These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Microcolony and biofilm formation as a survival strategy for bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial communities such as biofilms are widely recognized as being important for survival and persistence of bacteria in harsh environments. Mechanistic models of biofilm growth indicate that the way in which the surface is seeded can effect the morphology of simulated biofilms. Experimental studies indicate that genes which are important for chemotaxis also influence biofilm formation, perhaps by influencing aggregation

Leah R. Johnson

2008-01-01

2

Curli synthesis and biofilm formation in enteric bacteria are controlled by a dynamic small RNA  

E-print Network

Curli synthesis and biofilm formation in enteric bacteria are controlled by a dynamic small RNA-specific gene D transcription factor required for adhesion and biofilm production in enterobacteria. During biofilm formation by impairing curli synthesis. Inducing RydC early on in growth lowers CsgA, -B and -D

Boyer, Edmond

3

Biofilm Formation by Gram-Negative Bacteria on Central Venous Catheter Connectors: Effect of Conditioning Films in a Laboratory Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human blood components have been shown to enhance biofilm formation by gram-positive bacteria. We investigated the effect of human blood on biofilm formation on the inner lumen of needleless central venous catheter connectors by several gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa, and Pantoea agglomerans. Results suggest that a conditioning film of blood components promotes biofilm formation by these

R. Murga; J. M. Miller; R. M. Donlan

2001-01-01

4

Effect of estradiol on planktonic growth, coaggregation, and biofilm formation of the Prevotella intermedia group bacteria.  

PubMed

Alterations in the quantity and quality of biofilms at gingival margin are considered to play a role in the initiation and development of pregnancy-related gingivitis. Prevotella intermedia sensu lato is able to consume estradiol, the major sex hormone secreted during pregnancy, in the absence of vitamin K. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of estradiol on the planktonic growth, coaggregation, polysaccharide production, and biofilm formation of the P. intermedia group bacteria, namely P. intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella pallens. In all experiments, the type strain (ATCC) and a clinical strain (AHN) of P. intermedia, P. nigrescens, and P. pallens were incubated with the concentrations of 0, 30, 90, and 120 nmol/L of estradiol. Planktonic growth was assessed by means of the colony forming unit method, while coaggregation and biofilm formation were assessed by spectrophotometric methods. In the determination of protein and polysaccharide levels, the Bradford and phenol-sulfuric acid methods were used, respectively. P. pallens AHN 9283 and P. nigrescens ATCC 33563 increased their numbers at planktonic stage with increasing estradiol concentrations. In 48-h biofilm tests, elevated protein levels were found for both strains of P. intermedia, and the strains P. nigrescens ATCC 33563 and P. pallens AHN 9283 in the presence of estradiol. The P. intermedia strains also increased the levels of polysaccharide formation in the biofilm. Coaggregation of the P. intermedia group organisms with Fusobacterium nucleatum was enhanced only in P. intermedia AHN 8290. In conclusion, our in vitro experiments indicate that estradiol regulates planktonic growth, coaggregation, polysaccharide production, and biofilm formation characteristics of P. intermedia, P. nigrescens, and P. pallens differently. These results may, at least partly, explain the differences seen in their contribution to the pathogenesis of pregnancy-related gingivitis. PMID:24594108

Fteita, Dareen; Könönen, Eija; Söderling, Eva; Gürsoy, Ulvi Kahraman

2014-06-01

5

Quorum sensing signalling and biofilm formation of brewery-derived bacteria, and inhibition of signalling by natural compounds.  

PubMed

Bacteria use quorum sensing signalling in various functions, e.g. while forming biofilms, and inhibition of this signalling could be one way to control biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of signalling molecules and its correlation with the biofilm formation capability of bacteria isolated from brewery filling process. A further aim was to study berry extracts and wood-derived terpenes for their possible quorum sensing inhibitory effects. Out of the twenty bacteria studied, five produced short-chain and five long-chain AHL (acyl homoserine lactone) signalling molecules when tested with the Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 reporter bacterium. Production of AI-2 (autoinducer-2) signalling molecules was detected from nine strains with the Vibrio harveyi BB170 bioassay. Over half of the strains produced biofilm in the microtitre plate assay, but the production of AHL and AI-2 signalling molecules and biofilm formation capability did not directly correlate with each other. Out of the 13 berry extracts and wood-derived terpenes screened, four compounds decreased AHL signalling without effect on growth. These were betulin, raspberry extract and two cloudberry extracts. The effect of these compounds on biofilm formation of the selected six bacterial strains varied. The phenolic extract of freeze-dried cloudberry fruit caused a statistically significant reduction of biofilm formation of Obesumbacterium proteus strain. Further experiments should aim at identifying the active compounds and revealing whether quorum sensing inhibition causes structural changes in the biofilms formed. PMID:24944110

Priha, O; Virkajärvi, V; Juvonen, R; Puupponen-Pimiä, R; Nohynek, L; Alakurtti, S; Pirttimaa, M; Storgårds, E

2014-11-01

6

Quorum quenching bacteria isolated from the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant and their application for controlling biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Bacteria recognize changes in their population density by sensing the concentration of signal molecules, N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). AHL-mediated quorum sensing (QS) plays a key role in biofilm formation, so the interference of QS, referred to as quorum quenching (QQ), has received a great deal of attention. A QQ strategy can be applied to membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for advanced wastewater treatment to control biofouling. To isolate QQ bacteria that can inhibit biofilm formation, we isolated diverse AHL-degrading bacteria from a laboratory-scale MBR and sludge from real wastewater treatment plants. A total of 225 AHLdegrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge sample by enrichment culture. To identify the enzyme responsible for AHL degradation in QQ bacteria, AHL-degrading activities were analyzed using cell-free lysate, culture supernatant, and whole cells. Afipia sp. and Acinetobacter sp. strains produced the intracellular QQ enzyme, whereas Pseudomonas sp. and Micrococcus sp. produced the extracellular QQ enzyme that was most likely to produce AHLacylase. AHL-degrading activity was observed in whole-cell assay with the Microbacterium sp. and Rhodococcus sp. strains. There has been no report for AHL-degrading capability in the case of Streptococcus sp. and Afipia sp. strains. Finally, inhibition of biofilm formation by isolated QQ bacteria or enzymes was observed on glass slides and 96-well microtiter plates using crystal violet staining. QQ strains or enzymes not only inhibited initial biofilm development but also reduced established biofilms. PMID:25112313

Kim, A-Leum; Park, Son-Young; Lee, Chi-Ho; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Jung-Kee

2014-11-28

7

Biofilm formation and proteolytic activities of Pseudoalteromonas bacteria that were isolated from fish farm sediments  

PubMed Central

Summary In order to save natural resources and supply good fishes, it is important to improve fish?farming techniques. The survival rate of fish fry appears to become higher when powders of foraminifer limestone are submerged at the bottom of fish?farming fields, where bacterial biofilms often grow. The observations suggest that forming biofilms can benefit to keep health status of breeding fishes. We employed culture?based methods for the identification and characterization of biofilm?forming bacteria and assessed the application of their properties for fish farming. Fifteen bacterial strains were isolated from the biofilm samples collected from fish farm sediments. The 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these bacteria belonged to the genera, Pseudoalteromonas (seven strains), Vibrio (seven strains) and Halomonas (one strain). It was found that Pseudoalteromonas strains generally formed robust biofilms in a laboratory condition and produced extracellular proteases in a biofilm?dependent manner. The results suggest that Pseudoalteromonas bacteria, living in the biofilm community, contribute in part to remove excess proteineous matters from the sediment sludge of fish farms. PMID:21261930

Iijima, Saori; Washio, Kenji; Okahara, Ryota; Morikawa, Masaaki

2009-01-01

8

MPC-polymer reduces adherence and biofilm formation by oral bacteria.  

PubMed

Oral biofilms such as dental plaque cause dental caries and periodontitis, as well as aspiration pneumonia and infectious endocarditis by translocation. Hence, the suppression of oral biofilm formation is an issue of considerable importance. Mechanical removal, disinfectants, inhibition of polysaccharide formation, and artificial sugar have been used for the reduction of oral biofilm. From the viewpoint of the inhibition of bacterial adherence, we investigated whether aqueous biocompatible 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)-polymer can reduce streptococcal colonization and biofilm formation. We examined the effects of MPC-polymer on streptococcal adherence to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite and oral epithelial cells, and the adherence of Fusobacterium nucleatum to streptococcal biofilm. MPC-polymer application markedly inhibited both the adherence and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite and streptococcal adherence to oral epithelial cells, and reduced the adherence of F. nucleatum to streptococcal biofilms. A small-scale clinical trial revealed that mouthrinsing with MPC-polymer inhibited the increase of oral bacterial numbers, especially of S. mutans. These findings suggest that MPC-polymer is a potent inhibitor of bacterial adherence and biofilm development, and may be useful to prevent dental-plaque-related diseases. (UMIN Clinical Trial Registry UMIN000003471). PMID:21447697

Hirota, K; Yumoto, H; Miyamoto, K; Yamamoto, N; Murakami, K; Hoshino, Y; Matsuo, T; Miyake, Y

2011-07-01

9

Effect of temperature on biofilm formation by Antarctic marine bacteria in a microfluidic device.  

PubMed

Polar biofilms have become an increasingly popular biological issue because new materials and phenotypes have been discovered in microorganisms in the polar region. Various environmental factors affect the functionality and adaptation of microorganisms. Because the polar region represents an extremely cold environment, polar microorganisms have a functionality different from that of normal microorganisms. Thus, determining the effective temperature for the development of polar biofilms is crucial. Here, we present a simple, novel one-pot assay for analysis of the effect of temperature on formation of Antarctic bacterial biofilm using a microfluidic system where continuous temperature gradients are generated. We find that a specific range of temperature is required for the growth of biofilms. Thus, this microfluidic approach provides precise information regarding the effective temperature for polar biofilm development with a new high-throughput screening format. PMID:24513116

Jeong, Heon-Ho; Jeong, Seong-Geun; Park, Aeri; Jang, Sung-Chan; Hong, Soon Gyu; Lee, Chang-Soo

2014-02-01

10

Biofilm formation by bacteria isolated from upper respiratory tract before and after adenotonsillectomy.  

PubMed

Failure of antibiotics to eradicate the microbial pathogens primarily responsible for otorhinolaryngological diseases has led to the hypothesis that these microorganisms may be structured in a biolfilm. Aim of the study was to evaluate the ability to produce biofilm among bacteria isolated from tonsils and/or adenoids and nasopharynx. Biopsies and swabs were collected during surgery and after 3 and 6 months in 32 children undergoing adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy. Production of biofilm by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Haemophilus influenzae was evaluated in vitro by means of spectrophotometry after growth in microplates and staining with crystalviolet. Of the isolates from intraoperative samples, 44.7% were either moderate or strong biofilm producers compared with 27% of isolates at 6 months after surgery. A decrease in biofilm production was observed for H. influenzae and S. aureus. In conclusion, the rate of isolation and ability to form biofilm decreased in bacteria isolated subsequent to adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy. This suggests a role for biofilm in pathogenesis of recurrent and chronic pharyngeal diseases and rhinopharingitis. PMID:22515296

Drago, Lorenzo; De Vecchi, Elena; Torretta, Sara; Mattina, Roberto; Marchisio, Paola; Pignataro, Lorenzo

2012-05-01

11

Biofilms of As(III)-oxidising bacteria: formation and activity studies for bioremediation process development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation and activity of an As(III)-oxidising biofilm in a bioreactor, using pozzolana as bacterial growth support, was\\u000a studied for the purpose of optimising fixed-bed bioreactors for bioremediation. After 60 days of continuous functioning with\\u000a an As(III)-contaminated effluent, the active biofilm was found to be located mainly near the inflow rather than homogeneously\\u000a distributed. Biofilm development by the CAsO1 bacterial consortium

C. Michel; M. Jean; S. Coulon; M.-C. Dictor; F. Delorme; D. Morin; F. Garrido

2007-01-01

12

[Antibacterial effects of silver ions: effect on gram-negative bacteria growth and biofilm formation].  

PubMed

Minimal inhibiting AgNO3 concentration (MICs) in the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli K12, Serratia proteamaculans 94, and Serratia liquefaciens MG1 were found to be on the average within the range of 0.075-0.3 microg/ml, and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and P. chlororaphis 449, 0.15-0.3 microg/ml. Biofilm formation in Escherichia coli AB1157 and S. Proteamaculans 94 was completely inhibited at an AgNO3 concentration of 0.3 microg/ml, and in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, at 0.6 microg/mlAgNO3. Mutations in E. coli genes encoding for global regulators of gene expression, such as sigma S and sigma N subunits of RNA polymerase, catabolite repression protein CRP, and Lon protease, had no marked effect on the sensitivity of cells to silver. The wild-type E. coli strains and strains deficient in excision repair (uvrA, uvrB), SOS-repair or recombination (recA, lexA, recBC, recF mutants) did not differ in their silver sensitivity. This suggests that the sensitivity of bacteria to silver does not correlate with DNA lesions that could be repaired by these repair and recombination systems. E. coli mutant strains deficient in porins OmpF or OmpC, were 3-4-fold more resistant to silver ions as compared with the wild-type strain. Experiments with pME6863 plasmid harboring the gene of N-acyl-homoserine lactonase AiiA demonstrated that Quorum Sensing regulation (QS) did not participate in the control of S. proteamaculans 94 and P. chlororaphis 449 silver sensitivity. The same conclusion was drawn from the comparison of AgNO3 MICs for the S. liquefaciens wild-type strain and a mutant strain deficient in QS. PMID:20017360

Radtsig, M A; Koksharova, O A; Khmel', I A

2009-01-01

13

Engineering biofilm formation and dispersal  

PubMed Central

Anywhere water is in the liquid state, bacteria will exist as biofilms, which are complex communities of cells cemented together. Although frequently associated with disease and biofouling, biofilms are also important for engineering applications, such as bioremediation, biocatalysis and microbial fuel cells. Here we review approaches to alter genetic circuits and cell signaling toward controlling biofilm formation, and emphasize utilizing these tools for engineering applications. Based on a better understanding of the genetic basis of biofilm formation, we find that biofilms may be controlled by manipulating extracellular signals and that they may be dispersed using conserved intracellular signals and regulators. Biofilms could also be formed at specific locations where they might be engineered to make chemicals or treat human disease. PMID:21131080

Wood, Thomas K.; Hong, Seok Hoon; Ma, Qun

2011-01-01

14

Effect of algae and plant lectins on planktonic growth and biofilm formation in clinically relevant bacteria and yeasts.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the abilities of plant and algae lectins to inhibit planktonic growth and biofilm formation in bacteria and yeasts. Initially, ten lectins were tested on Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and C. tropicalis at concentrations of 31.25 to 250? ? g/mL. The lectins from Cratylia floribunda (CFL), Vatairea macrocarpa (VML), Bauhinia bauhinioides (BBL), Bryothamnion seaforthii (BSL), and Hypnea musciformis (HML) showed activities against at least one microorganism. Biofilm formation in the presence of the lectins was also evaluated; after 24?h of incubation with the lectins, the biofilms were analyzed by quantifying the biomass (by crystal violet staining) and by enumerating the viable cells (colony-forming units). The lectins reduced the biofilm biomass and/or the number of viable cells to differing degrees depending on the microorganism tested, demonstrating the different characteristics of the lectins. These findings indicate that the lectins tested in this study may be natural alternative antimicrobial agents; however, further studies are required to better elucidate the functional use of these proteins. PMID:24982871

Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Silva, Helton Colares; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; Cavada, Benildo; Teixeira, Edson Holanda; Henriques, Mariana; Pereira, Maria Olivia

2014-01-01

15

Proteinaceous determinants of surface colonization in bacteria: bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation from a protein secretion perspective  

PubMed Central

Bacterial colonization of biotic or abiotic surfaces results from two quite distinct physiological processes, namely bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Broadly speaking, a biofilm is defined as the sessile development of microbial cells. Biofilm formation arises following bacterial adhesion but not all single bacterial cells adhering reversibly or irreversibly engage inexorably into a sessile mode of growth. Among molecular determinants promoting bacterial colonization, surface proteins are the most functionally diverse active components. To be present on the bacterial cell surface, though, a protein must be secreted in the first place. Considering the close association of secreted proteins with their cognate secretion systems, the secretome (which refers both to the secretion systems and their protein substrates) is a key concept to apprehend the protein secretion and related physiological functions. The protein secretion systems are here considered in light of the differences in the cell-envelope architecture between diderm-LPS (archetypal Gram-negative), monoderm (archetypal Gram-positive) and diderm-mycolate (archetypal acid-fast) bacteria. Besides, their cognate secreted proteins engaged in the bacterial colonization process are regarded from single protein to supramolecular protein structure as well as the non-classical protein secretion. This state-of-the-art on the complement of the secretome (the secretion systems and their cognate effectors) involved in the surface colonization process in diderm-LPS and monoderm bacteria paves the way for future research directions in the field. PMID:24133488

Chagnot, Caroline; Zorgani, Mohamed A.; Astruc, Thierry; Desvaux, Mickael

2013-01-01

16

Biofilm formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Summary Biofilm?grown bacteria are refractory to antimicrobial agents and show an increased capacity to evade the host immune system. In recent years, studies have begun on biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, using a variety of in vitro model systems. The bacterial cells in these biofilms are held together by an extracellular matrix composed of DNA, proteins and, possibly, polysaccharide(s). Although neither the precise nature of these proteins nor the composition of the putative polysaccharide(s) is clear, it is known that choline?binding proteins are required for successful biofilm formation. Further, many genes appear to be involved, although the role of each appears to vary when biofilms are produced in batch or continuous culture. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures need to be developed to fight S.?pneumoniae biofilm formation. However, much care needs to be taken when choosing strains for such studies because different S.?pneumoniae isolates can show remarkable genomic differences. Multispecies and in vivo biofilm models must also be developed to provide a more complete understanding of biofilm formation and maintenance. PMID:21906265

Domenech, Mirian; Garcia, Ernesto; Moscoso, Miriam

2012-01-01

17

Hydrodynamics of catheter biofilm formation  

E-print Network

A hydrodynamic model is proposed to describe one of the most critical problems in intensive medical care units: the formation of biofilms inside central venous catheters. The incorporation of approximate solutions for the flow-limited diffusion equation leads to the conclusion that biofilms grow on the internal catheter wall due to the counter-stream diffusion of blood through a very thin layer close to the wall. This biological deposition is the first necessary step for the subsequent bacteria colonization.

Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar; Rodriguez-Perez, Daniel; Martinez-Escobar, Sergio; Fernandez-Barbero, Antonio

2009-01-01

18

Biofilm formation by Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major healthcare-associated disease worldwide. Recurring infections and increasing antibiotic resistance have complicated treatment of CDI. While C. difficile spores are important for transmission and persistence of CDI, other factors such as gut colonization and formation of bacterial communities in the gut may also contribute to pathogenesis and persistence, but have not been well investigated. Recently, we reported that important clinical C. difficile strains are able to form composite biofilms in vitro. C. difficile biofilm formation is a complex process, modulated by several different factors, including cell surface components and regulators. We also reported that bacteria within biofilms are more resistant to high concentrations of vancomycin, the antibiotic of choice for treatment of CDI. Here we summarize our recent findings and discuss the implications of biofilm formation by this anaerobic gut pathogen in disease pathogenesis and treatment. PMID:23892245

Dapa, Tanja; Unnikrishnan, Meera

2013-01-01

19

?-Alkylidene-?-lactones and isobutylpyrrol-2(5H)-ones analogues to rubrolides as inhibitors of biofilm formation by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Several molecules have been discovered that interfere with formation of bacterial biofilms, opening a new strategy for the development of more efficient treatments in case of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Amongst the most active compounds are some natural brominated furanones from marine algae Delisea pulchra that have proven to be able to control pathogenic biofilms. We have recently reported that some rubrolide analogues are able to inhibit biofilm formation of Enterococcus faecalis. In the present Letter we describe results of the biological evaluation of a small library of 28 compounds including brominated furanones and the corresponding lactams against biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus mutans. Our results showed that in general these compounds were more active against biofilms of S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa, with little or no inhibition of planktonic bacterial growth. In some cases they were able to prevent biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa at concentrations as low as 0.6 ?g/mL (1.3 ?M, compound 3d) and 0.7 ?g/mL (1.3 ?M, 3f). Results also indicate that, in general, lactams are more active against biofilms than their precursors, thus designating this class of molecules as good candidates for the development of a new generation of antimicrobial drugs targeted to biofilm inhibition. PMID:24484899

Pereira, Ulisses A; Barbosa, Luiz C A; Maltha, Célia R A; Demuner, Antônio J; Masood, Mohammed A; Pimenta, Andréa L

2014-02-15

20

Antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles on gram-negative bacteria: influence on the growth and biofilms formation, mechanisms of action.  

PubMed

Antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on Gram-negative bacteria (planctonic cells and biofilms) is reported in this study. AgNP of 8.3 nm in diameter stabilized by hydrolyzed casein peptides strongly inhibited biofilms formation of Escherichia coli AB1157, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Serratia proteamaculans 94 in concentrations of 4-5 ?g/ml, 10 ?g/ml and 10-20 ?g/ml, respectively. The viability of E. coli AB1157 cells in biofilms was considerably reduced by AgNP concentrations above 100 to -150 ?g/ml. E. coli strains with mutations in genes responsible for the repair of DNA containing oxidative lesions (mutY, mutS, mutM, mutT, nth) were less resistant to AgNP than wild type strains. This suggests that these genes may be involved in the repair of DNA damage caused by AgNP. E. coli mutants deficient in excision repair, SOS-response and in the synthesis of global regulators RpoS, CRP protein and Lon protease present similar resistance to AgNP as wild type cells. LuxI/LuxR Quorum Sensing systems did not participate in the control of sensitivity to AgNP of Pseudomonas and Serratia. E. coli mutant strains deficient in OmpF or OmpC porins were 4-8 times more resistant to AgNP as compared to the wild type strain. This suggests that porins have an important function related AgNP antibacterial effects. PMID:23006569

Radzig, M A; Nadtochenko, V A; Koksharova, O A; Kiwi, J; Lipasova, V A; Khmel, I A

2013-02-01

21

Clay-Bacteria Systems and Biofilm Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil clots and the aerosol transport of bacteria and spores are promoted by the formation of biofilms (bacteria cells in an extracellular polymeric matrix). Biofilms protect microorganisms by promoting adhesion to both organic and inorganic surfaces. Time series experiments on bacteria-clay suspensions demonstrate that biofilm growth is catalyzed by the presence of hectorite in minimal growth media for the studied species: Gram negatives (Pseudomonas syringae and Escherichia coli,) and Gram positives (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). Soil organisms (P. syringae, B. subtilis) and organisms found in the human population (E. coli, S. aureus) are both used to demonstrate the general applicability of clay involvement. Fluorescent images of the biofilms are acquired by staining with propidium iodide, a component of the BacLightTM Live/Dead bacterial viability staining kit (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR). The evolving polysaccharide-rich biofilm reacts with the clay interlayer site causing a complex substitution of the two-water hectorite interlayer with polysaccharide. The result is often a three-peak composite of the (001) x-ray diffraction maxima resulting from polysaccharide-expanded clays and an organic-driven contraction of a subset of the clays in the reaction medium. X-ray diffractograms reveal that the expanded set creates a broad maximum with clay subsets at 1.84 nm and 1.41 nm interlayer spacings as approximated by a least squares double Lorentzian fit, and a smaller shoulder at larger 2q, deriving from a contraction of the interlayer spacing. Washing with chlorox removes organic material from the contracted clay and creates a 1-water hectorite single peak in place of the double peak. The clay response can be used as an indirect indicator of biofilm in an environmental system.

Steiner, J.; Alimova, A.; Katz, A.; Steiner, N.; Rudolph, E.; Gottlieb, P.

2007-12-01

22

Attachment and biofilm formation by foodborne bacteria in meat processing environments: causes, implications, role of bacterial interactions and control by alternative novel methods.  

PubMed

Attachment of potential spoilage and pathogenic bacteria to food contact surfaces and the subsequent biofilm formation represent serious challenges to the meat industry, since these may lead to cross-contamination of the products, resulting in lowered-shelf life and transmission of diseases. In meat processing environments, microorganisms are sometimes associated to surfaces in complex multispecies communities, while bacterial interactions have been shown to play a key role in cell attachment and detachment from biofilms, as well as in the resistance of biofilm community members against antimicrobial treatments. Disinfection of food contact surfaces in such environments is a challenging task, aggravated by the great antimicrobial resistance of biofilm associated bacteria. In recent years, several alternative novel methods, such as essential oils and bacteriophages, have been successfully tested as an alternative means for the disinfection of microbial-contaminated food contact surfaces. In this review, all these aspects of biofilm formation in meat processing environments are discussed from a microbial meat-quality and safety perspective. PMID:23747091

Giaouris, Efstathios; Heir, Even; Hébraud, Michel; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Langsrud, Solveig; Møretrø, Trond; Habimana, Olivier; Desvaux, Mickaël; Renier, Sandra; Nychas, George-John

2014-07-01

23

Released exopolysaccharide (r-EPS) produced from probiotic bacteria reduce biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7.  

PubMed

Here, we characterized released-exopolysaccharides (r-EPS) from Lactobacillus acidophilus A4 with the goal of identifying natural compounds that represses biofilm formation. In plastic 96-well microplates that contained 1.0 mg/ml of r-EPS, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) biofilms were dramatically decreased by 87% and 94% on polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surfaces, respectively. In the presence of r-EPS, neither their growth rate nor their autoinducer-2-like activity was affected on the EHEC O157:H7. Importantly, consistent reduction in biofilm formation was also observed when r-EPS was applied to the continuous-flow chamber models. In addition, we found that adding r-EPS significantly repressed biofilm formation by affecting genes related to curli production (crl, csgA, and csgB) and chemotaxis (cheY) in transcriptome analysis. Furthermore, these r-EPS could prevent biofilm formation by a wide range of Gram-negative and -positive pathogens. This property may lead to the development of novel food-grade adjuncts for microbial biofilm control. PMID:19103165

Kim, Younghoon; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sae Hun

2009-02-01

24

Silver-Palladium Surfaces Inhibit Biofilm Formation?  

PubMed Central

Undesired biofilm formation is a major concern in many areas. In the present study, we investigated biofilm-inhibiting properties of a silver-palladium surface that kills bacteria by generating microelectric fields and electrochemical redox processes. For evaluation of the biofilm inhibition efficacy and study of the biofilm inhibition mechanism, the silver-sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and the silver-resistant E. coli J53[pMG101] strains were used as model organisms, and batch and flow chamber setups were used as model systems. In the case of the silver-sensitive strain, the silver-palladium surfaces killed the bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low or high bacterial load. In the case of the silver-resistant strain, the silver-palladium surfaces killed surface-associated bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low bacterial load, whereas under conditions of high bacterial load, biofilm formation occurred upon a layer of surface-associated dead bacteria. PMID:19151185

Chiang, Wen-Chi; Schroll, Casper; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; M?ller, Per; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

2009-01-01

25

Faecal indicator bacteria in river biofilms.  

PubMed

Biofilms in surface waters primarily consist of allochthonous microorganisms. Under conditions of pollution faecally derived bacteria may interact with these biofilms. Total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci are used to monitor source water quality, indicating faecal pollution and the possible presence of enteric pathogens. In the present study the occurrence of faecal indicators was investigated in biofilms (epilithic biofilms, sediments) of German rivers. All of the biofilms contained significant concentrations of these bacteria, which were several orders of magnitude lower compared with the total cell number and the number of culturable heterotrophic plate count bacteria indicating that faecal indicator bacteria represented a minor fraction of the whole biofilm communities. The biofilms displayed approximately two orders of magnitude higher concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli and enterococci compared with the overlying water. Identification of coliform and enterococcal isolates from the biofilms revealed the presence of species which are known to be opportunistic pathogens. Overall, the results of the present study show that faecal indicator bacteria can survive in the presence of high cell densities of the authochthonous microflora in epilithic biofilms and sediments, suggesting that these biofilms may act as a reservoir for bacterial pathogens in polluted rivers. PMID:20220231

Balzer, M; Witt, N; Flemming, H-C; Wingender, J

2010-01-01

26

[Bacteria and biofilm in respiratory tract infections].  

PubMed

Biofilm is a structured community of bacterial cells included in a self-produced polymeric matrix adherent to an inert or living surface. The main property of biofilm consists of making microrganisms more resistant to exogenous insults. Antibiotic therapy typically resolves symptoms determined by planktonic cells released by biofilms but is not able to eradicate and completely clear biofilm. This is why infections sustained by biofilm-producer bacteria are often recurrent, making mandatory repeated antibiotic treatments. The typical conformation of biofilm, the phenotypical and genetical features existing among the different microrganisms confer a natural resistance to a number of antimicrobials so that it is necessary to test antimicrobial activity against the microbial species itself and also against biofilm, when it is present. Comparative studies, performed on quinolones and beta-lactams, evidenced a significant activity against biofilm produced by pneumococci, haemophyli and pseudomonas as well. PMID:19696554

Drago, Lorenzo

2009-07-01

27

A new biofilm-associated colicin with increased efficiency against biofilm bacteria.  

PubMed

Formation of bacterial biofilm communities leads to profound physiological modifications and increased physical and metabolic exchanges between bacteria. It was previously shown that bioactive molecules produced within the biofilm environment contribute to bacterial interactions. Here we describe new pore-forming colicin R, specifically produced in biofilms formed by the natural isolate Escherichia coli ROAR029 but that cannot be detected under planktonic culture conditions. We demonstrate that an increased SOS stress response within mature biofilms induces SOS-dependent colicin R expression. We provide evidence that colicin R displays increased activity against E. coli strains that have a reduced lipopolysaccharide length, such as the pathogenic enteroaggregative E. coli LF82 clinical isolate, therefore pointing to lipopolysaccharide size as an important determinant for resistance to colicins. We show that colicin R toxicity toward E. coli LF82 is increased under biofilm conditions compared with planktonic susceptibility and that release of colicin R confers a strong competitive advantage in mixed biofilms by rapidly outcompeting sensitive neighboring bacteria. This work identifies the first biofilm-associated colicin that preferentially targets biofilm bacteria. Furthermore, it indicates that the study of antagonistic molecules produced in biofilm and multispecies contexts could reveal unsuspected, ecologically relevant bacterial interactions influencing population dynamics in natural environments. PMID:24451204

Rendueles, Olaya; Beloin, Christophe; Latour-Lambert, Patricia; Ghigo, Jean-Marc

2014-06-01

28

An Alternative Polyamine Biosynthetic Pathway Is Widespread in Bacteria and Essential for Biofilm Formation in Vibrio cholerae*S?  

PubMed Central

Polyamines are small organic cations found in all cells, and the biosynthetic pathway is well described in eukaryotes and Escherichia coli. The characterized pathway uses decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine as the aminopropyl group donor to form spermidine from putrescine by the key enzymes S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase and spermidine synthase. We report here the in vivo characterization of an alternative polyamine biosynthetic pathway from Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of human cholera. The pathway uses aspartate ?-semialdehyde as the aminopropyl group donor and consists of a fused protein containing l-2,4-diaminobutyrate aminotransferase and l-2,4-diaminobutyrate decarboxylase, a carboxynorspermidine dehydrogenase (CANSDH), and a carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase (CANSDC). We show that in V. cholerae, this pathway is required for synthesis of both sym-norspermidine and spermidine. Heterologous expression of the V. cholerae pathway in E. coli results in accumulation of the nonnative polyamines diaminopropane and sym-norspermidine. Genetic deletion of the V. cholerae CANSDC led to accumulation of carboxynorspermidine, whereas deletion of either CANSDC or the putative CANSDH led to loss of sym-norspermidine and spermidine. These results allowed unambiguous identification of the gene encoding CANSDH. Furthermore, deletion of either CANSDH or CANSDC led to a 50–60% reduction in growth rate of planktonic cells and severely reduced biofilm formation, which could be rescued by exogenously supplied sym-norspermidine but not spermidine. The pathway was not required for infectivity in a mouse model of V. cholerae infection. Notably, the alternative polyamine biosynthetic pathway is widespread in bacteria and is likely to play a previously unrecognized role in the biology of these organisms. PMID:19196710

Lee, Jeongmi; Sperandio, Vanessa; Frantz, Doug E.; Longgood, Jamie; Camilli, Andrew; Phillips, Margaret A.; Michael, Anthony J.

2009-01-01

29

Interactions and transitions in biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms are multicellular, interacting communities of intrinsically-unicellular organisms that grow on surfaces. As such, they are fascinating model systems for multicellularity. They are also of great practical importance, since biofilms damage a variety of industrial infrastructure and are the cause of most persistent, antibiotic-resistant infections. In natural settings, most bacteria are found in biofilms. To initiate a biofilm, planktonic, free-swimming bacteria attach to a surface and then undergo a series of phenotypic changes as that adhesion becomes irreversible and the surface is populated, first by discrete bacteria, and then bacteria growing in dense clusters, ``microcolonies.'' Both adhesion to a surface and adhesion to other cells are associated with adhesive properties of cell-produced extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). Using laser tweezers to test cell aggregation and aggregate stability, in combination with gene expression assays and gene-knockouts, we show the importance of one EPS, pel, for early cell aggregation. We also use automated bacteria-identification and --tracking software algorithims to identify and quantify key transitions early in biofilm formation.

Gordon, Vernita; Colvin, Kelly; Conrad, Jacinta; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Jin, Fan; Parsek, Matthew; Wong, Gerard

2010-10-01

30

Biofilm Formation Avoids Complement Immunity and Phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent member of the microbiota of the human nasopharynx. Colonization of the nasopharyngeal tract is a first and necessary step in the infectious process and often involves the formation of sessile microbial communities by this human pathogen. The ability to grow and persist as biofilms is an advantage for many microorganisms, because biofilm-grown bacteria show reduced susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and hinder recognition by the immune system. The extent of host protection against biofilm-related pneumococcal disease has not been determined yet. Using pneumococcal strains growing as planktonic cultures or as biofilms, we have investigated the recognition of S. pneumoniae by the complement system and its interactions with human neutrophils. Deposition of C3b, the key complement component, was impaired on S. pneumoniae biofilms. In addition, binding of C-reactive protein and the complement component C1q to the pneumococcal surface was reduced in biofilm bacteria, demonstrating that pneumococcal biofilms avoid the activation of the classical complement pathway. In addition, recruitment of factor H, the downregulator of the alternative pathway, was enhanced by S. pneumoniae growing as biofilms. Our results also show that biofilm formation diverts the alternative complement pathway activation by a PspC-mediated mechanism. Furthermore, phagocytosis of pneumococcal biofilms was also impaired. The present study confirms that biofilm formation in S. pneumoniae is an efficient means of evading both the classical and the PspC-dependent alternative complement pathways the host immune system. PMID:23649097

Domenech, Mirian; Ramos-Sevillano, Elisa; Garcia, Ernesto

2013-01-01

31

Ginger Extract Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilm formation can cause serious problems in clinical and industrial settings, which drives the development or screening of biofilm inhibitors. Some biofilm inhibitors have been screened from natural products or modified from natural compounds. Ginger has been used as a medicinal herb to treat infectious diseases for thousands of years, which leads to the hypothesis that it may contain chemicals inhibiting biofilm formation. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated ginger’s ability to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm formation. A static biofilm assay demonstrated that biofilm development was reduced by 39–56% when ginger extract was added to the culture. In addition, various phenotypes were altered after ginger addition of PA14. Ginger extract decreased production of extracellular polymeric substances. This finding was confirmed by chemical analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, ginger extract formed noticeably less rugose colonies on agar plates containing Congo red and facilitated swarming motility on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and the altered phenotypes appear to be linked to a reduced level of a second messenger, bis-(3?-5?)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate. Importantly, ginger extract inhibited biofilm formation in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also, surface biofilm cells formed with ginger extract detached more easily with surfactant than did those without ginger extract. Taken together, these findings provide a foundation for the possible discovery of a broad spectrum biofilm inhibitor. PMID:24086697

Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung

2013-01-01

32

Lethal photosensitization of biofilm-grown bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibacterial agents are increasingly being used for the prophylaxis and treatment of oral diseases. As these agents can be rendered ineffective by resistance development in the target organisms there is a need to develop alternative antimicrobial approaches. Light-activated antimicrobial agents release singlet oxygen and free radicals which can kill adjacent bacteria and a wide range of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic bacteria has been shown to be susceptible to such agents. In the oral cavity these organisms are present as biofilms (dental plaques) which are less susceptible to traditional antimicrobial agents than bacterial suspensions. The results of these studies have shown that biofilm-grown oral bacteria are also susceptible to lethal photosensitization although the light energy doses required are grater than those needed to kill the organisms when they are grown as aqueous suspensions.

Wilson, Michael

1997-12-01

33

Evidence for the dynamics of Acyl homoserine lactone and AHL-producing bacteria during subtidal biofilm formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quorum sensing signals—acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) were directly detected in 1-9-day-old subtidal biofilms developed in a coastal fish farm by using AHL reporter strains and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Both methods showed that the AHL molecules and\\/or AHL-producing bacterial community were dynamic during biofilm development, with dominant AHLs changed from short-chain to long-chain AHLs. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis

Yi-Li Huang; Jang-Seu Ki; On On Lee; Pei-Yuan Qian; P-Y Qian

2009-01-01

34

Influence of Bacterial Presence on Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Purpose Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that is commonly found in human microflora. Biofilm formation (BF) is known as a major virulence factor of C. albicans. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of bacterial presence on biofilm formation of C. albicans. Materials and Methods The BF of Candida was investigated when it was co-cultured with C. albicans (C. albicans 53, a yeast with a low BF ability, and C. albicans 163, a yeast with high BF ability) and bacteria. BF was assessed with XTT reduction assay. A scanning electron microscope was used to determine the structure of the biofilm, and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify and quantify hyphae-associated genes. Results Co-culturing with two different types of bacteria increased the BF value. Co-culturing with C. albicans 53 and 163 also increased the BF value compared to the value that was obtained when the C. albicans was cultured individually. However, co-culturing with bacteria decreased the BF value of C. albicans, and the BF of C. albicans 163 was markedly inhibited. The expression of adherence and morphology transition related genes were significantly inhibited by co-culturing with live bacteria. Conclusion Bacteria have a negative effect on the formation of biofilm by C. albicans. This mechanism is the result of the suppression of genes associated with the hyphae transition of C. albicans, and bacteria particles physically affected the biofilm architecture and biofilm formation. PMID:24532517

Park, Su Jung; Han, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Joo Young; Choi, Sun Ju

2014-01-01

35

Effect of Weissella cibaria Isolates on the Formation of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to isolate and identify lactic acid bacteria able to inhibit the in vitro formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm as well as the in vivo formation of oral biofilm. Two strains, CMS1 and CMS3, exhibiting profound inhibitory effects on the formation of S. mutans biofilm and the proliferation of S. mutans, were isolated from children’s

M.-S. Kang; J. Chung; S.-M. Kim; K.-H. Yang; J.-S. Oh

2006-01-01

36

Thymol inhibits Candida albicans biofilm formation and mature biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida albicans has a high propensity to develop biofilms that are resistant to traditional antifungal agents. Thymol is credited with a series of pharmacological properties including antimicrobial and antifungal effects. As C. albicans biofilms are known to be important factors underlying its virulence and pathogenicity, the aim of this study was to investigate whether thymol can interfere with biofilm formation

Pier Carlo Braga; Maria Culici; Marina Alfieri; Monica Dal Sasso

2008-01-01

37

Regulation of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas and Burkholderia species.  

PubMed

In the present review, we describe and compare the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia. Our current knowledge suggests that biofilm formation is regulated by cyclic diguanosine-5'-monophosphate (c-di-GMP), small RNAs (sRNA) and quorum sensing (QS) in all these bacterial species. The systems that employ c-di-GMP as a second messenger regulate the production of exopolysaccharides and surface proteins which function as extracellular matrix components in the biofilms formed by the bacteria. The systems that make use of sRNAs appear to regulate the production of exopolysaccharide biofilm matrix material in all these species. In the pseudomonads, QS regulates the production of extracellular DNA, lectins and biosurfactants which all play a role in biofilm formation. In B.cenocepacia QS regulates the expression of a large surface protein, lectins and extracellular DNA that all function as biofilm matrix components. Although the three regulatory systems all regulate the production of factors used for biofilm formation, the molecular mechanisms involved in transducing the signals into expression of the biofilm matrix components differ between the species. Under the conditions tested, exopolysaccharides appears to be the most important biofilm matrix components for P.aeruginosa, whereas large surface proteins appear to be the most important biofilm matrix components for P.putida, P.fluorescens, and B.cenocepacia. PMID:24592823

Fazli, Mustafa; Almblad, Henrik; Rybtke, Morten Levin; Givskov, Michael; Eberl, Leo; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

2014-07-01

38

IMPACTS OF BIOFILM FORMATION ON CELLULOSE FERMENTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project addressed four major areas of investigation: i) characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; ii) characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; iii) characterization of Thermobifida fusca biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; and iii) description of the architecture of mature C. uda, C. phytofermentans, and T. fusca biofilms.

Leschine

2009-01-01

39

The Effect of Nondialyzable Material (NDM) Cranberry Extract on Formation of Contact Lens Biofilm by  

E-print Network

to the restricted penetration of antimicrobials into the biofilms and the meta- bolic inactivity of starved bacteria bacterial adherence,12 can inhibit staphylococcal biofilm formation on soft contact lenses. MATERIALSThe Effect of Nondialyzable Material (NDM) Cranberry Extract on Formation of Contact Lens Biofilm

Jacob, Eshel Ben

40

Electron microscopic examination of wastewater biofilm formation and structural components.  

PubMed Central

This research documents in situ wastewater biofilm formation, structure, and physiochemical properties as revealed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Cationized ferritin was used to label anionic sites of the biofilm glycocalyx for viewing in thin section. Wastewater biofilm formation paralleled the processes involved in marine biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a dramatic increase in cell colonization and growth over a 144-h period. Constituents included a variety of actively dividing morphological types. Many of the colonizing bacteria were flagellated. Filaments were seen after primary colonization of the surface. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a dominant gram-negative cell wall structure in the biofilm constituents. At least three types of glycocalyces were observed. The predominant glycocalyx possessed interstices and was densely labeled with cationized ferritin. Two of the glycocalyces appeared to mediate biofilm adhesion to the substratum. The results suggest that the predominant glycocalyx of this thin wastewater biofilm serves, in part, to: (i) enclose the bacteria in a matrix and anchor the biofilm to the substratum and (ii) provide an extensive surface area with polyanionic properties. Images PMID:6881965

Eighmy, T T; Maratea, D; Bishop, P L

1983-01-01

41

Sugar composition of biofilms produced by paper mill bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms of paper mill bacteria were cultivated in paper mill white water-simulating conditions on glass slides or stainless steel coupons in a laboratory culture system. The sugar content and composition of the biofilms were analysed and compared with the sugar composition of paper mill slimes. Acid methanolysis followed by gas chromatography revealed that Burkholderia was the major biofilm producer in

L. E. Lindberg; B. R. Holmbom; O. M. Väisänen; A. M.-L. Weber; M. S. Salkinoja-Salonen

2001-01-01

42

Effects of patterned topography on biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial biofilms are a population of bacteria attached to each other and irreversibly to a surface, enclosed in a matrix of self-secreted polymers, among others polysaccharides, proteins, DNA. Biofilms cause persisting infections associated with implanted medical devices and hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infections accounting for up to 40% of all hospital acquired infections. Several different strategies, including use of antibacterial agents and genetic cues, quorum sensing, have been adopted for inhibiting biofilm formation relevant to CAUTI surfaces. Each of these methods pertains to certain types of bacteria, processes and has shortcomings. Based on eukaryotic cell topography interaction studies and Ulva linza spore studies, topographical surfaces were suggested as a benign control method for biofilm formation. However, topographies tested so far have not included a systematic variation of size across basic topography shapes. In this study patterned topography was systematically varied in size and shape according to two approaches 1) confinement and 2) wetting. For the confinement approach, using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, orienting effects of tested topography based on staphylococcus aureus (s. aureus) (SH1000) and enterobacter cloacae (e. cloacae) (ATCC 700258) bacterial models were identified on features of up to 10 times the size of the bacterium. Psuedomonas aeruginosa (p. aeruginosa) (PAO1) did not show any orientational effects, under the test conditions. Another important factor in medical biofilms is the identification and quantification of phenotypic state which has not been discussed in the literature concerning bacteria topography characterizations. This was done based on antibiotic susceptibility evaluation and also based on gene expression analysis. Although orientational effects occur, phenotypically no difference was observed between the patterned topography tested. Another potential strategy for biofilm control through patterned topography is based on the design of robust non-wetting surfaces with undercut feature geometries, characterized by 1) breakthrough pressure and 2) triple phase contact line model. It was found that height and presence of undercut had statistically significant effects, directly proportional to breakthrough pressures, whereas extent of undercut did not. A predictive triple phase contact line model was also developed. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

Vasudevan, Ravikumar

43

Biofilm formation by Campylobacter jejuni in controlled mixed-microbial populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was to screen the ability of biofilm formation by Campylobacter jejuni strains found in New Zealand, and investigate the biofilm growth of C. jejuni in a controlled mixed-microbial population that includes five different bacteria. The ability of C. jejuni to form a biofilm in monoculture and mixed-microbial populations was measured in a laboratory assay using a microtiter plate

Koon Hoong Teh; Steve Flint; Nigel French

2010-01-01

44

Biofilm formation in clinical isolates of group B streptococci from north India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many bacterial species are capable of living as biofilm, thought to be the predominant growth mode for bacteria in natural environments. Increasing evidence implicates biofilm as the cause of various human infections. In this study, biofilm formation was demonstrated in group B streptococci (GBS) isolated from different sources in the north Indian community at various pH ranges as well as

Harmeet Kaur; Praveen Kumar; Pallab Ray; Jaswinder Kaur; Anuradha Chakraborti

2009-01-01

45

Inhibition of Flavobacterium psychrophilum biofilm formation using a biofilm of the antagonist Pseudomonas fluorescens FF48.  

PubMed

The most important bacterial pathology currently occurring in Chilean freshwater salmon farming is the cold-water disease produced by the psychrotrophic bacteria Flavobacterium psychrophilum. The main aim of this study was to characterize the inhibitory activity of an antagonist strain on the formation of biofilms of a F. psychrophilum strain. The antagonistic strain Pseudomonas fluorescens FF48 was isolated from the sediment beneath the salmon cages of a freshwater Chilean salmon farm and was identified by using the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The production of siderophores, mainly during the stationary phase of growth of the antagonist strain was demonstrated using the Chrome Azurol S method and through F. psychrophilum inhibition under iron saturation conditions. Subsequently, the effect of the antagonist supernatant on the formation of F. psychrophilum biofilm was tested using the crystal violet staining method observing an inhibition of the growth of F. psychrophilum, but no effect was observed when iron saturation concentrations were used. Furthermore, when the antagonist strain was previously deposited on the support, it completely inhibited the formation of F. psychrophilum biofilms, but when both bacteria were inoculated simultaneously no inhibitory effect was detected. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that FF48 strain is able to inhibit the formation of F. psychrophilum biofilms in vitro probably mediated by the siderophore production, suggesting its potential use as a biocontrol biofilm in freshwater fish rearing systems to prevent the persistence of biofilms of the fish pathogenic species F. psychrophilum. PMID:23667820

De la Fuente, Mery; Vidal, José M; Miranda, Claudio D; González, Gerardo; Urrutia, Homero

2013-12-01

46

Spore Formation and Toxin Production in Clostridium difficile Biofilms  

PubMed Central

The ability to grow as a biofilm can facilitate survival of bacteria in the environment and promote infection. To better characterize biofilm formation in the pathogen Clostridium difficile, we established a colony biofilm culture method for this organism on a polycarbonate filter, and analyzed the matrix and the cells in biofilms from a variety of clinical isolates over several days of biofilm culture. We found that biofilms readily formed in all strains analyzed, and that spores were abundant within about 6 days. We also found that extracellular DNA (eDNA), polysaccharide and protein was readily detected in the matrix of all strains, including the major toxins A and/or B, in toxigenic strains. All the strains we analyzed formed spores. Apart from strains 630 and VPI10463, which sporulated in the biofilm at relatively low frequencies, the frequencies of biofilm sporulation varied between 46 and 65%, suggesting that variations in sporulation levels among strains is unlikely to be a major factor in variation in the severity of disease. Spores in biofilms also had reduced germination efficiency compared to spores obtained by a conventional sporulation protocol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that in 3 day-old biofilms, the outermost structure of the spore is a lightly staining coat. However, after 6 days, material that resembles cell debris in the matrix surrounds the spore, and darkly staining granules are closely associated with the spores surface. In 14 day-old biofilms, relatively few spores are surrounded by the apparent cell debris, and the surface-associated granules are present at higher density at the coat surface. Finally, we showed that biofilm cells possess 100-fold greater resistance to the antibiotic metronidazole then do cells cultured in liquid media. Taken together, our data suggest that C. difficile cells and spores in biofilms have specialized properties that may facilitate infection. PMID:24498186

Semenyuk, Ekaterina G.; Laning, Michelle L.; Foley, Jennifer; Johnston, Pehga F.; Knight, Katherine L.; Gerding, Dale N.; Driks, Adam

2014-01-01

47

COAGGREGATION OCCURS AMONGST BACTERIA WITHIN AND BETWEEN DOMESTIC SHOWERHEAD BIOFILMS  

PubMed Central

Showerheads support the development multi-species biofilms that can be unsightly, produce malodor, and may harbor pathogens. The outer surface spray plates of many showerheads support visible biofilms that likely contain a mixture of bacteria from freshwater and potentially from human users. Coaggregation, a mechanism by which genetically distinct bacteria specifically recognize one another, may contribute to the retention and enrichment of different species within these biofilms. The aim of this work was to identify the bacterial composition of outer spray plate biofilms of three domestic shower heads and to determine the inter- and intra-biofilm coaggregation ability of each culturable isolate. The bacterial composition of the three biofilms was determined by using bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) and by culturing on R2A medium. An average of 31 genera per biofilm were identified using bTEFAP and a total of 30 isolates were cultured. Even though the microbial diversity of each showerhead biofilm differed, every cultured isolate was able to coaggregate with at least one other isolate from the same or different showerhead biofilm. Promiscuous coaggregating isolates belonged to the genera Brevundimonas, Micrococcus, and Lysobacter. This work suggests that coaggregation may be a common feature of showerhead biofilms. Characterization of the mechanisms mediating coaggregation, and the inter-species interactions they facilitate, may allow for novel strategies to inhibit biofilm development. PMID:23194413

Vornhagen, Jay; Stevens, Michael; McCormick, David; Dowd, Scot E.; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.; Boles, Blaise R.; Rickard, Alexander H.

