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1

Indole affects biofilm formation in bacteria.  

PubMed

Biofilm is bacterial population adherent to each other and to surfaces or interfaces, often enclosed by a matrix. Various biomolecules contribute to the establishment of biofilms, yet the process of building a biofilm is still under active investigation. Indole is known as a metabolite of amino acid tryptophan, which, however, has recently been proved to participate in various aspects of bacterial life including virulence induction, cell cycle regulation, acid resistance, and especially, signaling biofilm formation. Moreover, indole is also proposed to be a novel signal involved in quorum sensing, a bacterial cooperation behavior sometimes concerning the biofilm formation. Here the signaling role and molecular mechanism of indole on bacterial biofilm formation are reviewed, as well discussed is its relation to bacterial living adaptivity. PMID:22282601

Hu, Mingxi; Zhang, Can; Mu, Yufei; Shen, Qianwei; Feng, Yongjun

2011-01-21

2

Indole Affects Biofilm Formation in Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm is bacterial population adherent to each other and to surfaces or interfaces, often enclosed by a matrix. Various\\u000a biomolecules contribute to the establishment of biofilms, yet the process of building a biofilm is still under active investigation.\\u000a Indole is known as a metabolite of amino acid tryptophan, which, however, has recently been proved to participate in various\\u000a aspects of

Mingxi HuCan; Can Zhang; Yufei Mu; Qianwei Shen; Yongjun Feng

2010-01-01

3

Biofilm bacteria: formation and comparative susceptibility to antibiotics  

PubMed Central

The Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) was used to form bacterial biofilms of selected veterinary gram-negative and gram-positive pathogenic bacteria from cattle, sheep, pigs, chicken, and turkeys. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of ampicillin, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, streptomycin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tilmicosin, and trimethoprim-sulfadoxine for gram-positive and -negative bacteria were determined. Bacterial biofilms were readily formed on the CBD under selected conditions. The biofilms consisted of microcolonies encased in extracellular polysaccharide material. Biofilms composed of Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus hyicus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Corynebacterium renale, or Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis were not killed by the antibiotics tested but as planktonic bacteria they were sensitive at low concentrations. Biofilm and planktonic Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus suis were sensitive to penicillin, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline. Planktonic Escherichia coli were sensitive to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim/ sulfadoxine. Enrofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective antibiotics against E. coli growing as a biofilm. Salmonella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates growing as planktonic populations were sensitive to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, ampicillin, oxytetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfadoxine, but as a biofilm, these bacteria were only sensitive to enrofloxacin. Planktonic and biofilm Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica had similar antibiotic sensitivity profiles and were sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested. The CBD provides a valuable new technology that can be used to select antibiotics that are able to kill bacteria growing as biofilms.

Olson, Merle E.; Ceri, Howard; Morck, Douglas W.; Buret, Andre G.; Read, Ronald R.

2002-01-01

4

The staphylococcal nuclease prevents biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus and other biofilm-forming bacteria.  

PubMed

The staphylococcal nuclease, encoded by the nuc1 gene, is an important virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus. However, the physiological role of the nuclease has not been fully characterized. The current study observed that biofilm development could be prevented in staphylococcal nuclease-producing strains of S. aureus; however, when the nuc1 gene was knocked out, the ability to form a biofilm significantly increased. Scanning electron and confocal scanning laser microscopy were used to evaluate the role of the nuc1 gene in biofilm formation. Moreover, the nuc1 gene product, staphylococcal nuclease, and recombinant NUC1 protein were found to have a visible effect on other biofilm-forming bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, and Haemophilus parasuis. The current study showed a direct relationship between staphylococcal nuclease production and the prevention of biofilm development. The findings from this study underscore the important role of staphylococcal nuclease activity to prevent biofilm formation in S. aureus. They also provided evidence for the biological role of staphylococcal nucleases in other organisms. PMID:21779760

Tang, Junni; Kang, Mingsong; Chen, Huanchun; Shi, Xianming; Zhou, Rui; Chen, Juan; Du, Yiwu

2011-07-20

5

Improved Detection of Biofilm-formative Bacteria by Vortexing and Sonication: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria such as staphylococci commonly encountered in orthopaedic infections form biofilms and adhere to bone implants and\\u000a cements. Various methods to disrupt the biofilm and enhance bacterial detection have been reported. We will describe the effectiveness\\u000a of vortexing and sonication to improve the detection of biofilm-formative bacteria from polymethylmethacrylate by conventional\\u000a quantitative bacterial culture and real-time quantitative PCR. We used

Hideo Kobayashi; Margret Oethinger; Marion J. Tuohy; Gary W. Procop; Thomas W. Bauer

2009-01-01

6

Interactions of Motile Bacteria with Surfaces Leading to Biofilm Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motile bacteria have the ability to swim by the rotation of flagellar filaments that form a coordinated bundle and propel the bacteria from the bulk fluid to a surface. As swimming bacteria approach a surface their swimming speed decreases and the cell body moves laterally along the surface before a secure attachment is formed. Bacterial flagella have been implicated in the attachment of motile bacteria to surfaces due to their physical and chemical properties. To study the initial surface interactions we use a technique known as total internal reflection aqueous fluorescence (TIRAF) microscopy which can resolve distances between bacteria and surfaces to the nanometer scale. Behavior of mutant strains of bacteria with deficiencies in flagella function was observed within 100 nm of the surface to ascertain the role that flagella play in the attachment process. We compared these qualitative observations of behavior to quantitative analysis of attachment and detachment rate constants for bacterial suspensions in parallel plate flow chambers. We also assayed mutant populations for their ability to form a biofilm in order to relate our microscopic studies of individual cells to macroscopic observations of bacterial suspensions.

Ford, Roseanne

2003-03-01

7

Biofilm formation in moderately halophilic bacteria is influenced by varying salinity levels.  

PubMed

Bacteria in a biofilm have a co-dependent lifestyle resulting in a harmonized and complex coordination of the bacterial cells within an exopolysaccharide (EPS) matrix. We hypothesized that biofilm formation and EPS production in salt-tolerant bacteria are helpful for plant growth improvement in saline soil, but that they are influenced differently. To investigate this hypothesis, we tested the effect of different salinity levels on the biofilm formation of the bacterial strains PAa6 (Halomonas meridiana), HT2 (Kushneria indalinina) and ST2 (Halomonas aquamarina) on different abiotic and biotic surfaces. Maximum biofilm formation was established at 1 M salt concentration. However, EPS production was maximal at 0-1 M NaCl stress. We also studied the effect of salt stress on EPS produced by the bacterial strains and confirmed the presence of EPS on Cicer arietinum var. CM 98 roots and in soil at different salinity levels, using Alcian blue staining. Overall, the strain PAa6 was more effective in biofilm formation and EPS production. Under saline and non-saline conditions, this strain also colonized the plant roots more efficiently as compared to the other two strains. We conclude that the strain PAa6 has the potential of biofilm formation and EPS production at different salinity levels. The presence of EPS in the biofilm helped the bacterial strains to better colonize the roots. PMID:22144335

Qurashi, Aisha Waheed; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

2011-12-05

8

Biofilm formation by lactic acid bacteria and resistance to environmental stress.  

PubMed

We investigated the formation of biofilms by 3 type strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus fructivorans, as representatives of LAB that cause food deterioration or contamination. Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum JCM1149 and Lactobacillus brevis JCM1059 appeared to adhere and accumulate on glass cover slips. Lactobacillus fructivorans JCM1117 cells made thin cellophane-like biofilms, and most of the biofilm cells became longer than the planktonic cells. We tested the resistance of biofilm and planktonic L. plantarum subsp. plantarum JCM1149 cells to acetic acid and ethanol, which strongly inhibit the growth of bacteria and are important in food preservation. The biofilm cells were more resistant than the planktonic cells and the surfaces of the treated planktonic cells were badly damaged, whereas those of the biofilm cells were only slightly damaged. We isolated 43 LAB from onions and the biofolm cells of an isolate, L. plantarum M606 also had high resistance. These results demonstrate the significance of studying biofilms of LAB in the food industry. PMID:19000615

Kubota, Hiromi; Senda, Shouko; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Tokuda, Hajime; Uchiyama, Hiroo

2008-10-01

9

Convergent evolution of hyperswarming leads to impaired biofilm formation in pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Most bacteria in nature live in surface-associated communities rather than planktonic populations. Nonetheless, how surface-associated environments shape bacterial evolutionary adaptation remains poorly understood. Here we show that subjecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa to repeated rounds of swarming, a collective form of surface migration, drives remarkable parallel evolution towards a hyperswarmer phenotype. In all independently evolved hyperswarmers, the reproducible hyperswarming phenotype is caused by parallel point mutations in a flagellar synthesis regulator, FleN, which locks the naturally mono-flagellated bacteria in a multi-flagellated state and confers a growth-rate independent advantage in swarming. Even though hyperswarmers outcompete the ancestral strain in swarming competitions, they are strongly outcompeted in biofilm formation, which is an essential trait for P. aeruginosa in environmental and clinical settings. The finding that evolution in swarming colonies reliably produces evolution of poor biofilm formers supports the existence of an evolutionary tradeoff between motility and biofilm formation.

van Ditmarsch, Dave; Boyle, Kerry E.; Sakhtah, Hassan; Oyler, Jennifer E.; Nadell, Carey D.; Deziel, Eric; Dietrich, Lars E. P.; Xavier, Joao B.

2013-01-01

10

Released products of pathogenic bacteria stimulate biofilm formation by Escherichia coli K-12 strains.  

PubMed

It has recently been shown that pathogens with a limited capacity for sessile growth (like some Escherichia coli O157 strains) can benefit from the presence of other bacteria and form mixed biofilms with companion strains. This study addresses the question whether pathogens may influence attached growth of E. coli non-pathogenic strains via secreted factors. We compared the biofilm-modulating effects of sterile stationary-phase culture media of a biofilm non-producing strain of E. coli O157:H, a laboratory biofilm-producing E. coli K-12 strain and a biofilm-forming strain of the pathogen Yersina enterocolitica O:3. Sessile growth was monitored as biomass (crystal violet assay), exopolysaccharide (ELLA) and morphology (scanning electron and confocal laser microscopy). With two of the E. coli K-12 strains stimulation of biofilm formation by all supernatants was achieved, but only the pathogens' secreted products induced biomass increase in some 'biofilm-deficient' K-12 strains. Lectin-peroxidase labeling indicated changes in colanic acid and poly-N-acetylglucosamine amounts in extracellular matrices. The contribution of indole, protein and polysaccharide to the biofilm-modulating activities of the supernatants was compared. Indole, in concentrations equal to those established in the supernatants, suppressed sessile growth in one K-12 strain. Proteinase K significantly reduced the stimulatory effects of all supernatants, indicating a prominent role of protein/peptide factor(s) in biofilm promotion. The amount of released polysaccharides (rPS) in the supernatants was quantitated then comparable quantities of isolated rPS were applied during biofilm growth. The three rPS had notable strain-specific effects with regard to both the strain-source of the rPS and the E. coli K-12 target strain. PMID:22419503

Vacheva, Anna; Ivanova, Radka; Paunova-Krasteva, Tsvetelina; Stoitsova, Stoyanka

2012-03-15

11

Biofilms of As(III)-oxidising bacteria: formation and activity studies for bioremediation process development.  

PubMed

The formation and activity of an As(III)-oxidising biofilm in a bioreactor, using pozzolana as bacterial growth support, was studied for the purpose of optimising fixed-bed bioreactors for bioremediation. After 60 days of continuous functioning with an As(III)-contaminated effluent, the active biofilm was found to be located mainly near the inflow rather than homogeneously distributed. Biofilm development by the CAsO1 bacterial consortium and by Thiomonas arsenivorans was then studied both on polystyrene microplates and on pozzolana. Extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and yeast extract were found to enhance bacteria attachment, and yeast extract also appears to increase the kinetics of biofilm formation. Analysis of proteins, sugars, lipids and uronic acids indicate that sugars were the main EPS components. The specific As(III)-oxidase activity of T. arsenivorans was higher (by ninefold) for planktonic cells than for sessile ones and was induced by As(III). All the results suggest that the biofilm structure is a physical barrier decreasing As(III) access to sessile cells and thus to As(III)-oxidase activity induction. The efficiency of fixed-bed reactors for the bioremediation of arsenic-contaminated waters can be thus optimised by controlling different factors such as temperature and EPS addition and/or synthesis to increase biofilm density and activity. PMID:17846760

Michel, C; Jean, M; Coulon, S; Dictor, M-C; Delorme, F; Morin, D; Garrido, F

2007-09-11

12

Bacteria competing with the adhesion and biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

The activity of antagonistic substances produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lactobacillus acidophilus against the planktonic and sessile populations of Staphylococcus aureus strains was demonstrated. The strongest effects were caused by probiotic L. acidophilus strain - bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) positive. However, the S. aureus A3 growth, adhesion and biofilm formation was also limited by cell-free supernatant of L. acidophilus H-1 (BLIS negative). Moreover, competitive direct interactions were observed between staphylococci and the above bacteria, which influenced the formation of dualspecies aggregates on the surface. PMID:20941586

Sadowska, B; Walencka, E; Wieckowska-Szakiel, M; Ró?alska, B

2010-10-13

13

Formation sphalerite (ZnS) deposits in natural biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria.  

SciTech Connect

Abundant, micrometer-scale, spherical aggregates of 2- to 5-nanometer-diameter sphalerite (ZnS) particles formed within natural biofilms dominated by relatively aerotolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria of the family Desulfobacteriaceae. The biofilm zinc concentration is about 106 times that of associated groundwater (0.09 to 1.1 parts per million zinc). Sphalerite also concentrates arsenic (0.01 weight %) and selenium (0.004 weight %). The almost monomineralic product results from buffering of sulfide concentrations at low values by sphalerite precipitation. These results show how microbes control metal concentrations in groundwater- and wetland-based remediation systems and suggest biological routes for formation of some low-temperature ZnS deposits.

Labrenz, M.; Druschel, G. K.; Thomsen-Ebert, T.; Gilbert, B.; Welch, S. A.; Kemner, K. M.; Logan, G. A.; Summons, R. E.; De Stasio, G.; Bond, P. L.; Lai, B.; Kelly, S. D.; Banfield, J. F.; Univ. of Wisconsin at Madison; Australian Geological Survey Organisation; Diversions Scuba

2000-12-01

14

Inactivation of biofilm bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The current project was developed to examine inactivation of biofilm bacteria and to characterize the interaction of biocides with pipe surfaces. Unattached bacteria were quite susceptible to the variety of disinfectants tested. Viable bacterial counts were reduced 99% by exposure to 0.08 mg of hypochlorous acid (pH 7.0) per liter (1 to 2 degrees C) for 1 min. For monochloramine, 94 mg/liter was required to kill 99% of the bacteria within 1 min. These results were consistent with those found by other investigators. Biofilm bacteria grown on the surfaces of granular activated carbon particles, metal coupons, or glass microscope slides were 150 to more than 3,000 times more resistant to hypochlorous acid (free chlorine, pH 7.0) than were unattached cells. In contrast, resistance of biofilm bacteria to monochloramine disinfection ranged from 2- to 100-fold more than that of unattached cells. The results suggested that, relative to inactivation of unattached bacteria, monochloramine was better able to penetrate and kill biofilm bacteria than free chlorine. For free chlorine, the data indicated that transport of the disinfectant into the biofilm was a major rate-limiting factor. Because of this phenomenon, increasing the level of free chlorine did not increase disinfection efficiency. Experiments where equal weights of disinfectants were used suggested that the greater penetrating power of monochloramine compensated for its limited disinfection activity. These studies showed that monochloramine was as effective as free chlorine for inactivation of biofilm bacteria. The research provides important insights into strategies for control of biofilm bacteria. Images

LeChevallier, M W; Cawthon, C D; Lee, R G

1988-01-01

15

Transitions in biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms are multicellular, dynamic communities formed by interacting unicellular organisms bound to a surface. Forming a biofilm is a developmental process, characterized by sequential changes in gene expression and behavior as bacteria and yeast progress from discrete, free-swimming cells though stages that arrive at a mature biofilm. We are developing automated metrics to identify key transitions in early biofilm formation as cells attach to a surface, populate that surface, and adhere to each other to form early microcolonies. Our metrics use high-throughput tracking and analysis of microscopy movies to localize these transitions in space and time. Each of these transitions is associated with a loss of entropy in the bacterial system and, therefore, with biological activity that drives this loss of entropy. Better understanding of these transitions will allow automated determination of the strength and turn-on of attractive cell-surface and cell-cell interactions as biofilm development progresses.

Gordon, Vernita; Thatcher, Travis; Cooley, Benjamin

2011-03-01

16

Formation of Sphalerite (ZnS) Deposits in Natural Biofilms of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant, micrometer-scale, spherical aggregates of 2- to 5-nanometer-diameter sphalerite (ZnS) particles formed within natural biofilms dominated by relatively aerotolerant sulfate-reducing bacteria of the family Desulfobacteriaceae. The biofilm zinc concentration is about 106 times that of associated groundwater (0.09 to 1.1 parts per million zinc). Sphalerite also concentrates arsenic (0.01 weight %) and selenium (0.004 weight %). The almost monomineralic product

Matthias Labrenz; Gregory K. Druschel; Tamara Thomsen-Ebert; Benjamin Gilbert; Susan A. Welch; Kenneth M. Kemner; Graham A. Logan; Roger E. Summons; Gelsomina De Stasio; Philip L. Bond; Barry Lai; Shelly D. Kelly; Jillian F. Banfield; Diversions Scuba

2000-01-01

17

Engineering biofilm formation and dispersal  

PubMed Central

Anywhere water is in the liquid state, bacteria will exist as biofilms, which are complex communities of cells cemented together. Although frequently associated with disease and biofouling, biofilms are also important for engineering applications, such as bioremediation, biocatalysis and microbial fuel cells. Here we review approaches to alter genetic circuits and cell signaling toward controlling biofilm formation, and emphasize utilizing these tools for engineering applications. Based on a better understanding of the genetic basis of biofilm formation, we find that biofilms may be controlled by manipulating extracellular signals and that they may be dispersed using conserved intracellular signals and regulators. Biofilms could also be formed at specific locations where they might be engineered to make chemicals or treat human disease.

Wood, Thomas K.; Hong, Seok Hoon; Ma, Qun

2011-01-01

18

Biofilm formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Biofilm-grown bacteria are refractory to antimicrobial agents and show an increased capacity to evade the host immune system. In recent years, studies have begun on biofilm formation by Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important human pathogen, using a variety of in vitro model systems. The bacterial cells in these biofilms are held together by an extracellular matrix composed of DNA, proteins and, possibly, polysaccharide(s). Although neither the precise nature of these proteins nor the composition of the putative polysaccharide(s) is clear, it is known that choline-binding proteins are required for successful biofilm formation. Further, many genes appear to be involved, although the role of each appears to vary when biofilms are produced in batch or continuous culture. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures need to be developed to fight S.?pneumoniae biofilm formation. However, much care needs to be taken when choosing strains for such studies because different S.?pneumoniae isolates can show remarkable genomic differences. Multispecies and in vivo biofilm models must also be developed to provide a more complete understanding of biofilm formation and maintenance. PMID:21906265

Domenech, Mirian; García, Ernesto; Moscoso, Miriam

2011-09-09

19

Indole can act as an extracellular signal to regulate biofilm formation of Escherichia coli and other indole-producing bacteria.  

PubMed

We demonstrated previously that genetic inactivation of tryptophanase is responsible for a dramatic decrease in biofilm formation in the laboratory strain Escherichia coli S17-1. In the present study, we tested whether the biochemical inhibition of tryptophanase, with the competitive inhibitor oxindolyl-L-alanine, could affect polystyrene colonization by E. coli and other indole-producing bacteria. Oxindolyl-L-alanine inhibits, in a dose-dependent manner, indole production and biofilm formation by strain S17-1 grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Supplementation with indole at physiologically relevant concentrations restores biofilm formation by strain S17-1 in the presence of oxindolyl-L-alanine and by mutant strain E. coli 3714 (S17-1 tnaA::Tn5) in LB medium. Oxindolyl-L-alanine also inhibits the adherence of S17-1 cells to polystyrene for a 3-h incubation time, but mutant strain 3714 cells are unaffected. At 0.5 mg/mL, oxindolyl-L-alanine exhibits inhibitory activity against biofilm formation in LB medium and in synthetic urine for several clinical isolates of E. coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter koseri, Providencia stuartii, and Morganella morganii but has no affect on indole-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. In conclusion, these data suggest that indole, produced by the action of tryptophanase, is involved in polystyrene colonization by several indole-producing bacterial species. Indole may act as a signalling molecule to regulate the expression of adhesion and biofilm-promoting factors. PMID:14569285

Martino, P Di; Fursy, R; Bret, L; Sundararaju, B; Phillips, R S

2003-07-01

20

Proteinaceous determinants of surface colonization in bacteria: bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation from a protein secretion perspective  

PubMed Central

Bacterial colonization of biotic or abiotic surfaces results from two quite distinct physiological processes, namely bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Broadly speaking, a biofilm is defined as the sessile development of microbial cells. Biofilm formation arises following bacterial adhesion but not all single bacterial cells adhering reversibly or irreversibly engage inexorably into a sessile mode of growth. Among molecular determinants promoting bacterial colonization, surface proteins are the most functionally diverse active components. To be present on the bacterial cell surface, though, a protein must be secreted in the first place. Considering the close association of secreted proteins with their cognate secretion systems, the secretome (which refers both to the secretion systems and their protein substrates) is a key concept to apprehend the protein secretion and related physiological functions. The protein secretion systems are here considered in light of the differences in the cell-envelope architecture between diderm-LPS (archetypal Gram-negative), monoderm (archetypal Gram-positive) and diderm-mycolate (archetypal acid-fast) bacteria. Besides, their cognate secreted proteins engaged in the bacterial colonization process are regarded from single protein to supramolecular protein structure as well as the non-classical protein secretion. This state-of-the-art on the complement of the secretome (the secretion systems and their cognate effectors) involved in the surface colonization process in diderm-LPS and monoderm bacteria paves the way for future research directions in the field.

Chagnot, Caroline; Zorgani, Mohamed A.; Astruc, Thierry; Desvaux, Mickael

2013-01-01

21

Interactions of bacteria with different mechanisms for chitin degradation result in the formation of a mixed-species biofilm.  

PubMed

In this study, interactions between bacteria possessing either released or cell-associated enzymes for polymer degradation were investigated. For this, a co-culture of Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-1N as an enzyme-releasing bacterium and of Flavobacterium sp. strain 4D9 as a bacterium with cell-associated enzymes was set up with chitin embedded into agarose beads to account for natural conditions, under which polymers are usually embedded in organic aggregates. In single cultures, strain AH-1N grew with embedded chitin, while strain 4D9 did not. In co-cultures, strain 4D9 grew and outcompeted strain AH-1N in the biofilm fraction. Experiments with cell-free culture supernatants containing the chitinolytic enzymes of strain AH-1N revealed that growth of strain 4D9 in the co-culture was based on intercepting N-acetylglucosamine from chitin degradation. For this, strain 4D9 had to actively integrate into the biofilm of strain AH-1N. This study shows that bacteria using different chitin degradation mechanisms can coexist by formation of a mixed-species biofilm. PMID:22092834

Jagmann, Nina; von Rekowski, Katharina Styp; Philipp, Bodo

2011-11-03

22

Silver-Palladium Surfaces Inhibit Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Undesired biofilm formation is a major concern in many areas. In the present study, we investigated biofilm-inhibiting properties of a silver-palladium surface that kills bacteria by generating microelectric fields and electrochemical redox processes. For evaluation of the biofilm inhibition efficacy and study of the biofilm inhibition mechanism, the silver-sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and the silver-resistant E. coli J53(pMG101) strains were

Wen-Chi Chiang; Casper Schroll; Lisbeth Rischel Hilbert; P. Moller; Tim Tolker-Nielsen

2009-01-01

23

Molecular mechanisms of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulase-negative staphylococci, mainly Staphylococcus epidermidis, are the predominant cause of implanted medical-device related infections. The formation of adherent multilayered biofilms embedded into a glycocalyx composed of exopolysaccharides on implanted devices is believed to be essential for the pathogenesis of S. epidermidis infections. Biofilm formation may be separated into primary attachment of bacteria to native or modified polymer surfaces followed by

D. Mack

1999-01-01

24

A wider role for polyamines in biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Polyamines play an essential role in biofilm formation of diverse Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Biosynthetic pathways and transport systems for diverse polyamines have been identified as key components of bacterial biofilm formation. PMID:23881324

Karatan, Ece; Michael, Anthony J

2013-07-24

25

Biofilm formation by haloarchaea.  

PubMed

A fluorescence-based live-cell adhesion assay was used to examine biofilm formation by 20 different haloarchaea, including species of Halobacterium, Haloferax and Halorubrum, as well as novel natural isolates from an Antarctic salt lake. Thirteen of the 20 tested strains significantly adhered (P-value ?< 0.05) to a plastic surface. Examination of adherent cell layers on glass surfaces by differential interference contrast, fluorescence and confocal microscopy showed two types of biofilm structures. Carpet-like, multi-layered biofilms containing micro- and macrocolonies (up to 50 ?m in height) were formed by strains of Halobacterium salinarum and the Antarctic isolate t-ADL strain DL24. The second type of biofilm, characterized by large aggregates of cells adhering to surfaces, was formed by Haloferax volcanii DSM 3757T and Halorubrum lacusprofundi DL28. Staining of the biofilms formed by the strongly adhesive haloarchaeal strains revealed the presence of extracellular polymers, such as eDNA and glycoconjugates, substances previously shown to stabilize bacterial biofilms. For Hbt. salinarum DSM 3754T and Hfx. volcanii DSM 3757T , cells adhered within 1 day of culture and remained viable for at least 2 months in mature biofilms. Adherent cells of Hbt. salinarum DSM 3754T showed several types of cellular appendages that could be involved in the initial attachment. Our results show that biofilm formation occurs in a surprisingly wide variety of haloarchaeal species. PMID:23057712

Fröls, Sabrina; Dyall-Smith, Mike; Pfeifer, Felicitas

2012-10-12

26

Influence of Biosurfactants from Probiotic Bacteria on Formation of Biofilms on Voice Prostheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voice prostheses are used for speech rehabilitation of pa- tients who have undergone a laryngectomy due to a malignant laryngeal tumor and need to breathe through a tracheostomy (1). The major drawback of voice prostheses involves their colonization within several weeks by a thick biofilm that con- sists of fungal and bacterial strains. This biofilm causes leakage of food and

Lígia Rodrigues; Henny C. van der Mei; J. Teixeira; R. Oliveira

2004-01-01

27

Antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles on gram-negative bacteria: influence on the growth and biofilms formation, mechanisms of action.  

PubMed

Antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) on Gram-negative bacteria (planctonic cells and biofilms) is reported in this study. AgNP of 8.3 nm in diameter stabilized by hydrolyzed casein peptides strongly inhibited biofilms formation of Escherichia coli AB1157, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Serratia proteamaculans 94 in concentrations of 4-5 ?g/ml, 10 ?g/ml and 10-20 ?g/ml, respectively. The viability of E. coli AB1157 cells in biofilms was considerably reduced by AgNP concentrations above 100 to -150 ?g/ml. E. coli strains with mutations in genes responsible for the repair of DNA containing oxidative lesions (mutY, mutS, mutM, mutT, nth) were less resistant to AgNP than wild type strains. This suggests that these genes may be involved in the repair of DNA damage caused by AgNP. E. coli mutants deficient in excision repair, SOS-response and in the synthesis of global regulators RpoS, CRP protein and Lon protease present similar resistance to AgNP as wild type cells. LuxI/LuxR Quorum Sensing systems did not participate in the control of sensitivity to AgNP of Pseudomonas and Serratia. E. coli mutant strains deficient in OmpF or OmpC porins were 4-8 times more resistant to AgNP as compared to the wild type strain. This suggests that porins have an important function related AgNP antibacterial effects. PMID:23006569

Radzig, M A; Nadtochenko, V A; Koksharova, O A; Kiwi, J; Lipasova, V A; Khmel, I A

2012-08-23

28

Mixed-Species Biofilm Formation by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Rice Wine Yeasts?  

PubMed Central

We found that species combinations such as Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus IFO3831 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai-10 can form a mixed-species biofilm in coculture. Moreover, the Kyokai-10 yeast strain can form a biofilm in monoculture in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) from L. casei IFO3831. The active substance(s) in bacterial CM is heat sensitive and has a molecular mass of between 3 and 5 kDa. In biofilms from cocultures or CM monocultures, yeast cells had a distinct morphology, with many hill-like protrusions on the cell surface.

Kawarai, Taketo; Furukawa, Soichi; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Makari

2007-01-01

29

Inactivation ofBiofilm Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thecurrent project was developed toexamine inactivation ofbiofilm bacteria andtocharacterize the interaction ofbiocides withpipesurfaces. Unattached bacteria were quite susceptible tothevariety of disinfectants tested. Viable bacterial counts were reduced 99%byexposureto0.08 mg ofhypochlorous acid (pH7.0) perliter (1to2°C) for1min.Formonochloramine, 94mg\\/liter wasrequired tokill 99%ofthebacteria within 1min.Theseresults wereconsistent withthose found byother investigators. Biofilm bacteria grown on thesurfaces ofgranular activated carbon particles, metal coupons,orglass microscope slides were

MARK W. LECHEVALLIER; CHERYL D. CAWTHON; RAMON G. LEE

1988-01-01

30

Measuring Antimicrobial Activity Against Biofilm Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standardization of methodology and interpretation has proved essential to scientific progress in studies of the activity of antimicrobial agents against planktonic bacteria. Current studies of antimicrobial activity against biofilm bacteria lack standardization of methodology. The principles applied to standardization of methods for planktonic bacteria can serve as a template in developing standards for studying biofilm bacteria. Such standards are essential

J. Curtin; M. Cormican

2003-01-01

31

Silver-Palladium Surfaces Inhibit Biofilm Formation?  

PubMed Central

Undesired biofilm formation is a major concern in many areas. In the present study, we investigated biofilm-inhibiting properties of a silver-palladium surface that kills bacteria by generating microelectric fields and electrochemical redox processes. For evaluation of the biofilm inhibition efficacy and study of the biofilm inhibition mechanism, the silver-sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and the silver-resistant E. coli J53[pMG101] strains were used as model organisms, and batch and flow chamber setups were used as model systems. In the case of the silver-sensitive strain, the silver-palladium surfaces killed the bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low or high bacterial load. In the case of the silver-resistant strain, the silver-palladium surfaces killed surface-associated bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low bacterial load, whereas under conditions of high bacterial load, biofilm formation occurred upon a layer of surface-associated dead bacteria.

Chiang, Wen-Chi; Schroll, Casper; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; M?ller, Per; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

2009-01-01

32

Silver-palladium surfaces inhibit biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Undesired biofilm formation is a major concern in many areas. In the present study, we investigated biofilm-inhibiting properties of a silver-palladium surface that kills bacteria by generating microelectric fields and electrochemical redox processes. For evaluation of the biofilm inhibition efficacy and study of the biofilm inhibition mechanism, the silver-sensitive Escherichia coli J53 and the silver-resistant E. coli J53[pMG101] strains were used as model organisms, and batch and flow chamber setups were used as model systems. In the case of the silver-sensitive strain, the silver-palladium surfaces killed the bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low or high bacterial load. In the case of the silver-resistant strain, the silver-palladium surfaces killed surface-associated bacteria and prevented biofilm formation under conditions of low bacterial load, whereas under conditions of high bacterial load, biofilm formation occurred upon a layer of surface-associated dead bacteria. PMID:19151185

Chiang, Wen-Chi; Schroll, Casper; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Møller, Per; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

2009-01-16

33

Streptococcus gordonii biofilm formation: identification of genes that code for biofilm phenotypes.  

PubMed

Viridans streptococci, which include Streptococcus gordonii, are pioneer oral bacteria that initiate dental plaque formation. Sessile bacteria in a biofilm exhibit a mode of growth that is distinct from that of planktonic bacteria. Biofilm formation of S. gordonii Challis was characterized using an in vitro biofilm formation assay on polystyrene surfaces. The same assay was used as a nonbiased method to screen isogenic mutants generated by Tn916 transposon mutagenesis for defective biofilm formation. Biofilms formed optimally when bacteria were grown in a minimal medium under anaerobic conditions. Biofilm formation was affected by changes in pH, osmolarity, and carbohydrate content of the growth media. Eighteen biofilm-defective mutants of S. gordonii Challis were identified based on Southern hybridization with a Tn916-based probe and DNA sequences of the Tn916-flanking regions. Molecular analyses of these mutants showed that some of the genes required for biofilm formation are involved in signal transduction, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and adhesion. These characteristics are associated with quorum sensing, osmoadaptation, and adhesion functions in oral streptococci. Only nine of the biofilm-defective mutants had defects in genes of known function, suggesting that novel aspects of bacterial physiology may play a part in biofilm formation. Further identification and characterization of biofilm-associated genes will provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation of oral streptococci. PMID:10671461

Loo, C Y; Corliss, D A; Ganeshkumar, N

2000-03-01

34

Regulation of flagellar motility during biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Many bacteria swim in liquid or swarm over solid surfaces by synthesizing rotary flagella. The same bacteria that are motile also commonly form nonmotile multicellular aggregates called biofilms. Biofilms are an important part of the lifestyle of pathogenic bacteria, and it is assumed that there is a motility-to-biofilm transition wherein the inhibition of motility promotes biofilm formation. The transition is largely inferred from regulatory mutants that reveal the opposite regulation of the two phenotypes. Here, we review the regulation of motility during biofilm formation in Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, and Escherichia, and we conclude that the motility-to-biofilm transition, if necessary, likely involves two steps. In the short term, flagella are functionally regulated to either inhibit rotation or modulate the basal flagellar reversal frequency. Over the long term, flagellar gene transcription is inhibited and in the absence of de novo synthesis, flagella are diluted to extinction through growth. Both short-term and long-term motility inhibition is likely important to stabilize cell aggregates and optimize resource investment. We emphasize the newly discovered flagellar functional regulators and speculate that others await discovery in the context of biofilm formation. PMID:23480406

Guttenplan, Sarah B; Kearns, Daniel B

2013-04-12

35

Spermine impairs biofilm formation by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

PubMed

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a strict human pathogen that causes the sexually transmitted infection termed gonorrhea. Recent reports indicate that gonococci can form a biofilm in vivo and under laboratory conditions. It is unclear, however, if formation of such biofilms or their dispersal are influenced by host factors that would be encountered during infection. In this respect, physiological levels of polyamines have been reported to influence biofilm structures formed by other Gram-negative bacteria as well those formed by Gram-positive bacteria and can cause dispersal of a biofilm formed by Bacillus subtilis. Based on these reports, we examined the influence of polyamines on gonococcal biofilm formation and their dispersal. We now report that physiological levels of certain polyamines, notably spermine, can significantly decrease the capacity of gonococci to form a biofilm, but do not cause dispersal of a preformed biofilm. In the context of natural gonococcal infection, the presence of physiological levels of spermine may be antagonistic for gonococci to form a biofilm and this may be of importance in the spread of the pathogen from a localized region. PMID:23506248

Goytia, Maira; Dhulipala, Vijaya L; Shafer, William M

2013-04-04

36

Microtiter dish biofilm formation assay.  

PubMed

Biofilms are communities of microbes attached to surfaces, which can be found in medical, industrial and natural settings. In fact, life in a biofilm probably represents the predominate mode of growth for microbes in most environments. Mature biofilms have a few distinct characteristics. Biofilm microbes are typically surrounded by an extracellular matrix that provides structure and protection to the community. Microbes growing in a biofilm also have a characteristic architecture generally comprised of macrocolonies (containing thousands of cells) surrounded by fluid-filled channels. Biofilm-grown microbes are also notorious for their resistance to a range of antimicrobial agents including clinically relevant antibiotics. The microtiter dish assay is an important tool for the study of the early stages in biofilm formation, and has been applied primarily for the study of bacterial biofilms, although this assay has also been used to study fungal biofilm formation. Because this assay uses static, batch-growth conditions, it does not allow for the formation of the mature biofilms typically associated with flow cell systems. However, the assay has been effective at identifying many factors required for initiation of biofilm formation (i.e, flagella, pili, adhesins, enzymes involved in cyclic-di-GMP binding and metabolism) and well as genes involved in extracellular polysaccharide production. Furthermore, published work indicates that biofilms grown in microtiter dishes do develop some properties of mature biofilms, such a antibiotic tolerance and resistance to immune system effectors. This simple microtiter dish assay allows for the formation of a biofilm on the wall and/or bottom of a microtiter dish. The high throughput nature of the assay makes it useful for genetic screens, as well as testing biofilm formation by multiple strains under various growth conditions. Variants of this assay have been used to assess early biofilm formation for a wide variety of microbes, including but not limited to, pseudomonads, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, staphylococci, enterococci, mycobacteria and fungi. In the protocol described here, we will focus on the use of this assay to study biofilm formation by the model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this assay, the extent of biofilm formation is measured using the dye crystal violet (CV). However, a number of other colorimetric and metabolic stains have been reported for the quantification of biofilm formation using the microtiter plate assay. The ease, low cost and flexibility of the microtiter plate assay has made it a critical tool for the study of biofilms. PMID:21307833

O'Toole, George A

2011-01-30

37

Microtiter Dish Biofilm Formation Assay  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are communities of microbes attached to surfaces, which can be found in medical, industrial and natural settings. In fact, life in a biofilm probably represents the predominate mode of growth for microbes in most environments. Mature biofilms have a few distinct characteristics. Biofilm microbes are typically surrounded by an extracellular matrix that provides structure and protection to the community. Microbes growing in a biofilm also have a characteristic architecture generally comprised of macrocolonies (containing thousands of cells) surrounded by fluid-filled channels. Biofilm-grown microbes are also notorious for their resistance to a range of antimicrobial agents including clinically relevant antibiotics. The microtiter dish assay is an important tool for the study of the early stages in biofilm formation, and has been applied primarily for the study of bacterial biofilms, although this assay has also been used to study fungal biofilm formation. Because this assay uses static, batch-growth conditions, it does not allow for the formation of the mature biofilms typically associated with flow cell systems. However, the assay has been effective at identifying many factors required for initiation of biofilm formation (i.e, flagella, pili, adhesins, enzymes involved in cyclic-di-GMP binding and metabolism) and well as genes involved in extracellular polysaccharide production. Furthermore, published work indicates that biofilms grown in microtiter dishes do develop some properties of mature biofilms, such a antibiotic tolerance and resistance to immune system effectors. This simple microtiter dish assay allows for the formation of a biofilm on the wall and/or bottom of a microtiter dish. The high throughput nature of the assay makes it useful for genetic screens, as well as testing biofilm formation by multiple strains under various growth conditions. Variants of this assay have been used to assess early biofilm formation for a wide variety of microbes, including but not limited to, pseudomonads, Vibrio cholerae, Escherichia coli, staphylocci, enterococci, mycobacteria and fungi. In the protocol described here, we will focus on the use of this assay to study biofilm formation by the model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this assay, the extent of biofilm formation is measured using the dye crystal violet (CV). However, a number of other colorimetric and metabolic stains have been reported for the quantification of biofilm formation using the microtiter plate assay. The ease, low cost and flexibility of the microtiter plate assay has made it a critical tool for the study of biofilms.

O'Toole, George A.

2011-01-01

38

Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus haemolyticus?  

PubMed Central

Infections due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) most frequently occur after the implantation of medical devices and are attributed to the biofilm-forming potential of CoNS. Staphylococcus haemolyticus is the second most frequently isolated CoNS from patients with hospital-acquired infections. There is only limited knowledge of the nature of S. haemolyticus biofilms. The aim of this study was to characterize S. haemolyticus biofilm formation. We analyzed the biofilm-forming capacities of 72 clinical S. haemolyticus isolates. A detachment assay with NaIO4, proteinase K, or DNase was used to determine the main biofilm components. Biofilm-associated genes, including the ica operon, were analyzed by PCR, and the gene products were sequenced. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to elucidate the biofilm structure. Fifty-three isolates (74%) produced biofilms after growth in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) with glucose, but only 22 (31%) produced biofilms after growth in TSB with NaCl. It was necessary to dissolve the biofilm in ethanol-acetone to measure the optical density of the full biofilm mass. DNase, proteinase K, and NaIO4 caused biofilm detachment for 100%, 98%, and 38% of the isolates, respectively. icaRADBC and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) production were found in only two isolates. CLSM indicated that the biofilm structure of S. haemolyticus clearly differs from that of S. epidermidis. We conclude that biofilm formation is a common phenotype in clinical S. haemolyticus isolates. In contrast to S. epidermidis, proteins and extracellular DNA are of functional relevance for biofilm accumulation, whereas PIA plays only a minor role. The induction of biofilm formation and determination of the biofilm mass also needed to be optimized for S. haemolyticus.

Fredheim, Elizabeth Gladys Aarag; Klingenberg, Claus; Rohde, Holger; Frankenberger, Stephanie; Gaustad, Peter; Flaegstad, Trond; Sollid, Johanna Ericson

2009-01-01

39

Crenarchaeal Biofilm Formation under Extreme Conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Biofilm formation has been studied in much detail for a variety of bacterial species, as it plays a major role in the pathogenicity of bacteria. However, only limited information is available for the development of archaeal communities that are frequently found in many natural environments. Methodology We have analyzed biofilm formation in three closely related hyperthermophilic crenarchaeotes: Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, S. solfataricus and S. tokodaii. We established a microtitre plate assay adapted to high temperatures to determine how pH and temperature influence biofilm formation in these organisms. Biofilm analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that the three strains form very different communities ranging from simple carpet-like structures in S. solfataricus to high density tower-like structures in S. acidocaldarius in static systems. Lectin staining indicated that all three strains produced extracellular polysaccharides containing glucose, galactose, mannose and N-acetylglucosamine once biofilm formation was initiated. While flagella mutants had no phenotype in two days old static biofilms of S. solfataricus, a UV-induced pili deletion mutant showed decreased attachment of cells. Conclusion The study gives first insights into formation and development of crenarchaeal biofilms in extreme environments.

Koerdt, Andrea; Godeke, Julia; Berger, Jurgen; Thormann, Kai M.; Albers, Sonja-Verena

2010-01-01

40

Physicochemical regulation of biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the physical and chemical constraints of environments on biofilm formation. We provide a perspective on how materials science and engineering can address fundamental questions and unmet technological challenges in this area of microbiology, such as biofilm prevention. Specifically, we discuss three factors that impact the development and organization of bacterial communities. (1) Physical properties of surfaces regulate cell attachment and physiology and affect early stages of biofilm formation. (2) Chemical properties influence the adhesion of cells to surfaces and their development into biofilms and communities. (3) Chemical communication between cells attenuates growth and influences the organization of communities. Mechanisms of spatial and temporal confinement control the dimensions of communities and the diffusion path length for chemical communication between biofilms, which, in turn, influences biofilm phenotypes. Armed with a detailed understanding of biofilm formation, researchers are applying the tools and techniques of materials science and engineering to revolutionize the study and control of bacterial communities growing at interfaces.

Renner, Lars D.; Weibel, Douglas B.

2011-01-01

41

Interactions and transitions in biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms are multicellular, interacting communities of intrinsically-unicellular organisms that grow on surfaces. As such, they are fascinating model systems for multicellularity. They are also of great practical importance, since biofilms damage a variety of industrial infrastructure and are the cause of most persistent, antibiotic-resistant infections. In natural settings, most bacteria are found in biofilms. To initiate a biofilm, planktonic, free-swimming bacteria attach to a surface and then undergo a series of phenotypic changes as that adhesion becomes irreversible and the surface is populated, first by discrete bacteria, and then bacteria growing in dense clusters, ``microcolonies.'' Both adhesion to a surface and adhesion to other cells are associated with adhesive properties of cell-produced extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs). Using laser tweezers to test cell aggregation and aggregate stability, in combination with gene expression assays and gene-knockouts, we show the importance of one EPS, pel, for early cell aggregation. We also use automated bacteria-identification and --tracking software algorithims to identify and quantify key transitions early in biofilm formation.

Gordon, Vernita; Colvin, Kelly; Conrad, Jacinta; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Jin, Fan; Parsek, Matthew; Wong, Gerard

2010-10-01

42

Biofilm formation on oral piercings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  PURPOSE: Biofilms on oral piercings might serve as a bacterial reservoir in the host and lead to bacteraemia and even septic\\u000a complications. The use of piercing materials less susceptible to biofilm accumulation could contribute to alleviation of problems.\\u000a The present study aimed to assess biofilm formation on four commercially available, surface characterized piercing materials\\u000a in vitro (polytetrafluoroethylene, titanium, stainless steel,

Ines Kapferer; Christoph Steiner; Ulrike Beier; Natalia Schiefermeier; Markus Nagl; Frederik Klauser

2010-01-01

43

Biofilm formation and microbial corrosion  

SciTech Connect

Biofilms-colonies of microorganisms growing on surfaces - can greatly accelerate the corrosion rates of metals and alloys in utility water systems. Fundamental EPRI research is showing how mechanisms of biofilm formation, interactions between bacterial species, and metabolic activities control such biofilm properties as corrosive potential This research is identifying methods to control biofilm development and prevent microbially influenced corrosion. The results should also apply to the control of other processes involving biological consortia, including the bioremediation of contaminated groundwater and soil and the biodesulfurization of coal.

Goldstein, R.; Porcella, D.

1992-07-01

44

Tryptophan Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been implicated in the pathology of chronic wounds. Both the d and l isoforms of tryptophan inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation on tissue culture plates, with an equimolar ratio of d and l isoforms producing the greatest inhibitory effect. Addition of d-/l-tryptophan to existing biofilms inhibited further biofilm growth and caused partial biofilm disassembly. Tryptophan significantly increased swimming motility, which may be responsible in part for diminished biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa.

Brandenburg, Kenneth S.; Rodriguez, Karien J.; McAnulty, Jonathan F.; Murphy, Christopher J.; Abbott, Nicholas L.; Schurr, Michael J.

2013-01-01

45

Biofilm Formation Biofilm Formation Biofilm Formation .EW#LUESIN5NDERSTANDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

he water industry has long been plagued by the effects of biofilm formation in water supplies, pipes, fittings and filters. Such biomasses lead to adverse taste, odor and possible health effects in the water and decrease the life of treatment equipment. Scientists are just beginning to solve the mystery of how and why biofilms form. New evidence indicates that microorganisms

Kelly A. Reynolds

2008-01-01

46

Ginger Extract Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14.  

PubMed

Bacterial biofilm formation can cause serious problems in clinical and industrial settings, which drives the development or screening of biofilm inhibitors. Some biofilm inhibitors have been screened from natural products or modified from natural compounds. Ginger has been used as a medicinal herb to treat infectious diseases for thousands of years, which leads to the hypothesis that it may contain chemicals inhibiting biofilm formation. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated ginger's ability to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm formation. A static biofilm assay demonstrated that biofilm development was reduced by 39-56% when ginger extract was added to the culture. In addition, various phenotypes were altered after ginger addition of PA14. Ginger extract decreased production of extracellular polymeric substances. This finding was confirmed by chemical analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, ginger extract formed noticeably less rugose colonies on agar plates containing Congo red and facilitated swarming motility on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and the altered phenotypes appear to be linked to a reduced level of a second messenger, bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate. Importantly, ginger extract inhibited biofilm formation in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also, surface biofilm cells formed with ginger extract detached more easily with surfactant than did those without ginger extract. Taken together, these findings provide a foundation for the possible discovery of a broad spectrum biofilm inhibitor. PMID:24086697

Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung

2013-09-27

47

Ginger Extract Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilm formation can cause serious problems in clinical and industrial settings, which drives the development or screening of biofilm inhibitors. Some biofilm inhibitors have been screened from natural products or modified from natural compounds. Ginger has been used as a medicinal herb to treat infectious diseases for thousands of years, which leads to the hypothesis that it may contain chemicals inhibiting biofilm formation. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated ginger’s ability to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm formation. A static biofilm assay demonstrated that biofilm development was reduced by 39–56% when ginger extract was added to the culture. In addition, various phenotypes were altered after ginger addition of PA14. Ginger extract decreased production of extracellular polymeric substances. This finding was confirmed by chemical analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, ginger extract formed noticeably less rugose colonies on agar plates containing Congo red and facilitated swarming motility on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and the altered phenotypes appear to be linked to a reduced level of a second messenger, bis-(3?-5?)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate. Importantly, ginger extract inhibited biofilm formation in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also, surface biofilm cells formed with ginger extract detached more easily with surfactant than did those without ginger extract. Taken together, these findings provide a foundation for the possible discovery of a broad spectrum biofilm inhibitor.

Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung

2013-01-01

48

Biofilm formation of Pasteurella multocida on bentonite clay  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Biofilms are structural communities of bacterial cells enshrined in a self produced polymeric matrix. The studies on biofilm formation of Pasteurella multocida have become imperative since it is a respiratory pathogen and its biofilm mode could possibly be one of its virulence factors for survival inside a host. The present study describes a biofilm assay for P. multocida on inert hydrophilic material called bentonite clay. Materials and methods The potential of the organism to form in vitro biofilm was assessed by growing the organism under nutrient restriction along with the inert substrate bentonite clay, which will provide a surface for attachment. For quantification of biofilm, plate count by the spread plate method was employed. Capsule production of the attached bacteria was demonstrated by light microscopic examination following Maneval staining and capsular polysaccharide estimation was done using standard procedures. Results and Conclusion The biofilm formation peaked on the third day of incubation (1.54 ×106 cfu/g of bentonite clay) while the planktonic cells were found to be at a maximum on day one post inoculation (8.10 ×108 cfu/ml of the broth). Maneval staining of late logarithmic phase biofilm cultures revealed large aggregates of bacterial cells, bacteria appearing as chains or as a meshwork. The capsular polysaccharide estimation of biofilm cells revealed a 3.25 times increase over the planktonic bacteria. The biofilm cells cultured on solid media also produced some exclusive colony morphotypes.

Rajagopal, Ramachandranpillai; Nair, Govindapillai Krishnan; Mini, Mangattumuruppel; Joseph, Leo; Saseendranath, Mapranath Raghavan; John, Koshy

2013-01-01

49

Small RNAs and their role in biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

The formation of biofilms is initiated by bacteria transitioning from the planktonic to the surface associated mode of growth. Several regulatory systems have been described to govern the initiation and subsequent formation of biofilms. Recent evidence suggests that regulatory networks governing the decision of bacteria whether to attach and form biofilms or remain as planktonic cells, are further subject to regulation by small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs). This is accomplished by sRNAs finetuning regulatory networks enabling concentration-specific responses, by sequestering, antagonizing or activating regulatory proteins in response to environmental cues, or by directly affecting the synthesis of proteins promoting/disfavoring the formation of biofilms. This review is aimed at giving an overview of the contribution of sRNAs in regulating the switch from the planktonic to the sessile bacterial lifestyle by highlighting how sRNAs converge with known regulatory systems required for biofilm formation.

