Sample records for bacteria causing acute

  1. Causes of acute bronchitis (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the bronchial tubes, the part of the respiratory system that leads into the lungs. Acute bronchitis has a sudden onset and usually appears after a respiratory infection, such as a cold, and can be ...

  2. Acute appendicitis caused by amebiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoto Gotohda; Satoshi Itano; Yoshikatsu Okada; Sadayuki Horiki; Akira Endo; Norihiko Terada; Hiroshi Isozaki; Norihisa Takakura; Noriaki Tanaka

    2000-01-01

    :   We report a case of appendicitis caused by amebiasis in a 45-year-old Japanese man. He presented to our hospital with bloody\\u000a stools in June 1998. Sigmoidoscopy disclosed erosion, and a biopsy of the erosion showed colitis caused by Entamoeba histolytica infection. Four months later, he was admitted to our hospital with a small elastic mass and severe pain in

  3. Acute colitis caused by caustic products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge da Fonseca; Maria José Brito; João Freitas; Cunha Leal

    1998-01-01

    We report two cases of acute proctocolitis caused by rectal application of caustic products of domestic use. One 61-yr-old woman applied an ammonia solution enema; the other patient, a 63-yr-old woman, accidentally applied an enema containing lye. Both patients presented with intense anal pain, but the first patient also had abdominal pain with guarding, hematochezia, and leucocytosis. An acute proctocolitis

  4. DIARRHEA CAUSED BY ENTEROPATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN CHILDREN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad-Mehdi Soltan-Dallal

    Background-Diarrhea is a major cause of mortality in 15 to 20 percent of the under 5- year-olds, and among the bacterial agents causing diarrhea, the five most important are Shigella, Salmonella, E. coli, Campylobacter and Yersinia. Methods-In a one-year study conducted in cooperation with a local health center in Islamshahr, South of Tehran, rectal swabs were collected from children less

  5. Acute respiratory distress caused by Neosartorya udagawae

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, John J.; Kasper, Douglas J.; Taneja, Deepak; Baman, Sudhakar; O?Rourke, Lindsay M.; Lowery, Kristin S.; Sampath, Rangarajan; Bonomo, Robert A.; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    We describe the first reported case of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) attributed to Neosartorya udagawae infection. This mold grew rapidly in cultures of multiple respiratory specimens from a previously healthy 43-year-old woman. Neosartorya spp. are a recently recognized cause of invasive disease in immunocompromised patients that can be mistaken for their sexual teleomorph, Aspergillus fumigatus. Because the cultures were sterile, phenotypic identification was not possible. DNA sequencing of ITS, calmodulin and ?-tubulin genes supported identification of Neosartorya udagawae. Our case is the first report of ARDS associated with Neosartorya sp. infection and defines a new clinical entity. PMID:25379388

  6. Do bacteria cause exacerbations of COPD?

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, J V

    2000-07-01

    Exacerbations of COPD, which include combinations of dyspnea, cough, wheezing, increased sputum production (and a change in its color to green or yellow), are common. The role of bacterial infection in causing these episodes and the value of antibiotic therapy for them are debated. An assessment of the microbiological studies indicates that conventional bacterial respiratory pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, are absent in about 50% of attacks. The frequency of isolating these organisms, which often colonize the bronchi of patients in stable condition, does not seem to increase during exacerbations, and their density typically remains unchanged. Serologic studies generally fail to show rises in antibody titers to H influenzae; the only report available demonstrates none to Haemophilus parainfluenzae; and the sole investigation of S pneumoniae is inconclusive. Trials with vaccines against S pneumoniae and H influenzae show no clear benefit in reducing exacerbations. The histologic findings of bronchial biopsies and cytologic studies of sputum show predominantly increased eosinophils, rather than neutrophils, contrary to what is expected with bacterial infections. The randomized, placebo-controlled trials generally show no benefit for antibiotics, but most have studied few patients. A meta-analysis of these demonstrated no clinically significant advantage to antimicrobial therapy. The largest trials suggest that antibiotics confer no advantage for mild episodes; with more severe attacks, in which patients should receive systemic corticosteroids, the addition of antimicrobial therapy is probably not helpful. PMID:10893379

  7. Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins.

    PubMed

    Oken, D E

    1976-06-01

    Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation. PMID:1001287

  8. [Background factors in the detection of drug-resistant bacteria in adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Michio

    2014-02-01

    In the treatment of adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis, it has been assumed that subjects over 65 years of age or living with children attending a day nursery, are at higher risk for infection with drug-resistant bacteria. However there are few reports which have discussed the relationship between those risk factors and adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis. I investigated the association between adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis living with children attending a day nursery and gender, ages, and frequency of detection of drug-resistant bacteria. From 2010 to 2012, a total of 598 adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis were enrolled. The majority of the study subjects were women, and the largest 10-year age group was 30-39 years. By sex, a greater proportion of the female subjects than the male subjects lived with children attending a day nursery. By age, the proportion of subjects who lived with children attending a day nursery was significantly higher in the 30-39-year age group than other age groups. Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and ampicillin (ABPC)-resistant Haemophilus influenzae were detected at significantly higher rates in subjects with children attending a day nursery than in those without. There were no significant difference in drug-resistant bacteria detection between subjects over 65 years of age, and under 65 years. These findings suggested that living with children attending a day nursery is a risk factor and source of infection by drug-resistant organisms that may cause intra-familial infections of adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis. These results suggested we must ask adult patients with acute rhinosinusitis whether they are living with children attending a day nursery or not, when we plan their treatment strategy. PMID:24720161

  9. [Acute acalculous cholecystitis: from common to rare causes].

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Tamás; Issekutz, Ákos; Oláh, Attila; Rácz, István

    2014-01-19

    Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches of acute calculous cholecystitis are well defined. Cholecystectomy is among the most frequently performed surgical interventions. In contrast, acute acalculous cholecystitis is a secondary condition; its cause may be difficult to determine and indication for surgical intervention has not been clearly established. The authors summarize the primary causes of acute acalculous cholecystitis and discuss ultrasonographic features which may help the decision to perform cholecystectomy in patients with acalculous cholecystitis. PMID:24412946

  10. An unexpected cause of acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Brent

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with decompensated acute liver failure with no clear etiology. Eventually, a bone marrow biopsy revealed hemophagocytic cells, and he was diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. This is an uncommon condition in adults, with high morbidity and mortality, and it is often indistinguishable from other forms of acute liver failure. Early clinical suspicion is critical to making the diagnosis, based on meeting at least four of nine specified criteria. PMID:24759344

  11. Epidemiology of respiratory infections caused by atypical bacteria in two Kenyan refugee camps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Curi; Nyoka, Raymond; Ahmed, Jamal A; Winchell, Jonas M; Mitchell, Stephanie L; Kariuki Njenga, M; Auko, Erick; Burton, Wagacha; Breiman, Robert F; Eidex, Rachel B

    2012-02-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. are common causes of atypical pneumonia; however, data about these atypical pathogens are limited in the refugee setting. Paired nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens were collected from patients with respiratory illness presenting to healthcare centers in two refugee camps in Kenya. The specimens were tested for C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. as well as eight respiratory viruses. Atypical pathogens were detected in 5.5% of the specimens of which 54% were co-infected with at least one of the eight viruses tested. Patients positive for atypical bacteria co-infected with virus were significantly more likely to have severe acute respiratory illness than patients infected with only atypical bacteria (P = 0.04). While the percentage of atypical pathogens identified was lower than expected, we found a significant relationship between atypical bacterial-viral co-infection and severity of disease in this refugee population. PMID:21701900

  12. Acute respiratory distress caused by Neosartorya udagawae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first reported case of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) attributed to Neosartorya infection. The mold grew rapidly in culture of both sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from a previously healthy 43-year-old woman with ARDS, which developed as the culmination of a...

  13. Unusual cause of acute chest pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikhil Anil Nadkarni; Mayank Jayant; Sanjay D’Cruz; Ravinder Kaur; Atul Sachdev

    2011-01-01

    A 70-year-old lady presented with retrosternal chest pain and recurrent retching for 4 h. She had history of reflux disease with no prior history of coronary artery disease, hypertension or diabetes. On examination, the patient was in acute distress. Investigations revealed a normal hemogram. ECG showed sinus tachycardia with no ST or T wave changes. Cardiac enzymes were normal. Echocardiography

  14. Agraphia caused by acute right parietal infarction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Manyong; Suh, Mee Kyung; Lee, Myung Hyun; Lee, Jin Soo; Moon, So Young

    2015-04-01

    Injury in the dominant language hemisphere typically leads to agraphia, however we report a patient with agraphia after injury to the right angular gyrus. A 71-year-old Korean woman presented with the complaint of an inability to write for the last 7days. The patient had been illiterate for most of her life, but had started learning to write Hangul, the Korean alphabet, at a welfare center 3years ago. On language screening she was unable to write although she could read, and other language functions showed no abnormalities. Brain MRI showed acute infarction in the right angular gyrus. Her writing patterns displayed features of surface agraphia, indicative of phoneme-to-grapheme conversion with phonetic writing of targets. Additionally, she manifested visual errors. A functional MRI indicated that her left hemisphere was language dominant. This patient experienced agraphia resulting from pure impairment of visuo-constructive function after acute infarction in the right angular gyrus. PMID:25564267

  15. Reflex anuria: a rare cause of acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Adediran, Samuel; Dhakarwal, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute Kidney Injury results from pre renal, post renal or intrinsic renal causes. Reflex anuria is a very rare cause of renal impairment which happens due to irritation or trauma to one kidney or ureter, or severely painful stimuli to other nearby organs. Case Presentation Here we present a case of acute kidney injury secondary to reflex anuria in a patient who underwent extensive gynecological surgery along with ureteral manipulation which recovered spontaneously. Conclusion Reflex Anuria is a rare and often not considered as cause of acute kidney injury. This case illustrates that this should be kept as a differential in potential cause of acute kidney injury in patient undergoing urogenital or gynecological surgeries. PMID:24765255

  16. Acute Cytomegalovirus Infection as a Cause of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Francesca; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Mojoli, Francesco; Baldanti, Fausto; Brunetti, Enrico; Pascarella, Michela; Giordani, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Acute Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is an unusual cause of venous thromboembolism, a potentially life-threatening condition. Thrombus formation can occur at the onset of the disease or later during the recovery and may also occur in the absence of acute HCMV hepatitis. It is likely due to both vascular endothelium damage caused by HCMV and impairment of the clotting balance caused by the virus itself. Here we report on two immunocompetent women with splanchnic thrombosis that occurred during the course of acute HCMV infection. Although the prevalence of venous thrombosis in patients with acute HCMV infection is unknown, physicians should be aware of its occurrence, particularly in immunocompetent patients presenting with fever and unexplained abdominal pain. PMID:24959338

  17. A rare cause of acute appendicitis: an ingested foreign body.

    PubMed

    Hazer, Batuhan; Dandin, Ozgür; Karaka?, Dursun Ozgür

    2013-11-01

    Various kinds of foreign bodies causing appendicitis have been reported. However, a needle contained in the appendix is very rare, especially in adults. We report an unusual case of a twenty year old man who had ingested a needle ten days prior and presented with signs and symptoms of acute abdominal pain. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed acute appendicitis. The patient was successfully treated with laparoscopic surgical intervention. In cases of a foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract that cannot be removed endoscopically, the emergence of non-specific symptoms may be early symptoms of acute problems in the abdomen. PMID:24347220

  18. An unusual cause of acute internal haemorrhage: cystic artery pseudoaneurysm secondary to acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Fung, A K Y; Vosough, A; Olson, S; Aly, E H; Binnie, N R

    2013-05-01

    Spontaneous cystic artery haemorrhage is a rare complication of acute cholecystitis. Here we describe a case report of this unusual cause of internal haemorrhage, and discuss the pathogenesis and management strategies. PMID:23728766

  19. Comparative Pathogenomics of Bacteria Causing Infectious Diseases in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S.; Al-Ghabshi, Aliya; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud

    2012-01-01

    Fish living in the wild as well as reared in the aquaculture facilities are susceptible to infectious diseases caused by a phylogenetically diverse collection of bacterial pathogens. Control and treatment options using vaccines and drugs are either inadequate, inefficient, or impracticable. The classical approach in studying fish bacterial pathogens has been looking at individual or few virulence factors. Recently, genome sequencing of a number of bacterial fish pathogens has tremendously increased our understanding of the biology, host adaptation, and virulence factors of these important pathogens. This paper attempts to compile the scattered literature on genome sequence information of fish pathogenic bacteria published and available to date. The genome sequencing has uncovered several complex adaptive evolutionary strategies mediated by horizontal gene transfer, insertion sequence elements, mutations and prophage sequences operating in fish pathogens, and how their genomes evolved from generalist environmental strains to highly virulent obligatory pathogens. In addition, the comparative genomics has allowed the identification of unique pathogen-specific gene clusters. The paper focuses on the comparative analysis of the virulogenomes of important fish bacterial pathogens, and the genes involved in their evolutionary adaptation to different ecological niches. The paper also proposes some new directions on finding novel vaccine and chemotherapeutic targets in the genomes of bacterial pathogens of fish. PMID:22675651

  20. The Most Common Detected Bacteria in Sputum of Patients with the Acute Exacerbation of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) may be triggered by infection with bacteria or viruses or by environmental pollutants; the cause of about one-third of exacerbations cannot be identified. Objective: To determine the most common bacteria in sputum culture of patients with AECOPD hospitalized in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB “Podhrastovi” in the 2012. Material and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of sputum bacterial cultures of patients with AECOPD treated in the Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB “Podhrastovi” during 2012 .year. Each patient was required to give two sputum for bacterial examination. Each patient was treated with antibiotics prior to admission in Clinic “Podhrastovi”. The results of sputum bacterial culture findings are expressed in absolute number and percentage of examined patients. Results: In 2012, 75 patients with AECOPD were treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB“Podhrastovi”. 44 (58.66%) of patients had normal –nonpathogenic – usual bacterial flora isolated in sputum cultures, 31 (41.34%) had a pathogen bacteria in sputum culture as follows: 7 had Streptoccocus pneumoniae, 8 had Klebsiella pneumoniae (2 with Streptococcus pneumoniae, one with Acinetobacter baumani) ,4 Escherichia colli, others are one or two cases with other bacteria. Conclusion: Bacterial airway infections play a great role in many, but not in all, of cases of AECOPD. So there is the need to do a sputum bacterial culture examination in each patient with AECOPD and with appropriate antibiotics to contribute to curing of them. PMID:24511262

  1. Acute Posterior Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Caused by Gouty Tophus.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2014-09-01

    Gouty tophus of the tarsal tunnel is a rare cause of posterior tarsal tunnel syndrome. We present a case of acute posterior tarsal tunnel syndrome due to gouty tophus that required early tarsal tunnel release in order to avoid irreversible nerve damage. The presence of background neuropathy resulted in a less favorable result than expected. PMID:25205680

  2. Acute Asthma Attack Caused by Ophthalmic Application of Antiallergic Agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Uchio; Kazuaki Kadonosono

    2004-01-01

    Background To investigate the induction of acute asthmatic attacks caused by several kinds of antiallergic eyedrops for the treatment of allergic conjunctival diseases in a patient with bronchial asthma and aspirin sensitivity. Case A 42-year-old man with a 10-year history of bronchial asthma and with aspirin sensitivity, who had been given disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) to be applied topically, developed asthma

  3. Acute myonecrosis in horse caused by Clostridium novyi type A

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Luana D’avila; Azevedo, Marcos Da Silva; Trost, Maria Elisa; De La Côrte, Flávio Desessards; Irigoyen, Luiz Francisco; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the first report involving a case of equine acute myonecrosis caused by C. novyi type A with an emphasis on clinical signs, the pathological and bacteriological analysis, and molecular identification of the microorganisms as the key of the definitive diagnosis. PMID:24948935

  4. Acute appendicitis caused by endometriosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Endometriosis is a well-recognized gynecological condition in the reproductive age group. Surgical texts present the gynecological aspects of the disease in detail, but the published literature on unexpected manifestations, such as appendiceal disease, is inadequate. The presentation to general surgeons may be atypical and pose diagnostic difficulty. Thus, a definitive diagnosis is likely to be established only by the histological examination of a specimen. Case presentation We report a case of endometriosis of the appendix in a 25-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with symptoms of acute appendicitis and was treated by appendectomy, which resulted in a good outcome. Conclusions We discuss special aspects of acute appendicitis caused by endometriosis to elucidate the pathologic entity of this variant of acute appendicitis. PMID:21481248

  5. A rare cause of acute appendicitis: parasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Sedat; Nursal, Tarik Z; Tarim, Akin; Kayaselcuk, Fazilet; Noyan, Turgut

    2005-01-01

    The role of parasitic infection in the aetiology of acute appendicitis has been discussed for more than 100 years. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence of parasitic infection in surgically removed appendices, and to identify whether this type of infection is associated with appendicitis. 104 appendices were removed from patients clinically diagnosed with acute appendicitis, and 30 were removed in the course of other surgical procedures. All the operations were performed at Baskent University Adana Hospital between January 1999 and December 2004. Enterobius vermicularis was identified in 4 (3.8%) appendices from patients with clinical appendicitis, and Entamoeba histolytica was detected in 1 (1.0%) appendix from this group. No parasites were found in the 30 appendices that were removed during other surgical procedures. Specimens from 3 of the 4 appendices with E. vermicularis showed no histological evidence of acute inflammation. It is concluded that parasites in the appendix may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis, but parasitic infection rarely causes acute appendicitis. PMID:16191896

  6. The Chemotherapy of Infectious Diseases caused by Protozoa and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hörlein, H.

    1936-01-01

    The possibility of combating infectious diseases with chemotherapeutically active substances depends to a large extent on the structure of the pathogenic organism. Apart from the cure of contagious pleuro-pneumonia in horses with neosalvarsan, we have, as yet, no chemotherapeutic substance which is active in virus diseases. The position is scarcely better when we turn to bacterial infections due to cocci and bacilli. These two types of infective organisms occupy the lowest level in the scale of micro-organisms. On the other hand, the spirochætes, which also belong to the bacteria group, and, still more so, those causal organisms belonging to the protozoa, represent relatively highly differentiated species, and the more highly developed a pathogenic organism is, the more points for attack it appears to offer to the action of chemotherapeutic substances. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that the best results with chemotherapeutically active substances have been obtained in spirochætal diseases (syphilis, relapsing fever, frambœsia, etc.), and above all, in protozoal diseases. There is scarcely a protozoal disease of man which cannot be cured nowadays by early treatment with the appropriate synthetic drug. (Sleeping sickness, malaria, amœbic dysentery, leishmaniasis.) Epizootics resembling human diseases, as for example, trypanoses, are also relatively easily dealt with by the same drugs as have been found of value in the treatment of disease in man. On the other hand, there has been a lack of success, up to the present, in the treatment of those diseases of animals which are not generally related to the tropical diseases of man. The most important of these epizootics are the piroplasmoses, which are caused by babesiæ and theileriæ and which are found, not only in tropical and subtropical regions, but also in temperate zones. In this paper the discovery of a new remedy against piroplasmosis will be reported (acaprin). Further, advice will be given of a new class of substances, which have an actual chemotherapeutic action in streptococcal infections (prontosil, prontosil S), so that one can hope to be able in the future also to attack bacterial infections due to cocci chemotherapeutically. PMID:19990605

  7. Fetal Circulatory Variation in an Acute Incident Causing Bradycardia

    PubMed Central

    Olgan, Safak; Sakinci, Mehmet; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Cagliyan, Erkan; Altunyurt, Sabahattin

    2014-01-01

    Umbilical artery\\vein, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus Doppler velocimetry were performed at 33 weeks of gestation in the settings of an intrauterine growth restricted fetus during a heart rate deceleration. Interestingly, we recorded a sudden onset redistribution of fetal blood flow with fetal bradycardia. Spontaneous normalization of waveforms was observed once fetal heart rate returned to normal. Our case provides evidence to circulatory variation of a human fetus resulting from an acute incident causing bradycardia. PMID:25580322

  8. Ammonium dichromate poisoning: A rare cause of acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, H.; Gopi, M.; Arumugam, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium dichromate is an inorganic compound frequently used in screen and color printing. Being a strong oxidizing agent, it causes oxygen free radical injury resulting in organ failure. We report a 25-year-old female who presented with acute kidney injury after consumption of ammonium dichromate. She was managed successfully with hemodialysis and supportive measures. This case is reported to highlight the toxicity of ammonium dichromate. PMID:25484533

  9. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: A Rare Cause of Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hye Sook; Pyo, Jeung Hui; Moon, Eul Sun; Choi, Jonghyun; Kang, Young Sun; Lee, Mi Jin; Cha, Jin Joo

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare clinical condition that causes the accumulation of mucinous ascites, which gradually results in the compression of intra-abdominal organs. Most published reports of pseudomyxoma peritonei concern the mass effect of the resulting ascites, which presents as abdominal pain or intestinal ileus in severe cases. However, few reports of renal complications of the disease have been published. Here, we present a case of oliguric acute kidney injury caused by external compression by pseudomyxoma peritonei. After decompression with external drainage, the patient's renal function rapidly improved. PMID:24010072

  10. Acute sensitivity of activated sludge bacteria to erythromycin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Alighardashi; D. Pandolfi; O. Potier; M. N. Pons

    2009-01-01

    The presence of antibiotics in water resources has been disturbing news for the stakeholders who are responsible for public health and the drinking water supply. In many cases, biological wastewater treatment plants are the final opportunity in the water cycle to trap these substances. The sensitivity of activated sludge bacteria to erythromycin, a macrolide widely used in human medicine was

  11. Causes and Outcomes of Acute Liver Failure in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pan; Wang, Chunya; Liu, Weiwei; Chen, Gang; Liu, Xinying; Wang, Xi; Wang, Bao; Yu, Liming; Sun, Yanrong; Liang, Xiaoming; Yang, Haozhen; Zhang, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives No extensive investigation has been performed and thus no representative data are available regarding acute liver failure (ALF) in China. This study aims to investigate the causes and outcomes of ALF in China and establish a prognostic model. Methods Patients diagnosed as ALF in seven hospitals in different areas of China from January 2007 to December 2012 were retrospectively selected. Results Of the 177 patients included in this study, 112 (63.28%) eventually died. The common causes of ALF were drug toxicity (43.50%), indeterminate etiology (29.38%) and acute viral hepatitis (11.30%). Additionally, traditional Chinese herbs predominated in the causes of drug-induced ALF (30/77). No patients in this study received liver transplantation. In the established model for predicting death in ALF, four variables were finally selected out, including age (P=0.01), the entry hepatic encephalopathy grade (P=0.04), international normalized ratio (P<0.01) and arterial blood ammonia (P=0.02). Using a threshold value of 0.5683, this model had a sensitivity of 95.24% and a specificity of 91.30%. Conclusions Traditional Chinese medicine was a major cause of ALF in China. The spontaneous mortality of ALF was high, whereas the rate of liver transplantation was significantly low. The established prognostic model of ALF had superior sensitivity and specificity. PMID:24278360

  12. Acute Cholecystitis Caused by Ceftriaxone Stones in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christian D.; Fischer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a major health problem. There are multiple etiologies to be considered and early recognition of the condition is important to optimize management and outcome. We report the first case in the medical literature of symptomatic acute cholecystitis triggered by ceftriaxone-associated gallbladder sludge formation and, importantly, solid ceftriaxone gallstone formation in an adult patient with underlying mineral and pigment cholecystolithiasis, necessitating cholecystectomy. This case serves as a reminder for physicians to keep this uncommon cause of cholecystolithiasis and cholecystitis in mind in patients who receive prolonged ceftriaxone therapy. These patients should be cautioned to promptly report to their physicians any signs or symptoms of cholecystitis in order to ensure timely and appropriate evaluation. PMID:19707473

  13. Pathogenesis of acute respiratory illness caused by human parainfluenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Schomacker, Henrick; Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Collins, Peter L.; Schmidt, Alexander C.

    2012-01-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a common cause of acute respiratory illness throughout life. Infants, children, and the immunocompromised are the most likely to develop severe disease. HPIV1 and HPIV2 are best known to cause croup while HPIV3 is a common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia. HPIVs replicate productively in respiratory epithelial cells and do not spread systemically unless the host is severely immunocompromised. Molecular studies have delineated how HPIVs evade and block cellular innate immune responses to permit efficient replication, local spread, and host-to-host transmission. Studies using ex vivo human airway epithelium have focused on virus tropism, cellular pathology and the epithelial inflammatory response, elucidating how events early in infection shape the adaptive immune response and disease outcome. PMID:22709516

  14. What is gonorrhea? Gonorrhea is a curable infection caused by the bacteria

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    What is gonorrhea? Gonorrhea is a curable infection caused by the bacteria neisseria gonorrhea. Gonorrhea is transmitted during vaginal, anal or oral sexual contact. The bacteria targets the cells of the eyelid and the throat. How can I keep from getting gonorrhea? Abstaining from sexual contact (vaginal

  15. Acute pulmonary edema caused by hypoglycemia due to insulin overdose.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Daigaku; Ohigashi, Sawako; Hikita, Satosi; Kitamura, Nobuya; Motoyoshi, Mitsutaka; Tatsuno, Ichiro

    2004-11-01

    We report a very rare case of acute pulmonary edema caused by hypoglycemia from insulin overdose during an attempted suicide. A 16-year-old woman with type 1 diabetes was brought to our hospital because of hypoglycemic coma. She exhibited severe hypoxia; upon intubation, bloody froth poured out of the tube. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral infiltrates. Endocrinological data revealed high concentrations of catecholamines. This case indicates that pulmonary edema remains a potential complication of insulin overdose. The possible mechanisms of pulmonary edema associated with hypoglycemia are discussed. PMID:15609702

  16. Worms' bacteria main cause of river blindness - Parasites - medical research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education)

    This news article reports that Wolbachia may play a role in river blindness, the second-leading infectious cause of blindness in the world. While the disease is caused by parasitic worms that burrow into the skin, researchers discovered that treating the worms of their Wolbachia infections with doxycycline led to significantly less thickening and haze of the eye's cornea.

  17. Wound infections caused by Vibrio vulnificus and other marine bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, J. D.

    2005-01-01

    Infections caused by Vibrio vulnificus were first reported in 1979 by Blake et al. of the US Centers for Disease Control. At that time described as a 'rare, unnamed halophilic lactose-fermenting Vibrio species', V. vulnificus has emerged as the most virulent foodborne pathogen in the United States with a hospitalization rate of 0.910 and a case-fatality rate of 0.390. It is in addition a significant cause of potentially life-threatening wound infections. Infections following ingestion of raw or undercooked seafood, commonly raw oysters, can lead to a primary septicaemia with a fatality rate of 50-60%. An unusual symptom, occurring in 69% of 274 cases reviewed by Oliver, is the development of secondary lesions, typically on the extremities, which are generally severe (often a necrotizing fasciitis) and require tissue debridement or amputation. These cases occur almost exclusively in males over the age of 50 years. Interestingly, this gender specificity has been found to be due to the female hormone oestrogen, which in some manner provides protection against the lethal V. vulnificus endotoxin. Further, most cases occur in persons with certain underlying diseases which are either immunocompromising or which lead to elevated serum iron levels (e.g. liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, haemochromatosis). V. vulnificus infections resulting in primary septicaemia have been extensively studied, and the subject of several reviews. This review concentrates on the wound infections caused by this marine bacterial pathogen, including the more recently described biotypes 2 and 3, with brief discussions of those caused by other marine vibrios, and the increasingly reported wound/skin infections caused by Mycobacterium marinum, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, and Aeromnonas hydrophila. PMID:15962544

  18. Mixed viral infections causing acute gastroenteritis in children in a waterborne outbreak.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, S; Lappalainen, S; Kaikkonen, S; Hämäläinen, M; Salminen, M; Vesikari, T

    2010-09-01

    We examined stool specimens for viral pathogens from 50 children referred to hospital due to acute gastroenteritis (AGE) resulting from consuming drinking water contaminated with sewage in a Finnish community using PCR methods. Rotavirus was detected in 33 (66%), human calicivirus in 31 (62%), and both in 40% of cases. Of the caliciviruses, 20/31 (65%) were noroviruses and 11 (35%) sapoviruses. Furthermore, Aichi virus was detected in 25 (50%), adenovirus in six (12%) and bocavirus in four (8%) cases. Campylobacter jejuni was present in 20 (61%) and Salmonella in four (12%) of the 33 stools cultured for bacteria. On a 20-point scale median severity score of AGE in the 28 hospitalized children was 17; the severity was similar regardless of viruses detected. Bloody diarrhoea occurred only when C. jejuni was present. To conclude, massive exposure to several AGE viruses caused mixed infections and severe AGE regardless of the aetiological agents. PMID:20092670

  19. Structure-based Inhibitor Discovery against Adenylyl Cyclase Toxins from Pathogenic Bacteria That Cause Anthrax and

    E-print Network

    Mrksich, Milan

    That Cause Anthrax and Whooping Cough* Received for publication, February 4, 2003, and in revised form, March bacteria that cause anthrax and whooping cough, respectively. Using the structure of the catalytic site pathogenesis and to fight against anthrax and whooping cough. The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States

  20. [Distribution of cytoplasmically inherited bacteria Spiroplasma causing female bias in the Eurasian populations of Adalia bipunctata].

