Central

    Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Diallo, Abou; Bellera, Carine; Blanc-Bisson, Christelle; Durrieu, Jessica; Germain, Christine; Mathoulin-Pélissier, Simone; Soubeyran, Pierre; Rainfray, Muriel; Fonck, Mariane; Doussau, Adelaïde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The MNA (Mini Nutritional Assessment) is known as a prognosis factor in older population. We analyzed the prognostic value for one-year mortality of MNA items in older patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy as the basis of a simplified prognostic score. Methods The prospective derivation cohort included 606 patients older than 70 years with an indication of chemotherapy for cancers. The endpoint to predict was one-year mortality. The 18 items of the Full MNA, age, gender, weight loss, cancer origin, TNM, performance status and lymphocyte count were considered to construct the prognostic model. MNA items were analyzed with a backward step-by-step multivariate logistic regression and other items were added in a forward step-by-step regression. External validation was performed on an independent cohort of 229 patients. Results At one year 266 deaths had occurred. Decreased dietary intake (p = 0.0002), decreased protein-rich food intake (p = 0.025), 3 or more prescribed drugs (p = 0.023), calf circumference <31cm (p = 0.0002), tumor origin (p<0.0001), metastatic status (p = 0.0007) and lymphocyte count <1500/mm3 (0.029) were found to be associated with 1-year mortality in the final model and were used to construct a prognostic score. The area under curve (AUC) of the score was 0.793, which was higher than the Full MNA AUC (0.706). The AUC of the score in validation cohort (229 subjects, 137 deaths) was 0.698. Conclusion Key predictors of one-year mortality included cancer cachexia clinical features, comorbidities, the origin and the advanced status of the tumor. The prognostic value of this model combining a subset of MNA items and cancer related items was better than the full MNA, thus providing a simple score to predict 1-year mortality in older patients with an indication of chemotherapy. PMID:26859298

  18. The Social Origins of Sustained Attention in One-Year-Old Human Infants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B

    2016-05-01

    The ability to sustain attention is a major achievement in human development and is generally believed to be the developmental product of increasing self-regulatory and endogenous (i.e., internal, top-down, voluntary) control over one's attention and cognitive systems [1-5]. Because sustained attention in late infancy is predictive of future development, and because early deficits in sustained attention are markers for later diagnoses of attentional disorders [6], sustained attention is often viewed as a constitutional and individual property of the infant [6-9]. However, humans are social animals; developmental pathways for seemingly non-social competencies evolved within the social group and therefore may be dependent on social experience [10-13]. Here, we show that social context matters for the duration of sustained attention episodes in one-year-old infants during toy play. Using head-mounted eye tracking to record moment-by-moment gaze data from both parents and infants, we found that when the social partner (parent) visually attended to the object to which infant attention was directed, infants, after the parent's look, extended their duration of visual attention to the object. Looks to the same object by two social partners is a well-studied phenomenon known as joint attention, which has been shown to be critical to early learning and to the development of social skills [14, 15]. The present findings implicate joint attention in the development of the child's own sustained attention and thus challenge the current understanding of the origins of individual differences in sustained attention, providing a new and potentially malleable developmental pathway to the self-regulation of attention. PMID:27133869

  19. One year of vertical wind profiles measurements at a Mediterranean coastal site of South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Avolio, Elenio; Federico, Stefano; Gullì, Daniel; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    In order to develop wind farms projects is challenging to site them on coastal areas both onshore and offshore as suitable sites. Developing projects need high quality databases under a wide range of atmospheric conditions or high resolution models that could resolve the effect of the coastal discontinuity in the surface properties. New parametrizations are important and high quality databases are also needed for formulating them. Ground-based remote sensing devices such as lidars have been shown to be functional for studying the evolution of the vertical wind structure coastal atmospheric boundary layer both on- and offshore. Here, we present results from a year of vertical wind profiles, wind speed and direction, monitoring programme at a site located in the Italian Calabria Region, Central Mediterranean, 600m from the Thyrrenian coastline, where a Lidar Doppler, ZephIr (ZephIr ltd) has been operative since July 2013. The lidar monitors wind speed and direction from 10m up to 300m at 10 vertical levels with an average of 10 minutes and it is supported by a metmast providing: Atmospheric Pressure, Solar Radiation, Precipitation, Relative Humidity, Temperature,Wind Speed and Direction at 10m. We present the characterization of wind profiles during one year period according to the time of the day to transition periods night/day/night classified relating the local scale, breeze scale, to the large scale conditions. The dataset is also functional for techniques for short-term prediction of wind for the renewable energy integration in the distribution grids. The site infrastructure is funded within the Project "Infrastructure of High Technology for Environmental and Climate Monitoring" (I-AMICA) (PONa3_00363) by the Italian National Operative Program (PON 2007-2013) and European Regional Development Fund. Real-time data are show on http://www.i-amica.it/i-amica/?page_id=1122.

  20. Trio of stellar occultations by Pluto One Year Prior to New Horizons' Arrival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Person, Michael J.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Zuluaga, Carlos A.; Levine, Stephen; Osip, David J.; Schiff, Adam R.; Seeger, Christina H.; Babcock, Bryce A.; Rojo, Patricio; Kosiarek, Molly R.; Servajean, Elise

    2015-01-01

    Our campaign in July 2014 yielded three successful stellar occultations (~m=15, 17, and 18) of Pluto (~m=14), observed from telescopes in New Zealand, Australia, and Chile. Telescopes involved included Chile: Magellan's Clay (6.5 m), SOAR (4.1 m), Carnegie's DuPont (2.4 m); Australia: AAT (4 m); and Canterbury's Mt. John McLellan (1-m); as well as various smaller telescopes in Australia and Chile. One of the events was also observed, with negative results, from GROND on La Silla (2.2 m) and SMARTS's ANDICAM at CTIO (1.3 m). Though our observations were coordinated across continents, each successfully observed event was seen from only one site because of bad weather at the other sites. Two of the events were uniquely observed from Mt. John (Pasachoff et al., DPS 2014) and one, with only Chile sites in the predicted path, from the Clay (Person et al., DPS 2014). This last event was expected to be of the brightest star with the largest telescope we have ever observed for a Pluto occultation, but clouds arrived at the 6.5-m Clay 90 s before the predicted time; a 1% occultation was nonetheless seen and eventually, confirmed by Keck AO observations, to be of a 15th magnitude star previously hidden in the brightness of the 12th mag star. Our scientific conclusion is that as of these observations, one year before New Horizons' passage of Pluto, the atmosphere of Pluto remained robust and of the same size. Details on our analysis of the three events will be presented.Acknowledgments: This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants to Williams College (NNX12AJ29G) and to MIT (NNX10AB27G), as well as grants from USRA (#8500-98-003) and Ames Research (#NAS2-97-01) to Lowell Observatory. A.R.S. was supported by NSF grant AST-1005024 for the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium REU, with partial support from U.S. DoD's ASSURE program. P.R. acknowledges support from FONDECYT through grant 1120299. J.M.P. thanks Andrew Ingersoll and Caltech Planetary Astronomy

  1. Baseline peripheral refractive error and changes in axial refraction during one year in a young adult population

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Andreas; Charman, William Neil; Radhakrishnan, Hema

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the initial characteristics of individual patterns of peripheral refraction relate to subsequent changes in refraction over a one-year period. Methods 54 myopic and emmetropic subjects (mean age: 24.9 ± 5.1 years; median 24 years) with normal vision were recruited and underwent conventional non-cycloplegic subjective refraction. Peripheral refraction was also measured at 5° intervals over the central 60° of horizontal visual field, together with axial length. After one year, measurements of subjective refraction and axial length were repeated on the 43 subjects who were still available for examination. Results In agreement with earlier studies, higher myopes tended to show greater relative peripheral hyperopia. There was, however, considerable inter-subject variation in the pattern of relative peripheral refractive error (RPRE) at any level of axial refraction. Across the group, mean one-year changes in axial refraction and axial length did not differ significantly from zero. There was no correlation between changes in these parameters for individual subjects and any characteristic of their RPRE. Conclusion No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the pattern of RPRE is predictive of subsequent refractive change in this age group. PMID:26188389

  2. Trends in relative weight over one year in low-income urban youth

    PubMed Central

    Lawman, Hannah G; Mallya, Giridhar; Veur, Stephanie Vander; McCoy, Tara; Colby, Lisa; Sanders, Tim; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Foster, Gary D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent cross-sectional data indicate the rates of childhood obesity are plateauing. Few large-scale longitudinal datasets exist, particularly in low-income and minority youth. The purpose of the current study was to describe longitudinal changes in relative weight among a large sample of low-income, minority youth over one year. Methods Participants were students from fifty-six schools in urban, low-income environments. There were 17,727 1st-6th graders (64% African American, 52% male) assessed at baseline and 13,305 youth (75.1%) were reassessed one-year later at follow-up. Measured height and weight were used to assess categorical (overweight, obesity, severe obesity) and continuous (BMI, percentile, z-score) measures of relative weight. Results Longitudinal data showed that over one year, BMI percentile (95% CI: −0.64 – −0.32,p<.001) and BMI z-score (95% CI: −0.02 – −0.01,p<.001) were significantly lower compared to baseline. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was stable over one year. Most (86.0%) youth remained in the same weight category as baseline, 6.8% improved weight category and 7.2% worsened weight category over one year. Conclusions These longitudinal data indicate that the relative weight of low-income, urban youth is showing signs of a small improvement over a one year follow-up period. The rates of childhood obesity, however, remain remarkably high and require continued, creative, public health efforts. PMID:25354706

  3. An adjusted one year sea surface heat and water budget for the Northwestern Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caniaux, Guy; Prieur, Louis; Giordani, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The problem of heat and salt budget closure is an important subject in operational and research oceanography. The closure depends crucially on surface fluxes, as they are one of the most important processes in terms of the evolution of the heat and salt content in the oceanic top layers. However, in this problem, two points have to be considered. First, surface fluxes are affected by a variety of errors: those associated with the algorithms used for computing the turbulent fluxes, those due to the data used as input of bulk algorithms and the errors associated with the time and space resolution of the fluxes themselves. The second problem is that no surface flux dataset exists, that can be used as the truth, or as a reference, i.e. that can be used for closing observed heat and water budgets at various time and space scales. Here we address the question of adjusting surface heat and water fluxes so that they are in agreement with the evolution of the thermal and salt contents deduced from the extended dataset collected during the HyMex campaigns. These experiments were conducted in the North-western Mediterranean basin in 2012 and 2013. The method is based: (1) on the one-dimensional column modelling of the experimental area, by solving specific temperature and salinity equations and (2) on the optimization of adjustable coefficients with a genetic algorithm. The surface forcings, calculated from a mix of satellite retrievals, in-situ data, numerical weather prediction model observables and a bulk algorithm are also adjusted with the genetic algorithm. Finally, the adjusted fluxes allows to simulate the domain average sea surface temperature and salinity with errors less than 0.2 percent (or 0.03°C) and 0.08 percent (or 0.03 psu) respectively over one year. The adjusted fluxes are finally compared with various NWP models over the North-western Mediterranean basin and also locally with fluxes estimated at a mooring site (LION buoy).

  4. A napkin-associated outbreak of Burkholderia cenocepacia bacteraemia in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lo Cascio, G; Bonora, M G; Zorzi, A; Mortani, E; Tessitore, N; Loschiavo, C; Lupo, A; Solbiati, M; Fontana, R

    2006-09-01

    This article reports a catheter-related outbreak of bacteraemia involving 38 patients in two haemodialysis units in Verona. Burkholderia cepacia complex strains were isolated from human blood and from an individually wrapped disinfection napkin that was contained in a commercially available, sterile dressing kit used to handle central venous catheters. Micro-organisms isolated from blood cultures and from the napkin were identified by standard procedures and confirmed as B. cenocepacia (genomovar III) by molecular analysis. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, the clinical isolates were indistinguishable or closely related to the B. cenocepacia isolated from the napkin. In conclusion, this study found that a contaminated commercial napkin soaked in quaternary ammonium, even when quality certified, was the source of infection. PMID:16859809

  5. Non-lethal Clostridium sordellii bacteraemia in an immunocompromised patient with pleomorphic sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Bonnecaze, Alex K; Stephens, Sarah Ellen Elza; Miller, Peter John

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium sordellii is a spore-forming anaerobic Gram-positive rod that has rarely been reported to cause disease in humans. Resultant mortality from infection is estimated at nearly 70% and is most often correlated with gynaecological procedures, intravenous drug abuse or trauma. C. sordellii infection often presents similarly to toxic shock syndrome (TSS); notable features of infection include refractory hypotension, haemoconcentration and marked leucocytosis. Although clinically similar to TSS, a notable difference is C. sordellii infections rarely involve fever. The organism's major toxins include haemorrhagic (TcsH) and lethal factor (TcsL), which function to disrupt cytoskeletal integrity. Current literature suggests treating C. sordelli infection with a broad-spectrum penicillin, metronidazole and clindamycin. We present a case of C. sordellii bacteraemia and septic shock in an immunocompromised patient who was recently diagnosed with pleomorphic gluteal sarcoma. Despite presenting in critical condition, the patient improved after aggressive hemodynamic resuscitation, source control and intravenous antibiotic therapy. PMID:27489063

  6. Reduction in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia rates in patients receiving haemodialysis following alteration of skin antisepsis procedures.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B J; Gardiner, T; Perry, G J; Tong, S Y C

    2016-02-01

    This study examined all cases of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) in the haemodialysis cohort at the Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia over a seven-year period. Midway through this period, antisepsis for arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) and central venous catheters (CVC) changed from 0.5% chlorhexidine solution to 2% chlorhexidine solution. Rates of SAB episodes were calculated using registry data. Trends in SAB over time were analysed using an interrupted regression analysis. Following the change to 2% chlorhexidine, average SAB rates decreased by 68%, and it is estimated that 0.111 cases of SAB/patient-year were prevented. CVC-related SAB rates remained low throughout. These results support the use of 2% chlorhexidine in skin antisepsis for patients with AVF. PMID:26778135

  7. A population-based study of aerococcal bacteraemia in the MALDI-TOF MS-era.

    PubMed

    Senneby, E; Göransson, L; Weiber, S; Rasmussen, M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of aerococcal bacteraemia in the MALDI-TOF MS-era, to describe the clinical presentation and to determine the MIC values of aerococci for ten antibiotics. Aerococci in blood cultures were identified through searches in the laboratory database for the years 2012-2014. MALDI-TOF MS, sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and a PYR test were used for species identification. Patients' medical charts were systematically reviewed. Etests were used to determine MIC values. Seventy-seven patients were identified (Aerococcus urinae n = 49, Aerococcus viridans n = 14, Aerococcus sanguinicola n = 13 and Aerococcus christensenii n = 1) corresponding to incidences of 14 cases per 1,000,000 inhabitants per year (A. urinae) and 3.5 cases per 1,000,000 inhabitants per year (A. sanguinicola and A.viridans). A. urinae was in pure culture in 61 %, A. sanguinicola in 46 % and A. viridans in 36 % of the cases. The A. urinae and A. sanguinicola patients were old and many had urinary tract disorders, and a majority had a suspected urinary tract focus of the bacteraemia. Eighty percent of the A. urinae patients were men. Five A. urinae patients were diagnosed with infective endocarditis. Six patients died within 30 days. Most isolates had low MICs to penicillins and carbapenems. MALDI-TOF MS has led to an increased identification of aerococcal bacteremia. A. urinae remains the most common Aerococcus in blood cultures and in aerococcal IE. PMID:26838685

  8. Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: evaluation of the role of transoesophageal echocardiography in identifying clinically unsuspected endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Incani, A; Hair, C; Purnell, P; O'Brien, D P; Cheng, A C; Appelbe, A; Athan, E

    2013-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is an important cause of community and nosocomial sepsis, with a significant mortality rate. Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious complication, occurring in up to 25 % of cases. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) significantly improves the sensitivity of diagnosis. We compared the sensitivity and specificity of clinical evaluation alone in diagnosing IE. We evaluated all adult patients with SAB at our centre from 1998 to 2006 in order to determine what proportion of clinically unsuspected cases were diagnosed with IE on TOE. IE was defined according to modified Duke criteria. The median age of the patients was 68 years, 77 % were male and the majority of cases did not have a known pre-existing condition. Twenty-one percent were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Intravascular device was the most common cause of bacteraemia. TOE was performed in 144 (100 %) of the cases. IE was suspected clinically in 15 % of cases, and the overall prevalence of possible or definite IE on TOE-inclusive Duke criteria was 29 % (n = 41). Following TOE, 22 (15 %) cases were reclassified as either possible or definite endocarditis. TOE detected a vegetation in 37 (90 %) of the 41 cases of IE. Nineteen (46 %) were not suspected clinically by Duke criteria. Sensitivity improved in the presence of pre-existing valve lesion or community acquisition. The overall in-hospital mortality was 10 %. There is a high incidence of endocarditis in SAB and a large percentage of cases are not evident on clinical grounds. TOE evaluation is indicated for all medically suitable adult patients with SAB in order to improve the detection of endocarditis. PMID:23417650

  9. Learning to Become a Learning Professional: Reflections on One Year of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attard, Karl; Armour, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    This research aims to study the ways in which a teacher learns through and about professional practice. Data presented here is drawn from one year of teaching and focuses on pedagogical practices, critical reflection upon those practices and the impact of the implementation of a new physical education syllabus in Maltese secondary schools. The…

  10. One Year Program to Train Developers in Public Education Systems. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Inst. of Afro-American Affairs.

    The purpose of this program to train developers in public education systems was to construct and test a viable model that would fulfill its training goals in one year and which could also be replicated under similar conditions by comparable institutions. The model involved a part-time program which provided theoretical and experiential training…

  11. One Year Term Review as a Participating Guest in the Detonator and Detonation Physics Group

    SciTech Connect

    Lefrancois, A; Roeske, F; Tran, T; Lee, R S

    2006-02-06

    The one year stay was possible after a long administrative process, because of the fact that this was the first participating guest of B division as a foreign national in HEAF (High Explosives Application Facility) with the Detonator/Detonation Physics Group.

  12. A Study on One Year Enrollments in Selected Vocational Centers in New Hampshire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lister, Robert; Lichtenstein, Stephen

    A research study examined the extent and impact of one-year enrollments by 12th graders in 2-year secondary vocational programs in New Hampshire. Enrollment data from 1981-1982 and 1982-1983 school years from six rural Regional Centers were used for the sample. A review of current literature found that no other state has ever researched the…

  13. Predictors of Close Family Relationships over One Year among Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, N.G.; Jane Rotheram-Borus, M.; Batterham, P.; Brumback, B.; Rosenthal, D.; Mallett, S.

    2005-01-01

    Predictors of perceived family bonds were examined among homeless young people who initially left home one year earlier. Newly homeless young people aged 12-20 years who had recently left home were recruited in Los Angeles County, United States (n=201) and Melbourne, Australia (n=124) and followed longitudinally at 3, 6, and 12 months (follow-up…

  14. Proposed Outline for a One-Year Certificate Program in Word Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Arnold

    Two courses, Word Processing Concepts and Word Processing Workshop, are described as part of a proposed outline for a one-year certificate program in word processing (WP) to be offered at Nassau Community College. The other courses in the program are: first semester--intermediate typing, introduction to business, data processing, and English…

  15. Stigma and suicidal ideation among young people at risk of psychosis after one year.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ziyan; Mayer, Benjamin; Müller, Mario; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Dvorsky, Diane; Metzler, Sibylle; Oexle, Nathalie; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2016-09-30

    Suicidality is common among individuals at risk of psychosis. Emerging findings suggest that mental illness stigma contributes to suicidality. However, it is unclear whether stigma variables are associated with suicidality among young people at risk of psychosis. This longitudinal study assessed perceived public stigma and the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor (stigma stress) as predictors of suicidal ideation among individuals at risk of psychosis over the period of one year. One hundred and seventy-two participants between 13 and 35 years of age were included who were at high or ultra-high risk of psychosis or at risk of bipolar disorder. At one-year follow-up, data were available from 73 completers. In multiple logistic regressions an increase of stigma stress (but not of perceived stigma) over one year was significantly associated with suicidal ideation at one-year follow-up, controlling for age, gender, symptoms, comorbid depression and suicidal ideation at baseline. Interventions to reduce public stigma and stigma stress could therefore improve suicide prevention among young people at risk of psychosis. PMID:27419651

  16. The One-Year Residency Program: An Alternative Path to the Master's Degree in Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Robert; Walker, Joel

    1981-01-01

    At Hunter College an alternative master's program for social workers who cannot give up employment for full-time study replaces the traditional scheduling with three flexible time periods: pre-fieldwork and post-fieldwork, part-time coursework, and one-year, four-day-a-week fieldwork experience in the place of employment. (MSE)

  17. A One-Year Study of the Development of Co-Teaching in Four Finnish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta

    2012-01-01

    In this follow-up study, development of co-teaching was studied in four different schools in Helsinki, Finland. Teachers, altogether 54, 51 and 26, respectively, responded to an electronic questionnaire three times during one year. The attitudes towards co-teaching were positive although the frequency of co-teaching remained low. Co-teaching was…

  18. Toddlers' Expressive Vocabulary Outcomes after One Year of Parent-Child Home Program Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manz, Patricia H.; Bracaliello, Catherine B.; Pressimone, Vanessa J.; Eisenberg, Rachel A.; Gernhart, Amanda C.; Fu, Qiong; Zuniga, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study examined expressive vocabulary outcomes for Parent-Child Home Program (PCHP) toddlers, after one year of home-visiting services. First, this study applied Rasch modelling to establish the construct validity and reliability of a widely used expressive vocabulary measure, as modified for a sample of ethnic and…

  19. Science Career Interests among High School Girls One Year after Participation in a Summer Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Katherine A.; Barrow, Lloyd H.; Chandrasekhar, Meera

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a residential summer program, the New Experiences for Women in Science and Technology (Newton) Academy, which was developed to encourage high school girls' interest in the physical sciences and engineering. Reports the results of a follow-up evaluative study of the 1998 Newton Academy participants one year after participation. (Contains…

  20. Job Entry Level Competencies of a One Year Barber School Graduate. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swerman, Richard A.; Wurtzel, Norbert K.

    To determine the competency level required of a one-year graduate from barber school and to obtain information that would enable vocational-technical schools to plan their curriculum to better meet student barber needs, a survey was conducted in Wisconsin of 629 barber shop managers, 75 journeymen, and 200 apprentices. Picked at random, these…

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life among Abused Women One Year after Leaving a Violent Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsaker, Kjersti; Moen, Bente E.; Kristoffersen, Kjell

    2008-01-01

    This is the first follow up study measuring quality of life among abused women who have left their abusive partner. The women (n = 22) answered a questionnaire while staying at women's shelter and one year later. The aim was to examine long-term effects of intimate partner violence against women on health-related quality of life. Health-related…

  2. Early Contact and Infant-Mother Attachment at One-Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottaviano, Christine M.; And Others

    This paper reports the effects of one hour of extra post-partum contact between mother and infant on the quality of the attachment observed when the infant was one year old. It was hypothesized that infants in the extra contact condition would be classified as securely attached while regular contact infants would be less frequently classified as…

  3. 45 CFR 680.12 - One-year NSF post-employment restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 680.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE AND STATUTORY CONFLICT-OF-INTEREST EXEMPTIONS Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.12 One-year NSF post-employment...

  4. A One-Year Introductory Robotics Curriculum for Computer Science Upperclassmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correll, N.; Wing, R.; Coleman, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a one-year introductory robotics course sequence focusing on computational aspects of robotics for third- and fourth-year students. The key challenges this curriculum addresses are "scalability," i.e., how to teach a robotics class with a limited amount of hardware to a large audience, "student assessment,"…

  5. Urbanicity and Paediatric Bacteraemia in Ghana—A Case-Control Study within a Rural-Urban Transition Zone

    PubMed Central

    Sothmann, Peter; Krumkamp, Ralf; Kreuels, Benno; Sarpong, Nimako; Frank, Clemens; Ehlkes, Lutz; Fobil, Julius; Gyau, Kennedy; Jaeger, Anna; Bosu, Benedicta; Marks, Florian; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Salzberger, Bernd; May, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic bacterial infections are a major cause of paediatric febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa. Aim of this study was to assess the effects of social and geographical determinants on the risk of bacteraemia in a rural-urban transition zone in Ghana. Methods Children below 15 years of age with fever were recruited at an outpatient department in the suburban belt of Kumasi, Ghana’s second largest city. Blood was taken for bacterial culture and malaria diagnostics. The socio-economic status of participants was calculated using Principle Component Analysis. A scale, based on key urban characteristics, was established to quantify urbanicity for all communities in the hospital catchment area. A case-control analysis was conducted, where children with and without bacteraemia were cases and controls, respectively. Results Bacteraemia was detected in 72 (3.1%) of 2,306 hospital visits. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS; n = 24; 33.3%) and Salmonella typhi (n = 18; 25.0%) were the most common isolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that bacteraemia was negatively associated with urbanicity (odds ratio [OR] = 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7–1.0) and socio-economic status (OR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6–0.9). Both associations were stronger if only NTS infections were used as cases (OR = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3–0.8 and OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4–1.0, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study highlight the importance of individual as well as community factors as independent risk factors for invasive bacterial infection (IBI) and especially NTS. Epidemiological data support physicians, public health experts and policy makers to identify disease prevention and treatment needs in order to secure public health in the transitional societies of developing countries. PMID:26418004

  6. Gram-negative bacteraemia; a multi-centre prospective evaluation of empiric antibiotic therapy and outcome in English acute hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J M; Biswas, J S; Edgeworth, J D; Islam, J; Jenkins, N; Judge, R; Lavery, A J; Melzer, M; Morris-Jones, S; Nsutebu, E F; Peters, J; Pillay, D G; Pink, F; Price, J R; Scarborough, M; Thwaites, G E; Tilley, R; Walker, A S; Llewelyn, M J

    2016-03-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance makes choosing antibiotics for suspected Gram-negative infection challenging. This study set out to identify key determinants of mortality among patients with Gram-negative bacteraemia, focusing particularly on the importance of appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment. We conducted a prospective observational study of 679 unselected adults with Gram-negative bacteraemia at ten acute english hospitals between October 2013 and March 2014. Appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment was defined as intravenous treatment on the day of blood culture collection with an antibiotic to which the cultured organism was sensitive in vitro. Mortality analyses were adjusted for patient demographics, co-morbidities and illness severity. The majority of bacteraemias were community-onset (70%); most were caused by Escherichia coli (65%), Klebsiella spp. (15%) or Pseudomonas spp. (7%). Main foci of infection were urinary tract (51%), abdomen/biliary tract (20%) and lower respiratory tract (14%). The main antibiotics used were co-amoxiclav (32%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (30%) with 34% receiving combination therapy (predominantly aminoglycosides). Empiric treatment was inappropriate in 34%. All-cause mortality was 8% at 7 days and 15% at 30 days. Independent predictors of mortality (p <0.05) included older age, greater burden of co-morbid disease, severity of illness at presentation and inflammatory response. Inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy was not associated with mortality at either time-point (adjusted OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.35-1.94 and adjusted OR 0.92; 95% CI 0.50-1.66, respectively). Although our study does not exclude an impact of empiric antibiotic choice on survival in Gram-negative bacteraemia, outcome is determined primarily by patient and disease factors. PMID:26577143

  7. Enhanced physical therapy for arm function after stroke: a one year follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Sunderland, A; Fletcher, D; Bradley, L; Tinson, D; Hewer, R L; Wade, D T

    1994-01-01

    Ninety seven patients with stroke who had participated in a randomised trial of conventional physical therapy nu an enhanced therapy for arm function were followed up at one year. Despite the emphasis of the enhanced therapy approach on continued use of the arm in everyday life, the advantage seen for some patients with enhanced therapy at six months after stroke had diminished to a non-significant trend by one year. This was due to some late improvement in the conventional therapy group whereas the enhanced therapy group remained static or fell back slightly. It is recommended that trials should be conducted comparing very intensive therapy for the arm with controls without treatment. This would provide a model of the effects of therapy on intrinsic neural recovery that would be relevant to all areas of neurological rehabilitation. PMID:8021679

  8. Remembering All That and Then Some: Recollection of Autobiographical Memories after a One-Year Delay

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Jenna; Nadel, Lynn; Duke, Devin; Ryan, Lee

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that repeated retrievals of remote autobiographical memories over the course of one month led to an overall increase in reported detail (Nadel, Campbell & Ryan, 2007). The current study examined the retrieval of those same memories one year later in order to determine whether the level of detail remained stable or whether the memories returned to their original state. Participants reported even more details than they had recalled at least one year earlier, including new details that were reported for the first time. This finding was consistent across both multiple and single retrieval conditions suggesting that the critical factor leading to the increase in recall was the passage of time. These findings provide evidence for long-term effects of repeated retrieval on memory content. PMID:21678157

  9. Outcomes at One-Year Post Anastomosis from a National Cohort of Infants with Oesophageal Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Allin, Benjamin; Knight, Marian; Johnson, Paul; Burge, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims We aimed to provide a contemporaneous assessment of outcomes at one-year post oesophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula (OA-TOF) repair, focussing particularly on post-operative complications. It is generally accepted that oesophageal stricture is the most common complication and causes significant morbidity. We also aimed to assess the efficacy of prophylactic anti-reflux medication (PARM) in reducing stricture formation. Method A prospective, multi-centre cohort study of all infants live-born with oesophageal atresia in the United Kingdom and Ireland in 2008/9 was performed, recording clinical management and outcomes at one year. The effect of PARM on stricture formation in infants with the type-c anomaly was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results 151 infants were live-born with oesophageal atresia in the defined reporting period, 126 of whom had the type-c anomaly. One-year follow-up information was returned for 105 infants (70%); the mortality rate was 8.6% (95% CI 4.7–14.3%). Post-operative complications included anastomotic leak (5.4%), recurrent fistula (3.3%) and oesophageal stricture (39%). Seventy-six (60%) of those with type-c anomaly were alive at one-year with returned follow-up, 57(75%) of whom had received PARM. Of these, 24 (42%) developed a stricture, compared to 4 (21%) of those who had not received PARM (adjusted odds ratio 2.60, 95% CI 0.71–9.46, p = 0.147). Conclusions This study provides a benchmark for current outcomes and complication rates following OA-TOF repair, with oesophageal stricture causing significant morbidity. The use of PARM appeared ineffective in preventing strictures. This study creates enough doubt about the efficacy of PARM in preventing stricture formation to warrant further investigation of its use with a randomised controlled trial. PMID:25153838

  10. 40 CFR 51.1005 - One-year extensions of the attainment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR part 50, appendix N). (b) An area that fails to attain the PM2.5 NAAQS after receiving a 1... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1005 One-year extensions of the attainment... the PM2.5 NAAQS by its attainment date may apply for an initial 1-year attainment date extension...

  11. 40 CFR 51.1005 - One-year extensions of the attainment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR part 50, appendix N). (b) An area that fails to attain the PM2.5 NAAQS after receiving a 1... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1005 One-year extensions of the attainment... the PM2.5 NAAQS by its attainment date may apply for an initial 1-year attainment date extension...

  12. 40 CFR 51.1005 - One-year extensions of the attainment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR part 50, appendix N). (b) An area that fails to attain the PM2.5 NAAQS after receiving a 1... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1005 One-year extensions of the attainment... the PM2.5 NAAQS by its attainment date may apply for an initial 1-year attainment date extension...

  13. Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteraemia in elderly patients: an increased risk for endovascular infections, osteomyelitis and mortality.

    PubMed

    Chen, P L; Lee, H C; Lee, N Y; Wu, C J; Lin, S H; Shih, H I; Lee, C C; Ko, W C; Chang, C M

    2012-11-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a common pathogen causing foodborne infections, bacteraemia, and extra-intestinal focal infections (EFIs) in humans. The study compares the clinical characteristics of elderly patients with NTS bacteraemia with those of young adults. Of 272 adults with NTS bacteraemia identified in this study, 162 (59·6%) were aged ⩾55 years. EFIs were observed in 36% of the 162 patients. The most common EFIs in the elderly patients (⩾55 years) was mycotic aneurysm, followed by pulmonary infections and bone/joint infections. Elderly patients more often had chronic heart, lung, renal and malignant diseases, had more EFIs, and a higher 30-day mortality rate. Independent factors of 30-day mortality in elderly patients were solid-organ tumour [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4·4, P=0·003], mycotic aneurysm (aOR 3·7, P=0·023) and shock (aOR 12·1, P<0·0001). HIV infection, autoimmune diseases, and receipt of immunosuppressive therapy were more often observed in young patients. PMID:22261309

  14. The Role of Host and Microbial Factors in the Pathogenesis of Pneumococcal Bacteraemia Arising from a Single Bacterial Cell Bottleneck

    PubMed Central

    Furi, Leonardo; Braccini, Tiziana; Manso, Ana Sousa; Pammolli, Andrea; Wang, Bo; Vivi, Antonio; Tassini, Maria; van Rooijen, Nico; Pozzi, Gianni; Ricci, Susanna; Andrew, Peter W.; Koedel, Uwe; Moxon, E. Richard; Oggioni, Marco R.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bacteraemia after challenge with one million pneumococci of three isogenic variants was investigated. Sequential analyses of blood samples indicated that most episodes of bacteraemia were monoclonal events providing compelling evidence for a single bacterial cell bottleneck at the origin of invasive disease. With respect to host determinants, results identified novel properties of splenic macrophages and a role for neutrophils in early clearance of pneumococci. Concerning microbial factors, whole genome sequencing provided genetic evidence for the clonal origin of the bacteraemia and identified SNPs in distinct sub-units of F0/F1 ATPase in the majority of the ex vivo isolates. When compared to parental organisms of the inoculum, ex-vivo pneumococci with mutant alleles of the F0/F1 ATPase had acquired the capacity to grow at low pH at the cost of the capacity to grow at high pH. Although founded by a single cell, the genotypes of pneumococci in septicaemic mice indicate strong selective pressure for fitness, emphasising the within-host complexity of the pathogenesis of invasive disease. PMID:24651834

  15. The incidence of S. aureus bacteraemia in acute hospitals of the Mid-Western Area, Ireland, 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Whyte, D; Monahan, R; Boyle, L; Slevin, B; FitzGerald, R; Barron, D; De Freitas, J; Kelleher, K

    2005-05-01

    Concerns about healthcare-associated infections and the global crisis in antimicrobial resistance has combined to accentuate the fears around so-called "superbugs". In Ireland there is no single agreed indicator regarded as a true measure of the level of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals. The objective of this study was to compare two crude measures of MRSA--the percentage of bacteraemia caused by MRSA and the incidence rate (per 1000 bed days used) of MRSA bacteraemia in six acute hospitals. We examined all blood cultures positive for S. aureus (methicillin sensitive and resistant) from 2002 to 2004 in the Health Service Executive (HSE) Mid-Western Area of Ireland. Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) data was used to determine monthly in-patient bed days used. Of 245 patient episodes of bacteraemia, 119 were MRSA. The trends in the percentage of isolates that were MRSA and the incidence rate calculated were compared. The incidence rate appears to be a more reliable and robust indicator of MRSA in hospitals than the percentage. Despite many difficulties in interpreting indicators of MRSA they should not preclude the regular publication of data at least at regional level in Ireland. PMID:16077206

  16. Effects of a one year physical activity program on serum C Terminal Agrin Fragment (CAF) concentrations among mobility limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVES: C terminal Agrin Fragment (CAF) has been proposed as a potential circulating biomarker for predicting changes in physical function among older adults. To determine the effect of a one year PA intervention on changes in CAF concentrations and to evaluate baseline and longitudinal associat...

  17. A retrospective study of secondary bacteraemia in hospitalised adults with community acquired non-typhoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical significance of bacteraemia secondary to non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) gastroenteritis in hospitalised adults is uncertain. Methods Adults admitted to a hospital in Liverpool, UK, with NTS gastroenteritis were identified using hospital discharge data and laboratory records. Patients with known HIV infection were excluded. Risk factors for a complicated or fatal course were determined. Results Between 1982 and 2006 inclusive, 633 adults were identified. Serovars causing infection included Enteritidis (46.6%), Typhimurium (27.6%) and Virchow (4.9%). A blood culture was taken in 364 (57.5%) patients who were generally sicker than those who were not cultured. Bacteraemia was detected in 63 (17.3%) patients who had blood cultures taken (63/633 (10.0%) of all patients). Bacteraemia was more common in those aged ≥ 65 years (p < 0.001) and in those aged < 65 years who had an underlying chronic disease. A complicated course occurred in 91 (25.0%) patients who had had a blood culture taken (148/633 (23.4%) of all patients). Independent factors associated with a complicated or fatal course among the patients investigated with a blood culture were bacteraemia (Adjusted Odds Ratio 5.34, 95% CI 2.86–9.95); new onset confusion or coma (AOR 4.80, 95% CI 1.91–12.07); prolonged symptoms prior to admission (AOR 2.48, 95% CI 1.44–4.27); dehydration (AOR1.90, 95% CI 1.07–3.38); and absence of fever (AOR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32–0.95). The 30 day attributable case fatality for all patients was 1.5%. Conclusions In this study secondary bacteraemia, as well as other clinical factors, was independently associated with a complicated or fatal course in non-HIV infected adults admitted to hospital with NTS gastroenteritis. PMID:23446179

  18. Post-Tooth Extraction Bacteraemia: A Randomized Clinical Trial on the Efficacy of Chlorhexidine Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Mario; Prada-López, Isabel; Álvarez, Maximiliano; Amaral, Barbas; de los Angeles, Casares-De-Cal María; Tomás, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the development of post-extraction bacteraemia (PEB) after the prophylactic use of chlorhexidine (CHX). Patients and Methods A total of 201 patients who underwent a tooth extraction were randomly distributed into four groups: 52 received no prophylaxis (CONTROL), 50 did a mouthwash with 0.2% CHX before the tooth extraction (CHX-MW), 51 did a mouthwash with 0.2% CHX and a subgingival irrigation with 1% CHX (CHX-MW/SUB_IR) and 48 did a mouthwash with 0.2% CHX and a continuous supragingival irrigation with 1% CHX (CHX-MW/SUPRA_IR). Peripheral venous blood samples were collected at baseline, 30 seconds after performing the mouthwash and the subgingival or supragingival irrigation, and at 30 seconds and 15 minutes after completion of the tooth extraction. Blood samples were analysed applying conventional microbiological cultures under aerobic and anaerobic conditions performing bacterial identification of the isolates. Results The prevalences of PEB in the CONTROL, CHX-MW, CHX-MW/SUB_IR and CHX-MWSUPRA_IR groups were 52%, 50%, 55% and 50%, respectively, at 30 seconds and 23%, 4%, 10% and 27%, respectively, at 15 minutes. The prevalence of PEB at 15 minutes was significantly higher in the CONTROL group than in the CHX-MW group (23% versus 4%; p = 0.005). At the same time, no differences were found between CONTROL group and CHX-MW/SUB_IR or CHX-MW/SUPRA_IR groups. Streptococci (mostly viridans group streptococci) were the most frequently identified bacteria (69–79%). Conclusions Performing a 0.2% CHX mouthwash significantly reduces the duration of PEB. Subgingival irrigation with 1% CHX didn’t increase the efficacy of the mouthwash while supragingival irrigation even decreased this efficacy, probably due to the influence of these maneuvers on the onset of bacteraemia. Clinical Relevance These results confirm the suitability of performing a mouthwash with 0.2% CHX before tooth extractions in order to reduce the duration of PEB. This practice

  19. Radiographic Vertical Bone Loss Evaluation around Dental Implants Following One Year of Functional Loading

    PubMed Central

    Rasouli Ghahroudi, AAR.; Talaeepour, AR; Mesgarzadeh, A.; Rokn, AR.; Khorsand, A.; Mesgarzadeh, NN.; Kharazi Fard, MJ.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Vertical bone loss evaluations in the Nobel Biocare Replace® Select Tapered ™ implant system in the human after one-year loading time. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on 31 patients (14 men, 17 women; mean age, 60.39 years) receiving 170 implants (mean, 5.48 for each patient) of Groovy and Non-groovy designs in the Nobel Biocare Replace® Select Tapered ™ system. The marginal bone loss was measured at mesial and distal aspects of the implants on OPG x-rays after one-year follow-up. The data regarding the patient’s gender, age, history of disease, smoking, bone type at implant location, loading time of prosthesis and implant, implant design, diameter and length were recorded by the patients’ records and interview. The data were subjected to multiple linear regression and Pearson coefficient ratio regarding different factors. Results: The mean (standard deviation) distal, mesial and overall bone loss was 0.688 mm (0.851), 0.665 mm (0.849) and 0.935 mm (0.905), respectively in the studied implants. No significant differences were found regarding implant location, bone quality at the implant region, implant design and bone graft reception. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the occurred bone loss and implant diameter, length and number of used splints. Conclusion: Due to the criteria mentioned for implant success in term of bone loss values after one-year loading time, Noble Biocare Replace® Select Tapered ™ implant system is an acceptable treatment option for implant restorations in this regard. PMID:21998781

  20. One-Year Outcomes of Aflibercept in Recurrent or Persistent Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Arcinue, Cheryl A.; Ma, Feiyan; Barteselli, Giulio; Sharpsten, Lucie; Gomez, Maria Laura; Freeman, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate 6-month and 1-year outcomes of every 8 weeks (Q8W) aflibercept in patients with resistant neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Retrospective, interventional, consecutive case series. Methods Retrospective review of patients with resistance (multiple recurrences or persistent exudation) to every 4 weeks (Q4W) ranibizumab or bevacizumab that were switched to Q8W aflibercept. Results Sixty-three eyes of 58 patients had a median of 13 (interquartile range (IQR), 7-22) previous anti Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (anti-VEGF) injections. At 6-months after changing to aflibercept, 60.3% of eyes were completely dry, which was maintained up to one-year. The median maximum retinal thickness improved from 355 microns to 269 microns at 6 months (p<0.0001) and 248 microns at one year (p<0.0001). There was no significant improvement in ETDRS visual acuity at 6 months (p=0.2559) and one-year follow-up (p=0.1081) compared with baseline. The mean difference in ETDRS visual acuity compared to baseline at 6 months was −0.05 logMAR (+2.5 letters) and 0.04 logMAR at 1 year (−2 letters). Conclusion Sixty percent of eyes with resistant AMD while on Q4W ranibizumab or bevacizumab were completely dry after changing to Q8W aflibercept at the 6-month and 1-year follow-ups, but visual acuity did not significantly improve. Only a third of eyes needed to be switched from Q8W to Q4W aflibercept due to persistence of fluid; Q8W dosing of aflibercept without the initial 3 monthly loading doses may be a good alternative in a select group of patients who may have developed ranibizumab or bevacizumab resistance. PMID:25461263

  1. Radiocesium levels measured in breast milk one year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pakou, A.A.; Lolis, D.; Zikopoulos, K.; Dusias, B.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred-two samples of colostral milk, collected during spring of 1987, approximately one year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, were measured for radiocesium contamination. The data showed a normal-type distribution with a mean contamination concentration of 16.4 Bq L-1. A weak correlation of the data to the mothers' diet was established by taking into account four of the main staples in the area. The corresponding transfer coefficient was deduced with a value of fm = 0.06 +/- 0.03 d L-1. The resultant effective dose received by breast-feeding infants was estimated, on the average, as 0.012 mrem d-1.

  2. One Year Experience with Portable Back-Pressure Turbines in Los Azufres

    SciTech Connect

    Hiriart, Gerardo L.

    1983-12-15

    This paper contains the experience gained after one year operating five 5 MW portable, back-pressure, geothermal power plants at Los Azufres. A brief description of the field and te equipment is given. Cost figures of the whole installation and a list of what they believe are the advantages and disadvantages is also presented. The main conclusion is that the use of this type of turbogenerators is quite attractive in new undeveloped fields and also in countries with financial problems where initial capital cost investments must be kept as low as possible at the expenses of long term steam consumption.

  3. AERONET data investigation of the aerosol mixtures over Iasi area, One-year time scale overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazacu, Mihai Marius; Timofte, Adrian; Unga, Florin; Albina, Bogdan; Gurlui, Silviu

    2015-03-01

    In order to analyze the troposphere dynamics under particular conditions in North-East region of Romania, various types of aerosols chemical compositions have been studied using complementary techniques. Thus, the seasonal trends of aerosols and its external influences have been studied using aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Complementary studies were taken into account by using several meteorological factors, computational models and meteorological data. Moreover, this paper presents optical properties analysis of different types of aerosols and the seasonal variability of them in one year of measurements. The major categories of aerosol types are evidenced, such as urban/industrial aerosol, biomass burning and mineral dust.

  4. Perceived wellbeing of patients one year post stroke in general practice - recommendations for quality aftercare

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Annually, 41,000 people in the Netherlands have strokes. This has multiple physical and psychosocial consequences. Most patients return home after discharge from hospital. Quality aftercare by general practitioners is important to support patients at home. The purpose of this study is to examine the wellbeing of patients who returned home immediately after discharge from hospital, one year post stroke, in comparison with the general Dutch population of the same age and to determine factors that could influence wellbeing. Methods All the stroke patients from the Department of Neurology, Martini Hospital Groningen in the period November 2006 to October 2007 were included. People aged under 65 years or with haemorrhaging were excluded. All the patients (N = 57) were interviewed at home using the following questionnaires: Barthel Index, SF-36, HADS, CSI and a questionnaire about their way of life. Results 31% of the patients in this study experienced a decrease in functional status after one year. Nevertheless, there was no significant difference between the median Barthel Index value at discharge from hospital and one year post stroke. ADL independence correlated with a better quality of life. The health-related quality of life was high. Stroke patients have almost the same quality of life as the 'average' Dutch elderly population. Where patients can no longer fully participate in society, their perceived quality of life is also lower. In this study there is an indication of a high prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in stroke patients. This negatively affects the quality of life a year after stroke. Although caregiver strain was low for the partners of stroke patients, a reduced quality of life is correlated to greater burden. Conclusions This study provides valuable insight into the wellbeing of patients living at home one year post stroke. Physical functioning and quality of life are comparable to the general population of the same age, but

  5. [Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis in a one-year-old girl with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Anna Elisabeth; Høi-Hansen, Christina Engel; Buchvald, Frederik; Petersen, Werner

    2014-09-22

    Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare disease. We describe a girl with Down syndrome who had no major respiratory symptoms until one year of age, where recurrent airway infections and chronic anaemia of unknown aetiology developed. At 20 months of age she had intermittent haemo-ptysis, was investigated with computed tomography and broncho-alveolar lavage and was diagnosed with IPH. After treatment, respiratory symptoms and anaemia resolved and a positive impact on previously impaired growth and psychomotor development was seen. Paediatricians should consider IPH in children with recurrent respiratory symptoms and anaemia. PMID:25294331

  6. CPV Cell Characterization Following One-Year Exposure in Golden, Colorado: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-08-01

    A CPV module containing 30 III-V multijunction cells was operated on?sun for one year in Golden, Colorado. Each cell was characterized prior to and following exposure. A module power degradation of 10% was observed and found to be a result as an overall decrease in cell short circuit current and the presence of at least one shunted cell. A positive correlation between initial shunt current and an increase in shunt current following exposure was also found. Cell exfoliation was also observed and found to be coincident with the presence of water and/or charring of the cell package due to an off-sun event.

  7. The Joint Information System - Résumé after One Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienreich, I.; Hanslmeier, A.; Sosa, A.

    The Joint Information System (JIS) is a fully operable computing tool, which is a combination of a database and interactive web pages, reachable under the web address http://www.solarJIS.com. It is the first-rate aim of this tool to be a platform for all European solar physicists as well as for all other interested ones, which facilitates the access to information about institutes, groups and physicists which work in the field of solar physics. Now, one year after the start of JIS we want to give a brief summary of the success of this tool and discuss possible future plans.

  8. Reliability of Laparoscopic Compared With Hysteroscopic Sterilization at One Year: A Decision Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gariepy, Aileen M.; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Schwarz, Eleanor B.; Smith, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the probability of successful sterilization after hysteroscopic or laparoscopic sterilization procedure. METHODS An evidence-based clinical decision analysis using a Markov model was performed to estimate the probability of a successful sterilization procedure using laparoscopic sterilization, hysteroscopic sterilization in the operating room, and hysteroscopic sterilization in the office. Procedure and follow-up testing probabilities for the model were estimated from published sources. RESULTS In the base case analysis, the proportion of women having a successful sterilization procedure on first attempt is 99% for laparoscopic, 88% for hysteroscopic in the operating room and 87% for hysteroscopic in the office. The probability of having a successful sterilization procedure within one year is 99% with laparoscopic, 95% for hysteroscopic in the operating room, and 94% for hysteroscopic in the office. These estimates for hysteroscopic success include approximately 6% of women who attempt hysteroscopically but are ultimately sterilized laparoscopically. Approximately 5% of women who have a failed hysteroscopic attempt decline further sterilization attempts. CONCLUSIONS Women choosing laparoscopic sterilization are more likely than those choosing hysteroscopic sterilization to have a successful sterilization procedure within one year. However, the risk of failed sterilization and subsequent pregnancy must be considered when choosing a method of sterilization. PMID:21775842

  9. Mentally disordered offenders' daily occupations after one year of forensic care.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, Helena; Grann, Martin; Söderlund, Anne

    2011-12-01

    Persons detained as mentally disordered offenders need support for transition from care to community life. Few systematic studies have been completed on the outcomes of standard forensic care. The aim was to investigate the target group's life conditions and daily occupations one year after care. In a follow-up design occupational performance (OP) and social participation (SP) were investigated at two time points. After informed consent 36 consecutively recruited participants reported OP using the Capability to Perform Daily Occupations, Self-Efficacy Scale, Importance scale, and Allen Cognitive Level Screen. SP was measured with the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, and Interview Schedule for Social Interaction. After one year 24 participants were still incarcerated, 11 were conditionally released, and one participant was discharged. The group were generally more satisfied and engaged in daily occupations than at admission. The study's attrition rate, 51%, is discussed. The conclusion and the clinical implications indicate that the target group need early, goal directed interventions in OP and SP for alterations in daily occupations. Furthermore, to increase the knowledge base concerning mentally disordered offenders, studies with research designs that have the potential to uncover changes in daily occupation and other measures for this target group are necessary. PMID:21073367

  10. Temporal Variability of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Serum Concentrations over One Year

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant chemicals used in consumer products. They are common contaminants in human serum and associated with adverse health effects. Our objectives were to characterize PBDE serum concentrations in a New England cohort and assess temporal variability of this exposure biomarker over a one-year period. We collected three repeated measurements at six-month intervals from 52 office workers from the greater Boston (MA, United States) area from 2010 to 2011. The intraclass correlation coefficient for BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153 ranged from 0.87 to 0.99, indicating that a single serum measurement can reliably estimate exposure over a one-year period. This was true for both lipid adjusted and nonlipid adjusted concentrations. The kappa statistics, quantifying the level of agreement of categorical exposure classification, based on medians, tertiles, or quartiles ranged from 0.67 to 0.90. Some congeners showed nonsignificant increases from sampling round 1 (winter) to round 2 (summer) and significant decreases from round 2 to round 3 (winter). This study highlights the high reliability of a single serum PBDE measurement for use in human epidemiologic studies. PMID:25383963

  11. Temporal variability of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) serum concentrations over one year.

    PubMed

    Makey, Colleen M; McClean, Michael D; Sjödin, Andreas; Weinberg, Janice; Carignan, Courtney C; Webster, Thomas F

    2014-12-16

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardant chemicals used in consumer products. They are common contaminants in human serum and associated with adverse health effects. Our objectives were to characterize PBDE serum concentrations in a New England cohort and assess temporal variability of this exposure biomarker over a one-year period. We collected three repeated measurements at six-month intervals from 52 office workers from the greater Boston (MA, United States) area from 2010 to 2011. The intraclass correlation coefficient for BDEs 28, 47, 99, 100, and 153 ranged from 0.87 to 0.99, indicating that a single serum measurement can reliably estimate exposure over a one-year period. This was true for both lipid adjusted and nonlipid adjusted concentrations. The kappa statistics, quantifying the level of agreement of categorical exposure classification, based on medians, tertiles, or quartiles ranged from 0.67 to 0.90. Some congeners showed nonsignificant increases from sampling round 1 (winter) to round 2 (summer) and significant decreases from round 2 to round 3 (winter). This study highlights the high reliability of a single serum PBDE measurement for use in human epidemiologic studies. PMID:25383963

  12. Spurious One-Month and One-Year Periods in Visual Observations of Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Visual observations of variable stars, when time-series analyzed with some algorithms such as DC-DFT in vstar, show spurious periods at or close to one synodic month (29.5306 days), and also at about a year, with an amplitude of typically a few hundredths of a magnitude. The one-year periods have been attributed to the Ceraski effect, which was believed to be a physiological effect of the visual observing process. This paper reports on time-series analysis, using DC-DFT in vstar, of visual observations (and in some cases, V observations) of a large number of stars in the AAVSO International Database, initially to investigate the one-month periods. The results suggest that both the one-month and one-year periods are actually due to aliasing of the stars' very low-frequency variations, though they do not rule out very low-amplitude signals (typically 0.01 to 0.02 magnitude) which may be due to a different process, such as a physiological one. Most or all of these aliasing effects may be avoided by using a different algorithm, which takes explicit account of the window function of the data, and/or by being fully aware of the possible presence of and aliasing by very low-frequency variations.

  13. ATS-5 solar cell experiment results after one year in synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anspaugh, B. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the ATS-5 solar cell experiment after one year in synchronous orbit are reported. A partial failure in the experimental electronics package has caused a loss of data from half the 80 experimental solar cells. Procedures for extracting data due to a partial spacecraft failure are described and discussed. Data from the remaining 40 solar cells, including 15 mounted on a thin flexible structure are analyzed. Data are corrected to a solar intensity of 140 mW/sq cm and a temperature of 25 C. It was found that after one year in synchronous orbit: (1) cells with 1.52-mm-thick coverslides did not show a clear-cut advantage over those with 0.15-mm coverslides, (2) cells with solderless grid lines are degrading at the same rate as are cells with solder-dipped grid lines, (3) cells not quite completely covered with coverslides suffered a large power loss in comparison to cells fully covered, (4) no clear-cut advantage of 10-cm cells over 2-cm cells has yet been observed, (5) cells mounted on the flexible panel with relatively little backshielding did not degrade any faster than those with substantial backshielding, and (6) the flight data in large part confirms the adequacy of the ground-based techniques used in our preflight radiation test program.