Chambers, Jacob R.; Sauer, Karin

2013-01-01

50

Shewanella putrefaciens Adhesion and Biofilm Formation on Food Processing Surfaces  

PubMed Central

Laboratory model systems were developed for studying Shewanella putrefaciens adhesion and biofilm formation under batch and flow conditions. S. putrefaciens plays a major role in food spoilage and may cause microbially induced corrosion on steel surfaces. S. putrefaciens bacteria suspended in buffer adhered readily to stainless steel surfaces. Maximum numbers of adherent bacteria per square centimeter were reached in 8 h at 25°C and reflected the cell density in suspension. Numbers of adhering bacteria from a suspension containing 108 CFU/ml were much lower in a laminar flow system (modified Robbins device) (reaching 102 CFU/cm2) than in a batch system (reaching 107 CFU/cm2), and maximum numbers were reached after 24 h. When nutrients were supplied, S. putrefaciens grew in biofilms with layers of bacteria. The rate of biofilm formation and the thickness of the film were not dependent on the availability of carbohydrate (lactate or glucose) or on iron starvation. The number of S. putrefaciens bacteria on the surface was partly influenced by the presence of other bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) which reduced the numbers of S. putrefaciens bacteria in the biofilm. Numbers of bacteria on the surface must be quantified to evaluate the influence of environmental factors on adhesion and biofilm formation. We used a combination of fluorescence microscopy (4?,6?-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and in situ hybridization, for mixed-culture studies), ultrasonic removal of bacteria from surfaces, and indirect conductometry and found this combination sufficient to quantify bacteria on surfaces.

Bagge, Dorthe; Hjelm, Mette; Johansen, Charlotte; Huber, Ingrid; Gram, Lone

2001-01-01

51

The effects of metabolite molecules produced by drinking water-isolated bacteria on their single and multispecies biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The elucidation of the mechanisms by which diverse species survive and interact in drinking water (DW) biofilm communities may allow the identification of new biofilm control strategies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of metabolite molecules produced by bacteria isolated from DW on biofilm formation. Six opportunistic bacteria, viz. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Burkholderia cepacia, Methylobacterium sp.,

Lúcia Chaves Simões; Manuel Simões; Maria João Vieira

2011-01-01

52

Yeasts and Lactic Acid Bacteria Mixed-Specie Biofilm Formation is a Promising Cell Immobilization Technology for Ethanol Fermentation.  

PubMed

We previously found that some Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus plantarum remarkably formed mixed-specie biofilm in a static co-culture and deduced that this biofilm had potential as immobilized cells. We investigated the application of mixed-specie biofilm formed by S. cerevisiae BY4741 and L. plantarum HM23 for ethanol fermentation in repeated batch cultures. This mixed-specie biofilm was far abundantly formed and far resistant to washing compared with S. cerevisiae single biofilm. Adopting mixed-specie biofilm formed on cellulose beads as immobilized cells, we could produce enough ethanol from 10 or 20 % glucose during ten times repeated batch cultures for a duration of 10 days. Cell numbers of S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum during this period were stable. In mixed-specie biofilm system, though ethanol production was slightly lower compared to S. cerevisiae single-culture system due to by-production of lactate, pH was stably maintained under pH 4 without artificial control suggesting high resistance to contamination. Inoculated model contaminants, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, were excluded from the system in a short time. From the above results, it was indicated that the mixed-specie biofilm of S. cerevisiae and L. plantarum was a promising immobilized cell for ethanol fermentation for its ethanol productivity and robustness due to high resistance to contamination. PMID:23817789

Abe, Atsumu; Furukawa, Soichi; Watanabe, Shinya; Morinaga, Yasushi

2013-07-02

53

Antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from very low birth weight babies: comprehensive comparisons of bacteria at different stages of biofilm formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci are major causes of bloodstream infections in very low birth weight babies cared for in Neonatal Intensive Care Units. The virulence of these bacteria is mainly due to their ability to form biofilms on indwelling medical devices. Biofilm-related infections often fail to respond to antibiotic chemotherapy guided by conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests. METHODS: Coagulase-negative staphylococcal blood culture

Yue Qu; Andrew J Daley; Taghrid S Istivan; Suzanne M Garland; Margaret A Deighton

2010-01-01

54

Biofilm formation by enterococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterococci are an important global cause of nosocomial infections, being increasingly associated with urinary tract infections, endocarditis, intra-abdominal and pelvic infections, catheter-related infections, surgical wound infections, and central nervous system infections. The two most common enterococci species are Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Both are capable of producing biofilms, which consist of a population of cells attached irreversibly on various

Jamal A. Mohamed; David B. Huang

2007-01-01

55

Boundaries for Biofilm Formation: Humidity and Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental conditions which define boundaries for biofilm production could provide useful ecological information for biofilm models. A practical use of defined conditions could be applied to the high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Data for temperature and humidity conditions indicate that decreases in relative humidity or increased temperature severely affect biofilm formation on three candidate canister metals. Biofilms create

T. A. Else; C. R. Pantle; P. S. Amy

2003-01-01

56

Effect of alkaline pH on staphylococcal biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Biofilms are a serious problem, cause of severe inconvenience in the biomedical, food and industrial environment. Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis are important pathogenic bacteria able to form thick and resistant biofilms on various surfaces. Therefore, strategies aimed at preventing or at least interfering with the initial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation are a considerable achievement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of alkaline pH on bacterial adhesion and further biofilm formation of S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains by biofilm biomass, cell-surface hydrophobicity, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis. The results demonstrated that the amount of biofilm biomass formed and the surface hydrophobicity were significantly less than what were observed at higher levels of pH. SEM and CLSM images revealed a poorly structured and very thin biofilm (2.5-3 times thinner than that of the controls). The inhibiting effect of the alkaline pH on the bacterial attachment impaired the normal development of biofilm that arrested at the microcolony stage. Alkaline formulations could be promising towards the control of bacterial colonization and therefore the reduction of the biofilm-related hazard. In the clinical setting, alkaline solutions or cleaners could be promising to prevent the bacterial colonization, by treating surfaces such as catheters or indwelling medical devices, reducing the risk of biofilm related infections. PMID:22882263

Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina; Di Giulio, Mara; D'Arrigo, Manuela; Marino, Andreana; Blanco, Anna Rita; Favaloro, Angelo; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Bisignano, Giuseppe

2012-04-11

57

Effects of patterned topography on biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial biofilms are a population of bacteria attached to each other and irreversibly to a surface, enclosed in a matrix of self-secreted polymers, among others polysaccharides, proteins, DNA. Biofilms cause persisting infections associated with implanted medical devices and hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infections accounting for up to 40% of all hospital acquired infections. Several different strategies, including use of antibacterial agents and genetic cues, quorum sensing, have been adopted for inhibiting biofilm formation relevant to CAUTI surfaces. Each of these methods pertains to certain types of bacteria, processes and has shortcomings. Based on eukaryotic cell topography interaction studies and Ulva linza spore studies, topographical surfaces were suggested as a benign control method for biofilm formation. However, topographies tested so far have not included a systematic variation of size across basic topography shapes. In this study patterned topography was systematically varied in size and shape according to two approaches 1) confinement and 2) wetting. For the confinement approach, using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, orienting effects of tested topography based on staphylococcus aureus (s. aureus) (SH1000) and enterobacter cloacae (e. cloacae) (ATCC 700258) bacterial models were identified on features of up to 10 times the size of the bacterium. Psuedomonas aeruginosa (p. aeruginosa) (PAO1) did not show any orientational effects, under the test conditions. Another important factor in medical biofilms is the identification and quantification of phenotypic state which has not been discussed in the literature concerning bacteria topography characterizations. This was done based on antibiotic susceptibility evaluation and also based on gene expression analysis. Although orientational effects occur, phenotypically no difference was observed between the patterned topography tested. Another potential strategy for biofilm control through patterned topography is based on the design of robust non-wetting surfaces with undercut feature geometries, characterized by 1) breakthrough pressure and 2) triple phase contact line model. It was found that height and presence of undercut had statistically significant effects, directly proportional to breakthrough pressures, whereas extent of undercut did not. A predictive triple phase contact line model was also developed. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

Vasudevan, Ravikumar

58

Inactivation of Efflux Pumps Abolishes Bacterial Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial biofilms cause numerous problems in health care and industry; notably, biofilms are associ- ated with a large number of infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant to antibiotics, making it hard to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. Bacteria rely on efflux pumps to get rid of toxic substances. We discovered that efflux pumps are highly active in bacterial biofilms, thus making efflux

Malin Kvist; Viktoria Hancock; Per Klemm

2008-01-01

59

Biofilm formation by Campylobacter jejuni in controlled mixed-microbial populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was to screen the ability of biofilm formation by Campylobacter jejuni strains found in New Zealand, and investigate the biofilm growth of C. jejuni in a controlled mixed-microbial population that includes five different bacteria. The ability of C. jejuni to form a biofilm in monoculture and mixed-microbial populations was measured in a laboratory assay using a microtiter plate

Koon Hoong Teh; Steve Flint; Nigel French

2010-01-01

60

Chemically Specific Cellular Imaging of Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document and the accompanying manuscripts summarize the technical accomplishments for our one-year LDRD-ER effort. Biofilm forming microbes have existed on this planet for billions of years and make up 60% of the biological mass on earth. Such microbes exhibit unique biochemical pathways during biofilm formation and play important roles in human health and the environment. Microbial biofilms have been

J L Herberg; C Schaldach; J Horn; E Gjersing; R Maxwell

2006-01-01

61

Inhibition of Flavobacterium psychrophilum biofilm formation using a biofilm of the antagonist Pseudomonas fluorescens FF48.  

PubMed

The most important bacterial pathology currently occurring in Chilean freshwater salmon farming is the cold-water disease produced by the psychrotrophic bacteria Flavobacterium psychrophilum. The main aim of this study was to characterize the inhibitory activity of an antagonist strain on the formation of biofilms of a F. psychrophilum strain. The antagonistic strain Pseudomonas fluorescens FF48 was isolated from the sediment beneath the salmon cages of a freshwater Chilean salmon farm and was identified by using the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The production of siderophores, mainly during the stationary phase of growth of the antagonist strain was demonstrated using the Chrome Azurol S method and through F. psychrophilum inhibition under iron saturation conditions. Subsequently, the effect of the antagonist supernatant on the formation of F. psychrophilum biofilm was tested using the crystal violet staining method observing an inhibition of the growth of F. psychrophilum, but no effect was observed when iron saturation concentrations were used. Furthermore, when the antagonist strain was previously deposited on the support, it completely inhibited the formation of F. psychrophilum biofilms, but when both bacteria were inoculated simultaneously no inhibitory effect was detected. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that FF48 strain is able to inhibit the formation of F. psychrophilum biofilms in vitro probably mediated by the siderophore production, suggesting its potential use as a biocontrol biofilm in freshwater fish rearing systems to prevent the persistence of biofilms of the fish pathogenic species F. psychrophilum. PMID:23667820

De la Fuente, Mery; Vidal, José M; Miranda, Claudio D; González, Gerardo; Urrutia, Homero

2013-04-22

62

Transcriptional profiling of Legionella pneumophila biofilm cells and the influence of iron on biofilm formation.  

PubMed

In aquatic environments, biofilms constitute an ecological niche where Legionella pneumophila persists as sessile cells. However, very little information on the sessile mode of life of L. pneumophila is currently available. We report here the development of a model biofilm of L. pneumophila strain Lens and the first transcriptome analysis of L. pneumophila biofilm cells. Global gene expression analysis of sessile cells as compared to two distinct populations of planktonic cells revealed that a substantial proportion of L. pneumophila genes is differentially expressed, as 2.3 % of the 2932 predicted genes exhibited at least a twofold change in gene expression. Comparison with previous results defining the gene expression profile of replicative- and transmissive-phase Legionella suggests that sessile cells resemble bacteria in the replicative phase. Further analysis of the most strongly regulated genes in sessile cells identified two induced gene clusters. One contains genes that encode alkyl hydroperoxide reductases known to act against oxidative stress. The second encodes proteins similar to PvcA and PvcB that are involved in siderophore biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Since iron has been reported to modify biofilm formation in other species, we further focused on iron control of gene expression and biofilm formation. Among the genes showing the greatest differences in expression between planktonic cells and biofilm, only pvcA and pvcB were regulated by iron concentration. A DeltapvcA L. pneumophila mutant showed no changes in biofilm formation compared to the wild-type, suggesting that the pvcA product is not mandatory for biofilm formation. However, biofilm formation by L. pneumophila wild-type and a DeltapvcA strain was clearly inhibited in iron-rich conditions. PMID:18174123

Hindré, Thomas; Brüggemann, Holger; Buchrieser, Carmen; Héchard, Yann

2008-01-01

63

Identification of a Novel Benzimidazole That Inhibits Bacterial Biofilm Formation in a Broad-Spectrum Manner?  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilm formation causes significant industrial economic loss and high morbidity and mortality in medical settings. Biofilms are defined as multicellular communities of bacteria encased in a matrix of protective extracellular polymers. Because biofilms have a high tolerance for treatment with antimicrobials, protect bacteria from immune defense, and resist clearance with standard sanitation protocols, it is critical to develop new approaches to prevent biofilm formation. Here, a novel benzimidazole molecule, named antibiofilm compound 1 (ABC-1), identified in a small-molecule screen, was found to prevent bacterial biofilm formation in multiple Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, on a variety of different surface types. Importantly, ABC-1 itself does not inhibit the growth of bacteria, and it is effective at nanomolar concentrations. Also, coating a polystyrene surface with ABC-1 reduces biofilm formation. These data suggest ABC-1 is a new chemical scaffold for the development of antibiofilm compounds.

Sambanthamoorthy, Karthik; Gokhale, Ankush A.; Lao, Weiwei; Parashar, Vijay; Neiditch, Matthew B.; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Lee, Ilsoon; Waters, Christopher M.

2011-01-01

64

Inhibitory Effects of Lactoferrin on Growth and Biofilm Formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding antimicrobial protein present in saliva and gingival crevicular fluids, and it is possibly associated with host defense against oral pathogens, including periodontopathic bacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of LF-related agents on the growth and biofilm formation of two periodontopathic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia, which reside as biofilms

Hiroyuki Wakabayashi; Koji Yamauchi; Tetsuo Kobayashi; Tomoko Yaeshima; Keiji Iwatsuki; Hiromasa Yoshie

2009-01-01

65

Pili contribute to biofilm formation in vitro in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Organized bacterial communities, or biofilms, provide an important reservoir for persistent cells that are inaccessible or tolerant to antibiotics. Curli pili are cell-surface structures produced by certain bacteria and have been implicated in biofilm formation in these species. In order to determine whether these structures, which were suggested to be encoded by the Rv3312A (mtp) gene, have a similar role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we generated a ?mtp mutant and a mtp-complemented strain of a clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis and analyzed these strains for their ability to produce pili in comparison to the wild-type strain. Phenotypic analysis by transmission electron microscopy proved the essentiality of mtp for piliation in M. tuberculosis. We then compared biofilm formation of the derived strains in detergent-free Sauton's media. Biofilm mass was quantified spectrophotometrically using crystal violet. Furthermore, we examined mtp gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR in wild-type cells grown under biofilm versus planktonic growth conditions. We found a 68.4 % reduction in biofilm mass in the mutant compared to the wild-type strain (P = 0.002). Complementation of the mutant resulted in a restoration of the wild-type biofilm phenotype (P = 0.022). We, however, found no significant difference between mtp expression in cells of the biofilm to those growing planktonically. Our findings highlight a crucial, but non-specific, role of pili in the biofilm lifestyle of M. tuberculosis and indicate that they may represent an important target for the development of therapeutics to attenuate biofilm formation, thereby potentially reducing persistence. PMID:23907521

Ramsugit, Saiyur; Guma, Sinenhlanhla; Pillay, Balakrishna; Jain, Paras; Larsen, Michelle H; Danaviah, Siva; Pillay, Manormoney

2013-08-02

66

Synergy in biofilm formation between Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella species.  

PubMed

The formation of biofilm by anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria in the subgingival crevice plays an important role in the development of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of coaggregation between Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella species in biofilm formation. Coaggregation between F. nucleatum and Prevotella species was determined by visual assay. Effect of co-culture of the species on biofilm formation was assessed by crystal violet staining. Effect of soluble factor on biofilm formation was also examined using culture supernatant and two-compartment co-culture separated by a porous membrane. Production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) by the organisms was evaluated using Vibrio harveyi BB170. Cells of all F. nucleatum strains coaggregated with Prevotella intermedia or Prevotella nigrescens with a score of 1-4. Addition of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid or l-lysine inhibited coaggregation. Coaggregation disappeared after heating of P. intermedia or P. nigrescens cells, or Proteinase K treatment of P. nigrescens cells. Co-culture of F. nucleatum ATCC 25586 with P. intermedia or P. nigrescens strains increased biofilm formation compared with single culture (p < 0.01); co-culture with culture supernatant of these strains, however, did not enhance biofilm formation by F. nucleatum. Production of AI-2 in Prevotella species was not related to enhancement of biofilm formation by F. nucleatum. These findings indicate that physical contact by coaggregation of F. nucleatum strains with P. intermedia or P. nigrescens plays a key role in the formation of biofilm by these strains. PMID:21945879

Okuda, Tamaki; Kokubu, Eitoyo; Kawana, Tomoko; Saito, Atsushi; Okuda, Katsuji; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

2011-09-16

67

Bacterial survival and biofilm formation on conventional and antibacterial toothbrushes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial survival and biofilm formation on toothbrushes. Fifteen healthy volunteers each used a normal toothbrush and an antibacterial toothbrush of the same design for two separate 5 week periods. Bacteria were removed from the brush head by swabbing and mechanical agitation in 10 ml of tryptone soya broth, cultured aerobically on selective

R. L. Sammons; D. Kaur; P. Neal

2004-01-01

68

Heparin Stimulates Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Heparin, known for its anticoagulant activity, is commonly used in catheter locks. Staphylococcus aureus, a versatile human and animal pathogen, is commonly associated with catheter-related bloodstream infections and has evolved a number of mechanisms through which it adheres to biotic and abiotic surfaces. We demonstrate that heparin increased biofilm formation by several S. aureus strains. Surface coverage and the kinetics of biofilm formation were stimulated, but primary attachment to the surface was not affected. Heparin increased S. aureus cell-cell interactions in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. The addition of heparin rescued biofilm formation of hla, ica, and sarA mutants. Our data further suggest that heparin stimulation of biofilm formation occurs neither through an increase in sigB activity nor through an increase in polysaccharide intracellular adhesin levels. These finding suggests that heparin stimulates S. aureus biofilm formation via a novel pathway.

Shanks, Robert M. Q.; Donegan, Niles P.; Graber, Martha L.; Buckingham, Sarah E.; Zegans, Michael E.; Cheung, Ambrose L.; O'Toole, George A.

2005-01-01

69

Effect of proteases on biofilm formation of the plastic-degrading actinomycete Rhodococcus ruber C208.  

PubMed

In most habitats, the vast majority of microbial populations form biofilms on solid surfaces, whether natural or artificial. These biofilms provide either increased physical support and/or a source of nutrients. Further modifications and development of biofilms are regulated by signal molecules secreted by the cells. Because synthetic polymers are not soluble in aqueous solutions, biofilm-producing bacteria may biodegrade such materials more efficiently than planktonic strains. Bacterial biofilms comprise bacterial cells embedded in self-secreted extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Revealing the roles of each component of the EPS will enable further insight into biofilm development and the EPS structure-function relationship. A strain of Rhodococcus ruber (C208) displayed high hydrophobicity and formed a dense biofilm on the surface of polyethylene films while utilizing the polyolefin as carbon and energy sources. This study investigated the effects of several proteases on C208 biofilm formation and stability. The proteolysis of C208 biofilm gave conflicting results. Trypsin significantly reduced biofilm formation, and the resultant biofilm appeared monolayered. In contrast, proteinase K enhanced biofilm formation, which was robust and multilayered. Presumably, proteinase K degraded self-secreted proteases or quorum-sensing peptides, which may be involved in biofilm detachment processes, leading to a multilayered, nondispersed biofilm. PMID:23448092

Gilan, Irit; Sivan, Alex

2013-03-18

70

Effect of berberine on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of the main causes of medical device-related infections owing to its adhesion and biofilm-forming abilities on biomaterial surfaces. Berberine is an isoquinoline-type alkaloid isolated from Coptidis rhizoma (huang lian in Chinese) and other herbs with many activities against various disorders. Although the inhibitory effects of berberine on planktonic bacteria have been investigated in a few studies, the capacity of berberine to inhibit biofilm formation has not been reported to date. In this study, we observed that berberine is bacteriostatic for S. epidermidis and that sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations of berberine blocked the formation of S.epidermidis biofilm. Using viability assays and berberine uptake testing, berberine at a concentration of 15-30mug/mL was shown to inhibit bacterial metabolism. Data from this study also indicated that modest concentrations of berberine (30-45mug/mL) were sufficient to exhibit an antibacterial effect and to inhibit biofilm formation significantly, as shown by the tissue culture plate (TCP) method, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for both S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 and a clinical isolate strain SE243. Although the mechanisms of bacterial killing and inhibition of biofilm formation are not fully understood, data from this investigation indicated a potential application for berberine as an adjuvant therapeutic agent for the prevention of biofilm-related infections. PMID:19157797

Wang, Xiaoqing; Yao, Xiao; Zhu, Zhen'an; Tang, Tingting; Dai, Kerong; Sadovskaya, Irina; Flahaut, Sigrid; Jabbouri, Said

2009-01-20

71

Environmental Stimuli Shape Biofilm Formation and the Virulence of Periodontal Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease affecting the tooth-supporting structures. It is initiated by bacteria growing as a biofilm at the gingival margin, and communication of the biofilms differs in health and disease. The bacterial composition of periodontitis-associated biofilms has been well documented and is under continual investigation. However, the roles of several host response and inflammation driven environmental stimuli on biofilm formation is not well understood. This review article addresses the effects of environmental factors such as pH, temperature, cytokines, hormones, and oxidative stress on periodontal biofilm formation and bacterial virulence.

Pollanen, Marja T.; Paino, Annamari; Ihalin, Riikka

2013-01-01

72

Biofilm formation of Malassezia pachydermatis from dogs.  

PubMed

Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are commensals of the normal skin microbial flora of humans and animals. These yeasts may become pathogenic under certain circumstances and their pathogenic role may be related to host immune system as well to yeast virulence factors (e.g., phospholipase production and biofilm formation). This study aims to evaluate the in vitro ability of M. pachydermatis strains to produce biofilm, and its relationship with phospholipase activity and the genetic make-up of isolates from lesioned (n=32) and healthy (n=30) dog skin. The production of biofilm was determined by crystal violet staining and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Biofilm was produced by almost all M. pachydermatis isolates (95.2%) from dogs with and without skin lesions at variable level and different structure. At the SEM, biofilm matrix presented adhering blastoconidia clustered in multi- or monolayer structures with variable quantity of extracellular production. Of the three genotypes detected, genotype B showed the lowest ability to produce biofilm. Of the 59 isolates producing biofilm, 33 (55.9%) produced phospholipase, with a higher biofilm formation (p<0.05) in strains collected from animals with skin lesions. It is here suggested that phospholipase production might act in synergism with the biofilm formation by inducing or exacerbating skin lesions in dogs. The results provide evidences for a better understanding of the interactions between yeasts and host immune system, toward revealing the pathogenicity of M. pachydermatis in animals. PMID:22682201

Figueredo, Luciana A; Cafarchia, Claudia; Desantis, Salvatore; Otranto, Domenico

2012-05-18

73

Regulation of biofilm formation in Escherichia coli K12: Effect of mutations in the genes HNS, STRA, LON, and RPON  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 99% of bacteria exist in natural ecosystems as specifically organized biofilms adhering to solid surfaces. Biofilms\\u000a have a typical architecture and are enclosed in exopolymeric matrix. Bacteria living in biofilms are extremely resistant to\\u000a antibacterial factors. In this work, we studied the role of some global regulators of gene expression during biofilm formation\\u000a by cells of Escherichia coli

A. S. Belik; N. N. Tarasova; I. A. Khmel’

2008-01-01

74

Biofilm Formation Derived from Ambient Air and the Characteristics of Apparatus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilm is a kind of thin film on solidified matters, being derived from bacteria. Generally, planktonic bacteria float in aqueous environments, soil or air, most of which can be regarded as oligotrophic environments. Since they have to survive by instinct, they seek for nutrients that would exist on materials surfaces as organic matters. Therefore, bacteria attach materials surfaces reversibly. The attachment and detachment repeat for a while and finally, they attach on them irreversibly and the number of bacteria on them increases. At a threshold number, bacteria produce polymeric matters at the same time by quorum sensing mechanism and the biofilm produces on material surfaces. The biofilm produced in that way generally contains water (more than 80%), EPS (Exopolymeric Substance) and bacteria themselves. And they might bring about many industrial problems, fouling, corrosion etc. Therefore, it is very important for us to control and prevent the biofilm formation properly. However, it is generally very hard to produce biofilm experimentally and constantly in ambient atmosphere on labo scale. The authors invented an apparatus where biofilm could form on specimen's surfaces from house germs in the ambient air. In this experiment, we investigated the basic characteristics of the apparatus, reproducibility, the change of biofilm with experimental time, the quality change of water for biofilm formation and their significance for biofilm research.

Kanematsu, H.; Kougo, H.; Kuroda, D.; Itho, H.; Ogino, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.

2013-04-01

75

PotD protein stimulates biofilm formation by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

In natural environments bacteria often adopt a biofilm-growth mode. PotD is a spermidine/putrescine-binding periplasmic protein belonging to polyamine transport system and we have examined its role during biofilm formation and for planktonic growth in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strains that either over-express PotD (PotD+), or under-express it (PotDi) and also in a control strain with vector pET26b(+) (PotD0). The three strains displayed similar growth in planktonic growth-mode, but over expression of PotD protein greatly stimulated the formation of biofilms, while less biofilm formed by strain PotDi in comparison to strain PotD0. The expressions of five genes, recA, sfiA, groEL, groES, and gyrA, were increasingly expressed in PotD+ biofilm cells. Thus, PotD is likely to change the rate of polyamine synthesis, which stimulates the expression of SOS genes and biofilm formation. PMID:23539287

Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Yuzhen; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Honglei

2013-03-29

76

Biofilm Formation in Microscopic Double Emulsion Droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In natural, medical, and industrial settings, there exist surface-associated communities of bacteria known as biofilms. These highly structured films are composed of bacterial cells embedded within self-produced extracellular matrix, usually composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids; this matrix serves to protect the bacterial community from antibiotics and environmental stressors. Here, we form biofilms encapsulated within monodisperse, microscopically-sized double emulsion droplets using microfluidics. The bacteria self-organize at the inner liquid-liquid droplet interfaces, multiply, and differentiate into extracellular matrix-producing cells, forming manifold three-dimensional shell-within-a-shell structures of biofilms, templated upon the inner core of spherical liquid droplets. By using microfluidics to encapsulate bacterial cells, we have the ability to view individual cells multiplying in microscopically-sized droplets, which allows for high-throughput analysis in studying the genetic program leading to biofilm development, or cell signaling that induces differentiation.

Chang, Connie; Weitz, David

2012-02-01

77

The genomics and proteomics of biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

Bacterial communities that are attached to a surface, so-called biofilms, and their inherent resistance to antimicrobial agents are a cause of many persistent and chronic bacterial infections. Recent genomic and proteomic studies have identified many of the genes and gene products differentially expressed during biofilm formation, revealing the complexity of this developmental process.

Sauer, Karin

2003-01-01

78

Evaluation of Various Metallic Coatings on Steel to Mitigate Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

In marine environments and water systems, it is easy for many structures to form biofilms on their surfaces and to be deteriorated due to the corrosion caused by biofilm formation by bacteria. The authors have investigated the antibacterial effects of metallic elements in practical steels so far to solve food-related problems, using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. However, from the viewpoint of material deterioration caused by bacteria and their antifouling measures, we should consider the biofilm behavior as aggregate rather than individual bacterium. Therefore, we picked up Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudoalteromonas carageenovara in this study, since they easily form biofilms in estuarine and marine environments. We investigated what kind of metallic elements could inhibit the biofilm formation at first and then discussed how the thin films of those inhibitory elements on steels could affect biofilm formation. The information would lead to the establishment of effective antifouling measures against corrosion in estuarine and marine environments.

Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Ikigai, Hajime; Yoshitake, Michiko

2009-01-01

79

Desiccation tolerance of iron bacteria biofilms on Mars regolith simulants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Iron oxidizing bacteria play an important role in the geological redox cycling of iron on earth. The redox change between Fe(II) and Fe(III) can be used for biological energy production [1]. Therefore iron oxidation in the iron rich martian soils may be or may have been microbially mediated. The microbial conversion of iron is considered to be an ancient form of metabolism [2], so it might have evolved on Mars as well. However, to exist in recent martian soils, bacteria must be able to endure dry and cold conditions. Neutrophilic iron oxidizers can be found in various iron rich aquatic environments, where they lead to the precipitation of insoluble ferric hydroxides. Some of these environments fall temporarily dry, what could have led to an adaptation to desiccation by bacteria, existing there. One strategy of iron bacteria to endure drought stress might be the formation of biofilms by excreting Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS). The deposition of iron hydroxides could enable them to endure dry conditions as well. For our experiments, neutrophilic iron oxidizing bacteria have been isolated from a creek in Bad Salzhausen/Hesse and temporarily drying out pools in Tierra del Fuego. Strains from aquatic environments in the national park "Unteres Odertal" and from water wells in Berlin/Brandenburg are included in the tests as well. In desiccation experiments, the capability of iron bacteria to tolerate dry conditions are investigated. The aim of our first experiment is the adaptation to dry conditions. Biofilms of 15 strains are grown on ceramic beads in liquid medium containing complexed Fe(II), established biofilms contain Fe(III) precipitates. The cultures are desiccated in a sterile airflow until the weight of the cultures remained constant. After a desiccation period of 9 h up to 7 d, the beads are transferred to fresh liquid medium. Adapted strains are used in further desiccation experiments, where biofilms are grown on two martian regolith simulants. These mineral mixtures were developed and produced by the Naturkundemuseum Berlin according to recent data of Mars research missions [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. The minerals are attached to object slides with potassium silicate and biofilms are grown on the mineral surface. The biofilms are quantified by cell counting and the structure is evaluated by epifluorescence microscopy. After desiccation in a sterile airflow, the survival of cells is determined by fluorescence staining. Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Helmholtz Association through the research alliance "Planetary Evolution and Life". References [1] Weber, K. A. et al. (2006). Microorganisms pumping iron: anaerobic microbial iron oxidation and reduction. Nature Reviews Microbiology 4: 752-764. [2] Vargas, M. et al. (1998). Microbiological evidence for Fe(III) reduction on early Earth. Nature 395: 65-67. [3] Bibring, J.-P., Y. Langevin, et al. (2005). Mars surface diversity as revealed by the OMEGA/Mars express observations. Science 307(5715): 1576-1581. [4] Bibring, J.-P., S. W. Squyres, et al. (2006). Merging Views on Mars. Science 313(5795): 1899-1901. [5] Chevrier, V. and P. E. Mathé (2007). Mineralogy and evolution of the surface of Mars: A review. Planetary and Space Science 55(3): 289-314. [6] McCollom, T. M. and B. M. Hynek (2005). A volcanic environment for bedrock diagenesis at Meridiani Planum on Mars. Nature 438(7071): 1129-1131. [7] Poulet, F., J. P. Bibring, et al. (2005). Phyllosilicates on Mars and implications for early martian climate. Nature 438(7068): 623-627.

Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich

2010-05-01

80

Processes Involved in Early Biofilm Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of Series I experiments provided the following information: the rate of biofilm COD accumulation during its early formation stages was described mathematically using a first-order rate expression. The resultant first-order rate constant was a line...

J. D. Bryers

1982-01-01

81

The Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule CORM-2 Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Chronic infections resulting from biofilm formation are difficult to eradicate with current antimicrobial agents and consequently new therapies are needed. This work demonstrates that the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule CORM-2, previously shown to kill planktonic bacteria, also attenuates surface-associated growth of the Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by both preventing biofilm maturation and killing bacteria within the established biofilm. CORM-2 treatment has an additive effect when combined with tobramycin, a drug commonly used to treat P. aeruginosa lung infections. CORM-2 inhibited biofilm formation and planktonic growth of the majority of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates tested, for both mucoid and non-mucoid strains. While CORM-2 treatment increased the production of reactive oxygen species by P. aeruginosa biofilms, this increase did not correlate with bacterial death. These data demonstrate that CO-RMs possess potential novel therapeutic properties against a subset of P. aeruginosa biofilm related infections.

Murray, Thomas S.; Okegbe, Chinweike; Gao, Yuan; Kazmierczak, Barbara I.; Motterlini, Roberto; Dietrich, Lars E. P.; Bruscia, Emanuela M.

2012-01-01

82

Targeted profiling of oral bacteria in human saliva and in vitro biofilms with quantitative real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro plaque model based on the use of human salivary bacteria and tooth-like surfaces was previously developed for studying the formation of oral biofilm and its use for pre-clinical testing of candidate antimicrobial or antiplaque agents. In this study, a quantitative Taqman PCR assay (QPCR) was developed to compare the bacterial compositions of in vitro biofilms to parent

R. R. Price; H. B. Viscount; M. C. Stanley; K. P. Leung

2007-01-01

83

Genes Involved in Cronobacter sakazakii Biofilm Formation ?  

PubMed Central

Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic food-borne pathogens that can cause severe and sometimes lethal infections in neonates. In some outbreaks, the sources of infection were traced to contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF) or contaminated utensils used for PIF reconstitution. In this study, we investigated biofilm formation in Cronobacter sakazakii strain ES5. To investigate the genetic basis of biofilm formation in Cronobacter on abiotic surfaces, we screened a library of random transposon mutants of strain ES5 for reduced biofilm formation using a polystyrene microtiter assay. Genetic characterization of the mutants led to identification of genes that are associated with cellulose biosynthesis and flagellar structure and biosynthesis and genes involved in basic cellular processes and virulence, as well as several genes whose functions are currently unknown. In two of the mutants, hypothetical proteins ESA_00281 and ESA_00282 had a strong impact on flow cell biofilm architecture, and their contribution to biofilm formation was confirmed by genetic complementation. In addition, adhesion of selected biofilm formation mutants to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. Our findings suggest that flagella and hypothetical proteins ESA_00281 and ESA_00282, but not cellulose, contribute to adhesion of Cronobacter to this biotic surface.

Hartmann, Isabel; Carranza, Paula; Lehner, Angelika; Stephan, Roger; Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Kathrin

2010-01-01

84

Genes involved in Cronobacter sakazakii biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic food-borne pathogens that can cause severe and sometimes lethal infections in neonates. In some outbreaks, the sources of infection were traced to contaminated powdered infant formula (PIF) or contaminated utensils used for PIF reconstitution. In this study, we investigated biofilm formation in Cronobacter sakazakii strain ES5. To investigate the genetic basis of biofilm formation in Cronobacter on abiotic surfaces, we screened a library of random transposon mutants of strain ES5 for reduced biofilm formation using a polystyrene microtiter assay. Genetic characterization of the mutants led to identification of genes that are associated with cellulose biosynthesis and flagellar structure and biosynthesis and genes involved in basic cellular processes and virulence, as well as several genes whose functions are currently unknown. In two of the mutants, hypothetical proteins ESA_00281 and ESA_00282 had a strong impact on flow cell biofilm architecture, and their contribution to biofilm formation was confirmed by genetic complementation. In addition, adhesion of selected biofilm formation mutants to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells was investigated. Our findings suggest that flagella and hypothetical proteins ESA_00281 and ESA_00282, but not cellulose, contribute to adhesion of Cronobacter to this biotic surface. PMID:20118366

Hartmann, Isabel; Carranza, Paula; Lehner, Angelika; Stephan, Roger; Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Kathrin

2010-01-29

85

Influence of culture heterogeneity in cell surface charge on adhesion and biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation is an increasing problem in medicine, due to the intrinsic resistance of microorganisms in the biofilm mode of growth against the host immune system and antimicrobial therapy. Adhesion is an important step in biofilm formation, influenced, among other factors, by the surface hydrophobicities and charges of both the substratum and the adhering microorganisms. Enterococcus faecalis strains generally display subpopulations with different surface charges, expressed as bimodal zeta potential distributions. Two-thirds of E. faecalis strains isolated from clogged biliary stents displayed such heterogeneity of surface charges in culture. In this study, the influence of this culture heterogeneity on initial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation was investigated. Heterogeneous strains were retained in higher numbers on polystyrene than homogeneous strains. Also, biofilm formation was much more pronounced for heterogeneous strains than for homogeneous strains. In a population enriched to display only one subpopulation, fewer bacteria were retained than in its original heterogeneous culture. Also, the enriched subpopulation formed less biofilm than its original heterogeneous culture. The presence of ox bile during adhesion resulted in fewer retained bacteria, although heterogeneous strains were still retained in significantly higher numbers than were homogeneous strains, and, in general, the presence of ox bile reduced biofilm formation. The initial adhesion and biofilm formation were independent of the presence of the gene encoding the enterococcal surface protein (esp) or the expression of gelatinase (GelE). It is concluded that heterogeneity in cell surface charge represents an advantage for bacteria in the colonization of surfaces. PMID:16547028

van Merode, Annet E J; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Krom, Bastiaan P

2006-04-01

86

Biofilms.  

PubMed

Bacterial biofilms are 3-dimensional aggregates of bacteria that have been shown to play a major role in many chronic infections. Evidence is growing that bacterial biofilms may play a role in certain cases of recalcitrant chronic sinusitis that do not respond to traditional medical and surgical therapies. Novel therapies may have clinical applications to prevent and destabilize biofilms. Future research will determine if topical antimicrobials, surfactants, and other adjuvant therapies can be used to treat biofilm-associated chronic rhinosinusitis. PMID:20525507

Suh, Jeffrey D; Ramakrishnan, Vijay; Palmer, James N

2010-06-01

87

Chemotaxis in P. Aeruginosa Biofilm Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pseudomonas biofilms form infections in the lungs of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients that damage lung tissue and lead to death. Previous work shows chemotaxis is important for Pseudomonas in CF lungs. The work studied swimming bacteria at high concentrations. In contrast, medically relevant biofilms initiate from sparse populations of surface-bound bacteria. The recent development of software techniques for automated, high-throughput bacteria tracking leaves us well-poised to quantitatively study these chemotactic conditions. We will develop experimental systems for such studies, focusing on L-Arginine (an amino acid), D-Galactose (a sugar present in lungs), and succinate and glucose (carbon sources for bacteria). This suite of chemoattractants will allow us to study how chemoattractant characteristics--size and diffusion behavior--change bacterial response; the interaction of competing chemoattractants; and, differences in bacterial behaviors, like motility modes, in response to different types of chemoattractions and varying neighbor cell density.

Bienvenu, Samuel; Strain, Shinji; Thatcher, Travis; Gordon, Vernita

2010-10-01

88

Fractal analysis of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the growth process of Xylella fastidiosa biofilms inoculated on a glass. The size and the distance between biofilms were analyzed by optical images; a fractal analysis was carried out using scaling concepts and atomic force microscopy images. We observed that different biofilms show similar fractal characteristics, although morphological variations can be identified for different biofilm stages. Two types of structural patterns are suggested from the observed fractal dimensions Df. In the initial and final stages of biofilm formation, Df is 2.73+/-0.06 and 2.68+/-0.06, respectively, while in the maturation stage, Df=2.57+/-0.08. These values suggest that the biofilm growth can be understood as an Eden model in the former case, while diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) seems to dominate the maturation stage. Changes in the correlation length parallel to the surface were also observed; these results were correlated with the biofilm matrix formation, which can hinder nutrient diffusion and thus create conditions to drive DLA growth.

Moreau, A. L. D.; Lorite, G. S.; Rodrigues, C. M.; Souza, A. A.; Cotta, M. A.

2009-07-01

89

Agrobacterium-Host Attachment and Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical association with host plant tissue is a prerequisite to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection and subsequent disease. Mechanisms of tissue adherence have been extensively studied in mammalian pathogens, but\\u000a less so in plant-associated bacteria. Cells of A. tumefaciens often attach to plant tissue by a single pole. In the appropriate environment, these attached bacteria eventually develop\\u000a into multicellular assemblies called biofilms,

Clay Fuqua

90

Type IV Pili and the CcpA Protein Are Needed for Maximal Biofilm Formation by the Gram-Positive Anaerobic Pathogen Clostridium perfringens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant organizational state of bacteria in nature is biofilms. Biofilms have been shown to increase bacterial resistance to a variety of stresses. We demonstrate for the first time that the anaerobic gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens forms biofilms. At the same concentration of glucose in the medium, optimal biofilm formation depended on a functional CcpA protein. While the ratio of

John J. Varga; Blair Therit; Stephen B. Melville

2008-01-01

91

Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus haemolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infections due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) most frequently occur after the implantation of medical devices and are attributed to the biofilm-forming potential of CoNS. Staphylococcus haemolyticus is the second most frequently isolated CoNS from patients with hospital-acquired infections. There is only limited knowledge of the nature of S. haemolyticus biofilms. The aim of this study was to characterize S. haemolyticus

Elizabeth Gladys; Aarag Fredheim; Claus Klingenberg; Holger Rohde; Stephanie Frankenberger; Peter Gaustad; Trond Flægstad; Johanna Ericson Sollid

92

Biofilm formation on stainless steels in Arabian Gulf water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metals immersed in natural seawater are covered with a thin, slimy film of micro-organisms and their biological secretion commonly referred to as biofilm. Biofilms cause the ennobling of the free corrosion potentials and increase the susceptibility of pitting- and crevice corrosion. Biofilm formation from Arabian Gulf water has not been reported before. Biofilm formation on 7 different types of Mo-containing

A. M. Shams El Din; T. M. H. Saber; A. A. Hammoud

1996-01-01

93

Assessment of the in vivo formation of biofilm on external ventricular drainages.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation on external ventricular drainages (EVDs) has been postulated as the main pathogenic mechanism for EVD-associated ventriculitis. However, biofilm on EVDs has never been systematically studied and the in vivo effect of antibiotic-impregnated EVDs on biofilm has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of biofilm formation on EVDs and to analyze the influence of antibiotic-impregnated EVD on the risk of biofilm formation and ventriculitis. Consecutive patients with EVDs were included in the study. Surveillance cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures were performed twice a week. Withdrawn EVDs were cultured using standard bacteriologic techniques and examined under a scanning electron microscope. We collected 32 EVDs, 18 of which (56 %) were antibiotic-impregnated EVDs. Biofilm was present on 24 EVDs (75 %), ventriculitis was diagnosed in 6 patients (19 %), and colonization occurred in 12 patients (38 %). All cases of ventriculitis were due to Gram-negative bacteria. Biofilm was more frequent on EVDs originating from patients with ventriculitis or bacterial colonization. Impregnated EVDs did not avoid ventriculitis or colonization, but biofilm development on these devices depended on the time from insertion and varied from 67 % for those used for <7 days to 88 % for those used for ?7 days (p?=?0.094). In conclusion, biofilm is a common phenomenon on EVDs. Currently available impregnated EVDs could not avoid ventriculitis due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, but a trend of delayment of biofilm development was observed. PMID:23708953

Ramírez, P; Gordón, M; Soriano, A; Gil-Perotin, S; Marti, V; Gonzalez-Barbera, E M; Sanchez-Aguilar, M T; Simal, J A; Bonastre, J

2013-05-25

94

Probiotic Lactobacilli Interfere with Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

In clinical studies, probiotic bacteria have decreased the counts of salivary mutans streptococci (MS). We compared the effects\\u000a of probiotic Lactobacillus strains on the biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. The bacterial strains used included four S. mutans strains (reference strains NCTC 10449 and Ingbritt and clinical isolates 2366 and 195) and probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. plantarum 299v, and

Eva M. SoderlingAino; Aino M. Marttinen; Anna L. Haukioja

2011-01-01

95

New tryptophanase inhibitors: towards prevention of bacterial biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Tryptophanase (tryptophan indole-lyase, Tnase, EC 4.1.99.1), a bacterial enzyme with no counterpart in eukaryotic cells, produces from L-tryptophan pyruvate, ammonia and indole. It was recently suggested that indole signaling plays an important role in the stable maintenance of multicopy plasmids. In addition, Tnase was shown to be capable of binding Rcd, a short RNA molecule involved in resolution of plasmid multimers. Binding of Rcd increases the affinity of Tnase for tryptophan, and it was proposed that indole is involved in bacteria multiplication and biofilm formation. Biofilm-associated bacteria may cause serious infections, and biofilm contamination of equipment and food, may result in expensive consequences. Thus, optimal and specific factors that interact with Tnase can be used as a tool to study the role of this multifunctional enzyme as well as antibacterial agents that may affect biofilm formation. Most known quasi-substrates inhibit Tnase at the mM range. In the present work, the mode of Tnase inhibition by the following compounds and the corresponding Ki values were: S-phenylbenzoquinone-L-tryptophan, uncompetitively, 101 microM; alpha-amino-2-(9,10-anthraquinone)-propanoic acid, noncompetitively, 174 microM; L-tryptophane-ethylester, competitively, 52 microM; N-acetyl-L-tryptophan, noncompetitively, 48 microM. S-phenylbenzoquinone-L-tryptophan and alpha-amino-2-(9,10-anthraquinone)-propanoic acid were newly synthesized. PMID:18608755

Scherzer, Roni; Gdalevsky, Garik Y; Goldgur, Yehuda; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Bittner, Shmuel; Parola, Abraham H

2009-04-01

96

Phylogenetic Relationships and Coaggregation Ability of Freshwater Biofilm Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Nineteen numerically dominant heterotrophic bacteria from a freshwater biofilm were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing, and their coaggregation partnerships were determined. Phylogenetic trees showed that both distantly related and closely related strains coaggregated at intergeneric, intrageneric, and intraspecies levels. One strain, Blastomonas natatoria 2.1, coaggregated with all 18 other strains and may function as a bridging organism in biofilm development.

Rickard, Alex H.; Leach, Stephen A.; Hall, Laurence S.; Buswell, Clive M.; High, Nicola J.; Handley, Pauline S.

2002-01-01

97

Implications of Biofilm Formation on Urological Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite millions of dollars and several decades of research targeted at their prevention and eradication, biofilm-associated infections remain the major cause of urological device failure. Numerous strategies have been aimed at improving device design, biomaterial composition, surface properties and drug delivery, but have been largely circumvented by microbes and their plethora of attachment, host evasion, antimicrobial resistance, and dissemination strategies. This is not entirely surprising since natural biofilm formation has been going on for millions of years and remains a major part of microorganism survival and evolution. Thus, the fact that biofilms develop on and in the biomaterials and tissues of humans is really an extension of this natural tendency and greatly explains why they are so difficult for us to combat. Firstly, biofilm structure and composition inherently provide a protective environment for microorganisms, shielding them from the shear stress of urine flow, immune cell attack and some antimicrobials. Secondly, many biofilm organisms enter a metabolically dormant state that renders them tolerant to those antibiotics and host factors able to penetrate the biofilm matrix. Lastly, the majority of organisms that cause biofilm-associated urinary tract infections originate from our own oral cavity, skin, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts and therefore have already adapted to many of our host defenses. Ultimately, while biofilms continue to hold an advantage with respect to recurrent infections and biomaterial usage within the urinary tract, significant progress has been made in understanding these dynamic microbial communities and novel approaches offer promise for their prevention and eradication. These include novel device designs, antimicrobials, anti-adhesive coatings, biodegradable polymers and biofilm-disrupting compounds and therapies.

Cadieux, Peter A.; Wignall, Geoffrey R.; Carriveau, Rupp; Denstedt, John D.

2008-09-01

98

Exopolysaccharide Productivity and Biofilm Phenotype on Oral Commensal Bacteria as Pathogenesis of Chronic Periodontitis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exopolysaccharide (EPS) productivities in many bacteria have been associated with pathogenicity in mammalian hosts as providing extracellular matrices to form biofilm (Costerton et al., 1995). Bacteria assuming biofilm- forming capacity have enormous adva...

C. Mashimo H. Maruyama K. Yamane T. Nambu T. Yamanaka

2012-01-01

99

Pioneer colonizer microorganisms in biofilm formation on galvanized steel in a simulated recirculating cooling-water system.  