2014-01-01

48

Genetic adaptation of Streptococcus mutans during biofilm formation on different types of surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adhesion and successful colonization of bacteria onto solid surfaces play a key role in biofilm formation. The initial adhesion and the colonization of bacteria may differ between the various types of surfaces found in oral cavity. Therefore, it is conceivable that diverse biofilms are developed on those various surfaces. The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular

Moshe Shemesh; Avshalom Tam; Reuven Aharoni; Doron Steinberg

2010-01-01

49

Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%). Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8%) and Mycenas rosea (44.8%) presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4%) and Russula delica (53.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract). This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action.

Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Lourenço, Inês; Costa, Eduardo; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

2014-01-01

50

Cigarette Smoke Increases Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation via Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

The strong epidemiological association between cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and respiratory tract infections is conventionally attributed to immunosuppressive and irritant effects of CS on human cells. Since pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus are members of the normal microbiota and reside in close proximity to human nasopharyngeal cells, we hypothesized that bioactive components of CS might affect these organisms and potentiate their virulence. Using Staphylococcus aureus as a model organism, we observed that the presence of CS increased both biofilm formation and host cell adherence. Analysis of putative molecular pathways revealed that CS exposure decreased expression of the quorum-sensing agr system, which is involved in biofilm dispersal, and increased transcription of biofilm inducers such as sarA and rbf. CS contains bioactive compounds, including free radicals and reactive oxygen species, and we observed transcriptional induction of bacterial oxidoreductases, including superoxide dismutase, following exposure. Moreover, pretreatment of CS with an antioxidant abrogated CS-mediated enhancement of biofilms. Exposure of bacteria to hydrogen peroxide alone increased biofilm formation. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that CS induces staphylococcal biofilm formation in an oxidant-dependent manner. CS treatment induced transcription of fnbA (encoding fibronectin binding protein A), leading to increased binding of CS-treated staphylococci to immobilized fibronectin and increased adherence to human cells. These observations indicate that the bioactive effects of CS may extend to the resident microbiota of the nasopharynx, with implications for the pathogenesis of respiratory infection in CS-exposed humans. PMID:22890993

Kulkarni, Ritwij; Antala, Swati; Wang, Alice; Amaral, Fabio E.; Rampersaud, Ryan; LaRussa, Samuel J.; Planet, Paul J.

2012-01-01

51

Assessment of Inhibitory Effects of Fluoride-Coated Tubes on Biofilm Formation by Using the In Vitro Dental Unit Waterline Biofilm Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to establish an in vitro model to simulate biofilms formed in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) and to investigate the ability of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-coated tubes to inhibit biofilm formation using this model. The water and biofilm samples were obtained from DUWLs which had been clinically used for 2.5 years, and the predominant bacteria were identified. A conventional

Toshiaki Yabune; Satoshi Imazato; Shigeyuki Ebisu

2008-01-01

52

Maggot Excretions Inhibit Biofilm Formation on Biomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Biofilm-associated infections in trauma surgery are difficult to treat with conventional therapies. Therefore, it is important\\u000a to develop new treatment modalities. Maggots in captured bags, which are permeable for larval excretions\\/secretions, aid in\\u000a healing severe, infected wounds, suspect for biofilm formation. Therefore we presumed maggot excretions\\/secretions would reduce\\u000a biofilm formation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We studied biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella

Gwendolyn Cazander; Mariëlle C. van de Veerdonk; Christina M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; Marco W. J. Schreurs; Gerrolt N. Jukema

2010-01-01

53

Bacterial survival and biofilm formation on conventional and antibacterial toothbrushes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial survival and biofilm formation on toothbrushes. Fifteen healthy volunteers each used a normal toothbrush and an antibacterial toothbrush of the same design for two separate 5 week periods. Bacteria were removed from the brush head by swabbing and mechanical agitation in 10 ml of tryptone soya broth, cultured aerobically on selective

R. L. Sammons; D. Kaur; P. Neal

2004-01-01

54

Oh What a Tangled Biofilm Web Bacteria Weave  

MedlinePLUS

... a Tangled Biofilm Web Bacteria Weave Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Oh What a Tangled Biofilm Web ... Conversations Learning from Bacterial Chatter This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

55

Marine Biofilm Bacteria Evade Eukaryotic Predation by Targeted Chemical Defense  

E-print Network

Marine Biofilm Bacteria Evade Eukaryotic Predation by Targeted Chemical Defense Carsten Matz1 is that sessile bacterial communities organized as biofilms serve as bacterial refuge from predation. By testing growth and survival of two common bacterivorous nanoflagellates, we find evidence that chemically

Mcilwain, Jenny

56

Bacteria, Biofilms and Fluid Dynamics: Elementary Flows and Unexpected Phenomena  

E-print Network

Bacteria, Biofilms and Fluid Dynamics: Elementary Flows and Unexpected Phenomena Wednesday February the migration of bacteria along surfaces when exposed to a shear flow. In particular, we identify an unusual response where flow produces a directed motion of twitching bacteria in the upstream direction. (ii) We

Fisher, Frank

57

Inhibition of Staphylococcal Biofilm Formation by Nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several environmental stresses have been demonstrated to increase polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) synthesis and biofilm formation by the human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In this study we characterized an adaptive response of S. aureus SA113 to nitrite-induced stress and show that it involves concomitant impairment of PIA synthesis and biofilm formation. Transcriptional analysis provided evidence that nitrite, either

Steffen Schlag; Christiane Nerz; Timo A. Birkenstock; Florian Altenberend; Friedrich Gotz

2007-01-01

58

Desiccation tolerance of iron bacteria biofilms on Mars regolith simulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron oxidizing bacteria play an important role in the geological redox cycling of iron on earth. The redox change between Fe(II) and Fe(III) can be used for biological energy production [1]. Therefore iron oxidation in the iron rich martian soils may be or may have been microbially mediated. The microbial conversion of iron is considered to be an ancient form of metabolism [2], so it might have evolved on Mars as well. However, to exist in recent martian soils, bacteria must be able to endure dry and cold conditions. Neutrophilic iron oxidizers can be found in various iron rich aquatic environments, where they lead to the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides. Some of these environments fall temporarily dry, what could have led to an adaptation to desiccation by bacteria, existing there. One strategy of iron bacteria to endure drought stress might be the formation of biofilms by excreting Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS). The deposition of iron hydroxides could enable them to endure dry conditions as well. For our experiments, neutrophilic iron oxidizing bacteria have been isolated from a creek in Bad Salzhausen/Hesse and temporarily drying out pools in Tierra del Fuego. Strains from aquatic environments in the national park "Unteres Odertal" and from water wells in Berlin/Brandenburg are included in the tests as well. In desiccation experiments, the capability of iron bacteria to tolerate dry conditions are investigated. The aim of our first experiment is the adaptation to dry conditions. Biofilms of 15 strains are grown on ceramic beads in liquid medium containing complexed Fe(II), established biofilms contain Fe(III) precipitates. The cultures are desiccated in a sterile airflow until the weight of the cultures remained constant. After a desiccation period of 9 h up to 7 d, the beads are transferred to fresh liquid medium. Adapted strains are used in further desiccation experiments, where biofilms are grown on two martian regolith simulants. These mineral mixtures were developed and produced by the Naturkundemuseum Berlin according to recent data of Mars research missions [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. The minerals are attached to object slides with potassium silicate and biofilms are grown on the mineral surface. The biofilms are quantified by cell counting and the structure is evaluated by epifluorescence microscopy. After desiccation in a sterile airflow, the survival of cells is determined by fluorescence staining. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Helmholtz Association through the research alliance "Planetary Evolution and Life". References [1] Weber, K. A. et al. (2006). Microorganisms pumping iron: anaerobic microbial iron oxidation and reduction. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4: 752-764. [2] Vargas, M. et al. (1998). Microbiological evidence for Fe(III) reduction on early Earth. Nature 395: 65-67. [3] Bibring, J.-P., Y. Langevin, et al. (2005). Mars surface diversity as revealed by the OMEGA/Mars express observations. Science 307(5715): 1576-1581. [4] Bibring, J.-P., S. W. Squyres, et al. (2006). Merging Views on Mars. Science 313(5795): 1899-1901. [5] Chevrier, V. and P. E. Mathé (2007). Mineralogy and evolution of the surface of Mars: A review. Planetary and Space Science 55(3): 289-314. [6] McCollom, T. M. and B. M. Hynek (2005). A volcanic environment for bedrock diagenesis at Meridiani Planum on Mars. Nature 438(7071): 1129-1131. [7] Poulet, F., J. P. Bibring, et al. (2005). Phyllosilicates on Mars and implications for early martian climate. Nature 438(7068): 623-627.

Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich

2010-05-01

59

Effect of Biocides on Biofilm Bacteria from Dental Unit Water Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial biofilm formation in dental unit water lines (DUWL) is a phenomenon that has been recognized for nearly four decades.\\u000a Water delivered by DUWL can harbor high numbers of bacteria, including opportunistic pathogens. Biofilms on tubing within\\u000a DUWL may serve as a reservoir for these microorganisms and should therefore be controlled. In this study, the effects of eight\\u000a biocides were

I. Liaqat; A. N. Sabri

2008-01-01

60

Effect of berberine on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the main causes of medical device-related infections owing to its adhesion and biofilm-forming abilities on biomaterial surfaces. Berberine is an isoquinoline-type alkaloid isolated from Coptidis rhizoma (huang lian in Chinese) and other herbs with many activities against various disorders. Although the inhibitory effects of berberine on planktonic bacteria have been investigated in a few studies, the capacity of berberine to inhibit biofilm formation has not been reported to date. In this study, we observed that berberine is bacteriostatic for S. epidermidis and that sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations of berberine blocked the formation of S.epidermidis biofilm. Using viability assays and berberine uptake testing, berberine at a concentration of 15-30mug/mL was shown to inhibit bacterial metabolism. Data from this study also indicated that modest concentrations of berberine (30-45mug/mL) were sufficient to exhibit an antibacterial effect and to inhibit biofilm formation significantly, as shown by the tissue culture plate (TCP) method, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for both S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 and a clinical isolate strain SE243. Although the mechanisms of bacterial killing and inhibition of biofilm formation are not fully understood, data from this investigation indicated a potential application for berberine as an adjuvant therapeutic agent for the prevention of biofilm-related infections. PMID:19157797

Wang, Xiaoqing; Yao, Xiao; Zhu, Zhen'an; Tang, Tingting; Dai, Kerong; Sadovskaya, Irina; Flahaut, Sigrid; Jabbouri, Said

2009-07-01

61

Biofilm Formation by Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were performed in continuous-flow chambers to determine whether Neisseria gonorrhoeae could form a biofilm. Under these growth conditions, N. gonorrhoeae formed a biofilm with or without the addition of 10 M sodium nitrite to the perfusion medium. Microscopic analysis of a 4-day growth of N. gonorrhoeae strain 1291 revealed evidence of a biofilm with organisms embedded in matrix, which

L. L. Greiner; J. L. Edwards; J. Shao; C. Rabinak; D. Entz; M. A. Apicella

2005-01-01

62

Regulation of biofilm formation in Escherichia coli K12: Effect of mutations in the genes HNS, STRA, LON, and RPON  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 99% of bacteria exist in natural ecosystems as specifically organized biofilms adhering to solid surfaces. Biofilms\\u000a have a typical architecture and are enclosed in exopolymeric matrix. Bacteria living in biofilms are extremely resistant to\\u000a antibacterial factors. In this work, we studied the role of some global regulators of gene expression during biofilm formation\\u000a by cells of Escherichia coli

A. S. Belik; N. N. Tarasova; I. A. Khmel’

2008-01-01

63

Biofilm Formation Derived from Ambient Air and the Characteristics of Apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilm is a kind of thin film on solidified matters, being derived from bacteria. Generally, planktonic bacteria float in aqueous environments, soil or air, most of which can be regarded as oligotrophic environments. Since they have to survive by instinct, they seek for nutrients that would exist on materials surfaces as organic matters. Therefore, bacteria attach materials surfaces reversibly. The attachment and detachment repeat for a while and finally, they attach on them irreversibly and the number of bacteria on them increases. At a threshold number, bacteria produce polymeric matters at the same time by quorum sensing mechanism and the biofilm produces on material surfaces. The biofilm produced in that way generally contains water (more than 80%), EPS (Exopolymeric Substance) and bacteria themselves. And they might bring about many industrial problems, fouling, corrosion etc. Therefore, it is very important for us to control and prevent the biofilm formation properly. However, it is generally very hard to produce biofilm experimentally and constantly in ambient atmosphere on labo scale. The authors invented an apparatus where biofilm could form on specimen's surfaces from house germs in the ambient air. In this experiment, we investigated the basic characteristics of the apparatus, reproducibility, the change of biofilm with experimental time, the quality change of water for biofilm formation and their significance for biofilm research.

Kanematsu, H.; Kougo, H.; Kuroda, D.; Itho, H.; Ogino, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.

2013-04-01

64

Evaluation of Various Metallic Coatings on Steel to Mitigate Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

In marine environments and water systems, it is easy for many structures to form biofilms on their surfaces and to be deteriorated due to the corrosion caused by biofilm formation by bacteria. The authors have investigated the antibacterial effects of metallic elements in practical steels so far to solve food-related problems, using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. However, from the viewpoint of material deterioration caused by bacteria and their antifouling measures, we should consider the biofilm behavior as aggregate rather than individual bacterium. Therefore, we picked up Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudoalteromonas carageenovara in this study, since they easily form biofilms in estuarine and marine environments. We investigated what kind of metallic elements could inhibit the biofilm formation at first and then discussed how the thin films of those inhibitory elements on steels could affect biofilm formation. The information would lead to the establishment of effective antifouling measures against corrosion in estuarine and marine environments. PMID:19333421

Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Ikigai, Hajime; Yoshitake, Michiko

2009-01-01

65

Biomolecular Mechanisms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are the most prevalent Gram-negative biofilm forming medical device associated pathogens, particularly with respect to catheter associated urinary tract infections. In a similar manner to Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative biofilm formation is fundamentally determined by a series of steps outlined more fully in this review, namely adhesion, cellular aggregation, and the production of an extracellular polymeric matrix. More specifically this review will explore the biosynthesis and role of pili and flagella in Gram-negative adhesion and accumulation on surfaces in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The process of biofilm maturation is compared and contrasted in both species, namely the production of the exopolysaccharides via the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl), pellicle Formation (Pel) and alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and UDP-4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinose and colonic acid synthesis in Escherichia coli. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the LuxR homologue sdiA; the luxS/autoinducer-II; an autoinducer-III/epinephrine/norepinephrine and indole mediated Quorum sensing systems in enabling Gram-negative bacteria to adapt to their environments. The majority of Gram-negative biofilms consist of polysaccharides of a simple sugar structure (either homo- or heteropolysaccharides) that provide an optimum environment for the survival and maturation of bacteria, allowing them to display increased resistance to antibiotics and predation.

Laverty, Garry; Gorman, Sean P.; Gilmore, Brendan F.

2014-01-01

66

Original article Effects of growth conditions on biofilm formation  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of growth conditions on biofilm formation by Actinobacillus 24 April 2009; accepted 8 September 2009) Abstract ­ Biofilm formation is an important virulence to form biofilm in vitro. In this study, we compared biofilm formation by the serotype 1 reference strain

Boyer, Edmond

67

1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose: A natural antibiotic that inhibits the growth of gram-positive bacteria and microbial biofilm formation to prevent nosocomial infection.  

PubMed

Nosocomial infections caused by microbial opportunistic infections or microbial biofilms may occur during hospitalization and increase patient morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Artificial antibiotic agents were initially used to prevent infection; however, the high prevalence of nosocomial infections has resulted in their excessive use, which has led to microbial resistance to these agents. The increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and the development of antibiotic agents may be the cause of the production of other microbial resistance. Thus, natural compounds that have no adverse side effects would be a preferred treatment modality. Recently, the monosaccharide 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose (1,5-AF), a natural plant compound derived from starch, has been found to have multifunctional properties, including antioxidant, antiplatelet aggregation by thrombin and anti-inflammatory activities. The results of the present study demonstrate that 1,5-AF suppressed the growth of coagulase-negative staphylococci on the hands as well as the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis, which is a cause of opportunistic infections. Furthermore, 1,5-AF suppressed biofilm formation by the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In conclusion, 1,5-AF is a natural compound that may be effective in preventing nosocomial infections, without causing adverse side effects. PMID:22977551

Meng, Xiaojie; Kawahara, Ko-Ichi; Miyanohara, Hiroaki; Yoshimoto, Yasushi; Yoshinaga, Kazuhiro; Noma, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Morimoto, Yoko; Ito, Takashi; Oyama, Yoko; Yoshinaga, Narimasa; Shrestha, Binita; Chandan, Binita; Mera, Kentaro; Tada, Ko-Ichi; Miura, Naoki; Ono, Yoshiko; Takenouchi, Kazunori; Maenosono, Ryuichi; Nagasato, Tomoka; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro

2011-07-01

68

Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic methods for microbial ecology: analysis of bacteria, bacteria-polymer mixtures and biofilms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has been used to rapidly and nondestructively analyze bacteria, bacteria-polymer mixtures, digester samples and microbial biofilms. Diffuse reflectance FT-IR (DRIFT) analysis of freeze-dried, powdered samples offered a means of obtaining structural information. The bacteria examined were divided into two groups. The first group was characterized by a dominant amide I band and the second group of organisms displayed an additional strong carbonyl stretch at approximately 1740 cm-1. The differences illustrated by the subtraction spectra obtained for microbes of the two groups suggest that FT-IR spectroscopy can be utilized to recognize differences in microbial community structure. Calculation of specific band ratios has enabled the composition of bacteria and extracellular or intracellular storage product polymer mixtures to be determined for bacteria-gum arabic (amide I/carbohydrate C-O approximately 1150 cm-1) and bacteria-poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (amide I/carbonyl approximately 1740 cm-1). The key band ratios correlate with the compositions of the material and provide useful information for the application of FT-IR spectroscopy to environmental biofilm samples and for distinguishing bacteria grown under differing nutrient conditions. DRIFT spectra have been obtained for biofilms produced by Vibrio natriegens on stainless steel disks. Between 48 and 144 h, an increase in bands at approximately 1440 and 1090 cm-1 was seen in FT-IR spectra of the V. natriegens biofilm. DRIFT spectra of mixed culture effluents of anaerobic digesters show differences induced by shifts in input feedstocks. The use of flow-through attenuated total reflectance has permitted in situ real-time changes in biofilm formation to be monitored and provides a powerful tool for understanding the interactions within adherent microbial consortia.

Nichols, P. D.; Henson, J. M.; Guckert, J. B.; Nivens, D. E.; White, D. C.

1985-01-01

69

Iron and Acinetobacter baumannii Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen, responsible for infection outbreaks worldwide. The pathogenicity of this bacterium is mainly due to its multidrug-resistance and ability to form biofilm on abiotic surfaces, which facilitate long-term persistence in the hospital setting. Given the crucial role of iron in A. baumannii nutrition and pathogenicity, iron metabolism has been considered as a possible target for chelation-based antibacterial chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the effect of iron restriction on A. baumannii growth and biofilm formation using different iron chelators and culture conditions. We report substantial inter-strain variability and growth medium-dependence for biofilm formation by A. baumannii isolates from veterinary and clinical sources. Neither planktonic nor biofilm growth of A. baumannii was affected by exogenous chelators. Biofilm formation was either stimulated by iron or not responsive to iron in the majority of isolates tested, indicating that iron starvation is not sensed as an overall biofilm-inducing stimulus by A. baumannii. The impressive iron withholding capacity of this bacterium should be taken into account for future development of chelation-based antimicrobial and anti-biofilm therapies.

Gentile, Valentina; Frangipani, Emanuela; Bonchi, Carlo; Minandri, Fabrizia; Runci, Federica; Visca, Paolo

2014-01-01

70

Chemotaxis in P. Aeruginosa Biofilm Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pseudomonas biofilms form infections in the lungs of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients that damage lung tissue and lead to death. Previous work shows chemotaxis is important for Pseudomonas in CF lungs. The work studied swimming bacteria at high concentrations. In contrast, medically relevant biofilms initiate from sparse populations of surface-bound bacteria. The recent development of software techniques for automated, high-throughput bacteria tracking leaves us well-poised to quantitatively study these chemotactic conditions. We will develop experimental systems for such studies, focusing on L-Arginine (an amino acid), D-Galactose (a sugar present in lungs), and succinate and glucose (carbon sources for bacteria). This suite of chemoattractants will allow us to study how chemoattractant characteristics--size and diffusion behavior--change bacterial response; the interaction of competing chemoattractants; and, differences in bacterial behaviors, like motility modes, in response to different types of chemoattractions and varying neighbor cell density.

Bienvenu, Samuel; Strain, Shinji; Thatcher, Travis; Gordon, Vernita

2010-10-01

71

Air-liquid interface biofilm formation by psychrotrophic pseudomonads recovered from spoilt meat.  

PubMed

The ability to colonise the surface of liquids has obvious advantages for bacteria and biofilm formation at the meniscus and air-liquid (A-L) interface is common amongst environmental pseudomonads. Bacteria from this genus also colonise raw meat and in this work the ability of these to produce biofilms was assessed. Sixty isolates were recovered from vacuum-packed venison, phenotypically characterised and shown by hierarchical cluster analysis to represent a diverse collection of psychrotrophic spoilt venison-associated pseudomonads. Of these, 12 % were found to produce biofilms limited to the meniscus region of the microcosm walls, 31 % produced attached biofilms with significant extensions across the A-L interface and 45 % produced unattached 'floating' biofilms. A combined statistical analysis of growth, biofilm strength and attachment levels revealed that growth affected strength but not attachment, and that there was a significant relationship between attachment and strength. Some environmental pseudomonads are known to utilise cellulose as a biofilm matrix component and here 28 % of the SVP isolates were found to express cellulose by epifluorescent microscopy. This survey suggests that biofilm formation may be more common in psychrotrophic meat-associated isolates than amongst the wider pseudomonad community from which spoilage bacteria might be recruited. This may reflect a selective advantage of bacterial aggregations such as biofilms in environments subject to high levels of physical disturbance. Aggregations may be more resistant to competition and dehydration stress than individual bacteria, whilst fragments of these aggregations may prove more effective in the colonisation of new habitats. PMID:22983557

Robertson, Mhari; Hapca, Simona M; Moshynets, Olena; Spiers, Andrew J

2013-01-01

72

Curli synthesis and biofilm formation in enteric bacteria are controlled by a dynamic small RNA module made up of a pseudoknot assisted by an RNA chaperone.  

PubMed

RydC pseudoknot aided by Hfq is a dynamic regulatory module. We report that RydC reduces expression of curli-specific gene D transcription factor required for adhesion and biofilm production in enterobacteria. During curli formation, csgD messenger RNA (mRNA) synthesis increases when endogenous levels of RydC are lacking. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, stimulation of RydC expression also reduces biofilm formation by impairing curli synthesis. Inducing RydC early on in growth lowers CsgA, -B and -D protein and mRNA levels. RydC's 5'-domain interacts with csgD mRNA translation initiation signals to prevent initiation. Translation inhibition occurs by an antisense mechanism, blocking the translation initiation signals through pairing, and that mechanism is facilitated by Hfq. Although Hfq represses csgD mRNA translation without a small RNA (sRNA), it forms a ternary complex with RydC and facilitates pseudoknot unfolding to interact with the csgD mRNA translation initiation signals. RydC action implies Hfq-assisted unfolding and mRNA rearrangements, but once the pseudoknot is disrupted, Hfq is unnecessary for regulation. RydC is the sixth sRNA that negatively controls CsgD synthesis. Hfq induces structural changes in the mRNA domains targeted by these six sRNAs. What we describe is an ingenious process whereby pseudoknot opening is orchestrated by a chaperone to allow RNA control of gene expression. PMID:24489123

Bordeau, Valérie; Felden, Brice

2014-04-01

73

Inhibition of biofilm formation by T7 bacteriophages producing quorum-quenching enzymes.  

PubMed

Bacterial growth in biofilms is the major cause of recalcitrant biofouling in industrial processes and of persistent infections in clinical settings. The use of bacteriophage treatment to lyse bacteria in biofilms has attracted growing interest. In particular, many natural or engineered phages produce depolymerases to degrade polysaccharides in the biofilm matrix and allow access to host bacteria. However, the phage-produced depolymerases are highly specific for only the host-derived polysaccharides and may have limited effects on natural multispecies biofilms. In this study, an engineered T7 bacteriophage was constructed to encode a lactonase enzyme with broad-range activity for quenching of quorum sensing, a form of bacterial cell-cell communication via small chemical molecules (acyl homoserine lactones [AHLs]) that is necessary for biofilm formation. Our results demonstrated that the engineered T7 phage expressed the AiiA lactonase to effectively degrade AHLs from many bacteria. Addition of the engineered T7 phage to mixed-species biofilms containing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli resulted in inhibition of biofilm formation. Such quorum-quenching phages that can lyse host bacteria and express quorum-quenching enzymes to affect diverse bacteria in biofilm communities may become novel antifouling and antibiofilm agents in industrial and clinical settings. PMID:24951790

Pei, Ruoting; Lamas-Samanamud, Gisella R

2014-09-01

74

Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus haemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) most frequently occur after the implantation of medical devices and are attributed to the biofilm-forming potential of CoNS. Staphylococcus haemolyticus is the second most frequently isolated CoNS from patients with hospital-acquired infections. There is only limited knowledge of the nature of S. haemolyticus biofilms. The aim of this study was to characterize S. haemolyticus

Elizabeth Gladys; Aarag Fredheim; Claus Klingenberg; Holger Rohde; Stephanie Frankenberger; Peter Gaustad; Trond Flægstad; Johanna Ericson Sollid

75

Probiotic Lactobacilli Interfere with Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In clinical studies, probiotic bacteria have decreased the counts of salivary mutans streptococci (MS). We compared the effects\\u000a of probiotic Lactobacillus strains on the biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. The bacterial strains used included four S. mutans strains (reference strains NCTC 10449 and Ingbritt and clinical isolates 2366 and 195) and probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. plantarum 299v, and

Eva M. SoderlingAino; Aino M. Marttinen; Anna L. Haukioja

2011-01-01

76

Animal models to investigate fungal biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Microbial biofilms play an essential role in several infectious diseases and are defined as extensive communities of sessile organisms irreversibly associated with a surface, encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), and exhibiting enhanced resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Forming a biofilm provides the microbes protection from environmental stresses due to contaminants, nutritional depletion, or imbalances, but is dangerous to human health due to their inherent robustness and elevated resistance.The use of indwelling medical devices (e.g., central venous catheters, CVCs) in current therapeutic practice is associated with 80-90 % of hospital-acquired bloodstream and deep tissue infections. Most cases of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) involve colonization of microorganisms on catheter surfaces where they form a biofilm. Additionally, Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum were the causative organisms of the 2005/2006 outbreak of contact lens-associated fungal keratitis in the United States, Europe, the UK, and Singapore, and these infections involved formation of biofilms on contact lens. Fungal biofilm formation is studied using a number of techniques, involving the use of a wide variety of substrates and growth conditions. In vitro techniques involving the use of confocal scanning laser/scanning electron microscopy, metabolic activity assay, dry weight measurements, and antifungal susceptibility assays are increasingly used by investigators to quantify and evaluate biofilm morphology. However, there are not many in vivo models used to validate biofilm-associated infections. In this protocol, we describe a clinically relevant rabbit model of C. albicans biofilm-associated catheter infection to evaluate the morphology, topography, and architecture of fungal biofilms. We also describe a murine model of contact lens-associated Fusarium keratitis.Evaluation of the formation of fungal biofilms on catheters in vivo, their analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantitative catheter culture (QCC), and treatment of biofilms using antimicrobial lock therapy can be completed in ~20-25 days using the described methods. The rabbit model has utility in evaluating the efficacy of lock solutions. In addition, the murine model of contact lens-associated Fusarium keratitis enables characterizing/comparing the formation of Fusarium biofilms on contact lenses in vitro and determining their role in vivo. PMID:24664831

Chandra, Jyotsna; Pearlman, Eric; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

2014-01-01

77

Effect of eel galectin AJL-1 on periodontopathic bacterial biofilm formation and their lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cytokine induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, infectious pathogenic bacteria found in oral biofilm, cause periodontal disease. The inhibitory effect of AJL-1, a galectin present in the skin mucus of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica, on biofilm formation by each of these strains was investigated by staining adherent bacteria on culture plates with crystal violet. An ATP bioluminescence assay was

Saori Takayama; Eiichi Saitoh; Ryuta Kimizuka; Satoru Yamada; Tetsuo Kato

2009-01-01

78

Fluorescence-based quasicontinuous and in situ monitoring of biofilm formation dynamics in natural marine environments.  

PubMed

Analyzing the dynamics of biofilm formation helps to deepen our understanding of surface colonization in natural environments. While methods for screening biofilm formation in the laboratory are well established, studies in marine environments have so far been based upon destructive analysis of individual samples and provide only discontinuous snapshots of biofilm establishment. In order to explore the development of biofilm over time and under various biotic and abiotic conditions, we applied a recently developed optical biofilm sensor to quasicontinuously analyze marine biofilm dynamics in situ. Using this technique in combination with microscope-assisted imaging, we investigated biofilm formation from its beginning to mature multispecies biofilms. In contrast to laboratory studies on biofilm formation, a smooth transition from initial attachment to colony formation and exponential growth could not be observed in the marine environment. Instead, initial attachment was followed by an adaptation phase of low growth and homogeneously distributed solitary bacterial cells. Moreover, we observed a diurnal variation of biofilm signal intensity, suggesting a transient state of biofilm formation of bacteria. Overall, the biofilm formation dynamics could be modeled by three consecutive development stages attributed to initial bacterial attachment, bacterial growth, and attachment and growth of unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms. Additional experiments showed that the presence of seaweed considerably shortened the adaptation phase in comparison with that on control surfaces but yielded similar growth rates. The outlined examples highlight the advantages of a quasicontinuous in situ detection that enabled, for the first time, the exploration of the initial attachment phase and the diurnal variation during biofilm formation in natural ecosystems. PMID:24727266

Fischer, M; Friedrichs, G; Lachnit, T

2014-06-01

79

Role of AI-2 in oral biofilm formation using microfluidic devices  

E-print Network

, detected in a diverse range of scenarios including medical devices and implants (7), ship hulls (4), water pipes (73), and even in a space station (32). In most cases, biofilm formation is deleterious resulting in costly efforts for its management... between bacteria in the oral cavity environment and bacteria detached from the biofilm due to chewing, salivary action, and flow. Disruption of this balance is the main cause of dental caries and periodontal diseases. The high salivary flow rates...

Kim, Sun Ho

2009-05-15

80

Marine Biofilm Bacteria Evade Eukaryotic Predation by Targeted Chemical Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plants and animals are defended from predation or herbivory by inhibitory secondary metabolites, which in the marine environment are very common among sessile organisms. Among bacteria, where there is the greatest metabolic potential, little is known about chemical defenses against bacterivorous consumers. An emerging hypothesis is that sessile bacterial communities organized as biofilms serve as bacterial refuge from predation.

Carsten Matz; Jeremy S. Webb; Peter J. Schupp; Shui Yen Phang; Anahit Penesyan; Suhelen Egan; Peter Steinberg; Staffan Kjelleberg; Craig R. McClain

2008-01-01

81

Implications of Biofilm Formation on Urological Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite millions of dollars and several decades of research targeted at their prevention and eradication, biofilm-associated infections remain the major cause of urological device failure. Numerous strategies have been aimed at improving device design, biomaterial composition, surface properties and drug delivery, but have been largely circumvented by microbes and their plethora of attachment, host evasion, antimicrobial resistance, and dissemination strategies. This is not entirely surprising since natural biofilm formation has been going on for millions of years and remains a major part of microorganism survival and evolution. Thus, the fact that biofilms develop on and in the biomaterials and tissues of humans is really an extension of this natural tendency and greatly explains why they are so difficult for us to combat. Firstly, biofilm structure and composition inherently provide a protective environment for microorganisms, shielding them from the shear stress of urine flow, immune cell attack and some antimicrobials. Secondly, many biofilm organisms enter a metabolically dormant state that renders them tolerant to those antibiotics and host factors able to penetrate the biofilm matrix. Lastly, the majority of organisms that cause biofilm-associated urinary tract infections originate from our own oral cavity, skin, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts and therefore have already adapted to many of our host defenses. Ultimately, while biofilms continue to hold an advantage with respect to recurrent infections and biomaterial usage within the urinary tract, significant progress has been made in understanding these dynamic microbial communities and novel approaches offer promise for their prevention and eradication. These include novel device designs, antimicrobials, anti-adhesive coatings, biodegradable polymers and biofilm-disrupting compounds and therapies.

Cadieux, Peter A.; Wignall, Geoffrey R.; Carriveau, Rupp; Denstedt, John D.

2008-09-01

82

Genetic adaptation of Streptococcus mutans during biofilm formation on different types of surfaces  

PubMed Central

Background Adhesion and successful colonization of bacteria onto solid surfaces play a key role in biofilm formation. The initial adhesion and the colonization of bacteria may differ between the various types of surfaces found in oral cavity. Therefore, it is conceivable that diverse biofilms are developed on those various surfaces. The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular modifications occurring during in vitro biofilm development of Streptococcus mutans UA159 on several different dental surfaces. Results Growth analysis of the immobilized bacterial populations generated on the different surfaces shows that the bacteria constructed a more confluent and thick biofilms on a hydroxyapatite surface compared to the other tested surfaces. Using DNA-microarray technology we identified the differentially expressed genes of S. mutans, reflecting the physiological state of biofilms formed on the different biomaterials tested. Eight selected genes were further analyzed by real time RT-PCR. To further determine the impact of the tested material surfaces on the physiology of the bacteria, we tested the secretion of AI-2 signal by S. mutans embedded on those biofilms. Comparative transcriptome analyses indicated on changes in the S. mutans genome in biofilms formed onto different types of surfaces and enabled us to identify genes most differentially expressed on those surfaces. In addition, the levels of autoinducer-2 in biofilms from the various tested surfaces were different. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that gene expression of S. mutans differs in biofilms formed on tested surfaces, which manifest the physiological state of bacteria influenced by the type of surface material they accumulate onto. Moreover, the stressful circumstances of adjustment to the surface may persist in the bacteria enhancing intercellular signaling and surface dependent biofilm formation. PMID:20167085

2010-01-01

83

Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial biofilms are a functional matrix of microbial cells, enveloped in polysaccharides, enzymes and virulence factors secreted by them that can develop on indwelling medical devices and biomaterials. Plasma sterilization has been widely studied in recent years for biological applications. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of removal and anti-recovery of biofilms by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure. We observed that all bacterial biofilms formatted by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria are removed in less than 20 s, and the growth inhibitions of planktonic bacteria within biofilms are also confirmed by plasma exposure for 5 s. These results suggest that our plasma system can be applied to medical and biological fields where the removal of biofilms and their debris is required.

Lee, Mi Hee; Park, Bong Joo; Jin, Soo Chang; Kim, Dohyun; Han, Inho; Kim, Jungsung; Hyun, Soon O.; Chung, Kie-Hyung; Park, Jong-Chul

2009-11-01

84

Modeling cell-death patterning during biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-organization by bacterial cells often leads to the formation of a highly complex spatially-structured biofilm. In such a bacterial biofilm, cells adhere to each other and are embedded in a self-produced extracellular matrix (ECM). Bacillus substilis bacteria utilize localized cell-death patterns which focuses mechanical forces to form wrinkled sheet-like structures in three dimensions. A most intriguing feature underlying this biofilm formation is that vertical buckling and ridge location is biased to occur in region of high cell-death. Here we present a spatially extended model to investigate the role of the bacterial secreted ECM during the biofilm formation and the self-organization of cell-death. Using this reaction-diffusion model we show that the interaction between the cell's motion and the ECM concentration gives rise to a self-trapping instability, leading to variety of cell-death patterns. The resultant spot patterns generated by our model are shown to be in semi-quantitative agreement with recent experimental observation.

Ghosh, Pushpita; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Levine, Herbert

2013-12-01

85

Role of MshQ in MSHA pili biosynthesis and biofilm formation of Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation of pathogen bacterium is currently one of the most widely studied topics; however, little is known regarding pathogen bacteria biofilms in aquaculture. Aeromonas hydrophila is a representative species of the genus Aeromonas, which has been recognized as a common pathogen, is associated with many diseases in aquatic animals, and causes significant mortality. The objectives of this study are i) to confirm that A. hydrophila can form biofilms on abiotic substrates and construct a biofilm growth curve for this bacterium; ii) to identify the genes that play crucial roles in A. hydrophila biofilm formation. The biofilm growth curve of A. hydrophila was constructed using a crystal violet assay, which showed that biofilm formation for this bacterium is a dynamic process. Next, a mutant library of pathogenic A. hydrophila B11 was constructed using the mini-Tn10 transposon mutagenesis system. A total of 861 mutants were screened, and 5 mutants were stably deficient in biofilm formation. Molecular analysis of the mutant B112 revealed that the open reading frame that encodes the protein MshQ was disrupted. Comparison of biological characteristics including growth, motility, and adhesion between the mutant B112 and the wild-type strain B11 suggested that MshQ is necessary for mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin pilus biosynthesis of A. hydrophila, and that these pili play crucial roles in A.hydrophila adherence to a solid surface during the early stages of biofilm formation. PMID:25366789

Qin, Y X; Yan, Q P; Mao, X X; Chen, Z; Su, Y Q

2014-01-01

86

Involvement of Stress-Related Genes polB and PA14_46880 in Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Chronic infections of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are generally established through production of biofilm. During biofilm formation, production of an extracellular matrix and establishment of a distinct bacterial phenotype make these infections difficult to eradicate. However, biofilm studies have been hampered by the fact that most assays utilize nonliving surfaces as biofilm attachment substrates. In an attempt to better understand the mechanisms behind P. aeruginosa biofilm formation, we performed a genetic screen to identify novel factors involved in biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces. We found that deletion of genes polB and PA14_46880 reduced biofilm formation significantly compared to that in the wild-type strain PA14 in an abiotic biofilm system. In a biotic biofilm model, wherein biofilms form on cultured airway cells, the ?polB and ?PA14_46880 strains showed increased cytotoxic killing of the airway cells independent of the total number of bacteria bound. Notably, deletion mutant strains were more resistant to ciprofloxacin treatment. This phenotype was linked to decreased expression of algR, an alginate transcriptional regulatory gene, under ciprofloxacin pressure. Moreover, we found that pyocyanin production was increased in planktonic cells of mutant strains. These results indicate that inactivation of polB and PA14_46880 may inhibit transition of P. aeruginosa from a more acute infection lifestyle to the biofilm phenotype. Future investigation of these genes may lead to a better understanding of P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and chronic biofilm infections. PMID:25156741

Alshalchi, Sahar A; Anderson, Gregory G

2014-11-01

87

In Vitro Efficacy of Biocides against Dental Unit Water Line (DUWL) Biofilm Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental unit waterlines (DUWL) are an integral part of dental surgery equipment, supplying water as a coolant, primarily for air turbine and ultrasonic scalers. DUWL when not in use remain connected to main water supply providing conditions for biofilm development within 8 hours. Bacteria shed from the biofilm can maintain and support massive number of planktonic organisms. Characteristically biofilm bacteria

I. Liaqat; A. N. Sabri

2009-01-01

88

Effects of different osmolarities on bacterial biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation depends on several factors. The influence of different osmolarities on bacterial biofilm formation was studied. Two strains (Enterobacter sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp.) exhibited the most remarkable alterations. Biofilm formation is an important trait and its use has been associated to the protection of organisms against environmental stresses. PMID:25242950

Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; de Melo, Itamar Soares

2014-01-01

89

Use of MTT assay for determination of the biofilm formation capacity of microorganisms in metalworking fluids.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation is a well-known problem in management of metalworking fluid systems. Due to persistence of microorganisms within biofilms, the reappearance of various species of bacteria, including nontuberculous mycobacteria is often observed after the use of biocides and/or cleaning of delivery systems and replacement of cooling fluid. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of the tetrazolium salt assay (MTT assay) for assessing the viability of bacteria in biofilms formed in vitro in fresh and used cutting oils, as well as their susceptibility to antimicrobial biocides. Biofilms were established in the microtiter plate format. The results showed that quantification of formazan, a product of the tetrazolium salt reduction by electron transport system could be used for determination of the propensity of bacteria to form biofilms in these complex media. The use of the assay allows also determination of antimicrobial activity of biocides against biofilms in fresh and used metalworking fluids. Biofilms produced by Gram-negative isolates recovered from field metalworking fluids as well as the wild bacterial communities differed in metabolic activity depending on the type of fresh coolants. The MTT assay has high-throughput potential and can be efficiently used for determination of biofilm-forming capacity of microorganisms from individual machines in metalworking industry. The use of the assay may also guide the selection of the most appropriate biocide to fight these microorganisms. PMID:23515965

Trafny, El?bieta Anna; Lewandowski, Rafa?; Zawistowska-Marciniak, Irena; St?pi?ska, Ma?gorzata

2013-09-01

90

Resveratrol oligomers inhibit biofilm formation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation is closely related to bacterial infection and is also a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. Hence, the antibiofilm approach provides an alternative to an antibiotic strategy. In this study, the antibiofilm activities of resveratrol (1) and five of its oligomers, namely, ?-viniferin (2), suffruticosol A (3), suffruticosol B (4), vitisin A (5), and vitisin B (6), were investigated against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. Vitisin B (6), a stilbenoid tetramer, was found to inhibit biofilm formation by the two bacteria the most effectively and at 5 ?g/mL inhibited E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation by more than 90%. PMID:24456071

Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Yong-Guy; Ryu, Shi Yong; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

2014-01-24

91

A novel compound from the marine bacterium Bacillus pumilus S6-15 inhibits biofilm formation in Gram-positive and Gram-negative species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation is a critical problem in nosocomial infections and in the aquaculture industries and biofilms show high resistance to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to reveal a novel anti-biofilm compound from marine bacteria against antibiotic resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms. The bacterial extract (50 ?g ml) of S6-01 (Bacillus indicus = MTCC 5559) showed 80–90% biofilm inhibition against Escherichia

Chari Nithya; Muthu Gokila Devi; Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian

2011-01-01

92

Heterologous expression of human paraoxonases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits biofilm formation and decreases antibiotic resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing (QS) regulates virulence and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other medically relevant bacteria. Human paraoxonases (hPONs) are a family of closely related enzymes with multiple functions,\\u000a including inactivation of the QS signal molecule in P. aeruginosa. However, there is no direct evidence to show the functions of hPONs on biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa.

Fang Ma; Yao Wang; Yong Zhang; Ning Xiong; Baoyu Yang; Shiyun Chen

2009-01-01

93

Biofilm inhibition of spoilage bacteria by argentinean fruit juices with antihypertensive activity.  

PubMed

Argentinean juices have been studied for their antihypertensive activity, the inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation and the effect on the viability of wine yeast. The influence of phenolic compounds on these activities was evaluated. These studies are the first step for the development of a new type of wine that includes grape must supplement with fruit juices with antihypertensive effect. All juices posses a high antihypertensive activity, higher than 50%. Strawberry juices and eureka lemon showed the highest activity, whereas clarified juices posses the lowest activity. All studied juices produce a high inhibition of bacteria biofilm formation, and the strawberry, orange and mandarin varieties not affect the growth or viability of yeast. Our results permit to conclude that it could be possible the use of these juices in a new type of wine or as a source of new antihypertensive agents for pharmaceutical industry. PMID:24372267

Vallejo, Claudia V; Aredes-Fernández, Pedro A; Farías, Marta E; Rodríguez-Vaquero, María J

2013-01-01

94

Derivatives of the mouse cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) inhibit fungal and bacterial biofilm formation.  

PubMed

We identified a 26-amino-acid truncated form of the 34-amino-acid cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) in the islets of Langerhans of the murine pancreas. This peptide, P318, shares 67% identity with the LL-37 human antimicrobial peptide. As LL-37 displays antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity, we tested antifungal and antibiofilm activity of P318 against the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. P318 shows biofilm-specific activity as it inhibits C. albicans biofilm formation at 0.15 ?M without affecting planktonic survival at that concentration. Next, we tested the C. albicans biofilm-inhibitory activity of a series of truncated and alanine-substituted derivatives of P318. Based on the biofilm-inhibitory activity of these derivatives and the length of the peptides, we decided to synthesize the shortened alanine-substituted peptide at position 10 (AS10; KLKKIAQKIKNFFQKLVP). AS10 inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation at 0.22 ?M and acted synergistically with amphotericin B and caspofungin against mature biofilms. AS10 also inhibited biofilm formation of different bacteria as well as of fungi and bacteria in a mixed biofilm. In addition, AS10 does not affect the viability or functionality of different cell types involved in osseointegration of an implant, pointing to the potential of AS10 for further development as a lead peptide to coat implants. PMID:24982087

De Brucker, Katrijn; Delattin, Nicolas; Robijns, Stijn; Steenackers, Hans; Verstraeten, Natalie; Landuyt, Bart; Luyten, Walter; Schoofs, Liliane; Dovgan, Barbara; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Michiels, Jan; Vanderleyden, Jos; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

2014-09-01

95

Dynamics of Aerial Tower Formation in Bacillus subtilis Biofilms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms are highly-organized colonies of bacteria that form on surfaces. These colonies form sophisticated structures which make them robust and difficult to remove from environments such as catheters, where they pose serious infection problems. Previous work has shown that sub-mm sized aerial towers form on the surface of Bacillus subtilis colony biofilms. Spore-formation is located preferentially at the tops of these towers, known as fruiting bodies, which aid in the dispersal and propagation of the colony to new sites. The formation of towers is strongly affected by the quorum-sensing molecule surfactin and the cannibalism pathway of the bacteria. In the present work, we use confocal fluorescence microscopy to study the development of individual fruiting bodies, allowing us to visualize the time-dependent spatial distribution of matrix-forming and sporulating bacteria within the towers. With this information, we investigate the physical mechanisms, such as surface tension and polymer concentration gradients, that drive the formation of these structures.

Sinha, Naveen; Seminara, Agnese; Wilking, James; Brenner, Michael; Weitz, Dave

2012-02-01

96

Identification and Localization of Extraradicular Biofilm-Forming Bacteria Associated with Refractory Endodontic Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial biofilms have been found to develop on root surfaces outside the apical foramen and be associated with refractory periapical periodontitis. However, it is unknown which bacterial species form extraradicular biofilms. The present study aimed to investigate the identity and localization of bacteria in human extrara- dicular biofilms. Twenty extraradicular biofilms, used to identify bacteria using a PCR-based 16S rRNA

Nobuo Noguchi; Yuichiro Noiri; Masahiro Narimatsu; Shigeyuki Ebisu

2005-01-01

97

Quorum sensing and biofilm formation investigated using laser-trapped bacterial arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of individual, free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria have yielded much information about their genetic and phenotypic characteristics and about ``quorum sensing,'' the autoinducing process by which bacteria detect high concentrations of other bacteria. However, in most environments the majority of bacteria are not in the planktonic form but are rather in biofilms, which are highly-structured, dynamic communities of multiple bacteria that adhere to a surface and to each other using an extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Bacteria in biofilms are phenotypically very different from their genetically-identical planktonic counterparts. Among other characteristics, they are much more antibiotic-resistant and virulent. Such biofilms form persistent infections on medical implants and in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, where Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms are the leading cause of lung damage and, ultimately, death. To understand the importance of different extracellular materials, motility mechanisms, and quorum sensing for biofilm formation and stability, we use single-gene knockout mutants and an infrared laser trap to create a bacterial aggregate that serves as a model biofilm and allows us to measure the importance of these factors as a function of trapping time, surface, and nutritional environment.

Gordon, Vernita; Butler, John; Smalyukh, Ivan; Parsek, Matthew; Wong, Gerard

2008-03-01

98

Biofilm Streamer Formation in a Porous Microfluidic Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilm formation in porous media is of significant importance in many environmental and industrial processes such as bioremediation, oil recovery, and wastewater treatment. In the present study, we fabricated a porous media mimic inside a microfluidic device to observe the growth of bacteria in a porous environment. Here, we report the formation of filamentous structures between the porous structures which are known as streamers. Streamers are made from Polymeric Substance (EPS) and are tethered at one or both ends to a surface, while the rest of the structure floats in the aqueous media. We studied evolution of streamers in different flow rates and identified a tangible link between hydrodynamic conditions and development of these filamentous structures. Our results show that hydrodynamic conditions not only play a key role in determining the formation and stability of the streamers, but also influence their morphology and distribution. These observations, which reveal salient features of biofilm formation in porous media, could open up new avenues for understanding biofilm dynamics in complex natural conditions.

Valiei, Amin

99

Identification of Small Molecules That Antagonize Diguanylate Cyclase Enzymes To Inhibit Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilm formation is responsible for numerous chronic infections, causing a severe health burden. Many of these infections cannot be resolved, as bacteria in biofilms are resistant to the host's immune defenses and antibiotic therapy. New strategies to treat biofilm-based infections are critically needed. Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a widely conserved second-messenger signal essential for biofilm formation. As this signaling system is found only in bacteria, it is an attractive target for the development of new antibiofilm interventions. Here, we describe the results of a high-throughput screen to identify small-molecule inhibitors of diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes that synthesize c-di-GMP. We report seven small molecules that antagonize these enzymes and inhibit biofilm formation by Vibrio cholerae. Moreover, two of these compounds significantly reduce the total concentration of c-di-GMP in V. cholerae, one of which also inhibits biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a continuous-flow system. These molecules represent the first compounds described that are able to inhibit DGC activity to prevent biofilm formation. PMID:22850508

Sambanthamoorthy, Karthik; Sloup, Rudolph E.; Parashar, Vijay; Smith, Joshua M.; Kim, Eric E.; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Neiditch, Matthew B.