  14. Controlled trial of fasting and one-year vegetarian diet in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen-Kragh, J; Haugen, M; Borchgrevink, C F; Laerum, E; Eek, M; Mowinkel, P; Hovi, K; Førre, O

    1991-10-12

    Fasting is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, but most patients relapse on reintroduction of food. The effect of fasting followed by one year of a vegetarian diet was assessed in a randomised, single-blind controlled trial. 27 patients were allocated to a four-week stay at a health farm. After an initial 7-10 day subtotal fast, they were put on an individually adjusted gluten-free vegan diet for 3.5 months. The food was then gradually changed to a lactovegetarian diet for the remainder of the study. A control group of 26 patients stayed for four weeks at a convalescent home, but ate an ordinary diet throughout the whole study period. After four weeks at the health farm the diet group showed a significant improvement in number of tender joints, Ritchie's articular index, number of swollen joints, pain score, duration of morning stiffness, grip strength, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and a health assessment questionnaire score. In the control group, only pain score improved score. In the control group, only pain score improved significantly. The benefits in the diet group were still present after one year, and evaluation of the whole course showed significant advantages for the diet group in all measured indices. This dietary regimen seems to be a useful supplement to conventional medical treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:1681264

  15. Invasive streptococcal infections in the era before the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a 10 years' compilation of patients with streptococcal bacteraemia in North Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Barnham, M

    1989-05-01

    Significant streptococcal (non-pneumococcal, non-enterococcal) bacteraemia was detected in 100 patients in two Health Districts of North Yorkshire in the decade 1978-1988. Patients with these infections accounted for 11% of the total 902 patients in the districts in whom bacteraemia was diagnosed during the period. Infection was most often seen with beta-haemolytic streptococci (52 patients) comprising Lancefield group A (Streptococcus pyogenes) (20 patients), group B (13), group C (5), group G (9), haemolytic Streptococcus milleri and non-groupable streptococci (5). The wide variety of serious infections included cellulitis, abscess, septicaemia, pneumonia, septic arthritis, necrotising fasciitis, acute endocarditis and mycotic aneurysm. Of these 52 patients, 21 (40%) died. alpha-Haemolytic streptococcal bacteraemia was diagnosed in 38 patients of whom 24 (63%) suffered from endocarditis and three (8%) died. Three of ten patients with non-haemolytic or anaerobic streptococcal bacteraemia died also. Six of the 100 patients with streptococcal bacteraemia had concomitant acute virus infections. Of the total 56 patients with infective endocarditis diagnosed in the districts during the period, streptococci were responsible in 30 (54%) of them. The predisposing factors, clinical features and outcome of the infections are described and discussed. PMID:2663996

  16. Recurrent SDSE bacteraemia resulting in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in a patient with Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kei; Nakamura, Akiko; Ishikura, Ken; Imai, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A 19-year-old man with chronic lymphoedema due to Noonan syndrome presented at our hospital with septic shock and pain in his lower leg. Blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis (SDSE), resulting in a diagnosis of cellulitis with toxic involvement. He was treated with ampicillin for 3 weeks. Although he did well for 6 weeks, septic shock recurred. Blood culture again revealed SDSE, with the strain being identical to the first episode, suggesting that this infection had relapsed. He was treated with ampicillin for 6 weeks and prophylactically with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 12 months. Although SDSE bacteraemia occurs commonly in elderly patients, findings in this patient showed that it can also develop in younger persons with predisposing factors. This case also indicates that SDSE has the potential to recur, despite generally sufficient antibiotic administration, and that patients who experience recurrent episodes may require prolonged treatment with antibiotics, including prophylaxis. PMID:27485878

  17. Mycotic pseudoaneurysm by vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus: a rare cause of persistent bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Mahfood Haddad, Toufik; Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Sundaragiri, Pranathi Rao; Vivekanandan, Renuga

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms are vessel wall ruptures, that are often mistaken for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A middle-aged man presented with right leg pain, swelling and erythema. His history was significant for persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. Ultrasound revealed subacute DVT and laboratory parameters were suggestive of sepsis. He was started on intravenous heparin and antimicrobials. Owing to persistent anaemia despite blood transfusion, MRI of the right thigh was obtained. It revealed a 13×17 cm superficial femoral artery infected mycotic pseudoaneurysm (MPA) with a fresh haematoma. The patient underwent arterial ligation and extensive debridement. Intraoperative cultures revealed daptomycin-resistant vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and he was managed with 6 weeks of intravenous ceftaroline. MPAs are most common in the femoral artery and form <1% of aneurysms. Therapy involves surgical debridement and prolonged antimicrobials. VISA causing MPA is associated with worse outcomes. We report the first time use of ceftaroline in the management of a VISA MPA. PMID:25833910

  18. Adjunctive rifampicin may improve outcomes in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Russell, Clark D; Lawson McLean, Aaron; Saunders, Christopher; Laurenson, Ian F

    2014-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. By surviving within leukocytes, S. aureus can evade both immunological defences and antimicrobial drugs, thus facilitating haematogenous dissemination. We performed a systematic review to determine whether antimicrobials with intracellular activity improve outcomes in SAB when used as an adjunct to β-lactam or glycopeptide monotherapy. The Pubmed/MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for eligible studies that reported on the use of first-line antimicrobials plus a single additional antimicrobial of interest in patients with SAB (any cause). Six relevant studies were identified, all reporting on rifampicin use. Four studies (three randomized controlled trials and one cohort) reported on adults with SAB, including 54 patients treated with adjunctive rifampicin and 44 standard-therapy controls. Estimated across all of these studies, adjunctive rifampicin was associated with trends towards reduced all-cause mortality and reduced clinical or bacteriological failure. The fifth study indicated that adjunctive rifampicin accelerates the resolution of persistent SAB in neonates. Data from the sixth study were considered flawed owing to differences in co-morbidities between groups. Limited data suggest that rifampicin-induced hepatitis is not clinically significant but that drug interactions are. In conclusion, adjunctive rifampicin may improve outcomes in SAB when used as an adjunct to β-lactam or glycopeptide monotherapy. PMID:24623637

  19. Encouraging primary care research: evaluation of a one-year, doctoral clinical epidemiology research course

    PubMed Central

    Liira, Helena; Koskela, Tuomas; Thulesius, Hans; Pitkälä, Kaisu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Research and PhDs are relatively rare in family medicine and primary care. To promote research, regular one-year research courses for primary care professionals with a focus on clinical epidemiology were started. This study explores the academic outcomes of the first four cohorts of research courses and surveys the participants’ perspectives on the research course. Design An electronic survey was sent to the research course participants. All peer-reviewed scientific papers published by these students were retrieved by literature searches in PubMed. Setting Primary care in Finland. Subjects A total of 46 research course participants who had finished the research courses between 2007 and 2012. Results Of the 46 participants 29 were physicians, eight nurses, three dentists, four physiotherapists, and two nutritionists. By the end of 2014, 28 of the 46 participants (61%) had published 79 papers indexed in PubMed and seven students (15%) had completed a PhD. The participants stated that the course taught them critical thinking, and provided basic research knowledge, inspiration, and fruitful networks for research. Conclusion A one-year, multi-professional, clinical epidemiology based research course appeared to be successful in encouraging primary care research as measured by research publications and networking. Activating teaching methods, encouraging focus on own research planning, and support from peers and tutors helped the participants to embark on research projects that resulted in PhDs for 15% of the participants. Key PointsClinical research and PhDs are rare in primary care in Finland, which has consequences for the development of the discipline and for the availability of clinical lecturers at the universities.A clinical epidemiology oriented, one-year research course increased the activity in primary care research. Focus on own research planning and learning the challenges of research with peers appeared to enhance the success of a doctoral

  20. One-year clinical experience with a fully digitized nuclear medicine department: organizational and economical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anema, P. C.; de Graaf, C. N.; Wilmink, J. B.; Hall, David R.; Hoekstra, A. G.; van Rijk, P. P.; Van Isselt, J. W.; Viergever, Max A.

    1991-07-01

    At the department of nuclear medicine of the University Hospital Utrecht a single-modality PACS has been operational since mid-1990. After one year of operation the functionality, the organizational and economical consequences, and the acceptability of the PACS were evaluated. The functional aspects reviewed were: viewing facilities, patient data management, connectivity, reporting facilities, archiving, privacy, and security. It was concluded that the improved quality of diagnostic viewing and the potential integration with diagnosis, reporting, and archiving are highly appreciated. The many problems that have occurred during the transition period, however, greatly influence the appreciation and acceptability of the PACS. Overall, it is felt that in the long term there will be a positive effect on the quality and efficiency of the work.

  1. Disaster mental health workers responding to Ground Zero: one year later.

    PubMed

    Daly, Erin Scott; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Zimering, Rose T; Knight, Jeffrey; Kamholz, Barbara W; Morissette, Sandra B

    2008-04-01

    The current study examined anniversary reactions in mental health disaster relief workers following traumatic exposure at the site of the World Trade Center terrorist attacks. Despite relatively low levels of symptom reporting, workers endorsed an increase in both negative mood symptoms and functional impairment at the one-year anniversary of their traumatic exposure (compared to 6 months postexposure). For those individuals who met at least partial criteria for PTSD immediately following exposure, overall self-reported PTSD symptoms tended to increase from 6 to 12 months. This tendency resulted specifically from an increase in hyperarousal symptoms. Although few endorsed symptoms at clinical levels, our results demonstrate that disaster relief workers may experience an increase in symptomatology at the anniversary of their traumatic exposure. PMID:18404624

  2. U.S. announces one-year delay for visa waiver program change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. State Department has announced that it is delaying by one year a new rule affecting citizens from visa waiver program countries. The new rule, which was scheduled to go into effect on 1 October 2003, requires visitors from these countries to obtain non-immigrant visas to enter the United States if they do not have machine-readable passports. The announced delay means that this rule will now go into effect 26 October 2004 instead.The delay does not apply to five visa waiver countries—Andorra, Brunei, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, and Slovenia—because most of the citizens of these nations already carry passports that are machine-readable.

  3. Summary results from the NASA Tech House one year live-in

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, I. L.

    1979-01-01

    The NASA Tech House was designed and constructed at the Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va., to demonstrate and evaluate new technology potentially applicable for conservation of energy and resources and for improvements in safety and security in a single-family residence. All technology items, including solar energy systems and a waste water reuse system, were evaluated under actual living conditions for a one-year period with a family of four living in the house in their normal life style. Results are presented which show overall savings in energy and resources compared to requirements for a defined similar conventional house under the same conditions. Also included are general operational experience and performance data for all the various items and systems of technology incorporated into the house design.

  4. Medical aspects of drug misuse during one year in a rehabilitation unit

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Robert T.A.

    1986-01-01

    The medical work in a voluntary drug rehabilitation unit near Glasgow was examined. During one year 174 residents were admitted of whom 103 (59%) developed illnesses which required medical treatment. The need for drug misusers to receive general medical services during and after drug misuse was confirmed. Although withdrawal from barbiturate misuse required the prescription of controlled drugs, opiate and other withdrawals were satisfactorily managed with psychological support and general care; substances which could be abused were not prescribed. Blood testing of 129 residents showed that 114 (88%) had evidence of previous hepatitis B infection, while only two had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody. The low prevalence of HIV antibody compared with the high prevalence that has been reported in Edinburgh suggests that the opportunity exists at the moment to limit the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome among Glasgow drug misusers. PMID:3656269

  5. Toxicological findings in fatal motor vehicle collisions in ontario, Canada: a one-year study.

    PubMed

    Woodall, Karen L; Chow, Betty L C; Lauwers, Albert; Cass, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Drug-impaired driving is a complex area of forensic toxicology due in part to limited data concerning the type of drugs involved and the concentrations detected. This study analyzed toxicological findings in drivers from fatal motor vehicle collisions (FMVCs) in Ontario, Canada, over a one-year period using a standardized protocol. Of the 229 cases included in the study, 56% were positive for alcohol and/or drugs. After alcohol, cannabis was the most frequently encountered substance (27%), followed by benzodiazepines (17%) and antidepressants (17%). There were differences in drugs detected by age but no marked difference in drugs detected between single and multiple FMVC's. Not all drugs detected were considered impairing either due to drug type, concentration or case history. The findings indicate the importance of comprehensive drug testing in FMVCs and highlight the need to consider a variety of factors, in addition to drug type and concentration, when assessing the role of drugs in driving impairment. PMID:25693690

  6. Tuberculosis in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: one year follow up study from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, S S; Bhattarai, L; Manandhar, D N; Devkota, K C; Sharma, S K; Bhatta, N

    2012-09-01

    In Nepal where tuberculosis is endemic and data regarding the prevalence of tuberculosis in patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis is not known we tried to see the cumulative incidence of tuberculosis in these higher risk groups' patients. Forty patients were followed up for one year after initial screening for tuberculosis. Among forty patients 34 (85%) were male and 6 (15%) were female. During initial screening four patients had sputum positive tuberculosis and three more patients had sputum positive tuberculosis during follow up. Among nine patients with pleural effusion two patients had pulmonary tuberculosis. One patient had tubercular cervical lymphadenitis. Two patients died during follow up and the rest improved with anti tubercular treatment. So in the part of the world where tuberculosis is endemic patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis should be screened for tuberculosis regularly. PMID:24047026

  7. Cementless Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement shows reduced radiolucency at one year.

    PubMed

    Pandit, H; Jenkins, C; Beard, D J; Gallagher, J; Price, A J; Dodd, C A F; Goodfellow, J W; Murray, D W

    2009-02-01

    We randomised 62 knees to receive either cemented or cementless versions of the Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement. The implants used in both arms of the study were similar, except that the cementless components were coated with porous titanium and hydroxyapatite. The tibial interfaces were studied with fluoroscopically-aligned radiographs. At one year there was no difference in clinical outcome between the two groups. Narrow radiolucent lines were seen at the bone-implant interfaces in 75% of cemented tibial components. These were partial in 43%, and complete in 32%. In the cementless implants, partial radiolucencies were seen in 7% and complete radiolucencies in none. These differences are statistically significant (p < 0.0001) and imply satisfactory bone ingrowth into the cementless implants. PMID:19190051

  8. One-year clinical experience of perampanel in Spain: a multicentre study of efficacy and tolerability.

    PubMed

    Garamendi-Ruiz, Iñigo; García-García, María Eugenia; Bertol-Alegre, Vicente; Mauri-Llerda, José Ángel; García-Morales, Irene; Garayoa-Irigoyen, Vanesa; Agúndez-Sarasola, Marta; De Toledo-Heras, María; García-Morales, Vanessa; García-Gomara, María José; Arcos-Sánchez, Carolina; Gago-Veiga, Ana; Escalza-Cortina, Inés; Rueda-Mena, Eliana; Muñoz-Fargas, Elena; Santos-Lasaosa, Sonia; Oliván-Usieto, José Antonio; Julián, Leyre Díaz de Cerio-; Gómez-Esteban, Juan Carlos; Marinas-Alejo, Ainhoa

    2016-06-01

    Perampanel, a non-competitive antagonist of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptors, is the most recent antiepileptic drug available in Spain, marketed in January 2014. It was initially approved by the European Medicines Agency as adjunctive treatment for partial-onset seizures in patients 12 years and older, but recently also for primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although clinical trials provide essential information about the drug, they do not reflect daily clinical practice. This retrospective study shows the initial experience with perampanel in 11 Spanish hospitals during its first year post-commercialisation. All patients who started perampanel treatment were included, but efficacy and tolerability were only assessed in those patients with a minimum follow-up period of six months. In total, 256 patients were treated with perampanel before September 2014, and 253 had an observational period of one year. After six months, 216/256 patients (84%) continued on perampanel and 180/253 (71.1%) completed one year of treatment. The mean number of previous antiepileptic drugs used was 6.83 and the median number of concomitant antiepileptic drugs was 2. The mean perampanel dose was 7.06 mg and 8.26 mg at six and 12 months, respectively. The responder rate was 39.5% and 35.9% at both follow-up points, respectively. Adverse events were experienced by 91/253 (35.5%) and resulted in withdrawal in 37 (14.6%). The most common adverse events were somnolence, dizziness, and irritability. We found no significant differences between concomitant use of enzyme-inducing and non-inducing antiepileptic drugs, regarding efficacy, adverse effects, or withdrawals. Irritability was not influenced by concomitant use of levetiracetam, relative to other drugs, but was more frequently observed in patients with a history of psychiatric problems or learning disabilities. PMID:27238234

  9. [Comparison of the results of coronary angioplasty and stenting during one year following surgery].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, V B; Seĭdov, V G; Zakharov, S V; Evsiukov, V V; Liubchuk, I V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare long-term results of angioplasty and coronary arterial stenting (CAS) depending on the initial degree of coronary arterial (CA) lesion according to morphological stenosis classification, as well as to evaluate the influence of re-stenosis on myocardial contractility dynamics, anginal recurrence rate, and exercise tolerance. The subjects, 228 men after angioplasty and 184 men after CAS with wire stents without drug coating, were included in the study between 1989 and 2005. Coronarography was repeated in 358 patients one year after surgery. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 161 patients, to who 180 stents were implanted. The second group consisted of 197patients, in who 226 angioplasty procedures were performed. Data were processed using standard variational statistical methods, i.e. the calculation of mean values and standard deviation. Statistical calculations were carried out using Analysis ToolPak- VBA software of Microsoft Excel 2000. The study found that one year after either intervention the number of patients without anginal symptoms fell significantly compared with this number during the in-hospital period. In group 2 the frequency of restenosis was higher and the number of patients with anginal symptoms was significantly bigger than in group 1; the number of asymptomatic patients was significantly bigger in group 1. Initial morphological characteristics of CA lesion had a significant effect on the long-term frequency of restenosis following endovascular treatment. Restenosis was 2 to 2.5 times more frequent in patients with C type CA lesion vs. patients with A type regardless the method of endovascular intervention. The results of the study demonstrate the importance of taking into account initial morphological characteristics of CA lesion; CAS is more preferable than angioplasty, especially in patients with C type CA lesion. PMID:17520881

  10. One year of alendronate treatment lowers microstructural stresses associated with trabecular microdamage initiation.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, Jessica M; Diab, Tamim; Allen, Matthew R; Vidakovic, Brani; Burr, David B; Guldberg, Robert E

    2010-08-01

    Alendronate, an anti-remodeling agent, is commonly used to treat patients suffering from osteoporosis by increasing bone mineral density. Though fracture risk is lowered, an increase in microdamage accumulation has been documented in patients receiving alendronate, leading to questions about the potentially detrimental effects of remodeling suppression on the local tissue (material) properties. In this study, trabecular bone cores from the distal femur of beagle dogs treated for one year with alendronate, at doses scaled by weight to approximate osteoporotic and Paget's disease treatment doses in humans, were subjected to uniaxial compression to induce microdamage. Tissue level von Mises stresses were computed for alendronate-treated and non-treated controls using finite element analysis and correlated to microdamage morphology. Using a modified version of the Moore and Gibson classification for damage morphology, we determined that the von Mises stress for trabeculae exhibiting severe and linear microcrack patterns was decreased by approximately 25% in samples treated with alendronate compared with non-treated controls (p<0.01), whereas there was no reduction in the von Mises stress state for diffuse microdamage formation. Furthermore, an examination of the architectural and structural characteristics of damaged trabeculae demonstrated that severely damaged trabeculae were thinner, more aligned with the loading axis, and less mineralized than undamaged trabeculae in alendronate-treated samples (p<0.01). Similar relationships with damage morphology were found only with trabecular orientation in vehicle-treated control dogs. These results indicate that changes in bone's architecture and matrix properties associated with one year of alendronate administration reduce trabecular bone's ability to resist the formation of loading-induced severe and linear microcracks, both of which dissipate less energy prior to fracture than does diffuse damage. PMID:20483387

  11. Streptococcus Endophthalmitis Outbreak after Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab: One-year Outcomes and Investigative Results

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Roger A.; Flynn, Harry W.; Miller, Darlene; Gonzalez, Serafin; Isom, Ryan F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To report the one-year clinical outcomes of an outbreak of Streptococcus endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab, including visual acuity outcomes, microbiological testing and compound pharmacy investigations by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Design Retrospective consecutive case series. Participants 12 eyes of 12 patients who developed endophthalmitis after receiving intravitreal bevacizumab prepared by a single compounding pharmacy. Methods Medical records of patients were reviewed; phenotypic and DNA analyses were performed on microbes cultured from patients and from unused syringes. An inspection report by the FDA based on site-visits to the pharmacy that prepared the bevacizumab syringes was summarized. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity, interventions received, time-to-intervention; microbiological consistency; FDA inspection findings. Results Between July 5 and July 8, 2011, 12 patients developed endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab from syringes prepared by a single compounding pharmacy. All patients received initial vitreous tap and injection, and eight (67%) subsequently underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). After twelve months follow-up, outcomes have been poor: 7 patients (58%) required evisceration or enucleation, and only one patient regained pre-injection visual acuity. Molecular testing using real time polymerase chain reaction, partial sequencing of the groEL gene, and multilocus sequencing of 7 housekeeping genes confirmed the presence of a common strain of Streptococcus mitis/oralis in vitreous specimens and seven unused syringes prepared by the compounding pharmacy at the same time. An FDA investigation of the compounding pharmacy noted deviations from standard sterile technique, inconsistent documentation, and inadequate testing of equipment required for safe preparation of medications. Conclusions In this outbreak of endophthalmitis, outcomes have been generally poor and PPV did not improve

  12. The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Contact Lens Experience: One-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Buddy; Ward, Michael A.; Lynn, Michael; DuBois, Lindreth; Lambert, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We describe our experience correcting a cohort of infants with contact lenses in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). Materials and Methods Fifty-seven infants 1 to 6 months of age were randomized to contact lens wear. An examination under anesthesia was performed at the time of enrollment and at approximately 1 year of age. A traveling examiner assessed visual acuity at approximately 1 year of age. Results Forty-two treated eyes (74 %) were fitted with silicone elastomer (SE) contact lenses; twelve eyes (21 %) with rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses and three eyes (5%) wore both lens types. Median visual acuity was +0.80 logMAR in both lens type-wearing groups. The mean (± SD) keratometric power of the treated eyes was 46.3 ± 2.8 D at baseline and 44.6 ± 2.3 D at one year of age for a mean decrease of 0.2 ± 0.2 D/mo. Keratometric astigmatism of treated eyes was 1.98 ± 1.37 D at baseline and 1.62 ± 0.98 D at one year of age for a mean decrease of 0.05 ± 0.2 D/mo. The mean RGP lens base curve at baseline was 47.62 D ±2.62 D vs 47.00 D ± 3.50 D at 12 months after surgery. Children wearing SE lenses required a mean of 10.9 replacements (range 2–24) compared to 16.8 replacements (range 8–32) for children wearing RGP lenses. Three adverse events occurred. Conclusions Contact lenses were worn successfully with relatively few adverse events by a cohort of infants with unilateral aphakia. The visual acuity results were identical independent of the contact lens material or modality. RGP lenses needed replacement more often than SE lenses. PMID:22669008

  13. One-year outcomes of conventional and accelerated collagen crosslinking in progressive keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Vanissa W. S.; Chan, Tommy C. Y.; Yu, Marco; Wong, Victoria W. Y.; Jhanji, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    We compared one-year outcomes of conventional (3 mW/cm2, 365-nm ultraviolet-A light, 30 minutes) and accelerated (18 mW/cm2, 365-nm ultraviolet-A light, 5 minutes) collagen crosslinking (CXL) in patients with progressive keratoconus. Main outcome measures were change in keratometry, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Nineteen patients in each group completed 1-year follow-up. Preoperatively, there were no inter-group differences for age, keratometry, corneal thickness, and spherical equivalent (p > 0.127). One year postoperatively, maximum and minimum keratometry were flattened by 1.6 diopters (p < 0.023) and 2 diopters (p < 0.047) respectively after conventional CXL, and, 0.47 diopters (p = 0.471) and 0.19 diopters (p = 0.120) respectively after accelerated CXL. Association analysis showed significant negative association between baseline maximum keratometry and change in maximum keratometry after accelerated CXL (p = 0.002) but not after conventional CXL (p = 0.110). Corneal thickness was reduced significantly in both groups (p = 0.017). An improvement in UCVA (p < 0.001) and BCVA (p < 0.022) was noted in both groups along with a reduction in spherical equivalent postoperatively (p < 0.026). There were no inter-group differences for any of the parameters postoperatively (p > 0.184). Although no statistically significant differences were observed between both treatment modalities, a more effective topographic flattening was observed with conventional CXL as compared to accelerated CXL in this study. PMID:26404661

  14. [Biomedical information on the internet using search engines. A one-year trial].

    PubMed

    Corrao, Salvatore; Leone, Francesco; Arnone, Sabrina

    2004-01-01

    The internet is a communication medium and content distributor that provide information in the general sense but it could be of great utility regarding as the search and retrieval of biomedical information. Search engines represent a great deal to rapidly find information on the net. However, we do not know whether general search engines and meta-search ones are reliable in order to find useful and validated biomedical information. The aim of our study was to verify the reproducibility of a search by key-words (pediatric or evidence) using 9 international search engines and 1 meta-search engine at the baseline and after a one year period. We analysed the first 20 citations as output of each searching. We evaluated the formal quality of Web-sites and their domain extensions. Moreover, we compared the output of each search at the start of this study and after a one year period and we considered as a criterion of reliability the number of Web-sites cited again. We found some interesting results that are reported throughout the text. Our findings point out an extreme dynamicity of the information on the Web and, for this reason, we advice a great caution when someone want to use search and meta-search engines as a tool for searching and retrieve reliable biomedical information. On the other hand, some search and meta-search engines could be very useful as a first step searching for defining better a search and, moreover, for finding institutional Web-sites too. This paper allows to know a more conscious approach to the internet biomedical information universe. PMID:15032337

  15. Can Psychopathology at Age 7 Be Predicted from Clinical Observation at One Year? Evidence from the ALSPAC Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allely, C. S.; Doolin, O.; Gillberg, C.; Gillberg, I. C.; Puckering, C.; Smillie, M.; McConnachie, A.; Heron, J.; Golding, J.; Wilson, P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges of developmental psychopathology is to determine whether identifiable pathways to developmental disorders exist in the first months or years of life. Early identification of such disorders poses a similar challenge for clinical services. Using data from a large contemporary birth cohort, we examined whether psychopathology at…

  16. One-year Mortality after an Acute Coronary Event and its Clinical Predictors: The ERICO Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Itamar Souza; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Brandão, Rodrigo Martins; Santos, Rafael Caire de Oliveira; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Sitnik, Débora; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Pastore, Carlos Alberto; Samesima, Nelson; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Bensenor, Isabela Martins

    2015-01-01

    Background Information about post-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) survival have been mostly short-term findings or based on specialized, cardiology referral centers. Objectives To describe one-year case-fatality rates in the Strategy of Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ERICO) cohort, and to study baseline characteristics as predictors. Methods We analyzed data from 964 ERICO participants enrolled from February 2009 to December 2012. We assessed vital status by telephone contact and official death certificate searches. The cause of death was determined according to the official death certificates. We used log-rank tests to compare the probabilities of survival across subgroups. We built crude and adjusted (for age, sex and ACS subtype) Cox regression models to study if the ACS subtype or baseline characteristics were independent predictors of all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. Results We identified 110 deaths in the cohort (case-fatality rate, 12.0%). Age [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.04 per 10 year increase; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.75–2.38], non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (HR = 3.82 ; 95%CI = 2.21–6.60) or ST elevation myocardial infarction (HR = 2.59; 95%CI = 1.38–4.89) diagnoses, and diabetes (HR = 1.78; 95%CI = 1.20‑2.63) were significant risk factors for all-cause mortality in the adjusted models. We found similar results for cardiovascular mortality. A previous coronary artery disease diagnosis was also an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.61; 95%CI = 1.04–2.50), but not for cardiovascular mortality. Conclusion We found an overall one-year mortality rate of 12.0% in a sample of post-ACS patients in a community, non-specialized hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. Age, ACS subtype, and diabetes were independent predictors of poor one‑year survival for overall and cardiovascular-related causes. PMID:25993485

  17. Brief Tale of a Bacteraemia by Rhodococcus equi, With Concomitant Lung Mass: What Came First, the Chicken or The Egg?

    PubMed Central

    Savini, Vincenzo; Salutari, Prassede; Sborgia, Marco; Mancini, Iole; Masciarelli, Gioviana; Catavitello, Chiara; Astolfi, Daniela; D’Amario, Claudio; Fioritoni, Giuseppe; Spadaro, Antonio; D’Antonio, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an uncommon Gram positive, variably acid-fast pathogen, that appears as hard to treat mostly owing to the establishment of intracellular niches. Lack of interpretive criteria for susceptibility testing may lead to under-reporting or overestimation of resistances, whereas knowledge about this pathogen’s clinical impact may be affected by erroneous phenotype-based characterization at a genus and species level. We present the case of a bacteraemia with a concomitant lung mass in a lymphoma patient, that further highlights the emergence of rhodococcal diseases as a matter for concern in the fields of infectious diseases and haematology. PMID:21625310

  18. Ecthyma gangrenosum: a rare cutaneous manifestation caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa without bacteraemia in a leukaemic patient--a case report.

    PubMed

    Singh, T N; Devi, K M; Devi, K S

    2005-10-01

    Ecthyma gangrenosum is a rare and invasive cutaneous infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the majority of cases, typically affecting immunocompromised patients, particularly those with neutropenia. We report a rare case of ecthyma gangrenosum in the absence of bacteraemia presenting as a solitary necrotic ulcer in a female patient with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. A culture from the ecthyma lesion revealed the presence of Pesudomonas aeruginosa, but the results of repeated blood cultures were negative. The patient responded well to amikacin to which the isolate was susceptible in vitro. Considering high rate of mortality, early diagnosis and prompt effective treatment is mandatory. PMID:16327125

  19. Adjunctive rifampicin to reduce early mortality from Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (ARREST): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia is a common and serious infection, with an associated mortality of ~25%. Once in the blood, S. aureus can disseminate to infect almost any organ, but bones, joints and heart valves are most frequently affected. Despite the infection’s severity, the evidence guiding optimal antibiotic therapy is weak: fewer than 1,500 patients have been included in 16 randomised controlled trials investigating S. aureus bacteraemia treatment. It is uncertain which antibiotics are most effective, their route of administration and duration, and whether antibiotic combinations are better than single agents. We hypothesise that adjunctive rifampicin, given in combination with a standard first-line antibiotic, will enhance killing of S. aureus early in the treatment course, sterilise infected foci and blood faster, and thereby reduce the risk of dissemination, metastatic infection and death. Our aim is to determine whether adjunctive rifampicin reduces all-cause mortality within 14 days and bacteriological failure or death within 12 weeks from randomisation. Methods We will perform a parallel group, randomised (1:1), blinded, placebo-controlled trial in NHS hospitals across the UK. Adults (≥18 years) with S. aureus (meticillin-susceptible or resistant) grown from at least one blood culture who have received ≤96 h of active antibiotic therapy for the current infection and do not have contraindications to the use of rifampicin will be eligible for inclusion. Participants will be randomised to adjunctive rifampicin (600-900mg/day; orally or intravenously) or placebo for the first 14 days of therapy in combination with standard single-agent antibiotic therapy. The co-primary outcome measures will be all-cause mortality up to 14 days from randomisation and bacteriological failure/death (all-cause) up to 12 weeks from randomisation. 940 patients will be recruited, providing >80% power to detect 45% and 30% reductions in the two co

  20. Changes in teacher efficacy and beliefs during a one-year teacher preparation program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockman, Alison Schirmer

    This study attempted to further understanding of factors affecting the teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary science preservice teachers, and to develop a model relating teacher efficacy to beliefs about teaching and students. A mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology was utilized in order to track participants' beliefs both broadly and in depth throughout a one-year teacher preparation program. Results from this analysis revealed that preservice teachers at the end of the program had significantly higher personal science teaching efficacy beliefs than at the beginning of the program. No significant difference in science teaching outcome expectancy beliefs was found, although individual preservice teachers did develop alternate beliefs. Teacher efficacy beliefs were directly affected by three of Bandura's four sources of self-efficacy beliefs---Mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, and verbal persuasion---with the influence of each source of self-efficacy information appearing to change during the course of the teacher preparation program. No evidence was found that affective states by themselves had resulted in belief changes, although many of the other experiences were more powerful because they were accompanied by an emotional incident. Connections between teacher efficacy beliefs, beliefs about students, and beliefs about teaching were uncovered, as was the importance of content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge on a teacher's sense of efficacy.

  1. One-year follow-up of two novel CBTs for adolescents with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Bianca E; Geurts, Hilde M; Prins, Pier J M; Van der Oord, Saskia

    2016-03-01

    Long-term effects of two CBTs for adolescents with ADHD are explored: One aimed at improving planning skills (Plan My Life; PML), the other a solution-focused therapy (SFT) without focusing on planning skills. In a RCT, adolescents with ADHD (n = 159) were assigned to PML or SFT and improved significantly between pre- and posttest with large effect sizes Boyer et al (Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. doi: 10.1007/s00787-014-0661-5 ), with marginal differences in favor of PML. One-year follow-up data were gathered. Initial improvements remained stable or continued to improve from posttest to 1-year follow-up. 25.9 % of adolescents showed normalized functioning. However, no treatment differences were found. These results are consistent with the finding that treatment of ADHD improves long-term outcomes, but not to the point of normalization. Earlier found differences at 3-month follow-up in favor of PML disappeared, indicating that focusing treatment on planning skills is not necessary for improvement or that a more prolonged planning-focused treatment is needed. PMID:26433369

  2. Supernova 1987a: One year later: A summary of the La Thuile symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1988-04-01

    The Conference reviewed what we have learned after one year from SN 1987a. In particular, new information continues to come in daily on the evolving spectra, including x-rays and ..gamma..-rays. We now know the light curve was indeed powered by /sup 56/Co decay. The neutrino data from IMB and Kamioka continues to be analyzed. It is fit very well by a standard collapse to a neutron star although some nagging problems with the angular distribution remain. Constraints on neutrino and other weakly interacting particle properties have been developed that rival or exceed terrestrial laboratory results. The question of the counts detected by the Mt. Blanc neutrino detector had new mysteries added at this meeting as reports of multiple coincidences with gravitational wave detectors at Maryland and Rome were presented. Future supernova rates were also discussed. It was argued that neutrino detection from a future supernova in our Galaxy might be the only way to prove that the ..nu../sub /tau// was the dominant matter of the Universe.

  3. Thyroglobulin antibodies and risk of readmission at one year in subjects with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Juan D; Garcia-Parés, Gemma; Llorens, Marta; Tost, Meritxell; Cobo, Jesús; Palao, Diego; Labad, Javier

    2014-09-30

    Thyroid autoimmunity has been proposed as an endophenotype for Bipolar Disorder (BD), although its relationship with clinical outcomes remains unclear. We aimed to determine whether thyroid autoimmune status (thyroperoxidase antibodies [TPO-Abs] and thyroglobulin antibodies [TG-Abs]) in BD is associated with a greater risk for readmission at one year. We studied 77 inpatients with BD admitted for an index manic or mixed episode. Serum thyroid antibodies (TPO-Abs and TG-Abs) were determined at admission. We compared the readmission risk at 1 year, based on patients׳ thyroid autoimmunity profile using survival analyses. Cox regression was used to control covariates. TG-Abs+ but not TPO-Abs+ was associated with a lower risk of relapse. The Kaplan-Meier mean estimated survival times were 341.6 days (CI95% 316.4-366.8) for the TG-Abs+ group and 261.9 days (CI95%: 221.8 to 302.0) for the TG-Abs- group. Cox proportional hazards regression indicated that subjects with TG-Abs+ were 3.7 (1/OR=1/0.27) times less likely to get admitted during the follow-up period than those with TG-Abs-. Our study suggests that an autoimmune biomarker in patients with BD (i.e., the presence of TG-Abs) is associated with a lower risk of psychiatric readmission after an index hospitalization for a manic or mixed episode. PMID:24913831

  4. Direct Midline Diastema Closure with Composite Layering Technique: A One-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Korkut, Bora; Yanikoglu, Funda; Tagtekin, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Maxillary anterior spacing is a common aesthetic complaint of patients. Midline diastema has a multifactorial etiology such as labial frenulum, microdontia, mesiodens, peg-shaped lateral incisors, agenesis, cysts, habits such as finger sucking, tongue thrusting, or lip sucking, dental malformations, genetics, proclinations, dental-skeletal discrepancies, and imperfect coalescence of interdental septum. Appropriate technique and material for effective treatment are based on time, physical, psychological, and economical limitations. Direct composite resins in diastema cases allow dentist and patient complete control of these limitations and formation of natural smile. Clinical Considerations. In this case report a maxillary midline diastema was closed with direct composite resin restorations in one appointment without any preparation. One bottle total etch adhesive was used and translucent/opaque composite resin shades were layered on mesial surfaces of the teeth that were isolated with rubber dam and Teflon bands. Finishing and polishing procedures were achieved by using polishing discs. Patient was informed for recalls for every 6 months. Conclusions. At one-year recall no sensitivities, discolorations, or fractures were detected on teeth and restorations. Direct composite resins seemed to be highly aesthetic and durable restorations that can satisfy patients as under the conditions of case presented. PMID:26881147

  5. KNEE SYNERGISM DURING GAIT REMAIN ALTERED ONE YEAR AFTER ACL RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    LEPORACE, GUSTAVO; METSAVAHT, LEONARDO; PEREIRA, GLAUBER RIBEIRO; OLIVEIRA, LISZT PALMEIRA DE; CRESPO, BERNARDO; BATISTA, LUIZ ALBERTO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the activation of the vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles during gait, as well VL/BF muscular co-contraction (MCC) between healthy (CG) and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R) subjects. Methods: Nineteen subjects, ten controls and nine ACL-R patients had a VL and BF electromyogram (EMG) captured to calculate the MCC ratio. A Principal Component (PC) Analysis was applied to reduce the dimensionality effect of each of the MCC, VL and BF curves for both healthy and ACL reconstructed groups. The PC scores were used to calculate the standard distance (SD). SD values were employed in order to compare each dependent variable (MCC, VL and BF) between the two groups using unpaired t-test. Results: ACL-R group presented a lower VL activation at the beginning and at the end of the gait cycle, as compared to the control group. However, no difference was found for BF or VL/BF MCC. Conclusion: The gait analysis of ACL reconstructed patients demonstrated a persistent deficit in VL activation when compared to the control group, even one year after surgery. Level of Evidence III. Case Control Study PMID:27217814

  6. Ambulance diversion associated with reduced access to cardiac technology and increased one-year mortality.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Chu; Hsia, Renee Y

    2015-08-01

    Ambulance diversion, which occurs when a hospital emergency department (ED) is temporarily closed to incoming ambulance traffic, is an important system-level interruption that causes delays in treatment and potentially lower quality of care. There is little empirical evidence investigating the mechanisms through which ambulance diversion might affect patient outcomes. We investigated whether ambulance diversion affects access to technology, likelihood of treatment, and ultimately health outcomes for Medicare patients with acute myocardial infarction in twenty-six California counties. We found that patients whose nearest hospital ED had significant ambulance diversions experienced reduced access to hospitals with cardiac technology. This led to a 4.6 percent decreased likelihood of revascularization and a 9.8 percent increase in one-year mortality compared to patients who did not experience diversion. Policy makers may wish to consider creating a policy to specifically manage certain time-sensitive conditions that require technological intervention during periods of ambulance diversion. PMID:26240239

  7. Direct Midline Diastema Closure with Composite Layering Technique: A One-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Bora; Yanikoglu, Funda; Tagtekin, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Maxillary anterior spacing is a common aesthetic complaint of patients. Midline diastema has a multifactorial etiology such as labial frenulum, microdontia, mesiodens, peg-shaped lateral incisors, agenesis, cysts, habits such as finger sucking, tongue thrusting, or lip sucking, dental malformations, genetics, proclinations, dental-skeletal discrepancies, and imperfect coalescence of interdental septum. Appropriate technique and material for effective treatment are based on time, physical, psychological, and economical limitations. Direct composite resins in diastema cases allow dentist and patient complete control of these limitations and formation of natural smile. Clinical Considerations. In this case report a maxillary midline diastema was closed with direct composite resin restorations in one appointment without any preparation. One bottle total etch adhesive was used and translucent/opaque composite resin shades were layered on mesial surfaces of the teeth that were isolated with rubber dam and Teflon bands. Finishing and polishing procedures were achieved by using polishing discs. Patient was informed for recalls for every 6 months. Conclusions. At one-year recall no sensitivities, discolorations, or fractures were detected on teeth and restorations. Direct composite resins seemed to be highly aesthetic and durable restorations that can satisfy patients as under the conditions of case presented. PMID:26881147

  8. High 5-hydroxymethylfurfural concentrations are found in Malaysian honey samples stored for more than one year.

    PubMed

    Khalil, M I; Sulaiman, S A; Gan, S H

    2010-01-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content is an indicator of the purity of honey. High concentrations of HMF in honey indicate overheating, poor storage conditions and old honey. This study investigated the HMF content of nine Malaysian honey samples, as well as the correlation of HMF formation with physicochemical properties of honey. Based on the recommendation by the International Honey Commission, three methods for the determination of HMF were used: (1) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (2) White spectrophotometry and (3) Winkler spectrophotometry methods. HPLC and White spectrophotometric results yielded almost similar values, whereas the Winkler method showed higher readings. The physicochemical properties of honey (pH, free acids, lactones and total acids) showed significant correlation with HMF content and may provide parameters that could be used to make quick assessments of honey quality. The HMF content of fresh Malaysian honey samples stored for 3-6 months (at 2.80-24.87 mg/kg) was within the internationally recommended value (80 mg/kg for tropical honeys), while honey samples stored for longer periods (12-24 months) contained much higher HMF concentrations (128.19-1131.76 mg/kg). Therefore, it is recommended that honey should generally be consumed within one year, regardless of the type. PMID:20595027

  9. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) scintigraphy: A one year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Baulieu, J.L.; Guilloteau, D.; Chambon, C.; Viel, C.; Baulieu, F.; Itti, R.; Pourcelot, L.; Besnard, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    During one year, mIBG scintigraphy was performed in 31 patients: group I (n=27): I-131 mIBG: 18 patients without pheochromocytoma, and 9 patients with proved pheochromocytoma; grout II (n=4): I-123 mIBG: two children without neuroblastoma and two children with proved neuroblastoma. Uptake in various organs or sites of activity was evaluated by an entire score varying from 0 to 3 according respectively to no visualization, visualization only from digitalized images, visualization on analogic images and predominant activity. Most of the organs appeared more visible in patients without pheochromocytoma. In patients with pheochromocytoma, the heart was not apparent on 48 hours views. In group I, pathologic examination resulted in eight true positives one false positive and one false negative. In group II, the neuroblastoma exhibited mIBG accumulation, while no abnormal uptake was observed in children without neuroblastoma. According to the final diagnosis, sensitivity was found to be .91 and specificity .95. The results confirm that mIBG is valuable for pheochromocytoma localization and suggest that I-123 mIBG could be useful in investigating neuroblastoma in children.

  10. Impediments to recovery in New Orleans' Upper and Lower Ninth Ward: one year after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebekah; Bates, Lisa K; Smyth, Andrew

    2007-12-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, a rapid succession of plans put forward a host of recovery options for the Upper and Lower Ninth Ward in New Orleans. Much of the debate focused on catastrophic damage to residential structures and discussions of the capacity of low-income residents to repair their neighbourhoods. This article examines impediments to the current recovery process of the Upper and Lower Ninth Ward, reporting results of an October 2006 survey of 3,211 plots for structural damage, flood damage and post-storm recovery. By examining recovery one year after Hurricane Katrina, and by doing so in the light of flood and structural damage, it is possible to identify impediments to recovery that may disproportionately affect these neighbourhoods. This paper concludes with a discussion of how pre- and post-disaster inequalities have slowed recovery in the Lower Ninth Ward and of the implications this has for post-disaster recovery planning there and elsewhere. PMID:18028156

  11. Carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes for one year above a temperate grazed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksic, V.; Kiely, G.; Albertson, J.; Scanlon, T.

    2003-04-01

    The Dripsey flux site in Cork, Ireland is a perennial ryegrass (C3 category) pasture and is grazed for approximately 8 to 10 months of the year. The lands are fertilised with approximately 200kg/ha/year of nitrogen. The flux tower monitoring carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy was established in June 2001 and we have continuous data since then. The site also includes streamflow hydrology and stream water chemistry. We present the results and analysis for carbon dioxide and water vapour for the year July 1, 2001 to July 1, 2002. The accumulated evapotranspiration amounts to 522mm/annum compared to 1600mm/annum of rainfall. The one year carbon sequestration is 3.9t/ha. The estimated carbon in the grass and silage is 3.6t/ha. This suggests that the soils in these pastures are a sink for approximately 0.3t carbon per hectare. This work is part of a five year (2002-2006) research project funded by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency.

  12. The impact of syphilis mass treatment one year later: self-reported behaviour change among participants.

    PubMed

    Rekart, Michael L; Wong, Thomas; Wong, Elsie; Hutchinson, Kylie; Ogilvie, Gina

    2005-08-01

    In 2000, syphilis mass treatment using oral azithromycin was delivered to at-risk British Columbians during a sex trade-related outbreak. The initiative included education, counselling and referral. This cross-sectional, observational study examines knowledge, attitudes and self-reported behaviour after one year among mass treatment participants compared with eligible non-participants. Participants self-reported positive changes: reduction in sexual partners overall (P=0.001) and for sex workers (P<0.01), decrease in unprotected oral sex (P=0.03), knowledge of asymptomatic syphilis (P=0.02), positive attitudes to mass treatment (P=0.02) and to the street nurses (P=0.01). Increased awareness was associated with increased condom use for vaginal sex overall (P=0.02) and for sex workers (P=0.03) and increased condom use for oral sex (P=0.05). There was no difference in syphilis incidence. Syphilis outbreak interventions that include education, support and referral can result in long-term positive behaviour changes. PMID:16105193

  13. Effect of Cystone® on Urinary Composition and Stone Formation Over a One Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, S. B.; Vrtiska, T. J.; Lieske, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney stones are a common problem for which inadequate prevention exists. We recruited ten recurrent kidney stone formers with documented calcium oxalate stones into a two phased study to assess safety and effectiveness of Cystone®, an herbal treatment for prevention of kidney stones. The first phase was a randomized double-blinded 12 week cross over study assessing the effect of Cystone® vs. placebo on urinary supersaturation. The second phase was an open label one year study of Cystone® to determine if renal stone burden decreased, as assessed by quantitative and subjective assessment of CT. Results revealed no statistically significant effect of Cystone® on urinary composition short (6 weeks) or long (52 weeks) term. Average renal stone burden increased rather than decreased on Cystone®. Therefore, this study does not support the efficacy of Cystone® to treat calcium oxalate stone formers. Future studies will be needed to assess effects on stone passage, or on other stone types. PMID:21419609

  14. Does surgical approach or prosthesis type affect hip joint loading one year after surgery?

    PubMed

    Wesseling, Mariska; Meyer, Christophe; Corten, Kristoff; Simon, Jean-Pierre; Desloovere, Kaat; Jonkers, Ilse

    2016-02-01

    Several approaches may be used for hip replacement surgery either in combination with conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA) or resurfacing hip arthroplasty (RHA). This study investigates the differences in hip loading during gait one year or more after surgery in three cohorts presenting different surgical procedures, more specific RHA placed using the direct lateral (RHA-DLA, n=8) and posterolateral (RHA-PLA, n=14) approach as well as THA placed using the direct anterior (THA-DAA, n=12) approach. For the DAA and control subjects, hip loading was also evaluated during stair ascent and descent to evaluate whether these motions can better discriminate between patients and controls compared to gait. Musculoskeletal modelling in OpenSim was used to calculate in vivo joint loading. Results showed that for all operated patients, regardless the surgical procedure, hip loading was decreased compared to control subjects, while no differences were found between patient groups. This indicates that THA via DAA results in similar hip loading as a RHA via DLA or PLA. Stair climbing did not result in more distinct differences in hip contact force magnitude between patients and controls, although differences in orientation were more distinct. However, patients after hip surgery did adjust their motion pattern to decrease the magnitude of loading on the hip joint compared to control subjects. PMID:27004636

  15. Inflammatory Serum Protein Profiling of Patients with Lumbar Radicular Pain One Year after Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Moen, Aurora; Lind, Anne-Li; Thulin, Måns; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood; Røe, Cecilie; Gjerstad, Johannes; Gordh, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies suggest that lumbar radicular pain following disc herniation may be associated with a local or systemic inflammatory process. In the present study, we investigated the serum inflammatory protein profile of such patients. All 45 patients were recruited from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, during the period 2007-2009. The new multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) technology was used to analyze the levels of 92 proteins. Interestingly, the present data showed that patients with radicular pain 12 months after disc herniation may be different from other patients with regard to many measurable serum cytokines. Given a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.10 and 0.05, we identified 41 and 13 proteins, respectively, which were significantly upregulated in the patients with severe pain one year after disc herniation. On the top of the list ranked by estimated increase we found C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCM5; 217% increase), epidermal growth factor (EGF; 142% increase), and monocyte chemotactic protein 4 (MCP-4; 70% increase). Moreover, a clear overall difference in the serum cytokine profile between the chronic and the recovered patients was demonstrated. Thus, the present results may be important for future protein serum profiling of lumbar radicular pain patients with regard to prognosis and choice of treatment. We conclude that serum proteins may be measurable molecular markers of persistent pain after disc herniation. PMID:27293953

  16. Effect of endurance training on lung function: a one year study

    PubMed Central

    Kippelen, P; Caillaud, C; Robert, E; Connes, P; Godard, P; Prefaut, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify in a follow up study airway changes occurring during the course of a sport season in healthy endurance athletes training in a Mediterranean region. Methods: Respiratory pattern and function were analysed in 13 healthy endurance trained athletes, either during a maximal exercise test, or at rest and during recovery through respiratory manoeuvres (spirometry and closing volume tests). The exercise test was conducted on three different occasions: during basic endurance training and then during the precompetition and competitive periods. Results: During the competitive period, a slight but non-clinically significant decrease was found in forced vital capacity (–3.5%, p = 0.0001) and an increase in slope of phase III (+25%, p = 0.0029), both at rest and after exercise. No concomitant reduction in expiratory flow rates was noticed. During maximal exercise there was a tachypnoeic shift over the course of the year (mean (SEM) breathing frequency and tidal volume were respectively 50 (2) cycles/min and 3.13 (0.09) litres during basic endurance training v 55 (3) cycles/min and 2.98 (0.10) litres during the competitive period; p<0.05). Conclusions: This study does not provide significant evidence of lung function impairment in healthy Mediterranean athletes after one year of endurance training. PMID:16118298

  17. A one-year study of streptococcal infections and their complications among Ethiopian children.

    PubMed Central

    Tewodros, W.; Muhe, L.; Daniel, E.; Schalén, C.; Kronvall, G.

    1992-01-01

    Post-streptococcal complications are known to be common among Ethiopian children. Little is known, however, about the epidemiology of beta-haemolytic streptococci in Ethiopia. A total of 816 children were studied during a one-year period: 24 cases of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), 44 chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD), 44 acute post streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN), 143 tonsillitis, 55 impetigo, and 506 were apparently healthy children. Both ARF and APSGN occurred throughout the year with two peaks during the rainy and cold seasons. The female:male ratio among ARF patients was 1.4:1 and 1:1.9 among APSGN. The monthly carrier rate of beta-haemolytic streptococci group A varied from 7.5-39%, average being 17%. T type 2 was the most frequent serotype. Marked seasonal fluctuations were noted in the distribution of serogroups among apparently healthy children. Beta-haemolytic streptococci group A dominated during the hot and humid months of February-May. Strains were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics, except for tetracycline. PMID:1397112

  18. Primary success and one-year followup of percutaneous peripheral excimer laser angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visona, Adriana; Liessi, Guido; Miserocchi, Luigi; Bonanome, Andrea; Lusiani, Luigi; Breggion, Giovanni; Pagnan, Antonio

    1992-08-01

    Excimer laser angioplasty was performed in 59 patients (44 males and 17 females, mean age 63 +/- 9 years, range 39 - 77) affected by peripheral vascular disease. Fifty patients had a total occlusion of the superficial femoral artery, three of the iliac artery, and one of the popliteal artery; seven patients showed a subocclusive stenosis of the superficial femoral artery. A commercial excimer laser (Technolas Max-10) was used at the Xenon-Chloride wavelength of 308 nm. The laser operated at 120 ns pulse length and at 20 Hz repetition rate. Applied energy fluence was 20 mJ/pulse. The energy was delivered through a multifiber catheter, which combines 12 (7F) or 18 (9F) fibers (260 micron diameter each), concentrically arranged. Balloon dilatation was associated in 51 patients. Successful recanalization was obtained in 59 out of 61 patients (97%). Failure to recanalize the occluded arteries occurred in two cases, and was due to dissection. Early thrombosis and reocclusion (within 48 hours) was observed in five patients. The cumulative patency rate was 56% at one year. On the basis of these results, excimer laser assisted angioplasty seems a feasible and safe procedure. However, this technique did not solve the restenosis problem. A wide application of excimer laser as a stand alone approach can be foreseen for treatment of peripheral vascular disease.

  19. The use of barytocalcite for carbon 14 immobilization: One-year leaching behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoni, Nicolas; Marcou, Céline; Rosen, Jérémy; Jollivet, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    The spent nuclear fuel reprocessing process is one of the anthropogenic sources of carbon-14, and since this element is highly mobile in the geosphere, its sequestration is necessary. Several phases and industrial solutions to immobilize this radionuclide have been studied, including the barytocalcite phase BaCa(CO3)2 at 8.08 wt.% of C, which has many advantages such as its low specific volume of carbon. Recently, different options to synthesize this phase have been reported. Here we report on the aqueous durability of barytocalcite, studied for one year with pure water at 30 °C, in order to complete the behavior studies. Unexpected leaching behavior was encountered: it had been supposed that barytocalcite would only leach slowly, but after 1 year, it was no longer present. It appears that its simple CaCO3 and BaCO3 constituents precipitated, though the overall carbon loss was low during the period studied. This research gives a new insight into the behavior of this phase regarding carbon-14 immobilization.

  20. Inflammatory Serum Protein Profiling of Patients with Lumbar Radicular Pain One Year after Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Aurora; Lind, Anne-Li; Thulin, Måns; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood; Røe, Cecilie; Gordh, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies suggest that lumbar radicular pain following disc herniation may be associated with a local or systemic inflammatory process. In the present study, we investigated the serum inflammatory protein profile of such patients. All 45 patients were recruited from Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, during the period 2007–2009. The new multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) technology was used to analyze the levels of 92 proteins. Interestingly, the present data showed that patients with radicular pain 12 months after disc herniation may be different from other patients with regard to many measurable serum cytokines. Given a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.10 and 0.05, we identified 41 and 13 proteins, respectively, which were significantly upregulated in the patients with severe pain one year after disc herniation. On the top of the list ranked by estimated increase we found C-X-C motif chemokine 5 (CXCM5; 217% increase), epidermal growth factor (EGF; 142% increase), and monocyte chemotactic protein 4 (MCP-4; 70% increase). Moreover, a clear overall difference in the serum cytokine profile between the chronic and the recovered patients was demonstrated. Thus, the present results may be important for future protein serum profiling of lumbar radicular pain patients with regard to prognosis and choice of treatment. We conclude that serum proteins may be measurable molecular markers of persistent pain after disc herniation. PMID:27293953

  1. Cardiovascular Risk Factors One Year After a Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Stephanie; Goldstein, Neal D.; Edwards, David G.; Weintraub, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify differences in women's cardiovascular risk, independent of obesity, one year after delivery of a pregnancy complicated by a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP). Methods We compared traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors of women recruited at delivery following the diagnosis of an HDP with those of women with uncomplicated pregnancies, at 3 months and 12–18 months postpartum. Measures included blood pressure, fasting lipids, inflammatory biomarkers, and measures of insulin resistance. Multiple linear regressions were used to adjust for body mass index (BMI) and other characteristics. Results We studied 71 subjects: 31 women with HDP and 40 with an uncomplicated pregnancy. There were no significant differences between groups for total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides, HgbA1c, or homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance. Values for tumor necrosis factor-α were significantly higher in the HDP group (p<0.01), while those for interleukin-6 and c-reactive protein were not. A diagnosis of HDP was associated with a 9 mm Hg difference in systolic blood pressure at both 3 months and 1 year, after adjustment for age, BMI, race, family history of cardiovascular disease, tobacco use, and insurance. Conclusions Women with HDP had significantly higher blood pressure 3 months and 1 year after delivery, independent of obesity. There were no significant differences in lipids or measures of insulin resistance after adjusting for BMI. Elevated blood pressure may account for the observed associations between HDP and future cardiovascular disease. PMID:25247261

  2. Volume transport and mixing of the Faroe Bank Channel overflow from one year of moored measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullgren, Jenny E.; Darelius, Elin; Fer, Ilker

    2016-03-01

    One-year long time series of current velocity and temperature from eight moorings deployed in the Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) are analysed to describe the structure and variability of the dense overflow plume on daily to seasonal timescales. Mooring arrays were deployed in two sections: located 25 km downstream of the main sill, in the channel that geographically confines the overflow plume at both edges (section C), and 60 km further downstream, over the slope (section S). At section C, the average volume transport of overflow waters ( < 3 °C) from the Nordic Seas towards the Iceland Basin was 1.3 ± 0.3 Sv; at section S, transport of modified overflow water ( < 6 °C) was 1.7 ± 0.7 Sv. The volume transport through the slope section was dominated by mesoscale variability at 3-5-day timescales. A simplified view of along-path entrainment of a gravity current may not be accurate for the FBC overflow. As the plume proceeds into the stratified ambient water, there is substantial detrainment from the deeper layer (bounded by the 3 °C isotherm), of comparable magnitude to the entrainment into the interfacial layer (between the 3 and 6 °C isotherms). A time series of gradient Richardson numbers suggests a quiescent plume core capped by turbulent near bottom and interfacial layers in the channel. At section S, in contrast, the entire overflow plume is turbulent. Based on a two-layer heat budget constructed for the overflow, time mean vertical diffusivities across the top of the bottom layer and across the interfacial layer were (30 ± 15) × 10-4 and (120 ± 43) × 10-4 m2 s-1, respectively.

  3. Radon and climatic multiparameter analysis: A one-year study on radon dynamics in a house

    SciTech Connect

    Genrich, V.

    1995-12-31

    Radon-reduction in private and public buildings is a current issue. Research has opened our eyes for the enormous fluctuations of the indoor radon level over longer observation periods. For generalizing the behavior radon in a building, care must be taken that the observation period is long enough, to mediate the pronounced climatic changes in the course of a year. The author has started a one-year observations, precisely logging up the radon level in a single family home. Six portable multiparameter-monitors, each equipped with a 0.6 liter PIC-detector (PIC = pulse ionization chamber), have been installed at different locations within the building and outdoors (incl. two soil-gas probes). Besides the radon concentration, in the same instruments the following parameters are logged cotinuously: relative humidity, differential pressure between basement and sub-slab area, soil impendance (indication water saturation) and wind speed on the roof. In the basement, the radon concentration varies between 61 Bq/m{sup 3} and 5408 Bq/m{sup 3} (mean: 1092 Bq/m{sup 3}.) By analyzing these records, the time sequence of the radon concentration can be characterized as a {open_quotes}mixture{close_quotes} of (periodic) circadian variations overlayed with (aperiodic) seasonal fluctuations. In this building, it turns out, that the pressure difference across the base plate is an important factor for radon entry as well as ventilation rate. It can be shown, that the pressure is closely related to the indoor-outdoor temperature difference. This relation was found to be non-linear. Other factors are attributed to the activities of the inhabitants. The paper points out correlations between radon and different climatic parameters mainly by using scatterplots and classical regression methods.