PubMed

Some bacteria have a higher tendency to produce biofilm than others. Especially, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas strains are acknowledged to be pioneer colonizers and are predominant in biofilm formation. We examined biofilm formation and first attachment maintance of biofilms of Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas spp, sulphate reducing bacteria and filamentous fungi. A simulated recirculating cooling-water system was used. Heterotrophic bacteria counts on galvanized steel and glass surfaces rose during the tidy period of 720 hours. In addition, we determined that although Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas spp. were the pioneer colonizers, they surprisingly could not be determined in the biofilms on both types of surface after 456 hours. Sulphate reducing bacteria were observed in biofilms on both surfaces from the outset of the experiments. Filamentous fungi were seen on the galvanized steel and glass surfaces after 0.5 h. PMID:19455520

Do?ruöz, Nihal; Göksay, Duygu; Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Cotuk, Ay?in

2009-09-01

100

Environmental factors affecting Burkholderia pseudomallei biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Melioidosis is highly prevalent in Northeast Thailand which is associated with high incidence of Burkholderia pseudomallei present in the soil of this region. B. pseudomallei when present in biofilm becomes resistant to numerous environmental factors and also to certain antibiotics. In this study, we examined the effects of several environmentally relevant factors (salinity, iron, manganese and temperature) on biofilm formation of four clinical ribotypes of B. pseudomallei commonly found in Northeast Thailand. The results showed that biofilm formation increased when B. pseudomallei were grown in modified Vogel and Bonner's medium containing 0.85-1.7 M NaCl or 100-500 microM iron (FeSO4). Low temperature (20 degrees C) also induced more biofilm formation than 30 degrees C or 37 degrees C. On the other hand, protease production and bacterial motility were adversely affected but not in the case of low temperature. Results from this study should be useful in the development of prevention measures or controlling B. pseudomallei biofilm formation in the environment. PMID:23682440

Kamjumphol, Watcharaporn; Chareonsudjai, Sorujsiri; Chareonsudjai, Pisit; Wongratanacheewin, Surasak; Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol

2013-01-01

101

Genetic adaptation of Streptococcus mutans during biofilm formation on different types of surfaces  

PubMed Central

Background Adhesion and successful colonization of bacteria onto solid surfaces play a key role in biofilm formation. The initial adhesion and the colonization of bacteria may differ between the various types of surfaces found in oral cavity. Therefore, it is conceivable that diverse biofilms are developed on those various surfaces. The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular modifications occurring during in vitro biofilm development of Streptococcus mutans UA159 on several different dental surfaces. Results Growth analysis of the immobilized bacterial populations generated on the different surfaces shows that the bacteria constructed a more confluent and thick biofilms on a hydroxyapatite surface compared to the other tested surfaces. Using DNA-microarray technology we identified the differentially expressed genes of S. mutans, reflecting the physiological state of biofilms formed on the different biomaterials tested. Eight selected genes were further analyzed by real time RT-PCR. To further determine the impact of the tested material surfaces on the physiology of the bacteria, we tested the secretion of AI-2 signal by S. mutans embedded on those biofilms. Comparative transcriptome analyses indicated on changes in the S. mutans genome in biofilms formed onto different types of surfaces and enabled us to identify genes most differentially expressed on those surfaces. In addition, the levels of autoinducer-2 in biofilms from the various tested surfaces were different. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that gene expression of S. mutans differs in biofilms formed on tested surfaces, which manifest the physiological state of bacteria influenced by the type of surface material they accumulate onto. Moreover, the stressful circumstances of adjustment to the surface may persist in the bacteria enhancing intercellular signaling and surface dependent biofilm formation.

2010-01-01

102

Effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Many studies have demonstrated that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of antimicrobial agents can inhibit bacterial biofilm formation. However, the mechanisms by which antimicrobial agents at sub-MICs inhibit biofilm formation remain unclear. At present, most studies are focused on Gram-negative bacteria; however, the effects of sub-MICs of antimicrobial agents on Gram-positive bacteria may be more complex. Streptococcus mutans is a major cariogenic bacterium. In this study, the S. mutans growth curve as well as the expression of genes related to S. mutans biofilm formation were evaluated following treatment with 0.5× MIC of chlorhexidine (CHX), tea polyphenols and sodium fluoride (NaF), which are common anticaries agents. The BioFlux system was employed to generate a biofilm under a controlled flow. Morphological changes of the S. mutans biofilm were observed and analysed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results indicated that these three common anticaries agents could significantly upregulate expression of the genes related to S. mutans biofilm formation, and S. mutans exhibited a dense biofilm with an extensive extracellular matrix following treatment with sub-MICs of NaF and CHX. These findings suggest that sub-MICs of anticaries agents favour S. mutans biofilm formation, which might encourage dental caries progression. PMID:22421330

Dong, Liping; Tong, Zhongchun; Linghu, Dake; Lin, Yuan; Tao, Rui; Liu, Jun; Tian, Yu; Ni, Longxing

2012-03-14

103

Marine biofilm bacteria evade eukaryotic predation by targeted chemical defense.  

PubMed

Many plants and animals are defended from predation or herbivory by inhibitory secondary metabolites, which in the marine environment are very common among sessile organisms. Among bacteria, where there is the greatest metabolic potential, little is known about chemical defenses against bacterivorous consumers. An emerging hypothesis is that sessile bacterial communities organized as biofilms serve as bacterial refuge from predation. By testing growth and survival of two common bacterivorous nanoflagellates, we find evidence that chemically mediated resistance against protozoan predators is common among biofilm populations in a diverse set of marine bacteria. Using bioassay-guided chemical and genetic analysis, we identified one of the most effective antiprotozoal compounds as violacein, an alkaloid that we demonstrate is produced predominately within biofilm cells. Nanomolar concentrations of violacein inhibit protozoan feeding by inducing a conserved eukaryotic cell death program. Such biofilm-specific chemical defenses could contribute to the successful persistence of biofilm bacteria in various environments and provide the ecological and evolutionary context for a number of eukaryote-targeting bacterial metabolites. PMID:18648491

Matz, Carsten; Webb, Jeremy S; Schupp, Peter J; Phang, Shui Yen; Penesyan, Anahit; Egan, Suhelen; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2008-07-23

104

Tetracycline and chloramphenicol efficiency against selected biofilm forming bacteria.  

PubMed

Despite the constantly increasing need for new antimicrobial agents, antibiotic drug discovery and development seem to have greatly decelerated in recent years. Presented with the significant problem of advancing antimicrobial resistance, the global scientific community has attempted to find alternative solutions; one of the most promising ones is the evaluation and use of old antibiotic compounds. A number of old antibiotic compounds, such as aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, are re-emerging as valuable alternatives for the treatment of difficult-to-treat infections. This study examined the in vitro potency for biofilm formation of five isolates (Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Achromobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Bacillus pumilis) and the effects of antibiotics on these biofilms. Furthermore the quantitative analysis of planktonic, loosely attached cells, and their susceptibility to antibiotics was also determined. Twitching motility was observed to determine any effect in the biofilm forming capability of the isolates. All the isolates tested were efficient biofilm-forming strains in the polypropylene and borosilicate test tubes. Standard bacterial enumeration technique and CV staining produced equivalent results both in biofilm and planktonic assays. The biofilm formation of all the strains was affected in the presence of tetracycline or chloramphenicol. Highly significant decrease (P < 0.01) in biofilm formation was observed by treatment with chloramphenicol compared to tetracycline. In addition, the two antibiotics also affected adversely the planktonic and loosely attached cells of all isolates. Thus, testing the effects of older antibiotics on biofilms may supply useful information in addition to standard in vitro testing, particularly in diseases where biofilm formation is involved in the pathogenesis. PMID:19484302

Liaqat, Iram; Sumbal, Fareeha; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

2009-05-30

105

Role of ClpP in biofilm formation and virulence of Staphylococcus epidermidis.  

PubMed

Infections caused by the leading nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis are characterized by biofilm formation on implanted medical devices. However, the molecular basis of biofilm formation and its regulation are not completely understood. Here, we describe an important role of the ClpP protease in biofilm development and virulence of S. epidermidis. We constructed an isogenic clpP mutant strain of a biofilm-forming clinical isolate of S. epidermidis. The mutant strain showed decreased biofilm formation in vitro and reduced virulence in a rat model of biofilm-associated infection. Biofilm forming ability of the mutant strain could be restored by expressing clpP on a plasmid, but not when a catalytically inactive allele of clpP gene was introduced. These observations indicate that the peptidase function of ClpP determines its role in biofilm formation. Experimental data in this work also suggested that clpP influenced initial attachment of bacteria on the plastic surface, the first step of biofilm formation. Furthermore, clpP was found to be regulated by the quorum-sensing agr, suggesting that part of the previously described influence of agr on the initial attachment to plastic surfaces may be mediated by clpP. PMID:17890122

Wang, Chongzhen; Li, Min; Dong, Dandan; Wang, Jianping; Ren, Jun; Otto, Michael; Gao, Qian

2007-07-13

106

Chemically Specific Cellular Imaging of Biofilm Formation  

SciTech Connect

This document and the accompanying manuscripts summarize the technical accomplishments for our one-year LDRD-ER effort. Biofilm forming microbes have existed on this planet for billions of years and make up 60% of the biological mass on earth. Such microbes exhibit unique biochemical pathways during biofilm formation and play important roles in human health and the environment. Microbial biofilms have been directly implicated in, for example, product contamination, energy losses, and medical infection that cost the loss of human lives and billions of dollars. In no small part due to the lack of detailed understanding, biofilms unfortunately are resistant to control, inhibition, and destruction, either through treatment with antimicrobials or immunological defense mechanisms of the body. Current biofilm research has concentrated on the study of biofilms in the bulk. This is primarily due to the lack of analytical and physical tools to study biofilms non-destructively, in three dimensions, and on the micron or sub-micron scale. This has hindered the development of a clear understanding of either the early stage mechanisms of biofilm growth or the interactions of biofilms with their environment. Enzymatic studies have deduced a biochemical reaction that results in the oxidation of reduced sulfur species with the concomitant reduction of nitrate, a common groundwater pollutant, to dinitrogen gas by the bacterium, Thiobacillus denitrificans (TD). Because of its unique involvement in biologically relevant environmental pathways, TD is scheduled for genome sequencing in the near future by the DOE's Joint Genome Institute and is of interest to DOE's Genomes to Life Program. As our ecosystem is exposed to more and more nitrate contamination large scale livestock and agricultural practices, a further understanding of biofilm formation by organisms that could alleviate these problems is necessary in order to protect out biosphere. However, in order to study this complicated organism, we needed to first turn our attention to a well understood organism. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is a well-studied organism and will be used to compare our results with others. Then, we will turn our attention to TD. It is expected that the research performed will provide key data to validate biochemical studies of TD and result in high profile publications in leading journals. For this project, our ultimate goal was to combine both Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experimental analysis with computer simulations to provide unique 3D molecular structural, dynamics, and functional information on the order of microns for this DOE mission relevant microorganism, T. denitrificans. For FY05, our goals were to: (1) Determine proper media for optimal growth of PA; growth rate measurements in that media and characterization of metabolite signatures during growth via {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, (2) Determine and build mineral, metal, and implant material surfaces to support growth of PA, (3) Implementing new MRI sequences to image biofilms more efficiently and increase resolution with new hardware design, (4) Develop further diffusion and flow MRI measurements of biofilms and biofilm formation with different MRI pulse sequences and different hardware design, and (5) Develop a zero dimension model of the rate of growth and the metabolite profiles of PA. Our major accomplishments are discussed in the following text. However, the bulk of this work is described in the attached manuscript entitled, ''NMR Metabolomics of Planktonic and Biofilm Modes of Growth in Pseudomonas aeruginosa''. This paper will be submitted to the Journal of Bacteriology in coming weeks. In addition, this one-year effort has lead to our incorporation into the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign during FY05 for some proof-of-principle MRI measurements on polymers. We are currently using similar methods to evaluate these polymers. In addition, this work on MRI measurements on polymers has lead to a paper entitled, ''Characterization of local deformation in filled

Herberg, J L; Schaldach, C; Horn, J; Gjersing, E; Maxwell, R

2006-02-09

107

Quantification of individual flagellate - bacteria interactions within semi-natural biofilms.  

PubMed

Here we present a new approach to quantify food-web interactions within semi-natural biofilms by combining the establishment of biofilms from natural rivers in flow cells with video microscopy. In a first application of this approach, we focused on the surface-gliding heterotrophic flagellates (HF) Neobodo designis, Rhynchomonas nasuta and Planomonas sp. It was shown that the three HF generally ingested single biofilm-associated bacteria whereas bacteria within microcolonies were attacked but not ingested. However, grazing strategies differed considerably. While the kinetoplastids N. designis and R. nasuta displayed long search and short handling times, Planomonas sp. showed the opposite grazing characteristics. The latter behaviour resulted in a high relative predation success of 80% (precent of attacked prey ingested), whereas the relative predation success of the two kinetoplastids was only 20%. However, the two contrasting strategies resulted in similar ingestion rates for Planomonas sp. and N. designis of 0.5 to 0.6 ingestions flagellates(-1) minute(-1), respectively. Our results showed distinct differences in the feeding behaviour of three flagellates having similar life forms and provide direct evidence that microcolony formation in biofilms protects bacteria from grazing by HF in situ. The new approach provides individual-based insights into the complex food web interactions within biofilms. PMID:22186014

Erken, Martina; Farrenschon, Nicole; Speckmann, Sophia; Arndt, Hartmut; Weitere, Markus

2011-12-18

108

A novel compound from the marine bacterium Bacillus pumilus S6-15 inhibits biofilm formation in Gram-positive and Gram-negative species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation is a critical problem in nosocomial infections and in the aquaculture industries and biofilms show high resistance to antibiotics. The aim of the present study was to reveal a novel anti-biofilm compound from marine bacteria against antibiotic resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms. The bacterial extract (50 ?g ml) of S6-01 (Bacillus indicus = MTCC 5559) showed 80–90% biofilm inhibition against Escherichia

Chari Nithya; Muthu Gokila Devi; Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian

2011-01-01

109

Heterologous expression of human paraoxonases in Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits biofilm formation and decreases antibiotic resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing (QS) regulates virulence and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other medically relevant bacteria. Human paraoxonases (hPONs) are a family of closely related enzymes with multiple functions,\\u000a including inactivation of the QS signal molecule in P. aeruginosa. However, there is no direct evidence to show the functions of hPONs on biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa.

Fang Ma; Yao Wang; Yong Zhang; Ning Xiong; Baoyu Yang; Shiyun Chen

2009-01-01

110

Marine Biofilm Bacteria Evade Eukaryotic Predation by Targeted Chemical Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plants and animals are defended from predation or herbivory by inhibitory secondary metabolites, which in the marine environment are very common among sessile organisms. Among bacteria, where there is the greatest metabolic potential, little is known about chemical defenses against bacterivorous consumers. An emerging hypothesis is that sessile bacterial communities organized as biofilms serve as bacterial refuge from predation.

Carsten Matz; Jeremy S. Webb; Peter J. Schupp; Shui Yen Phang; Anahit Penesyan; Suhelen Egan; Peter Steinberg; Staffan Kjelleberg; Craig R. McClain

2008-01-01

111

Unexplored reservoirs of pathogenic bacteria: protozoa and biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the natural, industrial, hospital and domestic environments, there are numerous phenotypes of pathogenic microorganisms, which vary considerably in chemical, physical and biological properties. A link exists between survival, resistance and virulence. In particular, surface-adherent biofilms and bacteria living within protozoa pose potential health problems that are unrecognized by conventional laboratory culture methods.

Michael R. W. Brown; John Barker

1999-01-01

112

Biofilm Formation by Otopathogenic Strains of P. aeruginosa is not Consistently Inhibited by EDTA  

PubMed Central

Hypothesis Biofilm formation in otopathogenic of P. aeruginosa (OPPA) strains is inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Background EDTA, a widely used chelating agent, has been shown to inhibit biofilm formation in a number of bacteria. Since EDTA may be a well-tolerated reagent to inhibit biofilm formation in cases of suppurative otitis media, we asked if it might be effective in all OPPA strains isolated from chronically infected cholesteatomas. Methods OPPA strains were isolated from patients with infected cholesteatomas. These strains were grown into log phase then were placed in minimal media with varying concentrations of EDTA, and incubated for varying periods. Biofilm production was measured colorimetrically by staining with crystal violet. Results Without added EDTA, most otopathogenic PA exhibited a distinct, but varying, time-course of biofilm formation and dissolution with peak production at 12–18 hours. Addition of 1 mM EDTA resulted in a delay in the time to peak biofilm formation for most strains, although the amount of biofilm was not decreased. In contrast, some strains showed greater biofilm production with 1 mM EDTA compared to the untreated bacteria. Addition of 10 mM EDTA resulted in a similar effect. Some strains increased biofilm production over controls. Moreover, EDTA inhibited planktonic growth of all OPPA strains at the concentrations studied. Conclusion Our hypothesis was disproven: EDTA tends to delay biofilm development while it consistently inhibits planktonic growth. Since EDTA does not cause suppression of biofilm production in all isolates of OPPA, usefulness as an antimicrobial is questioned.

Zenga, Joseph; Gagnon, Patricia M.; Vogel, Joseph; Chole, Richard A.

2012-01-01

113

Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial biofilms are a functional matrix of microbial cells, enveloped in polysaccharides, enzymes and virulence factors secreted by them that can develop on indwelling medical devices and biomaterials. Plasma sterilization has been widely studied in recent years for biological applications. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of removal and anti-recovery of biofilms by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure. We observed that all bacterial biofilms formatted by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria are removed in less than 20 s, and the growth inhibitions of planktonic bacteria within biofilms are also confirmed by plasma exposure for 5 s. These results suggest that our plasma system can be applied to medical and biological fields where the removal of biofilms and their debris is required.

Lee, Mi Hee; Park, Bong Joo; Jin, Soo Chang; Kim, Dohyun; Han, Inho; Kim, Jungsung; Hyun, Soon O.; Chung, Kie-Hyung; Park, Jong-Chul

2009-11-01

114

Aquatic Plants Stimulate the Growth of and Biofilm Formation by Mycobacterium ulcerans in Axenic Culture and Harbor These Bacteria in the Environment  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, one of the most common mycobacterial diseases of humans. Recent studies have implicated aquatic insects in the transmission of this pathogen, but the contributions of other elements of the environment remain largely unknown. We report here that crude extracts from two green algae added to the BACTEC 7H12B culture medium halved the doubling time of M. ulcerans and promoted biofilm formation. Using the 7H12B medium, modified by the addition of the algal extract, and immunomagnetic separation, we also demonstrate that M. ulcerans is associated with aquatic plants in an area of the Ivory Coast where Buruli ulcer is endemic. Genotype analysis showed that plant-associated M. ulcerans had the same profile as isolates recovered in the same region from both aquatic insects and clinical specimens. These observations implicate aquatic plants as a reservoir of M. ulcerans and add a new potential link in the chain of transmission of M. ulcerans to humans.

Marsollier, Laurent; Stinear, Timothy; Aubry, Jacques; Saint Andre, Jean Paul; Robert, Raymond; Legras, Pierre; Manceau, Anne-Lise; Audrain, Christine; Bourdon, Sandra; Kouakou, Henri; Carbonnelle, Bernard

2004-01-01

115

Dynamics of Aerial Tower Formation in Bacillus subtilis Biofilms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms are highly-organized colonies of bacteria that form on surfaces. These colonies form sophisticated structures which make them robust and difficult to remove from environments such as catheters, where they pose serious infection problems. Previous work has shown that sub-mm sized aerial towers form on the surface of Bacillus subtilis colony biofilms. Spore-formation is located preferentially at the tops of these towers, known as fruiting bodies, which aid in the dispersal and propagation of the colony to new sites. The formation of towers is strongly affected by the quorum-sensing molecule surfactin and the cannibalism pathway of the bacteria. In the present work, we use confocal fluorescence microscopy to study the development of individual fruiting bodies, allowing us to visualize the time-dependent spatial distribution of matrix-forming and sporulating bacteria within the towers. With this information, we investigate the physical mechanisms, such as surface tension and polymer concentration gradients, that drive the formation of these structures.

Sinha, Naveen; Seminara, Agnese; Wilking, James; Brenner, Michael; Weitz, Dave

2012-02-01

116

Impacts of Biofilm Formation on Cellulose Fermentation. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our research dealt with three major areas of investigation: characterization of formation of Cellulomonas uda biofilms on cellulose; characterization of Clostridium phytofermentans biofilm development; colonization of cellulose and its regulation; charact...

S. Leschine

2009-01-01

117

Native microflora in fresh-cut produce processing plants and their potentials for biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Representative food contact and nonfood contact surfaces in two mid-sized, fresh-cut processing facilities were sampled for microbiological analyses after routine daily sanitization. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria on the sampled surfaces were isolated by plating on nonselective bacterial media. Alternatively, bacteria were isolated after an incubation period that allowed the formation of heterogeneous biofilms on stainless steel beads. Of over 1,000 tested isolates, most were capable of forming biofilms, with approximately 30 % being strong or moderate biofilm formers. Selected isolates (117) were subjected to species identification by using the Biolog Gen III microbial identification system. They distributed among 23 genera, which included soil bacteria, plant-related bacteria, coliforms, and opportunistic plant- or human-pathogenic bacteria. The most commonly identified bacteria species were Pseudomonas fluorescens, Rahnella aquatilis, and Ralstonia insidiosa. The high prevalence of R. insidiosa, a strong biofilm former, and P. fluorescens, a moderate biofilm former, suggests that they were established residents in the sampled plants. These results suggest that native microflora capable of forming biofilms are widely distributed in fresh-produce processing environments. PMID:23643124

Liu, Nancy T; Lefcourt, Alan M; Nou, Xiangwu; Shelton, Daniel R; Zhang, Guodong; Lo, Y Martin

2013-05-01

118

Quorum sensing and biofilm formation investigated using laser-trapped bacterial arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of individual, free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria have yielded much information about their genetic and phenotypic characteristics and about ``quorum sensing,'' the autoinducing process by which bacteria detect high concentrations of other bacteria. However, in most environments the majority of bacteria are not in the planktonic form but are rather in biofilms, which are highly-structured, dynamic communities of multiple bacteria that adhere to a surface and to each other using an extracellular polysaccharide matrix. Bacteria in biofilms are phenotypically very different from their genetically-identical planktonic counterparts. Among other characteristics, they are much more antibiotic-resistant and virulent. Such biofilms form persistent infections on medical implants and in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, where Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms are the leading cause of lung damage and, ultimately, death. To understand the importance of different extracellular materials, motility mechanisms, and quorum sensing for biofilm formation and stability, we use single-gene knockout mutants and an infrared laser trap to create a bacterial aggregate that serves as a model biofilm and allows us to measure the importance of these factors as a function of trapping time, surface, and nutritional environment.

Gordon, Vernita; Butler, John; Smalyukh, Ivan; Parsek, Matthew; Wong, Gerard

2008-03-01

119

Hydrogen peroxide linked to lysine oxidase activity facilitates biofilm differentiation and dispersal in several gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

The marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas tunicata produces an antibacterial and autolytic protein, AlpP, which causes death of a subpopulation of cells during biofilm formation and mediates differentiation, dispersal, and phenotypic variation among dispersal cells. The AlpP homologue (LodA) in the marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea was recently identified as a lysine oxidase which mediates cell death through the production of hydrogen peroxide. Here we show that AlpP in P. tunicata also acts as a lysine oxidase and that the hydrogen peroxide generated is responsible for cell death within microcolonies during biofilm development in both M. mediterranea and P. tunicata. LodA-mediated biofilm cell death is shown to be linked to the generation of phenotypic variation in growth and biofilm formation among M. mediterranea biofilm dispersal cells. Moreover, AlpP homologues also occur in several other gram-negative bacteria from diverse environments. Our results show that subpopulations of cells in microcolonies also die during biofilm formation in two of these organisms, Chromobacterium violaceum and Caulobacter crescentus. In all organisms, hydrogen peroxide was implicated in biofilm cell death, because it could be detected at the same time as the killing occurred, and the addition of catalase significantly reduced biofilm killing. In C. violaceum the AlpP-homologue was clearly linked to biofilm cell death events since an isogenic mutant (CVMUR1) does not undergo biofilm cell death. We propose that biofilm killing through hydrogen peroxide can be linked to AlpP homologue activity and plays an important role in dispersal and colonization across a range of gram-negative bacteria. PMID:18502869

Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Lucas-Elio, Patricia; Egan, Suhelen; Thomas, Torsten; Webb, Jeremy S; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2008-05-23

120

Clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa foreign-body biofilm infections through reduction of the cyclic Di-GMP level in the bacteria.  

PubMed

Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria can engage in biofilm-based infections that evade immune responses and develop into chronic conditions. Because conventional antimicrobials cannot efficiently eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. It has recently been established that the secondary messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) functions as a positive regulator of biofilm formation in several different bacteria. In the present study we investigated whether manipulation of the c-di-GMP level in bacteria potentially can be used for biofilm control in vivo. We constructed a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain in which a reduction in the c-di-GMP level can be achieved via induction of the Escherichia coli YhjH c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. Initial experiments showed that induction of yhjH expression led to dispersal of the majority of the bacteria in in vitro-grown P. aeruginosa biofilms. Subsequently, we demonstrated that P. aeruginosa biofilms growing on silicone implants, located in the peritoneal cavity of mice, dispersed after induction of the YhjH protein. Bacteria accumulated temporarily in the spleen after induction of biofilm dispersal, but the mice tolerated the dispersed bacteria well. The present work provides proof of the concept that modulation of the c-di-GMP level in bacteria is a viable strategy for biofilm control. PMID:23690403

Christensen, Louise D; van Gennip, Maria; Rybtke, Morten T; Wu, Hong; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Alhede, Morten; Høiby, Niels; Nielsen, Thomas E; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

2013-05-20

121

[Regulation of biofilm formation in Escherichia coli K12: effect of mutations in HNS, StpA, lon, and rpoN genes].  

PubMed

More than 99% of bacteria exist in natural ecosystems as specifically organized biofilms adhering to solid surfaces. Biofilms have a typical architecture and are enclosed in exopolymeric matrix. Bacteria living in biofilms are extremely resistant to antibacterial factors. In this work we studied the role of some global regulators of gene expression on biofilm formation by Escherichia coli K12. The Histone-like proteins H-NS and StpA were shown to play an essential role in the regulation of biofilm formation. Mutant strains deficient in HNS or StpA had lower levels of biofilm formation than the wild-type isogenic strain. A double mutant deficient in the two proteins was virtually incapable of forming the biofilms. The mutations in the rpoN gene encoding for the sigma N subunit of RNA-polymerase and in lon gene encoding for Lon-proteinase induced a 40-60% increase in the biofilm formation. PMID:19177607

Belik, A S; Tarasova, N N; Khmel', I A

2008-01-01

122

Biofilm formation and local electrostatic force characteristics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 observed by electrostatic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report growth media dependence of electrostatic force characteristics in Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm through local measurement by electrostatic force microscopy (EFM). The difference values of electrostatic interaction between the bacterial surface and the abiotic surface show an exponential decay behavior during biofilm development. In the EFM data, the biofilm in the low nutrient media shows a faster decay than the biofilm in the rich media. The surface potential in the bacterial cells was changed from 957 to 149 mV. Local characterization of extracellular materials extracted from the bacteria reveals the progress of the biofilm formation and functional complexities.

Oh, Y. J.; Jo, W.; Yang, Y.; Park, S.

2007-04-01

123

CcpA regulates biofilm formation and competence in Streptococcus gordonii.  

PubMed

Streptococcus gordonii is an important member of the oral biofilm community. As an oral commensal streptococcus, S. gordonii is considered beneficial in promoting biofilm homeostasis. CcpA is known as the central regulator of carbon catabolite repression in Gram-positive bacteria and is also involved in the control of virulence gene expression. To further establish the role of CcpA as central regulator in S. gordonii, the effect of CcpA on biofilm formation and natural competence of S. gordonii was investigated. These phenotypic traits have been suggested to be important to oral streptococci in coping with environmental stress. Here we demonstrate that a CcpA mutant was severely impaired in its biofilm-forming ability, showed a defect in extracellular polysaccharide production and reduced competence. The data suggest that CcpA is involved in the regulation of biofilm formation and competence development in S. gordonii. PMID:22394467

Zheng, L; Chen, Z; Itzek, A; Herzberg, M C; Kreth, J

2011-12-20

124

Observations on biofilm formation in industrial air-cooling units  

SciTech Connect

Observations on biofilm formation in industrial air-cooling units were made over a 60-day operational period. Methods employed included: epifluorescent direct counts of water and slime samples, enumeration of culturable bacteria in water and slime samples, and ultrastructural observations of microbial attachment to formvar coated grids and epoxy resin blocks. Acridine orange direct counts and culturable counts of bacteria in water samples remained constant over the 60-day cycle, while culturable counts in slime samples increased with time. Interfering fluorescent materials present in the slime made accurate direct counts difficult to obtain. Initial increases in numbers of bacteria on formvar coated grids and culturable counts of slime samples were positively correlated with time. However, after 14 days, the formvar deteriorated and direct transmission electron microscopic bacterial counts could no longer be obtained. Submersion of epoxy resin blocks, especially those with pitted surfaces, provided an excellent method for the observation of bacterial attachment and colonization. 21 references, 3 figures.

Liebert, C.A.; Hood, M.A.; Winter, P.A.; Singleton, F.L.

1983-01-01

125

Biofilm formation and surface exploration behavior of P. aeruginosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite extensive studies, the early stages of biofilm formation are not fully understood. Recent work on the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa has shown that these bacteria deposit the exopolysaccharide Psl as they move across a surface, which in turn attracts repeat visits of bacteria to the sites of deposition. Using a massively parallel cell-tracking algorithm combined with fluorescent Psl staining and computer simulations, we show that this behavior results in a surface visit distribution that can be approximated by a power law. The steepness of this Zipf's Law is a measure of the hierarchical nature of bacterial surface visits, and is (among other parameters) a function of both Psl secretion rate and sensitivity of the bacteria to Psl. We characterize the bacterial distributions using various computational techniques to quantitatively analyze the effect of Psl on microcolony organization and to identify the key stages of microcolony growth.

Beckerman, Bernard; Zhao, Kun; Wong, Gerard; Luijten, Erik

2013-03-01

126

Coexistence of Antibiotic-Producing and Antibiotic-Sensitive Bacteria in Biofilms Is Mediated by Resistant Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotic-sensitive bacteria have been found to coexist with antibiotic-producing bacteria in biofilms, but little is known about how the former develop in such an environment. Here we isolated pyocyanin-sensitive bacteria belonging to the genus Brevibacillus from a biofilm derived from soil extract and based on the preestablished biofilm of a pyocyanin producer, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain P1. In addition, pyocyanin- resistant

Naoki Narisawa; Shin Haruta; Hiroyuki Arai; Masaharu Ishii; Yasuo Igarashi

2008-01-01

127

Effects of short-chain fatty acids on Actinomyces naeslundii biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Actinomyces naeslundii is an early colonizer and has important roles in the development of the oral biofilm. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are secreted extracellularly as a product of metabolism by gram-negative anaerobes, e.g. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum; and the SCFA may affect biofilm development with interaction between A. naeslundii and gram-negative bacteria. Our aim was to investigate the effects of SCFA on biofilm formation by A. naeslundii and to determine the mechanism. We used the biofilm formation assay in 96-well microtiter plates in tryptic soy broth without dextrose and with 0.25% sucrose using safranin stain of the biofilm monitoring 492 nm absorbance. To determine the mechanism by SCFA, the production of chaperones and stress-response proteins (GrpE and GroEL) in biofilm formation was examined using Western blot fluorescence activity with GrpE and GroEL antibodies. Adding butyric acid (6.25 mm) 0, 6 and 10 h after beginning culture significantly increased biofilm formation by A. naeslundii, and upregulation was observed at 16 h. Upregulation was also observed using appropriate concentrations of other SCFA. In the upregulated biofilm, production of GrpE and GroEL was higher where membrane-damaged or dead cells were also observed. The upregulated biofilm was significantly reduced by addition of anti-GroEL antibody. The data suggest biofilm formation by A. naeslundii was upregulated dependent on the production of stress proteins, and addition of SCFA increased membrane-damaged or dead cells. Production of GroEL may physically play an important role in biofilm development. PMID:23731652

Yoneda, S; Kawarai, T; Narisawa, N; Tuna, E B; Sato, N; Tsugane, T; Saeki, Y; Ochiai, K; Senpuku, H

2013-06-03

128

Influence of culture conditions on biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157:H7.  

PubMed

Biofilms of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were developed on stainless steel chips in trypticase soy broth (TSB), 1/5 dilution of TSB, 0.1% Bacto peptone (BP) and a minimal salts medium (MSM) supplemented with 0.04% of one of the following carbon sources: glucose, glycerol, lactose, mannose, succinic acid, sodium pyruvate or lactic acid. It was found that biofilms developed faster and a higher number of adherent cells (ca. 10(6) CFU/cm2) were recovered when the organisms were grown in the low nutrient media. Regardless of the carbon source, biofilms developed in MSM consisted of shorter bacterial cells and thicker extracellular matrix (ECM), with glucose as the best substrate for stable biofilm formation. Fewer bacteria in initial attachment, non-hydrophobicity of bacterial cells, lack of ECM formation and easy detachment of the biofilm bacteria may contribute to poor biofilm formation in TSB. ECM is probably important for the stability of biofilms; however, at 10 degrees C and under anaerobic conditions, ECM seems to be unnecessary. PMID:7577354

Dewanti, R; Wong, A C

1995-07-01

129

Gene expression during S. epidermidis biofilm formation on biomaterials.  

PubMed

Biomaterial-centered infections are initiated by adhesion of bacteria to an implant, followed by colonization and mature biofilm formation. Staphylococcus epidermidis is commonly identified as the cause of these device-centered infections. This study used an in vitro model to evaluate temporal changes in the expression of genes-icaADBC, agrBDCA, aap, and atle-that have been identified to play a role in the pathogenesis of S. epidermidis infections. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine changes in gene expression from S epidermidis biofilm grown on polyurethanes (Elasthane 80A, hydrophobic) modified with polyethylene oxide (Elasthane 80A-6PEO, hydrophilic) and fluorocarbon (Elasthane 80A-6F, hydrophobic). In vitro expression of the ica locus, which is involved in initial adhesion and intracellular aggregation, increased up to 100-fold from 2 to 48 h, whereas gene expression for autolysin AtlE decreased slightly from 2 to 12 h, followed by a 10-fold increase by 48 h. Upregulation of the aap gene associated with bacterial accumulation and the agr quorum-sensing system was observed during biofilm formation over 48 h. In addition, no correlation was observed between S. epidermidis gene expression and biomaterial surface chemistry. This study used an in vitro model to demonstrate that enhanced expression of the atle, aap, agr, and ica genes plays an important role in initial foreign body colonization and potentially in the establishment of a device-associated infection. PMID:22623350

Patel, Jasmine D; Colton, Erica; Ebert, Michael; Anderson, James M

2012-05-24

130

Oral bacteria in biofilms exhibit slow reactivation from nutrient deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

survival in the starved micro-environments of the oral cavity. In this study, we examined the reactivation of nutrient-deprived cells of two oral bacteria in biofilms, Streptococcus anginosus and Lactobacillus salivarius. Non-growing cells were generated by incubation in 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer for 24 h and the results were compared to those of planktonic cultures. When both types of cells

Luis E. Chavez de Paz; Ian R. Hamilton; Gunnel Svensater

2008-01-01

131

Multiple Vibrio fischeri genes are involved in biofilm formation and host colonization.  

PubMed

Biofilms are increasingly recognized as being the predominant form for survival for most bacteria in the environment. The successful colonization of Vibrio fischeri in its squid host Euprymna tasmanica involves complex microbe-host interactions mediated by specific genes that are essential for biofilm formation and colonization. Here, structural and regulatory genes were selected to study their role in biofilm formation and host colonization. We have mutated several genes (pilT, pilU, flgF, motY, ibpA and mifB) by an insertional inactivation strategy. The results demonstrate that structural genes responsible for synthesis of type IV pili and flagella are crucial for biofilm formation and host infection. Moreover, regulatory genes affect colony aggregation by various mechanisms, including alteration of synthesis of transcriptional factors and regulation of extracellular polysaccharide production. These results reflect the significance of how genetic alterations influence communal behavior, which is important in understanding symbiotic relationships. PMID:22486781

Chavez-Dozal, Alba; Hogan, David; Gorman, Clayton; Quintanal-Villalonga, Alvaro; Nishiguchi, Michele K

2012-05-21

132

Environmental and genetic factors that contribute to Escherichia coli K-12 biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are communities of bacteria whose formation on surfaces requires a large portion of the bacteria’s transcriptional network. To identify environmental conditions and transcriptional regulators that contribute to sensing these conditions, we used a high-throughput approach to monitor biofilm biomass produced by an isogenic set of Escherichia coli K-12 strains grown under combinations of environmental conditions. Of the environmental combinationsd, growth in tryptic soy broth at 37°C supported the most biofilm production. To analyze the complex relationships between the diverse cell surface organelles, transcriptional regulators, and metabolic enzymes represented by the tested mutant set, we used a novel vector-item pattern-mining algorithm. The algorithm related biofilm amounts to the functional annotations of each mutated protein. The pattern with the best statistical significance was the gene ontology ‘pyruvate catabolic process,’ which is associated with enzymes of acetate metabolism. Phenotype microarray experiments illustrated that carbon sources that are metabolized to acetyl-coenzyme A, acetyl phosphate, and acetate are particularly supportive of biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed structural differences between mutants that lack acetate metabolism enzymes and their parent and confirmed the quantitative differences. We conclude that acetate metabolism functions as a metabolic sensor, transmitting changes in environmental conditions to biofilm biomass and structure.

Pruss, Birgit M.; Verma, Karan; Samanta, Priyankar; Sule, Preeti; Kumar, Sunil; Wu, Jianfei; Christianson, David; Horne, Shelley M.; Stafslien, Shane J.; Wolfe, Alan J.; Denton, Anne

2010-01-01

133

Large Differences in the Fraction of Active Bacteria in Plankton, Sediments, and Biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally, only a small fraction of free-living pelagic bacteria are metabolically active, while particle-associated bacteria usually exhibit a larger proportion of active bacteria. Most previous studies on the active fraction of bacteria focus on planktonic communities, and there are only a few studies on sediment and epiphytic biofilm bacteria. We compared the active fraction of the total number of bacteria

A.-L. Haglund; E. Törnblom; B. Boström; L. Tranvik

2002-01-01

134

Inhibitory effect of cyclic trihydroxamate siderophore, desferrioxamine E, on the biofilm formation of Mycobacterium species.  

PubMed

Formation of biofilm in pathogenic bacteria defends them from antibiotics and the immune system of a host's life. Hence, investigation of the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation and search for new substances counteracting this formation are becoming an attractive research area. In the course of our search for new inhibitors of biofilm formation in Mycobacterium species, we rediscovered a cyclic trihydroxamate siderophore, desferrioxamine E, from the culture of the marine-derived Actinomycete MS67. Desferrioxamine E inhibited biofilm formation of Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. bovis BACILLE de CALMETTE et GUÉRIN (BCG) with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 10 µM, while no anti-microbial activity was observed up to 160 µM. Desferrioxamine E was also able to restore the anti-microbial activity of isoniazid against M. smegmatis by inhibiting biofilm formation. Mechanistic analysis of desferrioxamine E suggested that such inhibition might come from the depletion of iron in the medium, which is essential for biofilm formation in Mycobacterium species. PMID:21628895

Ishida, Shunsuke; Arai, Masayoshi; Niikawa, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Motomasa

2011-01-01

135

Influence of attached bacteria and biofilm on double-layer capacitance during biofilm monitoring by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an effective strategy for biofilm control in water-related system has become a matter of significant concern nowadays. Electrochemical monitoring, especially electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), is one of the efficient approaches to dealing with biofilm-related issues. However, currently used EIS methods without a redox probe intend to detect all effects generated from media components, bacteria, and bacterial metabolites, which

Taeyoung Kim; Junil Kang; Joon-Hee Lee; Jeyong Yoon

2011-01-01

136

Beta toxin catalyzes formation of nucleoprotein matrix in staphylococcal biofilms  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are surface-associated communities of microbes encompassed by an extracellular matrix. It is estimated that 80% of all bacterial infections involve biofilm formation, but the structure and regulation of biofilms are incompletely understood. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a major structural component in many biofilms of the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, but its role is enigmatic. Here, we demonstrate that beta toxin, a neutral sphingomyelinase and a virulence factor of S. aureus, forms covalent cross-links to itself in the presence of DNA (we refer to this as biofilm ligase activity, independent of sphingomyelinase activity) producing an insoluble nucleoprotein matrix in vitro. Furthermore, we show that beta toxin strongly stimulates biofilm formation in vivo as demonstrated by a role in causation of infectious endocarditis in a rabbit model. Together, these results suggest that beta toxin cross-linking in the presence of eDNA assists in forming the skeletal framework upon which staphylococcal biofilms are established.

Huseby, Medora J.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Digre, Jeff; Kohler, Petra L.; Vocke, Jillian A.; Mann, Ethan E.; Bayles, Kenneth W.; Bohach, Gregory A.; Schlievert, Patrick M.; Ohlendorf, Douglas H.; Earhart, Cathleen A.

2010-01-01

137

Automated detection and analysis of key transitions in biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms are cooperative, dynamic, multicellular systems made of interacting, surface-bound bacteria and/or yeast. The growth of biofilms is an inherently developmental process, characterized by changes in gene expression in response to cues from the environment and other cells. These changes in gene expression are associated with transitions in the behavior of bacteria in the developing biofilm. There are other transitions in behavior that may result from nongenetic influences, such as the conditioning of the surface with bacteria-produced extracellular materials. The early development of biofilms show several key transitions as bacteria move from discrete, swimming cells into surface-bound, dense microcolonies. Each of these transitions is associated with a loss of entropy and, therefore, must result from biological activity that compensates for this loss of entropy. We present a set of approaches for automatically identifying each of these transitions and localizing them in space and time.

Thatcher, Travis; Cooley, Benjamin; Gordon, Vernita

2011-03-01

138

Mechanism and risk factors of oral biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Recent microbiological investigations completely changed our understanding of the role of biofilm in the formation of the mucosal immune barrier and in pathogenesis of chronic inflammation of bacterial etiology. It is now clear that formation of bacterial biofilm on dental surfaces is characteristic for existence of oral microbial communities. It has also been proved that uncontrolled biofilms on dental tissues, as well as on different biomaterials (e.g. orthodontic appliances), are the main cause of dental diseases such as dental caries and periodontitis. The aim of this paper is to explain mechanisms and consequences of orthodontic biofilm formation. We will discuss current opinions on the influence of different biomaterials employed for orthodontic treatment in biofilm formation and new strategies employed in prevention and elimination of oral biofilm ("dental plaque"). PMID:24018439

Pasich, Ewa; Walczewska, Maria; Pasich, Adam; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

2013-08-02

139

Composition and susceptibility to chlorhexidine of multispecies biofilms of oral bacteria.  

PubMed

Using a constant-depth film fermentor, we have grown a six-membered biofilm community with a bacterial composition similar to that found in supragingival dental plaque. Cryosectioning revealed the distribution of bacteria throughout the biofilm. Exposure to 0.2% chlorhexidine for up to 5 min had little effect on biofilm viability. PMID:9726908

Pratten, J; Barnett, P; Wilson, M

1998-09-01

140

Composition and Susceptibility to Chlorhexidine of Multispecies Biofilms of Oral Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Using a constant-depth film fermentor, we have grown a six-membered biofilm community with a bacterial composition similar to that found in supragingival dental plaque. Cryosectioning revealed the distribution of bacteria throughout the biofilm. Exposure to 0.2% chlorhexidine for up to 5 min had little effect on biofilm viability.

Pratten, J.; Barnett, P.; Wilson, M.

1998-01-01

141

Biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumoniae on urethral catheters requires either type 1 or type 3 fimbriae.  

PubMed

Urinary catheters are standard medical devices utilized in both hospital and nursing home settings, but are associated with a high frequency of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). In particular, biofilm formation on the catheter surface by uropathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae causes severe problems. Here we demonstrate that type 1 and type 3 fimbriae expressed by K. pneumoniae enhance biofilm formation on urinary catheters in a catheterized bladder model that mirrors the physico-chemical conditions present in catheterized patients. Furthermore, we show that both fimbrial types are able to functionally compensate for each other during biofilm formation on urinary catheters. In situ monitoring of fimbrial expression revealed that neither of the two fimbrial types is expressed when cells are grown planktonically. Interestingly, during biofilm formation on catheters, both fimbrial types are expressed, suggesting that they are both important in promoting biofilm formation on catheters. Additionally, transformed into and expressed by a nonfimbriated Escherichia coli strain, both fimbrial types significantly increased biofilm formation on catheters compared with the wild-type E. coli strain. The widespread occurrence of the two fimbrial types in different species of pathogenic bacteria stresses the need for further assessment of their role during urinary tract infections. PMID:22448614

Stahlhut, Steen G; Struve, Carsten; Krogfelt, Karen A; Reisner, Andreas

2012-04-23

142

Biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumoniae on urethral catheters requires either type 1 or type 3 fimbriae  

PubMed Central

Urinary catheters are standard medical devices utilized in both hospital and nursing home settings, but are associated with a high frequency of catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). In particular, biofilm formation on the catheter surface by uropathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae causes severe problems. Here we demonstrate that type 1 and type 3 fimbriae expressed by K. pneumoniae enhance biofilm formation on urinary catheters in a catheterized bladder model that mirrors the physico-chemical conditions present in catheterized patients. Furthermore, we show that both fimbrial types are able to functionally compensate for each other during biofilm formation on urinary catheters. In situ monitoring of fimbrial expression revealed that neither of the two fimbrial types is expressed when cells are grown planktonically. Interestingly, during biofilm formation on catheters, both fimbrial types are expressed, suggesting that they are both important in promoting biofilm formation on catheters. Additionally, transformed into and expressed by a nonfimbriated Escherichia coli strain, both fimbrial types significantly increased biofilm formation on catheters compared with the wild-type E. coli strain. The widespread occurrence of the two fimbrial types in different species of pathogenic bacteria stresses the need for further assessment of their role during urinary tract infections.

Stahlhut, Steen G; Struve, Carsten; Krogfelt, Karen A; Reisner, Andreas

2012-01-01

143

Planktonic Replication Is Essential for Biofilm Formation by Legionella pneumophila in a Complex Medium under Static and Dynamic Flow Conditions†  

PubMed Central

Legionella pneumophila persists for a long time in aquatic habitats, where the bacteria associate with biofilms and replicate within protozoan predators. While L. pneumophila serves as a paradigm for intracellular growth within protozoa, it is less clear whether the bacteria form or replicate within biofilms in the absence of protozoa. In this study, we analyzed surface adherence of and biofilm formation by L. pneumophila in a rich medium that supported axenic replication. Biofilm formation by the virulent L. pneumophila strain JR32 and by clinical and environmental isolates was analyzed by confocal microscopy and crystal violet staining. Strain JR32 formed biofilms on glass surfaces and upright polystyrene wells, as well as on pins of “inverse” microtiter plates, indicating that biofilm formation was not simply due to sedimentation of the bacteria. Biofilm formation by an L. pneumophila fliA mutant lacking the alternative sigma factor ?28 was reduced, which demonstrated that bacterial factors are required. Accumulation of biomass coincided with an increase in the optical density at 600 nm and ceased when the bacteria reached the stationary growth phase. L. pneumophila neither grew nor formed biofilms in the inverse system if the medium was exchanged twice a day. However, after addition of Acanthamoeba castellanii, the bacteria proliferated and adhered to surfaces. Sessile (surface-attached) and planktonic (free-swimming) L. pneumophila expressed ?-galactosidase activity to similar extents, and therefore, the observed lack of proliferation of surface-attached bacteria was not due to impaired protein synthesis or metabolic activity. Cocultivation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)- and DsRed-labeled L. pneumophila led to randomly interspersed cells on the substratum and in aggregates, and no sizeable patches of clonally growing bacteria were observed. Our findings indicate that biofilm formation by L. pneumophila in a rich medium is due to growth of planktonic bacteria rather than to growth of sessile bacteria. In agreement with this conclusion, GFP-labeled L. pneumophila initially adhered in a continuous-flow chamber system but detached over time; the detachment correlated with the flow rate, and there was no accumulation of biomass. Under these conditions, L. pneumophila persisted in biofilms formed by Empedobacter breve or Microbacterium sp. but not in biofilms formed by Klebsiella pneumoniae or other environmental bacteria, suggesting that specific interactions between the bacteria modulate adherence.

Mampel, Jorg; Spirig, Thomas; Weber, Stefan S.; Haagensen, Janus A. J.; Molin, S?ren; Hilbi, Hubert

2006-01-01

144

Investigation of Biofilm Formation in Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are often characterized by recalcitrance to antimicrobial therapy, which is a function not only of widespread antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates, but also the capacity to form biofilms. Biofilms consist of ordered populations of bacterial colonies encased in a polysaccharide and/or proteinaceous matrix. This unique physiologic adaptation limits penetration of antimicrobial molecules and innate immune effectors to the infectious focus, increasing the likelihood of treatment failure and progression to chronic infection. Investigation of mechanisms of biofilm formation and dispersal, as well as the physiologic adaptations to the biofilm lifestyle, is therefore critical to developing new therapies to combat MRSA infections. In this chapter, we describe two in vitro methods for the investigation of staphylococcal biofilm formation, a microtiter plate-based assay of biofilm formation under static conditions and a flow cell-based assay of biofilm formation under fluid shear. We also detail an in vivo murine model of catheter-associated biofilm formation that is amenable to imaging and microbiologic analyses. Special consideration is given to the conditions necessary to support biofilm formation by clinical isolates of S. aureus. PMID:24085698

Cassat, James E; Smeltzer, Mark S; Lee, Chia Y

2014-01-01

145

Self-suppression of biofilm formation in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus.  

PubMed

Biofilms are consortia of bacteria that are held together by an extracellular matrix. Cyanobacterial biofilms, which are highly ubiquitous and inhabit diverse niches, are often associated with biological fouling and cause severe economic loss. Information on the molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm formation in cyanobacteria is scarce. We identified a mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus, which unlike the wild type, developed biofilms. This biofilm-forming phenotype is caused by inactivation of homologues of type II secretion /type IV pilus assembly systems and is associated with impairment of protein secretion. The conditioned medium from a wild-type culture represses biofilm formation by the secretion-mutants. This suggested that the planktonic nature of the wild-type strain is a result of a self-suppression mechanism, which depends on the deposition of a factor to the extracellular milieu. We also identified two genes that are essential for biofilm formation. Transcript levels of these genes are elevated in the mutant compared with the wild type, and are initially decreased in mutant cells cultured in conditioned medium of wild-type cells. The particular niche conditions will determine whether the inhibitor will accumulate to effective levels and thus the described mechanism allows switching to a sessile mode of existence. PMID:23298171

Schatz, Daniella; Nagar, Elad; Sendersky, Eleonora; Parnasa, Rami; Zilberman, Shaul; Carmeli, Shmuel; Mastai, Yitzhak; Shimoni, Eyal; Klein, Eugenia; Yeger, Orna; Reich, Ziv; Schwarz, Rakefet

2013-01-09

146

Marine bacterial isolates inhibit biofilm formation and disrupt mature biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, biofilms cause 65% of infections in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm cause life threatening infections in cystic fibrosis infection and they are 1,000 times more tolerant to antibiotic\\u000a than the planktonic cells. As quorum sensing, hydrophobicity index and extracellular polysaccharide play a crucial role in\\u000a biofilm formation, extracts from 46 marine

Chari Nithya; Mansur Farzana Begum; Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian

2010-01-01

147

Identification, structure, and characterization of an exopolysaccharide produced by Histophilus somni during biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

Background Histophilus somni, a gram-negative coccobacillus, is an obligate inhabitant of bovine and ovine mucosal surfaces, and an opportunistic pathogen responsible for respiratory disease and other systemic infections in cattle and sheep. Capsules are important virulence factors for many pathogenic bacteria, but a capsule has not been identified on H. somni. However, H. somni does form a biofilm in vitro and in vivo, and the biofilm matrix of most bacteria consists of a polysaccharide. Results Following incubation of H. somni under growth-restricting stress conditions, such as during anaerobiosis, stationary phase, or in hypertonic salt, a polysaccharide could be isolated from washed cells or culture supernatant. The polysaccharide was present in large amounts in broth culture sediment after H. somni was grown under low oxygen tension for 4-5 days (conditions favorable to biofilm formation), but not from planktonic cells during log phase growth. Immuno-transmission electron microscopy showed that the polysaccharide was not closely associated with the cell surface, and was of heterogeneous high molecular size by gel electrophoresis, indicating it was an exopolysaccharide (EPS). The EPS was a branched mannose polymer containing some galactose, as determined by structural analysis. The mannose-specific Moringa M lectin and antibodies to the EPS bound to the biofilm matrix, demonstrating that the EPS was a component of the biofilm. The addition of N-acetylneuraminic acid to the growth medium resulted in sialylation of the EPS, and increased biofilm formation. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicated that genes previously identified in a putative polysaccharide locus were upregulated when the bacteria were grown under conditions favorable to a biofilm, compared to planktonic cells. Conclusions H. somni is capable of producing a branching, mannose-galactose EPS polymer under growth conditions favorable to the biofilm phase of growth, and the EPS is a component of the biofilm matrix. The EPS can be sialylated in strains with sialyltransferase activity, resulting in enhanced density of the biofilm, and suggesting that EPS and biofilm formation may be important to persistence in the bovine host. The EPS may be critical to virulence if the biofilm state is required for H. somni to persist in systemic sites.