2012-01-01

100

Biofilm formation and the survival of Salmonella Typhimurium on parsley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several studies provide evidence that the formation of biofilms by human pathogens on plant tissue is possible, to date there is no direct evidence that biofilms enhance the resistance of plant-associated pathogens to disinfectants or biocides. We hypothesized that biofilm formation would enhance the adhesion and survival of Salmonella on leafy vegetables. To test our hypothesis, we compared the

Anat Lapidot; Ute Romling; Sima Yaron

2006-01-01

101

Brominated Furanones Inhibit Biofilm Formation by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases. As Salmonella can form biofilms in which it is better protected against antimicrobial agents on a wide diversity of surfaces, it is of interest to explore ways to inhibit biofilm formation. Brominated furanones, originally extracted from the marine alga Delisea pulchra, are known to interfere with biofilm formation

Joost C. A. Janssens; Hans Steenackers; Stijn Robijns; Edith Gellens; Jeremy Levin; Hui Zhao; Kim Hermans; David De Coster; Tine L. Verhoeven; Kathleen Marchal; Jos Vanderleyden; D. E. De Vos; S. C. J. De Keersmaecker

2008-01-01

102

SdrC induces staphylococcal biofilm formation through a homophilic interaction.  

PubMed

The molecular pathogenesis of many Staphylococcus aureus infections involves growth of bacteria as biofilm. In addition to polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) and extracellular DNA, surface proteins appear to mediate the transition of bacteria from planktonic growth to sessile lifestyle as well as biofilm growth, and can enable these processes even in the absence of PIA expression. However, the molecular mechanisms by which surface proteins contribute to biofilm formation are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that self-association of the serine-aspartate repeat protein SdrC promotes both bacterial adherence to surfaces and biofilm formation. However, this homophilic interaction is not required for the attachment of bacteria to abiotic surfaces. We identified the subdomain that mediates SdrC dimerization and subsequent cell-cell interactions. In addition, we determined that two adjacently located amino acid sequences within this subdomain are required for the SdrC homophilic interaction. Comparative amino acid sequence analysis indicated that these binding sites are conserved. In summary, our study identifies SdrC as a novel molecular determinant in staphylococcal biofilm formation and describes the mechanism responsible for intercellular interactions. Furthermore, these findings contribute to a growing body of evidence suggesting that homophilic interactions between surface proteins present on neighbouring bacteria induce biofilm growth. PMID:25115812

Barbu, E Magda; Mackenzie, Chris; Foster, Timothy J; Höök, Magnus

2014-10-01

103

Density of founder cells affects spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.  

PubMed

In nature, most bacteria live in surface-attached sedentary communities known as biofilms. Biofilms are often studied with respect to bacterial interactions. Many cells inhabiting biofilms are assumed to express 'cooperative traits', like the secretion of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). These traits can enhance biofilm-related properties, such as stress resilience or colony expansion, while being costly to the cells that express them. In well-mixed populations cooperation is difficult to achieve, because non-cooperative individuals can reap the benefits of cooperation without having to pay the costs. The physical process of biofilm growth can, however, result in the spatial segregation of cooperative from non-cooperative individuals. This segregation can prevent non-cooperative cells from exploiting cooperative neighbors. Here we examine the interaction between spatial pattern formation and cooperation in Bacillus subtilis biofilms. We show, experimentally and by mathematical modeling, that the density of cells at the onset of biofilm growth affects pattern formation during biofilm growth. At low initial cell densities, co-cultured strains strongly segregate in space, whereas spatial segregation does not occur at high initial cell densities. As a consequence, EPS-producing cells have a competitive advantage over non-cooperative mutants when biofilms are initiated at a low density of founder cells, whereas EPS-deficient cells have an advantage at high cell densities. These results underline the importance of spatial pattern formation for competition among bacterial strains and the evolution of microbial cooperation. PMID:24694715

van Gestel, Jordi; Weissing, Franz J; Kuipers, Oscar P; Kovács, Akos T

2014-10-01

104

The natural antimicrobial carvacrol inhibits quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum and reduces bacterial biofilm formation at sub-lethal concentrations.  

PubMed

The formation of biofilm by bacteria confers resistance to biocides and presents problems in medical and veterinary clinical settings. Here we report the effect of carvacrol, one of the major antimicrobial components of oregano oil, on the formation of biofilms and its activity on existing biofilms. Assays were carried out in polystyrene microplates to observe (a) the effect of 0-0.8 mM carvacrol on the formation of biofilms by selected bacterial pathogens over 24 h and (b) the effect of 0-8 mM carvacrol on the stability of pre-formed biofilms. Carvacrol was able to inhibit the formation of biofilms of Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472, Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhimurium DT104, and Staphylococcus aureus 0074, while it showed no effect on formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (field isolate) biofilms. This inhibitory effect of carvacrol was observed at sub-lethal concentrations (<0.5 mM) where no effect was seen on total bacterial numbers, indicating that carvacrol's bactericidal effect was not causing the observed inhibition of biofilm formation. In contrast, carvacrol had (up to 8 mM) very little or no activity against existing biofilms of the bacteria described, showing that formation of the biofilm also confers protection against this compound. Since quorum sensing is an essential part of biofilm formation, the effect of carvacrol on quorum sensing of C. violaceum was also studied. Sub-MIC concentrations of carvacrol reduced expression of cviI (a gene coding for the N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone synthase), production of violacein (pigmentation) and chitinase activity (both regulated by quorum sensing) at concentrations coinciding with carvacrol's inhibiting effect on biofilm formation. These results indicate that carvacrol's activity in inhibition of biofilm formation may be related to the disruption of quorum sensing. PMID:24691035

Burt, Sara A; Ojo-Fakunle, Victoria T A; Woertman, Jenifer; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A

2014-01-01

105

The Natural Antimicrobial Carvacrol Inhibits Quorum Sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum and Reduces Bacterial Biofilm Formation at Sub-Lethal Concentrations  

PubMed Central

The formation of biofilm by bacteria confers resistance to biocides and presents problems in medical and veterinary clinical settings. Here we report the effect of carvacrol, one of the major antimicrobial components of oregano oil, on the formation of biofilms and its activity on existing biofilms. Assays were carried out in polystyrene microplates to observe (a) the effect of 0–0.8 mM carvacrol on the formation of biofilms by selected bacterial pathogens over 24 h and (b) the effect of 0–8 mM carvacrol on the stability of pre-formed biofilms. Carvacrol was able to inhibit the formation of biofilms of Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 12472, Salmonella enterica subsp. Typhimurium DT104, and Staphylococcus aureus 0074, while it showed no effect on formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (field isolate) biofilms. This inhibitory effect of carvacrol was observed at sub-lethal concentrations (<0.5 mM) where no effect was seen on total bacterial numbers, indicating that carvacrol's bactericidal effect was not causing the observed inhibition of biofilm formation. In contrast, carvacrol had (up to 8 mM) very little or no activity against existing biofilms of the bacteria described, showing that formation of the biofilm also confers protection against this compound. Since quorum sensing is an essential part of biofilm formation, the effect of carvacrol on quorum sensing of C. violaceum was also studied. Sub-MIC concentrations of carvacrol reduced expression of cviI (a gene coding for the N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone synthase), production of violacein (pigmentation) and chitinase activity (both regulated by quorum sensing) at concentrations coinciding with carvacrol's inhibiting effect on biofilm formation. These results indicate that carvacrol's activity in inhibition of biofilm formation may be related to the disruption of quorum sensing. PMID:24691035

Burt, Sara A.; Ojo-Fakunle, Victoria T. A.; Woertman, Jenifer; Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.

2014-01-01

106

Genome-Wide Mutagenesis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Reveals Novel Genetic Determinants and Regulation Mechanisms of Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) causes citrus canker disease, a major threat to citrus production worldwide. Accumulating evidence suggests that the formation of biofilms on citrus leaves plays an important role in the epiphytic survival of this pathogen prior to the development of canker disease. However, the process of Xac biofilm formation is poorly understood. Here, we report a genome-scale study of Xac biofilm formation in which we identified 92 genes, including 33 novel genes involved in biofilm formation and 7 previously characterized genes, colR, fhaB, fliC, galU, gumD, wxacO, and rbfC, known to be important for Xac biofilm formation. In addition, 52 other genes with defined or putative functions in biofilm formation were identified, even though they had not previously reported been to be associated with biofilm formation. The 92 genes were isolated from 292 biofilm-defective mutants following a screen of a transposon insertion library containing 22,000 Xac strain 306 mutants. Further analyses indicated that 16 of the novel genes are involved in the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 7 genes are involved in signaling and regulatory pathways, and 5 genes have unknown roles in biofilm formation. Furthermore, two novel genes, XAC0482, encoding a haloacid dehalogenase-like phosphatase, and XAC0494 (designated as rbfS), encoding a two-component sensor protein, were confirmed to be biofilm-related genes through complementation assays. Our data demonstrate that the formation of mature biofilm requires EPS, LPS, both flagellum-dependent and flagellum-independent cell motility, secreted proteins and extracellular DNA. Additionally, multiple signaling pathways are involved in Xac biofilm formation. This work is the first report on a genome-wide scale of the genetic processes of biofilm formation in plant pathogenic bacteria. The report provides significant new information about the genetic determinants and regulatory mechanism of biofilm formation. PMID:21750733

Li, Jinyun; Wang, Nian

2011-01-01

107

[Regulation of biofilm formation in Escherichia coli K12: effect of mutations in HNS, StpA, lon, and rpoN genes].  

PubMed

More than 99% of bacteria exist in natural ecosystems as specifically organized biofilms adhering to solid surfaces. Biofilms have a typical architecture and are enclosed in exopolymeric matrix. Bacteria living in biofilms are extremely resistant to antibacterial factors. In this work we studied the role of some global regulators of gene expression on biofilm formation by Escherichia coli K12. The Histone-like proteins H-NS and StpA were shown to play an essential role in the regulation of biofilm formation. Mutant strains deficient in HNS or StpA had lower levels of biofilm formation than the wild-type isogenic strain. A double mutant deficient in the two proteins was virtually incapable of forming the biofilms. The mutations in the rpoN gene encoding for the sigma N subunit of RNA-polymerase and in lon gene encoding for Lon-proteinase induced a 40-60% increase in the biofilm formation. PMID:19177607

Belik, A S; Tarasova, N N; Khmel', I A

2008-01-01

108

Biofilm Formation by Chlorella vulgaris is Affected by Light Quality.  

PubMed

Formation of biofilm on surfaces is a common feature in aquatic environments. Major groups of inhabitants in conditions where light is present are photoautotrophic microorganisms, such as cyanobacteria and microalgae. This study examined the effect of light quality on growth and biofilm formation of the microalgal species Chlorella vulgaris. Dense biofilm formation and aggregated growth of cells were observed in treatments exposed to blue, purple and white light. Less dense biofilm formation and solitary growth of cells were observed in treatments exposed to red, yellow or green light. Microalgal biofilms are of high importance in many respects, not least from an economic perspective. One example is the intense efforts undertaken to control biofilm formation on technical surfaces such as ship hulls. The present study suggests that light quality plays a role in biofilm formation and that blue-light receptors may be involved. PMID:24985199

Hultberg, Malin; Asp, Håkan; Marttila, Salla; Bergstrand, Karl-Johan; Gustafsson, Susanne

2014-11-01

109

Biofilm Formation Protects Escherichia coli against Killing by Caenorhabditis elegans and Myxococcus xanthus.  

PubMed

Enteric bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, are exposed to a variety of stresses in the nonhost environment. The development of biofilms provides E. coli with resistance to environmental insults, such as desiccation and bleach. We found that biofilm formation, specifically production of the matrix components curli and cellulose, protected E. coli against killing by the soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the predatory bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Additionally, matrix-encased bacteria at the air-biofilm interface exhibited ?40-fold-increased survival after C. elegans and M. xanthus killing compared to the non-matrix-encased cells that populate the interior of the biofilm. To determine if nonhost Enterobacteriaceae reservoirs supported biofilm formation, we grew E. coli on media composed of pig dung or commonly contaminated foods, such as beef, chicken, and spinach. Each of these medium types provided a nutritional environment that supported matrix production and biofilm formation. Altogether, we showed that common, nonhost reservoirs of E. coli supported the formation of biofilms that subsequently protected E. coli against predation. PMID:25192998

DePas, William H; Syed, Adnan K; Sifuentes, Margarita; Lee, John S; Warshaw, David; Saggar, Vinay; Csankovszki, Györgyi; Boles, Blaise R; Chapman, Matthew R

2014-11-15

110

Filaments in curved streamlines: rapid formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm streamers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms are surface-associated conglomerates of bacteria that are highly resistant to antibiotics. These bacterial communities can cause chronic infections in humans by colonizing, for example, medical implants, heart valves, or lungs. Staphylococcus aureus, a notorious human pathogen, causes some of the most common biofilm-related infections. Despite the clinical importance of S. aureus biofilms, it remains mostly unknown how physical effects, in particular flow, and surface structure influence biofilm dynamics. Here we use model microfluidic systems to investigate how environmental factors, such as surface geometry, surface chemistry, and fluid flow affect biofilm development of S. aureus. We discovered that S. aureus rapidly forms flow-induced, filamentous biofilm streamers, and furthermore if surfaces are coated with human blood plasma, streamers appear within minutes and clog the channels more rapidly than if the channels are uncoated. To understand how biofilm streamer filaments reorient in flows with curved streamlines to bridge the distances between corners, we developed a mathematical model based on resistive force theory of slender filaments. Understanding physical aspects of biofilm formation of S. aureus may lead to new approaches for interrupting biofilm formation of this pathogen.

Kim, Minyoung Kevin; Drescher, Knut; Pak, On Shun; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Stone, Howard A.

2014-06-01

111

Immobilized enzymes affect biofilm formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the activity of immobilized enzymes on the initial attachment of pathogenic bacteria commonly associated with\\u000a nosocomial infections (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis) was investigated. The proteolytic enzymes, subtilisin A and the glycoside hydrolase cellulose, were covalently attached\\u000a onto poly(ethylene-alt-maleic) anhydride copolymer films. A comparison between active and heat-inactivated surfaces showed that while the activity\\u000a of immobilized cellulase

Ana L. Cordeiro; Catharina Hippius; Carsten Werner

2011-01-01

112

Manganese Ion Increases LAB-yeast Mixed-species Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Remarkable LAB-yeast mixed-species biofilm was formed by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Lactobacillus plantarum ML11-11 isolated from Fukuyama pot vinegar and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This mixed-species biofilm formation increased in proportion to the YPD medium concentration but decreased in proportion to the MRS medium concentration. The effect of MRS components on mixed-species biofilm formation was investigated in a YPD medium environment, and it was clarified that beef extract (one of the MRS medium components) decreased mixed-species biofilm formation. On the other hand, manganese sulfate (another component in MRS) remarkably increased both LAB single- and LAB-yeast mixed-species biofilm formation. LAB single- and mixed-species biofilm formation were increased in proportion to the manganese sulfate concentration up to 1?mM and 100 ?M, respectively. The growth of L. plantarum ML11-11 was increased significantly by the addition of 10 ?M manganese sulfate and was resistant to higher concentration of up to 100?mM, but growth of S. cerevisiae was sensitive to manganese ion above 100 ?M. These results suggested that mixed-species biofilm formation could be controlled artificially by controlling the manganese ion level. PMID:25003021

NOZAKA, Soma; FURUKAWA, Soichi; SASAKI, Miwa; HIRAYAMA, Satoru; OGIHARA, Hirokazu; MORINAGA, Yasushi

2014-01-01

113

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Formation in Different Environments Mehdi Shadmand1  

E-print Network

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilm Formation in Different Environments Mehdi Shadmand1 , Gregory G materials. These structures are called biofilms. The goal of this research is to isolate P. aeruginosa from several soil samples and determine whether they are able to form biofilms in those environments. Another

Zhou, Yaoqi

114

FINGER FORMATION IN BIOFILM LAYERS J. DOCKERY AND I. KLAPPER  

E-print Network

FINGER FORMATION IN BIOFILM LAYERS J. DOCKERY AND I. KLAPPER SIAM J. APPL. MATH. c 2001 Society model of a growing biofilm layer is presented. One-dimensional moving front solutions are analyzed. Scaling laws for the biofilm growth rate and length scale are derived. The nonlinear evolution

Klapper, Isaac

115

Formation of aerobic granular sludge biofilms for sustainable wastewater treatment  

E-print Network

ENAC/ Formation of aerobic granular sludge biofilms for sustainable wastewater treatment David G to aerobic granular microbial biofilms (Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis) Floc viscous bulking) Exopolysaccharide-producing Zoogloea spp. form the early-stage aerobic granular biofilms, and then decline

116

Otitis media: viruses, bacteria, biofilms and vaccines.  

PubMed

Otitis media typically presents as either acute otitis media (AOM), with symptoms including fever, otalgia, otorrhoea or irritability and short duration; or as otitis media with effusion (OME), which is often asymptomatic and characterised by accumulation of fluid in the middle ear. Diagnostic certainty of otitis media is challenging, given the young age of patients and variability of symptoms. Otitis media predominantly occurs as coincident to viral upper respiratory tract infections and/or bacterial infections. Common viruses that cause upper respiratory tract infection are frequently associated with AOM and new-onset OME. These include respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza and coronavirus. Predominant bacteria that cause otitis media are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Antibiotic therapy does not significantly benefit most patients with AOM, but long-term prophylactic antibiotic therapy can reduce the risk of otitis media recurrence among children at high risk. In Australia, 84% of AOM is treated with antibiotic therapy, which contributes to development of antibiotic resistance. Vaccine development is a key future direction for reducing the world burden of otitis media, but requires polymicrobial formulation and ongoing monitoring and modification to ensure sustained reduction in disease burden. PMID:19883356

Massa, Helen M; Cripps, Allan W; Lehmann, Deborah

2009-11-01

117

Biofilm formation of Clostridium perfringens and its exposure to low-dose antimicrobials.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause food poisoning in humans and various enterotoxemia in animal species. Very little is known on the biofilm of C. perfringens and its exposure to subminimal inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials. This study was undertaken to address these issues. Most of the C. perfringens human and animal isolates tested in this study were able to form biofilm (230/277). Porcine clinical isolates formed significantly more biofilm than the porcine commensal isolates. A subgroup of clinical and commensal C. perfringens isolates was randomly selected for further characterization. Biofilm was found to protect C. perfringens bacterial cells from exposure to high concentrations of tested antimicrobials. Exposure to low doses of some of these antimicrobials tended to lead to a diminution of the biofilm formed. However, a few isolates showed an increase in biofilm formation when exposed to low doses of tylosin, bacitracin, virginiamycin, and monensin. Six isolates were randomly selected for biofilm analysis using scanning laser confocal microscopy. Of those, four produced more biofilm in presence of low doses of bacitracin whereas biofilms formed without bacitracin were thinner and less elevated. An increase in the area occupied by bacteria in the biofilm following exposure to low doses of bacitracin was also observed in the majority of isolates. Morphology examination revealed flat biofilms with the exception of one isolate that demonstrated a mushroom-like biofilm. Matrix composition analysis showed the presence of proteins, beta-1,4 linked polysaccharides and extracellular DNA, but no poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This study brings new information on the biofilm produced by C. perfringens and its exposure to low doses of antimicrobials. PMID:24795711

Charlebois, Audrey; Jacques, Mario; Archambault, Marie

2014-01-01

118

Biofilm formation of Clostridium perfringens and its exposure to low-dose antimicrobials  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause food poisoning in humans and various enterotoxemia in animal species. Very little is known on the biofilm of C. perfringens and its exposure to subminimal inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials. This study was undertaken to address these issues. Most of the C. perfringens human and animal isolates tested in this study were able to form biofilm (230/277). Porcine clinical isolates formed significantly more biofilm than the porcine commensal isolates. A subgroup of clinical and commensal C. perfringens isolates was randomly selected for further characterization. Biofilm was found to protect C. perfringens bacterial cells from exposure to high concentrations of tested antimicrobials. Exposure to low doses of some of these antimicrobials tended to lead to a diminution of the biofilm formed. However, a few isolates showed an increase in biofilm formation when exposed to low doses of tylosin, bacitracin, virginiamycin, and monensin. Six isolates were randomly selected for biofilm analysis using scanning laser confocal microscopy. Of those, four produced more biofilm in presence of low doses of bacitracin whereas biofilms formed without bacitracin were thinner and less elevated. An increase in the area occupied by bacteria in the biofilm following exposure to low doses of bacitracin was also observed in the majority of isolates. Morphology examination revealed flat biofilms with the exception of one isolate that demonstrated a mushroom-like biofilm. Matrix composition analysis showed the presence of proteins, beta-1,4 linked polysaccharides and extracellular DNA, but no poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. This study brings new information on the biofilm produced by C. perfringens and its exposure to low doses of antimicrobials. PMID:24795711

Charlebois, Audrey; Jacques, Mario; Archambault, Marie

2014-01-01

119

Future perspective on host-pathogen interactions during bacterial biofilm formation within the nasopharynx  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal colonization provides bacteria with a place of residence, a platform for person-to-person transmission and for many opportunistic pathogens it is a prerequisite event towards the development of invasive disease. Therefore, how host factors within the nasopharynx contribute to, inhibit or otherwise shape biofilm formation, the primary mode of existence for colonizing bacteria, and how biofilm bacteria subvert the acute inflammatory response that facilitates clearance, are important topics for future microbiological research. This review proposes the examination of host components as bridging molecules for bacterial interactions during biofilm formation, altered virulence determinant production and cell wall modification as a mechanism for immunoquiescence, and the role of host factors as signals and co-opted mechanisms for bacterial dissemination, together providing an opportunity for disease. PMID:22324992

Blanchette, Krystle A; Orihuela, Carlos J

2012-01-01

120

New properties of wheat bran: anti-biofilm activity and interference with bacteria quorum-sensing systems.  

PubMed

Some plant extracts, have been demonstrated to interfere with the microbial metabolism of several pathogenic bacteria. Within this antimicrobial properties it has been described the potential to inhibit or destroy biofilms or to interfere in quorum-sensing (QS) systems. However, to our knowledge, no study exploring this potential of wheat-bran (WB) has been published. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the anti-biofilm activity of WB against a cow mastitis strain of Staphylococcus aureus and also its possible interference with bacterial QS systems. The potential of inhibition and destruction of the biofilm was studied by different in vitro assays. Also, we tested the ability of WB to interfere in bacterial QS by degrading acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL) as one of the most studied QS signal molecules for Gram-negative bacteria. The soluble extract of WB at 0.5% showed anti-biofilm activity, inhibiting biofilm formation and also destroying it. Similarly, the >?300?kDa fraction from WB had significant anti-biofilm activity in both in vitro assays. The WB also showed a potential to interfere with bacterial QS systems, as it was demonstrated to contain certain lactonase activity able to reduce AHL concentration in the medium. The present study reveals two additional beneficial properties of WB extract never explored before, which may be related to the presence of defence compounds in the plant extract able to interfere with microbial biofilms and also QS systems. PMID:24588934

González-Ortiz, Gemma; Quarles Van Ufford, H C; Halkes, S Bart A; Cerdà-Cuéllar, Marta; Beukelman, Cees J; Pieters, Roland J; Liskamp, Rob M J; Pérez, José F; Martín-Orue, Susana M

2014-05-01

121

Novel application for the prevention and treatment of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of bacterial biofilms at solid-liquid interfaces creates numerous problems in both industrial and biomedical sciences. In this dissertation, the application of plasma from two very different facets was studied. In part one, the susceptibility of pre-formed Staphylococcus aureus biofilms on biomaterials to different plasmas was investigated. It was found that the distinct chemical/physical properties of plasmas generated from oxygen, nitrogen, and argon all demonstrated very potent but very different anti-biofilm mechanisms of action. An in depth analysis of these results show: 1) different reactive species produced in each plasma demonstrate specific activity, and 2) the commonly associated etching effect could be manipulated and even controlled, depending on experimental conditions and the discharge gas. These studies provide insights into the anti-biofilm mechanisms of plasma as well as the effects of different reactive species on biofilm inactivation. Under experimental parameters, bacterial cells in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms were killed (>99.9%) by plasmas within minutes of exposure and no bacteria nor biofilm re-growth from discharge gas treated biofilms was observed throughout the life-span of the re-growth experiment. The decontamination ability of plasmas for the treatment of biofilm related infections on biomedical materials was confirmed and novel applications involving the use of low power argon and oxygen for the treatment of biofilm contaminated biomaterials and indwelling devices is proposed. The second facet of this dissertation explores the interaction between biofilm forming Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on different antibacterial/anti-biofilm surfaces. The antibiotic-free anti-fouling surfaces constructed in this study were generated from the plasma-assisted graft polymerization technique. These sophisticated surfaces were stable, biocompatible and capable of preventing biofilm formation on biomaterials and medical devices. Under optimal experimental conditions, the antibacterial activities of these sophisticated surfaces had two distinct mechanisms: 1) reducing bacterial attachment and 2) eradicating adherent bacteria. The excellent antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties of these modified surfaces were initially tested in stationary cultures and later confirmed through a microfluidic cultivation system, which mimicked the in-vivo conditions of implanted catheters. Information gathered, suggests the graft polymerization of negatively charged monomers may be utilized to permanently prevent biofouling on inserted biomaterials, as well as implanted medical devices.

Traba, Christian

122

Multiple Vibrio fischeri genes are involved in biofilm formation and host colonization.  

PubMed

Biofilms are increasingly recognized as being the predominant form for survival for most bacteria in the environment. The successful colonization of Vibrio fischeri in its squid host Euprymna tasmanica involves complex microbe-host interactions mediated by specific genes that are essential for biofilm formation and colonization. Here, structural and regulatory genes were selected to study their role in biofilm formation and host colonization. We have mutated several genes (pilT, pilU, flgF, motY, ibpA and mifB) by an insertional inactivation strategy. The results demonstrate that structural genes responsible for synthesis of type IV pili and flagella are crucial for biofilm formation and host infection. Moreover, regulatory genes affect colony aggregation by various mechanisms, including alteration of synthesis of transcriptional factors and regulation of extracellular polysaccharide production. These results reflect the significance of how genetic alterations influence communal behavior, which is important in understanding symbiotic relationships. PMID:22486781

Chavez-Dozal, Alba; Hogan, David; Gorman, Clayton; Quintanal-Villalonga, Alvaro; Nishiguchi, Michele K

2012-09-01

123

Multiple Vibrio fischeri genes are involved in biofilm formation and host colonization  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are increasingly recognized as the predominant form for survival in the environment for most bacteria. The successful colonization of Vibrio fischeri in its squid host Euprymna tasmanica, involves complex microbe-host interactions mediated by specific genes that are essential for biofilm formation and colonization. In the present investigation, structural and regulatory genes were selected to study their role in biofilm formation and host colonization. We have mutated several genes (pilT, pilU, flgF, motY, ibpA and mifB) by an insertional inactivation strategy. Results demonstrate that structural genes responsible for synthesis of type IV pili and flagella are crucial for biofilm formation and host infection. Moreover, regulatory genes affect colony aggregation by various mechanisms including alteration of synthesis of transcriptional factors and regulation of extracellular polysaccharide production. These results reflect the significance of how genetic alterations influence communal behavior, which is important in understanding symbiotic relationships. PMID:22486781

Chavez-Dozal, Alba; Hogan, David; Gorman, Clayton; Quintanal-Villalonga, Alvaro; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

2012-01-01

124

Biofilm-forming bacteria with varying tolerance to peracetic acid from a paper machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms cause runnability problems in paper machines and are therefore controlled with biocides. Peracetic acid is usually\\u000a effective in preventing bulky biofilms. This study investigated the microbiological status of a paper machine where low concentrations\\u000a (?15 ppm active ingredient) of peracetic acid had been used for several years. The paper machine contained a low amount of\\u000a biofilms. Biofilm-forming bacteria from this

Stiina Rasimus; Marko Kolari; Hannu Rita; Douwe Hoornstra; Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen

125

Biofilms as sources of fecal bacteria contamination in the stormwater drainage system in Singapore  

E-print Network

A study was performed to examine a possible source of fecal bacteria contamination originating from within the stormwater drainage system in Singapore. The extent of fecal bacteria presence in storm drain biofilms was ...

Burkhart, Tsung Hwa (Tsung Hwa Sophia)

2013-01-01

126

Comparative effect of chlorhexidine and some mouthrinses on bacterial biofilm formation on titanium surface.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) and commonly used mouthrinses to single- and poly-species biofilms by S. mutans, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, on titanium discs of grade IV. The formation of single- and poly-species biofilms at 16.5, 40.5 and 64.5-h incubation on titanium surface was evaluated by plate count (CFU ml?¹) before and after exposure to CHX and four mouthrinses (Curasept, Listerine, Meridol and Buccagel) and expressed as percentage of Inhibitory Activity (IA%). The application of the different anti-plaque formulations on biofilm can reduce the adhesion of bacteria to titanium surface with different degrees. The higher efficacy was observed for Listerine that shows IA% = 100 on the biofilm formed by S. mutans at 16.5 h. Log count of CFU was dependent to culture time and four mouthrinses for S. mutans and S. aureus, whilst was not dependent to culture time but to mouthrinses for P. aeruginosa. In general, the efficacy was particularly lesser to poly-species biofilms; no statistical differences were evidenced between all the mouthrinses and CHX as control group. The tested mouthrinses, compared to reference CHX 0.2%, have demonstrated a significant lower antibacterial activity than Listerine towards the experimental biofilms. This "in vitro" biofilm model should prove extremely useful for pre-clinical testing of anti-plaque agents, which inhibit biofilm formation, can prevent subsequent implant failure. PMID:20686768

Baffone, Wally; Sorgente, Gianfranco; Campana, Raffaella; Patrone, Vania; Sisti, Davide; Falcioni, Tania

2011-02-01

127

CsgD regulatory network in a bacterial trait-altering biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

In response to the limited nutrients and stressful conditions of their habitats, many microorganisms including Salmonella form a biofilm by secreting a polymeric matrix to interweave individual cells and to build structural communities on an abiotic or living surface. The biofilm formation in Salmonella is tightly regulated by a regulatory network that involves multiple transcriptional regulators. As a master transcriptional regulator in biofilm formation, curli subunit gene D (csgD) functions by activating the biosynthesis of the extracellular polymeric matrix composed of exopolysaccharide cellulose, curli and biofilm-associated proteins (Baps), assisting bacterial cells in transitioning from the planktonic stage to the multicellular state. The expression of CsgD itself is affected by cell growth stage and environmental stimuli through the action of other transcriptional factors, bis-(3?–5?)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) and other elements. The formation of biofilm confers new physiological characteristics on the bacteria within, especially resistance against unfavorable environmental conditions. Herein, we summarize the CsgD regulatory network of Salmonella biofilm formation and the new traits acquired by Salmonella when within biofilm.

Liu, Zhen; Niu, Hua; Wu, Shuyan; Huang, Rui

2014-01-01

128

Osteopontin Reduces Biofilm Formation in a Multi-Species Model of Dental Biofilm  

PubMed Central

Background Combating dental biofilm formation is the most effective means for the prevention of caries, one of the most widespread human diseases. Among the chemical supplements to mechanical tooth cleaning procedures, non-bactericidal adjuncts that target the mechanisms of bacterial biofilm formation have gained increasing interest in recent years. Milk proteins, such as lactoferrin, have been shown to interfere with bacterial colonization of saliva-coated surfaces. We here study the effect of bovine milk osteopontin (OPN), a highly phosphorylated whey glycoprotein, on a multispecies in vitro model of dental biofilm. While considerable research effort focuses on the interaction of OPN with mammalian cells, there are no data investigating the influence of OPN on bacterial biofilms. Methodology/Principal Findings Biofilms consisting of Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus downei and Streptococcus sanguinis were grown in a flow cell system that permitted in situ microscopic analysis. Crystal violet staining showed significantly less biofilm formation in the presence of OPN, as compared to biofilms grown without OPN or biofilms grown in the presence of caseinoglycomacropeptide, another phosphorylated milk protein. Confocal microscopy revealed that OPN bound to the surface of bacterial cells and reduced mechanical stability of the biofilms without affecting cell viability. The bacterial composition of the biofilms, determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, changed considerably in the presence of OPN. In particular, colonization of S. mitis, the best biofilm former in the model, was reduced dramatically. Conclusions/Significance OPN strongly reduces the amount of biofilm formed in a well-defined laboratory model of acidogenic dental biofilm. If a similar effect can be observed in vivo, OPN might serve as a valuable adjunct to mechanical tooth cleaning procedures. PMID:22879891

Schlafer, Sebastian; Raarup, Merete K.; Wejse, Peter L.; Nyvad, Bente; Stadler, Brigitte M.; Sutherland, Duncan S.; Birkedal, Henrik; Meyer, Rikke L.

2012-01-01

129

Biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumoniae on urethral catheters requires either type 1 or type 3 fimbriae  

PubMed Central

Urinary catheters are standard medical devices utilized in both hospital and nursing home settings, but are associated with a high frequency of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). In particular, biofilm formation on the catheter surface by uropathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae causes severe problems. Here we demonstrate that type 1 and type 3 fimbriae expressed by K. pneumoniae enhance biofilm formation on urinary catheters in a catheterized bladder model that mirrors the physico-chemical conditions present in catheterized patients. Furthermore, we show that both fimbrial types are able to functionally compensate for each other during biofilm formation on urinary catheters. In situ monitoring of fimbrial expression revealed that neither of the two fimbrial types is expressed when cells are grown planktonically. Interestingly, during biofilm formation on catheters, both fimbrial types are expressed, suggesting that they are both important in promoting biofilm formation on catheters. Additionally, transformed into and expressed by a nonfimbriated Escherichia coli strain, both fimbrial types significantly increased biofilm formation on catheters compared with the wild-type E. coli strain. The widespread occurrence of the two fimbrial types in different species of pathogenic bacteria stresses the need for further assessment of their role during urinary tract infections. PMID:22448614

Stahlhut, Steen G; Struve, Carsten; Krogfelt, Karen A; Reisner, Andreas

2012-01-01

130

Exopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Enables Mature Biofilm Formation on Abiotic Surfaces by Herbaspirillum seropedicae  

PubMed Central

H. seropedicae associates endophytically and epiphytically with important poaceous crops and is capable of promoting their growth. The molecular mechanisms involved in plant colonization by this microrganism are not fully understood. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are usually necessary for bacterial attachment to solid surfaces, to other bacteria, and to form biofilms. The role of H. seropedicae SmR1 exopolysaccharide in biofilm formation on both inert and plant substrates was assessed by characterization of a mutant in the espB gene which codes for a glucosyltransferase. The mutant strain was severely affected in EPS production and biofilm formation on glass wool. In contrast, the plant colonization capacity of the mutant strain was not altered when compared to the parental strain. The requirement of EPS for biofilm formation on inert surface was reinforced by the induction of eps genes in biofilms grown on glass and polypropylene. On the other hand, a strong repression of eps genes was observed in H. seropedicae cells adhered to maize roots. Our data suggest that H. seropedicae EPS is a structural component of mature biofilms, but this development stage of biofilm is not achieved during plant colonization. PMID:25310013

Balsanelli, Eduardo; de Baura, Valter Antonio; Pedrosa, Fabio de Oliveira; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Monteiro, Rose Adele

2014-01-01

131

Identification, structure, and characterization of an exopolysaccharide produced by Histophilus somni during biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

Background Histophilus somni, a gram-negative coccobacillus, is an obligate inhabitant of bovine and ovine mucosal surfaces, and an opportunistic pathogen responsible for respiratory disease and other systemic infections in cattle and sheep. Capsules are important virulence factors for many pathogenic bacteria, but a capsule has not been identified on H. somni. However, H. somni does form a biofilm in vitro and in vivo, and the biofilm matrix of most bacteria consists of a polysaccharide. Results Following incubation of H. somni under growth-restricting stress conditions, such as during anaerobiosis, stationary phase, or in hypertonic salt, a polysaccharide could be isolated from washed cells or culture supernatant. The polysaccharide was present in large amounts in broth culture sediment after H. somni was grown under low oxygen tension for 4-5 days (conditions favorable to biofilm formation), but not from planktonic cells during log phase growth. Immuno-transmission electron microscopy showed that the polysaccharide was not closely associated with the cell surface, and was of heterogeneous high molecular size by gel electrophoresis, indicating it was an exopolysaccharide (EPS). The EPS was a branched mannose polymer containing some galactose, as determined by structural analysis. The mannose-specific Moringa M lectin and antibodies to the EPS bound to the biofilm matrix, demonstrating that the EPS was a component of the biofilm. The addition of N-acetylneuraminic acid to the growth medium resulted in sialylation of the EPS, and increased biofilm formation. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that genes previously identified in a putative polysaccharide locus were upregulated when the bacteria were grown under conditions favorable to a biofilm, compared to planktonic cells. Conclusions H. somni is capable of producing a branching, mannose-galactose EPS polymer under growth conditions favorable to the biofilm phase of growth, and the EPS is a component of the biofilm matrix. The EPS can be sialylated in strains with sialyltransferase activity, resulting in enhanced density of the biofilm, and suggesting that EPS and biofilm formation may be important to persistence in the bovine host. The EPS may be critical to virulence if the biofilm state is required for H. somni to persist in systemic sites. PMID:21854629

2011-01-01

132

Beta- lactam antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in non-typeable haemophilus influenzae by up-regulating carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth) stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL) of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended. PMID:25007395

Wu, Siva; Li, Xiaojin; Gunawardana, Manjula; Maguire, Kathleen; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Schaudinn, Christoph; Wang, Charles; Baum, Marc M; Webster, Paul

2014-01-01

133

Beta- Lactam Antibiotics Stimulate Biofilm Formation in Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae by Up-Regulating Carbohydrate Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common acute otitis media pathogen, with an incidence that is increased by previous antibiotic treatment. NTHi is also an emerging causative agent of other chronic infections in humans, some linked to morbidity, and all of which impose substantial treatment costs. In this study we explore the possibility that antibiotic exposure may stimulate biofilm formation by NTHi bacteria. We discovered that sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotic (i.e., amounts that partially inhibit bacterial growth) stimulated the biofilm-forming ability of NTHi strains, an effect that was strain and antibiotic dependent. When exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics NTHi strains produced tightly packed biofilms with decreased numbers of culturable bacteria but increased biomass. The ratio of protein per unit weight of biofilm decreased as a result of antibiotic exposure. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilms had altered ultrastructure, and genes involved in glycogen production and transporter function were up regulated in response to antibiotic exposure. Down-regulated genes were linked to multiple metabolic processes but not those involved in stress response. Antibiotic-stimulated biofilm bacteria were more resistant to a lethal dose (10 µg/mL) of cefuroxime. Our results suggest that beta-lactam antibiotic exposure may act as a signaling molecule that promotes transformation into the biofilm phenotype. Loss of viable bacteria, increase in biofilm biomass and decreased protein production coupled with a concomitant up-regulation of genes involved with glycogen production might result in a biofilm of sessile, metabolically inactive bacteria sustained by stored glycogen. These biofilms may protect surviving bacteria from subsequent antibiotic challenges, and act as a reservoir of viable bacteria once antibiotic exposure has ended. PMID:25007395

Wu, Siva; Li, Xiaojin; Gunawardana, Manjula; Maguire, Kathleen; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Schaudinn, Christoph; Wang, Charles; Baum, Marc M.; Webster, Paul

2014-01-01

134

Marine bacterial isolates inhibit biofilm formation and disrupt mature biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, biofilms cause 65% of infections in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm cause life threatening infections in cystic fibrosis infection and they are 1,000 times more tolerant to antibiotic\\u000a than the planktonic cells. As quorum sensing, hydrophobicity index and extracellular polysaccharide play a crucial role in\\u000a biofilm formation, extracts from 46 marine

Chari Nithya; Mansur Farzana Begum; Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian

2010-01-01

135

Influence of peroxyacetic acid and nisin and coculture with Enterococcus faecium on Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation is a matter of concern in food industries because biofilms facilitate the survival of pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, which may contaminate food-processing equipment and products. In this study, nisin and two Enterococcus faecium strains were evaluated for their effect on biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes cultured in brain heart infusion broth and on stainless steel coupons. Elimination of preformed L. monocytogenes biofilms by peroxyacetic acid also was tested. Adhesion control experiments were performed with pure cultures of L. monocytogenes after swab collection of adhered cells, which were then enumerated on PALCAM agar plates and visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Formation of a biofilm was recorded when the number of adhered cells was at least 10(3) CFU/cm2. When L. monocytogenes was cocultured with E. faecium bac-, the number of adhered L. monocytogenes cells was 2.5 log lower (P = 0.002) when initially compared with the control culture, but after 6 h of incubation a biofilm was again detected. However, in coculture on stainless steel coupons, E. faecium bac+ inhibited L. monocytogenes adherence and did not allow biofilm formation for up to 48 h (P < 0.001). In the presence of nisin or after treatment with peroxyacetic acid, bacterial growth was reduced (P < 0.001) up to 4.6 and 5.6 log CFU/cm2, respectively, when compared with L. monocytogenes cultures on untreated coupons. However, after these treatments, cells were still present, and after 24 h of incubation, a renewed biofilm was detected in L. monocytogenes cultures treated with nisin. Although all tested conditions reduced L. monocytogenes growth to some extent, only coculture with E. faecium bac+ efficiently reduced biofilm formation, suggesting a potential control strategy for this pathogen. PMID:18389714

Minei, Cláudia C; Gomes, Bruna C; Ratti, Regianne P; D'Angelis, Carlos E M; De Martinis, Elaine C P

2008-03-01

136

Burkholderia BcpA mediates biofilm formation independently of interbacterial contact dependent growth inhibition  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Contact dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a phenomenon in which Gram-negative bacteria use the toxic C-terminus of a large surface-exposed exoprotein to inhibit the growth of susceptible bacteria upon cell-cell contact. Little is known about when and where bacteria express the genes encoding CDI system proteins and how these systems contribute to the survival of bacteria in their natural niche. Here we establish that, in addition to mediating interbacterial competition, the Burkholderia thailandensis CDI system exoprotein BcpA is required for biofilm development. We also provide evidence that the catalytic activity of BcpA and extracellular DNA are required for the characteristic biofilm pillars to form. We show using a bcpA-gfp fusion that within the biofilm, expression of the CDI system-encoding genes is below the limit of detection for the majority of bacteria and only a subset of cells express the genes strongly at any given time. Analysis of a strain constitutively expressing the genes indicates that native expression is critical for biofilm architecture. Although CDI systems have so far only been demonstrated to be involved in interbacterial competition, constitutive production of the system’s immunity protein in the entire bacterial population did not alter biofilm formation, indicating a CDI-independent role for BcpA in this process. We propose, therefore, that bacteria may use CDI proteins in cooperative behaviors, like building biofilm communities, and in competitive behaviors that prevent non-self bacteria from entering the community. PMID:23879629

Garcia, Erin C.; Anderson, Melissa S.; Hagar, Jon A.; Cotter, Peggy A.

2013-01-01

137

Corrosion inhibition of stainless steel by a sulfate-reducing bacteria biofilm in seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion inhibition of stainless steel due to a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilm in seawater was studied. By atomic force microscopy, a layer of fish-scale-like biofilm was found to form as stainless steel coupons were exposed to the culture media with SRB, and this biofilm grew more and more compact. As a result, coupons' surface under the biofilm turned irregular less slowly than that exposed to the sterilized culture media. Then, physicoelectric characteristics of the electrode/biofilm/solution interface were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and the coverage of the biofilm as well as the relative irregularity of coupons' surface was also recorded by EIS spectra. Finally, anodic cyclic polarization results further demonstrated the protective property of the biofilm. Therefore, in estimation of SRB-implicated corrosion of stainless steel, not only the detrimental SRB metabolites but also the protective SRB biofilm as well should be taken into account.

Li, Fu-shao; An, Mao-zhong; Duan, Dong-xia

2012-08-01

138

Analysis and succession of nitrifying bacteria community structure in sequencing biofilm batch reactor.  

PubMed

To reveal the succession procedure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) community structure in sequencing biofilm batch reactor (SBBR), the molecular biological techniques of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloning, and real-time PCR were applied. DGGE showed that the structural diversity of the bacterial community increased during the biofilm formation period, and some kinds of populations had been highly preponderant consistently. The results of cloning and sequencing revealed that Nitrosomonas was the dominant species. The real-time PCR analysis indicated that the amount of the AOB increased significantly after the cultivation period, and the NOB gradually decreased. The AOB content on the 25th day was 17 times that of the 6th day. It also showed the biofilm formed successfully with accumulating nitrite and prepared to achieve the achievement of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in SBBR. Furthermore, the ammonia-oxidizing rate was in correspondence with the NH4 (+)-N removal efficiency. PMID:24493570

Wang, Jingyin; Zhang, Chaosheng; Rong, Hongwei

2014-05-01

139

Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Ocular Staphylococcal Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), the main polyphenol component of green tea, has several antibacterial properties. Here we show that sub-MICs of EGCg appear to decrease slime production, therefore inhibiting biofilm formation by ocular staphylococcal isolates previously characterized for the presence of ica genes by the Congo red agar plate assay and for adhesion to microtiter plates. Biofilm formation is a three-stage

Anna Rita Blanco; Andrea Sudano-Roccaro; Giovanna Carmela Spoto; Antonia Nostro; Dario Rusciano

2005-01-01

140

Effects of biofilm formation on the electrochemical behavior of AISI 304 SS in board machine environment  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical behavior of and biofilm formation on AISI 304 stainless steel were studied in board machine environment with natural bacteria population. Open circuit potentials, redox-potential as well as different electrochemical measurements were performed. The biofilms formed were analyzed by microbial cultivation and by epifluorescence microscopy. The results of the measurements were compared with those performed both in sterilized white water and in artificial white water. The anodic polarization behavior of just immersed specimens was very similar in biotic (real), artificial and abiotic (sterilized) white water. Pitting initiated at very low potentials and continued to very negative values. The initiation of pitting became more difficult when the immersion time increased to 7 or 8 days in real, artificial or sterilized water. When the immersion time further increased, the pitting nucleated more easily in sterilized white water as well as in artificial white water than in biotic white water. In the laboratory equipment it was possible to maintain the biofilm already formed in the board mill, but the amount of sulfate reducing bacteria decreased and the amount of biofilm did not further increase. The composition and structure of the biofilm formed in laboratory differed from that formed in board mill conditions. The preliminary results indicate that the formation of biofilm in biotic white water rather inhibits than enhances the pitting corrosion of type AISI 304 stainless steel.

Carp, L.; Hakkarainen, T. [VTT Manufacturing Technology (Finland); Raaska, L. [VTT Biotechnology and Food Research (Finland)

1999-11-01

141

Biodegradable polymer (PLGA) coatings featuring cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol mitigate biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Biofilm-associated infections are one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Although infections may be treated with antibiotics, the overuse of antibiotics has led to the spread of antibiotic resistance. Many natural antimicrobial compounds derived from edible plants are safe for human use and target bacteria nonspecifically. Therefore, they may impair biofilm formation with less evolutionary pressure on pathogens. Here, we explore the use of two natural antimicrobial compounds, cinnamaldehyde (CA, from cinnamon) and carvacrol (CARV, from oregano), for biofilm prevention. We have fabricated and characterized films that incorporate CA and CARV into the biodegradable, FDA-approved polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA. The addition of CA and CARV to PLGA films not only adds antimicrobial activity but also changes the surface properties of the films, making them more hydrophilic and therefore more resistant to bacterial attachment. An addition of 0.1% CA to a PLGA film significantly impairs biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus, and 0.1% CARV in PLGA significantly decreases biofilm formation by both Escherichia coli and S. aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is less susceptible to CA and CARV, was not affected by the addition of 0.1% CA or CARV to the PLGA coatings; however, P. aeruginosa biofilm was significantly reduced by 1.0% CA. These results indicate that both CA and CARV could potentially be used in low concentrations as natural additives in polymer coatings for indwelling devices to delay colonization by bacteria. PMID:22937881

Zodrow, Katherine R; Schiffman, Jessica D; Elimelech, Menachem

2012-10-01

142

luxS-Based Quorum-Sensing Signaling Affects Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus mutans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Quorum sensing (QS) is a process by which bacteria communicate with diffusible chemical signaling molecules called autoinducers (AIs). The autoinducer-2 signal (AI-2) produced by the LuxS protein mediates interspecies communication among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we report that luxS-dependent QS is involved in the formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. Methods: An S. mutans luxS mutant was

Z. Huang; G. Meric; Z. Liu; R. Ma; Z. Tang; P. Lejeune

2009-01-01

143

Assessment of Inhibitory Effects of Fluoride-Coated Tubes on Biofilm Formation by Using the In Vitro Dental Unit Waterline Biofilm Model?  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to establish an in vitro model to simulate biofilms formed in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) and to investigate the ability of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-coated tubes to inhibit biofilm formation using this model. The water and biofilm samples were obtained from DUWLs which had been clinically used for 2.5 years, and the predominant bacteria were identified. A conventional polyurethane tube was incubated for 24 to 96 h in the mixed flora of isolated bacteria, and the optimal incubation conditions to simulate a clinically formed biofilm were determined by observation with a scanning electron microscope. Biofilm formation on a PVDF-coated tube was observed using this in vitro model, and the adherence of different bacterial species to conventional and PVDF-coated tubes was assessed. Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Acinetobacter haemolytics, and Methylobacterium mesophilicum were predominantly isolated from contaminated DUWLs. Incubation of the polyurethane tube with the mixed flora containing these three species for 96 h resulted in the formation of a mature biofilm similar to the one clinically observed. The PVDF-coated tube was significantly less adhesive to all three bacterial species than the polyurethane tube (P < 0.05 by the Mann-Whitney U test), and the attachment of small amounts of rods was observed even after incubation with the mixed flora for 96 h. In conclusion, an in vitro biofilm model was obtained by using a mixed flora of bacteria isolated from DUWLs, and the PVDF-coated tube was found to be effective in preventing biofilm formation using this model. PMID:18676694

Yabune, Toshiaki; Imazato, Satoshi; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

2008-01-01

144

Complex conductivity response to microbial growth and biofilm formation on phenanthrene spiked medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several laboratory studies have recently demonstrated the utility of geophysical methods for the investigation of microbial-induced changes over contaminated sites. However, it remains difficult to distinguish the effects due to the new physical properties imparted by microbial processes, to bacterial growth, or to the development of bacterial biofilm. We chose to study the influence of biofilm formation on geophysical response using complex conductivity measurements (0.1-1000 Hz) in phenanthrene-contaminated media. Biotic assays were conducted with two phenanthrene (PHE) degrading bacterial strains: Burkholderia sp (NAH1), which produced biofilm and Stenophomonas maltophilia (MATE10), which did not, and an abiotic control. Results showed that bacterial densities for NAH1 and MATE10 strains continuously increased at the same rate during the experiment. However, the complex conductivity signature showed noticeable differences between the two bacteria, with a phase shift of 50 mrad at 4 Hz for NAH1, which produced biofilm. Biofilm volume was quantified by Scanning Confocal Laser Microscopy (SCLM). Significant correlations were established between phase shift decrease and biofilm volume for NAH1 assays. Results suggest that complex conductivity measurements, specifically phase shift, can be a useful indicator of biofilm formation inside the overall signal of microbial activity on contaminated sites.