  4. One-Year Patency of Valvulotomized Vein Grafts Is Similar to That of Arterial Grafts.

    PubMed

    Monsefi, Nadejda; Zierer, Andreas; Honarpisheh, Gazal; Bauer, Ralf; Kerl, Matthias; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Moritz, Anton

    2016-04-01

    Background Inferior vein graft patency after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is attributed to various factors. Venous valves may limit flow, cause thrombus formation, and diminish diastolic backflow. The aim of our study was to compare clinical outcome and midterm patency rate of valvulotomized vein grafts and arterial grafts in patients undergoing CABG. Methods Between 2007 and 2010, valvulotomized saphenous vein segments were used to graft the right coronary artery (RCA) in 147 patients undergoing CABG with mean 2.8 ± 1 arterial and 1.5 ± 0.6 venous anastomoses. Outcome, reintervention, and reoperation were assessed after 4 ± 1.6 years. Intraoperative bypass flow rate was measured before and after valvulotomy of venous bypass grafts in 12 patients. Patency of the grafts was assessed by means of multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in 45 patients. Results A total of 102 patients underwent isolated CABG and 45 had combined procedures. In-hospital mortality was 2%. At 4 years' clinical follow-up, 95% of the patients were asymptomatic. Five patients underwent recoronary angiography because of angina pectoris. The MSCT and reangiography patency rate of all valvulotomized saphenous vein grafts was 97.1 versus 95.8% of arterial grafts 18 ± 6 months postoperatively. Intraoperative measurements showed a significant increase (+20.2 mL/min; p = 0.01) of flow in the venous bypass grafts to the RCA after valvulotomy. There were no reoperations at the latest follow-up. Conclusion Patients with valvulotomized venous grafts had good clinical outcome. The one-year patency rate of those grafts is comparable to that of arterial grafts. However, long-term results and angiography studies will be needed to strengthen these findings. PMID:25866977

  5. One Year Post Collaborative Depression Care Trial Outcomes among Predominantly Hispanic Diabetes Safety Net Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ell, Kathleen; Katon, Wayne; Xie, Bin; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Kapetanovic, Suad; Guterman, Jeffery; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine sustained effectiveness in reducing depression symptoms and improving depression care one year following intervention completion. Method Of 387 low-income, predominantly Hispanic diabetes patients with major depression symptoms randomized to 12-month socio-culturally adapted collaborative care (psychotherapy and/or antidepressants, telephone symptom monitoring/relapse prevention) or enhanced usual care, 264 patients completed two-year follow-up. Depression symptoms (SCL-20, PHQ-9), treatment receipt, diabetes symptoms, and quality of life were assessed 24 months post-enrollment using intent-to-treat analyses. Results At 24 months, more intervention patients received ongoing antidepressant treatment (38% v 25%, chi-square=5.11, df=1, P=0.02); sustained depression symptom improvement (SCL-20<0.5 (adjusted OR=2.06, 95%CI=1.09–3.90, P=0.03), SCL-20 score (adjusted mean difference −0.22, P=0.001), and PHQ-9 ≥50% reduction (adjusted OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.05–3.32, P=0.03). Over 2 years, improved effects were found in significant study group by time interaction for SF-12 mental health, SDS functional impairment, diabetes symptoms, anxiety, and socioeconomic stressors (P=0.02 for SDS, P<0.0001 for all others); however, group differences narrowed over time and were no longer significant at 24 months. Conclusions Socio-culturally tailored collaborative care that included maintenance antidepressant medication, ongoing symptom monitoring and behavioral activation relapse prevention was associated with depression improvement over 24 months for predominantly Hispanic patients in primary safety net care. PMID:21774987

  6. Volume transport and mixing of the Faroe Bank Channel overflow from one year of moored measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullgren, J. E.; Darelius, E.; Fer, I.

    2015-10-01

    One-year long time series of current velocity and temperature from ten moorings deployed in the Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) are analysed to describe the structure and variability of the dense overflow plume on daily to seasonal time scales. Mooring arrays are deployed in two sections: located 25 km downstream of the main sill, in the channel that geographically confines the overflow plume at both edges (section C), and 60 km further downstream, over the slope (section S). At section C, the average volume transport of overflow waters (< 3 °C) from the Nordic Seas towards the Iceland Basin is 1.3 ± 0.3 Sv; at Section S, transport of modified overflow water (< 6 °C) is 1.8 ± 0.7 Sv. The volume transport through the slope section is dominated by mesoscale variability at 3-5 day time scale. A simplified view of along-path entrainment of a gravity current is not accurate for the FBC overflow. As the plume proceeds into the stratified ambient water, there is substantial detrainment from the deeper layer (bounded by the 3 °C isotherm), of comparable magnitude to the entrainment into the interfacial layer (between the 3 and 6 °C isotherms). Time series of gradient Richardson number suggests a quiescent plume core capped by turbulent near bottom and interfacial layers in the channel. At section S, in contrast, the entire overflow plume is turbulent. Based on a two-layer heat budget constructed for the overflow, mean diffusivities across the top of the bottom layer, and across the interfacial layer are (30 ± 15) × 10-4 m2 s-1 and (119 ± 43) × 10-4 m2 s-1, respectively.

  7. Callosal tissue loss in multiple system atrophy - a one year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Minnerop, M; Luders, E; Specht, K; Ruhlmann, J; Schimke, N; Thompson, PM; Chou, YY; Toga, AW; Abele, M; Wüllner, U; Klockgether, T

    2010-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease particularly affecting the basal ganglia, brainstem, cerebellum, and intermediolateral cell columns of the spinal cord but also the cerebral cortex. Clinically, cerebellar (MSA-C) and parkinsonian variants of MSA (MSA-P) are distinguished. We investigated 14 MSA patients (10 MSA-C, 4 MSA-P, men/women: 7/7, age: 61.1±3.3 years) and 14 matched controls (men/women: 7/7, age 58.6±5.1 years) with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to analyze gray and white matter differences both at baseline and at follow-up, one year later. Baseline comparisons between patients and controls confirmed significantly less gray matter in MSA in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex, and significantly less white matter in the cerebellar peduncles and brainstem. Comparisons of tissue-loss profiles (i.e., baseline versus follow-up) between patients and controls, revealed white matter reduction in MSA along the middle cerebellar peduncles, reflecting degeneration of the ponto-cerebellar tract as a particularly prominent and progressive morphological alteration in MSA. Comparisons between baseline and follow-up, separately performed in patients and controls, revealed additional white matter reduction in MSA along the corpus callosum at follow-up. This was replicated through additional shape-based analyses indicating a reduced callosal thickness in the anterior and posterior midbody, extending posteriorly into the isthmus. Callosal atrophy may reflect a possibly disease-specific pattern of neurodegeneration and cortical atrophy respectively, fitting well with the predominant impairment of motor functions in MSA patients. PMID:20623690

  8. The personality bases of ideology: a one-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Chris G; Duckitt, John

    2010-01-01

    The cross-lagged effects of the Big-Five personality dimensions on Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and Right-Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) were examined over 1 year (N = 112). Consistent with the Dual Process Cognitive-Motivational Model, SDO and RWA exhibited markedly different personality bases. Low Agreeableness and unexpectedly high Extraversion predicted change in the motivational goal for group-based dominance and superiority (SDO), whereas Openness to Experience predicted change in the motivational goal for social cohesion and collective security (RWA). Neuroticism and Conscientiousness did not predict change in SDO or RWA over time. These findings extend previous cross-sectional (correlational) research and indicate that key dimensions of personality (primarily Agreeableness and Openness to Experience) are an important temporal antecedent of the group-based motivational goals underlying individual differences in prejudice. PMID:21058579

  9. Teacher Education, Book-Reading Practices, and Children's Language Growth across One Year of Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerde, Hope K.; Powell, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: An observational study of 60 Head Start teachers and 341 children (177 boys, 164 girls) enrolled in their classrooms found teachers' book-reading practices to predict growth in children's receptive vocabulary. Multilevel growth analyses indicated that children in classrooms where teachers used more book-focused utterances made…

  10. Social Connectedness and One-Year Trajectories among Suicidal Adolescents Following Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czyz, Ewa K.; Liu, Zhuqing; King, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which posthospitalization "change" in connectedness with family, peers, and nonfamily adults predicted suicide attempts, severity of suicidal ideation, and depressive symptoms across a 12-month follow-up period among inpatient suicidal adolescents. Participants were 338 inpatient suicidal adolescents, ages 13 to…

  11. Impact of Relapse Predictors on Psychosocial Functioning of SUD Youth One Year after Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Ramo, Danielle E.; Schulte, Marya T.; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined how personal, environmental and substance use factors predicted psychosocial functioning for youth with alcohol and drug problems. Four hundred twenty-four adolescents (M = 15.9, SD = 1.3) completed comprehensive assessments, including personal characteristics (e.g., Axis I diagnosis, motivation, self-esteem),…

  12. Viral Etiology of Encephalitis in Children in Southern Vietnam: Results of a One-Year Prospective Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Le Van; Qui, Phan Tu; Ha, Do Quang; Hue, Nguyen Bach; Bao, Lam Quoi; Cam, Bach Van; Khanh, Truong Huu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Vinh Chau, Nguyen Van; Tram, Tran Tan; Hien, Vo Minh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Schultsz, Constance; Farrar, Jeremy; van Doorn, H. Rogier; de Jong, Menno D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Acute encephalitis is an important and severe disease in children in Vietnam. However, little is known about the etiology while such knowledge is essential for optimal prevention and treatment. To identify viral causes of encephalitis, in 2004 we conducted a one-year descriptive study at Children's Hospital Number One, a referral hospital for children in southern Vietnam including Ho Chi Minh City. Methodology/Principal Findings Children less than 16 years of age presenting with acute encephalitis of presumed viral etiology were enrolled. Diagnostic efforts included viral culture, serology and real time (RT)-PCRs. A confirmed or probable viral causative agent was established in 41% of 194 enrolled patients. The most commonly diagnosed causative agent was Japanese encephalitis virus (n = 50, 26%), followed by enteroviruses (n = 18, 9.3%), dengue virus (n = 9, 4.6%), herpes simplex virus (n = 1), cytomegalovirus (n = 1) and influenza A virus (n = 1). Fifty-seven (29%) children died acutely. Fatal outcome was independently associated with patient age and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on admission. Conclusions/Significance Acute encephalitis in children in southern Vietnam is associated with high mortality. Although the etiology remains unknown in a majority of the patients, the result from the present study may be useful for future design of treatment and prevention strategies of the disease. The recognition of GCS and age as predictive factors may be helpful for clinicians in managing the patient. PMID:21049060

  13. Prognostic Value of Serum Caspase-Cleaved Cytokeratin-18 Levels before Liver Transplantation for One-Year Survival of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Leonardo; Rodriguez, Sergio T; Sanz, Pablo; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Padilla, Javier; Díaz, Dácil; González, Antonio; Martín, María M; Jiménez, Alejandro; Barrera, Manuel A

    2016-01-01

    Cytokeratin (CK)-18 is the major intermediate filament protein in the liver and during hepatocyte apoptosis is cleaved by the action of caspases; the resulting fragments are released into the blood as caspase-cleaved cytokeratin (CCCK)-18. Higher circulating levels of CCCK-18 have been found in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than in healthy controls and than in cirrhotic patients. However, it is unknown whether serum CCCK-18 levels before liver transplantation (LT) in patients with HCC could be used as a prognostic biomarker of one-year survival, and this was the objective of our study with 135 patients. At one year after LT, non-survivors showed higher serum CCCK-18 levels than survivors (p = 0.001). On binary logistic regression analysis, serum CCCK-18 levels >384 U/L were associated with death at one year (odds ratio = 19.801; 95% confidence interval = 5.301-73.972; p < 0.001) after controlling for deceased donor age. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of serum CCCK-18 levels to predict death at one year was 77% (95% CI = 69%-84%; p < 0.001). The new finding of our study was that serum levels of CCCK-18 before LT in patients with HCC could be used as prognostic biomarker of survival. PMID:27618033

  14. Aetiology of Bacteraemia as a Risk Factor for Septic Shock at the Onset of Febrile Neutropaenia in Adult Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Regis Goulart; Goldani, Luciano Zubaran

    2014-01-01

    Septic shock (SS) at the onset of febrile neutropaenia (FN) is an emergency situation that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The impact of the specific aetiology of bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the development of SS at the time of FN is not well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the aetiology of BSIs and SS at the time of FN in hospitalised adult cancer patients. This prospective cohort study was performed at a single tertiary hospital from October 2009 to August 2011. All adult cancer patients admitted consecutively to the haematology ward with FN were evaluated. A stepwise logistic regression was conducted to verify the association between the microbiological characteristics of BSIs and SS at the onset of FN. In total, 307 cases of FN in adult cancer patients were evaluated. There were 115 cases with documented BSI. A multivariate analysis showed that polymicrobial bacteraemia (P = 0.01) was associated with SS. The specific blood isolates independently associated with SS were viridans streptococci (P = 0.02) and Escherichia coli (P = 0.01). Neutropaenic cancer patients with polymicrobial bacteraemia or BSI by viridans streptococci or Escherichia coli are at increased risk for SS at the time of FN. PMID:24804223

  15. Musculoskeletal disorders among construction workers: a one-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are an important cause of functional impairments and disability among construction workers. An improved understanding of MSDs in different construction occupations is likely to be of value for selecting preventive measures. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of symptoms of MSDs, the work-relatedness of the symptoms and the problems experienced during work among two construction occupations: bricklayers and supervisors. Methods We randomly selected 750 bricklayers and 750 supervisors resident in the Netherlands in December 2009. This sample was surveyed by means of a baseline questionnaire and a follow-up questionnaire one year later. The participants were asked about complaints of the musculoskeletal system during the last six months, the perceived work-relatedness of the symptoms, the problems that occurred during work and the occupational tasks that were perceived as causes or aggravating factors of the MSD. Results Baseline response rate was 37%, follow-up response was 80%. The prevalence of MSDs among 267 bricklayers and 232 supervisors was 67% and 57%, respectively. Complaints of the back, knee and shoulder/upper arm were the most prevalent among both occupations. Irrespective of the body region, most of the bricklayers and supervisors reported that their complaints were work-related. Complaints of the back and elbow were the most often reported among the bricklayers during work, whereas lower arm/wrist and upper leg complaints were the most often reported among the supervisors. In both occupations, a majority of the participants perceived several occupational physical tasks and activities as causes or aggravating factors for their MSD. Recurrent complaints at follow-up were reported by both bricklayers (47% of the complaints) and supervisors (31% of the complaints). Participants in both occupations report that mainly back and knee complaints result in additional problems during work, at the time

  16. Molecular characteristics of continuously released DOM during one year of root and leaf litter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Jens; Jansen, Boris; Kalbitz, Karsten; Filley, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is one of the most dynamic carbon pools linking the terrestrial with the aquatic carbon cycle. Besides the insecure contribution of terrestrial DOM to the greenhouse effect, DOM also plays an important role for the mobility and availability of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils. These processes depend very much on the molecular characteristics of the DOM. Surprisingly the processes that determine the molecular composition of DOM are only poorly understood. DOM can originate from various sources, which influence its molecular composition. It has been recognized that DOM formation is not a static process and DOM characteristics vary not only between different carbon sources. However, molecular characteristics of DOM extracts have scarcely been studied continuously over a longer period of time. Due to constant molecular changes of the parent litter material or soil organic matter during microbial degradation, we assumed that also the molecular characteristics of litter derived DOM varies at different stages during root and needle decomposition. For this study we analyzed the chemical composition of root and leaf samples of 6 temperate tree species during one year of litter decomposition in a laboratory incubation. During this long-term experiment we measured continuously carbon and nitrogen contents of the water extracts and the remaining residues, C mineralization rates, and the chemical composition of water extracts and residues by Curie-point pyrolysis mass spectrometry with TMAH We focused on the following questions: (I) How mobile are molecules derived from plant polymers like tannin, lignin, suberin and cutin? (II) How does the composition of root and leaf derived DOM change over time in dependence on the stage of decomposition and species? Litter derived DOM was generally dominated by aromatic compounds. Substituded fatty acids as typically cutin or suberin derived were not detected in the water extracts. Fresh leaf and

  17. The first one year measurements at the Monte Portella (Italy) climate high altitude station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruffo, Eleonora; Di Carlo, Piero; D'Altorio, Alfonso; Busilacchio, Marcella; Biancofiore, Fabio; Giammaria, Franco; Del Grande, Francesco; Bonasoni, Paolo; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2014-05-01

    With the purpose of contributing in providing information about atmospheric composition baseline variability in the Mediterranean basin, an atmospheric station has been installed at a high mountain site in Central Italy (Monte Portella, 2401 m a.s.l.), on July 20th 2012. Monte Portella is not far from the Corno Grande (the highest peak of the Italian Appennines, 2912 m a.s.l.) and the Calderone, the southernmost glacier in Europe. This remote site is very interesting for the analysis of the atmospheric processes occurring in the free troposphere of the Mediterranean Basin since local emissions are not in its proximity; moreover, Cristofanelli et al. (2013) found that during the July 2009 the air masses reaching the site originate mainly from the Mediterranean basin, but also from the Continental Europe and from the Northern Italy and that different origins of the air masses impact differently on the ozone budget. This station is part of the SHARE (Station at High Altitude for Environmental Research) Project. The instrumentation until now available includes: a meteorological station (VAISALA Hydromet for measurements of Temperature, Pressure, Relative Humidity, Wind speed and direction, Solar Radiation and precipitation), ozone monitor (2B technologies, model 205), NO monitor (2B technologies, model 410), aerosol size distribution (OPC monitor multichannel, FAI instruments. In our study we will show the results of the first one year of continuous measurements collected. In particular, we will study the ozone trend as a function of meteorological parameter and, in detail, of the wind direction. We will show also the PM1 and PM10 annual trends individuating events of pollution transport in free troposphere and analyzing their dependence on different air masses origins. These analyses represent the first hints about atmospheric composition variability at high altitude in the central Italy. Reference Cristofanelli, P., Di Carlo, P., D'Altorio, A., Dari Salisburgo, C

  18. One year observation of water vapour isotopic composition at Ivittuut, Southern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Delmotte, Marc; Cattani, Olivier; Sodemann, Harald; Risi, Camille

    2013-04-01

    In September 2011, an automatic continuous water vapour isotopic composition monitoring instrument has been installed in the atmospheric station of Ivittuut (61.21° N, 48.17° W), southern Greenland. Precipitation has been regularly sampled on site at event to weekly scales and analysed in our laboratory for isotopic composition. Meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure, relative humidity, wind speed and direction) and atmospheric composition (CO2, CH4, Atmospheric Potential Oxygen) are also continuously monitored at Ivittuut. The meteorological context of our observation period will be assessed by comparison with the local climatology. The water vapour analyser is a Picarro Wavelength Scanned Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS, model L2120i). It is automatically and regularly calibrated on the VSMOW scale using measurements of the isotopic composition of vaporized reference water standards using the Picarro Syringe Delivery Module (SDM). As measurements are sensitive to humidity level, an experimentally estimated calibration response function is used to correct our isotopic measurements. After data treatment, successive isotopic measurements of reference waters have a standard deviation of around 0.35 per mil for δ18O and 2.3 per mil for δD. Our instrumentation protocol and data quality control method will be presented, together with our one year δ18O, δD and d-excess measurements in water vapour and precipitation. The relationship between surface water vapour isotopic composition and precipitation isotopic composition will be investigated based on a distillation model. Specific difficulties linked to our low maintenance remote station will also be discussed. The processes responsible for the synoptic variability of Ivittuut water vapour isotopic composition will be investigated by comparing our observational dataset with (i) atmospheric back-trajectories and (ii) results from an isotopically-enabled atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM

  19. One year survival of ART and conventional restorations in patients with disability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing restorative treatment for persons with disability may be challenging and has been related to the patient’s ability to cope with the anxiety engendered by treatment and to cooperate fully with the demands of the clinical situation. The aim of the present study was to assess the survival rate of ART restorations compared to conventional restorations in people with disability referred for special care dentistry. Methods Three treatment protocols were distinguished: ART (hand instruments/high-viscosity glass-ionomer); conventional restorative treatment (rotary instrumentation/resin composite) in the clinic (CRT/clinic) and under general anaesthesia (CRT/GA). Patients were referred for restorative care to a special care centre and treated by one of two specialists. Patients and/or their caregivers were provided with written and verbal information regarding the proposed techniques, and selected the type of treatment they were to receive. Treatment was provided as selected but if this option proved clinically unfeasible one of the alternative techniques was subsequently proposed. Evaluation of restoration survival was performed by two independent trained and calibrated examiners using established ART restoration assessment codes at 6 months and 12 months. The Proportional Hazard model with frailty corrections was applied to calculate survival estimates over a one year period. Results 66 patients (13.6 ± 7.8 years) with 16 different medical disorders participated. CRT/clinic proved feasible for 5 patients (7.5%), the ART approach for 47 patients (71.2%), and 14 patients received CRT/GA (21.2%). In all, 298 dentine carious lesions were restored in primary and permanent teeth, 182 (ART), 21 (CRT/clinic) and 95 (CRT/GA). The 1-year survival rates and jackknife standard error of ART and CRT restorations were 97.8 ± 1.0% and 90.5 ± 3.2%, respectively (p = 0.01). Conclusions These short-term results indicate that ART appears to be an

  20. Mortality in East African shorthorn zebu cattle under one year: predictors of infectious-disease mortality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infectious livestock diseases remain a major threat to attaining food security and are a source of economic and livelihood losses for people dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Knowledge of the vital infectious diseases that account for the majority of deaths is crucial in determining disease control strategies and in the allocation of limited funds available for disease control. Here we have estimated the mortality rates in zebu cattle raised in a smallholder mixed farming system during their first year of life, identified the periods of increased risk of death and the risk factors for calf mortality, and through analysis of post-mortem data, determined the aetiologies of calf mortality in this population. A longitudinal cohort study of 548 zebu cattle was conducted between 2007 and 2010. Each calf was followed during its first year of life or until lost from the study. Calves were randomly selected from 20 sub-locations and recruited within a week of birth from different farms over a 45 km radius area centered on Busia in the Western part of Kenya. The data comprised of 481.1 calf years of observation. Clinical examinations, sample collection and analysis were carried out at 5 week intervals, from birth until one year old. Cox proportional hazard models with frailty terms were used for the statistical analysis of risk factors. A standardized post-mortem examination was conducted on all animals that died during the study and appropriate samples collected. Results The all-cause mortality rate was estimated at 16.1 (13.0-19.2; 95% CI) per 100 calf years at risk. The Cox models identified high infection intensity with Theileria spp., the most lethal of which causes East Coast Fever disease, infection with Trypanosome spp., and helminth infections as measured by Strongyle spp. eggs per gram of faeces as the three important infections statistically associated with infectious disease mortality in these calves. Analysis of post-mortem data identified

  1. Source apportionment of fine atmospheric particles in Marseille: a one year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, Nicolas; Salameh, Dalia; Detournay, Anais; Wortham, Henri; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Piot, Christine; Armengaud, Alexandre; Piga, Damien; Parra, Michael; Deveze, Magali

    2013-04-01

    Marseille is the second most populated city in France with more than one million inhabitants. With traffic of about 88 million tons (Mt) in 2011, Marseille is also the most important port of the Mediterranean Sea, and also in the vicinity of the large petrochemical and industrial area of Fos-Berre, located 40 km northwest of the metropolitan area. For these reasons, Marseille area represents a challenging case study for source apportionment exercises, combining an active photochemistry and multiple emission sources, including fugitive emissions from industrial sources and shipping. In order to develop strategies for controlling and reducing air pollution, there is a need of source apportionment studies in order to better understand the influence of the different sources of aerosol particles. Within the framework of the EU-MED APICE project (Common Mediterranean strategy and local practical Actions for the mitigation of Port, Industries and Cities Emissions ; www.apice-project.eu), sources of atmospheric particles in Marseille were evaluated for a one-year period by a long monitoring campaign conducted at two sampling sites. PM2.5 were collected continuously on a 24h-basis in an urban background site from July 2011 to July 2012 and on a 48h-basis for the Eastern dock from November 2011 to July 2012 using high volume samplers (DA80) operating at a flow rate of 30m3 h-1. In this work, two different source apportionment models were used to explain the chemical observations, and to investigate the sources of organic aerosol in Marseille. Two sources apportionment models were used and combined to quantify the contribution of the main aerosol particles sources: CMB (Chemical Mass Balance) and PMF (Positive Matrix Factorization). Both models were used with organic molecular markers and metals/trace elements. Both approaches are able to identify major sources, the combination of these two commonly used receptor models offer interesting perspective, especially when the

  2. One year of Seaglider dissolved oxygen concentration profiles at the PAP site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binetti, Umberto; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen; Damerell, Gillian; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen is one of the most important variables measured in oceanography, influenced both by physical and biological factors. During the OSMOSIS project, 7 Seagliders were used in 3 subsequent missions to measure a multidisciplinary suite of parameters at high frequency in the top 1000 m of the water column for one year, from September 2012 to September 2013. The gliders were deployed at the PAP time series station (nominally at 49° N 16.5° W) and surveyed the area following a butterfly-shaped path. Oxygen concentration was measured by Aanderaa optodes and calibrated using ship CTD O2 profiles during 5 deployment and recovery cruises, which were in turn calibrated by Winkler titration of discrete samples. The oxygen-rich mixed layer deepens in fall and winter and gets richer in oxygen when the temperature decreases. The spring bloom did not happen as expected, but instead the presence of a series of small blooms was measured throughout spring and early summer. During the summer the mixed layer become very shallow and oxygen concentrations decreased. A Deep Oxygen Maximum (DOM) developed along with a deep chlorophyll maximum during the summer and was located just below the mixed layer . At this depth, phytoplankton had favourable light and nutrient conditions to grow and produce oxygen, which was not subject to immediate outgassing. The oxygen concentration in the DOM was not constant, but decreased, then increased again until the end of the mission. Intrusions of oxygen rich water are also visible throughout the mission. These are probably due to mesoscale events through the horizontal transport of oxygen and/or nutrients that can enhance productivity, particularly at the edge of the fronts. We calculate net community production (NCP) by analysing the variation in oxygen with time. Two methods have been proposed. The classical oxygen budget method assumes that changes in oxygen are due to the sum of air-sea flux, isopycnal advection, diapycnal mixing and NCP. ERA

  3. One-year analysis of Elekta CBCT image quality using NPS and MTF.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Satomi; Tachibana, Masayuki; Watanabe, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The image quality (IQ) of imaging systems must be sufficiently high for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Hence, users should implement a quality assurance program to maintain IQ. In our routine IQ tests of the kV cone-beam CT system (Elekta XVI), image noise was quantified by noise standard deviation (NSD), which was the standard deviation of CT numbers measured in a small area in an image of an IQ test phantom (Catphan), and the high spatial resolution (HSR) was evaluated by the number of line-pairs (LPN) visually recognizable in the image. We also measured the image uniformity, the low contrast resolution, and the distances of two points for geometrical accuracy. For this study, we did an additional evaluation of the XVI data for 12 monthly IQ tests by using noise power spectrum (NPS) for noise, modulation transfer function (MTF) for HSR, and CT number-to-density relationship. NPS was obtained by applying Fourier analysis in a small area on the uniformity test section of Catphan. The MTF analysis was performed by applying the Droege-Morin (D-M) method to the line-pair bar regions in the phantom. The CT number-to-density relationship was obtained for insert materials in the low-contrast test section of the phantom. All the quantities showed a noticeable change over the one-year period. Especially the noise level improved significantly after a repair of the imager. NPS was more sensitive to the IQ change than NSD. MTF could provide more quantitative and objective evaluation of HSR. The CT number was very different from the expected CT number, but the CT number-to-density curves were constant within 5% except for two months. Since the D-M method is easy to implement, we recommend using MTF instead of LPN even for routine QA. The IQ of the imaging systems was constantly changing; hence, IQ tests should be periodically performed. Additionally, we found the importance of IQ tests after every service work, including detector calibration as well as preventive

  4. Influence of Comorbid Conditions on One-Year Outcomes in Non–ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis, Juan; Núñez, Julio; Bodí, Vicente; Núñez, Eduardo; García-Alvarez, Ana; Bonanad, Clara; Regueiro, Ander; Bosch, Xavier; Heras, Magda; Sala, Joan; Bielsa, Oscar; Llácer, Angel

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate comorbid conditions with prognostic influence in non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of a derivation cohort of 1017 patients (admitted from October 1, 2002, through October 1, 2008) and an external validation cohort of 652 patients (admitted from February 1, 2006, through September 30, 2009). Comorbid conditions, including risk factors and components of the Charlson comorbidity index (ChCI) and coronary artery disease–specific index, were recorded. The main outcome was one-year mortality. RESULTS: During follow-up, 103 patients died. After adjusting for variables associated with NSTEACS characteristics (base model), 5 comorbid conditions predicted mortality: severe or mild renal failure (hazard ratio [HR], 2.9 and HR, 1.6, respectively), dementia (HR, 3.1), peripheral artery disease (HR, 2.0), previous heart failure (HR, 2.6), and previous myocardial infarction (HR, 1.4). A simple comorbidity index (SCI) was developed using these variables, (per point: HR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-1.8; P=.0001). Adding the SCI, Charlson comorbidity index, or coronary artery disease–specific index to the base model resulted in a gain of 6.58%, 5.00%, and 4.04%, respectively, in discriminative ability (P=.001), without significant differences among the 3 indices. In patients with comorbid conditions, the highest risk period was in the first weeks after NSTEACS. The strength of the association between SCI and mortality rate was similar in the external validation cohort (HR, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.6; P=.001). CONCLUSION: Renal dysfunction, dementia, peripheral artery disease, previous heart failure, and previous myocardial infarction are the comorbid conditions that predict mortality in NSTEACS. A simple index using these variables proved to be as accurate as the more complex comorbidity indices for risk stratification. In-hospital management of patients with

  5. [A 64-year-old woman with progressive gait disturbance and dementia for one year].

    PubMed

    Sugita, Y; Matsumine, H; Wakiya, M; Mori, H; Suda, K; Kondo, T; Mizuno, Y

    1998-09-01

    We report a 64-year-old Japanese woman who died one year after the onset of progressive gait disturbance and dementia. She noted a difficulty in holding a glass and hand tremor in June of 1996 when she was 63 years old. In July of 1996, she tended to lean toward left when she walked. She also noted truncal titubation. In November of 1996, she started to have visual hallucination and delusion in which she said "I see something is flying on the wall.", "Somebody has come into my room", and things like that. She was admitted to our service on November 22, 1996. On admission, she was alert and general physical examination was unremarkable. Neurologic examination revealed disturbance in recent memory. Hasegawa's dementia rating scale was 22/30. She showed vivid visual hallucination with colors in which she saw faces of dwarfs and angels, a space ship, and others. Higher cerebral functions were normal. She showed left oculomotor palsy which was a sequel of an aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage nine years before. Otherwise cranial nerves were unremarkable. She showed ataxic gait, limb ataxia, truncal titubation, and postural hand tremor. She had no weakness and no muscle atrophy. Deep tendon reflexes were within normal limits. Plantar response was flexor. Sensation was intact. Laboratory examination was also unremarkable. Complete survey for occult malignancy was negative. CSF was under a normal pressure and cell count was 1/microliter, total protein 27 mg/dl, and sugar 68 mg/dl. Cranial CT scan was unremarkable. MRI was not obtained because of the presence of an aneurysm clip in the left internal carotid-posterior communication artery junction. She showed progressive deterioration in her mental function. By January 1997, she became unable to stand or walk with marked dementia. Repeated CSF exams and cranial CT scans were unremarkable. She suffered from several episodes of aspiration pneumonia. A trial of three days methylprednisolone pulse therapy was given starting on

  6. One year continuous soil gas monitoring above an EGR test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furche, Markus; Schlömer, Stefan; Faber, Eckhard; Dumke, Ingolf

    2010-05-01

    Setup and first results of an ongoing research activity are presented, which is funded by the German Geotechnologien program within in the joint project CLEAN (CO2 Large Scale Enhanced Gas Recovery in the Altmark Natural Gas Field). The task is to establish several soil gas monitoring stations above a partly exhausted gas field in the Altmark which will be used for an enhanced gas recovery (EGR) test by injecting CO2 into the reservoir. The aim is to optimize the monitoring technique including automatic data transfer and data exploitation and to understand mechanisms of natural variations of soil gas concentrations in the specific area. Furthermore the suitability of these measurements as a contribution to leakage detection shall be evaluated. A network of 13 gauging stations for the measurement of CO2 is working continuously for about one year. They are spread over an area of 8 x 3 km and are situated in direct vicinity of existing deep boreholes as the most likely locations for possible leakage. In addition one station is placed far outside the gasfield as a reference point. The technique applied to measure soil gas concentrations uses a gas stream circulating in a tube going down a shallow borehole where the circulating gas is in contact with the soil gas phase via a gas permeable membrane. Above surface, moisture is removed from the gas stream before it reaches several gas sensors for CO2. Besides these, several other parameters are determined as well, e.g. soil moisture and soil temperature, water level, gas flow and gas moisture. In addition a meteorological station gives information about precipitation, air humidity, temperature and pressure, global radiation, wind direction and velocity in the area. Data are continuously collected by dataloggers at each station (5 minutes interval), transferred via GSM routers to the BGR server in Hannover and are stored in a specially designed database. The database does not only contain the measurements but also

  7. Qualitative Evaluation of Cardiovascular Diseases Management in Family Medicine Team in One Year Level

    PubMed Central

    Beganlic, Azijada; Pavljasevic, Suzana; Kreitmayer, Sanda; Zildzic, Muharem; Softic, Albina; Selmanovic, Senada; Becarevic, Munevera

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading death cause in modern world and are the most public health problem. WHO program for CVD contains: prevention, command and follow up of CVD in global level. Aim: Investigate CVD frequency in family medicine team in 2012.year (one year period of time) and qualitative management prevention and clinical services management quality of CVD together with recommended standards. Patients and methods: clinical revision of clinical standard practice patients with CVD was provided in Family medicine team in Public Health Centre Tuzla for the period of time from January 01 2012 - December 31 2012. For quality of realized services, AKAZ standards were based for: chapter 2. Health promotion and diseases prevention 2.5. preventive clinical services; chapter 3. Clinical services, standard 3.1. Coronary diseases and standard 3.2. TIA and Stroke. From CVD register next parameters had been used: age, gender, disease diagnose, therapy, blood pressure values, total cholesterol values, ß blockers therapy, anticoagulant therapy prescription, smoker status, stop smoking recommendation and influenza vaccination recommendation. Statistical approach: All results were taken in Excel program and statistically analyzed. Descriptive standard tests were taken with measurement of central tendency and dispersion. For significant differentials achieved with χ² chances relation was taken (Odds Ratio-OR) with 95% relevant security. All tests were leveled in statistical significant from 95% (p<0,05). Results: Considering total registered habitants number 1448 (males 624 females 824) total diseases of usually CVD in Team 1 family medicine 531 (36,67%). The most frequent disease was hypertension which was presented in 30,31% of registered patients but in total CVD illness was present in 82,67%. In relation with total patients number (531), female prevalence from CVD 345:186 males vs. 65%:35%; P=0,001 and was statistically significantly higher

  8. Analysis of occurrence of bacteraemia with pathogens from gastrointestinal tract in patients fed parenterally and enterally in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Różowicz, Aleksandra; Spychalska, Katarzyna; Nakonowska, Beata; Kupczyk, Kinga; Kusza, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bacterial translocation is a migration of microorganisms and their toxins from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes, blood, and abdominal organs. It can lead to local inflammatory response and a potential increase in intestinal permeability leading to systemic infections and multiple organ failure. Enteral nutrition stimulates gastrointestinal motility, increases blood flow, and improves the integration of the intestinal barrier. Aim The impact of enteral (EN) and parenteral (PN) nutrition on occurrence of bacteraemia caused by pathogens from the gastrointestinal tract. Material and methods It was a retrospective analysis of medical documentation of 254 patients. Microbiological tests were analysed, assessing the presence of bacteraemia or sepsis pathogens from the gastrointestinal tract. In 52 patients gastrointestinal pathogens in blood were found: 29 patients were fed enterally (I group – EN and EN + PN) and 23 only parenterally (II group – PN). Results The mean length of stay in hospital until the occurrence of bacteraemia in group I was 14, and in group II it was 13 days. Mean time without EN was 4 days (first group) and 12 days (second group). Time of stay in ICU and mortality in the group of patients fed parenterally was observed: group I – 25 days, mortality 34%; group II – 37 days, mortality 56%. In the analysed group the EN and the length of the absence of this kind of feeding did not affect the occurrence of bacteraemia by gastrointestinal pathogens. Conclusions However, patients fed only parenterally who had bacteraemia required a longer stay in the ICU and had a higher rate of mortality than the patients with EN. PMID:27350841

  9. Trio of Stellar Occultations by Pluto One Year Prior to New Horizons' Arrival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Person, Michael J.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Zuluaga, Carlos; Kosiarek, Molly R.; Levine, Stephen E.; Osip, David J.; Schiff, Avery; Seeger, Christina H.; Babcock, Bryce A.; Rojo, Patricio; Servajean, Elise

    2016-04-01

    We observed occultations by Pluto during a predicted series of events in 2014 July with the 1 m telescope of the Mt. John Observatory in New Zealand. The predictions were based on updated astrometry obtained in the previous months at the USNO, CTIO, and Lowell Observatories. We successfully detected occultations by Pluto of an R = 18 mag star on July 23 (14:23:32 ± 00:00:04 UTC to 14:25:30 ± 00:00:04 UTC), with a drop of 75% of the unocculted stellar signal, and of an R = 17 star on July 24 (11:41:30 ± 00:00:08 UTC to 11:43:28 ± 00:00:08 UTC), with a drop of 80% of the unocculted stellar signal, both with 20 s exposures with our frame-transfer Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit System. Since Pluto had a geocentric velocity of 22.51 km s-1 on July 23 and 22.35 km s-1 on July 24, these intervals yield limits on the chord lengths (surface and lower atmosphere) of 2700 ± 130 km and 2640 ± 250 km, respectively, indicating that the events were near central, and therefore provide astrometric constraints on the prediction method. Our coordinated observations with the 4 m AAT in Australia on July 23 and the 6.5 m Magellan/Clay on Las Campanas, the 4.1 m Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope on Cerro Pachön, the 2.5 m DuPont on Las Campanas (LCO), the 0.6 m SARA-South on Cerro Tololo of the Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy (SARA), the MPI/ESO 2.2 m on La Silla, and the 0.45 m Cerro Calán telescope and 0.36 telescope in Constitución in Chile on July 27 and 31, which would have provided higher-cadence observations for studies of Pluto’s atmosphere, were largely foiled by clouds, but led to detection with the LCO Magellan/Clay and DuPont Telescopes on July 31 of the grazing occultation of a previously unknown 15th-magnitude star, completing the trio of occultations successfully observed and reported in this paper.

  10. The One Year Fate of Iron Oxide Coated Gold Nanoparticles in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kolosnjaj-Tabi, Jelena; Javed, Yasir; Lartigue, Lénaic; Volatron, Jeanne; Elgrabli, Dan; Marangon, Iris; Pugliese, Giammarino; Caron, Benoit; Figuerola, Albert; Luciani, Nathalie; Pellegrino, Teresa; Alloyeau, Damien; Gazeau, Florence

    2015-08-25

    Safe implementation of nanotechnology and nanomedicine requires an in-depth understanding of the life cycle of nanoparticles in the body. Here, we investigate the long-term fate of gold/iron oxide heterostructures after intravenous injection in mice. We show these heterostructures degrade in vivo and that the magnetic and optical properties change during the degradation process. These particles eventually eliminate from the body. The comparison of two different coating shells for heterostructures, amphiphilic polymer or polyethylene glycol, reveals the long lasting impact of initial surface properties on the nanocrystal degradability and on the kinetics of elimination of magnetic iron and gold from liver and spleen. Modulation of nanoparticles reactivity to the biological environment by the choice of materials and surface functionalization may provide new directions in the design of multifunctional nanomedicines with predictable fate. PMID:26168364

  11. Substance use, medication adherence and outcome one year following a first episode of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Colizzi, Marco; Carra, Elena; Fraietta, Sara; Lally, John; Quattrone, Diego; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Mondelli, Valeria; Ajnakina, Olesya; Dazzan, Paola; Trotta, Antonella; Sideli, Lucia; Kolliakou, Anna; Gaughran, Fiona; Khondoker, Mizanur; David, Anthony S; Murray, Robin M; MacCabe, James H; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-02-01

    Both substance use and poor medication adherence are associated with poor outcome in psychosis. To clarify the contributions of substance use and poor medication adherence to poor outcome in the year following a first episode of psychosis, 205 patients were evaluated for use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and stimulants at their psychosis onset, and in a 1-year follow-up. Data on medication adherence and symptom remission were also collected. Patients had high rates of overall substance use before (37-65%) and after psychosis onset (45-66%). 44% showed poor medication adherence and 55% did not reach remission from psychosis. Nicotine dependence and cannabis use after psychosis onset significantly predicted both poor medication adherence and non-remission, and poor medication adherence mediated the effects of these substances on non-remission. In conclusion, medication adherence lies on the causal pathway between nicotine dependence and cannabis on the one hand and non-remission on the other. PMID:26718334

  12. Infant humor perception from 3- to 6-months and attachment at one year.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina; Sparrow, John; Poutre, Merlin; Perdue, Brittany; Macke, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Infancy is a critical time for the development of secure attachment, which is facilitated by emotionally synchronous interactions with parents. Humor development, which includes shared laughter and joint attention to an event, emerges concurrently with attachment, but little is known regarding the relationship, if any, between humor development and attachment in the first year. Thirty 3-month-old infants were videoed at home each month until they were 6-months old while their parents attempted to amuse them. Frequency of infants' smiles and laughs served as a measure of "state humor", and the smiling/laughing subscale of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised served as a measure of "trait humor". State and trait humor were not correlated. Lower trait humor as 6 months predicted higher attachment security on the Attachment Q-sort at 12-months (r=.46), suggesting that less good-humored infants elicit greater parental engagement, which works to the benefit of attachment, or vice versa. Future studies should examine the importance of smiling and laughter as they relate to other developmental phenomena in the first year. PMID:22982281

  13. Profile of Malignant Spinal Cord Compression: One Year Study at Regional Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Malik Tariq; Fatima, Kaneez; Manzoor, Najmi Arshad; Mustafa, Syed Arshad; Maqbool, Lone Mohammad; Qamar, Wani Shaqul; Afroz, Fir; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Shah, Saqib Ahmad; Shah, Manan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Malignant spinal cord compression is an oncologic emergency, unless diagnosed early and treated appropriately, can lead to permanent neurological impairment and compromised quality of life of patients. We analyzed the epidemiology and the effect of common interventions on the outcome in these patients. Patients and Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 77 patients in the year 2014 and recorded relevant patient and disease characteristics. All patients received corticosteroids. Eight patients were operated upon, and radiotherapy was delivered in 62 patients. Results: Most of the patients were in the age group of 41–60 years and there was no gender preponderance in patients. Female breast cancer was the most common incident (15.5%) malignancy followed by multiple myeloma, lung, and prostatic carcinoma. Lower dorsal spine was the most common site of compression (35%) followed by lumbar (31%) and mid-dorsal (26%) spine. 70 (91%) patients had cord compression subsequent to bone metastasis while as other patients had leptomeningeal metastasis. In 31 (40%) patients, spinal cord compression was the presenting symptom. Overall, only 26 patients had motor improvement after treatment. Conclusion: Grade of power before treatment was predictive of response to treatment and overall outcome of motor or sensory functions. Neurodeficit of more than 10 days duration was associated with poor outcome in neurological function. PMID:27162421

  14. One year of smokefree bars and restaurants in New Zealand: Impacts and responses

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Hospitality Associations, in 2005, were the perceived negative effects on rural and traditional pubs. Conclusion As in other jurisdictions, the introduction of smokefree bars in New Zealand has had positive overall health protection, economic and social effects; in contrast to the predictions of opponents. PMID:16533408

  15. Volatile organic compound concentrations and emission rates measured over one year in a new manufactured house

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nabinger, Steven J.; Persily, Andrew K.

    2004-09-01

    acetaldehyde, toluene and xylenes and the belly space was a source of 2-butanone, lower volatility aldehydes and aromatic hydrocarbons. Indoor minus outdoor VOC concentrations varied with time. Adjusted formaldehyde concentrations exhibited the most temporal variability with concentrations ranging from 25 {micro}g m{sup -3} to 128 {micro}g m{sup -3} and the lowest concentrations occurring in winter months when indoor RH was low. A model describing the emissions of formaldehyde from urea-formaldehyde wood products as a function of temperature, RH and concentration reasonably predicted the temporal variation of formaldehyde emissions in the house. Whole-house emissions of other VOCs generally declined over the first three months and then remained relatively constant over a several month period. However, their emissions were generally lowest during the winter months. Also, an apparent association between TVOC emissions and outdoor temperature was observed on a one-week time scale.

  16. Use of ceftaroline after glycopeptide failure to eradicate meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia with elevated vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations.

    PubMed

    Paladino, Joseph A; Jacobs, David M; Shields, Ryan K; Taylor, Jerusha; Bader, Justin; Adelman, Martin H; Wilton, Greg J; Crane, John K; Schentag, Jerome J

    2014-12-01

    Elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of vancomycin against meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the emergence of heteroresistant S. aureus strains have led to increased use of anti-MRSA antibiotics other than vancomycin. Ceftaroline fosamil is a novel cephalosporin with activity against MRSA, but there are limited clinical data on its use for MRSA bacteraemia (MRSAB) and against strains exhibiting high vancomycin MICs (2-4 μg/mL). This multicentre, retrospective, case-control study compared the microbiological and clinical effectiveness of ceftaroline used after vancomycin failure with that of vancomycin-treated controls for the treatment of MRSA with vancomycin MICs ≥ 2 μg/mL. In total, 32 patients were matched 1:1 with respect to vancomycin MIC, age and origin of bacteraemia. In the ceftaroline group, patients received prior MRSA therapy for a median of 5 days [interquartile range (IQR), 3-15.8 days] prior to switching to ceftaroline. Median time to eradication of MRSA was significantly less after treatment with ceftaroline compared with vancomycin [4 days (IQR, 3-7.5 days) vs. 8 days (IQR, 5.8-19.5 days); P=0.02]. Both clinical success at the end of treatment and recurrence of MRSA at Day 7 were trending towards being inferior in the vancomycin group, although the results did not attain statistical significance [81% vs. 44% (P=0.06) and 6% vs. 38% (P=0.08), respectively]. Ceftaroline added at the point of vancomycin failure resolves MRSAB more rapidly and with a higher rate of clinical success, therefore ceftaroline should be considered as an alternative for these difficult-to-treat infections. PMID:25282169

  17. EVALUATION OF THE MORTALITY RATE ONE YEAR AFTER HIP FRACTURE AND FACTORS RELATING TO DIMINISHED SURVIVAL AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Guilherme; Longaray, Maurício Portal; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Neto, Ary da Silva Ungaretti; Manente, Marislei; Barbosa, Luíza Barbosa Horta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate after one year and correlated preoperative factors, among patients with hip fractures. Methods: We prospectively studied 202 out of a total of 376 patients with a diagnosis of hip fracture who were admitted to the Hospital Cristo Redentor, between October 2007 and March 2009. The database with the epidemiological analysis was set up during their hospitalization, and follow–up data were obtained preferentially by phone. Results: The overall mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7% or 58 deaths, among which 11 (5.45%) occurred during hospitalization. Fractures were more prevalent among women (71.3%) and rare among blacks (5%). Among the comorbidities, dementia and depression showed a statistically significant reduction in survival (p = 0.018 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusion: The mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7%. Dementia and depression increased this rate. PMID:27042638

  18. One-Year Test-Retest Reliability of the Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury (ISAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a growing public health problem among adolescents and young adults. The Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury (ISAS) is a self-report measure designed to assess NSSI behaviors and functions. The current study examines the one-year test-retest reliability of the ISAS in a sample of young adult self-injurers.…

  19. 77 FR 3745 - Establishment of a One-Year Retention Period for Trademark-Related Papers That Have Been Scanned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Registration System, 76 FR 59114 (September 23, 2011), 1371 OG 168 (October 18, 2011). The USPTO received no... That Have Been Scanned Into the Trademark Initial Capture Registration System AGENCY: United States... disposal would otherwise have occurred. The one-year retention period for papers scanned into TICRS...

  20. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in representing in connection with any contract with former agency. 2641.207 Section 2641.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE...

  1. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in representing in connection with any contract with former agency. 2641.207 Section 2641.207 Administrative Personnel OFFICE...

  2. One-Year Results of the BeweegKuur Lifestyle Intervention Implemented in Dutch Primary Healthcare Settings

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, Bianca A. M.; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Preller, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    Background. Lifestyle interventions focusing on healthy diet and physical activity (PA) are effective in reducing health risks in controlled research settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the one-year results of the BeweegKuur lifestyle intervention implemented nationwide in Netherlands for people with a weight-related health risk. Materials and Methods. Data were requested from all 160 locations participating in the BeweegKuur. In a one group pretest/posttest study, one-year changes in health outcome variables and time spent on physical activity were tested with dependent t-tests. Associations between one-year changes in weight and waist circumference and sociodemographic factors and uptake of the program were analysed with ANOVA. Results. Data for 517 participants from 47 locations were available for analysis. One year after the intervention, weight reduced by 2.9 kg (95% CI −3.3;, −2.5), waist circumference by 4.3 cm (−4.9; −3.7), and blood glucose by 0.5 mmol/L (−0.8; −0.3). Physical activity increased significantly. Higher uptake of the program was associated with a larger decrease in waist circumference. Conclusion. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle interventions implemented in real-life primary healthcare settings with tailor-made supervision can contribute meaningfully to primary prevention. PMID:26380276

  3. Building Friendships and Combating Bullying: Effectiveness of S.S.GRIN at One-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Marcus, Sara R.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the long-term effectiveness of a social-skills program for peer-rejected, victimized, and socially anxious children. Third-grade children with peer problems were randomly assigned to treatment (TX; n = 187) or no-treatment control (CO; n = 194) groups. One year after the intervention, the pattern of findings was similar to that…

  4. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-2 - Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year. 31.3402(g)-2 Section 31.3402(g)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-2 Wages paid for...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-2 - Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year. 31.3402(g)-2 Section 31.3402(g)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-2 Wages paid for...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-2 - Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year. 31.3402(g)-2 Section 31.3402(g)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-2 Wages paid for...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-2 - Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year. 31.3402(g)-2 Section 31.3402(g)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-2 Wages paid for...

  8. Brief Report: Excessive Alcohol Use Negatively Affects the Course of Adolescent Depression--One Year Naturalistic Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meririnne, Esa; Kiviruusu, Olli; Karlsson, Linnea; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Ruuttu, Titta; Tuisku, Virpi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2010-01-01

    The impact of alcohol use on the course of adolescent depression over one-year was investigated by following 197 consecutive adolescent outpatients with unipolar depression in a naturalistic treatment setting. Their baseline alcohol consumption was categorized in three groups: excessive use (defined as weekly drunkenness), regular use (monthly…

  9. One-year Incidence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Latino Poultry Processing Workers and Other Latino Manual Workers

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Michael S.; Walker, Francis O.; Newman, Jill C.; Schulz, Mark R.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Mora, Dana; Chen, Haiying; Eaton, Bethany; Quandt, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) over one year in Latino poultry processing workers. Methods Symptoms and nerve conduction studies were used to identify Latino poultry processing workers (106 wrists) and Latinos in other manual labor occupations (257 wrists) that did not have CTS at baseline, and these individuals were then evaluated in the same manner one year later. Results Based on wrists, the one-year incidence of CTS was higher in poultry processing workers than non-poultry manual workers (19.8% vs. 11.7%, p = 0.022). Poultry workers had a higher odds (1.89; p = 0.089) of developing CTS over one year compared to non-poultry manual workers. Discussion Latino poultry processing workers have an incidence of CTS that is possibly higher than Latinos in other manual labor positions. Latino poultry workers’ high absolute and relative risk of CTS likely results from the repetitive and strenuous nature of poultry processing work. PMID:23996875

  10. Parathyroid gland ultrasound patterns and biochemical findings after one-year cinacalcet treatment for advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Vulpio, Carlo; Bossola, Maurizio; De Gaetano, Annamaria; Maresca, Giulia; Di Stasio, Enrico; Zagaria, Luca; Luciani, Giovanna; Giordano, Alessandro; Castagneto, Marco

    2010-04-01

    Cinacalcet efficacy is limited in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) and its effect on parathyroid gland (PTG) volume and morphology have not been sufficiently investigated. We evaluated the effect of cinacalcet treatment for one year on the laboratory parameters of calcium-phosphorus metabolism and PTG ultrasound (US) patterns in hemodialysis (HD) patients with severe SHPT and US results indicative of nodular hyperplasia. Thirteen HD patients with severe SHPT (intact parathyroid hormone >700 pg/mL), US/scintigraphic evidence of at least one PTG with a diameter >7 mm, and high surgical risk or refusal of surgery were included. The patients were treated with cinacalcet. The initial dose of 30 mg was increased up to 180 mg once daily. At baseline and after one year of cinacalcet treatment a neck US was performed, providing data on 22 parathyroid glands in eight patients. The mean diameter at baseline and at one year was 12.6 +/- 5.9 and 13.0 +/- 5.3 mm, respectively (P = 0.46). Similarly, the mean volume at baseline and at one year was 513.4 +/- 416.3 and 556.8 +/- 480.8 mm(3), respectively (P = 0.18). The US structural score remained unchanged in 16 parathyroid glands and increased in 6 (P < 0.03), while the vascular score remained unchanged in 16 parathyroid glands and decreased in 6 (P = 0.25). Thus it can be concluded that cinacalcet treatment for one year in HD patients with severe SHPT is not associated with significant changes in parathyroid gland US patterns. PMID:20438540

  11. Knowing prior methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection or colonization status increases the empirical use of glycopeptides in MRSA bacteraemia and may decrease mortality.

    PubMed

    Robinson, J O; Phillips, M; Christiansen, K J; Pearson, J C; Coombs, G W; Murray, R J

    2014-06-01

    To compare the management and outcome of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteraemia in patients known to be MRSA-colonized/infected (C-patients) with the management and outcome in those not known to be colonized/infected (NC-patients), we conducted a 10-year retrospective review of MRSA bacteraemia in an adult tertiary hospital. Clinical data were obtained by chart review, and mortality data from linked databases. Prior MRSA colonization/infection status was available to treating clinicians at the time of the bacteraemia as a 'Micro-Alert' tag on the patient's labels, in medical charts, and in electronic information systems. C-patients accounted for 35.4% of all MRSA bacteraemia episodes. C-patients were more likely to be indigenous, to be diabetic, or to have a history of previous S. aureus infection. Markers of illness severity (Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS)-II, need for admission to the intensive-care unit, length of stay, and metastatic seeding) were similar in both groups. Empirical therapy included a glycopeptide in 49.3% of C-patients vs. 18.9% of NC-patients (p <0.01), and contained an antibiotic to which the MRSA isolate tested susceptible in vitro in 56.7% of C-patients vs. 45.1% of NC-patients (p 0.13). All-cause 7-day and 30-day mortality were 7.5% vs. 18.9% (p 0.04), and 22.4% vs. 31.1% (p 0.20), in the C-patient and NC-patient groups, respectively. Knowing MRSA colonization status was significantly associated with lower 30-day mortality in Cox regression analysis (p <0.01). These data suggest that mortality from MRSA bacteraemia is lower in C-patients, which may reflect the earlier use of glycopeptides. The low use of empirical glycopeptides in septic patients known to be previously MRSA-colonized/infected may represent a missed opportunity for infection control to positively impact on clinical management. PMID:24224545

  12. GATEWAY Demonstrations: LED System Performance in a Trial Installation--One Year Later, Yuma Border Patrol, Yuma, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, A. M.; Davis, R. G.

    2015-04-01

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This report follows the GATEWAY Yuma Phase 1.0 Report and reflects LED system results documented one year after the demonstration began.

  13. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome One Year after Delivery in Finnish Women at Increased Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Puhkala, Jatta; Kinnunen, Tarja I.; Vasankari, Tommi; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Raitanen, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Background. Women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MeS) after delivery. We studied the prevalence of MeS at one year postpartum among Finnish women who in early pregnancy were at increased risk of developing GDM. Methods. This follow-up study is a part of a GDM prevention trial. At one year postpartum, 150 women (mean age 33.1 years, BMI 27.2 kg/m2) were evaluated for MeS. Results. The prevalence of MeS was 18% according tothe International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and 16% according toNational Cholestrol Education Program (NCEP) criteria. Of MeS components, 74% of participants had an increased waist circumference (≥80 cm). Twenty-seven percent had elevated fasting plasma glucose (≥5.6 mmol/L), and 29% had reduced HDL cholesterol (≤1.3 mmol/L). The odds ratio for the occurrence of MeS at one year postpartum was 3.0 (95% CI 1.0–9.2) in those who were overweight before pregnancy compared to normal weight women. Conclusions. Nearly one-fifth of the women with an increased risk of GDM in early pregnancy fulfilled the criteria of MeS at one year postpartum. The most important factor associated with MeS was prepregnancy overweight. Weight management before and during pregnancy is important for preventing MeS after delivery. PMID:23577256

  14. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-2 - Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages paid for payroll period of more than one... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-2 Wages paid for payroll period of more than one year. If wages are paid to an employee for a payroll period of more than one...