2011-01-01

148

Influence of peroxyacetic acid and nisin and coculture with Enterococcus faecium on Listeria monocytogenes biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation is a matter of concern in food industries because biofilms facilitate the survival of pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, which may contaminate food-processing equipment and products. In this study, nisin and two Enterococcus faecium strains were evaluated for their effect on biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes cultured in brain heart infusion broth and on stainless steel coupons. Elimination of preformed L. monocytogenes biofilms by peroxyacetic acid also was tested. Adhesion control experiments were performed with pure cultures of L. monocytogenes after swab collection of adhered cells, which were then enumerated on PALCAM agar plates and visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Formation of a biofilm was recorded when the number of adhered cells was at least 10(3) CFU/cm2. When L. monocytogenes was cocultured with E. faecium bac-, the number of adhered L. monocytogenes cells was 2.5 log lower (P = 0.002) when initially compared with the control culture, but after 6 h of incubation a biofilm was again detected. However, in coculture on stainless steel coupons, E. faecium bac+ inhibited L. monocytogenes adherence and did not allow biofilm formation for up to 48 h (P < 0.001). In the presence of nisin or after treatment with peroxyacetic acid, bacterial growth was reduced (P < 0.001) up to 4.6 and 5.6 log CFU/cm2, respectively, when compared with L. monocytogenes cultures on untreated coupons. However, after these treatments, cells were still present, and after 24 h of incubation, a renewed biofilm was detected in L. monocytogenes cultures treated with nisin. Although all tested conditions reduced L. monocytogenes growth to some extent, only coculture with E. faecium bac+ efficiently reduced biofilm formation, suggesting a potential control strategy for this pathogen. PMID:18389714

Minei, Cláudia C; Gomes, Bruna C; Ratti, Regianne P; D'Angelis, Carlos E M; De Martinis, Elaine C P

2008-03-01

149

Establishment and Early Succession of a Multispecies Biofilm Composed of Soil Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most soil bacteria are likely to be organized in biofilms on roots, litter, or soil particles. Studies of such biofilms are\\u000a complicated by the many nonculturable species present in soil, as well as the interspecific bacterial interactions affecting\\u000a biofilm biology. We in this study describe the development of a biofilm flow model and use this system to establish an early

Mette Burmølle; Lars H. Hansen; Søren J. Sørensen

2007-01-01

150

Reconfiguring the Quorum-Sensing Regulator SdiA of Escherichia coli To Control Biofilm Formation via Indole and N-Acylhomoserine Lactones  

Microsoft Academic Search

SdiA is a homolog of quorum-sensing regulators that detects N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) signals from other bacteria. Escherichia coli uses SdiA to reduce its biofilm formation in the presence of both AHLs and its own signal indole. Here we reconfigured SdiA (240 amino acids) to control biofilm formation using protein engineering. Four SdiA variants were obtained with altered biofilm formation, including

Jintae Lee; Toshinari Maeda; Seok Hoon Hong; Thomas K. Wood

2009-01-01

151

Disinfection byproduct formation from chlorination of pure bacterial cells and pipeline biofilms.  

PubMed

Disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation is commonly attributed to the reaction between natural organic matters and disinfectants, yet few have considered the contribution from disinfecting bacterial materials - the essential process of water disinfection. Here, we explored the DBP formation from chlorination and chloramination of Escherichia coli and found that most selected DBPs were detectable, including trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, chloral hydrate, chloropicrin, and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-propanone. A positive correlation (P = 0.08-0.09) between DBP formation and the log reduction of E. coli implied that breaking down of bacterial cells released precursors for DBP formation. As Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a dominant bacterial species in pipeline biofilms, the DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs) from its planktonic cells and biofilms were characterized. Planktonic cells formed 7-11 times greater trihalomethanes per carbon of those from biofilms but significantly lower (P < 0.05) chloral hydrate, highlighting the bacterial phenotype's impact on the bacteria-derived DBPFP. Pipe material appeared to affect the DBPFP of bacteria, with 4-28% lower bromine incorporation factor for biofilms on polyvinyl chloride compared to that on galvanized zinc. This study revealed both the in situ disinfection of bacterial planktonic cells in source water and ex situ reaction between biofilms and residual chlorine in pipeline networks as hitherto unknown DBP sources in drinking water. PMID:23499193

Wang, Jun-Jian; Liu, Xin; Ng, Tsz Wai; Xiao, Jie-Wen; Chow, Alex T; Wong, Po Keung

2013-02-26

152

Exposure to bile influences biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we demonstrate that the initial attachment of Listeria monocytogenes cells to plastic surfaces was significantly increased by growth in the presence of bile. Improved biofilm formation was confirmed by crystal violet staining, microscopy and bioluminescence detection of a luciferase-tagged strain. Enhanced biofilm formation in response to bile may influence the ability of L. monocytogenes to form

Máire Begley; Colm Kerr; Colin Hill

2009-01-01

153

Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Ocular Staphylococcal Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), the main polyphenol component of green tea, has several antibacterial properties. Here we show that sub-MICs of EGCg appear to decrease slime production, therefore inhibiting biofilm formation by ocular staphylococcal isolates previously characterized for the presence of ica genes by the Congo red agar plate assay and for adhesion to microtiter plates. Biofilm formation is a three-stage

Anna Rita Blanco; Andrea Sudano-Roccaro; Giovanna Carmela Spoto; Antonia Nostro; Dario Rusciano

2005-01-01

154

Influence of attached bacteria and biofilm on double-layer capacitance during biofilm monitoring by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Development of an effective strategy for biofilm control in water-related system has become a matter of significant concern nowadays. Electrochemical monitoring, especially electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), is one of the efficient approaches to dealing with biofilm-related issues. However, currently used EIS methods without a redox probe intend to detect all effects generated from media components, bacteria, and bacterial metabolites, which used to make the signals from the attached bacteria and biofilm weakened. In this study, we tried improved EIS measurement to monitor bacterial adhesion and biofilm maturation using a double-layer capacitance. In this improved method, we minimized background signal by subtracting the interference of electrolyte caused by bacterial metabolism. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 wild type and wspF mutant that form the biofilm of distinct nature were used for the model strains to test our method. During bacterial adhesion and biofilm maturation, EIS data were collected and equivalent circuit analysis was carried out to obtain constant phase element (CPE) values representing double-layer capacitance. Since the influence by the bacterial growth-related culture media condition was eliminated by adopting fresh electrolyte at the measurement, the contribution of attached bacteria and biofilm was exclusively measured. As a result, the bacterial adhesion at the early stage of biofilm development was specifically monitored from reduction in double-layer capacitance. Particularly, the plateau in double-layer capacitance appeared upon biofilm maturation, indicating that biofilm maturation could be expected beyond this point. In conclusion, this study found that measurement of double-layer capacitance based on EIS could provide a monitoring parameter suggesting bacterial adhesion and the initiation point of biofilm maturation. PMID:21762943

Kim, Taeyoung; Kang, Junil; Lee, Joon-Hee; Yoon, Jeyong

2011-06-24

155

Burkholderia?BcpA mediates biofilm formation independently of interbacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition.  

PubMed

Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a phenomenon in which Gram-negative bacteria use the toxic C-terminus of a large surface-exposed exoprotein to inhibit the growth of susceptible bacteria upon cell-cell contact. Little is known about when and where bacteria express the genes encoding CDI system proteins and how these systems contribute to the survival of bacteria in their natural niche. Here we establish that, in addition to mediating interbacterial competition, the Burkholderia thailandensis?CDI system exoprotein BcpA is required for biofilm development. We also provide evidence that the catalytic activity of BcpA and extracellular DNA are required for the characteristic biofilm pillars to form. We show using a bcpA-gfp fusion that within the biofilm, expression of the CDI system-encoding genes is below the limit of detection for the majority of bacteria and only a subset of cells express the genes strongly at any given time. Analysis of a strain constitutively expressing the genes indicates that native expression is critical for biofilm architecture. Although CDI systems have so far only been demonstrated to be involved in interbacterial competition, constitutive production of the system's immunity protein in the entire bacterial population did not alter biofilm formation, indicating a CDI-independent role for BcpA in this process. We propose, therefore, that bacteria may use CDI proteins in cooperative behaviours, like building biofilm communities, and in competitive behaviours that prevent non-self bacteria from entering the community. PMID:23879629

Garcia, Erin C; Anderson, Melissa S; Hagar, Jon A; Cotter, Peggy A

2013-08-16

156

Biodegradable polymer (PLGA) coatings featuring cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol mitigate biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Biofilm-associated infections are one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Although infections may be treated with antibiotics, the overuse of antibiotics has led to the spread of antibiotic resistance. Many natural antimicrobial compounds derived from edible plants are safe for human use and target bacteria nonspecifically. Therefore, they may impair biofilm formation with less evolutionary pressure on pathogens. Here, we explore the use of two natural antimicrobial compounds, cinnamaldehyde (CA, from cinnamon) and carvacrol (CARV, from oregano), for biofilm prevention. We have fabricated and characterized films that incorporate CA and CARV into the biodegradable, FDA-approved polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA. The addition of CA and CARV to PLGA films not only adds antimicrobial activity but also changes the surface properties of the films, making them more hydrophilic and therefore more resistant to bacterial attachment. An addition of 0.1% CA to a PLGA film significantly impairs biofilm development by Staphylococcus aureus, and 0.1% CARV in PLGA significantly decreases biofilm formation by both Escherichia coli and S. aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is less susceptible to CA and CARV, was not affected by the addition of 0.1% CA or CARV to the PLGA coatings; however, P. aeruginosa biofilm was significantly reduced by 1.0% CA. These results indicate that both CA and CARV could potentially be used in low concentrations as natural additives in polymer coatings for indwelling devices to delay colonization by bacteria. PMID:22937881

Zodrow, Katherine R; Schiffman, Jessica D; Elimelech, Menachem

2012-09-20

157

Specific Inhibitors of Bacterial Adhesion: Observations From the Study of Gram-Positive Bacteria that Initiate Biofilm Formation on the Tooth Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral surfaces are bathed in secretory antibodies and other salivary macromolecules that are potential inhibitors of specific microbial adhesion. Indigenous Gram-positive bacteria that colonize teeth, including viridans streptococci and actinomyces, may avoid inhibition of adhesion by host secretory molecules through various strategies that involve the structural design and binding properties of bacterial adhesins and receptors. Further studies to define the

J. O. Cisar; Y. Takahashi; S. Ruhl; J. A. Donkersloot; A. L. Sandberg

1997-01-01

158

Lrs14 transcriptional regulators influence biofilm formation and cell motility of Crenarchaea.  

PubMed

Like bacteria, archaea predominately exist as biofilms in nature. However, the environmental cues and the molecular mechanisms driving archaeal biofilm development are not characterized. Here we provide data suggesting that the transcriptional regulators belonging to the Lrs14-like protein family constitute a key regulatory factor during Sulfolobus biofilm development. Among the six lrs14-like genes encoded by Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, the deletion of three led to markedly altered biofilm phenotypes. Although ?saci1223 and ?saci1242 deletion mutants were impaired in biofilm formation, the ?saci0446 deletion strain exhibited a highly increased extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, leading to a robust biofilm structure. Moreover, although the expression of the adhesive pili (aap) genes was upregulated, the genes of the motility structure, the archaellum (fla), were downregulated rendering the ?saci0446 strain non-motile. Gel shift assays confirmed that Saci0446 bound to the promoter regions of fla and aap thus controlling the expression of both cell surface structures. In addition, genetic epistasis analysis using ?saci0446 as background strain identified a gene cluster involved in the EPS biosynthetic pathway of S. acidocaldarius. These results provide insights into both the molecular mechanisms that govern biofilm formation in Crenarchaea and the functionality of the Lrs14-like proteins, an archaea-specific class of transcriptional regulators. PMID:23657363

Orell, Alvaro; Peeters, Eveline; Vassen, Victoria; Jachlewski, Silke; Schalles, Sven; Siebers, Bettina; Albers, Sonja-Verena

2013-05-09

159

Staphylococcus aureus autoinducer-2 quorum sensing decreases biofilm formation in an icaR-dependent manner  

PubMed Central

Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that causes biofilm-associated infection in humans. Autoinducer 2 (AI-2), a quorum-sensing (QS) signal for interspecies communication, has a wide range of regulatory functions in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but its exact role in biofilm formation in S. aureus remains unclear. Results Here we demonstrate that mutation of the AI-2 synthase gene luxS in S. aureus RN6390B results in increased biofilm formation compared with the wild-type (WT) strain under static, flowing and anaerobic conditions and in a mouse model. Addition of the chemically synthesized AI-2 precursor in the luxS mutation strain (?luxS) restored the WT phenotype. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that AI-2 activated the transcription of icaR, a repressor of the ica operon, and subsequently a decreased level of icaA transcription, which was presumably the main reason why luxS mutation influences biofilm formation. Furthermore, we compared the roles of the agr-mediated QS system and the LuxS/AI-2 QS system in the regulation of biofilm formation using the ?luxS strain, RN6911 and the ?agr ?luxS strain. Our data indicate a cumulative effect of the two QS systems on the regulation of biofilm formation in S. aureus. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that AI-2 can decrease biofilm formation in S. aureus via an icaR-activation pathway. This study may provide clues for therapy in S. aureus biofilm-associated infection.

2012-01-01

160

Controlled synthesis of the DSF cell-cell signal is required for biofilm formation and virulence in Xanthomonas campestris  

PubMed Central

Virulence of the black rot pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is regulated by cell–cell signalling involving the diffusible signal factor DSF. Synthesis and perception of DSF require products of genes within the rpf cluster (for regulation of pathogenicity factors). RpfF directs DSF synthesis whereas RpfC and RpfG are involved in DSF perception. Here we have examined the role of the rpf/DSF system in biofilm formation in minimal medium using confocal laser-scanning microscopy of GFP-labelled bacteria. Wild-type Xcc formed microcolonies that developed into a structured biofilm. In contrast, an rpfF mutant (DSF-minus) and an rpfC mutant (DSF overproducer) formed only unstructured arrangements of bacteria. A gumB mutant, defective in xanthan biosynthesis, was also unable to develop the typical wild-type biofilm. Mixed cultures of gumB and rpfF mutants formed a typical biofilm in vitro. In contrast, in mixed cultures the rpfC mutant prevented the formation of the structured biofilm by the wild-type and did not restore wild-type biofilm phenotypes to gumB or rpfF mutants. These effects on structured biofilm formation were correlated with growth and disease development by Xcc strains in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These findings suggest that DSF signalling is finely balanced during both biofilm formation and virulence.

Torres, Pablo S; Malamud, Florencia; Rigano, Luciano A; Russo, Daniela M; Marano, Maria Rosa; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Bouarab, Kamal; Dow, John Maxwell; Vojnov, Adrian A

2007-01-01

161

Product and Process for Inhibition of Biofilm Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Disclosed are compositions and methods for the inhibition of biofilm formation or reduction of existing or developing biofilms in a patient. These methods also inhibit the aggregation of bacteria that form biofilms in the airways. The methods include admi...

G. S. Worthen J. A. Nick T. S. Walker

2005-01-01

162

The effects of changing water flow velocity on the formation of biofilms and water quality in pilot distribution system consisting of copper or polyethylene pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of flow velocity on the formation of biofilms and the concentration of bacteria in water in copper and plastic (polyethylene, PE) pipes. The formation of biofilms increased with the flow velocity of water. The increase in microbial numbers and contents of ATP was clearer in the PE pipes than in the copper pipes. This was also

Markku J. Lehtola; Michaela Laxander; Ilkka T. Miettinen; Arja Hirvonen; Terttu Vartiainen; Pertti J. Martikainen

2006-01-01

163

Role of Streptococcus gordonii Amylase-Binding Protein A in Adhesion to Hydroxyapatite, Starch Metabolism, and Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between bacteria and salivary components are thought to be important in the establishment and ecology of the oral microflora. -Amylase, the predominant salivary enzyme in humans, binds to Streptococcus gordonii, a primary colonizer of the tooth. Previous studies have implicated this interaction in adhesion of the bacteria to salivary pellicles, catabolism of dietary starches, and biofilm formation. Amylase binding

JEFFREY D. ROGERS; ROBERT J. PALMER; PAUL E. KOLENBRANDER; FRANK A. SCANNAPIECO

2001-01-01

164

Characterization of Bacterial Etiologic Agents of Biofilm Formation in Medical Devices in Critical Care Setup  

PubMed Central

Background. Biofilms contaminate catheters, ventilators, and medical implants; they act as a source of disease for humans, animals, and plants. Aim. Critical care units of any healthcare institute follow various interventional strategies with use of medical devices for the management of critical cases. Bacteria contaminate medical devices and form biofilms. Material and Methods. The study was carried out on 100 positive bacteriological cultures of medical devices which were inserted in hospitalized patients. The bacterial isolates were processed as per microtitre plate. All the isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing by VITEK 2 compact automated systems. Results. Out of the total 100 bacterial isolates tested, 88 of them were biofilm formers. A 16–20-hour incubation period was found to be optimum for biofilm development. 85% isolates were multidrug resistants and different mechanisms of bacterial drug resistance like ESBL, carbapenemase, and MRSA were found among isolates. Conclusion. Availability of nutrition in the form of glucose enhances the biofilm formation by bacteria. Time and availability of glucose are important factors for assessment of biofilm progress. It is an alarm for those who are associated with invasive procedures and indwelling medical devices especially in patients with low immunity.

Revdiwala, Sangita; Rajdev, Bhaumesh M.; Mulla, Summaiya

2012-01-01

165

Biofilm formation on nanostructured hydroxyapatite-coated titanium.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation on medical devices is a common cause of implant failure, especially regarding implants that breach the epithelial tissue, so-called transcutaneous implants. Nanotechnology and the development of new nanomaterials have given the opportunity to design nanotextured implant surfaces. Such surfaces have been studied using various in vitro methods showing that nanosized features strongly benefit bone cell growth. However, little is known on how nanostructured features affect biofilm formation. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the shape- and chemical-dependent effect of a nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on the degree of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation. Three different types of nanosized HA particles having different shapes and calcium to phosphate ratios were compared to uncoated turned titanium using safranin stain in a biofilm assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for assessment of biofilm biomass and bacterial volume, respectively. No difference in biofilm biomass was detected for the various surfaces after 6 h incubation with S. epidermidis. Additionally, image analysis of CLSM Z-stacks confirmed the biofilm assay and showed similar results. In conclusion, the difference in nanomorphology and chemical composition of the surface coatings did not influence the adhesion and biofilm formation of S. epidermidis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013. PMID:23589449

Westas, Emma; Gillstedt, Martin; Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Bruzell, Ellen; Andersson, Martin

2013-04-16

166

Vaccination with SesC Decreases Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

The increased use of medical implants has resulted in a concomitant rise in device-related infections. The majority of these infections are caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy targeting in vivo-expressed, biofilm-associated, bacterial cell surface-exposed proteins are promising new approaches to prevent and treat biofilm-related infections, respectively. Using an in silico procedure, we identified 64 proteins that are predicted to be S. epidermidis surface exposed (Ses), of which 36 were annotated as (conserved) hypothetical. Of these 36 proteins, 5 proteins—3 LPXTG motif-containing proteins (SesL, SesB, and SesC) and 2 of the largest ABC transporters (SesK and SesM)—were selected for evaluation as vaccine candidates. This choice was based on protein size, number of antigenic determinants, or the established role in S. epidermidis biofilm formation of the protein family to which the candidate protein belongs. Anti-SesC antibodies exhibited the greatest inhibitory effect on S. epidermidis biofilm formation in vitro and on colonization and infection in a mouse jugular vein catheter infection model that includes biofilms and organ infections. Active vaccination with a recombinant truncated SesC inhibited S. epidermidis biofilm formation in a rat model of subcutaneous foreign body infection. Antibodies to SesC were shown to be opsonic by an in vitro opsonophagocytosis assay. We conclude that SesC is a promising target for antibody mediated strategies against S. epidermidis biofilm formation.

Shahrooei, Mohammad; Hira, Vishal; Khodaparast, Laleh; Khodaparast, Ladan; Stijlemans, Benoit; Kucharikova, Sona; Burghout, Peter; Hermans, Peter W. M.

2012-01-01

167

Enterococcal Surface Protein, Esp, Enhances Biofilm Formation by Enterococcus faecalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterococci play a dual role in human ecology. They serve as commensal organisms of the gastrointestinal tract and are also leading causes of multiple antibiotic-resistant hospital-acquired infection. Many nosocomial infections result from the ability of microorganisms to form biofilms. The molecular mechanisms involved in enterococcal biofilm formation are only now beginning to be understood. Enterococcal surface protein, Esp, has been

Preeti M. Tendolkar; Arto S. Baghdayan; Michael S. Gilmore; Nathan Shankar

2004-01-01

168

Quorum sensing controls biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Multiple quorum-sensing circuits function in parallel to control virulence and biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae . In contrast to other bacterial pathogens that induce virulence factor production and\\/or biofilm for- mation at high cell density in the presence of quorum- sensing autoinducers, V. cholerae represses these behaviours at high cell density. Consistent with this, we show here that V.

Brian K. Hammer; Bonnie L. Bassler

2003-01-01

169

Effect of Cinnamon Oil on icaA Expression and Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis?  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus epidermidis is notorious for its biofilm formation on medical devices, and novel approaches to prevent and kill S. epidermidis biofilms are desired. In this study, the effect of cinnamon oil on planktonic and biofilm cultures of clinical S. epidermidis isolates was evaluated. Initially, susceptibility to cinnamon oil in planktonic cultures was compared to the commonly used antimicrobial agents chlorhexidine, triclosan, and gentamicin. The MIC of cinnamon oil, defined as the lowest concentration able to inhibit visible microbial growth, and the minimal bactericidal concentration, the lowest concentration required to kill 99.9% of the bacteria, were determined using the broth microdilution method and plating on agar. A checkerboard assay was used to evaluate the possible synergy between cinnamon oil and the other antimicrobial agents. The effect of cinnamon oil on biofilm growth was studied in 96-well plates and with confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM). Biofilm susceptibility was determined using a metabolic 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Real-time PCR analysis was performed to determine the effect of sub-MIC concentrations of cinnamon oil on expression of the biofilm-related gene, icaA. Cinnamon oil showed antimicrobial activity against both planktonic and biofilm cultures of clinical S. epidermidis strains. There was only a small difference between planktonic and biofilm MICs, ranging from 0.5 to 1% and 1 to 2%, respectively. CLSM images indicated that cinnamon oil is able to detach and kill existing biofilms. Thus, cinnamon oil is an effective antimicrobial agent to combat S. epidermidis biofilms.

Nuryastuti, Titik; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Iravati, Susi; Aman, Abu T.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

2009-01-01

170

Biofilm formation at warming temperature: acceleration of microbial colonization and microbial interactive effects.  

PubMed

River biofilms that grow on wet benthic surface are mainly composed of bacteria, algae, cyanobacteria and protozoa embedded in a polysaccharide matrix. The effects of increased river water temperature on biofilm formation were investigated. A laboratory experiment was designed employing two temperatures (11.1-13.2°C, night-day; 14.7-16.0°C, night-day) and two nutrient levels (0.054 mg P l(-1), 0.75 mg N l(-1); 0.54 mg P l(-1), 7.5 mg N l(-1)). Biofilm formation at the higher temperature was faster, while the biomass of the mature biofilm was mainly determined by nutrient availability. The specific response of the three microbial groups that colonized the substrata (algae, bacteria and ciliates) was modulated by interactions between them. The greater bacterial growth rate and earlier bacterial colonization at the higher temperature and higher nutrient status was not translated into the accrual of higher bacterial biomass. This may result from ciliates grazing on the bacteria, as shown by an earlier increase in peritrichia at higher temperatures, and especially at high nutrient conditions. Temperature and ciliate grazing might determine the growth of a distinctive bacterial community under warming conditions. Warmer conditions also produced a thicker biofilm, while functional responses were much less evident (increases in the heterotrophic utilization of polysaccharides and peptides, but no increase in primary production and respiration). Increasing the temperature of river water might lead to faster biofilm recolonization after disturbances, with a distinct biofilm community structure that might affect the trophic web. Warming effects would be expected to be more relevant under eutrophic conditions. PMID:21113861

Diaz Villanueva, Veronica; Font, Jordi; Schwartz, Thomas; Romani, Anna M

2011-01-01

171

BIOFILMS AND ADHESION PROTEIN IN ANAEROBE BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM MEXICAN GAS PIPELINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pipelines plugging, souring oil and corrosion by microorganisms are a big problem in the oil industry. The pipelines plugging is produced by bacterial consortium that can produce biofilms. In these attached microbial populations, aerobes bacteria growth in the superficial layers, and, anaerobes bacteria (fermenters, sulfate-reducing bacteria, tiosulfate-reducing bacteria, methanogen growth adhered to metal. In industrial areas, surfactants, emulsifiers and

172

Signature-Tagged Mutagenesis of Klebsiella pneumoniae To Identify Genes That Influence Biofilm Formation on Extracellular Matrix Material  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and septicemia in susceptible individuals. Strains of Klebsiella frequently produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, and infections with these strains can lead to relatively high mortality rates (approximately 15%). Other virulence factors include production of an antiphagocytic capsule and outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mediates serum resistance, as well as fimbriae on the surface of the bacteria. Type 1 fimbriae mediate adherence to many types of epithelial cells and may facilitate adherence of the bacteria to the bladder epithelium. Type 3 fimbriae can bind in vitro to the extracellular matrix of urinary and respiratory tissues, suggesting that they mediate binding to damaged epithelial surfaces. In addition, type 3 fimbriae are required for biofilm formation by Klebsiella pneumoniae on plastics and human extracellular matrix; thus, they may facilitate the formation of treatment-resistant biofilm on indwelling plastic devices, such as catheters and endotracheal tubing. The presence of these devices may cause tissue damage, allowing Klebsiella to grow as a biofilm on exposed tissue basement membrane components. Though in vivo biofilm growth may be an important step in the infection process, little is known about the genetic factors required for biofilm formation by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thus, we performed signature-tagged mutagenesis to identify factors produced by K. pneumoniae strain 43816 that are required for biofilm formation. We identified mutations in the cps capsule gene cluster, previously unidentified transcriptional regulators, fimbrial, and sugar phosphotransferase homologues, as well as genetic loci of unknown function, that affect biofilm formation.

Boddicker, Jennifer D.; Anderson, Rebecca A.; Jagnow, Jennifer; Clegg, Steven

2006-01-01

173

Involvement of Iron in Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that forms biofilm on catheters and medical implants. The authors' earlier study established that 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose (PGG) inhibits biofilm formation by S. aureus by preventing the initial attachment of the cells to a solid surface and reducing the production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA). Our cDNA microarray and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric studies demonstrate that PGG treatment causes the expression of genes and proteins that are normally expressed under iron-limiting conditions. A chemical assay using ferrozine verifies that PGG is a strong iron chelator that depletes iron from the culture medium. This study finds that adding FeSO4 to a medium that contains PGG restores the biofilm formation and the production of PIA by S. aureus SA113. The requirement of iron for biofilm formation by S. aureus SA113 can also be verified using a semi-defined medium, BM, that contains an iron chelating agent, 2, 2?-dipyridyl (2-DP). Similar to the effect of PGG, the addition of 2-DP to BM medium inhibits biofilm formation and adding FeSO4 to BM medium that contains 2-DP restores biofilm formation. This study reveals an important mechanism of biofilm formation by S. aureus SA113.

Huang, Hsiu-Yun; Cheng, Yi-Ching

2012-01-01

174

Submicron-textured biomaterial surface reduces staphylococcal bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Staphylococci are among the most important pathogens causing bloodstream infections associated with implanted medical devices. Control of bacterial adhesion to material surfaces is important for prevention of biofilm formation and biomaterial-associated infections. In this study, we hypothesized that submicron (staphylococcal bacterial dimension) surface textures may reduce the bacterial adhesion via a decrease in surface area that bacteria can contact, and subsequently inhibit biofilm formation. Poly(urethane urea) films were textured with two different sizes of submicron pillars via a two-stage replication process. Adhesion of two bacterial strains (Staphylococcus epidermidis RP62A and S. aureus Newman) was assessed over a shear stress range of 0-13.2 dyn cm(-2) using a rotating disk system in physiological buffer solutions. Significant decreases in bacterial adhesion were observed on textured surfaces for both strains compared with smooth controls. Biofilm formation was further tested on surfaces incubated in solution for either 2 or 5 days and it was found that biofilm formation was dramatically inhibited on textured surfaces. The results of the approaches used in this work demonstrate that patterned surface texturing of biomaterials provides an effective means to reduce staphylococcal adhesion and biofilm formation on biomaterial surfaces, and thus to prevent biomaterial-associated infections. PMID:21884831

Xu, Li-Chong; Siedlecki, Christopher A

2011-08-17

175

Biofilm formation by zygomycetes: quantification, structure and matrix composition.  

PubMed

Most studies on fungal biofilms have focused on Candida in yeasts and Aspergillus in mycelial fungi. To the authors' knowledge, biofilm formation by zygomycetes has not been reported previously. In this study, the biofilm-forming capacity of Rhizopus oryzae, Lichtheimia corymbifera, Rhizomucor pusillus and Apophysomyces elegans was evaluated. At appropriate seeding spore densities, Rhp. oryzae (10? c.f.u. ml?¹, L. corymbifera (10? c.f.u. ml?¹) and Rhm. pusillus (10? c.f.u. ml?¹) produced highly intertwined, adherent structures on flat-bottomed polystyrene microtitre plates after 24 h at 37 °C. The adhered fungal hyphae were encased in an extracellular matrix, as confirmed by phase-contrast and confocal microscopy. The thickness of Rhp. oryzae, L. corymbifera and Rhm. pusillus biofilms was 109.67±10.02, 242±23.07 and 197±9.0 µm (mean±sd), respectively. Biochemical characterization of the biofilm matrix indicated the presence of glucosamine, constituting 74.54-82.22?% of its dry weight, N-acetylglucosamine, glucose and proteins. Adherence and biofilm formation were not observed in A. elegans. Although A. elegans spores germinated at all three seeding densities tested (1×10?, 1×10? and 1×10? c.f.u. ml?¹), no significant difference was observed (P>0.05) between the A??? of wells inoculated with A. elegans and the cut-off A??? for biofilm detection. This study highlights the potential for biofilm formation by at least three medically important species of zygomycetes. PMID:21636650

Singh, Rachna; Shivaprakash, M R; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

2011-06-02

176

Effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation and virulence factors of Escherichia coli planktonic and biofilm forms isolated from human urine  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin on biofilm formation, motility, curli fimbriae formation by planktonic and biofilm cells of E. coli strains isolated from the urine of patients with various urinary system infections. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. Bacterial enumeration was used to assess the viability of bacteria in the biofilm. Curli expression was determined by using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Using motility agar the ability to move was examined. All the antibiotics used at sub-MICs reduced biofilm formation in vitro, decreased the survival of bacteria, but had no effect on the motility of planktonic as well as biofilm cells. The inhibitory effect of sub-MICs of antimicrobial agents on curli fimbriae formation was dependent on the form in which the bacteria occurred, incubation time and antibiotic used. Our results clearly show that all the three antibiotics tested reduce biofilm production, interfere with curli expression but do not influence motility. This study suggests that ciprofloxacin, amikacin and colistin may be useful in the treatment of biofilm-associated infections caused by E. coli strains.

Wojnicz, Dorota; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

2013-01-01

177

Coaggregation occurs amongst bacteria within and between biofilms in domestic showerheads.  

PubMed

Showerheads support the development of multi-species biofilms that can be unsightly, produce malodor, and may harbor pathogens. The outer-surface spray-plates of many showerheads support visible biofilms that likely contain a mixture of bacteria from freshwater and potentially from human users. Coaggregation, a mechanism by which genetically distinct bacteria specifically recognize one another, may contribute to the retention and enrichment of different species within these biofilms. The aim of this work was to describe the bacterial composition of outer spray-plate biofilms of three domestic showerheads and to determine the intra- and inter-biofilm coaggregation ability of each culturable isolate. The bacterial composition of the three biofilms was determined by using bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) and by culturing on R2A medium. An average of 31 genera per biofilm were identified using bTEFAP and a total of 30 isolates were cultured. Even though the microbial diversity of each showerhead biofilm differed, every cultured isolate was able to coaggregate with at least one other isolate from the same or different showerhead biofilm. Promiscuous coaggregating isolates belonged to the genera Brevundimonas, Micrococcus, and Lysobacter. This work suggests that coaggregation may be a common feature of showerhead biofilms. Characterization of the mechanisms mediating coaggregation, and the inter-species interactions they facilitate, may allow for novel strategies to inhibit biofilm development. PMID:23194413

Vornhagen, Jay; Stevens, Michael; McCormick, David W; Dowd, Scot E; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Boles, Blaise R; Rickard, Alexander H

2013-01-01

178

Vancomycin promotes the bacterial autolysis, release of extracellular DNA, and biofilm formation in vancomycin-non-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus, an important human pathogen, is particularly adept at producing biofilms on implanted medical devices. Although antibiotic treatment of nonsusceptible bacteria will not kill these strains, the consequences should be studied. The present study focuses on investigating the effect of vancomycin on biofilm formation by vancomycin-non-susceptible S. aureus. Biofilm adherence assays and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that biofilm formation was significantly enhanced following vancomycin treatment. Bacterial autolysis of some subpopulations was observed and was confirmed by the live/dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. A significant increase in polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) production was observed by measuring icaA transcript levels and in a semi-quantitative PIA assay in one resistant strain. We show that the release of extracellular DNA (eDNA) via cidA-mediated autolysis is a major contributor to vancomycin-enhanced biofilm formation. The addition of xenogeneic DNA could also significantly enhance biofilm formation by a PIA-overproducing S. aureus strain. The magnitude of the development of the biofilm depends on a balance between the amounts of eDNA and PIA. In conclusion, sublethal doses of cell wall-active antibiotics like vancomycin induce biofilm formation through an autolysis-dependent mechanism in vancomycin-non-susceptible S. aureus. PMID:22077227

Hsu, Chi-Yu; Lin, Mei-Hui; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Chien, Shih-Chin; Cheng, Yi-Hsiang; Su, I-Ning; Shu, Jwu-Ching

2011-11-01

179

CcpA coordinates central metabolism and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic bacterium whose infections often involve the formation of a biofilm on implanted biomaterials. In S. epidermidis, the exopolysaccharide facilitating bacterial adherence in a biofilm is polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), whose synthesis requires the enzymes encoded within the intercellular adhesin operon (icaADBC). In vitro, the formation of S. epidermidis biofilms is enhanced by conditions that repress tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, such as growth in a medium containing glucose. In many Gram-positive bacteria, repression of TCA cycle genes in response to glucose is accomplished by catabolite control protein A (CcpA). CcpA is a member of the GalR–LacI repressor family that mediates carbon catabolite repression, leading us to hypothesize that catabolite control of S. epidermidis biofilm formation is indirectly regulated by CcpA-dependent repression of the TCA cycle. To test this hypothesis, ccpA deletion mutants were constructed in strain 1457 and 1457-acnA and the effects on TCA cycle activity, biofilm formation and virulence were assessed. As anticipated, deletion of ccpA derepressed TCA cycle activity and inhibited biofilm formation; however, ccpA deletion had only a modest effect on icaADBC transcription. Surprisingly, deletion of ccpA in strain 1457-acnA, a strain whose TCA cycle is inactive and where icaADBC transcription is derepressed, strongly inhibited icaADBC transcription. These observations demonstrate that CcpA is a positive effector of biofilm formation and icaADBC transcription and a repressor of TCA cycle activity.

Sadykov, Marat R.; Hartmann, Torsten; Mattes, Theodoric A.; Hiatt, Megan; Jann, Naja J.; Zhu, Yefei; Ledala, Nagender; Landmann, Regine; Herrmann, Mathias; Rohde, Holger; Bischoff, Markus

2011-01-01

180

Novel concepts in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a Gram-negative microbe that frequently colonizes the human host without obvious signs of inflammation, but is also a frequent cause of otitis media in children and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Accumulating data suggest that NTHi can reside in biofilms during both colonization and infection. Recent literature proposes roles for phosphorylcholine, sialic acid, bacterial DNA, but also eukaryotic DNA in the development of NTHi biofilms. However, many questions remain. Until now, there are insufficient data to explain how NTHi forms biofilms. Here, we review the recent advances in NTHi biofilm formation with particular focus on the role that neutrophils may play in this process. We propose that recruitment of neutrophils facilitates NTHi biofilm formation on mucosal sites by the initiation of neutrophil extracellular traps. PMID:23808954

Langereis, Jeroen D; Hermans, Peter W M

2013-07-15

181

Role of spx in biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis.  

PubMed

Infections caused by the leading nosocomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis are characterized by biofilm formation on implanted medical devices. In a previous study, we found that ClpP protease plays an essential role in biofilm formation of S. epidermidis. However, the mechanism by which ClpP impacts S. epidermidis biofilms has remained unknown. Here, we show that the Spx protein accumulates in the clpP mutant strain of S. epidermidis and controls biofilm formation of S. epidermidis via a pronounced effect on the transcription of the icaADBC operon coding for the production of the biofilm exopolysaccharide polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA). Notably, in contrast to Staphylococcus aureus, Spx controls PIA expression via an icaR-independent mechanism. Furthermore, Spx affected primary surface attachment, although not by regulating the production of the autolysin AtlE. Our results indicate that ClpP enhances the formation of S. epidermidis biofilms by degrading Spx, a negative regulator of biofilm formation. PMID:20402773

Wang, Chongzhen; Fan, Jiajia; Niu, Chen; Wang, Chuan; Villaruz, Amer E; Otto, Michael; Gao, Qian

2010-03-23

182

Effect of plant phenolic compounds on biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

In the natural environment, bacteria predominantly exist in matrix-enclosed multicellular communities associated with various surfaces, referred to as biofilms. Bacteria in biofilms are extremely resistant to antibacterial agents thus causing serious problems for antimicrobial therapy. In this study, we showed that different plant phenolic compounds, at concentrations that did not or weakly suppressed bacterial growth, increased the capacity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to form biofilms. Biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was enhanced 3- to 7-fold under the action of vanillin and epicatechin, and 2- to 2.5-fold in the presence of 4-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, cinnamic, sinapic, ferulic, and chlorogenic acids. At higher concentrations, these compounds displayed an inhibiting effect. Similar experiments carried out for comparison with Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 showed the same pattern. Vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzoic, and gallic acids at concentrations within the range of 40 to 400 ?g/mL increased the production of N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone in P. aeruginosa PAO1 which suggests a possible relationship between stimulation of biofilm formation and Las Quorum Sensing system of this bacterium. Using biosensors to detect N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL), we demonstrated that the plant phenolics studied did not mimic AHLs. PMID:23594262

Plyuta, Vladimir; Zaitseva, Julia; Lobakova, Elena; Zagoskina, Natalia; Kuznetsov, Alexander; Khmel, Inessa

2013-04-18

183

Expression of Xylella fastidiosa Fimbrial and Afimbrial Proteins during Biofilm Formation?  

PubMed Central

Complete sequencing of the Xylella fastidiosa genome revealed characteristics that have not been described previously for a phytopathogen. One characteristic of this genome was the abundance of genes encoding proteins with adhesion functions related to biofilm formation, an essential step for colonization of a plant host or an insect vector. We examined four of the proteins belonging to this class encoded by genes in the genome of X. fastidiosa: the PilA2 and PilC fimbrial proteins, which are components of the type IV pili, and XadA1 and XadA2, which are afimbrial adhesins. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against these four proteins, and their behavior during biofilm development was assessed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. In addition, immunogold electron microscopy was used to detect these proteins in bacteria present in xylem vessels of three different hosts (citrus, periwinkle, and hibiscus). We verified that these proteins are present in X. fastidiosa biofilms but have differential regulation since the amounts varied temporally during biofilm formation, as well as spatially within the biofilms. The proteins were also detected in bacteria colonizing the xylem vessels of infected plants.

Caserta, R.; Takita, M. A.; Targon, M. L.; Rosselli-Murai, L. K.; de Souza, A. P.; Peroni, L.; Stach-Machado, D. R.; Andrade, A.; Labate, C. A.; Kitajima, E. W.; Machado, M. A.; de Souza, A. A.

2010-01-01

184

The Role of msa in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Background Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that forms biofilms. The global regulator sarA is essential for biofilm formation. Since the modulator of sarA (msa) is required for full expression of sarA and regulates several virulence factors, we examined the capacity of the msa mutant to form biofilm. Results We found that mutation of msa results in reduced expression of sarA in biofilm and that the msa mutant formed a weak and unstable biofilm. The msa mutant is able to adhere to surfaces and begins to form biofilm but fails to mature indicating that the defect of the msa mutant biofilm is in the accumulation stage but not in primary adhesion. Conclusion The msa gene plays an important role in biofilm development which is likely due to its role in modulating the expression of sarA. This finding is significant because it identifies a new gene that plays a role in the development of biofilm.

Sambanthamoorthy, Karthik; Schwartz, Antony; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Elasri, Mohamed O

2008-01-01

185

Revised paradigm of aquatic biofilm formation facilitated by microgel transparent exopolymer particles  

PubMed Central

Transparent exopolymer particles (TEPs) are planktonic, organic microgels that are ubiquitous in aqueous environments. Increasing evidence indicates that TEPs play an active role in the process of aquatic biofilm formation. Frequently, TEPs are intensely colonized by bacteria and other microorganisms, thus serving as hot spots of intense microbial activity. We introduce the term “protobiofilm” to refer to TEPs with extensive microbial outgrowth and colonization. Such particles display most of the characteristics of developing biofilm, with the exception of being attached to a surface. In this study, coastal seawater was passed through custom-designed flow cells that enabled direct observation of TEPs and protobiofilm in the feedwater stream by bright-field and epifluorescence microscopy. Additionally, we could follow biofilm development on immersed surfaces inside the flow cells. Within minutes, we observed TEP and protobiofilm patches adhering to these surfaces. By 30 min, confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed numerous patches of Con A and SYTO 9 staining structures covering the surfaces. Atomic force microscopy showed details of a thin, highly sticky, organic conditioning layer between these patches. Bright-field and epifluorescence microscopy and CLSM showed that biofilm development (observed until 24 h) was profoundly inhibited in flow cells with seawater prefiltered to remove most large TEPs and protobiofilm. We propose a revised paradigm for aquatic biofilm development that emphasizes the critical role of microgel particles such as TEPs and protobiofilm in facilitating this process. Recognition of the role of planktonic microgels in aquatic biofilm formation can have applied importance for the water industry.

Bar-Zeev, Edo; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Girshevitz, Olga; Berman, Tom

2012-01-01

186

OmpA-mediated biofilm formation is essential for the commensal bacterium Sodalis glossinidius to colonize the tsetse fly gut.  

PubMed

Many bacteria successfully colonize animals by forming protective biofilms. Molecular processes that underlie the formation and function of biofilms in pathogenic bacteria are well characterized. In contrast, the relationship between biofilms and host colonization by symbiotic bacteria is less well understood. Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house 3 maternally transmitted symbionts, one of which is a commensal (Sodalis glossinidius) found in several host tissues, including the gut. We determined that Sodalis forms biofilms in the tsetse gut and that this process is influenced by the Sodalis outer membrane protein A (OmpA). Mutant Sodalis strains that do not produce OmpA (Sodalis ?OmpA mutants) fail to form biofilms in vitro and are unable to colonize the tsetse gut unless endogenous symbiotic bacteria are present. Our data indicate that in the absence of biofilms, Sodalis ?OmpA mutant cells are exposed to and eliminated by tsetse's innate immune system, suggesting that biofilms help Sodalis evade the host immune system. Tsetse is the sole vector of pathogenic African trypanosomes, which also reside in the fly gut. Acquiring a better understanding of the dynamics that promote Sodalis colonization of the tsetse gut may enhance the development of novel disease control strategies. PMID:22941073

Maltz, Michele A; Weiss, Brian L; O'Neill, Michelle; Wu, Yineng; Aksoy, Serap

2012-08-31

187

OmpA-Mediated Biofilm Formation Is Essential for the Commensal Bacterium Sodalis glossinidius To Colonize the Tsetse Fly Gut  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria successfully colonize animals by forming protective biofilms. Molecular processes that underlie the formation and function of biofilms in pathogenic bacteria are well characterized. In contrast, the relationship between biofilms and host colonization by symbiotic bacteria is less well understood. Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house 3 maternally transmitted symbionts, one of which is a commensal (Sodalis glossinidius) found in several host tissues, including the gut. We determined that Sodalis forms biofilms in the tsetse gut and that this process is influenced by the Sodalis outer membrane protein A (OmpA). Mutant Sodalis strains that do not produce OmpA (Sodalis ?OmpA mutants) fail to form biofilms in vitro and are unable to colonize the tsetse gut unless endogenous symbiotic bacteria are present. Our data indicate that in the absence of biofilms, Sodalis ?OmpA mutant cells are exposed to and eliminated by tsetse's innate immune system, suggesting that biofilms help Sodalis evade the host immune system. Tsetse is the sole vector of pathogenic African trypanosomes, which also reside in the fly gut. Acquiring a better understanding of the dynamics that promote Sodalis colonization of the tsetse gut may enhance the development of novel disease control strategies.

Maltz, Michele A.; Weiss, Brian L.; O'Neill, Michelle; Wu, Yineng

2012-01-01

188

Spatial & Temporal Geophysical Monitoring of Microbial Growth and Biofilm Formation  

EPA Science Inventory

Previous studies have examined the effect of biogenic gases and biomineralization on the acoustic properties of porous media. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal effect of microbial growth and biofilm formation on compressional waves and complex conductivity in sand...

189

Bacterial cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase activity coordinates biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Biofilm-related infections are a major contributor to human disease, and the capacity for surface attachment and biofilm formation are key attributes for the pathogenesis of microbes. Serratia marcescens type I fimbriae-dependent biofilms are coordinated by the adenylate cyclase, CyaA, and the cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-cAMP receptor protein (CRP) complex. This study uses S. marcescens as a model system to test the role of cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity in controlling biofilm formation. Herein we describe the characterization of a putative S. marcescens cAMP-phosphodiesterase gene (SMA3506), designated as cpdS, and demonstrated to be a functional cAMP-phosphodiesterase both in vitro and in vivo. Deletion of cpdS resulted in defective biofilm formation and reduced type I fimbriae production, whereas multicopy expression of cpdS conferred a type I fimbriae-dependent hyper-biofilm. Together, these results support a model in which bacterial cAMP-phosphodiesterase activity modulates biofilm formation. PMID:23923059

Kalivoda, Eric J; Brothers, Kimberly M; Stella, Nicholas A; Schmitt, Matthew J; Shanks, Robert M Q

2013-07-29

190

Antimicrobial activity and enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation on chlorhexidine varnishes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity and biofilm formation of three chlorhexidine varnishes in four Enterococcus faecalis strains: E. faecalis ATCC 29212, E. faecalis EF-D1 (from failed endodontic treatment), E. faecalis 072 (cheese) and E. faecalis U-1765 (nosocomial infection), and one Enterococcus durans strain (failed endodontic treatment). Study Design: The direct contact test was used to study the antimicrobial activity. Bacterial suspensions were exposed for one hour to EC40, Cervitec (CE) and Cervitec Plus (CEP) varnishes. “Eradication” was defined as 100% bacterial kill. The formation of enterococci biofilms was tested on the surface of the varnishes after 24 hours of incubation and expressed as percentage of biofilm reduction. Results: EC40 eradicated all strains except E. faecalis ATCC 29212, where 98.78% kill was achieved. CE and CEP showed antimicrobial activity against all the strains, but most clearly against E. durans and E. faecalis 072. EC40 completely inhibited the formation of biofilm of E. faecalis ATCC 29212, E. faecalis 072 and E. durans. CE and CEP led to over 92% of biofilm reduction, except in the case of E. faecalis U-1765 on CEP (76.42%). Conclusion: The three varnishes studied were seen to be effective in killing the tested strains of enterococci and in inhibiting the formation of biofilm, the best results being observed with EC40. Key words:Biofilm, chlorhexidine varnish, direct contact test, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecalis, intracanal medication.