    PubMed

    Zakharov, I A; Goriacheva, I I; Sha?kevich, E V; Dorzhu, Ch M

    2000-02-01

    Two-spot ladybirds Adalia bipunctata were collected from the populations of Western and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. The agent killing males at the early embryonic stage in these populations was identified as bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma. Bacteria found in A. bipunctata proved to be phylogenetically related to Spiroplasma ixodetis (typical line Y-32) found in tick Ixodes pacificus but not to Spiroplasma causing the death of male embryos in Drosophila. PMID:10752031

  1. [Acute diarrheal disease caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal Escherichia coli pathogens are leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years in Latin America, Africa and Asia and a leading cause of death in children living in poorest communities in Africa and South East Asia. Studies on the role of E. coli pathogens in childhood diarrhea in Colombia and other countries in Latin America are limited due to the lack of detection assays in clinical laboratories at the main urban medical centers. Recent studies report that enterotoxigenic E. coli is the most common E. coli pathogens associated with diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. Other E. coli pathotypes have been detected in children with diarrhea including enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative, shiga-toxin producing and diffusely adherent E. coli. It was also found that meat and vegetables at retail stores are contaminated with Shiga-toxin producing E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli, suggesting that food products are involved in transmission and infection of the susceptible host. More studies are necessary to evaluate the mechanisms of transmission, the impact on the epidemiology of diarrheal disease, and management strategies and prevention of these pathogens affecting the pediatric population in Colombia. PMID:25491457

  2. An unusual cause of acute abdominal pain in dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Tariq; Latif, Hina; Shabbir, Bilquis

    2014-07-01

    Dengue fever is an acute febrile viral disease caused by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. It is a major health problem especially in tropical and subtropical areas including South East Asia and Pakistan. In the past few years, dengue fever has been endemic in Northern Punjab. Physicians managing dengue fever come across varied and uncommon complications of dengue fever. We report a case of dengue fever that developed severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain and induration after extreme retching and vomiting for 2 days. A rectus sheath hematoma was confirmed on noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Rectus sheath hematoma as a complication of dengue fever has rarely been reported before and never from this part of the world. Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon and often clinically misdiagnosed cause of abdominal pain. It is the result of bleeding into the rectus sheath from damage to the superior or inferior epigastric artery or their branches or from a direct tear of the rectus muscle. It can mimic almost any abdominal condition (See Fig.) (See Table). PMID:24560393

  3. Glutamine Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Caused by Acid Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Chin-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate ventilator settings may cause overwhelming inflammatory responses associated with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, we examined potential benefits of glutamine (GLN) on a two-hit model for VILI after acid aspiration-induced lung injury in rats. Rats were intratracheally challenged with hydrochloric acid as a first hit to induce lung inflammation, then randomly received intravenous GLN or lactated Ringer’s solution (vehicle control) thirty min before different ventilator strategies. Rats were then randomized to receive mechanical ventilation as a second hit with a high tidal volume (TV) of 15 mL/kg and zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or a low TV of 6 mL/kg with PEEP of 5 cm H2O. We evaluated lung oxygenation, inflammation, mechanics, and histology. After ventilator use for 4 h, high TV resulted in greater lung injury physiologic and biologic indices. Compared with vehicle treated rats, GLN administration attenuated lung injury, with improved oxygenation and static compliance, and decreased respiratory elastance, lung edema, extended lung destruction (lung injury scores and lung histology), neutrophil recruitment in the lung, and cytokine production. Thus, GLN administration improved the physiologic and biologic profiles of this experimental model of VILI based on the two-hit theory. PMID:25100435

  4. Left paraduodenal hernia: A rare cause of acute abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Karim Ibn Majdoub; Aggouri, Younes; laalim, Said Ait; Toughrai, Imane; Mazaz, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Paraduodenal hernia is a rare congenital anomaly that arises from an error of rotation of the midgut. The duodenum and the small intestine become trapped in a sac which is lined by the peritoneum, behind the mesentery of the colon, either to the right or left of the midline. It is therfore a rare and potentially life-threatening condition that can cause intestinal obstruction progressing to strangulation and perforation. We report a case of a 55-year-old patient presenting a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed intraoperatively after being operated on in the emergency setting for acute abdomen. The small bowel was twisted upon its mesentery and was entrapped in a large left paraduodenal space. Fortunately, once the bowel was reduced from the paraduodenal space, the blood flow was reestablished and the small bowel resumed a proper functioning. The mouth of the sac was obliterated by suture opposition to the posterior wall. The patient's subsequent hospital course was uneventful, and he was discharged in satisfactory condition 4 days postoperatively. PMID:25170374

  5. Antiseptic and antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J Stickler; B Thomas

    1980-01-01

    A collection of 802 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections was made from general practice, antenatal clinics, and local hospitals. The organisms were tested for their sensitivity to chlorhexidine, cetrimide, glutaraldehyde, phenyl mercuric nitrate, a phenolic formulation, and a proprietary antiseptic containing a mixture of picloxydine, octyl phenoxy polyethoxyethanol, and benzalkonium chloride. Escherichia coli, the major species isolated,

  6. Polymyxin B Nephrotoxicity and Efficacy against Nosocomial Infections Caused by Multiresistant Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Ouderkirk; Jill A. Nord; Glenn S. Turett; Jay Ward Kislak

    2003-01-01

    Reported rates of nephrotoxicity associated with the systemic use of polymyxins have varied widely. The emergence of infections due to multiresistant gram-negative bacteria has necessitated the use of systemic polymyxin B once again for the treatment of such infections. We retrospectively investigated the rate of nephrotoxicity in patients receiving polymyxin B parenterally for the treatment of infections caused by multiresistant

  7. Enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni followed by acute motor axonal neuropathy: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biljana Miljkovi?-Selimovi?; Dragana Lavrni?; Olga Mori?; Lai-King Ng; Lawrence Price; Ljubica Šuturkova; Branislava Kocic; Tatjana Babi?; Ljiljana Risti?; Slobodan Apostolski

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Campylobacter species represent the main cause of bacterial diarrhea in developed countries and one of the most frequent causes of enterocolitis in developing ones. In some patients, Campylobacter jejuni infection of the gastrointestinal tract has been observed as an antecedent illness of acute motor axonal neuropathy, a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of acute

  8. Acute liver failure caused by severe acute hepatitis B: a case series from a multi-center investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few data can be available regarding acute liver failure (ALF) caused by severe acute hepatitis B up to now. This study aims to report such cases from China. Findings We conducted a multi-center investigation on ALF from 7 tertiary hospitals in different areas of China. A total of 11 patients with ALF caused by severe acute hepatitis B were finally identified. In these patients, there were 10 male and 1 female patients. As a serious complication, apparent hemorrhage occurred in 9 patients. Eventually, in these 11 patients, 4 survived and 7 died. 4 died of heavy bleeding, 2 died of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and 1 died of irreversible coma. No patients received liver transplantation. Conclusions ALF caused by severe acute hepatitis B is worthy of formal studies based on its rarity and severity. PMID:24958233

  9. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Uncommon Cause of Hematemesis

    PubMed Central

    Zacharia, George Sarin; Sandesh, K; Ramachandran, TM

    2014-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity, diagnosed at the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. Very often no definite etiology will be identified even though a large list of potential associations has been postulated. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common clinical presentation, others being epigastric pain, retrosternal chest discomfort and dysphagia. Only about a hundred cases of acute esophageal necrosis have been described in medical literature till this date. We report a case of acute esophageal necrosis in an elderly female who had presented with hematemesis. PMID:25170416

  10. Acute tracheobronchitis caused by Aspergillus: case report and imaging findings*

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Katia Hidemi; Falcão, Esther de Alencar Aripe; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Teles, Gustavo Borges Silva; Bernardi, Fabiola Del Carlo; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmão

    2014-01-01

    Acute tracheobronchitis is a rare manifestation of invasive aspergillosis, generally occurring in severely immunocompromised patients. The authors report the case of a patient presenting with this condition after bone-marrow transplantation, with emphasis on tomographic findings. PMID:25741107

  11. Common Atrium: A Rare Cause of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Karaye, K. M.; Balarabe, S. A.; Yakasai, M. M.; Suleiman, I. M.; Saidu, H.; Bonny, Aimé

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of common atrium and acute decompensated heart failure most likely precipitated by acute bacterial pericarditis leading to premature death, in a 25-year-old male footballer. The silent course of the disease for decades as well as the diagnostic and management pitfalls of this case illustrates the importance of early detection by echocardiography and urgent appropriate treatment in intensive care settings to limit the poor prognosis of the condition. PMID:25763071

  12. Systemic inflammation caused by chronic periodontitis in acute ischemic heart attack patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando José de OLIVEIRA; Reinaldo Wilson VIEIRA; Otávio Rizzi COELHO; Orlando PETRUCCI; Pedro Paulo Martins de OLIVEIRA; Nilson ANTUNES; Ivone Pires; Edson ANTUNES

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Infectious and inflammatory processes mediated by bacteria in distant sites have been described as a risk factor for acute ischemic heart disease (AIHD). Methods: One hundred one patients with AIHD with and without chronic periodontitis (CP) were included in this study. Patients were admitted to the HC UNICAMP and stratified into three groups: in group 1, we selected patients

  13. A Case of Life-Threatening Acute Kidney Injury with Toxic Encephalopathy Caused by Dioscorea quinqueloba

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Some herbal medications induce acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injuries caused by herbal medications are mild and commonly treated by palliative care. A 51-years-old man who drank the juice squeezed from the raw tubers of Dioscorea quinqueloba (D. quinqueloba) was admitted with nausea, vomiting and chilling. He developed a seizure with decreased level of consciousness. He was diagnosed with acute kidney injury, which was cured by continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration. Non-detoxified D. quinqueloba can cause severe acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy. It is critical to inform possible adverse effects of the medicinal herbs and to implement more strict regulation of these products. PMID:25510780

  14. A case of life-threatening acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy caused by Dioscorea quinqueloba.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung-Sik; Heo, Sang Taek

    2015-01-01

    Some herbal medications induce acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injuries caused by herbal medications are mild and commonly treated by palliative care. A 51-years-old man who drank the juice squeezed from the raw tubers of Dioscorea quinqueloba (D. quinqueloba) was admitted with nausea, vomiting and chilling. He developed a seizure with decreased level of consciousness. He was diagnosed with acute kidney injury, which was cured by continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration. Non-detoxified D. quinqueloba can cause severe acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy. It is critical to inform possible adverse effects of the medicinal herbs and to implement more strict regulation of these products. PMID:25510780

  15. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome resulting from acute massive gastric dilatation caused by Helicobacter pylori -induced acute antral gastritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Hashimoto; Akiko Seno; Akiko Ishizaki; Shuichi Terasaki; Tatsuya Kimoto

    2008-01-01

    A previously well, slender 14-year-old boy developed right epigastric pain with vomiting. His vomiting gradually changed to\\u000a bile-stained fluid for 8 h. He was diagnosed with superior mesenteric artery syndrome with acute massive gastric dilatation\\u000a by contrast-enhanced computed tomography, which also showed markedly thickened prepyloric gastric wall that may have caused\\u000a gastric outlet stenosis. Acute gastric mucosal lesions of the antrum

  16. [Pulmonary carcinomatosis: a rare cause of acute cor pulmonale].

    PubMed

    Rellini, G; Pietropolli Charmet, P; Burelli, C; Nicolosi, G L; Gnesutta, R; Mazza, F; Collazzo, R

    1986-06-01

    Five cases of neoplastic pulmonary embolism are reported in whom the clinical presentation was consistent with acute cor pulmonale. Perfusory lung scintigraphy was negative in all the cases. Four patients died within 7 days, one after 30 days from starting of symptoms. At autopsy in all the cases neoplastic diffuse embolization of pulmonary arteries was seen with or without thrombosis. In two cases lymphatic carcinosis was also evident. In the literature the majority of cases are reported to have a subacute clinical course as compared to the acute clinical evolution of our series. We suggest to keep in mind the diagnostic hypothesis of vascular pulmonary carcinosis in the cases of acute cor pulmonale with negative perfusory lung scintigraphy. PMID:3019814

  17. Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Caused by Potentially Drug-resistant Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEAN-LOUIS TROUILLET; JEAN CHASTRE; ALBERT VUAGNAT; MARIE-LAURE JOLY-GUILLOU; DANIÈLE COMBAUX; MARIE-CHRISTINE DOMBRET; CLAUDE GIBERT

    1998-01-01

    To determine risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by potentially drug-resis- tant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acineto- bacter baumannii , and\\/or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , 135 consecutive episodes of VAP observed in a single ICU over a 25-mo period were prospectively studied. For all patients, VAP was diagnosed based on results of bronchoscopic protected

  18. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Junpaparp, Parichart; Romero-Corral, Abel; Lee, Seung Yoon Celine; Witzke, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction, which should always be included in differential diagnoses of acute coronary syndrome among young patients without known atherosclerotic risk. Although, it is commonly observed in young women during postpartum period, there were cases reported in connective tissue disorders, eosinophilic arteritis, contraception use, cocaine abuse and repetitive chest trauma. We report a case of SCAD, presenting with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction, which was successfully treated conservatively. PMID:24632904

  19. Ruptured diaphragmatic eventration: a rare cause of acute postpartum dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Servais, Elliot L; Stiles, Brendon M; Finnerty, Brendan M; Paul, Subroto

    2012-06-01

    Rupture of a maternal diaphragmatic hernia (DH) during pregnancy is a rare but significant complication. We describe a case of a maternal ruptured DH, presenting as acute postpartum dyspnea, which required urgent operative repair. We report our surgical strategy and review the key concepts in the multidisciplinary management of this condition. PMID:22632531

  20. Appendicular schistosomiasis: a cause of clinical acute appendicitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M B Satti; D M Tamimi; M O Al Sohaibani; A Al Quorain

    1987-01-01

    The role of schistosomes in the pathologenesis of acute appendicitis in an endemic area was investigated. Of 1600 appendicectomies received in our laboratory, 26 showed appendiceal schistosomiasis, which prompted what we believe to be the first detailed histopathological evaluation of all appendices with schistosomal infestation, without prior knowledge of the clinical and operative diagnoses. The results suggest that there are

  1. Clostridium difficile causing acute renal failure: Case presentation and review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasmin Arrich; Gottfried H. Sodeck; Gürkan Sengölge; Christoforos Konnaris; Marcus Müllner; Anton N. Laggner; Hans Domanovits

    Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract AIM: Clostridium difficile infection is primarily a nosocomial infection but asymptomatic carriers of Clostridium difficile can be found in up to 5% of the general population. Ampicillin, cephalosporins and clindamycin are the antibiotics that are most frequently associated with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea or colitis. Little is known about acute renal failure as a consequence of Clostridium

  2. Organ distribution of gut-derived bacteria caused by bowel manipulation or ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Redan, J.A.; Rush, B.F. Jr.; Lysz, T.W.; Smith, S.; Machiedo, G.W. (Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Translocation of carbon-14-labeled Escherichia coli from the gut was studied at the specified times in the following groups of rats: Group 1, 5 hours after ligation of the superior mesenteric artery; Group 2, 5 hours after laparotomy and exposure of the superior mesenteric artery with gentle removal and replacement of the intestines; and Group 3, 5 hours after handling but no surgical manipulation. Both living and dead bacteria were administered by means of gavage, and the effect of viability, intestinal ischemia without reperfusion, and bowel manipulation on the translocation of enteric bacteria was assessed. We demonstrated that (1) even gentle bowel manipulation causes bacteremia as great as that associated with ligation of the superior mesenteric artery; (2) dead E. coli are absorbed into the blood in the presence of bowel manipulation or ischemia but less effectively than are live E. coli; (3) live bacteria are found in highest concentration in the lung and in descending order in the liver, kidney, heart, and spleen; (4) dead bacteria absorbed from the gut are found in highest concentration in the kidney and the liver. Lesser amounts are found in the lung, spleen, and heart.

  3. [Infected myxoma as a cause of acute infective endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Surovcík, R; Jebavý, P; Feuereisl, R; Frídl, P; Pavlovic, J; St?rba, D

    2010-02-01

    Myxoma is the most frequent primary cardiac tumor. In the typical clinical picture mostly dominate signs of intracardial obstruction, embolisation or general signs of neoplastic process. The myxoma can mimic the course of acute endocarditis. Genuine proof of infection is rare. We report on a patient with familiar form of infected myxoma, who was treated succesfully with antiobiotic therapy and surgical extirpation of the tumor. PMID:20329587

  4. Surgical and interventional management of complications caused by acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karakayali, Feza Y

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. It requires acute hospitalization, with a reported annual incidence of 13 to 45 cases per 100000 persons. In severe cases there is persistent organ failure and a mortality rate of 15% to 30%, whereas mortality of mild pancreatitis is only 0% to 1%. Treatment principles of necrotizing pancreatitis and the role of surgery are still controversial. Despite surgery being effective for infected pancreatic necrosis, it carries the risk of long-term endocrine and exocrine deficiency and a morbidity and mortality rate of between 10% to 40%. Considering high morbidity and mortality rates of operative necrosectomy, minimally invasive strategies are being explored by gastrointestinal surgeons, radiologists, and gastroenterologists. Since 1999, several other minimally invasive surgical, endoscopic, and radiologic approaches to drain and debride pancreatic necrosis have been described. In patients who do not improve after technically adequate drainage, necrosectomy should be performed. When minimal invasive management is unsuccessful or necrosis has spread to locations not accessible by endoscopy, open abdominal surgery is recommended. Additionally, surgery is recognized as a major determinant of outcomes for acute pancreatitis, and there is general agreement that patients should undergo surgery in the late phase of the disease. It is important to consider multidisciplinary management, considering the clinical situation and the comorbidity of the patient, as well as the surgeons experience. PMID:25309073

  5. [Sodium valproate as a cause of acute pancreatitis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Barreda, Luís; Rosas, Johana; Milian, William; Valdivia, Duilio; Targarona, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a commonly used medication approved by the U.S. FDA for the treatment of epilepsy, migraines and bipolar disorders. Adverse effects associated with VPA are typically benign, but there are more serious effects that are less frequent. These effects include hepatotoxicity, teratogenicity, possible polycystic ovaries with a potential sterile effect and acute pancreatitis. Even though acute pancreatitis is an adverse effect of very low frequency, it is very important due to the high mortality rate of patients with acute pancreatitis as a consequence of the use of valproic acid. In medical literature, by 2005, 80 cases of acute pancreatitis caused by valproic acid were reported, 33 of these cases were patients under the age of 18. This is a description of the clinical case of a 16 year old patient with necrotic pancreatitis caused by VPA, who was treated at the Acute Pancreatitis Unit of Edgardo Rebagliati Martins National Hospital. PMID:17053827

  6. Acute Compartment Syndrome in Orthopedics: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Raza, Hasnain; Mahapatra, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Almost all orthopaedic surgeons come across acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in their clinical practice. Diagnosis of ACS mostly relies on clinical findings. If the diagnosis is missed and left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences which can endanger limb and life of the patient and also risk the clinician to face lawsuits. This review article highlights the characteristic features of ACS which will help an orthopaedic surgeon to understand the pathophysiology, natural history, high risk patients, diagnosis, and surgical management of the condition. PMID:25688303

  7. Acute spinal cord compression caused by vertebral hemangioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cary R. Templin; Jeffrey B. Stambough; Jeffery L. Stambough

    2004-01-01

    Background contextThe reported incidence of vertebral hemangioma within the spinal column is common. Most often these benign vascular tumors are incidental radiographic findings and do not cause neurological sequelae. Rarely, vertebral hemangiomas will cause compressive neurological symptoms, such as radiculopathy, myelopathy and paralysis. In these cases the clinical presentation is usually the subacute or delayed onset of progressive neurological symptoms.

  8. Gram-negative bacteria that produce carbapenemases causing death attributed to recent foreign hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Ahmed-Bentley, Jasmine; Chandran, A Uma; Joffe, A Mark; French, Desiree; Peirano, Gisele; Pitout, Johann D D

    2013-07-01

    Overseas travel, as a risk factor for the acquisition of infections due to antimicrobial-resistant organisms, has recently been linked to carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria. Multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii strains were isolated from a wound of a Canadian patient with a recent history of hospitalization in India. This resulted in the initiation of outbreak management that included surveillance cultures. Epidemiological and molecular investigations showed that NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae ST16 and OXA-23-producing A. baumannii ST10 strains were transmitted to 5 other patients, resulting in the colonization of 4 patients and the death of 1 patient due to septic shock caused by the OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strain. The high rate of false positivity of the screening cultures resulted in additional workloads and increased costs for infection control and clinical laboratory work. We believe that this is the first report of an infection with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria resulting in death attributed to a patient with recent foreign hospitalization. We recommend routine rectal and wound screening for colonization with multiresistant bacteria for patients who have recently been admitted to hospitals outside Canada. PMID:23612195

  9. Do We Know What Causes Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cancer. Scientists have learned how certain changes in DNA can cause normal bone marrow cells to become ... each cell’s chromosomes. Chromosomes are long strands of DNA in each cell. The DNA inside our cells ...

  10. Chikungunya as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; Akoroda, Ufuoma; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikaarachchi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J.; Chua, Robert; Hou, Yan'an; Chow, Angelia; Sessions, October M.; Østbye, Truls; Gubler, Duane J.; Woods, Christopher W.; Bodinayake, Champica

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Sri Lanka in late 2006 after a 40-year hiatus. We sought to identify and characterize acute chikungunya infection (CHIK) in patients presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in unstudied rural and semi-urban southern Sri Lanka in 2007. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled febrile patients ? 2 years of age, collected uniform epidemiologic and clinical data, and obtained serum samples for serology, virus isolation, and real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Serology on paired acute and convalescent samples identified acute chikungunya infection in 3.5% (28/797) patients without acute dengue virus (DENV) infection, 64.3% (18/28) of which were confirmed by viral isolation and/or real-time RT-PCR. No CHIKV/DENV co-infections were detected among 54 patients with confirmed acute DENV. Sequencing of the E1 coding region of six temporally distinct CHIKV isolates (April through October 2007) showed that all isolates posessed the E1-226A residue and were most closely related to Sri Lankan and Indian isolates from the same time period. Except for more frequent and persistent musculoskeletal symptoms, acute chikungunya infections mimicked DENV and other acute febrile illnesses. Only 12/797 (1.5%) patients had serological evidence of past chikungunya infection. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest CHIKV is a prominent cause of non-specific acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka. PMID:24312651

  11. Acute renal failure in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a rare cause.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Gupta, Ruchika; Rizvi, Yasir; Rathi, Shyam; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Bhowmik, Dipankar; Dinda, Amit K

    2013-01-01

    A young adult was diagnosed to have acute lymphoblastic leukemia, T-cell immunophenotype and was initiated on chemotherapy. He presented with acute renal failure two days after the completion of his induction regimen. A renal biopsy showed features of necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN). Serology for c-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) was positive and a final diagnosis of ANCA-associated necrotizing crescentic GN was made. Aggressive immunosuppression could not be used due to the presence of nosocomial pneumonia and the patient expired 26 days after the renal biopsy diagnosis. We report for the first time the association of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with crescentic GN and, hence, expand the list of malignancy-related ANCA-positive GN. PMID:23354200

  12. White Band Disease (type I) of Endangered Caribbean Acroporid Corals is Caused by Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kline, David I.; Vollmer, Steven V.