  15. One-year results of voluntary-based supervised exercise or treatment at orthopedic clinic for radiographic severe knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Miyagawa, Hirofumi; Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Honjo, Hiroshi; Akao, Machiko; Tsujimoto, Toshiya; Ushida, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] In this study, we investigated the efficacy of supervised physical exercise or conventional treatment on symptomatic knee osteoarthritis with severe morphological degeneration. [Subjects] Sixty-six patients with severe radiographic knee osteoarthritis were enrolled. [Methods] Participants were separated into two groups: in one group patients conducted physical exercise under supervision; while in the other group they were treated by conventional clinical methods for one year. Participants filled out two types of questionnaires; the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure and the Pain Disability Assessment Scale at baseline and one year following enrollment in the study. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine the effects over time and by group for a total of 43 participants; consisting of an exercise group (n=20) and a clinical group (n=23) excluding 23 dropouts. [Results] Analysis did not show a significant time-course effect or interaction between time-course and the groups in both questionnaires. On the other hand, there were significant group effects in both questionnaires with an advantage in the exercise group. [Conclusion] These results indicate that patients with knee osteoarthritis under supervised exercise conditions are more likely to maintain a better clinical outcome at one-year follow-up, despite the severe morphological degeneration in their knees. PMID:27134382

  16. Resin-dentin bond strength of 10 contemporary etch-and-rinse adhesive systems after one year of water storage.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Silvia Terra; Cubas, Gloria Beatriz de Azevedo; Flores, Josiane Barcelos; Montemezzo, Murieli Leonor; Pinto, Marcia Bueno; Piva, Evandro

    2010-01-01

    To compare the resin-dentin bond degradation of 10 contemporary etch-and-rinse adhesive systems after one year of water storage, 100 bovine incisors were randomly separated into 10 groups and their superficial coronal dentin was exposed. According to manufacturers' instructions, dentin surfaces were bonded with one of seven two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives or one of three three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives. Composite buildups were constructed incrementally. Restored teeth were sectioned to obtain sticks (0.5 mm²). The specimens were subjected to a microtensile bond strength test after storage in distilled water (at 37°C) for one year. Data (MPa) were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey's tests at α = 0.05. Of the adhesives tested, One Step, All Bond 2, and Optibond FL attained the highest bond strength to dentin after one year in water storage, while Magic Bond DE and Master Bond presented a high number of premature debonded flaws. PMID:21062710

  17. One-year follow-up of non-institutionalized dependent older adults: mortality, hospitalization, and mobility.

    PubMed

    Sarria Cabrera, Marcos Aparecido; Gomes Dellaroza, Mara Solange; Trelha, Celita Salmaso; Cecilio, Celso Henrique; Souza, Sara Ellias de

    2012-09-01

    Non-institutionalized dependent older adults present high morbidity and mortality, demand care from their families, and consume primary health care resources. To expand knowledge about this group, we conducted a population-based one-year prospective cohort study of 130 non-institutionalized dependent older persons (age 60 and older), stratified according to baseline mobility: independent walking (group A), use of walking aids (group B), and bedridden or confined to a wheelchair (group C). The outcomes analysed were death, hospitalization, and mobility disability. Total mortality was 8.5 per cent (p = .05). Overall hospitalization rate was 34.6 per cent; the main causes were stroke and pneumonia. After one year, there was a decline in the proportion of subjects classified as independent walking (57% vs. 43%; p = .03). We conclude that there was a high rate of mortality and hospitalization in this group of dependent older people, and an increase in disability after a one-year follow-up. PMID:22805052

  18. The reductions in monetary cost and gains in productivity with methadone maintenance treatment: one year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chih Yin; Chen, Kao Chin; Lee, Lan-Ting; Tsai, Hsin Chun; Chang, Wei Hung; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Po See; Lu, Ru-Band; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2015-02-28

    While methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is beneficial for heroin dependence, there is little information regarding the reductions in monetary cost and gains in productivity following MMT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the monetary cost of heroin addiction and productivity after one year of MMT. Twenty-nine participants from an MMT clinic were included. The monetary cost, productivity, quality of life (QOL) and mental health status were assessed at both baseline and one year follow-up. The average annual total cost was approximately US$26,485 (1.43 GDP per capita in 2010) at baseline, and decreased by 59.3% to US$10,784 (0.58 GDP) at follow-up. The mean number of months of unemployment dropped from 6.03 to 2.79, the mean income increased to exceed the basic salary, but only reached 45.3% of the national average monthly earnings. The participants׳ mental health improved, but their QOL scores did not increase significantly. After one year of MMT, the monetary cost of heroin addiction fell, both the productivity and mental health of the participants׳ improved, but limited gains were seen with regard to their QOL. PMID:25500321

  19. Magnetic resonance enterographic predictors of one-year outcome in ileal and ileocolonic Crohn’s disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Eder, Piotr; Michalak, Michal; Katulska, Katarzyna; Lykowska-Szuber, Liliana; Krela-Kazmierczak, Iwona; Stawczyk-Eder, Kamila; Klimczak, Katarzyna; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Linke, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) in predicting one-year efficacy of anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies - infliximab (IFX), adalimumab (ADA) in Crohn’s disease (CD) patients primarily responding to therapy. We performed retrospective analysis among 61 CD patients who had undergone a successful IFX/ADA induction therapy and were treated with maintenance doses. All patients underwent MRE at week 0. We assessed which MRE features were predictive for steroid-free remission at week 52, and which were associated with a secondary loss of response. 44 patients were in steroid-free remission at week 52, 17 - were secondary non-responders. The ROC curve showed that bowel thickening with contrast enhancement analyzed together at week 0 were associated with steroid-free remission at week 52 (p = 0.01; AUC 0.67). Bowel stenosis with or without prestenotic dilatation [OR 5.8 (95% CI 1.4 – 25) and 2.4 (95% CI 1.2 – 5) respectively; p = 0.01] and the presence of intra-abdominal fistulas [OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1 – 2); p = 0.004] were related to secondary non-response. A high baseline inflammatory activity detected by MRE predicts one-year response in CD after IFX/ADA. In case of bowel stenosis, intra-abdominal fistulas, other therapeutic options should be considered. PMID:25993615

  20. Impact of routine bedside infectious disease consultation on clinical management and outcome of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Saunderson, R.B.; Gouliouris, T.; Nickerson, E.K.; Cartwright, E.J.P.; Kidney, A.; Aliyu, S.H.; Brown, N.M.; Limmathurotsakul, D.; Peacock, S.J.; Török, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is a common, serious infection that is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests that infectious disease consultation (IDC) improves clinical management in patients with SAB. We examined whether the introduction of a routine bedside IDC service for adults with SAB improved clinical management and outcomes compared to telephone consultation. We conducted an observational cohort study of 571 adults with SAB at a teaching hospital in the United Kingdom between July 2006 and December 2012. A telephone consultation was provided on the day of positive blood culture in all cases, but an additional bedside IDC was provided after November 2009 (routine IDC group). Compared to patients in the pre-IDC group, those in the routine IDC group were more likely to have a removable focus of infection identified, echocardiography performed and follow-up blood cultures performed. They also received longer courses of antimicrobial therapy, were more likely to receive combination antimicrobial therapy and were more likely to have SAB recorded in the hospital discharge summary. There was a trend towards lower mortality at 30 days in the routine IDC group compared to the pre-IDC group (12% vs. 22%, p 0.07). Our findings suggest that routine bedside IDC should become the standard of care for adults with SAB. PMID:26033668

  1. The effects of constraint-induced movement therapy for a child less than one year of age.

    PubMed

    Coker, Patty; Lebkicher, Carisa; Harris, Lauren; Snape, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this single case study was to determine the effectiveness of a modified version of constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT) on a child less than one year of age with a diagnosis of hemiplegic cerebral palsy. A single-subject ABAB design with a 6-month follow-up evaluation used repeated measures of gross and fine motor skills to determine changes at each phase of the study. Measures included the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-2 (PDMS-2), the Gross Motor Fine Motor Measure-88 (GMFM-88) and videotape analysis of specific motor skills typically seen in children less than one year of age. The child in this study participated in a conventional occupational and physical therapy for 2 hours a week during the 2 baseline phases, A1 and A2, and mCIMT during the 2 intervention phases, B1 and B2. The mCIMT involved constraint of the non-affected limb for 1-hour a day for 30 consecutive days as the child was engaged in developmentally appropriate, task specific activities implemented by therapists and parents. Following participation in this mCIMT, the child demonstrated clinical improvements in both gross and fine motor skills as measured by standardized assessments and videotape analysis of motor behaviors. He was completing developmental motor tasks at his chronological age despite motor deficits resulting from a right-sided hemiparesis. The results of this study supports the use of mCIMT for children less than one year of age and could shift the focus of future research studies to determining the age in which to implement mCIMT before patterns of learned non-use begin to affect the normal development of skilled motor movements in children with hemiplegic CP. PMID:19458426

  2. A Risk Prediction Model for Screening Bacteremic Patients: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ratzinger, Franz; Dedeyan, Michel; Rammerstorfer, Matthias; Perkmann, Thomas; Burgmann, Heinz; Makristathis, Athanasios; Dorffner, Georg; Lötsch, Felix; Blacky, Alexander; Ramharter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteraemia is a frequent and severe condition with a high mortality rate. Despite profound knowledge about the pre-test probability of bacteraemia, blood culture analysis often results in low rates of pathogen detection and therefore increasing diagnostic costs. To improve the cost-effectiveness of blood culture sampling, we computed a risk prediction model based on highly standardizable variables, with the ultimate goal to identify via an automated decision support tool patients with very low risk for bacteraemia. Methods In this retrospective hospital-wide cohort study evaluating 15,985 patients with suspected bacteraemia, 51 variables were assessed for their diagnostic potency. A derivation cohort (n = 14.699) was used for feature and model selection as well as for cut-off specification. Models were established using the A2DE classifier, a supervised Bayesian classifier. Two internally validated models were further evaluated by a validation cohort (n = 1,286). Results The proportion of neutrophile leukocytes in differential blood count was the best individual variable to predict bacteraemia (ROC-AUC: 0.694). Applying the A2DE classifier, two models, model 1 (20 variables) and model 2 (10 variables) were established with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) of 0.767 and 0.759, respectively. In the validation cohort, ROC-AUCs of 0.800 and 0.786 were achieved. Using predefined cut-off points, 16% and 12% of patients were allocated to the low risk group with a negative predictive value of more than 98.8%. Conclusion Applying the proposed models, more than ten percent of patients with suspected blood stream infection were identified having minimal risk for bacteraemia. Based on these data the application of this model as an automated decision support tool for physicians is conceivable leading to a potential increase in the cost-effectiveness of blood culture sampling. External prospective validation of the model

  3. A Radiological Review of Ewing's Sarcoma of Mandible: A Case Report with One Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Valsa; Kattoor, Jayasree; Kusumakumari, P

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is an uncommon round cell tumor with an aggressive course affecting mainly children and young adults. Only 1% of cases is reported with jaw involvement and have mandibular predilection. Radiographic finding in ES reflect many destructive nature of the lesion, like osteolysis, cortical erosion, periostitis and soft tissue mass. A case of ES of the mandible is reported with special consideration to the radiological appearance. How to cite this article: Krishna KBB, Thomas V, Kattoor J, Kusumakumari P. A Radiological Review of Ewing's Sarcoma of Mandible: A Case Report with One Year Follow-up. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):109-114. PMID:25206203

  4. Early Loading of Single-Piece Implant for Partially Edentulous Posterior Arch: A Prospective One-Year Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Beldar, Amol; Bhongade, Manohar L.; Byakod, Girish; Buregoni, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Implant therapy is now well established, and there is an increasing need for shorter rehabilitation time. Original prerequisites of osseointegration have been reassessed to satisfy continuously increasing patient's expectation of reduced treatment time, improved esthetics, and increased comfort. Shorter healing time may be appropriate in some circumstances, and examples of early loading have been reported in animal and human studies. However, to date there are insufficient data to determine a universally acceptable opinion on early loading of implants for single-tooth replacement. This case report involves early loading, combined with construction of a restoration, inserted directly after 6 weeks of implant surgery and followup of one year. PMID:23710375

  5. A Radiological Review of Ewing's Sarcoma of Mandible: A Case Report with One Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Kb Bimal; Thomas, Valsa; Kattoor, Jayasree; Kusumakumari, P

    2013-05-01

    Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is an uncommon round cell tumor with an aggressive course affecting mainly children and young adults. Only 1% of cases is reported with jaw involvement and have mandibular predilection. Radiographic finding in ES reflect many destructive nature of the lesion, like osteolysis, cortical erosion, periostitis and soft tissue mass. A case of ES of the mandible is reported with special consideration to the radiological appearance. How to cite this article: Krishna KBB, Thomas V, Kattoor J, Kusumakumari P. A Radiological Review of Ewing's Sarcoma of Mandible: A Case Report with One Year Follow-up. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):109-114. PMID:25206203

  6. An unusual technique for removal of occult f. b. ( glass marble ) lying in mid oesophagus for one year.

    PubMed

    Pathak, R D; Gupta, V; Dubey, S S

    2000-10-01

    Foreign bodies in oesophagus are not uncommon. Due to natural anatomical constrictions foreign bodies get lodged invariably. Coins, bones, open safety pins, tumps of meat are commonly encountered in food pipe. Inhaled, swallowed or aspirated foreign body is a serious problem and on occasions can be fatal ( Schloss et al 1983). Many a time these accidental inhalations or aspirations of foreign bodies in children is neither observed nor suspected (Cohen et al 1980), Cases of long term impacted foreign bodies in oesophagus are uncommon and particularly round glass marble for a year is rarely reported. A rare case of impacted marble lying in mid oesophagus for one year is reported herewith. PMID:23119736

  7. Peer-Mediated Multimodal Intervention Program for the Treatment of Children with ADHD in India: One-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sagar; Shah, Devesh; Shah, Kushal; Mehta, Sanjiv; Mehta, Neelam; Mehta, Vivek; Mehta, Vijay; Mehta, Vaishali; Motiwala, Smita; Mehta, Naina; Mehta, Devendra

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to assess the efficacy of a one-year, peer-mediated interventional program consisting of yoga, meditation and play therapy maintained by student volunteers in a school in India. The population consisted of 69 students between the ages of 6 and 11 years, previously identified as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A program, known as Climb-Up, was initially embedded in the school twice weekly. Local high school student volunteers were then trained to continue to implement the program weekly over the period of one year. Improvements in ADHD symptoms and academic performance were assessed using Vanderbilt questionnaires completed by both parents and teachers. The performance impairment scores for ADHD students assessed by teachers improved by 6 weeks and were sustained through 12 months in 46 (85%) of the enrolled students. The improvements in their Vanderbilt scores assessed by parents were also seen in 92% (P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon). The Climb-Up program resulted in remarkable improvements in the students' school performances that were sustained throughout the year. These results show promise for a cost-effective program that could easily be implemented in any school. PMID:23316384

  8. Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Fixed with Remineralizing Adhesive Systems after Simulating One Year of Orthodontic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, Gisele Lima; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Firoozmand, Leily Macedo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess, in vitro, the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets fixed with remineralizing adhesive systems submitted to thermomechanical cycling, simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Sixty-four bovine incisor teeth were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n = 16): XT: Transbond XT, QC: Quick Cure, OL: Ortholite Color, and SEP: Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer. The samples were submitted to thermomechanical cycling simulating one year of orthodontic treatment. Shear bond strength tests were carried out using a universal testing machine with a load cell of 50 KgF at 0.5 mm/minute. The samples were examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to analyze enamel surface and Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney (with Bonferroni correction) tests showed a significant difference between the studied groups (p < 0.05). Groups XT, QC, and SEP presented the highest values of adhesive resistance and no statistical differences were found between them. The highest frequency of failures between enamel and adhesive was observed in groups XT, QC, and OL. Quick Cure (QC) remineralizing adhesive system presented average adhesive resistance values similar to conventional (XT) and self-etching (SEP) adhesives, while remineralizing system (OL) provided the lowest values of adhesive resistance. PMID:26380371

  9. Effect of One Year of Cryopreservation on the Activity of Lysosomal Hydrolases from EBV-Transformed Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, A. S.; Mendes, F. B.; Michelin-Tireli, K.; Camelier, M. V.; Coelho, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was used as an agent of B lymphocyte proliferation for subsequent diagnosis of lysosomal storage disease. Due to the constant handling of long-preserved samples in our cell bank, we decided to observe the behavior and then compare cultured and frozen samples for at least one year's cryopreservation. Methods. Twenty-five samples from healthy individuals were used to assess the possible changes in activity of enzymes β-galactosidase, β-glucosidase, α-iduronidase, α-galactosidase, and α-glucosidase. Transmission electron microscopy was used to confirm cell transformation of B lymphocytes into EBV-infected cells, generating lymphoblastoid cell lines. Results. Transmission electron microscopy findings confirmed previous reports in the literature that is, significant and evident morphological changes in the nucleus occur after day 12 and the consequent cell transformation into EBV-infected cells. After thawing and subsequent treatment with the five enzymes utilized, we observed no significant changes in samples cryopreserved for more than one year, as compared to samples cultured for 12 days. PMID:21660133

  10. Association between Pre-Transplant Serum Malondialdehyde Levels and Survival One Year after Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Rodriguez, Sergio T.; Sanz, Pablo; Abreu-González, Pedro; Díaz, Dácil; Moreno, Antonia M.; Borja, Elisa; Martín, María M.; Jiménez, Alejandro; Barrera, Manuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found higher levels of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients compared to healthy controls and higher MDA concentrations in tumoral tissue of HCC patients than in non-tumoral tissue. However, the association between pre-transplant serum levels of MDA and survival in HCC patients after liver transplantation (LT) has not been described, and the aim of the present study was to determine whether such an association exists. In this observational study we measured serum MDA levels in 127 patients before LT. We found higher pre-LT serum MDA levels in 15 non-surviving than in 112 surviving patients one year after LT (p = 0.02). Exact binary logistic regression analysis revealed that pre-LT serum levels of MDA over 3.37 nmol/mL were associated with mortality after one year of LT (Odds ratio = 5.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) = from 1.580 to infinite; p = 0.007) adjusting for age of the deceased donor. The main finding of our study was that there is an association between serum MDA levels before LT for HCC and 1-year survival after LT. PMID:27058525

  11. Measles immunization strategy: measles antibody response following MMR II vaccination of children at one year of age.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S; West, R; Gadag, V; Burris, J

    1996-01-01

    Measles antibody levels were determined by the plaque reduction neutralization (PRN) test in 580 one-year-old children before vaccination and four to six weeks after MMR II vaccination. Fifty-one (8.8%) had maternally derived measles antibody at prevaccination, and this was more common among children of women born before 1967 (10.6%) vs. 4.3%; p < 0.01). Among those with maternal antibody, only 22 (43.1%) responded with a protective PRN titre of over 120, in contrast to 463 (87.5%) of the 529 without maternal antibody at prevaccination (p < 0.0001). Also, the geometric mean titre was significantly lower for the former (114.1 vs. 378.5; p < 0.0001). Overall, 15 (2.6%) of the 580 children had no antibody response after vaccination, and a further 80 (13.8%) had a subprotective response (PRN titre < 120). This lack of response could not be attributed entirely to the presence of maternal measles antibody at the time of vaccination. The MMR II vaccine may not be sufficiently immunogenic in inducing adequate measles antibody response after a single dose given at one year of age. PMID:8753636

  12. A Comparison of Dynamic Postural Stability Between Asymptomatic Controls and Male Patients One Year After ACL Reconstruction (Pilot Study)

    PubMed Central

    Ataoglu, Muhammed Baybars; Hazar, Zeynep; Kafa, Nihan; Özer, Mustafa; Citaker, Seyit

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if dynamic postural stability gained one year after ACL reconstruction in patients who received rehabilitation. Methods: Seven male patients (mean age=32,66 ±6,47) who had previously undergone ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) and 7 sex-and general physical activity matched uninjured controls included to study. Mean time since original injury was 13±3,31 months. Dynamic postural control was assessed with 20° knee flexion with Star Excursion Balance test. Each participant performed 3 trials of the anterior, posterior-medial, and posterior-lateral directional components of the SEBT. Reach distances for each directional component were compared with non-injured leg and healthy controls’. Results: There was no significant difference in all directions of Star Excursion Balance test between neither the operated and uninjured knees of patients nor between patients and healthy controls (p>0,05). Conclusion: No deficits in dynamic postural stability were present average one year after ACL reconstruction in patients who received rehabilitation. It can be said that rehabilitation is effective in the recovery of dynamic postural stability.

  13. Transverse effects on the nasomaxillary complex one year after rapid maxillary expansion as the only intervention: A controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Baratieri, Carolina da Luz; Alves, Maheus; Mattos, Claudia Trindade; Lau, Geórgia Wain Thi; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; de Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess by means of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans the transverse effects on the nasomaxillary complex in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME) using Haas expander in comparison to untreated individuals. This prospective controlled clinical study assessed 30 subjects (18 boys and 12 girls) with mixed dentition and during pubertal growth. The treated group was submitted to RME with Haas expander, retention for six months and a six-month follow-up after removal. The control group matched the treated group in terms of age and sex distribution. CBCT scans were taken at treatment onset and one year after the expander was activated. Maxillary first molars (U6) width, right and left U6 angulation, maxillary alveolar width, maxillary basal width, palatal alveolar width, palatal base width, right and left alveolar angulation, palatal area, nasal base width, nasal cavity width and inferior nasal cavity area on the posterior, middle and anterior coronal slices were measured with Dolphin Imaging Software(r) 11.5, except for the first two variables which were performed only on the posterior slice. All transverse dimensions increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treated group in comparison to the control, except for alveolar angulation and inferior nasal cavity area (P > 0.05). Results suggest that increase of molar, maxillary, palatal and nasal transverse dimensions was stable in comparison to the control group one year after treatment with RME. PMID:25715720

  14. A Prospective Cohort Study of Antipsychotic Medications in Pregnancy: The First 147 Pregnancies and 100 One Year Old Babies

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Jayashri; Worsley, Roisin; Gilbert, Heather; Gavrilidis, Emorfia; Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E.; Wang, Wei; McCauley, Kay; Fitzgerald, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Many women diagnosed with varying psychiatric disorders take antipsychotic medications during pregnancy. The safety of antipsychotic medications in pregnancy is largely unknown. Methods We established the National Register of Antipsychotic Medications in Pregnancy in 2005. Women who are pregnant and taking an antipsychotic medication are interviewed every 6 weeks during pregnancy and then followed until their babies are one year old. The baby's progress is closely followed for the first year of life. Findings As of April 18 2012, 147 pregnancies had been followed through to completion. There were 142 live births and data is available for 100 one year old babies. 18% of babies were born preterm, with a higher dose of antipsychotic medication correlating to an increased likelihood of premature delivery; 43% of babies required special care nursery or intensive care after birth; 37% had any degree of respiratory distress and 15% of babies developed withdrawal symptoms. Congenital anomalies were seen in eight babies. Most pregnancies resulted in the birth of live, healthy babies. The use of mood stabilisers or higher doses of antipsychotics during pregnancy increased the likelihood of babies experiencing respiratory distress or admission to Special Care Nursery or Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Conclusion There is a great need for safety and efficacy information about the use of antipsychotic medications in pregnancy. Live, healthy babies are the most common outcome following the use of antipsychotic medication in pregnancy, but clinicians should be particularly mindful of neonatal problems such as respiratory distress. PMID:24787688

  15. Peer-mediated multimodal intervention program for the treatment of children with ADHD in India: one-year followup.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sagar; Shah, Devesh; Shah, Kushal; Mehta, Sanjiv; Mehta, Neelam; Mehta, Vivek; Mehta, Vijay; Mehta, Vaishali; Motiwala, Smita; Mehta, Naina; Mehta, Devendra

    2012-01-01

    The objective was to assess the efficacy of a one-year, peer-mediated interventional program consisting of yoga, meditation and play therapy maintained by student volunteers in a school in India. The population consisted of 69 students between the ages of 6 and 11 years, previously identified as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A program, known as Climb-Up, was initially embedded in the school twice weekly. Local high school student volunteers were then trained to continue to implement the program weekly over the period of one year. Improvements in ADHD symptoms and academic performance were assessed using Vanderbilt questionnaires completed by both parents and teachers. The performance impairment scores for ADHD students assessed by teachers improved by 6 weeks and were sustained through 12 months in 46 (85%) of the enrolled students. The improvements in their Vanderbilt scores assessed by parents were also seen in 92% (P < 0.0001, Wilcoxon). The Climb-Up program resulted in remarkable improvements in the students' school performances that were sustained throughout the year. These results show promise for a cost-effective program that could easily be implemented in any school. PMID:23316384

  16. The joint influence of gender and amount of smoking on weight gain one year after smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Isabella; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Clair, Carole; Rodondi, Nicolas; Cornuz, Jacques

    2014-08-01

    Weight gain is often associated with smoking cessation and may discourage smokers from quitting. This study estimated the weight gained one year after smoking cessation and examined the risk factors associated with weight gain in order to identify socio-demographic groups at higher risk of increased weight after quitting. We analyzed data from 750 adults in two randomized controlled studies that included smokers motivated to quit and found a gradient in weight gain according to the actual duration of abstinence during follow-up. Subjects who were abstinent for at least 40 weeks gained 4.6 kg (SD = 3.8) on average, compared to 1.2 kg (SD = 2.6) for those who were abstinent less than 20 weeks during the 1-year follow-up. Considering the duration of abstinence as an exposure variable, we found an age effect and a significant interaction between sex and the amount of smoking before quitting: younger subjects gained more weight than older subjects; among light smokers, men gained more weight on average than women one year after quitting, while the opposite was observed among heavy smokers. Young women smoking heavily at baseline had the highest risk of weight gain after quitting. PMID:25153470

  17. Emergence of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive ST8-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (USA300 clone) in Korea causing healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Jung, J; Song, E H; Park, S Y; Lee, S-R; Park, S-J; Sung, H; Kim, M-N; Kim, S-H; Lee, S-O; Choi, S-H; Woo, J H; Kim, Y S; Chong, Y P

    2016-08-01

    Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL)-positive sequence type (ST)8-MRSA-SCCmec IVa (USA300) is the epidemic strain of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in North America. USA300 is extremely rare in South Korea, and PVL-negative ST72 SCCmec type IVc is the predominant CA-MRSA clone. In a multicentre, prospective cohort study of S. aureus bacteraemia, we identified PVL-positive ST8-MRSA isolates by performing multilocus sequence typing and PCR for PVL. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients with PVL-positive ST8-MRSA bacteraemia, and performed SCCmec, spa, and agr typing, PCR for arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), virulence gene profiling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among a total of 818 MRSA isolates, we identified ten isolates of PVL-positive ST8-MRSA (USA300) (3 from Hospital D, 4 from Hospital G, and 3 from Hospital A), all of which involved exclusively healthcare-associated (5 isolates) and hospital-acquired bacteraemia (5 isolates). This strain accounted for 8~10 % of the hospital-acquired MRSA bacteraemia in Hospitals D and G. Bacteraemia of unknown origin was the most common type of infection followed by pneumonia. All the isolates were SCCmec type IVa, spa type t008, and agr group I. Eight of the isolates harboured ACME. In a PFGE analysis, four isolates were identical to the USA300 control strain, five differed by a single band, and the remaining one differed by two bands. All the isolates were pulsed-field type USA300. This is the first report of healthcare-associated and hospital-acquired bacteraemia caused by USA300 in South Korea. USA300 seems to be an emerging hospital clone in this country. PMID:27209287

  18. Absence of low back pain in the general population followed fortnightly over one year with automated text messages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over one year, the majority of patients with low back pain (LBP) from the secondary care sector could not report a single week without LBP and few could report a non-episode, defined as at least one month without LBP. Presumably, non-episodes would be more common in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of this definition of ´”non-episodes”, by studying their presence over one year in the general population. Specifically, we wanted to: 1) determine the prevalence of non-episodes, 2) identify the proportion of study participants who could be classified as being in a non-episode at the end of the observation period, and 3) estimate the proportion of participants classified as having at least two separate non-episodes. Methods Danes, aged 49/50, who previously participated in a population-based study on LBP received fortnightly automated text (SMS) messages over one year. Each time, participants reported the number of days with LBP in the preceding fortnight. Fortnights with 0 days of LBP were defined as ‘zero-fortnights’ and two such fortnights in a row (one month) were defined as a ‘non-episode’. Estimates are reported as percentages with their 95% confidence intervals in brackets. Results Two hundred and ninety-three people were invited to participate. Of these, 16 declined participation and 16 were excluded because they failed to return their text message at least 20 of the 26 times, leaving 261 in the current analyses. Of these, 11% (2-22) never reported a zero-fortnight. In all, 83% (78-88) had at least one non-episode throughout the study period and the proportion of participants classified as being in a non-episode at the end of the study was 59% (53-65). The percentage of individuals with at least two non-episodes was 52% (46-58). Conclusions It is possible to differentiate people from the general population as having or not having episodes of LBP using the definition of absence of LBP over one

  19. Surgical vs. non-surgical treatment in women with pelvic floor dysfunction: Patient-centered goals at one year

    PubMed Central

    Hullfish, Kathie L.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Gurka, Matthew J.; Steers, William D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective In women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD), we assessed the degree to which treatment (surgical vs. non-surgical) was associated with achievement of patient-centered goals, satisfaction with care, and quality of life. Study design Prospective cohort. Between September 2003 and December 2004 we recruited women during their first referral visit for PFD treatment at our outpatient Urogynecology Clinic. At the first visit, women enumerated up to five personal treatment goals, and “anchored” each goal by anticipating best and worst possible outcomes. At 12 month follow-up, women were asked to indicate their level of goal attainment (−2, worst outcome; +2, best outcome). At baseline and follow-up, women completed short forms of the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) (range 0–100, high scores indicating greater impact or distress). Patients indicated level of treatment satisfaction on a 4 level ordinal scale. Results Of the 127 study participants with complete data, 46 (36.2 %) were managed surgically and 81 (63.8%) non surgically. There were no major demographic differences between the two groups in terms of age, race, weight, prior PFD surgery, and vaginal parity. The surgical group was more likely to have received baseline diagnosis of pelvic organ prolapse (80 % vs 60 %, p = 0.0259), and be post-menopausal (89 % vs 72 %, p = 0.0261). There were no significant differences in the distribution of goal type (symptom relief, activity, self image, general health) by treatment status (p = 0.1074). Using logistic regression to adjust for age and baseline diagnosis, surgically managed patients at one year were significantly more likely to report complete primary goal attainment (odds ratio (OR) = 4.42; p = 0.0154) and complete treatment satisfaction (OR = 6.12; p = 0.0109). For all participants, one-year IIQ-7 and UDI-6 scores were significantly correlated with primary goal attainment scores. Conclusions In

  20. Factors associated with one year retention to methadone maintenance treatment program among patients with heroin dependence in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with dropout from Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) clinics within a 1 year follow-up cohort study in China. Methods A data analysis is to explore the adherence of MMT during one year from three hundred and twenty patients with heroin dependence at five clinics (3 in Shanghai, 2 in Kunming) in China. All participants were from the part of China-United States cooperation project entitled “Research about improving the compliance and efficacy of methadone maintenance treatment in China”. Our data analysis includes the patients’ attendance in the 6 months clinical study and the data in another 6 months afterward. The data of patients at baseline were collected with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) which is a semi-structured questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics and drug use history. The one year attendance after recruitment at the clinics and daily dose were abstracted from the MMT clinic register system. The Cox proportional hazards model were used to explore the risk factor of dropout, defined as seven consecutive days without methadone. Results By the end of 1 year of treatment 86 patients still remained in MMT without dropout (87% in Shanghai and 13% patients in Kunming). Over the entire 1-year period the median days of remaining in the program were 84 days (in Shanghai and Kunming were 317 days and 22 days).The factors associated with retention included age (HR = 0.98, 95%C.I.:0.96-0.99, P = 0.0062) and ASI alcohol scores (HR = 5.72, 95%C.I.:1.49-21.92, P = 0.0109) at baseline. Conclusion One year retention of newly recruited patients with heroin dependence was related to age and ASI alcohol scores at baseline. The adherence is poorer for the patients who are young and having more serious alcohol problems. PMID:24565169

  1. Empiric Piperacillin-Tazobactam versus Carbapenems in the Treatment of Bacteraemia Due to Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Patrick N. A.; De, Partha P.; Chow, Angela; Tambyah, Paul A.; Lye, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a common cause of bacteraemia in endemic countries and may be associated with high mortality; carbapenems are considered the drug of choice. Limited data suggest piperacillin-tazobactam could be equally effective. We aimed to compare 30-day mortality of patients treated empirically with piperacillin-tazobactam versus a carbapenem in a multi-centre retrospective cohort study in Singapore. Only patients with active empiric monotherapy with piperacillin-tazobactam or a carbapenem were included. A propensity score for empiric carbapenem therapy was derived and an adjusted multivariate analysis of mortality was conducted. A total of 394 patients had ESBL-Escherichia.coli and ESBL-Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteraemia of which 23.1% were community acquired cases. One hundred and fifty-one received initial active monotherapy comprising piperacillin-tazobactam (n = 94) or a carbapenem (n = 57). Patients who received carbapenems were less likely to have health-care associated risk factors and have an unknown source of bacteraemia, but were more likely to have a urinary source. Thirty-day mortality was comparable between those who received empiric piperacillin-tazobactam and a carbapenem (29 [30.9%] vs. 17 [29.8%]), P = 0.89). Those who received empiric piperacillin-tazobactam had a lower 30-day acquisition of multi-drug resistant and fungal infections (7 [7.4%] vs. 14 [24.6%]), P<0.01). After adjusting for confounders, use of empiric piperacillin-tazobactam was not associated with increased 30-day mortality (OR 1.00, 95% CI; 0.45–2.17). Empiric piperacillin-tazobactam was not associated with increased 30-day mortality and may result in fewer multi-drug resistant and fungal infections when compared with a carbapenem. PMID:27104951

  2. Trends in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and impacts of infection control practices including universal MRSA admission screening in a hospital in Scotland, 2006–2010: retrospective cohort study and time-series intervention analysis

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Becky; López-Lozano, José-Maria; Gould, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe secular trends in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) and to assess the impacts of infection control practices, including universal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) admission screening on associated clinical burdens. Design Retrospective cohort study and multivariate time-series analysis linking microbiology, patient management and health intelligence databases. Setting Teaching hospital in North East Scotland. Participants All patients admitted to Aberdeen Royal Infirmary between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010: n=420 452 admissions and 1 430 052 acute occupied bed days (AOBDs). Intervention Universal admission screening programme for MRSA (August 2008) incorporating isolation and decolonisation. Primary and secondary measures Hospital-wide prevalence density, hospital-associated incidence density and death within 30 days of MRSA or methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteraemia. Results Between 2006 and 2010, prevalence density of all SAB declined by 41%, from 0.73 to 0.50 cases/1000 AOBDs (p=0.002 for trend), and 30-day mortality from 26% to 14% (p=0.013). Significant reductions were observed in MRSA bacteraemia only. Overnight admissions screened for MRSA rose from 43% during selective screening to >90% within 4 months of universal screening. In multivariate time-series analysis (R2 0.45 to 0.68), universal screening was associated with a 19% reduction in prevalence density of MRSA bacteraemia (−0.035, 95% CI −0.049 to −0.021/1000 AOBDs; p<0.001), a 29% fall in hospital-associated incidence density (−0.029, 95% CI −0.035 to −0.023/1000 AOBDs; p<0.001) and a 46% reduction in 30-day mortality (−15.6, 95% CI −24.1% to −7.1%; p<0.001). Positive associations with fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin use suggested that antibiotic stewardship reduced prevalence density of MRSA bacteraemia by 0.027 (95% CI 0.015 to 0.039)/1000 AOBDs. Rates of MSSA bacteraemia were not

  3. One-Year Effects of Project EX in Spain: A Classroom-Based Smoking Prevention and Cessation Intervention Program

    PubMed Central

    Gonzálvez, María T.; Espada, José P.; Orgilés, Mireia; Soto, Daniel; Sussman, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco use prevalence rates are high among Spanish adolescents. Programming to counteract tobacco use is needed. Methods and Findings The current study provides a one-year follow-up outcome evaluation of Project EX, an eight-session classroom-based curriculum. The intervention was tested using a randomized controlled trial with 1,546 Spanish students, involving three program and three control schools. Compared to the control condition, the program condition revealed a greater reduction in nicotine dependence (p < .05) and CO ppm levels (p < .001), and lower consumption of cigarettes at last month (p = .03). Conclusions Long-term outcomes of the Project EX classroom-based program are promising for adolescent prevention and possibly cessation in Spain. PMID:26090821

  4. Regeneration of vegetation on wetland crossings for gas pipeline rights-of-way one year after construction

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Zellmer, S.D.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Rastorfer, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Four wetland crossings of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs), located in Florida, Michigan, New Jersey, and New York, were surveyed for generation of vegetation roughly one year after pipeline construction was completed. Conventional trench-and-fill construction techniques were employed for all four sites. Estimated areal coverage of each species by vegetative strata within transect plots was recorded for plots on the ROW and in immediately adjacent wetlands undisturbed by construction activities. Relative success of regeneration was measured by percent exposed soil, species diversity, presence of native and introduced species, and hydric characteristics of the vegetation. Variable site factors included separation and replacement of topsoil, final grading of the soil, application of seed and fertilizer, and human disturbance unrelated to construction. Successful regeneration exhibited greater dependency on the first three factors listed.

  5. Profile and outcome of neuroblastoma with convertional chemotherapy in children older than one year: a 15-years experience.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Deepak; Marwaha, R K; Trehan, Amita; Rao, K L N; Gupta, Vishal

    2008-02-01

    The clinical profile and outcome of neuroblastoma in 103 children, older than one-year is presented. 74 had Stage IV, 27 Stage III and one patient each had Stage I or II disease. Treatment included chemotherapy followed by surgical resection/debulking. Radiotherapy was administered to those with residual tumor. Chemotherapy consisted of OPEC (vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and etoposide). The caretakers of 54 (52.4%) children either did not opt for or defaulted therapy, whilst 3 patients died before chemotherapy could be initiated. Of the remaining 46 patients, the tumor progressed during therapy in 19 (41.3%). Relapse of disease was documented in 22 (47.8%) cases. Merely 4 (8.7%) children are disease free for a period of 16.5+/-6.7 months. Majority of children presented with advanced disease and the outcome was dismal with conventional non-myloablative chemotherapy. PMID:18310793

  6. One year at the comet: highlights from the ROSINA instruments on the composition and evolution of the cometary coma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altwegg, Kathrin; Balsiger, Hans; Calmonte, Ursina; Gasc, Sébastien; Hässig, Myrtha; LeRoy, Léna; Jäckel, Annette; Rubin, Martin; Wurz, Peter; Tzou, Chia-Yu; Mall, Urs; Fiethe, Björn; de Keyser, Johan; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Rème, Henri; Gombosi, Tamas; Fuselier, Steven

    2015-11-01

    After one year in the close vicinity of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko we report on the most surprising results from the Rosetta Orbiter Sensor for Ion and Neutral Analysis (ROSINA) on Rosetta which is analysing the volatile composition of the cometary coma since more than 15 months. Several species like N2 and Ar were detected for the first time in a cometary coma, others have been detected before in long period, but not in Jupiter family comets. There are significant amounts of long carbon chain molecules. Many of them are probably related to dust. We will give an overview on the inventory of volatile and less volatile species. The coma is quite heterogeneous and the relative abundances vary by factors between summer and winter hemisphere. The evolution of the abundances with heliocentric distances and solar illumination will be discussed.

  7. One-Year Follow-Up of Serum Prolactin Level in Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Blonanserin: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sakae; Suzuki, Masahiro; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    In our previous study, a prolactin elevation was more frequently in risperidone than in blonanserin; however, it was more often in blonanserin than in olanzapine. Therefore, while a rate of PRL rising is low to moderate, hyperprolactinemia is a considerable adverse effect in the blonanserin treatment. In this study, to examine detailed characteristics of hyperprolactinemia of blonanserin, we analyzed the prolactin data in six schizophrenic patients who were switched to blonanserin from other antipsychotics and followed for one year. As a result, blonanserin dose was clearly associated with serum prolactin level. The average prolactin level was almost normal when the mean blonanserin dosage was 8.0 mg/day. Regardless of the dose decrease of blonanserin, there were no remarkable changes in symptoms and social functions. Based on our findings, we conclude that low dose blonanserin medication may be useful for schizophrenia maintenance treatment without hyperprolactinemia and a high rate of relapse. PMID:26508971

  8. One-Year Follow-Up of Serum Prolactin Level in Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Blonanserin: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, a prolactin elevation was more frequently in risperidone than in blonanserin; however, it was more often in blonanserin than in olanzapine. Therefore, while a rate of PRL rising is low to moderate, hyperprolactinemia is a considerable adverse effect in the blonanserin treatment. In this study, to examine detailed characteristics of hyperprolactinemia of blonanserin, we analyzed the prolactin data in six schizophrenic patients who were switched to blonanserin from other antipsychotics and followed for one year. As a result, blonanserin dose was clearly associated with serum prolactin level. The average prolactin level was almost normal when the mean blonanserin dosage was 8.0 mg/day. Regardless of the dose decrease of blonanserin, there were no remarkable changes in symptoms and social functions. Based on our findings, we conclude that low dose blonanserin medication may be useful for schizophrenia maintenance treatment without hyperprolactinemia and a high rate of relapse. PMID:26508971

  9. Effects of Head Start REDI on Children’s Outcomes One Year Later in Different Kindergarten Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Bierman, Karen L.; Nix, Robert L.; Heinrichs, Brenda S.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Gest, Scott D.; Welsh, Janet A.; Gill, Sukhdeep

    2013-01-01

    One year after participating in the REDI (Research-based, Developmentally-Informed) intervention or “usual practice” Head Start, the learning and behavioral outcomes of 356 children (17% Hispanic, 25% African American, 54% girls; mean age 4.59 years at initial assessment) were assessed. In addition, their 202 kindergarten classrooms were evaluated on quality of teacher-student interactions, emphasis on reading instruction, and school-level student achievement. Hierarchical linear analyses revealed that the REDI intervention promoted kindergarten phonemic decoding skills, learning engagement, and competent social problem-solving skills, and reduced aggressive-disruptive behavior. Intervention effects on social competence and inattention were moderated by kindergarten context, with effects strongest when children entered schools with low student achievement. Implications are discussed for developmental models of school readiness and early educational programs. PMID:23647355

  10. A 1.5 cm-long unknown subconjunctival grass inflorescence misdiagnosed as relapsing conjunctivitis for one year.

    PubMed

    Sen, Emine; Elgin, Ufuk; Koç, Fatih; Oztürk, Faruk

    2011-01-01

    Foreign bodies are usually detected at the first visit. However, they may be overlooked sometimes, especially in children, and may cause some clinical conditions including unilateral relapsing conjunctivitis. A five-year-old girl was presented to the emergency clinic of our hospital with epiphora, purulent discharge, eyelid swelling, and a foreign body feeling in her right eye. The symptoms had been present for one year, and the patient was treated for relapsing conjunctivitis. In slit lamp examination performed with difficulty because of the patient's lack of cooperation, a localized edema and erythema were observed under the right eyelid. An exploration under general anesthesia was planned, and a 1.5 cm-long subconjunctival grass inflorescence was removed. An unknown subconjunctival foreign body should be considered in each patient with relapsing conjunctivitis, especially in children, even in the absence of ocular trauma. PMID:22389996

  11. Treatment of autoimmune urticaria with low-dose cyclosporin A: A one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Boubouka, Christine D; Charissi, Christina; Kouimintzis, Dimitris; Kalogeromitros, Dimitris; Stavropoulos, Panagiotis G; Katsarou, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune urticaria (AIU) and positive autologous serum skin test (ASST) represent a more serious type of chronic urticaria that does not respond to treatment with antihistamines, but responds completely to systemic corticosteroids. Because of the chronic course of the disease, there is a risk of side-effects. Cyclosporin A (CsA) is an alternative treatment for patients with AIU. In order to determine the efficacy of CsA at the lowest possible dose in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria and positive ASST, 30 patients were included in a 5-month study with a follow-up one year after the end of treatment. All patients had positive ASST before treatment and autoantibodies were present in 73%. Twenty- three patients completed the study and responded to low-dose CsA treatment. Three patients did not respond to a dose of 2.5 mg/kg CsA, and 4 patients dropped-out due to side-effects. After the first month of treatment, an improvement of 31% was noted, reaching 88% after the fifth month of treatment. The mean dose of CsA was 2.16 mg/kg for the first month and 0.55 mg/kg for the fifth month. Three to 6 months after the end of the study, the ASST was repeated and was negative in 78.3% of patients. At the one-year follow-up, 20 patients were symptom-free (87%) and 3 had relapsed (13%). CsA, even in low-doses, can be an effective and short-term treat- ment with minimum side-effects in patients with AIU. PMID:21264453

  12. Effective radiation exposure evaluation during a one year follow-up of urolithiasis patients after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Tekinarslan, Erdem; Keskin, Suat; Buldu, İbrahim; Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Karatag, Tuna; Istanbulluoglu, Mustafa Okan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To determine and evaluate the effective radiation exposure during a one year follow-up of urolithiasis patients following the SWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy) treatment. Material and methods Total Effective Radiation Exposure (ERE) doses for each of the 129 patients: 44 kidney stone patients, 41 ureter stone patients, and 44 multiple stone location patients were calculated by adding up the radiation doses of each ionizing radiation session including images (IVU, KUB, CT) throughout a one year follow-up period following the SWL. Results Total mean ERE values for the kidney stone group was calculated as 15, 91 mSv (5.10-27.60), for the ureter group as 13.32 mSv (5.10-24.70), and in the multiple stone location group as 27.02 mSv (9.41-54.85). There was no statistically significant differences between the kidney and ureter groups in terms of the ERE dose values (p = 0.221) (p >0.05). In the comparison of the kidney and ureter stone groups with the multiple stone location group; however, there was a statistically significant difference (p = 0.000) (p <0.05). Conclusions ERE doses should be a factor to be considered right at the initiation of any diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedure. Especially in the case of multiple stone locations, due to the high exposure to ionized radiation, different imaging modalities with low dose and/or totally without a dose should be employed in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up bearing the aim to optimize diagnosis while minimizing the radiation dose as much as possible. PMID:26568880

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Carboplatin in a One-Year-Old Anuric Boy Undergoing Hemodialysis and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Koichi; Sako, Mayumi; Ishikawa, Tomoaki; Sato, Mai; Ogura, Masao; Uno, Teruaki; Kiyotani, Chikako; Mori, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ito, Shuichi; Nakamura, Hidefumi

    2015-10-01

    There have been few reports of carboplatin-based chemotherapy for anuric infants. As we had a chance to treat a one-year-old anuric hepatoblastoma patient with carboplatin, we performed a pharmacokinetic analysis and examined the optimal treatment strategy. A one-year-old anuric boy under peritoneal dialysis was diagnosed with hepatoblastoma. Surgical resection was performed, and administration of carboplatin was scheduled postoperatively aiming at 5 mg·min/mL of the area under the curve from the time of dosing to the time of the last observation (AUC(0-t)). We set the initial dose at 50 mg, higher than that calculated by the Calvert formula (34 mg); the time from the end of carboplatin infusion to the initiation of hemodialysis at 2 h; and the hemodialysis duration at 24 h. The actual AUC0-t was 3.05 mg·min/mL because the elimination half-lives before and during hemodialysis were shorter than expected. The AUC(0-t) after the second dose (100 mg) and the third dose (80 mg) were 7.00 and 4.68 mg·min/mL, respectively. The Calvert formula is not suitable for hemodialysis patients because removal of platinum by hemodialysis is not taken into account. It appears that extrarenal clearance in anuric infants is different from that in adults. We obtained an optimal AUC(0-t) using a dose of 80 mg (200 mg/m(2)), setting the time from the end of carboplatin infusion to the initiation of hemodialysis at 2 h, and performing 8-h hemodialysis. Further accumulation of the pharmacokinetic data of carboplatin is necessary for anuric children. PMID:25916242

  14. Physical Activity Levels in Chinese One-Year-Old Children and Their Parents, an Early STOPP China Study

    PubMed Central

    Hagströmer, Maria; Xiong, Yuelin; Zhang, Lanlan; Zhang, Jianduan; Marcus, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents’ PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children’s PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), parental BMI and parental PA level. Methods Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels. Results There were no significant differences in children’s averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children’s peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (p<0.001). Both mothers and fathers demonstrated a similar PA pattern as their children, although paternal PA level was consistently lower than that of mothers and children. No significant association was found between children’s PA and their gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (p<0.05). Conclusion PA in one-year-old Chinese children vary over the day but weekdays and weekends are similar. At this age, children’s PA is not related to gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings. PMID:27078684

  15. Recurrent falls in Parkinson's disease after one year of follow-up: A nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Gazibara, Tatjana; Tepavcevic, Darija Kisic; Svetel, Marina; Tomic, Aleksandra; Stankovic, Iva; Kostic, Vladimir S; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare clinical and fall characteristics of single and recurrent falls among persons with PD and to evaluate factors associated with recurrent falls. A total of 120 consecutive persons with PD, who denied having fallen in the past 6 months, were recruited. Occurrence of falling was registered during one year. Each person was given a "fall diary" with the aim at writing characteristics of the fall and contacted by telephone each month. Over one year of follow-up 42 persons with PD (35.0%) reported falling. Of 42 persons, 19 (45.2%) went on to become single and 23 (54.8%) went on to become recurrent fallers. Indoor falls were more common among single fallers, whilst outdoor falls were more common among recurrent fallers (p=0.017). Slipping and freezing of gait was more common among single fallers (p=0.035 and p=0.024, respectively). Lower extremity weakness was more frequent among recurrent fallers (p=0.023). The most common injury both among single and recurrent fallers was the soft-tissue contusion. The only factor associated with recurrent falling among persons with PD, who did not fall in past 6 months before the start of follow-up, was worse motor performance as measured by the UPDRS III score (odds ratio [OR]=1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.11, p=0.022). These results could be used in selection of persons with PD to enroll in fall prevention programs. PMID:26921677

  16. Frontal suspension for congenital ptosis using an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex®) sheet: one-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Nakauchi, Kazuaki; Mito, Hidenori; Mimura, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Background The frontalis suspension technique is the surgical method of choice in patients with ptosis and a levator function of 4 mm or less. Several types of materials have been used, including Gore-Tex®, which has been used successfully as a frontalis sling material since 1986. Recently, a Gore-Tex sheet (wider than a sling or strip) suspension was reported. This paper reports the results of 27 eyes from 20 patients with congenital ptosis treated using the frontalis suspension technique with the newly developed Gore-Tex Most Versatile Patch (MVP) sheet. Methods All patients underwent surgery between April 2007 and September 2011 and were followed up for at least one year. The average follow-up duration was 18 months, with a range of 12–36 months. The average patient age was 45 (5–85) years, and the group included 11 males and nine females. Thirteen cases demonstrated ptosis in one eye, and seven cases involved both eyes. The patients were divided by age into a younger group and an older group. All ptosis procedures were performed using the Gore-Tex MVP sheet. The implant was normally 7 mm wide for adults and 5 mm wide for children. The implantation method was the same as that used for the sheet shape fascia. Results In all patients, satisfactory functional results were observed at the 6-month follow-up examination. Eyelid opening heights were also obtained. The average marginal reflex distance (MRD) was −0.5 mm preoperatively, which improved to +1.9 mm after surgery. After one year, average MRD was +1.6 mm. MRD attenuation was more frequent in the younger group. There were no cases requiring redo surgery and only one case of exposure. PMID:23345967

  17. Use of ED and Hospital Services for Patients with Acute Leukemia after Induction Therapy: One year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Ashley Leak; Deal, Allison M.; Walton, AnnMarie; Wood, William; Muss, Hyman; Mayer, Deborah K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have documented use of health care services by oncology patients in the Emergency Department (ED), but little is known about the utilization of health services of patients with acute leukemia after induction therapy. The aim of this study was to examine chief reasons for ED and hospital use by patients newly diagnosed with acute leukemia patients after induction therapy up to one year after discharge. A retrospective, longitudinal study of all visits to the ED or unplanned hospital admissions at a single institution for patients with acute leukemia was conducted. Inclusion criteria were patients ≥18 years of age at time of diagnosis, a confirmed diagnosis of AML or ALL, and received and discharged from induction treatment between 2007–2010. Donabedian’s structure-process-outcome framework guided this study examining health services utilization and assessing patient outcomes. 80 patients met the inclusion criteria; 52 had AML and 28 had ALL; median age was 48 (range: 18–76) and 29% (n=23) were non-Caucasian. 70% (n=56) were discharged from induction in remission. 81% (n=65) had at least 1 ED or hospitalization event, and 44% (n=35) had 2 or more events. Of 137 events in 65 patients, the most common reason was neutropenic fever/infection (55%), bleeding (12%), and GI problems (11%). Mean number of events for ALL was 2.43 compared to 1.33 for AML patients (p=0.02), and 2.23 for <50 years of age compared to 1.20 for those older (p=0.002). 20 patients died within one year of diagnosis. Findings from this study can help inform health services delivery and utilization among patients with acute leukemia after induction therapy. Oncology providers can anticipate discharge needs and enhance follow-up care for those at higher risk for problems needing hospitalization. PMID:25711944

  18. Photoselective vaporization of prostate vs. transurethral resection of prostate: A prospective, randomized study with one year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Nayan K.; Vasudeva, Pawan; Kumar, Anup; Prakash, Sanjay; Jain, Manoj; Arora, Rajender P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate in a prospective, randomized study, the efficacy and safety profile of photoselective vaporization of prostate (PVP) using a 80W potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser when compared to standard transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE). Materials and Methods: Between February 2009 and August 2009, 117 patients satisfying the eligibility criteria underwent surgery [60 PVP{Group A}; 57 TURP{Group B}]. The groups were compared for functional outcome (both subjective and objective parameters), perioperative parameters and complications, with a follow up of one year. P value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The baseline characteristics of the two groups were comparable. Mean age was 66.68 years and 65.74 years, mean IPSS score was 19.98 and 20.88, mean prostate volume was 44.77 cc and 49.02 cc in Group A and B, respectively. Improvements in IPSS, QOL, prostate volume, Q max and PVRU at 12 months were similar in both groups. PVP patients had longer operating time, lesser perioperative blood loss, shorter catheterization time and a higher dysuria rate when compared to TURP patients. The overall complication rate was similar in the two groups. Conclusions: In patients with LUTS due to BPE, KTP-PVP is an equally efficacious alternative to TURP with durable results at one year follow up with additional benefits of lesser perioperative blood loss, lesser transfusion requirements and a shorter catheterization time. Long term comparative data is awaited to clearly define the role of KTP-PVP in such patients. PMID:23204660

  19. Analysis of 30 patients with persistent or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix within one year after concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shi-Ping; Yang, Jia-Xin; Cao, Dong-Yan; Shen, Keng

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the recurrence sites, risk factors, and prognosis of patients with persistent or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix within one year after undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods Clinical data of 30 patients with persistent or recurrent SCC of the cervix within one year after CCRT between July 2006 and July 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. These data were compared with those of 35 SCC cases with no signs of recurrence after complete remission. These 35 patients were treated during the same period (between 2006 and 2011) and selected randomly. Results Among these 30 patients, 25 exhibited distant metastases of which 14 were observed within 6 months after CCRT. Univariate analysis showed higher incidence of pelvic or para-aortic lymphadenectasis and SCC-ag >10 ng/mL in the group with persistent or recurrent disease before treatment (P<0.01). Multivariate analysis by logistic regression revealed that the pre-therapeutic pelvic or para-aortic lymph node enlargement and SCC-ag >10 ng/mL were the independent risk factors. Palliative chemotherapy was the main treatment option for patients with persistent or recurrent disease. The 2-year survival rate was 21.7%, and the median survival time was 17 months. Conclusion Patients with persistent or recurrent SCC of the cervix after CCRT exhibited a high rate of distant metastasis with poor prognosis. The pre-therapeutic pelvic or para-aortic lymph node enlargement and SCC-ag >10 ng/mL were identified as the independent risk factors for persistent or recurrent SCC within 1 year after CCRT. PMID:24349833

  20. A Retrospective Audit of Clinically Significant Maternal Bacteraemia in a Specialist Maternity Hospital from 2001 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Richard John; Fonseca-Kelly, Zara; Eogan, Maeve

    2015-01-01

    Maternal sepsis is a significant problem in obstetrics, with almost one in four maternal deaths related to severe sepsis. We carried out a retrospective review of clinically significant bacteraemia in obstetric patients attending Rotunda Hospital over 14 years. From 2001 to 2014, there were 252 clinically significant positive blood culture episodes in obstetric patients. There were 112,361 live births >500 g during the study period giving an overall rate of 2.24 clinically significant positive maternal blood culture episodes per 1000 live births >500 g. The median rate over the 14 years was 2.12 episodes per 1000 live births >500 g, with an interquartile range of 1.74–2.43 per 1000 live births >500 g. There was no discernable increasing or decreasing trend over the 14 years. E. coli was the most commonly isolated organism (n = 92/252, 37%), followed by group B Streptococcus (n = 64/252, 25%), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 28/252, 11%), and anaerobes (n = 11/252, 4%). These top four organisms represented three-quarters of all positive blood culture episodes (n = 195/252, 77.3%). Of note, there were only five cases of listeriosis, representing a rate of 4.4 cases per 100,000 live births >500 g. The rate of invasive group A streptococcal infection was also very low at 5.3 cases per 100,000 live births >500 g. PMID:26494975

  1. Outcome of Community-Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia in Patients with Diabetes: A Historical Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Jesper; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Nielsen, Henrik; Frøslev, Trine; Søgaard, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with diabetes (DM) experience increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB), but the prognostic impact of diabetes in patients with SAB remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated 30-day all-cause mortality in patients with and without DM. Methods Population-based medical databases were used to conduct a cohort study of all adult patients with community-acquired SAB in Northern Denmark, 2000–2011. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we computed hazard ratios as estimates of 30-day mortality rate ratios (MRRs) among patients with and without DM. We further investigated whether the prognostic impact of DM differed among patients with and without recent preadmission healthcare contacts (within 30 days of the current hospitalization) and by age, sex, marital status, level of comorbidity, and DM-related characteristics (e.g., duration of DM and presence of DM complications). Results Among 2638 SAB patients, 713 (27.0%) had DM. Thirty-day cumulative mortality was 25.8% in patients with DM and 24.3% in patients without DM, for an adjusted MRR (aMRR) of 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84–1.20). In analyses with and without recent healthcare contacts, the corresponding aMRRs were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62–1.14) and 1.13 (95% CI, 0.91–1.41), respectively. Compared to patients without DM, the aMRR was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.74–1.20) for male patients with DM and 1.13 (95% CI, 0.87–1.47) for female patients with DM. The prognostic influence of DM on mortality did not differ notably with age, level of comorbidity, or characteristics of patients with DM. Conclusion Patients with DM and community-acquired SAB did not experience higher 30-day mortality than patients without DM. PMID:27082873

  2. Upper Limb Strength and Function Changes during a One-Year Follow-Up in Non-Ambulant Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: An Observational Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Seferian, Andreea Mihaela; Moraux, Amélie; Annoussamy, Mélanie; Canal, Aurélie; Decostre, Valérie; Diebate, Oumar; Le Moing, Anne-Gaëlle; Gidaro, Teresa; Deconinck, Nicolas; Van Parys, Frauke; Vereecke, Wendy; Wittevrongel, Sylvia; Mayer, Michèle; Maincent, Kim; Desguerre, Isabelle; Thémar-Noël, Christine; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Tiffreau, Vincent; Denis, Severine; Jousten, Virginie; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Voit, Thomas; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Servais, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Upper limb evaluation of patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is crucially important to evaluations of efficacy of new treatments in non-ambulant patients. In patients who have lost ambulation, there are few validated and informative outcome measures. In addition, longitudinal data demonstrating sensitivity to clinical evolution of outcome measures over short-term periods are lacking. Patients and Methods We report here the results of a one-year multicenter study using specifically designed tools to assess grip, pinch strength, and hand function in wheelchair-bound patients. Our study assessed 53 non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy aged 17.1 ± 4.8 years (range: 9 – 28.1 years). The average Brooke functional score of these patients was 4.6 ± 1.1. The average forced vital capacity was 44.5% predicted and 19 patients used non-invasive ventilation. Patients were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and one year using the Motor Function Measure and innovative devices (namely the MyoSet composed of MyoGrip, MyoPinch, and MoviPlate). Results Our study confirmed preliminary data previously reported regarding feasibility of use and of reliability of the MyoSet and the correlation at baseline between distal strength and clinical outcomes such as FVC, Brooke score, age, and duration since loss of ambulation. A significant correlation was observed between the distal upper limb strength and clinical variables. The sensitive dynamometers (MyoGrip and MyoPinch) and MoviPlate captured a 12-month change in non-ambulant Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients of all ages. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00993161 NCT00993161 PMID:25643053

  3. A comparison of CO2 fluxes for one year at three Irish sites: two grassland pastures and one blanket peatland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiely, G.; Albertson, J.; Katul, G.; Oren, R.; Scanlon, T.