Ferrer-Luque, Carmen M.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Maria P.; Navarro-Escobar, Esther; de Freitas, Marcia F.A.; Baca, Pilar

2012-01-01

191

Staphylococcus aureus CcpA affects biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus under in vitro growth conditions is generally promoted by high concentrations of sugar and/or salts. The addition of glucose to routinely used complex growth media triggered biofilm formation in S. aureus strain SA113. Deletion of ccpA, coding for the catabolite control protein A (CcpA), which regulates gene expression in response to the carbon source, abolished the capacity of SA113 to form a biofilm under static and flow conditions, while still allowing primary attachment to polystyrene surfaces. This suggested that CcpA mainly affects biofilm accumulation and intercellular aggregation. trans-Complementation of the mutant with the wild-type ccpA allele fully restored the biofilm formation. The biofilm produced by SA113 was susceptible to sodium metaperiodate, DNase I, and proteinase K treatment, indicating the presence of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), protein factors, and extracellular DNA (eDNA). The investigation of several factors which were reported to influence biofilm formation in S. aureus (arlRS, mgrA, rbf, sarA, atl, ica, citZ, citB, and cidABC) showed that CcpA up-regulated the transcription of cidA, which was recently shown to contribute to eDNA production. Moreover, we showed that CcpA increased icaA expression and PIA production, presumably over the down-regulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle genes citB and citZ. PMID:18347047

Seidl, Kati; Goerke, Christiane; Wolz, Christiane; Mack, Dietrich; Berger-Bächi, Brigitte; Bischoff, Markus

2008-03-17

192

Staphylococcus aureus CcpA Affects Biofilm Formation?  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus under in vitro growth conditions is generally promoted by high concentrations of sugar and/or salts. The addition of glucose to routinely used complex growth media triggered biofilm formation in S. aureus strain SA113. Deletion of ccpA, coding for the catabolite control protein A (CcpA), which regulates gene expression in response to the carbon source, abolished the capacity of SA113 to form a biofilm under static and flow conditions, while still allowing primary attachment to polystyrene surfaces. This suggested that CcpA mainly affects biofilm accumulation and intercellular aggregation. trans-Complementation of the mutant with the wild-type ccpA allele fully restored the biofilm formation. The biofilm produced by SA113 was susceptible to sodium metaperiodate, DNase I, and proteinase K treatment, indicating the presence of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), protein factors, and extracellular DNA (eDNA). The investigation of several factors which were reported to influence biofilm formation in S. aureus (arlRS, mgrA, rbf, sarA, atl, ica, citZ, citB, and cidABC) showed that CcpA up-regulated the transcription of cidA, which was recently shown to contribute to eDNA production. Moreover, we showed that CcpA increased icaA expression and PIA production, presumably over the down-regulation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle genes citB and citZ.

Seidl, Kati; Goerke, Christiane; Wolz, Christiane; Mack, Dietrich; Berger-Bachi, Brigitte; Bischoff, Markus

2008-01-01

193

Biofilm formation by Vibrio harveyi on surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of biofilm in the survival and persistence of the bacterial shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi and its possible role in perpetuating infection in shrimp hatcheries was studied. Vibrio harveyi formed biofilms on all three substrates tested: cement slab, high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic and steel coupons. Cell density was highest on the plastic surface followed by the cement slab

I. Karunasagar; S. K. Otta

1996-01-01

194

On the role of extracellular polymeric substances during early stages of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation.  

PubMed

The structural integrity and protection of bacterial biofilms are intrinsically associated with a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by the bacteria cells. However, the role of these substances during biofilm adhesion to a surface remains largely unclear. In this study, the influence of EPS on Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation was investigated. This bacterium is associated with economically important plant diseases; it presents a slow growth rate and thus allows us to pinpoint more precisely the early stages of cell-surface adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show evidence of EPS production in such early stages and around individual bacteria cells attached to the substrate surface even a few hours after inoculation. In addition, EPS formation was investigated via attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To this end, X. fastidiosa cells were inoculated within an ATR liquid cell assembly. IR-ATR spectra clearly reveal EPS formation already during the early stages of X. fastidiosa biofilm formation, thereby providing supporting evidence for the hypothesis of the relevance of the EPS contribution to the adhesion process. PMID:23164974

Lorite, Gabriela S; de Souza, Alessandra A; Neubauer, Daniel; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine; Cotta, Mônica A

2012-09-01

195

Biofilm formation and virulence expression by Streptococcus mutans are altered when grown in dual-species model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Microbial cell-cell interactions in the oral flora are believed to play an integral role in the development of dental plaque and ultimately, its pathogenicity. The effects of other species of oral bacteria on biofilm formation and virulence gene expression by Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of dental caries, were evaluated using a dual-species biofilm model and RealTime-PCR analysis.

Zezhang T. Wen; David Yates; Sang-Joon Ahn; Robert A. Burne

2010-01-01

196

The elimination of bacteria and biofilms in periodontal disease via the thermal laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breakdown of oral health is in almost all cases due to microbial infiltration; even in cases of neuromuscular failure due to faulty occlusion, microorganisms will take advantage of the body's stress and fatigue. Bacteria rarely travel alone or in free-floating plankton-like forms; instead they aggregate in colonies, in what are called microbial biofilms. These biofilms are nearly impossible to

Martha Cortes

2003-01-01

197

Transcriptional Analysis of Biofilm Formation Processes in the Anaerobic, Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga maritima  

PubMed Central

Thermotoga maritima, a fermentative, anaerobic, hyperthermophilic bacterium, was found to attach to bioreactor glass walls, nylon mesh, and polycarbonate filters during chemostat cultivation on maltose-based media at 80°C. A whole-genome cDNA microarray was used to examine differential expression patterns between biofilm and planktonic populations. Mixed-model statistical analysis revealed differential expression (twofold or more) of 114 open reading frames in sessile cells (6% of the genome), over a third of which were initially annotated as hypothetical proteins in the T. maritima genome. Among the previously annotated genes in the T. maritima genome, which showed expression changes during biofilm growth, were several that corresponded to biofilm formation genes identified in mesophilic bacteria (i.e., Pseudomonas species, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Most notably, T. maritima biofilm-bound cells exhibited increased transcription of genes involved in iron and sulfur transport, as well as in biosynthesis of cysteine, thiamine, NAD, and isoprenoid side chains of quinones. These findings were all consistent with the up-regulation of iron-sulfur cluster assembly and repair functions in biofilm cells. Significant up-regulation of several ?-specific glycosidases was also noted in biofilm cells, despite the fact that maltose was the primary carbon source fed to the chemostat. The reasons for increased ?-glycosidase levels are unclear but are likely related to the processing of biofilm-based polysaccharides. In addition to revealing insights into the phenotype of sessile T. maritima communities, the methodology developed here can be extended to study other anaerobic biofilm formation processes as well as to examine aspects of microbial ecology in hydrothermal environments.

Pysz, Marybeth A.; Conners, Shannon B.; Montero, Clemente I.; Shockley, Keith R.; Johnson, Matthew R.; Ward, Donald E.; Kelly, Robert M.

2004-01-01

198

Small Regulatory RNAs in the Control of Motility and Biofilm Formation in E. coli and Salmonella  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation in Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria involves the inverse regulation of the synthesis of flagella and biofilm matrix components such as amyloid curli fibres, cellulose, colanic acid and poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA). Physiologically, these processes reflect the transition from growth to stationary phase. At the molecular level, they are tightly controlled by various sigma factors competing for RNA polymerase, a series of transcription factors acting in hierarchical regulatory cascades and several nucleotide messengers, including cyclic-di-GMP. In addition, a surprisingly large number of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) have been shown to directly or indirectly modulate motility and/or biofilm formation. This review aims at giving an overview of these sRNA regulators and their impact in biofilm formation in E. coli and Salmonella. Special emphasis will be put on sRNAs, that have known targets such as the mRNAs of the flagellar master regulator FlhDC, the stationary phase sigma factor ?S (RpoS) and the key biofilm regulator CsgD that have recently been shown to act as major hubs for regulation by multiple sRNAs.

Mika, Franziska; Hengge, Regine

2013-01-01

199

Quorum-sensing regulates biofilm formation in Vibrio scophthalmi  

PubMed Central

Background In a previous study, we demonstrated that Vibrio scophthalmi, the most abundant Vibrio species among the marine aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract of healthy cultured turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), contains at least two quorum-sensing circuits involving two types of signal molecules (a 3-hydroxy-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone and the universal autoinducer 2 encoded by luxS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the functions regulated by these quorum sensing circuits in this vibrio by constructing mutants for the genes involved in these circuits. Results The presence of a homologue to the Vibrio harveyi luxR gene encoding a main transcriptional regulator, whose expression is modulated by quorum–sensing signal molecules in other vibrios, was detected and sequenced. The V. scophthalmi LuxR protein displayed a maximum amino acid identity of 82% with SmcR, the LuxR homologue found in Vibrio vulnificus. luxR and luxS null mutants were constructed and their phenotype analysed. Both mutants displayed reduced biofilm formation in vitro as well as differences in membrane protein expression by mass-spectrometry analysis. Additionally, a recombinant strain of V. scophthalmi carrying the lactonase AiiA from Bacillus cereus, which causes hydrolysis of acyl homoserine lactones, was included in the study. Conclusions V. scophthalmi shares two quorum sensing circuits, including the main transcriptional regulator luxR, with some pathogenic vibrios such as V. harveyi and V. anguillarum. However, contrary to these pathogenic vibrios no virulence factors (such as protease production) were found to be quorum sensing regulated in this bacterium. Noteworthy, biofilm formation was altered in luxS and luxR mutants. In these mutants a different expression profile of membrane proteins were observed with respect to the wild type strain suggesting that quorum sensing could play a role in the regulation of the adhesion mechanisms of this bacterium.

2012-01-01

200

Proteomic analysis of Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 biofilm formation at the alkane-water interface reveals novel proteins and cellular processes involved in hexadecane assimilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria form biofilms at the hydrocarbon-water interface to overcome the weak accessibility of these poorly water-soluble substrates. In order to gain insight into the cellular functions involved, we undertook a proteomic analysis of Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus SP17 biofilm developing at the hexadecane-water interface. Biofilm formation on hexadecane led to a global change in cell physiology involving modulation of the

Pierre-Joseph Vaysse; Laure Prat; Sophie Mangenot; Stéphane Cruveiller; Philippe Goulas; Régis Grimaud

2009-01-01

201

Bacterial exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation stimulate chickpea growth and soil aggregation under salt stress  

PubMed Central

To compensate for stress imposed by salinity, biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production are significant strategies of salt tolerant bacteria to assist metabolism. We hypothesized that two previously isolated salt-tolerant strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1) and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4) have an ability to improve plant growth, These strains can form biofilm and accumulate exopolysacharides at increasing salt stress. These results showed that bacteria might be involved in developing microbial communities under salt stress and helpful in colonizing of bacterial strains to plant roots and soil particles. Eventually, it can add to the plant growth and soil structure. We investigated the comparative effect of exopolysacharide and biofilm formation in two bacterial strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1) and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4) in response to varying salt stress. We found that biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide accumulation increased at higher salinity. To check the effect of bacterial inoculation on the plant (Cicer arietinum Var. CM-98) growth and soil aggregation, pot experiment was conducted by growing seedlings under salt stress. Inoculation of both strains increased plant growth at elevated salt stress. Weight of soil aggregates attached with roots and present in soil were added at higher salt concentrations compared to untreated controls. Soil aggregation was higher at plant roots under salinity. These results suggest the feasibility of using above strains in improving plant growth and soil fertility under salinity.

Qurashi, Aisha Waheed; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

2012-01-01

202

Bacterial exopolysaccharide and biofilm formation stimulate chickpea growth and soil aggregation under salt stress.  

PubMed

To compensate for stress imposed by salinity, biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide production are significant strategies of salt tolerant bacteria to assist metabolism. We hypothesized that two previously isolated salt-tolerant strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1) and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4) have an ability to improve plant growth, These strains can form biofilm and accumulate exopolysacharides at increasing salt stress. These results showed that bacteria might be involved in developing microbial communities under salt stress and helpful in colonizing of bacterial strains to plant roots and soil particles. Eventually, it can add to the plant growth and soil structure. We investigated the comparative effect of exopolysacharide and biofilm formation in two bacterial strains Halomonas variabilis (HT1) and Planococcus rifietoensis (RT4) in response to varying salt stress. We found that biofilm formation and exopolysaccharide accumulation increased at higher salinity. To check the effect of bacterial inoculation on the plant (Cicer arietinum Var. CM-98) growth and soil aggregation, pot experiment was conducted by growing seedlings under salt stress. Inoculation of both strains increased plant growth at elevated salt stress. Weight of soil aggregates attached with roots and present in soil were added at higher salt concentrations compared to untreated controls. Soil aggregation was higher at plant roots under salinity. These results suggest the feasibility of using above strains in improving plant growth and soil fertility under salinity. PMID:24031943

Qurashi, Aisha Waheed; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

2012-06-01

203

Identification of psl, a Locus Encoding a Potential Exopolysaccharide That Is Essential for Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Bacteria inhabiting biofilms usually produce one or more polysaccharides that provide a hydrated scaffolding to stabilize and reinforce the structure of the biofilm, mediate cell-cell and cell-surface interactions, and provide protection from biocides and antimicrobial agents. Historically, alginate has been considered the major exopolysaccharide of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix, with minimal regard to the different functions polysaccharides execute. Recent chemical and genetic studies have demonstrated that alginate is not involved in the initiation of biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains PAO1 and PA14. We hypothesized that there is at least one other polysaccharide gene cluster involved in biofilm development. Two separate clusters of genes with homology to exopolysaccharide biosynthetic functions were identified from the annotated PAO1 genome. Reverse genetics was employed to generate mutations in genes from these clusters. We discovered that one group of genes, designated psl, are important for biofilm initiation. A PAO1 strain with a disruption of the first two genes of the psl cluster (PA2231 and PA2232) was severely compromised in biofilm initiation, as confirmed by static microtiter and continuous culture flow cell and tubing biofilm assays. This impaired biofilm phenotype could be complemented with the wild-type psl sequences and was not due to defects in motility or lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. These results implicate an as yet unknown exopolysaccharide as being required for the formation of the biofilm matrix. Understanding psl-encoded exopolysaccharide expression and protection in biofilms will provide insight into the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis and other infections involving biofilms.

Jackson, Kara D.; Starkey, Melissa; Kremer, Stefanie; Parsek, Matthew R.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

2004-01-01

204

Enhanced Biofilm Formation by Escherichia coli LPS Mutants Defective in Hep Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of the surface of Gram-negative bacteria and its polysaccharide portion is situated at the outermost region. We investigated the relationship between the polysaccharide portion of LPS and biofilm formation using a series of Escherichia coli mutants defective in genes earlier shown to affect the LPS sugar compositions. Biofilm formation by a deep rough LPS mutant, the hldE strain, was strongly enhanced in comparison with the parental strain and other LPS mutants. The hldE strain also showed a phenotype of increased auto-aggregation and stronger cell surface hydrophobicity compared to the wild-type. Similar results were obtained with another deep rough LPS mutant, the waaC strain whose LPS showed same molecular mass as that of the hldE strain. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis and biofilm formation assay using DNase I revealed that biofilm formation by the hldE strain was dependent on extracellular DNA. Furthermore, a loss of flagella and an increase in amount of outer membrane vesicles in case of the hldE strain were also observed by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated that a mutation in the hldE locus, which alters the LPS structure, caused changes in both expression and properties of several surface bacterial factors involved in biofilm formation and virulence. We suggest that the implication of these results should be considered in the context of biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces, which is frequently associated with nosocominal infections such as the catheter-associated infections.

Nakao, Ryoma; Ramstedt, Madeleine; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

2012-01-01

205

Enhanced biofilm formation by Escherichia coli LPS mutants defective in Hep biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of the surface of Gram-negative bacteria and its polysaccharide portion is situated at the outermost region. We investigated the relationship between the polysaccharide portion of LPS and biofilm formation using a series of Escherichia coli mutants defective in genes earlier shown to affect the LPS sugar compositions. Biofilm formation by a deep rough LPS mutant, the hldE strain, was strongly enhanced in comparison with the parental strain and other LPS mutants. The hldE strain also showed a phenotype of increased auto-aggregation and stronger cell surface hydrophobicity compared to the wild-type. Similar results were obtained with another deep rough LPS mutant, the waaC strain whose LPS showed same molecular mass as that of the hldE strain. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis and biofilm formation assay using DNase I revealed that biofilm formation by the hldE strain was dependent on extracellular DNA. Furthermore, a loss of flagella and an increase in amount of outer membrane vesicles in case of the hldE strain were also observed by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated that a mutation in the hldE locus, which alters the LPS structure, caused changes in both expression and properties of several surface bacterial factors involved in biofilm formation and virulence. We suggest that the implication of these results should be considered in the context of biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces, which is frequently associated with nosocominal infections such as the catheter-associated infections. PMID:23284671

Nakao, Ryoma; Ramstedt, Madeleine; Wai, Sun Nyunt; Uhlin, Bernt Eric

2012-12-28

206

Characteristics of biofilm formation by Candida tropicalis and antifungal resistance.  

PubMed

Candida tropicalis is a common species related to nosocomial candidemia and candiduria. Most Candida spp. infections are associated with biofilm formation on implanted medical devices or on host epithelial cell surfaces. Sessile cells display phenotypic traits dramatically different from those of their free-living, planktonic counterparts, such as increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and to host defenses. The characteristics of C. tropicalis biofilm formation in vitro are described. By an XTT-reduction assay, an increase in metabolic activity was observed up to 24 h of biofilm formation, and this activity showed a linear relationship with sessile cell density. Scanning electron microscopy was used to further characterize C. tropicalis biofilms. The initial adherence of yeast cells was followed by germination, microcolony formation, filamentation and maturation at 24-48 h. Mature biofilms consisted of a dense network of yeast cells and filamentous forms of C. tropicalis. Increased resistance of sessile cells against fluconazole and amphotericin B was also demonstrated. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantification showed that sessile cells overexpressed ERG11 (coding for lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase) and MDR1 (coding for an efflux protein belonging to the major facilitator superfamily). These mechanisms may contribute to the fluconazole resistance of the C. tropicalis biofilm. PMID:18248413

Bizerra, Fernando César; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Poersch, Celina; Estivalet Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez; Borsato Quesada, Regina Mariuza; Goldenberg, Samuel; Krieger, Marco Aurélio; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie

2008-01-29

207

Two quorum sensing systems control biofilm formation and virulence in members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.  

PubMed

The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) consists of 17 closely related species that are problematic opportunistic bacterial pathogens for cystic fibrosis patients and immunocompromised individuals. These bacteria are capable of utilizing two different chemical languages: N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and cis-2-unsaturated fatty acids. Here we summarize the current knowledge of the underlying molecular architectures of these communication systems, showing how they are interlinked and discussing how they regulate overlapping as well as specific sets of genes. A particular focus is laid on the role of these signaling systems in the formation of biofilms, which are believed to be highly important for chronic infections. We review genes that have been implicated in the sessile lifestyle of this group of bacteria. The new emerging role of the intracellular second messenger cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) as a downstream regulator of the fatty acid signaling cascade and as a key factor in biofilm formation is also discussed. PMID:23799665

Suppiger, Angela; Schmid, Nadine; Aguilar, Claudio; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo

2013-07-01

208

The EpsE Flagellar Clutch Is Bifunctional and Synergizes with EPS Biosynthesis to Promote Bacillus subtilis Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria inhibit motility concomitant with the synthesis of an extracellular polysaccharide matrix and the formation of biofilm aggregates. In Bacillus subtilis biofilms, motility is inhibited by EpsE, which acts as a clutch on the flagella rotor to inhibit motility, and which is encoded within the 15 gene eps operon required for EPS production. EpsE shows sequence similarity to the glycosyltransferase family of enzymes, and we demonstrate that the conserved active site motif is required for EPS biosynthesis. We also screen for residues specifically required for either clutch or enzymatic activity and demonstrate that the two functions are genetically separable. Finally, we show that, whereas EPS synthesis activity is dominant for biofilm formation, both functions of EpsE synergize to stabilize cell aggregates and relieve selective pressure to abolish motility by genetic mutation. Thus, the transition from motility to biofilm formation may be governed by a single bifunctional enzyme.

Guttenplan, Sarah B.; Blair, Kris M.; Kearns, Daniel B.

2010-01-01

209

Biofilms suck: how bacteria beat the diffusion limit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multicellular behavior in bacterial biofilms is intimately tied to the production of an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) matrix that encases the cells and provides physical integrity to the colony as a whole. Recent work in Bacillus subtilis biofilms shows that a sudden increase in EPS production generates osmotic stresses that cause the biofilm to expand. Moreover, EPS production is triggered by a nutrient depletion gradient that develops in the biofilm due to diffusive mass transport limitations. These polymer physics based biofilm behaviors suggest that EPS production may have evolved in biofilms to beat the diffusion limit of nutrient transport into the colony, though no direct observation of nutrient transport has been observed previously. Here we measure the rate of nutrient transport into b. subtilis biofilms and find that when EPS production is up-regulated, the polymer sucks fluid into the colony with a characteristic time dependence like that of pressure driven flow. Preliminary data and analysis will be presented.

Angelini, Thomas; Zhang, Wenbo; Zehnder, Steven; Breaux, Jolie

2013-03-01

210

Role of the Clp System in Stress Tolerance, Biofilm Formation, and Intracellular Invasion in Porphyromonas gingivalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clp proteases and chaperones are ubiquitous among prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and in many pathogenic bacteria the Clp stress response system is also involved in regulation of virulence properties. In this study, the roles of ClpB, ClpC, and ClpXP in stress resistance, homotypic and heterotypic biofilm formation, and intracellular invasion in the oral opportunistic pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis were investigated. Absence of

Cindy A. Capestany; Gena D. Tribble; Kazuhiko Maeda; Donald R Demuth; Richard J. Lamont

2008-01-01

211

Immobilization methods for continuous hydrogen gas production biofilm formation versus granulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen gas was continuously produced by treating glucose-containing synthetic wastewater with sewage digester sludge. The activity of methanogenic bacteria in the sludge was repressed by pH-control at 5.0 under anaerobic conditions. For efficient continuous hydrogen production, two immobilization methods were employed, biofilm formation on poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and granulation of the sludge with cationic and anionic polymers. Acetic acid

Jeong Ok Kim; Yong Hwan Kim; Jeong Yong Ryu; Bong Keun Song; In Ho Kim; Sung Ho Yeom

2005-01-01

212

Importance of Biofilm Formation in Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacterial Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Among the diverse soil microflora, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) mark an important role in enhancing plant growth\\u000a through a range of beneficial effects. This is often achieved by forming biofilms in the rhizosphere, which has advantages\\u000a over planktonic mode of bacterial existence. However, the biofilm formation of PGPR has been overlooked in past research.\\u000a This chapter focuses on new

Gamini Seneviratne; M. Weerasekara; K. Seneviratne; J. Zavahir; M. Kecskés; I. Kennedy

213

Apple flavonoid phloretin inhibits Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation and ameliorates colon inflammation in rats.  

PubMed

Pathogenic biofilms have been associated with persistent infections due to their high resistance to antimicrobial agents, while commensal biofilms often fortify the host's immune system. Hence, controlling biofilm formation of both pathogenic bacteria and commensal bacteria is important in bacterium-related diseases. We investigated the effect of plant flavonoids on biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. The antioxidant phloretin, which is abundant in apples, markedly reduced E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation without affecting the growth of planktonic cells, while phloretin did not harm commensal E. coli K-12 biofilms. Also, phloretin reduced E. coli O157:H7 attachment to human colon epithelial cells. Global transcriptome analyses revealed that phloretin repressed toxin genes (hlyE and stx(2)), autoinducer-2 importer genes (lsrACDBF), curli genes (csgA and csgB), and dozens of prophage genes in E. coli O157:H7 biofilm cells. Electron microscopy confirmed that phloretin reduced fimbria production in E. coli O157:H7. Also, phloretin suppressed the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced inflammatory response in vitro using human colonic epithelial cells. Moreover, in the rat model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), phloretin significantly ameliorated colon inflammation and body weight loss. Taken together, our results suggest that the antioxidant phloretin also acts as an inhibitor of E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation as well as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel diseases without harming beneficial commensal E. coli biofilms. PMID:21930760

Lee, Jin-Hyung; Regmi, Sushil Chandra; Kim, Jung-Ae; Cho, Moo Hwan; Yun, Hyungdon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Jintae

2011-09-19

214

3-indolylacetonitrile decreases Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation and Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence.  

PubMed

Intercellular signal indole and its derivative hydroxyindoles inhibit Escherichia coli biofilm and diminish Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence. However, indole and bacterial indole derivatives are unstable in the microbial community because they are quickly degraded by diverse bacterial oxygenases. Hence, this work sought to identify novel, non-toxic, stable and potent indole derivatives from plant sources for inhibiting the biofilm formation of E. coli O157:H7 and P. aeruginosa. Here, plant auxin 3-indolylacetonitrile (IAN) was found to inhibit the biofilm formation of both E. coli O157:H7 and P. aeruginosa without affecting its growth. IAN more effectively inhibited biofilms than indole for the two pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, IAN decreased the production of virulence factors including 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS), pyocyanin and pyoverdine in P. aeruginosa. DNA microarray analysis indicated that IAN repressed genes involved in curli formation and glycerol metabolism, whereas IAN induced indole-related genes and prophage genes in E. coli O157:H7. It appeared that IAN inhibited the biofilm formation of E. coli by reducing curli formation and inducing indole production. Also, corroborating phenotypic results of P. aeruginosa, whole-transcriptomic data showed that IAN repressed virulence-related genes and motility-related genes, while IAN induced several small molecule transport genes. Furthermore, unlike bacterial indole derivatives, plant-originated IAN was stable in the presence of either E. coli or P. aeruginosa. Additionally, indole-3-carboxyaldehyde was another natural biofilm inhibitor for both E. coli and P. aeruginosa. PMID:20649646

Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

2011-01-01

215

Elucidation and control of biofilm formation processes in water treatment and distribution using the Unified Biofilm Approach.  

PubMed

Controlling biological processes in water treatment and distribution is a major challenge to water supply companies. In the Netherlands, the use of chlorine-based disinfectants in water treatment is limited as much as possible and treated water is distributed without disinfectant residual in most cases. Biofilm formation processes in water treatment and distribution are studied using adenosinetriphosphate (ATP) as the parameter for active biomass. ATP measurements are applied to assess biofilm concentrations in distribution systems, in the biofilm monitor to determine the biofilm formation rate of treated water, in the biomass production potential test to determine the effect of pipe materials on microbial growth and in membrane systems to quantify biofouling. The use of a single parameter enables to compare biofilm concentrations in all situations and contributes to the understanding and control of biofilm formation processes in water treatment and distribution. This approach has been designated as the Unified Biofilm Approach. PMID:12701911

van der Kooij, D; Vrouwenvelder, J S; Veenendaal, H R

2003-01-01

216

Nanostructured selenium for preventing biofilm formation on polycarbonate medical devices.  

PubMed

Biofilms are a common cause of persistent infections on medical devices as they are easy to form and hard to treat. The objective of this study was for the first time to coat selenium (a natural element in the body) nanoparticles on the surface of polycarbonate medical devices (such as those used for medical catheters) and to examine their effectiveness at preventing biofilm formation. The size and distribution of selenium coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The strength of the selenium coating on polycarbonate was assessed by tape-adhesion tests followed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results showed that selenium nanoparticles had a diameter of 50-100 nm and were well distributed on the polycarbonate surface. In addition, more than 50% of the selenium coating survived the tape-adhesion test as larger nanoparticles had less adhesion strength to the underlying polycarbonate substrate than smaller selenium nanoparticles. Most significantly, the results of this in vitro study showed that the selenium coatings on polycarbonate significantly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth to 8.9% and 27% when compared with an uncoated polycarbonate surface after 24 and 72 h, respectively. Importantly, this was accomplished without using antibiotics but rather with an element (selenium) that is natural to the human body. Thus, this study suggests that coating polymers (particularly, polycarbonate) with nanostructured selenium is a fast and effective way to reduce bacteria functions that lead to medical device infections. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 100A: 3205-3210, 2012. PMID:22707390

Wang, Qi; Webster, Thomas J

2012-06-15

217

Biofilm streamer formation in a microfluidic porous media mimic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilm formation in porous media is of significant importance in many environmental and industrial processes such as bioremediation, oil recovery, and wastewater treatment. Among different biological and environmental factors, hydrodynamics is considered an important determinant of the dynamics of biofilm formation. In the present study, we fabricated a microfluidic porous media mimic and investigated how fluid flow influences the formation of filamentous structures, known as streamers, between porous media structures. Streamers are viscoelastic materials composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and bacterial cells, and these filamentous structures are typically tethered at either one of both ends to surfaces. We studied evolution of streamers in different flow rates and identified a tangible link between hydrodynamic conditions and development of these filamentous structures. Our results show that hydrodynamic conditions not only determine the limit of the streamers formation, but also influence both temporal evolution and spatial organization of biofilm streamers.

Kumar, Aloke; Valiei, Amin; Mukherjee, Partha; Liu, Yang; Thundat, Thomas

2013-03-01

218

Detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their resistance genes in wastewater, surface water, and drinking water biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the increasing interest in the possible role played by hospital and municipal wastewater systems in the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, biofilms were investigated using enterococci, staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and heterotrophic bacteria as indicator organisms. In addition to wastewater, biofilms were also investigated in drinking water from river bank filtrate to estimate the occurrence of resistant bacteria and their

Thomas Schwartz; Wolfgang Kohnen; Bernd Jansen; Ursula Obst

2003-01-01

219

Effects of nutritional and environmental conditions on Salmonella sp. biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation on food industry surfaces has important health and economic consequences, since they can serve as a potential source of contamination for food products, which may lead to food spoilage or transmission of diseases. Salmonella sp. is one of the most important foodborne pathogens and several studies have led to the discovery that these bacteria are capable of adhering and forming biofilms on different surfaces. The attachment of bacterial cells is affected by several factors, including the medium in which they are grown, motility, growth phase of the cells, type and properties of the inert material, presence of organic material, temperature, pH, contact time, and so on. This investigation focused on the study and quantification of the effects of temperature (20 to 40 °C), pH (4.5 to 7.5), and medium composition (0.5 to 2.5 g/L of peptone) on biofilm formation by Salmonella sp. on stainless steel through surface response modeling. Results highlighted that the target strain was able to adhere on stainless steel, under all the conditions tested. To assess potential differences, the aptitude to biofilm formation (ABF), defined as the time necessary to start adhesion on the surface, was calculated by using the Gompertz equation. This parameter was modeled through a stepwise regression procedure and experimental conditions resulting in the greater ABF were growth in poor media (1.0 to 1.5 g/L of peptone), incubation temperature of about 30 °C, pH close to 6.0. Practical Application: The importance of this work lies in its extension of our knowledge about the effect of different environmental conditions on Salmonella adherence to stainless steel food-processing equipment, as a better understanding of biofilms may provide valuable pathways for the prevention of biofilm formation. PMID:21535687

Speranza, Barbara; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

2010-12-08

220

Variation in sessile microflora during biofilm formation on AISI-304 stainless steel coupons.  

PubMed

Coupons of stainless steel type AISI-304 were exposed to the industrial cooling system of a petrochemical plant fed by seawater from the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to study the in situ formation of biofilms. Bacteria, microalgae and fungi were detected on the coupons as soon as 48 h after exposure. Their respective numbers were determined at times 48, 96 and 192 h and over the following 8 weeks. Aerobic, anaerobic and sulfate-reducing bacteria were quantified according to the technique of the most probable number, and fungi by the pour plate technique. The number of microorganisms present in the forming biofilm varied over the experimental period, reaching maximal levels of 14 x 10(11) cells cm-2, 30 x 10(13) cells cm-2, 38 x 10(11) cells cm-2 and 63 x 10(5) cells cm-2, respectively, for aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria and fungi, and the dynamics of this variation depended on the group of microorganisms. Bacillus sp, Escherichia coli, Serratia sp and Pseudomonas putrefaciens were identified among the aerobic bacteria isolated. Additionally, microalgae and bacteria of the genus Gallionella were also detected. Nonetheless, no evidence of corrosion was found on the stainless steel type AISI-304 coupons over the experimental period. PMID:8987686

de França, F P; Lutterbach, M T

1996-07-01

221

Bap, a Staphylococcus aureus Surface Protein Involved in Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Identification of new genes involved in biofilm formation is needed to understand the molecular basis of strain variation and the pathogenic mechanisms implicated in chronic staphylococcal infections. A biofilm-producing Staphylococcus aureus isolate was used to generate biofilm-negative transposon (Tn917) insertion mutants. Two mutants were found with a significant decrease in attachment to inert surfaces (early adherence), intercellular adhesion, and biofilm formation. The transposon was inserted at the same locus in both mutants. This locus (bap [for biofilm associated protein]) encodes a novel cell wall associated protein of 2,276 amino acids (Bap), which shows global organizational similarities to surface proteins of gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi) and gram-positive (Enteroccocus faecalis) microorganisms. Bap's core region represents 52% of the protein and consists of 13 successive nearly identical repeats, each containing 86 amino acids. bap was present in a small fraction of bovine mastitis isolates (5% of the 350 S. aureus isolates tested), but it was absent from the 75 clinical human S. aureus isolates analyzed. All staphylococcal isolates harboring bap were highly adherent and strong biofilm producers. In a mouse infection model bap was involved in pathogenesis, causing a persistent infection.

Cucarella, Carme; Solano, Cristina; Valle, Jaione; Amorena, Beatriz; Lasa, Inigo; Penades, Jose R.

2001-01-01

222

AI-2/LuxS Is Involved in Increased Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus intermedius in the Presence of Antibiotics?  

PubMed Central

Bacteria utilize quorum-sensing communication to organize their behavior by monitoring the concentration of bacterial signals, referred to as autoinducers (AIs). The widespread detection of AI-2 signals and its enzymatic synthase (LuxS) in bacteria suggests that AI-2 is an inter- and intraspecies communication signal. We have previously shown that antibiotic susceptibility is affected by AI-2 signaling in Streptococcus anginosus. Since chronic infections involve persistent biofilms resilient to antibiotic treatment, we explored the role of AI-2/LuxS in Streptococcus intermedius biofilm formation and cell viability when the organism was exposed to sub-MICs of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, or tetracycline. The S. intermedius wild type (WT) and its isogenic luxS mutant, strain SI006, were exposed to sub-MICs of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, or tetracycline. Biofilms were formed on polystyrene discs in microtiter plates. To assess planktonic cell viability, the ATP microbial viability assay was performed and the numbers of CFU were determined. For complementation assays, the AI-2 precursor dihydroxy pentanedione (DPD) was used as a supplement for SI006. Relative luxS expression was quantified by real-time PCR. The sub-MICs of all three antibiotics increased biofilm formation in S. intermedius WT. However, biofilm formation by SI006 was either unaffected or reduced (P ? 0.05). Bacterial viability tests of biofilm and planktonic cell cultures indicated that SI006 was more susceptible to antibiotics than the WT. DPD complemented the luxS mutant phenotype. Real-time PCR revealed modest yet significant changes in luxS expression in the presence of antibiotic concentrations that increased biofilm formation. In conclusion, in S. intermedius, AI-2/LuxS was involved in antibiotic susceptibility and increased biofilm formation at sub-MICs of antibiotic.

Ahmed, Nibras A.; Petersen, Fernanda C.; Scheie, Anne A.

2009-01-01

223

Kinetics of biofilm formation and desiccation survival of Listeria monocytogenes in single and dual species biofilms with Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia proteamaculans or Shewanella baltica on food-grade stainless steel surfaces.  

PubMed

This study investigated the dynamics of static biofilm formation (100% RH, 15 °C, 48-72 h) and desiccation survival (43% RH, 15 °C, 21 days) of Listeria monocytogenes, in dual species biofilms with the common spoilage bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Serratia proteamaculans and Shewanella baltica, on the surface of food grade stainless steel. The Gram-negative bacteria reduced the maximum biofilm population of L. monocytogenes in dual species biofilms and increased its inactivation during desiccation. However, due to the higher desiccation resistance of Listeria relative to P. fluorescens and S. baltica, the pathogen survived in greater final numbers. In contrast, S. proteamaculans outcompeted the pathogen during the biofilm formation and exhibited similar desiccation survival, causing the N21 days of Serratia to be ca 3 Log10(CFU cm(-2)) greater than that of Listeria in the dual species biofilm. Microscopy revealed biofilm morphologies with variable amounts of exopolymeric substance and the presence of separate microcolonies. Under these simulated food plant conditions, the fate of L. monocytogenes during formation of mixed biofilms and desiccation depended on the implicit characteristics of the co-cultured bacterium. PMID:24102145

Daneshvar Alavi, Hessam Edin; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

2013-10-08

224

Biofilm formation by the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa: process, repeatability and cell attachment in a continuous biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

Yeast biofilms contribute to quality impairment of industrial processes and also play an important role in clinical infections. Little is known about biofilm formation and their treatment. The aim of this study was to establish a multi-layer yeast biofilm model using a modified 3.7 l bench-top bioreactor operated in continuous mode (D = 0.12 h(-1)). The repeatability of biofilm formation was tested by comparing five bioprocesses with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, a strain isolated from washing machines. The amount of biofilm formed after 6 days post inoculation was 83 ?g cm(-2) protein, 197 ?g cm(-2) polysaccharide and 6.9 × 10(6) CFU cm(-2) on smooth polypropylene surfaces. Roughening the surface doubled the amount of biofilm but also increased its spatial variability. Plasma modification of polypropylene significantly reduced the hydrophobicity but did not enhance cell attachment. The biofilm formed on polypropylene coupons could be used for sanitation studies. PMID:21981116

Gattlen, Jasmin; Zinn, Manfred; Guimond, Sébastien; Körner, Enrico; Amberg, Caroline; Mauclaire, Laurie

2011-10-01

225

Heparin-Binding Motifs and Biofilm Formation by Candida albicans.  

PubMed

Candida albicans is a leading pathogen in infections of central venous catheters, which are frequently infused with heparin. Binding of C. albicans to medically relevant concentrations of soluble and plate-bound heparin was demonstrable by confocal microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A sequence-based search identified 34 C. albicans surface proteins containing ?1 match to linear heparin-binding motifs. The virulence factor Int1 contained the most putative heparin-binding motifs (n = 5); peptides encompassing 2 of 5 motifs bound to heparin-Sepharose. Alanine substitution of lysine residues K805/K806 in 804QKKHQIHK811 (motif 1 of Int1) markedly attenuated biofilm formation in central venous catheters in rats, whereas alanine substitution of K1595/R1596 in 1593FKKRFFKL1600 (motif 4 of Int1) did not impair biofilm formation. Affinity-purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) recognizing motif 1 abolished biofilm formation in central venous catheters; preimmune IgG had no effect. After heparin treatment of C. albicans, soluble peptides from multiple C. albicans surface proteins were detected, such as Eno1, Pgk1, Tdh3, and Ssa1/2 but not Int1, suggesting that heparin changes candidal surface structures and may modify some antigens critical for immune recognition. These studies define a new mechanism of biofilm formation for C. albicans and a novel strategy for inhibiting catheter-associated biofilms. PMID:23904295

Green, Julianne V; Orsborn, Kris I; Zhang, Minlu; Tan, Queenie K G; Greis, Kenneth D; Porollo, Alexey; Andes, David R; Long Lu, Jason; Hostetter, Margaret K

2013-07-31

226

Chemically Specific Cellular Imaging of Biofilm Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document and the accompanying manuscripts summarize the technical accomplishments for our one-year LDRD-ER effort. Biofilm forming microbes have existed on this planet for billions of years and make up 60% of the biological mass on earth. Such microb...

J. L. Herberg C. Schaldach J. Horn E. Gjersing R. Maxwell

2006-01-01

227

Mechanism of electrical enhancement of efficacy of antibiotics in killing biofilm bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The bioelectric effect, in which electric fields are used to enhance the efficacy of biocides and antibiotics in killing biofilm bacteria, has been shown to reduce the very high concentrations of these antibacterial agents needed to kill biofilm bacteria to levels very close to those needed to kill planktonic (floating) bacteria of the same species. In this report, we show that biofilm bacteria are readily killed by an antibiotic on all areas of the active electrodes and on the surfaces of conductive elements that lie within the electric field but do not themselves function as electrodes. Considerations of electrode geometry indicate that very low (< 100 microA/cm2) current densities may be effective in this electrical enhancement of antibiotic efficacy against biofilm bacteria, and flow experiments indicate that this bioelectric effect does not appear to depend entirely on the possible local electrochemical generation of antibacterial molecules or ions. These data are expected to facilitate the use of the bioelectric effect in the prevention and treatment of device-related bacterial infections that are caused by bacteria that grow in biofilms and thereby frustrate antibiotic chemotherapy. Images

Costerton, J W; Ellis, B; Lam, K; Johnson, F; Khoury, A E

1994-01-01

228

Biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic surfaces during Spanish style green table olive fermentation.  

PubMed

In this work, the establishment of polymicrobial communities on the surfaces which come into contact with the brine during Spanish style Gordal cv. green olive fermentation when subjected to spontaneous or controlled processes (inoculated with Lactobacillus pentosus LPCO10 or 128/2) was studied. Scanning electron microscopy showed that L. pentosus and yeast populations were able to form mixed biofilms throughout the fermentation process on both abiotic (glass slide) and biotic (olive skin) surfaces. The biofilm architectures in both supports were completely different: on the glass slides only aggregates of L. pentosus and yeasts without any polymeric matrix surrounding them were found while on the skin of the fruits, true mature biofilms were observed. During fermentation, the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population on the olives remained similar while that of yeasts increased progressively to reach similar levels at the end of the process (8-9 log CFU/cm(2)). Molecular analysis showed that different populations of L. pentosus and yeasts were the only microbial members of the biofilm formed during fermentation, regardless of inoculation. Hence, the green olive surface provides an appropriate environmental condition for the suitable development and formation of complex biofilms during controlled or natural table olive processing. PMID:22656327

Domínguez-Manzano, Jesús; León-Romero, Ángela; Olmo-Ruiz, Carmen; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino

2012-05-16

229

Lucilia sericata Chymotrypsin Disrupts Protein Adhesin-Mediated Staphylococcal Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms cause chronic infections due to their ability to form biofilms. The excretions/secretions of Lucilia sericata larvae (maggots) have effective activity for debridement and disruption of bacterial biofilms. In this paper, we demonstrate how chymotrypsin derived from maggot excretions/secretions disrupts protein-dependent bacterial biofilm formation mechanisms.

Nigam, Yamni; Sawyer, James; Mack, Dietrich; Pritchard, David I.

2013-01-01

230

BpsR Modulates Bordetella Biofilm Formation by Negatively Regulating the Expression of the Bps Polysaccharide  

PubMed Central

Bordetella bacteria are Gram-negative respiratory pathogens of animals, birds, and humans. A hallmark feature of some Bordetella species is their ability to efficiently survive in the respiratory tract even after vaccination. Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella pertussis form biofilms on abiotic surfaces and in the mouse respiratory tract. The Bps exopolysaccharide is one of the critical determinants for biofilm formation and the survival of Bordetella in the murine respiratory tract. In order to gain a better understanding of regulation of biofilm formation, we sought to study the mechanism by which Bps expression is controlled in Bordetella. Expression of bpsABCD (bpsA-D) is elevated in biofilms compared with levels in planktonically grown cells. We found that bpsA-D is expressed independently of BvgAS. Subsequently, we identified an open reading frame (ORF), BB1771 (designated here bpsR), that is located upstream of and in the opposite orientation to the bpsA-D locus. BpsR is homologous to the MarR family of transcriptional regulators. Measurement of bpsA and bpsD transcripts and the Bps polysaccharide levels from the wild-type and the ?bpsR strains suggested that BpsR functions as a repressor. Consistent with enhanced production of Bps, the bpsR mutant displayed considerably more structured biofilms. We mapped the bpsA-D promoter region and showed that purified BpsR protein specifically bound to the bpsA-D promoter. Our results provide mechanistic insights into the regulatory strategy employed by Bordetella for control of the production of the Bps polysaccharide and biofilm formation.

Conover, Matt S.; Redfern, Crystal J.; Ganguly, Tridib; Sukumar, Neelima; Sloan, Gina; Mishra, Meenu

2012-01-01

231

A Novel Metagenomic Short-Chain Dehydrogenase\\/Reductase Attenuates Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation and Virulence on Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the expression of a number of virulence factors, as well as biofilm formation, are controlled by quorum sensing (QS). N-Acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are an important class of signaling molecules involved in bacterial QS and in many pathogenic bacteria infection and host colonization are AHL-dependent. The AHL signaling molecules are subject to inactivation mainly by hydrolases (Enzyme Commission

Patrick Bijtenhoorn; Hubert Mayerhofer; Jochen Müller-Dieckmann; Christian Utpatel; Christina Schipper; Claudia Hornung; Matthias Szesny; Stephanie Grond; Andrea Thürmer; Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz; Rolf Daniel; Katja Dierking; Hinrich Schulenburg; Wolfgang R. Streit

2011-01-01

232

The effects of changing water flow velocity on the formation of biofilms and water quality in pilot distribution system consisting of copper or polyethylene pipes.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of flow velocity on the formation of biofilms and the concentration of bacteria in water in copper and plastic (polyethylene, PE) pipes. The formation of biofilms increased with the flow velocity of water. The increase in microbial numbers and contents of ATP was clearer in the PE pipes than in the copper pipes. This was also seen as increased consumption of microbial nutrients in the pipeline system. This indicates that the mass transfer of nutrients is in major role in the growth of biofilms. However, the increased biomass of biofilms did not affect microbial numbers in the water. Rapid changes in water flow rate resuspended biofilms and sediments which increased the concentrations of bacteria and copper in water. The disturbance caused by the changing water flow was also seen as an increase in the particle counts and water turbidity recorded with online instrumentation. PMID:16725175

Lehtola, Markku J; Laxander, Michaela; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Hirvonen, Arja; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J

2006-05-24

233

Viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria: Gene expression in planktonic and biofilm cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria are common in nutrient poor and\\/or stressed environments as planktonic cells and biofilms. This article discusses approaches to researching VBNC bacteria to obtain knowledge that is lacking on their gene expression while in the VBNC state, and when they enter into and then recover from this state, when provided with the necessary nutrients and environmental

J. T. Trevors

2011-01-01

234

Probiotic-mediated competition, exclusion and displacement in biofilm formation by food-borne pathogens.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the inhibitory effect of probiotic strains on pathogenic biofilm formation in terms of competition, exclusion and displacement. Probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus KACC 12419, Lact. casei KACC 12413, Lact. paracasei KACC 12427 and Lact. rhamnosus KACC 11953) and pathogens (Salmonella Typhimurium KCCM 40253 and Listeria monocytogenes KACC 12671) were used to evaluate the auto-aggregation, hydrophobicity and biofilm formation inhibition. The highest auto-aggregation abilities were observed in Lact. rhamnosus (17·5%), Lact. casei (17·2%) and Lact. acidophilus (15·1%). Salm. Typhimurium had the highest affinity to xylene, showing the hydrophobicity of 53·7%. The numbers of L. monocytogenes biofilm cells during the competition, exclusion and displacement assays were effectively reduced by more than 3 log when co-cultured with Lact. paracasei and Lact. rhamnosus. The results suggest that probiotic strains can be used as alternative way to effectively reduce the biofilm formation in pathogenic bacteria through competition, exclusion and displacement. PMID:23362863

Woo, J; Ahn, J

2013-02-22

235

fSpatial and temporal dynamics of cellulose degradation and biofilm formation by Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis and Clostridium thermocellum  

PubMed Central

Cellulose degradation is one of the major bottlenecks of a consolidated bioprocess that employs cellulolytic bacterial cells as catalysts to produce biofuels from cellulosic biomass. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of cellulose degradation by Caldicellulosiruptfor obsidiansis, which does not produce cellulosomes, and Clostridium thermocellum, which does produce cellulosomes. Results showed that the degradation of either regenerated or natural cellulose was synchronized with biofilm formation, a process characterized by the formation and fusion of numerous crater-like depressions on the cellulose surface. In addition, the dynamics of biofilm formation were similar in both bacteria, regardless of cellulosome production. Only the areas of cellulose surface colonized by microbes were significantly degraded, highlighting the essential role of the cellulolytic biofilm in cellulose utilization. After initial attachment, the microbial biofilm structure remained thin, uniform and dense throughout the experiment. A cellular automaton model, constructed under the assumption that the attached cells divide and produce daughter cells that contribute to the hydrolysis of the adjacent cellulose, can largely simulate the observed process of biofilm formation and cellulose degradation. This study presents a model, based on direct observation, correlating cellulolytic biofilm formation with cellulose degradation.

2011-01-01

236

Spatial and temporal dynamics of cellulose degradation and biofilm formation by Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis and Clostridium thermocellum Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis  

SciTech Connect

Cellulose degradation is one of the major bottlenecks of a consolidated bioprocess that employs cellulolytic bacterial cells as catalysts to produce biofuels from cellulosic biomass. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of cellulose degradation by Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis, which does not produce cellulosomes, and Clostridium thermocellum, which does produce cellulosomes. Results showed that the degradation of either regenerated or natural cellulose was synchronized with biofilm formation, a process characterized by the formation and fusion of numerous crater-like depressions on the cellulose surface. In addition, the dynamics of biofilm formation were similar in both bacteria, regardless of cellulosome production. Only the areas of cellulose surface colonized by microbes were significantly degraded, highlighting the essential role of the cellulolytic biofilm in cellulose utilization. After initial attachment, the microbial biofilm structure remained thin, uniform and dense throughout the experiment. A cellular automaton model, constructed under the assumption that the attached cells divide and produce daughter cells that contribute to the hydrolysis of the adjacent cellulose, can largely simulate the observed process of biofilm formation and cellulose degradation. This study presents a model, based on direct observation, correlating cellulolytic biofilm formation with cellulose degradation.

Wang, Zhiwu [ORNL; Lee, Sueng-Hwan [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan; Elkins, James G [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

2011-01-01

237

Bacterial quorum sensing and biofilm formation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quorum sensing is a cell density-dependent signaling system by which bacteria can regulate gene expression through the production, secretion, and subsequent detection of extracellular signaling molecules called autoinducers. Bacteria use quorum sensing to regulate various physiological activities, ...

238

Adhesion and formation of microbial biofilms in complex microfluidic devices  

SciTech Connect

Shewanella oneidensis is a metal reducing bacterium, which is of interest for bioremediation and clean energy applications. S. oneidensis biofilms play a critical role in several situations such as in microbial energy harvesting devices. Here, we use a microfluidic device to quantify the effects of hydrodynamics on the biofilm morphology of S. oneidensis. For different rates of fluid flow through a complex microfluidic device, we studied the spatiotemporal dynamics of biofilms, and we quantified several morphological features such as spatial distribution, cluster formation and surface coverage. We found that hydrodynamics resulted in significant differences in biofilm dynamics. The baffles in the device created regions of low and high flow in the same device. At higher flow rates, a nonuniform biofilm develops, due to unequal advection in different regions of the microchannel. However, at lower flow rates, a more uniform biofilm evolved. This depicts competition between adhesion events, growth and fluid advection. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that higher production of extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) occurred at higher flow velocities.