    2011-01-01

    Diseases affecting coral reefs have increased exponentially over the last three decades and contributed to their decline, particularly in the Caribbean. In most cases, the responsible pathogens have not been isolated, often due to the difficulty in isolating and culturing marine bacteria. White Band Disease (WBD) has caused unprecedented declines in the Caribbean acroporid corals, resulting in their listings as threatened on the US Threatened and Endangered Species List and critically endangered on the IUCN Red List. Yet, despite the importance of WBD, the probable pathogen(s) have not yet been determined. Here we present in situ transmission data from a series of filtrate and antibiotic treatments of disease tissue that indicate that WBD is contagious and caused by bacterial pathogen(s). Additionally our data suggest that Ampicillin could be considered as a treatment for WBD (type I). PMID:22355526

  13. Omental infarct in a hernia: an unusual cause of paediatric acute scrotum.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ramnik V; Dawrant, Michael; Scott, Victoria; Fisher, Ross

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of paediatric acute scrotum due to segmental haemorrhagic infarct of the omentum secondary to strangulation in the left inguinal hernia in a toddler as initial presentation after hernia being noticed by mother once earlier. A 4-year-old boy with non-traumatic acute left scrotum who had a history of left inguinal swelling once earlier presented with massively swollen, painful and discoloured left hemiscrotum extending into the groin simulating acute testicular torsion. Interestingly, there was a segmental omental infarct which precipitated the emergency and had ipsilateral testicular ascent and atrophy as long-term sequelae. Strangulated segmental omental infarct is a rare cause of acute abdomen/scrotum in children. Omentum is a very rare content of inguinal hernia in a toddler and infarct is exceptional. The diagnosis is usually not established before surgery in children. It should be included in the differential diagnoses of acute scrotum, especially in patients with untreated inguinal hernia. PMID:24632908

  14. Nonatherosclerotic causes of acute coronary syndrome: recognition and management.

    PubMed

    Bastante, Teresa; Rivero, Fernando; Cuesta, Javier; Benedicto, Amparo; Restrepo, Jorge; Alfonso, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) frequently result from the rupture or erosion of a vulnerable coronary plaque, with associated intracoronary thrombosis. ACS also may occur in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. Some of these patients, however, still have angiographically silent underlying coronary artery disease. In this setting, subtle atherosclerotic changes frequently associated with unstable morphologic features or residual intracoronary thrombus may be detected with intracoronary imaging techniques. Nevertheless, other patients develop ACS as a result of nonatherosclerotic coronary artery disease (NA-CAD). ACS in patients with NA-CAD may be the consequence of coronary spasm or transient coronary embolic phenomena. In these patients, after the initial ischemic insult, late coronary angiography usually reveals normal epicardial coronary vessels. Kounis syndrome is a type of ACS generated by allergic reactions. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by normal coronary arteries with a distinct pattern of transient left ventricular wall motion abnormalities. ACS also may occur in young patients following illicit drug use. Finally, spontaneous coronary artery dissection and intramural hematoma represent other etiologies of NA-CAD. In this review, we discuss current evidence regarding diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients presenting with ACS as a result of NA-CAD. PMID:25308305

  15. Multiple, Bilateral Fibroepithelial Polyps Causing Acute Renal Failure in a Gastric Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Youn, Chul Woong; Im, Chang Min; Jung, Sung Il; Oh, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Dongdeuk; Park, Kwangsung; Ryu, Soo Bang

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of primary fibroepithelial polyps (FEPs) in the middle of both ureters in a patient with advanced gastric cancer and acute renal failure. Ureteral FEPs are rare benign lesions, and multiple, bilateral lesions are extremely rare. To our knowledge, this report is the seventh case of bilateral FEPs in the literature. Our case has clinical implications because FEPs should be considered as a cause of ureteral obstruction inducing acute renal failure in advanced gastric cancer. PMID:20358014

  16. Multiple, bilateral fibroepithelial polyps causing acute renal failure in a gastric cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Ouck; Youn, Chul Woong; Kang, Taek Won; Im, Chang Min; Jung, Sung Il; Oh, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Dongdeuk; Park, Kwangsung; Ryu, Soo Bang

    2010-04-01

    We report a case of primary fibroepithelial polyps (FEPs) in the middle of both ureters in a patient with advanced gastric cancer and acute renal failure. Ureteral FEPs are rare benign lesions, and multiple, bilateral lesions are extremely rare. To our knowledge, this report is the seventh case of bilateral FEPs in the literature. Our case has clinical implications because FEPs should be considered as a cause of ureteral obstruction inducing acute renal failure in advanced gastric cancer. PMID:20358014

  17. A Case of Acute Pyogenic Sacroiliitis and Bacteremia Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suyoung; Lee, Kang Lock; Baek, Hae Lim; Jang, Seung Jun; Moon, Song Mi

    2013-01-01

    Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a rare osteoarticular infection, occurring most frequently in children and young adults. Diagnosis of the disease is challenging because of a general lack of awareness of the disease and its nonspecific signs and symptoms. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative bacteria in pyogenic sacroiliitis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has typically been considered a hospital-associated pathogen; however, community-acquired (CA)-MRSA infections are becoming increasingly common in Korea. We report the first domestic case of acute pyogenic sacroiliitis with abscess and bacteremia caused by CA-MRSA. The pathogen carried the type IV-A staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) without the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, and was identified as sequence type (ST) 72 by multilocus sequence typing. PMID:24475359

  18. Imaging in emphysematous epididymo-orchitis: A rare cause of acute scrotum.

    PubMed

    Mandava, Anitha; Rao, R Prabhakar; Kumar, D Anjani; Naga Prasad, I Shiva

    2014-07-01

    Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis is an uncommon, acute inflammatory process of epididymis and testis characterized by the presence of air within the tissue. Patient presents with fever, acute pain, swelling and tenderness in the scrotum. Imaging is needed for rapid accurate diagnosis and to differentiate it from other causes of acute scrotum such as testicular torsion. We report a case of emphysematous epididymo-orchitis with imaging findings on plain radiography, ultrasound, CT and MRI and a brief review of the literature. PMID:25114397

  19. Apophysomyces elegans causing acute otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis involving salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Amit; Tyagi, Isha; Syal, Rajan; Marak, R S K; Singh, Jagdeep

    2007-08-01

    Zygomycosis is an invasive, life threatening fungal infection that usually affects immunocompromised hosts. In the head and neck region, rhino-orbito-cerebral zygomycosis is more common than the cervicofacial variety. We report the first case of otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis caused by Apophysomyces elegans involving the salivary glands, an uncommon site of infection. The case began after a trivial trauma in a diabetic patient and despite surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin B therapy, the patient died due to extensive involvement and metabolic/hemodynamic complications. PMID:17654273

  20. Fallopian tube torsion caused by extremely large Morgagni hydatid: A very rare cause of acute abdomen in a virgin adolescent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milan M. Terzic; Nebojsa N. Arsenovic; Sanja B. Maricic; Ivana R. Babovic; Igor Z. Pilic; Jovan S. Bila

    2011-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract  Torsion of the fallopian tube is rare and generally isolated and unilateral. We report a case of acute abdominal pain in an\\u000a adolescent virgin female caused by a complete torsion that resulted in an infarction of the left fallopian tube. On surgery,\\u000a extremely large hydatid of Morgagni was found, that caused torsion of the fallopian tube threefold.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case  An 18-year-old virgin

  1. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

  2. Acute Pelvic Pain: A Ball Pen May Be a Cause?

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Garjesh Singh; Roshan, Rakesh; Vyas, Mahendra Mohan; Goel, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    Chronic Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem in women and can be seen without any significant anatomical and functional pathology. Foreign bodies within the urinary bladder are not rare and should be considered as a cause of chronic and recurrent UTI. Intravesical foreign bodies can be self inflicted, iatrogenic or migration from adjacent organs. History in these cases is often misleading and presentation of foreign body mostly becomes apparent as suprapubic pain, dysuria with or without hematuria. We present a case of self-inflicted foreign body within the bladder of a young female who presented with recurrent urinary tract infections for six months that did not respond to medical treatment. PMID:25654009

  3. Leptospirosis as Frequent Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Bodinayake, Champika; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikara-Arachichi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J.; Flom, Judith E.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Woods, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the proportion of fevers caused by leptospirosis, we obtained serum specimens and epidemiologic and clinical data from patients in Galle, Sri Lanka, March–October 2007. Immunoglobulin M ELISA was performed on paired serum specimens to diagnose acute (seroconversion or 4-fold titer rise) or past (titer without rise) leptospirosis and seroprevalence (acute). We compared (individually) the diagnostic yield of acute-phase specimens and clinical impression with paired specimens for acute leptospirosis. Of 889 patients with paired specimens, 120 had acute leptosoirosis and 241 had past leptospirosis. The sensitivity and specificity of acute-phase serum specimens were 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.2%–25.5%) and 69.2% (95% CI 65.5%–72.7%), respectively, and of clinical impression 22.9% (95% CI 15.4%–32.0%) and 91.7% (95% CI 89.2%–93.8%), respectively. For identifying acute leptospirosis, clinical impression is insensitive, and immunoglobulin M results are more insensitive and costly. Rapid, pathogen-based tests for early diagnosis are needed. PMID:21888794

  4. Hepatitis e as a cause of acute jaundice syndrome in northern Uganda, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Gerbi, Gemechu B; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7-24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. PMID:25448237

  5. Duodenal obstruction following acute pancreatitis caused by a large duodenal diverticular bezoar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hun; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Nam, Sung Min; Lee, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Il Ho; Park, Jin Young; Im, Yun Sun; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Il Young; Han, Sok Won

    2012-10-14

    Bezoars are concretions of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract. It generally develops in patients with previous gastric surgery or patients with delayed gastric emptying. Cases of periampullary duodenal divericular bezoar are rare. Clinical manifestations by a bezoar vary from no symptom to acute abdominal syndrome depending on the location of the bezoar. Biliary obstruction or acute pancreatitis caused by a bezoar has been rarely reported. Small bowel obstruction by a bezoar is also rare, but it is a complication that requires surgery. This is a case of acute pancreatitis and subsequent duodenal obstruction caused by a large duodenal bezoar migrating from a periampullary diverticulum to the duodenal lumen, which mimicked pancreatic abscess or microperforation on abdominal computerized tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the bezoar and recovered completely. PMID:23082068

  6. Seasonality of Antibiotic-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae That Causes Acute Otitis Media

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Ted

    Seasonality of Antibiotic-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae That Causes Acute Otitis Media: A Clue in antibiotic consumption leads to a reduction in the antibiotic resis- tance of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance in S. pneumoniae, particularly high- Received 5 September 2007; accepted 26 October 2007

  7. Typhlitis Caused by Intestinal Serpulina-Like Bacteria in Domestic Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Vanrobaeys, Mia; De Herdt, Peter; Ducatelle, Richard; Devriese, Luc A.; Charlier, Gerard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    1998-01-01

    Between January 1992 and December 1996, Serpulina-like bacteria were demonstrated in intestinal tract lesions from 37 of 88 guinea pigs submitted to the University of Ghent in Ghent, Belgium, for necropsy because of disease and death from different unknown causes. All infected animals had a history of sudden death with minimal introductory clinical signs. Occasionally, they produced yellow, slimy feces or showed nervous signs, but the condition always had a fatal outcome within 24 h. When larger colonies of guinea pigs were involved, the disease spread very rapidly unless treatment with ronidazole was initiated. Lesions consisted of a catarrhal or hemorrhagic inflammation of the colon and cecum (typhlitis). Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of large numbers of Serpulina-like organisms adhering to the cecal mucosae of these animals. Attempts to isolate the agents failed. The organisms did not stain by an immunofluorescence technique for the detection of Serpulina hyodysenteriae. The present data provide evidence that intestinal Serpulina-like organisms can be important as a cause of disease in guinea pigs. PMID:9508297

  8. Bacteria causing important diseases of citrus utilise distinct modes of pathogenesis to attack a common host.

    PubMed

    Vojnov, Adrián Alberto; do Amaral, Alexandre Morais; Dow, John Maxwell; Castagnaro, Atilio Pedro; Marano, Marìa Rosa

    2010-06-01

    In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on three pathogens that exhibit distinct tissue specificity and modes of pathogenesis in citrus plants. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes canker disease and invades the host leaf mesophyll tissue through natural openings and can also survive as an epiphyte. Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter are vectored by insects and proliferate in the vascular system of the host, either in the phloem (Candidatus Liberibacter) or xylem (X. fastidiosa) causing variegated chlorosis and huanglongbing diseases, respectively. Candidatus Liberibacter can be found within host cells and is thus unique as an intracellular phytopathogenic bacterium. Genome sequence comparisons have identified groups of species-specific genes that may be associated with the particular lifestyle, mode of transmission or symptoms produced by each phytopathogen. In addition, components that are conserved amongst bacteria may have diverse regulatory actions underpinning the different bacterial lifestyles; one example is the divergent role of the Rpf/DSF cell-cell signalling system in X. citri and X. fastidiosa. Biofilm plays a key role in epiphytic fitness and canker development in X. citri and in the symptoms produced by X. fastidiosa. Bacterial aggregation may be associated with vascular occlusion of the xylem vessels and symptomatology of variegated chlorosis. PMID:20449739

  9. Unsuspected Leptospirosis Is a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; Wunder, Elsio A.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Flom, Judith E.; Mayorga, Orlando; Woods, Christopher W.; Ko, Albert I.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Matute, Armando J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemic severe leptospirosis was recognized in Nicaragua in 1995, but unrecognized epidemic and endemic disease remains unstudied. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the burden of and risk factors associated with symptomatic leptospirosis in Nicaragua, we prospectively studied patients presenting with fever at a large teaching hospital. Epidemiologic and clinical features were systematically recorded, and paired sera tested by IgM-ELISA to identify patients with probable and possible acute leptospirosis. Microscopic Agglutination Test and PCR were used to confirm acute leptospirosis. Among 704 patients with paired sera tested by MAT, 44 had acute leptospirosis. Patients with acute leptospirosis were more likely to present during rainy months and to report rural residence and fresh water exposure. The sensitivity of clinical impression and acute-phase IgM detected by ELISA were poor. Conclusions/Significance Leptospirosis is a common (6.3%) but unrecognized cause of acute febrile illness in Nicaragua. Rapid point-of-care tests to support early diagnosis and treatment as well as tests to support population-based studies to delineate the epidemiology, incidence, and clinical spectrum of leptospirosis, both ideally pathogen-based, are needed. PMID:25058149

  10. The inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil on drug-resistant bacteria and evaluation of its acute toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ce; Zhou, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Na; Liu, Qing; Hu, Shi-Lin; Li, Ting-Rong; Chen, Yan-Bing; Jiang, Jian-Xin

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The excessive and irregular use of antibiotics could result in the generation and diffusion of drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil (ZCHO) on drug-resistant bacteria, especially on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Material/Methods Susceptibility testing was used to evaluate the effect of ZCHO on growth inhibition of drug-resistant bacteria by paper disk method. Mice orally administered with ZCHO were used to observe acute toxicity and to determine median lethal dose (LD50) of ZCHO. Broth dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Results ZCHO exhibited an obvious inhibitory effect not only on gram-negative drug-resistant bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumannii, but also on gram-positive drug-resistant bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The ZCHO containing 79% terpinen-4-ol revealed better bacteriostatic effect than ZCHO with 34% terpinen-4-ol. The LD50 of ZCHO was 1790.427 mg/kg. The MIC and MBC of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 1457.81 mg/L. Conclusions ZCHO has obvious bacteriostasis and bactericidal effects, especially against drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Therefore, ZCHO is a promising natural bioactive component with antibacterial effect and satisfactory safety due to its low toxicity. PMID:21525802

  11. Non Obstetric Causes and Presentation of Acute Abdomen among the Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Monoarul; Kamal, Farah; Chowdhury, Shahanaz; Uzzaman, Monir; Aziz, Itrat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the non-obstetric causes and presentation of acute abdomen among pregnant women. Materials and methods: This was a cross sectional hospital-based study among 128 pregnant women by face to face interview using a semi-structured questionnaire. This study was conducted at the Gynecology & Obstetric Ward of 250 Bed General Hospital, Noakhali, Bangladesh, from January to August 2013. Data were analyzed by a software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 11.5 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Mean age of participants was 25±4 years. Our findings showed that 81% were Muslim, 67% were lower middle income group, as well as 47% completed primary level of education. The results revealed that 28% had biliary ascariasis, 24% had peptic ulcer disease and 10% had lower urinary tract infection. We also found that 6% had acute pyelonephritis, 6% had acute gastroenteritis, 6% had acute cholecystitis, 6% had acute appendicitis, 2% had acute pancreatitis, 3% had choledocolithiasis, 2% had ovarian solid mass, 2% had twisted ovarian cyst, 4% had renal colic, and 1% had renal calculus. In non-obstetrical presentation of acute abdomen, the study found that 84% of respondents complained their pain lasting more than 24 hours. Besides, half of respondents felt pain in epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Cramping, prickling and aching type of pain were more, while 66% suffered from continuous pain. Our results also showed that 73% did not explain any aggravating factor and relieving factor, and the rest said food, fasting state and position change aggravated pain as well as relieved pain. Conclusion: The study concludes that precise diagnosis of the acute abdomen in pregnant women by continual updating of abdominal assessment knowledge, and clinical skills is necessary in the management of abdominal pain in obstetric settings. PMID:25628721

  12. Bilateral stones as a cause of acute renal failure in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Joaquín V.; cachinero, Pedro L.; Ubeda, Fran R.; Ruiz, Daniel J. L.; Blanco, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) due to obstructive uropathy is a urological emergency. The standard radiological investigations in the emergency setting include X-ray, ultrasonography and computed tomography. But occasionally the cause of obstruction may be elusive. METHODS: We present a case of obstructive uropathy due to bilateral stones presenting as acute renal failure. The patient underwent successful shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for dissolution of calculi. RESULTS: The patient was successfully treated, and reported asymptomatic in a follow-up. CONCLUSION: Close collaboration between nephrological, urological, and radiological services is required. PMID:25215151

  13. Life-threatening Cerebral Edema Caused by Acute Occlusion of a Superior Vena Cava Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Sofue, Keitaro, E-mail: keitarosofue@yahoo.co.jp; Takeuchi, Yoshito, E-mail: yotake62@qg8.so-net.ne.jp; Arai, Yasuaki, E-mail: arai-y3111@mvh.biglobe.ne.jp [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan)] [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro, E-mail: sugimura@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Kobe University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)] [Kobe University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    A71-year-old man with advanced lung cancer developed a life-threatening cerebral edema caused by the acute occlusion of a superior vena cava (SVC) stent and was successfully treated by an additional stent placement. Although stent occlusion is a common early complication, no life-threatening situations have been reported until now. Our experience highlights the fact that acute stent occlusion can potentially lead to the complete venous shutdown of the SVC, resulting in life-threatening cerebral edema, after SVC stent placement. Immediate diagnosis and countermeasures are required.

  14. Acute hepatitis caused by alverine associated with anti-lamin A and C autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Malka, D; Pham, B N; Courvalin, J C; Corbic, M; Pessayre, D; Erlinger, S

    1997-08-01

    We report the case of a 67-year-old woman in whom onset and regression of acute hepatitis were closely related to the time of administration and withdrawal of the smooth muscle relaxant alverine. Antinuclear antibodies were positive, and their titer followed the course of hepatitis. They presented a smooth rim-like nuclear immunofluorescence staining pattern. Immunoblot assay showed that they were directed against lamin A and lamin C. This suggests that alverine should be added to the list of drugs known to produce acute hepatitis, and that drug-induced liver injury is a possible cause of antinuclear antibodies specific for lamin A and lamin C. PMID:9288616

  15. Primary Cutaneous Blastomycosis as a Cause of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrom

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Joel B.

    2009-01-01

    Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. Exposure in endemic regions frequently occurs when spores in soil are disturbed and subsequently inhaled. Less commonly, primary cutaneous blastomycosis may follow after traumatic inoculation of the fungus into the skin. Most patients infected with blastomycosis are asymptomatic, but an unfortunate small number present with fulminant disease. Rarely, the infection can affect organs, such as the skin, bone, or genitourinary system. In a small percentage of cases, blastomycosis may cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is associated with a very high mortality rate. Increased survival rates have been shown when the clinician has a high index of suspicion and facilitates rapid evaluation and initiation of the appropriate therapy. We present a rare case of a patient presenting with primary cutaneous blastomycosis that progressed to disseminated disease causing acute respiratory distress syndrome. High clinical suspicion, prompt diagnostic testing, and therapy with amphotericin B, confirmed the diagnosis and resulted in a swift recovery. PMID:20729940

  16. [Distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm causing acute subdural hematoma: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Ban, S; Sato, S; Yamamoto, T; Ogata, M

    1985-08-01

    We report two cases of distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms (distal ACA-aneurysm) causing acute subdural hematomas, which were diagnosed preoperatively. Case 1: 56 y.o. female who presented with stupor and right hemiparesis, was operated on 8 hrs. post-ictus. Case 2: 51 y.o. female who presented with semi-coma, anisocoria and decerebrate posture was operated on 5 hrs. post-ictus. She is alive in fair condition at present. Incidence of acute subdural hematomas in association with ruptured cerebral aneurysms has been reported as variously as 0.5 to 7.9% (clinical cases), with their source of bleeding being either IC or MCA aneurysms. Acute subdural hematomas as complication of ruptured distal ACA aneurysms are rare, and to the authors' knowledge, only 6 cases have been reported so far. Review of the literature regarding mechanism of formation of subdural hematoma, clinical course and treatment of choice are also reported. PMID:4058668

  17. Electrohydraulic Lithotripsy of an Impacted Enterolith Causing Acute Afferent Loop Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young Sin; Hwang, Soon Oh; Lee, Sunhyo; Jung, Yunho; Chung, Il-Kwun; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Afferent loop syndrome caused by an impacted enterolith is very rare, and endoscopic removal of the enterolith may be difficult if a stricture is present or the normal anatomy has been altered. Electrohydraulic lithotripsy is commonly used for endoscopic fragmentation of biliary and pancreatic duct stones. A 64-year-old man who had undergone subtotal gastrectomy and gastrojejunostomy presented with acute, severe abdominal pain for a duration of 2 hours. Initially, he was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis because of an elevated amylase level and pain, but was finally diagnosed with acute afferent loop syndrome when an impacted enterolith was identified by computed tomography. We successfully removed the enterolith using direct electrohydraulic lithotripsy conducted using a transparent cap-fitted endoscope without complications. We found that this procedure was therapeutically beneficial. PMID:25133128

  18. Management of cardiac arrest caused by acute massive pulmonary thromboembolism: importance of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yang Hyun; Kim, Wook Sung; Sung, Kiick; Jeong, Dong Seop; Lee, Young Tak; Park, Pyo Won; Kim, Duk-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac arrest caused by acute pulmonary embolism is associated with high patient mortality. We reviewed patients who had cardiac arrest caused by acute pulmonary embolism. Between January 2001 and September 2013, we identified 20 patients at our institution with a confirmative diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism and cardiac arrest. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) and surgical embolectomy are the standard course of care for patients with shock or cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary thromboembolism at our institution. Patients were divided into two groups (PCPS group and non-PCPS group). Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was used in 60% of patients. Surgical embolectomy was performed for 85% of patients. Overall in-hospital and surgical mortalities were 35% and 29%, respectively. On the basis of the multivariate analysis, both cardiopulmonary resuscitation more than 15 minutes and absence of PCPS were significant risk factors affecting survival (p = 0.001 and 0.049, respectively). When the duration of cardiac arrest is short, surgical embolectomy is a viable option after cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary thromboembolism. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support may be a useful tool for both stabilizing the patient and providing a bridge when deciding on further management options. PMID:24625535

  19. Histopathological Studies on Rabbits Infected by Bacteria Causing Infectious Keratitis in Human through Eye Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Mohamed, Hala A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to investigate the pathogenic effect of bacteria causing infectious keratitis among patients through experimental study conducted on rabbits’ eyes with the aid of histopathology as eye infection is a common disease in developing countries that may complicate to loss of vision. Methodology 100 swab samples were collected from human infected eyes, at Qassim region during 2012, for the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated pathogenic bacteria were tested to various antibiotics using some selected antibiotics discs through agar-well diffusion method. Then, experimental study conducted on 27 rabbits. The rabbits were divided randomly into three equal groups, each containing 9 rabbits. Rabbits of group (1) served as control group (Negative Control) and their eyes were inoculated with the buffer only. Rabbits of group (2) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rabbits of group (3) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Results Out of 100 collected swab samples from human infected eyes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated with a total percentage of 25.21% and 15.65%; respectively and used in this study. Both bacterial isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin and Cefuroxime. Clinically, experimentally infected rabbits by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealed varying degree corneal abrasions, corneal abscess and dense corneal opacity. Histopathologically, at 3rd day post-infection (PI), the cornea revealed polymorpho-nuclear cells infiltration with loss of the outer epithelial lining. At 7th day PI, neutrophils were seen in the stroma. At 15th day PI, proliferation of fibroblasts and new vascularisation were seen in the stroma. Clinically, rabbits experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, revealed corneal ulcers and focal abscesses. Histopathologically, at 3rd and 7th day PI, the cornea revealed edema and infiltration of leukocytes. At 15th day PI, hyperplasia of corneal epithelium and proliferation of keratocytes were evident. The liver and kidneys of experimented rabbits revealed no remarkable histopathological alterations along the period of experiment. Conclusion Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are common eye infection in human, both induced severe lesions in the eyes of rabbits that could interfere with vision, therefore, strict measures to control these infections in human is recommended. PMID:25505861

  20. Endophytic bacteria expressing ?-glucuronidase cause false positives in transformation of Dioscorea species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmut Tör; Sinclair H. Mantell; Charles Ainsworth

    1992-01-01

    False positive transformants obtained during plant transformation experiments on species of the monocotyledonous genus Dioscorea (yam) are described. The false positive results were found to be due to endophytic bacteria which exist within aseptically micropropagated shoot cultures and which express ß-glucuronidase (GUS). The bacteria were isolated and identified as two species of Curtobacterium. The expression of GUS in these organisms

  1. Advanced stage ovarian juvenile granuloza cell tumor causing acute abdomen: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bedir, Recep; Mürtezao?lu, Af?in Rahman; Calapo?lu, Ahmet Salih; ?ehito?lu, ?brahim; Yurdakul, Cüneyt

    2014-09-01

    Ovary juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that are most commonly encountered in prepubertal girls. These tumors can be of the adult type (95%) and juvenile type (5%). The main causes of complaint are abdominal distention and abdominal pain. Definitive diagnosis is confirmed by histopathologal and immunohistochemical examinations. A 10-year old girl presented with massive abdominal distention, acute abdomen findings and ascites. Abdominopelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed masses with multiple cysts and solid components in the left ovary. Tumor markers were normal, but serum estradiol level was elevated. The patient underwent mass resection with left salpingo-oophorectomy and total omentectomy. Final histopathological diagnosis was JGCT. We herein reporte an extremely rare case of advanced stage JGCT causing massive ascites and acute abdomen. PMID:25204485

  2. Acute flank pain: comparison of unenhanced helical CT and ultrasonography in detecting causes other than ureterolithiasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orlando Catalano; Antonio Nunziata; Fabio Sandomenico; Alfredo Siani

    2002-01-01

    .   Several conditions can clinically mimic renal colic. We assessed the accuracy of non-contrast-enhanced helical CT and of\\u000a ultrasonography (US) in offering an alternative explanation for flank pain. In a 3-year period, 181 patients with acute flank\\u000a pain underwent US and non-contrast-enhanced helical CT in a blinded sequence. Their efficacy in detecting both alternative\\u000a causes of pain and additional findings

  3. First Report of Human Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis Caused by the Fish Pathogen Lactococcus garvieae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Go, Jin; Cho, Chong Rae; Kim, Jae Il

    2013-01-01

    We report herein the first case of acute acalculous cholecystitis caused by Lactococcus garvieae, which is known as a fish pathogen. A 69-year-old fisherman underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to severe inflammation in the gallbladder. The isolate obtained from the gallbladder was identified as L. garvieae by 16S rRNA and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (sodA) gene sequence analysis. PMID:23241376

  4. First report of human acute acalculous cholecystitis caused by the fish pathogen Lactococcus garvieae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Go, Jin; Cho, Chong Rae; Kim, Jae Il; Lee, Myung Soo; Park, Se Chang

    2013-02-01

    We report herein the first case of acute acalculous cholecystitis caused by Lactococcus garvieae, which is known as a fish pathogen. A 69-year-old fisherman underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to severe inflammation in the gallbladder. The isolate obtained from the gallbladder was identified as L. garvieae by 16S rRNA and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (sodA) gene sequence analysis. PMID:23241376

  5. Appropriateness of empirical treatment and outcome in bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum-?-lactamase-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Frakking, Florine N J; Rottier, Wouter C; Dorigo-Zetsma, J Wendelien; van Hattem, Jarne M; van Hees, Babette C; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Lutgens, Suzanne P M; Prins, Jan M; Thijsen, Steven F T; Verbon, Annelies; Vlaminckx, Bart J M; Cohen Stuart, James W; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A; Bonten, Marc J M

    2013-07-01

    We studied clinical characteristics, appropriateness of initial antibiotic treatment, and other factors associated with day 30 mortality in patients with bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in eight Dutch hospitals. Retrospectively, information was collected from 232 consecutive patients with ESBL bacteremia (due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae) between 2008 and 2010. In this cohort (median age of 65 years; 24 patients were <18 years of age), many had comorbidities, such as malignancy (34%) or recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) (15%). One hundred forty episodes (60%) were nosocomial, 54 (23%) were otherwise health care associated, and 38 (16%) were community acquired. The most frequent sources of infection were UTI (42%) and intra-abdominal infection (28%). Appropriate therapy within 24 h after bacteremia onset was prescribed to 37% of all patients and to 54% of known ESBL carriers. The day 30 mortality rate was 20%. In a multivariable analysis, a Charlson comorbidity index of ? 3, an age of ? 75 years, intensive care unit (ICU) stay at bacteremia onset, a non-UTI bacteremia source, and presentation with severe sepsis, but not inappropriate therapy within <24 h (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 3.45), were associated with day 30 mortality. Further assessment of confounding and a stratified analysis for patients with UTI and non-UTI origins of infection did not reveal a statistically significant effect of inappropriate therapy on day 30 mortality, and these results were insensitive to the possible misclassification of patients who had received ?-lactam-?-lactamase inhibitor combinations or ceftazidime as initial treatment. In conclusion, ESBL bacteremia occurs mostly in patients with comorbidities requiring frequent hospitalization, and 84% of episodes were health care associated. Factors other than inappropriate therapy within <24 h determined day 30 mortality. PMID:23612198

  6. Appropriateness of Empirical Treatment and Outcome in Bacteremia Caused by Extended-Spectrum-?-Lactamase-Producing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Frakking, Florine N. J.; Dorigo-Zetsma, J. Wendelien; van Hattem, Jarne M.; van Hees, Babette C.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; Lutgens, Suzanne P. M.; Prins, Jan M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; Verbon, Annelies; Vlaminckx, Bart J. M.; Cohen Stuart, James W.; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2013-01-01