Albrecht, Remy; Gourry, Jean Christophe; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Leyval, Corinne

2011-11-01

145

A chalcone with potent inhibiting activity against biofilm formation by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.  

PubMed

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), an important human respiratory pathogen, frequently causes biofilm infections. Currently, resistance of bacteria within the biofilm to conventional antimicrobials poses a major obstacle to effective medical treatment on a global scale. Novel agents that are effective against NTHi biofilm are therefore urgently required. In this study, a series of natural and synthetic chalcones with various chemical substituents were evaluated in vitro for their antibiofilm activities against strong biofilm-forming strains of NTHi. Of the test chalcones, 3-hydroxychalcone (chalcone 8) exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity, its mean minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC50 ) being 16??g/mL (71.35??M), or approximately sixfold more active than the reference drug, azithromycin (MBIC50 419.68??M). The inhibitory activity of chalcone 8, which is a chemically modified chalcone, appeared to be superior to those of the natural chalcones tested. Significantly, chalcone 8 inhibited biofilm formation by all studied NTHi strains, indicating that the antibiofilm activities of this compound occur across multiple strong-biofilm forming NTHi isolates of different clinical origins. According to antimicrobial and growth curve assays, chalcone 8 at concentrations that decreased biofilm formation did not affect growth of NTHi, suggesting the biofilm inhibitory effect of chalcone 8 is non-antimicrobial. In terms of structure-activity relationship, the possible substituent on the chalcone backbone required for antibiofilm activity is discussed. These findings indicate that 3-hydroxychalcone (chalcone 8) has powerful antibiofilm activity and suggest the potential application of chalcone 8 as a new therapeutic agent for control of NTHi biofilm-associated infections. PMID:25154700

Kunthalert, Duangkamol; Baothong, Sudarat; Khetkam, Pichit; Chokchaisiri, Suwadee; Suksamrarn, Apichart

2014-10-01

146

Regulatory Role of Glycerol in Candida albicans Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Biofilm formation by Candida albicans on medically implanted devices poses a significant clinical challenge. Here, we compared biofilm-associated gene expression in two clinical C. albicans isolates, SC5314 and WO-1, to identify shared gene regulatory responses that may be functionally relevant. Among the 62 genes most highly expressed in biofilms relative to planktonic (suspension-grown) cells, we were able to recover insertion mutations in 25 genes. Twenty mutants had altered biofilm-related properties, including cell substrate adherence, cell-cell signaling, and azole susceptibility. We focused on one of the most highly upregulated genes in our biofilm proles, RHR2, which specifies the glycerol biosynthetic enzyme glycerol-3-phosphatase. Glycerol is 5-fold-more abundant in biofilm cells than in planktonic cells, and an rhr2?/? strain accumulates 2-fold-less biofilm glycerol than does the wild type. Under in vitro conditions, the rhr2?/? mutant has reduced biofilm biomass and reduced adherence to silicone. The rhr2?/? mutant is also severely defective in biofilm formation in vivo in a rat catheter infection model. Expression profiling indicates that the rhr2?/? mutant has reduced expression of cell surface adhesin genes ALS1, ALS3, and HWP1, as well as many other biofilm-upregulated genes. Reduced adhesin expression may be the cause of the rhr2?/? mutant biofilm defect, because overexpression of ALS1, ALS3, or HWP1 restores biofilm formation ability to the mutant in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicate that internal glycerol has a regulatory role in biofilm gene expression and that adhesin genes are among the main functional Rhr2-regulated genes. PMID:23572557

Desai, Jigar V.; Bruno, Vincent M.; Ganguly, Shantanu; Stamper, Ronald J.; Mitchell, Kaitlin F.; Solis, Norma; Hill, Elizabeth M.; Xu, Wenjie; Filler, Scott G.; Andes, David R.; Fanning, Saranna; Lanni, Frederick; Mitchell, Aaron P.

2013-01-01

147

Metabolic profiling of biofilm bacteria known to cause microbial influenced corrosion.  

PubMed

This study builds upon previous research that demonstrated the simplicity of obtaining metabolite profiles of bacteria in urban water networks, by using the metabolic profile of bacteria extracted from a reticulation pipe biofilm, which is known to cause microbial influenced corrosion (MIC). The extracellular metabolites of the isolated bacteria, and those bacteria in consortium, were analysed in isolation, and after exposure to low levels of copper. Applying chemometric analytical methodologies to the metabolomic data, we were able to better understand the profile of the isolated biofilm bacteria, which were differentiated according to their activity and copper exposure. It was found that the metabolic activity of the isolated bacteria and the bacteria in consortium varied according to the bacterium's ability to metabolise copper. This demonstrates the power of metabolomic techniques for the discrimination of water reticulation biofilms comprising similar bacteria in consortium, but undergoing different physico-chemical activities, such as corrosion and corrosion inhibition. PMID:24434961

Beale, D J; Morrison, P D; Key, C; Palombo, E A

2014-01-01

148

Inhibitory effect of Ti-Ag alloy on artificial biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Titanium-silver (Ti-Ag) alloy has been improved for machinability and mechanical properties, but its anti-biofilm properties have not been elucidated yet. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of Ti-Ag alloy on biofilm formation and bacterial viability in comparison with pure Ti, pure Ag and silver-palladium (Ag-Pd) alloy. Biofilm formation on the metal plates was evaluated by growing Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in the presence of metal plates. Bactericidal activity was evaluated using a film contact method. There were no significant differences in biofilm formation between pure Ti, pure Ag and Ag-Pd alloy, while biofilm amounts on Ti-20% Ag and Ti-25% Ag alloys were significantly lower (p<0.05). In addition, Ti-Ag alloys and pure Ti were not bactericidal, although pure Ag and Ag-Pd alloy killed bacteria. These results suggest that Ti-20% Ag and Ti-25% Ag alloys are suitable for dental material that suppresses biofilm formation without disturbing healthy oral microflora. PMID:24786344

Nakajo, Kazuko; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takada, Yukyo; Okuno, Osamu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

2014-01-01

149

Staphylococcus aureus autoinducer-2 quorum sensing decreases biofilm formation in an icaR-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that causes biofilm-associated infection in humans. Autoinducer 2 (AI-2), a quorum-sensing (QS) signal for interspecies communication, has a wide range of regulatory functions in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but its exact role in biofilm formation in S. aureus remains unclear. Results Here we demonstrate that mutation of the AI-2 synthase gene luxS in S. aureus RN6390B results in increased biofilm formation compared with the wild-type (WT) strain under static, flowing and anaerobic conditions and in a mouse model. Addition of the chemically synthesized AI-2 precursor in the luxS mutation strain (?luxS) restored the WT phenotype. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that AI-2 activated the transcription of icaR, a repressor of the ica operon, and subsequently a decreased level of icaA transcription, which was presumably the main reason why luxS mutation influences biofilm formation. Furthermore, we compared the roles of the agr-mediated QS system and the LuxS/AI-2 QS system in the regulation of biofilm formation using the ?luxS strain, RN6911 and the ?agr ?luxS strain. Our data indicate a cumulative effect of the two QS systems on the regulation of biofilm formation in S. aureus. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that AI-2 can decrease biofilm formation in S. aureus via an icaR-activation pathway. This study may provide clues for therapy in S. aureus biofilm-associated infection. PMID:23216979

2012-01-01

150

Coaggregation occurs amongst bacteria within and between biofilms in domestic showerheads.  

PubMed

Showerheads support the development of multi-species biofilms that can be unsightly, produce malodor, and may harbor pathogens. The outer-surface spray-plates of many showerheads support visible biofilms that likely contain a mixture of bacteria from freshwater and potentially from human users. Coaggregation, a mechanism by which genetically distinct bacteria specifically recognize one another, may contribute to the retention and enrichment of different species within these biofilms. The aim of this work was to describe the bacterial composition of outer spray-plate biofilms of three domestic showerheads and to determine the intra- and inter-biofilm coaggregation ability of each culturable isolate. The bacterial composition of the three biofilms was determined by using bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) and by culturing on R2A medium. An average of 31 genera per biofilm were identified using bTEFAP and a total of 30 isolates were cultured. Even though the microbial diversity of each showerhead biofilm differed, every cultured isolate was able to coaggregate with at least one other isolate from the same or different showerhead biofilm. Promiscuous coaggregating isolates belonged to the genera Brevundimonas, Micrococcus, and Lysobacter. This work suggests that coaggregation may be a common feature of showerhead biofilms. Characterization of the mechanisms mediating coaggregation, and the inter-species interactions they facilitate, may allow for novel strategies to inhibit biofilm development. PMID:23194413

Vornhagen, Jay; Stevens, Michael; McCormick, David W; Dowd, Scot E; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Boles, Blaise R; Rickard, Alexander H

2013-01-01

151

Insights on Escherichia coli biofilm formation and inhibition from whole-transcriptome profiling  

E-print Network

Minireview Insights on Escherichia coli biofilm formation and inhibition from whole with the best- characterized strain, Escherichia coli. Investigations of biofilm formation and inhibition). Escherichia coli biofilm development is a complex process that leads to beautiful structures (Fig. 1

Wood, Thomas K.

152

Surface-Mediated Release of a Small-Molecule Modulator of Bacterial Biofilm Formation: A Non-Bactericidal Approach to Inhibiting Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

We report an approach to preventing bacterial biofilm formation that is based on the surface-mediated release of 5,6-dimethyl-2-aminobenzimidazole (DMABI), a potent and non-bactericidal small-molecule inhibitor of bacterial biofilm growth. Our results demonstrate that DMABI can be encapsulated in thin films of a model biocompatible polymer [poly(lactide-co-glycolide), PLG] and be released in quantities that inhibit the formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms by up to 75–90% on surfaces that otherwise support robust biofilm growth. This approach enables the release of this new anti-biofilm agent for over one month, and it can be used to inhibit biofilm growth on both film-coated surfaces and other adjacent surfaces (e.g., on other uncoated surfaces and at air/water interfaces). Our results demonstrate a non-bactericidal approach to the prevention of biofilm growth and provide proof of concept using a clinically relevant human pathogen. In contrast to coatings designed to kill bacteria on contact, this release-based approach should also permit the design of strategically placed depots that disseminate DMABI more broadly and exert inhibitory effects over larger areas, which could prove useful in applications where the design or function of a surface prohibits the application of a uniform coating. This approach could also be used to design new polymer-coated surfaces useful for fundamental studies of bacterial biofilm growth. In a broader context, the non-bactericidal nature of DMABI could also provide opportunities to address concerns related to evolved resistance that currently face approaches based on the release of traditional microbicidal agents (e.g., antibiotics). Finally, the results of initial in vitro mammalian cell culture studies indicate that DMABI is not toxic to cells at concentrations required for strong anti-biofilm activity, suggesting that this new agent is well suited for further investigation in biomedical and personal care contexts. The surface-mediated approach reported here provides new tools useful for fundamental studies of biofilm formation and could, with further development, prove useful in a range of other industrial and commercial contexts in which bacterial biofilm growth is endemic. PMID:23335593

Broderick, Adam H.; Breitbach, Anthony S.; Frei, Reto

2014-01-01

153

Effects of Aronia melanocarpa constituents on biofilm formation of Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus.  

PubMed

Many bacteria growing on surfaces form biofilms. Adaptive and genetic changes of the microorganisms in this structure make them resistant to antimicrobial agents. Biofilm-forming organisms on medical devices can pose serious threats to human health. Thus, there is a need for novel prevention and treatment strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of Aronia melanocarpa extracts, subfractions and compounds to prevent biofilm formation and to inhibit bacterial growth of Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus in vitro. It was found that several aronia substances possessed anti-biofilm activity, however, they were not toxic to the species screened. This non-toxic inhibition may confer a lower potential for resistance development compared to conventional antimicrobials. PMID:24317526

Bräunlich, Marie; Økstad, Ole A; Slimestad, Rune; Wangensteen, Helle; Malterud, Karl E; Barsett, Hilde

2013-01-01

154

Effect of MUC7 peptides on the growth of bacteria and on Streptococcus mutans biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: MIC and MBC of peptides for S. mutans, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus gordonii, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined using the microdilution method. For S. mutans, the effects of the peptides on the kinetics of growth inhibition, time-killing, and on biofilm formation and reduction were also examined. For biofilm studies, polystyrene microtitre plates, Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD)

Guo-Xian Wei; Alexander N. Campagna; Libuse A. Bobek

2006-01-01

155

Biofilm formation of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus and comparative proteomic analysis of biofilm and planktonic cells.  

PubMed

Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is responsible for a wide variety of infections in many species, including pigs, horses and humans. Biofilm formation is essential for pathogenesis, and the ability to resist antibiotic treatment results in difficult-to-treat and persistent infections. However, the ability of SEZ to form biofilms is unclear. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying SEZ biofilm formation and their attributes are poorly understood. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that SEZ strain ATCC35246 formed biofilms comprising a thick, heterogeneous layer with clumps on the coverslips when incubated for 24 h. In addition, we used a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based approach to characterize differentially expressed protein in SEZ biofilms compared with their planktonic counterparts. The results revealed the existence of 24 protein spots of varying intensities, 13 of which were upregulated and 11 were downregulated in the SEZ biofilm compared with the planktonic controls. Most of proteins expressed during biofilm formation were associated with metabolism, adhesion, and stress conditions. These observations contribute to our understanding of the SEZ biofilm lifestyle, which may lead to more effective measures to control persistent SEZ infections. PMID:24696150

Yi, Li; Wang, Yang; Ma, Zhe; Zhang, Hui; Li, Yue; Zheng, Jun-xi; Yang, Yong-chun; Fan, Hong-jie; Lu, Cheng-ping

2014-09-01

156

Role of Streptococcus gordonii Amylase-Binding Protein A in Adhesion to Hydroxyapatite, Starch Metabolism, and Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between bacteria and salivary components are thought to be important in the establishment and ecology of the oral microflora. -Amylase, the predominant salivary enzyme in humans, binds to Streptococcus gordonii, a primary colonizer of the tooth. Previous studies have implicated this interaction in adhesion of the bacteria to salivary pellicles, catabolism of dietary starches, and biofilm formation. Amylase binding

JEFFREY D. ROGERS; ROBERT J. PALMER; PAUL E. KOLENBRANDER; FRANK A. SCANNAPIECO

2001-01-01

157

In vitro enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation on five adhesive systems  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the E. faecalis biofilm formation on the surface of five adhesive systems (AS) and its relationship with roughness. Study Design: The formation of E. faecalis biofilms was tested on the surface of four dual-cure AS: AdheSE DC, Clearfil DC Bond, Futurabond DC and Excite DSC and one light-cure antimicrobial AS, Clearfil Protect Bond, after 24 hours of incubation, using the MBEC high-throughput device. Results: E. faecalis biofilms grew on all the adhesives. The least growth of biofilm was on Excite DSC, Clearfil Protect Bond, and the control. Futurabond DC resulted in the greatest roughness and biofilm amount. There was a close relationship between the quantity of biofilm and roughness, except for Clearfil Protect Bond, which showed little biofilm but high roughness. Conclusion: None of the tested AS prevented E. faecalis biofilm formation, although the least quantity was found on the surface of Clearfil Protect Bond. Key words:Adhesive systems, biofilm, Enterococcus faecalis, roughness. PMID:22143728

Baca, Pilar; Furtado-Antunes de Freitas, Marcia; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen M.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Maria P.

2012-01-01

158

A Technique To Quantify the Population Size and Composition of the Biofilm Component in Communities of Bacteria in the Phyllosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of microbial biofilms in the phyllosphere of terrestrial plants has recently been demonstrated, but few techniques to study biofilms associated with living plant tissues are available. Here we report a technique to estimate the proportion of the bacterial population on leaves that is assembled in biofilms and to quantitatively isolate bacteria from the biofilm and nonbiofilm (solitary) components

CINDY E. MORRIS; JEAN-MICHEL MONIER; MARIE-AGNES JACQUES

1998-01-01

159

Engineering Escherichia coli to Control Biofilm Formation, Dispersal, and Persister Cell Formation  

E-print Network

, biofilms can be engineered for these applications by manipulating extracellular/intercellular signals and regulators. Here, we rewired the global regulator H-NS of Escherichia coli to control biofilm formation using random protein engineering. H-NS variant...

Hong, Seok Hoon

2012-02-14

160

Biofilm formation and interaction with the surfaces of gallstones by Salmonella spp.  

PubMed

Salmonellae can exist in an asymptomatic carrier state in the human gallbladder. Individuals with gallstones are more likely to become typhoid carriers, and antibiotic treatments are often ineffectual against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in carriers with gallstones. Therefore, we hypothesized that Salmonella spp. form biofilms on the surfaces of gallstones, where the bacteria are protected from high concentrations of bile and antibiotics. A number of methods were utilized to examine biofilm formation on human gallstones and glass coverslips in vitro, including confocal, light, and scanning electron microscopy. In our assays, salmonellae formed full biofilms on the surfaces of gallstones within 14 days and appeared to excrete an exopolysaccharide layer that bound them to the surfaces and to other bacteria. Efficient biofilm formation on gallstones was dependent upon the presence of bile, as a biofilm did not form on gallstones within 14 days in Luria-Bertani broth alone. The biofilms formed by a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Vi antigen mutant, as well as strains with mutations in genes that eliminate production of four different fimbriae, were indistinguishable from the biofilms formed by the parents. Mutants with an incomplete O-antigen, mutants that were nonmotile, and mutants deficient in quorum sensing were unable to develop complete biofilms. In addition, there appeared to be selectivity in salmonella binding to the gallstone surface that did not depend on the topology or surface architecture. These studies should aid in the understanding of the Salmonella carrier state, an important but underresearched area of typhoid fever pathogenesis. If the basis of carrier development can be understood, it may be possible to identify effective strategies to prevent or treat this chronic infection. PMID:11953406

Prouty, A M; Schwesinger, W H; Gunn, J S

2002-05-01

161

Specific Involvement of Pilus Type 2a in Biofilm Formation in Group B Streptococcus  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus agalactiae is the primary colonizer of the anogenital mucosa of up to 30% of healthy women and can infect newborns during delivery and cause severe sepsis and meningitis. Persistent colonization usually involves the formation of biofilm and increasing evidences indicate that in pathogenic streptococci biofilm formation is mediated by pili. Recently, we have characterized pili distribution and conservation in 289 GBS clinical isolates and we have shown that GBS has three pilus types, 1, 2a and 2b encoded by three corresponding pilus islands, and that each strain carries one or two islands. Here we have investigated the capacity of these strains to form biofilms. We have found that most of the biofilm-formers carry pilus 2a, and using insertion and deletion mutants we have confirmed that pilus type 2a, but not pilus types 1 and 2b, confers biofilm-forming phenotype. We also show that deletion of the major ancillary protein of type 2a did not impair biofilm formation while the inactivation of the other ancillary protein and of the backbone protein completely abolished this phenotype. Furthermore, antibodies raised against pilus components inhibited bacterial adherence to solid surfaces, offering new strategies to prevent GBS infection by targeting bacteria during their initial attachment to host epithelial cells. PMID:20169161

Galeotti, Cesira L.; Berti, Francesco; Necchi, Francesca; Reguzzi, Valerio; Ghezzo, Claudia; Telford, John Laird; Grandi, Guido; Maione, Domenico

2010-01-01

162

[Methods for detection of biofilm formation in routine microbiological practice].  

PubMed

The increasing use of catheters, artificial implants and antimicrobials as well as high numbers of immunocompromised patients are major causes for concern over biofilm infections. These infections are characterized particularly by high resistance to antimicrobials and formation of persistent foci that may complicate therapy. Therefore, detection of biofilm formation is of high relevance to the clinician and his/her approach to the treatment. Reliable and sensitive methods for detection of this pathogenicity factor in clinically important organisms, suitable for use in routine microbiological laboratories, are needed for this purpose. Currently, a wide array of techniques are available for detection of this virulence factor, such as biofilm visualization by microscopy, culture detection, detection of particular components, detection of physical and chemical differences between biofilm-positive organisms and their planktonic forms and detection of genes responsible for biofilm formation. Since each of these methods has limitations, the best results can be achieved by combining different approaches. PMID:16528896

R?zicka, F; Holá, V; Votava, M

2006-02-01

163

Micropatterned biofilm formations by laminar flow-templating.  

PubMed

We present a microfluidic device capable of patterning linear biofilm formations using a flow templating approach. We describe the design considerations and fabrication methodology of a two level flow-templating micro-bioreactor (FT-?BR), which generates a biofilm growth stream surrounded on 3 sides by a growth inhibiting confinement stream. Through a combination of experiments and simulations we comprehensively evaluate and exploit control parameters to manipulate the biofilm growth template stream dimensions. The FT-?BR is then used to grow biofilm patterns with controllable dimensions. A proof-of-principle study using the device demonstrates its utility in conducting biofilm growth rate measurements under different shear stress environments. This opens the way for quantitative studies into the effects of the local shear environment on biofilm properties and for the synthesis of a new generation of functional biomaterials with controllable properties. PMID:24722812

Aznaveh, Nahid Babaei; Safdar, Muhammad; Wolfaardt, Gideon; Greener, Jesse

2014-08-01

164

Biofilm formation on nanostructured hydroxyapatite-coated titanium.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation on medical devices is a common cause of implant failure, especially regarding implants that breach the epithelial tissue, so-called transcutaneous implants. Nanotechnology and the development of new nanomaterials have given the opportunity to design nanotextured implant surfaces. Such surfaces have been studied using various in vitro methods showing that nanosized features strongly benefit bone cell growth. However, little is known on how nanostructured features affect biofilm formation. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the shape- and chemical-dependent effect of a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the degree of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation. Three different types of nanosized HA particles having different shapes and calcium to phosphate ratios were compared to uncoated turned titanium using safranin stain in a biofilm assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for assessment of biofilm biomass and bacterial volume, respectively. No difference in biofilm biomass was detected for the various surfaces after 6 h incubation with S. epidermidis. Additionally, image analysis of CLSM Z-stacks confirmed the biofilm assay and showed similar results. In conclusion, the difference in nanomorphology and chemical composition of the surface coatings did not influence the adhesion and biofilm formation of S. epidermidis. PMID:23589449

Westas, Emma; Gillstedt, Martin; Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Bruzell, Ellen; Andersson, Martin

2014-04-01

165

Multiple Streptococcus mutans Genes Are Involved in Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 7 August 2002\\/Accepted 25 September 2002 Streptococcus mutans has been strongly implicated as the principal etiological agent in dental caries. One of the important virulence properties of these organisms is their ability to form biofilms known as dental plaque on tooth surfaces. Since the roles of sucrose and glucosyltransferases in S. mutans biofilm formation have been well documented, we

Akihiro Yoshida; Howard K. Kuramitsu

2002-01-01

166

Catheter lock solutions influence staphylococcal biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Microbial biofilms form on central venous catheters and may be associated with systemic infections as well as decreased dialysis efficiency due to catheter thrombosis. The most widely used anticoagulant catheter lock solution in the US is sodium heparin. We have previously shown that sodium heparin in clinically relevant concentrations enhances Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation. In the present study, we

Robert M. Q. Shanks; Jennifer L. Sargent; Raquel M. Martinez; Martha L. Graber; George A. O'Toole

2006-01-01

167

GENOMICS AND PROTEOMICS 5-Fluorouracil reduces biofilm formation  

E-print Network

drug, its antivirulence attributes in P. aeruginosa prompted us to examine the effect of this compound that controls acid resistance in E. coli. Hence, 5-FU represses biofilm formation of E. coli K- 12 through Ari. coli. By screening 13,000 plant extracts, ursolic acid was also discovered to inhibit E. coli biofilm

Wood, Thomas K.

168

Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Escherichia coli Influence Biofilm Formation through YjgK (TabA) and Fimbriae?  

PubMed Central

The roles of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in bacteria have been debated. Here, the role of five TA systems in regard to biofilm development was investigated (listed as toxin/antitoxin: MazF/MazE, RelE/RelB, ChpB, YoeB/YefM, and YafQ/DinJ). Although these multiple TA systems were reported previously to not impact bacterial fitness, we found that deletion of the five TA systems decreased biofilm formation initially (8 h) on three different surfaces and then increased biofilm formation (24 h) by decreasing biofilm dispersal. Whole-transcriptome profiling revealed that the deletion of the five TA systems induced expression of a single gene, yjgK, which encodes an uncharacterized protein; quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed consistent induction of this gene (at 8, 15, and 24 h). Corroborating the complex phenotype seen upon deleting the TA systems, overexpression of YjgK decreased biofilm formation at 8 h and increased biofilm formation at 24 h; deletion of yjgK also affected biofilm formation in the expected manner by increasing biofilm formation after 8 h and decreasing biofilm formation after 24 h. In addition, YjgK significantly reduced biofilm dispersal. Whole-transcriptome profiling revealed YjgK represses fimbria genes at 8 h (corroborated by qRT-PCR and a yeast agglutination assay), which agrees with the decrease in biofilm formation upon deleting the five TA systems at 8 h, as well as that seen upon overexpressing YjgK. Sand column assays confirmed that deleting the five TA systems reduced cell attachment. Furthermore, deletion of each of the five toxins increased biofilm formation at 8 h, and overexpression of the five toxins repressed biofilm formation at 8 h, a result that is opposite that of deleting all five TA systems; this suggests that complex regulation occurs involving the antitoxins. Also, the ability of the global regulator Hha to reduce biofilm formation was dependent on the presence of these TA systems. Hence, we suggest that one role of TA systems is to influence biofilm formation. PMID:19060153

Kim, Younghoon; Wang, Xiaoxue; Ma, Qun; Zhang, Xue-Song; Wood, Thomas K.

2009-01-01

169

Autoinducer 2 of Fusobacterium nucleatum as a target molecule to inhibit biofilm formation of periodontopathogens.  

PubMed

Periodontitis is initiated by bacteria in subgingival biofilms, which are composed mostly of Gram-negative anaerobes. Autoinducer 2 (AI-2) is a universal quorum sensing (QS) molecule that mediates intergeneric signalling in multispecies bacterial communities and may induce biofilm formation. As Fusobacterium nucleatum is the major coaggregation bridge organism that links early colonising commensals and late pathogenic colonisers in dental biofilms via the accretion of periodontopathogens, we hypothesised that AI-2 of F. nucleatum contributes to this interspecies interaction, and interruption of this signalling could result in the inhibition of biofilm formation of periodontopathogens. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of partially purified F. nucleatum AI-2 on monospecies biofilm as well as mutualistic interactions between F. nucleatum and the so-called 'red complex' (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia). Then we tested the effect of two QS inhibitors (QSIs), (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-2(5H)-furanone (furanone compound) and d-ribose, on AI-2-induced biofilm formation and coaggregation. F. nucleatum AI-2 remarkably induced biofilm growth of single and dual species and coaggregation between F. nucleatum and each species of the 'red complex', all of which were inhibited by the QSIs. F. nucleatum AI-2 induced the expression of the representative adhesion molecules of the periodontopathogens, which were inhibited by the QSIs. Our results demonstrate that F. nucleatum AI-2 plays an important role in inter- and intraspecies interactions between periodontopathogens via enhanced expression of adhesion molecules and may be a target for the inhibition of pathogenic dental biofilm formation. PMID:22633049

Jang, Yun-Ji; Choi, Yu-Jung; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Jun, Hye-Kyoung; Choi, Bong-Kyu

2013-01-01

170

Effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation and virulence factors of Escherichia coli planktonic and biofilm forms isolated from human urine  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation, motility, curli fimbriae formation by planktonic and biofilm cells of E. coli strains isolated from the urine of patients with various urinary system infections. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. Bacterial enumeration was used to assess the viability of bacteria in the biofilm. Curli expression was determined by using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Using motility agar the ability to move was examined. All the antibiotics used at sub-MICs reduced biofilm formation in vitro, decreased the survival of bacteria, but had no effect on the motility of planktonic as well as biofilm cells. The inhibitory effect of sub-MICs of antimicrobial agents on curli fimbriae formation was dependent on the form in which the bacteria occurred, incubation time and antibiotic used. Our results clearly show that all the three antibiotics tested reduce biofilm production, interfere with curli expression but do not influence motility. This study suggests that ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin may be useful in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections caused by E. coli strains. PMID:24159313

Wojnicz, Dorota; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

2013-01-01

171

Investigating Catalase Activity Through Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition by Bacteria Biofilms in Real Time Using Scanning  

E-print Network

Investigating Catalase Activity Through Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition by Bacteria Biofilms University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Catalase activity electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The catalase activity, in units of micromoles hydrogen peroxide decomposed per

Nishiguchi, Michele

172

OmpA-Mediated Biofilm Formation Is Essential for the Commensal Bacterium Sodalis glossinidius To Colonize the Tsetse Fly Gut  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria successfully colonize animals by forming protective biofilms. Molecular processes that underlie the formation and function of biofilms in pathogenic bacteria are well characterized. In contrast, the relationship between biofilms and host colonization by symbiotic bacteria is less well understood. Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house 3 maternally transmitted symbionts, one of which is a commensal (Sodalis glossinidius) found in several host tissues, including the gut. We determined that Sodalis forms biofilms in the tsetse gut and that this process is influenced by the Sodalis outer membrane protein A (OmpA). Mutant Sodalis strains that do not produce OmpA (Sodalis ?OmpA mutants) fail to form biofilms in vitro and are unable to colonize the tsetse gut unless endogenous symbiotic bacteria are present. Our data indicate that in the absence of biofilms, Sodalis ?OmpA mutant cells are exposed to and eliminated by tsetse's innate immune system, suggesting that biofilms help Sodalis evade the host immune system. Tsetse is the sole vector of pathogenic African trypanosomes, which also reside in the fly gut. Acquiring a better understanding of the dynamics that promote Sodalis colonization of the tsetse gut may enhance the development of novel disease control strategies. PMID:22941073

Maltz, Michele A.; Weiss, Brian L.; O'Neill, Michelle; Wu, Yineng

2012-01-01

173

OmpA-mediated biofilm formation is essential for the commensal bacterium Sodalis glossinidius to colonize the tsetse fly gut.  

PubMed

Many bacteria successfully colonize animals by forming protective biofilms. Molecular processes that underlie the formation and function of biofilms in pathogenic bacteria are well characterized. In contrast, the relationship between biofilms and host colonization by symbiotic bacteria is less well understood. Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house 3 maternally transmitted symbionts, one of which is a commensal (Sodalis glossinidius) found in several host tissues, including the gut. We determined that Sodalis forms biofilms in the tsetse gut and that this process is influenced by the Sodalis outer membrane protein A (OmpA). Mutant Sodalis strains that do not produce OmpA (Sodalis ?OmpA mutants) fail to form biofilms in vitro and are unable to colonize the tsetse gut unless endogenous symbiotic bacteria are present. Our data indicate that in the absence of biofilms, Sodalis ?OmpA mutant cells are exposed to and eliminated by tsetse's innate immune system, suggesting that biofilms help Sodalis evade the host immune system. Tsetse is the sole vector of pathogenic African trypanosomes, which also reside in the fly gut. Acquiring a better understanding of the dynamics that promote Sodalis colonization of the tsetse gut may enhance the development of novel disease control strategies. PMID:22941073

Maltz, Michele A; Weiss, Brian L; O'Neill, Michelle; Wu, Yineng; Aksoy, Serap

2012-11-01

174

Biofilm formation of mucosa-associated methanoarchaeal strains  

PubMed Central

Although in nature most microorganisms are known to occur predominantly in consortia or biofilms, data on archaeal biofilm formation are in general scarce. Here, the ability of three methanoarchaeal strains, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Methanosphaera stadtmanae, which form part of the human gut microbiota, and the Methanosarcina mazei strain Gö1 to grow on different surfaces and form biofilms was investigated. All three strains adhered to the substrate mica and grew predominantly as bilayers on its surface as demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses, though the formation of multi-layered biofilms of Methanosphaera stadtmanae and Methanobrevibacter smithii was observed as well. Stable biofilm formation was further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Methanosarcina mazei and Methanobrevibacter smithii also formed multi-layered biofilms in uncoated plastic ?-dishesTM, which were very similar in morphology and reached a height of up to 40 ?m. In contrast, biofilms formed by Methanosphaera stadtmanae reached only a height of 2 ?m. Staining with the two lectins ConA and IB4 indicated that all three strains produced relatively low amounts of extracellular polysaccharides most likely containing glucose, mannose, and galactose. Taken together, this study provides the first evidence that methanoarchaea can develop and form biofilms on different substrates and thus, will contribute to our knowledge on the appearance and physiological role of Methanobrevibacter smithii and Methanosphaera stadtmanae in the human intestine. PMID:25071757

Bang, Corinna; Ehlers, Claudia; Orell, Alvaro; Prasse, Daniela; Spinner, Marlene; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Schmitz, Ruth A.

2014-01-01

175

Biofilm formation by zygomycetes: quantification, structure and matrix composition.  

PubMed

Most studies on fungal biofilms have focused on Candida in yeasts and Aspergillus in mycelial fungi. To the authors' knowledge, biofilm formation by zygomycetes has not been reported previously. In this study, the biofilm-forming capacity of Rhizopus oryzae, Lichtheimia corymbifera, Rhizomucor pusillus and Apophysomyces elegans was evaluated. At appropriate seeding spore densities, Rhp. oryzae (10? c.f.u. ml?¹, L. corymbifera (10? c.f.u. ml?¹) and Rhm. pusillus (10? c.f.u. ml?¹) produced highly intertwined, adherent structures on flat-bottomed polystyrene microtitre plates after 24 h at 37 °C. The adhered fungal hyphae were encased in an extracellular matrix, as confirmed by phase-contrast and confocal microscopy. The thickness of Rhp. oryzae, L. corymbifera and Rhm. pusillus biofilms was 109.67±10.02, 242±23.07 and 197±9.0 µm (mean±sd), respectively. Biochemical characterization of the biofilm matrix indicated the presence of glucosamine, constituting 74.54-82.22?% of its dry weight, N-acetylglucosamine, glucose and proteins. Adherence and biofilm formation were not observed in A. elegans. Although A. elegans spores germinated at all three seeding densities tested (1×10?, 1×10? and 1×10? c.f.u. ml?¹), no significant difference was observed (P>0.05) between the A??? of wells inoculated with A. elegans and the cut-off A??? for biofilm detection. This study highlights the potential for biofilm formation by at least three medically important species of zygomycetes. PMID:21636650

Singh, Rachna; Shivaprakash, M R; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

2011-09-01

176

Biofilm formation in spent nuclear fuel pools and bioremediation of radioactive water.  

PubMed

Microbiological studies of spent nuclear fuel pools at the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (Valencia, Spain) were initiated to determine the microbial populations in the pools' water. Biofilm formation at the nuclear power plant facilities and the potential use of those microbial populations in the bioremediation of radioactive water were also studied. Biofilm formation was analyzed by immersing different austenitic stainless steel coupons (UNS S30400, UNS S30466, UNS S31600), as well as balls of stainless steel (UNS S44200) and titanium (99.9%) in a spent nuclear fuel pool (under static and dynamic conditions) for 34 months. Epifluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that biofilm formed on the samples, in spite of the radioactive and oligotrophic conditions of the water. Based on standard culture methods and sequencing of 16S rDNA fragments, 57 bacteria belonging to alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteridae were identified in the biofilms. The radioactivity of the biofilm was measured using gamma-ray spectrometry, which revealed that biofilms were able to retain radionuclides, especially (60)Co. Using metallic materials to decontaminate radioactive water could become a new approach for bioremediation. PMID:16200501

Sarró, M Isabel; García, Ana M; Moreno, Diego A

2005-09-01

177

The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Translocon Is Required for Biofilm Formation at the Epithelial Barrier  

PubMed Central

Clinical infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a deadly Gram-negative, opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised hosts, often involve the formation of antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Although biofilm formation has been extensively studied in vitro on glass or plastic surfaces, much less is known about biofilm formation at the epithelial barrier. We have previously shown that when added to the apical surface of polarized epithelial cells, P. aeruginosa rapidly forms cell-associated aggregates within 60 minutes of infection. By confocal microscopy we now show that cell-associated aggregates exhibit key characteristics of biofilms, including the presence of extracellular matrix and increased resistance to antibiotics compared to planktonic bacteria. Using isogenic mutants in the type III secretion system, we found that the translocon, but not the effectors themselves, were required for cell-associated aggregation on the surface of polarized epithelial cells and at early time points in a murine model of acute pneumonia. In contrast, the translocon was not required for aggregation on abiotic surfaces, suggesting a novel function for the type III secretion system during cell-associated aggregation. Supernatants from epithelial cells infected with wild-type bacteria or from cells treated with the pore-forming toxin streptolysin O could rescue aggregate formation in a type III secretion mutant, indicating that cell-associated aggregation requires one or more host cell factors. Our results suggest a previously unappreciated function for the type III translocon in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms at the epithelial barrier and demonstrate that biofilms may form at early time points of infection. PMID:25375398

Tran, Cindy S.; Rangel, Stephanie M.; Almblad, Henrik; Kierbel, Arlinet; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Hauser, Alan R.; Engel, Joanne N.

2014-01-01

178

Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

Lutfi, Zainal; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

2014-09-01

179

Unsaturated Fatty Acid, cis-2-Decenoic Acid, in Combination with Disinfectants or Antibiotics Removes Pre-Established Biofilms Formed by Food-Related Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation by food-related bacteria and food-related pathogenesis are significant problems in the food industry. Even though much disinfection and mechanical procedure exist for removal of biofilms, they may fail to eliminate pre-established biofilms. cis-2 decenoic acid (CDA), an unsaturated fatty acid messenger produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is reportedly capable of inducing the dispersion of established biofilms by multiple types of microorganisms. However, whether CDA has potential to boost the actions of certain antimicrobials is unknown. Here, the activity of CDA as an inducer of pre-established biofilms dispersal, formed by four main food pathogens; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enterica and E. coli, was measured using both semi-batch and continuous cultures bioassays. To assess the ability of CDA combined biocides treatments to remove pre-established biofilms formed on stainless steel discs, CFU counts were performed for both treated and untreated cultures. Eradication of the biofilms by CDA combined antibiotics was evaluated using crystal violet staining. The effect of CDA combined treatments (antibiotics and disinfectants) on biofilm surface area and bacteria viability was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy, digital image analysis and LIVE/DEAD staining. MICs were also determined to assess the probable inhibitory effects of CDA combined treatments on the growth of tested microorganisms' planktonic cells. Treatment of pre-established biofilms with only 310 nM CDA resulted in at least two-fold increase in the number of planktonic cells in all cultures. While antibiotics or disinfectants alone exerted a trivial effect on CFU counts and percentage of surface area covered by the biofilms, combinational treatments with both 310 nM CDA and antibiotics or disinfectants led to approximate 80% reduction in biofilm biomass. These data suggests that combined treatments with CDA would pave the way toward developing new strategies to control biofilms with widespread applications in industry as well as medicine. PMID:25000301

Sepehr, Shayesteh; Rahmani-Badi, Azadeh; Babaie-Naiej, Hamta; Soudi, Mohammad Reza

2014-01-01

180

Biofilms suck: how bacteria beat the diffusion limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multicellular behavior in bacterial biofilms is intimately tied to the production of an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix that encases the cells and provides physical integrity to the colony as a whole. Recent work in Bacillus subtilis biofilms shows that a sudden increase in EPS production generates osmotic stresses that cause the biofilm to expand. Moreover, EPS production is triggered by a nutrient depletion gradient that develops in the biofilm due to diffusive mass transport limitations. These polymer physics based biofilm behaviors suggest that EPS production may have evolved in biofilms to beat the diffusion limit of nutrient transport into the colony, though no direct observation of nutrient transport has been observed previously. Here we measure the rate of nutrient transport into b. subtilis biofilms and find that when EPS production is up-regulated, the polymer sucks fluid into the colony with a characteristic time dependence like that of pressure driven flow. Preliminary data and analysis will be presented.

Angelini, Thomas; Zhang, Wenbo; Zehnder, Steven; Breaux, Jolie

2013-03-01

181

Effect of Lactobacillus species on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Streptococcus mutans is the primary pathogen responsible for initiating dental caries and decay. The presence of sucrose, stimulates S. mutans to produce insoluble glucans to form oral biofilm also known as dental plaque to initiate caries lesion. The GtfB and LuxS genes of S. mutans are responsible for formation and maturation of biofilm. Lactobacillus species as probiotic can reduces the count of S. mutans. In this study effect of different Lactobacillus species against the formation of S. mutans biofilm was observed. Growing biofilm in the presence of sucrose was detected using 96 well microtiter plate crystal violet assay and biofilm formation by S. mutans in the presence of Lactobacillus was detected. Gene expression of biofilm forming genes (GtfB and LuxS) was quantified through Real-time PCR. All strains of Lactobacillus potently reduced the formation of S. mutans biofilm whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the genetic expression by 60-80%. Therefore, probiotic Lactobacillus species can be used as an alternative instead of antibiotics to decrease the chance of dental caries by reducing the count of S. mutans and their gene expression to maintain good oral health. PMID:25176247

Ahmed, Ayaz; Dachang, Wu; Lei, Zhou; Jianjun, Liu; Juanjuan, Qiu; Yi, Xin

2014-09-01

182

Biofilm formation and virulence expression by Streptococcus mutans are altered when grown in dual-species model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microbial cell-cell interactions in the oral flora are believed to play an integral role in the development of dental plaque and ultimately, its pathogenicity. The effects of other species of oral bacteria on biofilm formation and virulence gene expression by Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, were evaluated using a dual-species biofilm model and RealTime-PCR analysis.

Zezhang T. Wen; David Yates; Sang-Joon Ahn; Robert A. Burne

2010-01-01

183

Blocking of Bacterial Biofilm Formation by a Fish Protein Coating? †  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilm formation on inert surfaces is a significant health and economic problem in a wide range of environmental, industrial, and medical areas. Bacterial adhesion is generally a prerequisite for this colonization process and, thus, represents an attractive target for the development of biofilm-preventive measures. We have previously found that the preconditioning of several different inert materials with an aqueous fish muscle extract, composed primarily of fish muscle ?-tropomyosin, significantly discourages bacterial attachment and adhesion to these surfaces. Here, this proteinaceous coating is characterized with regards to its biofilm-reducing properties by using a range of urinary tract infectious isolates with various pathogenic and adhesive properties. The antiadhesive coating significantly reduced or delayed biofilm formation by all these isolates under every condition examined. The biofilm-reducing activity did, however, vary depending on the substratum physicochemical characteristics and the environmental conditions studied. These data illustrate the importance of protein conditioning layers with respect to bacterial biofilm formation and suggest that antiadhesive proteins may offer an attractive measure for reducing or delaying biofilm-associated infections. PMID:18424549

Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per

2008-01-01

184

BigR, a transcriptional repressor from plant-associated bacteria, regulates an operon implicated in biofilm growth.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen that colonizes the xylem vessels, causing vascular occlusion due to bacterial biofilm growth. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms driving biofilm formation in Xylella-plant interactions. Here we show that BigR (for "biofilm growth-associated repressor") is a novel helix-turn-helix repressor that controls the transcription of an operon implicated in biofilm growth. This operon, which encodes BigR, membrane proteins, and an unusual beta-lactamase-like hydrolase (BLH), is restricted to a few plant-associated bacteria, and thus, we sought to understand its regulation and function in X. fastidiosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. BigR binds to a palindromic AT-rich element (the BigR box) in the Xylella and Agrobacterium blh promoters and strongly represses the transcription of the operon in these cells. The BigR box overlaps with two alternative -10 regions identified in the blh promoters, and mutations in this box significantly affected transcription, indicating that BigR competes with the RNA polymerase for the same promoter site. Although BigR is similar to members of the ArsR/SmtB family of regulators, our data suggest that, in contrast to the initial prediction, it does not act as a metal sensor. Increased activity of the BigR operon was observed in both Xylella and Agrobacterium biofilms. In addition, an A. tumefaciens bigR mutant showed constitutive expression of operon genes and increased biofilm formation on glass surfaces and tobacco roots, indicating that the operon may play a role in cell adherence or biofilm development. PMID:17586627

Barbosa, Rosicler L; Benedetti, Celso E

2007-09-01

185

Small Regulatory RNAs in the Control of Motility and Biofilm Formation in E. coli and Salmonella  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation in Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria involves the inverse regulation of the synthesis of flagella and biofilm matrix components such as amyloid curli fibres, cellulose, colanic acid and poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA). Physiologically, these processes reflect the transition from growth to stationary phase. At the molecular level, they are tightly controlled by various sigma factors competing for RNA polymerase, a series of transcription factors acting in hierarchical regulatory cascades and several nucleotide messengers, including cyclic-di-GMP. In addition, a surprisingly large number of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) have been shown to directly or indirectly modulate motility and/or biofilm formation. This review aims at giving an overview of these sRNA regulators and their impact in biofilm formation in E. coli and Salmonella. Special emphasis will be put on sRNAs, that have known targets such as the mRNAs of the flagellar master regulator FlhDC, the stationary phase sigma factor ?S (RpoS) and the key biofilm regulator CsgD that have recently been shown to act as major hubs for regulation by multiple sRNAs. PMID:23443158

Mika, Franziska; Hengge, Regine

2013-01-01

186

Enhancing the formation and shear resistance of nitrifying biofilms on membranes by surface modification.  

PubMed

Polypropylene (PP) membranes and polyethylene (PE) surfaces were modified to enhance formation and shear resistance of nitrifying biofilms for wastewater treatment applications. A combination of plasma polymerization and wet chemistry was employed to ultimately introduce poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) chains with two different functional groups (-PEG-NH(2) and -PEG-CH(3)). Biofilm growth experiments using a mixed nitrifying bacterial culture revealed that the specific combination of PEG chains with amino groups resulted in most biofilm formation on both PP and PE samples. Detachment experiments showed similar trends: biofilms on -PEG-NH(2) modified surfaces were much stronger compared to the other modifications and the unmodified reference surfaces. Electrostatic interactions between the protonated amino group and negatively charged bacteria as well as PEG chain density which can affect the surface structure might be possible explanations of the superiority of the -PEG-NH(2) modification. The success of the-PEG-NH(2) modification was independent of the original surface and might, therefore, be used in wastewater treatment bioreactors to improve reactor performance by making biofilm formation more stable and predictable. PMID:19576612

Lackner, Susanne; Holmberg, Maria; Terada, Akihiko; Kingshott, Peter; Smets, Barth F

2009-08-01

187

Bacterial exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation stimulate chickpea growth and soil aggregation under salt stress  

PubMed Central

To compensate for stress imposed by salinity, biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production are significant strategies of salt tolerant bacteria to assist metabolism. We hypothesized that two previously isolated salt-tolerant strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1) and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4) have an ability to improve plant growth, These strains can form biofilm and accumulate exopolysacharides at increasing salt stress. These results showed that bacteria might be involved in developing microbial communities under salt stress and helpful in colonizing of bacterial strains to plant roots and soil particles. Eventually, it can add to the plant growth and soil structure. We investigated the comparative effect of exopolysacharide and biofilm formation in two bacterial strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1) and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4) in response to varying salt stress. We found that biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide accumulation increased at higher salinity. To check the effect of bacterial inoculation on the plant (Cicer arietinum Var. CM-98) growth and soil aggregation, pot experiment was conducted by growing seedlings under salt stress. Inoculation of both strains increased plant growth at elevated salt stress. Weight of soil aggregates attached with roots and present in soil were added at higher salt concentrations compared to untreated controls. Soil aggregation was higher at plant roots under salinity. These results suggest the feasibility of using above strains in improving plant growth and soil fertility under salinity. PMID:24031943

Qurashi, Aisha Waheed; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

2012-01-01

188

Modulation of curli assembly and pellicle biofilm formation by chemical and protein chaperones.  

PubMed

Enteric bacteria assemble functional amyloid fibers, curli, on their surfaces that share structural and biochemical properties with disease-associated amyloids. Here, we test rationally designed 2-pyridone compounds for their ability to alter amyloid formation of the major curli subunit CsgA. We identified several compounds that discourage CsgA amyloid formation and several compounds that accelerate CsgA amyloid formation. The ability of inhibitor compounds to stop growing CsgA fibers was compared to the same property of the CsgA chaperone, CsgE. CsgE blocked CsgA amyloid assembly and arrested polymerization when added to actively polymerizing fibers. Additionally, CsgE and the 2-pyridone inhibitors prevented biofilm formation by Escherichia coli at the air-liquid interface of a static culture. We demonstrate that curli amyloid assembly and curli-dependent biofilm formation can be modulated not only by protein chaperones, but also by "chemical chaperones." PMID:24035282

Andersson, Emma K; Bengtsson, Christoffer; Evans, Margery L; Chorell, Erik; Sellstedt, Magnus; Lindgren, Anders E G; Hufnagel, David A; Bhattacharya, Moumita; Tessier, Peter M; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla; Almqvist, Fredrik; Chapman, Matthew R

2013-10-24

189

Modulation of Curli Assembly and Pellicle Biofilm Formation by Chemical and Protein Chaperones  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Enteric bacteria assemble functional amyloid fibers, curli, on their surfaces that share structural and biochemical properties with disease-associated amyloids. Here, we test rationally designed 2-pyridone compounds for their ability to alter amyloid formation of the major curli subunit CsgA. We identified several compounds that discourage CsgA amyloid formation and several compounds that accelerate CsgA amyloid formation. The ability of inhibitor compounds to stop growing CsgA fibers was compared to the same property of the CsgA chaperone, CsgE. CsgE blocked CsgA amyloid assembly and arrested polymerization when added to actively polymerizing fibers. Additionally, CsgE and the 2-pyridone inhibitors prevented biofilm formation by Escherichia coli at the air-liquid interface of a static culture. We demonstrate that curli amyloid assembly and curli-dependent biofilm formation can be modulated not only by protein chaperones, but also by “chemical chaperones.” PMID:24035282

Andersson, Emma K.; Bengtsson, Christoffer; Evans, Margery L.; Chorell, Erik; Sellstedt, Magnus; Lindgren, Anders E.G.; Hufnagel, David A.; Bhattacharya, Moumita; Tessier, Peter M.; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla; Almqvist, Fredrik; Chapman, Matthew R.