Kumar, Aloke [ORNL; Karig, David K [ORNL; Neethirajan, Suresh [University of Guelph; Suresh, Anil K [ORNL; Srijanto, Bernadeta R [ORNL; Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL

2012-01-01

239

Enzymatic catalysis of mercury methylation by planktonic and biofilm cultures of sulfate- reducing bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While biofilms are now known to be the predominant form of microbial growth in nature, little is known about their role in environmental mercury (Hg) methylation. Due to its long-range atmospheric transport, Hg contamination of food chains is a worldwide problem, impacting even pristine areas. Among different forms of mercury species, methylmercury (MeHg) is an extremely neurotoxic and biomagnification-prone compound that can lead to severely adverse health effects on wildlife and humans. Considerable studies have shown that in the aquatic environment the external supply of MeHg is not sufficient to account for MeHg accumulation in biota and in situ biological MeHg formation plays a critical role in determining the amount of MeHg in food webs; moreover, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) has been identified as the principal Hg-methylating organisms in nature. In a wide range of aquatic systems wetlands are considered important sites for Hg methylation mostly because of the environmental factors that promote microbial activity within, and biofilms are especially important in wetland ecosystems due to large amount of submerged surfaces. Although recent work has focused on the environmental factors that control MeHg production and the conditions that affect the availability of inorganic Hg to SRB, much remains to be understood about the biochemical mechanism of the Hg methylation process in SRB, especially in the biofilm-growth of these microbes. Data from our previous study with SRB strains isolated from a coastal wetland suggested that the specific Hg methylation rate found was approximately an order of magnitude higher in biofilm cells than in planktonic cells. In order to investigate possible reasons for this observed difference, and to test if this phenomenon is observed in other strains, we conducted chloroform, fluroacetate and molybdate inhibition assays in both complete and incomplete-oxidizing SRB species (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans M8, Desulfococcus sp. Desulfobactor sp. BG8) grown in planktonic and biofilm form, as the acetyl- coenzyme A pathway involved with cobalamin has been hypothesized to be the pathway for Hg methylation. The purpose of this study was to probe whether differences in the enzymatically catalyzed process caused differential methylation rates between the species and also between the different forms of culture growth. Any attempts to control the environmentally undesirable Hg methylation process would benefit from a better understanding of the biochemical mechanism involved.

Lin, C.; Kampalath, R.; Jay, J.

2007-12-01

240

Bacterial biofilm formation on urologic devices and heparin coating as preventive strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of endourological development a variety of foreign bodies have been invented besides urinary catheters, on which biofilm can be formed. Bacteria in the biofilm are less susceptible to antibiotics. An additional problem of medical biomaterials in the urinary tract environment is the development of encrustation and consecutive obstruction. The most promising prevention strategy for bacterial biofilms is

Peter Tenke; Claus R. Riedl; Gwennan Ll Jones; Gareth J Williams; David Stickler; Elisabeth Nagy

2004-01-01

241

Role of Rhizobium endoglucanase CelC2 in cellulose biosynthesis and biofilm formation on plant roots and abiotic surfaces  

PubMed Central

Background The synthesis of cellulose is among the most important but poorly understood biochemical processes, especially in bacteria, due to its complexity and high degree of regulation. In this study, we analyzed both the production of cellulose by all known members of the Rhizobiaceae and the diversity of Rhizobium celABC operon predicted to be involved in cellulose biosynthesis. We also investigated the involvement in cellulose production and biofilm formation of celC gene encoding an endoglucanase (CelC2) that is required for canonical symbiotic root hair infection by Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii. Results ANU843 celC mutants lacking (ANU843?C2) or overproducing cellulase (ANU843C2+) produced greatly increased or reduced amounts of external cellulose micro fibrils, respectively. Calcofluor-stained cellulose micro fibrils were considerably longer when formed by ANU843?C2 bacteria rather than by the wild-type strain, in correlation with a significant increase in their flocculation in batch culture. In contrast, neither calcofluor-stained extracellular micro fibrils nor flocculation was detectable in ANU843C2+ cells. To clarify the role of cellulose synthesis in Rhizobium cell aggregation and attachment, we analyzed the ability of these mutants to produce biofilms on different surfaces. Alteration of wild-type CelC2 levels resulted in a reduced ability of bacteria to form biofilms both in abiotic surfaces and in planta. Conclusions Our results support a key role of the CelC2 cellulase in cellulose biosynthesis by modulating the length of the cellulose fibrils that mediate firm adhesion among Rhizobium bacteria leading to biofilm formation. Rhizobium cellulose is an essential component of the biofilm polysaccharidic matrix architecture and either an excess or a defect of this “building material” seem to collapse the biofilm structure. These results position cellulose hydrolytic enzymes as excellent anti-biofilm candidates.

2012-01-01

242

Novel Multiscale Modeling Tool Applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation.  

PubMed

Multiscale modeling is used to represent biological systems with increasing frequency and success. Multiscale models are often hybrids of different modeling frameworks and programming languages. We present the MATLAB-NetLogo extension (MatNet) as a novel tool for multiscale modeling. We demonstrate the utility of the tool with a multiscale model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation that incorporates both an agent-based model (ABM) and constraint-based metabolic modeling. The hybrid model correctly recapitulates oxygen-limited biofilm metabolic activity and predicts increased growth rate via anaerobic respiration with the addition of nitrate to the growth media. In addition, a genome-wide survey of metabolic mutants and biofilm formation exemplifies the powerful analyses that are enabled by this computational modeling tool. PMID:24147108

Biggs, Matthew B; Papin, Jason A

2013-10-17

243

Novel Multiscale Modeling Tool Applied to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Multiscale modeling is used to represent biological systems with increasing frequency and success. Multiscale models are often hybrids of different modeling frameworks and programming languages. We present the MATLAB-NetLogo extension (MatNet) as a novel tool for multiscale modeling. We demonstrate the utility of the tool with a multiscale model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation that incorporates both an agent-based model (ABM) and constraint-based metabolic modeling. The hybrid model correctly recapitulates oxygen-limited biofilm metabolic activity and predicts increased growth rate via anaerobic respiration with the addition of nitrate to the growth media. In addition, a genome-wide survey of metabolic mutants and biofilm formation exemplifies the powerful analyses that are enabled by this computational modeling tool.

Biggs, Matthew B.; Papin, Jason A.

2013-01-01

244

Colorimetric Method for Identifying Plant Essential Oil Components That Affect Biofilm Formation and Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The specific biofilm formation (SBF) assay, a technique based on crystal violet staining, was developed to locate plant essential oils and their components that affect biofilm formation. SBF analysis determined that cinnamon, cassia, and citronella oils differentially affected growth-normalized biofilm formation by Escherichia coli. Examination of the corresponding essential oil principal components by the SBF assay revealed that cinnamaldehyde decreased

C. Niu; E. S. Gilbert

2004-01-01

245

N-acetyl-L-cysteine affects growth, extracellular polysaccharide production, and bacterial biofilm formation on solid surfaces.  

PubMed

N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used in medical treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis. The positive effects of NAC treatment have primarily been attributed to the mucus-dissolving properties of NAC, as well as its ability to decrease biofilm formation, which reduces bacterial infections. Our results suggest that NAC also may be an interesting candidate for use as an agent to reduce and prevent biofilm formation on stainless steel surfaces in environments typical of paper mill plants. Using 10 different bacterial strains isolated from a paper mill, we found that the mode of action of NAC is chemical, as well as biological, in the case of bacterial adhesion to stainless steel surfaces. The initial adhesion of bacteria is dependent on the wettability of the substratum. NAC was shown to bind to stainless steel, increasing the wettability of the surface. Moreover, NAC decreased bacterial adhesion and even detached bacteria that were adhering to stainless steel surfaces. Growth of various bacteria, as monocultures or in a multispecies community, was inhibited at different concentrations of NAC. We also found that there was no detectable degradation of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) by NAC, indicating that NAC reduced the production of EPS, in most bacteria tested, even at concentrations at which growth was not affected. Altogether, the presence of NAC changes the texture of the biofilm formed and makes NAC an interesting candidate for use as a general inhibitor of formation of bacterial biofilms on stainless steel surfaces. PMID:12902275

Olofsson, Ann-Cathrin; Hermansson, Malte; Elwing, Hans

2003-08-01

246

Revised paradigm of aquatic biofilm formation facilitated by microgel transparent exopolymer particles.  

PubMed

Transparent exopolymer particles (TEPs) are planktonic, organic microgels that are ubiquitous in aqueous environments. Increasing evidence indicates that TEPs play an active role in the process of aquatic biofilm formation. Frequently, TEPs are intensely colonized by bacteria and other microorganisms, thus serving as hot spots of intense microbial activity. We introduce the term "protobiofilm" to refer to TEPs with extensive microbial outgrowth and colonization. Such particles display most of the characteristics of developing biofilm, with the exception of being attached to a surface. In this study, coastal seawater was passed through custom-designed flow cells that enabled direct observation of TEPs and protobiofilm in the feedwater stream by bright-field and epifluorescence microscopy. Additionally, we could follow biofilm development on immersed surfaces inside the flow cells. Within minutes, we observed TEP and protobiofilm patches adhering to these surfaces. By 30 min, confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) revealed numerous patches of Con A and SYTO 9 staining structures covering the surfaces. Atomic force microscopy showed details of a thin, highly sticky, organic conditioning layer between these patches. Bright-field and epifluorescence microscopy and CLSM showed that biofilm development (observed until 24 h) was profoundly inhibited in flow cells with seawater prefiltered to remove most large TEPs and protobiofilm. We propose a revised paradigm for aquatic biofilm development that emphasizes the critical role of microgel particles such as TEPs and protobiofilm in facilitating this process. Recognition of the role of planktonic microgels in aquatic biofilm formation can have applied importance for the water industry. PMID:22615362

Bar-Zeev, Edo; Berman-Frank, Ilana; Girshevitz, Olga; Berman, Tom

2012-05-21

247

EmbRS a new two-component system that inhibits biofilm formation and saves Rubrivivax gelatinosus from sinking  

PubMed Central

Photosynthetic bacteria can switch from planktonic lifestyle to phototrophic biofilm in mats in response to environmental changes. The mechanisms of phototrophic biofilm formation are, however, not characterized. Herein, we report a two-component system EmbRS that controls the biofilm formation in a photosynthetic member of the Burkholderiales order, the purple bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus. EmbRS inactivation results in cells that form conspicuous bacterial veils and fast-sinking aggregates in liquid. Biofilm analyses indicated that EmbRS represses the production of an extracellular matrix and biofilm formation. Mapping of transposon mutants that partially or completely restore the wild-type (WT) phenotype allowed the identification of two gene clusters involved in polysaccharide synthesis, one fully conserved only in Thauera sp., a floc-forming wastewater bacterium. A second two-component system BmfRS and a putative diguanylate cyclase BdcA were also identified in this screen suggesting their involvement in biofilm formation in this bacterium. The role of polysaccharides in sinking of microorganisms and organic matter, as well as the importance and the evolution of such regulatory system in phototrophic microorganisms are discussed.

Steunou, Anne Soisig; Liotenberg, Sylviane; Soler, Marie-Noelle; Briandet, Romain; Barbe, Valerie; Astier, Chantal; Ouchane, Soufian

2013-01-01

248

EmbRS a new two-component system that inhibits biofilm formation and saves Rubrivivax gelatinosus from sinking.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic bacteria can switch from planktonic lifestyle to phototrophic biofilm in mats in response to environmental changes. The mechanisms of phototrophic biofilm formation are, however, not characterized. Herein, we report a two-component system EmbRS that controls the biofilm formation in a photosynthetic member of the Burkholderiales order, the purple bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus. EmbRS inactivation results in cells that form conspicuous bacterial veils and fast-sinking aggregates in liquid. Biofilm analyses indicated that EmbRS represses the production of an extracellular matrix and biofilm formation. Mapping of transposon mutants that partially or completely restore the wild-type (WT) phenotype allowed the identification of two gene clusters involved in polysaccharide synthesis, one fully conserved only in Thauera sp., a floc-forming wastewater bacterium. A second two-component system BmfRS and a putative diguanylate cyclase BdcA were also identified in this screen suggesting their involvement in biofilm formation in this bacterium. The role of polysaccharides in sinking of microorganisms and organic matter, as well as the importance and the evolution of such regulatory system in phototrophic microorganisms are discussed. PMID:23520142

Steunou, Anne Soisig; Liotenberg, Sylviane; Soler, Marie-Noêlle; Briandet, Romain; Barbe, Valérie; Astier, Chantal; Ouchane, Soufian

2013-03-21

249

Biofilm-forming bacteria with varying tolerance to peracetic acid from a paper machine.  

PubMed

Biofilms cause runnability problems in paper machines and are therefore controlled with biocides. Peracetic acid is usually effective in preventing bulky biofilms. This study investigated the microbiological status of a paper machine where low concentrations (? 15 ppm active ingredient) of peracetic acid had been used for several years. The paper machine contained a low amount of biofilms. Biofilm-forming bacteria from this environment were isolated and characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, whole-cell fatty acid analysis, biochemical tests, and DNA fingerprinting. Seventy-five percent of the isolates were identified as members of the subclades Sphingomonas trueperi and S. aquatilis, and the others as species of the genera Burkholderia (B. cepacia complex), Methylobacterium, and Rhizobium. Although the isolation media were suitable for the common paper machine biofoulers Deinococcus, Meiothermus, and Pseudoxanthomonas, none of these were found, indicating that peracetic acid had prevented their growth. Spontaneous, irreversible loss of the ability to form biofilm was observed during subculturing of certain isolates of the subclade S. trueperi. The Sphingomonas isolates formed monoculture biofilms that tolerated peracetic acid at concentrations (10 ppm active ingredient) used for antifouling in paper machines. High pH and low conductivity of the process waters favored the peracetic acid tolerance of Sphingomonas sp. biofilms. This appears to be the first report on sphingomonads as biofilm formers in warm water using industries. PMID:21161323

Rasimus, Stiina; Kolari, Marko; Rita, Hannu; Hoornstra, Douwe; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

2010-12-16

250

Signature-tagged mutagenesis of Klebsiella pneumoniae to identify genes that influence biofilm formation on extracellular matrix material.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae causes urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and septicemia in susceptible individuals. Strains of Klebsiella frequently produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, and infections with these strains can lead to relatively high mortality rates (approximately 15%). Other virulence factors include production of an antiphagocytic capsule and outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mediates serum resistance, as well as fimbriae on the surface of the bacteria. Type 1 fimbriae mediate adherence to many types of epithelial cells and may facilitate adherence of the bacteria to the bladder epithelium. Type 3 fimbriae can bind in vitro to the extracellular matrix of urinary and respiratory tissues, suggesting that they mediate binding to damaged epithelial surfaces. In addition, type 3 fimbriae are required for biofilm formation by Klebsiella pneumoniae on plastics and human extracellular matrix; thus, they may facilitate the formation of treatment-resistant biofilm on indwelling plastic devices, such as catheters and endotracheal tubing. The presence of these devices may cause tissue damage, allowing Klebsiella to grow as a biofilm on exposed tissue basement membrane components. Though in vivo biofilm growth may be an important step in the infection process, little is known about the genetic factors required for biofilm formation by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Thus, we performed signature-tagged mutagenesis to identify factors produced by K. pneumoniae strain 43816 that are required for biofilm formation. We identified mutations in the cps capsule gene cluster, previously unidentified transcriptional regulators, fimbrial, and sugar phosphotransferase homologues, as well as genetic loci of unknown function, that affect biofilm formation. PMID:16861646

Boddicker, Jennifer D; Anderson, Rebecca A; Jagnow, Jennifer; Clegg, Steven

2006-08-01

251

Quorum Sensing Controls Biofilm Formation in Vibrio cholerae through Modulation of Cyclic Di-GMP Levels and Repression of vpsT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two chemical signaling systems, quorum sensing (QS) and 3,5-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP), recip- rocally control biofilm formation in Vibrio cholerae. QS is the process by which bacteria communicate via the secretion and detection of autoinducers, and in V. cholerae, QS represses biofilm formation. c-di-GMP is an intracellular second messenger that contains information regarding local environmental conditions, and in V. cholerae,

Christopher M. Waters; Wenyun Lu; Joshua D. Rabinowitz; Bonnie L. Bassler

2008-01-01

252

BACTERIAL BIOFILM FORMATION UNDER MICROGRAVITY CONDITIONS. (R825503)  

EPA Science Inventory

Although biofilm formation is widely documented on Earth, it has not been demonstrated in the absence of gravity. To explore this possibility, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suspended in sterile buffer, was flown in a commercial payload on space shuttle flight STS-95. During earth or...

253

Surface finishes on stainless steel reduce bacterial attachment and early biofilm formation: scanning electron and atomic force microscopy study.  

PubMed

Three common finishing treatments of stainless steel that are used for equipment during poultry processing were tested for resistance to bacterial contamination. Methods were developed to measure attached bacteria and to identify factors that make surface finishes susceptible or resistant to bacterial attachment and biofilm formation. Samples of the treated surfaces (sand-blasted, sanded, and electropolished) were exposed to natural bacterial populations from chicken carcass rinses to allow growth of bacteria and development of biofilms on the surfaces. The kinetics of bacterial growth during surface exposure was followed by UV-visible spectrophotometry, and counts of bacteria and early biofilm formation were measured following scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface morphology of the samples was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) with samples from each of the batches of treatments used in the SEM studies. Relative differences in the surface morphology, including fractal dimensions, Z ranges, roughness, and other measurements corresponded by treatment with the differences in reduction of bacterial counts shown by SEM. The surface types varied in affinity for bacteria, and both physical and electrochemical treatments improved resistance of stainless steel to bacterial attachment. Electropolished stainless steel was the least rough surface and showed significantly fewer bacterial cells and beginning biofilm formations than the other treated surfaces. Food safety could be improved if bacterial populations could be reduced during processing by increasing the use of materials that are resistant to bacterial contamination. These findings will aid equipment manufacturers and processors in selecting materials and finishes that are most resistant to bacteria and biofilm formation. PMID:11194050

Arnold, J W; Bailey, G W

2000-12-01

254

Impact of TiO2 nanoparticles on growth, biofilm formation, and flavin secretion in Shewanella oneidensis.  

PubMed

Understanding of nanoparticle impacts on critical bacteria functions allows us to gain a mechanistic understanding of toxicity and guides us toward design rules for creating safe nanomaterials. Herein, biofilm formation, a general bacteria function, and riboflavin secretion, a species-specific function, were monitored in Shewanella oneidensis, a metal reducing bacterium, following exposure to a variety of TiO2 nanoparticle types (synthesized, Aeroxide P25, and T-Eco). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that dosed nanoparticles are in close proximity to the bacteria, but they are not internalized. Using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), it was revealed that S. oneidensis biofilm formation is slowed in the presence of nanoparticles. Though S. oneidensis grows more slowly in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles, riboflavin secretion, a function related to the S. oneidensis metal reducing capacity, was increased significantly in a nanoparticle dose-dependent manner. Both changes in biofilm formation and riboflavin secretion are supported by changes in gene expression in nanoparticle-exposed S. oneidensis. This broad study of bacterial nanotoxicity, including use of sensitive analytical tools for functional assessments of biofilm formation, riboflavin secretion, and gene expression, has implications for total ecosystem health as the use of engineered nanoparticles grows. PMID:23701037

Maurer-Jones, Melissa A; Gunsolus, Ian L; Meyer, Ben M; Christenson, Cole J; Haynes, Christy L

2013-06-07

255

Insights on Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation and Inhibition from Whole-Transcriptome Profiling  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Biofilms transform independent cells into specialized cell communities. Here are presented some insights into biofilm formation ascertained with the best-characterized strain, Escherichia coli. Investigations of biofilm formation and inhibition with this strain using whole-transcriptome profiling coupled to phenotypic assays, in vivo DNA binding studies, and isogenic mutants have led to discoveries related to the role of stress, to the role of intra- and interspecies cell signaling, to the impact of the environment on cell signaling, to biofilm inhibition by manipulating cell signaling, to the role of toxin/anti-toxin genes in biofilm formation, and to the role of small RNAs on biofilm formation and dispersal. Hence, E. coli is an excellent resource for determining paradigms in biofilm formation and biofilm inhibition.

Wood, Thomas K.

2008-01-01

256

The role of conditioning film formation and surface chemical changes on Xylella fastidiosa adhesion and biofilm evolution.  

PubMed

Biofilms are complex microbial communities with important biological functions including enhanced resistance against external factors like antimicrobial agents. The formation of a biofilm is known to be strongly dependent on substrate properties including hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, structure, and roughness. The adsorption of (macro)molecules on the substrate, also known as conditioning film, changes the physicochemical properties of the surface and affects the bacterial adhesion. In this study, we investigate the physicochemical changes caused by Periwinkle wilt (PW) culture medium conditioning film formation on different surfaces (glass and silicon) and their effect on X. fastidiosa biofilm formation. Contact angle measurements have shown that the film formation decreases the surface hydrophilicity degree of both glass and silicon after few hours. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show the glass surface roughness is drastically reduced with conditioning film formation. First-layer X. fastidiosa biofilm on glass was observed in the AFM liquid cell after a period of time similar to that determined for the hydrophilicity changes. In addition, attenuation total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy supports the AFM observation, since the PW absorption spectra increases with time showing a stronger contribution from the phosphate groups. Although hydrophobic and rough surfaces are commonly considered to increase bacteria cell attachment, our results suggest that these properties are not as important as the surface functional groups resulting from PW conditioning film formation for X. fastidiosa adhesion and biofilm development. PMID:21486669

Lorite, Gabriela S; Rodrigues, Carolina M; de Souza, Alessandra A; Kranz, Christine; Mizaikoff, Boris; Cotta, Mônica A

2011-03-24

257

Synthetic quorum-sensing circuit to control consortial biofilm formation and dispersal in a microfluidic device  

PubMed Central

To utilize biofilms for chemical transformations in biorefineries they need to be controlled and replaced. Previously, we engineered the global regulator Hha and cyclic diguanylate-binding BdcA to create proteins that enable biofilm dispersal. Here we report a biofilm circuit that utilizes these two dispersal proteins along with a population-driven quorum-sensing switch. With this synthetic circuit, in a novel microfluidic device, we form an initial colonizer biofilm, introduce a second cell type (dispersers) into this existing biofilm, form a robust dual-species biofilm and displace the initial colonizer cells in the biofilm with an extracellular signal from the disperser cells. We also remove the disperser biofilm with a chemically induced switch, and the consortial population could tune. Therefore, for the first time, cells have been engineered that are able to displace an existing biofilm and then be removed on command allowing one to control consortial biofilm formation for various applications.

Hong, Seok Hoon; Hegde, Manjunath; Kim, Jeongyun; Wang, Xiaoxue; Jayaraman, Arul; Wood, Thomas K.

2012-01-01

258

Patterns of biofilm formation in intermittent and permanent streams: analysis of biofilm structure and metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and functioning of benthic microbial communities in streams is largely dependent on the hydrological conditions. Climate change projections predict that the hydrological characteristics will probably be affected because of the rainfall regime. Hence, rivers from the Mediterranean region will become more similar to those draining arid or desert regions, while temperate streams will suffer of higher water flow fluctuations. In this study, we compared the process of biofilm formation between an intermittent (the Fuirosos, Mediterranean) and a permanent (the Walzbach, Central European) stream. Specifically, we analyzed the succession of bacterial and algal populations in the biofilm through bacterial rDNA sequences analysis (16S rDNA and 16S-23S intergenic sequence) and diatom taxa identification over a 60-days colonization experiment. Moreover, changes in biofilm structural (microbial biomass and extracellular polysaccharide content) and metabolic (extracellular enzyme activities) parameters were also analyzed. The successional patterns of microbial populations in the Fuirosos showed clear discontinutities coinciding with flood episodes while at the Walzbach the time sequence was more gradual. Although both study sites were forested, greater microbial biomass standing stock (algal and bacterial) and greater species biodiversity was detected during biofilm development at the Mediterranean site. The higher bacterial biodiversity may be related to the potential effect of flooding episodes in reducing biological interactions in complex microbial communities, such as the competitive exclusion of species. Moreover, the presence of rapid colonizing diatom species might be an adaptation to hydrological changes. In contrast, species competition could define the more stable environments, such as that observed in the Central European stream. Overall, the hystorical evolutionary pressure from the different bioclimatic regions could be also affecting the microbial community composition. Further, the analysis of the whole biofilm colonization sequence showed a greater EPS development and a higher potential extracellular enzyme activity rates in the Mediterranean stream. The higher EPS reflected a functional response of the biofilms to avoid detachment during high flow episodes and the higher enzyme activities were according to the low water nutrient concentration available for microbes. However, the higher nutrient conditions (higher nitrate and phosphate concentrations) at the Central European stream was not reflected on higher biomass standing stock in biofilms. Likely, the biomass accrual of biofilms was related to the differences in climatic conditions between study sites (e. g. daily insulation, temperature oscillation). The results suggest that microbial community development and functioning is primarily related to the physical characteristics of the different sites (specially the stream hydrology, but also the light regime).

Artigas, J.; Schwartz, T.; Kirchen, S.; Romaní, A. M.; Fund, K.; Obst, U.; Sabater, S.

2009-04-01

259

Electroactivity of phototrophic river biofilms and constitutive cultivable bacteria.  

PubMed

Electroactivity is a property of microorganisms assembled in biofilms that has been highlighted in a variety of environments. This characteristic was assessed for phototrophic river biofilms at the community scale and at the bacterial population scale. At the community scale, electroactivity was evaluated on stainless steel and copper alloy coupons used both as biofilm colonization supports and as working electrodes. At the population scale, the ability of environmental bacterial strains to catalyze oxygen reduction was assessed by cyclic voltammetry. Our data demonstrate that phototrophic river biofilm development on the electrodes, measured by dry mass and chlorophyll a content, resulted in significant increases of the recorded potentials, with potentials of up to +120 mV/saturated calomel electrode (SCE) on stainless steel electrodes and +60 mV/SCE on copper electrodes. Thirty-two bacterial strains isolated from natural phototrophic river biofilms were tested by cyclic voltammetry. Twenty-five were able to catalyze oxygen reduction, with shifts of potential ranging from 0.06 to 0.23 V, cathodic peak potentials ranging from -0.36 to -0.76 V/SCE, and peak amplitudes ranging from -9.5 to -19.4 ?A. These isolates were diversified phylogenetically (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria) and exhibited various phenotypic properties (Gram stain, oxidase, and catalase characteristics). These data suggest that phototrophic river biofilm communities and/or most of their constitutive bacterial populations present the ability to promote electronic exchange with a metallic electrode, supporting the following possibilities: (i) development of electrochemistry-based sensors allowing in situ phototrophic river biofilm detection and (ii) production of microbial fuel cell inocula under oligotrophic conditions. PMID:21642402

Lyautey, Emilie; Cournet, Amandine; Morin, Soizic; Boulêtreau, Stéphanie; Etcheverry, Luc; Charcosset, Jean-Yves; Delmas, François; Bergel, Alain; Garabetian, Frédéric

2011-06-03

260

Electroactivity of Phototrophic River Biofilms and Constitutive Cultivable Bacteria ? †  

PubMed Central

Electroactivity is a property of microorganisms assembled in biofilms that has been highlighted in a variety of environments. This characteristic was assessed for phototrophic river biofilms at the community scale and at the bacterial population scale. At the community scale, electroactivity was evaluated on stainless steel and copper alloy coupons used both as biofilm colonization supports and as working electrodes. At the population scale, the ability of environmental bacterial strains to catalyze oxygen reduction was assessed by cyclic voltammetry. Our data demonstrate that phototrophic river biofilm development on the electrodes, measured by dry mass and chlorophyll a content, resulted in significant increases of the recorded potentials, with potentials of up to +120 mV/saturated calomel electrode (SCE) on stainless steel electrodes and +60 mV/SCE on copper electrodes. Thirty-two bacterial strains isolated from natural phototrophic river biofilms were tested by cyclic voltammetry. Twenty-five were able to catalyze oxygen reduction, with shifts of potential ranging from 0.06 to 0.23 V, cathodic peak potentials ranging from ?0.36 to ?0.76 V/SCE, and peak amplitudes ranging from ?9.5 to ?19.4 ?A. These isolates were diversified phylogenetically (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria) and exhibited various phenotypic properties (Gram stain, oxidase, and catalase characteristics). These data suggest that phototrophic river biofilm communities and/or most of their constitutive bacterial populations present the ability to promote electronic exchange with a metallic electrode, supporting the following possibilities: (i) development of electrochemistry-based sensors allowing in situ phototrophic river biofilm detection and (ii) production of microbial fuel cell inocula under oligotrophic conditions.

Lyautey, Emilie; Cournet, Amandine; Morin, Soizic; Bouletreau, Stephanie; Etcheverry, Luc; Charcosset, Jean-Yves; Delmas, Francois; Bergel, Alain; Garabetian, Frederic

2011-01-01

261

High resolution gravimetric, optical and electrochemical investigations of microbial biofilm formation in aqueous systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of microbial biofilms on metallic surfaces was studied by combination of gravimetric, optical and electrochemical methods with high local resolution in dependence on colonization time and biofilm thickness. The use of electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) flowcells allowed simultaneous and continuous in situ monitoring of biofilm formation and resulting open circuit potential UR. Combination of macroscopic and microscopic

A. Bressel; J. W. Schultze; W. Khan; G. M. Wolfaardt; H.-P. Rohns; R. Irmscher; M. J. Schöning

2003-01-01

262

Influence of Culture Heterogeneity in Cell Surface Charge on Adhesion and Biofilm Formation by Enterococcus faecalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation is an increasing problem in medicine, due to the intrinsic resistance of microorganisms in the biofilm mode of growth against the host immune system and antimicrobial therapy. Adhesion is an important step in biofilm formation, influenced, among other factors, by the surface hydrophobicities and charges of both the substratum and the adhering microorganisms. Enterococcus faecalis strains generally display

Annet E. J. van Merode; Henny C. van der Mei; Henk J. Busscher; Bastiaan P. Krom

2006-01-01

263

The essential role of hydrodynamic shear force in the formation of biofilm and granular sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm and granular sludge processes are promising biotechnology for wastewater treatment. The formation, structure and metabolism of immobilized microbial community are associated very closely with hydrodynamic shear force in reactors. Therefore, this paper attempts to review the essential role of shear force in the formation and performance of biofilm and granular sludge. More compact, stable and denser biofilms, aerobic and

Yu Liu; Joo-Hwa Tay

2002-01-01

264

Attachment of and Biofilm Formation by Enterobacter sakazakii on Stainless Steel and Enteral Feeding Tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterobacter sakazakii has been reported to form biofilms, but environmental conditions affecting attachment to and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces have not been described. We did a study to determine the effects of temperature and nutrient availability on attachment and biofilm formation by E. sakazakii on stainless steel and enteral feeding tubes. Five strains grown to stationary phase in tryptic

Hoikyung Kim; Jee-Hoon Ryu; Larry R. Beuchat

2006-01-01

265

IscR Controls Iron-Dependent Biofilm Formation in Escherichia coli by Regulating Type I Fimbria Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation is a complex developmental process regulated by multiple environmental signals. In addition to other nutrients, the transition metal iron can also regulate biofilm formation. Iron-dependent regulation of biofilm formation varies by bacterial species, and the exact regulatory pathways that control iron-dependent biofilm formation are often unknown or only partially characterized. To address this gap in our knowledge, we

Yun Wu; F. Wayne Outten

2009-01-01

266

Immobilization of Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2 (an acetonitrile-degrading bacterium) with biofilm-forming bacteria for wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

In this study, a unique biofilm consisting of three bacterial strains with high biofilm-forming capability (Bacillus subtilis E2, E3, and N4) and an acetonitrile-degrading bacterium (Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2) was established for acetonitrile-containing wastewater treatment. The results indicated that this biofilm exhibited strong resistance to acetonitrile loading shock and displayed a typical spatial and structural heterogeneity and completely depleted the initial concentration of acetonitrile (800mgL(-1)) within 24h in a moving-bed-biofilm reactor (MBBR) after operation for 30days. The immobilization of BX2 cells in the biofilm was confirmed by PCR-DGGE. It has been demonstrated that biofilm-forming bacteria can promote the immobilization of contaminant-degrading bacteria in the biofilms and can subsequently improve the degradation of contaminants in wastewater. This approach offers a novel strategy for enhancing biological oxidation of toxic pollutants in wastewater. PMID:23376196

Li, Chunyan; Li, Yue; Cheng, Xiaosong; Feng, Liping; Xi, Chuanwu; Zhang, Ying

2012-12-31

267

Sulfhydryl compounds reduce Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation by inhibiting PIA biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus is the most common opportunistic pathogen causing foreign-body-associated infections. It has been widely accepted that biofilms would help the bacteria to cope with variable environments. Here we showed that treatment with sulfhydryl compounds such as dithiothreitol, ?-mercaptoethanol or cysteine inhibited biofilm formation significantly in S. aureus. These sulfhydryl compounds at biofilm-inhibitive concentrations caused little inhibition of the growth rate and the initial adhesion ability of the cells. Real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that the transcriptional level of ica, which encodes essential enzymes for polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA) biosynthesis, was decreased after the treatment with thiols. Proteomic analysis revealed that Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and pentose phosphate pathway were strengthened while N-acetyl-glucosamine-associated polysaccharide metabolism was repressed in the cells treated with thiols. These changes finally resulted in the inhibition of PIA biosynthesis. We hope the discovery of this major physiological phenomenon will help in the prevention and clinical therapy of biofilm-associated problems caused by S. aureus. PMID:21204926

Wu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Yu; Tao, Liang

2011-01-17

268

Community structure analysis of reverse osmosis membrane biofilms and the significance of Rhizobiales bacteria in biofouling.  

PubMed

The biofilm community structure of a biofouled reverse osmosis (RO) membrane was examined using a polyphasic approach, and the dominant phylotypes retrieved were related to the order Rhizobiales, a group of bacteria that is hitherto not implicated in membrane biofouling. A comparison with two other membrane biofilms using T-RFLP fingerprinting also revealed the dominance of Rhizobiales organisms. When pure culture RO biofilm isolates were cultivated aerobically in BIOLOG microplates, most Rhizobiales were metabolically versatile in their choice of carbon substrates. Nitrate reduction was observed in five RO isolates related to Castellaniella, Ochrobactrum, Stenotrophomonas, and Xanthobacter. Many of the key Rhizobiales genera including Bosea, Ochrobactrum, Shinella, and Rhodopseudomonas were detected by PCR to contain the nirK gene responsible for nitrite reductase activity. These findings suggest that Rhizobiales organisms are ecologically significant in membrane biofilm communities under both aerobic and anoxic conditions and may be responsible for biofouling in membrane separation systems. PMID:17695921

Pang, Chee Meng; Liu, Wen-Tso

2007-07-01

269

Involvement of Sortase Anchoring of Cell Wall Proteins in Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus mutans is one of the best-known biofilm-forming organisms associated with humans. We investigated the role of the sortase gene (srtA) in monospecies biofilm formation and observed that inactivation of srtA caused a decrease in biofilm formation. Genes encoding three putative sortase-dependent proteins were also found to be up-regulated in biofilms versus planktonic cells and mutations in these genes resulted

Celine M. Levesque; Elena Voronejskaia; Yi-Chen Cathy Huang; Richard W. Mair; Richard P. Ellen; Dennis G. Cvitkovitch

2005-01-01

270

Characterization of Biofilm Formation by Borrelia burgdorferi In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, has long been known to be capable of forming aggregates and colonies. It was recently demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi aggregate formation dramatically changes the in vitro response to hostile environments by this pathogen. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that these aggregates are indeed biofilms, structures whose resistance to unfavorable conditions are well documented. We studied Borrelia burgdorferi for several known hallmark features of biofilm, including structural rearrangements in the aggregates, variations in development on various substrate matrices and secretion of a protective extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix using several modes of microscopic, cell and molecular biology techniques. The atomic force microscopic results provided evidence that multilevel rearrangements take place at different stages of aggregate development, producing a complex, continuously rearranging structure. Our results also demonstrated that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of developing aggregates on different abiotic and biotic substrates, and is also capable of forming floating aggregates. Analyzing the extracellular substance of the aggregates for potential exopolysaccharides revealed the existence of both sulfated and non-sulfated/carboxylated substrates, predominately composed of an alginate with calcium and extracellular DNA present. In summary, we have found substantial evidence that Borrelia burgdorferi is capable of forming biofilm in vitro. Biofilm formation by Borrelia species might play an important role in their survival in diverse environmental conditions by providing refuge to individual cells.

Sapi, Eva; Bastian, Scott L.; Mpoy, Cedric M.; Scott, Shernea; Rattelle, Amy; Pabbati, Namrata; Poruri, Akhila; Burugu, Divya; Theophilus, Priyanka A. S.; Pham, Truc V.; Datar, Akshita; Dhaliwal, Navroop K.; MacDonald, Alan; Rossi, Michael J.; Sinha, Saion K.; Luecke, David F.

2012-01-01

271

Discovering Biofilms: Inquiry-Based Activities for the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In nature, bacteria exist in and adapt to different environments by forming microbial communities called "biofilms." We propose simple, inquiry-based laboratory exercises utilizing a biofilm formation assay, which allows controlled biofilm growth. Students will be able to qualitatively assess biofilm growth via staining. Recently, we developed a…

Redelman, Carly V.; Marrs, Kathleen; Anderson, Gregory G.

2012-01-01

272

High Levels of Genetic Recombination during Nasopharyngeal Carriage and Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Transformation of genetic material between bacteria was first observed in the 1920s using Streptococcus pneumoniae as a model organism. Since then, the mechanism of competence induction and transformation has been well characterized, mainly using planktonic bacteria or septic infection models. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that genetic exchange occurs primarily during pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage, which we have recently shown is associated with biofilm growth, and is associated with cocolonization with multiple strains. However, no studies to date have comprehensively investigated genetic exchange during cocolonization in vitro and in vivo or the role of the nasopharyngeal environment in these processes. In this study, we show that genetic exchange during dual-strain carriage in vivo is extremely efficient (10?2) and approximately 10,000,000-fold higher than that measured during septic infection (10?9). This high transformation efficiency was associated with environmental conditions exclusive to the nasopharynx, including the lower temperature of the nasopharynx (32 to 34°C), limited nutrient availability, and interactions with epithelial cells, which were modeled in a novel biofilm model in vitro that showed similarly high transformation efficiencies. The nasopharyngeal environmental factors, combined, were critical for biofilm formation and induced constitutive upregulation of competence genes and downregulation of capsule that promoted transformation. In addition, we show that dual-strain carriage in vivo and biofilms formed in vitro can be transformed during colonization to increase their pneumococcal fitness and also, importantly, that bacteria with lower colonization ability can be protected by strains with higher colonization efficiency, a process unrelated to genetic exchange.

Marks, Laura R.; Reddinger, Ryan M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

2012-01-01

273

The Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Preventing Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections and Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Over the last decade, decreasing effectiveness of conventional antimicrobial-drugs has caused serious problems due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Furthermore, biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections and dental plaque, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. As a result, there is a continuous search to overcome or control such problems, which has resulted in antimicrobial peptides being considered as an alternative to conventional drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are ancient host defense effector molecules in living organisms. These peptides have been identified in diverse organisms and synthetically developed by using peptidomimic techniques. This review was conducted to demonstrate the mode of action by which antimicrobial peptides combat multidrug-resistant bacteria and prevent biofilm formation and to introduce clinical uses of these compounds for chronic disease, medical devices, and oral health. In addition, combinations of antimicrobial peptides and conventional drugs were considered due to their synergetic effects and low cost for therapeutic treatment.

Park, Seong-Cheol; Park, Yoonkyung; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

2011-01-01

274

Intercellular interactions in early biofilm formation probed with image analysis and laser trapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter-bacterial interactions are essential to such fundamental phenomena as motility and biofilm development. Many of these interactions are mediated by quorum sensing to coordinate gene expression among groups of cells. Other influences include contact with a common surface and proximity of neighboring cells. All such mechanisms depend strongly on the spatial structure of the system. We investigate the early stages of biofilm formation. These cells show striking cooperative behavior: neighbor proximity and number correlate with the post-division detachment likelihood of daughter cells. To better study the effects of such spatial structure, we develop a platform that uses laser trapping to control bacterial patterning. We place bacteria on a surface with micron-lengthscale precision and reproducibility. This platform allows systematic study of the effects of neighbor number, density, and orientation on intercellular interactions.

Gordon, Vernita; Conrad, Jacinta; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Jin, Fan; Haque, Nyrene; Motto, Dominick; Mathewson, Margie; Spalding, Gabe; Parsek, Matthew; Shrout, Joshua; Wong, Gerard

2010-03-01

275

In vitro studies of the effect of antiseptic-containing mouthwashes on the formation and viability of Streptococcus sanguis biofilms.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to evaluate the growth of Streptococcus sanguis on hydroxyapatite, bovine enamel and polytetrafluoroethylene substrata in a constant depth film fermentor, and to determine the effects of three antimicrobial-containing mouthwashes on biofilm formation and bacterial viability on hydroxyapatite and enamel. There was little difference in the final cell density (5 x 10(4) cfu mm-2) of the Strep. sanguis biofilm on the three substrata. When hydroxyapatite-grown biofilms were exposed to the mouthwashes for 1 min, the one containing triclosan (T) proved the most effective. The chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash (CX) also achieved significant kills. The T-containing mouthwash was the most effective at killing biofilms grown on enamel. Pre-treatment of hydroxyapatite with CX, cetylpyridium chloride (CPC) or T for 1 min resulted in undetectable biofilm formation after 8 h. After 8 h of growth, only biofilms grown on enamel discs pre-treated with CX showed a reduction in the number of viable organisms. In conclusion, the results of this study have shown that while growth of Strep. sanguis on hydroxyapatite and enamel were similar, the ability of antimicrobial agents to prevent the accumulation of viable bacteria depended on the nature of the substratum. PMID:9717301

Pratten, J; Wills, K; Barnett, P; Wilson, M

1998-06-01

276

Fluid flow induces biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis polysaccharide intracellular adhesin-positive clinical isolates.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality and increased hospital costs. The ability to form biofilms plays a crucial role in pathogenesis; however, not all clinical isolates form biofilms under normal in vitro conditions. Strains containing the ica operon can display significant phenotypic variation with respect to polysaccharide intracellular adhesin (PIA)-based biofilm formation, including the induction of biofilms upon environmental stress. Using a parallel microfluidic approach to investigate flow as an environmental signal for S. epidermidis biofilm formation, we demonstrate that fluid shear alone induces PIA-positive biofilms of certain clinical isolates and influences biofilm structure. These findings suggest an important role of the catheter microenvironment, particularly fluid flow, in the establishment of S. epidermidis infections by PIA-dependent biofilm formation. PMID:22706049

Weaver, Westbrook M; Milisavljevic, Vladana; Miller, Jeff F; Di Carlo, Dino

2012-06-15

277

Efficacy of clarithromycin on biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius  

PubMed Central

Background Surgical site infections (SSIs) caused by biofilm-forming methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have emerged as the most common hospital-acquired infections in companion animals. No methods currently exist for the therapeutic remediation of SSIs caused by MRSP in biofilms. Clarithromycin (CLA) has been shown to prevent biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus. This study aims to assess the in vitro activity of CLA in eradicating MRSP biofilm formation on various materials. Results Quantitative assay results (P = 0.5126) suggest that CLA does not eradicate MRSP biofilm formation on polystyrene after 4 – 24 h growth periods. Scanning electron micrographs confirmed that CLA did not eradicate MRSP biofilm formed on orthopaedic implants. Conclusions By determining the in vitro characteristics and activities of MRSP isolates alone and against antibiotics, in vitro models of biofilm related infections can be made. In vitro data suggests that CLA does not effectively eradicate S. pseudintermedius biofilms in therapeutic doses.

2012-01-01

278

Potentials of Mouthwashes in Disinfecting Cariogenic Bacteria and Biofilms Leading to Inhibition of Caries  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of certain commercially available mouthwashes on cariogenic bacteria and biofilms, following the acquisition of inhibition potentials of caries. Materials and Methods: Mouthwashes containing I) chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG; 0.0005% w/v), II) benzethonium chloride (BTC; 0.01% w/v), III) an essential oil (Listerine), and IV) povidone-iodine (PVP-I; 0.035% w/v) were tested on planktonic cariogenic bacteria, biofilms, and an ex vivo caries model. Bacterial aliquots were inoculated with each solution separately and vortexed for 10 seconds at room temperature. Bacterial viability was subsequently investigated by fluorescence microscopy (FM) after staining with a BacLight viability kit and the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) was counted. Similarly, mouthwash solutions were applied to artificial cariogenic biofilms, and bacterial viability of the biofilms was investigated as stated above. Inhibition potentials of two selected mouthwashes of carious lesions were investigated using biofilm-induced caries and a secondary caries model. In all steps, a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution was included as a control. Results: Planktonic cariogenic bacteria and bacteria embedded in biofilms were killed in remarkably large numbers with Listerine and PVP-I treatment compared to PBS and other gargles. CFU counts also showed significant reduction after treatment with Listerine and PVP-I compared to other solutions (P<0.05). Listerine also displayed significant (P<0.05) inhibition effects in preventing the progression of demineralization. Conclusion: Bactericidal potencies of the mouthwashes varied significantly, suggesting that mouthwashes like Listerine can be useful for the prevention of caries and secondary caries.

Oyanagi, Takehiro; Tagami, Junji; Matin, Khairul

2012-01-01

279

Muramidases found in the foregut microbiome of the Tammar wallaby can direct cell aggregation and biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

We describe here the role of muramidases present in clones of metagenomic DNA that result in cell aggregation and biofilm formation by Escherichia coli. The metagenomic clones were obtained from uncultured Lachnospiraceae-affiliated bacteria resident in the foregut microbiome of the Tammar wallaby. One of these fosmid clones (p49C2) was chosen for more detailed studies and a variety of genetic methods were used to delimit the region responsible for the phenotype to an open reading frame of 1425?bp. Comparative sequence analysis with other fosmid clones giving rise to the same phenotype revealed the presence of muramidase homologues with the same modular composition. Phylogenetic analysis of the fosmid sequence data assigned these fosmid inserts to recently identified, but uncultured, phylogroups of Lachnospiraceae believed to be numerically dominant in the foregut microbiome of the Tammar wallaby. The muramidase is a modular protein containing putative N-acetylmuramoyl--alanine amidase and an endo-?-N-acetylglucosaminidase catalytic module, with a similar organization and functional properties to some Staphylococcal autolysins that also confer adhesive properties and biofilm formation. We also show here that the cloned muramidases result in the production of extracellular DNA, which appears to be the key for biofilm formation and autoaggregation. Collectively, these findings suggest that biofilm formation and cell aggregation in gut microbiomes might occur via the concerted action of carbohydrate-active enzymes and the production of extracellular DNA to serve as a biofilm scaffold.

Pope, Phillip B; Totsika, Makrina; Aguirre de Carcer, Daniel; Schembri, Mark A; Morrison, Mark

2011-01-01

280

Cyclic-di-GMP regulates extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation, and rugose colony development by Vibrio vulnificus.  

PubMed

Vibrio vulnificus is a human and animal pathogen that carries the highest death rate of any food-borne disease agent. It colonizes shellfish and forms biofilms on the surfaces of plankton, algae, fish, and eels. Greater understanding of biofilm formation by the organism could provide insight into approaches to decrease its load in filter feeders and on biotic surfaces and control the occurrence of invasive disease. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS), although essential for virulence, is not required for biofilm formation under the conditions used here. In other bacteria, increased biofilm formation often correlates with increased exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. We exploited the translucent phenotype of acapsular mutants to screen a V. vulnificus genomic library and identify genes that imparted an opaque phenotype to both CPS biosynthesis and transport mutants. One of these encoded a diguanylate cyclase (DGC), an enzyme that synthesizes bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP). This prompted us to use this DGC, DcpA, to examine the effect of elevated c-di-GMP levels on several developmental pathways in V. vulnificus. Increased c-di-GMP levels induced the production of an EPS that was distinct from the CPS and dramatically enhanced biofilm formation and rugosity in a CPS-independent manner. However, the EPS could not compensate for the loss of CPS production that is required for virulence. In contrast to V. cholerae, motility and virulence appeared unaffected by elevated levels of c-di-GMP. PMID:18487410

Nakhamchik, Alina; Wilde, Caroline; Rowe-Magnus, Dean A

2008-05-16

281

Monitoring of biofilm formation on different material surfaces of medical devices using hyperspectral imaging method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination of the inner surface of indwelling (implanted) medical devices by microbial biofilm is a serious problem. Some microbial bacteria such as Escherichia coli form biofilms that lead to potentially lifethreatening infections. Other types of medical devices such as bronchoscopes and duodenoscopes account for the highest number of reported endoscopic infections where microbial biofilm is one of the major causes for these infections. We applied a hyperspectral imaging method to detect biofilm contamination on the surface of several common materials used for medical devices. Such materials include stainless steel, titanium, and stainless-steeltitanium alloy. Potential uses of hyperspectral imaging technique to monitor biofilm attachment to different material surfaces are discussed.

Kim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Moon S.; Hwang, Jeeseong

2012-02-01

282

Biofilm medium leads to apatite formation on bioactive surfaces.  