    We studied clinical characteristics, appropriateness of initial antibiotic treatment, and other factors associated with day 30 mortality in patients with bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in eight Dutch hospitals. Retrospectively, information was collected from 232 consecutive patients with ESBL bacteremia (due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae) between 2008 and 2010. In this cohort (median age of 65 years; 24 patients were <18 years of age), many had comorbidities, such as malignancy (34%) or recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) (15%). One hundred forty episodes (60%) were nosocomial, 54 (23%) were otherwise health care associated, and 38 (16%) were community acquired. The most frequent sources of infection were UTI (42%) and intra-abdominal infection (28%). Appropriate therapy within 24 h after bacteremia onset was prescribed to 37% of all patients and to 54% of known ESBL carriers. The day 30 mortality rate was 20%. In a multivariable analysis, a Charlson comorbidity index of ?3, an age of ?75 years, intensive care unit (ICU) stay at bacteremia onset, a non-UTI bacteremia source, and presentation with severe sepsis, but not inappropriate therapy within <24 h (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 3.45), were associated with day 30 mortality. Further assessment of confounding and a stratified analysis for patients with UTI and non-UTI origins of infection did not reveal a statistically significant effect of inappropriate therapy on day 30 mortality, and these results were insensitive to the possible misclassification of patients who had received ?-lactam–?-lactamase inhibitor combinations or ceftazidime as initial treatment. In conclusion, ESBL bacteremia occurs mostly in patients with comorbidities requiring frequent hospitalization, and 84% of episodes were health care associated. Factors other than inappropriate therapy within <24 h determined day 30 mortality. PMID:23612198

  7. Urethral caruncle: Case report of a rare acute urinary retension cause

    PubMed Central

    Çoban, Soner; B?y?k, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    A urethral caruncle is a benign vascular tumour usually originating from the rear lip of the external urethral mea and often observed in postmenopausal women. Urethral caruncle is not included within the list of bladder overdistension causes in women. We present urethral caruncle as a rare cause of acute urinary obstruction in a 41-year-old woman. The case was evaluated with physical examination and the bladder was evacuated with a 12-Fr urethral catheter. A pressure flow study was performed. The caruncle was excised under spinal anesthesia. There were no complications. The urethral catheter was withdrawn on the sixth day and she was discharged with local estrogen. PMID:24839498

  8. Acute urinary retention caused by seminoma in a case of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Modi, Jayesh; Modi, Deepika; Bachani, Lira

    2015-01-01

    Urinary symptoms have been described secondary to a pelvic mass originating from the ovary, uterus, cervix, prostate, or rectum. Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome is a rare form of intersex disorder, characterized by the presence of uterus and fallopian tubes in an otherwise 46 XY male. We report an adult male with bilateral cryptorchidism and a pelvic mass, who presented with acute urinary retention, and was diagnosed with a seminoma of the right testis, intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the left testis with the presence of Mullerian remnants. Pelvic mass was caused due to seminoma is a rare cause of urinary retention. PMID:25673601

  9. Right sided transmesentric hernia: A rare cause of acute abdomen in adults

    PubMed Central

    Bharatam, Kaundinya Kiran; Kaliyappa, C.; Reddy, Raja Raghavendra

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Transmesenteric mesocolic hernias are a rare cause of acute abdomen in adults with few reported cases in published literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a rare case of a 30-year-old male with right-sided transmesenteric hernia of ileum due to a congenital mesocolic defect resulting in acute abdomen, presenting as acute abdomen. The hernia was reduced, small bowel inspected for gangrene and mesenteric hernia repaired, following which the patient made a good recovery and was discharged 5 days later. DISCUSSION The insidious onset of transmesenteric herniae and lack of specific radiological or laboratory investigations reaffirms the importance of surgeons maintaining a high index of suspicion for this surgical emergency. CONCLUSION Transmesentric hernia though rare can present as a case of acute abdomen in an emergency. The diagnosis is purely by a CT scan and close monitoring of the patient's general condition in cases of non-specific abdominal pain is essential to identify the rare deteriorating patient for early surgical intervention and optimal outcome. PMID:25437662

  10. Acute phase proteins in milk in naturally acquired bovine mastitis caused by different pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pyörälä, S; Hovinen, M; Simojoki, H; Fitzpatrick, J; Eckersall, P D; Orro, T

    2011-05-21

    The concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) and the activity of N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) in milk from 234 cows with spontaneous mastitis caused by different pathogens were measured to assess whether they corresponded with the clinical signs of mastitis and whether there were any differences between pathogens. Ninety-eight of the cows had clinical mastitis and 136 had subclinical mastitis. There were statistically significant positive correlations between the concentrations of SAA and Hp and the activity of NAGase. Significant differences in the concentrations of acute phase proteins and NAGase activity were found in milk from cows with mastitis caused by different pathogens. The highest concentrations of Hp and NAGase were found in cases of mastitis caused by Escherichia coli and Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and the lowest concentrations were from cases of mastitis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. Very low SAA concentrations were found in milk from the cases caused by A pyogenes, in contrast to cases caused by other major mastitis pathogens. The median concentration of SAA was over 10 times higher in cases of mastitis caused by E coli than in mastitis caused by other pathogens. There were significant differences in the mean Hp concentration and NAGase activity between clinical and subclinical mastitis. In approximately one-third of the samples, the Hp concentration was below the detection limit, potentially compromising the use of Hp as a mastitis marker. PMID:21558129

  11. Jejunal Diverticulitis Ascending to the Duodenum as a Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Fresow, Robert; Kamusella, Peter; Talanow, Roland; Andresen, Reimer

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 73 year-old Caucasian male with acute abdominal pain, peritonism and vomiting. Due to the severity of symptoms a CT examination of the abdomen was performed. The scans revealed multiple jejunal diverticula, wall thickening of the duodenum and jejunum, and free peritoneal fluid. No clear signs of mesenteric infarction, free abdominal air or abscess formation were seen. An additional exploratory laparotomy was conducted to confirm the CT findings and rule out the need for resection of small bowel. Since the results were matching, conservative therapy was scheduled and the patient recovered well. Jejunal diverticulitis is a rare cause of acute abdomen, however has to be considered as a differential diagnosis to more common entities. It usually stays localized, while in our case the inflammation ascended to the duodenum. CT is the modality of choice to diagnose and rule out potentially life threatening complications. PMID:25302248

  12. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection causing acute coronary syndrome in a young patient without risk factors.

    PubMed

    Chevli, Parag; Kelash, Fnu; Gadhvi, Pragnesh; Grandhi, Sreeram; Syed, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction that is more common in younger patients (under age 50) and in women. Although the etiology is not known, some predisposing conditions to SCAD are well known and include Marfan syndrome, pregnancy and peripartum state, drug abuse, and some anatomical abnormalities of the coronary arteries such as aneurysms and severe kinking. We describe a case of SCAD in a young woman who presented with sudden onset of chest pain and was admitted for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. The coronary angiography showed dissection of the left anterior descending artery. The patient underwent successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and stent placement. PMID:25317268

  13. Jejunal diverticulitis ascending to the duodenum as a rare cause of acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Fresow, Robert; Vieweg, Hendryk; Kamusella, Peter; Talanow, Roland; Andresen, Reimer

    2014-08-01

    We present the case of a 73 year-old Caucasian male with acute abdominal pain, peritonism and vomiting. Due to the severity of symptoms a CT examination of the abdomen was performed. The scans revealed multiple jejunal diverticula, wall thickening of the duodenum and jejunum, and free peritoneal fluid. No clear signs of mesenteric infarction, free abdominal air or abscess formation were seen. An additional exploratory laparotomy was conducted to confirm the CT findings and rule out the need for resection of small bowel. Since the results were matching, conservative therapy was scheduled and the patient recovered well. Jejunal diverticulitis is a rare cause of acute abdomen, however has to be considered as a differential diagnosis to more common entities. It usually stays localized, while in our case the inflammation ascended to the duodenum. CT is the modality of choice to diagnose and rule out potentially life threatening complications. PMID:25302248

  14. Acute prostatitis caused by Raoultella planticola in a renal transplant recipient: a novel case.

    PubMed

    Koukoulaki, M; Bakalis, A; Kalatzis, V; Belesiotou, E; Papastamopoulos, V; Skoutelis, A; Drakopoulos, S

    2014-06-01

    We present a unique case of acute bacterial prostatitis caused by a very rare human pathogen, Raoultella planticola, in a renal allograft recipient 3.5 months post transplantation. Only a few cases of human infection by this pathogen have been reported worldwide. The present study reports the case of a 67-year-old man who was admitted to our transplant unit 3.5 months post transplantation with fever, dysuria, suprapubic pain, symptoms and signs of acute prostatitis, and elevated markers of inflammation and prostate-specific antigen. R. planticola was isolated in the urine culture. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin (based on the antibiogram) and had a full recovery, with satisfactory renal function. To the best of our knowledge, this is not only the first reported case of R. planticola prostatitis, but also the first report of such an infection in a solid organ transplant recipient or in a patient on immunosuppressive medication. PMID:24750300

  15. Predation as a cause of neurologic signs and acute mortality in a pheasant flock.

    PubMed

    Martin, M P; Anderson, C M; Johnson, B; Wakenell, P S

    2006-09-01

    A flock of approximately 15,000 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) was evaluated for a sudden increase in mortality and acute neurological signs after having been previously diagnosed 3 wk earlier with a chronic respiratory disease of undetermined etiology. Approximately 25 live birds were displaying neurological signs including circling, ataxia, and obtunded behavior and 50 birds were dead. Three birds with neurological signs were submitted for evaluation. Extensive subcutaneous hemorrhage over the head and penetrating puncture wounds through the skull and into the brain were found. Trauma from a wild predatory mammal, most likely the long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata) that had invaded the pheasant house and expressed surplus killing behavior was determined to be the cause of the acute neurological signs and mortality. The relationship of the chronic respiratory disease to the predation episode was not determined but it is possible that pheasants with severe respiratory disease may have had increased susceptibility to predation. PMID:17039853

  16. Acute promyelocytic leukemia as a cause of intracoronary drug-eluting-stent thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Sargsyan, Zaven; Higgins, Christopher; Alexandrescu, Sanda; Ott, David A; Jain, Surendra K

    2012-01-01

    Stent thrombosis is a potentially lethal complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. We describe the case of a 51-year-old man who presented with acute anterior ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction and underwent successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and placement of 3 drug-eluting stents in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Despite receiving dual antiplatelet therapy, the patient presented a week later with a non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction and was found to have nonocclusive thrombosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery stents and his ostial left main and left circumflex coronary arteries. Subsequently, bone marrow biopsy analysis indicated that the patient had acute myelogenous leukemia, which we believe was the underlying cause of his prothrombotic state and stent thrombosis. PMID:22719158

  17. Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia as a Cause of Intracoronary Drug-Eluting–Stent Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Sargsyan, Zaven; Higgins, Christopher; Alexandrescu, Sanda; Ott, David A.; Jain, Surendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Stent thrombosis is a potentially lethal complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. We describe the case of a 51-year-old man who presented with acute anterior ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction and underwent successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and placement of 3 drug-eluting stents in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Despite receiving dual antiplatelet therapy, the patient presented a week later with a non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction and was found to have nonocclusive thrombosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery stents and his ostial left main and left circumflex coronary arteries. Subsequently, bone marrow biopsy analysis indicated that the patient had acute myelogenous leukemia, which we believe was the underlying cause of his prothrombotic state and stent thrombosis. PMID:22719158

  18. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection causing acute coronary syndrome in a young patient without risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Chevli, Parag; Kelash, Fnu; Gadhvi, Pragnesh; Grandhi, Sreeram; Syed, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction that is more common in younger patients (under age 50) and in women. Although the etiology is not known, some predisposing conditions to SCAD are well known and include Marfan syndrome, pregnancy and peripartum state, drug abuse, and some anatomical abnormalities of the coronary arteries such as aneurysms and severe kinking. We describe a case of SCAD in a young woman who presented with sudden onset of chest pain and was admitted for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. The coronary angiography showed dissection of the left anterior descending artery. The patient underwent successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and stent placement. PMID:25317268

  19. First report on the use of moderately halophilic bacteria against stem canker of greenhouse tomatoes caused by Botrytis cinerea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Najla Sadfi-Zouaoui; Badiâa Essghaier; Ibtissem Hannachi; Mohamed Rabeh Hajlaoui; Abdellatif Boudabous

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of moderately halophilic bacteria isolated from different Tunisian Sebkhas\\u000a (hypersaline soils), on stem canker caused byBotrytis cinerea on tomato plants grown under greenhouse conditions. Treatments performed with moderately halophilic isolates ofBacillus subtilis J9 andHalomonas sp. K2-5 significantly reduced stem lesion expansion byB. cinerea on tomato plants under greenhouse conditions. The use of such

  20. Identifying drugs that cause acute thrombocytopenia: an analysis using 3 distinct methods

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Jessica A.; Li, Xiaoning; Hauben, Manfred; Aster, Richard H.; Bougie, Daniel W.; Curtis, Brian R.; George, James N.

    2010-01-01

    Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DITP) is often suspected in patients with acute thrombocytopenia unexplained by other causes, but documenting that a drug is the cause of thrombocytopenia can be challenging. To provide a resource for diagnosis of DITP and for drug safety surveillance, we analyzed 3 distinct methods for identifying drugs that may cause thrombocytopenia. (1) Published case reports of DITP have described 253 drugs suspected of causing thrombocytopenia; using defined clinical criteria, 87 (34%) were identified with evidence that the drug caused thrombocytopenia. (2) Serum samples from patients with suspected DITP were tested for 202 drugs; drug-dependent, platelet-reactive antibodies were identified for 67 drugs (33%). (3) The Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System database was searched for drugs associated with thrombocytopenia by use of data mining algorithms; 1444 drugs had at least 1 report associated with thrombocytopenia, and 573 (40%) drugs demonstrated a statistically distinctive reporting association with thrombocytopenia. Among 1468 drugs suspected of causing thrombocytopenia, 102 were evaluated by all 3 methods, and 23 of these 102 drugs had evidence for an association with thrombocytopenia by all 3 methods. Multiple methods, each with a distinct perspective, can contribute to the identification of drugs that can cause thrombocytopenia. PMID:20530792

  1. Identifying drugs that cause acute thrombocytopenia: an analysis using 3 distinct methods.

    PubMed

    Reese, Jessica A; Li, Xiaoning; Hauben, Manfred; Aster, Richard H; Bougie, Daniel W; Curtis, Brian R; George, James N; Vesely, Sara K

    2010-09-23

    Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DITP) is often suspected in patients with acute thrombocytopenia unexplained by other causes, but documenting that a drug is the cause of thrombocytopenia can be challenging. To provide a resource for diagnosis of DITP and for drug safety surveillance, we analyzed 3 distinct methods for identifying drugs that may cause thrombocytopenia. (1) Published case reports of DITP have described 253 drugs suspected of causing thrombocytopenia; using defined clinical criteria, 87 (34%) were identified with evidence that the drug caused thrombocytopenia. (2) Serum samples from patients with suspected DITP were tested for 202 drugs; drug-dependent, platelet-reactive antibodies were identified for 67 drugs (33%). (3) The Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System database was searched for drugs associated with thrombocytopenia by use of data mining algorithms; 1444 drugs had at least 1 report associated with thrombocytopenia, and 573 (40%) drugs demonstrated a statistically distinctive reporting association with thrombocytopenia. Among 1468 drugs suspected of causing thrombocytopenia, 102 were evaluated by all 3 methods, and 23 of these 102 drugs had evidence for an association with thrombocytopenia by all 3 methods. Multiple methods, each with a distinct perspective, can contribute to the identification of drugs that can cause thrombocytopenia. PMID:20530792

  2. Identification of the cause of weak acute toxicity to rainbow trout at a petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.R.; Zaleski, R.T.; Biddinger, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    The refinery in question performs flow through acute toxicity tests on its effluent four times per month using three fish species: fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus oculeatus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Several months of monitoring data indicated a transient low level acute toxicity to rainbow trout. In most cases, several days were required for mortality to occur in the flow through tests and numerous attempts to reproduce toxicity in static and static renewal tests were unsuccessful. A decision was made to manipulate the effluent in an attempt to enhance the toxic effect in the static mode so that conventional methods could be used to identify the cause. these tests indicated that toxicity was pH dependent. Additional testing, using EPA`s Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation methods suggested that the cause of toxicity was probably an organic acid. Experiments were subsequently begun to identify the specific cause and source of toxicity. This paper reviews the problems confronted during the various phases of the study and the decisions that were made that eventually led to an understanding of the basis of toxicity.

  3. Acute myocardial infarction in a young man caused by centipede sting

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, A; Biçeroglu, S; Yakut, N; Bilir, C; Akdemir, R; Akilli, A

    2006-01-01

    It is known that insects can cause various clinical effects such as myocardial ischaemia and hypotension from vasospasm and the myocardial toxic effects of the venom and anaphylaxis. Although myocardial ischaemia resulting from centipede sting has been reported once before, myocardial injury has not. In this report, the authors present the case of a 20?year old male patient bitten by a centipede and admitted to the emergency room with chest pain, abnormal electrocardiographic findings, and increased cardiac enzymes (cardiac troponin T) suggesting acute myocardial infarction. PMID:16549562

  4. Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome: An Important Cause of Acute Severe Headache

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li Huey; Flower, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is an increasingly recognized and important cause of acute headache. The majority of these patients develop potentially serious neurological complications. Rigorous investigation is required to exclude other significant differential diagnoses. Differentiating RCVS from subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) may be difficult but has important therapeutic implications. This paper describes what is currently known about the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical, and diagnostic features of the syndrome, an approach to investigation, a summary of treatments, and what is known of prognosis. PMID:22830030

  5. RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS: AN IMPORTANT CAUSE OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY ILLNESS AMONG YOUNG ADULTS UNDERGOING MILITARY TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Matthew K.; Pipkin, Christopher; Cane, Patricia A.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Military recruits receiving training are vulnerable to acute respiratory disease and a significant proportion of illness is due to unidentified pathogens. While some countries use surveillance programs to monitor such illness, few data exist for recruits of the British Armed Forces. Objectives Through active surveillance of approximately 1000 Royal Navy trainees during 2001, we sought to describe and determine the aetiology of acute respiratory illness. Methods Standard viral culture was used together with serology and a novel highly sensitive real-time PCR and molecular beacon probe assay for RSV detection. Results Among 54 Royal Navy recruits with respiratory symptoms adenovirus was identified in 35%, influenza viruses in 19% and RSV in 14% of this group. All of the recruits were absent from training for almost a week, most of whom were confined to the sickbay. Conclusions This study is the first to document adenovirus and RSV as important causes of acute respiratory illness among Royal Navy trainees. The study findings demonstrate the clinical significance and challenges of diagnosing RSV infection in young adults. PMID:18846262

  6. Incidence and causes of mortality following acute orthopaedic and trauma admissions.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, H. B.; MacDonald, D. A.; Matthews, S. J.; Giannoudis, P. V.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyse the incidence and causes of mortality of orthopaedic and trauma patients. METHODS: Between March 1995 and October 2000, there were 594 (404 females) in-patient deaths (2.8%) with a mean age of 82.14 years (range, 21-102 years) out of 21,122 acute admissions. The cause of death and details of the acute episode were collected from the hospital records, death certificates and postmortem examinations. Data collected were computerised and analysed using the Astute statistical package, University of Leeds. RESULTS: The most common primary diagnosis on admission was fracture neck of femur 392 (69.1%; P = 0.001). In total, 443 (78.1%) patients underwent surgical intervention of their injuries prior to mortality with 21 patients (4.7%) dying on the same day of the operation. The mean number of days between the initial surgical intervention and death was 22.3 days (range, 0-154 days). Of the patients who were treated non-operatively, 124 died due to poor medical condition (4 [3.2%] died within 24 h, 66 [51.6%] died within the first week and the rest died thereafter). In the death certificate, the most common primary cause of death recorded in the group of patients of 64 years of age and below was cancer followed by multi-organ failure. In the age group of 65 years and above, the most common primary cause of mortality was pneumonia followed by heart failure and myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: In orthopaedic and trauma patients below the age of 65 years, the most common cause of death appears to be cancer followed by multiple system organ failure; in the elderly, pneumonia predominates followed by heart failure and myocardial infarction. Proximal femoral fractures accounted for 70% of the deaths. PMID:15140297

  7. Clinical Analysis of Cause, Treatment and Prognosis in Acute Kidney Injury Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Li; Wu, Hao; Zou, Hongbin; Du, Yujun

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by an abrupt decline in renal function, resulting in an inability to secrete waste products and maintain electrolyte and water balance, and is associated with high risks of morbidity and mortality. This study retrospectively analyzed clinical data, treatment, and prognosis of 271 hospitalized patients (172 males and 99 females) diagnosed with AKI from December, 2008 to December, 2011. In addition, this study explored the association between the cause of AKI and prognosis, severity and treatment of AKI. The severity of AKI was classified according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Renal recovery was defined as a decrease in a serum creatinine level to the normal value. Prerenal, renal, and postrenal causes accounted for 36.5% (99 patients), 46.5% (126 patients) and 17.0% (46 patients), respectively, of the incidence of AKI. Conservative, surgical, and renal replacement treatments were given to 180 (66.4%), 30 (11.1%) and 61 patients (22.5%), respectively. The overall recovery rate was 21.0%, and the mortality rate was 19.6%. Levels of Cl?, Na+ and carbon dioxide combining power decreased with increasing severity of AKI. Cause and treatment were significantly associated with AKI prognosis. Likewise, the severity of AKI was significantly associated with cause, treatment and prognosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that respiratory injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) were associated with AKI patient death. Cause, treatment and AKIN stage are associated with the prognosis of AKI. Respiratory injury and MODS are prognostic factors for death of AKI patients. PMID:24586237

  8. Plasma needle treatment of bacteria known to cause infections of the soft tissue of the oral region and bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maletic, Dejan; Lazovic, Sasa; Puac, Nevena; Malovic, Gordana; Petrovic, Zoran Lj.; Miletic, Maja P.; Pavlica, Dusan B.; Jovanovic, Milena Z.; Milenkovic, Pavle

    2009-10-01

    Plasma needle can be used for non-contact disinfection of dental cavities and wounds, minimum-destructive precise treatment, as well as the removal of damaged tissue. The effect of bacterial deactivation is probably caused by reactive oxygen species while nitric oxide provided by plasma plays major role in many processes in the organism. Mass spectrometry was done to provide better insight into plasma-cell interactions. Our measurements were performed on a plasma needle that we originally used for the treatment of plant cells.Our research was done on species that are known to cause primary and secondary infections of the soft tissue of the oral region, as well as bones. The bacteria cultures used are bacterial reference culture species Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. We investigated the effect of the plasma needle discharge on different concentration of bacteria using several exposure times and power transmitted to the plasma. It was found that excellent removal of this and other bacteria may be achieved by the plasma needle treatment.

  9. Interactions between amphibians' symbiotic bacteria cause the production of emergent anti-fungal metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Loudon, Andrew H.; Holland, Jessica A.; Umile, Thomas P.; Burzynski, Elizabeth A.; Minbiole, Kevin P. C.; Harris, Reid N.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibians possess beneficial skin bacteria that protect against the disease chytridiomycosis by producing secondary metabolites that inhibit the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Metabolite production may be a mechanism of competition between bacterial species that results in host protection as a by-product. We expect that some co-cultures of bacterial species or strains will result in greater Bd inhibition than mono-cultures. To test this, we cultured four bacterial isolates (Bacillus sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Chitinophaga arvensicola) from red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and cultured isolates both alone and together to collect their cell-free supernatants (CFS). We challenged Bd with CFSs from four bacterial species in varying combinations. This resulted in three experimental treatments: (1) CFSs of single isolates; (2) combined CFSs of two isolates; and (3) CFSs from co-cultures. Pair-wise combinations of four bacterial isolates CFSs were assayed against Bd and revealed additive Bd inhibition in 42.2% of trials, synergistic inhibition in 42.2% and no effect in 16.6% of trials. When bacteria isolates were grown in co-cultures, complete Bd inhibition was generally observed, and synergistic inhibition occurred in four out of six trials. A metabolite profile of the most potent co-culture, Bacillus sp. and Chitinophaga arvensicola, was determined with LC-MS and compared with the profiles of each isolate in mono-culture. Emergent metabolites appearing in the co-culture were inhibitory to Bd, and the most potent inhibitor was identified as tryptophol. Thus mono-cultures of bacteria cultured from red-backed salamanders interacted synergistically and additively to inhibit Bd, and such bacteria produced emergent metabolites when cultured together, with even greater pathogen inhibition. Knowledge of how bacterial species interact to inhibit Bd can be used to select probiotics to provide amphibians with protection against Bd. PMID:25191317

  10. Interactions between amphibians' symbiotic bacteria cause the production of emergent anti-fungal metabolites.

    PubMed

    Loudon, Andrew H; Holland, Jessica A; Umile, Thomas P; Burzynski, Elizabeth A; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Harris, Reid N

    2014-01-01

    Amphibians possess beneficial skin bacteria that protect against the disease chytridiomycosis by producing secondary metabolites that inhibit the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Metabolite production may be a mechanism of competition between bacterial species that results in host protection as a by-product. We expect that some co-cultures of bacterial species or strains will result in greater Bd inhibition than mono-cultures. To test this, we cultured four bacterial isolates (Bacillus sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Chitinophaga arvensicola) from red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and cultured isolates both alone and together to collect their cell-free supernatants (CFS). We challenged Bd with CFSs from four bacterial species in varying combinations. This resulted in three experimental treatments: (1) CFSs of single isolates; (2) combined CFSs of two isolates; and (3) CFSs from co-cultures. Pair-wise combinations of four bacterial isolates CFSs were assayed against Bd and revealed additive Bd inhibition in 42.2% of trials, synergistic inhibition in 42.2% and no effect in 16.6% of trials. When bacteria isolates were grown in co-cultures, complete Bd inhibition was generally observed, and synergistic inhibition occurred in four out of six trials. A metabolite profile of the most potent co-culture, Bacillus sp. and Chitinophaga arvensicola, was determined with LC-MS and compared with the profiles of each isolate in mono-culture. Emergent metabolites appearing in the co-culture were inhibitory to Bd, and the most potent inhibitor was identified as tryptophol. Thus mono-cultures of bacteria cultured from red-backed salamanders interacted synergistically and additively to inhibit Bd, and such bacteria produced emergent metabolites when cultured together, with even greater pathogen inhibition. Knowledge of how bacterial species interact to inhibit Bd can be used to select probiotics to provide amphibians with protection against Bd. PMID:25191317

  11. Cutaneous infection caused by Cylindrocarpon lichenicola in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Iwen, P C; Tarantolo, S R; Sutton, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Hinrichs, S H

    2000-09-01

    Cylindrocarpon lichenicola is a saprophytic soil fungus which has rarely been associated with human disease. We report the first case of localized invasive cutaneous infection caused by this fungus in a 53-year-old male from the rural midwestern United States with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia. On admission for induction chemotherapy, the patient was noted to have an abrasive laceration between the fourth and fifth metacarpophalangeal joints and on the dorsum of the right hand, which progressed to frank ulceration following chemotherapy. A biopsy provided an initial diagnosis of an invasive fungal infection consistent with aspergillosis based on the histopathological appearance of the mold in tissue. Multiple positive fungal cultures which were obtained from the biopsied tissue were subsequently identified by microscopic and macroscopic characteristics to be C. lichenicola. The infection resolved following marrow regeneration, aggressive debridement of the affected tissue, and treatment with amphotericin B. This case extends the conditions associated with invasive disease caused by C. lichenicola. PMID:10970386