2014-01-01

190

Biofilm formation and control in a simulated spacecraft water system - Interim results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of iodine to control microbial contamination and biofilm formation in spacecraft water distribution systems is studied using two stainless steel water subsystems. One subsystem has an iodine level of 2.5 mg/L maintained by an iodinated ion-exchange resin. The other subsystem has no iodine added. Stainless steel coupons are removed from each system to monitor biofilm formation. Results from the first six months of operation indicate that 2.5 mg/L of iodine has limited the number of viable bacteria that can be recovered from the iodinated subsystem. Epifluorescence microscopy of the coupons taken from this subsystem, however, indicates some evidence of microbial colonization after 15 weeks of operation. Numerous bacteria have been continually removed from both the water samples and the coupons taken from the noniodinated subsystem after only 3 weeks of operation.

Schultz, John R.; Taylor, Robert D.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.; Brown, Harlan D.; Sauer, Richard L.

1989-01-01

191

Identification of psl, a Locus Encoding a Potential Exopolysaccharide That Is Essential for Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Bacteria inhabiting biofilms usually produce one or more polysaccharides that provide a hydrated scaffolding to stabilize and reinforce the structure of the biofilm, mediate cell-cell and cell-surface interactions, and provide protection from biocides and antimicrobial agents. Historically, alginate has been considered the major exopolysaccharide of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix, with minimal regard to the different functions polysaccharides execute. Recent chemical and genetic studies have demonstrated that alginate is not involved in the initiation of biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains PAO1 and PA14. We hypothesized that there is at least one other polysaccharide gene cluster involved in biofilm development. Two separate clusters of genes with homology to exopolysaccharide biosynthetic functions were identified from the annotated PAO1 genome. Reverse genetics was employed to generate mutations in genes from these clusters. We discovered that one group of genes, designated psl, are important for biofilm initiation. A PAO1 strain with a disruption of the first two genes of the psl cluster (PA2231 and PA2232) was severely compromised in biofilm initiation, as confirmed by static microtiter and continuous culture flow cell and tubing biofilm assays. This impaired biofilm phenotype could be complemented with the wild-type psl sequences and was not due to defects in motility or lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. These results implicate an as yet unknown exopolysaccharide as being required for the formation of the biofilm matrix. Understanding psl-encoded exopolysaccharide expression and protection in biofilms will provide insight into the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis and other infections involving biofilms. PMID:15231778

Jackson, Kara D.; Starkey, Melissa; Kremer, Stefanie; Parsek, Matthew R.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

192

Biofilms éléctroactifs : formation, caractérisation et mécanismes.  

E-print Network

??Certaines bactéries, capables d'échanger des électrons avec un matériau conducteur sans l'aide de médiateur, forment sur la surface conductrice des biofilms électroactifs. Cette propriété bactérienne… (more)

Parot, Sandrine

2007-01-01

193

The role of Mss11 in Candida albicans biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen that can form a biofilm on biotic or inert surfaces such as epithelia and clinical devices. In this study, we examine the formation of C. albicans biofilm by establishing a key gene-centered network based on protein-protein interaction (PPI) and gene expression datasets. Starting from C. albicans Cph1 and Efg1, transcription factors associated with morphogenesis of biofilm formation, a network elucidates the complex cellular process and predicts potential unknown components related to biofilm formation. Subsequently, we analyzed the functions of Mss11 among these identified proteins to test the efficiency of the proposed computational approach. MSS11-deleted mutants were compared with a wild-type strain, indicating that the mutant is defective in forming a mature biofilm and partially attenuates the virulence of C. albicans in an infected mouse model. Finally, a DNA microarray analysis was conducted to identify the potential target genes of C. albicans Mss11. The findings of this study clarify complex gene or protein interaction during the biofilm formation process of C. albicans, supporting the application of a systems biology approach to study fungal pathogenesis. PMID:24752399

Tsai, Pei-Wen; Chen, Yu-Ting; Yang, Cheng-Yao; Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Tan, Te-Sheng; Lin, Tzung-Wei; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Lan, Chung-Yu

2014-10-01

194

Nickel Promotes Biofilm Formation by Escherichia coli K-12 Strains That Produce Curli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of bacteria exposed to toxic compounds is a multifactorial phenomenon, involving well-known molecular mechanisms of resistance but also less-well-understood mechanisms of tolerance that need to be clarified. In particular, the contribution of biofilm formation to survival in the presence of toxic compounds, such as nickel, was investigated in this study. We found that a subinhibitory concentration of nickel

Claire Perrin; Romain Briandet; Gregory Jubelin; Philippe Lejeune; Marie-Andree Mandrand-Berthelot; Agnes Rodrigue; Corinne Dorel

2009-01-01

195

Action of antimicrobial substances produced by different oil reservoir Bacillus strains against biofilm formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial colonization of petroleum industry systems takes place through the formation of biofilms, and can result in biodeterioration\\u000a of the metal surfaces. In a previous study, two oil reservoir Bacillus strains (Bacillus licheniformis T6-5 and Bacillus firmus H2O-1) were shown to produce antimicrobial substances (AMS) active against different Bacillus strains and a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on solid medium.

E. Korenblum; G. V. Sebastián; M. M. Paiva; C. M. L. M. Coutinho; F. C. M. Magalhães; B. M. Peyton; L. Seldin

2008-01-01

196

Immobilization methods for continuous hydrogen gas production biofilm formation versus granulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen gas was continuously produced by treating glucose-containing synthetic wastewater with sewage digester sludge. The activity of methanogenic bacteria in the sludge was repressed by pH-control at 5.0 under anaerobic conditions. For efficient continuous hydrogen production, two immobilization methods were employed, biofilm formation on poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and granulation of the sludge with cationic and anionic polymers. Acetic acid

Jeong Ok Kim; Yong Hwan Kim; Jeong Yong Ryu; Bong Keun Song; In Ho Kim; Sung Ho Yeom

2005-01-01

197

Antibiotic Resistance Related to Biofilm Formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, Klebsiella pneumoniae, is responsible for causing a spectrum of community-acquired and nosocomial infections and typically infects patients with indwelling medical devices, especially urinary catheters, on which this microorganism is able to grow as a biofilm. The increasingly frequent acquisition of antibiotic resistance by K. pneumoniae strains has given rise to a global spread of this multidrug-resistant pathogen, mostly at the hospital level. This scenario is exacerbated when it is noted that intrinsic resistance to antimicrobial agents dramatically increases when K. pneumoniae strains grow as a biofilm. This review will summarize the findings about the antibiotic resistance related to biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae.

Vuotto, Claudia; Longo, Francesca; Balice, Maria Pia; Donelli, Gianfranco; Varaldo, Pietro E.

2014-01-01

198

DNase I and proteinase K impair Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation and induce dispersal of pre-existing biofilms.  

PubMed

Current sanitation methods in the food industry are not always sufficient for prevention or dispersal of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms. Here, we determined if prevention of adherence or dispersal of existing biofilms could occur if biofilm matrix components were disrupted enzymatically. Addition of DNase during biofilm formation reduced attachment (<50% of control) to polystyrene. Treatment of established 72h biofilms with 100?g/ml of DNase for 24h induced incomplete biofilm dispersal, with <25% biofilm remaining compared to control. In contrast, addition of proteinase K completely inhibited biofilm formation, and 72h biofilms-including those grown under stimulatory conditions-were completely dispersed with 100?g/ml proteinase K. Generally-regarded-as-safe proteases bromelain and papain were less effective dispersants than proteinase K. In a time course assay, complete dispersal of L. monocytogenes biofilms from both polystyrene and type 304H food-grade stainless steel occurred within 5min at proteinase K concentrations above 25?g/ml. These data confirm that both DNA and proteins are required for L. monocytogenes biofilm development and maintenance, and that these components of the biofilm matrix can be targeted for effective prevention and removal of biofilms. PMID:25043896

Nguyen, Uyen T; Burrows, Lori L

2014-09-18

199

Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effect of Bac8c on major bacteria associated with dental caries and Streptococcus mutans biofilms.  

PubMed

Dental caries is a common oral bacterial infectious disease. Its prevention and treatment requires control of the causative pathogens within dental plaque, especially Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), one of the promising substitutes for conventional antibiotics, have been widely tested and used for controlling bacterial infections. The present study focuses on evaluating the potential of the novel AMPs cyclic bactenecin and its derivatives against bacteria associated with dental caries. The results indicate that Bac8c displayed highest activity against the bacteria tested, whereas both cyclic and linear bactenecin had weak antimicrobial activity. The cytotoxicity assay showed that Bac8c did not cause detectable toxicity at concentrations of 32-128?g/ml for 5min or 32-64?g/ml for 60min. S. mutans and Lactobacillus fermenti treated with Bac8c showed variable effects on bacterial structure via scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. There appeared to be a large amount of extracellular debris and obvious holes on the cell surface, as well as loss of cell wall and nucleoid condensation. The BioFlux system was employed to generate S. mutans biofilms under a controlled flow, which more closely resemble the formation process of natural biofilms. Bac8c remarkably reduced the viability of cells in biofilms formed in the BioFlux system. This phenomenon was further analyzed and verified by real-time PCR results of a significant suppression of the genes involved in S. mutans biofilm formation. Taken together, this study suggests that Bac8c has a potential clinical application in preventing and treating dental caries. PMID:24309076

Ding, Yonglin; Wang, Wei; Fan, Meng; Tong, Zhongchun; Kuang, Rong; Jiang, WenKai; Ni, Longxing

2014-02-01

200

Structural insights into the biogenesis and biofilm formation by the Escherichia coli common pilus  

PubMed Central

Bacteria have evolved a variety of mechanisms for developing community-based biofilms. These bacterial aggregates are of clinical importance, as they are a major source of recurrent disease. Bacterial surface fibers (pili) permit adherence to biotic and abiotic substrates, often in a highly specific manner. The Escherichia coli common pilus (ECP) represents a remarkable family of extracellular fibers that are associated with both disease-causing and commensal strains. ECP plays a dual role in early-stage biofilm development and host cell recognition. Despite being the most common fimbrial structure, relatively little is known regarding its biogenesis, architecture, and function. Here we report atomic-resolution insight into the biogenesis and architecture of ECP. We also derive a structural model for entwined ECP fibers that not only illuminates interbacteria communication during biofilm formation but also provides a useful foundation for the design of novel nanofibers. PMID:22355107

Garnett, James A.; Martinez-Santos, Veronica I.; Saldana, Zeus; Pape, Tillmann; Hawthorne, William; Chan, Jennifer; Simpson, Peter J.; Cota, Ernesto; Puente, Jose L.; Giron, Jorge A.; Matthews, Steve

2012-01-01

201

The Impact of spgM, rpfF, rmlA Gene Distribution on Biofilm Formation in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

Background Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is emerging as one of the most frequently found bacteria in chronic pulmonary infection. Biofilm is increasingly recognized as a contributing factor to disease pathogenesis. In the present study, a total of 37 isolates of S. maltophilia obtained from chronic pulmonary infection patients were evaluated to the relationship between biofilm production and the relative genes expression. Methods The clonal relatedness of isolates was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. Biofilm formation assays were performed by crystal violet assay, and confirmed by Electron microscopy analysis and CLSM analysis. PCR was employed to learn gene distribution and expression. Results Twenty-four pulsotypes were designated for 37 S. maltophilia isolates, and these 24 pulsotypes exhibited various levels of biofilm production, 8 strong biofilm-producing S. maltophilia strains with OD492 value above 0.6, 14 middle biofilm-producing strains with OD492 average value of 0.4 and 2 weak biofilm-producing strains with OD492 average value of 0.19. CLSM analysis showed that the isolates from the early stage of chronic infection enable to form more highly structured and multilayered biofim than those in the late stage. The prevalence of spgM, rmlA, and rpfF genes was 83.3%, 87.5%, and 50.0% in 24 S. maltophilia strains, respectively, and the presence of rmlA, spgM or rpfF had a close relationship with biofilm formation but did not significantly affect the mean amount of biofilm. Significant mutations of spgM and rmlA were found in both strong and weak biofilm-producing strains. Conclusion Mutations in spgM and rmlA may be relevant to biofilm formation in the clinical isolates of S. maltophilia. PMID:25285537

Zhuo, Chao; Zhao, Qian-yu; Xiao, Shu-nian

2014-01-01

202

Apple flavonoid phloretin inhibits Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation and ameliorates colon inflammation in rats.  

PubMed

Pathogenic biofilms have been associated with persistent infections due to their high resistance to antimicrobial agents, while commensal biofilms often fortify the host's immune system. Hence, controlling biofilm formation of both pathogenic bacteria and commensal bacteria is important in bacterium-related diseases. We investigated the effect of plant flavonoids on biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. The antioxidant phloretin, which is abundant in apples, markedly reduced E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation without affecting the growth of planktonic cells, while phloretin did not harm commensal E. coli K-12 biofilms. Also, phloretin reduced E. coli O157:H7 attachment to human colon epithelial cells. Global transcriptome analyses revealed that phloretin repressed toxin genes (hlyE and stx(2)), autoinducer-2 importer genes (lsrACDBF), curli genes (csgA and csgB), and dozens of prophage genes in E. coli O157:H7 biofilm cells. Electron microscopy confirmed that phloretin reduced fimbria production in E. coli O157:H7. Also, phloretin suppressed the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced inflammatory response in vitro using human colonic epithelial cells. Moreover, in the rat model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), phloretin significantly ameliorated colon inflammation and body weight loss. Taken together, our results suggest that the antioxidant phloretin also acts as an inhibitor of E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation as well as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel diseases without harming beneficial commensal E. coli biofilms. PMID:21930760

Lee, Jin-Hyung; Regmi, Sushil Chandra; Kim, Jung-Ae; Cho, Moo Hwan; Yun, Hyungdon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Jintae

2011-12-01

203

Apple Flavonoid Phloretin Inhibits Escherichia coli O157:H7 Biofilm Formation and Ameliorates Colon Inflammation in Rats ? †  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic biofilms have been associated with persistent infections due to their high resistance to antimicrobial agents, while commensal biofilms often fortify the host's immune system. Hence, controlling biofilm formation of both pathogenic bacteria and commensal bacteria is important in bacterium-related diseases. We investigated the effect of plant flavonoids on biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. The antioxidant phloretin, which is abundant in apples, markedly reduced E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation without affecting the growth of planktonic cells, while phloretin did not harm commensal E. coli K-12 biofilms. Also, phloretin reduced E. coli O157:H7 attachment to human colon epithelial cells. Global transcriptome analyses revealed that phloretin repressed toxin genes (hlyE and stx2), autoinducer-2 importer genes (lsrACDBF), curli genes (csgA and csgB), and dozens of prophage genes in E. coli O157:H7 biofilm cells. Electron microscopy confirmed that phloretin reduced fimbria production in E. coli O157:H7. Also, phloretin suppressed the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced inflammatory response in vitro using human colonic epithelial cells. Moreover, in the rat model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), phloretin significantly ameliorated colon inflammation and body weight loss. Taken together, our results suggest that the antioxidant phloretin also acts as an inhibitor of E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation as well as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel diseases without harming beneficial commensal E. coli biofilms. PMID:21930760

Lee, Jin-Hyung; Regmi, Sushil Chandra; Kim, Jung-Ae; Cho, Moo Hwan; Yun, Hyungdon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Jintae

2011-01-01

204

Bicyclic brominated furanones: a new class of quorum sensing modulators that inhibit bacterial biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Both natural and synthetic brominated furanones are known to inhibit biofilm formation by bacteria, but their toxicity to mammalian cells is often not reported. Here, we designed and synthesized a new class of brominated furanones (BBFs) that contained a bicyclic structure having one bromide group with well-defined regiochemistry. This class of molecules exhibited reduction in the toxicity to mammalian cells (human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH) and did not inhibit bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) growth, but retained the inhibitory activity towards biofilm formation of bacteria. In addition, all the BBFs inhibited the production of virulence factor elastase B in P. aeruginosa. To explore the effect of BBFs on quorum sensing, we used a reporter gene assay and found that 6-BBF and 7-BBF exhibited antagonistic activities for LasR protein in the lasI quorum sensing circuit, while 5-BBF showed agonistic activity for the rhlI quorum sensing circuit. This study suggests that structural variation of brominated furanones can be designed for targeted functions to control biofilm formation. PMID:24485124

Yang, Sijie; Abdel-Razek, Osama A; Cheng, Fei; Bandyopadhyay, Debjyoti; Shetye, Gauri S; Wang, Guirong; Luk, Yan-Yeung

2014-02-15

205

Antifouling potential of bacteria isolated from a marine biofilm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine microorganisms are a new source of natural antifouling compounds. In this study, two bacterial strains, Kytococcus sedentarius QDG-B506 and Bacillus cereus QDG-B509, were isolated from a marine biofilm and identified. The bacteria fermentation broth could exert inhibitory effects on the growth of Skeletonema costatum and barnacle larvae. A procedure was employed to extract and identify the antifouling compounds. Firstly, a toxicity test was conducted by graduated pH and liquid-liquid extraction to determine the optimal extraction conditions. The best extraction conditions were found to be pH 2 and 100% petroleum ether. The EC 50 value of the crude extract of K. sedentarius against the test microalgae was 236.7 ± 14.08 ?g mL-1, and that of B. cereus was 290.6 ± 27.11 ?g mL-1. Secondly, HLB SPE columns were used to purify the two crude extracts. After purification, the antifouling activities of the two extracts significantly increased: the EC 50 of the K. sedentarius extract against the test microalgae was 86.4 ± 3.71 ?g mL-1, and that of B. cereus was 92.6 ± 1.47 ?g mL-1. These results suggest that the metabolites produced by the two bacterial strains are with high antifouling activities and they should be fatty acid compounds. Lastly, GC-MS was used for the structural elucidation of the compounds. The results show that the antifouling compounds produced by the two bacterial strains are myristic, palmitic and octadecanoic acids.

Gao, Min; Wang, Ke; Su, Rongguo; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

2014-10-01

206

Cattle tick-associated bacteria exert anti-biofilm and anti-Tritrichomonas foetus activities.  

PubMed

Research on microbiota in cattle tick and the evaluation of its activity against other microorganisms can contribute to identify new molecules potentially useful to control infections caused by bacteria and protozoa. Biofilms pose increasing problems worldwide, mainly due to their resistance to antimicrobial therapies and host immune response. In this study we investigate the ability Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus-associated bacteria may exhibit to produce anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal compounds. Gut, ovary, salivary glands, and Gené organ were collected from engorged R. microplus female. Homogenates of each tissue were inoculated onto 15 distinct culture media. Anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities were analyzed by culturing each bacterium isolated in a liquid medium. Results showed that R. microplus cattle tick microflora varies for different tissues. Bacteria belonging to different genera (Aeromonas, Bacillus, Brevibacillus, Castelaniella, Comamonas, Kocuria, and Microbacterium) were identified. Interestingly, all bacterial species found displayed pronounced activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms, and also against the cattle pathogen Tritrichomonas foetus, confirming the hypothesis that cattle tick could be a source of bacteria active against pathogens. This is the first study showing that bacteria isolated from a tick exert anti-biofilm and trichomonicidal activities. PMID:23434012

Zimmer, K R; Seixas, A; Conceição, J M; Zvoboda, D A; Barros, M P; Tasca, T; Macedo, A J; Termignoni, C

2013-05-31

207

Enzymatic catalysis of mercury methylation by planktonic and biofilm cultures of sulfate- reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While biofilms are now known to be the predominant form of microbial growth in nature, little is known about their role in environmental mercury (Hg) methylation. Due to its long-range atmospheric transport, Hg contamination of food chains is a worldwide problem, impacting even pristine areas. Among different forms of mercury species, methylmercury (MeHg) is an extremely neurotoxic and biomagnification-prone compound that can lead to severely adverse health effects on wildlife and humans. Considerable studies have shown that in the aquatic environment the external supply of MeHg is not sufficient to account for MeHg accumulation in biota and in situ biological MeHg formation plays a critical role in determining the amount of MeHg in food webs; moreover, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been identified as the principal Hg-methylating organisms in nature. In a wide range of aquatic systems wetlands are considered important sites for Hg methylation mostly because of the environmental factors that promote microbial activity within, and biofilms are especially important in wetland ecosystems due to large amount of submerged surfaces. Although recent work has focused on the environmental factors that control MeHg production and the conditions that affect the availability of inorganic Hg to SRB, much remains to be understood about the biochemical mechanism of the Hg methylation process in SRB, especially in the biofilm-growth of these microbes. Data from our previous study with SRB strains isolated from a coastal wetland suggested that the specific Hg methylation rate found was approximately an order of magnitude higher in biofilm cells than in planktonic cells. In order to investigate possible reasons for this observed difference, and to test if this phenomenon is observed in other strains, we conducted chloroform, fluroacetate and molybdate inhibition assays in both complete and incomplete-oxidizing SRB species (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans M8, Desulfococcus sp. Desulfobactor sp. BG8) grown in planktonic and biofilm form, as the acetyl- coenzyme A pathway involved with cobalamin has been hypothesized to be the pathway for Hg methylation. The purpose of this study was to probe whether differences in the enzymatically catalyzed process caused differential methylation rates between the species and also between the different forms of culture growth. Any attempts to control the environmentally undesirable Hg methylation process would benefit from a better understanding of the biochemical mechanism involved.

Lin, C.; Kampalath, R.; Jay, J.

2007-12-01

208

Biofilm streamer formation in a microfluidic porous media mimic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilm formation in porous media is of significant importance in many environmental and industrial processes such as bioremediation, oil recovery, and wastewater treatment. Among different biological and environmental factors, hydrodynamics is considered an important determinant of the dynamics of biofilm formation. In the present study, we fabricated a microfluidic porous media mimic and investigated how fluid flow influences the formation of filamentous structures, known as streamers, between porous media structures. Streamers are viscoelastic materials composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and bacterial cells, and these filamentous structures are typically tethered at either one of both ends to surfaces. We studied evolution of streamers in different flow rates and identified a tangible link between hydrodynamic conditions and development of these filamentous structures. Our results show that hydrodynamic conditions not only determine the limit of the streamers formation, but also influence both temporal evolution and spatial organization of biofilm streamers.

Kumar, Aloke; Valiei, Amin; Mukherjee, Partha; Liu, Yang; Thundat, Thomas

2013-03-01

209

C. albicans growth, transition, biofilm formation, and gene expression modulation by antimicrobial decapeptide KSL-W  

PubMed Central

Background Antimicrobial peptides have been the focus of much research over the last decade because of their effectiveness and broad-spectrum activity against microbial pathogens. These peptides also participate in inflammation and the innate host defense system by modulating the immune function that promotes immune cell adhesion and migration as well as the respiratory burst, which makes them even more attractive as therapeutic agents. This has led to the synthesis of various antimicrobial peptides, including KSL-W (KKVVFWVKFK-NH2), for potential clinical use. Because this peptide displays antimicrobial activity against bacteria, we sought to determine its antifungal effect on C. albicans. Growth, hyphal form, biofilm formation, and degradation were thus examined along with EFG1, NRG1, EAP1, HWP1, and SAP 2-4-5-6 gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR. Results This study demonstrates that KSL-W markedly reduced C. albicans growth at both early and late incubation times. The significant effect of KSL-W on C. albicans growth was observed beginning at 10 ?g/ml after 5 h of contact by reducing C. albicans transition and at 25 ?g/ml by completely inhibiting C. albicans transition. Cultured C. albicans under biofilm-inducing conditions revealed that both KSL-W and amphotericin B significantly decreased biofilm formation at 2, 4, and 6 days of culture. KSL-W also disrupted mature C. albicans biofilms. The effect of KSL-W on C. albicans growth, transition, and biofilm formation/disruption may thus occur through gene modulation, as the expression of various genes involved in C. albicans growth, transition and biofilm formation were all downregulated when C. albicans was treated with KSL-W. The effect was greater when C. albicans was cultured under hyphae-inducing conditions. Conclusions These data provide new insight into the efficacy of KSL-W against C. albicans and its potential use as an antifungal therapy. PMID:24195531

2013-01-01

210

The Type II Secretion System Delivers Matrix Proteins for Biofilm Formation by Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Gram-negative bacteria have evolved several highly dedicated pathways for extracellular protein secretion, including the type II secretion (T2S) system. Since substrates secreted via the T2S system include both virulence factors and degradative enzymes, this secretion system is considered a major survival mechanism for pathogenic and environmental species. Previous analyses revealed that the T2S system mediates the export of ?20 proteins in Vibrio cholerae, a human pathogen that is indigenous to the marine environment. Here we demonstrate a new role in biofilm formation for the V. cholerae T2S system, since wild-type V. cholerae was found to secrete the biofilm matrix proteins RbmC, RbmA, and Bap1 into the culture supernatant, while an isogenic T2S mutant could not. In agreement with this finding, the level of biofilm formation in a static microtiter assay was diminished in T2S mutants. Moreover, inactivation of the T2S system in a rugose V. cholerae strain prevented the development of colony corrugation and pellicle formation at the air-liquid interface. In contrast, extracellular secretion of the exopolysaccharide VPS, an essential component of the biofilm matrix, remained unaffected in the T2S mutants. Our results indicate that the T2S system provides a mechanism for the delivery of extracellular matrix proteins known to be important for biofilm formation by V. cholerae. Because the T2S system contributes to the pathogenicity of V. cholerae by secreting proteins such as cholera toxin and biofilm matrix proteins, elucidation of the molecular mechanism of T2S has the potential to lead to the development of novel preventions and therapies. PMID:25266381

Johnson, Tanya L; Fong, Jiunn C; Rule, Chelsea; Rogers, Andrew; Yildiz, Fitnat H; Sandkvist, Maria

2014-12-15

211

Bactericidal Activity of N-Chlorotaurine against Biofilm-Forming Bacteria Grown on Metal Disks  

PubMed Central

Many orthopedic surgeons consider surgical irrigation and debridement with prosthesis retention as a treatment option for postoperative infections. Usually, saline solution with no added antimicrobial agent is used for irrigation. We investigated the activity of N-chlorotaurine (NCT) against various biofilm-forming bacteria in vitro and thereby gained significant information on its usability as a soluble and well-tolerated active chlorine compound in orthopedic surgery. Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus were grown on metal alloy disks and in polystyrene dishes for 48 h. Subsequently, they were incubated for 15 min to 7 h in buffered solutions containing therapeutically applicable concentrations of NCT (1%, 0.5%, and 0.1%; 5.5 to 55 mM) at 37°C. NCT inactivated the biofilm in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy revealed disturbance of the biofilm architecture by rupture of the extracellular matrix. Assays with reduction of carboxanilide (XTT) showed inhibition of the metabolism of the bacteria in biofilms. Quantitative cultures confirmed killing of S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on metal alloy disks by NCT. Clinical isolates were slightly more resistant than ATCC type strains, but counts of CFU were reduced at least 10-fold by 1% NCT within 15 min in all cases. NCT showed microbicidal activity against various bacterial strains in biofilms. Whether this can be transferred to the clinical situation should be the aim of future studies. PMID:24492358

Ammann, Christoph G.; Fille, Manfred; Hausdorfer, Johann; Nogler, Michael

2014-01-01

212

Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to liquid disinfectants on contaminated surfaces before formation of biofilms.  

PubMed

A comparison was made of the effectiveness of popular disinfectants (Cavicide, Cidexplus, Clorox, Exspor, Lysol, Renalin, and Wavicide) under conditions prescribed for disinfection in the respective product labels on Pseudomonas aeruginosa either in suspension or deposited onto surfaces of metallic or polymeric plastic devices. The testing also included 7 nonformulated germicidal agents (glutaraldehyde, formaldehyde, peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, phenol, and cupric ascorbate) commonly used in disinfection and decontamination. Results showed that P. aeruginosa is on average 300-fold more resistant when present on contaminated surfaces than in suspension. This increase in resistance agrees with results reported in studies of biofilms, but unexpectedly, it precedes biofilm formation. The surface to which bacteria are attached can influence the effectiveness of disinfectants. Viable bacteria attached to devices may require dislodging through more than a one-step method for detection. The data, obtained with a sensitive and quantitative test, suggest that disinfectants are less effective on contaminated surfaces than generally acknowledged. PMID:11128146

Sagripanti, J L; Bonifacino, A

2000-01-01

213

Biofilm-forming bacteria with varying tolerance to peracetic acid from a paper machine.  

PubMed

Biofilms cause runnability problems in paper machines and are therefore controlled with biocides. Peracetic acid is usually effective in preventing bulky biofilms. This study investigated the microbiological status of a paper machine where low concentrations (? 15 ppm active ingredient) of peracetic acid had been used for several years. The paper machine contained a low amount of biofilms. Biofilm-forming bacteria from this environment were isolated and characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, whole-cell fatty acid analysis, biochemical tests, and DNA fingerprinting. Seventy-five percent of the isolates were identified as members of the subclades Sphingomonas trueperi and S. aquatilis, and the others as species of the genera Burkholderia (B. cepacia complex), Methylobacterium, and Rhizobium. Although the isolation media were suitable for the common paper machine biofoulers Deinococcus, Meiothermus, and Pseudoxanthomonas, none of these were found, indicating that peracetic acid had prevented their growth. Spontaneous, irreversible loss of the ability to form biofilm was observed during subculturing of certain isolates of the subclade S. trueperi. The Sphingomonas isolates formed monoculture biofilms that tolerated peracetic acid at concentrations (10 ppm active ingredient) used for antifouling in paper machines. High pH and low conductivity of the process waters favored the peracetic acid tolerance of Sphingomonas sp. biofilms. This appears to be the first report on sphingomonads as biofilm formers in warm water using industries. PMID:21161323

Rasimus, Stiina; Kolari, Marko; Rita, Hannu; Hoornstra, Douwe; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

2011-09-01

214

Antibacterial activity of moxifloxacin on bacteria associated with periodontitis within a biofilm.  

PubMed

The activity of moxifloxacin was compared with ofloxacin and doxycycline against bacteria associated with periodontitis within a biofilm (single strain and mixed population) in vitro. MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of moxifloxacin, ofloxacin and doxycyline were determined against single strains and mixed populations in a planktonic state. Single-species biofilms of two Porphyromonas gingivalis and two Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans strains and a multispecies biofilm consisting of 12 species were formed for 3 days. The minimal biofilm eradication concentrations (MBECs) were determined after exposing the biofilms to the antibacterials (0.002-512 µg ml(-1)) for 18 h, addition of nutrient broth for 3 days and subsequent subcultivation. Photographs were taken using confocal laser-scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The MICs and MBCs did not differ between ofloxacin and moxifloxacin against A. actinomycetemcomitans, whilst moxifloxacin was more active than the other tested antibacterials against anaerobes and the mixed population. The single-species biofilms were eradicated by moderate concentrations of the antibacterials, and the lowest MBECs were always found for moxifloxacin (2-8 µg ml(-1)). MBECs against the multispecies biofilms were 128, >512 and >512 µg ml(-1) for moxifloxacin, ofloxacin and doxycycline, respectively. In summary, moxifloxacin in a topical formulation may have potential as an adjunct to mechanical removal of the biofilms. PMID:24217128

Tsaousoglou, Phoebus; Nietzsche, Sandor; Cachovan, Georg; Sculean, Anton; Eick, Sigrun

2014-02-01

215

Current concepts in biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a highly significant nosocomial pathogen mediating infections primarily associated with indwelling biomaterials (e.g., catheters and prostheses). In contrast to Staphylococcus aureus, virulence properties associated with S. epidermidis are few and biofilm formation is the defining virulence factor associated with disease, as demonstrated by animal models of biomaterial-related infections. However, other virulence factors, such as phenol-soluble modulins and poly-?-DL-glutamic acid, have been recently recognized that thwart innate immune system mechanisms. Formation of S. epidermidis biofilm is typically considered a four-step process consisting of adherence, accumulation, maturation and dispersal. This article will discuss recent advances in the study of these four steps, including accumulation, which can be either polysaccharide or protein mediated. It is hypothesized that studies focused on understanding the biological function of each step in staphylococcal biofilm formation will yield new treatment modalities to treat these recalcitrant infections. PMID:20521936

Fey, Paul D; Olson, Michael E

2010-01-01

216

Inhibition of biofilm formation and antibacterial properties of a silver nano-coating on human dentine.  

PubMed

The survival of pathogenic bacteria in the oral cavity depends on their successful adhesion to dental surfaces and their ability to develop into biofilms, known as dental plaque. Bacteria from the dental plaque are responsible for the development of dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, stomatitis and peri-implantitis. Certain metal nanoparticles have been suggested for infection control and the management of the oral biofilm. Here, it is shown that application of a silver nano-coating directly on dentine can successfully prevent the biofilm formation on dentine surfaces as well as inhibit bacterial growth in the surrounding media. This silver nano-coating was found to be stable (>98.8%) and to maintain its integrity in biological fluids. Its antibacterial activity was compared to silver nitrate and the widely used clinical antiseptic, chlorhexidine. The bacterial growth and cell viability were quantitatively assessed by measuring the turbidity, proportion of live and dead cells and lactate production. All three bioassays showed that silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate dentine coatings were equally highly bactericidal (>99.5%), while inhibiting bacterial adhesion. However, the latter caused significant dentine discolouration (?E* = 50.3). The chlorhexidine coating showed no antibacterial effect. Thus, silver nanoparticles may be a viable alternative to both chlorhexidine and silver nitrate, protecting from dental plaque and secondary caries when applied as a dentine coating, while they may provide the platform for creating anti-biofilm surfaces in medical devices and other biomedical applications. PMID:23875717

Besinis, Alexandros; De Peralta, Tracy; Handy, Richard D

2014-11-01

217

Effects of Carbon Source, Carbon Concentration, and Chlorination on Growth Related Parameters of Heterotrophic Biofilm Bacteria.  

PubMed

To investigate growth of heterotrophic biofilm bacteria, a model biofilm reactor was developed to simulate a drinking water distribution system. Controlled addition of three different carbon sources (amino acids, carbohydrates, and humics) at three different concentrations (500, 1,000, and 2,000 ppb carbon) in the presence and absence of chlorine were used in separate experiments. An additional experiment was run with a 1:1:2 mixture of the above carbon sources. Biofilm and effluent total and culturable cells in addition to total and dissolved organic carbon were measured in order to estimate specific growth rates (SGRs), observed yields, population densities, and bacterial carbon production rates. Bacterial carbon production rates (µg C/L day) were extremely high in the control biofilm communities (range = 295-1,738). Both growth rate and yield decreased with increasing carbon concentrations. Therefore, biofilm growth rates were zero-order with respect to the carbon concentrations used in these experiments. There was no correlation between growth rate and carbon concentration, but there was a significant negative correlation between growth rate and biofilm cell density (r = -0.637, p = 0.001 control and r = -0.57, p = 0.021 chlorinated biofilms). Growth efficiency was highest at the lowest carbon concentration (range = 12-4.5%, amino acids and humics respectively). Doubling times ranged from 2.3-15.4 days in the control biofilms and 1-12.3 days in the chlorinated biofilms. Growth rates were significantly higher in the presence of chlorine for the carbohydrates, humics, and mixed carbon sources (p = 0.004, < 0.0005, 0.013, respectively). The concept of r/K selection theory was used to explain the results with respect to specific growth rates and yields. Humic removal by the biofilm bacteria (78% and 56% for the control and chlorinated biofilms, respectively) was higher than previously reported literature values for planktonic bacteria. A number of control experiments indicated that filtration of drinking water was as effective as chlorination in controlling bacterial biofilm growth. PMID:10758180

Ellis; Butterfield; Jones; McFeters; Camper

1999-11-01

218

Spatial and temporal dynamics of cellulose degradation and biofilm formation by Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis and Clostridium thermocellum Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis  

SciTech Connect

Cellulose degradation is one of the major bottlenecks of a consolidated bioprocess that employs cellulolytic bacterial cells as catalysts to produce biofuels from cellulosic biomass. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of cellulose degradation by Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis, which does not produce cellulosomes, and Clostridium thermocellum, which does produce cellulosomes. Results showed that the degradation of either regenerated or natural cellulose was synchronized with biofilm formation, a process characterized by the formation and fusion of numerous crater-like depressions on the cellulose surface. In addition, the dynamics of biofilm formation were similar in both bacteria, regardless of cellulosome production. Only the areas of cellulose surface colonized by microbes were significantly degraded, highlighting the essential role of the cellulolytic biofilm in cellulose utilization. After initial attachment, the microbial biofilm structure remained thin, uniform and dense throughout the experiment. A cellular automaton model, constructed under the assumption that the attached cells divide and produce daughter cells that contribute to the hydrolysis of the adjacent cellulose, can largely simulate the observed process of biofilm formation and cellulose degradation. This study presents a model, based on direct observation, correlating cellulolytic biofilm formation with cellulose degradation.

Wang, Zhiwu [ORNL; Lee, Sueng-Hwan [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan; Elkins, James G [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

2011-01-01

219

Author's personal copy Phenazines affect biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in similar  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Phenazines affect biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in similar to synthesize phenazines in flow cell and colony biofilms quantitatively. Although phenazine production does biofilms. These results indicate that phenazines affect biofilm development across a large range of scales

Dietrich, Lars

220

Electroactivity of Phototrophic River Biofilms and Constitutive Cultivable Bacteria ? †  

PubMed Central

Electroactivity is a property of microorganisms assembled in biofilms that has been highlighted in a variety of environments. This characteristic was assessed for phototrophic river biofilms at the community scale and at the bacterial population scale. At the community scale, electroactivity was evaluated on stainless steel and copper alloy coupons used both as biofilm colonization supports and as working electrodes. At the population scale, the ability of environmental bacterial strains to catalyze oxygen reduction was assessed by cyclic voltammetry. Our data demonstrate that phototrophic river biofilm development on the electrodes, measured by dry mass and chlorophyll a content, resulted in significant increases of the recorded potentials, with potentials of up to +120 mV/saturated calomel electrode (SCE) on stainless steel electrodes and +60 mV/SCE on copper electrodes. Thirty-two bacterial strains isolated from natural phototrophic river biofilms were tested by cyclic voltammetry. Twenty-five were able to catalyze oxygen reduction, with shifts of potential ranging from 0.06 to 0.23 V, cathodic peak potentials ranging from ?0.36 to ?0.76 V/SCE, and peak amplitudes ranging from ?9.5 to ?19.4 ?A. These isolates were diversified phylogenetically (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria) and exhibited various phenotypic properties (Gram stain, oxidase, and catalase characteristics). These data suggest that phototrophic river biofilm communities and/or most of their constitutive bacterial populations present the ability to promote electronic exchange with a metallic electrode, supporting the following possibilities: (i) development of electrochemistry-based sensors allowing in situ phototrophic river biofilm detection and (ii) production of microbial fuel cell inocula under oligotrophic conditions. PMID:21642402

Lyautey, Emilie; Cournet, Amandine; Morin, Soizic; Bouletreau, Stephanie; Etcheverry, Luc; Charcosset, Jean-Yves; Delmas, Francois; Bergel, Alain; Garabetian, Frederic

2011-01-01

221

The Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule CORM-2 Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation  

E-print Network

The Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule CORM-2 Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation, France Abstract Chronic infections resulting from biofilm formation are difficult to eradicate with current antimicrobial agents and consequently new therapies are needed. This work demonstrates

Dietrich, Lars

222

Role of Rhizobium endoglucanase CelC2 in cellulose biosynthesis and biofilm formation on plant roots and abiotic surfaces  

PubMed Central

Background The synthesis of cellulose is among the most important but poorly understood biochemical processes, especially in bacteria, due to its complexity and high degree of regulation. In this study, we analyzed both the production of cellulose by all known members of the Rhizobiaceae and the diversity of Rhizobium celABC operon predicted to be involved in cellulose biosynthesis. We also investigated the involvement in cellulose production and biofilm formation of celC gene encoding an endoglucanase (CelC2) that is required for canonical symbiotic root hair infection by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii. Results ANU843 celC mutants lacking (ANU843?C2) or overproducing cellulase (ANU843C2+) produced greatly increased or reduced amounts of external cellulose micro fibrils, respectively. Calcofluor-stained cellulose micro fibrils were considerably longer when formed by ANU843?C2 bacteria rather than by the wild-type strain, in correlation with a significant increase in their flocculation in batch culture. In contrast, neither calcofluor-stained extracellular micro fibrils nor flocculation was detectable in ANU843C2+ cells. To clarify the role of cellulose synthesis in Rhizobium cell aggregation and attachment, we analyzed the ability of these mutants to produce biofilms on different surfaces. Alteration of wild-type CelC2 levels resulted in a reduced ability of bacteria to form biofilms both in abiotic surfaces and in planta. Conclusions Our results support a key role of the CelC2 cellulase in cellulose biosynthesis by modulating the length of the cellulose fibrils that mediate firm adhesion among Rhizobium bacteria leading to biofilm formation. Rhizobium cellulose is an essential component of the biofilm polysaccharidic matrix architecture and either an excess or a defect of this “building material” seem to collapse the biofilm structure. These results position cellulose hydrolytic enzymes as excellent anti-biofilm candidates. PMID:22970813

2012-01-01

223

Adhesion and formation of microbial biofilms in complex microfluidic devices  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella oneidensis is a metal reducing bacterium, which is of interest for bioremediation and clean energy applications. S. oneidensis biofilms play a critical role in several situations such as in microbial energy harvesting devices. Here, we use a microfluidic device to quantify the effects of hydrodynamics on the biofilm morphology of S. oneidensis. For different rates of fluid flow through a complex microfluidic device, we studied the spatiotemporal dynamics of biofilms, and we quantified several morphological features such as spatial distribution, cluster formation and surface coverage. We found that hydrodynamics resulted in significant differences in biofilm dynamics. The baffles in the device created regions of low and high flow in the same device. At higher flow rates, a nonuniform biofilm develops, due to unequal advection in different regions of the microchannel. However, at lower flow rates, a more uniform biofilm evolved. This depicts competition between adhesion events, growth and fluid advection. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that higher production of extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) occurred at higher flow velocities.

Kumar, Aloke [ORNL; Karig, David K [ORNL; Neethirajan, Suresh [University of Guelph; Suresh, Anil K [ORNL; Srijanto, Bernadeta R [ORNL; Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

2012-01-01

224

Studies to control biofilm formation by coupling ultrasonication of natural waters and anodization of titanium.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to investigate the combined effect of ultrasonication of natural waters and anodization of titanium on microbial density and biofilm formation tendency on titanium surfaces. Application of 24 kHz, 400 W high power ultrasound through a 14 mm horn type SS (stainless steel) Sonicator with medium amplitude of 60% for 30 min brought about three order decrease in total bacterial density of laboratory tap water, cooling tower water and reservoir water and two order decrease in seawater. Studies on the effect of ultrasonication on dilute pure cultures of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria showed five order and three order decrease for Pseudomonas sp. and Flavobacterium sp. respectively and two order and less than one order decrease for Bacillus sp. and Micrococcus sp. respectively. Ultrasonication increased lag phase and reduced logarithmic population increase and specific growth rate of Gram-negative bacteria whereas for Gram-positive bacteria specific growth rate increased. Studies on the biofilm formation tendency of these ultrasonicated mediums on titanium surface showed one order reduction under all conditions. Detailed biofilm imaging by advanced microscopic techniques like AFM, SEM and epifluorescence microscopy clearly visualized the lysed/damaged cells and membrane perforations due to ultrasonication. Combination of ultrasonication and anodization brought about maximum decrease in bacterial density and biofilm formation with greater than two order decrease in seawater, two order decrease in Bacillus sp. culture and more than four order decrease in Flavobacterium sp. culture establishing the synergistic effect of anodization and ultrasonication in this study. PMID:23871547

Nithila, S D Ruth; Anandkumar, B; Vanithakumari, S C; George, R P; Mudali, U Kamachi; Dayal, R K

2014-01-01

225

Staphylococcus epidermidis in Orthopedic Device Infections: The Role of Bacterial Internalization in Human Osteoblasts and Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Background Staphylococcus epidermidis orthopedic device infections are caused by direct inoculation of commensal flora during surgery and remain rare, although S. epidermidis carriage is likely universal. We wondered whether S. epidermidis orthopedic device infection strains might constitute a sub-population of commensal isolates with specific virulence ability. Biofilm formation and invasion of osteoblasts by S. aureus contribute to bone and joint infection recurrence by protecting bacteria from the host-immune system and most antibiotics. We aimed to determine whether S. epidermidis orthopedic device infection isolates could be distinguished from commensal strains by their ability to invade osteoblasts and form biofilms. Materials and Methods Orthopedic device infection S. epidermidis strains (n?=?15) were compared to nasal carriage isolates (n?=?22). Osteoblast invasion was evaluated in an ex vivo infection model using MG63 osteoblastic cells co-cultured for 2 hours with bacteria. Adhesion of S. epidermidis to osteoblasts was explored by a flow cytometric approach, and internalized bacteria were quantified by plating cell lysates after selective killing of extra-cellular bacteria with gentamicin. Early and mature biofilm formations were evaluated by a crystal violet microtitration plate assay and the Biofilm Ring Test method. Results No difference was observed between commensal and infective strains in their ability to invade osteoblasts (internalization rate 308+/?631 and 347+/?431 CFU/well, respectively). This low internalization rate correlated with a low ability to adhere to osteoblasts. No difference was observed for biofilm formation between the two groups. Conclusion Osteoblast invasion and biofilm formation levels failed to distinguish S. epidermidis orthopedic device infection strains from commensal isolates. This study provides the first assessment of the interaction between S. epidermidis strains isolated from orthopedic device infections and osteoblasts, and suggests that bone cell invasion is not a major pathophysiological mechanism in S. epidermidis orthopedic device infections, contrary to what is observed for S. aureus. PMID:23840636

Valour, Florent; Trouillet-Assant, Sophie; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Lustig, Sebastien; Chanard, Emmanuel; Meugnier, Helene; Tigaud, Sylvestre; Vandenesch, Francois; Etienne, Jerome; Ferry, Tristan; Laurent, Frederic

2013-01-01

226

Effect of berberine on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the main causes of medical device-related infections owing to its adhesion and biofilm-forming abilities on biomaterial surfaces. Berberine is an isoquinoline-type alkaloid isolated from Coptidis rhizoma (huang lian in Chinese) and other herbs with many activities against various disorders. Although the inhibitory effects of berberine on planktonic bacteria have been investigated in a few studies,

Xiaoqing Wang; Xiao Yao; Zhen’an Zhu; Tingting Tang; Kerong Dai; Irina Sadovskaya; Sigrid Flahaut; Said Jabbouri

2009-01-01

227

Species specificity, surface exposure, protein expression, immunogenicity, and participation in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis HmuY  

PubMed Central

Background Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major etiological agent of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to examine the species specificity, surface exposure, protein expression, immunogenicity, and participation in biofilm formation of the P. gingivalis heme-binding protein HmuY. Results HmuY is a unique protein of P. gingivalis since only low amino-acid sequence homology has been found to proteins encoded in other species. It is exposed on the cell surface and highly abundant in the outer membrane of the cell, in outer-membrane vesicles, and is released into culture medium in a soluble form. The protein is produced constitutively at low levels in bacteria grown under high-iron/heme conditions and at higher levels in bacteria growing under the low-iron/heme conditions typical of dental plaque. HmuY is immunogenic and elicits high IgG antibody titers in rabbits. It is also engaged in homotypic biofilm formation by P. gingivalis. Anti-HmuY antibodies exhibit inhibitory activity against P. gingivalis growth and biofilm formation. Conclusions Here it is demonstrated that HmuY may play a significant role not only in heme acquisition, but also in biofilm accumulation on abiotic surfaces. The data also suggest that HmuY, as a surface-exposed protein, would be available for recognition by the immune response during chronic periodontitis and the production of anti-HmuY antibodies may inhibit biofilm formation. PMID:20438645

2010-01-01

228

Novel Multiscale Modeling Tool Applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Multiscale modeling is used to represent biological systems with increasing frequency and success. Multiscale models are often hybrids of different modeling frameworks and programming languages. We present the MATLAB-NetLogo extension (MatNet) as a novel tool for multiscale modeling. We demonstrate the utility of the tool with a multiscale model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation that incorporates both an agent-based model (ABM) and constraint-based metabolic modeling. The hybrid model correctly recapitulates oxygen-limited biofilm metabolic activity and predicts increased growth rate via anaerobic respiration with the addition of nitrate to the growth media. In addition, a genome-wide survey of metabolic mutants and biofilm formation exemplifies the powerful analyses that are enabled by this computational modeling tool. PMID:24147108

Biggs, Matthew B.; Papin, Jason A.

2013-01-01

229

Novel multiscale modeling tool applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Multiscale modeling is used to represent biological systems with increasing frequency and success. Multiscale models are often hybrids of different modeling frameworks and programming languages. We present the MATLAB-NetLogo extension (MatNet) as a novel tool for multiscale modeling. We demonstrate the utility of the tool with a multiscale model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation that incorporates both an agent-based model (ABM) and constraint-based metabolic modeling. The hybrid model correctly recapitulates oxygen-limited biofilm metabolic activity and predicts increased growth rate via anaerobic respiration with the addition of nitrate to the growth media. In addition, a genome-wide survey of metabolic mutants and biofilm formation exemplifies the powerful analyses that are enabled by this computational modeling tool. PMID:24147108

Biggs, Matthew B; Papin, Jason A

2013-01-01

230

The Relative Contributions of Physical Structure and Cell Density to the Antibiotic Susceptibility of Bacteria in Biofilms  

PubMed Central

For many bacterial infections, noninherited mechanisms of resistance are responsible for extending the term of treatment and in some cases precluding its success. Among the most important of these noninherited mechanisms of resistance is the ability of bacteria to form biofilms. There is compelling evidence that bacteria within biofilms are more refractory to antibiotics than are planktonic cells. Not so clear, however, is the extent to which this resistance can be attributed to the structure of biofilms rather than the physiology and density of bacteria within them. To explore the contribution of the structure of biofilms to resistance in a quantitative way, we developed an assay that compares the antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria in biofilms to cells mechanically released from these structures. Our method, which we apply to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus each with antibiotics of five classes, controls for the density and physiological state of the treated bacteria. For most of the antibiotics tested, the bacteria in biofilms were no more resistant than the corresponding populations of planktonic cells of similar density. Our results, however, suggest that killing by gentamicin, streptomycin, and colistin is profoundly inhibited by the structure of biofilms; these drugs are substantially more effective in killing bacteria released from biofilms than cells within these structures. PMID:22450987

Kirby, Amy E.; Garner, Kimberly

2012-01-01

231

Connecting Quorum Sensing, c-di-GMP, Pel Polysaccharide, and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas  

E-print Network

Connecting Quorum Sensing, c-di-GMP, Pel Polysaccharide, and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas on homoserine lactones was found to influence biofilm formation. Here we discern a mechanism by which quorum sensing controls biofilm formation by screening 5850 transposon mutants of P. aeruginosa PA14 for altered

Wood, Thomas K.