PubMed

Purpose: When investigating apatite formation on biomaterial surfaces, simulated body fluid (SBF) is used as an in vitro solution, however, it does not provide an appropriate environment for the growth of bacterial biofilm. The aim of the present study was to compare the bioactivity in terms of apatite formation on two bioactive glass (BAG) composite surfaces using both SBF and bacterial-biofilm growing medium (BM). ?Methods: Polymer composite substrates with different percentages of BAG-particles (50% and 75% by weight) were prepared. Plain resin substrates were used as a negative control. The substrates were immersed in SBF and BM for 3 days. The surface and, subsequently, the cross-sections of the substrates were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). ?Results: All the investigated BAG-composite surfaces showed apatite formation after immersion in SBF and BM liquid media.?Conclusions: The use of BM is a promising method for studies involving simultaneous biofilm growth and apatite formation on bioactive surfaces. PMID:23728537

Kulkova, Julia; Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Könönen, Eija; Närhi, Timo O

2013-09-13

283

Characterising the flux of carbon between calcium carbonate substrata, aqueous fluids, bacteria and a biofilm matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of the flux of elements between minerals, biofilms and aqueous solutions is essential in order to fully elucidate the role of microorganisms in mass transfer processes. Bacteria play a fundamental role in nearly all life and environmental processes and are by far the most abundant organisms on the planet. Their main mode of growth is in the form of

S. C. Rankin; D. A. Cooke; P. S. Handley; C. M. Merrifield; R. A. Wogelius

2003-01-01

284

Enhancing ATP-based bacteria and biofilm detection by enzymatic pyrophosphate regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The manufacturing processes of many electronic and medical products demand the use of high-quality water. Hence the water supply systems for these processes are required to be examined regularly for the presence of microorganisms and microbial biofilms. Among commonly used bacteria detection approaches, the ATP luminescence assay is a rapid, sensitive, and easy to perform method. The aim of this

Hui-Ju Lee; Ming-Rong Ho; Manish Bhuwan; Ching-Yi Hsu; Meng-Shun Huang; Hwei-Ling Peng; Hwan-You Chang

2010-01-01

285

Salmonella Biofilm Formation on Aspergillus niger Involves Cellulose - Chitin Interactions  

PubMed Central

Salmonella cycles between host and nonhost environments, where it can become an active member of complex microbial communities. The role of fungi in the environmental adaptation of enteric pathogens remains relatively unexplored. We have discovered that S. enterica Typhimurium rapidly attaches to and forms biofilms on the hyphae of the common fungus, Aspergillus niger. Several Salmonella enterica serovars displayed a similar interaction, whereas other bacterial species were unable to bind to the fungus. Bacterial attachment to chitin, a major constituent of fungal cell walls, mirrored this specificity. Pre-incubation of S. Typhimurium with N-acetylglucosamine, the monomeric component of chitin, reduced binding to chitin beads by as much as 727-fold and inhibited attachment to A. niger hyphae considerably. A cellulose-deficient mutant of S. Typhimurium failed to attach to chitin beads and to the fungus. Complementation of this mutant with the cellulose operon restored binding to chitin beads to 79% of that of the parental strain and allowed for attachment and biofilm formation on A. niger, indicating that cellulose is involved in bacterial attachment to the fungus via the chitin component of its cell wall. In contrast to cellulose, S. Typhimurium curli fimbriae were not required for attachment and biofilm development on the hyphae but were critical for its stability. Our results suggest that cellulose–chitin interactions are required for the production of mixed Salmonella-A. niger biofilms, and support the hypothesis that encounters with chitinaceous alternate hosts may contribute to the ecological success of human pathogens.

Brandl, Maria T.; Carter, Michelle Q.; Parker, Craig T.; Chapman, Matthew R.; Huynh, Steven; Zhou, Yaguang

2011-01-01

286

Physicochemical changes of microbe and solid surface properties during biofilm formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell immobilization is a promising biotechnology process. For example, entrapment of bacteria cells on synthetic polymeric matrices such as biocarriers is widely used for wastewater treatment because they have strong mechanical strength and durability in contrast to natural polymers. This method is based on the formation of biofilm on the surface of the used carriers and combines two different processes; attached and suspended biomass in a hybrid system. Previous studies have shown that immobilized cell systems have the potential to degrade toxic chemicals faster than conventional wastewater treatment systems because high densities of specialized microorganisms are used in immobilized cell systems. The present study elucidates the surface charge and properties of activated sludge and their role in the formation of biofilm. This information can be used for the optimization of the formation of biofilms as well as for the study of the transport of microorganisms in different environments. The two types of biocarriers that were used in this study are polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-gel beads and Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) carriers. The sludge samples that were investigated were taken from the aeration tank of the wastewater treatment plant of University of Patras (Greece). Measurements of the surface charge of the sludge, the biocarriers and the formed biofilm, were performed using potentiometric mass titrations with different kinds of electrolytes (e.g. NaCl, NaNO3) and at pH ranging from 3 to 11. The determination of pzc and surface charge of activated sludge and biocarriers is significant, because it can provide new valuable informations about the interaction mechanisms and the formation of biofilms. In each case, the point of zero charge (pzc) was identified as the common intersection point of the potentiometric curve of the blank solution of the electrolyte with the corresponding curves of each material. The pzc value for the biofilm was 6.1 to 6.7 and 6.6 to 6.9 for PVA gel and MBBR, respectively. These values differ both from the pzc values found for PVA biocarriers (pzc = 9.4; no pzc value was obtained for MBBR as expected based on its hydrophobic nature and the absence of surface groups with acid-base behavior) and the pzc value of activated sludge (activated sludge mixed liquor: pzc = 8.0 to 8.2, solid activated sludge: pzc = 7.2 to 7.3). These results lead us to the conclusion that the formed biofilms have different acid-base behavior and properties in relation to the activated sludge and the biocarriers. This fact is in accordance to previous studies, where biofilm-associated cells can be differentiated from their suspended counterparts due to the generation of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix. One other possible explanation is that the complicated processes of the biofilm formation can alter the distribution of different cells in the sludge compared with the cell distribution in the suspended unsupported sludge.

Sfaelou, Stavroula; Vakros, John; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

2013-04-01

287

Inhibition of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on zwitterionic surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we report a study of long-chain zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (pSBMA) surfaces grafted via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) for their resistance to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Previously, we demonstrated that p(SBMA) is highly resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption. Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (pOEGMA) grafted surfaces were also studied for comparison. Furthermore, we quantify how surface

Gang Cheng; Zheng Zhang; Shengfu Chen; James D. Bryers; Shaoyi Jiang

2007-01-01

288

Control of marine biofouling and medical biofilm formation with engineered topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofouling is the unwanted accumulation and growth of cells and organisms on clean surfaces. This process occurs readily on unprotected surfaces in both the marine and physiological environments. Surface protection in both systems has typically relied upon toxic materials and biocides. Metallic paints, based on tin and copper, have been extremely successful as antifouling coatings for the hulls of ships by killing the majority of fouling species. Similarly, antibacterial medical coatings incorporate metal-containing compounds such as silver or antibiotics that kill the bacteria. The environmental concerns over the use of toxic paints and biocides in the ocean, the developed antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms, and the toxicity concerns with silver suggest the need for non-toxic and non-kill solutions for these systems. The manipulation of surface topography on non-toxic materials at the size scale of the fouling species or bacteria is one approach for the development of alternative coatings. These surfaces would function simply as a physical deterrent of settlement of fouling organisms or a physical obstacle for the adequate formation of a bacterial biofilm without the need to kill the targeted microorganisms. Species-specific topographical designs called engineered topographies have been designed, fabricated and evaluated for potential applications as antifouling marine coatings and material surfaces capable of reducing biofilm formation. Engineered topographies fabricated on the surface of a non-toxic, polydimethylsiloxane elastomer, or silicone, were shown to significantly reduce the attachment of zoospores of a common ship fouling green algae (Ulva) in standard bioassays versus a smooth substrate. Other engineered topographies were effective at significantly deterring the settlement of the cyprids of barnacles (Balanus amphitrite). These results indicate the potential use of engineered topography applied to non-toxic materials as an environmentally friendly coating for antifouling applications in the ocean. In addition, a biomaterial-grade silicone modified with a tailored engineered topography significantly inhibited the bacterial biofilm growth from Staphylococcus aureus for up to 14 days exposure without the use of bactericidal agents. Mature biofilms were present on equivalently exposed smooth silicone surfaces. Engineered surface topographies present a promising means of blocking biofilm development on medical surfaces and reducing the rate of related infections.

Schumacher, James Frederick

289

Modeling how soluble microbial products (SMP) support heterotrophic bacteria in autotroph-based biofilms.  

PubMed

Multi-species biofilm modeling has been used for many years to understand the interactions between species in different biofilm systems, but the complex symbiotic relationship between species is sometimes overlooked, because models do not always include all relevant species and components. In this paper, we develop and use a mathematical model to describe a model biofilm system that includes autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria and the key products produced by the bacteria. The model combines the methods of earlier multi-species models with a multi-component biofilm model in order to explore the interaction between species via exchange of soluble microbial products (SMP). We show that multiple parameter sets are able to describe the findings of experimental studies, and that heterotrophs growing on autotrophically produced SMP may pursue either r- or K-strategies to sustain themselves when SMP is their only substrate. We also show that heterotrophs can colonize some distance from the autotrophs and still be sustained by autotrophically produced SMP. This work defines the feasible range of parameters for utilization of SMP by heterotrophs and the nature of the interactions between autotrophs and heterotrophs in multi-species, multi-component biofilms. PMID:19481097

Merkey, Brian V; Rittmann, Bruce E; Chopp, David L

2009-05-27

290

The Influence of Maggot Excretions on PAO1 Biofilm Formation on Different Biomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation in wounds and on biomate- rials is increasingly recognized as a problem. It therefore is important to focus on new strategies for eradicating severe biofilm-associated infections. The beneficial effects of maggots (Lucilia sericata) in wounds have been known for centuries. We hypothesized sterile maggot excretions and secretions (ES) could prevent, inhibit, and break down biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Gwendolyn Cazander; Kiril E. B. van Veen; Lee H. Bouwman; Alexandra T. Bernards; N. Jukema

2008-01-01

291

Biofilm Formation and Cell Surface Properties among Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Strains of the Bacillus cereus Group? †  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation by 102 Bacillus cereus and B. thuringiensis strains was determined. Strains isolated from soil or involved in digestive tract infections were efficient biofilm formers, whereas strains isolated from other diseases were poor biofilm formers. Cell surface hydrophobicity, the presence of an S layer, and adhesion to epithelial cells were also examined.

Auger, Sandrine; Ramarao, Nalini; Faille, Christine; Fouet, Agnes; Aymerich, Stephane; Gohar, Michel

2009-01-01

292

Outer Membrane Vesicles of Helicobacter pylori TK1402 are Involved in Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Background Helicobacter pylori forms biofilms on glass surfaces at the air-liquid interface in in vitro batch cultures; however, biofilms of H. pylori have not been well characterized. In the present study, we analyzed the ability of H. pylori strains to form biofilms and characterized the underlying mechanisms of H. pylori biofilm formation. Results Strain TK1402 showed strong biofilm forming ability relative to the other strains in Brucella broth supplemented with 7% FCS. The strong biofilm forming ability of TK1402 is reflected the relative thickness of the biofilms. In addition, outer membrane vesicles (OMV) were detected within the matrix of only the TK1402 biofilms. Biofilm formation was strongly correlated with the production of OMV in this strain. We further observed that strain TK1402 did not form thick biofilms in Brucella broth supplemented with 0.2% ?-cyclodextrin. However, the addition of the OMV-fraction collected from TK1402 could enhance biofilm formation. Conclusion The results suggested that OMV produced from TK1402 play an important role in biofilm formation in strain TK1402.

2009-01-01

293

Analyses of spatial distributions of sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activity in aerobic wastewater biofilms  

SciTech Connect

The vertical distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in aerobic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. To correlate the vertical distribution of SRB populations with their activity, the microprofiles of O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, NO{sub 2}{minus}, NH{sub 2}{sup +}, and pH were measured with microelectrodes. In addition, a cross-evaluation of the FISH and microelectrode analyses was performed by comparing them with culture-based approaches and biogeochemical measurements. In situ hybridization revealed that a relatively high abundance of the probe SRB385-stained cells were evenly distributed throughout the biofilm, even in the toxic surface. The probe SRB660-stained Desulfobulbus spp. were found to be numerically important members of SRB populations. The result of microelectrode measurements showed that a high sulfate-reducing activity was found in a narrow anaerobic zone located about 150 to 300 {micro}m below the biofilm surface and above which an intensive sulfide oxidation zone was found. The biogeochemical measurements showed that elemental sulfur (S{degree}) was an important intermediate of the sulfide reoxidation in such thin wastewater biofilms, which accounted for about 75% of the total S pool in the biofilm. The contribution of an internal Fe-sulfur cycle to the overall sulfur cycle in aerobic wastewater biofilms was insignificant (less than 1%) due to the relatively high sulfate reduction rate.

Okabe, Satoshi; Itoh, Tsukasa; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

1999-11-01

294

The cep quorum-sensing system of Burkholderia cepacia H111 controls biofilm formation and swarming motility.  

PubMed

Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa often co-exist as mixed biofilms in the lungs of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, the isolation of random mini-Tn5 insertion mutants of B. cepacia H111 defective in biofilm formation on an abiotic surface is reported. It is demonstrated that one of these mutants no longer produces N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) due to an inactivation of the cepR gene. cepR and the cepI AHL synthase gene together constitute the cep quorum-sensing system of B. cepacia. By using a gene replacement method, two defined mutants, H111-I and H111-R, were constructed in which cepI and cepR, respectively, had been inactivated. These mutants were used to demonstrate that biofilm formation by B. cepacia H111 requires a functional cep quorum-sensing system. A detailed quantitative analysis of the biofilm structures formed by wild-type and mutant strains suggested that the quorum-sensing system is not involved in the regulation of initial cell attachment, but rather controls the maturation of the biofilm. Furthermore, it is shown that B. cepacia is capable of swarming motility, a form of surface translocation utilized by various bacteria to rapidly colonize appropriate substrata. Evidence is provided that swarming motility of B. cepacia is quorum-sensing-regulated, possibly through the control of biosurfactant production. Complementation of the cepR mutant H111-R with different biosurfactants restored swarming motility while biofilm formation was not significantly increased. This result suggests that swarming motility per se is not essential for biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. PMID:11535791

Huber, B; Riedel, K; Hentzer, M; Heydorn, A; Gotschlich, A; Givskov, M; Molin, S; Eberl, L

2001-09-01

295

Application of pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis to study bacteria and fungi in biofilms used for bioremediation.  

PubMed

Biofilms are communities of microorganisms adhering to a surface and embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix, frequently associated with disease and contamination, and also used for engineering applications such as bioremediation. A mixed biofilm formed by bacteria and fungi may provide an optimal habitat for addressing contaminated areas. To exploit the potential of natural microbial communities consisting of bacteria and fungi, it is essential to understand and control their formation. In this work, a method to discriminate among bacteria of genera Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus with respect to the fungus Pleorotus in a biofilm by means of pyrolysis-gaschromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis is reported. Methylated fatty acids were chosen as biomarkers of microorganisms in the pyrolysates. In situ thermal hydrolysis and methylation was applied. Pyrograms were used as fingerprints, thus allowing for the characterization of whole cells analyzed without any sample pretreatment. Normalized pyrographic peak areas were chosen as variables for chemometric data processing. Principal components analysis was applied as a data exploration tool. Satisfactory results were obtained in analyzing a real biofilm. The influence of growth medium on whole bacteria fatty acid cell composition was also explored. PMID:23721185

Melucci, Dora; Fedi, Stefano; Locatelli, Marcello; Locatelli, Clinio; Montalbani, Simona; Cappelletti, Martina

2013-08-01

296

[Inhibition of bacterial adhesion and prevention of biofilm formation: Use of organic self-assembled monolayers on inorganic surfaces].  

PubMed

Implant related nosocomial infections are a serious public health concern. Colonisation by contaminating bacteria of the bare implant surface may lead to the formation of a biofilm protecting bacteria against host defences and antibiotics. To decrease the risk of infection, a strategy is to modify the biomaterial surface by an antibacterial coating, inhibiting bacterial adhesion ("passive" coatings) or able to kill bacteria ("active" coatings). This article describes the potential of self-assembled monolayers as antibacterial coatings allowing the molecular level control of the surface properties of inorganic substrates. After a presentation of the compounds used to form self-assembled monolayers, we present the literature dealing with antibacterial monolayers and the latest developments concerning "active" phosphonate monolayers that significantly inhibit the growth of bacterial biofilm. PMID:18824310

Guerrero, G; Amalric, J; Mutin, P-H; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

2008-09-27

297

Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095

Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokó?-??towska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

2012-08-23

298

Signaling-mediated cross-talk modulates swarming and biofilm formation in a coral pathogen Serratia marcescens  

PubMed Central

Interactions within microbial communities associated with marine holobionts contribute importantly to the health of these symbiotic organisms formed by invertebrates, dinoflagellates and bacteria. However, mechanisms that control invertebrate-associated microbiota are not yet fully understood. Hydrophobic compounds that were isolated from surfaces of asymptomatic corals inhibited biofilm formation by the white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100, indicating that signals capable of affecting the associated microbiota are produced in situ. However, neither the origin nor structures of these signals are currently known. A functional survey of bacteria recovered from coral mucus and from cultures of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium spp. revealed that they could alter swarming and biofilm formation in S. marcescens. As swarming and biofilm formation are inversely regulated, the ability of some native ?-proteobacteria to affect both behaviors suggests that the ?-proteobacterial signal(s) target a global regulatory switch controlling the behaviors in the pathogen. Isolates of Marinobacter sp. inhibited both biofilm formation and swarming in S. marcescens PDL100, without affecting growth of the coral pathogen, indicative of the production of multiple inhibitors, likely targeting lower level regulatory genes or functions. A multi-species cocktail containing these strains inhibited progression of a disease caused by S. marcescens in a model polyp Aiptasia pallida. An ?-proteobacterial isolate 44B9 had a similar effect. Even though ?4% of native holobiont-associated bacteria produced compounds capable of triggering responses in well-characterized N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) biosensors, there was no strong correlation between the production of AHL-like signals and disruption of biofilms or swarming in S. marcescens.

Alagely, Ali; Krediet, Cory J; Ritchie, Kim B; Teplitski, Max

2011-01-01

299

Signaling-mediated cross-talk modulates swarming and biofilm formation in a coral pathogen Serratia marcescens.  

PubMed

Interactions within microbial communities associated with marine holobionts contribute importantly to the health of these symbiotic organisms formed by invertebrates, dinoflagellates and bacteria. However, mechanisms that control invertebrate-associated microbiota are not yet fully understood. Hydrophobic compounds that were isolated from surfaces of asymptomatic corals inhibited biofilm formation by the white pox pathogen Serratia marcescens PDL100, indicating that signals capable of affecting the associated microbiota are produced in situ. However, neither the origin nor structures of these signals are currently known. A functional survey of bacteria recovered from coral mucus and from cultures of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium spp. revealed that they could alter swarming and biofilm formation in S. marcescens. As swarming and biofilm formation are inversely regulated, the ability of some native ?-proteobacteria to affect both behaviors suggests that the ?-proteobacterial signal(s) target a global regulatory switch controlling the behaviors in the pathogen. Isolates of Marinobacter sp. inhibited both biofilm formation and swarming in S. marcescens PDL100, without affecting growth of the coral pathogen, indicative of the production of multiple inhibitors, likely targeting lower level regulatory genes or functions. A multi-species cocktail containing these strains inhibited progression of a disease caused by S. marcescens in a model polyp Aiptasia pallida. An ?-proteobacterial isolate 44B9 had a similar effect. Even though ?4% of native holobiont-associated bacteria produced compounds capable of triggering responses in well-characterized N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) biosensors, there was no strong correlation between the production of AHL-like signals and disruption of biofilms or swarming in S. marcescens. PMID:21509042

Alagely, Ali; Krediet, Cory J; Ritchie, Kim B; Teplitski, Max

2011-04-21

300

Antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa and its potency to prevent bacterial biofilm formation  

PubMed Central

Background Thymoquinone is an active principle of Nigella sativa seed known as "Habbah Al-Sauda" in Arabic countries and "Sinouj" in Tunisia. Bacterial biofilms tend to exhibit significant tolerance to antimicrobials drugs during infections. Methods The antibacterial activity of Thymoquinone (TQ) and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 11 human pathogenic bacteria. The growth and development of the biofilm were assessed using the crystal violet (CV) and the 2, 3-bis [2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay. Results TQ exhibited a significant bactericidal activity against the majority of the tested bacteria (MICs values ranged from 8 to 32 ?g/ml) especially Gram positive cocci (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510). Crystal violet assay demonstrated that the minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (BIC50) was reached with 22 and 60 ?g/ml for Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis CIP 106510 respectively. In addition our data revealed that cells oxidative activity was influenced by TQ supplementation. In the same way, TQ prevented cell adhesion to glass slides surface. Conclusion The ability of TQ to prevent biofilm formation warrants further investigation to explore its use as bioactive substances with antibiofilm potential.

2011-01-01

301

Nitazoxanide Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis by Blocking Accumulation on Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

Coagulase-negative species of Staphylococcus are often associated with opportunistic hospital-acquired infections that arise from the colonization of indwelling catheters. Here we show that the antiparasitic drug nitazoxanide (NTZ) and its active metabolite, tizoxanide (TIZ), are inhibitory to the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis and other staphylococci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains, under aerobic and microaerobic conditions (MICs, 8 to 16 ?g/ml). At sub-MIC levels, NTZ and TIZ also inhibited biofilm production under static conditions by strains of S. epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus with a 50% inhibitory concentration of ?2.5 ?g/ml (8 ?M). The 5-nitro group was required for biological activity, and a hydrophilic derivative of NTZ (AMIX) also inhibited biofilm formation. NTZ did not disperse the existing biofilm but did block further accumulation. Sub-MICs of NTZ had no effect on primary attachment to surfaces at either 4 or 37°C. The inhibitory action of NTZ and TIZ, but not vancomycin, on biofilm production could be reversed by the addition of zinc salts (2.5 to 40 ?M) but not other metals, suggesting that NTZ might target the zinc-dependent accumulation-associated protein (Aap) that mediates accumulation on surfaces. However, neither NTZ nor TIZ formed chelation complexes with zinc salts, based on spectrophotometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, and addition of excess zinc to NTZ-grown bacteria (apo-Aap) did not restore the accumulation phenotype. Our studies suggest that sub-MIC levels of NTZ may affect the assembly or function of cell structures associated with the biofilm phenotype.

Tchouaffi-Nana, Florence; Ballard, T. Eric; Cary, Christine H.; Macdonald, Timothy L.; Sifri, Costi D.; Hoffman, Paul S.

2010-01-01

302

Biofilm formation by clinical isolates and the implications in chronic infections  

PubMed Central

Background Biofilm formation is a major virulence factor contributing to the chronicity of infections. To date few studies have evaluated biofilm formation in infecting isolates of patients including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) species in the context of numerous types of infectious syndromes. Herein, we investigated the biofilm forming capacity in a large collection of single patient infecting isolates and compared the relationship between biofilm formation to various strain characteristics. Methods The biofilm-forming capacity of 205 randomly sampled clinical isolates from patients, collected from various anatomical sites, admitted for treatment at Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC) from 2004–2011, including methicillin-resistant/methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA/MSSA) (n=23), Acinetobacter baumannii (n=53), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=36), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=54), and Escherichia coli (n=39), were evaluated for biofilm formation using the high-throughput microtiter plate assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Relationships between biofilm formation to clonal type, site of isolate collection, and MDR phenotype were evaluated. Furthermore, in patients with relapsing infections, serial strains were assessed for their ability to form biofilms in vitro. Results Of the 205 clinical isolates tested, 126 strains (61.4%) were observed to form biofilms in vitro at levels greater than or equal to the Staphylococcus epidermidis, positive biofilm producing strain, with P. aeruginosa and S. aureus having the greatest number of biofilm producing strains. Biofilm formation was significantly associated with specific clonal types, the site of isolate collection, and strains positive for biofilm formation were more frequently observed to be MDR. In patients with relapsing infections, the majority of serial isolates recovered from these individuals were observed to be strong biofilm producers in vitro. Conclusions This study is the first to evaluate biofilm formation in a large collection of infecting clinical isolates representing diverse types of infections. Our results demonstrate: (1) biofilm formation is a heterogeneous property amongst clinical strains which is associated with certain clonal types, (2) biofilm forming strains are more frequently isolated from non-fluid tissues, in particular bone and soft tissues, (3) MDR pathogens are more often biofilm formers, and (4) strains from patients with persistent infections are positive for biofilm formation.

2013-01-01

303

Tina wooden vat biofilm: A safe and highly efficient lactic acid bacteria delivering system in PDO Ragusano cheese making  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Sicilian PDO Ragusano cheese making, raw milk is placed in a wooden vat called a Tina. As no starter is added, lactic acid is produced by milk flora and flora released from the Tina biofilm. The aim of this work was to assess the safety and efficiency of this natural inoculation system. From 15 Tinas' biofilms, bacteria total

Sylvie Lortal; Annalisa Di Blasi; Marie-Noëlle Madec; Concetta Pediliggieri; Laura Tuminello; Gaëlle Tanguy; Jacques Fauquant; Yohan Lecuona; Patrizia Campo; Stefania Carpino; Giuseppe Licitra

2009-01-01

304

Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus capitis strains isolated from contaminated platelet concentrates.  

PubMed

Bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates (PCs) poses the greatest infectious risk in modern transfusion medicine despite the implementation of measures such as improved skin disinfection and first aliquot diversion. The majority of PC contaminants are commensal skin flora introduced by venipuncture at the time of blood collection. The predominant organisms are Gram-positive coagulase-negative staphylococci such as Staphylococcus capitis. This bacterium has been implicated in numerous instances of infection and sepsis, likely for its ability to form surface-associated communities of micro-organisms encased in extracellular materials, known as biofilms. In the present study, five strains of S. capitis isolated from contaminated PCs were assessed for their ability to produce extracellular polysaccharide (slime), a canonical indicator of biofilm-formation ability, on Congo red agar plates. Biofilm formation was evaluated in both glucose-enriched trypticase soy broth (TSBg) and in PCs by using a crystal violet staining assay. The chemical nature of the biofilms was evaluated by disruption assays using sodium metaperiodate and proteinase K. In addition, biofilm architecture was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of the biofilm-associated icaR and icaADBC genes was also examined by PCR. While only two out of the five S. capitis strains formed biofilms in TSBg, all strains formed biofilms in PCs. The ability of strains to produce extracellular polysaccharide and their possession of wild-type ica genes were not exclusive predictors of biofilm formation in TSBg or PCs; different profiles of biofilm markers were observed among isolates. This is likely due to the proteinaceous composition of the S. capitis biofilm matrix. Interestingly, an ica-negative, non-slime-producing isolate was capable of biofilm formation in PCs. Together, these data indicate that the platelet storage environment stimulates biofilm formation in S. capitis in the absence of extracellular polysaccharide production and that multiple bacterial factors and regulatory elements are likely involved in biofilm formation in this milieu. PMID:23558135

Greco-Stewart, Valerie S; Ali, Hamza; Kumaran, Dilini; Kalab, M; Rood, Ineke G H; de Korte, Dirk; Ramírez-Arcos, Sandra

2013-04-04

305

Role of Quorum Sensing and Antimicrobial Component Production by Serratia plymuthica in Formation of Biofilms, Including Mixed Biofilms with Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously characterized the N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone-based quorum-sensing system of the biofilm isolate Serratia plymuthica RVH1. Here we investigated the role of quorum sensing and of quorum- sensing-dependent production of an antimicrobial compound (AC) on biofilm formation by RVH1 and on the cocultivation of RVH1 and Escherichia coli in planktonic cultures or in biofilms. Biofilm formation of S. plymuthica was

Pieter Moons; Rob Van Houdt; Abram Aertsen; Kristof Vanoirbeek; Yves Engelborghs; Chris W. Michiels

2006-01-01

306

Role of HtrA in Surface Protein Expression and Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

The HtrA surface protease in gram-positive bacteria is involved in the processing and maturation of extracellular proteins and degradation of abnormal or misfolded proteins. Inactivation of htrA has been shown to affect the tolerance to thermal and environmental stress and to reduce virulence. We found that inactivation of Streptococcus mutans htrA by gene-replacement also resulted in a reduced ability to withstand exposure to low and high temperatures, low pH, and oxidative and DNA damaging agents. The htrA mutation affected surface expression of several extracellular proteins including glucan-binding protein B (GbpB), glucosyltransferases, and fructosyltransferase. In addition, htrA mutation also altered the surface expression of enolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenease, two glycolytic enzymes that are known to be present on the streptococcal cell surface. As expected, microscopic analysis of in vitro grown biofilm structure revealed that the htrA deficient biofilms adopted a much more granular patchy appearance, rather than the relatively smooth confluent layer normally seen in the wild type. These results suggest that HtrA plays an important role in the biogenesis of extracellular proteins including surface associated glycolytic enzymes and in biofilm formation of S. mutans.

Biswas, Saswati; Biswas, Indranil

2005-01-01

307

Involvement of the adc operon and manganese homeostasis in Streptococcus gordonii biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Pioneer oral bacteria, including Streptococcus gordonii, initiate the formation of oral biofilms on tooth surfaces, which requires differential expression of genes that recognize unique environmental cues. An S. gordonii::Tn917-lac biofilm-defective mutant was isolated by using an in vitro biofilm formation assay. Subsequent inverse PCR and sequence analyses identified the transposon insertion to be near the 3' end of an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein homologous to a Streptococcus pneumoniae repressor, AdcR. The S. gordonii adc operon, consisting of the four ORFs adcR, adcC, adcB, and adcA, is homologous to the adc operon of S. pneumoniae, which plays a role in zinc and/or manganese transport and genetic competence in S. pneumoniae. AdcR is a metal-dependent repressor protein containing a putative metal-binding site, AdcC contains a consensus-binding site for ATP, AdcB is a hydrophobic protein with seven hydrophobic membrane-spanning regions, and AdcA is a lipoprotein permease with a putative metal-binding site. The three proteins (AdcC through -A) are similar to those of the binding-lipoprotein-dependent transport system of gram-positive bacteria. Reverse transcriptase PCR confirmed that adcRCBA are cotranscribed as an operon in S. gordonii and that the transposon insertion in S. gordonii adcR::Tn917-lac had resulted in a polar mutation. Expression of adcR, measured by the beta-galactosidase activity of the adcR::Tn917-lac mutant, was growth phase dependent and increased when the mutant was grown in media with high levels of manganese (>1 mM) and to a lesser extent in media with zinc, indicating that AdcR may be a regulator at high levels of extracellular manganese. A nonpolar inactivation of adcR generated by allelic replacement resulted in a biofilm- and competence-defective phenotype. The biofilm-defective phenotype observed suggests that AdcR is an active repressor when synthesized and acts at a distant site(s) on the chromosome. Thus, the adc operon is involved in manganese acquisition in S. gordonii and manganese homeostasis and appears to modulate sessile growth in this bacterium. PMID:12700268

Loo, C Y; Mitrakul, K; Voss, I B; Hughes, C V; Ganeshkumar, N

2003-05-01

308

Screening for genes involved in Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm formation using a fosmid library.  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well-known opportunistic pathogen, often causing catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Biofilm formation on the catheter surfaces is an important step in the development of these infections. To identify the genes involved in the ability of K. pneumoniae to form a biofilm on abiotic surfaces, a novel strategy was used. A clone library was constructed by cloning the entire K. pneumoniae genome of the clinical isolate C3091 into a fosmid vector and the clone library was expressed in Escherichia coli. A total of 1152 clones were screened for enhanced biofilm formation compared with the E. coli parent strain using a biofilm microtiter plate assay. Nine clones with significantly enhanced biofilm formation were identified, subjected to random Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, screened for biofilm deficiency and the biofilm-promoting genes identified. Five of the clones contained the type 3 fimbriae gene cluster, a well-known K. pneumoniae virulence factor and biofilm promoter. Thus, the effectiveness of our approach was confirmed. Furthermore, genes encoding cell surface proteins and proteins involved in metabolism, none of them previously associated with biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae, were identified by our screening method. In conclusion, the use of fosmid libraries is an effective high throughput screening method to identify the genes involved in biofilm formation. PMID:20482632

Stahlhut, Steen G; Schroll, Casper; Harmsen, Morten; Struve, Carsten; Krogfelt, Karen A

2010-04-14

309

Biofilm formation and acyl homoserine lactone production in Hafnia alvei isolated from raw milk.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to detect the presence of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), signal molecules of the quorum sensing system in biofilm formed by Hafnia alvei strains. It also evaluated the effect of synthetic quorum sensing inhibitors in biofilm formation. AHLs were assayed using well diffusion techniques, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and detection directly in biofilm with biomonitors. The extracts obtained from planktonic and sessile cell of H. alvei induced at least two of three monitor strains evaluated. The presence of AHLs with up to six carbon atoms was confirmed by TLC. Biofilm formation by H. alvei was inhibited by furanone, as demonstrated by 96-well assay of crystal violet in microtitre plates and by scanning electron microscopy. The H. alvei 071 hall mutant was deficient in biofilm formation. All these results showed that the quorum sensing system is probably involved in the regulation of biofilm formation by H. alvei. PMID:20140298

Viana, Eliseth Souza; Campos, Maria Emilene Martino; Ponce, Adriana Reis; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

2010-01-29

310

Three-dimensional visualization of mixed species biofilm formation together with its substratum.  

PubMed

Biofilms, such as dental plaque, are aggregates of microorganisms attached to a surface. Thus, visualization of biofilms together with their attached substrata is important in order to understand details of the interaction between them. However, so far there is limited availability of such techniques. Here, non-invasive visualization of biofilm formation with its attached substratum by applying the previously reported technique of continuous-optimizing confocal reflection microscopy (COCRM) is reported. The process of development of oral biofilm together with its substratum was sequentially visualized with COCRM. This study describes a convenient method for visualizing biofilm and its attached surface. PMID:23647374

Inaba, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Takahiro; Yawata, Yutaka; Toyofuku, Masanori; Uchiyama, Hiroo; Nomura, Nobuhiko

2013-08-01

311

Extracellular polysaccharides produced by cooling water tower biofilm bacteria and their possible degradation.  

PubMed

The extracellular polymers (EPS) of biofilm bacteria that can cause heat and mass transfer problems in cooling water towers in the petrochemical industry were investigated. In addition, these microorganisms were screened for their ability to grow and degrade their own EPS and the EPS of other species. Twelve bacteria producing the most EPS were isolated from cooling water towers and characterized biochemically by classic and commercial systems. These were species of Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Aeromonas, Pasteurella, Pantoea, Alcaligenes and Sphingomonas. EPS of these species were obtained by propan-2-ol precipitation and centrifugation from bacterial cultures in media enriched with glucose, sucrose or galactose. EPS yields were of 1.68-4.95 g l(-1). These EPS materials were characterized for total sugar and protein contents. Their total sugar content ranged from 24 to 56% (g sugar g(-1) EPS), and their total protein content ranged from 10 to 28% (g protein g(-1) EPS). The monosaccharide compositions of EPS were determined by HPLC. Generally, these compositions were enriched in galactose and glucose, with lesser amounts of mannose, rhamnose, fructose and arabinose. All bacteria were investigated in terms of EPS degradation. Eight of the bacteria were able to utilize EPS from Burkholderia cepacia, seven of the bacteria were able to utilize EPS from Pseudomonas sp. and Sphingomonas paucimobilis. The greatest viscosity reduction of B. cepacia was obtained with Pseudomonas sp. The results show that the bacteria in this study are able to degrade EPS from biofilms in cooling towers. PMID:18256966

Ceyhan, Nur; Ozdemir, Guven

2008-01-01

312

Chemoinformatics-assisted development of new anti-biofilm compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial biofilms are associated with a large number of infections. Biofilm-dwelling bacteria are particularly resistant\\u000a to antibiotics, making it hard to eradicate biofilm-associated infections. Here, we use a novel cross-disciplinary approach\\u000a combining microbiology and chemoinformatics to identify new and efficient anti-biofilm drugs. We found that ellagic acid (present\\u000a in green tea) significantly inhibited biofilm formation of Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Based on

Anna Dürig; Irene Kouskoumvekaki; Rebecca M. Vejborg; Per Klemm

2010-01-01

313

Using Bacteriophages To Reduce Formation of Catheter-Associated Biofilms by Staphylococcus epidermidis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of indwelling catheters is often compromised as a result of biofilm formation. This study investigated if hydrogel-coated catheters pretreated with a coagulase-negative bacteriophage would reduce Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation. Biofilms were developed on hydrogel-coated silicone catheters installed in a modified drip flow reactor. Catheter segments were pretreated with the lytic S. epidermidis bacteriophage 456 by exposing the catheter lumen

John J. Curtin; Rodney M. Donlan

2006-01-01

314

A Systems-Level Approach for Investigating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Prevention of the initiation of biofilm formation is the most important step for combating biofilm-associated pathogens, as the ability of pathogens to resist antibiotics is enhanced 10 to 1000 times once biofilms are formed. Genes essential to bacterial growth in the planktonic state are potential targets to treat biofilm-associated pathogens. However, the biofilm formation capability of strains with mutations in these essential genes must be evaluated, since the pathogen might form a biofilm before it is eliminated. In order to address this issue, this work proposes a systems-level approach to quantifying the biofilm formation capability of mutants to determine target genes that are essential for bacterial metabolism in the planktonic state but do not induce biofilm formation in their mutants. The changes of fluxes through the reactions associated with the genes positively related to biofilm formation are used as soft sensors in the flux balance analysis to quantify the trend of biofilm formation upon the mutation of an essential gene. The essential genes whose mutants are predicted not to induce biofilm formation are regarded as gene targets. The proposed approach was applied to identify target genes to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. It is interesting to find that most essential gene mutants exhibit high potential to induce the biofilm formation while most non-essential gene mutants do not. Critically, we identified four essential genes, lysC, cysH, adk, and galU, that constitute gene targets to treat P. aeruginosa. They have been suggested by existing experimental data as potential drug targets for their crucial role in the survival or virulence of P. aeruginosa. It is also interesting to find that P. aeruginosa tends to survive the essential-gene mutation treatment by mainly enhancing fluxes through 8 metabolic reactions that regulate acetate metabolism, arginine metabolism, and glutamate metabolism.

Xu, Zhaobin; Fang, Xin; Wood, Thomas K.; Huang, Zuyi Jacky

2013-01-01

315

Inhibitory Effects of 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-Galloyl-?-d-Glucopyranose on Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus? †  

PubMed Central

1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-?-d-glucopyranose (PGG) is an active ingredient in plants that are commonly used in Chinese medicine to treat inflammation. We demonstrate here that PGG, at 6.25 ?M, does not inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, and yet it prevents biofilm formation on polystyrene and polycarbonate surfaces. At the same concentration, PGG is not toxic to human epithelial and fibroblast cells. PGG has an IB50 value, i.e., the PGG concentration that inhibits 50% biofilm formation, of 3.6 ?M. The value is substantially lower than that of N-acetylcysteine, iodoacetamide, and N-phenyl maleimide, which are known to inhibit biofilm formation by S. aureus. Biochemical and scanning electron microscopy results also reveal that PGG inhibits initial attachment of the bacteria to solid surface and the synthesis of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin, explaining how PGG inhibits biofilm formation. The results of this study demonstrate that coating PGG on polystyrene and silicon rubber surfaces with polyaniline prevents biofilm formation, indicating that PGG is highly promising for clinical use in preventing biofilm formation by S. aureus.

Lin, Mei-Hui; Chang, Fang-Rong; Hua, Mu-Yi; Wu, Yang-Chang; Liu, Shih-Tung

2011-01-01

316

Inhibitory effects of 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose on biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucopyranose (PGG) is an active ingredient in plants that are commonly used in Chinese medicine to treat inflammation. We demonstrate here that PGG, at 6.25 ?M, does not inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, and yet it prevents biofilm formation on polystyrene and polycarbonate surfaces. At the same concentration, PGG is not toxic to human epithelial and fibroblast cells. PGG has an IB?? value, i.e., the PGG concentration that inhibits 50% biofilm formation, of 3.6 ?M. The value is substantially lower than that of N-acetylcysteine, iodoacetamide, and N-phenyl maleimide, which are known to inhibit biofilm formation by S. aureus. Biochemical and scanning electron microscopy results also reveal that PGG inhibits initial attachment of the bacteria to solid surface and the synthesis of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin, explaining how PGG inhibits biofilm formation. The results of this study demonstrate that coating PGG on polystyrene and silicon rubber surfaces with polyaniline prevents biofilm formation, indicating that PGG is highly promising for clinical use in preventing biofilm formation by S. aureus. PMID:21173176

Lin, Mei-Hui; Chang, Fang-Rong; Hua, Mu-Yi; Wu, Yang-Chang; Liu, Shih-Tung

2010-12-20

317

In vitro prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa early biofilm formation with antibiotics used in cystic fibrosis patients.  

PubMed

The ability of antibiotics used in bronchopulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa early biofilm formation was studied using a biofilm microtitre assay with 57 non-mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates (44 first colonisers and 13 recovered during the initial intermittent colonisation stage) obtained from 35 CF patients. Minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (BICs) of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, ceftazidime, tobramycin, colistin and azithromycin were determined by placing a peg lid with a formed biofilm onto microplates containing antibiotics. A modification of this protocol consisting of antibiotic challenge during biofilm formation was implemented in order to determine the biofilm prevention concentration (BPC), i.e. the minimum concentration able to prevent biofilm formation. The lowest BPCs were for fluoroquinolones, tobramycin and colistin and the highest for ceftazidime and imipenem. The former antibiotics had BPCs identical to or only slightly higher than their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined by standard Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilution and were also active on formed biofilms as reflected by their low BIC values. In contrast, ceftazidime and imipenem were less effective for prevention of biofilm formation and on formed biofilms. In conclusion, the new BPC parameter determined in non-mucoid P. aeruginosa isolates recovered during early colonisation stages in CF patients supports early aggressive antimicrobial treatment guidelines in first P. aeruginosa-colonised CF patients. PMID:22727530

Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García-Castillo, María; Maiz, Luis; Lamas, Adelaida; Baquero, Fernando; Cantón, Rafael

2012-06-21

318

Molecular Techniques to Detect Biofilm Bacteria in Long Bone Nonunion: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Biofilms cause chronic infections including those associated with orthopaedic hardware. The only methods that are Food and\\u000a Drug Administration-approved for detecting and identifying bacterial infections are cultures and selected DNA-based polymerase\\u000a chain reaction methods that detect only specific pathogens (eg, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). New DNA-based\\u000a technologies enable the detection and identification of all bacteria present in a sample and to

Michael Palmer; William Costerton; Jeffrey Sewecke; Daniel Altman

319

Enhanced protease production in a polymethylmethacrylate conico-cylindrical flask by two biofilm-forming bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) conico-cylindrical flask (CCF) with an inner arrangement consisting of eight equidistantly spaced rectangular strips mounted radially on a circular disk to provide additional surface area for microbial attachment was employed for protease production by two biofilm-forming bacteria, an intertidal gamma-Proteobacterium (DGII) and a chicken meat isolate, Virgibacillus pantothenticus. The flask design allowed comparison of protease production during

Sreyashi Sarkar; Debashis Roy; Joydeep Mukherjee

2011-01-01

320

Microbial Biofilms: How Effective in Rhizobium –Legume Symbiosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Diverse genera of bacteria live as microbial communities called biofilms on biotic or abiotic surfaces, or interfaces. They\\u000a exhibit elevated microbial action, as a result of symbiosis in biofilm structure and physiological adaptation. The formation\\u000a of fungal–bacterial biofilms by bacterial colonization on biotic fungal surfaces gives the biofilms enhanced microbial effectiveness\\u000a compared to monocultures. When the bacteria include rhizobia, they

G. Seneviratne; M. L. M. A. W. Weerasekara; J. S. Zavahir

321

Modelling biofilm-induced formation damage and biocide treatment in subsurface geosystems.  

PubMed

Biofilm growth in subsurface porous media, and its treatment with biocides (antimicrobial agents), involves a complex interaction of biogeochemical processes which provide non-trivial mathematical modelling challenges. Although there are literature reports of mathematical models to evaluate biofilm tolerance to biocides, none of these models have investigated biocide treatment of biofilms growing in interconnected porous media with flow. In this paper, we present a numerical investigation using a pore network model of biofilm growth, formation damage and biocide treatment. The model includes three phases (aqueous, adsorbed biofilm, and solid matrix), a single growth-limiting nutrient and a single biocide dissolved in the water. Biofilm is assumed to contain a single species of microbe, in which each cell can be a viable persister, a viable non-persister, or non-viable (dead). Persisters describe small subpopulation of cells which are tolerant to biocide treatment. Biofilm tolerance to biocide treatment is regulated by persister cells and includes 'innate' and 'biocide-induced' factors. Simulations demonstrate that biofilm tolerance to biocides can increase with biofilm maturity, and that biocide treatment alone does not reverse biofilm-induced formation damage. Also, a successful application of biological permeability conformance treatment involving geologic layers with flow communication is more complicated than simply engineering the attachment of biofilm-forming cells at desired sites. PMID:23164434

Ezeuko, C C; Sen, A; Gates, I D

2012-11-20

322

Impact of Helicobacter pylori Biofilm Formation on Clarithromycin Susceptibility and Generation of Resistance Mutations.  

PubMed

The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori forms biofilms in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of H. pylori biofilm formation in vitro on clarithromycin (CLR) susceptibility. CLR susceptibility of H. pylori intermediate (2-day) and mature (3-day) biofilms on glass coverslips was determined at concentrations from 0.03 to 0.5 µg/ml. H. pylori biofilm biomass was increased after treatment with CLR at minimum inhibitory concentration levels by up to 4-fold (2-day biofilm) and 16-fold (3-day biofilm). Minimum bactericidal concentrations of CLR against cells in a biofilm were higher (1.0 µg/ml) than that for planktonic cells (0.25 µg/ml). It was shown that the expression of efflux pump genes was significantly increased in biofilm cells. In addition, exposure of biofilms to CLR resulted in high level resistance generation compared to planktonic cells with increased resistance associated with the presence of a point mutation at either position 2142 or 2143 in the domain V loop of the 23S rRNA gene. These results demonstrate that H. pylori biofilm formation decreases the susceptibility to CLR and that H. pylori CLR resistance mutations are more frequently generated in biofilms than in planktonic cells. PMID:24039906

Yonezawa, Hideo; Osaki, Takako; Hanawa, Tomoko; Kurata, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Kamiya, Shigeru

2013-09-06

323

Impact of Helicobacter pylori Biofilm Formation on Clarithromycin Susceptibility and Generation of Resistance Mutations  

PubMed Central

The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori forms biofilms in vitro and in vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of H. pylori biofilm formation in vitro on clarithromycin (CLR) susceptibility. CLR susceptibility of H. pylori intermediate (2-day) and mature (3-day) biofilms on glass coverslips was determined at concentrations from 0.03 to 0.5 µg/ml. H. pylori biofilm biomass was increased after treatment with CLR at minimum inhibitory concentration levels by up to 4-fold (2-day biofilm) and 16-fold (3-day biofilm). Minimum bactericidal concentrations of CLR against cells in a biofilm were higher (1.0 µg/ml) than that for planktonic cells (0.25 µg/ml). It was shown that the expression of efflux pump genes was significantly increased in biofilm cells. In addition, exposure of biofilms to CLR resulted in high level resistance generation compared to planktonic cells with increased resistance associated with the presence of a point mutation at either position 2142 or 2143 in the domain V loop of the 23S rRNA gene. These results demonstrate that H. pylori biofilm formation decreases the susceptibility to CLR and that H. pylori CLR resistance mutations are more frequently generated in biofilms than in planktonic cells.

Yonezawa, Hideo; Osaki, Takako; Hanawa, Tomoko; Kurata, Satoshi; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Kamiya, Shigeru

2013-01-01

324

Pattern formation exhibited by biofilm formation within microfluidic chambers.  

PubMed

This article investigates the dynamics of an important bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, within artificial plant xylem. The bacterium is the causative agent of a variety of diseases that strike fruit-bearing plants including Pierce's disease of grapevine. Biofilm colonization within microfluidic chambers was visualized in a laboratory setting, showing robust, regular spatial patterning. We also develop a mathematical model, based on a multiphase approach that is able to capture the spacing of the pattern and points to the role of the exopolymeric substance as the main source of control of the pattern dynamics. We concentrate on estimating the attachment/detachment processes within the chamber because these are two mechanisms that have the potential to be engineered by applying various chemicals to prevent or treat the disease. PMID:23663829

Cogan, N G; Donahue, M R; Whidden, Mark; De La Fuente, Leonardo

2013-05-01

325

Transcriptional profiling of Legionella pneumophila biofilm cells and the influence of iron on biofilm formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In aquatic environments, biofilms constitute an ecological niche where Legionella pneumophila persists as sessile cells. However, very little information on the sessile mode of life of L. pneumophila is currently available. We report here the development of a model biofilm of L. pneumophila strain Lens and the first transcriptome analysis of L. pneumophila biofilm cells. Global gene expression analysis of

Thomas Hindre; Holger Bruggemann; Carmen Buchrieser; Yann Hechard

2008-01-01

326

Light-responsive current generation by phototrophically enriched anode biofilms dominated by green sulfur bacteria.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to employ microbial electrochemical cells (MXCs) to selectively enrich and examine anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria for potential anaerobic respiration capabilities using electrodes. In the process, we designed a novel enrichment strategy that manipulated the poised anode potential, light, nitrogen availability, and media supply to promote growth of phototrophic bacteria while minimizing co-enrichment of non-phototrophic anode-respiring bacteria (ARB). This approach resulted in light-responsive electricity generation from fresh- and saltwater inocula. Under anoxic conditions, current showed a negative light response, suggesting that the enriched phototrophic consortia shifted between phototrophic and anaerobic respiratory metabolism. Molecular, physical, and electrochemical analyses elucidated that anode biofilms were dominated by green sulfur bacteria, and biofilms exhibited anode respiration kinetics indicative of non-mediated electron transfer, but kinetic parameters differed from values previously reported for non-phototrophic ARB. These results invite the utilization of MXCs as microbiological tools for exploring anaerobic respiratory capabilities among anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:23124549

Badalamenti, Jonathan P; Torres, César I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

2012-11-23

327

Effects of oral implant surface roughness on bacterial biofilm formation and treatment efficacy.  

PubMed

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oral implant surface roughness on bacterial biofilm formation and antimicrobial treatment efficacy. Materials and Methods: Titanium disks with low-roughness pickled surfaces and with moderately rough sandblasted, acid-etched surfaces were used as substrata. Streptococcus mutans biofilms (1 and 3 days old) and Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms (3 days old) were grown on the two types of substrata and then treated with 0.2% chlorhexidine. Biofilm viability was evaluated by a resazurin metabolism assay and by sonication-colony-forming unit counts. Results: Surface roughness had no influence on the amount of biofilm formation by S mutans or P gingivalis in this in vitro biofilm model. However, it strongly affected the treatment efficacy of chlorhexidine on the biofilms formed by both species. Higher roughness resulted in lower efficacy. Furthermore, treatment efficacy was significantly reduced in older biofilms. Conclusion: A moderately roughened surface did not enhance biofilm formation but reduced treatment efficacy of the biofilms. This finding indicates that efforts should be directed toward optimizing implant surface properties for effective antimicrobial treatment without compromising osseointegration. PMID:24066312

Lin, Hai Yan; Liu, Yuelian; Wismeijer, Daniel; Crielaard, Wim; Deng, Dong Mei

328

Cellulose modulates biofilm formation by counteracting curli-mediated colonization of solid surfaces in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

In enterobacteria, the CsgD protein activates production of two extracellular structures: thin aggregative fimbriae (curli) and cellulose. While curli fibres promote biofilm formation and cell aggregation, the evidence for a direct role of cellulose as an additional determinant for biofilm formation is not as straightforward. The MG1655 laboratory strain of Escherichia coli only produces limited amounts of curli and cellulose;

Luciana Gualdi; Letizia Tagliabue; Stefano Bertagnoli; Teresa Ierano; Cristina De Castro; Paolo Landini

2008-01-01

329

Identifying the important structural elements of brominated furanones for inhibiting biofilm formation by Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of structurally closely related furanones was synthesized to identify the most important structural elements in brominated furanones for inhibiting the formation of bacterial biofilms. The results suggest that a conjugated exocyclic vinyl bromide on the furanone ring is the most important structural element for the non-toxic but inhibition activity for Escherichia coli biofilm formation. Furanones bearing monosubstituted bromide

Yongbin Han; Shuyu Hou; Karen A. Simon; Dacheng Ren; Yan-Yeung Luk

2008-01-01

330

Iron-Depletion prevents biofilm formation in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa through twitching mobility and quorum sensing  

PubMed Central

Influence of iron-depletion on twitching motility and quorum sensing (QS) system in P. aeruginosa was evaluated. The results demonstrated iron-depletion can retard biofilm formation and increase the twitching motility and expression of QS-related genes, suggesting a potential interaction between twitching motility and QS system in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation.