  12. Acute pulmonary embolism caused by enlarged uterine leiomyoma: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Khademvatani, Kamal; Rezaei, Yousef; Kerachian, Abdollah; Seyyed-Mohammadzad, Mir Hossein; Eskandari, Ramin; Rostamzadeh, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Female, 42 Final Diagnosis: Acute pulmonary embolism Symptoms: Chest pain • dyspnea Medication: Streptokinase • Warfarin Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology and Neoplasm Objective: Management of emergency care Background: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and subsequent pulmonary embolism (PE) caused by pelvic vein compression are rare and life-threatening complications of leiomyoma of the uterus. Case Report: We report a 42-year-old virgin woman with a history of leiomyoma who presented to the emergency department with complaints of dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain with transient spotting. On physical examination, she had a non-tender abdomen with a 20-week size uterus. Imaging investigations revealed an acute DVT in her left leg and a huge uterine-derived mass compressing the common iliac veins. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated an echogenic mass in her right pulmonary artery consistent with thrombosis. The patient was completely cured using thrombolytic therapy and myomectomy, and was well at 1 year after thrombolysis. Conclusions: PE caused by pelvic vein compression is a rare complication of leiomyoma, which should be considered. Thrombolytic therapy associated with myomectomy can be implemented for treating such cases, and TEE can be used for diagnosing suspected high-risk PE. PMID:25061497

  13. Benign acute childhood myositis--a rare cause of abnormal gait.

    PubMed

    Hall, Gregory; Schranz, Craig I

    2014-02-01

    Benign acute childhood myositis is a rare postviral myositis seen in school-aged children after a common upper respiratory infection (URI), most commonly caused by influenza [J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2004;37:95-98]. Predominantly seen in boys, this condition causes bilateral calf tenderness and pain with ambulation, often presenting as a refusal to bear weight. To avoid activation within the gastroc-soleus complex, the child will frequently compensate with a “Frankenstein gait,” described as a stiff-legged posture with shuffling gait [CMAJ 2009;181:711-713]. The child may also walk on his toes or refuse to walk at all. This refusal to bear weight can be alarming to both providers and parents, resulting in extensive workups. We present the case of a 5-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of leg pain and refusal to walk. Further history revealed a resolved URI approximately 5 days prior. He was noted to have an elevated creatinine kinase with no evidence of renal insufficiency. He had no progression or complications, and his symptoms resolved spontaneously with minimal supportive treatment. Benign acute childhood myositis should be considered within the broad differential that surrounds a limping child or one who refuses to bear weight. Having insight into the condition with its characteristic gait abnormalities and associated URI history can often prevent extensive workups and be treated supportively in the outpatient setting. PMID:24126025

  14. ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

  15. [Acute subdural hematoma caused by mild head trauma in the aged].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, H; Shigemori, M; Kikuchi, N; Kikuchi, T; Ochiai, S; Tomita, T; Kuramoto, S; Kaku, N

    1992-04-01

    We encountered 8 cases of acute subdural hematoma caused by mild head trauma in the aged. In this report, these cases were analyzed, taking into consideration clinical symptoms, CT scan, operative findings and outcome. The age ranged from 70 to 92 years (mean age of 79.7 years). 4 patients were male and 4 female. Head trauma was caused by falls in 4 patients, but in the other 4 patients the causes were unknown. Initial symptoms were headache, nausea and vomiting in 5 patients and mild disturbance of consciousness with lucid intervals in 3 patients. Seven patients had more than 100 on JCS and less than 9 on GCS on admission. Small craniotomy (HITT) was performed in 4 patients. Large craniotomy was performed in 2 patients, and decompressive craniectomy was carried out in 2 patients. The bleeding focus came from the cortical artery of the middle cerebral artery in 4 patients, cerebral contusion in 2 patients, and was unknown in 2 patients for HITT. CT scan on admission showed mixed density area of acute subdural hematoma in all of the patients, and intraventricular hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage in 3 patients. CT scan after operation revealed a new area of cerebral contusion in 3 patients, delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma (DTICH) in 2 patients, and hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage in 1 patient. Two patients recovered to good and fair without general complication. But the outcome in 5 patients with general complication was poor for 3 patients and fatal for 2 patients. In conclusion, large craniotomy is recommended because of bleeding from the cortical artery of the middle cerebral artery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1570061

  16. An unusual cause of unilateral pleural effusion in the setting of aortic stenosis: acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fatih, Tufan; Selim, Yavuz; Mesut, Ayer; Demirel, Yildirim Naciye; Yuksel, Pekcelen

    2007-01-01

    Pleural effusion has various causes. In the setting of aortic stenosis, new onset pleural effusion is generally considered as a consequence of heart failure. Here, we describe a 50-year-old male patient who had been followed with aortic stenosis for 30 years. During his admission he presented with exertional dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain. He had no other symptoms or findings of cardiac failure. Complete blood count revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis, a normal hemoglobin level and normal platelet count. Left sided pleural effusion was noted on the posteroanterior chest X-ray. Examination of the pleural fluid revealed myeloid blasts. Bone marrow aspiration smear and flow cytometric analysis of the bone marrow and pleural fluid were consistent with acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:17380003

  17. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency--unrecognized cause of recurrent acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ale?kovi?-Halilovi?, Mirna; Meši?, Enisa; Sinanovi?, Osman; Zuki?, Sanela; Mustedanagi?, Jasminka

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic myopathies represent a small percentage of rhabdomyolysis causes that could lead to acute kidney injury (AKI). This could be prevented if this condition is suspected and timely treated. Carnitine palmityl transferase (CPT) deficiency is the most frequent metabolic myopathy and should be considered whenever recurrent myoglobinuria is suspected, and distinguished from the second frequent one, McArdle disease. We present a case of a patient with two medically misinterpreted episodes of AKI in whom the subsequent diagnosis of CPT deficiency was established based on high index of clinical suspicion and correlation of clinical manifestations to specific metabolic defects. Application of simple measures and lifestyle changes improved our patient's life quality and prevented potential new life-threatening complications. PMID:23560446

  18. Jejunal intussusception: a rare cause of an acute abdomen in adults.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sonali; Eagles, Natasha; Thomas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pain secondary to intussusception is a common presentation in the paediatric population but rare in adults. Diagnosis is often difficult due to non-specific signs and symptoms. Adult intussusception presents more insidiously with intermittent abdominal pain and signs and symptoms of an acute abdomen are rare. In children, the aetiological factor is usually idiopathic, whereas intussusception in adults is more commonly due to an underlying pathology giving rise to a lead point. Consequently the treatment of choice is different-while it is supportive in children, surgical management is typically indicated in adults. In addition, the causes of a lead point precipitating adult intussusception are different depending on whether they arise from the small or large bowel. This report presents a case of jejunal intussusception in a 30-year-old man with a characteristic CT scan who required exploratory laparotomy and small bowel resection. PMID:24872480

  19. Perforated jejunal diverticula- a rare cause of acute abdominal pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohammad Esmail; Atqiaee, Khashayar; Lotfollahzadeh, Saran; Moghadam, Amir Naser Jadbbaeey; Sobhiyeh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Jejunal diverticula have a prevalence of approximately 1% in the general population. Perforation of jejunal diverticulum is a rare. Clinically this diagnosis may be easily confused with other causes of an acute abdomen. In the article, we discuss a 74-year-old man with a 2-day history of constipation and left-sided abdominal pain. The day before admission he developed an abrupt exacerbation his symptoms with pain localized to periumbilical and left lower quadrant. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed soft tissue stranding within the left upper quadrant, bilateral plural effusions , larger on the left, an opacity with the right and left pulmonary lobes and polypoid lesion with in stomach. Physical examination revealed left upper quadrant fullness. An emergency laparotomy was carried out. This revealed multiple jejunal diverticula, one of which had perforated 40 centimeters distal to the ligament of Treitz. PMID:24834264

  20. The cause of fever following resolution of neutropenia in patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Barton, T D; Schuster, M G

    1996-06-01

    Many studies have examined the etiology of fever complicating neutropenia. Little is known about the etiology of fever occurring immediately following recovery from myelosuppression. We reviewed 165 episodes of fever in patients who were admitted to the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center (Philadelphia) between 1 August 1992 and 15 August 1994 for the treatment of acute leukemia. We included patients who had episodes of fever (temperature of > or = 38 degrees C) for > or = 48 hours within 10 days after an absolute neutrophil count of < or = 500 cells/mm3 was determined. Twenty-nine (20%) of 145 episodes met these criteria. In 5 (17%) of 29 episodes the cause of fever was a bacterial infection, in 6 (21%) of 29 episodes the cause of fever was noninfectious, and in 12 (41%) of 29 episodes the cause of fever was unknown. Six (21%) of 29 episodes were due to documented or suspected fungal infection, four were due to suspected pulmonary aspergillosis, and two were due to systemic candidal infections. Fever following recovery from chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is common. Fungal infections occur frequently after recovery from myelosuppression despite widespread use of empirical and prophylactic antifungal therapy. Improved strategies for diagnosing and preventing fungal infections in patients who have fever following recovery from myelosuppression are clearly needed. PMID:8783711

  1. Acute upregulation of hedgehog signaling in mice causes differential effects on cranial morphology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nandini; Dutka, Tara; Devenney, Benjamin M.; Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling, and particularly signaling by sonic hedgehog (SHH), is implicated in several essential activities during morphogenesis, and its misexpression causes a number of developmental disorders in humans. In particular, a reduced mitogenic response of cerebellar granule cell precursors to SHH signaling in a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS), Ts65Dn, is substantially responsible for reduced cerebellar size. A single treatment of newborn trisomic mice with an agonist of the SHH pathway (SAG) normalizes cerebellar morphology and restores some cognitive deficits, suggesting a possible therapeutic application of SAG for treating the cognitive impairments of DS. Although the beneficial effects on the cerebellum are compelling, inappropriate activation of the HH pathway causes anomalies elsewhere in the head, particularly in the formation and patterning of the craniofacial skeleton. To determine whether an acute treatment of SAG has an effect on craniofacial morphology, we quantitatively analyzed the cranial form of adult euploid and Ts65Dn mice that were injected with either SAG or vehicle at birth. We found significant deformation of adult craniofacial shape in some animals that had received SAG at birth. The most pronounced differences between the treated and untreated mice were in the midline structures of the facial skeleton. The SAG-driven craniofacial dysmorphogenesis was dose-dependent and possibly incompletely penetrant at lower concentrations. Our findings illustrate that activation of HH signaling, even with an acute postnatal stimulation, can lead to localized dysmorphology of the skull by generating modular shape changes in the facial skeleton. These observations have important implications for translating HH-agonist-based treatments for DS. PMID:25540129

  2. Acute upregulation of hedgehog signaling in mice causes differential effects on cranial morphology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nandini; Dutka, Tara; Devenney, Benjamin M; Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2015-03-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling, and particularly signaling by sonic hedgehog (SHH), is implicated in several essential activities during morphogenesis, and its misexpression causes a number of developmental disorders in humans. In particular, a reduced mitogenic response of cerebellar granule cell precursors to SHH signaling in a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS), Ts65Dn, is substantially responsible for reduced cerebellar size. A single treatment of newborn trisomic mice with an agonist of the SHH pathway (SAG) normalizes cerebellar morphology and restores some cognitive deficits, suggesting a possible therapeutic application of SAG for treating the cognitive impairments of DS. Although the beneficial effects on the cerebellum are compelling, inappropriate activation of the HH pathway causes anomalies elsewhere in the head, particularly in the formation and patterning of the craniofacial skeleton. To determine whether an acute treatment of SAG has an effect on craniofacial morphology, we quantitatively analyzed the cranial form of adult euploid and Ts65Dn mice that were injected with either SAG or vehicle at birth. We found significant deformation of adult craniofacial shape in some animals that had received SAG at birth. The most pronounced differences between the treated and untreated mice were in the midline structures of the facial skeleton. The SAG-driven craniofacial dysmorphogenesis was dose-dependent and possibly incompletely penetrant at lower concentrations. Our findings illustrate that activation of HH signaling, even with an acute postnatal stimulation, can lead to localized dysmorphology of the skull by generating modular shape changes in the facial skeleton. These observations have important implications for translating HH-agonist-based treatments for DS. PMID:25540129

  3. LL-37 Protects Rats against Lethal Sepsis Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cirioni, Oscar; Giacometti, Andrea; Ghiselli, Roberto; Bergnach, Cristina; Orlando, Fiorenza; Silvestri, Carmela; Mocchegiani, Federico; Licci, Alberto; Skerlavaj, Barbara; Rocchi, Marco; Saba, Vittorio; Zanetti, Margherita; Scalise, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the efficacy of LL-37, the C-terminal part of the only cathelicidin in humans identified to date (termed human cationic antimicrobial protein), in three experimental rat models of gram-negative sepsis. Adult male Wistar rats (i) were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 mg Escherichia coli 0111:B4 LPS, (ii) were given 2 × 1010 CFU of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, or (iii) had intra-abdominal sepsis induced via cecal ligation and puncture. For each model, all animals were randomized to receive intravenously isotonic sodium chloride solution, 1-mg/kg LL-37, 1-mg/kg polymyxin B, 20-mg/kg imipenem, or 60-mg/kg piperacillin. Lethality; growth of bacteria in blood, peritoneum, spleen, liver, and mesenteric lymph nodes; and endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) concentrations in plasma were evaluated. All compounds reduced lethality compared to levels in controls. Endotoxin and TNF-? plasma levels were significantly higher in conventional antibiotic-treated rats than in LL-37- and polymyxin B-treated animals. All drugs tested significantly reduced bacterial growth compared to saline treatment. No statistically significant differences between LL-37 and polymyxin B were noted for antimicrobial and antiendotoxin activities. LL-37 and imipenem proved to be the most effective treatments in reducing all variables measured. Due to its multifunctional properties, LL-37 may become an important future consideration for the treatment of sepsis. PMID:16641434

  4. Acute exposure to DE-71 causes alterations in visual behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianguo; Huang, Yubin; Huang, Changjiang; Hu, Bing; Hu, Chenyan; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2013-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) cause neurobehavioral toxicity, but their effects on visual behavior remain unknown. In the present study, the impact of PBDEs on visual behavior was examined using optokinetic responses and phototaxis in zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to pentabrominated diphenyl ethers mixture (DE-71) at concentrations of 0, 0.32, 3.58, and 31.0?µg/L until 15 d postfertilization. The authors then assessed photoreceptor opsin expression, retinal histology, and visual behavior of the larvae. The results showed that the transcriptions of the opsin genes, zfrho and zfgr1, were significantly upregulated. Western blotting further demonstrated a significant increase in rhodopsin protein expression after exposure of the larvae to DE-71. Histological examination revealed the following morphological alterations in the retina: increased area of inner nuclear layer, decreased area of inner plexiform layer, and decreased density of ganglion cells. Tests of optokinetic and phototactic behavior showed hyperactive responses on exposure to DE-71, including increased saccadic eye movements and phototactic response. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the acute exposure of zebrafish larvae to DE-71 causes biochemical and structural changes in the eye that lead to behavioral alterations. Analysis of these visual behavioral paradigms may be useful in predicting the adverse effects of toxicants on visual function in fish. PMID:23400899

  5. Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kübra; Karagöz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gümü?çü, Hasan Hüseyin; Ba?ak, Mustafa; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avc?, Deniz; Poyrazo?lu, Orhan Kür?at

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. PMID:24294010

  6. Human parechovirus as a minor cause of acute otitis media in children.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Saara; Oikarinen, Sami; Sipilä, Markku; Seppälä, Elina; Nurminen, Noora; Rautiainen, Markus; Laranne, Jussi; Hyöty, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) cause mild upper respiratory infections, gastrointestinal symptoms, central nervous system infections and some studies have linked them with acute otitis media (AOM). The aim of the present study was to study further the role of HPeV infections in AOM by detecting these viruses directly from middle ear fluid (MEF), respiratory and stool samples collected from children during AOM episodes. A total of 91 MEF samples, 98 nasal swab (NS) samples and 92 stool samples were collected during 100 AOM episodes in a total of 87 children aged between five to 42 months. All specimens were analyzed by real time RT-PCR for the presence of HPeV RNA. HPeV infection was diagnosed in 12 (14%) patients. HPeV RNA was detected in altogether 13 samples, including four MEF samples, three NS samples and six stool samples. One patient was positive in both stool and MEF samples. The results suggest that HPeV may play a role in some AOM cases, but it is not a major cause of AOM in children. PMID:25464964

  7. Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kübra; Karagöz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gümü?çü, Hasan Hüseyin; Ba?ak, Mustafa; Çetinkaya, Ali; Avc?, Deniz; Poyrazo?lu, Orhan Kür?at

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. PMID:24294010

  8. Acute toxicity test of leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills using luminescent bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Pivato, Alberto [IMAGE Department, University of Padua, Via Loredan 20, 35131 Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: alberto.pivato@libero.it; Gaspari, Lorenzo [IMAGE Department, University of Padua, Via Loredan 20, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Landfilling is a fundamental step in any waste management strategy, but it can constitute a hazard for the environment for a long time. The need to protect the environment from potential landfill emissions makes risk assessment a decision tool of extreme necessity. The heterogeneity of wastes and the complexity of physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in the body of a landfill need specific procedures in order to evaluate the groundwater risk for the environment. Given the complexity of the composition of landfill leachates, the exact contribution of each potential toxic substance cannot be known precisely. Some reference contaminants that constitute the hazard (toxicity) of leachate have to be found to perform the risk assessment. A preliminary ecotoxicological investigation with luminescent bacteria has been carried out on different leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills in order to rank the chemicals that better characterize the leachate (heavy metals, ammonia and dissolved organic content). The attention has been focused on ammonia because it is present in high concentration and can last for centuries and can seriously contaminate the groundwater. The results showed that the toxicity of the leachate might reliably depend on the ammonia concentration and that the leachate toxicity is considerably lower in sustainable landfills where the ammonia had been degraded. This has an important consequence because if the containment system fails (as usually occur within 30-50 yr), the risk of groundwater contamination will be calculated easier only in terms of the probability that the ammonia concentration is higher than a reference concentration.

  9. Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust

    PubMed Central

    Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe0) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H2S, and scavenge of ‘cathodic’ H2 from chemical reaction of Fe0 with H2O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe0 year?1), while conventional H2-scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO3, Mg/CaCO3) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m?1). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe0 ? 4Fe2+ + 8e?) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e? + SO42? + 9H+ ? HS? + 4H2O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H2 rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments. PMID:22616633

  10. Secondary Omental Torsion as a Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen in a Child and the Advantages of Laparoscopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gargano, Tommaso; Maffi, Michela; Cantone, Noemi; Destro, Francesca; Lima, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Omental torsion is an underdiagnosed cause of acute abdomen in children. Most cases occur in adults, with only 15% presenting in children. It is estimated that omental infarct is found in approximately 0.1 to 0.5% of children undergoing operations for appendicitis. It may present with various signs and symptoms, although the clinical presentation usually mimics that of acute appendicitis. Definitive diagnosis is often established during surgery. We report a case of a 9-year-old boy who came to our attention for acute abdomen. We performed a laparoscopy-assisted procedure suspecting acute appendicitis. We therefore identified a secondary omental torsion associated with patency of the right inguinal duct and herniated omentum. Laparoscopy allowed a correct diagnosis and therapy.

  11. Excessive ?-tocopherol exacerbates microglial activation and brain injury caused by acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Savita; Heigel, Mallory; Weist, Jessica; Gnyawali, Surya; Teplitsky, Seth; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K; Rink, Cameron

    2015-03-01

    The vitamin E family includes both tocopherols and tocotrienols, where ?-tocopherol (?TOC) is the most bioavailable form. Clinical trials testing the therapeutic efficacy of high-dose ?TOC against stroke have largely failed or reported negative outcomes when a "more is better" approach to supplementation (>400 IU/d) was used. This work addresses mechanisms by which supraphysiologic ?TOC may contribute to stroke-induced brain injury. Ischemic stroke injury and the neuroinflammatory response were studied in tocopherol transfer protein-deficient mice maintained on a diet containing ?TOC vitamin E at the equivalent human dose of 1680 IU/d. Ischemic stroke-induced brain injury was exacerbated in the presence of supraphysiologic brain ?TOC levels. At 48 h after stroke, S100B and RAGE expression was increased in stroke-affected cortex of mice with elevated brain ?TOC levels. Such increases were concomitant with aggravated microglial activation and neuroinflammatory signaling. A poststroke increase in markers of oxidative injury and neurodegeneration in the presence of elevated brain ?TOC establish that at supraphysiologic levels, ?TOC potentiates neuroinflammatory responses to acute ischemic stroke. Exacerbation of microglial activation by excessive ?TOC likely depends on its unique cell signaling regulatory properties independent of antioxidant function. Against the background of clinical failure for high-dose ?TOC, outcomes of this work identify risk for exacerbating stroke-induced brain injury as a result of supplementing diet with excessive levels of ?TOC.-Khanna, S., Heigel,M., Weist, J., Gnyawali, S., Teplitsky, S., Roy, S., Sen, C. K., Rink, C. Excessive ?-tocopherol exacerbates microglial activation and brain injury caused by acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25411436

  12. A8 Immune response in human pathology: Infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Verhoef; Kok van Kessel; Harm Snippe

    \\u000a In the middle of the 19th century, it became clear that micro-organisms could cause disease. Effective treatment, however,\\u000a was not possible at that time; prevention and spread of infectious diseases depended solely on proper hygienic means. At the\\u000a beginning of the 20th century, passive and active vaccination procedures were developed against a number of these PATHOGENIC\\u000a MICRO-ORGANISMS to prevent the

  13. [Prevalence of the bacteria causing diarrea in a Rosario Hospital, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gambandé, Telma; Damiano, Mario; Borda, Noemí; Notario, Rodolfo; Aita, José

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial agents causing diarrea in patients attended in a hospital of Rosario, Argentina. The frequency of bacterial agents causing diarrhea can vary in patients of different areas, and through the time. In an epidemiological surveillance we studied 304 patients with diarrheal diseases looking for Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp, Campylobacter spp, Aeromonas spp, Yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheogenic Escherichia coli. C. jejuni was isolated in 30 patients (9,9 %), Salmonella in 18 (5,9 %), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in 7 (2,3 %). Most cases due ton C. jejuni had mucus and/or blood in their feces. Unexpectedly we didn't fine any cases due to Shigella spp. There was much less cases due to EPEC than in our previous studies, and occurred only in children of less than 5 years old. It is necesary to take in consideration that C. jejuni cause nearly all the cases of diarrhea in patients with mucus and blood in their feces actually in our region. PMID:17639815

  14. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle-coated fabric and leather against odor and skin infection causing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Cho, Min; Park, Jung-Hee; Seo, Sang-Ki; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-10-01

    We present a simple, eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using a natural polymer pine gum solution as the reducing and capping agent. The pine gum solution was combined with silver nitrate (AgNO3) or a chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), respectively. The reaction process was simple; formation of the nanoparticles was achieved by autoclaving the silver and gold ions with the pine gum. UV-Vis spectra showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for silver and gold nanoparticles at 432 and 539 nm, respectively. The elemental forms of AgNPs and AuNPs were confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the biomolecules present in the pine gum, AgNPs, and AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed the shape and size of AgNPs and AuNPs. The crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs was confirmed by X-ray crystallography [X-ray diffraction (XRD)]. Application of synthesized AgNPs onto cotton fabrics and leather, in order to evaluate their antibacterial properties against odor- or skin infection-causing bacteria, is also discussed. Among the four tested bacteria, AgNP-coated cotton fabric and leather samples displayed excellent antibacterial activity against Brevibacterium linens. PMID:25073519

  15. Various physico-chemical stress factors cause prophage induction in Nitrosospira multiformis 25196--an ammonia oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeongdong; Kotay, Shireen M; Goel, Ramesh

    2010-08-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and contribute significant changes in the overall bacterial community. Prophages are formed when temperate bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the bacterial chromosome during the lysogenic cycle of the phage infection to bacteria. The prophage (phage DNA integrated into bacterial genome) on the bacterial genome remains dormant, but can cause cell lysis under certain environmental conditions. This research examined the effect of various environmental stress factors on the ammonia oxidation and prophage induction in a model ammonia oxidizing bacteria Nitrosospira multiformis ATCC 25196. The factors included in the study were pH, temperature, organic carbon (COD), the presence of heavy metal in the form of chromium (VI) and the toxicity as potassium cyanide (KCN). The selected environmental factors are commonly encountered in wastewater treatment processes, where ammonia oxidizing bacteria play a pivotal role of converting ammonia into nitrite. All the factors could induce prophage from N. multiformis demonstrating that cell lysis due to prophage induction could be an important mechanism contributing to the frequent upset in ammonia oxidation efficiency in full scale treatment plants. Among the stress factors considered, pH in the acidic range was the most detrimental to the nitrification efficiency by N. multiformis. The number of virus like particles (VLPs) increased by 2.3E+10 at pH 5 in 5h under acidic pH conditions. The corresponding increases in VLPs at pH values of 7 and 8 were 9.67E+9 and 1.57E+10 in 5h respectively. Cell lysis due to stress resulting in phage induction seemed the primary reason for deteriorated ammonia oxidation by N. multiformis at lower concentrations of Cr (VI) and potassium cyanide. However, direct killing of N. multiformis due to the binding of Cr (VI) and potassium cyanide with cell protein as demonstrated in the literature at higher concentrations of these toxic compounds was the primary mechanism of cell lysis of N. multiformis. Organics represented by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) did not have any effect on the phage induction in N. multiformis. This AOB remained dormant at low temperature (4 degrees C) without any phage induction. Significant decrease in the number of live N. multiformis cells with a corresponding increase in the number of VLPs was recorded when the temperature was increased to 35 degrees C. Death of N. multiformis at 45 degrees C was attributed to the destruction of cell wall rather than to the phage induction. PMID:20630557

  16. Not all pustules are infective in nature: acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis causing pustular eruptions in an elderly woman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y C Kwah; Y H Leow

    Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an adverse drug reaction that can occur in any age group. It is commonly mistaken as pustular psoriasis or cutaneous infection, resulting in unnecessary commencement of medications such as methotrexate and antibiotics that can cause harm to the patient or interact and adversely affect the efficacy of other medications. Early diagnosis of AGEP avoids

  17. Molecular identification of Rhizomucor pusillus as a cause of sinus-orbital zygomycosis in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Iwen, Peter C; Freifeld, Alison G; Sigler, Lynne; Tarantolo, Stefano R

    2005-11-01

    Sinus-orbital zygomycosis caused by Rhizomucor pusillus in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia is described. Identification was achieved by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rRNA gene and by expression of zygospores in mating. This report highlights the value of ITS sequencing as a diagnostic tool for the identification of R. pusillus and expands the understanding of infection types caused by this zygomycete. PMID:16272531

  18. Molecular Identification of Rhizomucor pusillus as a Cause of Sinus-Orbital Zygomycosis in a Patient with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Iwen, Peter C.; Freifeld, Alison G.; Sigler, Lynne; Tarantolo, Stefano R.