232

LuxU connects quorum sensing to biofilm formation in Vibrio fischeri  

E-print Network

LuxU connects quorum sensing to biofilm formation in Vibrio fischeri Valerie A. Ray and Karen L, USA. Summary Biofilm formation by Vibrio fischeri is a complex process involving multiple regulators polysaccha- ride (syp) locus. To identify other regulators of biofilm formation in V. fischeri, we screened

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

233

Inhibition of biofilm formation and swarming of Bacillus subtilis by (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)-  

E-print Network

Inhibition of biofilm formation and swarming of Bacillus subtilis by (5Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene. In addition, as shown by confocal scanning laser microscopy, furanone inhibited the biofilm formation of B be advantageous to have additional Gram-positive antimicrobials. Swarming and biofilm formation are strongly

Wood, Thomas K.

234

EmbRS a new two-component system that inhibits biofilm formation and saves Rubrivivax gelatinosus from sinking.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic bacteria can switch from planktonic lifestyle to phototrophic biofilm in mats in response to environmental changes. The mechanisms of phototrophic biofilm formation are, however, not characterized. Herein, we report a two-component system EmbRS that controls the biofilm formation in a photosynthetic member of the Burkholderiales order, the purple bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus. EmbRS inactivation results in cells that form conspicuous bacterial veils and fast-sinking aggregates in liquid. Biofilm analyses indicated that EmbRS represses the production of an extracellular matrix and biofilm formation. Mapping of transposon mutants that partially or completely restore the wild-type (WT) phenotype allowed the identification of two gene clusters involved in polysaccharide synthesis, one fully conserved only in Thauera sp., a floc-forming wastewater bacterium. A second two-component system BmfRS and a putative diguanylate cyclase BdcA were also identified in this screen suggesting their involvement in biofilm formation in this bacterium. The role of polysaccharides in sinking of microorganisms and organic matter, as well as the importance and the evolution of such regulatory system in phototrophic microorganisms are discussed. PMID:23520142

Steunou, Anne Soisig; Liotenberg, Sylviane; Soler, Marie-Noêlle; Briandet, Romain; Barbe, Valérie; Astier, Chantal; Ouchane, Soufian

2013-06-01

235

Laminar flow around corners triggers the formation of biofilm streamers.  

PubMed

Bacterial biofilms have an enormous impact on medicine, industry and ecology. These microbial communities are generally considered to adhere to surfaces or interfaces. Nevertheless, suspended filamentous biofilms, or streamers, are frequently observed in natural ecosystems where they play crucial roles by enhancing transport of nutrients and retention of suspended particles. Recent studies in streamside flumes and laboratory flow cells have hypothesized a link with a turbulent flow environment. However, the coupling between the hydrodynamics and complex biofilm structures remains poorly understood. Here, we report the formation of biofilm streamers suspended in the middle plane of curved microchannels under conditions of laminar flow. Experiments with different mutant strains allow us to identify a link between the accumulation of extracellular matrix and the development of these structures. Numerical simulations of the flow in curved channels highlight the presence of a secondary vortical motion in the proximity of the corners, which suggests an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism responsible for the formation of the streamers. Our findings should be relevant to the design of all liquid-carrying systems where biofilms are potentially present and provide new insights on the origins of microbial streamers in natural and industrial environments. PMID:20356880

Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard A

2010-09-01

236

Quorum Sensing Controls Biofilm Formation in Vibrio cholerae through Modulation of Cyclic Di-GMP Levels and Repression of vpsT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two chemical signaling systems, quorum sensing (QS) and 3,5-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP), recip- rocally control biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae. QS is the process by which bacteria communicate via the secretion and detection of autoinducers, and in V. cholerae, QS represses biofilm formation. c-di-GMP is an intracellular second messenger that contains information regarding local environmental conditions, and in V. cholerae,

Christopher M. Waters; Wenyun Lu; Joshua D. Rabinowitz; Bonnie L. Bassler

2008-01-01

237

Impact of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Flavin Secretion in Shewanella oneidensis  

PubMed Central

Understanding of nanoparticle impacts on critical bacteria functions allows us to gain a mechanistic understanding of toxicity and guides us towards design rules for creating safe nanomaterials. Herein and using analytical techniques, biofilm formation, a general bacteria function, and riboflavin secretion, a species-specific function, were monitored in Shewanella oneidensis, a metal reducing bacterium, following exposure to a variety of TiO2 nanoparticle types (synthesized, Aeroxide P25, and T-Eco). TEM images show that dosed nanoparticles are in close proximity to the bacteria but they are not internalized. Using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), it was revealed that S. oneidensis biofilm formation is slowed in the presence of nanoparticles. Though S. oneidensis grows more slowly in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles, riboflavin secretion, a function related to the S. oneidensis metal reducing capacity, was increased significantly in a nanoparticle dose-dependent manner. Both changes in biofilm formation and riboflavin secretion are supported by changes in gene expression in nanoparticle-exposed S. oneidensis. This broad study of bacterial nanotoxicity, including use of sensitive analytical tools for functional assessments of biofilm formation, riboflavin secretion, and gene expression has implications for total ecosystem health as the use of engineered nanoparticles grows. PMID:23701037

Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Gunsolus, Ian L.; Meyer, Ben M.; Christenson, Cole J.; Haynes, Christy L.

2013-01-01

238

Triclosan causes toxic effects to algae in marine biofilms, but does not inhibit the metabolic activity of marine biofilm bacteria.  

PubMed

Effects of the antimicrobial agent triclosan to natural periphyton communities (biofilms, comprising primarily microalgae and bacteria) were assessed in two independent experiments during spring and summer. For that purpose a semi-static test system was used in which periphyton was exposed to a concentration range of 5-9054 nmol/L triclosan. Effects on algae were analyzed as content and composition of photosynthetic pigments. The corresponding EC50 values were 39.25 and 302.45 nmol/L for the spring and summer experiment, respectively. Effects on periphytic bacteria were assessed as effects on carbon utilization patterns, using Biolog Ecoplates. No inhibition of either total carbon utilization or functional diversity was observed, indicating a pronounced triclosan tolerance of the marine bacteria. In contrast, a small stimulation of the total carbon utilization was observed at triclosan concentrations exceeding 100 nmol/L. PMID:24928457

Johansson, C Henrik; Janmar, Lisa; Backhaus, Thomas

2014-07-15

239

Effect of Honey on Streptococcus mutans Growth and Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Because of the tradition of using honey as an antimicrobial medicament, we investigated the effect of natural honey (NH) on Streptococcus mutans growth, viability, and biofilm formation compared to that of an artificial honey (AH). AH contained the sugars at the concentrations reported for NH. NH and AH concentrations were obtained by serial dilution with tryptic soy broth (TSB). Several concentrations of NH and AH were tested for inhibition of bacterial growth, viability, and biofilm formation after inoculation with S. mutans UA159 in 96-well microtiter plates to obtain absorbance and CFU values. Overall, NH supported significantly less (P < 0.05) bacterial growth than AH at 25 and 12.5% concentrations. At 50 and 25% concentrations, both honey groups provided significantly less bacterial growth and biofilm formation than the TSB control. For bacterial viability, the results for all honey concentrations except 50% NH were not significantly different from those for the TSB control. NH was able to decrease the maximum velocity of S. mutans growth compared to AH. In summary, NH demonstrated more inhibition of bacterial growth, viability, and biofilm formation than AH. This study highlights the potential antibacterial properties of NH and could suggest that the antimicrobial mechanism of NH is not solely due to its high sugar content. PMID:22038612

Li, Mingyun

2012-01-01

240

Characterising the flux of carbon between calcium carbonate substrata, aqueous fluids, bacteria and a biofilm matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the flux of elements between minerals, biofilms and aqueous solutions is essential in order to fully elucidate the role of microorganisms in mass transfer processes. Bacteria play a fundamental role in nearly all life and environmental processes and are by far the most abundant organisms on the planet. Their main mode of growth is in the form of biofilms growing on surfaces and although extensive study has been carried out into the problems biofilms cause to humans, the effects of biofilms in the environment are still poorly understood. Much of the published research describing biofilm growth on geological substrata emphasises the species present rather than their effect on the substratum. Although previous studies have shown that the production of organic or mineral acids by microbial biofilms can cause dissolution of mineral substrata, there is little quantitative data on the specific flux of elements between minerals, microbial cells, biofilm matrix and aqueous solutions. With growing evidence that microbial life occurs in abundance in the subsurface, biofilm activity within buried rocks and sediments may have important implications for global geochemical cycling of specific elements. Results will be presented as part of an ongoing laboratory analog experiment which has been designed to quantify the flux of carbon between all matrices in a laboratory substratum-biofilm-aqueous system. Water collected from a limestone cave system (pH 7.5-8; viable count 4.7×10^3 - 2.0×10^4 cfu.ml-1{) is used as innoculum and nutrient source for growing mixed consortium biofilms on a natural calcite (CaCO_3) substratum in a flow-through reaction cell (24 days; 25^oC; 1ml.min^{-1). Portions of the biofilm are periodically removed for microbiological analysis and the mineral surface microscopically examined for extent of alteration. A parallel experiment utilises an isotopically labelled synthetic 13C-CaCO_3 substratum. This enables carbon to be traced from the substratum, through the biofilm and into the aqueous and gas phase by analysing 13C/12C isotopic ratios in all system components. Through this mass-balance approach it is possible to quantify, for the first time, the carbon fluxes into the biofilm and the aqueous solution from the carbonate mineral substrate.

Rankin, S. C.; Cooke, D. A.; Handley, P. S.; Merrifield, C. M.; Wogelius, R. A.

2003-04-01

241

Characterising the flux of carbon between calcium carbonate substrata, aqueous fluids, bacteria and a biofilm matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of the flux of elements between minerals, biofilms and aqueous solutions is essential in order to fully elucidate the role of microorganisms in mass transfer processes. Bacteria play a fundamental role in nearly all life and environmental processes and are by far the most abundant organisms on the planet. Their main mode of growth is in the form of

S. C. Rankin; D. A. Cooke; P. S. Handley; C. M. Merrifield; R. A. Wogelius

2003-01-01

242

In vitro activity of RBx 7644 (ranbezolid) on biofilm producing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm associated infections are becoming more common. Treatment outcome of device related infections cannot be predicted by the results of a standard susceptibility test such as the MIC. Microorganisms involved in device related infections have a slow growth rate and adhere to surfaces. Activity against glass adherent bacteria has been shown to be correlated with treatment outcome in animal models

Tarun Mathur; Pragya Bhateja; Manisha Pandya; Tasneem Fatma; Ashok Rattan

2004-01-01

243

Characterization of Biofilm Formation and the Role of BCR1 in Clinical Isolates of Candida parapsilosis  

PubMed Central

In Candida parapsilosis, biofilm formation is considered to be a major virulence factor. Previously, we determined the ability of 33 clinical isolates causing bloodstream infection to form biofilms and identified three distinct groups of biofilm-forming strains (negative, low, and high). Here, we establish two different biofilm structures among strains forming large amounts of biofilm in which strains with complex spider-like structures formed robust biofilms on different surface materials with increased resistance to fluconazole. Surprisingly, the transcription factor Bcr1, required for biofilm formation in Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, has an essential role only in strains with low capacity for biofilm formation. Although BCR1 leads to the formation of more and longer pseudohyphae, it was not required for initial adhesion and formation of mature biofilms in strains with a high level of biofilm formation. Furthermore, an additional phenotype affected by BCR1 was the switch in colony morphology from rough to crepe, but only in strains forming high levels of biofilm. All bcr1?/? mutants showed increased proteolytic activity and increased susceptibility to the antimicrobial peptides protamine and RP-1 compared to corresponding wild-type and complemented strains. Taken together, our results demonstrate that biofilm formation in clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis is both dependent and independent of BCR1, but even in strains which showed a BCR1-independent biofilm phenotype, BCR1 has alternative physiological functions. PMID:24297446

Pannanusorn, Srisuda; Ramirez-Zavala, Bernardo; Lunsdorf, Heinrich; Agerberth, Birgitta; Morschhauser, Joachim

2014-01-01

244

Quorum quenching activity in cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria isolated from Pterocarpus santalinus Linn., and its effect on quorum sensing regulated biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing mechanism allows the microorganisms to resist the antibiotic treatment by forming biofilms. Quorum quenching is one of the mechanisms to control the development of drug resistance in microbes. Endophyte bacteria are beneficial to plant growth as they support the immune system against the pathogen attack. The endophytic bacteria present in Pterocarpus santalinus were screened for the presence of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) degrading bacteria using biosensor strains and further confirmed by quantifying the violacein production. Cell-free lysate of endophytic bacteria, Bacillus firmus PT18 and Enterobacter asburiae PT39 exhibited potent AHL degrading ability by inhibiting about 80% violacein production in biosensor strain. Furthermore, when the cell-free lysate was applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and PAO1-JP2 biofilm it resulted in significant (p<0.01) inhibition of biofilm formation. The biofilm inhibition was confirmed by visualization of biofilm slides under fluorescence microscopy, which showed decrease in total biomass formation in treated slides. Isolation and amplification of the gene (aiiA) indicated that the presence of AHL lactonase in cell-free lysate and sequence alignment indicated that AiiA contains a "HXHXDH" zinc-binding motif that is being conserved in several groups of metallohydrolases. Therefore, the study shows the potential of AHLs degradation by AHL lactonase present in cell-free lysate of isolated endophytic bacteria and inhibition of quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PAO1. PMID:24268182

Rajesh, P S; Ravishankar Rai, V

2014-01-01

245

Biofilm formation and antibiotic production in Ruegeria mobilis are influenced by intracellular concentrations of cyclic dimeric guanosinmonophosphate.  

PubMed

In many species of the marine Roseobacter clade, periods of attached life, in association with phytoplankton or particles, are interspersed with planktonic phases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether shifts between motile and sessile life in the globally abundant Roseobacter clade species Ruegeria mobilis are associated with intracellular concentrations of the signal compound cyclic dimeric guanosinmonophosphate (c-di-GMP), which in bacteria regulates transitions between motile and sessile life stages. Genes for diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases, which are involved in c-di-GMP signalling, were found in the genome of R.?mobilis strain F1926. Ion pair chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry revealed 20-fold higher c-di-GMP concentrations per cell in biofilm-containing cultures than in planktonic cells. An introduced diguanylate cyclase gene increased c-di-GMP and enhanced biofilm formation and production of the potent antibiotic tropodithietic acid (TDA). An introduced phosphodiesterase gene decreased c-di-GMP and reduced biofilm formation and TDA production. tdaC, a key gene for TDA biosynthesis, was expressed only in attached or biofilm-forming cells, and expression was induced immediately after initial attachment. In conclusion, c-di-GMP signalling controls biofilm formation and biofilm-associated traits in R.?mobilis and, as suggested by presence of GGDEF and EAL domain protein genes, also in other Roseobacter clade species. PMID:24118907

D'Alvise, Paul W; Magdenoska, Olivera; Melchiorsen, Jette; Nielsen, Kristian F; Gram, Lone

2014-05-01

246

In vitro effect of antibiotics on biofilm formation by Bacteroides fragilis group strains isolated from intestinal microbiota of dogs and their antimicrobial susceptibility.  

PubMed

The Bacteroides fragilis group strains colonize the intestinal tract of dogs as commensal bacteria. Nevertheless, they can be opportunistic pathogens responsible for significant morbidity and mortality rates in dogs, like in oral infections, abscesses and wound infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial susceptibility in B. fragilis strains isolated from dogs intestinal microbiota and to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of some antimicrobials on biofilm formation. A total of 30 B. fragilis group strains were tested for susceptibility to ten antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution method. Thirteen B. fragilis strains were tested for biofilm formation and the biofilm producer strains were chosen to evaluate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of six antimicrobials on biofilm formation. The isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, metronidazole, imipenem and chloramphenicol. Tetracycline and clindamycin were active against 50% and 33% of the strains, respectively. When biofilm-forming strains were grown in the presence of sub-MICs of imipenem and metronidazole, the inhibition of biofilm formation was observed. In contrast, enrofloxacin at ½ MIC caused a significant increase in biofilm formation in two of four strains examined. In conclusion, the B. fragilis group strains isolated were susceptible to most of the antimicrobials tested and the sub-MIC concentrations of imipenem, metronidazole and clindamycin were able to inhibit the biofilm formation. PMID:24799339

Silva, Janice Oliveira; Martins Reis, Ana Catarina; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Pinheiro, Adriana Queiroz; Freire, Rosemary Souza; Oriá, Reinaldo Barreto; de Carvalho, Cibele Barreto Mano

2014-08-01

247

Patterns of biofilm formation in intermittent and permanent streams: analysis of biofilm structure and metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and functioning of benthic microbial communities in streams is largely dependent on the hydrological conditions. Climate change projections predict that the hydrological characteristics will probably be affected because of the rainfall regime. Hence, rivers from the Mediterranean region will become more similar to those draining arid or desert regions, while temperate streams will suffer of higher water flow fluctuations. In this study, we compared the process of biofilm formation between an intermittent (the Fuirosos, Mediterranean) and a permanent (the Walzbach, Central European) stream. Specifically, we analyzed the succession of bacterial and algal populations in the biofilm through bacterial rDNA sequences analysis (16S rDNA and 16S-23S intergenic sequence) and diatom taxa identification over a 60-days colonization experiment. Moreover, changes in biofilm structural (microbial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide content) and metabolic (extracellular enzyme activities) parameters were also analyzed. The successional patterns of microbial populations in the Fuirosos showed clear discontinutities coinciding with flood episodes while at the Walzbach the time sequence was more gradual. Although both study sites were forested, greater microbial biomass standing stock (algal and bacterial) and greater species biodiversity was detected during biofilm development at the Mediterranean site. The higher bacterial biodiversity may be related to the potential effect of flooding episodes in reducing biological interactions in complex microbial communities, such as the competitive exclusion of species. Moreover, the presence of rapid colonizing diatom species might be an adaptation to hydrological changes. In contrast, species competition could define the more stable environments, such as that observed in the Central European stream. Overall, the hystorical evolutionary pressure from the different bioclimatic regions could be also affecting the microbial community composition. Further, the analysis of the whole biofilm colonization sequence showed a greater EPS development and a higher potential extracellular enzyme activity rates in the Mediterranean stream. The higher EPS reflected a functional response of the biofilms to avoid detachment during high flow episodes and the higher enzyme activities were according to the low water nutrient concentration available for microbes. However, the higher nutrient conditions (higher nitrate and phosphate concentrations) at the Central European stream was not reflected on higher biomass standing stock in biofilms. Likely, the biomass accrual of biofilms was related to the differences in climatic conditions between study sites (e. g. daily insulation, temperature oscillation). The results suggest that microbial community development and functioning is primarily related to the physical characteristics of the different sites (specially the stream hydrology, but also the light regime).

Artigas, J.; Schwartz, T.; Kirchen, S.; Romaní, A. M.; Fund, K.; Obst, U.; Sabater, S.

2009-04-01

248

Tannins Possessing Bacteriostatic Effect Impair Pseudomonas aeruginosa Adhesion and Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Plants produce many compounds that are biologically active, either as part of their normal program of growth and development or in response to pathogen attack or stress. Traditionally, Anadenanthera colubrina, Commiphora leptophloeos and Myracrodruon urundeuva have been used by communities in the Brazilian Caatinga to treat several infectious diseases. The ability to impair bacterial adhesion represents an ideal strategy to combat bacterial pathogenesis, because of its importance in the early stages of the infectious process; thus, the search for anti-adherent compounds in plants is a very promising alternative. This study investigated the ability of stem-bark extracts from these three species to control the growth and prevent biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important opportunistic pathogen that adheres to surfaces and forms protective biofilms. A kinetic study (0–72 h) demonstrated that the growth of extract-treated bacteria was inhibited up to 9 h after incubation, suggesting a bacteriostatic activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy showed both viable and nonviable cells, indicating bacterial membrane damage; crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that treatment strongly inhibited biofilm formation during 6 and 24 h and that matrix production remained impaired even after growth was restored, at 24 and 48 h of incubation. Herein, we propose that the identified (condensed and hydrolyzable) tannins are able to inhibit biofilm formation via bacteriostatic properties, damaging the bacterial membrane and hindering matrix production. Our findings demonstrate the importance of this abundant class of Natural Products in higher plants against one of the most challenging issues in the hospital setting: biofilm resilience. PMID:23776646

Trentin, Danielle S.; Silva, Denise B.; Amaral, Matheus W.; Zimmer, Karine R.; Silva, Marcia V.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Giordani, Raquel B.; Macedo, Alexandre J.

2013-01-01

249

Capillary isoelectric focusing--useful tool for detection of the biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis.  

PubMed

The biofilm formation is an important factor of S. epidermidis virulence. Biofilm-positive strains might be clinically more important than biofilm-negative ones. Unlike biofilm-negative staphylococci, biofilm-positive staphylococci are surrounded with an extracellular polysaccharide substance. The presence of this substance on the surface can affect physico-chemical properties of the bacterial cell, including surface charge. 73 S. epidermidis strains were examined for the presence of ica operon, for the ability to form biofilm by Christensen test tube method and for the production of slime by Congo red agar method. Isoelectric points (pI) of these strains were determined by means of Capillary Isoelectric Focusing. The biofilm negative strains focused near pI value 2.3, while the pI values of the biofilm positive strains were near 2.6. Isoelectric point is a useful criterion for the differentiation between biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative S. epidermidis strains. PMID:17157942

Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie; Hola, Veronika; Votava, Miroslav

2007-03-01

250

MicroReview An intricate network of regulators controls biofilm formation  

E-print Network

MicroReview An intricate network of regulators controls biofilm formation and colonization proceeds via a biofilm-like bacterial aggregation, fol- lowed by entry and growth. A key regulator, the sensor kinase RscS, is critical for symbiotic biofilm formation and colonization. When introduced

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

251

The essential role of hydrodynamic shear force in the formation of biofilm and granular sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm and granular sludge processes are promising biotechnology for wastewater treatment. The formation, structure and metabolism of immobilized microbial community are associated very closely with hydrodynamic shear force in reactors. Therefore, this paper attempts to review the essential role of shear force in the formation and performance of biofilm and granular sludge. More compact, stable and denser biofilms, aerobic and

Yu Liu; Joo-Hwa Tay

2002-01-01

252

APPLIED GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY PA2663 (PpyR) increases biofilm formation in Pseudomonas  

E-print Network

APPLIED GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY PA2663 (PpyR) increases biofilm formation inactivation, it caused 20-fold lower biofilm forma- tion (Attila et al., Microb Biotechnol, 2008). Here, we confirmed that PA2663 is related to biofilm formation by restoring the wild-type phenotype by complementing

Wood, Thomas K.

253

Fibrinogen Induces Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus suis and Enhances Its Antibiotic Resistance?  

PubMed Central

In this study, we showed that supplementing the culture medium with fibrinogen induced biofilm formation by Streptococcus suis in a dose-dependent manner. Biofilm-grown S. suis cells were much more resistant to penicillin G than planktonic cells. S. suis bound fibrinogen to its surface, a property that likely contributes to biofilm formation. PMID:18539785

Bonifait, Laetitia; Grignon, Louis; Grenier, Daniel

2008-01-01

254

Short communication Biofilm formation and the survival of Salmonella Typhimurium on parsley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several studies provide evidence that the formation of biofilms by human pathogens on plant tissue is possible, to date there is no direct evidence that biofilms enhance the resistance of plant-associated pathogens to disinfectants or biocides. We hypothesized that biofilm formation would enhance the adhesion and survival of Salmonella on leafy vegetables. To test our hypothesis, we compared the

Anat Lapidot; Ute Romling; Sima Yaron

255

?(B) affects biofilm formation under the dual stress conditions imposed by adding salt and low temperature in Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

The food-borne pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes can form biofilms on various surfaces including food-processing equipment. Biofilms offer survival benefits to the organisms entrapped against environmental insults. Moreover, the ?(B) transcription factor of L. monocytogenes plays an important role in its survival under various stress conditions. In this study, we evaluated whether ?(B) contributes to biofilm formation when L. monocytogenes is grown under various temperatures and media. When the wild-type strain was grown under static biofilm culture below ambient temperature (15°C) for 72 h, the difference in viable cell number (in both planktonic and biofilm cells) between the wild-type and ?sigB mutant increased by adding NaCl to BHI broth (9% salt BHI > 6% salt BHI > BHI, w/v), and the specific activity of ?-galactosidase was highly induced in the wild-type strain grown in 6% salt containing BHI broth. Furthermore, we measured surface-adhered biofilm forming ability using the crystal violet staining method. The wild-type strain formed a four times larger biofilm than that of the ?sigB mutant in 6% salt-BHI medium at 15°C over a 72 h incubation and also showed the highest level of ?-galactosidase specific activity. However, both the wild-type and ?sigB mutant L. monocytogenes were defective for forming a biofilm in 9% salt-BHI medium at 15°C. Our results suggest that ?(B) plays an enhanced role in surface-adhered biofilm formation when L. monocytogenes encounters dual stress conditions, such as 6% NaCl and low temperature. PMID:25269605

Lee, Jin-Ju; Lee, Gilho; Shin, Ji-Hyun

2014-10-01

256

Analyses of spatial distributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activity in aerobic wastewater biofilms  

SciTech Connect

The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in aerobic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. To correlate the vertical distribution of SRB populations with their activity, the microprofiles of O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, NO{sub 2}{minus}, NH{sub 2}{sup +}, and pH were measured with microelectrodes. In addition, a cross-evaluation of the FISH and microelectrode analyses was performed by comparing them with culture-based approaches and biogeochemical measurements. In situ hybridization revealed that a relatively high abundance of the probe SRB385-stained cells were evenly distributed throughout the biofilm, even in the toxic surface. The probe SRB660-stained Desulfobulbus spp. were found to be numerically important members of SRB populations. The result of microelectrode measurements showed that a high sulfate-reducing activity was found in a narrow anaerobic zone located about 150 to 300 {micro}m below the biofilm surface and above which an intensive sulfide oxidation zone was found. The biogeochemical measurements showed that elemental sulfur (S{degree}) was an important intermediate of the sulfide reoxidation in such thin wastewater biofilms, which accounted for about 75% of the total S pool in the biofilm. The contribution of an internal Fe-sulfur cycle to the overall sulfur cycle in aerobic wastewater biofilms was insignificant (less than 1%) due to the relatively high sulfate reduction rate.

Okabe, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

1999-11-01

257

IscR Controls Iron-Dependent Biofilm Formation in Escherichia coli by Regulating Type I Fimbria Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation is a complex developmental process regulated by multiple environmental signals. In addition to other nutrients, the transition metal iron can also regulate biofilm formation. Iron-dependent regulation of biofilm formation varies by bacterial species, and the exact regulatory pathways that control iron-dependent biofilm formation are often unknown or only partially characterized. To address this gap in our knowledge, we

Yun Wu; F. Wayne Outten

2009-01-01

258

Structural Basis for Biofilm Formation via the Vibrio cholerae Matrix Protein RbmA  

PubMed Central

During the transition from a free-swimming, single-cell lifestyle to a sessile, multicellular state called a biofilm, bacteria produce and secrete an extracellular matrix comprised of nucleic acids, exopolysaccharides, and adhesion proteins. The Vibrio cholerae biofilm matrix contains three major protein components, RbmA, Bap1, and RbmC, which are unique to Vibrio cholerae and appear to support biofilm formation at particular steps in the process. Here, we focus on RbmA, a structural protein with an unknown fold. RbmA participates in the early cell-cell adhesion events and is found throughout the biofilm where it localizes to cell-cell contact sites. We determined crystal structures of RbmA and revealed that the protein folds into tandem fibronectin type III (FnIII) folds. The protein is dimeric in solution and in crystals, with the dimer interface displaying a surface groove that is lined with several positively charged residues. Structure-guided mutagenesis studies establish a crucial role for this surface patch for RbmA function. On the basis of the structure, we hypothesize that RbmA serves as a tether by maintaining flexible linkages between cells and the extracellular matrix. PMID:23687270

Giglio, Krista M.; Fong, Jiunn C.

2013-01-01

259

Biofilm formation enhances fomite survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.  

PubMed

Both Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae are widely thought to rapidly die outside the human host, losing infectivity following desiccation in the environment. However, to date, all literature investigating the infectivity of desiccated streptococci has used broth-grown, planktonic populations. In this study, we examined the impact of biofilm formation on environmental survival of clinical and laboratory isolates of S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae as both organisms are thought to colonize the human host as biofilms. Results clearly demonstrate that while planktonic cells that are desiccated rapidly lose viability both on hands and abiotic surfaces, such as plastic, biofilm bacteria remain viable over extended periods of time outside the host and remain infectious in a murine colonization model. To explore the level and extent of streptococcal fomite contamination that children might be exposed to naturally, direct bacteriologic cultures of items in a day care center were conducted, which demonstrated high levels of viable streptococci of both species. These findings raise the possibility that streptococci may survive in the environment and be transferred from person to person via fomites contaminated with oropharyngeal secretions containing biofilm streptococci. PMID:24371220

Marks, Laura R; Reddinger, Ryan M; Hakansson, Anders P

2014-03-01

260

Biofilm Formation Enhances Fomite Survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes  

PubMed Central

Both Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae are widely thought to rapidly die outside the human host, losing infectivity following desiccation in the environment. However, to date, all literature investigating the infectivity of desiccated streptococci has used broth-grown, planktonic populations. In this study, we examined the impact of biofilm formation on environmental survival of clinical and laboratory isolates of S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae as both organisms are thought to colonize the human host as biofilms. Results clearly demonstrate that while planktonic cells that are desiccated rapidly lose viability both on hands and abiotic surfaces, such as plastic, biofilm bacteria remain viable over extended periods of time outside the host and remain infectious in a murine colonization model. To explore the level and extent of streptococcal fomite contamination that children might be exposed to naturally, direct bacteriologic cultures of items in a day care center were conducted, which demonstrated high levels of viable streptococci of both species. These findings raise the possibility that streptococci may survive in the environment and be transferred from person to person via fomites contaminated with oropharyngeal secretions containing biofilm streptococci. PMID:24371220

Marks, Laura R.; Reddinger, Ryan M.

2014-01-01

261

Polyketide Glycosides from Bionectria ochroleuca Inhibit Candida albicans Biofilm Formation.  

PubMed

One of the challenges presented by Candida infections is that many of the isolates encountered in the clinic produce biofilms, which can decrease these pathogens' susceptibilities to standard-of-care antibiotic therapies. Inhibitors of fungal biofilm formation offer a potential solution to counteracting some of the problems associated with Candida infections. A screening campaign utilizing samples from our fungal extract library revealed that a Bionectria ochroleuca isolate cultured on Cheerios breakfast cereal produced metabolites that blocked the in vitro formation of Candida albicans biofilms. A scale-up culture of the fungus was undertaken using mycobags (also known as mushroom bags or spawn bags), which afforded four known [TMC-151s C-F (1-4)] and three new [bionectriols B-D (5-7)] polyketide glycosides. All seven metabolites exhibited potent biofilm inhibition against C. albicans SC5314, as well as exerted synergistic antifungal activities in combination with amphotericin B. In this report, we describe the structure determination of the new metabolites, as well as compare the secondary metabolome profiles of fungi grown in flasks and mycobags. These studies demonstrate that mycobags offer a useful alternative to flask-based cultures for the preparative production of fungal secondary metabolites. PMID:25302529

Wang, Bin; You, Jianlan; King, Jarrod B; Cai, Shengxin; Park, Elizabeth; Powell, Douglas R; Cichewicz, Robert H

2014-10-24

262

Involvement of Sortase Anchoring of Cell Wall Proteins in Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus mutans is one of the best-known biofilm-forming organisms associated with humans. We investigated the role of the sortase gene (srtA) in monospecies biofilm formation and observed that inactivation of srtA caused a decrease in biofilm formation. Genes encoding three putative sortase-dependent proteins were also found to be up-regulated in biofilms versus planktonic cells and mutations in these genes resulted

Celine M. Levesque; Elena Voronejskaia; Yi-Chen Cathy Huang; Richard W. Mair; Richard P. Ellen; Dennis G. Cvitkovitch

2005-01-01

263

Biofilm formation by Bacillus subtilis: new insights into regulatory strategies and assembly mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation is a social behaviour that generates favourable conditions for sustained survival in the natural environment. For the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis the process involves the differentiation of cell fate within an isogenic population and the production of communal goods that form the biofilm matrix. Here we review recent progress in understanding the regulatory pathways that control biofilm formation and highlight developments in understanding the composition, function and structure of the biofilm matrix. PMID:24988880

Cairns, Lynne S; Hobley, Laura; Stanley-Wall, Nicola R

2014-01-01

264

Capsaicin inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis growth, biofilm formation, gingivomucosal inflammatory cytokine secretion, and in vitro osteoclastogenesis.  

PubMed

The prevention and treatment of periodontitis requires not only the control of causative pathogens, especially Porphyromonas gingivalis, but also the regulation of inflammatory immune response. Investigating auxiliary drugs for periodontitis during conventional treatments is, thus, quite important. Capsaicin, an agonist for the vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (TRPV1), due to its bacteriostatic activity against Gram-negative bacteria and anti-inflammatory effects, appears to be a promising drug. In this work, the antimicrobial activity of capsaicin against P. gingivalis and biofilm formation, inflammatory cytokine levels in experimental periodontitis, osteoclast precursor proliferation, and osteoclastogenesis in vitro were fully investigated. The results showed that capsaicin inhibited P. gingivalis growth with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 16 and 64 mg/l, respectively. Capsaicin also inhibited P. gingivalis biofilm formation, with minimum biofilm inhibition concentrations MBIC50 and MBIC90 of 16 and 32 mg/l, respectively, and reduced pre-formed biofilms' viability with a minimum biofilm reduction concentration MBRC50 of 64 mg/l, as demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In experimental periodontitis, except for IL-10, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12, and iNOS were depressed after capsaicin treatment. Moreover, capsaicin also suppressed osteoclast precursor proliferation and osteoclastogenesis, as demonstrated by NF-?B p65. However, this favorable effect was attenuated by the TRPV1 antagonist, camphor. It, thus, suggests that capsaicin is a potential drug for the auxiliary treatment of periodontitis. TRPV1 activation may involve in beneficial roles of capsaicin on periodontitis. PMID:23955115

Zhou, Y; Guan, X; Zhu, W; Liu, Z; Wang, X; Yu, H; Wang, H

2014-02-01

265

Cyclic-di-GMP regulates extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, and rugose colony development by Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus is a human and animal pathogen that carries the highest death rate of any food-borne disease agent. It colonizes shellfish and forms biofilms on the surfaces of plankton, algae, fish, and eels. Greater understanding of biofilm formation by the organism could provide insight into approaches to decrease its load in filter feeders and on biotic surfaces and control the occurrence of invasive disease. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS), although essential for virulence, is not required for biofilm formation under the conditions used here. In other bacteria, increased biofilm formation often correlates with increased exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. We exploited the translucent phenotype of acapsular mutants to screen a V. vulnificus genomic library and identify genes that imparted an opaque phenotype to both CPS biosynthesis and transport mutants. One of these encoded a diguanylate cyclase (DGC), an enzyme that synthesizes bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP). This prompted us to use this DGC, DcpA, to examine the effect of elevated c-di-GMP levels on several developmental pathways in V. vulnificus. Increased c-di-GMP levels induced the production of an EPS that was distinct from the CPS and dramatically enhanced biofilm formation and rugosity in a CPS-independent manner. However, the EPS could not compensate for the loss of CPS production that is required for virulence. In contrast to V. cholerae, motility and virulence appeared unaffected by elevated levels of c-di-GMP. PMID:18487410

Nakhamchik, Alina; Wilde, Caroline; Rowe-Magnus, Dean A

2008-07-01

266

The influence of bacteria on struvite crystal habit and its importance in urinary stone formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infection-induced urinary stones form as a result of a urinary tract infection by urease-producing bacteria. These stones are not totally crystalline in nature but rather consist of an agglomeration of bacteria, organic matrix, and crystal of struvite (MgNH 4PO 4· 6H 2O). Crystal formation is related to the ability of the bacteria to effect an increase in the urine pH. Another equally important bacterial role lies in their formation of a 'biofilm' which later becomes the organic matrix constituent of the stone. Results of the present in vitro study indicate that crystals are formed more readily if produced within the bacterial biofilm than in the surrounding urine. It is proposed that supersaturation, due in part to a bacterial-induced pH increase and in part to the metal binding tendency of the biofilm, leads to crystal formation via a gel growth mechanism within the biofilm itself. In time further bacterial cell division, microcolony.

Clapham, L.; McLean, R. J. C.; Nickel, J. C.; Downey, J.; Costerton, J. W.

1990-07-01

267

Protein Translation and Cell Death: The Role of Rare tRNAs in Biofilm Formation and in Activating Dormant  

E-print Network

Protein Translation and Cell Death: The Role of Rare tRNAs in Biofilm Formation and in ActivatingJ are important for biofilm formation; however, their roles have been nebulous. Biofilms are intricate communities biofilm formation dramatically by repressing the transcription of rare codon tRNAs which serves to inhibit

Wood, Thomas K.

268

Salmonella Biofilm Formation on Aspergillus niger Involves Cellulose - Chitin Interactions  

PubMed Central

Salmonella cycles between host and nonhost environments, where it can become an active member of complex microbial communities. The role of fungi in the environmental adaptation of enteric pathogens remains relatively unexplored. We have discovered that S. enterica Typhimurium rapidly attaches to and forms biofilms on the hyphae of the common fungus, Aspergillus niger. Several Salmonella enterica serovars displayed a similar interaction, whereas other bacterial species were unable to bind to the fungus. Bacterial attachment to chitin, a major constituent of fungal cell walls, mirrored this specificity. Pre-incubation of S. Typhimurium with N-acetylglucosamine, the monomeric component of chitin, reduced binding to chitin beads by as much as 727-fold and inhibited attachment to A. niger hyphae considerably. A cellulose-deficient mutant of S. Typhimurium failed to attach to chitin beads and to the fungus. Complementation of this mutant with the cellulose operon restored binding to chitin beads to 79% of that of the parental strain and allowed for attachment and biofilm formation on A. niger, indicating that cellulose is involved in bacterial attachment to the fungus via the chitin component of its cell wall. In contrast to cellulose, S. Typhimurium curli fimbriae were not required for attachment and biofilm development on the hyphae but were critical for its stability. Our results suggest that cellulose–chitin interactions are required for the production of mixed Salmonella-A. niger biofilms, and support the hypothesis that encounters with chitinaceous alternate hosts may contribute to the ecological success of human pathogens. PMID:22003399

Brandl, Maria T.; Carter, Michelle Q.; Parker, Craig T.; Chapman, Matthew R.; Huynh, Steven; Zhou, Yaguang

2011-01-01

269

Control of marine biofouling and medical biofilm formation with engineered topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofouling is the unwanted accumulation and growth of cells and organisms on clean surfaces. This process occurs readily on unprotected surfaces in both the marine and physiological environments. Surface protection in both systems has typically relied upon toxic materials and biocides. Metallic paints, based on tin and copper, have been extremely successful as antifouling coatings for the hulls of ships by killing the majority of fouling species. Similarly, antibacterial medical coatings incorporate metal-containing compounds such as silver or antibiotics that kill the bacteria. The environmental concerns over the use of toxic paints and biocides in the ocean, the developed antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms, and the toxicity concerns with silver suggest the need for non-toxic and non-kill solutions for these systems. The manipulation of surface topography on non-toxic materials at the size scale of the fouling species or bacteria is one approach for the development of alternative coatings. These surfaces would function simply as a physical deterrent of settlement of fouling organisms or a physical obstacle for the adequate formation of a bacterial biofilm without the need to kill the targeted microorganisms. Species-specific topographical designs called engineered topographies have been designed, fabricated and evaluated for potential applications as antifouling marine coatings and material surfaces capable of reducing biofilm formation. Engineered topographies fabricated on the surface of a non-toxic, polydimethylsiloxane elastomer, or silicone, were shown to significantly reduce the attachment of zoospores of a common ship fouling green algae (Ulva) in standard bioassays versus a smooth substrate. Other engineered topographies were effective at significantly deterring the settlement of the cyprids of barnacles (Balanus amphitrite). These results indicate the potential use of engineered topography applied to non-toxic materials as an environmentally friendly coating for antifouling applications in the ocean. In addition, a biomaterial-grade silicone modified with a tailored engineered topography significantly inhibited the bacterial biofilm growth from Staphylococcus aureus for up to 14 days exposure without the use of bactericidal agents. Mature biofilms were present on equivalently exposed smooth silicone surfaces. Engineered surface topographies present a promising means of blocking biofilm development on medical surfaces and reducing the rate of related infections.

Schumacher, James Frederick

270

Physicochemical changes of microbe and solid surface properties during biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell immobilization is a promising biotechnology process. For example, entrapment of bacteria cells on synthetic polymeric matrices such as biocarriers is widely used for wastewater treatment because they have strong mechanical strength and durability in contrast to natural polymers. This method is based on the formation of biofilm on the surface of the used carriers and combines two different processes; attached and suspended biomass in a hybrid system. Previous studies have shown that immobilized cell systems have the potential to degrade toxic chemicals faster than conventional wastewater treatment systems because high densities of specialized microorganisms are used in immobilized cell systems. The present study elucidates the surface charge and properties of activated sludge and their role in the formation of biofilm. This information can be used for the optimization of the formation of biofilms as well as for the study of the transport of microorganisms in different environments. The two types of biocarriers that were used in this study are polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-gel beads and Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) carriers. The sludge samples that were investigated were taken from the aeration tank of the wastewater treatment plant of University of Patras (Greece). Measurements of the surface charge of the sludge, the biocarriers and the formed biofilm, were performed using potentiometric mass titrations with different kinds of electrolytes (e.g. NaCl, NaNO3) and at pH ranging from 3 to 11. The determination of pzc and surface charge of activated sludge and biocarriers is significant, because it can provide new valuable informations about the interaction mechanisms and the formation of biofilms. In each case, the point of zero charge (pzc) was identified as the common intersection point of the potentiometric curve of the blank solution of the electrolyte with the corresponding curves of each material. The pzc value for the biofilm was 6.1 to 6.7 and 6.6 to 6.9 for PVA gel and MBBR, respectively. These values differ both from the pzc values found for PVA biocarriers (pzc = 9.4; no pzc value was obtained for MBBR as expected based on its hydrophobic nature and the absence of surface groups with acid-base behavior) and the pzc value of activated sludge (activated sludge mixed liquor: pzc = 8.0 to 8.2, solid activated sludge: pzc = 7.2 to 7.3). These results lead us to the conclusion that the formed biofilms have different acid-base behavior and properties in relation to the activated sludge and the biocarriers. This fact is in accordance to previous studies, where biofilm-associated cells can be differentiated from their suspended counterparts due to the generation of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix. One other possible explanation is that the complicated processes of the biofilm formation can alter the distribution of different cells in the sludge compared with the cell distribution in the suspended unsupported sludge.

Sfaelou, Stavroula; Vakros, John; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

2013-04-01

271

Analyses of Spatial Distributions of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Their Activity in Aerobic Wastewater Biofilms  

PubMed Central

The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in aerobic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. To correlate the vertical distribution of SRB populations with their activity, the microprofiles of O2, H2S, NO2?, NO3?, NH4+, and pH were measured with microelectrodes. In addition, a cross-evaluation of the FISH and microelectrode analyses was performed by comparing them with culture-based approaches and biogeochemical measurements. In situ hybridization revealed that a relatively high abundance of the probe SRB385-stained cells (approximately 109 to 1010 cells per cm3 of biofilm) were evenly distributed throughout the biofilm, even in the oxic surface. The probe SRB660-stained Desulfobulbus spp. were found to be numerically important members of SRB populations (approximately 108 to 109 cells per cm3). The result of microelectrode measurements showed that a high sulfate-reducing activity was found in a narrow anaerobic zone located about 150 to 300 ?m below the biofilm surface and above which an intensive sulfide oxidation zone was found. The biogeochemical measurements showed that elemental sulfur (S0) was an important intermediate of the sulfide reoxidation in such thin wastewater biofilms (approximately 1,500 ?m), which accounted for about 75% of the total S pool in the biofilm. The contribution of an internal Fe-sulfur cycle to the overall sulfur cycle in aerobic wastewater biofilms was insignificant (less than 1%) due to the relatively high sulfate reduction rate. PMID:10543829

Okabe, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

1999-01-01

272

Signaling-mediated cross-talk modulates swarming and biofilm formation in a coral pathogen Serratia marcescens.  

PubMed

Interactions within microbial communities associated with marine holobionts contribute importantly to the health of these symbiotic organisms formed by invertebrates, dinoflagellates and bacteria. However, mechanisms that control invertebrate-associated microbiota are not yet fully understood. Hydrophobic compounds that were isolated from surfaces of asymptomatic corals inhibited biofilm formation by the white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100, indicating that signals capable of affecting the associated microbiota are produced in situ. However, neither the origin nor structures of these signals are currently known. A functional survey of bacteria recovered from coral mucus and from cultures of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium spp. revealed that they could alter swarming and biofilm formation in S. marcescens. As swarming and biofilm formation are inversely regulated, the ability of some native ?-proteobacteria to affect both behaviors suggests that the ?-proteobacterial signal(s) target a global regulatory switch controlling the behaviors in the pathogen. Isolates of Marinobacter sp. inhibited both biofilm formation and swarming in S. marcescens PDL100, without affecting growth of the coral pathogen, indicative of the production of multiple inhibitors, likely targeting lower level regulatory genes or functions. A multi-species cocktail containing these strains inhibited progression of a disease caused by S. marcescens in a model polyp Aiptasia pallida. An ?-proteobacterial isolate 44B9 had a similar effect. Even though ?4% of native holobiont-associated bacteria produced compounds capable of triggering responses in well-characterized N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) biosensors, there was no strong correlation between the production of AHL-like signals and disruption of biofilms or swarming in S. marcescens. PMID:21509042

Alagely, Ali; Krediet, Cory J; Ritchie, Kim B; Teplitski, Max

2011-10-01

273

Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095

Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokó?-??towska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

2012-12-01

274

Specific Antibody Can Prevent Fungal Biofilm Formation and This Effect Correlates with Protective Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most troublesome medical problems today is infection of prosthetic devices with organisms that form polysaccharide biofilms. This combined with increasing antimicrobial drug resistance is making many infectious diseases incurable. Cryptococcus neoformans is a human-pathogenic fungus that has a polysaccharide capsule and can form biofilms in prosthetic medical devices. We developed a system to study cryptococcal biofilm formation

Luis R. Martinez; Arturo Casadevall

2005-01-01

275

Role of Alkyl Hydroperoxide Reductase (AhpC) in the Biofilm Formation of Campylobacter jejuni  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation of Campylobacter jejuni, a major cause of human gastroenteritis, contributes to the survival of this pathogenic bacterium in different environmental niches; however, molecular mechanisms for its biofilm formation have not been fully understood yet. In this study, the role of oxidative stress resistance in biofilm formation was investigated using mutants defective in catalase (KatA), superoxide dismutase (SodB), and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC). Biofilm formation was substantially increased in an ahpC mutant compared to the wild type, and katA and sodB mutants. In contrast to the augmented biofilm formation of the ahpC mutant, a strain overexpressing ahpC exhibited reduced biofilm formation. A perR mutant and a CosR-overexpression strain, both of which upregulate ahpC, also displayed decreased biofilms. However, the introduction of the ahpC mutation to the perR mutant and the CosR-overexpression strain substantially enhanced biofilm formation. The ahpC mutant accumulated more total reactive oxygen species and lipid hydroperoxides than the wild type, and the treatment of the ahpC mutant with antioxidants reduced biofilm formation to the wild-type level. Confocal microscopy analysis showed more microcolonies were developed in the ahpC mutant than the wild type. These results successfully demonstrate that AhpC plays an important role in the biofilm formation of C. jejuni. PMID:24498070

Oh, Euna; Jeon, Byeonghwa

2014-01-01

276

Biofilm formation and persistence on abiotic surfaces in the context of food and medical environments.  

PubMed

The biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in food and medical sectors constitutes a great public health concerns. In fact, biofilms present a persistent source for pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, which lead to severe infections such as foodborne and nosocomial infections. Such biofilms are also a source of material deterioration and failure. The environmental conditions, commonly met in food and medical area, seem also to enhance the biofilm formation and their resistance to disinfectant agents. In this regard, this review highlights the effect of environmental conditions on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in the context of food and medical environment. It also describes the current and emergent strategies used to study the biofilm formation and its eradication. The mechanisms of biofilm resistance to commercialized disinfectants are also discussed, since this phenomenon remains unclear to date. PMID:24744186

Abdallah, Marwan; Benoliel, Corinne; Drider, Djamel; Dhulster, Pascal; Chihib, Nour-Eddine

2014-07-01

277

Voice Prosthetic Biofilm Formation and Candida Morphogenic Conversions in Absence and Presence of Different Bacterial Strains and Species on Silicone-Rubber  

PubMed Central

Morphogenic conversion of Candida from a yeast to hyphal morphology plays a pivotal role in the pathogenicity of Candida species. Both Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, in combination with a variety of different bacterial strains and species, appear in biofilms on silicone-rubber voice prostheses used in laryngectomized patients. Here we study biofilm formation on silicone-rubber by C. albicans or C. tropicalis in combination with different commensal bacterial strains and lactobacillus strains. In addition, hyphal formation in C. albicans and C. tropicalis, as stimulated by Rothia dentocariosa and lactobacilli was evaluated, as clinical studies outlined that these bacterial strains have opposite results on the clinical life-time of silicone-rubber voice prostheses. Biofilms were grown during eight days in a silicone-rubber tube, while passing the biofilms through episodes of nutritional feast and famine. Biofilms consisting of combinations of C. albicans and a bacterial strain comprised significantly less viable organisms than combinations comprising C. tropicalis. High percentages of Candida were found in biofilms grown in combination with lactobacilli. Interestingly, L. casei, with demonstrated favorable effects on the clinical life-time of voice prostheses, reduced the percentage hyphal formation in Candida biofilms as compared with Candida biofilms grown in absence of bacteria or grown in combination with R. dentocariosa, a bacterial strain whose presence is associated with short clinical life-times of voice prostheses. PMID:25111806

van der Mei, Henny C.; Buijssen, Kevin J. D. A.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Ovchinnikova, Ekatarina; Geertsema-Doornbusch, Gesinda I.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Busscher, Henk J.