    2003-04-01

    The Dripsey CO_2 flux site in Cork, Ireland is a perennial ryegrass (C3 category) pasture and is grazed for approximately 8 to 10 months of the year. Local farmers own and operate the farms, which are fertilised with approximately 200kg/ha/year of nitrogen. The flux tower monitoring CO_2, water vapour and energy was established in June 2001. The Cork site also includes streamflow hydrology and stream water chemistry. A second CO_2 flux site was established in a managed grassland pasture of the Irish Agricultural Research station in the South East of Ireland in Wexford (180 km east of Cork) in October 2002. Management and fertilisation practices are well documented. A third CO_2 flux site was established in a pristine blanket peatland (depth approximately 3m of peat) in the South West of Ireland in Kerry (140km west of Cork) in July 2002. The three sites use the eddy covariance flux system with a LICOR 7500 open path CO_2/water vapour analyser in conjunction with an RMYoung 3D sonic anemometer. We present the results and analysis for the three sites to date. For eight months of the year in the Cork pasture, the grass/soil ecosystem has a net uptake of CO_2 (varying from 50 to 360 g/m2 per month). For four months (October, November, December and January), the ecosystem is a net source of CO_2 (varying from 0 to -110g/m2 per month). The cumulative one-year carbon uptake is 3.9t/ha. The estimated carbon required for grass and silage growth is 3.6t/ha. For the one year being reported, this suggests that these pastures are a carbon sink of size approximately 0.3t carbon/ha. The Wexford site is drier (approximately 1200mm/annum) and warmer with very slightly greater fluxes of CO_2. The CO_2 fluxes in the blanket peatland are approximately one third those of the grassland sites. This work is part of a five-year (2002-2006) research project funded by the Irish Environmental Protection Agency.

  4. Effects of a One Year Intensive Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Huntington’s Disease: a Prospective Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Piira, Anu; van Walsem, Marleen R.; Mikalsen, Geir; Nilsen, Kjell Haavik; Knutsen, Synnove; Frich, Jan C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of an intensive, multidisciplinary rehabilitation program for patients with early to mid-stage Huntington’s disease. Design: A prospective intervention study. Setting: Two Norwegian inpatient rehabilitation centers. Subjects: 37 patients, with early- to midstage Huntington’s disease Interventions: A one year rehabilitation program, consisting of three admissions of three weeks each, and a five-day evaluation stay approximately 3 months after the last rehabilitation admission. Focus was on physical exercise, social activities, and group/teaching sessions. There was also emphasis to implement of coordinated health care and social services for the patients. Main outcome measures: standard measures for motor function, including gait and balance, cognitive function, including MMSE and UHDRS cognitive assessment, anxiety and depression, activities of daily living (ADL), health related quality of life and Body Mass Index (BMI). Results: Significant improvements were observed in gait function, balance, in physical quality of life, anxiety and depression, as well as in BMI. ADL-function remained stable with no significant decline. Only one cognitive measure (SDMT) showed significant decline, while no decline was observed for the remaining cognitive measures. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary intensive rehabilitation program in patients with early and mid stage HD is associated with improved balance, gait function, physical quality of life and with reduced depressive and anxiety symptoms. Longer follow-up is needed to assess if these positive effects are sustained. There should be emphasis to establishment of long term and coordinated health care services for the HD patient PMID:24459605

  5. Group A streptococcal sore throat in a periurban population of northern India: a one-year prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, S.; Kumar, R.; Ray, P.; Vohra, H.; Ganguly, N. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and risk factors of group A streptococcus (GAS) sore throat among school-aged children living in a periurban slum area of Chandigarh, North India. METHODS: A total of 536 children aged 5-15 years from 261 families identified by a systematic random selection method were enrolled in the study. Episodes of sore throat were recorded through fortnightly home visits over a one-year period. The local vernacular (Hindi) terms gala kharab (bad throat) and khansi jukam (cough and cold) were used to identify symptoms of sore throat, and throat swab specimens were collected from children who had these symptoms on the day of the home visit. Bacterial culture was carried out and the isolation of GAS was confirmed using group-A-specific antiserum. FINDINGS: The incidences of sore throat and GAS sore throat were, respectively, 7.05 and 0.95 episodes per child-year. The incidence was higher in the following situations: among 11-year-olds, during the winter (November to January) and rainy (August) months (a bimodal peak), among children living in houses where there was no separate room for the kitchen, and in homes that included a tobacco smoker. CONCLUSION: The results show that the incidence of GAS sore throat was related to age, season, and indoor air pollution. PMID:11436474

  6. Changes of ethyl carbamate and its precursors in maesil (Prunus mume) extract during one-year fermentation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Bogyoung; Koh, Eunmi

    2016-10-15

    The contents of ethyl carbamate (EC), cyanide, and ethanol were determined in maesil extracts that are liquids generated from fermentation of maesil fruit and brown sugar at 25°C or 15°C for one year. EC was detected from day 150 with a maximum value of 9.7μg/kg. The cyanide levels increased with prolonged soaking time of maesil and decreased at day 150 where EC was firstly detected, indicating that cyanide is a precursor of EC. Ethanol slowly increased at 25°C, while it fluctuated at 15°C. The contents of EC, cyanide, and ethanol were higher in the extracts fermented at 25°C compared with those at 15°C. EC contents had a higher positive correlation with cyanide contents (R=0.658) than ethanol contents (R=0.351). These results indicate that fermenting temperature gave a rise of EC precursors and consequently led to the increase of EC in the maesil extract. PMID:27173569

  7. Endoscopically controlled hydraulic sinus lift in combination with rotary instruments: one-year follow-up of a case series.

    PubMed

    Andreasi Bassi, M; Andrisani, C; Lopez, M A; Gaudio, R M; Lombardo, L; Lauritano, D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a sinus lift via crestal approach (SLVCA) case series, performed with rotary instruments and hydraulic pressure, analyzed under endoscopic control. Sixteen patients (11 female, 5 male, mean age 47.13±8.07 years) candidates for SLVCA were enrolled in this study. Twenty-two cylindrical two-piece implants were placed. After a suitable period of time needed for the consolidation of the graft (mean value 5.78±1.49 months), the bone augmentation was assessed by means of intraoral X-ray exams before the surgical procedure of re-entry. After a functional load with temporary acrylic fixed prosthesis, on Peek abutments, for a span of 4 months, the cases were finalized with cemented metal-ceramic prosthesis (10 single crowns, 6 bridges). The post finalization follow-up was at 12 months. During the perforation of the sinus floor via rotary instruments no perforations of the sinus membrane were observed either during the hydraulic detachment or simultaneous filling of the subantral space with the graft material. Survival rate was 94.5% since one fixture was lost, but immediately replaced with a new one. At the one-year follow-up the clinical and radiological appearance of the soft and hard tissues was optimal and no pathological signs were recorded. The SLVCA performed with rotary instruments and hydraulic pressure is a reliable grafting procedure for oral rehabilitation of maxillary edentulous sites. PMID:27469544

  8. The interplay between knowledge, perceived efficacy, and concern about global warming and climate change: a one-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Milfont, Taciano L

    2012-06-01

    If the long-term goal of limiting warming to less than 2°C is to be achieved, rapid and sustained reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are required. These reductions will demand political leadership and widespread public support for action on global warming and climate change. Public knowledge, level of concern, and perceived personal efficacy, in positively affecting these issues are key variables in understanding public support for mitigation action. Previous research has documented some contradictory associations between knowledge, personal efficacy, and concern about global warming and climate change, but these cross-sectional findings limit inferences about temporal stability and direction of influence. This study examines the relationships between these three variables over a one-year period and three waves with national data from New Zealand. Results showed a positive association between the variables, and the pattern of findings was stable and consistent across the three data points. More importantly, results indicate that concern mediates the influence of knowledge on personal efficacy. Knowing more about global warming and climate change increases overall concern about the risks of these issues, and this increased concern leads to greater perceived efficacy and responsibility to help solving them. Implications for risk communication are discussed. PMID:22489642

  9. [Oral benefits for the elderly: results of a one-year implementation of the "Sesame" plan in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Cisse, D; Lo, C M; Faye, D; Diouf, M; Kanoute, A; Kane, A W

    2010-03-01

    Among the 650,000 persons aged 60 and over in Senegal, only 30% were receiving social security coverage, divided between the Senegalese Retirement Providence Institute and the National Retirement Fund. To fill the social demand, the government has put in place since 1 September 2006 a plan called "Sesame" which gives people aged 60 and older, free access to certain health services provided in public health. The implementation of this plan creates a lot of comments in the health community. The objectives of this study were to describe the dental benefits offered and to identify the difficulties perceived and experienced by the service provider after one year the "sesame" plan was implemented in Ouakam Health Center dental office, benchmark place of Gerontology in the Dakar North health district in Senegal. The study included two components: quantitative and qualitative terms, respectively, consisting of a retrospective study from sheets review and an interview with the health center service provider. The beneficiaries were a total of 42, mean age 68 years, including 66.7% men. Just over a third (35.7%) resided outside Ouakam. Almost 4/5 of the beneficiaries have suffered dental extractions on 1 to 10 teeth per beneficiary. The proportions of people receiving dentine treatment and curetage were respectively 4.8% and 2.4%. Qualitative data showed that the implementation of the plan was not shared between providers and beneficiaries. The "Sesame" plan is a commendable initiative to encourage and improve. PMID:20839478

  10. At-risk elementary school children with one year of classroom music instruction are better at keeping a beat.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jessica; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Temporal processing underlies both music and language skills. There is increasing evidence that rhythm abilities track with reading performance and that language disorders such as dyslexia are associated with poor rhythm abilities. However, little is known about how basic time-keeping skills can be shaped by musical training, particularly during critical literacy development years. This study was carried out in collaboration with Harmony Project, a non-profit organization providing free music education to children in the gang reduction zones of Los Angeles. Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing important evidence that fundamental time-keeping skills may be strengthened by short-term music training. This sets the stage for further examination of how music programs may be used to support the development of basic skills underlying learning and literacy, particularly in at-risk populations which may benefit the most. PMID:24130865

  11. Pulmonary Function after Weight Loss in Obese Women Undergoing Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: One-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Barbalho-Moulim, Marcela Cangussu; Miguel, Gustavo Peixoto Soares; Forti, Eli Maria Pazzianotto; Campos, Flávio do Amaral; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Costa, Dirceu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is a condition that causes damage to the respiratory function. However, studies have demonstrated that weight loss due to bariatric surgery has resulted in a huge improvement on some lung volumes, but controversy still persists regarding the behavior of the respiratory muscle strength and IRV (inspiratory reserve volume). Objective. To evaluate the effect of weight loss, after 1 year of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB), on the lung volumes and the respiratory muscle strength in obese women. Methods. 24 obese women candidates were recruited for RYGB. Lung volumes (spirometry) and respiratory muscle strength were evaluated in preoperative period and one year after surgery. Results. There was a significant increase in some lung volumes. However, when examining the components of the VC (vital capacity) separately, an increase in ERV (expiratory reserve volume) and reduction of IRV were observed. Moreover, a statistically significant reduction in the values of respiratory muscle strength was recorded: MIP (maximal inspiratory pressure) and MEP (maximal expiratory pressure). Conclusion. Weight loss induced by bariatric surgery provides an increase in some lung volumes of obese women, but reduction in IRV. Additionally, there was also a reduction in the respiratory muscle strength. PMID:24555155

  12. Radioactive status of seawater in the northwest Pacific more than one year after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Wu; He, Jianhua; Wang, Fenfen; Wen, Yu; Li, Yiliang; Huang, Jiang; Yu, Xingguang

    2015-01-01

    To understand the impact of Fukushima Nuclear Accident(FNA), eight cruises were performed from 2011-2014. This paper reports the seawater monitoring results of the third cruise, which was conducted in May-June 2012.The northwest Pacific was clearly influenced even more than one year after FNA. However, compared to the monitoring results of the first and second cruises, which were performed in 2011, the seawater radioactivity of the third cruise decreased greatly. The highest value and the highest average of 137Cs and 134Cs were found in the 200 m layer, which suggested that 137Cs and 134Cs were most likely transported to a depth of 200 m or deeper. At 21.50°N, 125.00°E, 134Cs was found at a depth of 200 m, which is 430 km away from the southernmost point of Taiwan Island. The formation and subduction of Subtropical Mode Water is the most reasonable explanation for this process. The coastal water of China was not impacted by the radioactive pollutants released from the FNA. The radiation increments from 137Cs, 134Cs and 90Sr are only one-thousandth to one-millionth of the screening rate (10 μGy/h) according to the estimation using ERICA tools.

  13. One-year test-retest reliability of intrinsic connectivity network fMRI in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Cong C.; Kurth, Florian; Zhou, Juan; Mayer, Emeran A.; Eickhoff, Simon B; Kramer, Joel H.; Seeley, William W.

    2014-01-01

    “Resting-state” or task-free fMRI can assess intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) integrity in health and disease, suggesting a potential for use of these methods as disease-monitoring biomarkers. Numerous analytical options are available, including model-driven ROI-based correlation analysis and model-free, independent component analysis (ICA). High test-retest reliability will be a necessary feature of a successful ICN biomarker, yet available reliability data remains limited. Here, we examined ICN fMRI test-retest reliability in 24 healthy older subjects scanned roughly one year apart. We focused on the salience network, a disease-relevant ICN not previously subjected to reliability analysis. Most ICN analytical methods proved reliable (intraclass coefficients > 0.4) and could be further improved by wavelet analysis. Seed-based ROI correlation analysis showed high map-wise reliability, whereas graph theoretical measures and temporal concatenation group ICA produced the most reliable individual unit-wise outcomes. Including global signal regression in ROI-based correlation analyses reduced reliability. Our study provides a direct comparison between the most commonly used ICN fMRI methods and potential guidelines for measuring intrinsic connectivity in aging control and patient populations over time. PMID:22446491

  14. At-Risk Elementary School Children with One Year of Classroom Music Instruction Are Better at Keeping a Beat

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Jessica; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Temporal processing underlies both music and language skills. There is increasing evidence that rhythm abilities track with reading performance and that language disorders such as dyslexia are associated with poor rhythm abilities. However, little is known about how basic time-keeping skills can be shaped by musical training, particularly during critical literacy development years. This study was carried out in collaboration with Harmony Project, a non-profit organization providing free music education to children in the gang reduction zones of Los Angeles. Our findings reveal that elementary school children with just one year of classroom music instruction perform more accurately in a basic finger-tapping task than their untrained peers, providing important evidence that fundamental time-keeping skills may be strengthened by short-term music training. This sets the stage for further examination of how music programs may be used to support the development of basic skills underlying learning and literacy, particularly in at-risk populations which may benefit the most. PMID:24130865

  15. Enhancing relaxation states and positive emotions in physicians through a mindfulness training program: A one-year study.

    PubMed

    Amutio, Alberto; Martínez-Taboada, Cristina; Hermosilla, Daniel; Delgado, Luis Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on mindfulness has focused mainly on stress-related negative symptoms and short-term effects. In contrast, the present article focuses on the impact of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on improving well-being (i.e. relaxation states and related positive emotions) in a longitudinal study for a period of one year. A randomized controlled trial in a sample of 42 physicians was used. The intervention group participated in an 8-week MBSR program, with an additional 10-month maintenance period and completed measures of mindfulness and relaxation at pre-intervention, post-intervention and after 10 months. Heart rate measures were also obtained. Significant improvements in favor of the experimental group compared with the control group on the levels of mindfulness and relaxation (including positive emotional states, such as at ease/peace, renewal, energy, optimism, happiness, acceptance, and even transcendence) were obtained after eight weeks. Remarkably, change magnitudes (effect size) significantly increased at the end of the maintenance period after a year, especially for mindfulness and positive energy. Additionally, heart rate significantly decreased for the intervention group and maintained a year after the beginning of the treatment. Results are relevant in terms of practical consequences for improving health and well-being in this population and also in terms of cost-efficiency. PMID:25485658

  16. Alloplastic total temporomandibular joint replacement using stock prosthesis: a one-year follow-up report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Ryu, Da-Jung; Kim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Hyung-Gon

    2013-01-01

    Alloplastic total replacement of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) was developed in recent decades. In some conditions, previous studies suggested the rationale behind alloplastic TMJ replacement rather than reconstruction with autogenous grafts. Currently, three prosthetic products are available and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Among these products, customized prostheses are manufactured, via computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system for customized design; stock-type prostheses are provided in various sizes and shapes. In this report, two patients (a 50-year-old female who had undergone condylectomy for the treatment of osteochondroma extending to the cranial base on the left condyle, and a 21-year-old male diagnosed with left temporomandibular ankylosis) were treated using the alloplastic total replacement of TMJ using stock prosthesis. The follow-up results of a favorable one-year, short-term therapeutic outcome were obtained for the alloplastic total TMJ replacement using a stock-type prosthesis. PMID:24516821

  17. [Middle-term result of surgery in 78 cases of complete atrioventricular canal before one year of age].

    PubMed

    Barazer, P Y; Losay, J; Lacour-Gayet, F; Planché, C; Binet, J P

    1989-05-01

    Between 1970 and 1985, 78 children with complete atrioventricular canal were operated upon before the age of one year at the Marie-Lannelongue Surgical Centre. Forty-seven survivors were followed up for periods of 3 months to 13 years after the initial operation; 2 were lost of following. Among the 13 children who survived banding, 1 died spontaneously, 1 had Blalock-Taussig anastomosis and 11 underwent full repair with 5 deaths; out of 6 survivors, 4 are doing well without any treatment, 1 was reoperated upon twice and died during the second operation, and 1 was lost sight of; the survival rates at 5 and 10 years are 46 +/- 23 p. 100 and 29 +/- 23 p. 100 respectively. Among the 34 children who survived an initial complete repair, 2 were reoperated upon 3 months after the repair, with 1 death, 7 subsequently died of infection (6 had trisomy 21); out of 26 survivors followed up for 3 years and 3 months on average after the complete repair (2 to 13 years), 18 show an excellent result and 3 a mediocre result; the survival rates at 5 and 10 years are 45 +/- 9 p. 100 and 30 +/- 27 p. 100 respectively. Whether the patients initially had banding followed by complete repair or complete repair from the start, the probability of survival at 5 and 10 years was the same. The presence of trisomy 21 is an unfavourable prognostic factor at medium-term.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2525372

  18. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE AND OPTICAL DATA ON SDSSJ0804+5103 (EZ Lyn) ONE YEAR AFTER OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S.; Sion, Edward M.; Gaensicke, Boris T.; Henden, Arne; Townsley, Dean E-mail: mukadam@astro.washington.edu E-mail: boris.gaensicke@warwick.ac.uk E-mail: Dean.M.Townsley@ua.edu

    2013-05-15

    We present an ultraviolet (UV) spectrum and light curve of the short orbital period cataclysmic variable EZ Lyn obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope 14 months after its dwarf nova outburst, along with ground-based optical photometry. The UV spectrum can be fit with a 13,100 K, log g = 8 white dwarf using 0.5 solar composition, while fits to the individual lines are consistent with solar abundance for Si and Al, but only 0.3 solar for C. The Discrete Fourier Transforms of the UV and optical light curves at 14 months following outburst show a prominent period at 256 s. This is the same period reported by Pavlenko in optical data obtained seven months and one year after outburst, indicating its long-term stability over several months, but this period is not evident in the pre-outburst data and is much shorter than the 12.6 minute period that was seen in observations obtained during an interval from 8 months to 2.5 yr after the 2006 outburst. In some respects, the long and short periods are similar to the behavior seen in GW Lib after its outburst but the detailed explanation for the appearance and disappearance of these periods and their relation to non-radial pulsation modes remain to be explored with theoretical models.

  19. Analyzing soil erosion using a multi-temporal UAV data set after one year of active agriculture in Navarra, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Niels; Keesstra, Saskia; Masselink, Rens

    2014-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) are becoming popular tools in the geosciences due to improving technology and processing/analysis techniques. They can potentially fill the gap between spaceborne or manned aircraft remote sensing and terrestrial remote sensing, both in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. In this study we analyze a multi-temporal data set that was acquired with a fixed-wing UAS in an agricultural catchment (2 sq. km) in Navarra, Spain. The goal of this study is to register soil erosion activity after one year of agricultural activity. The aircraft was equipped with a Panasonic GX1 16MP pocket camera with a 20 mm lens to capture normal JPEG RGB images. The data set consisted of two sets of imagery acquired in the end of February in 2013 and 2014 after harvesting. The raw images were processed using Agisoft Photoscan Pro which includes the structure-from-motion (SfM) and multi-view stereopsis (MVS) algorithms producing digital surface models and orthophotos of both data sets. A discussion is presented that is focused on the suitability of multi-temporal UAS data and SfM/MVS processing for quantifying soil loss, mapping the distribution of eroded materials and analyzing re-occurrences of rill patterns after plowing.

  20. Ocular Manifestations of Venomous Snake Bite over a One-year Period in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Praveen Kumar, K V; Kasturi, Nirupama; Ahuja, Shashi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ocular manifestations in snake-bite injuries are quite rare. However, the unusual presentations, diagnosis and their management can pose challenges when they present to the ophthalmologist. Early detection of these treatable conditions can prevent visual loss in these patients who are systemically unstable and are unaware of their ocular condition. To address this, a study was conducted with the aim of identifying the various ocular manifestations of snake bite in a tertiary care center. Methods This is a one-year institute-based prospective study report of 12 snake bite victims admitted to a tertiary hospital with ocular manifestations between June 2013 to June 2014, which provides data about the demographic characteristics, clinical profiles, ocular manifestations, and their outcomes. Results Twelve cases of snake bite with ocular manifestations were included of which six were viper bites, three were cobra bites and three were unknown bites. Six patients presented with bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma (50%), two patients had anterior uveitis (16.6%) of which one patient had concomitant optic neuritis. One patient had exudative retinal detachment (8.3%), one patient had thrombocytopenia with subconjunctival hemorrhage (8.3%) and two patients had external ophthalmoplegia (16.6%). Conclusions Bilateral angle closure glaucoma was the most common ocular manifestation followed by anterior uveitis and external ophthalmoplegia. Snake bite can result in significant ocular morbidity in a majority of patients but spontaneous recovery with anti-snake venom, steroids and conservative management results in good visual prognosis. PMID:26240510

  1. Course and predictors of mental health of unaccompanied refugee minors in the Netherlands: one year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bean, Tammy M; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth; Spinhoven, Philip

    2007-03-01

    This epidemiological investigation addresses the prevalence, course, and predictors of the psychological distress and behavioral problems of unaccompanied refugee minors living in the Netherlands. The legal guardians, teachers and minors themselves all reported on the mental health of the refugee minors (n=582) at baseline and follow-up approximately 12 months later. The self-reported psychological distress of refugee minors was found to be severe (50%) and of a chronic nature (stable for one year) which was confirmed by reports from the guardians (33%) and teachers (36%). The number of self-reported experienced adverse life events were strongly related to the severity of psychological distress. Baseline psychopathology was the largest predictor of psychological distress at follow-up reported by all informants accounting for 22-51% of the variance. The present study, which used a population-based sample, further enlarges the knowledge of mental health among refugee adolescents. The investigation is unique because of the large sample size, the longitudinal nature of the study, the use of multiple informants, and the culturally diverse sample. PMID:17188787

  2. Sports injuries in women: a one-year prospective follow-up study at an outpatient sports clinic.

    PubMed Central

    Kannus, P; Niittymäki, S; Järvinen, M

    1987-01-01

    A one-year prospective follow-up study of all patients visiting Tampere Research Station of Sports Medicine (TRSSM) was carried out in order to determine the specific features of women's sports injuries compared to those of men. During this period 334 women (31%) and 745 men (69%) visited the station. Women were significantly younger than men and the ten most usual sports events causing the injury differed from those of men. In women acute dislocations, contusions, and fractures were significantly less common in men, while women had more frequent stress-related sports injuries. In both sexes the most common sites of trouble were knee, ankle, and lower back, but in women as opposed to men, the metatarsal area, the toes, and the sole were among the ten most usual sites of the injury. Fourteen women (4%) and 49 men (6%) required operative treatment of the injury. The knee was the most common site of operation in both sexes, in women significantly more frequently than in men. PMID:3580728

  3. [Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect with a prototype clamshell septal umbrella: one year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Koike, K; Echigo, S; Kumate, M; Kobayashi, T; Isoda, T; Ishii, M; Ishizawa, A; Kamiya, T; Kato, H

    1994-01-01

    Transcatheter closure of a secundum atrial septal defect was attempted using a prototype clamshell septal umbrella closure system in 11 patients (six males, five females, aged 4.4-15.0 years and weighing 16-51 kg). The balloon stretched atrial septal defects were 10.3 to 20 mm in diameter, and 23 to 40 mm diameter umbrellas were used. All patients improved clinically after the procedure. Fixed splitting of the second heart sound disappeared after closure in 10 patients, systolic murmur disappeared in nine, diastolic rumble in nine, and paradoxical ventricular septal motion in seven. Doppler color flow imaging immediately after implantation showed significant residual shunt in all patients; however, no shunt flow was observed in seven patients and minimal residual shunt was present in four one year after the procedure. Nine of 11 umbrellas demonstrated fracture of the stainless steel arm confirmed by chest radiography and cinefluorography. Arm fracture occurred between 1 week and 12 months after implantation. None of the devices were dislodged and no other complications were noted despite the fractures. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect is a feasible and useful procedure but the present device needs further modification. PMID:8158531

  4. Serum cytokine, chemokine and hormone levels in Saudi adults with pre-diabetes: a one-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Al-Ajlan, Abdulrahman Sm; Alfawaz, Hanan; Yakout, Sobhy M; Aljohani, Naji; Kumar, Sudhesh; Alokail, Majed S

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 5-10% of subjects with pre-diabetes eventually progress to diabetes every year. While inflammation is thought to be involved in the development of obesity-related type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the relation between inflammation and pre-diabetes remains largely unexplored. In this study we examined a comprehensive panel of 10 serum biomarkers involved in overweight and obese subjects with pre-diabetes. A total of 98 subjects (23 males, 75 females) were advised to reduce total intake of fat, increase fiber intake and physical activity. Serum cytokines, MCP and other hormones were assessed by multiplex cytokine profiling. Results show that CRP, IL-6, leptin, IL-10, MCP, resistin, serpin, and TNF-α were significantly lower after 12-months than baseline. Serum concentrations of other adipocytokines, including adipsin and leptin were modestly lower in the 12-month follow-up than baseline, but failed to reach statistical significance. Changes in HbA1c was found to be positively correlated with adipsin, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, resistin, serpin, and TNF-α. The results suggest that promotion of lifestyle changes for one year among overweight and obese subjects modestly changes several circulating inflammatory biomarkers which maybe favorable in reducing risk for T2DM progression. PMID:26617895

  5. Radioactive status of seawater in the northwest Pacific more than one year after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Men, Wu; He, Jianhua; Wang, Fenfen; Wen, Yu; Li, Yiliang; Huang, Jiang; Yu, Xingguang

    2015-01-01

    To understand the impact of Fukushima Nuclear Accident(FNA), eight cruises were performed from 2011-2014. This paper reports the seawater monitoring results of the third cruise, which was conducted in May-June 2012.The northwest Pacific was clearly influenced even more than one year after FNA. However, compared to the monitoring results of the first and second cruises, which were performed in 2011, the seawater radioactivity of the third cruise decreased greatly. The highest value and the highest average of 137Cs and 134Cs were found in the 200 m layer, which suggested that 137Cs and 134Cs were most likely transported to a depth of 200 m or deeper. At 21.50°N, 125.00°E, 134Cs was found at a depth of 200 m, which is 430 km away from the southernmost point of Taiwan Island. The formation and subduction of Subtropical Mode Water is the most reasonable explanation for this process. The coastal water of China was not impacted by the radioactive pollutants released from the FNA. The radiation increments from 137Cs, 134Cs and 90Sr are only one-thousandth to one-millionth of the screening rate (10 μGy/h) according to the estimation using ERICA tools. PMID:25582087

  6. High vancomycin MICs within the susceptible range in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by human phagocytes.

    PubMed

    Falcón, Rocío; Martínez, Alba; Albert, Eliseo; Madrid, Silvia; Oltra, Rosa; Giménez, Estela; Soriano, Mario; Vinuesa, Víctor; Gozalbo, Daniel; Gil, María Luisa; Navarro, David

    2016-05-01

    Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at the upper end of the susceptible range for Staphylococcus aureus have been associated with poor clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections. We tested the hypothesis that high vancomycin MICs in S. aureus bacteraemia isolates are associated with increased cell wall thickness and suboptimal bacterial internalisation or lysis by human phagocytes. In total, 95 isolates were evaluated. Original vancomycin MICs were determined by Etest. The susceptibility of S. aureus isolates to killing by phagocytes was assessed in a human whole blood assay. Internalisation of bacterial cells by phagocytes was investigated by flow cytometry. Cell wall thickness was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. Genotypic analysis of S. aureus isolates was performed using a DNA microarray system. Vancomycin MICs were significantly higher (P=0.006) in isolates that were killed suboptimally (killing index <60%) compared with those killed efficiently (killing index >70%) and tended to correlate inversely (P=0.08) with the killing indices. Isolates in both killing groups were internalised by human neutrophils and monocytes with comparable efficiency. The cell wall was significantly thicker (P=0.03) in isolates in the low killing group. No genotypic differences were found between the isolates in both killing groups. In summary, high vancomycin MICs in S. aureus bacteraemia isolates were associated with increased cell wall thickness and reduced intracellular killing by phagocytes. PMID:27056298

  7. One year online chemical speciation of submicron particulate matter (PM1) sampled at a French industrial and coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shouwen; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The harbor of Dunkirk (Northern France) is surrounded by different industrial plants (metallurgy, petrochemistry, food processing, power plant, etc.), which emit gaseous and particulate pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SO2), and submicron particles (PM1). These emissions are poorly characterized and their impact on neighboring urban areas has yet to be assessed. Studies are particularly needed in this type of complex environments to get a better understanding of PM1sources, especially from the industrial sector, their temporal variability, and their transformation. Several instruments, capable of real-time measurements (temporal resolution ≤ 30 min), were deployed at a site located downwind from the industrial area of Dunkirk for a one-year duration (July 2013-September 2014). An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer monitored the main chemical species in the non-refractory submicron particles and black carbon, respectively. Concomitant measurements of trace gases and wind speed and direction were also performed. This dataset was analyzed considering four wind sectors, characteristics of marine, industrial, industrial-urban, and urban influences, and the different seasons. We will present a descriptive analysis of PM1, showing strong variations of ambient concentrations, as well as evidences of SO2 to SO4 gas-particle conversion when industrial plumes reached the monitoring site. The organic fraction measured by ACSM (37% of the total mass on average) was analyzed using a source-receptor model based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify chemical signatures of main emission sources and to quantify the contribution of each source to the PM1 budget given the wind sector. Four main factors were identified: hydrocarbon organic aerosol (HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and cooking-like organic aerosol (COA). Overall, the total PM

  8. No Effect of One-Year Treatment with Indomethacin on Alzheimer's Disease Progression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Daniëlle; Jansen, René; Hoefnagels, Willibrord; Jellesma-Eggenkamp, Marja; Verbeek, Marcel; Borm, George; Kremer, Berry

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine whether treatment with the nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) indomethacin slows cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methodology/Principal Findings This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted between May 2000 and September 2005 in two hospitals in the Netherlands. 51 patients with mild to moderate AD were enrolled into the study. Patients received 100 mg indomethacin or placebo daily for 12 months. Additionally, all patients received omeprazole. The primary outcome measure was the change from baseline after one year of treatment on the cognitive subscale of the AD Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog). Secondary outcome measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clinician's Interview Based Impression of Change with caregiver input, the noncognitive subscale of the ADAS, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and the Interview for Deterioration in Daily life in Dementia. Considerable recruitment problems of participants were encountered, leading to an underpowered study. In the placebo group, 19 out of 25 patients completed the study, and 19 out of 26 patients in the indomethacin group. The deterioration on the ADAS-cog was less in the indomethacin group (7.8±7.6), than in the placebo group (9.3±10.0). This difference (1.5 points; CI −4.5–7.5) was not statistically significant, and neither were any of the secondary outcome measures. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study are inconclusive with respect to the hypothesis that indomethacin slows the progression of AD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00432081 PMID:18213383

  9. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness changes in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: one year follow-up results

    PubMed Central

    Zengin, Mehmet Ozgur; Tuncer, Ibrahim; Karahan, Eyyup

    2014-01-01

    AIM To investigate the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness changes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) for one year follow-up. To discuss the possibility of detecting tendency of glaucoma in this population by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT-2000 Spectral domain). METHODS After polysomnographic study, all subjects (64 OSAS patients and 40 controls) underwent detailed ophthalmological examination. After these examinations, patients with glaucoma and patients who had ophthalmological and/or systemic disease were excluded from the study. Totally, 20 patients in OSAS group and five patients in controls were excluded from the study in the first examination and follow-up period. The RNFL thickness was assessed with OCT. Forty-four OSAS patients and 35 control subjects were followed up 12mo. RNFL thickness change and OSAS patients were evaluated for severity of disease by Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI). RESULTS Forty-four OSAS patients and 35 controls were enrolled in the study. Statistically significance was found between OSAS patients and controls at the 12th mo. Average RNFL thickness was found to be significantly lower in last measurements in OSAS patients when compared with first measurements and control subjects (P<0.001, 0.002, respectively). There was a statistically significant correlation among AHI, and RNFL thickness (P<0.05). CONCLUSION The results suggest that the patients with OSAS were related with a proportional decrease in the RNFL thickness. These patients should be followed up regularly for glaucomatous changes. Detecting more RNFL thinning in severe OSAS was important. PMID:25161947

  10. Sterilisation of canine anterior cruciate allografts by gamma irradiation in argon. Mechanical and neurohistological properties retained one year after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Goertzen, M J; Clahsen, H; Bürrig, K F; Schulitz, K P

    1995-03-01

    Bone-ACL-bone allograft transplantation is a potential solution to the problem of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), but sterilisation by gamma irradiation or ethylene oxide causes degradation of the graft. We have studied the biomechanical and histological properties of deep-frozen canine bone-ACL-bone allografts sterilised by gamma irradiation (2.5 Mrad) under argon gas protection. Particular attention was paid to their collagen structure and neuroanatomy compared with those of non-irradiated allografts. We used 60 skeletally mature foxhounds. In 30 animals one ACL was replaced by an irradiated allograft and in the other 30 a non-irradiated graft was used. In both groups the graft was augmented by a Kennedy Ligament Augmentation Device. Examination of the allografts at 3, 6 and 12 months after implantation included mechanical testing, histology, collagen morphometry, neuroanatomical morphology (silver and gold chloride stain) and studies of the microvasculature (modified Spalteholz technique). At 12 months the irradiated ACL allografts failed at a mean maximum load of 718.3 N, 63.8% of the strength of the normal canine ACL. The non-irradiated allografts failed at 780.1 N, 69.1% of normal. All the allografts showed a well-orientated collagen structure one year after transplantation and there was no difference between the irradiated grafts and the others. The silver staining technique demonstrated Golgi tendon organs and free nerve endings within both groups of allografts. As in the normal ACL these structures were most commonly found near the surface of the graft and at its bony attachments. At 12 months the irradiated allografts showed slight hypervascularity compared with the non-irradiated grafts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7706332

  11. One Year of Doppler Lidar Observations Characterizing Boundary Layer Wind, Turbulence, and Aerosol Structure During the Indianapolis Flux Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardesty, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Salmon, O. E.; Heimburger, A. M. F.; Davis, K. J.; Lauvaux, T.; McGowan, L. E.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Sarmiento, D. P.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Iraci, L. T.; Hillyard, P. W.; Podolske, J. R.; Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Song, Y.; Turnbull, J. C.; Whetstone, J. R.; Possolo, A.; Prasad, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) is aimed at improving methods for estimation of greenhouse gas emissions at urban scales. INFLUX observational components include several-times-per-month aircraft measurements of gas concentrations and meteorological parameters, as well as a number of towers observing CO2, CH4, and CO and a single continuously operating Doppler lidar to estimate wind, turbulence and aerosol structure in the boundary layer. The observations are used to develop top-down emissions estimates from the aircraft measurements and as input to inversion models. The Doppler lidar provides information on boundary layer structure for both the aircraft and inversion studies. A commercial Doppler lidar characterized by low pulse energy and high pulse repetition rate has operated for well over a year at a site NE of downtown Indianapolis. The lidar produces profiles of horizontal wind speed, vertical velocity variance, and aerosol structure two to three times per hour. These data are then used to investigate boundary layer mixing and thickness and horizontal transport as inputs for the flux calculations. During its one year deployment the lidar generally operated reliably with few outages. Comparisons with aircraft spirals over the site and with the NOAA High Resolution research Doppler lidar deployed to Indianapolis for one month during May, 2014, were used to assess the performance of the INFLUX lidar. Measurements agreed quite well when aerosol loading was sufficient for lidar observations throughout the boundary layer. However, low aerosol loading during some periods limited the range of the lidar and precluded characterization of the full boundary layer. We present an overall assessment of the commercial Doppler lidar for providing the needed information on boundary layer structure for emission estimations, and show variability of the boundary layer observations over diurnal, seasonal, and annual cycles. Recommendations on system design changes to

  12. Variability of metal contents in the sea rush Juncus maritimus-estuarine sediment system through one year of plant's life.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C Marisa R; Mucha, Ana P; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2006-05-01

    Metal accumulation by Juncus maritimus and the effect this plant might have on the physico-chemical composition of sediments, from Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were investigated through one year of plant's life. The contents of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined (by atomic absorption spectrophotometry) in sediments, rhizosediments (those among plant roots and rhizomes) and different tissues of J. maritimus. Two estuarine sites with different characteristics were studied, one a sandy sediment with relatively low organic matter content, the other a muddy site. The role of the plant seemed to be markedly dependent on the sediment composition. At the sandy site, significant variations throughout the year (a decrease from winter to summer and an increase in autumn) either in rhizosediment and sediment or in J. maritimus roots were only observed in Cd and Cu levels. These variations were the same in both compartments, probably caused by tidal water movements and the activity of the plant. At the muddy site, variations throughout the year were observed for all studied elements but Pb. Changes in the Cd and Zn contents of roots were opposite to those in the rhizosediment (uptake of Cd and Zn by J. maritimus roots in summer may have caused a decrease in rhizosediment levels). Fe and Mn showed similar patterns of variation in both roots and rhizosediment (contents significantly increasing in summer). Higher contents of Fe and Mn in roots in summer could be related to changes in mass, higher availability of the elements, or accumulation at the surface of the root in (hydr)oxides forms. For the remaining elements no significant correlations between rhizosediment and roots variations were observed, indicating that their uptake and release by roots were not based on single exchanges with the sediment. J. maritimus showed capacity to accumulate Cu, Zn and particularly Cd, thus appearing to be useful for the phytostabilization of these metals. PMID

  13. Age-dependant prevalence of endoparasites in young dogs and cats up to one year of age.

    PubMed

    Barutzki, Dieter; Schaper, Roland

    2013-08-01

    The results of parasitological examination of faecal samples from 1,206 cats and 2,319 dogs of known age up to one year were analysed. Eggs of Toxocara canis were detected in dogs for the first time at the beginning of the 3rd week, oocysts of Isospora spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. at the beginning of the 4th week p.p. High infection rates with Giardia spp. (52.5 %) were demonstrated in the 12th week, I. canis (30.0 %) in the 15th week, I. ohioensis complex (44.0 %) in the 6th week, Isospora spp. (50.0 %) in the 7th week and T. canis (22.2 %) in the 4th week p.p. Co-infections with Isospora spp. + Giardia spp. (28.0 %), T. canis + Isospora spp. 16.0 %) and T. canis + Giardia spp. (12.0 %) were mainly seen in the 6th week p.p. In cats, oocysts of Isospora spp. and cysts of Giardia spp. were seen from the 3rd week and eggs of Toxocara cati from the 5th week p.p. High infection rates with Giardia spp. (66.7 %) were demonstrated in the 11th week, Isospora spp. (33.3 %) and I. felis (33.3 %) in the 15th week, I. rivolta (10.3 %) in the 10th week and T. cati (11.4 %) in the 8th week p.p. Co-infections with T. cati + Isospora spp. (9.1 %) were found in the 5th week, Isospora spp. + Giardia spp. (8.2 %) in the 12th week and T. cati + Giardia spp. (2.5 %) in the 22nd week p.p. PMID:23779224

  14. Impact of Helminth Infection during Pregnancy on Cognitive and Motor Functions of One-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Mireku, Michael O.; Boivin, Michael J.; Davidson, Leslie L.; Ouédraogo, Smaïla; Koura, Ghislain K.; Alao, Maroufou J.; Massougbodji, Achille; Cot, Michel; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of helminth infection during pregnancy on the cognitive and motor functions of one-year-old children. Methods Six hundred and thirty five singletons born to pregnant women enrolled before 29 weeks of gestation in a trial comparing two intermittent preventive treatments for malaria were assessed for cognitive and motor functions using the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, in the TOVI study, at twelve months of age in the district of Allada in Benin. Stool samples of pregnant women were collected at recruitment, second antenatal care (ANC) visit (at least one month after recruitment) and just before delivery, and were tested for helminths using the Kato-Katz technique. All pregnant women were administered a total of 600 mg of mebendazole (100 mg two times daily for 3 days) to be taken after the first ANC visit. The intake was not directly observed. Results Prevalence of helminth infection was 11.5%, 7.5% and 3.0% at first ANC visit, second ANC visit and at delivery, respectively. Children of mothers who were infected with hookworms at the first ANC visit had 4.9 (95% CI: 1.3–8.6) lower mean gross motor scores compared to those whose mothers were not infected with hookworms at the first ANC visit, in the adjusted model. Helminth infection at least once during pregnancy was associated with infant cognitive and gross motor functions after adjusting for maternal education, gravidity, child sex, family possessions, and quality of the home stimulation. Conclusion Helminth infection during pregnancy is associated with poor cognitive and gross motor outcomes in infants. Measures to prevent helminth infection during pregnancy should be reinforced. PMID:25756357

  15. Carotid Stenting with Distal Protection in High-Surgical-Risk Patients: One-Year Results of the ASTI Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Bosiers, Marc; Scheinert, Dierk; Mathias, Klaus; Langhoff, Ralf; Mudra, Harald; Diaz-Cartelle, Juan

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThis prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized study evaluated the periprocedural and 1-year outcomes in high-surgical-risk patients with carotid artery stenosis treated with the Adapt Carotid Stent plus FilterWire EZ distal protection catheter (Boston Scientific Corporation, Natick, MA).Materials and MethodsThe study enrolled 100 patients (32 symptomatic, 63 asymptomatic, 5 unknown) at high risk for carotid endarterectomy due to prespecified anatomical criteria and/or medical comorbidities. Thirty-day and 1-year follow-up included clinical evaluation, carotid duplex ultrasound, and independent neurologic and NIH stroke scale assessments. One-year endpoints included the composite rate of major adverse events (MAE), defined as death, stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI) and the rates of late ipsilateral stroke (31–365 days), target lesion revascularization, and in-stent restenosis.ResultsOf the 100 enrolled patients, technical success was achieved in 90.9 % (90/99). The 30-day MAE rate (5.1 %) consisted of major stroke (2.0 %) and minor stroke (3.1 %); no deaths or MIs occurred. The 1-year MAE rate (12.2 %) consisted of death, MI, and stroke rates of 4.4, 3.3, and 8.9 %, respectively. Late ipsilateral stroke (31–365 days) rate was 1.1 %. Symptomatic patients had higher rates of death (11.1 vs. 1.7 %) and MI (7.4 vs. 1.7 %), but lower rates of major (7.4 vs. 10.0 %) and minor stroke (0.0 vs. 6.7 %), compared with asymptomatic patients.ConclusionResults through 1 year postprocedure demonstrated that carotid artery stenting with Adapt Carotid Stent and FilterWire EZ is safe and effective in high-risk-surgical patients.

  16. Hubble Space Telescope and Optical Data on SDSSJ0804+5103 (EZ Lyn) One Year after Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S.; Sion, Edward M.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Henden, Arne; Townsley, Dean

    2013-05-01

    We present an ultraviolet (UV) spectrum and light curve of the short orbital period cataclysmic variable EZ Lyn obtained with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope 14 months after its dwarf nova outburst, along with ground-based optical photometry. The UV spectrum can be fit with a 13,100 K, log g = 8 white dwarf using 0.5 solar composition, while fits to the individual lines are consistent with solar abundance for Si and Al, but only 0.3 solar for C. The Discrete Fourier Transforms of the UV and optical light curves at 14 months following outburst show a prominent period at 256 s. This is the same period reported by Pavlenko in optical data obtained seven months and one year after outburst, indicating its long-term stability over several months, but this period is not evident in the pre-outburst data and is much shorter than the 12.6 minute period that was seen in observations obtained during an interval from 8 months to 2.5 yr after the 2006 outburst. In some respects, the long and short periods are similar to the behavior seen in GW Lib after its outburst but the detailed explanation for the appearance and disappearance of these periods and their relation to non-radial pulsation modes remain to be explored with theoretical models. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under NASA contract NAS 5-26555, and with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  17. Integrating family planning into HIV care in western Kenya: HIV care providers' perspectives and experiences one year following integration.

    PubMed

    Newmann, Sara J; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Tao, Amy R; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Steinfeld, Rachel; Grossman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    With high rates of unintended pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa, integration of family planning (FP) into HIV care is being explored as a strategy to reduce unmet need for contraception. Perspectives and experiences of healthcare providers are critical in order to create sustainable models of integrated care. This qualitative study offers insight into how HIV care providers view and experience the benefits and challenges of providing integrated FP/HIV services in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Sixteen individual interviews were conducted among healthcare workers at six public sector HIV care facilities one year after the implementation of integrated FP and HIV services. Data were transcribed and analyzed qualitatively using grounded theory methods and Atlas.ti. Providers reported a number of benefits of integrated services that they believed increased the uptake and continuation of contraceptive methods. They felt that integrated services enabled them to reach a larger number of female and male patients and in a more efficient way for patients compared to non-integrated services. Availability of FP services in the same place as HIV care also eliminated the need for most referrals, which many providers saw as a barrier for patients seeking FP. Providers reported many challenges to providing integrated services, including the lack of space, time, and sufficient staff, inadequate training, and commodity shortages. Despite these challenges, the vast majority of providers was supportive of FP/HIV integration and found integrated services to be beneficial to HIV-infected patients. Providers' concerns relating to staffing, infrastructure, and training need to be addressed in order to create sustainable, cost-effective FP/HIV integrated service models. PMID:26406803

  18. Multilateral Biomedical Data Sharing in the One-year Joint US-Russian Mission on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Haven, C.; Johnson-Throop, K.; Van Baalen, M.; McFather, J.

    2014-01-01

    The One Year Mission (1YM) by two astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), starting in March 2015, offers a unique opportunity to expand multilateral collaboration by sharing data and resources among the partner agencies in preparation for planned space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Agreements and protocols will be established for the collection, distribution, analysis and reporting of both research and clinical data. Data will be shared between the agencies sponsoring the investigators, and between the research and clinical medicine communities where common interests are identified. The assignment of only two astronauts, one Russian and the other American, to the 1YM necessitated creativity in bilateral efforts to maximize the biomedical return from the opportunity. Addition of Canadian, European and Japanese investigations make the effort even more integrative. There will be three types of investigations: joint, cross-participation and data-exchange. The joint investigations have US and Russian coprincipal investigators, and the data acquired will be their common responsibility. The other two types must develop data sharing agreements and processes specific to their needs. A multilateral panel of ISS partner space agencies will develop policies for international exchange of scientific information to meet their science objectives and priorities. They will promote archiving of space flight data and will inform each other and the scientific community at large about the results obtained from space life sciences studies. Integration tasks for the 1YM are based on current experience from the ISS and previous efforts on the Russian space station Mir. Closer coordination between international partners requires more common approaches to remove barriers to multilateral resource utilization on the ISS. Greater integration in implementation should increase utilization efficiency to benefit all participants in spaceflight human research. This

  19. Hand disinfection in a neonatal intensive care unit: continuous electronic monitoring over a one-year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Good hand hygiene compliance is essential to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare settings. Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance is the gold standard but is time consuming. An electronic dispenser with built-in wireless recording equipment allows continuous monitoring of its usage. The purpose of this study was to monitor the use of alcohol-based hand rub dispensers with a built-in electronic counter in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting and to determine compliance with hand hygiene protocols by direct observation. Methods A one-year observational study was conducted at a 27 bed level III NICU at a university hospital. All healthcare workers employed at the NICU participated in the study. The use of bedside dispensers was continuously monitored and compliance with hand hygiene was determined by random direct observations. Results A total of 258,436 hand disinfection events were recorded; i.e. a median (interquartile range) of 697 (559–840) per day. The median (interquartile range) number of hand disinfection events performed per healthcare worker during the day, evening, and night shifts was 13.5 (10.8 - 16.7), 19.8 (16.3 - 24.1), and 16.6 (14.2 - 19.3), respectively. In 65.8% of the 1,168 observations of patient contacts requiring hand hygiene, healthcare workers fully complied with the protocol. Conclusions We conclude that the electronic devices provide useful information on frequency, time, and location of its use, and also reveal trends in hand disinfection events over time. Direct observations offer essential data on compliance with the hand hygiene protocol. In future research, data generated by the electronic devices can be supplementary used to evaluate the effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion campaigns. PMID:23043639

  20. Trends in One-Year Recurrent Ischemic Stroke among the Elderly in the USA: 1994–2002

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Norrina B.; Holford, Theodore R.; Bracken, Michael B.; Goldstein, Larry B.; Howard, George; Wang, Yun; Lichtman, Judith H.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Of the 795,000 strokes occurring in the USA each year, over 20% are recurrent events. Little is known about how the rates of recurrent stroke in the country have changed over time. Our objective was to determine national trends in 1-year recurrent ischemic stroke rates by US county among the elderly from 1994 to 2002. Methods One-year recurrent stroke rates following incident ischemic stroke (ICD-9 433, 434, 436) among all fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries were determined by US county for 1994–1996, 1997–1999, and 2000–2002. Bayesian spatiotemporal Poisson modeling was used to determine county-specific trends in recurrent stroke rates over time with risk adjustment for demographics, medical history and comorbid conditions. Results The analysis included more than 2.5 million beneficiaries (56% women; mean age: 78 years; 87% white; n = 957,933 for 1994–1996; n = 838,330 for 1996–1999; n = 895,916 for 2000–2002) aggregated to all 3,118 US counties. After adjustment for changing patient demographics and comorbidities, there was a 4.5% decrease in recurrent stroke rates from 1994–1996 (13.2%) to 2000–2002 (12.6%; p for trend <0.0001). The geographic and temporal patterns were not uniform; the recurrent stroke rates decreased within sections of the Southeast (the ‘stroke belt’), but increased in counties in the middle and western sections of the USA. Conclusions The overall recurrent ischemic stroke rates declined by almost 5% from 1994 to 2002, but temporal patterns varied markedly by region. Additional research is needed to identify the reasons for this geographic disparity. PMID:20881382

  1. Parasite co-infections show synergistic and antagonistic interactions on growth performance of East African zebu cattle under one year.