    2005-01-01

    Sinus-orbital zygomycosis caused by Rhizomucor pusillus in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia is described. Identification was achieved by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rRNA gene and by expression of zygospores in mating. This report highlights the value of ITS sequencing as a diagnostic tool for the identification of R. pusillus and expands the understanding of infection types caused by this zygomycete. PMID:16272531

  19. NPMc+ cooperates with Flt3/ITD mutations to cause acute leukemia recapitulating human disease

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Rachel; Magoon, Daniel; Greenblatt, Sarah; Li, Li; Annesley, Colleen; Duffield, Amy S.; Huso, David; McIntyre, Emily; Clohessy, John G.; Reschke, Markus; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Small, Donald; Brown, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic nucleophosmin (NPMc+) mutations and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are two of the most common known molecular alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and they frequently occur together suggesting cooperative leukemogenesis. To explore the specific relationship between NPMc+ and FLT3/ITD in vivo, we crossed Flt3/ITD knock-in mice with transgenic NPMc+ mice. Mice with both mutations develop a transplantable leukemia of either myeloid or lymphoid lineage, definitively demonstrating cooperation between Flt3/ITD and NPMc+. In mice with myeloid leukemia, functionally significant loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type Flt3 allele is common, similar to what is observed in human FLT3/ITD+ AML, providing further in vivo evidence of the importance of loss of wild-type FLT3 in leukemic initiation and progression. Additionally, in vitro clonogenic assays reveal that the combination of Flt3/ITD and NPMc+ mutations causes a profound monocytic expansion, in excess of that seen with either mutation alone consistent with the predominance of myelomonocytic phenotype in human FLT3/ITD+/NPMc+ AML. This in vivo model of Flt3/ITD+/NPMc+ leukemia closely recapitulates human disease and will therefore serve as a tool for the investigation of the biology of this common disease entity. PMID:24184354

  20. NPMc+ cooperates with Flt3/ITD mutations to cause acute leukemia recapitulating human disease.

    PubMed

    Rau, Rachel; Magoon, Daniel; Greenblatt, Sarah; Li, Li; Annesley, Colleen; Duffield, Amy S; Huso, David; McIntyre, Emily; Clohessy, John G; Reschke, Markus; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Small, Donald; Brown, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    Cytoplasmic nucleophosmin (NPMc(+)) mutations and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are two of the most common known molecular alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); they frequently occur together, suggesting cooperative leukemogenesis. To explore the specific relationship between NPMc+ and FLT3/ITD in vivo, we crossed Flt3/ITD knock-in mice with transgenic NPMc+ mice. Mice with both mutations develop a transplantable leukemia of either myeloid or lymphoid lineage, definitively demonstrating cooperation between Flt3/ITD and NPMc+. In mice with myeloid leukemia, functionally significant loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type Flt3 allele is common, similar to what is observed in human FLT3/ITD+ AML, providing further in vivo evidence of the importance of loss of wild-type FLT3 in leukemic initiation and progression. Additionally, in vitro clonogenic assays reveal that the combination of Flt3/ITD and NPMc+ mutations causes a profound monocytic expansion, in excess of that seen with either mutation alone consistent with the predominance of myelomonocytic phenotype in human FLT3/ITD+/NPMc+ AML. This in vivo model of Flt3/ITD+/NPMc+ leukemia closely recapitulates human disease and will therefore serve as a tool for the investigation of the biology of this common disease entity. PMID:24184354

  1. Intestinal Amebiasis: A Concerning Cause of Acute Gastroenteritis Among Hospitalized Lebanese Children

    PubMed Central

    Naous, Amal; Naja, Ziad; Zaatari, Nour; Kamel, Raymond; Rajab, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intestinal amebiasis is an important public health problem worldwide. More severe disease is associated with young age, malnutrition and immunosuppression. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and characteristic nature of intestinal amebiasis among pediatric population, and compare it with other causes of gastroenteritis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective comparative study conducted at Makassed General Hospital between January 2008 and December 2012, including all pediatric patients between birth and 15 years of age, who presented with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. Results: One thousand three hundred ninety-five patients were included in the study, and were divided into four groups: Group I (Entameba histolytica group = 311 cases, 22.3%), group II (Rotavirus group = 427 cases, 30.6%), group III (bacterial group = 107 cases, 7.7%), group IV (unidentified group = 550 cases, 39.4%). Significant leukocytosis, neutrophilia and positive C-reactive protein were found among more than 50% of admitted Entemaba histolytica cases with a picture of severe invasive disease in young infants. Conclusion: Entameba histolytica can be an emerging serious infection, especially when it finds suitable environmental conditions and host factors, so we should be ready to face it with effective preventive measures. PMID:24404551

  2. Outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by contamination of drinking water in a factory, the Basque Country.

    PubMed

    Altzibar, J M; Zigorraga, C; Rodriguez, R; Leturia, N; Garmendia, A; Rodriguez, A; Alkorta, M; Arriola, L

    2015-03-01

    On 18 September 2013, the Gipuzkoa Epidemiology Unit was notified of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among employees at a domestic appliance factory. The first signs of the outbreak had emerged at the end of June and at the time of the notification 30 workers were on sick leave for gastroenteritis. Some employees had had more than one episode and the main symptoms were diarrhoea and vomiting. An investigation began to identify the causative agent, assess exposure and determine the route of transmission. Data collected by a questionnaire identified 302 episodes of AGE among 238 people affected between June and September 2013. The source of water consumed was found to be a risk factor associated with the appearance of symptoms both in the crude and the adjusted analysis: odds ratio 1.8 (0.8-4.2) and 6.4 (4.2-9.8), respectively. Microbiological analysis of stool samples and of water confirmed the presence of norovirus and rotavirus. The environmental study detected a connection between an industrial use water system and drinking water at the factory. It was concluded that the outbreak was caused by mixed viral infections, due to contamination of drinking water. PMID:25719476

  3. Characterization of rotavirus causing acute diarrhoea in children in Kathmandu, Nepal, showing the dominance of serotype G12.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Shamshul; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Rijal, Basista Prasad; Parajuli, Keshab; Mishra, Shyam Kumar; Dahal, Rajan Kumar; Shrestha, Shovita; Tandukar, Sarmila; Chaudhary, Raina; Kattel, Hari Prasad; Basnet, Amul; Pokhrel, Bharat Mani

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are a major problem in developing countries. Though precise data on childhood mortality associated with diarrhoeal diseases in Nepal are not available, it has been estimated that approximately 25 % of child deaths are associated with diarrhoeal disease, particularly acute diarrhoea. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of rotavirus causing acute diarrhoea in children less than 5 years of age. A total of 525 children with acute diarrhoea in a children's hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal, were enrolled between April and September 2011. The incidence of acute diarrhoea due to rotavirus was 25.9 % (136/525) as determined by ELISA. The percentage of rotavirus-infected males was higher (64.5 %) than females (35.5 %). The frequency of rotavirus cases was higher in children less than 2 years of age, among which the majority of cases (80.2 %) were in children between 6 and 24 months old (P<0.01). Genotypic characterization by RT-PCR revealed that the serotype G12 represented 55.9 % of cases in this study associated with P-types of either P[6], P[4] or P[8]. Further to this, a total of eight G/P combinations were identified, G12P[6] being the most common strain type of rotavirus in Nepal, with a prevalence rate of 46.4 %. The aim of this study was to find out the major genotypes of rotavirus causing acute diarrhoea in children. PMID:23038804

  4. Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases. Methods Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Results Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains. Conclusions The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well. PMID:23569896

  5. Haemodynamic changes in ipsilateral and contralateral fingers caused by acute exposures to hand transmitted vibration.

    PubMed Central

    Bovenzi, M; Griffin, M J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate changes in digital circulation during and after exposure to hand transmitted vibration. By studying two frequencies and two magnitudes of vibration, to investigate the extent to which haemodynamic changes depend on the vibration frequency, the vibration acceleration, and the vibration velocity. METHODS: Finger skin temperature (FST), finger blood flow (FBF), and finger systolic pressure were measured in the fingers of both hands in eight healthy men. Indices of digital vasomotor tone-such as critical closing pressure and vascular resistance-were estimated by pressure-flow curves obtained with different hand heights. With a static load of 10 N, the right hand was exposed for 30 minutes to each of the following root mean squared (rms) acceleration magnitudes and frequencies of vertical vibration: 22 m.s-2 at 31.5 Hz, 22 m.s-2 at 125 Hz, and 87 m.s-2 at 125 Hz. A control condition consisted of exposure to the static load only. The measures of digital circulation and vasomotor tone were taken before exposure to the vibration and the static load, and at 0, 20, 40, and 60 minutes after the end of each exposure. RESULTS: Exposure to static load caused no significant changes in FST, FBF, or indices of vasomotor tone in either the vibrated right middle finger or the non-vibrated left middle finger. In both fingers, exposure to vibration of 125 Hz and 22 m.s-2 produced a greater reduction in FBF and a greater increase in vasomotor tone than did vibration of 31.5 Hz and 22 m.s-2. In the vibrated right finger, exposure to vibration of 125 Hz and 87 m.s-2 provoked an immediate vasodilation which was followed by vasoconstriction during recovery. The non-vibrated left finger showed a significant increase in vasomotor tone throughout the 60 minute period after the end of vibration exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The digital circulatory response to acute vibration depends upon the magnitude and frequency of the vibration stimulus. Vasomotor mechanisms, mediated both centrally and locally, are involved in the reaction of digital vessels to acute vibration. The pattern of the haemodynamic changes in the fingers exposed to the vibration frequencies used in this study do not seem to support the frequency weighting assumed in the current international standard ISO 5349. PMID:9326160

  6. Acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by leukemic infiltration of the lung.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yao-Kuang; Huang, Yi-Chih; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Huang, Chung-Chi; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2008-05-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome resulting from leukemic pulmonary infiltrates is seldom diagnosed antemortem. Two 60- and 80-year-old women presented with general malaise, progressive shortness of breath, and hyperleukocytosis, which progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after admission. Acute leukemia with pulmonary infection was initially diagnosed, but subsequent examinations including open lung biopsy revealed leukemic pulmonary infiltrates without infection. In one case, the clinical condition and chest radiography improved initially after combination therapy with chemotherapy for leukemia and aggressive pulmonary support. However, new pulmonary infiltration on chest radiography and hypoxemia recurred, which was consistent with acute lysis pneumopathy. Despite aggressive treatment, both patients died due to rapidly deteriorating condition. Leukemic pulmonary involvement should be considered in acute leukemia patients with non-infectious diffusive lung infiltration, especially in acute leukemia with a high blast count. PMID:18492627

  7. Assessment of Some Inflammatory Biomarkers as Predictors of Outcome of Acute Respiratory Failure on Top of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Evaluation of the Role of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Shafiek, Hanaa Ahmed; Abd-Elwahab, Nashwa Hassan; Baddour, Manal Mohammad; El-Hoffy, Mohamed Mabrouk; Degady, Akram Abd-Elmoneim; Khalil, Yehia Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To study the value of the inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and C-reactive protein (CRP)) in predicting the outcome of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF) on top of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the role of bacteria in the systemic inflammation. Methods. Thirty three patients were subjected to standard treatment plus NIV, and accordingly, they were classified into responders and nonresponders. Serum samples were collected for IL-6, IL-8, and CRP analysis. Sputum samples were taken for microbiological evaluation. Results. A wide spectrum of bacteria was revealed; Gram-negative and atypical bacteria were the most common (31% and 28% resp.; single or copathogen). IL-8 and dyspnea grade was significantly higher in the non-responder group (P = 0.01 and 0.023 resp.). IL-6 correlated positivity with the presence of infection and type of pathogen (P = 0.038 and 0.034 resp.). Gram-negative bacteria were associated with higher significant IL-6 in comparison between others (196.4 ± 239.1?pg/dL; P = 0.011) but insignificantly affected NIV outcome (P > 0.05). Conclusions. High systemic inflammation could predict failure of NIV. G-ve bacteria correlated with high IL-6 but did not affect the response to NIV. PMID:23724320

  8. Enhancement effects of hypercapnia on the acute lung injury caused by acid aspiration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Demeral David; Lin, Hen I; Hsieh, Nan-Kuang; Chen, Hsing I

    2009-06-30

    Acid aspiration or intrapulmonary instillation of gastric particles causes lung inflammation leading to acute lung injury (ALI). Hypercapnia exerts different effects on ALI caused by various insults. The effects of hypercapnia on lung inflammation and injury due to acid aspiration are yet to be determined. The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and other mediators in acid-aspiration-induced ALI. We also sought to evaluate the effects of hypercapnia on the lung and associated changes induced by acid aspiration. We used Spague-Dawley rats anesthetized with intraperitioneal pentobarbital (40 mg/kg). Gastric acid particles were prepared from the stomach contents of rats at necropsy. The rats were randomly assigned to receive intratracheal instillation of physiological saline solution (PSS) at pH 7.24 (Control group), PSS at pH 1.25 (Low pH, LPH group), gastric particles (GP group), and GP with low pH PSS (GPLPH group). There were 10 rats in each group. The animals were observed for 6 hrs. To evaluate the effects of hypercapnia, we carried out two series of experiments: one under normocapnia and the other under hypercapnia with alteration of CO2 fraction in inspired air. Arterial pressure (AP) was monitored from the femoral arterial catheter. Heart rate was obtained from AP traicing. We determined the blood gases and acid-base status. Lung weight to body weight (LW/BW) ratio, LW gain (LWG), protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage (PCBAL) and leakage of Evans blue dye tracer were measured. Plasma nitrate/nitrite, methyl guanidine (MG), myeloperoxidase (MPO), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), proinflammatory cytokines were assessed. Histopathological examination of the lung tissue was performed. We employed reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to detect the expression of iNOS mRNA. GP and GPLPH caused hypotension, decreases in PaO2, pH and SaO2, and an increase in PaCO2. The insults also elevated LW/BW, LWG, PCBAL and dye leakage, plasma nitrate/nitrite, MG, MPO, PLA2, tumor necrosis factor(alpha), interleukin-beta and interleukin-6. The lung pathology was characterized by alveolar edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cells infiltration. Assessment of lung injury score revealed that GP and GPLPH caused ALI. Furthermore, hypercapnia significantly enhanced ALI and associated changes following LPH, GP and GPLPH. Intratracheal instillation of GP in normal or low pH PSS causes ALI accompanied with biochemical changes. The release of nitric oxide via iNOS isoform is detrimental to the lung. Hypercapnia tended to enhance ALI and associated changes induced by gastric acid instillation. PMID:19777797

  9. Esculentin 1-21: a linear antimicrobial peptide from frog skin with inhibitory effect on bovine mastitis-causing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Islas-Rodrìguez, Alfonso Enrique; Marcellini, Ludovica; Orioni, Barbara; Barra, Donatella; Stella, Lorenzo; Mangoni, Maria Luisa

    2009-09-01

    Mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most common and expensive illness of dairy cows throughout the world. Although stress and physical injuries may give rise to inflammation of the udders, infections by bacteria or other microorganisms remain the major cause, and infusion of antibiotics is the main treatment approach. However, the increased emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and the production of milk contaminated with antibiotics has become a serious threat in the livestock. Hence, there is an urgent need for the discovery of new therapeutic agents with a new mode of action. Gene-encoded AMPs, which represent the first line of defence in all living organisms, are considered as promising candidates for the development of new anti-infective agents. This paper reports on the antibacterial activities in vitro and in an animal model, of the frog skin AMP esculentin 1-21 [Esc(1-21)], along with a plausible mode of action. Our data revealed that this peptide (i) is highly potent against the most common mastitis-causing microbes (e.g. Streptococcus agalactiae); and (ii) is active in vivo, causing a visible regression of the clinical stage of mastitis in dairy cows, after 1 week of peptide treatment. Biophysical characterisation revealed that the peptide adopts an alpha-helical structure in microbial mimicking membranes and is able to permeate the membrane of S. agalactiae in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, these data suggest Esc(1-21) as an attractive AMP for the future design of new antibiotics to cure mastitis in cattle. PMID:19507197

  10. Global Metabolomic Profiling of Acute Myocarditis Caused by Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gironès, Núria; Carbajosa, Sofía; Guerrero, Néstor A.; Poveda, Cristina; Chillón-Marinas, Carlos; Fresno, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, being cardiomyopathy the more frequent manifestation. New chemotherapeutic drugs are needed but there are no good biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. There is growing evidence linking immune response and metabolism in inflammatory processes and specifically in Chagas disease. Thus, some metabolites are able to enhance and/or inhibit the immune response. Metabolite levels found in the host during an ongoing infection could provide valuable information on the pathogenesis and/or identify deregulated metabolic pathway that can be potential candidates for treatment and being potential specific biomarkers of the disease. To gain more insight into those aspects in Chagas disease, we performed an unprecedented metabolomic analysis in heart and plasma of mice infected with T. cruzi. Many metabolic pathways were profoundly affected by T. cruzi infection, such as glucose uptake, sorbitol pathway, fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis that were increased in heart tissue but decreased in plasma. Tricarboxylic acid cycle was decreased in heart tissue and plasma whereas reactive oxygen species production and uric acid formation were also deeply increased in infected hearts suggesting a stressful condition in the heart. While specific metabolites allantoin, kynurenine and p-cresol sulfate, resulting from nucleotide, tryptophan and phenylalanine/tyrosine metabolism, respectively, were increased in heart tissue and also in plasma. These results provide new valuable information on the pathogenesis of acute Chagas disease, unravel several new metabolic pathways susceptible of clinical management and identify metabolites useful as potential specific biomarkers for monitoring treatment and clinical severity in patients. PMID:25412247

  11. Acute intermittent porphyria causes hepatic mitochondrial energetic failure in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Homedan, Chadi; Laafi, Jihane; Schmitt, Caroline; Gueguen, Naïg; Lefebvre, Thibaud; Karim, Zoubida; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Wetterwald, Céline; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Gouya, Laurent; Puy, Hervé; Reynier, Pascal; Malthièry, Yves

    2014-06-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an inherited hepatic disorder, is due to a defect of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), an enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis. AIP is characterized by recurrent, life-threatening attacks at least partly due to the increased hepatic production of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). Both the mitochondrial enzyme, ALA synthase (ALAS) 1, involved in the first step of heme biosynthesis, which is closely linked to mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways, and the promise of an ALAS1 siRNA hepatic therapy in humans, led us to investigate hepatic energetic metabolism in Hmbs KO mice treated with phenobarbital. The mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were explored in the Hmbs(-/-) mouse model. RC and TCA cycle were significantly affected in comparison to controls in mice treated with phenobarbital with decreased activities of RC complexes I (-52%, (**)p<0.01), II (-50%, (**)p<0.01) and III (-55%, (*)p<0.05), and decreased activity of ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (-64%, (*)p<0.05), citrate synthase (-48%, (**)p<0.01) and succinate dehydrogenase (-53%, (*)p<0.05). Complex II-driven succinate respiration was also significantly affected. Most of these metabolic alterations were at least partially restored after the phenobarbital arrest and heme arginate administration. These results suggest a cataplerosis of the TCA cycle induced by phenobarbital, caused by the massive withdrawal of succinyl-CoA by ALAS induction, such that the TCA cycle is unable to supply the reduced cofactors to the RC. This profound and reversible impact of AIP on mitochondrial energetic metabolism offers new insights into the beneficial effect of heme, glucose and ALAS1 siRNA treatments by limiting the cataplerosis of TCA cycle. PMID:24727425

  12. Primary blasts from infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia cause overt leukemia in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Uckun, F M; Waurzyniak, B J; Sensel, M G; Chelstrom, L; Crotty, M L; Gaynon, P S; Reaman, G H

    1998-07-01

    The establishment of an in vivo animal model system for infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) would allow the testing of new agents against primary leukemic cells from infant ALL patients. We have demonstrated previously that growth of B-lineage leukemic cells in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was a significant prognostic factor for children with high risk ALL. We now have examined the significance of this prognostic variable for 13 infants with newly diagnosed ALL treated at participating institutions of the Children's Cancer Group (CCG). Chromosomal translocations were detected in 10/12 evaluated cases, including five with t(4;11), one each with t(7;9) and t(7;11), t(1;19), and t(9;22), and two with t(11;19). Twelve of the thirteen infants with ALL achieved remissions following induction chemotherapy. Primary leukemic cells from 8 of the 13 infants caused overt leukemia in SCID mice. Among these 8 SCID+ infants, 7 were CD10- and seven had cytogenetic or molecular evidence of an 11q23 rearrangement. Six of the 8 SCID+ infants have relapsed; only 2 remain in remission following chemotherapy or bone marrow transplant. However, among the 5 SCID- infants there were also two relapses. These data are suggestive of a poorer outcome for SCID+ infants, but larger numbers of patients must be analyzed to assess their statistical significance. In summary, we have established a SCID mouse model for human infant ALL that will be useful for 1) predicting short-term and long-term outcome of patients, 2) testing pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and toxicity of new agents, and 3) elucidating the in vivo mechanisms of chemotherapeutic drug resistance in infant ALL. PMID:9713959

  13. Acute airway obstruction due to retropharyngeal haematoma caused by a large fish bone in a patient with hypertension caused by a pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yan; Jahreiß, Linda; Zhang, Zhili; Albers, Andreas E

    2015-01-01

    Retropharyngeal haematoma (RH) is an extremely rare but potentially life-threatening condition that requires an early diagnosis and immediate management. Acute complications arise from compression and obstruction of the upper airway and oesophagus with the risk of consecutive aspiration. We present the case of a 48-year-old man with formation of a RH after accidental ingestion of a large fish bone with hypertension as comorbidity caused by a so far undiagnosed pheochromocytoma. The patient presented with acute onset of retropharyngeal pain, dysphonia and dysphagia secondary to fish bone foreign body ingestion. His medical history was significant for uncontrolled hypertension. CT showed a large RH extending from the oropharynx to the superior mediastinum. The patient underwent emergency tracheostomy, surgical debridement and removal of the fish bone. Antihypertensive medication was utilised to control his labile blood pressure. The postoperative CT scan revealed an adrenal pheochromocytoma that was subsequently resected. PMID:25759272

  14. Free silver ion as the main cause of acute and chronic toxicity of silver nanoparticles to cladocerans.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Masaki; Ha, Jin-Yong; Yoneshima, Shin; Kataoka, Chisato; Tatsuta, Haruki; Kashiwada, Shosaku

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the interspecific variation of silver nanoparticle (SNP) sensitivity in common cladocerans (Daphnia magna, D. galeata, and Bosmina longirostris) and the exact cause of both acute and chronic toxicity focusing on the form of silver (NPs and ions). Materials tested were non-surface-coated silver nanocolloids (SNCs) and AgNO3. The results of the acute toxicity tests support the theory that the effects of SNPs on aquatic organisms is mainly due to Ag(+) released from SNPs. Among the three cladocerans, D. galeata was more sensitive to silver (as Ag(+)) than both D. magna and B. longirostris. Moreover, the chronic toxicity of SNCs was also derived from dissolved silver (especially Ag(+)). SNCs (as total silver concentration) showed far lower chronic compared with acute toxicity to daphnids because the amount of dissolved silver decreased in the presence of prey algae. The chronic end-point values (EC10 values for net reproductive rate and the probability of survival to maturation) did not differ largely from acute ones (48-h EC50 obtained from acute toxicity tests and 48-h LC50 estimated by the biotic ligand model) when the values were calculated based on Ag(+) concentration. The ? value (concentration at which intrinsic population growth rate is decreased to zero) estimated by a power function model was a reliable parameter for assessing the chronic toxicity of silver. PMID:25352442

  15. Pulmonary infection caused by Gymnascella hyalinospora in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Iwen, P C; Sigler, L; Tarantolo, S; Sutton, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Lackner, R P; McCarthy, D I; Hinrichs, S H

    2000-01-01

    We report the first case of invasive pulmonary infection caused by the thermotolerant ascomycetous fungus Gymnascella hyalinospora in a 43-year-old female from the rural midwestern United States. The patient was diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia and treated with induction chemotherapy. She was discharged in stable condition with an absolute neutrophil count of 100 cells per microliter. Four days after discharge, she presented to the Cancer Clinic with fever and pancytopenia. A solitary pulmonary nodule was found in the right middle lobe which was resected by video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATHS). Histopathological examination revealed septate branching hyphae, suggesting a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis; however, occasional yeast-like cells were also present. The culture grew a mold that appeared dull white with a slight brownish tint that failed to sporulate on standard media. The mold was found to be positive by the AccuProbe Blastomyces dermatitidis Culture ID Test (Gen-Probe Inc., San Diego, Calif.), but this result appeared to be incompatible with the morphology of the structures in tissue. The patient was removed from consideration for stem cell transplant and was treated for 6 weeks with amphotericin B (AmB), followed by itraconazole (Itr). A VATHS with biopsy performed 6 months later showed no evidence of mold infection. In vitro, the isolate appeared to be susceptible to AmB and resistant to fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine. Results for Itr could not be obtained for the case isolate due to its failure to grow in polyethylene glycol used to solubilize the drug; however, MICs for a second isolate appeared to be elevated. The case isolate was subsequently identified as G. hyalinospora based on its formation of oblate, smooth-walled ascospores within yellow or yellow-green tufts of aerial hyphae on sporulation media. Repeat testing with the Blastomyces probe demonstrated false-positive results with the case isolate and a reference isolate of G. hyalinospora. This case demonstrates that both histopathologic and cultural features should be considered for the proper interpretation of this molecular test and extends the list of fungi recognized as a cause of human mycosis in immunocompromised patients. PMID:10618119

  16. Acute intermittent porphyria caused by novel mutation in HMBS gene, misdiagnosed as cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhel, Majid; Saleh, Neam; Alenazi, Helal; Baffoe-Bonnie, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant neurovisceral inherited disorder due to a defect in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Misdiagnosis of the porphyrias is not uncommon. Case report We present a case of a 26-year-old female with suspected acute cholecystitis, mental status changes, and seizures. Biochemical and molecular investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AIP by findings of elevated urinary porphobilinogen, 5-aminolevulinic acid, and total porphyrins. DNA molecular testing showed a novel heterozygous mutation (c. 760delC p.L254X) in the exon11 of the HMBS gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a misdiagnosis of AIP presenting with acute cholecystitis. Conclusion Clinicians are alerted to consider the possibility of AIP in an adult presenting with an acute abdomen, features of cholecystitis, and neuropsychiatric manifestations. PMID:25419136

  17. Ectopic paraesophageal mediastinal parathyroid adenoma, a rare cause of acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophoros N Foroulis; Sotirios Rousogiannis; Christos Lioupis; Dimitrios Koutarelos; Georgia Kassi; Athanassios Lioupis

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism with acute pancreatitis is a rare event. Ectopic paraesophageal parathyroid adenomas account for about 5%–10% of primary hyperparathyroidism and surgical resection results in cure of the disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old woman was presented with acute pancreatitis and hypercalcaemia. During the investigation of hypercalcemia, a paraesophageal ectopic parathyroid mass was detected by computerized tomography

  18. Dengue and Other Common Causes of Acute Febrile Illness in Asia: An Active Surveillance Study in Children

    PubMed Central

    Capeding, Maria Rosario; Chua, Mary Noreen; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Hussain, Ismail I. H. M.; Nallusamy, Revathy; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Rusmil, Kusnandi; Thisyakorn, Usa; Thomas, Stephen J.; Huu Tran, Ngoc; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Yoon, In-Kyu; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Hutagalung, Yanee; Laot, Thelma; Wartel, Tram Anh

    2013-01-01

    Background Common causes of acute febrile illness in tropical countries have similar symptoms, which often mimic those of dengue. Accurate clinical diagnosis can be difficult without laboratory confirmation and disease burden is generally under-reported. Accurate, population-based, laboratory-confirmed incidence data on dengue and other causes of acute fever in dengue-endemic Asian countries are needed. Methods and principal findings This prospective, multicenter, active fever surveillance, cohort study was conducted in selected centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam to determine the incidence density of acute febrile episodes (?38°C for ?2 days) in 1,500 healthy children aged 2–14 years, followed for a mean 237 days. Causes of fever were assessed by testing acute and convalescent sera from febrile participants for dengue, chikungunya, hepatitis A, influenza A, leptospirosis, rickettsia, and Salmonella Typhi. Overall, 289 participants had acute fever, an incidence density of 33.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 30.0; 37.8); 57% were IgM-positive for at least one of these diseases. The most common causes of fever by IgM ELISA were chikungunya (in 35.0% of in febrile participants) and S. Typhi (in 29.4%). The overall incidence density of dengue per 100 person-years was 3.4 by nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen positivity (95% CI: 2.4; 4.8) and 7.3 (95% CI: 5.7; 9.2) by serology. Dengue was diagnosed in 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0; 15.7) and 23.9% (95% CI: 19.1; 29.2) of febrile participants by NS1 positivity and serology, respectively. Of the febrile episodes not clinically diagnosed as dengue, 5.3% were dengue-positive by NS1 antigen testing and 16.0% were dengue-positive by serology. Conclusions During the study period, the most common identified causes of pediatric acute febrile illness among the seven tested for were chikungunya, S. Typhi and dengue. Not all dengue cases were clinically diagnosed; laboratory confirmation is essential to refine disease burden estimates. PMID:23936565