2014-01-01

278

Abiotic and Microbiotic Factors Controlling Biofilm Formation by Thermophilic Sporeformers  

PubMed Central

One of the major concerns in the production of dairy concentrates is the risk of contamination by heat-resistant spores from thermophilic bacteria. In order to acquire more insight in the composition of microbial communities occurring in the dairy concentrate industry, a bar-coded 16S amplicon sequencing analysis was carried out on milk, final products, and fouling samples taken from dairy concentrate production lines. The analysis of these samples revealed the presence of DNA from a broad range of bacterial taxa, including a majority of mesophiles and a minority of (thermophilic) spore-forming bacteria. Enrichments of fouling samples at 55°C showed the accumulation of predominantly Brevibacillus and Bacillus, whereas enrichments at 65°C led to the accumulation of Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus species. Bacterial population analysis of biofilms grown using fouling samples as an inoculum indicated that both Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus preferentially form biofilms on surfaces at air-liquid interfaces rather than on submerged surfaces. Three of the most potent biofilm-forming strains isolated from the dairy factory industrial samples, including Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and Anoxybacillus flavithermus, have been characterized in detail with respect to their growth conditions and spore resistance. Strikingly, Geobacillus thermoglucosidans, which forms the most thermostable spores of these three species, is not able to grow in dairy intermediates as a pure culture but appears to be dependent for growth on other spoilage organisms present, probably as a result of their proteolytic activity. These results underscore the importance of abiotic and microbiotic factors in niche colonization in dairy factories, where the presence of thermophilic sporeformers can affect the quality of end products. PMID:23851093

Zhao, Yu; Caspers, Martien P. M.; Metselaar, Karin I.; de Boer, Paulo; Roeselers, Guus; Moezelaar, Roy; Nierop Groot, Masja; Montijn, Roy C.; Abee, Tjakko

2013-01-01

279

Diversity of Purple Phototrophic Bacteria, Inferred from pufM Gene, within Epilithic Biofilm in Tama River, Japan  

PubMed Central

The diversity of purple phototrophic bacteria in algae-dominated biofilm of a streambed in Tama River, Japan was investigated. Clone library analysis of the pufM gene encoding a subunit of the photochemical reaction center of purple bacteria detected 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in several classes of Proteobacteria. Most of the OTUs showed less than 85% identity to the PufM amino acid sequences of known phototrophic bacteria. These results suggest that phylogenetically divergent and unknown purple phototrophic bacteria are present in the epilithic biofilm of the river. PMID:22446305

Hirose, Setsuko; Nagashima, Kenji V. P.; Matsuura, Katsumi; Haruta, Shin

2012-01-01

280

A Novel Two-Component Response Regulator Links rpf with Biofilm Formation and Virulence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri  

PubMed Central

Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a serious disease that impacts citrus production worldwide, and X. axonopodis pv. citri is listed as a quarantine pest in certain countries. Biofilm formation is important for the successful development of a pathogenic relationship between various bacteria and their host(s). To understand the mechanisms of biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri strain XW19, the strain was subjected to transposon mutagenesis. One mutant with a mutation in a two-component response regulator gene that was deficient in biofilm formation on a polystyrene microplate was selected for further study. The protein was designated as BfdR for biofilm formation defective regulator. BfdR from strain XW19 shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with XAC1284 of X. axonopodis pv. citri strain 306 and 30–100% identity with two-component response regulators in various pathogens and environmental microorganisms. The bfdR mutant strain exhibited significantly decreased biofilm formation on the leaf surfaces of Mexican lime compared with the wild type strain. The bfdR mutant was also compromised in its ability to cause canker lesions. The wild-type phenotype was restored by providing pbfdR in trans in the bfdR mutant. Our data indicated that BfdR did not regulate the production of virulence-related extracellular enzymes including amylase, lipase, protease, and lecithinase or the expression of hrpG, rfbC, and katE; however, BfdR controlled the expression of rpfF in XVM2 medium, which mimics cytoplasmic fluids in planta. In conclusion, biofilm formation on leaf surfaces of citrus is important for canker development in X. axonopodis pv. citri XW19. The process is controlled by the two-component response regulator BfdR via regulation of rpfF, which is required for the biosynthesis of a diffusible signal factor. PMID:23626857

Huang, Tzu-Pi; Lu, Kuan-Min; Chen, Yu-Hsuan

2013-01-01

281

Control of biofilm formation and colonization in Vibrio fischeri: a role for partner switching?emi_2269 2051..2059  

E-print Network

Minireview Control of biofilm formation and colonization in Vibrio fischeri: a role for partner pro- ceeds via a transient biofilm formed by the bacterium. The production of this bacterial biofilm) gene locus. In addition to this transcriptional control, biofilm formation is regulated by two proteins

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

282

An in vitro study on the effect of free amino acids alone or in combination with nisin on biofilms as well as on planktonic bacteria of Streptococcus mutans.  

PubMed

Free D-amino acids (D-AAs) are one of the most striking features of the peptidoglycan composition in bacteria and play a key role in regulating and disassembling bacterial biofilms. Previous studies have indicated that the antimicrobial peptide nisin can inhibit the growth of the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans. The present study investigated the effect of free amino acids either alone or in combination with nisin on biofilm and on planktonic S. mutans bacteria. The results of the MIC and MBC analyses showed that D-cysteine (Cys), D- or L-aspartic acid (Asp), and D- or L-glutamic acid (Glu) significantly improve the antibacterial activity of nisin against S. mutans and that the mixture of D-Cys, D-Asp, and D-Glu (3D-AAs) and the mixture of L-Cys, L-Asp, and L-Glu (3L-AAs) at a concentration of 40 mM can prevent S. mutans growth. Crystal violet staining showed that the D- or L-enantiomers of Cys, Asp, and Glu at a concentration of 40 mM can inhibit the formation of S. mutans biofilms, and their mixture generated a stronger inhibition than the components alone. Furthermore, the mixture of the three D-AAs or L-AAs may improve the antibacterial activity of nisin against S. mutans biofilms. This study underscores the potential of free amino acids for the enhancement of the antibacterial activity of nisin and the inhibition of the cariogenic bacteria S. mutans and biofilms. PMID:24936873

Tong, Zhongchun; Zhang, Luodan; Ling, Junqi; Jian, Yutao; Huang, Lijia; Deng, Dongmei

2014-01-01

283

Role of Quorum Sensing and Antimicrobial Component Production by Serratia plymuthica in Formation of Biofilms, Including Mixed Biofilms with Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously characterized the N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-based quorum-sensing system of the biofilm isolate Serratia plymuthica RVH1. Here we investigated the role of quorum sensing and of quorum- sensing-dependent production of an antimicrobial compound (AC) on biofilm formation by RVH1 and on the cocultivation of RVH1 and Escherichia coli in planktonic cultures or in biofilms. Biofilm formation of S. plymuthica was

Pieter Moons; Rob Van Houdt; Abram Aertsen; Kristof Vanoirbeek; Yves Engelborghs; Chris W. Michiels

2006-01-01

284

Motility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contributes to SOS-inducible biofilm formation.  

PubMed

DNA-damaging antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin induce biofilm formation and the SOS response through autocleavage of SOS-repressor LexA in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the biofilm-SOS connection remains poorly understood. It was investigated with 96-well and lipid biofilm assays. The effects of ciprofloxacin were examined on biofilm stimulation of the SOS mutant and wild-type strains. The stimulation observed in the wild-type in which SOS was induced was reduced in the mutant in which LexA was made non-cleavable (LexAN) and thus SOS non-inducible. Therefore, the stimulation appeared to involve SOS. The possible mechanisms of inducible biofilm formation were explored by subproteomic analysis of outer membrane fractions extracted from biofilms. The data predicted an inhibitory role of LexA in flagellum function. This premise was tested first by functional and morphological analyses of flagellum-based motility. The flagellum swimming motility decreased in the LexAN strain treated with ciprofloxacin. Second, the motility-biofilm assay was performed, which tested cell migration and biofilm formation. The results showed that wild-type biofilm increased significantly over the LexAN. These results suggest that LexA repression of motility, which is the initial event in biofilm development, contributes to repression of SOS-inducible biofilm formation. PMID:24125694

Chellappa, Shakinah T; Maredia, Reshma; Phipps, Kara; Haskins, William E; Weitao, Tao

2013-12-01

285

Staphylococcus aureus sarA Regulates Inflammation and Colonization during Central Nervous System Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Infection is a frequent and serious complication following the treatment of hydrocephalus with CSF shunts, with limited therapeutic options because of biofilm formation along the catheter surface. Here we evaluated the possibility that the sarA regulatory locus engenders S. aureus more resistant to immune recognition in the central nervous system (CNS) based on its reported ability to regulate biofilm formation. We utilized our established model of CNS catheter-associated infection, similar to CSF shunt infections seen in humans, to compare the kinetics of bacterial titers, cytokine production and inflammatory cell influx elicited by wild type S. aureus versus an isogenic sarA mutant. The sarA mutant was more rapidly cleared from infected catheters compared to its isogenic wild type strain. Consistent with this finding, several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-17, CXCL1, and IL-1? were significantly increased in the brain following infection with the sarA mutant versus wild type S. aureus, in agreement with the fact that the sarA mutant displayed impaired biofilm growth and favored a planktonic state. Neutrophil influx into the infected hemisphere was also increased in the animals infected with the sarA mutant compared to wild type bacteria. These changes were not attributable to extracellular protease activity, which is increased in the context of SarA mutation, since similar responses were observed between sarA and a sarA/protease mutant. Overall, these results demonstrate that sarA plays an important role in attenuating the inflammatory response during staphylococcal biofilm infection in the CNS via a mechanism that remains to be determined. PMID:24386336

Snowden, Jessica N.; Beaver, Matt; Beenken, Karen; Smeltzer, Mark; Horswill, Alexander R.; Kielian, Tammy

2013-01-01

286

Diversity assessment of Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation: impact of growth condition, serotype and strain origin.  

PubMed

The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes has the ability to produce biofilms in food-processing environments and then contaminate food products, which is a major concern for food safety. The biofilm forming behavior of 143 L. monocytogenes strains was determined in four different media that were rich, moderate or poor in nutrients at 12°C, 20°C, 30°C and 37°C. The biofilm formation was mostly influenced by temperature, resulting in decreased biofilm formation with decreasing temperature. Biofilm formation was enhanced in nutrient-poor medium rather than in nutrient-rich medium, and especially in nutrient-poor medium significantly enhanced biofilm production was observed early in biofilm maturation underlining the effect of medium on biofilm formation rate. Also serotype had a significant effect on biofilm formation and was influenced by medium used because strains from both serotype 1/2b and 1/2a formed more biofilm than serotype 4b strains in nutrient-rich medium at 20°C, 30°C and 37°C, whereas in nutrient-poor medium the biofilm production levels of serotype 1/2a and 4b strains were rather similar and lower than serotype 1/2b strains. The strains used originated from various origins, including dairy, meat, industrial environment, human and animal, and the level of biofilm formation was not significantly affected by the origin of isolation, irrespective of medium used and temperature tested. A linear model was used to correlate crystal violet staining of biofilm production to the number of viable cells within the biofilm. This showed that crystal violet staining was poorly correlated to the number of viable cells in nutrient-poor medium, and LIVE/DEAD staining and DNase I treatment revealed that this could be attributed to the presence of non-viable cells and extracellular DNA in the biofilm matrix. The significant impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on biofilm production of L. monocytogenes underlined that niche-specific features determine the levels of biofilm produced, and insights in biofilm formation characteristics will allow us to further optimize strategies to control the biofilm formation of L. monocytogenes. PMID:23800738

Kadam, Sachin R; den Besten, Heidy M W; van der Veen, Stijn; Zwietering, Marcel H; Moezelaar, Roy; Abee, Tjakko

2013-08-01

287

Characterization of the effect of serum and chelating agents on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation; chelating agents augment biofilm formation through clumping factor B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent of a diverse array of acute and chronic infections, and some these infections, including infective endocarditis, joint infections, and medical device-associated bloodstream infections, depend upon its capacity to form tenacious biofilms on surfaces. Inserted medical devices such as intravenous catheters, pacemakers, and artificial heart valves save lives, but unfortunately, they can also serve as a substrate on which S. aureus can form a biofilm, attributing S. aureus as a leading cause of medical device-related infections. The major aim of this work was take compounds to which S. aureus would be exposed during infection and to investigate their effects on its capacity to form a biofilm. More specifically, the project investigated the effects of serum, and thereafter of catheter lock solutions on biofilm formation by S. aureus. Pre-coating polystyrene with serum is frequently used as a method to augment biofilm formation. The effect of pre-coating with serum is due to the deposition of extracellular matrix components onto the polystyrene, which are then recognized by MSCRAMMs. We therefore hypothesized that the major component of blood, serum, would induce biofilm formation. Surprisingly, serum actually inhibited biofilm formation. The inhibitory activity was due to a small molecular weight, heat-stable, non-proteinaceous component/s of serum. Serum-mediated inhibition of biofilm formation may represent a previously uncharacterized aspect of host innate immunity that targets the expression of a key bacterial virulence factor: the ability to establish a resistant biofilm. Metal ion chelators like sodium citrate are frequently chosen to lock intravenous catheters because they are regarded as potent inhibitors of bacterial biofilm formation and viability. We found that, while chelating compounds abolished biofilm formation in most strains of S. aureus, they actually augmented the phenotype in a subset of strains. We investigated the molecular basis of this phenomenon. Deletion and complementation analysis and thereafter antibody based inhibition assays confirmed a functional role for the surface adhesin clumping factor B as the causative determinant associated with the increased biofilm phenotype. Finally, we investigated the regulation of clumping factor B-mediated biofilm formation and the basis for the strain dependence. Regulation was determined to occur via two novel post-translational networks- one affecting ClfB activity, mediated by Ca2+ binding to the EF-Hand domain, and the other affecting protein stability, mediated by the enzymatic activity of the metalloprotease-aureolysin. Polymorphisms within the aureolysin gene sequence, between strains, was identified as the basis for some strains forming robust biofilms within chelated media versus other than do not exhibit this phenotype.

Abraham, Nabil Mathew

288

Lavage with Allicin in Combination with Vancomycin Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis in a Rabbit Model of Prosthetic Joint Infection  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim The present anti-infection strategy for prosthetic joint infections (PJI) includes the use of antibiotics and surgical treatments, but the bacterial eradication rates are still low. One of the major challenges is the formation of biofilm causing poor bacterial eradication. Recently it has been reported that allicin (diallyl thiosulphinate), an antibacterial principle of garlic, can inhibit bacteria adherence and prevent biofilm formation in vitro. However, whether allicin could inhibit biofilm formation in vivo is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of allicin on biofilm formation, and whether allicin could potentiate the bactericidal effect of vancomycin in a rabbit PJI model. Methods A sterile stainless-steel screw with a sterile ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene washer was inserted into the lateral femoral condyle of the right hind knee joint of rabbit, and 1 mL inoculum containing 104 colony-forming units of Staphylococcus epidermidis was inoculated into the knee joint (n?=?32). Fourteen days later, rabbits randomly received one of the following 4 treatments using continuous lavages: normal saline, vancomycin (20 mcg/mL), allicin (4 mg/L), or allicin (4 mg/L) plus vancomycin (20 mcg/mL). Three days later, the washer surface biofilm formation was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The bacterial counts within the biofilm of implanted screws were determined by bacterial culture. Results The lowest number of viable bacterial counts of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from the biofilm was in the rabbits treated with allicin plus vancomycin (P<0.01 vs. all other groups). The biofilm formation was significantly reduced or undetectable by SEM in rabbits receiving allicin or allicin plus vancomycin. Conclusion Intra-articular allicincan inhibit biofilm formation and enhance the bactericidal effect of vancomycin on implant surface in vivo. Allicin in combination with vancomycin may be a useful anti-infection strategy for the treatment of PJI. PMID:25025650

Zhai, Haohan; Pan, Jianchao; Pang, En; Bai, Bo

2014-01-01

289

Soybean extracts facilitate bacterial agglutination and prevent biofilm formation on orthodontic wire.  

PubMed

Soybean is an essential food ingredient that contains a class of organic compounds known as isoflavones. It is also well known that several plant agglutinins interfere with bacterial adherence to smooth surfaces. However, little is known about the effects of soybean extracts or genistein (a purified isoflavone from soybean) on bacterial biofilm formation. We evaluated the effects of soybean (Glycine max) extracts, including fermented soybean and genistein, on streptococcal agglutination and attachment onto stainless steel orthodontic wire. After cultivating streptococci in biofilm medium containing soybean extracts and orthodontic wire, the viable bacteria attached to the wire were counted. Phase-contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were conducted to evaluate bacterial agglutination and attachment. Our study showed that soybean extracts induce agglutination between streptococci, which results in bacterial precipitation. Conversely, viable bacterial counting and SEM image analysis of Streptococcus mutans attached to the orthodontic wire show that bacterial attachment decreases significantly when soybean extracts were added. However, there was no significant change in pre-attached S. mutans biofilm in response to soybean. A possible explanation for these results is that increased agglutination of planktonic streptococci by soybean extracts results in inhibition of bacterial attachment onto the orthodontic wire. PMID:24456364

Lee, Heon-Jin; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han; Hong, Su-Hyung

2014-01-01

290

Effects of ambroxol on Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Typically, the onset of candidiasis is characterised by the appearance of a biofilm of Candida albicans, which is associated with several diseases including oral candidiasis in young and elderly people. The objective of this work was to investigate the in vitro fungicidal activity as well as the antibiofilm activity of ambroxol (AMB) against C. albicans growth. In the present investigation, the fungicidal activity of AMB was established using the cell viability 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Also the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AMB required to inhibit the fungal growth was determined. Simultaneously, the antibiofilm activity of AMB was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. The study revealed that 2 mg ml(-1) of AMB exhibited higher fungicidal activity than 3.3 mg ml(-1) of terbinafine, one of most common commercial antifungals. A MIC of 1 mg ml(-1) was determined for AMB to interfere with C. albicans growth. Furthermore, AMB was found to be effective in inhibiting the biofilm formation of C. albicans and exerted its fungicidal activity against the fungal cells interspersed in the preformed biofilm. The study suggests a potential role of the mucolytic agent, AMB, as an interesting therapeutic alternative in the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:24224742

Rene, Hernandez-Delgadillo; José, Martínez-Sanmiguel Juan; Isela, Sánchez-Nájera Rosa; Claudio, Cabral-Romero

2014-04-01

291

Anti-caries DNA vaccine-induced secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies inhibit formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms in vitro  

PubMed Central

Aim: To investigate the effects of anti-caries DNA vaccine-induced salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) antibodies on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adherence and biofilms formation in vitro. Methods: Adult female Wistar rats were intranasally immunized with the anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJA-P/VAX. Their saliva samples were collected at different times after the immunization, and S-IgA antibody level in the saliva and its inhibition on S. mutans adherence were examined. The effects of S-IgA in the saliva with the strongest inhibitory effects were examined at 3 different stages, ie acquired pellicles, biofilm formation and production of mature biofilms. The number of viable bacteria and depth of the biofilm at 16 h in each stage were determined using counting colony forming units and using a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The participation of S-IgA in acquired pellicles and its aggregation with S. mutans were also observed under CLSM. Results: The S-IgA titer in saliva reached its peak and exhibited the strongest inhibition on S. mutans adhesion at 10 weeks after the immunization. The colonies and depth of the biofilm in the saliva-pretreated group were 41.79% and 41.02%, respectively, less than the control group. The colonies and depth of the biofilm in the co-culture group were 27.4% and 22.81% less than the control group. The assembly of S. mutans and S-IgA was observed under CLSM after co-cultivation. In the mature-stage biofilm, no differences were observed between the different groups. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the anti-caries DNA vaccine induces the production of specific S-IgA antibodies that may prevent dental caries by inhibiting the initial adherence of S. mutans onto tooth surfaces, thereby reducing the accumulation of S. mutans on the acquired pellicles. PMID:23274411

Huang, Li; Xu, Qing-an; Liu, Chang; Fan, Ming-wen; Li, Yu-hong

2013-01-01

292

Chemoinformatics-assisted development of new anti-biofilm compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial biofilms are associated with a large number of infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant\\u000a to antibiotics, making it hard to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. Here, we use a novel cross-disciplinary approach\\u000a combining microbiology and chemoinformatics to identify new and efficient anti-biofilm drugs. We found that ellagic acid (present\\u000a in green tea) significantly inhibited biofilm formation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Based on

Anna Dürig; Irene Kouskoumvekaki; Rebecca M. Vejborg; Per Klemm

2010-01-01

293

Identification of natural compounds which inhibit biofilm formation in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae, an important opportunistic pathogen, exists as a biofilm in persistent infections and in-dwelling medical devices. With the objective of identifying natural compounds inhibiting biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae, 35 clinical isolates were screened,out of which 7 strong biofilm producers were identified. Six natural compounds were tested for their inhibitory effects on bacterial growth and biofilm formation by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum concentration for biofilm inhibition (MBIC) for each compound. The results show that reserpine followed by linoleic acid, were the most potent biofilm inhibitors. Reserpine, an efflux pump inhibitor was effective at biofilm inhibition at a concentration of 0.0156 mg/mL, 64-fold lower concentration than its MIC. Linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid was effective as a biofilm inhibitor at 0.0312 mg/mL, which is 32-fold lower than its MIC. Berberine, another plant derived antimicrobial, chitosan and eugenol had an MBIC value of 0.0635 mg/mL. Curcumin, a natural phenolic compound was effective at biofilm inhibition at a concentration of 0.25 mg/mL, which is 50 fold less than its MIC. Notably, the MIC and MBIC data on these 6 natural compounds was reproducible in all seven high biofilm forming isolates of K. pneumoniae. The present report is a comprehensive comparative analysis of the dose dependent inhibition of various natural compounds on biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae. PMID:24377137

Magesh, H; Kumar, Arun; Alam, Ayesha; Priyam; Sekar, Uma; Sumantran, Venil N; Vaidyanathan, Rama

2013-09-01

294

Polysaccharides and Proteins Added to Flowing Drinking Water at Microgram-per-Liter Levels Promote the Formation of Biofilms Predominated by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria  

PubMed Central

Biopolymers are important substrates for heterotrophic bacteria in (ultra)oligotrophic freshwater environments, but information about their utilization at microgram-per-liter levels by attached freshwater bacteria is lacking. This study aimed at characterizing biopolymer utilization in drinking-water-related biofilms by exposing such biofilms to added carbohydrates or proteins at 10 ?g C liter?1 in flowing tap water for up to 3 months. Individually added amylopectin was not utilized by the biofilms, whereas laminarin, gelatin, and caseinate were. Amylopectin was utilized during steady-state biofilm growth with simultaneously added maltose but not with simultaneously added acetate. Biofilm formation rates (BFR) at 10 ?g C liter?1 per substrate were ranked as follows, from lowest to highest: blank or amylopectin (?6 pg ATP cm?2 day?1), gelatin or caseinate, laminarin, maltose, acetate alone or acetate plus amylopectin, and maltose plus amylopectin (980 pg ATP cm?2 day?1). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the predominant maltose-utilizing bacteria also dominated subsequent amylopectin utilization, indicating catabolic repression and (extracellular) enzyme induction. The accelerated BFR with amylopectin in the presence of maltose probably resulted from efficient amylopectin binding to and hydrolysis by inductive enzymes attached to the bacterial cells. Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteriia grew during polysaccharide addition, and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, and Sphingobacteriia grew during protein addition. The succession of bacterial populations in the biofilms coincided with the decrease in the specific growth rate during biofilm formation. Biopolymers can clearly promote biofilm formation at microgram-per-liter levels in drinking water distribution systems and, depending on their concentrations, might impair the biological stability of distributed drinking water. PMID:24487544

Sack, Eveline L. W.; van der Kooij, Dick

2014-01-01

295

Polysaccharides and proteins added to flowing drinking water at microgram-per-liter levels promote the formation of biofilms predominated by bacteroidetes and proteobacteria.  

PubMed

Biopolymers are important substrates for heterotrophic bacteria in (ultra)oligotrophic freshwater environments, but information about their utilization at microgram-per-liter levels by attached freshwater bacteria is lacking. This study aimed at characterizing biopolymer utilization in drinking-water-related biofilms by exposing such biofilms to added carbohydrates or proteins at 10 ?g C liter(-1) in flowing tap water for up to 3 months. Individually added amylopectin was not utilized by the biofilms, whereas laminarin, gelatin, and caseinate were. Amylopectin was utilized during steady-state biofilm growth with simultaneously added maltose but not with simultaneously added acetate. Biofilm formation rates (BFR) at 10 ?g C liter(-1) per substrate were ranked as follows, from lowest to highest: blank or amylopectin (?6 pg ATP cm(-2) day(-1)), gelatin or caseinate, laminarin, maltose, acetate alone or acetate plus amylopectin, and maltose plus amylopectin (980 pg ATP cm(-2) day(-1)). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the predominant maltose-utilizing bacteria also dominated subsequent amylopectin utilization, indicating catabolic repression and (extracellular) enzyme induction. The accelerated BFR with amylopectin in the presence of maltose probably resulted from efficient amylopectin binding to and hydrolysis by inductive enzymes attached to the bacterial cells. Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteriia grew during polysaccharide addition, and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Cytophagia, Flavobacteriia, and Sphingobacteriia grew during protein addition. The succession of bacterial populations in the biofilms coincided with the decrease in the specific growth rate during biofilm formation. Biopolymers can clearly promote biofilm formation at microgram-per-liter levels in drinking water distribution systems and, depending on their concentrations, might impair the biological stability of distributed drinking water. PMID:24487544

Sack, Eveline L W; van der Wielen, Paul W J J; van der Kooij, Dick

2014-04-01

296

The influence of a glucosyltransferase, encoded by gtfP, on biofilm formation by Streptococcus sanguinis in a dual-species model.  

PubMed

Streptococcus sanguinis is an early colonizer of tooth surfaces and forms biofilms with other species of microorganisms. In vitro, S. sanguinis produces water-soluble glucans from sucrose and releases them into the culture supernatant; however, the role played by these glucans in biofilm formation is unclear. The present study examined both the effect of glucans on biofilm formation by S. sanguinis and the proportion of this bacterial species within the biofilms. Inactivation of the gtfP gene, annotated as glucosyltransferase in the S. sanguinis genome database, caused a marked reduction in the amount of water-soluble glucans in the culture supernatant, but not in the amount of water-insoluble glucans expressed on the bacterial cell surface. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that wild-type S. sanguinis, but not the gtfP-deficient mutant, produced large amounts of sticky material in the presence of 1% (w/v) sucrose. In addition, biofilm production by wild-type bacteria was greater than that by the mutant strain. By contrast, co-culture of mutant bacteria with Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, S. oralis, S. gordonii, S. anginosus, or S. salivarius showed that inactivating the gtfP gene had little effect on the amount of biofilm produced. Furthermore, inactivating the gtfP gene did not greatly alter the proportion of S. sanguinis in the biofilms formed by the co-cultures. Thus, despite the role of S. sanguinis glucosyltransferase in formation of water-soluble glucans and biofilms in monoculture, the functional gene contributed little to biofilms in co-culture experiments. PMID:24628454

Yoshida, Yasuo; Konno, Hiroyasu; Nagano, Keiji; Abiko, Yuki; Nakamura, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Yoshinobu; Yoshimura, Fuminobu

2014-10-01

297

Differential control of Yersinia pestis biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector by two c-di-GMP diguanylate cyclases.  

PubMed

Yersinia pestis forms a biofilm in the foregut of its flea vector that promotes transmission by flea bite. As in many bacteria, biofilm formation in Y. pestis is controlled by intracellular levels of the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP. Two Y. pestis diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes, encoded by hmsT and y3730, and one phosphodiesterase (PDE), encoded by hmsP, have been shown to control biofilm production in vitro via their opposing c-di-GMP synthesis and degradation activities, respectively. In this study, we provide further evidence that hmsT, hmsP, and y3730 are the only three genes involved in c-di-GMP metabolism in Y. pestis and evaluated the two DGCs for their comparative roles in biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector. As with HmsT, the DGC activity of Y3730 depended on a catalytic GGDEF domain, but the relative contribution of the two enzymes to the biofilm phenotype was influenced strongly by the environmental niche. Deletion of y3730 had a very minor effect on in vitro biofilm formation, but resulted in greatly reduced biofilm formation in the flea. In contrast, the predominant effect of hmsT was on in vitro biofilm formation. DGC activity was also required for the Hms-independent autoaggregation phenotype of Y. pestis, but was not required for virulence in a mouse model of bubonic plague. Our results confirm that only one PDE (HmsP) and two DGCs (HmsT and Y3730) control c-di-GMP levels in Y. pestis, indicate that hmsT and y3730 are regulated post-transcriptionally to differentially control biofilm formation in vitro and in the flea vector, and identify a second c-di-GMP-regulated phenotype in Y. pestis. PMID:21559445

Sun, Yi-Cheng; Koumoutsi, Alexandra; Jarrett, Clayton; Lawrence, Kevin; Gherardini, Frank C; Darby, Creg; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

2011-01-01

298

Inhibition of biofilm formation by conformationally constrained indole-based analogues of the marine alkaloid oroidin.  

PubMed

Herein, we describe indole-based analogues of oroidin as a novel class of 2-aminoimidazole-based inhibitors of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation and, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported 2-aminoimidazole-based inhibitors of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. This study highlighted the indole moiety as a dibromopyrrole mimetic for obtaining inhibitors of S. aureus and S. mutans biofilm formation. The most potent compound in the series, 5-(trifluoromethoxy)indole-based analogue 4b (MBIC50 = 20 ?M), emerged as a promising hit for further optimisation of novel inhibitors of S. aureus and S. mutans biofilms. PMID:24755428

Hodnik, Žiga; ?o?, Joanna M; Žula, Aleš; Zidar, Nace; Jakopin, Žiga; ?o?, Marcin; Sollner Dolenc, Marija; Ilaš, Janez; W?grzyn, Grzegorz; Peterlin Maši?, Lucija; Kikelj, Danijel

2014-06-01

299

Biofilm formation by Salmonella spp. on food contact surfaces and their sensitivity to sanitizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation by two poultry isolates of Salmonella on three commonly used food contact surfaces viz plastic, cement and stainless steel were studied. Biofilm formation of both the isolates showed a similar trend with the highest density being on plastic followed by cement and steel. Salmonella weltevreden formed biofilm with a cell density of 3.4×107, 1.57×106 and 3×105 cfu\\/cm2 on

B. Joseph; S. K. Otta; Indrani Karunasagar

2001-01-01

300

D-amino acids indirectly inhibit biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis by interfering with protein synthesis.  

PubMed

The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis forms biofilms on surfaces and at air-liquid interfaces. It was previously reported that these biofilms disassemble late in their life cycle and that conditioned medium from late-stage biofilms inhibits biofilm formation. Such medium contained a mixture of D-leucine, D-methionine, D-tryptophan, and D-tyrosine and was reported to inhibit biofilm formation via the incorporation of these D-amino acids into the cell wall. Here, we show that L-amino acids were able to specifically reverse the inhibitory effects of their cognate D-amino acids. We also show that D-amino acids inhibited growth and the expression of biofilm matrix genes at concentrations that inhibit biofilm formation. Finally, we report that the strain routinely used to study biofilm formation has a mutation in the gene (dtd) encoding D-tyrosyl-tRNA deacylase, an enzyme that prevents the misincorporation of D-amino acids into protein in B. subtilis. When we repaired the dtd gene, B. subtilis became resistant to the biofilm-inhibitory effects of D-amino acids without losing the ability to incorporate at least one noncanonical D-amino acid, D-tryptophan, into the peptidoglycan peptide side chain. We conclude that the susceptibility of B. subtilis to the biofilm-inhibitory effects of D-amino acids is largely, if not entirely, due to their toxic effects on protein synthesis. PMID:24097941

Leiman, Sara A; May, Janine M; Lebar, Matthew D; Kahne, Daniel; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

2013-12-01

301

Intra-Amoeba Multiplication Induces Chemotaxis and Biofilm Colonization and Formation for Legionella  

PubMed Central

Legionella pneumophila, a facultative intracellular bacterium, is the causative agent of legionellosis. In the environment this pathogenic bacterium colonizes the biofilms as well as amoebae, which provide a rich environment for the replication of Legionella. When seeded on pre-formed biofilms, L. pneumophila was able to establish and survive and was only found at the surface of the biofilms. Different phenotypes were observed when the L. pneumophila, used to implement pre-formed biofilms or to form mono-species biofilms, were cultivated in a laboratory culture broth or had grown intracellulary within the amoeba. Indeed, the bacteria, which developed within the amoeba, formed clusters when deposited on a solid surface. Moreover, our results demonstrate that multiplication inside the amoeba increased the capacity of L. pneumophila to produce polysaccharides and therefore enhanced its capacity to establish biofilms. Finally, it was shown that the clusters formed by L. pneumophila were probably related to the secretion of a chemotaxis molecular agent. PMID:24205008

Bigot, Renaud; Bertaux, Joanne; Frere, Jacques; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc

2013-01-01

302

Active starvation responses mediate antibiotic tolerance in biofilms and nutrient-limited bacteria  

PubMed Central

Bacteria become highly tolerant to antibiotics when nutrients are limited. The inactivity of antibiotic targets caused by starvation-induced growth arrest is thought to be a key mechanism producing tolerance (1). Here we show that the antibiotic tolerance of nutrient-limited and biofilm Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mediated by active responses to starvation, rather than by the passive effects of growth arrest. The protective mechanism is controlled by the starvation-signaling stringent response (SR), and our experiments link SR–mediated tolerance to reduced levels of oxidant stress in bacterial cells. Furthermore, inactivating this protective mechanism sensitized biofilms by several orders of magnitude to four different classes of antibiotics, and markedly enhanced the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in experimental infections. PMID:22096200

Joshi-Datar, Amruta; Lepine, Francois; Bauerle, Elizabeth; Olakanmi, Oyebode; Beer, Karlyn; McKay, Geoffrey; Siehnel, Richard; Schafhauser, James; Wang, Yun; Britigan, Bradley E.; Singh, Pradeep K.

2013-01-01

303

Active starvation responses mediate antibiotic tolerance in biofilms and nutrient-limited bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacteria become highly tolerant to antibiotics when nutrients are limited. The inactivity of antibiotic targets caused by starvation-induced growth arrest is thought to be a key mechanism producing tolerance. Here we show that the antibiotic tolerance of nutrient-limited and biofilm Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mediated by active responses to starvation, rather than by the passive effects of growth arrest. The protective mechanism is controlled by the starvation-signaling stringent response (SR), and our experiments link SR-mediated tolerance to reduced levels of oxidant stress in bacterial cells. Furthermore, inactivating this protective mechanism sensitized biofilms by several orders of magnitude to four different classes of antibiotics and markedly enhanced the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in experimental infections. PMID:22096200

Nguyen, Dao; Joshi-Datar, Amruta; Lepine, Francois; Bauerle, Elizabeth; Olakanmi, Oyebode; Beer, Karlyn; McKay, Geoffrey; Siehnel, Richard; Schafhauser, James; Wang, Yun; Britigan, Bradley E; Singh, Pradeep K

2011-11-18

304

Using microcosms for the estimation of the indigenous bacteria ability to form biofilms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was shown that in model microecosystems under unfavorable conditions microbial communities are able to form biofilms The system of microcosms on the base of water samples from Shira and Shunet lakes the Republic of Khakassia taken in different seasons was made The comparative analysis of the presence of the strains destructing mono- phenol and polycyclic naphthalene aromatic hydrocarbons in spring and autumn samples was carried out In Shunet lake with high level eutrophication strains able to degrade phenol and naphthalene present permanently In oligotrophic ecosystem of Shira lake phenol-degrading bacteria were revealed only in spring It was shown that plasmid-containing strains destructing naphthalene dominated in microcosms on the base of water samples from metalimnion In biofilms formed in microcosms on the base of water samples from hypolimnion strains containing plasmid of naphthalene degradation were not revealed Studying of these processes in microcosms allows making prediction estimations of bacterial cenosis survival in water ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic impact

Mogilnaya, O.; Lobova, T.; Kargatova, T.; Popova, L.; Pechurkin, N.

305

The R1 Conjugative Plasmid Increases Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation through an Envelope Stress Response? †  

PubMed Central

Differential gene expression in biofilm cells suggests that adding the derepressed conjugative plasmid R1drd19 increases biofilm formation by affecting genes related to envelope stress (rseA and cpxAR), biofilm formation (bssR and cstA), energy production (glpDFK), acid resistance (gadABCEX and hdeABD), and cell motility (csgBEFG, yehCD, yadC, and yfcV); genes encoding outer membrane proteins (ompACF), phage shock proteins (pspABCDE), and cold shock proteins (cspACDEG); and phage-related genes. To investigate the link between the identified genes and biofilm formation upon the addition of R1drd19, 40 isogenic mutants were classified according to their different biofilm formation phenotypes. Cells with class I mutations (those in rseA, bssR, cpxA, and ompA) exhibited no difference from the wild-type strain in biofilm formation and no increase in biofilm formation upon the addition of R1drd19. Cells with class II mutations (those in gatC, yagI, ompC, cspA, pspD, pspB, ymgB, gadC, pspC, ymgA, slp, cpxP, cpxR, cstA, rseC, ompF, and yqjD) displayed increased biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain but decreased biofilm formation upon the addition of R1drd19. Class III mutants showed increased biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain and increased biofilm formation upon the addition of R1drd19. Cells with class IV mutations displayed increased biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain but little difference upon the addition of R1drd19, and class V mutants exhibited no difference from the wild-type strain but increased biofilm formation upon the addition of R1drd19. Therefore, proteins encoded by the genes corresponding to the class I mutant phenotype are involved in R1drd19-promoted biofilm formation, primarily through their impact on cell motility. We hypothesize that the pili formed upon the addition of the conjugative plasmid disrupt the membrane (induce ompA) and activate the two-component system CpxAR as well as the other envelope stress response system, RseA-?E, both of which, along with BssR, play a key role in bacterial biofilm formation. PMID:18344336

Yang, Xiaole; Ma, Qun; Wood, Thomas K.

2008-01-01

306

The R1 conjugative plasmid increases Escherichia coli biofilm formation through an envelope stress response.  

PubMed

Differential gene expression in biofilm cells suggests that adding the derepressed conjugative plasmid R1drd19 increases biofilm formation by affecting genes related to envelope stress (rseA and cpxAR), biofilm formation (bssR and cstA), energy production (glpDFK), acid resistance (gadABCEX and hdeABD), and cell motility (csgBEFG, yehCD, yadC, and yfcV); genes encoding outer membrane proteins (ompACF), phage shock proteins (pspABCDE), and cold shock proteins (cspACDEG); and phage-related genes. To investigate the link between the identified genes and biofilm formation upon the addition of R1drd19, 40 isogenic mutants were classified according to their different biofilm formation phenotypes. Cells with class I mutations (those in rseA, bssR, cpxA, and ompA) exhibited no difference from the wild-type strain in biofilm formation and no increase in biofilm formation upon the addition of R1drd19. Cells with class II mutations (those in gatC, yagI, ompC, cspA, pspD, pspB, ymgB, gadC, pspC, ymgA, slp, cpxP, cpxR, cstA, rseC, ompF, and yqjD) displayed increased biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain but decreased biofilm formation upon the addition of R1drd19. Class III mutants showed increased biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain and increased biofilm formation upon the addition of R1drd19. Cells with class IV mutations displayed increased biofilm formation compared to the wild-type strain but little difference upon the addition of R1drd19, and class V mutants exhibited no difference from the wild-type strain but increased biofilm formation upon the addition of R1drd19. Therefore, proteins encoded by the genes corresponding to the class I mutant phenotype are involved in R1drd19-promoted biofilm formation, primarily through their impact on cell motility. We hypothesize that the pili formed upon the addition of the conjugative plasmid disrupt the membrane (induce ompA) and activate the two-component system CpxAR as well as the other envelope stress response system, RseA-sigma(E), both of which, along with BssR, play a key role in bacterial biofilm formation. PMID:18344336

Yang, Xiaole; Ma, Qun; Wood, Thomas K

2008-05-01

307

Modelling biofilm-induced formation damage and biocide treatment in subsurface geosystems  

PubMed Central

Biofilm growth in subsurface porous media, and its treatment with biocides (antimicrobial agents), involves a complex interaction of biogeochemical processes which provide non-trivial mathematical modelling challenges. Although there are literature reports of mathematical models to evaluate biofilm tolerance to biocides, none of these models have investigated biocide treatment of biofilms growing in interconnected porous media with flow. In this paper, we present a numerical investigation using a pore network model of biofilm growth, formation damage and biocide treatment. The model includes three phases (aqueous, adsorbed biofilm, and solid matrix), a single growth-limiting nutrient and a single biocide dissolved in the water. Biofilm is assumed to contain a single species of microbe, in which each cell can be a viable persister, a viable non-persister, or non-viable (dead). Persisters describe small subpopulation of cells which are tolerant to biocide treatment. Biofilm tolerance to biocide treatment is regulated by persister cells and includes ‘innate’ and ‘biocide-induced’ factors. Simulations demonstrate that biofilm tolerance to biocides can increase with biofilm maturity, and that biocide treatment alone does not reverse biofilm-induced formation damage. Also, a successful application of biological permeability conformance treatment involving geologic layers with flow communication is more complicated than simply engineering the attachment of biofilm-forming cells at desired sites. PMID:23164434

Ezeuko, C C; Sen, A; Gates, I D

2013-01-01

308

Biofilm Formation by the Fungal Pathogen Candida albicans: Development, Architecture, and Drug Resistance  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are a protected niche for microorganisms, where they are safe from antibiotic treatment and can create a source of persistent infection. Using two clinically relevant Candida albicans biofilm models formed on bioprosthetic materials, we demonstrated that biofilm formation proceeds through three distinct developmental phases. These growth phases transform adherent blastospores to well-defined cellular communities encased in a polysaccharide matrix. Fluorescence and confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that C. albicans biofilms have a highly heterogeneous architecture composed of cellular and noncellular elements. In both models, antifungal resistance of biofilm-grown cells increased in conjunction with biofilm formation. The expression of agglutinin-like (ALS) genes, which encode a family of proteins implicated in adhesion to host surfaces, was differentially regulated between planktonic and biofilm-grown cells. The ability of C. albicans to form biofilms contrasts sharply with that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which adhered to bioprosthetic surfaces but failed to form a mature biofilm. The studies described here form the basis for investigations into the molecular mechanisms of Candida biofilm biology and antifungal resistance and provide the means to design novel therapies for biofilm-based infections. PMID:11514524

Chandra, Jyotsna; Kuhn, Duncan M.; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Hoyer, Lois L.; McCormick, Thomas; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

2001-01-01

309

Tackling the minority: sulfate-reducing bacteria in an archaea-dominated subsurface biofilm  

PubMed Central

Archaea are usually minor components of a microbial community and dominated by a large and diverse bacterial population. In contrast, the SM1 Euryarchaeon dominates a sulfidic aquifer by forming subsurface biofilms that contain a very minor bacterial fraction (5%). These unique biofilms are delivered in high biomass to the spring outflow that provides an outstanding window to the subsurface. Despite previous attempts to understand its natural role, the metabolic capacities of the SM1 Euryarchaeon remain mysterious to date. In this study, we focused on the minor bacterial fraction in order to obtain insights into the ecological function of the biofilm. We link phylogenetic diversity information with the spatial distribution of chemical and metabolic compounds by combining three different state-of-the-art methods: PhyloChip G3 DNA microarray technology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy. The results of PhyloChip and FISH technologies provide evidence for selective enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria, which was confirmed by the detection of bacterial dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B (dsrB) genes via quantitative PCR and sequence-based analyses. We further established a differentiation of archaeal and bacterial cells by SR-FTIR based on typical lipid and carbohydrate signatures, which demonstrated a co-localization of organic sulfate, carbonated mineral and bacterial signatures in the biofilm. All these results strongly indicate an involvement of the SM1 euryarchaeal biofilm in the global cycles of sulfur and carbon and support the hypothesis that sulfidic springs are important habitats for Earth's energy cycles. Moreover, these investigations of a bacterial minority in an Archaea-dominated environment are a remarkable example of the great power of combining highly sensitive microarrays with label-free infrared imaging. PMID:23178669

Probst, Alexander J; Holman, Hoi-Ying N; DeSantis, Todd Z; Andersen, Gary L; Birarda, Giovanni; Bechtel, Hans A; Piceno, Yvette M; Sonnleitner, Maria; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2013-01-01

310

Chemical analysis, inhibition of biofilm formation and biofilm eradication potential of Euphorbia hirta L. against clinical isolates and standard strains  

PubMed Central

Background The frequent occurrences of antibiotic-resistant biofilm forming pathogens have become global issue since various measures that had been taken to curb the situation led to failure. Euphorbia hirta, is a well-known ethnomedicinal plant of Malaysia with diverse biological activities. This plant has been used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal, bronchial and respiratory ailments caused by infectious agents. Methods In the present study, chemical compositions of methanol extract of E. hirta L. aerial part was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A relevant in vitro model was developed to assess the potency of the E. hirta extract to inhibit the bacterial biofilm formation as well as to eradicate the established biofilms. Besides biofilm, E. hirta extract was also evaluated for the inhibition efficacy on planktonic cells using tetrazolium microplate assay. For these purposes, a panel of clinically resistant pathogens and American type culture collection (ATCC) strains were used. Results The methanolic extract of aerial part of E. hirta was predominantly composed of terpenoid (60.5%) which is often regarded as an active entity accountable for the membrane destruction and biofilm cell detachment. The highest antibacterial effect of crude E. hirta extract was observed in the clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.062 mg/ml. The extract also displayed potent biofilm inhibition and eradication activity against P. aeruginosa with minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (MBIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) values of 0.25 mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusions The crude methanol extract of E. hirta has proven to have interesting and potential anti-biofilm properties. The findings from this study will also help to establish a very promising anti-infective phytotherapeutical to be exploited in the pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24321370

2013-01-01

311

Zinc enhances the phototoxic effect of blue light against malodour-producing bacteria in an experimental oral biofilm.  

PubMed

Oral malodour is thought to be caused mainly by the production of volatile sulfide compounds (VSCs) by anaerobic Gram-negative oral bacteria. Previous studies have shown that these bacteria are susceptible to blue light (400-500 nm wavelength). In the present study, we tested the effect of blue light in the presence of zinc, erythrosine B or both on malodour production in an experimental oral biofilm. Biofilms were exposed to a plasma-arc light source for 30, 60 and 120 s (equal to energy fluxes of 41, 82 and 164 J cm(-2), respectively) with or without the addition of zinc acetate, erythrosine B or both. After the light exposure, biofilm samples were examined for malodour production (by an odour judge) and VSC production (with a Halimeter), and VSC-producing bacteria were quantified using a microscopy-based sulfide assay (MSA) and in situ confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results showed that exposing experimental oral biofilm to both blue light and zinc reduced malodour production, which coincided with a reduction in VSC-producing bacteria in the biofilm. These results suggest that zinc enhances the phototoxicity of blue light against malodour-producing bacteria. PMID:24913560

Sterer, Nir; Jeffet, Uziel; Dadoun, Aurel; Greenstein, Ronit Bar-Ness; Kohavi, David

2014-08-01

312

Mycobacterium biofilms: factors involved in development, dispersal, and therapeutic strategies against biofilm-relevant pathogens.  

PubMed

Many bacteria can develop biofilm (BF), a multicellular structure largely combining bacteria and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The formation of biofilm results in an alternative existence in which microbes ensure their survival in adverse environments. Biofilm-relevant infections are more persistent, resistant to most antibiotics, and more recalcitrant to host immunity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, can develop biofilm, though whether M. tuberculosis can form biofilm within tuberculosis patients has yet to be determined. Here, we summarize the factors involved in the development and dispersal of mycobacterial biofilms, as well as underlying regulatory factors and inhibitors against biofilm to deepen our understanding of their development and to elucidate potential novel modes of action for future antibiotics. Key factors in biofilm formation identified as drug targets represent a novel and promising avenue for developing better antibiotics. PMID:25072151

Xiang, Xiaohong; Deng, Wanyan; Liu, Minqiang; Xie, Jianping

2014-01-01

313

D-Amino acids inhibit biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis strains from ocular infections.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation on medical and surgical devices is a major virulence determinant for Staphylococcus epidermidis. The bacterium S. epidermidis is able to produce biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces and is the cause of ocular infection (OI). Recent studies have shown that d-amino acids inhibit and disrupt biofilm formation in the prototype strains Bacillus subtilis NCBI3610 and Staphylococcus aureus SCO1. The effect of d-amino acids on S. epidermidis biofilm formation has yet to be tested for clinical or commensal isolates. S. epidermidis strains isolated from healthy skin (n?=?3), conjunctiva (n?=?9) and OI (n?=?19) were treated with d-Leu, d-Tyr, d-Pro, d-Phe, d-Met or d-Ala and tested for biofilm formation. The presence of d-amino acids during biofilm formation resulted in a variety of patterns. Some strains were sensitive to all amino acids tested, while others were sensitive to one or more, and one strain was resistant to all of them when added individually; in this way d-Met inhibited most of the strains (26/31), followed by d-Phe (21/31). Additionally, the use of d-Met inhibited biofilm formation on a contact lens. The use of l-isomers caused no defect in biofilm formation in all strains tested. In contrast, when biofilms were already formed d-Met, d-Phe and d-Pro were able to disrupt it. In summary, here we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of d-amino acids on biofilm formation in S. epidermidis. Moreover, we showed, for the first time, that S. epidermidis clinical strains have a different sensitivity to these compounds during biofilm formation. PMID:25001104

Ramón-Peréz, Miriam L; Diaz-Cedillo, Francisco; Ibarra, J Antonio; Torales-Cardeña, Azael; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Cancino-Diaz, Mario E; Cancino-Diaz, Juan C

2014-10-01

314

The response regulator SypE controls biofilm formation and colonization through phosphorylation of the syp-encoded  

E-print Network

The response regulator SypE controls biofilm formation and colonization through phosphorylation with similarity to partner-switching proteins. SypE was previously shown to exert dual control over biofilmE controls biofilms in Vibrio fischeri by regu- lating the activity of SypA, a STAS (sulphate trans- porter

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

315

Resistance to benzalkonium chloride, peracetic acid and nisin during formation of mature biofilms by Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increase of resistance to the application of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), peracetic acid (PA) and nisin during biofilm formation at 25 °C by three strains of Listeria monocytogenes (CECT 911, CECT 4032, CECT 5873 and BAC-adapted CECT 5873) in different scenarios was compared. For this purpose, resistance after 4 and 11-days of biofilm formation was quantified in terms of lethal dose 90%

P. Saá Ibusquiza; J. J. R. Herrera; M. L. Cabo

2011-01-01

316

The Intercellular Adhesion (ica) Locus Is Present in Staphylococcus aureus and Is Required for Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nosocomial infections that result in the formation of biofilms on the surfaces of biomedical implants are a leading cause of sepsis and are often associated with colonization of the implants by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Biofilm formation is thought to require two sequential steps: adhesion of cells to a solid substrate followed by cell-cell adhesion, creating multiple layers of cells. Intercellular adhesion

SARAH E. CRAMTON; CHRISTIANE GERKE; NORBERT F. SCHNELL; WRIGHT W. NICHOLS; FRIEDRICH GOTZ

1999-01-01

317

In Vitro Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation on Hydroxyapatite by Subinhibitory Concentrations of Anthraquinones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report that certain anthraquinones (AQs) reduce Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on hydroxyap- atite at concentrations below the MIC. Although AQs are known to generate reactive oxygen species, the latter do not underlie the observed effect. Our results suggest that AQs inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation by causing

Tom Coenye; Kris Honraet; Petra Rigole; Pol Nadal Jimenez; Hans J. Nelis

2007-01-01

318

In Vitro Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation on Hydroxyapatite by Subinhibitory Concentrations of Anthraquinones?  