Cai, Yun; Wang, Rui; An, Mao-Mao; Liang, Bei-Bei

2010-01-01

331

[38] Models for studying initial adhesion and surface growth in biofilm formation on surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial biofilms cause various problems in industry, waterworks, dentistry and medicine. In this chapter a parallel plate flow chamber system is described, with which different processes in bacterial biofilm formation, i.e. conditioning film formation, initial bacterial adhesion, bacterial surface growth and bacterial detachment can be modeled and monitored in situ. Examples are given of studies concerning the influence of a

Bart Gottenbos; Henny C. van der Mei; Henk J. Busscher

1999-01-01

332

Ethanol-Independent Biofilm Formation by a Flor Wine Yeast Strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

PubMed Central

Flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae form a biofilm on the surface of wine at the end of fermentation, when sugar is depleted and growth on ethanol becomes dependent on oxygen. Here, we report greater biofilm formation on glycerol and ethyl acetate and inconsistent formation on succinic, lactic, and acetic acids.

Zara, Severino; Gross, Michael K.; Zara, Giacomo; Budroni, Marilena; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

2010-01-01

333

Acetaldehyde inhibits the yeast-to-hypha conversion and biofilm formation in Candida albicans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Candida albicans, alcohol metabolism is implicated in biofilm formation. The alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH1) is involved in the conversion of acetaldehyde to ethanol and reported to be downregulated during biofilm formation. C. albicans produces acetaldehyde under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. Mutations in ADH genes result in increased acetaldehyde production in vitro, but studies are lacking on

Nitin M. ChauhanJayant; Jayant S. Raut; S. Mohan Karuppayil

334

The Intercellular Adhesion (ica) Locus Is Present in Staphylococcus aureus and Is Required for Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nosocomial infections that result in the formation of biofilms on the surfaces of biomedical implants are a leading cause of sepsis and are often associated with colonization of the implants by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Biofilm formation is thought to require two sequential steps: adhesion of cells to a solid substrate followed by cell-cell adhesion, creating multiple layers of cells. Intercellular adhesion

SARAH E. CRAMTON; CHRISTIANE GERKE; NORBERT F. SCHNELL; WRIGHT W. NICHOLS; FRIEDRICH GOTZ

1999-01-01

335

Biofilm formation on surfaces of glass and Teflon exposed to treated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation on glass and Teflon cylinders, situated on top of each other in vertical glass columns exposed to different types of treated water at a flow rate of 0.2 m\\/s, was determined using ATP analysis and heterotrophic plate counts. Biofilm formation rates (BFR) of these water types, as calculated from the linear relationship between exposure time and biomass accumulated

Dick van der Kooij; Harm R. Veenendaal; Cynthia Baars-Lorist; Daan W. van der Klift; Yvonne C. Drost

1995-01-01

336

Biofilm Formation and Acyl Homoserine Lactone Production in the Burkholderia cepacia Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acyl homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-mediated gene regulation has been shown to influence biofilm formation in one Burkholderia cepacia cystic fibrosis isolate, but it is not known whether this relationship is a consistent feature of the several genomic species that make up the B. cepacia complex (BCC). We screened strains belonging to genomovars I to V of the BCC for biofilm formation

Barbara-Ann D. Conway; Vicnays Venu; David P. Speert

2002-01-01

337

Antibiotics promoting oxidative stress inhibit formation of Escherichia coli biofilm via indole signalling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have revealed that antibiotics can promote the formation of reactive oxygen species which contribute to cell death. In this study, we report that five different antibiotics known to stimulate production of reactive oxygen species inhibited growth of Escherichia coli biofilm. We demonstrated that supression of biofilm formation was mainly a consequence of the increase in the extracellular concentration

Dorota Kuczy?ska-Wi?nik; Ewelina Matuszewska; Beata Furmanek-Blaszk; Daria Leszczy?ska; Alicja Grudowska; Pawe? Szczepaniak; Ewa Laskowska

2010-01-01

338

Nuclease Modulates Biofilm Formation in Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emerging contributor to biofilm-related infections. We recently reported that strains lacking sigma factor B (sigB) in the USA300 lineage of CA-MRSA are unable to develop a biofilm. Interestingly, when spent media from a USA300 sigB mutant was incubated with other S. aureus strains, biofilm formation was inhibited. Following fractionation and mass spectrometry analysis, the major anti-biofilm factor identified in the spent media was secreted thermonuclease (Nuc). Considering reports that extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an important component of the biofilm matrix, we investigated the regulation and role of Nuc in USA300. The expression of the nuc gene was increased in a sigB mutant, repressed by glucose supplementation, and was unaffected by the agr quorum-sensing system. A FRET assay for Nuc activity was developed and confirmed the regulatory results. A USA300 nuc mutant was constructed and displayed an enhanced biofilm-forming capacity, and the nuc mutant also accumulated more high molecular weight eDNA than the WT and regulatory mutant strains. Inactivation of nuc in the USA300 sigB mutant background partially repaired the sigB biofilm-negative phenotype, suggesting that nuc expression contributes to the inability of the mutant to form biofilm. To test the generality of the nuc mutant biofilm phenotypes, the mutation was introduced into other S. aureus genetic backgrounds and similar increases in biofilm formation were observed. Finally, using multiple S. aureus strains and regulatory mutants, an inverse correlation between Nuc activity and biofilm formation was demonstrated. Altogether, our findings confirm the important role for eDNA in the S. aureus biofilm matrix and indicates Nuc is a regulator of biofilm formation.

Kiedrowski, Megan R.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S.; Malone, Cheryl L.; Mootz, Joe M.; Voyich, Jovanka M.; Smeltzer, Mark S.; Bayles, Kenneth W.; Horswill, Alexander R.

2011-01-01

339

Biofilm formation by Mycobacterium avium isolates originating from humans, swine and birds  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium avium includes the subspecies avium, silvaticum, paratuberculosis and hominissuis, and M. avium subspecies has been isolated from various environments all over the world including from biofilms in water distribution systems. The aim of this study was to examine isolates of M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis of different origin for biofilm formation and to look for correlations between biofilm formation and RFLP-types, and to standardise the method to test for biofilm formation. In order to determine the best screening method, a panel of 14 isolates of M. avium subsp. avium and M. avium subsp. hominissuis, were tested for their ability to form biofilm in microtiter plates under different conditions. Subsequently, 83 additional isolates from humans, swine and birds were tested for biofilm formation. The isolates were tested for the presence of selected genes involved in the synthesis of glycopeptidolipids (GPLs) in the cell wall of M. avium, which is believed to be important for biofilm formation. Colony morphology and hsp65 sequvar were also determined. Results Nine isolates from swine produced biofilm. There was a significant higher frequency of porcine isolates forming biofilm compared to human isolates. All isolates were previously characterised by IS1311- and IS1245-RFLP typing. The ability to form biofilm did not correlate with the RFLP-type, hsp65 sequevar, colony morphology or the presence of gene sequences related to GPL synthesis. Conclusion The observed differences in biofilm forming abilities between porcine and human isolates raises questions regarding the importance of biofilm formation for infectious potential. The optimised method worked well for screening of multiple isolates.

2009-01-01

340

Biofilm formation and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urine after consumption of cranberry-lingonberry juice.  

PubMed

Cranberry-lingonberry juice (CLJ) was effective in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in our earlier randomized clinical trial. We aimed to test whether consumption of CLJ at a similar dose to earlier reduces the biofilm formation and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urine. Twenty healthy women drank 100 ml of CLJ daily for two weeks. Urine samples were obtained 2-4 hours after the last dose. Control samples were taken after a one-week period without berry consumption. Biofilm formation of 20 E. coli strains was measured at 72 hours by the polystyrene microtitre plate method. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed for selected genes. Four of the 20 clinical strains produced more biofilm in urine after CLJ consumption (P < 0.05) and one produced less. Expression levels of the pga, cpxA, fimA and papF genes did not differ between bacteria grown in control urine and urine obtained after CLJ consumption, except for pga gene expression, which was reduced in one strain after CLJ (P = 0.04). It appears that the effect of CLJ in preventing UTIs is not explained by mechanisms that reduce biofilm formation or the expression of selected virulence genes of Escherichia coli in urine. PMID:21822564

Tapiainen, T; Jauhiainen, H; Jaakola, L; Salo, J; Sevander, J; Ikäheimo, I; Pirttilä, A M; Hohtola, A; Uhari, M

2011-08-07

341

Novel marine bacteria and their antagonistic properties against medically relevant biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

biofilms. Supernatant extracts from isolates P4-4, P5-2, P6-6, and PB7-11B resulted in broad-spectrum antibiofilm activity. None of the extracts resulted in antibacterial activity against the pathogens. P3-2, P4-4, P5-2 and P 6-6 ether extracts did not interfere with Gram-negative quorum sensing. Biofilm formation by S. aureusT (ATCC 25923), S. epidermidisT (ATCC 12228), and were inhibited by extracts from exponential culture

C. Bruno; S. Kotelnikova

342

Growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis biofilms containing free mycolic acids and harbouring drug-tolerant bacteria  

PubMed Central

Successful treatment of human tuberculosis requires 6–9 months' therapy with multiple antibiotics. Incomplete clearance of tubercle bacilli frequently results in disease relapse, presumably as a result of reactivation of persistent drug-tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis cells, although the nature and location of these persisters are not known. In other pathogens, antibiotic tolerance is often associated with the formation of biofilms – organized communities of surface-attached cells – but physiologically and genetically defined M. tuberculosis biofilms have not been described. Here, we show that M. tuberculosis forms biofilms with specific environmental and genetic requirements distinct from those for planktonic growth, which contain an extracellular matrix rich in free mycolic acids, and harbour an important drug-tolerant population that persist despite exposure to high levels of antibiotics.

Ojha, Anil K; Baughn, Anthony D; Sambandan, Dhinakaran; Hsu, Tsungda; Trivelli, Xavier; Guerardel, Yann; Alahari, Anuradha; Kremer, Laurent; Jacobs, William R; Hatfull, Graham F

2008-01-01

343

Multi-resolution border segmentation for measuring spatial heterogeneity of mixed population biofilm bacteria.  

PubMed

Multi-resolution image clustering and segmentation interactive system has been developed to analyze the interaction between clusters of heterogeneous microbial populations residing in biofilms. Biofilms are biological microorganisms attached to surfaces, which develop a complex heterogeneous three-dimensional structure. The hierarchical structural analysis concept underlying multi-resolution image segmentation is that the clusters will be more complex and noisy for higher-resolution while less complex and smoother for lower-resolution image. This hierarchical structure analysis can be used to simplify the image storage and retrieval in well-mixed populations. We are proposing an algorithm that combines Fuzzy C-Means, SOM and LVQ neural networks to segment and identify clusters. The outcome of the image segmentation is quantified by the number of cluster objects of each kind of microorganism within sections of the biofilm, and the centroid distances between the identified cluster objects. Experimental evaluations of the algorithm showed its effectiveness in enumerating cluster objects of bacteria in dual-species biofilms at the substratum and measuring the associated intercellular distances. PMID:17936583

Belkasim, Saeid; Derado, Gordana; Aznita, Rizi; Gilbert, Eric; O'Connell, Heather

2007-10-23

344

Effect of probiotic bacteria on prevalence of yeasts in oropharyngeal biofilms on silicone rubber voice prostheses in vitro.  

PubMed

The proliferation of yeasts in the mixed bacterial and fungal biofilms colonising silicone rubber voice prostheses in laryngectomised patients is the main cause of malfunctioning of the valve mechanism on the oesophageal side of the prostheses. Indwelling voice prostheses usually have to be replaced every 3-4 months. The consumption of probiotic bacteria is largely motivated by health claims related to the urogenital and lower digestive tract, but not to the upper digestive tract. The present study examined the influence of probiotic bacteria on the prevalence of yeasts in oropharyngeal biofilms on silicone rubber voice prostheses, as formed in a modified Robbins device. Exposure of oropharyngeal biofilms on voice prostheses to suspensions of Bifidobacterium infantis 420 or Enterococcus faecium 603 did not significantly reduce the number of yeasts in the biofilm. However, suspensions of Lactobacillus fermentum B54, L. rhamnosus 744 or L. lactis cremoris SK11 led to a reduction in the number of yeasts harvested from the voice prostheses. Suspensions of L. casei Shirota and Streptococcus thermophilus B significantly reduced the number of yeasts in the biofilm to 39% and 33%, respectively. The reduction brought about in yeast prevalence in the mixed biofilm was greatest by exposure to a suspension of L. lactis 53, with yeast prevalence only 4% of the control. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that the prevalence of yeasts in oropharyngeal biofilms on silicone rubber voice prostheses might be controlled by consumption of probiotic bacteria. PMID:10933256

van der Mei, H C; Free, R H; Elving, G J; Van Weissenbruch, R; Albers, F W; Busscher, H J

2000-08-01

345

Inhibition of Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation by Self-Assembled Monolayers of Functional Alkanethiols on Gold? †  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilms cause serious problems, such as antibiotic resistance and medical device-related infections. To further understand bacterium-surface interactions and to develop efficient control strategies, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols presenting different functional groups on gold films were analyzed to determine their resistance to biofilm formation. Escherichia coli was labeled with green florescence protein, and its biofilm formation on SAM-modified surfaces was monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The three-dimensional structures of biofilms were analyzed with the COMSTAT software to obtain information about biofilm thickness and surface coverage. SAMs presenting methyl, l-gulonamide (a sugar alcohol tethered with an amide bond), and tri(ethylene glycol) (TEG) groups were tested. Among these, the TEG-terminated SAM was the most resistant to E. coli biofilm formation; e.g., it repressed biofilm formation by E. coli DH5? by 99.5% ± 0.1% for 1 day compared to the biofilm formation on a bare gold surface. When surfaces were patterned with regions consisting of methyl-terminated SAMs surrounded by TEG-terminated SAMs, E. coli formed biofilms only on methyl-terminated patterns. Addition of TEG as a free molecule to growth medium at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0% also inhibited biofilm formation, while TEG at concentrations up to 1.5% did not have any noticeable effects on cell growth. The results of this study suggest that the reduction in biofilm formation on surfaces modified with TEG-terminated SAMs is a result of multiple factors, including the solvent structure at the interface, the chemorepellent nature of TEG, and the inhibitory effect of TEG on cell motility.

Hou, Shuyu; Burton, Erik A.; Simon, Karen A.; Blodgett, Dustin; Luk, Yan-Yeung; Ren, Dacheng

2007-01-01

346

Biofilm formation ability of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from raw ready-to-eat seafood.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes is of great concern as a foodborne pathogen. Many ready-to-eat foods are widely contaminated with this organism and have caused listeriosis outbreaks and sporadic cases in many countries. In Japan, there is a high incidence of L. monocytogenes contamination, specifically in raw ready-to-eat seafood. Identical L. monocytogenes subtypes have been isolated repeatedly from samples of food manufactured at a given store or processing plant, and researchers suspected that certain L. monocytogenes isolates have formed biofilms at these sites. A microtiter plate biofilm formation assay was conducted, and all raw ready-to-eat seafood isolates tested were able to form biofilms to various degrees. Biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes isolates of lineage I was significantly greater (P = 0.000) than that by isolates of lineage II. However, isolates of clonal lineages formed different levels of biofilms, indicating that the ability to form a biofilm is affected positively or negatively by environmental factors. PMID:19681273

Takahashi, Hajime; Miya, Satoko; Igarashi, Kazunori; Suda, Takayuki; Kuramoto, Shintaro; Kimura, Bon

2009-07-01

347

Inhibition of quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation in Serratia marcescens causing nosocomial infections.  

PubMed

Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen causing severe urinary tract infections in hospitalized individuals. Infections of S. marcescens are of great concern because of its increasing resistance towards conventional antibiotics. Quorum sensing (QS)-a cell to cell communication-system of S. marcescens acts as a global regulator of almost all the virulence factors and majorly its biofilm formation. Since, the QS system of S. marcescens directly accords to its pathogenesis, targeting QS system will provide an improved strategy to combat drug resistant pathogens. In the present study, QS system of S. marcescens has been used as target and its inhibition has been studied upon exposure to bioactives from coral associated bacteria (CAB). This study also emphasises the potential of CAB in producing bioactive agents with anti-QS and antibiofilm properties. Two CAB isolates CAB 23 and 41 have shown to inhibit biofilm formation and the production of QS dependent virulence factors like prodigiosin, protease, lipase and swarming motility. The study, on the whole explicates the potential of QS system as a target to treat drug resistant bacterial infections. PMID:22487181

Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Sivasankar, Chandran; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

2012-03-22

348

The Influence of Maggot Excretions on PAO1 Biofilm Formation on Different Biomaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilm formation in wounds and on biomaterials is increasingly recognized as a problem. It therefore is important to focus\\u000a on new strategies for eradicating severe biofilm-associated infections. The beneficial effects of maggots (Lucilia sericata)\\u000a in wounds have been known for centuries. We hypothesized sterile maggot excretions and secretions (ES) could prevent, inhibit,\\u000a and break down biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1)

Gwendolyn Cazander; Kiril E. B. van Veen; Lee H. Bouwman; Alexandra T. Bernards; Gerrolt N. Jukema

2009-01-01

349

Biofilm formation in Escherichia coli is affected by 3-(N-morpholino)propane sulfonate (MOPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most natural environments, association with a surface in a structure known as a biofilm is the prevailing microbial life-style. Escherichia coli has been a useful model for the study of biofilm formation. Here we analyzed the amounts of biofilm formed when E. coli was cultured in the presence of MOPS [3-(N-morpholino)propane sulfonate]. We used the “O'Toole and Kolter” method,

F. Paola Corona-Izquierdo; Jorge Membrillo-Hernández

2002-01-01

350

Role of (p)ppGpp in Biofilm Formation by Enterococcus faecalis  

PubMed Central

Enterococcus faecalis strain OG1RF and its (p)ppGpp-deficient ?relA, ?relQ, and ?relA ?relQ mutants were grown in biofilms and evaluated for growth profiles, biofilm morphology, cell viability, and proteolytic activity. E. faecalis lacking (p)ppGpp had a diminished capacity to sustain biofilm formation over an extended period of time and expressed abundant proteolytic activity.

Lemos, Jose A.; Wickstrom, Claes; Sedgley, Christine M.

2012-01-01

351

Antibiotics promoting oxidative stress inhibit formation of Escherichia coli biofilm via indole signalling.  

PubMed

Recent studies have revealed that antibiotics can promote the formation of reactive oxygen species which contribute to cell death. In this study, we report that five different antibiotics known to stimulate production of reactive oxygen species inhibited growth of Escherichia coli biofilm. We demonstrated that supression of biofilm formation was mainly a consequence of the increase in the extracellular concentration of indole, a signal molecule which suppresses growth of bacterial biofilm. Indole production was enhanced under antibiotic-mediated oxidative stress due to overexpression of tryptophanase (TnaA), which catalyzes synthesis of indole. We found that DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide), a hydrogen peroxide scavenger, or the lack of trypthophanase, which catalyzes production of indole, partly restored formation of E. coli biofilm in the presence of antibiotics. In conclusion, these findings confirmed that antibiotics which promote formation of ROS (reactive oxygen species) can inhibit development of E. coli biofilm in an indole-dependent process. PMID:20868745

Kuczy?ska-Wi?nik, Dorota; Matuszewska, Ewelina; Furmanek-Blaszk, Beata; Leszczy?ska, Daria; Grudowska, Alicja; Szczepaniak, Pawe?; Laskowska, Ewa

2010-09-22

352

Biofilm formation as a novel phenotypic feature of adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC)  

PubMed Central

Background Crohn's disease (CD) is a high morbidity chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) has been recently implicated in the origin and perpetuation of CD. Because bacterial biofilms in the gut mucosa are suspected to play a role in CD and biofilm formation is a feature of certain pathogenic E. coli strains, we compared the biofilm formation capacity of 27 AIEC and 38 non-AIEC strains isolated from the intestinal mucosa. Biofilm formation capacity was then contrasted with the AIEC phenotype, the serotype, the phylotype, and the presence of virulence genes. Results Specific biofilm formation (SBF) indices were higher amongst AIEC than non-AIEC strains (P = 0.012). In addition, 65.4% of moderate to strong biofilms producers were AIEC, whereas 74.4% of weak biofilm producers were non-AIEC (P = 0.002). These data indicate that AIEC strains were more efficient biofilm producers than non-AIEC strains. Moreover, adhesion (P = 0.009) and invasion (P = 0.003) indices correlated positively with higher SBF indices. Additionally, motility (100%, P < 0.001), H1 type flagellin (53.8%, P < 0.001), serogroups O83 (19.2%, P = 0.008) and O22 (26.9%, P = 0.001), the presence of virulence genes such as sfa/focDE (38.5%, P = 0.003) and ibeA (26.9%, P = 0.017), and B2 phylotype (80.8%, P < 0.001) were frequent characteristics amongst biofilm producers. Conclusion The principal contribution of the present work is the finding that biofilm formation capacity is a novel, complementary pathogenic feature of the recently described AIEC pathovar. Characterization of AIEC specific genetic determinants, and the regulatory pathways, involved in biofilm formation will likely bring new insights into AIEC pathogenesis.

2009-01-01

353

Taking the Starch out of Oral Biofilm Formation: Molecular Basis and Functional Significance of Salivary ?-Amylase Binding to Oral Streptococci  

PubMed Central

?-Amylase-binding streptococci (ABS) are a heterogeneous group of commensal oral bacterial species that comprise a significant proportion of dental plaque microfloras. Salivary ?-amylase, one of the most abundant proteins in human saliva, binds to the surface of these bacteria via specific surface-exposed ?-amylase-binding proteins. The functional significance of ?-amylase-binding proteins in oral colonization by streptococci is important for understanding how salivary components influence oral biofilm formation by these important dental plaque species. This review summarizes the results of an extensive series of studies that have sought to define the molecular basis for ?-amylase binding to the surface of the bacterium as well as the biological significance of this phenomenon in dental plaque biofilm formation.

Nikitkova, Anna E.; Haase, Elaine M.

2013-01-01

354

A Nitric Oxide-Responsive Quorum Sensing Circuit in Vibrio harveyi Regulates Flagella Production and Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Cell signaling plays an important role in the survival of bacterial colonies. They use small molecules to coordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. This process, known as quorum sensing, helps bacteria regulate diverse functions such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation and virulence. In Vibrio harveyi, a bioluminescent marine bacterium, four parallel quorum-sensing systems have been identified to regulate light production. We have previously reported that nitric oxide (NO), through the H-NOX/HqsK quorum sensing pathway contributes to light production in V. harveyi through the LuxU/LuxO/LuxR quorum sensing pathway. In this study, we show that nitric oxide (NO) also regulates flagellar production and enhances biofilm formation. Our data suggest that V. harveyi is capable of switching between lifestyles to be able to adapt to changes in the environment.

Henares, Bernadette M.; Xu, Yueming; Boon, Elizabeth M.

2013-01-01

355

Streptococcus pyogenes pili promote pharyngeal cell adhesion and biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is a Gram-positive human pathogen responsible for several acute diseases and autoimmune sequelae that account for half a million deaths worldwide every year. GAS infections require the capacity of the pathogen to adhere to host tissues and assemble in cell aggregates. Furthermore, a role for biofilms in GAS pathogenesis has recently been proposed. Here we investigated the role of GAS pili in biofilm formation. We demonstrated that GAS pilus-negative mutants, in which the genes encoding either the pilus backbone structural protein or the sortase C1 have been deleted, showed an impaired capacity to attach to a pharyngeal cell line. The same mutants were much less efficient in forming cellular aggregates in liquid culture and microcolonies on human cells. Furthermore, mutant strains were incapable of producing the typical three-dimensional layer with bacterial microcolonies embedded in a carbohydrate polymeric matrix. Complemented mutants had an adhesion and aggregation phenotype similar to the wild-type strain. Finally, in vivo expression of pili was indirectly confirmed by demonstrating that most of the sera from human patients affected by GAS-mediated pharyngitis recognized recombinant pili proteins. These data support the role of pili in GAS adherence and colonization and suggest a general role of pili in all pathogenic streptococci. PMID:17501921

Manetti, Andrea G O; Zingaretti, Chiara; Falugi, Fabiana; Capo, Sabrina; Bombaci, Mauro; Bagnoli, Fabio; Gambellini, Gabriella; Bensi, Giuliano; Mora, Marirosa; Edwards, Andrew M; Musser, James M; Graviss, Edward A; Telford, John L; Grandi, Guido; Margarit, Immaculada

2007-05-01

356

Enhanced protease production in a polymethylmethacrylate conico-cylindrical flask by two biofilm-forming bacteria.  

PubMed

A polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) conico-cylindrical flask (CCF) with an inner arrangement consisting of eight equidistantly spaced rectangular strips mounted radially on a circular disk to provide additional surface area for microbial attachment was employed for protease production by two biofilm-forming bacteria, an intertidal gamma-Proteobacterium (DGII) and a chicken meat isolate, Virgibacillus pantothenticus. The flask design allowed comparison of protease production during cultivation with a hydrophilic (glass) or hydrophobic (PMMA) surface. Compared to the Erlenmeyer flask, the CCF allowed protease production that was 30% and 35% higher and growth that was 20% and 345% higher for DGII and V. pantothenticus, respectively. Protease production increased by 202% and 22% and growth by 19,275% and 940% for DGII and V. pantothenticus, respectively, in the presence of a hydrophobic as compared to a hydrophilic surface. This investigation pioneers the application of a vessel beyond the traditional shake-flask for enhancing protease production by biofilm-formers. PMID:20947343

Sarkar, Sreyashi; Roy, Debashis; Mukherjee, Joydeep

2010-09-29

357

Influence of exudates of the kelp Laminaria digitata on biofilm formation of associated and exogenous bacterial epiphytes.  

PubMed

Wild populations of brown marine algae (Phaeophyta) provide extensive surfaces to bacteria and epiphytic eukaryotes for colonization. On one hand, various strategies allow kelps prevent frond surface fouling which would retard growth by reducing photosynthesis and increasing pathogenesis. On the other hand, production and release of organic exudates of high energy value, sometimes in association with more or less selective control of settlement of epiphytic strains, allow bacteria to establish surface consortia not leading to macrofouling. Here, we present the analysis of adhesion and biofilm formation of bacterial isolates from the kelp Laminaria digitata and of characterized and referenced marine isolates. When they were grown in flow cell under standard nutrient regimes, all used bacteria, except one, were able to adhere on glass and then develop as biofilms, with different architecture. Then, we evaluated the effect of extracts from undisturbed young Laminaria thalli and from young thalli subjected to oxidative stress elicitation; this latter condition induced the production of defense molecules. We observed increasing or decreasing adhesion depending on the referenced strains, but no effects were observed against strains isolated from L. digitata. Such effects were less observed on biofilms. Our results suggested that L. digitata is able to modulate its bacterial colonization. Finally, mannitol, a regular surface active component of Laminaria exudates was tested individually, and it showed a pronounced increased on one biofilm strain. Results of these experiments are original and can be usefully linked to what we already know on the oxidative halogen metabolism peculiar to Laminaria. Hopefully, we will be able to understand more about the unique relationship that bacteria have been sharing with Laminaria for an estimated one billion years. PMID:22476759

Salaün, Stéphanie; La Barre, Stéphane; Dos Santos-Goncalvez, Marina; Potin, Philippe; Haras, Dominique; Bazire, Alexis

2012-04-04

358

Tackling the minority: sulfate-reducing bacteria in an archaea-dominated subsurface biofilm.  

PubMed

Archaea are usually minor components of a microbial community and dominated by a large and diverse bacterial population. In contrast, the SM1 Euryarchaeon dominates a sulfidic aquifer by forming subsurface biofilms that contain a very minor bacterial fraction (5%). These unique biofilms are delivered in high biomass to the spring outflow that provides an outstanding window to the subsurface. Despite previous attempts to understand its natural role, the metabolic capacities of the SM1 Euryarchaeon remain mysterious to date. In this study, we focused on the minor bacterial fraction in order to obtain insights into the ecological function of the biofilm. We link phylogenetic diversity information with the spatial distribution of chemical and metabolic compounds by combining three different state-of-the-art methods: PhyloChip G3 DNA microarray technology, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectromicroscopy. The results of PhyloChip and FISH technologies provide evidence for selective enrichment of sulfate-reducing bacteria, which was confirmed by the detection of bacterial dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B (dsrB) genes via quantitative PCR and sequence-based analyses. We further established a differentiation of archaeal and bacterial cells by SR-FTIR based on typical lipid and carbohydrate signatures, which demonstrated a co-localization of organic sulfate, carbonated mineral and bacterial signatures in the biofilm. All these results strongly indicate an involvement of the SM1 euryarchaeal biofilm in the global cycles of sulfur and carbon and support the hypothesis that sulfidic springs are important habitats for Earth's energy cycles. Moreover, these investigations of a bacterial minority in an Archaea-dominated environment are a remarkable example of the great power of combining highly sensitive microarrays with label-free infrared imaging. PMID:23178669

Probst, Alexander J; Holman, Hoi-Ying N; DeSantis, Todd Z; Andersen, Gary L; Birarda, Giovanni; Bechtel, Hans A; Piceno, Yvette M; Sonnleitner, Maria; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2012-11-22

359

Biofilm formation of salmonella serotypes in simulated meat processing environments and its relationship to cell characteristics.  

PubMed

Salmonella attached to meat contact surfaces encountered in meat processing facilities may serve as a source of cross-contamination. In this study, the influence of serotypes and media on biofilm formation of Salmonella was investigated in a simulated meat processing environment, and the relationships between biofilm formation and cell characteristics were also determined. All six serotypes (Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg, Salmonella Derby, Salmonella Agona, Salmonella Indiana, Salmonella Infantis, and Salmonella Typhimurium) can readily form biofilms on stainless steel surfaces, and the amounts of biofilms were significantly influenced by the serotypes, incubation media, and incubation time used in this study. Significant differences in cell surface hydrophobicity, autoaggregation, motility, and growth kinetic parameters were observed between individual serotypes tested. Except for growth kinetic parameters, the cell characteristics were correlated with the ability of biofilm formation incubated in tryptic soy broth, whereas no correlation with biofilm formation incubated in meat thawing-loss broth (an actual meat substrate) was found. Salmonella grown in meat thawing-loss broth showed a "cloud-shaped" morphology in the mature biofilm, whereas when grown in tryptic soy broth it had a "reticulum-shaped" appearance. Our study provides some practical information to understand the process of biofilm formation on meat processing contact surfaces. PMID:24112581

Wang, Huhu; Ding, Shijie; Dong, Yang; Ye, Keping; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

2013-10-01

360

Biofilm Formation and Acyl Homoserine Lactone Production in the Burkholderia cepacia Complex  

PubMed Central

Acyl homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-mediated gene regulation has been shown to influence biofilm formation in one Burkholderia cepacia cystic fibrosis isolate, but it is not known whether this relationship is a consistent feature of the several genomic species that make up the B. cepacia complex (BCC). We screened strains belonging to genomovars I to V of the BCC for biofilm formation on an abiotic surface and for acyl-HSL synthesis. We determined that organisms from each of these genomovars were capable of biofilm formation. Similarly, acyl-HSL was synthesized by organisms from each of genomovars I to V, with most isolates producing octanoyl-HSL in greatest abundance. When biofilms were grown in Luria broth, acyl-HSL synthesis and biofilm formation appeared to be associated, but these phenotypes were independent when the biofilms were grown in basal salts containing citrate. Genomovar V strains synthesized the greatest quantities of acyl-HSL, and genomovar II and III-A strains elaborated the most abundant biofilms. Quorum sensing may play a role in BCC pathogenesis, but it may not regulate biofilm formation under all growth conditions.

Conway, Barbara-Ann D.; Venu, Vicnays; Speert, David P.

2002-01-01

361

Ecophysiological Interaction between Nitrifying Bacteria and Heterotrophic Bacteria in Autotrophic Nitrifying Biofilms as Determined by Microautoradiography-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Ecophysiological interactions between the community members (i.e., nitrifiers and heterotrophic bacteria) in a carbon-limited autotrophic nitrifying biofilm fed only NH4+ as an energy source were investigated by using a full-cycle 16S rRNA approach followed by microautoradiography (MAR)-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Phylogenetic differentiation (identification) of heterotrophic bacteria was performed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and FISH probes were designed to determine the community structure and the spatial organization (i.e., niche differentiation) in the biofilm. FISH analysis showed that this autotrophic nitrifying biofilm was composed of 50% nitrifying bacteria (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria [AOB] and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria [NOB]) and 50% heterotrophic bacteria, and the distribution was as follows: members of the alpha subclass of the class Proteobacteria (?-Proteobacteria), 23%; ?-Proteobacteria, 13%; green nonsulfur bacteria (GNSB), 9%; Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) division, 2%; and unidentified (organisms that could not be hybridized with any probe except EUB338), 3%. These results indicated that a pair of nitrifiers (AOB and NOB) supported a heterotrophic bacterium via production of soluble microbial products (SMP). MAR-FISH revealed that the heterotrophic bacterial community was composed of bacteria that were phylogenetically and metabolically diverse and to some extent metabolically redundant, which ensured the stability of the ecosystem as a biofilm. ?- and ?-Proteobacteria dominated the utilization of [14C]acetic acid and 14C-amino acids in this biofilm. Despite their low abundance (ca. 2%) in the biofilm community, members of the CFB cluster accounted for the largest fraction (ca. 64%) of the bacterial community consuming N-acetyl-d-[1-14C]glucosamine (NAG). The GNSB accounted for 9% of the 14C-amino acid-consuming bacteria and 27% of the [14C]NAG-consuming bacteria but did not utilize [14C]acetic acid. Bacteria classified in the unidentified group accounted for 6% of the total heterotrophic bacteria and could utilize all organic substrates, including NAG. This showed that there was an efficient food web (carbon metabolism) in the autotrophic nitrifying biofilm community, which ensured maximum utilization of SMP produced by nitrifiers and prevented buildup of metabolites or waste materials of nitrifiers to significant levels.

Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ito, Tsukasa; Okabe, Satoshi

2004-01-01

362

[Biofilms and public health].  

PubMed

Micro-organisms do not always exist in planctonic forms (single cells or small groups). To survive, especially in limiting media, they may adhere to inert or living surfaces. This enables them to multiply within a community protected by an extracellular matrix, thus forming a biofilm which protects them from antimicrobials. Biofilms have many potential consequences for public health. Some are positive, such as the commensal biofilms that protect against pathogenic bacteria, while environmental biofilms may be a source of outbreaks of respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases or infections associated with implanted medical devices. Respiratory tract infection can be caused by aerosols of fragmented biofilms growing in warm humid conditions (air cooling towers, hot springs, showers, etc.). Digestive tract infection can arise from biofilms formed during food manufacturing or packaging processes. Colonized implanted medical devices can lead to sepsis. This article examines the role of central venous catheters, taking into account the surgical site. In vivo studies show that the source of catheter infection may be exogenous or endogenous, while in vitro studies of biofilms show that ablation of the device is the best solution. Prevention is difficult, as biofilm formation is multifactorial. Physical and biological knowledge of biofilms may help to limit their formation and growth. PMID:22375373

Choisy, Claude

363

Hyaluronic Acid Derived from Other Streptococci Supports Streptococcus pneumoniae In Vitro Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

We investigate the role of hyaluronic acid (HA) on S. pneumoniae in vitro biofilm formation and evaluate gene expressions of virulence and/or biofilm related genes. Biofilms were grown in medium supplied with HA derived from capsule of Streptococcus equi. The biomasses of biofilms were detected by crystal-violet (CV) microtiter plate assay, and the morphology was viewed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The gene expressions were assessed by relative quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that the HA support pneumococcal growth in planktonic form and within biofilms. The CV-microtiter plate assay detected significantly increased biofilm growth in medium containing HA. The SEM analysis revealed thick and organized biofilms in positive control and HA supplemented medium. The nanA, nanB, bgaA, strH, luxS, hysA, ugl, and PST-EIIA encoding genes were significantly upregulated in the planktonic cells grown in presence of HA, while the lytA and comA genes were downregulated. Similarly the luxS, hysA, ugl, and PST-EIIA encoding genes were significantly upregulated by more than 2-folds in HA biofilms. The results of this study indicate that the HA derived from capsule of S. equi supports pneumococcal growth in planktonic state and within biofilms and upregulated virulence and biofilm related genes.

Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Chae, Sung-Won; Park, Kyeongsoon

2013-01-01

364

Biofilm formation and adherence characteristics of an Elizabethkingia meningoseptica isolate from Oreochromis mossambicus  

PubMed Central

Background Elizabethkingia spp. are opportunistic pathogens often found associated with intravascular device-related bacteraemias and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Their ability to exist as biofilm structures has been alluded to but not extensively investigated. Methods The ability of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica isolate CH2B from freshwater tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and E. meningoseptica strain NCTC 10016T to adhere to abiotic surfaces was investigated using microtiter plate adherence assays following exposure to varying physico-chemical challenges. The role of cell-surface properties was investigated using hydrophobicity (bacterial adherence to hydrocarbons), autoaggregation and coaggregation assays. The role of extracellular components in adherence was determined using reversal or inhibition of coaggregation assays in conjunction with Listeria spp. isolates, while the role of cell-free supernatants, from diverse bacteria, in inducing enhanced adherence was investigated using microtitre plate assays. Biofilm architecture of isolate CH2B alone as well as in co-culture with Listeria monocytogenes was investigated using flow cells and microscopy. Results E. meningoseptica isolates CH2B and NCTC 10016T demonstrated stronger biofilm formation in nutrient-rich medium compared to nutrient-poor medium at both 21 and 37°C, respectively. Both isolates displayed a hydrophilic cell surface following the bacterial adherence to xylene assay. Varying autoaggregation and coaggregation indices were observed for the E. meningoseptica isolates. Coaggregation by isolate CH2B appeared to be strongest with foodborne pathogens like Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Listeria spp. Partial inhibition of coaggregation was observed when isolate CH2B was treated with heat or protease exposure, suggesting the presence of heat-sensitive adhesins, although sugar treatment resulted in increased coaggregation and may be associated with a lactose-associated lectin or capsule-mediated attachment. Conclusions E. meningoseptica isolate CH2B and strain NCTC 10016T displayed a strong biofilm-forming phenotype which may play a role in its potential pathogenicity in both clinical and aquaculture environments. The ability of E. meningoseptica isolates to adhere to abiotic surfaces and form biofilm structures may result from the hydrophilic cell surface and multiple adhesins located around the cell.

2011-01-01

365

Biofilm Formation and Dispersal under the Influence of the Global Regulator CsrA of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant mode of growth of bacteria in the environment is within sessile, matrix-enclosed commu- nities known as biofilms. Biofilms often complicate chronic and difficult-to-treat infections by protecting bacteria from the immune system, decreasing antibiotic efficacy, and dispersing planktonic cells to distant body sites. While the biology of bacterial biofilms has become a major focus of microbial research, the regulatory

Debra W. Jackson; Kazushi Suzuki; Lawrence Oakford; Jerry W. Simecka; Mark E. Hart; Tony Romeo

2002-01-01

366

Study of the effects of chitosan upon Streptococcus mutans adherence and biofilm formation.  

PubMed

The main aim of this work was to access the potential use of high and low molecular weight chitosans as potential oral antimicrobials, particularly as antibiofilm agents. Chitosan's interference with Streptococcus mutans capability to adhere and form biofilms was assessed. Additionally the effect upon mature and polymicrobial biofilms was also evaluated. The results obtained showed that chitosan was capable of interfering with S. mutans adhesion and primary biofilm formation. This action was observed up to a week with little to none decrease in efficiency. In addition chitosan was capable of inhibiting biofilms formed by two microorganisms and was capable of acting upon mature biofilms leading to significant reductions (94%) in biofilm survival. However clear statistical differences (p < 0.05) were registered in all assays with, in most assays, HMw chitosan presenting higher efficiency than LMw chitosan. Considering this results chitosan's potential as a valid alternative to traditional antimicrobials in oral health it's evident. PMID:23454497

Costa, E M; Silva, S; Tavaria, F K; Pintado, M M

2013-02-27

367

Broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition by a secreted bacterial polysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of surface-attached biofilm bacterial communities is considered an important source of nosocomial infections. Recently, bacterial interference via signaling molecules and surface active compounds was shown to antagonize biofilm formation, suggesting that nonantibiotic molecules produced during competitive interactions between bacteria could be used for biofilm reduction. Hence, a better understanding of commensal\\/pathogen interactions within bacterial community could lead to

Jaione Valle; Sandra da Re; Nelly Henry; Thierry Fontaine; Damien Balestrino; Patricia Latour-Lambert; Jean-Marc Ghigo

2006-01-01

368

Histone-like protein H-NS regulates biofilm formation and virulence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the causative agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, a very important swine respiratory infectious disease causing great economic losses worldwide. The pathogenesis of this disease is still not completely understood. Biofilm formation contributes to full virulence in many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. In the present study, two biofilm-producing mutants were identified from the transposon mutagenesis mutant pools of A.

Baolige Dalai; Rui Zhou; Yun Wan; Mingsong Kang; Lu Li; Tingting Li; Sihua Zhang; Huanchun Chen

2009-01-01

369

The Influence of Azithromycin on the Biofilm Formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of azithromycin on biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a cause of refractory chronic respiratory tract infection, was investigated. Alginic acid produced by a mucoid strain of P. aeruginosa was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography from colonies growing on an agar medium. Polysaccharides in the biofilm formed on silicon chips by a nonmucoid strain were determined by a tryptophan

Tomoku Ichimiya; Kaori Takeoka; Kazufumi Hiramatsu; Kazuhiro Hirai; Tohru Yamasaki; Masaru Nasu

1996-01-01

370

The Effect of Carbon Source and Fluoride Concentrations in the "Streptococcus Mutans" Biofilm Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The main objective of this class experiment is to show the influence of carbon source and of different fluoride concentrations on the biofilm formation by the bacterium "Streptococcus mutans." The observation of different biofilm morphology as a function of carbon source and fluoride concentration allows an interesting discussion regarding the…

Paulino, Tony P.; Andrade, Ricardo O.; Bruschi-Thedei, Giuliana C. M.; Thedei, Geraldo, Jr.; Ciancaglini, Pietro

2004-01-01

371

Complex conductivity response to microbial growth and biofilm formation on phenanthrene spiked medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several laboratory studies have recently demonstrated the utility of geophysical methods for the investigation of microbial-induced changes over contaminated sites. However, it remains difficult to distinguish the effects due to the new physical properties imparted by microbial processes, to bacterial growth, or to the development of bacterial biofilm. We chose to study the influence of biofilm formation on geophysical response

Remy Albrecht; Jean Christophe Gourry; Marie-Odile Simonnot; Corinne Leyval

2011-01-01

372

The Effect of Carbon Source and Fluoride Concentrations in the "Streptococcus Mutans" Biofilm Formation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this class experiment is to show the influence of carbon source and of different fluoride concentrations on the biofilm formation by the bacterium "Streptococcus mutans." The observation of different biofilm morphology as a function of carbon source and fluoride concentration allows an interesting discussion regarding the…

Paulino, Tony P.; Andrade, Ricardo O.; Bruschi-Thedei, Giuliana C. M.; Thedei, Geraldo, Jr.; Ciancaglini, Pietro

2004-01-01

373

Identification of Type 3 Fimbriae in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Reveals a Role in Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common nosocomial infection in the United States. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the most common cause of CAUTI, can form biofilms on indwelling catheters. Here, we identify and characterize novel factors that affect biofilm formation by UPEC strains that cause CAUTI. Sixty-five CAUTI UPEC isolates were characterized for phenotypic markers of urovirulence, including

Cheryl-Lynn Y. Ong; Glen C. Ulett; Amanda N. Mabbett; Scott A. Beatson; Richard I. Webb; Wayne Monaghan; Graeme R. Nimmo; David F. Looke; Alastair G. McEwan; Mark A. Schembri

2008-01-01

374

Formation of Propionibacterium acnes biofilms on orthopaedic biomaterials and their susceptibility to antimicrobials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure to treat and eradicate prosthetic hip infection with systemic antibiotic regimens is usually due to the fact that the infection is associated with biofilm formation and that bacterial cells growing within a biofilm exhibit increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. In this in vitro study, we investigated the susceptibility of prosthetic hip Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus spp. isolates growing within

Gordon Ramage; Michael M. Tunney; Sheila Patrick; Sean P. Gorman; James R. Nixon

2003-01-01

375

Porphyromonas gingivalis galE Is Involved in Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen Synthesis and Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a crucial component of complex plaque biofilms that form in the oral cavity, resulting in the progression of periodontal disease. To elucidate the mechanism of periodontal biofilm formation, we analyzed the involvement of several genes related to the synthesis of polysaccharides in P. gingivalis. Gene knockout P. gingivalis mutants were constructed by insertion of an ermF-ermAM cassette;

Ryoma Nakao; Hidenobu Senpuku; Haruo Watanabe

2006-01-01

376

Silver as a Residual Disinfectant To Prevent Biofilm Formation in Water Distribution Systems?  

PubMed Central

Biofilms can have deleterious effects on drinking water quality and may harbor pathogens. Experiments were conducted using 100 ?g/liter silver to prevent biofilm formation in modified Robbins devices with polyvinyl chloride and stainless steel surfaces. No significant difference was observed on either surface between the silver treatment and the control.

Silvestry-Rodriguez, Nadia; Bright, Kelly R.; Slack, Donald C.; Uhlmann, Donald R.; Gerba, Charles P.

2008-01-01

377

Quantitative analysis of the cellular inflammatory response against biofilm bacteria in chronic wounds.  

PubMed

Chronic wounds are an important problem worldwide. These wounds are characterized by a persistent inflammatory stage associated with excessive accumulation and elevated cell activity of neutrophils, suggesting that there must be a persistent stimulus that attracts and recruits neutrophils to the wound. One such stimulus might be the presence of bacterial biofilms in chronic wounds. In the present study, biopsy specimens from chronic venous leg ulcers were investigated for the detection of bacteria using peptide nucleic acid-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The bacteria in the wounds were often situated in large aggregates. To obtain a measure of the cellular inflammatory response against the bacteria in the chronic wounds, the amount of neutrophils accumulated at the site of infection was evaluated through differential neutrophil counting on the tissue sections from wounds containing either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. The P. aeruginosa-containing wounds had significantly higher numbers of neutrophils accumulated compared with the S. aureus-containing wounds. These results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that the presence of P. aeruginosa biofilms in chronic wounds may be one of the main factors leading to a persistent inflammatory response and impaired wound healing. PMID:21518086

Fazli, Mustafa; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Jørgensen, Anne; Andersen, Claus Bøgelund; Givskov, Michael; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

2011-04-21

378

Formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks, a case study in two cities in Finland and Latvia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks is a significant technical, aesthetic and hygienic problem. In this study, the effects of assimilable organic carbon, microbially available phosphorus (MAP), residual chlorine, temperature and corrosion products on the formation of biofilms were studied in two full-scale water supply systems in Finland and Latvia. Biofilm collectors consisting of polyvinyl chloride pipes

Markku J. Lehtola; T?lis Juhna; Ilkka T. Miettinen; Terttu Vartiainen; Pertti J. Martikainen

2004-01-01

379

A Bacillus subtilis Sensor Kinase Involved in Triggering Biofilm Formation on the Roots of Tomato Plants  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is widely used in agriculture as a biocontrol agent able to protect plants from a variety of pathogens. Protection is thought to involve the formation of bacterial communities - biofilms - on the roots of the plants. Here we used confocal microscopy to visualize biofilms on the surface of the roots of tomato seedlings and demonstrated that biofilm formation requires genes governing the production of the extracellular matrix that holds cells together. We further show that biofilm formation was dependent on the sensor histidine kinase KinD and in particular on an extracellular CACHE domain implicated in small molecule sensing. Finally, we report that exudates of tomato roots strongly stimulated biofilm formation ex planta and that an abundant small molecule in the exudates, l-malic acid, was able to stimulate biofilm formation at high concentrations in a manner that depended on the KinD CACHE domain. We propose that small signaling molecules released by the roots of tomato plants are directly or indirectly recognized by KinD, triggering biofilm formation.

Chen, Yun; Cao, Shugeng; Chai, Yunrong; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto; Guo, Jian-hua; Losick, Richard

2012-01-01

380

Cell Surface Attachment Structures Contribute to Biofilm Formation and Xylem Colonization by Erwinia amylovora?  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Erwinia amylovora and the systemic invasion of plant hosts. The functional role of the exopolysaccharides amylovoran and levan in pathogenesis and biofilm formation has been evaluated. However, the role of biofilm formation, independent of exopolysaccharide production, in pathogenesis and movement within plants has not been studied previously. Evaluation of the role of attachment in E. amylovora biofilm formation and virulence was examined through the analysis of deletion mutants lacking genes encoding structures postulated to function in attachment to surfaces or in cellular aggregation. The genes and gene clusters studied were selected based on in silico analyses. Microscopic analyses and quantitative assays demonstrated that attachment structures such as fimbriae and pili are involved in the attachment of E. amylovora to surfaces and are necessary for the production of mature biofilms. A time course assay indicated that type I fimbriae function earlier in attachment, while type IV pilus structures appear to function later in attachment. Our results indicate that multiple attachment structures are needed for mature biofilm formation and full virulence and that biofilm formation facilitate