  19. Arsenate Causes Differential Acute Toxicity to Two P-deprived Genotypes of Rice Seedlings ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. N. Geng; Y. G. Zhu; Y. Hu; P. Williams; A. A. Meharg

    2006-01-01

    Significant genotypic difference in response to arsenate toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa) was investigated in root elongation, arsenate uptake kinetics, physiological and biochemical response and arsenic (As) speciation.\\u000a Uptake kinetics data showed that P-deprived genotype 94D-54 had a little higher As uptake than P-deprived 94D-64, but the\\u000a difference was not large enough to cause acute toxicity in P-deprived 94D-54. There

  20. Endogenous Stress Caused by Faulty Oxidation Reactions Fosters Evolution of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene-Degrading Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chavarría, Max; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2013-01-01

    Environmental strain Burkholderia sp. DNT mineralizes the xenobiotic compound 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) owing to the catabolic dnt genes borne by plasmid DNT, but the process fails to promote significant growth. To investigate this lack of physiological return of such an otherwise complete metabolic route, cells were exposed to DNT under various growth conditions and the endogenous formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) monitored in single bacteria. These tests revealed the buildup of a strong oxidative stress in the population exposed to DNT. By either curing the DNT plasmid or by overproducing the second activity of the biodegradation route (DntB) we could trace a large share of ROS production to the first reaction of the route, which is executed by the multicomponent dioxygenase encoded by the dntA gene cluster. Naphthalene, the ancestral substrate of the dioxygenase from which DntA has evolved, also caused significant ROS formation. That both the old and the new substrate brought about a considerable cellular stress was indicative of a still-evolving DntA enzyme which is neither optimal any longer for naphthalene nor entirely advantageous yet for growth of the host strain on DNT. We could associate endogenous production of ROS with likely error-prone repair mechanisms of DNA damage, and the ensuing stress-induced mutagenesis in cells exposed to DNT. It is thus plausible that the evolutionary roadmap for biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds like DNT was largely elicited by mutagenic oxidative stress caused by faulty reactions of precursor enzymes with novel but structurally related substrates-to-be. PMID:24009532

  1. Topical diclofenac epolamine patch 1.3% for treatment of acute pain caused by soft tissue injury.

    PubMed

    McCarberg, B H; Argoff, C E

    2010-10-01

    Acute pain caused by musculoskeletal disorders is very common and has a significant negative impact on quality-of-life and societal costs. Many types of acute pain have been managed with traditional oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (coxibs). Data from prospective, randomised controlled clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance indicate that use of oral traditional NSAIDs and coxibs is associated with an elevated risk of developing gastrointestinal, renovascular and/or cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). Increasing awareness of the AEs associated with NSAID therapy, including coxibs, has led many physicians and patients to reconsider use of these drugs and look for alternative treatment options. Treatment with NSAIDs via the topical route of administration has been shown to provide clinically effective analgesia at the site of application while minimising systemic absorption. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic potency of the traditional oral NSAID diclofenac, along with its physicochemical properties, makes it well suited for topical delivery. Several topical formulations of diclofenac have been developed. A topical patch containing diclofenac epolamine 1.3% (DETP, FLECTOR(®) Patch), approved for use in Europe in 1993, has recently been approved for use in the United States and is indicated for the treatment of acute pain caused by minor strains, sprains and contusions. In this article, we review the available clinical trial data for this product in the treatment of pain caused by soft tissue injury. PMID:20666849

  2. Topical diclofenac epolamine patch 1.3% for treatment of acute pain caused by soft tissue injury

    PubMed Central

    McCarberg, B H; Argoff, C E

    2010-01-01

    Acute pain caused by musculoskeletal disorders is very common and has a significant negative impact on quality-of-life and societal costs. Many types of acute pain have been managed with traditional oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (coxibs). Data from prospective, randomised controlled clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance indicate that use of oral traditional NSAIDs and coxibs is associated with an elevated risk of developing gastrointestinal, renovascular and/or cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). Increasing awareness of the AEs associated with NSAID therapy, including coxibs, has led many physicians and patients to reconsider use of these drugs and look for alternative treatment options. Treatment with NSAIDs via the topical route of administration has been shown to provide clinically effective analgesia at the site of application while minimising systemic absorption. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic potency of the traditional oral NSAID diclofenac, along with its physicochemical properties, makes it well suited for topical delivery. Several topical formulations of diclofenac have been developed. A topical patch containing diclofenac epolamine 1.3% (DETP, FLECTOR® Patch), approved for use in Europe in 1993, has recently been approved for use in the United States and is indicated for the treatment of acute pain caused by minor strains, sprains and contusions. In this article, we review the available clinical trial data for this product in the treatment of pain caused by soft tissue injury. PMID:20666849

  3. Interaction of Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin L with Lipopolysaccharide In Vitro and in Experimental Rat Models of Septic Shock Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Giacometti; Oscar Cirioni; Roberto Ghiselli; Federico Mocchegiani; Fiorenza Orlando; Carmela Silvestri; Argante Bozzi; A. Di Giulio; C. Luzi; M. L. Mangoni; D. Barra; V. Saba; G. Scalise; A. C. Rinaldi

    2006-01-01

    Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, despite intense efforts to improve survival. The primary lead for septic shock results from activation of host effector cells by endotoxin, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria. For these reasons, the quest for compounds with antiendotoxin properties is actively pursued. We investigated the efficacy

  4. Acute Cholecystitis Caused by Malignant Cystic Duct Obstruction: Treatment with Metallic Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro, E-mail: s-miyayama@fukui.saiseikai.or.jp; Yamashiro, Masashi; Takeda, Taro; Aburano, Hiroyuki [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Komatsu, Tetsuya [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology (Japan); Sanada, Taku; Kosaka, Shotaro; Toya, Daisyu [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine (Japan); Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    We report the successful management of acute cholecystitis using cystic duct stent placement in 3 patients with inoperable malignant cystic duct obstruction (2 cholangiocarcinoma and 1 pancreatic carcinoma). All patients underwent stent placement in the bile duct, using an uncovered stent in 2 and a covered stent in 1, to relieve jaundice occurring 8-184 days (mean 120 days) before the development of acute cholecystitis. The occluded cystic duct was traversed by a microcatheter and a stent was implanted 4-17 days (mean 12 days) after cholecystostomy. Acute cholecystitis was improved after the procedure in all patients. Two patients died 3 and 10 months later, while 1 has survived without cholecystitis for 22 months after the procedure to date.

  5. Acute Hemorrhagic Rectal Ulcer: An Important Cause of Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding in the Critically Ill Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Kuan Lin; Cheng-Chao Liang; Hou-Tai Chang; Fang-Ming Hung; Tzong-Hsi Lee

    Background and Aim  The occurrence of acute hemorrhagic rectal ulcer (AHRU) in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) has not been well investigated.\\u000a The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical manifestations and outcomes in these patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  The patients developing significant acute lower gastrointestinal (LGI) bleeding after ICU admission from July 2002 to December\\u000a 2007 were retrospectively reviewed.

  6. Perforated Jejunal Diverticula Secondary to a Large Faecolith: A Rare Cause of the Acute Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Peter John; Hyland, Abigail; Bilkhu, Amarvir; Hanavadi, Satheesh; Sharma, Narinder

    2014-01-01

    Jejunal diverticula are uncommon and usually asymptomatic. Very rarely, they can lead to acute complications such as bleeding, obstruction, and perforation. This report describes our experience of a case of jejunal diverticula perforation secondary to a large faecolith, with particular focus on the aetiology and management of this rare condition. PMID:25614847

  7. Japanese encephalitis--an important cause of acute childhood encephalopathy in Lucknow, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Kumar; A. Mathur; A. Kumar; S. Sharma; P. N. Saksena; U. C. Chaturvedi

    1988-01-01

    Eighty-six randomly selected children between 6 months and 12 years of age admitted with acute unexplained encephalopathy over a one year period were examined for evidence of Japanese encephalitis. One or more indicators of the infection were present in 36 (41.8%). Viral isolation from brain tissue was possible in 2 of 12 patients and from cerebrospinal fluid in 19 out

  8. Massive Infiltration of Liver by Metastatic Adenocarcinoma: A Rare Cause of Acute Hepatic Failure

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Joy; Jayanthi, Venkataraman; Patra, Susma; Rela, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Acute liver cell failure can occur by diffuse infiltration of malignant cells in liver parenchyma. The malignant cells might be either primary hepatocellular carcinoma or metastatic liver disease. Mostly, CT abdomen with intravenous contrast fails to detect liver malignancy. We report a case of liver metastasis masquerading as fulminant hepatic failure.

  9. Cutaneous infection caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in a child with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Ashok; Wickes, Brian L; Romanelli, Anna M; Debelenko, Larisa; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E; Sutton, Deanna A; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Fothergill, Annette W; Rinaldi, Michael G; Hayden, Randall T; Shenep, Jerry L

    2009-06-01

    We report a case of Macrophomina phaseolina skin infection in an immunocompromised child with acute myeloid leukemia, which was treated successfully with posaconazole without recurrence after a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The fungus was identified by DNA sequencing using both the internal transcribed spacer and D1/D2 region of the 28S ribosomal DNA gene. PMID:19386841

  10. Pancreas Divisum?? An Infrequent Cause of Acute Pancreatitis in A Case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheuk-Kay Sun; Jui-Hao Chen; Kuo-Ching Yang; Chin-Chu Wu

    A 40-year-old female without history of alcohol consumption and medication suffered from per- sistent epigastralgia for four days and was admitted to our hospital. Elevated serum amylase and li- pase levels were noted. She was admitted and treated under the working diagnosis of acute pancre- atitis. Abdominal sonography showed normal common bile duct, but enlargement of the whole pan- creas

  11. Inhibiting Polo-like kinase 1 causes growth reduction and apoptosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Hartsink-Segers, Stefanie A.; Exalto, Carla; Allen, Matthew; Williamson, Daniel; Clifford, Steven C.; Horstmann, Martin; Caron, Huib N.; Pieters, Rob; Den Boer, Monique L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated Polo-like kinase 1, a mitotic regulator often over-expressed in solid tumors and adult hematopoietic malignancies, as a potential new target in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Polo-like kinase 1 protein and Thr210 phosphorylation levels were higher in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=172) than in normal bone marrow mononuclear cells (n=10) (P<0.0001). High Polo-like kinase 1 protein phosphorylation, but not expression, was associated with a lower probability of event-free survival (P=0.042) and was a borderline significant prognostic factor (P=0.065) in a multivariate analysis including age and initial white blood cell count. Polo-like kinase 1 was necessary for leukemic cell survival, since short hairpin-mediated Polo-like kinase 1 knockdown in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines inhibited cell proliferation by G2/M cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Primary patient cells with a high Polo-like kinase 1 protein expression were sensitive to the Polo-like kinase 1-specific inhibitor NMS-P937 in vitro, whereas cells with a low expression and normal bone marrow cells were resistant. This sensitivity was likely not caused by Polo-like kinase 1 mutations, since only one new mutation (Ser335Arg) was found by 454-sequencing of 38 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases. This mutation did not affect Polo-like kinase 1 expression or NMS-P937 sensitivity. Together, these results indicate a pivotal role for Polo-like kinase 1 in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and show potential for Polo-like kinase 1-inhibiting drugs as an addition to current treatment strategies for cases expressing high Polo-like kinase 1 levels. PMID:23753023

  12. The role of computed tomography in the preoperative assessment of gastrointestinal causes of acute abdomen in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Reginelli, Alfonso; Russo, Anna; Pinto, Antonio; Stanzione, Francesco; Martiniello, Ciro; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Brunese, Luca; Squillaci, Ettore

    2014-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal disorders in older patients is a medical emergency that requires immediate medical care. Chances of recovery improve with an early diagnosis and treatment. It might be caused by a number of different diseases, including perforations by foreign bodies, colon cancer, diverticulitis, ischemia. CT is often the initial modality used to assess patients with acute abdomen, the radiologist may be the first to suggest such a diagnosis. Computed tomography allows to identify the site of gastrointestinal perforations, of ischemia and to determine the most predictive signs in this diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of CT gastrointestinal emergency of elderly patients with nontraumatic acute abdominal pain. The cases of 126 consecutively registered patients 65 years old or older presenting to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain and who underwent CT were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated according to the level of correctly classified cases in both the entire cohort and a surgical subgroup and was compared between readings. Agreement between each reading and the reference diagnosis and interobserver agreement were assessed with kappa statistics. In both the entire cohort (87.5% vs 85.3%, p = 0.07) and the surgical group (94% vs 91%, p = 0.15), there was no significant difference in CT accuracy between diagnoses made by the radiologist. Agreement between the CT diagnosis and the final diagnosis was excellent. In the care of elderly patients, CT is accurate for diagnosing the cause of acute abdominal pain, particularly when it is of gastrointestinal surgical origin. Thus CT interpretation should not be delayed until complete clinicobiologic data are available, and the images should be quickly transmitted to the emergency physician so that appropriate therapy can be begun. PMID:25157993

  13. ACUTE TOXICITY, SUBLETHAL EFFECTS AND BIOCONCENTRATION OF CHLORINATION PRODUCTS, VIRUSES, AND BACTERIA IN EDIBLE SHELLFISH: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, synthesizes, and summarizes published scientific data concerning toxicity, sublethal physiological effects, and uptake/depuration rates of chlorine, viruses, and bacteria in edible marine shellfish of the United States. The summary may provide environmental...

  14. Rupture of a noncoronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm into the left atrium: a rare cause of acute pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Nabati, Maryam; Ghaffari, Rahman; Ghaemian, Ali

    2013-11-01

    A sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a dilatation of the aortic wall caused by the lack of continuity between the middle layer of the aortic wall and the aortic valve. It has an incidence of <0.1%. The most common cause of a sinus of Valsalva aneurysms is congenital, although they may also be acquired. The most common complication is rupture into the right atrium or ventricle, with rupture into the left chambers occurring very rarely. We present a 40-year-old man admitted to the hospital with an acute onset of respiratory distress and pleuritic chest pain. Transthoracic echocardiography followed by transesophageal echocardiography showed rupture of a noncoronary aneurysm of Valsalva sinus into the left atrium. The jet from the fistula caused retrograde flow into the pulmonary veins. PMID:24006888

  15. Acute infective endocarditis caused by Delftia acidovorans, a rare pathogen complicating intravenous drug use.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Saima; Taylor, Kent E; Overman, Timothy L; McCormick, Malkanthie I

    2012-11-01

    Gram-negative bacilli causing infective endocarditis (IE) is rare, even in intravenous drug users. This case report underscores several clinically important aspects of Delftia acidovorans IE: the organism's ability to cause rapid destruction of normal native valves and to cause embolic occlusion of large arteries and its resistance to all aminoglycosides. PMID:22933597

  16. Acute Infective Endocarditis Caused by Delftia acidovorans, a Rare Pathogen Complicating Intravenous Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Saima; Taylor, Kent E.; McCormick, Malkanthie I.

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative bacilli causing infective endocarditis (IE) is rare, even in intravenous drug users. This case report underscores several clinically important aspects of Delftia acidovorans IE: the organism's ability to cause rapid destruction of normal native valves and to cause embolic occlusion of large arteries and its resistance to all aminoglycosides. PMID:22933597

  17. Hormone Treatment Gives No Benefit Against Cognitive Changes Caused by Acute Sleep Deprivation in Postmenopausal Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maija Karakorpi; Paula Alhola; Anna Sofia Urrila; Mervi Kylmälä; Raija Portin; Nea Kalleinen; Päivi Polo-Kantola

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether hormone therapy (HT) gives any benefit against the possible impairment of cognitive performance when challenged by acute sleep deprivation. Twenty postmenopausal women volunteered (age range 59–72 years, mean=64.4 years, SD=4.4): 10 HT users and 10 nonusers. Eleven young women served as a control group for the cognitive age effect (age range 20–26 years, mean

  18. Acute Shunt Malfunction Caused by Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy without Shunt Infection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jingyu; Ki, Seung Seog

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement is often performed in patients with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and it has been accepted as a safe procedure. The authors report a case of a 50-year-old male who developed acute exacerbation of the hydrocephalus immediately after the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement without any signs of shunt infection, which has not been reported until now. After revision of the intraperitoneal shunt catheter, the sizes of the intracranial ventricles were normalized. PMID:25371790

  19. A case of acute vascular rejection caused by endothelial-reactive non-HLA antibodies.

    PubMed

    Holgersson, Jan; Elsheikh, Elzafir; Grufman, Per; Sumitran-Holgersson, Suchitra; Tydén, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    We describe a female patient who, despite negative conventional cross-matches, lost her first kidney graft in an acute humoral rejection. Prior to the second, AB0-incompatible (A1B to A1) living-donor kidney transplant, the patient had negative T- and B-cell cross-matches but had a positive donor-reactive endothelial cell cross-match. Following pre-transplant protein A and GlycoSorb-ABO immunoadsorptions to remove blood group B and anti-endothelial cell antibodies, Mabthera, and IVIG administrations, she was successfully transplanted. By the second post-operative day, creatinine levels were down to 96 micromol/L from 611 micromol/L pre-operatively. On day 9 creatinine rose again, and on the same day the endothelial cell crossmatch became positive for IgG, whereas the T-cell cross-match remained negative and the anti-A1B titers remained low. A kidney biopsy taken on day 10 post-transplant showed a picture of an acute vascular, antibody-mediated rejection. Following rejection treatment and repeated protein A and Glyco-Sorb-ABO immunoadsorptions, the patient's kidney function was again normalized. The use of a recently developed kit (XM-ONE) for the detection of anti-endothelial cell antibodies allowed us to identify a patient at risk for developing acute antibody-mediated rejection as well as to monitor treatment efficacy and post-transplant complications. PMID:18365420

  20. [Endoscopic treatment of a pediatric patient with acute pancreatitis caused by anomalous union of pancreaticobiliary duct combined with incomplete pancreatic divisum].

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Beom; Seo, Joo Hee; Park, Jung Yeup; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Chung, Jae Bock; Bang, Seungmin

    2009-11-01

    The most common causes of acute pancreatitis are microlithiasis and alcohol. In pediatrics, anomalies in pancreaticobiliary system should be considered as possible causes. Among many anomalies, pancreas divisum associated with anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union (APBDU) is very rare. APBDU is associated with acute pancreatitis, choledochal cyst, and gallbladder cancer. Pancreas divisum is also a well known cause of acute recurrent pancreatitis. In adult cases with such conditions, the role of endoscopic management including sphincterotomy or stenting through the Santorini duct is well documented. However, it is still controversial to perform endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in pediatrics. Herein, we experienced a case of 4 year 7 month old female patient suffered from recurrent attacks of acute pancreatitis, which were caused by APBDU and incomplete pancreas divisum. She was treated by endoscopic sphincterectomy of both openings to the Santorinis and Wirsungs ducts. Thus, we report this interesting case with literature review. PMID:19934615

  1. Disseminated intra-abdominal hydatidosis causing acute intestinal obstruction—a rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Madhu Mati; Verma, Nidhi; Sagar, Mala

    2010-01-01

    Hydatid disease is caused by Echinococcus granulosus–a parasitic infestation commonly affecting the liver. Disseminated intra-abdominal hydatid disease may occur following the rupture of the hydatid cyst into the peritoneal cavity causing secondary echinococcosis. We report a very rare case of disseminated hydatidosis involving various abdominal and pelvic organs and causing intestinal obstruction in a female patient. This unusual presentation produced a diagnostic dilemma. PMID:22778079

  2. Rotation of antimicrobial therapy in the intensive care unit: impact on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Raineri; L. Crema; S. Dal Zoppo; A. Acquarolo; A. Pan; G. Carnevale; F. Albertario; A. Candiani

    2010-01-01

    The development of antibiotic resistance is associated with high morbidity and mortality, particularly in the intensive care\\u000a unit (ICU) setting. We evaluated the effect of an antibiotic rotation programme on the incidence of ventilator-associated\\u000a pneumonia (VAP) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. We conducted a 2-year before-and-after study at two\\u000a medical–surgical ICUs at two different tertiary referral hospitals. We included all

  3. Influence of a new surface modification of intraocular lenses with fluoroalkylsilan on the adherence of endophthalmitis-causing bacteria in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Kienast; Regine Kämmerer; Claudia Weiss; Matthias Klinger; Dirk-Henning Menz; Joachim Dresp; Helge Ohgke; Werner Solbach; Horst Laqua; Hans Hoerauf

    2006-01-01

    Introduction  Dynasilan is a fluoroalkylsilan that is able to interact with surface active centres on intraocular lenses (IOL), offering a new way for surface modification of different IOL materials. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of this new surface modification on the adherence of two typical endophthalmitis causing bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes).Materials and methods  In

  4. Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: experimental research.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2014-12-01

    Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30?Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8?Gy, 10-14?Gy, and 16-30?Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P?acute radiation enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis. PMID:24872437

  5. Transcriptome Analysis of the Initial Stage of Acute WSSV Infection Caused by Temperature Change

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yumiao; Li, Fuhua; Sun, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Shihao; Zhang, Chengsong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most devastating virosis threatening the shrimp culture industry worldwide. Variations of environmental factors in shrimp culture ponds usually lead to the outbreak of white spot syndrome (WSS). In order to know the molecular mechanisms of WSS outbreak induced by temperature variation and the biological changes of the host at the initial stage of WSSV acute infection, RNA-Seq technology was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in shrimp with a certain amount of WSSV cultured at 18°C and shrimp whose culture temperature were raised to 25°C. To analyze whether the expression changes of the DEGs were due to temperature rising or WSSV proliferation, the expression of selected DEGs was analyzed by real-time PCR with another shrimp group, namely Group T, as control. Group T didn’t suffer WSSV infection but was subjected to temperature rising in parallel. At the initial stage of WSSV acute infection, DEGs related to energy production were up-regulated, whereas most DEGs related to cell cycle and positive regulation of cell death and were down-regulated. Triose phosphate isomerase, enolase and alcohol dehydrogenase involved in glycosis were up-regulated, while pyruvate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase with NAD as the coenzyme involved in TCA pathway were down-regulated. Also genes involved in host DNA replication, including DNA primase, DNA topoisomerase and DNA polymerase showed down-regulated expression. Several interesting genes including crustin genes, acting binding or inhibiting protein genes, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 9 (ADAM9) gene and a GRP 78 gene were also analyzed. Understanding the interactions between hosts and WSSV at the initial stage of acute infection will not only help to get a deep insight into the pathogenesis of WSSV but also provide clues for therapies. PMID:24595043

  6. Cricoarytenoid arthritis: a cause of acute upper airway obstruction in rheumatoid arthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacelyn Kolman; Ian Morris

    2002-01-01

    Purpose  To report acute upper airway obstruction due to cricoarytenoid arthritis, a well known but uncommon complication of rheumatoid\\u000a arthritis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical features  We report the case of a 70-yr-old female scheduled for a colostomy who had been suffering from rheumatoid arthritis for 17\\u000a years. Preoperative history and physical examination revealed no cardiopulmonary compromise. Anesthesia was induced while\\u000a an assistant immobilized the cervical

  7. “Knot Stent”: An Unusual Cause of Acute Renal Failure in Solitary Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Moufid, Kamal; Touiti, Driss; Mohamed, Lezrek

    2012-01-01

    The insertion of indwelling ureteric stents is a routine procedure in urology practice. Complications secondary to the insertion of these stents have also increased, such as stent encrustation, stent fragmentation, stone formation, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Knot formation within the renal pelvis or in the coiled portion of the ureteral stent is an extremely rare condition, with less than 15 cases reported in literature. The authors report a rare case of knotted stent, complicated by an obstructive acute renal failure and urosepsis, in a patient with a solitary functioning kidney. PMID:22919550

  8. Industrial halide wastes cause acute mortality of snow geese in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andreasen, J.K.; Stroud, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    An examination of 97 dead migratory waterfowl collected at an industrial facility showed that the birds had had severe gastric and intestinal hemorrhaging. Water samples taken at on-site waste lagoons contained 6,750 mg/L fluoride, 4,500 mg/L bromine and 1,500 mg/L boron. Brain and liver tissues contained high levels of fluoride, as compared with tissues of birds collected at a control site. From the necropsy results, the high concentration of fluoride in the water samples and the elevated tissue residues, we conclude that the birds died from acute fluoride poisoning.