PubMed Central

We report that certain anthraquinones (AQs) reduce Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on hydroxyapatite at concentrations below the MIC. Although AQs are known to generate reactive oxygen species, the latter do not underlie the observed effect. Our results suggest that AQs inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation by causing membrane perturbation. PMID:17220400

Coenye, Tom; Honraet, Kris; Rigole, Petra; Jimenez, Pol Nadal; Nelis, Hans J.

2007-01-01

319

Ethanol-Independent Biofilm Formation by a Flor Wine Yeast Strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

PubMed Central

Flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a biofilm on the surface of wine at the end of fermentation, when sugar is depleted and growth on ethanol becomes dependent on oxygen. Here, we report greater biofilm formation on glycerol and ethyl acetate and inconsistent formation on succinic, lactic, and acetic acids. PMID:20435772

Zara, Severino; Gross, Michael K.; Zara, Giacomo; Budroni, Marilena; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

2010-01-01

320

Biofilm formation by Mycobacterium avium isolates originating from humans, swine and birds  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium avium includes the subspecies avium, silvaticum, paratuberculosis and hominissuis, and M. avium subspecies has been isolated from various environments all over the world including from biofilms in water distribution systems. The aim of this study was to examine isolates of M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis of different origin for biofilm formation and to look for correlations between biofilm formation and RFLP-types, and to standardise the method to test for biofilm formation. In order to determine the best screening method, a panel of 14 isolates of M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis, were tested for their ability to form biofilm in microtiter plates under different conditions. Subsequently, 83 additional isolates from humans, swine and birds were tested for biofilm formation. The isolates were tested for the presence of selected genes involved in the synthesis of glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) in the cell wall of M. avium, which is believed to be important for biofilm formation. Colony morphology and hsp65 sequvar were also determined. Results Nine isolates from swine produced biofilm. There was a significant higher frequency of porcine isolates forming biofilm compared to human isolates. All isolates were previously characterised by IS1311- and IS1245-RFLP typing. The ability to form biofilm did not correlate with the RFLP-type, hsp65 sequevar, colony morphology or the presence of gene sequences related to GPL synthesis. Conclusion The observed differences in biofilm forming abilities between porcine and human isolates raises questions regarding the importance of biofilm formation for infectious potential. The optimised method worked well for screening of multiple isolates. PMID:19660141

2009-01-01

321

Chicken Juice Enhances Surface Attachment and Biofilm Formation of Campylobacter jejuni.  

PubMed

The bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is primarily transmitted via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs, especially poultry meat. In food processing environments, C. jejuni is required to survive a multitude of stresses and requires the use of specific survival mechanisms, such as biofilms. An initial step in biofilm formation is bacterial attachment to a surface. Here, we investigated the effects of a chicken meat exudate (chicken juice) on C. jejuni surface attachment and biofilm formation. Supplementation of brucella broth with ?5% chicken juice resulted in increased biofilm formation on glass, polystyrene, and stainless steel surfaces with four C. jejuni isolates and one C. coli isolate in both microaerobic and aerobic conditions. When incubated with chicken juice, C. jejuni was both able to grow and form biofilms in static cultures in aerobic conditions. Electron microscopy showed that C. jejuni cells were associated with chicken juice particulates attached to the abiotic surface rather than the surface itself. This suggests that chicken juice contributes to C. jejuni biofilm formation by covering and conditioning the abiotic surface and is a source of nutrients. Chicken juice was able to complement the reduction in biofilm formation of an aflagellated mutant of C. jejuni, indicating that chicken juice may support food chain transmission of isolates with lowered motility. We provide here a useful model for studying the interaction of C. jejuni biofilms in food chain-relevant conditions and also show a possible mechanism for C. jejuni cell attachment and biofilm initiation on abiotic surfaces within the food chain. PMID:25192991

Brown, Helen L; Reuter, Mark; Salt, Louise J; Cross, Kathryn L; Betts, Roy P; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

2014-11-15

322

Quantitative Evaluation of Bacteria Adherent and in Biofilm on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Coated Surfaces  

PubMed Central

Biofilm is a common bacterial lifestyle, and it plays a crucial role in human health, causing biofilm-mediated infections. Recently, to counteract biofilm development, new nano-structured biomaterials have been proposed. However, data about the antibacterial properties of nano-structured surfaces are fragmentary and controversial, and, in particular, the susceptibility of nano-structured materials to colonization and biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens has not been yet thoroughly considered. Here, the ability of the pathogenic Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to adhere and form biofilm on surfaces coated with single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was analyzed. Our results showed that the surfaces of SWCNTs-coated glass beads (SWCNTs-GBs) were colonized at the same extent of uncoated GBs both by S. mutans and P. aeruginosa. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that single wall SWCNTs-coated surfaces are not suitable to counteract bacterial adhesion and biofilm development. PMID:22007207

Pantanella, Fabrizio; Berlutti, Francesca; Passeri, Daniele; Sordi, Daniela; Frioni, Alessandra; Natalizi, Tiziana; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Marco; Valenti, Piera

2011-01-01

323

Development of a biofilm formation method for waste forms stability evaluation.  

PubMed

The development of an accurate assessment protocol is critical for the prediction of long-term performance of waste disposal systems under field conditions. In this study, the development of a biofilm formation method for the evaluation of waste forms stability to microbially induced degradation (MID) is reported. The development process involved significant modifications to the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach. In the biofilm formation method, the control media and fermenter broths are designed to be of similar pH to avoid overestimation of the microbe's capability to degrade the waste forms. In the NRC approach, the pH values are different. The existing one-stage process of the NRC approach is also replaced with a two-stage process in the biofilm formation method. This is to ensure full evaluation of the microbe's involvement in waste forms degradation. The first stage of the two-stage process is for biofilm formation and the second is for biofilm evaluation. The use of a two-stage process eliminates the possibility of substrate limitation, resulting in values of degradation indices that are about two times higher than those obtained using the single-stage NRC approach. Two waste forms (100% Tuskegee cement and 21% cobalt chloride/79% cement) were used in the development of the biofilm formation method. Both waste forms showed evidence of biofilm formation. The formation of biofilm on the cobalt-containing waste form indicates a lack of anti-microbial capability of cobalt. PMID:10946124

Idachaba, M A; Nyavor, K; Egiebor, N O; Rogers, R D

2000-10-01

324

A novel model of chronic wounds: importance of redox imbalance and biofilm-forming bacteria for establishment of chronicity.  

PubMed

Chronic wounds have a large impact on health, affecting ?6.5 M people and costing ?$25B/year in the US alone [1]. We previously discovered that a genetically modified mouse model displays impaired healing similar to problematic wounds in humans and that sometimes the wounds become chronic. Here we show how and why these impaired wounds become chronic, describe a way whereby we can drive impaired wounds to chronicity at will and propose that the same processes are involved in chronic wound development in humans. We hypothesize that exacerbated levels of oxidative stress are critical for initiation of chronicity. We show that, very early after injury, wounds with impaired healing contain elevated levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and, much like in humans, these levels increase with age. Moreover, the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes is not elevated, leading to buildup of oxidative stress in the wound environment. To induce chronicity, we exacerbated the redox imbalance by further inhibiting the antioxidant enzymes and by infecting the wounds with biofilm-forming bacteria isolated from the chronic wounds that developed naturally in these mice. These wounds do not re-epithelialize, the granulation tissue lacks vascularization and interstitial collagen fibers, they contain an antibiotic-resistant mixed bioflora with biofilm-forming capacity, and they stay open for several weeks. These findings are highly significant because they show for the first time that chronic wounds can be generated in an animal model effectively and consistently. The availability of such a model will significantly propel the field forward because it can be used to develop strategies to regain redox balance that may result in inhibition of biofilm formation and result in restoration of healthy wound tissue. Furthermore, the model can lead to the understanding of other fundamental mechanisms of chronic wound development that can potentially lead to novel therapies. PMID:25313558

Dhall, Sandeep; Do, Danh; Garcia, Monika; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan Shanaka; Brandon, Angela; Kim, Jane; Sanchez, Antonio; Lyubovitsky, Julia; Gallagher, Sean; Nothnagel, Eugene A; Chalfant, Charles E; Patel, Rakesh P; Schiller, Neal; Martins-Green, Manuela

2014-01-01

325

A Novel Model of Chronic Wounds: Importance of Redox Imbalance and Biofilm-Forming Bacteria for Establishment of Chronicity  

PubMed Central

Chronic wounds have a large impact on health, affecting ?6.5 M people and costing ?$25B/year in the US alone [1]. We previously discovered that a genetically modified mouse model displays impaired healing similar to problematic wounds in humans and that sometimes the wounds become chronic. Here we show how and why these impaired wounds become chronic, describe a way whereby we can drive impaired wounds to chronicity at will and propose that the same processes are involved in chronic wound development in humans. We hypothesize that exacerbated levels of oxidative stress are critical for initiation of chronicity. We show that, very early after injury, wounds with impaired healing contain elevated levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and, much like in humans, these levels increase with age. Moreover, the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes is not elevated, leading to buildup of oxidative stress in the wound environment. To induce chronicity, we exacerbated the redox imbalance by further inhibiting the antioxidant enzymes and by infecting the wounds with biofilm-forming bacteria isolated from the chronic wounds that developed naturally in these mice. These wounds do not re-epithelialize, the granulation tissue lacks vascularization and interstitial collagen fibers, they contain an antibiotic-resistant mixed bioflora with biofilm-forming capacity, and they stay open for several weeks. These findings are highly significant because they show for the first time that chronic wounds can be generated in an animal model effectively and consistently. The availability of such a model will significantly propel the field forward because it can be used to develop strategies to regain redox balance that may result in inhibition of biofilm formation and result in restoration of healthy wound tissue. Furthermore, the model can lead to the understanding of other fundamental mechanisms of chronic wound development that can potentially lead to novel therapies. PMID:25313558

Dhall, Sandeep; Do, Danh; Garcia, Monika; Wijesinghe, Dayanjan Shanaka; Brandon, Angela; Kim, Jane; Sanchez, Antonio; Lyubovitsky, Julia; Gallagher, Sean; Nothnagel, Eugene A.; Chalfant, Charles E.; Patel, Rakesh P.; Schiller, Neal; Martins-Green, Manuela

2014-01-01

326

External pH is a cue for the behavioral switch that determines surface motility and biofilm formation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.  

PubMed

Bacteria use different strategies to survive unfavorable environmental conditions. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a bacterium capable of surviving extremely harsh conditions, for instance, during industrial food processing. A. acidoterrestris is a spore-forming, thermoacidophilic, nonpathogenic bacterium that commonly contaminates commercial pasteurized fruit juices and is, therefore, considered a major microbiological contaminant in the juice industry. The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether A. acidoterrestris is capable of multicellular behavior by testing its ability of biofilm formation and surface motility. A. acidoterrestris was found to be proficient in migration over a surface that is apparently powered by flagella. It was further shown that lowering the external pH leads to inhibition in surface motility of these bacteria. Concomitantly, the reduction in the external pH triggered biofilm formation of A. acidoterrestris cells. Thus, although no significant biofilm was formed at pH 4.5, robust cell adhesion and confluent biofilm formation was seen below the pH 3.6. These findings indicate that the reduction of external pH is an environmental cue for the behavioral switch that inhibits surface motility and triggers biofilm formation of A. acidoterrestris. Gaining insight into the multicellular behavior that facilitates A. acidoterrestris survival in food contact surfaces may contribute to the development of novel antimicrobial means to prevent cross-contamination caused by this bacterium. PMID:25198607

Shemesh, Moshe; Pasvolsky, Ronit; Zakin, Varda

2014-08-01

327

The rate of iron corrosion for different organic carbon sources during biofilm formation.  

PubMed

The effects of total organic carbon and biofilm on microbial corrosion were quantified using serum bottles in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Both organic carbon and biofilm bacteria had a significant effect on the iron corrosion rate, irrespective of the levels of the other variable (p = 0.05). There was no evidence of interaction between organic carbon and biofilm bacteria. Within the tested levels, the addition of exogenous organic carbon increased the corrosion rate by an average of 3.838 mg dm(-2) day(-1) (mdd), but the presence of biofilm bacteria decreased the rate by an average of 2.305 mdd. More iron was released from the coupon in response to organic carbon. Powder x-ray diffractometry indicated that the scales deposited on the corroded iron surface consisted primarily of lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH), magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (alpha-Fe203). Corrosion rates by different organic carbon sources, i.e. acetate, glucose and humic substances, were compared using an annular biofilm reactor. One-way ANOVA suggested that the effect of each carbon source on corrosion was not the same, with the iron corrosion rate highest for glucose, followed by acetate, humic substances and the control. Magnetite was a major constituent of the corrosion products scraped from iron slides. Examination of community-level physiological profile patterns on the biofilms indicated that acetate was a carbon source that could promote the metabolic and functional potentials of biofilm communities. PMID:17547021

Park, S K; Choi, S C; Kim, Y K

2007-01-01

328

Inhibition of Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation by Self-Assembled Monolayers of Functional Alkanethiols on Gold? †  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilms cause serious problems, such as antibiotic resistance and medical device-related infections. To further understand bacterium-surface interactions and to develop efficient control strategies, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols presenting different functional groups on gold films were analyzed to determine their resistance to biofilm formation. Escherichia coli was labeled with green florescence protein, and its biofilm formation on SAM-modified surfaces was monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The three-dimensional structures of biofilms were analyzed with the COMSTAT software to obtain information about biofilm thickness and surface coverage. SAMs presenting methyl, l-gulonamide (a sugar alcohol tethered with an amide bond), and tri(ethylene glycol) (TEG) groups were tested. Among these, the TEG-terminated SAM was the most resistant to E. coli biofilm formation; e.g., it repressed biofilm formation by E. coli DH5? by 99.5% ± 0.1% for 1 day compared to the biofilm formation on a bare gold surface. When surfaces were patterned with regions consisting of methyl-terminated SAMs surrounded by TEG-terminated SAMs, E. coli formed biofilms only on methyl-terminated patterns. Addition of TEG as a free molecule to growth medium at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0% also inhibited biofilm formation, while TEG at concentrations up to 1.5% did not have any noticeable effects on cell growth. The results of this study suggest that the reduction in biofilm formation on surfaces modified with TEG-terminated SAMs is a result of multiple factors, including the solvent structure at the interface, the chemorepellent nature of TEG, and the inhibitory effect of TEG on cell motility. PMID:17483274

Hou, Shuyu; Burton, Erik A.; Simon, Karen A.; Blodgett, Dustin; Luk, Yan-Yeung; Ren, Dacheng

2007-01-01

329

A quorum-sensing inhibitor blocks Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing is a chemical communication process that bacteria use to regulate collective behaviors. Disabling quorum-sensing circuits with small molecules has been proposed as a potential strategy to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses quorum sensing to control virulence and biofilm formation. Here, we analyze synthetic molecules for inhibition of the two P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing receptors, LasR and RhlR. Our most effective compound, meta-bromo-thiolactone (mBTL), inhibits both the production of the virulence factor pyocyanin and biofilm formation. mBTL also protects Caenorhabditis elegans and human lung epithelial cells from killing by P. aeruginosa. Both LasR and RhlR are partially inhibited by mBTL in vivo and in vitro; however, RhlR, not LasR, is the relevant in vivo target. More potent antagonists do not exhibit superior function in impeding virulence. Because LasR and RhlR reciprocally control crucial virulence factors, appropriately tuning rather than completely inhibiting their activities appears to hold the key to blocking pathogenesis in vivo. PMID:24143808

O'Loughlin, Colleen T; Miller, Laura C; Siryaporn, Albert; Drescher, Knut; Semmelhack, Martin F; Bassler, Bonnie L

2013-10-29

330

A quorum-sensing inhibitor blocks Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence and biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is a chemical communication process that bacteria use to regulate collective behaviors. Disabling quorum-sensing circuits with small molecules has been proposed as a potential strategy to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses quorum sensing to control virulence and biofilm formation. Here, we analyze synthetic molecules for inhibition of the two P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing receptors, LasR and RhlR. Our most effective compound, meta-bromo-thiolactone (mBTL), inhibits both the production of the virulence factor pyocyanin and biofilm formation. mBTL also protects Caenorhabditis elegans and human lung epithelial cells from killing by P. aeruginosa. Both LasR and RhlR are partially inhibited by mBTL in vivo and in vitro; however, RhlR, not LasR, is the relevant in vivo target. More potent antagonists do not exhibit superior function in impeding virulence. Because LasR and RhlR reciprocally control crucial virulence factors, appropriately tuning rather than completely inhibiting their activities appears to hold the key to blocking pathogenesis in vivo. PMID:24143808

O'Loughlin, Colleen T.; Miller, Laura C.; Siryaporn, Albert; Drescher, Knut; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

2013-01-01

331

Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.  

PubMed

More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed. PMID:22533980

Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

2012-07-01

332

OmpA influences Escherichia coli biofilm formation by repressing cellulose production through the CpxRA  

E-print Network

OmpA influences Escherichia coli biofilm formation by repressing cellulose production through Previously we discovered that OmpA of Escherichia coli increases biofilm formation on polystyrene sur- faces coli in a complex manner. For example, flagella and type 1 pili are required for biofilm formation

Wood, Thomas K.

333

Evaluation of analytical methods for determining the distribution of biofilm and active bacteria in a commercial heating system.  

PubMed

Danish district heating systems have good water quality, but continue to suffer from biofouling and biocorrosion. Localisation analyses of bacteria using microautoradiography were performed for one system in order to obtain detailed information for solving these problems. A mass balance showed that 77% of the bacteria were located at surfaces, with 23% in the bulk water, and 9% of the total carbon originated from biomass, while 91% was dissolved in the bulk water. The presence of active bacteria was determined with microautoradiography which showed that biofilms contained 99% and 1% were in the bulk water. A high bacterial functional diversity was observed, with active mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and with potentially corrosive biofilm bacteria present. The study reveals that by applying the activity based approach, the ratio of living and dead bacteria in the biofilm and bulk water in this type of system could be accurately determined. Also, the results emphasise that to minimise biofilm growth and biocorrosion, monitoring should be established focusing on the surfaces, since bulk water parameters do not reflect bacterial activity. PMID:17290859

Kjellerup, B V; Gudmonsson, G; Sowers, K; Nielsen, P H

2006-01-01

334

Biofilms and Marine Invertebrate Larvae: What Bacteria Produce That Larvae Use to Choose Settlement Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communities of microorganisms form thin coats across solid surfaces in the sea. Larvae of many marine invertebrates use biofilm components as cues to appropriate settlement sites. Research on the tube-dwelling polychaete worm Hydroides elegans, a globally common member of biofouling communities, is described to exemplify approaches to understanding biofilm bacteria as a source of settlement cues and larvae as bearers of receptors for bacterial cues. The association of species of the bacterial genus Pseudoalteromonas with larval settlement in many phyla is described, and the question of whether cues are soluble or surface-bound is reviewed, concluding that most evidence points to surface-bound cues. Seemingly contradictory data for stimulation of barnacle settlement are discussed; possibly both explanations are true. Paleontological evidence reveals a relationship between metazoans and biofilms very early in metazoan evolution, and thus the receptors for bacterial cues of invertebrate larvae are very old and possibly unique. Finally, despite more than 60 years of intense investigation, we still know very little about either the bacterial ligands that stimulate larval settlement or the cellular basis of their detection by larvae.

Hadfield, Michael G.

2011-01-01

335

Taking the Starch out of Oral Biofilm Formation: Molecular Basis and Functional Significance of Salivary ?-Amylase Binding to Oral Streptococci  

PubMed Central

?-Amylase-binding streptococci (ABS) are a heterogeneous group of commensal oral bacterial species that comprise a significant proportion of dental plaque microfloras. Salivary ?-amylase, one of the most abundant proteins in human saliva, binds to the surface of these bacteria via specific surface-exposed ?-amylase-binding proteins. The functional significance of ?-amylase-binding proteins in oral colonization by streptococci is important for understanding how salivary components influence oral biofilm formation by these important dental plaque species. This review summarizes the results of an extensive series of studies that have sought to define the molecular basis for ?-amylase binding to the surface of the bacterium as well as the biological significance of this phenomenon in dental plaque biofilm formation. PMID:23144140

Nikitkova, Anna E.; Haase, Elaine M.

2013-01-01

336

Effect of antibacterials on biofilms.  

PubMed

Indwelling catheters are the most common cause of health care-associated bloodstream infections (BSIs). BSIs arise from a bacterial biofilm that consists of bacteria embedded within an extracellular polysaccharide matrix on the catheter surface. The initial step in biofilm formation is adherence of planktonic organisms to the catheter surface. Attached organisms divide to form microcolonies and secrete an extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Under stress conditions, these organisms can detach and become planktonic, resulting in bacteremia that can allow the bacteria to colonize a new site. Systemic antibiotics are able to eliminate planktonic organisms released from the biofilm but are often ineffective in treating infections resulting from biofilm-embedded organisms. Biofilm resistance is usually multifactorial, which makes biofilm eradication difficult, and, thus, most biofilm-related infections require prompt removal of the device. Intervention strategies for biofilm-associated infections include (1) prevention of initial device contamination, (2) minimization of initial microbial cell attachment, (3) use of agents such as high-dose antibiotics or antibiofilm agent in a catheter lock solution to penetrate the biofilm matrix and kill the embedded organisms, and (4) removal of the infected device. Some antibacterials are better than others in treating biofilm-associated bacteria, such as rifampin (in combination with other antibiotics), tigecycline, daptomycin, N-acetylysteine (in combination with tigecycline), and ethanol. PMID:19084156

Aslam, Saima

2008-12-01

337

Self-produced exopolysaccharide is a signal that stimulates biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Bacteria have a tendency to attach to surfaces and grow as structured communities called biofilms. Chronic biofilm infections are a problem because they tend to resist antibiotic treatment and are difficult to eradicate. Bacterial biofilms have an extracellular matrix that is usually composed of a mixture of polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. This matrix has long been assumed to play a passive structural and protective role for resident biofilm cells. Here we show that this view is an oversimplification and that the biofilm matrix can play an active role in stimulating its own synthesis. Working with the model biofilm bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we found that Psl, a major biofilm matrix polysaccharide for this species, acts as a signal to stimulate two diguanylate cyclases, SiaD and SadC, to produce the intracellular secondary messenger molecule c-di-GMP. Elevated intracellular concentrations of c-di-GMP then lead to the increased production of Psl and other components of the biofilm. This mechanism represents a unique positive feedback regulatory circuit, where the expression of an extracellular polysaccharide promotes biofilm growth in a manner analogous to autocrine signaling in eukaryotes. PMID:23175784

Irie, Yasuhiko; Borlee, Bradley R; O'Connor, Jennifer R; Hill, Preston J; Harwood, Caroline S; Wozniak, Daniel J; Parsek, Matthew R

2012-12-11

338

Self-produced exopolysaccharide is a signal that stimulates biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Bacteria have a tendency to attach to surfaces and grow as structured communities called biofilms. Chronic biofilm infections are a problem because they tend to resist antibiotic treatment and are difficult to eradicate. Bacterial biofilms have an extracellular matrix that is usually composed of a mixture of polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. This matrix has long been assumed to play a passive structural and protective role for resident biofilm cells. Here we show that this view is an oversimplification and that the biofilm matrix can play an active role in stimulating its own synthesis. Working with the model biofilm bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we found that Psl, a major biofilm matrix polysaccharide for this species, acts as a signal to stimulate two diguanylate cyclases, SiaD and SadC, to produce the intracellular secondary messenger molecule c-di-GMP. Elevated intracellular concentrations of c-di-GMP then lead to the increased production of Psl and other components of the biofilm. This mechanism represents a unique positive feedback regulatory circuit, where the expression of an extracellular polysaccharide promotes biofilm growth in a manner analogous to autocrine signaling in eukaryotes. PMID:23175784

Irie, Yasuhiko; Borlee, Bradley R.; O'Connor, Jennifer R.; Hill, Preston J.; Harwood, Caroline S.; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Parsek, Matthew R.

2012-01-01

339

Inhibition of Vibrio biofilm formation by a marine actinomycete strain A66  

Microsoft Academic Search

China remains by far the largest aquaculture producer in the world. However, biofilms formed by pathogenic Vibrio strains pose serious problems to marine aquaculture. To provide a strategy for biofilm prevention, control, and eradication,\\u000a extracts from 88 marine actinomycetes were screened. Thirty-five inhibited the biofilm formation of Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio anguillarum at a concentration of 2.5% (v\\/v).

JianLan You; XiaoLi Xue; LiXiang Cao; Xin Lu; Jian Wang; LiXin Zhang; ShiNing Zhou

2007-01-01

340

Inhibition on Candida albicans biofilm formation using divalent cation chelators (EDTA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida albicans can readily form biofilms on both inanimate and biological surfaces. In this study we investigated a means of inhibiting\\u000a biofilm formation using EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid), a divalent cation chelating agent, which has been shown to\\u000a affect C. albicans filamentation. Candida albicans biofilms were formed in 96-well microtitre plates. Cells were allowed to adhere for 1, 2, and 4 h at

Gordon Ramage; Brian L. Wickes; José L. López-Ribot

2007-01-01

341

Combining Biofilm-Controlling Compounds and Antibiotics as a Promising New Way to Control Biofilm Infections  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria grow on surfaces forming biofilms. In this structure, they are well protected and often high dosages of antibiotics cannot clear infectious biofilms. The formation and stabilization of biofilms are mediated by diffusible autoinducers (e.g. N-acyl homoserine lactones, small peptides, furanosyl borate diester). Metabolites interfering with this process have been identified in plants, animals and microbes, and synthetic analogues are known. Additionally, this seems to be not the only way to control biofilms. Enzymes capable of cleaving essential components of the biofilm matrix, e.g. polysaccharides or extracellular DNA, and thus weakening the biofilm architecture have been identified. Bacteria also have mechanisms to dissolve their biofilms and return to planktonic lifestyle. Only a few compounds responsible for the signalling of these processes are known, but they may open a completely novel line of biofilm control. All these approaches lead to the destruction of the biofilm but not the killing of the pathogens. Therefore, a combination of biofilm-destroying compounds and antibiotics to handle biofilm infections is proposed. In this article, different approaches to combine biofilm-controlling compounds and antibiotics to fight biofilm infections are discussed, as well as the balance between biofilm formation and virulence.

Estrela, Andreia Bergamo; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

2010-01-01

342

Formation and post-formation dynamics of bacterial biofilm streamers as highly viscous liquid jets  

PubMed Central

It has been recently reported that in presence of low Reynolds number (Re ? 1) transport, preformed bacterial biofilms, several hours after their formation, may degenerate in form of filamentous structures, known as streamers. In this work, we explain that such streamers form as the highly viscous liquid states of the intrinsically viscoelastic biofilms. Such “viscous liquid” state can be hypothesized by noting that the time of appearance of the streamers is substantially larger than the viscoelastic relaxation time scale of the biofilms, and this appearance is explained by the inability of a viscous liquid to withstand external shear. Further, by identifying the post formation dynamics of the streamers as that of a viscous liquid jet in a surrounding flow field, we can interpret several unexplained issues associated with the post-formation dynamics of streamers, such as the clogging of the flow passage or the exponential time growth of streamer dimensions. Overall our manuscript provides a biophysical basis for understanding the evolution of biofilm streamers in creeping flows. PMID:25410423

Das, Siddhartha; Kumar, Aloke

2014-01-01

343

Formation and post-formation dynamics of bacterial biofilm streamers as highly viscous liquid jets.  

PubMed

It has been recently reported that in presence of low Reynolds number (Re ? 1) transport, preformed bacterial biofilms, several hours after their formation, may degenerate in form of filamentous structures, known as streamers. In this work, we explain that such streamers form as the highly viscous liquid states of the intrinsically viscoelastic biofilms. Such "viscous liquid" state can be hypothesized by noting that the time of appearance of the streamers is substantially larger than the viscoelastic relaxation time scale of the biofilms, and this appearance is explained by the inability of a viscous liquid to withstand external shear. Further, by identifying the post formation dynamics of the streamers as that of a viscous liquid jet in a surrounding flow field, we can interpret several unexplained issues associated with the post-formation dynamics of streamers, such as the clogging of the flow passage or the exponential time growth of streamer dimensions. Overall our manuscript provides a biophysical basis for understanding the evolution of biofilm streamers in creeping flows. PMID:25410423

Das, Siddhartha; Kumar, Aloke

2014-01-01

344

Coryneform bacteria in human semen: inter-assay variability in species composition detection and biofilm production ability  

PubMed Central

Background Coryneform bacteria constitute an important segment of male urogenital microbiota. They have been generally considered as saprophytes, although some species have been associated with prostatitis as well. At the same time, biofilm infections have been suspected as a cause of prostatitis. Objective To identify a set of coryneform bacteria isolated from semen of either healthy men or prostatitis patients applying different methods to reveal inter-assay variability and to determine their ability of adhesion and biofilm production. Design Coryneform bacteria were identified by API Coryne 2.0 biochemical identification system and 16S rDNA sequencing using different primer sets. Quantitative assessment of biofilm production was performed using crystal violet binding assay method. Results The most common species were Corynebacterium seminale, C. minutissimum, and Dermabacter hominis. Altogether 14 species and related genera were found. We observed the best inter-assay agreement when identifying C. seminale. Biofilm was observed in 7 out of 24 strains. The biofilm-producing strains belonged to Arthrobacter cumminsii, Dermabacter hominis, C. minutissimum, and Actinomyces neuii. No differences were found between the strains originating from prostatitis patients and healthy men. Dermabacter hominis strains were more potent biofilm producers than C. seminale strains (p=0.048). Conclusions We can conclude that a wide variety of coryneform bacteria can be found from the male genital tract, although their exact identification is problematic due to insufficient representation in databases. Nearly one third of the strains are able to form biofilm that may give them an advantage for surviving several host- and treatment-related conditions. PMID:24563649

Turk, Silver; Mazzoli, Sandra; Stsepetova, Jelena; Kuznetsova, Julia; Mandar, Reet

2014-01-01

345

[Biofilms and public health].  

PubMed

Micro-organisms do not always exist in planctonic forms (single cells or small groups). To survive, especially in limiting media, they may adhere to inert or living surfaces. This enables them to multiply within a community protected by an extracellular matrix, thus forming a biofilm which protects them from antimicrobials. Biofilms have many potential consequences for public health. Some are positive, such as the commensal biofilms that protect against pathogenic bacteria, while environmental biofilms may be a source of outbreaks of respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases or infections associated with implanted medical devices. Respiratory tract infection can be caused by aerosols of fragmented biofilms growing in warm humid conditions (air cooling towers, hot springs, showers, etc.). Digestive tract infection can arise from biofilms formed during food manufacturing or packaging processes. Colonized implanted medical devices can lead to sepsis. This article examines the role of central venous catheters, taking into account the surgical site. In vivo studies show that the source of catheter infection may be exogenous or endogenous, while in vitro studies of biofilms show that ablation of the device is the best solution. Prevention is difficult, as biofilm formation is multifactorial. Physical and biological knowledge of biofilms may help to limit their formation and growth. PMID:22375373

Choisy, Claude

2011-01-01

346

Biofilm Formation and Dispersal under the Influence of the Global Regulator CsrA of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant mode of growth of bacteria in the environment is within sessile, matrix-enclosed commu- nities known as biofilms. Biofilms often complicate chronic and difficult-to-treat infections by protecting bacteria from the immune system, decreasing antibiotic efficacy, and dispersing planktonic cells to distant body sites. While the biology of bacterial biofilms has become a major focus of microbial research, the regulatory

Debra W. Jackson; Kazushi Suzuki; Lawrence Oakford; Jerry W. Simecka; Mark E. Hart; Tony Romeo

2002-01-01

347

Biofilm Matrix and Its Regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are communities of microorganisms embedded in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix. Bacteria in biofilms demonstrate distinct features from their free-living planktonic counterparts, such as different physiology and high resistance to immune system and antibiotics that render biofilm a source of chronic and persistent infections. A deeper understanding of biofilms will ultimately provide insights into the development of alternative treatment for biofilm infections. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a model bacterium for biofilm research, is notorious for its ability to cause chronic infections by its high level of drug resistance involving the formation of biofilms. In this review, we summarize recent advances in biofilm formation, focusing on the biofilm matrix and its regulation in P. aeruginosa, aiming to provide resources for the understanding and control of bacterial biofilms. PMID:24145749

Wei, Qing; Ma, Luyan Z.

2013-01-01

348

Biofilm formation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is dependent upon protein filaments.  

PubMed

Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough is a Gram-negative sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB), and the physiology of SRBs can impact many anaerobic environments including radionuclide waste sites, oil reservoirs and metal pipelines. In an attempt to understand D. vulgaris as a population that can adhere to surfaces, D. vulgaris cultures were grown in a defined medium and analysed for carbohydrate production, motility and biofilm formation. Desulfovibrio vulgaris wild-type cells had increasing amounts of carbohydrate into stationary phase and approximately half of the carbohydrate remained internal. In comparison, a mutant that lacked the 200 kb megaplasmid, strain DeltaMP, produced less carbohydrate and the majority of carbohydrate remained internal of the cell proper. To assess the possibility of carbohydrate re-allocation, biofilm formation was investigated. Wild-type cells produced approximately threefold more biofilm on glass slides compared with DeltaMP; however, wild-type biofilm did not contain significant levels of exopolysaccharide. In addition, stains specific for extracellular carbohydrate did not reveal polysaccharide material within the biofilm. Desulfovibrio vulgaris wild-type biofilms contained long filaments as observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the biofilm-deficient DeltaMP strain was also deficient in motility. Biofilms grown directly on silica oxide transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids did not contain significant levels of an exopolysaccharide matrix when viewed with TEM and SEM, and samples stained with ammonium molybdate also showed long filaments that resembled flagella. Biofilms subjected to protease treatments were degraded, and different proteases that were added at the time of inoculation inhibited biofilm formation. The data indicated that D. vulgaris did not produce an extensive exopolysaccharide matrix, used protein filaments to form biofilm between cells and silica oxide surfaces, and the filaments appeared to be flagella. It is likely that D. vulgaris used flagella for more than a means of locomotion to a surface, but also used flagella, or modified flagella, to establish and/or maintain biofilm structure. PMID:17922767

Clark, Melinda E; Edelmann, Richard E; Duley, Matt L; Wall, Judy D; Fields, Matthew W

2007-11-01

349

Rapid direct methods for enumeration of specific, active bacteria in water and biofilms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conventional methods for detecting indicator and pathogenic bacteria in water may underestimate the actual population due to sublethal environmental injury, inability of the target bacteria to take up nutrients and other physiological factors which reduce bacterial culturability. Rapid and direct methods are needed to more accurately detect and enumerate active bacteria. Such a methodological advance would provide greater sensitivity in assessing the microbiological safety of water and food. The principle goal of this presentation is to describe novel approaches we have formulated for the rapid and simultaneous detection of bacteria plus the determination of their physiological activity in water and other environmental samples. The present version of our method involves the concentration of organisms by membrane filtration or immunomagnetic separation and combines an intracellular fluorochrome (CTC) for assessment of respiratory activity plus fluorescent-labelled antibody detection of specific bacteria. This approach has also been successfully used to demonstrate spatial and temporal heterogeneities of physiological activities in biofilms when coupled with cryosectioning. Candidate physiological stains include those capable of determining respiratory activity, membrane potential, membrane integrity, growth rate and cellular enzymatic activities. Results obtained thus far indicate that immunomagnetic separation can provide a high degree of sensitivity in the recovery of seeded target bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7) in water and hamburger. The captured and stained target bacteria are then enumerated by either conventional fluorescence microscopy or ChemScan(R), a new instrument that is very sensitive and rapid. The ChemScan(R) laser scanning instrument (Chemunex, Paris, France) provides the detection of individual fluorescently labelled bacterial cells using three emission channels in less than 5 min. A high degree of correlation has been demonstrated between results obtained with the ChemScan and traditional plate counts of mixed natural bacterial populations in water. The continuing evolution of these methods will be valuable in the rapid and accurate analysis of environmental samples.

McFeters, G. A.; Pyle, B. H.; Lisle, J. T.; Broadaway, S. C.

1999-01-01

350

Mutation of luxS Affects Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus mutans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing is a bacterial mechanism for regulating gene expression in response to changes in popu- lation density. Many bacteria are capable of acyl-homoserine lactone-based or peptide-based intraspecies quorum sensing and luxS-dependent interspecies quorum sensing. While there is good evidence about the involvement of intraspecies quorum sensing in bacterial biofilm, little is known about the role of luxS in biofilm

Justin Merritt; Fengxia Qi; Steven D. Goodman; Maxwell H. Anderson; Wenyuan Shi

2003-01-01

351

The inhibitory effects of mushroom extracts on sucrose-dependent oral biofilm formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms contain large quantities of ?-glucans. Shiitake (Lentinula edodes), Japan’s most popular edible mushroom, has been reported to contain about 6% (weight\\/dried weight) of ?-(1,3)-glucan. This\\u000a glucan is one of the major components of oral biofilm formed by the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. We found that extracts from shiitake and other edible mushrooms could reduce preformed biofilms

Akira Yano; Sayaka Kikuchi; Yoshihisa Yamashita; Yuichi Sakamoto; Yuko Nakagawa; Yasuo Yoshida

2010-01-01

352

Bifidobacteria Exhibit LuxS-Dependent Autoinducer 2 Activity and Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) molecules are one class of signalling molecules involved in gene regulation dependent on population density in a mechanism commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS). AI-2 is produced by the methylthioadenosine/S-adenosyl-homocysteine nucleosidase LuxS. In the present study, we characterise the function of bifidobacterial LuxS proteins to address the question whether these economically important bacteria are able to perform QS communication. All publically available genome sequences of bifidobacteria harbour putative luxS genes. The deduced amino acid sequences are well conserved in the genus and show good homology to the LuxS protein of the prototypical AI-2 producer Vibrio harveyi. The luxS genes of three bifidobacterial strains were successfully expressed in AI-2-negative Escherichia coli DH5?. Supernatants of these recombinant E. coli strains contained significant AI-2 activity. In initial experiments, we failed to detect AI-2 activity in supernatants of bifidobacteria grown in MRSc. High concentration of glucose as well as acidic pH had strong inhibitory effects on AI-2 activity. AI-2 activity could be detected when lower volumes of supernatants were used in the assay. Homologous overexpression of luxS in Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705 increased AI-2 levels in the supernatant. Furthermore, over-expression of luxS or supplementation with AI-2-containing supernatants enhanced biofilm formation of B. longum NCC2705. Collectively, these results suggest that bifidobacteria indeed harbour functional luxS genes that are involved in the production of AI-2-like molecules. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report on AI-2 activity produced by bifidobacteria. Self-produced AI-2 activity as well as AI-2-like molecules of other bacteria of the intestinal tract may have a regulatory function in biofilm formation and host colonization by bifidobacteria. PMID:24505453

Sun, Zhongke; He, Xiang; Brancaccio, Vincenzo F.; Yuan, Jing; Riedel, Christian U.

2014-01-01

353

The Mechanism of Formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm, a Type of Structured Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is an attempt to analyze and generalize molecular and cell biology data on the formation of polysaccharide matrix–based biofilms. The conception of biofilms as structured populations sharing the characteristics of uni- and multicellular organisms and population is proposed.

E. L. Golovlev

2002-01-01

354

Role of autolysin-mediated DNA release in biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus epidermidis has become a serious nosocomial pathogen frequently causing infections associated with implanted foreign materials. Biofilm formation is considered a major factor determining S. epidermidis pathogenicity in such device-associated infections. Here, evidence is presented that extracellular DNA is important for the initial phase of biofilm development by S. epidermidis on polystyrene or glass surfaces under static or hydrodynamic conditions.

Zhiqiang Qin; Y. Ou; L. Yang; Y. Zhu; T. Tolker-Nielsen; S. Molin; D. Qu

2007-01-01

355

The formation of green rust induced by tropical river biofilm components  

E-print Network

The formation of green rust induced by tropical river biofilm components Running title: Green rust's ferric material was reduced into green rust, a FeII -FeIII layered double hydroxide. This green rust and electron donors availability are gathered. Keywords: green rust; biofilm; iron oxide; lepidocrocite

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

356

Biofilm Formation by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: Modulation by Quinolones, Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole, and Ceftazidime  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the in vitro effects of seven fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and rufloxacin), compared to those of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and ceftazidime on total biomass and cell viability of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia biofilm. S. maltophilia attached rapidly to polystyrene, withi n2ho fincubation, and then biofilm formation increased over time, reaching maximum growth at 24 h. In the presence

Giovanni Di Bonaventura; Ilaria Spedicato; Domenico D'Antonio; Iole Robuffo; Raffaele Piccolomini

2004-01-01

357

Biofilm exopolymers control microbialite formation at thermal springs discharging into the alkaline Pyramid Lake, Nevada, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium carbonate precipitation and microbialite formation at highly supersaturated mixing zones of thermal spring waters and alkaline lake water have been investigated at Pyramid Lake, Nevada. Without precipitation, pure mixing should lead to a nearly 100-fold supersaturation at 40°C. Physicochemical precipitation is modified or even inhibited by the properties of biofilms, dependent on the extent of biofilm development and the

Gernot Arp; Volker Thiel; Andreas Reimer; Walter Michaelis; Joachim Reitner

1999-01-01

358

The Effect of Carbon Source and Fluoride Concentrations in the "Streptococcus Mutans" Biofilm Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this class experiment is to show the influence of carbon source and of different fluoride concentrations on the biofilm formation by the bacterium "Streptococcus mutans." The observation of different biofilm morphology as a function of carbon source and fluoride concentration allows an interesting discussion regarding the…

Paulino, Tony P.; Andrade, Ricardo O.; Bruschi-Thedei, Giuliana C. M.; Thedei, Geraldo, Jr.; Ciancaglini, Pietro

2004-01-01

359

Role of PBPD1 in Stimulation of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilm Formation by Subminimal Inhibitory ?-Lactam Concentrations.  

PubMed

Disinfectant-tolerant Listeria monocytogenes biofilms can colonize surfaces that come into contact with food, leading to contamination and, potentially, food-borne illnesses. To better understand the process of L. monocytogenes biofilm formation and dispersal, we screened 1,120 off-patent FDA-approved drugs and identified several that modulate Listeria biofilm development. Among the hits were more than 30 ?-lactam antibiotics, with effects ranging from inhibiting (?50%) to stimulating (?200%) biofilm formation compared to control. Most ?-lactams also dispersed a substantial proportion of established biofilms. This phenotype did not necessarily involve killing, as >50% dispersal could be achieved with concentrations as low as 1/20 of the MIC of some cephalosporins. Penicillin-binding protein (PBP) profiling using a fluorescent penicillin analogue showed similar inhibition patterns for most ?-lactams, except that biofilm-stimulatory drugs did not bind PBPD1, a low-molecular-weight d,d-carboxypeptidase. Compared to the wild type, a pbpD1 mutant had an attenuated biofilm response to stimulatory ?-lactams. The cephalosporin-responsive CesRK two-component regulatory system, whose regulon includes PBPs, was not required for the response. The requirement for PBPD1 activity for ?-lactam stimulation of L. monocytogenes biofilms shows that the specific set of PBPs that are inactivated by a particular drug dictates whether a protective biofilm response is provoked. PMID:25136010

Nguyen, Uyen T; Harvey, Hanjeong; Hogan, Andrew J; Afonso, Alexandria C F; Wright, Gerard D; Burrows, Lori L

2014-11-01

360

In Vitro Analysis of Finasteride Activity against Candida albicans Urinary Biofilm Formation and Filamentation.  

PubMed

Candida albicans is the 3rd most common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, with a strong propensity to form drug-resistant catheter-related biofilms. Due to the limited efficacy of available antifungals against biofilms, drug repurposing has been investigated in order to identify novel agents with activities against fungal biofilms. Finasteride is a 5-?-reductase inhibitor commonly used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, with activity against human type II and III isoenzymes. We analyzed the Candida Genome Database and identified a C. albicans homolog of type III 5-?-reductase, Dfg10p, which shares 27% sequence identity and 41% similarity to the human type III 5-?-reductase. Thus, we investigated finasteride for activity against C. albicans urinary biofilms, alone and in combination with amphotericin B or fluconazole. Finasteride alone was highly effective in the prevention of C. albicans biofilm formation at doses of ?16 mg/liter and the treatment of preformed biofilms at doses of ?128 mg/liter. In biofilm checkerboard analyses, finasteride exhibited synergistic activity in the prevention of biofilm formation in a combination of 4 mg/liter finasteride with 2 mg/liter fluconazole. Finasteride inhibited filamentation, thus suggesting a potential mechanism of action. These results indicate that finasteride alone is highly active in the prevention of C. albicans urinary biofilms in vitro and has synergistic activity in combination with fluconazole. Further investigation of the clinical utility of finasteride in the prevention of urinary candidiasis is warranted. PMID:25049253

Chavez-Dozal, Alba A; Lown, Livia; Jahng, Maximillian; Walraven, Carla J; Lee, Samuel A

2014-10-01

361

In vivo resistance to bacterial biofilm formation on tympanostomy tubes as a function of tube material.  

PubMed

Adherent bacterial biofilms have been implicated in the irreversible contamination of implanted medical devices. We evaluated the resistance of various tympanostomy (pressure equalization [PE]) tube materials to biofilm formation using an in vivo model. PE tubes of silicone, silver oxide-impregnated silicone, fluoroplastic, silver oxide-impregnated fluoroplastic, and ion-bombarded silicone were inserted into the tympanic membranes of 18 Hartley guinea pigs. Staphylococcus aureus was then inoculated into the middle ears. An additional 8 guinea pigs were used as controls; the PE tubes were inserted without middle ear inoculation. All PE tubes were removed on day 10 and analyzed for bacterial contamination using culture, immunofluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All infected ears developed otitis media with otorrhea, but none of the animal control ears drained. Fluorescence imaging of the animal control tubes showed large cellular components consistent with inflammation. The infected tubes showed heavy DNA fluorescence consistent with bacteria and inflammatory cells. All animal control tubes except the ion-bombarded silicone tubes showed adherent inflammatory film on SEM. Also, all tubes placed in infected ears except the ion-bombarded silicone tubes showed adherent bacterial and inflammatory films on SEM. Nonadherent surface properties such as the ion-bombarded silicone may be helpful in preventing chronic PE tube contamination. PMID:10229584

Saidi, I S; Biedlingmaier, J F; Whelan, P

1999-05-01

362

Hha, YbaJ, and OmpA Regulate Escherichia coli K12 Biofilm Formation and Conjugation  

E-print Network

Hha, YbaJ, and OmpA Regulate Escherichia coli K12 Biofilm Formation and Conjugation Plasmids hemolysin operon, and Hha and the contiguous YbaJ are both induced 30- fold in E. coli biofilms (Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 64:515, 2004). Here it is shown that Hha and YbaJ regulate biofilm formation since

Wood, Thomas K.

363

The Cyclic AMP-Dependent Catabolite Repression System of Serratia marcescens Mediates Biofilm Formation through Regulation of Type 1 Fimbriae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which environmental carbon sources regulate biofilm formation are poorly understood. This study investigates the roles of glucose and the catabolite repression system in Serratia marcescens biofilm formation. The abilities of this opportunistic pathogen to proliferate in a wide range of environments, to cause disease, and to resist antimicrobials are linked to its ability to form biofilms. We

Eric J. Kalivoda; Nicholas A. Stella; Dawn M. O'Dee; Gerard J. Nau; Robert M. Q. Shanks

2008-01-01

364

Interplay between Cyclic AMP-Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein and Cyclic di-GMP Signaling in Vibrio cholerae Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio cholerae is a facultative human pathogen. The ability of V. cholerae to form biofilms is crucial for its survival in aquatic habitats between epidemics and is advantageous for host-to-host transmission during epidemics. Formation of mature biofilms requires the production of extracellular matrix components, includ- ing Vibrio polysaccharide (VPS) and matrix proteins. Biofilm formation is positively controlled by the tran-

Jiunn C. N. Fong; Fitnat H. Yildiz

2008-01-01

365

Orthopedics and biofilm - what do we know? A review  

PubMed Central

Summary Bacteria have been found to grow predominantly in biofilms. The initial stage includes the attachment of bacteria to the substratum. Bacterial growth and division then leads to the colonization of the surrounding area and the formation of the biofilm. The environment in a biofilm is not homogeneous; the bacteria in a multispecies biofilm are not randomly distributed, but rather are organized to best meet their needs. Although there is an initial understanding on the mechanisms of biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance, this topic is still under investigation. A variety of approaches are being explored to overcome biofilm-associated antimicrobial resistance. A greater understanding of biofilm processes should lead to novel, effective control strategies for biofilm control and a resulting improvement in patient management. PMID:22648264

Zoubos, Aristides B.; Galanakos, Spyridon P.; Soucacos, Panayotis N.

2012-01-01

366

Cell Surface Attachment Structures Contribute to Biofilm Formation and Xylem Colonization by Erwinia amylovora?  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Erwinia amylovora and the systemic invasion of plant hosts. The functional role of the exopolysaccharides amylovoran and levan in pathogenesis and biofilm formation has been evaluated. However, the role of biofilm formation, independent of exopolysaccharide product