    PubMed

    Thumbi, S M; de C Bronsvoort, B M; Poole, E J; Kiara, H; Toye, P; Ndila, M; Conradie, I; Jennings, A; Handel, I G; Coetzer, J A W; Hanotte, O; Woolhouse, M E J

    2013-12-01

    The co-occurrence of different pathogen species and their simultaneous infection of hosts are common, and may affect host health outcomes. Co-infecting pathogens may interact synergistically (harming the host more) or antagonistically (harming the host less) compared with single infections. Here we have tested associations of infections and their co-infections with variation in growth rate using a subset of 455 animals of the Infectious Diseases of East Africa Livestock (IDEAL) cohort study surviving to one year. Data on live body weight, infections with helminth parasites and haemoparasites were collected every 5 weeks during the first year of life. Growth of zebu cattle during the first year of life was best described by a linear growth function. A large variation in daily weight gain with a range of 0·03-0·34 kg, and a mean of 0·135 kg (0·124, 0·146; 95% CI) was observed. After controlling for other significant covariates in mixed effects statistical models, the results revealed synergistic interactions (lower growth rates) with Theileria parva and Anaplasma marginale co-infections, and antagonistic interactions (relatively higher growth rates) with T. parva and Theileria mutans co-infections, compared with infections with T. parva only. Additionally, helminth infections can have a strong negative effect on the growth rates but this is burden-dependent, accounting for up to 30% decrease in growth rate in heavily infected animals. These findings present evidence of pathogen-pathogen interactions affecting host growth, and we discuss possible mechanisms that may explain observed directions of interactions as well as possible modifications to disease control strategies when co-infections are present. PMID:24001119

  2. Use of ECT in Nepal: A One Year Study From the Country’s Largest Psychiatric Facility

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Tapas Kumar; Sharma, Niru

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electro-Convulsive Therapy (ECT) refers to the electrical stimulation of the brain to produce seizures for therapeutic purpose. Since the development of ECT, it’s use has been consistent. Inspite of the common use, data pertaining to the use of ECT in Nepal is lacking. Aim This study was undertaken with the aim of exploring the clinico-demographic profile of patients treated with ECT in the largest psychiatry facility in the country. Materials and Methods It is a retrospective descriptive study of patients who were treated with ECT after admission in the inpatient psychiatry unit of Universal College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Bhairahawa, Nepal during a period of one year (August 2012 to July 2013). Results Out of 1095 patients admitted during the specified period, 81 (7.39%) patients received ECT. About 44.44% of the patients belonged to 20-29 years age group. Female patients constituted more than half of the subjects (55.56%). Review of diagnostic profile showed that majority of patients receiving ECT were suffering from Schizophrenia (44.4%), followed by Bipolar Affective Disorder/Mania (29.6%), Depressive disorder (11.1%), Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorder (6.2%), Post-partum Psychosis (3.7%) and substance induced mood/psychotic disorders (3.7%). A significant majority of subjects (75.3%) received about 5-7 ECT treatments. The mean seizure duration after ECT treatment was 31.13±5.79 seconds. No any major complications were noted during ECT treatment. Conclusion This study suggests that ECT, use, as a treatment modality is common in young adults and females with Schizophrenia being the most common indication. Direct ECT is safe when used judiciously. PMID:27042563

  3. Effect of education on anthropometric indices in obese parents and children after one year of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya; Tavalaee Zavvareh, Seyyed Abdlohossein; Ghatreh-Samani, Shohreh

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels. Children obesity predisposes them to risk of cardiac disease in adulthood. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. Furthermore, family life style has a great influence on children obesity. This study aimed to determine the effect of family-oriented weight reduction program on the children’s anthropometric measurements. METHODS This was a non-pharmacological clinical trial study which was performed on 4-18 years old children attending outpatient clinics of Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism. Anthropometric measurements were recorded for all the participants. Children took part in one educational session in which they were taught about ways and benefits of having a regular physical activity each day and also benefits of having healthy nutrition. All the participants took part in every 4 months one-hour educational sessions and their anthropometrics were measured. RESULTS Fifty eight single-mother families participated in this study. Fourteen single-father families started the intervention but did not follow it to the end. Children’s body mass index (BMI) z-score decreased significantly after the study. Children waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) significantly increased. Mothers WC and waist to hip ratio (WHR) increased significantly. Regression test showed that mother BMI was an independent factor (B = 0.307; P < 0.021). The effect of the pattern of children’s BMI changed across a one-year period. CONCLUSION Our study showed significant effect of repetitive family life style education on children’s BMI z-score changes. Family, as the first place for children behavior formation, must be regarded as one of the best place to tackle childhood obesity. PMID:23056096

  4. Species comparisons of bronchoalveolar lavages from guinea pigs and rats exposed in vivo to diesel exhaust for one year

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Weller, M.A.; Barnhart, M.I.

    1982-01-01

    Male Hartly guinea pigs and Fischer rats 344 were exposed to diesel exhaust (DE) concentrations at 0, 250, and 1500 micrograms/m3 in short terms, as well as long term experiments up to one year. The effects of inhaled DE on these rodents were evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage technique. Both the morphological and functional studies of free lung cells and the biochemical and immunologic studies of the supernatant lavage fluid provided the basis for a quantitative species comparison of the pulmonary responses of exposed guinea pigs and rats versus age matched controls. Following inhalation of 250 micrograms DE/m3, there were little or no significant changes in either species. In contrast, at higher DE concentration, leukocytic infiltration and elevation of specific proteins in lavage fluids were observed in both species. The findings occurred and persisted in both species. Some of the responses were species specific (e.g., the specific type of exudative leukocytes, appearance of reactive monocytes, and different amounts of free DE particles and debris in the lavage fluid). Other responses were similar in both species. Among them, the emergence and increase of lymphocytes was evidence of immunologic responses. Biochemical data from the supernatant fluid correlates with the changes in cellular population in the lavage. The responses appear to be dose and duration dependent. These data indicate that species differences occur. However, it is clear that the alveolar macrophage and granulocytic leukocytes continue to exert effective defense at the DE dose-durations studied. In general, rats appeared more resistant to DE exposure than guinea pigs.

  5. Tsukamurella hongkongensis sp. nov. and Tsukamurella sinensis sp. nov., isolated from patients with keratitis, catheter-related bacteraemia and conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jade L L; Tang, Ying; Wong, Samson S Y; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Huang, Yi; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Choi, Garnet K Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-01-01

    Three bacterial strains, HKU51T, HKU52T and HKU53, were isolated from a conjunctival swab, corneal scraping and blood culture of three patients in Hong Kong with conjunctivitis, keratitis and catheter-related bacteraemia, respectively. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, catalase-positive, non-sporulating and non-motile bacilli. The three strains had unique biochemical profiles that were distinguishable from those of closely related species of the genus Tsukamurella. Fatty acids, mycolic acids, cell-wall sugars and peptidoglycan analyses showed that they were typical of members of Tsukamurella. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed 100 % sequence identity between HKU52T and HKU53, and the two strains shared 99.5 % sequence identity with Tsukamurella sunchonensis JCM 15929T and Tsukamurella pseudospumae JCM 13375T; HKU51T shared 99.6 % sequence identity with Tsukamurella pulmonis CCUG 35732T. The DNA G+C contents of strains HKU51T, HKU52T and HKU53 were 70.9 ± 2.2, 71.3 ± 2.1 and 71.2 ± 2.3 mol% (mean ± sd; n = 3), respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the novel strains were distinct from other known species of the genus Tsukamurella ( ≤ 50.1 ± 3.7 % DNA-DNA relatedness); two of the isolates, HKU52T and HKU53, represented the same species ( ≥ 94.6 ± 5.6 % DNA-DNA relatedness), while the third isolate, HKU51T, represented another species. The novel species Tsukamurella hongkongensis sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate strains HKU52T and HKU53, with HKU52T ( = JCM 30715T = DSM 100208T) as the type strain; whilst another novel species, Tsukamurella sinensis sp. nov., is proposed to accommodate the third isolate, HKU51T ( = JCM 30714T = DSM 100207T), which is designated the type strain. PMID:26530900

  6. A Comparison of AH6 AG Scores and GCE Examinations Taken after an Interval of One Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heim, A. W.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    GCE O-and A-level examinations were correlated with the AH6 AG test scores obtained a year earlier. Results suggest that the predictive value of AH6 for success in individual subjects is almost as high as when the examinations and testing were taken within a few weeks of each other. (Authors/CB)

  7. Ionospheric Slab Thickness in the East Sector of South-America During One year of Low Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Marcelo Henrique Duarte; Muella, Marcio; Silva, Lidianne C. C.; De Abreu, Alessandro

    This paper reports the first results of equivalent ionospheric slab thickness estimated in the Brazilian longitudinal sector. The ionospheric slab thickness is a measure of the shape of the ionospheric profile and can be obtained from the ratio of the total electron content (TEC) to the F-region peak electron density (NmF2). The ionospheric slab thickness was studied during one year of low solar activity (from March 2009 to February 2010). The period analyzed were separated in three seasonal groups; Equinoxes, June solstice (winter) and December solstice (summer) months. The ionospheric slab thickness was studied at the equatorial station of Palmas (10.12 S, 48.21 W, 7.73 S dip lat) and in the low latitude station of Sao Jose dos Campos (23.07 S, 45.52 W, 19.61 S dip lat). The TEC data have been obtained from dual-frequency GPS receivers and the NmF2 data were calculated from the foF2 parameter scaled from ionograms recorded by simultaneous measurements of digital ionosondes. The minimum values of TEC and NmF2 were observed in both stations during the early morning and the maximum values during afternoon hours. The diurnal, seasonal and latitudinal variations of the ionopheric slab thickness were then analyzed. The thickness of the ionosphere increased during daytime if compared to the nighttime values. During the summer and the equinoctial periods the slab thickness reached the higher values if compared to those observed during the winter solstice months. The equatorial site of Palmas showed values of daytime slab thickness larger than those observed at the low-latitude station of Sao Jose dos Campos, except during the June solstice months. At Sao Jose dos Campos, a pronounced pre-dusk increase in the equivalent slab thickness is observed during the winter solstice months. From the calculated slab thickness we also estimated the atmospheric neutral temperature (Tn) over both stations. Other relevant aspects of the ionospheric slab thickness’ behavior will be

  8. Factors affecting visual acuity after one year of follow up after repeated intravitreal ranibizumab for macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gwyn Samuel; Seow, Eulee; Evans, Huw; Owoniyi, Muyiwa; Evans, Sam; Blyth, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Aim Providing intravitreal ranibizumab therapy for neovascular age related macular degeneration (nARMD) is a source of increasing strain for many UK eye departments. Whilst most units attempt to adhere to the product licence of following up patients at four weekly intervals; delays in follow up appointments can and do occur. We aim to see if mean follow up intervals during the maintenance phase are correlated with visual outcomes at one year and perform a multivariate analysis of patient factors in a bit to understand the factors affecting visual acuity outcomes. Method A continuously updated prospective audit of patients receiving ranibizumab therapy at the Royal Gwent Hospital was accessed and a coefficient of determination and Spearman’s rank test undertaken to see whether mean follow up delays resulted in visual acuity penalties after nine months of maintenance. Multivariate analysis using ANOVA was then undertaken to examine in more detail the various factors affecting visual acuity outcomes. Results 805 eyes of 708 patients were included in the study. Mean follow up intervals varied between 28.0 and 96.3 days over the first six treatments of the maintenance phase (mean 49.2 – SD 10.7) with a mean change in visual acuity from baseline of +7.1 letters at 12 weeks and +4.6 letters at 52 weeks. There was a negative correlation seen between visual acuity gains after nine months of the maintenance phase and increasing clinic follow up times although Spearman’s rank analysis demonstrated a correlation coefficient of only −0.078, which was not statistically significant. Variability in follow up appointments resulting in worse outcomes was however significant (p < 0.01), as was increasing age at presentation (p = 0.04). Smoking was found to decrease age of presentation by six years (74.2 years vs 80.0 years). The adjusted R2 for the whole analysis was 0.44. Conclusion Wide variation in follow up intervals was associated with a worse visual acuity

  9. Inequalities in maternity care and newborn outcomes: one-year surveillance of births in vulnerable slum communities in Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    More, Neena Shah; Bapat, Ujwala; Das, Sushmita; Barnett, Sarah; Costello, Anthony; Fernandez, Armida; Osrin, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Aggregate urban health statistics mask inequalities. We described maternity care in vulnerable slum communities in Mumbai, and examined differences in care and outcomes between more and less deprived groups. Methods We collected information through a birth surveillance system covering a population of over 280 000 in 48 vulnerable slum localities. Resident women identified births in their own localities and mothers and families were interviewed at 6 weeks after delivery. We analysed data on 5687 births over one year to September 2006. Socioeconomic status was classified using quartiles of standardized asset scores. Results Women in higher socioeconomic quartile groups were less likely to have married and conceived in their teens (Odds ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.69–0.79, and 0.82, 0.78–0.87, respectively). There was a socioeconomic gradient away from public sector maternity care with increasing socioeconomic status (0.75, 0.70–0.79 for antenatal care and 0.66, 0.61–0.71 for institutional delivery). Women in the least poor group were five times less likely to deliver at home (0.17, 0.10–0.27) as women in the poorest group and about four times less likely to deliver in the public sector (0.27, 0.21–0.35). Rising socioeconomic status was associated with a lower prevalence of low birth weight (0.91, 0.85–0.97). Stillbirth rates did not vary, but neonatal mortality rates fell non-significantly as socioeconomic status increased (0.88, 0.71–1.08). Conclusion Analyses of this type have usually been applied across the population spectrum from richest to poorest, and we were struck by the regularly stepped picture of inequalities within the urban poor, a group that might inadvertently be considered relatively homogeneous. The poorest slum residents are more dependent upon public sector health care, but the regular progression towards the private sector raises questions about its quality and regulation. It also underlines the need for

  10. Diagnostic Stability of Internet Addiction in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: Data from a Naturalistic One-year Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Yerramilli, Srinivasa SRR; Karredla, Ashok Reddy; Gopinath, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    Whether internet addiction should be categorized as a primary psychiatric disorder or the result of an underlying psychiatric disorder still remains unclear. In addition, the relationship between internet addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder remains to be explored. We hypothesized that internet addiction is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, the treatment of which will improve internet addiction. We enrolled 34 control subjects (with or without internet addiction) and compared them to 38 patients with “pure” obsessive-compulsive disorder (with or without internet addiction). Internet addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder were diagnosed based on Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), respectively. Age and Internet Addiction Test scores were comparable in both the control (years: 26.87±6.57; scores: 43.65±11.56) and obsessive-compulsive disorder groups (years: 27.00±6.13 years, p=0.69; scores: 43.47±15.21, p=0.76). Eleven patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (28.95%) were diagnosed with internet addiction as compared to three control subjects (p=0.039). In the obsessive-compulsive disorder group, no difference in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (24.07±3.73 non-internet addiction, 23.64±4.65 internet addiction; p=0.76) score was seen between the internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder and non-internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder groups. As expected, the Internet Addiction Test scores were higher in the internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder group (64.09±9.63) than in the non-internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder group (35.07±6.37; p=0.00). All enrolled patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were subsequently treated for a period of one year. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder improved Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Internet Addiction Test scores over time. At 12 months

  11. One year after the 1 April 2014 Iquique tsunami field survey along the coasts of Chile and Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2015-04-01

    One year ago on the evening of 1 April, 2014 a magnitude Mw 8.2 earthquake occurred off the coast of northern Chile off the coast of Pisagua within a region of historic quiescence termed the northern Chile seismic gap. The ensuing tsunami inundation caused mostly minor damage centered in Iquique and neighbouring stretches of coastline. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1868 and 1877 tsunamis in the region along with the recent 2010 Maule tsunami, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were no tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The Arica native local scientist deployed overnight and started the tsunami survey in Iquique on the day after the earthquake. The international scientist joined the local effort from April 6 to 11, 2014. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 700 km stretch of coastline from the Mejillones Peninsula (23.5° S) north of Antofagasta in Chile up to Vila Vila (18.1° S) in southern Peru. We surveyed 30 locations with differential GPS and laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Camarones exceeding 5 m in tsunami runup height. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of Chile and Peru both at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2014 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1868, 1877 and 2010 Chile tsunamis. Comparing to other similar magnitude events such as the 2007 Pisco tsunami in Peru the 1 April 2014

  12. A one-year monitoring of nicotine use in sport: frontier between potential performance enhancement and addiction issues.

    PubMed

    Marclay, François; Grata, Elia; Perrenoud, Laurent; Saugy, Martial

    2011-12-10

    Tobacco consumption is a global epidemic responsible for a vast burden of disease. With pharmacological properties sought-after by consumers and responsible for addiction issues, nicotine is the main reason of this phenomenon. Accordingly, smokeless tobacco products are of growing popularity in sport owing to potential performance enhancing properties and absence of adverse effects on the respiratory system. Nevertheless, nicotine does not appear on the 2011 World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List or Monitoring Program by lack of a comprehensive large-scale prevalence survey. Thus, this work describes a one-year monitoring study on urine specimens from professional athletes of different disciplines covering 2010 and 2011. A method for the detection and quantification of nicotine, its major metabolites (cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, nicotine-N'-oxide and cotinine-N-oxide) and minor tobacco alkaloids (anabasine, anatabine and nornicotine) was developed, relying on ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TQ-MS/MS). A simple and fast dilute-and-shoot sample treatment was performed, followed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) operated in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) data acquisition. After method validation, assessing the prevalence of nicotine consumption in sport involved analysis of 2185 urine samples, accounting for 43 different sports. Concentrations distribution of major nicotine metabolites, minor nicotine metabolites and tobacco alkaloids ranged from 10 (LLOQ) to 32,223, 6670 and 538 ng/mL, respectively. Compounds of interest were detected in trace levels in 23.0% of urine specimens, with concentration levels corresponding to an exposure within the last three days for 18.3% of samples. Likewise, hypothesizing conservative concentration limits for active nicotine consumption prior and/or during

  13. Family, peer, and neighborhood influences on academic achievement among African-American adolescents: one-year prospective effects.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, N A; Cauce, A M; Friedman, R J; Mason, C A

    1996-06-01

    Using a 1-year prospective design, this study examined the influence of family status variables (family income, parental education, family structure), parenting variables (maternal support and restrictive control), peer support, and neighborhood risk on the school performance of 120 African American junior high school students. In addition to main effects of these variables, neighborhood risk was examined as a moderator of the effects of parenting and peer support. Family status variables were not predictive of adolescent school performance as indexed by self-reported grade point average. Maternal support at Time 1 was prospectively related to adolescent grades at Time 2. Neighborhood risk was related to lower grades, while peer support predicted better grades in the prospective analyses. Neighborhood risk also moderated the effects of maternal restrictive control and peer support on adolescent grades in prospective analyses. These findings highlight the importance of an ecological approach to the problem of academic underachievement within the African American Community. PMID:8864209

  14. One-year neurodevelopmental outcome of very and late preterm infants: Risk factors and correlation with maternal stress.

    PubMed

    Coletti, Maria Franca; Caravale, Barbara; Gasparini, Corinna; Franco, Francesco; Campi, Francesca; Dotta, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Although "late preterm" (LP) newborns (33-36 weeks of gestational age) represent more than 70% of all preterm labors, little is known about the relation between certain risk factors and developmental outcomes in LP compared to "very preterm" (≤32 weeks) children (VP). This study investigates: (1) LP and VP infants' development at 12 months of corrected age (CA) using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development - 3rd Edition (BSID-III); (2) correlation between BSID-III performances and maternal stress (using Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, PSI-SF) among LP and VP at 12 months CA; and (3) the link between known neonatal and demographic risk factors and developmental outcomes of LP and VP infants. For both LP and VP infants the Mean Cognitive (LP: 102.69±7.68; VP: 103.63±10.68), Language (LP: 96.23±10.08; VP: 99.10±10.37) and Motor (LP: 91.11±10.33; VP: 93.85±10.17) composite scores were in the normal range, without significant differences between the groups. Correlations between PSI-SF and BSID-III showed that in the VP group (but not LP), Language score was negatively related to the PSI-SF 'Difficult Child' scale (r=-.34, p<.05). Regression models revealed that cognitive performance was significantly predicted by physical therapy in LP and by cesarean section in VP infants. For VP only maternal education and length of stay predicted Language score, whereas physical therapy predicted Motor score. Results of the study underline the importance of considering cognitive, language and motor developments separately when assessing a preterm child's development. Prediction models of developmental performance confirm the influence of some known neonatal risk factors and indicate the need for further research on the role of sociodemographic risk factors. PMID:25779697

  15. Cost-Effectiveness of a National Initiative to Improve Hand Hygiene Compliance Using the Outcome of Healthcare Associated Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Nicholas; Page, Katie; Martin, Elizabeth; Brain, David; Hall, Lisa; Campbell, Megan; Fulop, Naomi; Jimmeison, Nerina; White, Katherine; Paterson, David; Barnett, Adrian G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective is to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of the Australian National Hand Hygiene Inititiave implemented between 2009 and 2012 using healthcare associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia as the outcome. Baseline comparators are the eight existing state and territory hand hygiene programmes. The setting is the Australian public healthcare system and 1,294,656 admissions from the 50 largest Australian hospitals are included. Methods The design is a cost-effectiveness modelling study using a before and after quasi-experimental design. The primary outcome is cost per life year saved from reduced cases of healthcare associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, with cost estimated by the annual on-going maintenance costs less the costs saved from fewer infections. Data were harvested from existing sources or were collected prospectively and the time horizon for the model was 12 months, 2011–2012. Findings No useable pre-implementation Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia data were made available from the 11 study hospitals in Victoria or the single hospital in Northern Territory leaving 38 hospitals among six states and territories available for cost-effectiveness analyses. Total annual costs increased by $2,851,475 for a return of 96 years of life giving an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $29,700 per life year gained. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed a 100% chance the initiative was cost effective in the Australian Capital Territory and Queensland, with ICERs of $1,030 and $8,988 respectively. There was an 81% chance it was cost effective in New South Wales with an ICER of $33,353, a 26% chance for South Australia with an ICER of $64,729 and a 1% chance for Tasmania and Western Australia. The 12 hospitals in Victoria and the Northern Territory incur annual on-going maintenance costs of $1.51M; no information was available to describe cost savings or health benefits. Conclusions The Australian National Hand

  16. In-Flight Operation of the Dawn Ion Propulsion System: Status at One Year from the Vesta Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garner, Charles E.; Rayman, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    , 2007 and was successfully concluded as planned on October 31, 2008. During this time period the Dawn IPS was operated mostly at full power for approximately 6500 hours, consumed 71.7 kg of xenon and delivered approximately 1.8 km/s of delta V to the spacecraft. The thrusting to Mars was followed by a coasting period of approximately 3.5 months that included a Mars flyby in February of 2009. The Mars flyby provided a gravity assist (MGA) for a plane change and approximately 1 km/s of heliocentric energy increase and is the only part of the mission following launch in which a needed velocity change is not accomplished by the IPS. During the coast period IPS was operated for a trajectory correction maneuver and for engineering tests but was not operated for primary propulsion. Closest approach to Mars occurred as planned on February 17, 2009 and was followed by another coasting period of just under 4 months in duration. During this last coasting phase IPS was operated only for routine maintenance activities and for system engineering tests. Deterministic thrusting for heliocentric transfer to Vesta resumed on June 8, 2009. Since resumption of cruise to Vesta IPS has been operated at throttled power levels, most of the time at full power, and with a duty cycle of approximately 93%, leading to an arrival at Vesta in July of 2011 and arrival at Ceres in February 2015. This paper provides an overview of Dawn's mission objectives and the results of Dawn IPS mission operations through one year from the spacecraft's rendezvous with Vesta.

  17. Evidence-based classification of low back pain in the general population: one-year data collected with SMS Track

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It was previously assumed that low back pain (LBP) is a disorder that can be classified as acute, subacute and chronic. Lately, the opinion seems to have veered towards a concept of it being a more recurrent or cyclic condition. Interestingly, a recent review of the literature indicated that LBP in the general population is a rather stable condition, characterized as either being present or absent. However, only one of the reviewed studies had used frequent data collection, which would be necessary when studying detailed course patterns over time. It was the purpose of this study to see, if it was possible to identify whether LBP, when present, is rather episodic or chronic/persistent. Further, we wanted to see if it was possible to describe any specific course profiles of LBP in the general population. Methods In all, 293 49/50-yr old Danes, who previously participated in a population-based study on LBP were invited to respond to 26 fortnightly text-messages over one year, each time asking them the number of days they had been bothered by LBP in the past two weeks. The course patterns for these individuals were identified through manual analysis, by observing the interplay between non-episodes and episodes of LBP. A non-episode of LBP was defined as a period of at least one month without LBP as proposed by de Vet et al. A fortnight with at least one day of pain was defined as a pain fortnight (FN). At least one pain FN surrounded by a non-episode on each side was defined as an episode of LBP. After some preliminary observations of the spread of data, episodes were further classified as brief (consisting of only one pain FN) or longer (if there were at least 2 pain FNs in a row). An episode of at least 6 pain FNs in a row (i.e. 3 months) was defined as a long-lasting episode. Results In all, 261 study subjects were included in the analyses, for which 7 distinct LBP subsets could be identified. These could be grouped into three major clusters; those

  18. One year monitoring of fire-induced effects on dissolved organic matter and nutrient dynamics under different land-use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthast, Karin; Meyer, Stefanie; Crecelius, Anna; Schubert, Ulrich; Michalzik, Beate

    2016-04-01

    It is supposed that the changing climate will promote extreme weather events that in turn will increase drought periods and the abundance of fire events in temperate climate regions such as Central Europe. The impact of fires on the nutrient budgets of ecosystems is highly diverse and seems to depend on the ecosystem type. For example, little is known about fire effects on water-bound organic matter (OM) and nutrient fluxes in temperate managed forest ecosystems. Fires can strongly alter the distribution (forest floor vs. mineral soil), binding forms (organic vs. inorganic) and availability (solubility by water) of OM and associated nutrients. To elucidate the effects and seasonality of low intensity fires on the mobilization of dissolved organic carbon and nutrients, an experimental ground fire was conducted in November 2014 in the Hainich region, Central Germany. In addition, differences in response patterns between two land-use types (pasture and beech forest) were investigated. Lysimeters (n=5 controls/ 5 fire-manipulated) with topsoil monoliths (0-4 cm), rainfall/throughfall samplers, littertraps as well as temperature and moisture sensors were installed on three sites of each land-use type. During the one year of monitoring (Sep14-Dec15) soil solution, rainfall, and throughfall samples were taken biweekly and analyzed for pH, dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC, POC) and nitrogen (DN, PN) as well as for nutrients (e.g. K, Ca, Mg, P, S). Compared to the control sites, the ground fire immediately induced a short-run release peak of DOC in both land-use types. Within two weeks these differences were muted in the post-fire period. The effect of fire was land-use specific with annual DOC fluxes of 82 and 45 kg/(ha*a) for forest and pasture sites, respectively. In contrast, nitrogen fluxes responded differently to the fire event. In the forest, a significant increase in DN concentrations was notable five months after the fire, at the beginning of the

  19. Quantifying black carbon from biomass burning by means of levoglucosan - a one year time series at the Arctic observatory Zeppelin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yttri, K. E.; Myhre, C. Lund; Eckhardt, S.; Fiebig, M.; Dye, C.; Hirdman, D.; Ström, J.; Klimont, Z.; Stohl, A.

    2013-12-01

    Levoglucosan, a highly specific tracer of particulate matter from biomass burning, has been used to study the influence of residential wood burning, agricultural waste burning and boreal forest fire emissions on the Arctic atmosphere black carbon (BC) concentration. A one year time series from March 2008 to March 2009 of levoglucosan has been established at the Zeppelin Observatory in the European Arctic. Elevated concentrations of levoglucosan in winter (Mean: 1.02 ng m-3) compared to summer (Mean: 0.13 ng m-3) were observed, resembling the seasonal variation seen for e.g. sulphate and BC. The mean concentration in the winter period was two to three orders of magnitude lower than typical values reported for European urban areas in winter, and one to two orders of magnitude lower than European rural background concentrations. Episodes of elevated levoglucosan concentration were more frequent in winter than in summer and peak values were higher, exceeding 10 ng m-3 at the most. Concentrations of elemental carbon from biomass burning (ECbb) were obtained by combining measured concentrations of levoglucosan and emission ratios of levoglucosan and EC for wild/agricultural fires and for residential wood burning. Neglecting chemical degradation by OH provides minimum levoglucosan concentrations, corresponding to a mean ECbb concentration of 3.7±1.2 ng m-3 in winter (October-April) and 0.8±0.3 ng m-3 in summer (May-September) or 8.8±4.5% of the measured equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentration in winter and 6.1±3.4% in summer. When accounting for chemical degradation of levoglucosan by OH, an upper estimate of 31-45% of EBC could be attributed to ECbb* (ECbb adjusted for chemical degradation) in winter and <65% in summer. Hence, fossil fuel sources appear to dominate the European Arctic BC concentrations in winter, whereas the very wide range obtained for summer does not allow us to conclude upon this for the warm season. Calculations using the Lagrangian particle

  20. Social Information Processing in Dating Conflicts: Reciprocal Relationships With Dating Aggression in a One-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; López de Arroyabe, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reciprocal associations among social information processing (SIP) in dating conflicts and the perpetration of dating aggression. A first step involved the development of a measure (The Social Information Processing Questionnaire in Dating Conflicts, SIPQ-DC) to assess social information in scenarios of conflict with dating partners. A sample of 1,272 adolescents (653 girls, 619 boys; Mage = 14.74 years, SD = 1.21) completed measures of SIP and dating aggression perpetration in two different times, which were spaced 1 year apart. Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a model with five correlated factors for the SIPQ-DC, namely, hostile attribution, anger, aggressive response access, anticipation of positive consequences for oneself, and anticipation of negative consequences for partners. Although the perpetration of dating aggression at T1 was cross-sectionally associated with all the SIP components, anger was the only component that predicted the residual increase in dating aggression behavior over time. The perpetration of dating aggression predicted a worsening of cognitive-emotional processes involved in dating conflicts. Some longitudinal paths were significant only in male adolescents. In conclusion, relationships among SIP and aggression are reciprocal. Gender differences in longitudinal paths can contribute to explaining men's higher perpetration of violence in adulthood. PMID:25524267

  1. Improved Outcome with Early Rifampicin Combination Treatment in Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia with a Deep Infection Focus – A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Forsblom, Erik; Ruotsalainen, Eeva; Järvinen, Asko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rifampicin has been used as adjunctive therapy in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) with a deep infection focus. However, data for prognostic impact of rifampicin therapy is unestablished including the optimal initiation time point. We studied the impact of rifampicin therapy and the optimal initiation time for rifampicin treatment on prognosis in methicillin-sensitive S. aureus bacteraemia with a deep infection. Methods Retrospective, multicentre study in Finland including 357 SAB patients with a deep infection focus. Patients with alcoholism, liver disease or patients who died within 3 days were excluded. Patients were categorised according to duration of rifampicin therapy and according to whether rifampicin was initiated early (within 7 days) or late (7 days after) after the positive blood cultures. Primary end point was 90 days mortality. Results Twenty-seven percent of patients received no rifampicin therapy, 14% received rifampicin for 1-13 days whereas 59% received rifampicin ≥14 days. The 90 day mortality was; 26% for patients treated without rifampicin, 16% for rifampicin therapy of any length and 10% for early onset rifampicin therapy ≥14 days. Lack of rifampicin therapy increased (OR 1.89, p=0.026), rifampicin of any duration decreased (OR 0.53, p=0.026) and rifampicin therapy ≥14 days with early onset lowered the risk for a fatal outcome (OR 0.33, p<0.01) during 90 days follow-up. Conclusion Rifampicin adjunctive therapy for at least 14 days and initiated within 7 days of positive blood culture associated with improved outcome among SAB patients with a deep infection. PMID:25874546

  2. The impact of multidrug resistance in healthcare-associated and nosocomial Gram-negative bacteraemia on mortality and length of stay: cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lye, D C; Earnest, A; Ling, M L; Lee, T-E; Yong, H-C; Fisher, D A; Krishnan, P; Hsu, L-Y

    2012-05-01

    Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) are an emerging public health threat. Accurate estimates of their clinical impact are vital for justifying interventions directed towards preventing or managing infections caused by these pathogens. A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted between 1 January 2007 and 31 July 2009, involving subjects with healthcare-associated and nosocomial Gram-negative bacteraemia at two large Singaporean hospitals. Outcomes studied were mortality and length of stay post-onset of bacteraemia in survivors (LOS). There were 675 subjects (301 with MDR-GNB) matching study inclusion criteria. On multivariate analysis, multidrug resistance was not associated with 30-day mortality, but it was independently associated with longer LOS in survivors (coefficient, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.21-0.48; p < 0.001). The excess LOS attributable to multidrug resistance after adjustment for confounders was 6.1 days. Other independent risk factors for higher mortality included male gender, higher APACHE II score, higher Charlson comorbidity index, intensive care unit stay and presence of concomitant pneumonia. Concomitant urinary tract infection and admission to a surgical discipline were associated with lower risk of mortality. Appropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was neither associated with 30-day mortality nor LOS, although the study was not powered to assess this covariate adequately. Our study adds to existing evidence that multidrug resistance per se is not associated with higher mortality when effective antibiotics are used for definitive therapy. However, its association with longer hospitalization justifies the use of control efforts. PMID:21851482

  3. One-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission: a time-series analysis in the rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Linwei; Bi, Yan; Ho, Suzanne C; Liu, Wenjie; Liang, Song; Goggins, William B; Chan, Emily YY; Zhou, Shuisen; Sung, Joseph JY

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major public health burden in the tropics with the potential to significantly increase in response to climate change. Analyses of data from the recent past can elucidate how short-term variations in weather factors affect malaria transmission. This study explored the impact of climate variability on the transmission of malaria in the tropical rain forest area of Mengla County, south-west China. Methods Ecological time-series analysis was performed on data collected between 1971 and 1999. Auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to evaluate the relationship between weather factors and malaria incidence. Results At the time scale of months, the predictors for malaria incidence included: minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and fog day frequency. The effect of minimum temperature on malaria incidence was greater in the cool months than in the hot months. The fog day frequency in October had a positive effect on malaria incidence in May of the following year. At the time scale of years, the annual fog day frequency was the only weather predictor of the annual incidence of malaria. Conclusion Fog day frequency was for the first time found to be a predictor of malaria incidence in a rain forest area. The one-year delayed effect of fog on malaria transmission may involve providing water input and maintaining aquatic breeding sites for mosquitoes in vulnerable times when there is little rainfall in the 6-month dry seasons. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of malaria for similar tropical rain forest areas worldwide. PMID:18565224

  4. Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents one year after a super-cyclone in Orissa, India: exploring cross-cultural validity and vulnerability factors

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Nilamadhab; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Nayak, Kailash C; Pattanaik, Pratiti; Swain, Sarada P; Kar, Harish C

    2007-01-01

    Background It has been asserted that psychological responses to disasters in children and adolescents vary widely across cultures, but this has rarely been investigated. The objectives of the study were to clinically evaluate the construct of traumatic stress symptoms and disorder in children and adolescents after a super-cyclone in Orissa, India; to find out the prevalence at one year; compare the effect in high and low exposure areas and study the factors associated with it. Methods Clinical examination of children and adolescents (n = 447) was done, supplemented by a symptoms checklist based on International Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, Diagnostic Criteria for Research and a semi-structured questionnaire for disaster related experiences. Results A majority of children had post-traumatic symptoms. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was present in 30.6% (95% confidence interval: 26.4 to 34.9), and an additional 13.6% had sub-syndromal PTSD. Parents or teachers reported mental health concerns in 7.2% subjects, who were a minor proportion (12.8%) of subjects with any syndromal diagnosis (n = 196). Significantly more (43.7%) children in high exposure areas had PTSD than that (11.2%) in low exposure areas (p < 0.001). Depression was significantly associated with PTSD. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that high exposure, lower educational level and middle socioeconomic status significantly predicted the outcome of PTSD. Extreme fear and perceived threat to life during the disaster, death in family, damage to home, or staying in shelters were not significantly associated with PTSD. Conclusion Following natural disaster PTSD is a valid clinical construct in children and adolescents in Indian set up; and though highly prevalent it may be missed without clinical screening. Its manifestation and associated factors resembled those in other cultures. PMID:17300713

  5. Detecting, Studying, and Treating Autism Early: The One-Year Well-Baby Check-Up Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Karen; Carter, Cindy; Weinfeld, Melanie; Desmond, Jamie; Hazin, Roxana; Bjork, Robert; Gallagher, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the feasibility of implementing a broadband screen at the 1-year check-up to detect cases of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), language delay (LD), and developmental delay (DD). Study design The Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist was distributed at every 1-year pediatric check-up; 137 pediatricians and 225 infants participated. Screens were scored immediately, and failures referred for further evaluation. Results Pediatricians screened 10 479 infants at the 1-year check-up; 184 infants who failed the screen were evaluated and tracked. To date, 32 infants received a provisional or final diagnosis of ASD, 56 of LD, nine of DD, and 36 of “other.” Five infants who initially tested positive for ASD no longer met criteria at follow-up. The remainder of the sample was false positive results. Positive predictive value was estimated to be .75. Conclusions The 1-Year Well-Baby Check-Up Approach shows promise as a simple mechanism to detect cases of ASD, LD, and DD at 1 year. This procedure offers an alternative to the baby sibling design as a mechanism to study autism prospectively, the results of which will enrich our understanding of autism at an early age. PMID:21524759

  6. A Prospective Study of Early Loaded Single Implant-Retained Mandibular Overdentures: Preliminary One-Year Results

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Ali M.; Shihabuddin, Omar F.; Ghoraba, Sahar M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the predictability of simplifying mandibular overdenture treatment using one-stage surgery and early prosthetic loading of a single implant. Materials and Methods. Twenty edentulous patients with problematic existing mandibular dentures were treated. A single implant with a chemically modified surface (SLActive, Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland) was placed into the mandibular midline. The patients were recalled at 3, 6 and 12 months. Clinical assessments and marginal bone loss using standardized radiographs were recorded. All complications, failures and maintenance were noted. Visual analog-scale questionnaires were used to record patient satisfaction in five categories. ANOVA was used to determine differences between means of marginal bone loss and different categories of patient staisfaction (P = 0.05). Results. The 20 early loaded implants were all surviving at the 12-month recall. All implants showed less than 1 mm of marginal bone loss by the end of the 1-year with a significant increase during the follow-up period. Few prosthetic problems were reported. Patient satisfaction was high with a significant increase in all comfort and functional parameters. Conclusions. These preliminary 1-year results indicate that early loading of a single chemically modified surface implant used to retain a mucosa-borne mandibular overdenture is a safe, reliable, and cost-effective treatment. PMID:22505895

  7. Predictors of relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis in remission after one-year of infliximab therapy.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Klaudia; Lakatos, Péter László; Nagy, Ferenc; Szepes, Zoltán; Miheller, Pál; Papp, Mária; Palatka, Károly; Bálint, Anita; Bor, Renáta; Wittmann, Tibor; Molnár, Tamás

    2013-12-01

    BACKGROUND. Some of the most important questions relating to the use of biological therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases concern the duration of maintenance therapy. The RASH study revealed that previous use of biological therapy and dose intensification are associated with restarting of biological therapy in Crohn's disease. The aim of the study was to assess the disease course and frequency of relapse of ulcerative colitis (UC) following discontinuation of infliximab in patients with remission and to determine predictive factors for relapse. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Fifty-one UC patients who had achieved clinical remission following 1 year of infliximab therapy and for whom infliximab was then discontinued participated in this prospective observational study. 15.7% of the patients received infliximab before the 1-year period of biological therapy analyzed in the study. Biological therapy was restarted in case of recurrent clinical activity. Data were collected from four Hungarian IBD centers. RESULTS. Thirty-five percent of the patients needed to be retreated with infliximab within 1 year after treatment cessation. Logistic regression analysis revealed that previous biological therapy (p = 0.021) was associated with the need of restarting infliximab. None of the data relating to patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, concomitant therapy and CRP level showed association with the need for restarting biological therapy. CONCLUSIONS. Biological therapy was restarted at a median of 4 months after discontinuation in more than every third UC patients who had been in clinical remission following 1 year of infliximab therapy. Response to retreatment with infliximab was favorable in the majority of the patients who relapsed. PMID:24131338

  8. One year follow-up after cryoballoon isolation of the pulmonary veins in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Van Belle, Yves; Janse, Petter; Theuns, Dominic; Szili-Torok, Tamas; Jordaens, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Aims Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) with cryoenergy delivered through a balloon is a new approach in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF), but long-term follow-up is lacking. The aim of this study was to provide insight in the success rate and the incidence of recurrences. Methods and results Patients with symptomatic AF despite anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs) were treated with cryoballoon PVI. Daily transtelephonic ECG monitoring, 24 h Holter-ECG, and an arrhythmia-focused questionnaire were used to document AF. One hundred and forty-one patients completed a follow-up of 457 ± 252 days. Before ablation, Holter-ECG showed AF in 45%, including 16% continuous AF throughout the recording. Event recording revealed a median AF burden of 26%. The questionnaire showed a median of weekly AF complaints lasting for hours. All but one patient had successful PVI with a single procedure. After ablation, AF (defined as lasting for more than 30 s) was seen in 11% of Holter-ECGs, with 1% continuous AF. The event recording showed an AF burden of 9%. The median patient reported no more AF-related symptoms. Recurrence during the first 3 months was predictive for later recurrence. A second procedure was performed in 24 patients. The freedom of AF was 59% without AADs after 1,2 procedures. Four right phrenic nerve paralyses occurred, all resolving within 6 months. No PV stenoses were observed. Conclusion Pulmonary vein isolation with a cryothermal balloon is an effective treatment for paroxysmal AF, resulting in a clinical success rate comparable to studies involving radiofrequency ablation. Temporary right phrenic nerve paralysis is the most important complication. PMID:18955409

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in U.S. Military Primary Care: Trajectories and Predictors of One-Year Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Bray, Robert M; Engel, Charles C; Williams, Jason; Jaycox, Lisa H; Lane, Marian E; Morgan, Jessica K; Unützer, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    We examined the longitudinal course of primary care patients in the active duty Army with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and identified prognostic indicators of PTSD severity. Data were drawn from a 6-site randomized trial of collaborative primary care for PTSD and dpression in the military. Subjects were 474 soldiers with PTSD (scores ≥ 50 on the PTSD Checklist -Civilian Version). Four assessments were completed at U.S. Army installations: baseline, and follow-ups at 3 months (92.8% response rate [RR]), 6 months (90.1% RR), and 12 months (87.1% RR). Combat exposure and 7 validated indicators of baseline clinical status (alcohol misuse, depression, pain, somatic symptoms, low mental health functioning, low physical health functioning, mild traumatic brain injury) were used to predict PTSD symptom severity on the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (Cronbach's α = .87, .92, .95, .95, at assessments 1-4, respectively). Growth mixture modeling identified 2 PTSD symptom trajectories: subjects reporting persistent symptoms (Persisters, 81.9%, n = 388), and subjects reporting improved symptoms (Improvers 18.1%, n = 86). Logistic regression modeling examined baseline predictors of symptom trajectories, adjusting for demographics, installation, and treatment condition. Subjects who reported moderate combat exposure, adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.44, 95% CI [0.20, 0.98], or who reported high exposure, OR = 0.39, 95% CI [0.17, 0.87], were less likely to be Improvers. Other baseline clinical problems were not related to symptom trajectories. Findings suggested that most military primary care patients with PTSD experience persistent symptoms, highlighting the importance of improving the effectiveness of their care. Most indicators of clinical status offered little prognostic information beyond the brief assessment of combat exposure. PMID:27447948

  10. Gender Differences in Mutual-Help Attendance One Year After Treatment: Swedish and U.S. Samples*

    PubMed Central

    Witbrodt, Jane; Romelsjo, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In the United States, many people turn to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other mutual-help groups as a first source of help for an alcohol or drug problem, whereas others are introduced to AA while in treatment. Because AA and similar groups in the United States add to the treatment system and function without governmental funds, they represent an important element in ongoing care for individuals with substance-use disorders in the health care system. In countries with free (or more affordable) and more comprehensive systems of care, their role is less clearly defined. Method: In this study, we compared men and women from representative treatment samples from studies with parallel designs, one Swedish (n = 1,525) and the other American (n = 926), to explore whether rates and correlates of attendance at 1-year follow-up (63% and 78% followed) differ by gender. We explore individual characteristics (demographic, severity, motivational) and formal and informal influences (treatment, mutual help, coercive, social) as possible help-seeking correlates of attendance. Results: In both countries, similar proportions of men and women attended mutual-help groups. However, twice as many U.S. clients reported attendance. Moreover, twice as many U.S. clients set abstinence as a treatment goal. In multivariate models, having an abstinence goal, a perceived need for treatment, suggestions from one's employment environment, and prior mutual-help attendance predicted posttreatment attendance for men and women in both countries. Gender differences were also found. Conclusions: Given the stages in which individuals seek care and the cyclical nature of relapse and recovery, mutual-help groups are an efficient resource in the continuum of services. PMID:20105422

  11. Mental Health Problems among Children One-Year after Sichuan Earthquake in China: A Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingxin; Wang, Li; Shi, Zhanbiao; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Kan; Shen, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Background On May 12, 2008, a destructive earthquake registering 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Sichuan Province, southwest China. Beichuan County was the epicenter which was one of the areas nearly completely destroyed by the earthquake. In Beichuan, about 15000 people died and 3000 people were missing. Specially, the earthquake took 1587 students' and 214 teachers' lives from the elementary and middle schools there. The main purpose of the study was to provide a better understanding of mental health problems and associated risk factors among children after earthquake. Method Three hundred and thirty grades 3–5 children completed the questionnaire of disaster –related experience and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A). The first survey was carried out six months after the earthquake, and the second one was carried out six months later. The measurements and methodology applied in the two sessions were identical. Results The prevalence rates of the problems at two time-points were 23.3% and 22.7% for anxiety, 14.5% and 16.1% for depression, and 11.2% and 13.4% for PTSD, respectively. Among demographic variables, no significant age difference existed, while it was found that 6 months after the earthquake, symptoms of anxiety, depression and PTSD were significantly more common among students in grades 4 and 5 than those in grade 3, Initial exposure to death, bereavement and extreme fear were significant predictive factors for the occurrence of anxiety, depression and PTSD. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that posttraumatic mental health problems after natural disaster in children may have reached epidemic proportions and remain high for a long period. Psychologist and social workers should pay more attention to children who experienced more traumatic stresses and provide appropriate mental health interventions. Implications and limitations of these findings were discussed. PMID:21373188

  12. Stigma as a stressor and transition to schizophrenia after one year among young people at risk of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Heekeren, Karsten; Theodoridou, Anastasia; Müller, Mario; Corrigan, Patrick W; Mayer, Benjamin; Metzler, Sibylle; Dvorsky, Diane; Walitza, Susanne; Rössler, Wulf

    2015-08-01

    According to stress-vulnerability models, social stressors contribute to the onset of schizophrenia. Stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness may be a stressor for young people at risk of psychosis even prior to illness onset, but quantitative longitudinal data on this issue are lacking. We examined the cognitive appraisal of stigma-related stress as predictor of transition to schizophrenia among young people at risk of psychosis. In Zürich, Switzerland, 172 participants between 13 and 35years old and with either high or ultra-high risk of psychosis or risk of bipolar disorder were included. With 71 dropouts, transition was assessed during 12months among 101 participants of whom 13 converted to schizophrenia. At baseline, the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor was measured by self-report, based on the primary appraisal of stigma as harmful and the secondary appraisal of resources to cope with stigma. Positive and negative symptoms were examined using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Compared with participants who did not convert to schizophrenia, converters had significantly more positive (p<.001) and negative (p<.001) symptoms and reported higher levels of stigma-related harm (p=.003) and stress (p=.009) at baseline. More perceived harm due to stigma at baseline predicted transition to schizophrenia (odds ratio 2.34, 95%-CI 1.19-4.60) after adjusting for age, gender, symptoms and functioning. Stigma stress may increase the risk of transition to schizophrenia. Research is needed on interventions that reduce public negative attitudes towards young people at risk and that support individuals at risk to cope with stigma-related stress. PMID:26036814

  13. Clinical data from one year follow-up of victims of the radiation accident with 60Co in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Djounova, J; Guleva, I; Negoicheva, K; Mileva, I; Panova, D; Rupova, I

    2014-09-01

    A severe radiation accident occurred on 14 June 2011 in an industrial irradiation facility for medical equipment sterilization in Bulgaria. Five people were exposed for 5-10 min to a 60Co source containing 137 TBq. The Emergency Department of the National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection (NCRRP), Bulgaria, put into practice the plans for providing medical care in radiation accidents and the procedures developed for assessment of injury severity, the decision-making algorithm regarding subsequent treatment, and the therapy for persons affected. The activities performed for initial assessment of the severity of injury of irradiated patients were published in 2012. Based on predictive assessments of the severity of radiation damage, it was decided that the victims required hospitalization at a specialized hematology clinic. Percy Hospital in Paris was chosen for this purpose. The aim of this report is to present the results of 1-y follow-up for three of the victims. Sadly, 1 mo after the accident, Patient 4 died from a heart attack. The medical opinion was that this was not a direct outcome of the irradiation. Patient 5 was only followed up for 4 mo (118 d) because medical follow-up is voluntary, and despite repeated calls, the patient did not respond. Medical examinations by a physician as well as hematology and biochemical tests were performed using standard laboratory methods. The obtained results were compared to the victims' personal reference limits obtained from annual health monitoring. After the accident, the recovery to normal content of peripheral blood cells was observed in all victims. Nevertheless, there were observed cases of thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, and leucocytopenia at various times after exposure. During the period of observation, morphological changes in red blood cells such as anisomicrocitosis, macrocytes, megalocytes, and polychromatic erythrocytes were demonstrated. During the 1-y observation period, all victims showed

  14. Aspiration Thrombectomy and Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation Decrease the Occurrence of Angina Pectoris One Year After Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Chieh; Fang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Huang-Chung; Hsueh, Shu-Kai; Chen, Chien-Jen; Yang, Cheng-Hsu; Yip, Hon-Kan; Hang, Chi-Ling; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Fang, Hsiu-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Angina pectoris is a treatable symptom that is associated with mortality and decreased quality of life. Angina eradication is a primary care goal of care after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to evaluate factors influencing angina pectoris 1 year after an AMI.From January 2005 to December 2013, 1547 patient received primary percutaneous intervention in our hospital for an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). Of these patients, 1336 patients did not experience post-MI angina during a 1-year follow-up, and 211 patients did. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors influencing angina pectoris 1 year after an AMI. Propensity score matched analyses were performed for subgroups analyses.The average age of the patients was 61.08 ± 12.77 years, with a range of 25 to 97 years, and 82.9% of the patients were male. During 1-year follow-up, 13.6% of the patients experienced post-MI angina. There was a longer chest pain-to-reperfusion time in the post-MI angina group (P = 0.01), as well as a higher fasting sugar level, glycohemoglobin (HbA1C), serum creatinine, troponin-I and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB). The post-MI angina group also had a higher prevalence of multiple-vessel disease. Manual thrombectomy, and distal protective device and intracoronary glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor injection were used frequently in the no post-MI angina group. Antiplatelet agents and post-MI medication usage were similar between the 2 groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that prior MI was a positive independent predictor of occurrence of post-MI angina. Manual thrombectomy use and drug-eluting stent implantation were negative independent predictors of post-MI angina. Higher troponin-I and longer chest pain-to-reperfusion time exhibited a trend toward predicting post-MI angina.Prior MIs were strong, independent predictors of post-MI angina. Manual thrombectomy and drug

  15. Aspiration Thrombectomy and Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation Decrease the Occurrence of Angina Pectoris One Year After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wei-Chieh; Fang, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Huang-Chung; Hsueh, Shu-Kai; Chen, Chien-Jen; Yang, Cheng-Hsu; Yip, Hon-Kan; Hang, Chi-Ling; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Fang, Hsiu-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Angina pectoris is a treatable symptom that is associated with mortality and decreased quality of life. Angina eradication is a primary care goal of care after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to evaluate factors influencing angina pectoris 1 year after an AMI. From January 2005 to December 2013, 1547 patient received primary percutaneous intervention in our hospital for an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). Of these patients, 1336 patients did not experience post-MI angina during a 1-year follow-up, and 211 patients did. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors influencing angina pectoris 1 year after an AMI. Propensity score matched analyses were performed for subgroups analyses. The average age of the patients was 61.08 ± 12.77 years, with a range of 25 to 97 years, and 82.9% of the patients were male. During 1-year follow-up, 13.6% of the patients experienced post-MI angina. There was a longer chest pain-to-reperfusion time in the post-MI angina group (P = 0.01), as well as a higher fasting sugar level, glycohemoglobin (HbA1C), serum creatinine, troponin-I and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB). The post-MI angina group also had a higher prevalence of multiple-vessel disease. Manual thrombectomy, and distal protective device and intracoronary glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor injection were used frequently in the no post-MI angina group. Antiplatelet agents and post-MI medication usage were similar between the 2 groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that prior MI was a positive independent predictor of occurrence of post-MI angina. Manual thrombectomy use and drug-eluting stent implantation were negative independent predictors of post-MI angina. Higher troponin-I and longer chest pain-to-reperfusion time exhibited a trend toward predicting post-MI angina. Prior MIs were strong, independent predictors of post-MI angina. Manual thrombectomy

  16. Trends in One-Year Outcomes of Dialysis-Requiring Acute Kidney Injury in Denmark 2005-2012: A Population-Based Nationwide Study

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Nicholas; Hommel, Kristine; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Soja, Anne-Merete; Vilsbøll, Tina; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Background Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with substantial mortality and risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Despite considerable growth in incidence of severe AKI, information pertaining to trends in outcomes remains limited. We evaluated time trends in one year risks of ESRD and death in patients with dialysis-requiring AKI over an eight year period in Denmark. Methods In a retrospective nationwide study based on national registers, all adults requiring acute renal replacement therapy between 2005 and 2012 were identified. Patients with preceding ESRD were excluded. Through individual-level cross-referencing of administrative registries, information pertaining to comorbidity, preceding surgical interventions, and concurrent other organ failure and sepsis was ascertained. Comparisons of period-specific one year odds ratios for ESRD and death were calculated in a multiple logistic regression model. Results A total of 13,819 patients with dialysis-requiring AKI were included in the study. Within one year, 1,017 (7.4%) patients were registered with ESRD, and 7,908 (57.2%) patients died. The one-year rate of ESRD decreased from 9.0% between 2005 and 2006 to 6.1% between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, the one-year mortality rate decreased from 58.2% between 2005 and 2006 to 57.5% between 2011 and 2012. Consequently, the adjusted odds ratios for the period 2011–2012 (with the period 2005–2006 as reference) were 0.75 (0.60–0.95, p = 0.015) and 0.87 (95% CI 0.78–0.97, p = 0.010) for ESRD and death, respectively. Conclusions In a nationwide retrospective study on time trends in one year outcomes following dialysis-requiring AKI, risk of all-cause mortality and ESRD decreased over a period of 8 years. PMID:27459297

  17. Enhance "One" Year of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhurst, Max L.

    2000-01-01

    Though substitute teachers spend significant amounts of time with students, they receive little training. The Substitute Teaching Institute at Utah State University has developed training materials that include six content components: being prepared and professional, classroom management skills, legal and first aid issues, teaching and…

  18. 42 CFR 137.105 - May a Self-Governance Tribe carryover from one year to the next any funds that remain at the end...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May a Self-Governance Tribe carryover from one year to the next any funds that remain at the end of the funding agreement? 137.105 Section 137.105 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  19. Physics Doctorates One Year after Degree: Data from the Follow-up Survey of Degree Recipients from the Classes of 2013 and 2014. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pold, Jack; Mulvey, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This report presents trend data on the status of physics PhDs one year after receiving their degree. For the last decade postdoctoral fellowships were the most commonly reported positions taken by physics PhDs in the year after receiving their degree. The type of initial employment for of physics PhDs varied depending on the subfield of their…

  20. Trimming the Fat in America's Schools: Where Are We One Year Following Implementation of Federally Mandated Local School Wellness Plans (LSWPs)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey by the School Nutrition Association (SNA) on the year-long adoption of wellness policies of 15,000 local schools nationwide. Released September 5, SNA's "From Cupcakes to Carrots: Local Wellness Policies One Year Later" was compiled from a survey of 976 school nutrition directors conducted in May 2007.…

  1. Pediatric Diabetes Consortium Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) New Onset (NeOn) Study: Factors Associated with HbA1c Levels One Year after Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, Maria J.; Connor, Crystal G.; Ruedy, Katrina J.; Beck, Roy W.; Kollman, Craig; Wood, Jamie R.; Buckingham, Bruce; Klingensmith, Georgeanna; Silverstein, Janet; Tamborlane, William V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify determinants of HbA1c levels one year after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in participants in the Pediatric Diabetes Consortium (PDC) T1D New Onset (NeOn) Study. Research Design and Methods Diabetes-specific as well as socioeconomic factors during the first year following diagnosis were analyzed in 857 participants (mean age 9.1 years, 51% female, 66% non-Hispanic White) not participating in an intervention study who had an HbA1c value at 12 months. Results Mean ± SD HbA1c at one year was 62 ± 16 mmol/mol (7.8% ± 1.5). In univariate and multivariate analyses, clinical center, non-Hispanic White race, private health insurance, living with both parents, higher frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), and lower insulin requirements were associated with lower HbA1c concentrations at one year (p<0.01). No association was found with gender, age, Tanner stage, BMI, DKA at onset, number of positive autoantibodies or HbA1c at onset, or number of visits to diabetes physician during the first year. Conclusions White race, higher socioeconomic status, two-parent household, more frequent SMBG and low insulin requirements are associated with lower HbA1c concentration one year after the onset of T1D in children. PMID:23889707

  2. One Year On: First-Year Primary Teachers' Perceptions of Preparedness to Manage Misbehaviour and Their Confidence in the Strategies They Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Sue; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a one-year follow-up study of Australian beginning primary teachers' perceived preparedness to manage a variety of problematic student behaviours, and their confidence and use of behaviour management strategies based on their preservice coursework in classroom behaviour management. A total of 216 primary…

  3. Examining the Impact of an Email Campaign to Promote Physical Activity and Walking in Adult Women Six-Weeks and One-Year Post-Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Julian A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the impact of an email intervention campaign to increase physical activity among women. Participants' activity levels were assessed at baseline, immediately following the intervention and one year post intervention. (N = 475) received weekly Walking Tips Intervention Emails (WTIE) for 6 weeks. Participants were primarily…

  4. Executive Function as a Mediator of Effects on Kindergarten Learning Behaviors One Year after the Pre-K Head Start REDI Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursache, A.; Blair, C.; Bierman, K.; Nix, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the current study the authors examine follow-up effects of the pre-K REDI intervention on executive functioning and adaptive learning behaviors, one year post intervention, when the children are in kindergarten. They find that although there are intervention effects on EF (executive functioning) at the end of pre-K, these effects are not…

  5. Relations of the Home Literacy Environment (HLE) to the Development of Reading-Related Abilities: A One-Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Stephen R.; Hecht, Steven A.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the nature of the relations between home literacy environment (HLE) and oral language, letter knowledge, phonological sensitivity, and word decoding during a one-year interval in preschool children. Finds that each of the HLE conceptualizations was consistently related to the outcomes studies, but the magnitude of the relations varied…

  6. Chiropractic Use in the Medicare Population: Prevalence, Patterns, and Associations with One-Year Changes in Health and Satisfaction with Care

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Paula A M; Hockenberry, Jason M; Wolinsky, Fredric D

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine how chiropractic care compares to medical treatments on one-year changes in self-reported function, health, and satisfaction with care measures in a representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Methods Logistic regression using generalized estimating equations (GEE) is used to model the effect of chiropractic relative to medical care on decline in five functional measures and two measures of self-rated health among 12,170 person-year observations. The same method is used to estimate the comparative effect of chiropractic on six satisfaction with care measures. Two analytic approaches are used, the first assuming no selection bias and the second using propensity score analyses to adjust for selection effects in the outcome models. Results The unadjusted models show chiropractic is significantly protective against one-year decline in ADLs, lifting, stooping, walking, self-rated health, and worsening health after one year. Persons using chiropractic are more satisfied with their follow-up care and with the information provided to them. In addition to the protective effects of chiropractic in the unadjusted model, the propensity score results indicate a significant protective effect of chiropractic against decline in reaching. Conclusion This study provides evidence of a protective effect of chiropractic care against one-year declines in functional and self-rated health among Medicare beneficiaries with spine conditions, and indications that chiropractic users have higher satisfaction with follow-up care and information provided about what is wrong with them. PMID:25233887

  7. Two-Year versus One-Year Head Start Program Impact: Addressing Selection Bias by Comparing Regression Modeling with Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Christine; Wen, Xiaoli; Korfmacher, Jon

    2015-01-01

    This article compares regression modeling and propensity score analysis as different types of statistical techniques used in addressing selection bias when estimating the impact of two-year versus one-year Head Start on children's school readiness. The analyses were based on the national Head Start secondary dataset. After controlling for…

  8. Are Two Years Better than One Year? A Propensity Score Analysis of the Impact of Head Start Program Duration on Children's School Performance in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaoli; Leow, Christine; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.; Korfmacher, Jon; Marcus, Sue M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample, this study examined Head Start children's school outcome differences by the end of Kindergarten between children who attended Head Start program for two years and the ones who attended for one year. Propensity scores were used to match children who experienced different durations of the program…

  9. The Effects of the Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) on Children's School Performance at the End of the Program and One Year Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Amy J. L.; Piotrkowski, Chaya S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated whether participation in HIPPY (Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters) has a positive impact on young children's performance in school. Assessed 182 children at baseline, the program's end, and one year later. Interpreted findings as mixed support for the effectiveness of the HIPPY program. (JS)

  10. 5 CFR 2641.206 - One-year restriction on any former senior or very senior employee's representations on behalf of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One-year restriction on any former senior or very senior employee's representations on behalf of, or aid or advice to, a foreign entity. 2641... senior or very senior employee's representations on behalf of, or aid or advice to, a foreign entity....

  11. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Elementary Principals' Perceptions of Their Leadership Behaviors and the Impact on One Year of Reading Achievement Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between principals' perceptions of their learning-centered leadership behaviors and one year of reading achievement scores. Perceptions of principals were gathered from 31 out of 42 elementary schools in a district located in Central Virginia. This study explored the relationship between…

  12. Parent-Offspring Resemblance for Cognitive Abilities in the Colorado Adoption Project: Biological, Adoptive, and Control Parents and One-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFries, J. C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Results from the Colorado Adoption Project, a longitudinal study initiated in 1975, are reported. The cognitive ability of parents and measures of one-year olds' mental development were significantly correlated for all three parent/child comparisons. Caldwell's HOME Responsibility measure was correlated with infant intelligence in adoptive and…

  13. Does a Year Make a Difference? The Classroom Management Practices of Primary Student Teachers before and after a One-Year Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reupert, Andrea; Woodcock, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine primary student teachers' use, confidence and success in various classroom management strategies at the start and at the end of a one-year teaching programme and ascertain any significant differences between the two time periods. One hundred and twenty-four English primary student teachers were surveyed at…

  14. Does the Type of Anesthetic Technique Affect In-Hospital and One-Year Outcomes after Off-Pump Coronary Arterial Bypass Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hwan; Hong, Kwan Young; Kim, Wook Sung; Lee, Young-Tak

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous previous studies, there is little data on the effects of anesthetics on clinical outcome after off-pump coronary arterial bypass grafting (OPCAB). Therefore, we retrospectively compared the effects of anesthetic choice on in-hospital major adverse events (MAEs) and one-year major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events (MACCEs) in patients undergoing OPCAB. Electronic medical records were reviewed in 192 patients who received propofol-remifenanil total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and propensity score-matched 662 patients who received isoflurane anesthesia. The primary endpoints were in-hospital MAEs and one-year MACCEs. The components of in-hospital MAEs were in-hospital death, myocardial infarction (MI), coronary revascularization, stroke, renal failure, prolonged mechanical ventilation longer than 72 h, and postoperative new cardiac arrhythmia requiring treatment. One-year MACCEs was defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, MI, coronary revascularization, and stroke. There was no significant difference in risk of in-hospital MAEs (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.88–1.88, P = 0.20) or one-year MACCEs (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.46–1.42, P = 0.46) between the groups. The risk of postoperative new arrhythmia including new atrial fibrillation significantly increased in the TIVA group compared to the isoflurane anesthesia group (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.12–2.63, P = 0.01). In conclusion, the choice between propofol-remifentanil TIVA and isoflurane anesthesia did not show differences in incidence of in-hospital MAEs or one-year MACCEs in patients undergoing OPCAB. However, further studies on the effects of anesthetics on development of in-hospital new arrhythmia will be needed. PMID:27054364

  15. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of the post-polio syndrome: sustained effects on quality of life variables and cytokine expression after one year follow up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Expression of inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has led to the hypothesis of intrathecal chronic inflammation to explain the denervation observed in post-polio syndrome (PPS). It has been shown that therapy with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) improves physical performance and dampens down the inflammatory process at 6 months in PPS patients. We here examined the effects of IVIG on cytokine expression and clinical outcome one year after IVIG treatment. Methods From a previous study with 135 PPS patients included, 41 patients were further evaluated before un-blinding for one year (21 placebo and 20 treated with IVIG, Xepol® 50 mg/ml), and were assessed for clinical variables by performing the Short Form-36 survey (SF-36) questionnaire assessment, the 6 minute walk distance test (6MWT) and registering pain level by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) after IVIG treatment. A separate cohort of 37 PPS patients went through lumbar puncture (LP) at baseline and 20 patients, treated with IVIG, repeated the LP one year later. Thirty patients affected with other neurological diseases (OND) were used as control group. Inflammatory cytokines TNF, TGFβ, IFNγ, IL-23, IL-13 and IL-10 were measured in blood cells and CSF cells with RT-PCR. Results Scores of the physical components of SF-36 were significantly higher at the one year follow up time-point in the IVIG-treated patients when compared to baseline as well as to the control subjects. Pain VAS score and 6MWT improved significantly in the IVIG-treated patients when compared with baseline Relative expression of TNF and IFN-γ in both PBMCs and CSF from PPS patients were increased compared to OND subjects at baseline (p < 0.05). One year after IVIG-treatment a decreased expression of IFN-γ and IL23 was found in CSF of PPS patients, while anti-inflammatory IL-13 was increased (p < 0.05). Conclusions IVIG has effects on relevant QoL variables and inflammatory cytokines up to one year in

  16. Women Bound to be Active: one year follow-up to an innovative pilot intervention to increase physical activity and self-worth in women.

    PubMed

    Huberty, Jennifer L; Vener, Jamie; Schulte, Laura; Roberts, Sara M; Stevens, Beth; Ransdell, Lynda

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention (a women's book club; Women Bound to be Active) in promoting long-term physical activity. Thirty-five women (26-70 years; mean age 50.6 years) completed the 8-month intervention and participated in the one-year follow-up. At follow-up, physical activity returned to baseline levels; however, self-worth and body mass index significantly improved. Women were more knowledgeable about physical activity at follow-up; however, they failed to maintain physical activity after the intervention. Components of the intervention were effective in improving self-worth and lowering BMI at one-year follow-up. To enhance long-term physical activity adherence, continued research and intervention modifications are needed. PMID:20013519

  17. Recovery of Posture Stability at Different Foot Placements in Patients Who Underwent Minimally Invasive Total Hip Arthroplasty: A One-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ju; Lin, Na-Ling; Lee, Mel S.; Chern, Jen-Suh

    2015-01-01

    To understand the progression of recovery in postural stability and physical functioning after patients received the minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (MTHA), we monitor the pain level, functional capacity, and postural stability before and after operation within one year. In total of 23 subjects in our study, we found out that MTHA was effective in relieving pain in first 2 weeks and restoring the hip joint integrity, but the postural stability was influenced especially in tandem stand in both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions. The recovery of postural stability and functional capacity in one year duration fluctuated and no consistent improvement tendency was found. We suggested clinicians designing postsurgery rehabilitation program for consistent and progressive long-term recovery of postural stability and fall prevention to optimize surgical results and prevent undesired postoperative consequences. PMID:26583110

  18. Comparative healthcare-associated costs of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia-infective endocarditis treated with either daptomycin or vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Browne, Chantelle; Muszbek, Noemi; Chapman, Ruth; Marsh, Kevin; Gould, Ian M; Seaton, R Andrew; Allen, Mike

    2016-05-01

    Complex infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with high healthcare and societal costs; thus, evaluation of the costs and health benefits of interventions is an important consideration in a modern healthcare system. This study estimated the cost consequences of the use of daptomycin compared with vancomycin for the first-line treatment of patients with proven MRSA-induced bacteraemia-infective endocarditis (SAB-IE) with a vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) >1mg/L in the UK. A decision model was developed to assess total healthcare costs of treatment, including inpatient, outpatient and drug costs. Data were sourced from the literature (treatment efficacy and safety), a physician survey (resource use) and publicly available databases (unit costs). Assuming the same length of stay for daptomycin and vancomycin, the total healthcare costs per patient were £17917 for daptomycin and £17165 for vancomycin. However, extrapolating from published studies and supported by a physician survey, daptomycin was found to require fewer therapeutic switches and a shorter length of stay. When the length of stay was reduced from 42 days to 28 days, daptomycin saved £4037 per person compared with vancomycin. In conclusion, daptomycin is an effective and efficient alternative antibiotic for the treatment of SAB-IE. However, the level of cost saving depends on the extent to which local clinical practice allows early discharge of patients before the end of their antibiotic course when responding to treatment. PMID:27061774

  19. Staphylococcus aureus mutants lacking cell wall-bound protein A found in isolates from bacteraemia, MRSA infection and a healthy nasal carrier.

    PubMed

    Sørum, Marit; Sangvik, Maria; Stegger, Marc; Olsen, Renate S; Johannessen, Mona; Skov, Robert; Sollid, Johanna U E

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and a multitude of virulence factors enables it to cause infections, from superficial lesions to life-threatening systemic conditions. Staphylococcal protein A (SpA) is a surface protein contributing to S. aureus pathogenesis by interfering with immune responses and activating inflammation. Seven isolates with frameshift mutations in the spa repeat region were investigated to determine whether these mutations lead to truncation and secretion of SpA into the extracellular environment. Five isolates originated from blood cultures, one from an MRSA infection and one from a persistent nasal carrier. Full-length spa genes from the seven isolates were sequenced, and Western blot experiments were performed to localize SpA. Three isolates had identical deviating 25-bp spa repeats, but all isolates displayed different repeat successions. The DNA sequence revealed that the frameshift mutations created premature stop codons in all seven isolates, resulting in truncated SpA of different lengths, however, all lacking the XC region with the C-terminal sorting signal. SpA was detected by Western blot in six of the seven isolates, mainly extracellularly. Our findings demonstrate that S. aureus isolates with truncated SpA, not anchored to the cell wall, can still be found in bacteraemia, infection and among carriers. PMID:23620116

  20. Percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation for degenerated surgical bioprostheses: the first case series in Asia with one-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Chiam, Paul Toon Lim; Ewe, See Hooi; Soon, Jia Lin; Ho, Kay Woon; Sin, Yong Koong; Tan, Swee Yaw; Lim, Soo Teik; Koh, Tian Hai; Chua, Yeow Leng

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an established therapy for inoperable and high-surgical-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Although TAVI in patients with degenerated surgical aortic bioprostheses (i.e. valve-in-valve TAVI) is increasingly reported in Western studies, such data is lacking in Asian patients. We describe the initial experience of valve-in-valve TAVI in Asia. METHODS Eight patients who underwent valve-in-valve TAVI due to degenerated aortic bioprostheses were enrolled. The mechanism of bioprosthetic valve failure was stenotic, regurgitation or mixed. All procedures were performed via transfemoral arterial access, using the self-expanding CoreValve prosthesis or balloon-expandable SAPIEN XT prosthesis. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 71.6 ± 13.2 years and five were male. Mean duration to surgical bioprosthesis degeneration was 10.2 ± 4.1 years. Valve-in-valve TAVI was successfully performed in all patients. CoreValve and SAPIEN XT prostheses were used in six and two patients, respectively. There were no deaths, strokes or permanent pacemaker requirement at 30 days, with one noncardiac mortality at one year. All patients experienced New York Heart Association functional class improvement. Post-procedure mean pressure gradients were 20 ± 11 mmHg and 22 ± 8 mmHg at 30 days and one year, respectively. Residual aortic regurgitation (AR) of more than mild severity occurred in one patient at 30 days. At one year, only one patient had mild residual AR. CONCLUSION In our experience of valve-in-valve TAVI, procedural success was achieved in all patients without adverse events at 30 days. Good clinical and haemodynamic outcomes were sustained at one year. PMID:27193081

  1. Evaluation of a low-threshold/high-tolerance methadone maintenance treatment clinic in saint john, new brunswick, Canada: one year retention rate and illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Christie, Timothy K S; Murugesan, Alli; Manzer, Dana; O'Shaughnessey, Michael V; Webster, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To report the one-year retention rate and the prevalence of illicit opioid use and cocaine use in the Low-Threshold/High-Tolerance (LTHT) methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic located in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Methods. A description of the LTHT MMT clinic is provided. The one-year retention rate was determined by collecting data on patients who enrolled in the LTHT MMT clinic between August 04, 2009 and August 04, 2010. The prevalence of illicit drug use was determined using a randomly selected retrospective cohort of 84 participants. For each participant the results of six consecutive urine tests for the most recent three months were compared to the results of the first six consecutive urine tests after program entry. Results. The one-year retention rate was 95%, 67% of the cohort achieved abstinence from illicit opioids and an additional 13% abstained from cocaine use. Conclusion. The novel feature of the LTHT MMT clinic is that patients are not denied methadone because of lack of ancillary services. Traditional comprehensive MMT programs invest the majority of financial resources in ancillary services that support the biopsychosocial model, whereas the LTHT approach utilizes a medical model and directs resources at medical management. PMID:24860685

  2. Long-Term Weight Maintenance after a 17-Week Weight Loss Intervention with or without a One-Year Maintenance Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pekkarinen, Tuula; Kaukua, Jarmo; Mustajoki, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    Background. Weight lost by obese patients is almost always regained over time. Extended treatment may improve maintenance, but solid evidence is lacking. Purpose. We determined effectiveness of maintenance therapy after a weight loss program. Methods. Together 201 patients (mean age 47 years and BMI 42 kg/m2, 71% women) were randomly assigned to either a 17-week weight loss program followed by a one-year maintenance program or to a weight loss program without subsequent maintenance intervention. The weight loss program included behavior modification and a very-low-calorie diet, and maintenance program behavior modification. The primary outcome measure was percentage of patients with 5% or more weight loss at the end of maintenance (week 69) and one year later (week 121). Secondary outcomes were weight related changes in lifestyle and quality of life. Results. At week 69, 52% of the patients with and 44% of those without maintenance program had lost weight ≥5%, P = 0.40, and, at week 121, 33% and 34%, P = 0.77, respectively. At week 121 secondary outcomes did not differ between the groups among those successfully followed up. Conclusions. This one-year maintenance program was not effective in preventing weight regain in severely obese patients. Trial Registration. This trial is registered under clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00590655. PMID:25918644

  3. Long-Term Effects of Physical Exercise on Verbal Learning and Memory in Middle-Aged Adults: Results of a One-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Hötting, Kirsten; Schauenburg, Gesche; Röder, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    A few months of physical exercise have been shown to increase cognition and to modulate brain functions in previously sedentary, mainly older adults. However, whether the preservation of newly gained cognitive capacities requires an active maintenance of the achieved fitness level during the intervention is not yet known. The aim of the present study was to test whether cardiovascular fitness one year after an exercise intervention was linked to cognitive variables. Twenty-five healthy participants (42-57 years of age) took part in a follow-up assessment one year after the end of a supervised exercise intervention. Measurements included a cardiovascular fitness test, psychometric tests of verbal learning and memory and selective attention as well as questionnaires assessing physical activity and self-efficacy beliefs. Recognition scores of participants with higher cardiovascular fitness at follow-up did not change significantly during the follow-up period; however, the scores of participants with lower cardiovascular fitness decreased. One year after the end of the physical training intervention, previously sedentary participants spent more hours exercising than prior to the intervention. The time participants spent exercising correlated with their self-efficacy beliefs. These results demonstrate a direct link between verbal learning and cardiovascular fitness and show that positive effects of physical interventions on learning and memory do need an active maintenance of cardiovascular fitness. PMID:24961197

  4. Recovery of functional capacity in severe trauma victims at one year after injury: association with trauma-related and hospital stay aspects.

    PubMed

    Padovani, Cauê; Da Silva, Janete Maria; Rotta, Bruna Peruzzo; Neto, Ruy De Camargo Pires; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the functional capacity of trauma survivors one year after hospital discharge and to identify associations with trauma- and hospital stay-related aspects in a developing country. [Subjects and Methods] This study included severe trauma patients (Injury Severity Score ≥16; ≥18 years old) who were admitted to an intensive care unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Hospital stay data were collected from the patients' records. Functional capacity was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale one year after hospital discharge. Patients were asked if they had returned to work/school. [Results] Forty-nine patients completed follow-up. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale data, most patients had moderate or mild/no dysfunction. The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale showed that 60-70% of the subjects performed most activities independently. Multiple linear regression of the Glasgow score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Disease Classification System II score, length of mechanical ventilation, and hospital length of stay revealed an association between the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and hospital length of stay. Overall, 32.6% of the subjects had returned to work/school. [Conclusion] Most severe trauma patients experienced functional recovery, although only one-third had returned to work/school one year after hospital discharge. Hospital length of stay was identified as a significant predictor of functional recovery. PMID:27313345

  5. Recovery of functional capacity in severe trauma victims at one year after injury: association with trauma-related and hospital stay aspects

    PubMed Central

    Padovani, Cauê; Da Silva, Janete Maria; Rotta, Bruna Peruzzo; Neto, Ruy De Camargo Pires; Fu, Carolina; Tanaka, Clarice

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the functional capacity of trauma survivors one year after hospital discharge and to identify associations with trauma- and hospital stay-related aspects in a developing country. [Subjects and Methods] This study included severe trauma patients (Injury Severity Score ≥16; ≥18 years old) who were admitted to an intensive care unit in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Hospital stay data were collected from the patients’ records. Functional capacity was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale one year after hospital discharge. Patients were asked if they had returned to work/school. [Results] Forty-nine patients completed follow-up. According to the Glasgow Outcome Scale data, most patients had moderate or mild/no dysfunction. The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale showed that 60–70% of the subjects performed most activities independently. Multiple linear regression of the Glasgow score, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Disease Classification System II score, length of mechanical ventilation, and hospital length of stay revealed an association between the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and hospital length of stay. Overall, 32.6% of the subjects had returned to work/school. [Conclusion] Most severe trauma patients experienced functional recovery, although only one-third had returned to work/school one year after hospital discharge. Hospital length of stay was identified as a significant predictor of functional recovery. PMID:27313345

  6. One-year stability for a glucose/oxygen biofuel cell combined with pH reactivation of the laccase/carbon nanotube biocathode.

    PubMed

    Reuillard, Bertrand; Abreu, Caroline; Lalaoui, Noémie; Le Goff, Alan; Holzinger, Michael; Ondel, Olivier; Buret, Francois; Cosnier, Serge

    2015-12-01

    This study reports a mixed operational/storage stability of a MWCNT-based glucose biofuel cell (GBFC) over one year. The latter was examined by performing a one hour discharge every day during one month followed by several discharges over a period of 11 months. Under continuous discharge in physiological conditions (5 mM glucose, 37°, pH7), the GBFC exhibits a 25% power decrease after 1 h of operation. This decrease is mainly due to the deactivation of laccase biocathodes at neutral pH. Nevertheless, the biocathodes can be reversibly reactivated via storage in phosphate buffer (pH 5). Under these conditions, the GBFC finally exhibits 22% of its initial maximum power density after one year at intermittent reactivation/discharge cycles. Although both GBFC electrodes can exhibit one year stability, short-term experiments show that biocathodes are limited by hydroxide inhibition while long-term experiments indicate that bioanodes are likely limited by the stability of the GOx itself. While most of the GBFCs in the literature present stability in the range of several weeks, these results demonstrate the viability of a GBFC for industrial applications in a long period of time. PMID:25934467

  7. Social Withdrawal Behaviour at One Year of Age Is Associated with Delays in Reaching Language Milestones in the EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guedeney, Antoine; Forhan, Anne; de Agostini, Maria; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Heude, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social withdrawal behaviour at one year and motor and language milestones. Materials and Methods One-year old children from the EDEN French population-based birth cohort study (Study on the pre- and postnatal determinants of the child’s development and prospective health Birth Cohort Study) were included. Social withdrawal at one year was assessed by trained midwives using the Alarm Distress BaBy (ADBB) scale. Midwives concurrently examined infants’ motor and language milestones. Parents reported on child’s psychomotor and language milestones, during the interview with the midwife. Results After adjusting for potential confounding factors, social withdrawal behaviour was significantly associated with concurrent delays in motor and language milestones assessed by the midwife or the parents. Discussion Higher scores on social withdrawal behaviour as assessed with the ADBB were associated with delays in reaching language milestones, and to a lesser extent with lower motor ability scores. Taking the contribution of social withdrawal behaviour into account may help understand the unfolding of developmental difficulties in children. PMID:27391482

  8. In-Hospital and One-Year Mortality and Their Predictors in Patients Hospitalized for First-Ever Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Te-Wei; Tsai, Yi-Ju; Ruan, Sheng-Yuan; Huang, Chun-Ta; Lai, Feipei; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is punctuated by exacerbations; however, little is known about prognosis of the first-ever COPD exacerbation and variables predicting its outcomes. Materials and Methods A population-based cohort study among COPD patients with their first-ever exacerbations requiring hospitalizations was conducted. Main outcomes were in-hospital mortality and one-year mortality after discharge. Demographics, comorbidities, medications and in-hospital events were obtained to explore outcome predictors. Results The cohort comprised 4204 hospitalized COPD patients, of whom 175 (4%) died during the hospitalization. In-hospital mortality was related to higher age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.05 per year; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.06) and Charlson comorbidity index score (OR: 1.08 per point; 95% CI: 1.01–1.15); angiotensin II receptor blockers (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38–0.98) and β blockers (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.41–0.95) conferred a survival benefit. At one year after discharge, 22% (871/4029) of hospital survivors were dead. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, age and Charlson comorbidity index remained independent predictors of one-year mortality. Longer hospital stay (hazard ratio [HR] 1.01 per day; 95% CI: 1.01–1.01) and ICU admission (HR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.03–1.73) during the hospitalization were associated with higher mortality risks. Prescription of β blockers (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.67–0.93) and statins (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.47–0.91) on hospital discharge were protective against one-year mortality. Conclusions Even the first-ever severe COPD exacerbation signifies poor prognosis in COPD patients. Comorbidities play a crucial role in determining outcomes and should be carefully assessed. Angiotensin II receptor blockers, β blockers and statins may, in theory, have dual cardiopulmonary protective properties and probably alter prognosis of COPD patients. Nevertheless, the limitations

  9. MASTERS-D Study: A Prospective, Multicenter, Pragmatic, Observational, Data-Monitored Trial of Minimally Invasive Fusion to Treat Degenerative Lumbar Disorders, One-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Neil; Buzek, David; Kosmala, Arkadiusz; Hubbe, Ulrich; Rosenberg, Wout; Pereira, Paulo; Assietti, Roberto; Martens, Frederic; Lam, Khai; Barbanti Brodano, Giovanni; Durny, Peter; Lidar, Zvi; Scheufler, Kai; Senker, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess effectiveness and safety of minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion (MILIF) for degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD) in daily surgical practice and follow up with patients for one year after surgery. A prospective, multicenter, pragmatic, monitored, international outcome study in patients with DLD causing back/leg pain was conducted (19 centers). Two hundred fifty-two patients received standard of care available in the centers. Patients were included if they were aged >18 years, required one- or two-level lumbar fusion for DLD, and met the criteria for approved device indications. Primary endpoints: time to first ambulation (TFA) and time to surgery recovery (TSR). Secondary endpoints: patient-reported outcomes (PROs)--back and leg pain (visual analog scale), disability (Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)), health status (EQ-5D), fusion rates, reoperation rates, change in pain medication, rehabilitation, return to work, patient satisfaction, and adverse events (AEs). Experienced surgeons (≥30 surgeries pre-study) treated patients with DLD by one- or two-level MILIF and patients were evaluated for one year (NCT01143324). At one year, 92% (233/252) of patients remained in the study. Primary outcomes: TFA, 1.3 ±0.5 days and TSR, 3.2 ±2.0 days. Secondary outcomes: Most patients (83.3%) received one level MILIF; one (two-level) MILIF mean surgery duration, 128 (182) min; fluoroscopy time, 115 (154) sec; blood loss, 164 (233) mL; at one year statistically significant (P<.0001) and clinically meaningful changes from baseline were reported in all PROs--reduced back pain (2.9 ±2.5 vs. 6.2 ±2.3 at intake), reduced leg pain (2.2 ±2.6 vs. 5.9 ±2.8), and ODI (22.4% ± 18.6 vs. 45.3% ± 15.3), as well as health-related quality of life (EQ-5D index: 0.71 ±0.28 vs. 0.34 ±0.32). More of the professional workers were working at one year than those prior to surgery (70.3% vs. 55.2%). Three AEs and one serious AE were considered

  10. Tracking Parkinson’s Disease over One Year with Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Group of Older Patients with Moderate Disease

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Tracy R.; Myall, Daniel J.; MacAskill, Michael R.; Pitcher, Toni L.; Livingston, Leslie; Watts, Richard; Keenan, Ross J.; Dalrymple-Alford, John C.; Anderson, Tim J.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objectives Cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggests that Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with changes in cerebral tissue volume, diffusion tensor imaging metrics, and perfusion values. Here, we performed a longitudinal multimodal MRI study—including structural, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and perfusion MRI—to investigate progressive brain changes over one year in a group of older PD patients at a moderate stage of disease. Methods Twenty-three non-demented PD (mean age (SD) = 69.5 (6.4) years, disease duration (SD) = 5.6 (4.3) years) and 23 matched control participants (mean age: 70.6 (6.8)) completed extensive neuropsychological and clinical assessment, and multimodal 3T MRI scanning at baseline and one year later. We used a voxel-based approach to assess change over time and group-by-time interactions for cerebral structural and perfusion metrics. Results Compared to controls, in PD participants there was localized grey matter atrophy over time in bilateral inferior and right middle temporal, and left orbito-frontal cortices. Using a voxel-based approach that focused on the centers of principal white matter tracts, the PD and control cohorts exhibited similar levels of change in DTI metrics. There was no significant change in perfusion, cognitive, or motor severity measures. Conclusions In a cohort of older, non-demented PD participants, macrostructural MRI detected atrophy in the PD group compared with the control group in temporal and orbito-frontal cortices. Changes in diffusion MRI along principal white matter tracts over one year were found, but this was not differentially affected by PD. PMID:26714266

  11. The effect of polishing techniques and time on the surface characteristics and sealing ability of resin composite restorations after one-year storage.

    PubMed

    Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Venturini, Daniela; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Piva, Evandro; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Since there is a lack of information on the surface properties of composite restorations achieved with standard polishing procedures after aging processes, this study evaluated the effects of immediate (IM) and delayed (DE) polishing on the surface roughness (Ra), microhardness (KHN) and microleakage (ML) of microfilled (Filtek A110) and hybrid (Filtek Z250) resin composites after one-year storage. Standardized preparations were made on the buccal surface of 256 bovine teeth, where half were restored with each composite. For each composite, the specimens were randomly allocated to two subgroups. The first group (IM) was polished immediately after gross finishing using three different systems/techniques (n=16): Sof-Lex, Flexicups and Flexicups + Jiffy Polishing Brush + Flexibuffs (sequential), then stored for three weeks in saline. The DE group was stored for two weeks, polished with the same systems and stored for one week. From each subgroup, eight specimens were assessed after three weeks regarding Ra, KHN and ML (baseline), andthe eight remaining specimens were stored for one year before analysis. The data were analyzed (alpha=0.05) with ANOVA, paired Student's t-test (Ra and KHN) or Kruskal-Wallis and Signed Rank tests (microleakage). After one year, microfilled resin composite specimens showed the lowest Ra and KHN (p<0.05). N o differencein microleakage was observed among the different groups (p>0.05). The sequential technique provided the lowest roughness and Sof-Lex the lowest hardness (p<0.05). IM showed similar or better performance than DE for ML and Ra (p<0.05). In conclusion, aging increased the composites Ra and ML in all experimental conditions (p<0.05). PMID:18435191

  12. One-Year Test-Retest Reliability of the Maryland Resource for the Behavioral Utilization of the Reinforcement of Negative Stimuli (MRBURNS)

    PubMed Central

    Dahne, Jennifer; Richards, Jessica M.; Lejuez, C. W.; MacPherson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The Maryland Resource for the Behavioral Utilization of the Reinforcement of Negative Stimuli (MRBURNS) is a novel behavioral task designed to measure individual differences in negative reinforcement-based risk taking propensity. Performance on the MRBURNS has been linked with alcohol-related problems and negative reinforcement-based drinking motives, as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression; however, it is unclear if performance on the task represents a stable measure of negative reinforcement-based risk taking over time. As such, the current study aimed to examine the test-retest reliability of the MRBURNS over a period of one year. Results indicate that the correlation between year 1 and year 2 risk behavior (average number of pumps) on the MRBURNS was .43 across all trials. With the one year test-retest reliability of the MRBURNS established, the MRBURNS may be a useful approach to measuring the relative contribution of negative reinforcement-based risk taking in the development of risky behaviors over time, and may be used to monitor the effects of novel interventions that aim to reduce negative reinforcement based risk taking in the real world. PMID:25620830

  13. Impact of a new levonorgestrel intrauterine system, Levosert®, on heavy menstrual bleeding: results of a one-year randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nollevaux, Fabrice; Nizet, Dominique; Wijzen, Fabienne; Gordenne, Valérie; Tasev, Niso; Segedi, Dimitrije; Marinescu, Bogdan; Enache, Andreea; Parhomenko, Vadim; Frankenne, Francis; Foidart, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a new levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) called Levosert® for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in comparison to the reference product Mirena®. Methods A multicentre, randomised, controlled trial, in non-menopausal women diagnosed with functional HMB (defined as menstrual blood loss [MBL] ≥ 80 mL) randomised to either Levosert® or Mirena® and followed for up to one year. MBL was evaluated using a validated modified version of the Wyatt pictogram. Results A total of 280 women were randomised (141 to Levosert® and 139 to Mirena®). During the one-year treatment period, both Levosert® and Mirena® dramatically decreased MBL and increased haemoglobin and ferritin levels. There were no statistically significant differences between Levosert® and Mirena® regarding any of the parameters evaluated during the study. Similar bleeding patterns were observed in both groups. Levosert® was inserted with the same ease as Mirena®. Both treatments were associated with identical expulsion rates and no perforations occurred in either treatment group. Conclusion Levosert®, a new LNG-IUS designed to release the same daily amount of LNG as Mirena®, is highly effective in the treatment of HMB. No differences were observed between Levosert® and Mirena® regarding all evaluated outcomes, including safety profile. PMID:24666176

  14. The Swarm Initial Field Model - a Model of the Earth's Magnetic Field for 2014 Determined From One Year of Swarm Satellite Constellation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, N.; Hulot, G.; Lesur, V.; Finlay, C. C.; Beggan, C.; Chulliat, A.; Sabaka, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Almost one year of data from ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive a model of the Earth's magnetic field and its time variation (secular variation). The model describes contributions from the core and lithosphere as well as large-scale contributions from the magnetosphere (and its Earth-induced counterpart). We use data from geomagnetic quiet times (Kp less than 2o, time change of Dst-index less than 2 nT/hr) and dark regions (sun below horizon) and co-estimate the Euler angles describing the rotation between the vector magnetometer instrument frame and the North-East-Center (NEC) frame. In addition to the magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm satellites we include the East-west magnetic gradient information provided by the lower Swarm satellite pair, thereby explicitly taking advantage of the constellation aspect of Swarm. We assess the spatial and temporal model resolution that can be obtained from one year of Swarm satellite data by comparison with other recent models that also include non-Swarm magnetic observations.

  15. One Year of Preschool or Two – Is It Important for Adult Outcomes? Results from the Chicago Longitudinal Study of the Child-Parent Centers

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga, Irma; Humpage, Sarah; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.

    2015-01-01

    Until the last year, public funding for preschool education had been growing rapidly over a decade with most state programs providing one year of preschool for four year olds. Fewer three year olds are enrolled in preschool. To investigate the importance of enrollment duration, this study is the first to estimate long-term dosage effects of years of preschool. We use data from a cohort of 1,500 students in the Chicago Longitudinal Study who enrolled in the Chicago Public Schools in the mid-1980s. Many of these students participated in a high-quality preschool program called Child-Parent Centers (CPC) for one or two years. To address selection with multiple treatments, we employ inverse propensity score weighting. Relative to children who attended one year of CPC preschool, the two-year group is significantly less likely to receive special education or be abused or neglected or to commit crimes. The findings provide support for the long-term benefits of greater exposure to preschool. PMID:26823640

  16. Prevalence and Trends of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteraemia in Hospitalized Patients in South Africa, 2010 to 2012: Laboratory-Based Surveillance Mapping of Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Perovic, Olga; Iyaloo, Samantha; Kularatne, Ranmini; Lowman, Warren; Bosman, Noma; Wadula, Jeannette; Seetharam, Sharona; Duse, Adriano; Mbelle, Nontombi; Bamford, Colleen; Dawood, Halima; Mahabeer, Yesholata; Bhola, Prathna; Abrahams, Shareef; Singh-Moodley, Ashika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding on recent antimicrobial resistance trends and molecular epidemiology trends of S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB). Methods Thirteen academic centres in South Africa were included from June 2010 until July 2012. S. aureus susceptibility testing was performed on the MicroScan Walkaway. Real-time PCR using the LightCycler 480 II was done for mecA and nuc. SCCmec and spa-typing were finalized with conventional PCR. We selected one isolate per common spa type per province for multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Results S. aureus from 2709 patients were included, and 1231 (46%) were resistant to methicillin, with a significant decline over the three-year period (p-value = 0.003). Geographical distribution of MRSA was significantly higher in Gauteng compared to the other provinces (P<0.001). Children <5 years were significantly associated with MRSA with higher rates compared to all other age groups (P = 0.01). The most prevalent SCCmec type was SCCmec type III (531 [41%]) followed by type IV (402 [31%]). Spa-typing discovered 47 different spa-types. The five (87%) most common spa-types were t037, t1257, t045, t064 and t012. Based on MLST, the commonest was ST612 clonal complex (CC8) (n = 7) followed by ST5 (CC5) (n = 4), ST36 (CC30) (n = 4) and ST239 (CC8) (n = 3). Conclusions MRSA rate is high in South Africa. Majority of the isolates were classified as SCCmec type III (41%) and type IV (31%), which are typically associated with hospital and community- acquired infections, respectively. Overall, this study reveals the presence of a variety of hospital-acquired MRSA clones in South Africa dominance of few clones, spa 037 and 1257. Monitoring trends in resistance and molecular typing is recommended to detect changing epidemiological trends in AMR patterns of SAB. PMID:26719975

  17. Sustaining Control of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Western Côte d’Ivoire: Results from a SCORE Study, One Year after Initial Praziquantel Administration

    PubMed Central

    Assaré, Rufin K.; Tian-Bi, Yves-Nathan T.; Yao, Patrick K.; N’Guessan, Nicaise A.; Ouattara, Mamadou; Yapi, Ahoua; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Meïté, Aboulaye; Hürlimann, Eveline; Knopp, Stefanie; Utzinger, Jürg; N’Goran, Eliézer K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) has launched several large-scale trials to determine the best strategies for gaining and sustaining control of schistosomiasis and transitioning toward elimination. In Côte d’Ivoire, a 5-year cluster-randomized trial is being implemented in 75 schools to sustain the control of schistosomiasis mansoni. We report Schistosoma mansoni infection levels in children one year after the initial school-based treatment (SBT) with praziquantel and compare with baseline results to determine the effect of the intervention. Methodology The baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011/early 2012 and the first follow-up in May 2013. Three consecutive stool samples were collected from 9- to 12-year-old children in 75 schools at baseline and 50 schools at follow-up. Stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. Directly observed treatment (DOT) coverage of the SBT was assessed and the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection compared between baseline and follow-up. Principal Findings The S. mansoni prevalence in the 75 schools surveyed at baseline was 22.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 19.5–24.4%). The DOT coverage was 84.2%. In the 50 schools surveyed at baseline and one year after treatment, the overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection decreased significantly from 19.7% (95% CI: 18.5–20.8%) to 12.8% (95% CI: 11.9–13.8%), while the arithmetic mean S. mansoni eggs per gram of stool (EPG) among infected children slightly increased from 92.2 EPG (95% CI: 79.2–105.3 EPG) to 109.3 EPG (95% CI: 82.7–135.9 EPG). In two of the 50 schools, the prevalence increased significantly, despite a DOT coverage of >75%. Conclusions/Significance One year after the initial SBT, the S. mansoni prevalence had decreased. Despite this positive trend, an increase was observed in some schools. Moreover, the infection intensity among S. mansoni-infected children

  18. Application of an Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft (CenoDerm) for Treatment of Multiple Gingival Recession Defects: A Case Report with One-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Neda; Heidari, Mohadeseh; Mousavi Jazi, Mahvash; Daneshmonfared, Mahdieh

    2014-01-01

    Several techniques and materials have been introduced for the treatment of gingival recession defects. This article reports the case of a 43-year old female patient with chief complaint of esthetic problem, presenting multiple gingival recession defects in anterior maxilla. CenoDerm combined with coronally positioned flap was used for management of six teeth with gingival recession. Complete root coverage was achieved in 66.6% of treated sites in one-year follow-up and the patient was satisfied with the esthetic result. The mean root coverage was 86.0%±22.3. The mean recession depth reduction and clinical attachment gain were 1.8±0.8 mm and 2.5±0.6 mm, respectively. According to the results obtained in this case, CenoDerm can be applied successfully in treatment of multiple gingival recession defects. PMID:25346839

  19. [Evaluation of the One-Year Multimodal Weight Loss Program DOC WEIGHT® 1.0 for Obesity Class II and III].

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Almut; Hellbardt, Mario; Baldofski, Sabrina; de Zwaan, Martina; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-08-01

    According to treatment guidelines, treatment for obesity (body mass index [BMI]≥30.0 kg/m(2)) comprises nutritional, physical, and behavioral interventions. However, evidence-based programs for the treatment of severe obesity are rare. In an uncontrolled study, a total of 190 participants (BMI≥35.0 kg/m(2)) of the one-year multimodal treatment program DOC WEIGHT(®) 1.0 were assessed at pre- (t0) and post-intervention (t1) as well as at 1-year follow-up (t2). Results revealed significant improvements from t0 to t1 in body weight, waist circumference, eating disorder psychopathology, and quality of life that persisted to t2. Long-term multimodal outpatient treatment for severe obesity focusing on behavior modification is promising, however, high rates of loss to follow-up limit explanatory power. To improve evidence, consecutive evaluation is intended. PMID:27485928

  20. Men's sexual interest in children: one-year incidence and correlates in a population-based sample of Finnish male twins.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Pekka; Antfolk, Jan; Räfså, Anna; Hartwig, Maria; Sariola, Heikki; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Mokros, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In a study of 1,310 Finnish adult male twins we found that sexual interest in children aged 12 or younger was reported by 0.2% of the sample. Sexual interest in children aged 15 or younger was reported by 3.3%. Participants reporting sexual interest in children aged 15 or younger were younger, reported stronger sexual desire, and had experienced more childhood sexual and nonsexual abuse. The present study is the first to give a population-based estimate of the incidence of sexual interest in children among adult men. The 12-month incidence of sexual interest in children below the age of 16 years is roughly comparable to the one-year incidence of major depression or the lifetime prevalence of transvestitic fetishism. PMID:25747416

  1. Acceptability of Medical Male Circumcision Among Uncircumcised Men in Kenya One Year After the Launch of the National Male Circumcision Program

    PubMed Central

    Herman-Roloff, Amy; Otieno, Nixon; Agot, Kawango; Bailey, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have demonstrated that male circumcision (MC) reduces the incidence of the Type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among heterosexual men by at least half. Methods One year after the launch of a national Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision program in Kenya, this study conducted 12 focus group discussions among uncircumcised men in Nyanza Province to assess the revealed, non-hypothetical, facilitators and barriers to the uptake of MC. Results The primary barriers to MC uptake included time away from work; culture and religion; possible adverse events; and the post-surgical abstinence period. The primary facilitators of MC uptake included hygiene; social pressure; protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections; and improved sexual performance and satisfaction. Conclusions Some activities which might increase MC uptake include dispelling MC misconceptions; increasing involvement of religious leaders, women's groups, and peer mobilizers for MC promotion; and increasing the relevance of MC among men who are already practicing an HIV prevention method. PMID:21603622

  2. Does gender matter? A one year follow-up of autistic, attention and anxiety symptoms in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    May, Tamara; Cornish, Kim; Rinehart, Nicole

    2014-05-01

    Gender differences in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated problem behaviours over development may provide clues regarding why more males than females are diagnosed with ASD. Fifty-six high-functioning children with ASD, and 44 typically developing controls, half of the participants female, were assessed at baseline (aged 7-12 years) and one-year later, collecting measures of autism, attention and anxiety symptoms, school placement and support information. Findings indicated no gender differences in autistic symptoms. Males were more hyperactive and received more integration-aide support in mainstream schools, and females were more socially anxious. Overall, similar gender profiles were present across two time points. Lower hyperactivity levels in females might contribute to their under-identification. Implications are discussed using a biopsychosocial model of gender difference. PMID:24105364

  3. One-year follow-up of non-vital discolored teeth after bleaching with an association of techniques: a case report.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Cristian; Rauski, Roanita Dalalibera; Gomes, Joao Carlos; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Reis, Alessandra

    2007-11-01

    Patient demand for esthetic procedures and the trend for non-invasive dental treatment have led to the development of different materials and whitening techniques that are capable of re-establishing a patient's smile without affecting dental structure. Numerous potential factors may cause the discoloration of pulpless teeth. A simple and time-saving method for bleaching discolored root-filled teeth combines intracoronal and extracoronal bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide and a procedure known as the walking bleach technique, a conservative treatment that restores esthetics to darkened and stained non-vital teeth. This article presents a case report that used this technique and examines the effects of this treatment after one year. PMID:18069512

  4. Telephone-Based Adiposity Prevention for Families with Overweight Children (T.A.F.F.-Study): One Year Outcome of a Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Markert, Jana; Herget, Sabine; Petroff, David; Gausche, Ruth; Grimm, Andrea; Kiess, Wieland; Blüher, Susann

    2014-01-01

    The one-year outcome of the randomized controlled T.A.F.F. (Telephone based Adiposity prevention For Families) study is presented. Screening of overweight (BMI-SDS > 90th centile) children 3.5–17.4 years was performed via the German CrescNet database, and candidates were randomized to an intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). The intervention consisted of computer-aided telephone counselling for one year, supported by mailed newsletters. The primary endpoint was change in BMI-SDS; secondary endpoints were eating behavior, physical activity, media consumption, quality of life. Data from 289 families (145 IG (51% females); 144 CG (50% females)) were analyzed (Full Analysis Set: FAS; Per Protocol Set: PPS). Successful intervention was defined as decrease in BMI-SDS ≥ 0.2. In the FAS, 21% of the IG was successful as compared to 16% from the CG (95% CI for this difference: (−4, 14), p = 0.3, mean change in BMI-SDS: −0.02 for IG vs. 0.02 for CG; p = 0.4). According to the PPS, however, the success rate was 35% in the IG compared to 19% in the CG (mean change in BMI-SDS: −0.09 for IG vs. 0.02 for CG; p = 0.03). Scores for eating patterns (p = 0.01), media consumption (p = 0.007), physical activity (p = 9 × 10−9), quality of life (p = 5 × 10−8) decreased with age, independent of group or change in BMI-SDS. We conclude that a telephone-based obesity prevention program suffers from well-known high attrition rates so that its effectiveness could only be shown in those who adhered to completion. The connection between lifestyle and weight status is not simple and requires further research to better understand. PMID:25286167

  5. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols and detection of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples, including fungal spores, bacteria, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres, were analyzed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two excitation wavelengths/detection wavebands method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper. All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one-year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and decreased towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions prevail. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand, the total aerosol number concentration was almost always higher during daytime than during nighttime and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed. However, a clear correlation was identified between the FBAP

  6. Serum level changes of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients undergoing periodontal therapy combined with one year of omega-3 supplementation: a pilot randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the impact of nonsurgical periodontal treatment combined with one-year dietary supplementation with omega (ω)-3 on the serum levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and arachidonic acid (AA). Methods Fifteen patients with chronic generalized periodontitis were treated with scaling and root planing. The test group consisted of seven patients (43.1±6.0 years) supplemented with ω-3, consisting of EPA plus DHA, three capsules, each of 300 mg of ω-3 (180-mg EPA/120-mg DHA), for 12 months. The control group was composed of eight patients (46.1±11.6 years) that took a placebo capsule for 12 months. The periodontal examination and the serum levels of DPA, EPA, DHA, and AA were performed at baseline (T0), and 4 (T1), and 12 (T2) months after therapy. Results In the test group, AA and DPA levels had been reduced significantly at T1 (P<0.05). AA and EPA levels had been increased significantly at T2 (P<0.05). The ΔEPA was significantly higher in the test compared to the placebo group at T2-T0 (P=0.02). The AA/EPA had decreased significantly at T1 and T2 relative to baseline (P<0.05). Conclusions Nonsurgical periodontal treatment combined with ω-3 supplementation significantly increased the EPA levels and decreased the AA/EPA ratio in serum after one year follow-up. However, no effect on the clinical outcome of periodontal therapy was observed. Graphical Abstract PMID:25177518

  7. One-year follow-up of neurological status of patients after cardiac arrest seen at the emergency room of a teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Lopes, Maria Carolina Barbosa Teixeira; Okuno, Meiry Fernanda Pinto; Batista, Ruth Ester Assayag; Atallah, Álvaro Nagib; de Góis, Aécio Flávio Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe neurological status and associated factors of survivors after cardiac arrest, upon discharge, and at 6 and 12 month follow-up. Methods: A cohort, prospective, descriptive study conducted in an emergency room. Patients who suffered cardiac arrest and survived were included. A one-year consecutive sample, comprising 285 patients and survivors (n=16) followed up for one year after discharge. Neurological status was assessed by the Cerebral Performance Category before the cardiac arrest, upon discharge, and at 6 and 12 months after discharge. The following factors were investigated: comorbidities, presence of consciousness upon admission, previous cardiac arrest, witnessed cardiac arrest, location, cause and initial rhythm of cardiac arrest, number of cardiac arrests, interval between collapse and start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and between collapse and end of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Results: Of the patients treated, 4.5% (n=13) survived after 6 and 12 months follow-up. Upon discharge, 50% of patients remained with previous Cerebral Performance Category of the cardiac arrest and 50% had worsening of Cerebral Performance Category. After 6 months, 53.8% remained in the same Cerebral Performance Category and 46.2% improved as compared to discharge. After 12 months, all patients remained in the same Cerebral Performance Category of the previous 6 months. There was no statistically significant association between neurological outcome during follow-up and the variables assessed. Conclusion: There was neurological worsening at discharge but improvement or stabilization in the course of a year. There was no association between Cerebral Performance Category and the variables assessed. PMID:26154538

  8. Patterns of Sexual Aggression in a Community Sample of Young Men: Risk Factors Associated with Persistence, Desistance, and Initiation Over a One Year Interval

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana; Pierce, Jennifer; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study is to distinguish risk factors associated with young men's self-reports of continuing (persistence), stopping (desistance), and starting (initiation) sexual aggression against women over a one year time period. This study fills gaps in the literature not addressed in other studies by examining a wide range of predictor variables prospectively in a community sample. Method Single men age 18 to 35 were recruited through telephone sampling in a large metropolitan region. In person audio computer-assisted self interviews were completed at baseline and one year later (n = 423). Results By the follow-up interview, half of the participants reported engaging in some type of sexual activity with a woman when they knew she was unwilling. Discriminant function and analysis of variance demonstrated that persistent sexual aggressors had the most extreme scores on many baseline and follow-up measures including childhood victimization, social deviance, personality traits, frequency of misperception of women's sexual intent, and expectancies about alcohol's effects. At follow-up, desisters had fewer sexual partners than did persisters. Also at follow-up, initiators misperceived more women's sexual intentions, had stronger alcohol expectancies, drank more alcohol in sexual situations, and were with women who drank more alcohol as compared to nonperpetrators. Conclusions Given the extremely high rates of self-reported sexual aggression, universal prevention programs are needed. Targeted interventions should focus on youth who were victimized in childhood, engage in delinquent behavior, are narcissistic and unconcerned about others, enjoy impersonal sex, drink heavily, and believe that alcohol enhances sexuality. PMID:22272382

  9. Perceived Harm of Tobacco Products and Individual Schemas of a Smoker in Relation to Change in Tobacco Product Use Over One Year Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Romero, Devan R.; Pulvers, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Given increases in nondaily smoking and alternative tobacco use among young adults, we examined the nature of change of various tobacco product use among college students over a year and predictors of use at one-year follow-up. Methods An online survey was administered to students at six Southeast colleges and universities (N = 4,840; response rate = 20.1%) in Fall 2010, with attempts to follow up in Fall 2011 with a random subsample of 2,000 participants (N = 718; response rate = 35.9%). Data were analyzed from 698 participants with complete data regarding tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol use over a one-year period, perceived harm of tobacco use, and schemas of a “smoker” (as per the Classifying a Smoker Scale). Results Baseline predictors of current smoking at follow-up included being White (p = .001), frequency of smoking (p < .001), alternative tobacco use (p < .001), and perceived harm of smoking (p = .02); marginally significant predictors included marijuana use (p = .06) and lower scores on the Classifying a Smoker Scale (p = .07). Baseline predictors of current smoking at follow-up among baseline nondaily smokers included more frequent smoking (p = .008); lower Classifying a Smoker Scale score was a marginally significant predictor (p = .06). Baseline predictors of alternative tobacco use at follow-up included being male (p = .007), frequency of smoking (p = .04), alternative tobacco use (p < .001), and frequency of alcohol use (p = .003); marginally significant predictors included marijuana use (p = .07) and lower perceived harm of smokeless tobacco (p = .06) and cigar products (p = .08). Conclusions Tobacco control campaigns and interventions might target schemas of a smoker and perceived risks of using various tobacco products, even at low levels. PMID:25338288

  10. Under-nutrition at baseline and health services utilization and mortality over a one-year period in older adults receiving Medicare home health services

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongbin; Brown, Cynthia J.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Kilgore, Meredith L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Roth, David L.; West, Delia Smith; Locher, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Older adults receiving Medicare home health services who experience under-nutrition may be at increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. We sought to identify the association between baseline nutritional status and subsequent health service utilization and mortality over a one-year period in older adults receiving Medicare home health services. Design This was a longitudinal study using questionnaires and anthropometric measures designed to assess nutritional status (Mini-Nutritional Assessment [MNA]) at baseline and health services utilization and mortality status at six-month and one-year follow-ups. Setting Participants were evaluated in their homes. Participants 198 older adults who were receiving Medicare home health services. Results Based upon MNA, 12.0% of patients were Malnourished, 51.0% were At Risk for Malnourishment, and 36.9% had Normal Nutrition Status. Based upon body mass index (BMI), 8.1% of participants were underweight, 37.9% were normal weight, 25.3% were overweight, and 28.8% were obese. Using multivariate binary logistic regression analyses, participants who were Malnourished or At Risk for Malnourishment were more likely to experience subsequent hospitalization, emergency room visit, home health aide use, and mortality for the entire sample and hospitalization and nursing home stay for overweight and obese participants. Conclusions Experiencing under-nutrition at the time of receipt of Medicare home health services was associated with increased health services utilization and mortality for the entire sample, and with increased health services utilization only for the overweight and obese subsample. Opportunities exist to address risk of under-nutrition in patients receiving home health services, including those who are overweight or obese, to prevent subsequent adverse health outcomes. PMID:21527170

  11. THE ANGLO-AUSTRALIAN PLANET SEARCH. XXI. A GAS-GIANT PLANET IN A ONE YEAR ORBIT AND THE HABITABILITY OF GAS-GIANT SATELLITES

    SciTech Connect

    Tinney, C. G.; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Bailey, Jeremy A.; Horner, J.; Butler, R. Paul; Jones, Hugh R. A.; O'Toole, Simon J.; Carter, Brad D.

    2011-05-01

    We have detected the Doppler signature of a gas-giant exoplanet orbiting the star HD 38283, in an eccentric orbit with a period of almost exactly one year (P = 363.2 {+-} 1.6 d, m sin i = 0.34 {+-} 0.02 M{sub Jup}, e = 0.41 {+-} 0.16). The detection of a planet with period very close to one year critically relied on year-round observation of this circumpolar star. Discovering a planet in a 1 AU orbit around a G dwarf star has prompted us to look more closely at the question of the habitability of the satellites of such planets. Regular satellites orbit all the giant planets in our solar system, suggesting that their formation is a natural by-product of the planet formation process. There is no reason for exomoon formation not to be similarly likely in exoplanetary systems. Moreover, our current understanding of that formation process does not preclude satellite formation in systems where gas giants undergo migration from their formation locations into the terrestrial planet habitable zone. Indeed, regular satellite formation and Type II migration are both linked to the clearing of a gap in the protoplanetary disk by a planet, and so may be inextricably linked. Migration would also multiply the chances of capturing both irregular satellites and Trojan companions sufficiently massive to be habitable. The habitability of such exomoons and exo-Trojans will critically depend on their mass, whether or not they host a magnetosphere, and (for the exomoon case) their orbital radius around the host exoplanet.

  12. A Multi-Component Day-Camp Weight-Loss Program Is Effective in Reducing BMI in Children after One Year: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Andersen, Lars Bo; Heidemann, Malene; Møller, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a one-year multi-component immersive day-camp weight-loss intervention for children with overweight and obesity. The study design was a parallel-group randomized controlled trial. One hundred fifteen 11-13-year-old children with overweight and obesity were randomized into either: A six-week day-camp intervention arm focusing on increased physical activity, and healthy diet followed by a subsequent one-year family-based intervention, or a standard intervention arm consisting of one weekly exercise session for six weeks. Body mass index (BMI) was the primary outcome. BMI z-score, clustered cardiovascular risk z-score, and body composition were secondary outcomes. All outcomes were measured at baseline, six week-, and 52 week follow-up. After six weeks, children from the day-camp intervention arm had improved their BMI (-2.2 kg/m2 (95% CI -2.6 to -1.7, P<0.001)) and all secondary outcomes when compared to the children from the standard intervention arm. After 52 weeks, the day-camp intervention arm had a lower BMI (-1.2 kg/m2 (95% CI -1.8 to -0.5, P = 0.001)), and BMI z-score (-0.20 (95% CI -0.35 to -0.05, P = 0.008)), and clustered cardiovascular risk z-score (-0.23 (95% CI -0.37 to -0.08, P = 0.002)) compared to the standard intervention arm. No group differences were detected in body composition after 52 weeks. This study shows that the day-camp intervention arm is effective in reducing BMI and improving the metabolic health of children with overweight and obesity. However, the effects seem to be diminishing over time. PMID:27362497

  13. Near Work Related Behaviors Associated with Myopic Shifts among Primary School Students in the Jiading District of Shanghai: A School-Based One-Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui; He, Xiangui; Qu, Xiaomei; Shi, Huijing; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the characteristics of various near work related behaviors among primary students and their associations with changes in myopia related ocular biometric parameters during one-year of follow up. Methods A school-based sample of 4,814 primary 1st to 4th grade students aged 6–10 years old were selected by cluster randomization based on probability proportion to size in 2013. At baseline, students together with their parents filled in a self-administered questionnaire on 9 aspects of near work related behaviors and some important covariants of myopia. A comprehensive set of eye examinations including axial length (AL) and cycloplegic refraction was conducted both at baseline and one year later. Results With the grade level increase, students did increasingly better at finding various ways to have an eye break, but they were increasingly likely to continuously do long-time near work without an eye break. Keeping a reasonable eye distance and correct hand posture for reading, writing, or watching TV became worse for the first time before grade 2, but then became better at grade 3. In contrast, selecting appropriate lighting environments or situations and keeping a balanced diet became better for the first time before grade 2, but then became worse at grade 3. At one-year follow up, the mean AL increased by 0.32 ± 0.35 mm, the ratio of AL divided by the mean corneal radius of curvature (AL/CR ratio) increased by 0.032 ± 0.054, the myopic spherical equivalent (SE) increased by -0.51 ± 0.51 diopters and the incidence of myopia was 16.0% (237/1,477). After controlling for the confounding effects of parental myopia, student’s age, gender, height, daily near work time, daily outdoor activity time and all of the other near work related behaviors, keeping a reasonable distance when reading, writing and watching TV was associated with elongation of the AL [standard coefficient beta = -0.062, P = 0.004], a change in SE [beta = -0.072, P = 0.020] and

  14. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAPs) measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprak, E.; Schnaiter, M.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4) are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols, performance of WIBS-4 for discrimination of several types of aerosols, and the detection and identification of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples including spores, bacteria, pollen, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres were analysed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the Ultra Violet Light Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two wavelengths excitation/two wavebands detection method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper. All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and it decreases towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions are prevailing. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand the total aerosol number concentration was always higher during day time than during night time and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature

  15. Adherence to oral glucose lowering therapies and associations with one year HbA1c: a retrospective cohort analysis in a large primary care database

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Beverley; Weedon, Michael N.; Donnelly, Louise; Holman, Rury R.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The impact of taking oral glucose-lowering medicines intermittently, rather than as recommended, is unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using community-acquired United Kingdom clinical data (CPRD and GoDARTS databases) to examine the prevalence of non-adherence to treatment for type 2 diabetes, and investigate its potential impact on HbA1c reduction stratified by type of glucose-lowering medication. Research design and methods Data for patients treated between 2004 and 2014 were extracted for those newly-prescribed metformin, sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors who continued to obtain prescriptions over one year, were extracted. Cohorts were defined by prescribed medication type, and good adherence as a medication possession ratio ≥0.8. Linear regression was used to determine potential associations between adherence and one-year baseline-adjusted HbA1c reduction. Results In CPRD and GoDARTS, 13% and 15% of patients respectively were non-adherent. Proportions of non-adherent patients varied by the oral glucose-lowering treatment prescribed (range 8.6% (thiazolidinedione) to 18.8% (metformin)). Non-adherent, compared with adherent, patients had a smaller HbA1c reduction (0.4%[4.4mmmol/mol] and 0.46%[5.0mmol/mol] for CPRD and GoDARTs respectively). Difference in HbA1c response for adherent compared with non-adherent patients varied by drug (range: 0.38%[4.1mmol/mol] to 0.75%[8.2mmol/mol] lower in adherent group). Decreasing levels of adherence were consistently associated with a smaller reduction in HbA1c. Conclusions Reduced medication adherence for commonly used glucose lowering therapies among patients persisting with treatment is associated with smaller HbA1c reductions, compared with those taking treatment as recommended. Differences observed in HbA1c responses to glucose lowering-treatments may be explained in part by their intermittent use. PMID:26681714

  16. Implementation of preventive strength training in residential geriatric care: a multi-centre study protocol with one year of interventions on multiple levels

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background There is scientific evidence that preventive physical exercise is effective even in high age. In contrast, there are few opportunities of preventive exercise for highly aged people endangered by or actually in need of care. For example, they would not be able to easily go to training facilities; standard exercises may be too intensive and therefore be harmful to them; orientation disorders like dementia would exacerbate individuals and groups in following instructions and keeping exercises going. In order to develop appropriate interventions, these and other issues were assigned to different levels: the individual-social level (ISL), the organisational-institutional level (OIL) and the political-cultural level (PCL). Consequently, this conceptional framework was utilised for development, implementation and evaluation of a new strength and balance exercise programme for old people endangered by or actually in need of daily care. The present paper contains the development of this programme labeled "fit for 100", and a study protocol of an interventional single-arm multi-centre trial. Methods The intervention consisted of (a) two group training sessions every week over one year, mainly resistance exercises, accompanied by sensorimotor and communicative group exercises and games (ISL), (b) a sustainable implementation concept, starting new groups by instructors belonging to the project, followed by training and supervision of local staff, who stepwise take over the group (OIL), (c) informing and convincing activities in professional, administrative and governmental contexts, public relation activities, and establishing an advisory council with renowned experts and public figures (PCL). Participating institutions of geriatric care were selected through several steps of quality criteria assessment. Primary outcome measures were continuous documentation of individual participation (ISL), number of groups continued without external financial support (at the end

  17. The Effect of Deworming on Growth in One-Year-Old Children Living in a Soil-Transmitted Helminth-Endemic Area of Peru: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Serene A.; Casapía, Martín; Montresor, Antonio; Rahme, Elham; Ward, Brian J.; Marquis, Grace S.; Pezo, Lidsky; Blouin, Brittany; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate health and nutrition interventions to prevent long-term adverse effects in children are necessary before two years of age. One such intervention may include population-based deworming, recommended as of 12 months of age by the World Health Organization in soil-transmitted helminth (STH)-endemic areas; however, the benefit of deworming has been understudied in early preschool-age children. Methodology/Principal Findings A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of deworming (500 mg single-dose crushed mebendazole tablet) on growth in one-year-old children in Iquitos, Peru. Children were enrolled during their routine 12-month growth and development clinic visit and followed up at their 18 and 24-month visits. Children were randomly allocated to: Group 1: deworming at 12 months and placebo at 18 months; Group 2: placebo at 12 months and deworming at 18 months; Group 3: deworming at both 12 and 18 months; or Group 4: placebo at both 12 and 18 months (i.e. control group). The primary outcome was weight gain at the 24-month visit. An intention-to-treat approach was used. A total of 1760 children were enrolled between September 2011 and June 2012. Follow-up of 1563 children (88.8%) was completed by July 2013. STH infection was of low prevalence and predominantly light intensity in the study population. All groups gained between 1.93 and 2.05 kg on average over 12 months; the average difference in weight gain (kg) compared to placebo was: 0.05 (95% CI: -0.05, 0.17) in Group 1; -0.07 (95%CI: -0.17, 0.04) in Group 2; and 0.04 (95%CI: -0.06, 0.14) in Group 3. There was no statistically significant difference in weight gain in any of the deworming intervention groups compared to the control group. Conclusions Overall, with one year of follow-up, no effect of deworming on growth could be detected in this population of preschool-age children. Low baseline STH prevalence and intensity and/or access to

  18. Re-emergent human adenovirus genome type 7d caused an acute respiratory disease outbreak in Southern China after a twenty-one year absence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55 kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed. PMID:25482188

  19. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy supported by virtual reality in the treatment of body image in eating disorders: one year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Marco, José H; Perpiñá, Conxa; Botella, Cristina

    2013-10-30

    Body image disturbance is a significant maintenance and prognosis factor in eating disorders. Hence, existing eating disorder treatments can benefit from direct intervention in patients' body image. No controlled studies have yet compared eating disorder treatments with and without a treatment component centered on body image. This paper includes a controlled study comparing Cognitive Behavioral Treatment (CBT) for eating disorders with and without a component for body image treatment using Virtual Reality techniques. Thirty-four participants diagnosed with eating disorders were evaluated and treated. The clinical improvement was analyzed from statistical and clinical points of view. Results showed that the patients who received the component for body image treatment improved more than the group without this component. Furthermore, improvement was maintained in post-treatment and at one year follow-up. The results reveal the advantage of including a treatment component addressing body image disturbances in the protocol for general treatment of eating disorders. The implications and limitations of these results are discussed below. PMID:23499231

  20. Patterns of Injury in Hospitalised One-Year-Old Children: Analysis by Trimester of Age Using Coded Data and Textual Description

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Debbie; Siskind, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The second year of life is a time of rapid developmental changes. This paper aims to describe the pattern of unintentional injuries to one-year old children in three-month age bands to better understand the risks associated with developmental stages and, therefore, identify opportunities for proactive prevention. Injury surveillance data were used to identify children admitted to hospital in Queensland, Australia for an unintentional injury from 2002–2012. Falls were the most common injury, followed by burns and scalds, contact injuries and poisonings. Falls and contact injuries remained roughly constant by age, burns and scalds decreased and poisonings (by medications) increased. Animal- and transport-related injuries also became more common, immersions and other threats to breathing less common. Within the falls and contact categories falls from play equipment and injuries due to contact with persons increased, while falls down stairs and catching fingers in doors decreased. The pattern of injuries varies over the second year of life and is clearly linked to the child’s increasing mobility and boldness. Preventive measures for young children need to be designed—and evaluated—with their developmental stage in mind, using a variety of strategies, including opportunistic, developmentally specific education of parents; and practitioners should also consider potential for lapses in supervision and possible intentional injury in all injury assessments. PMID:27399742

  1. One-year clinical study of NeuroRegen scaffold implantation following scar resection in complete chronic spinal cord injury patients.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhifeng; Tang, Fengwu; Tang, Jiaguang; Yang, Huilin; Zhao, Yannan; Chen, Bing; Han, Sufang; Wang, Nuo; Li, Xing; Cheng, Shixiang; Han, Guang; Zhao, Changyu; Yang, Xiaoxiong; Chen, Yumei; Shi, Qin; Hou, Shuxun; Zhang, Sai; Dai, Jianwu

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this clinical study was to assess the safety and feasibility of the collagen scaffold, NeuroRegen scaffold, one year after scar tissue resection and implantation. Scar tissue is a physical and chemical barrier that prevents neural regeneration. However, identification of scar tissue is still a major challenge. In this study, the nerve electrophysiology method was used to distinguish scar tissue from normal neural tissue, and then different lengths of scars ranging from 0.5-4.5 cm were surgically resected in five complete chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. The NeuroRegen scaffold along with autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs), which have been proven to promote neural regeneration and SCI recovery in animal models, were transplanted into the gap in the spinal cord following scar tissue resection. No obvious adverse effects related to scar resection or NeuroRegen scaffold transplantation were observed immediately after surgery or at the 12-month follow-up. In addition, patients showed partially autonomic nervous function improvement, and the recovery of somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) from the lower limbs was also detected. The results indicate that scar resection and NeuroRegen scaffold transplantation could be a promising clinical approach to treating SCI. PMID:27333785

  2. Immunochemical and genetic analysis of the p53 gene in liver preneoplastic nodules from aflatoxin-induced rats in one year.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y P; Lin, Y; Ng, M L

    1996-01-01

    Mutations of the p53 tumour-suppressor gene in human hepatocellular carcinomas from certain geographic areas appear to be associated with high dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In this study, the effects of AFB1 on p53 locus at the preneoplastic stage of rat liver oncogenesis were assessed. Male Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of 1.5 mg AFB1/kg body weight by a gastric tube. Liver biopsies over a period of one year were examined for aberrations of the p53 gene together with the expression of placental glutathione-S transferase (GST-P), a marker for preneoplasia. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot, polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing techniques were used. AFB1 induction resulted in GST-P overexpression, forming GST-P-positive multi-foci and nodules of hepatocytes, but no aberrations in the p53 expression and the microstructure of exons 5-8 of the p53 gene. These results suggested that p53 mutation(s) might not occur at this early stage of AFB1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:8779543

  3. One-Year Experience Managing a Cancer Survivorship Clinic Using a Shared-Care Model for Gastric Cancer Survivors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Hyejin; Son, Ki Young; Kim, Warrick Junsuk; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Kong, Seong-Ho; Lee, Hyuk Joon; Cho, Belong; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-06-01

    Given the rapid growth of the population of cancer survivors, increased attention has been paid to their health problems. Although gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers, empirical evidence of survivorship care is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the health care status of gastric cancer survivors and to report the experience of using the shared-care model during a one-year experience at the cancer survivorship clinic in Seoul National University Hospital. This is a descriptive, single-center study of 250 long-term gastric cancer survivors who were referred to the survivorship clinic. The status of their health behaviors, comorbid conditions, secondary cancer screenings, and survivorship care status were investigated through questionnaires and examining the medical records. Among the survivors, 7.2% were current smokers, 8.8% were at-risk drinkers, and 32.4% were physically inactive. Among the patients who did not know their bone density status, the majority were in the osteopenic (37.1%) or osteoporotic range (24.1%). Screening among the eligible population within the recommended time intervals were 76.3% for colorectal cancer, but only 13.6% for lung cancer. All of the survivors were provided with counseling and medical management at the survivorship clinic, as appropriate. In conclusion, Long-term gastric cancer survivors have various unmet needs. Shared-care through survivorship clinics can be an effective solution for providing comprehensive care to cancer survivors. PMID:27247493

  4. Patterns of Injury in Hospitalised One-Year-Old Children: Analysis by Trimester of Age Using Coded Data and Textual Description.

    PubMed

    Scott, Debbie; Siskind, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The second year of life is a time of rapid developmental changes. This paper aims to describe the pattern of unintentional injuries to one-year old children in three-month age bands to better understand the risks associated with developmental stages and, therefore, identify opportunities for proactive prevention. Injury surveillance data were used to identify children admitted to hospital in Queensland, Australia for an unintentional injury from 2002-2012. Falls were the most common injury, followed by burns and scalds, contact injuries and poisonings. Falls and contact injuries remained roughly constant by age, burns and scalds decreased and poisonings (by medications) increased. Animal- and transport-related injuries also became more common, immersions and other threats to breathing less common. Within the falls and contact categories falls from play equipment and injuries due to contact with persons increased, while falls down stairs and catching fingers in doors decreased. The pattern of injuries varies over the second year of life and is clearly linked to the child's increasing mobility and boldness. Preventive measures for young children need to be designed-and evaluated-with their developmental stage in mind, using a variety of strategies, including opportunistic, developmentally specific education of parents; and practitioners should also consider potential for lapses in supervision and possible intentional injury in all injury assessments. PMID:27399742

  5. One-Year Follow-Up of the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Patients' Depression: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kai-Jo; Chen, Tsai-Hui; Hsieh, Hsiu-Tsu; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term (one year) effectiveness of a 12-session weekly cognitive behavior group therapy (CBGT) on patients with depression. This was a single-blind randomized controlled study with a 2-arm parallel group design. Eighty-one subjects were randomly assigned to 12 sessions intervention group (CBGT) or control group (usual outpatient psychiatric care group) and 62 completed the study. The primary outcome was depression measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). The secondary outcomes were automatic thoughts measured by automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ). Both groups were evaluated at the pretest (before 2 weeks), posttest (after 12 therapy sessions), and short- (3 months), medium- (6 months), and long-term (12 months) follow-up. After receiving CBGT, the experimental group had a statistically significant reduction in the BDI-II from 40.30 at baseline to 17.82 points at session eight and to 10.17 points at postintervention (P < 0.001). Similar effects were seen on the HRSD. ATQ significantly decreased at the 12th session, 6 months after sessions, and 1 year after the sessions ended (P < 0.001). We concluded that CBGT is effective for reducing depression and continued to be effective at 1 year of follow-up. PMID:26380359

  6. One-Year Experience Managing a Cancer Survivorship Clinic Using a Shared-Care Model for Gastric Cancer Survivors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Given the rapid growth of the population of cancer survivors, increased attention has been paid to their health problems. Although gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers, empirical evidence of survivorship care is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the health care status of gastric cancer survivors and to report the experience of using the shared-care model during a one-year experience at the cancer survivorship clinic in Seoul National University Hospital. This is a descriptive, single-center study of 250 long-term gastric cancer survivors who were referred to the survivorship clinic. The status of their health behaviors, comorbid conditions, secondary cancer screenings, and survivorship care status were investigated through questionnaires and examining the medical records. Among the survivors, 7.2% were current smokers, 8.8% were at-risk drinkers, and 32.4% were physically inactive. Among the patients who did not know their bone density status, the majority were in the osteopenic (37.1%) or osteoporotic range (24.1%). Screening among the eligible population within the recommended time intervals were 76.3% for colorectal cancer, but only 13.6% for lung cancer. All of the survivors were provided with counseling and medical management at the survivorship clinic, as appropriate. In conclusion, Long-term gastric cancer survivors have various unmet needs. Shared-care through survivorship clinics can be an effective solution for providing comprehensive care to cancer survivors. PMID:27247493

  7. Effect of an individually tailored one-year energy balance programme on body weight, body composition and lifestyle in recent retirees: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The increased prevalence of overweight and obesity warrants preventive actions, particularly among people in transitional stages associated with lifestyle changes, such as occupational retirement. The purpose is to investigate the effect of a one year low-intensity computer-tailored energy balance programme among recent retirees on waist circumference, body weight and body composition, blood pressure, physical activity and dietary intake. Methods A randomised controlled trial was conducted among recent retirees (N = 413; mean age 59.5 years). Outcome measures were assessed using anthropometry, bio-impedance, blood pressure measurement and questionnaires. Results Waist circumference, body weight and blood pressure decreased significantly in men of the intervention and control group, but no significant between-group-differences were observed at 12 or at 24-months follow-up. A significant effect of the programme was only observed on waist circumference (-1.56 cm (95%CI: -2.91 to -0.21)) at 12 month follow up among men with low education (n = 85). Physical activity and dietary behaviours improved in both the intervention and control group during the intervention period. Although, these behaviours changed more favourably in the intervention group, these between-group-differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions The multifaceted computer-tailored programme for recent retirees did not appear to be effective. Apparently the transition to occupational retirement and/or participation in the study had a greater impact than the intervention programme. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00122213. PMID:20205704

  8. One year observations of atmospheric reactive gases (O3, CO, NOx, SO2) at Jang Bogo base in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siek Rhee, Tae; Seo, Sora

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica is a remote area surrounded by the Southern Ocean and far from the influence of human activities, giving us unique opportunity to investigate the background variation of trace gases which are sensitive to the human activities. Korean Antarctic base, Jang Bogo, was established as a unique permanent overwintering base in Terra Nova Bay in February, 2014. One year later, we installed a package of instruments to monitor atmospheric trace gases at the base, which includes long-lived greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4, and N2O, and reactive gases, O3, CO, NOx, and SO2. The atmospheric chemistry observatory, where these scientific instruments were installed, is located ca. 1 km far from the main building and power plant, minimizing the influence of pollution that may come from the operation of the base. Here we focus on the reactive gases measured in-situ at the base; O3 displays a typical seasonal variation with high in winter and low in summer with seasonal amplitude of ~18 ppb, CO was high in September at ~56 ppb, probably implying the invasion of lower latitude air mass with biomass burning, and low in late summer due to photochemical oxidation. NO did not show clear seasonal variation, but SO2 reveals larger values in summer than in winter. We will discuss potential atmospheric processes behind these first observations of reactive gases in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica.

  9. Change in Musculoskeletal Pain in Patients With Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorder After Tailored Rehabilitation Education: A One-Year Follow-Up Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hun; Kang, Boram; Choi, Seungyoung; Kim, Taikon; Jang, Seong Ho; Lee, Kyu Hoon; Kim, Mi Jung; Park, Si-Bog

    2015-01-01

    Objective To apply tailored rehabilitation education to video display terminal (VDT) workers with musculoskeletal pain and to assess changes in musculoskeletal pain after rehabilitation education. Methods A total of 8,828 VDT workers were screened for musculoskeletal disorders using a self-report questionnaire. Six hundred twenty-six VDT workers selected based on their questionnaires were enrolled in musculoskeletal rehabilitation education, which consisted of education on VDT syndrome and confirmed diseases, exercise therapy including self-stretching and strengthening, and posture correction. One year later, a follow-up screening survey was performed on 316 VDT workers, and the results were compared with the previous data. Results Compared with the initial survey, pain intensity was significantly decreased in the neck area; pain duration and frequency were significantly decreased in the low back area; and pain duration, intensity, and frequency were significantly decreased in the shoulder and wrist after tailored rehabilitation education. In addition, pain duration, intensity, and frequency showed a greater significant decrease after tailored rehabilitation education in the mild pain group than in the severe pain group. Conclusions This study found that work-related musculoskeletal pain was reduced after tailored rehabilitation education, especially in the shoulder, wrist, and low back. PMID:26605170

  10. Risk factors of severity of post-traumatic stress disorder among survivors with physical disabilities one year after the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaobo; Song, Hui; Hu, Min; Li, Xiaolin; Cai, Ying; Huang, Guoping; Li, Jun; Kang, Lin; Li, Jing

    2015-08-30

    On May 12, 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan County and surrounding areas in China. This study aimed to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath of the earthquake, and to evaluate factors of severity of PTSD symptoms among survivors with physical disabilities. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey and recruited 817 survivors with physical disabilities in three stricken areas. Assessment measures included the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Our study showed that 27.42% of the survivors with physical disabilities had PTSD symptoms one year after the Wenchuan earthquake. In the regression model, geographic location, female, suffering from paralysis following the earthquake, and going into a coma in the earthquake were associated with severe PTSD symptoms. Our findings suggest that a substantial proportion of physically disabled survivors of a big earthquake may have severe PTSD symptoms. The associated factors of PTSD identified in our study could inform the implementation of preventive programs for this population and give hint on the way to cope with this kind of disaster in the future. PMID:26163729

  11. Re-emergent Human Adenovirus Genome Type 7d Caused an Acute Respiratory Disease Outbreak in Southern China After a Twenty-one Year Absence

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55 kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed. PMID:25482188

  12. A one-year longitudinal study of English and Japanese vowel production by Japanese adults and children in an English-speaking setting

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Grace E.; Guion-Anderson, Susan; Aoyama, Katsura; Flege, James E.; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko; Yamada, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of age of acquisition on first- and second-language vowel production was investigated. Eight English vowels were produced by Native Japanese (NJ) adults and children as well as by age-matched Native English (NE) adults and children. Productions were recorded shortly after the NJ participants’ arrival in the USA and then one year later. In agreement with previous investigations [Aoyama, et al., J. Phon. 32, 233–250 (2004)], children were able to learn more, leading to higher accuracy than adults in a year’s time. Based on the spectral quality and duration comparisons, NJ adults had more accurate production at Time 1, but showed no improvement over time. The NJ children’s productions, however, showed significant differences from the NE children’s for English “new” vowels /ɪ/, /ε/, /ɑ/, /ʌ/ and /ʊ/ at Time 1, but produced all eight vowels in a native-like manner at Time 2. An examination of NJ speakers’ productions of Japanese /i/, /a/, /u/ over time revealed significant changes for the NJ Child Group only. Japanese /i/ and /a/ showed changes in production that can be related to second language (L2) learning. The results suggest that L2 vowel production is affected importantly by age of acquisition and that there is a dynamic interaction, whereby the first and second language vowels affect each other. PMID:21603058

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection among female prostitutes in Borno State of Nigeria: one year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Chikwem, J O; Mohammed, I; Ola, T

    1989-11-01

    Serological investigations on female prostitutes resident in Borno State in northeastern Nigeria have shown that the seroprevalence of HIV-1 infection has increased 9.81%--fold in one year. The highest sero-prevalence rates were found amongst prostitutes who had not benefited from previous health education campaigns. Prostitution appears to be on the increase in spite of AIDS probably because of the difficulty in finding alternative means of making a living. Attempts to halt the spread of HIV infection are hampered by the fact that most prostitutes are indifferent to the use of condoms and do not appreciate the importance of protecting themselves from the risks of HIV infection. Their frequent mobility also poses a problem as it makes it difficult for them to benefit from health education campaigns. The prevalence of HIV-1 infection among female prostitutes in Borno State (as indeed in other States in Nigeria) is likely to rise sharply in the next few years unless serious efforts are made to intensify health education campaigns targeted at the high risk groups. PMID:2606018

  14. A one-year comprehensive chemical characterisation of fine aerosol (PM2.5) at urban, suburban and rural background sites in the region of Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressi, M.; Sciare, J.; Ghersi, V.; Bonnaire, N.; Nicolas, J. B.; Petit, J.-E.; Moukhtar, S.; Rosso, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Féron, A.

    2013-08-01

    Studies describing the chemical composition of fine aerosol (PM2.5) in urban areas are often conducted for a few weeks only and at one sole site, giving thus a narrow view of their temporal and spatial characteristics. This paper presents a one-year (11 September 2009-10 September 2010) survey of the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 in the region of Paris, which is the second most populated "Larger Urban Zone" in Europe. Five sampling sites representative of suburban (SUB), urban (URB), northeast (NER), northwest (NWR) and south (SOR) rural backgrounds were implemented. The major chemical components of PM2.5 were determined including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and the major ions. OC was converted to organic matter (OM) using the chemical mass closure methodology, which leads to conversion factors of 1.95 for the SUB and URB sites, and 2.05 for the three rural ones. On average, gravimetrically determined PM2.5 annual mass concentrations are 15.2, 14.8, 12.6, 11.7 and 10.8 μg m-3 for SUB, URB, NER, NWR and SOR sites, respectively. The chemical composition of fine aerosol is very homogeneous at the five sites and is composed of OM (38-47%), nitrate (17-22%), non-sea-salt sulfate (13-16%), ammonium (10-12%), EC (4-10%), mineral dust (2-5%) and sea salt (3-4%). This chemical composition is in agreement with those reported in the literature for most European environments. On an annual scale, Paris (URB and SUB sites) exhibits its highest PM2.5 concentrations during late autumn, winter and early spring (higher than 15 μg m-3 on average, from December to April), intermediates during late spring and early autumn (between 10 and 15 μg m-3 during May, June, September, October, and November) and the lowest during summer (below 10 μg m-3 during July and August). PM levels are mostly homogeneous on a regional scale, during the whole project (e.g. for URB plotted against NER sites: slope = 1.06, r2=0.84, n=330), suggesting the importance of mid- or long

  15. A one-year comprehensive chemical characterisation of fine aerosol (PM2.5) at urban, suburban and rural background sites in the region of Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressi, M.; Sciare, J.; Ghersi, V.; Bonnaire, N.; Nicolas, J. B.; Petit, J.-E.; Moukhtar, S.; Rosso, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Féron, A.

    2012-11-01

    Studies describing the chemical composition of fine aerosol (PM2.5) in urban areas are often conducted during few weeks only, and at one sole site, giving thus a narrow view of their temporal and spatial characteristics. This paper presents a one-year (11 September 2009-10 September 2010) survey of the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 in the region of Paris, which is the second most populated "Larger Urban Zone" in Europe. Five sampling sites representative of suburban (SUB), urban (URB), northeast (NER), northwest (NWR) and south (SOR) rural backgrounds were implemented. The major chemical components of PM2.5 were determined including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and the major ions. OC was converted to organic matter (OM) using the chemical mass closure methodology, which leads to conversion factors of 1.95 for the SUB and URB sites, and 2.05 for the three rural ones. On average, gravimetrically determined PM2.5 annual mass concentrations are 15.2, 14.8, 12.6, 11.7 and 10.8 μg m-3 for SUB, URB, NER, NWR and SOR sites, respectively. The chemical composition of fine aerosol is very homogeneous at the five sites and is composed of OM (38-47%), nitrate (17-22%), non-sea-salt sulfate (13-16%), ammonium (10-12%), EC (4-10%), mineral dust (2-5%) and sea salt (3-4%). This chemical composition is in agreement with those reported in the literature for most European environments. On the annual scale, Paris (URB and SUB sites) exhibits its highest PM2.5 concentrations during late autumn, winter and early spring (higher than 15 μg m-3 on average, from December to April), intermediates during late spring and early autumn (between 10 and 15 μg m-3 during May, June, September, October, and November) and the lowest during summer (below 10 μg m-3 during July and August). PM levels are mostly homogeneous at the regional scale, on the whole duration of the project (e.g. for URB plotted against NER sites: slope = 1.06, r2 = 0.84, n = 330), suggesting the

  16. Evaluating integrated headache care: a one-year follow-up observational study in patients treated at the Essen headache centre

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Outpatient integrated headache care was established in 2005 at the Essen Headache Centre in Germany. This paper reports outcome data for this approach. Methods Patients were seen by a neurologist for headache diagnosis and recommendation for drug treatment. Depending on clinical needs, patients were seen by a psychologist and/or physical therapist. A 5-day headache-specific multidisciplinary treatment programme (MTP) was provided for patients with frequent or chronic migraine, tension type headache (TTH) and medication overuse headache (MOH). Subsequent outpatient treatment was provided by neurologists in private practice. Results Follow-up data on headache frequency and burden of disease were prospectively obtained in 841 patients (mean age 41.5 years) after 3, 6 and 12 months. At baseline mean headache frequency was 18.1 (SD = 1.6) days per month, compared to measurement at 1 year follow-up a mean reduction of 5.8 (SD = 11.9) headache days per month was observed in 486 patients (57.8%) after one year (TTH patients mean: -8.5 days per month; migraine mean: -3.2 days per month, patients with migraine and TTH mean: -5.9 days per month). A reduction in headache days ≥ 50% was observed in 306 patients (36.4%) independent of diagnosis, while headache frequency remains unchanged in 20.9% and increase in 21.3% of the patient. Conclusion Multidisciplinary outpatient headache centres offer an effective way to establish a three-tier treatment offer for difficult headache patients depending on clinical needs. PMID:21985562

  17. Antibiotics in Wastewater of a Rural and an Urban Hospital before and after Wastewater Treatment, and the Relationship with Antibiotic Use-A One Year Study from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lien, La Thi Quynh; Hoa, Nguyen Quynh; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Minh; Phuc, Ho Dang; Diwan, Vishal; Dat, Nguyen Thanh; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby

    2016-01-01

    Hospital effluents represent an important source for the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. This study aims to determine concentrations of various antibiotics in wastewater before and after wastewater treatment in a rural hospital (60 km from the center of Hanoi) and in an urban hospital (in the center of Hanoi) in Vietnam, and it aims to explore the relationship between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before wastewater treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital, over a period of one year in 2013. Water samples were collected using continuous sampling for 24 h in the last week of every month. The data on quantities of antibiotics delivered to all inpatient wards were collected from the Pharmacy department in the rural hospital. Solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were used for chemical analysis. Significant concentrations of antibiotics were present in the wastewater both before and after wastewater treatment of both the rural and the urban hospital. Ciprofloxacin was detected at the highest concentrations in the rural hospital's wastewater (before treatment: mean = 42.8 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 21.5 µg/L). Metronidazole was detected at the highest concentrations in the urban hospital's wastewater (before treatment: mean = 36.5 µg/L; after treatment: mean = 14.8 µg/L). A significant correlation between antibiotic concentrations in wastewater before treatment and quantities of antibiotics used in the rural hospital was found for ciprofloxacin (r = 0.78; p = 0.01) and metronidazole (r = 0.99; p < 0.001). PMID:27314366

  18. Reduction in Weight and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: One-Year Results of the Look AHEAD Trial

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective The effectiveness of intentional weight loss in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes is unknown. This report describes one-year changes in CVD risk factors in a trial designed to examine the long-term effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on the incidence of major CVD events. Research Design and Methods A multi-centered randomized controlled trial of 5,145 individuals with type 2 diabetes, aged 45–74 years, with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 (≥27 kg/m2 if taking insulin). An Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) involving group and individual meetings to achieve and maintain weight loss through decreased caloric intake and increased physical activity was compared to a Diabetes Support and Education (DSE) condition. Results Participants assigned to ILI lost an average 8.6% of their initial weight versus 0.7% in DSE group (p<0.001). Mean fitness increased in ILI by 20.9% versus 5.8% in DSE (p<0.001). A greater proportion of ILI participants had reductions in diabetes, hypertension, and lipid-lowering medicines. Mean HbA1c dropped from 7.3% to 6.6% in ILI (p<0.001) versus from 7.3% to 7.2% in DSE. Systolic and diastolic pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and urine albumin/creatinine improved significantly more in ILI than DSE participants (all p<0.01). Conclusions At 1 year, ILI resulted in clinically significant weight loss in persons with type 2 diabetes. This was associated with improved diabetes control and CVD risk factors and reduced medicine use in ILI versus DSE. Continued intervention and follow-up will determine whether these changes are maintained and will reduce CVD risk. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00017953 PMID:17363746

  19. One year follow-up of a pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial of a group-based fatigue management programme (FACETS) for people with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness at 1-year follow-up of a manualised group-based programme (‘FACETS’) for managing MS-fatigue. Methods One-year follow-up of a pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial. People with MS and significant fatigue were randomised to FACETS plus current local practice (FACETS) or current local practice alone (CLP), using concealed computer-generated randomisation. Participant blinding was not possible. Primary outcome measures were fatigue severity (Global Fatigue Severity subscale of the Fatigue Assessment Instrument), self-efficacy (MS-Fatigue Self-Efficacy) and disease-specific quality of life (MS Impact Scale). Results Between May 2008 and November 2009, 164 participants were randomised. Primary outcome data were available at 1 year for 131 (80%). The benefits demonstrated at 4-months in the FACETS arm for fatigue severity and self-efficacy largely persisted, with a slight reduction in standardised effect sizes (SES) (−0.29, p = 0.06 and 0.34, p = 0.09, respectively). There was a significant difference on the MS Impact Scale favouring FACETS that had not been present at 4-months (SES −0.24, p = 0.046). No adverse events were reported. Conclusions Improvements in fatigue severity and self-efficacy at 4-months follow-up following attendance of FACETS were mostly sustained at 1 year with additional improvements in MS impact. The FACETS programme provides modest long-term benefits to people with MS-fatigue. Trial registration ISRCTN76517470 PMID:24886398

  20. One year of real-time radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano and the effect of environmental parameters on 222Rn concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigolini, C.; Laiolo, M.; Coppola, D.; Piscopo, D.; Bertolino, S.

    2009-12-01

    Real-time radon monitoring at Stromboli volcano has been operative within the last two years. In this contribution we will discuss the recent one-year-long time series analyses in the light of environmental parameters. Two sites for real-time monitoring have been identified by means of a network of periodic radon surveys in order to locate the areas of more efficient response to seismic transients and/or volcanic degassing. Two real-time stations are positioned at Stromboli: one at the summit and located along a fracture zone where the gas flux is concentrated, and the second one at a lower altitude in a sector of diffuse degassing. The signals of the two time-series are essentially concordant but radon concentrations are considerably higher at the summit station. Raw data show that there is a negative correlation between radon emissions and seasonal temperature variations, whereas the correlation with atmospheric pressure is negative for the site of diffuse degassing and sligthly positive for the station lacated along the summit fracture zone. These data and the previously collected ones show that SW winds may substantially decrease radon concentrations at the summit station. Multivarite regression statistics on the radon signals in the light of the above enviromental parameters and tidal forces, may contribute to better idenfify the correlation between radon emissions and variations in volcanic activity. Fig. 1. Radon monitoring stations at Stromboli and the two major summit faults. Stars identify sites for real-time monitoring: LSC and PZZ. The diamond is the location of the automated Labronzo Station. Full dots are stations for periodic measurements using alpha track-etches detectors and E-PERM® electrets. Inset with the location of Stromboli and the major structures of the Aeolian arc.

  1. High Satisfaction and Low Distress in Breast Cancer Patients One Year after BRCA-Mutation Testing without Prior Face-to-Face Genetic Counseling.

    PubMed

    Sie, Aisha S; Spruijt, Liesbeth; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A G; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Brunner, Han G; Prins, Judith B; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2016-06-01

    According to standard practice following referral to clinical genetics, most high risk breast cancer (BC) patients in many countries receive face-to-face genetic counseling prior to BRCA-mutation testing (DNA-intake). We evaluated a novel format by prospective study: replacing the intake consultation with telephone, written and digital information sent home. Face-to-face counseling then followed BRCA-mutation testing (DNA-direct). One year after BRCA-result disclosure, 108 participants returned long-term follow-up questionnaires, of whom 59 (55 %) had previously chosen DNA-direct (intervention) versus DNA-intake (standard practice i.e., control: 45 %). Questionnaires assessed satisfaction and psychological distress. All participants were satisfied and 85 % of DNA-direct participants would choose this procedure again; 10 % would prefer DNA-intake and 5 % were undecided. In repeated measurements ANOVA, general distress (GHQ-12, p = 0.01) and BC-specific distress (IES-bc, p = 0.03) were lower in DNA-direct than DNA-intake at all time measurements. Heredity-specific distress (IES-her) did not differ significantly between groups. Multivariate regression analyses showed that choice of procedure did not significantly contribute to either general or heredity-specific distress. BC-specific distress (after BC diagnosis) did contribute to both general and heredity-specific distress. This suggests that higher distress scores reflected BC experience, rather than the type of genetic diagnostic procedure. In conclusion, the large majority of BC patients that used DNA-direct reported high satisfaction without increased distress both in the short term, and 1 year after conclusion of genetic testing. PMID:26531312

  2. Spatial and Interspecies Patterns of PM2.5 at Three Sites in the Pearl River Delta, China: One-Year Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Lau, A. K.; Wu, C.; Ng, W.; Yuan, Z.; Wu, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is among the most economically fast-developing regions in China. The region has been experiencing increasing levels of particulate matter (PM) pollution. In an effort of establishing long-term trend in chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and understanding PM sources important at regional scale, filter-based samples have been collected at three sites in the PRD concurrently in one-in-six-day schedule since August 2007. We here report observation results of PM2.5 over one-year period (August 2007-June 2008). The three sites include an urban downtown location in Guangzhou, Nansha, a rural receptor site at the mouth of the Pearl River, and Tsuen Wan, an urban background site in Hong Kong. Guangzhou recorded the highest annual average PM2.5 concentration of 78.2 μgm-3, followed by Nansha (65.9 μgm-3) and Tsuen Wan (42.8 μgm-3). Organic matter (OM) and sulfate are the top two constituents, accounting for ~70% of PM2.5 mass. The annual average nitrate contributions were similar at GZ and NS (~13%), but lower at TW (~7%). Inter-site correlations of PM2.5 and major constituents indicate that GZ strongly influenced ambient PM2.5 levels at NS, but GZ’s influence on TW was much reduced. Sulfate, ammonium, and OM showed strong regional characteristics. To the contrary, EC at the three sites had no correlations, suggesting a dominating local origin. Examples of high PM2.5 episodes are also analyzed to identify the conditions conducive for high PM.

  3. Maxillary sinus by-pass with tilted implants via tapered-screw bone expanders in low density bone: one year follow -up of a case series.

    PubMed

    Andreasi Bassi, M; Andrisani, C; Lopez, M A; Gaudio, R M; Lombardo, L; Lauritano, D

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper the use of tapered-screw bone expanders (TSBEs) is proposed, in combination with the placement of tilted implants in close proximity to the anterior sinus wall, solving the problem of the reduced height of the alveolar bone in the sub-antral area. The Authors named the procedure: Tilted Implant Expansion Osteotomy (TIEO). Fifteen patients (10 females and 5 males, mean age 47.8±8.15 years) with distal edentulous maxillae were enrolled in this study. For each edentulous site 2 implants were placed, the anterior implant in the area of the most anterior missing tooth while, the posterior implant, immediately in front of the maxillary sinus, with an inclined position. Adopting the aforesaid procedure, 34 cylindrical two-piece implants were placed, 17 of which were placed in tilted position, in order to by-pass the maxillary sinus. After a healing period of 4-6 months, the second stage surgery was performed. The cases were finalized by metal-ceramic cementable restorations with a variable number of elements, from 2 to 4, without any cantilever element. The post finalization follow-up was at 12 months. Survival rate was 100% since no fixtures were lost. At the one-year follow-up the clinical and radiological appearance of the soft and hard tissues was optimal and no pathological signs were recorded. TIEO is a promising surgical procedure for oral rehabilitation of maxillary edentulous sites and represents a therapeutic alternative to sinus lift techniques. PMID:27469543

  4. Polyclonal non multiresistant methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical cases of infection occurring in Palermo, Italy, during a one-year surveillance period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolving epidemiology of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is characterized by the emergence of infections caused by non multiresistant MRSA carrying staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCC)mec IV or V in the healthcare settings. A molecular epidemiological analysis of non multiresistant MRSA isolates from four acute general hospitals was performed in Palermo, Italy, during a one year period. Methods For the purpose of the study, MRSA isolates were defined as non multiresistant when they were susceptible to at least three classes of non β-lactam antibiotics. Seventy-five isolates were submitted to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SCCmec, accessory gene regulator (agr) groups, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin genes. For epidemiological typing, Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Fingerprinting (MLVF) was performed on all isolates and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) on ST8 isolates. Results Non multiresistant MRSA isolates were isolated from all hospitals. Resistances to ciprofloxacin, macrolides and tetracycline were the most prevalent. MLST attributed 46 isolates with ST22, 13 with ST8, eight with ST1, three with ST50 and three with ST398. SCCmec type IV was found in all isolates. PVL was detected in one ST22 isolate. All isolates tested negative for the ACME element. MLVF identified 31 different patterns, some subtype clusters ranging in size between two and 22 isolates. The closely related PFGE patterns of the ST8 isolates differed from USA300. Conclusions A polyclonal circulation of non multiresistant MRSA along with blurring of boundaries between healthcare associated (HA)-MRSA and community associated (CA)-MRSA appear to be occurring in our epidemiological setting. A better understanding of spread of MRSA with the support of molecular typing can provide invaluable information in

  5. Biodiversity of antifungal lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw milk samples from cow, ewe and goat over one-year period.

    PubMed

    Delavenne, E; Mounier, J; Déniel, F; Barbier, G; Le Blay, G

    2012-04-16

    Antifungal lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) biodiversity was evaluated in raw milk from ewe, cow and goat over one year period. Lactic acid bacteria were enumerated using 8 semi-selective media, and systematically screened for their antifungal activity against 4 spoilage fungi commonly encountered in dairy products. Depending on the selective medium, between 0.05% (Elliker agar) and 5.5% (LAMVAB agar) screened colonies showed an antifungal activity. The great majority of these active colonies originated from cow (49%) and goat (43%) milks, whereas only 8% were isolated from ewe milk. Penicillium expansum was the most frequently inhibited fungus with 48.5% of colonies active against P. expansum among the 1235 isolated, followed by Mucor plumbeus with 30.6% of active colonies, Kluyveromyces lactis with only 12.1% of active colonies and Pichia anomala with 8.7% of active colonies. In the tested conditions, 94% of the sequenced active colonies belonged to Lactobacillus. Among them, targeted fungal species differed according to the Lactobacillus group, whose presence largely depended on year period and milk origin. The Lb. casei and Lb. reuteri groups, predominantly recovered in summer/fall, were overrepresented in the population targeting M. plumbeus, whereas isolates from the Lb. plantarum group, predominantly recovered in spring, were overrepresented in the population targeting K. lactis, the ones belonging to the Lb. buchneri group, predominantly recovered in spring, were overrepresented in the population targeting P. anomala. Raw milk, especially cow and goat milks from the summer/fall period appeared to be a productive reservoir for antifungal lactobacilli. PMID:22364725

  6. Exposure assessment of one-year-old child to 3G tablet in uplink mode and to 3G femtocell in downlink mode using polynomial chaos decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liorni, I.; Parazzini, M.; Varsier, N.; Hadjem, A.; Ravazzani, P.; Wiart, J.

    2016-04-01

    So far, the assessment of the exposure of children, in the ages 0-2 years old, to relatively new radio-frequency (RF) technologies, such as tablets and femtocells, remains an open issue. This study aims to analyse the exposure of a one year-old child to these two sources, tablets and femtocells, operating in uplink (tablet) and downlink (femtocell) modes, respectively. In detail, a realistic model of an infant has been used to model separately the exposures due to (i) a 3G tablet emitting at the frequency of 1940 MHz (uplink mode) placed close to the body and (ii) a 3G femtocell emitting at 2100 MHz (downlink mode) placed at a distance of at least 1 m from the infant body. For both RF sources, the input power was set to 250 mW. The variability of the exposure due to the variation of the position of the RF sources with respect to the infant body has been studied by stochastic dosimetry, based on polynomial chaos to build surrogate models of both whole-body and tissue specific absorption rate (SAR), which makes it easy and quick to investigate the exposure in a full range of possible positions of the sources. The major outcomes of the study are: (1) the maximum values of the whole-body SAR (WB SAR) have been found to be 9.5 mW kg-1 in uplink mode and 65 μW kg-1 in downlink mode, i.e. within the limits of the ICNIRP 1998 Guidelines; (2) in both uplink and downlink mode the highest SAR values were approximately found in the same tissues, i.e. in the skin, eye and penis for the whole-tissue SAR and in the bone, skin and muscle for the peak SAR; (3) the change in the position of both the 3G tablet and the 3G femtocell significantly influences the infant exposure.

  7. Treatment of osteochondral lesions of the talus with autologous collagen-induced chondrogenesis: clinical and magnetic resonance evaluation at one-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    USUELLI, FEDERICO GIUSEPPE; GRASSI, MIRIAM; MANZI, LUIGI; GUARRELLA, VINCENZO; BOGA, MICHELE; DE GIROLAMO, LAURA

    2016-01-01

    Purpose the aim of this study is to report the clinical and imaging results recorded by a series of patients in whom osteochondral lesions of the talus (OLTs) were repaired using the autologous collagen-induced chondrogenesis (ACIC) technique with a completely arthroscopic approach. Methods nine patients (mean age 37.4±10 years) affected by OLTs (lesion size 2.1±0.9 cm2) were treated with the ACIC technique. The patients were evaluated clinically both preoperatively and at 12 months after surgery using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Ankle-Hindfoot Scale (AOFAS) and a visual analog scale (VAS). For morphological evaluation, the magnetic resonance observation of cartilage repair tissue (MOCART) score was used. Results the AOFAS score improved from 51.4±11.6 preoperatively to 71.8±20.6 postoperatively, while the VAS value decreased from 6.9±1.8 to 3.2±1.9. The mean MOCART score was 51.7±16.6 at 12 months of follow-up; these scores did not directly correlate with the clinical results. Conclusion use of the ACIC technique for arthroscopic repair of OLTs allowed satisfactory clinical results to be obtained in most of the patients as soon as one year after surgery, with no major complications or delayed revision surgery. ACIC is a valid and low-invasive surgical technique for the treatment of chondral and osteochondral defects of the talus. Level of evidence therapeutic case series, level IV. PMID:27602347

  8. High Prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Relation to Social Factors in Affected Population One Year after the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tsujiuchi, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Maya; Masuda, Kazutaka; Tsuchida, Marisa; Inomata, Tadashi; Kumano, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Augusterfer, Eugene F.; Mollica, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated post-traumatic stress symptoms in relation to the population affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster, one year after the disaster. Additionally, we investigated social factors, such as forced displacement, which we hypothesize contributed to the high prevalence of post-traumatic stress. Finally, we report of written narratives that were collected from the impacted population. Design and Settings Using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), questionnaires were sent to 2,011 households of those displaced from Fukushima prefecture living temporarily in Saitama prefecture. Of the 490 replies; 350 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine several characteristics and variables of social factors as predictors of probable post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD. Results The mean score of IES-R was 36.15±21.55, with 59.4% having scores of 30 or higher, thus indicating a probable PTSD. No significant differences in percentages of high-risk subjects were found among sex, age, evacuation area, housing damages, tsunami affected, family split-up, and acquaintance support. By the result of multiple logistic regression analysis, the significant predictors of probable PTSD were chronic physical diseases (OR = 1.97), chronic mental diseases (OR = 6.25), worries about livelihood (OR = 2.27), lost jobs (OR = 1.71), lost social ties (OR = 2.27), and concerns about compensation (OR = 3.74). Conclusion Although there are limitations in assuming a diagnosis of PTSD based on self-report IES-R, our findings indicate that there was a high-risk of PTSD strongly related to the nuclear disaster and its consequent evacuation and displacement. Therefore, recovery efforts must focus not only on medical and psychological treatment alone, but also on social and economic issues related to the displacement, as well. PMID:27002324

  9. Toxicity of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) following exposure of Wistar Rats for 13 weeks or one year via drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Edilberto; Willson, Gabrielle; Parkinson, Horace; Dodd, Darol

    2012-09-01

    Thirteen-week and one-year toxicity studies of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) administered in drinking water to Wistar rats were conducted. Male and female rats were exposed to MTBE in drinking water at 0.5, 3, 7.5 and 15 mg ml(-1) for 13 weeks and at 0.5, 3 and 7.5 (males) or 0.5, 3 and 15 mg ml(-1) (females) for 1 year. Body weights were reduced only in males following 13 weeks of exposure. Reduced water consumption and urine output were observed in males and females exposed to MTBE. Kidney cell replication and α(2u)-globulin levels in males were increased at 1 and 4 weeks of MTBE exposure and tubular cell regeneration was increased in male kidneys exposed to MTBE concentrations of 7.5 mg ml(-1) or greater for 13 weeks. Wet weights of male kidneys were increased following 13 weeks, 6 months and 1 year of exposure to MTBE concentrations of 7.5 mg ml(-1) or greater. Kidney wet weights were increased in females at MTBE concentrations of 15 mg ml(-1) for 13 weeks. Tertiary-butyl alcohol blood levels increased linearly with dose in males and females following 1 year of exposure. Chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN), of minimal to mild severity, increased in males, but not females, with 1 year of MTBE exposure. In summary, exposure of Wistar rats to MTBE in the drinking water resulted in minimal exposure-related effects including limited renal changes in male rats suggestive of α(2u)-globulin nephropathy following 13 weeks of exposure and an exacerbation of CPN in males at the end of 1 year of exposure. PMID:22833177

  10. Enhanced physical health screening for people with severe mental illness in Hong Kong: results from a one-year prospective case series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with severe mental illness have significantly poorer physical health compared to the general population; previous health screening studies conducted outside Asian countries have demonstrated the potential in addressing this issue. This case series aimed to explore the effects and utility of integrating an enhanced physical health screening programme for community dwelling patients with severe mental illness into routine clinical practice in Hong Kong. Method This study utilises a consecutive prospective case series design. The serious mental illness Health Improvement Profile (HIP) was used as a screening tool at baseline and repeated at 12 months follow-up. Results A total of 148 community-based patients with severe mental illness completed the study. At one year follow-up analysis showed a significant improvement in self-reported levels of exercise and a reduction in the numbers of patients prescribed medications for diabetes However, mean waist circumference increased at follow-up. In addition to the statistically significant results some general trends were observed, including: a lack of deterioration in most areas of cardiovascular risk; a reduction in medicines prescribed for physical health problems; and general improvements in health behaviours over the 12 month period. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that using the HIP is feasible and acceptable in Hong Kong. The results of the enhanced physical health-screening programme are promising, but require further testing using a randomised controlled trial design in order to more confidently attribute the improvements in well-being and health behaviours to the HIP. Trial registration Clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN12582470 PMID:24576042

  11. Low-molecular-weight organic acids in the Tibetan Plateau: Results from one-year of precipitation samples at the SET station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Kang, Shichang; Sun, Jimin; Wan, Xin; Wang, Yongjie; Gao, Shaopeng; Cong, Zhiyuan

    2014-04-01

    Background atmospheric organic acids: formic (F), acetic (A), oxalic (O), and methanesulfonic (MSA, abbreviated to M) acids in the southern Tibetan Plateau (TP), were determined in one-year of precipitation measurements at a remote alpine station. These organic acids were dominated by oxalic (volume-weighted mean of 0.51 μmol l-1)/formic acid (0.38 μmol l-1), followed by acetic acid (0.20 μmol l-1) and MSA (0.10 μmol l-1). Their levels were comparable with those from other remote sites, while they were lower than those found in populated areas. The South Asian monsoon is responsible for the seasonal variation of organic acid concentration: a relative abundance of MSA and lower concentrations of other organic acids (by the dilution effect) in the monsoon season, while opposite in the non-monsoon season. Diverse sources were identified by principal component analysis combined with the corresponding tracers. These were anthropogenic disturbances (which explain 41% of the variance), marine emission (24%), and biogenic emission (16%). Moreover, the variances of F/A, M/(F + A), and O/(F + A) in monsoonal versus non-monsoonal samples, were involved with the changes of sources. Furthermore, these chemical indexes suggest that active photochemistry over the TP was significant for the production of organic acids and consequently enhanced the ratios of M/(F + A) and O/(F + A) in monsoonal rainfalls. The elevated organic compounds within the ascending tropical moisture imply potential significances for the secondary formation of organic acids in the high-altitude and the changes of the Asian monsoon.

  12. Posterior Interspinous Fusion Device for One-Level Fusion in Degenerative Lumbar Spine Disease : Comparison with Pedicle Screw Fixation - Preliminary Report of at Least One Year Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho Jung; Chun, Hyoung Joon; Oh, Suck Jun; Kang, Tae Hoon; Yang, Moon Sool

    2012-01-01

    Objective Transpedicular screw fixation has some disadvantages such as postoperative back pain through wide muscle dissection, long operative time, and cephalad adjacent segmental degeneration (ASD). The purposes of this study are investigation and comparison of radiological and clinical results between interspinous fusion device (IFD) and pedicle screw. Methods From Jan. 2008 to Aug. 2009, 40 patients underwent spinal fusion with IFD combined with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). In same study period, 36 patients underwent spinal fusion with pedicle screw fixation as control group. Dynamic lateral radiographs, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Korean version of the Oswestry disability index (K-ODI) scores were evaluated in both groups. Results The lumbar spine diseases in the IFD group were as followings; spinal stenosis in 26, degenerative spondylolisthesis in 12, and intervertebral disc herniation in 2. The mean follow up period was 14.24 months (range; 12 to 22 months) in the IFD group and 18.3 months (range; 12 to 28 months) in pedicle screw group. The mean VAS scores was preoperatively 7.16±2.1 and 8.03±2.3 in the IFD and pedicle screw groups, respectively, and improved postoperatively to 1.3±2.9 and 1.2±3.2 in 1-year follow ups (p<0.05). The K-ODI was decreased significantly in an equal amount in both groups one year postoperatively (p<0.05). The statistics revealed a higher incidence of ASD in pedicle screw group than the IFD group (p=0.029). Conclusion Posterior IFD has several advantages over the pedicle screw fixation in terms of skin incision, muscle dissection and short operative time and less intraoperative estimated blood loss. The IFD with PLIF may be a favorable technique to replace the pedicle screw fixation in selective case. PMID:23133725

  13. Exposure assessment of one-year-old child to 3G tablet in uplink mode and to 3G femtocell in downlink mode using polynomial chaos decomposition.

    PubMed

    Liorni, I; Parazzini, M; Varsier, N; Hadjem, A; Ravazzani, P; Wiart, J

    2016-04-21

    So far, the assessment of the exposure of children, in the ages 0-2 years old, to relatively new radio-frequency (RF) technologies, such as tablets and femtocells, remains an open issue. This study aims to analyse the exposure of a one year-old child to these two sources, tablets and femtocells, operating in uplink (tablet) and downlink (femtocell) modes, respectively. In detail, a realistic model of an infant has been used to model separately the exposures due to (i) a 3G tablet emitting at the frequency of 1940 MHz (uplink mode) placed close to the body and (ii) a 3G femtocell emitting at 2100 MHz (downlink mode) placed at a distance of at least 1 m from the infant body. For both RF sources, the input power was set to 250 mW. The variability of the exposure due to the variation of the position of the RF sources with respect to the infant body has been studied by stochastic dosimetry, based on polynomial chaos to build surrogate models of both whole-body and tissue specific absorption rate (SAR), which makes it easy and quick to investigate the exposure in a full range of possible positions of the sources. The major outcomes of the study are: (1) the maximum values of the whole-body SAR (WB SAR) have been found to be 9.5 mW kg(-1) in uplink mode and 65 μW kg(-1) in downlink mode, i.e. within the limits of the ICNIRP 1998 Guidelines; (2) in both uplink and downlink mode the highest SAR values were approximately found in the same tissues, i.e. in the skin, eye and penis for the whole-tissue SAR and in the bone, skin and muscle for the peak SAR; (3) the change in the position of both the 3G tablet and the 3G femtocell significantly influences the infant exposure. PMID:27027265