  9. Urinary ascites after an alcohol binge: An uncommon treatable cause of acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Jairam, A.; Kachhela, R.; Mukherjee, D.; Hooda, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old male presented after a binge of alcohol with acute onset, rapidly progressive distension of abdomen, hematuria, oligoanuria and dialysis dependent renal failure. Evaluation revealed ascitic fluid with high creatinine and computed tomography cystogram showed contrast leak into the peritoneum. Retrograde cystoscopy confirmed rupture of the bladder. He had prompt diuresis after indwelling Foley's catheter was placed. By 2 weeks, he had recovered renal function completely. A high index of suspicion can make an early diagnosis and avoid unnecessary investigations. The mechanism of spontaneous rupture of bladder after an alcohol binge is discussed. PMID:25097342

  10. Acute paraspinal compartment syndrome as a rare cause of loin pain.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, A; Tang, V; Baker, A; Blades, R

    2015-03-01

    A significant proportion of emergency urological admissions are comprised of ureteric colic presenting as loin pain. A variety of alternative pathologies present in this manner and should be considered during systematic assessment. We report the case of a patient admitted with severe unilateral back and flank pain after strenuous deadlift exercise. Clinical examination and subsequent investigation following a significant delay demonstrated acute paraspinal compartment syndrome (PCS) after an initial misdiagnosis of ureteric colic. The patient was managed conservatively. We review the current literature surrounding the rare diagnosis of PCS and discuss the management options. PMID:25723672

  11. Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to an Incarcerated Paraoesophageal Hernia: A Rare Cause for a Common Problem

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, Kathryn; Campbell, William; Taylor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This is a rare case report of acute pancreatitis secondary to a massive incarcerated paraoesophageal hernia. The pathogenesis resulted from obstruction of the distal pancreatic duct after displacement of the pancreatic head and body into the thorax as part of a Type IV paraoesophageal hernia. Although this condition is rare, the patient made steady progress following laparotomy and open repair of hernia. She made a good recovery after prompt therapy, therefore, this report can be a guide to the diagnosis and treatment of similar conditions. PMID:24653652

  12. Biliary Cystadenoma: An Unusual Cause of Acute Pancreatitis and Indication for Mesohepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Bilal; Meschino, Michael; Mercado, Ashley; Hernandez-Alejandro, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The classic presentation of cystic hepatobiliary lesions is usually nonspecific and often identified incidentally. Here we describe the case of a patient presenting with acute pancreatitis resulting from a large centrally located biliary cystadenoma compressing the pancreas. Determination of the origin of the cystic lesion was difficult on imaging studies. Due to the difficult location of the lesion, a complete surgical resection was achieved with mesohepatectomy and the suspected diagnosis confirmed by pathology. The patient continues to do well 2 years post-op with no signs of recurrence. PMID:25506000

  13. A case report of acute cubital tunnel syndrome caused by venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yoshihiro; Saito, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Compression neuropathy of the ulnar nerve at the elbow is well-recognised as cubital tunnel syndrome (CuTS). Many causes of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow have been identified. A previously unreported finding of ulnar nerve compression in the cubital tunnel caused by a thrombosed proximal ulnar recurrent artery vena comitans is described. PMID:25609288

  14. An Epidemiological Survey of Acute Spinal Trauma Caused by Traffic Accidents Versus Falls in Northern Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Lam; Mau-Roung Lin; Shin-Han Tsai; Wei-Chen Lee; Cheuk-Sing Choy; Shu-Fen Chu; Wen-Ta Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Background. Traffic accidents and falls are the major causes of spinal trauma, which result in serious personal and social loss. A comparison between causes and patients’ characteristics can be important. Methods. A total of 681 spinal trauma patients were compared for differences, and the effects of age stratification of the differences are discussed. Results. Significant differences were observed between falls

  15. The novel marker LTBP2 predicts all-cause and pulmonary death in patients with acute dyspnoea.

    PubMed

    Breidthardt, Tobias; Vanpoucke, Griet; Potocki, Mihael; Mosimann, Tamina; Ziller, Ronny; Thomas, Gregoire; Laroy, Wouter; Moerman, Piet; Socrates, Thenral; Drexler, Beatrice; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Kas, Koen; Mueller, Christian

    2012-11-01

    The risk stratification in patients presenting with acute dyspnoea remains a challenge. We therefore conducted a prospective, observational cohort study enrolling 292 patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnoea. A proteomic approach for antibody-free targeted protein quantification based on high-end MS was used to measure LTBP2 [latent TGF (transforming growth factor)-binding protein 2] levels. Final diagnosis and death during follow-up were adjudicated blinded to LTBP2 levels. AHF (acute heart failure) was the final diagnosis in 54% of patients. In both AHF (P<0.001) and non-AHF (P=0.015) patients, LTBP2 levels at presentation were significantly higher in non-survivors compared with survivors with differences on median levels being 2.2- and 1.5-fold respectively. When assessing the cause of death, LTBP2 levels were significantly higher in patients dying from pulmonary causes (P=0.0005). Overall, LTBP2 powerfully predicted early pulmonary death {AUC (area under the curve), 0.95 [95% CI (confidence interval), 0.91-0.98]}. In ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analyses for the prediction of 1-year mortality LTBP2 achieved an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.71-0.84); comparable with the predictive potential of NT-proBNP [N-terminal pro-B-type natriuruetic peptide; 0.77 (95% CI, 0.72-0.82)]. Importantly, the predictive potential of LTBP2 persisted in patients with AHF as the cause of dypnea (AUC 0.78) and was independent of renal dysfunction (AUC 0.77). In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, LTBP2 was the strongest independent predictor of death [HR (hazard ratio), 3.76 (95% CI, 2.13-6.64); P<0.0001]. In conclusion, plasma levels of LTBP2 present a novel and powerful predictor of all-cause mortality, and particularly pulmonary death. Cause-specific prediction of death would enable targeted prevention, e.g. with pre-emptive antibiotic therapy. PMID:22587491

  16. Acute free-floating carotid artery thrombus causing stroke in a young patient: unique etiology and management using endovascular approach.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ai Peng; Taneja, Manish; Seah, Boon Heng; Leong, Hoe Nam; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic disease accounts for 20%-30% of strokes in the general population. In young adults, it is an unexpected event and its causes involve diverse pathologies. Herein, we describe a unique case of acute embolic stroke in a young adult patient due to the presence of a large clot in the right common and internal carotid arteries, as a result of an extrinsic cause. Surgical clot retrieval was considered unsafe at that point in time in view of the active inflammatory changes surrounding the affected vessels. This was eventually treated with a novel endovascular technique, a unique alternative to open surgery, with excellent clinical outcome. To our knowledge, the penumbra system has never been used for thrombus removal in a nonacute setting. PMID:25440371

  17. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part I: Overview, vaccines for enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; Del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Montero, David

    2015-03-01

    Efforts to develop vaccines for prevention of acute diarrhea have been going on for more than 40 y with partial success. The myriad of pathogens, more than 20, that have been identified as a cause of acute diarrhea throughout the years pose a significant challenge for selecting and further developing the most relevant vaccine candidates. Based on pathogen distribution as identified in epidemiological studies performed mostly in low-resource countries, rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, diarrheogenic E. coli and V. cholerae are predominant, and thus the main targets for vaccine development and implementation. Vaccination against norovirus is most relevant in middle/high-income countries and possibly in resource-deprived countries, pending a more precise characterization of disease impact. Only a few licensed vaccines are currently available, of which rotavirus vaccines have been the most outstanding in demonstrating a significant impact in a short time period. This is a comprehensive review, divided into 2 articles, of nearly 50 vaccine candidates against the most relevant viral and bacterial pathogens that cause acute gastroenteritis. In order to facilitate reading, sections for each pathogen are organized as follows: i) a discussion of the main epidemiological and pathogenic features; and ii) a discussion of vaccines based on their stage of development, moving from current licensed vaccines to vaccines in advanced stage of development (in phase IIb or III trials) to vaccines in early stages of clinical development (in phase I/II) or preclinical development in animal models. In this first article we discuss rotavirus, norovirus and Vibrio cholerae. In the following article we will discuss Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic), and Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:25715048

  18. Acute inhalation exposure to titanium ethanolate as a possible cause of metal fume fever.

    PubMed

    Ahmadimanesh, M; Shadnia, S; Ghazi-Khansari, M

    2014-04-01

    Occupational inhalation exposure to noxious agents is not uncommon. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male student who had accidental acute inhalation exposure to a large quantity of titanium ethanolate and hydrogen chloride in chemistry lab. He was referred to the emergency department of our hospital with low-grade fever, dyspnea, headache, fatigue and myalgia. After 24 hrs of symptomatic treatment (oxygen therapy and acetaminophen), the fever was subsided and the patient discharged home in a good clinical condition. The presented symptoms could be interpreted as a form of metal fume fever. It can therefore be concluded that organo-metallic compound of titanium metal may have the potential to produce metal fume fever in human. PMID:24748002

  19. Penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer rupture causing a right hemothorax; a rare presentation of acute aortic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Yoel

    2013-04-01

    Acute aortic syndrome is a spectrum of diseases that have similar presentation and clinical background and include aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, and penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer. Presented here is an 82-year-old woman with a medical history of diabetes, hypertension, nephrectomy, and chronic renal failure who complained of sudden abdominal pain radiating to epigastrium and back. At presentation, the patient was hemodynamically stable with a hemoglobin level of 10.2 and white blood cell count of 12. Chest x-ray showed a right pleural effusion and lung opacity with interstitial pulmonary edema. Computed tomography demonstrated an aortic penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer that ruptured into the right pleural space resulting in right hemothorax. A percutaneous endostent was placed with subsequent discharge of the patient 10 days after admission. PMID:23399335

  20. Can a polymorphism in the thalassemia gene and a heterozygote CFTR mutation cause acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Löhr, J-Matthias; Haas, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The case of a 32-year-old black woman of African descent who suffered from repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis, initially triggered when flying on airplanes, is reported. She did not drink alcohol or smoke. Genetic analysis was negative for cationic trypsinogen, serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 and chymotrypsin C. However, hemoglobin F was elevated. Sequencing of the thalassemia gene revealed a novel alteration in the 5’ region indicative of a functional abnormality of the molecule. Sequencing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene revealed a heterozygote sequence variant. The combination of a hemoglobin gene mutation known for thalassemia in conjunction with the hitherto undescribed CFTR mutation is suggested to pave the road for initial and repetitive pancreatitis attacks. This will be discussed. PMID:24653987

  1. Brucellosis: a rare cause of febrile neutropenia in acute myeloblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ozbalci, Demircan; Ergene, Ulku; Cetin, Cigdem Banu

    2011-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease and endemically seen in the Middle East, Eastern Europe and continental America. Febrile neutropenia related to Brucellosis has been reported only in a few cases. Brucella was cultured from the bone marrow of a 42-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital with symptoms of fever and fatigue and later diagnosed as acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). The patient was treated for both AML and Brucellosis without any problems and discharged from the hospital after scheduling her follow-up visits. Brucellosis might be considered in the etiology of febrile neutropenia in endemic regions and must be treated effectively to prevent possible morbidity and mortality during or after chemotherapy. PMID:20169426

  2. Tribbles homolog 2 inactivates C/EBPalpha and causes acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Keeshan, Karen; He, Yiping; Wouters, Bas J; Shestova, Olga; Xu, Lanwei; Sai, Hong; Rodriguez, Carlos G; Maillard, Ivan; Tobias, John W; Valk, Peter; Carroll, Martin; Aster, Jon C; Delwel, Ruud; Pear, Warren S

    2006-11-01

    Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2) was identified as a downregulated transcript in leukemic cells undergoing growth arrest. To investigate the effects of Trib2 in hematopoietic progenitors, mice were reconstituted with hematopoietic stem cells retrovirally expressing Trib2. Trib2-transduced bone marrow cells exhibited a growth advantage ex vivo and readily established factor-dependent cell lines. In vivo, Trib2-reconstituted mice uniformly developed fatal transplantable acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). In mechanistic studies, we found that Trib2 associated with and inhibited C/EBPalpha. Furthermore, Trib2 expression was elevated in a subset of human AML patient samples. Together, our data identify Trib2 as an oncogene that induces AML through a mechanism involving inactivation of C/EBPalpha. PMID:17097562

  3. Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2) inactivates C/EBPalpha and causes acute myelogenous leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Keeshan, Karen; He, Yiping; Wouters, Bas J.; Shestova, Olga; Xu, Lanwei; Sai, Hong; Rodriguez, Carlos G.; Maillard, Ivan; Tobias, John W.; Valk, Peter; Carroll, Martin; Aster, Jon C.; Delwel, Ruud; Pear, Warren S.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Tribbles homolog 2 (Trib2) was identified as a down-regulated transcript in leukemic cells undergoing growth arrest. To investigate the effects of Trib2 in hematopoietic progenitors, mice were reconstituted with hematopoietic stem cells retrovirally expressing Trib2. Trib2-transduced bone marrow cells exhibited a growth advantage ex vivo and readily established factor-dependent cell lines. In vivo, Trib2-reconstituted mice uniformly developed fatal transplantable acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). In mechanistic studies, we found that Trib2 associated with and inhibited C/EBP?. Furthermore, Trib2 expression was elevated in a subset of human AML patient samples. Together, our data identify Trib2 as an oncogene that induces AML through a mechanism involving inactivation of C/EBP?. PMID:17097562

  4. Acute Inhalation Exposure to Vaporized Methamphetamine Causes Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Sandra M.; Buford, Mary C.; Braseth, Sarah N.; Hutchison, James D.; Holian, Andrij

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is currently the most widespread illegally used stimulant in the United States. Use of MA by smoking is the fastest growing mode of administration, which increases concerns about potential pulmonary and other medical complications. A murine exposure system was developed to study the pulmonary affects of inhaled MA. Mice were exposed to 25–100 mg vaporized MA and assessments were made 3 h following initiation of exposure to model acute lung injury. Inhalation of MA vapor resulted in dose-dependent increases in MA plasma levels that were in the range of those experienced by MA users. At the highest MA dose, histological changes were observed in the lung and small but significant increases in lung wet weight to body weight ratios (5.656 ± 0.176 mg/g for the controls vs. 6.706± 0.135 mg/g for the 100 mg MA-exposed mice) were found. In addition, there was 53% increase in total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, greater than 20% increase in albumin levels in the BAL fluid, greater than 2.5-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase levels in the BAL fluid, and reduced total BAL cell numbers (approximately 77% of controls). Levels of the early response cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-6 were dose-dependently increased in BAL fluid of MA-exposed mice. Exposure to 100 mg MA significantly increased free radical generation in the BAL cells to 107–146% of controls and to approximately 135% of the controls in lung tissue in situ. Together, these data show that acute inhalation exposure to relevant doses of volatilized MA is associated with elevated free radical formation and significant lung injury. PMID:18645723

  5. Bacteria-Specific Neutrophil Dysfunction Associated with Interferon-Stimulated Gene Expression in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth C. Malcolm; Jennifer E. Kret; Robert L. Young; Katie R. Poch; Silvia M. Caceres; Ivor S. Douglas; Chris D. Coldren; Ellen L. Burnham; Marc Moss; Jerry A. Nick

    2011-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a poorly understood condition with greater than 30% mortality. Massive recruitment of neutrophils to the lung occurs in the initial stages of the ARDS. Significant variability in the severity and duration of ARDS-associated pulmonary inflammation could be linked to heterogeneity in the inflammatory capacity of neutrophils. Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are a broad gene family

  6. Acute retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 in children: reactivation of an undiagnosed latent neonatal herpes infection

    PubMed Central

    Grose, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is known to cause acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The availability of HSV-2 specific PCR tests for diagnostic analysis has greatly increased our ability to discriminate ARN caused by HSV-2 from ARN caused by either HSV-1 or VZV. Of great interest, HSV-2 appears to be the most common cause of viral ARN in children and adolescents. Although a few children with ARN are known to have had neonatally acquired herpes infection, most children lack a history of known herpes disease. Thus, the origin of the HSV-2 infection is a mystery. The hypothesis of this review is that HSV-2 ARN in children and adolescents may be the first sign of a previously undiagnosed and asymptomatic neonatal HSV-2 infection, which has reactivated several years later from latency in a cranial nerve and entered the retina. The review brings together 7 previously published ARN cases, plus one new case is added. Thus this review also expands the spectrum of complications from neonatal HSV-2 infection. PMID:22889540

  7. [Wolbachia--a new bacteria causing sex ratio bias in the two-spot lady-bird Adalia bipunctata L].

    PubMed

    Zakharov, I A; Goriacheva, I I; Sha?kevich, E V; Schulenburg, J H; Majerus, E N

    2000-04-01

    Some of the male-killing lines of the two-spot ladybird Adalia bipunctata L. isolated from the populations of Moscow and Tomsk and having a female-biased sex ratio were found to be infected with a bacterium of the genus Wolbachia. This fact is the first demonstration of the ability of Wolbachia to kill males of a host insect. The coexistence of females infected with different male-killing bacteria was recorded in the population of Moscow. PMID:10822808

  8. Etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and outcomes of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates causing acute respiratory failure in cancer patients: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although previous studies have reported etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and outcomes of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in cancer patients, few studies investigated ARF in cancer patients presenting with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Methods This was a retrospective observational study of 214 consecutive cancer patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography admitted to the oncology medical intensive care unit for acute respiratory failure between July 2009 and June 2011. Results After diagnostic investigations including bronchoalveolar lavage in 160 (75%) patients, transbronchial lung biopsy in 75 (35%), and surgical lung biopsy in 6 (3%), the etiologies of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates causing ARF were identified in 187 (87%) patients. The most common etiology was infection (138, 64%), followed by drug-induced pneumonitis (13, 6%) and metastasis (12, 6%). Based on the etiologic diagnoses, therapies for diffuse pulmonary infiltrates were subsequently modified in 99 (46%) patients. Diagnostic yield (46%, 62%, 85%, and 100%; P for trend < 0.001) and frequency of therapeutic modifications (14%, 37%, 52%, and 100%; P for trend < 0.001) were significantly increased with additional invasive tests. Patients with therapeutic modification had a 34% lower in-hospital mortality rate than patients without therapeutic modification (38% versus 58%, P = 0.004) and a similar difference in mortality rate was observed up to 90 days (55% versus 73%, Log-rank P = 0.004). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, therapeutic modification was still significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 0.509, 95% CI 0.281-0.920). Conclusions Invasive diagnostic tests, including lung biopsy, increased diagnostic yield and caused therapeutic modification that was significantly associated with better outcomes for diffuse pulmonary infiltrates causing ARF in cancer patients. PMID:23880212

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extracts against fungi producing aflatoxin and fumonisin and bacteria causing diarrheal disease.

    PubMed

    Srichana, Darunee; Taengtip, Rattana; Kondo, Sumalee

    2011-05-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum was investigated to determine its antimicrobial activities against human.and animal pathogens that produce aflatoxin, fumonisin, and diarrheal disease. The fungi were Aspergillusflavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium verticillioides. The bacteria were Vibrio, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. G. pentaphyllum was extracted by five different methods. The obtained extracts were designated Extracts A, B, C, D and E. The results of the antifungal assay against A.flavus andA. parasiticus showed Extracts A and B at 10,000 ppm inhibited growth at 8-28%. Extracts A and B at 10,000 ppm also showed activity against F. verticillioides at 41-43%. Extract A, B and C were able to inhibit the tested strains better than the Extracts D and E. The MIC values of the extracts against gram-negative bacteria ranged from bacteria, was 3.9-15.62 mg/ml. G. pentaphyllum extracts had activity against bacterial and fungal infections and could be used to control these organisms. PMID:21706950

  10. Calcific emboli originating from the brachiocephalic trunk causing acute cerebral infarction and worm-like calcification in the right middle cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiuqiong; Zhang, Yue; Ding, Hongyan; Dong, Qiang; Fu, Jianhui

    2015-05-01

    We report, to our knowledge, the first patient with brachiocephalic trunk calcified plaque causing the 'salted pretzel sign' and worm-like calcification. Arterial stenosis or occlusion caused by atherosclerosis and thrombosis are responsible for the majority of cases of cerebral infarction. However, there are a number of other causes. Interestingly, these findings were not observed on a CT scan 10days before the stroke. Acute cerebral infarction with calcifications on unenhanced head CT scans should raise suspicion for disease in the carotid system. Identification of subtle findings of acute ischemic stroke on CT scans is important for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25769256

  11. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA.

    PubMed

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad's coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

  12. Solitary Cecal Diverticulitis: An Unusual Cause of Acute Right Iliac Fossa Pain—A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mudatsakis, Nikolaos; Andreadakis, Emmanouil

    2014-01-01

    Solitary cecal diverticulitis is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain in the Western world. Its clinical presentation, in most cases, mimics acute appendicitis. A 38-year-old Caucasian man presented with acute abdomen and clinical signs of acute appendicitis. Laparotomy was performed and revealed an inflammatory, solitary diverticulum of the cecum. A typical appendectomy was performed and a catheter was inserted for draining percutaneously the inflamed diverticulum of the cecum. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the 4th postoperative day. This frequently misdiagnosed condition, in most cases, is being suspected and identified intraoperatively as acute appendicitis. The aim of this study is to review the available different surgical management options and to present an alternative therapeutic approach that may be valuable under specific circumstances. PMID:25506025

  13. Scintigraphic demonstration of acute gastrointestinal bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding the colon

    SciTech Connect

    Czerniak, A.; Zwas, S.T.; Rabau, M.Y.; Avigad, I.; Borag, B.; Wolfstein, I.

    1985-08-01

    Massive lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding into the colonic wall was demonstrated accurately by Tc-99m RBCs. In addition, retrograde bleeding into the gallbladder was also identified while arteriography did not show contrast extravasation. This case supports the use of Tc-99m RBCs over Tc-99m sulfur colloid for more accurate localization of lower GI bleeding.

  14. Acute intrahepatic biliary obstruction caused by hydatid cysts. Correlation between various imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bahar, R.H.; Al-Mohannadi, S.; Wafai, I.; Al-Suhaili, A.R.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.

    1988-05-01

    An 18-year-old male was evaluated for recurrent attacks of right abdominal pain and intermittent jaundice caused by hydatid cysts of the liver. The case illustrates the value of dynamic functional information provided by Tc-99m-HIDA imaging over noninvasive modalities that demonstrate structural changes, such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and tin colloid liver imaging.

  15. Takayasu Arteritis with Coronary Aneurysms Causing Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Ouali, Sana; Kacem, Slim; Fradj, Fatma Ben; Gribaa, Rim; Naffeti, Elyes; Remedi, Fahmi; Laaoueni, Chedia; Boughzela, Essia

    2011-01-01

    Takayasu arteritis is an inflammatory condition that involves the large cardiac vessels, predominantly the aorta and its main branches. It typically affects young women (age, ?40 yr), most often Asians and Latin Americans. Herein, we describe a rare manifestation of Takayasu arteritis in a 19-year-old black Tunisian man who presented with acute inferior myocardial infarction and complete atrioventricular block after occlusion from a giant aneurysm in the right coronary artery. The coronary artery disease was associated with aneurysmal dilations in the carotid, vertebral, and right renal arteries. Medical therapy improved Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow in the area of the giant aneurysm from grade 1 to grade 3. Upon the diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis, intravenous methylprednisolone and oral prednisone therapy was started. After 10 days of hospitalization, the patient was discharged on a medical regimen. Renovascular hypertension due to renal artery stenosis was suspected, so he underwent successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the inferior segmental artery of the right renal artery. During 12 months of close postprocedural monitoring, he experienced lower blood pressure, no chest pain, and no cardiovascular complications. This association of conditions has not been previously reported. Besides presenting this very rare combination of findings, we discuss the differential diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis in our patient. PMID:21494533

  16. Microemboli alter the acute stress response and cause prolonged expression of MCP-1 in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Christina L; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2015-04-01

    Microvascular ischemia is linked to cardiovascular disease pathology, as well as alterations in mood and cognition. Ischemia activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and through chronic activation, alters HPA axis function. Dysregulation of the HPA axis can lead to the chronic release of glucocorticoids, a hyper-inflammatory cerebral response, cell damage, and changes in behavior. Although the interactions between injury and HPA axis activity have been established in global ischemia, HPA-related repercussions of diffuse ischemic damage and subsequent inflammation have not been assessed. The current study used a rat model of microsphere embolism (ME) ischemia to test the hypothesis that microvascular ischemia would lead to long term alterations in HPA axis function and inflammatory activity. Furthermore, given the pro-inflammatory nature of chronic stress, we assessed the implications of chronic stress for gene expression of inflammatory factors and key components of the glucocorticoid receptor response, following microvascular ischemia. Results indicated that ME altered the response to an acute stress fourteen days following ME injury and increased hippocampal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (Mcp-1) as long as 4 weeks following ME injury, without concomitant effects on gene expression of the glucocorticoid receptor or its co-chaperones. Furthermore, no exacerbative effects of chronic stress exposure were observed following ME injury beyond the effects of ME injury alone. Together, these results indicate that ME injury is sufficient to alter both HPA axis activity and cerebral inflammation for a prolonged period of time following injury. PMID:25697594

  17. Meckel's Diverticulitis as a Cause of an Acute Abdomen in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy: Laparoscopic Management

    PubMed Central

    Pandeva, Ivilina; Kumar, Sumit; Alvi, Atif; Nosib, Hema

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Meckel's diverticulitis is an extremely rare cause of an acute abdomen in pregnancy. Its clinical presentation tends to be rather unusual and therefore commonly delaying diagnosis. The surgical method of exploration can be either by laparoscopy or through an open incision. Case Report. We report a case of a 34-year-old, P1 with previous Caesarean section, who presented at 20 weeks with worsening right-sided abdominal pain, distention, and peritonism. Ultrasound scan showed an area of a possibly thickened loop of bowel inconsistent with an appendicitis. The findings at laparoscopy were purulent fluid in the pelvis, a congested appendix, and inflamed Meckel's diverticulum. An appendectomy and excision of the diverticulum was performed using stapler technique. Discussion. Meckel's diverticulitis in pregnancy can have nonspecific presentation and poses difficulties for preoperative diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis and management poses significant maternal and fetal risks. The use of laparoscopy if the gestational age and uterine size permit its use allows a thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity and management of rarer and unexpected pathology. Laparoscopic management of acute abdomen in the midtrimester of pregnancy has been found to be safe and effective. PMID:25648324

  18. Meckel's Diverticulitis as a Cause of an Acute Abdomen in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy: Laparoscopic Management.

    PubMed

    Pandeva, Ivilina; Kumar, Sumit; Alvi, Atif; Nosib, Hema

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Meckel's diverticulitis is an extremely rare cause of an acute abdomen in pregnancy. Its clinical presentation tends to be rather unusual and therefore commonly delaying diagnosis. The surgical method of exploration can be either by laparoscopy or through an open incision. Case Report. We report a case of a 34-year-old, P1 with previous Caesarean section, who presented at 20 weeks with worsening right-sided abdominal pain, distention, and peritonism. Ultrasound scan showed an area of a possibly thickened loop of bowel inconsistent with an appendicitis. The findings at laparoscopy were purulent fluid in the pelvis, a congested appendix, and inflamed Meckel's diverticulum. An appendectomy and excision of the diverticulum was performed using stapler technique. Discussion. Meckel's diverticulitis in pregnancy can have nonspecific presentation and poses difficulties for preoperative diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis and management poses significant maternal and fetal risks. The use of laparoscopy if the gestational age and uterine size permit its use allows a thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity and management of rarer and unexpected pathology. Laparoscopic management of acute abdomen in the midtrimester of pregnancy has been found to be safe and effective. PMID:25648324

  19. Thromboembolism as a cause of renal artery occlusion and acute kidney injury: the recovery of kidney function after two weeks.

    PubMed

    Koivuviita, Niina; Tertti, Risto; Heiro, Maija; Manner, Ilkka; Metsärinne, Kaj

    2014-01-01

    Thromboembolic occlusion is a rare cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It may lead to permanent loss of renal function. Our patient, who had dilated cardiomyopathy and prosthetic aortic valve, presented with AKI due to thromboembolic arterial occlusion of a solitary functioning kidney. After 2 weeks delay, local intra-arterial thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator was performed without sufficient effect. However, a subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting was successful. Diuresis began immediately, and renal function was fully recovered after 2 weeks. Although there had been no evident arterial circulation in the kidney, we think that minor flow through subtotal occlusion of the main renal artery made the hibernation of kidney tissue possible and contributed to the recovery. Thus, even after prolonged ischemia, revascularization can be useful. PMID:24847350

  20. [Secondary aorto-enteral fistula as a cause of acute recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, 20 years after living kidney donation].

    PubMed

    Borgulya, M; Ell, C; Pohl, J

    2010-12-01

    Aorto-enteral fistulas (AEF) are a rare but life-threatening cause of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Clinically, they can appear through massive haematochezia and haematemesis or as intermittent occult intestinal bleeding. The diagnostic procedure using endoscopy is often difficult but can contribute to making the correct diagnosis. We report on a patient who developed a secondary aorto-enteral fistula twenty years after a living kidney donation. The vascular surgery in combination with a chronic inflammatory reaction had resulted in the formation of a fistula between the renal artery stump and the duodenum. The inflammatory response was maintained by continuous treatment with methotrexate because of rheumatoid arthritis. Despite several total enteroscopies and diagnostic laparotomies, the fistula was seen on several occasions but was overlooked and misinterpreted in the absence of bleeding at first. The suspected fistula was finally marked with two endoclips and confirmed subsequently by radiological imaging by means of an abdominal CT scan. PMID:21125513

  1. Recurrent gain-of-function mutation in PRKG1 causes thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Regalado, Ellen; Casteel, Darren E; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Gong, Limin; Kim, Jeong Joo; Dyack, Sarah; Horne, S Gabrielle; Chang, Guijuan; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Coselli, Joseph S; Li, Zhenyu; Leal, Suzanne M; Shendure, Jay; Rieder, Mark J; Bamshad, Michael J; Nickerson, Deborah A; Kim, Choel; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2013-08-01

    Gene mutations that lead to decreased contraction of vascular smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) can cause inherited thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Exome sequencing of distant relatives affected by thoracic aortic disease and subsequent Sanger sequencing of additional probands with familial thoracic aortic disease identified the same rare variant, PRKG1 c.530G>A (p.Arg177Gln), in four families. This mutation segregated with aortic disease in these families with a combined two-point LOD score of 7.88. The majority of affected individuals presented with acute aortic dissections (63%) at relatively young ages (mean 31 years, range 17-51 years). PRKG1 encodes type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG-1), which is activated upon binding of cGMP and controls SMC relaxation. Although the p.Arg177Gln alteration disrupts binding to the high-affinity cGMP binding site within the regulatory domain, the altered PKG-1 is constitutively active even in the absence of cGMP. The increased PKG-1 activity leads to decreased phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain in fibroblasts and is predicted to cause decreased contraction of vascular SMCs. Thus, identification of a gain-of-function mutation in PRKG1 as a cause of thoracic aortic disease provides further evidence that proper SMC contractile function is critical for maintaining the integrity of the thoracic aorta throughout a lifetime. PMID:23910461

  2. Recurrent Gain-of-Function Mutation in PRKG1 Causes Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Acute Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Regalado, Ellen; Casteel, Darren E.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Gong, Limin; Kim, Jeong Joo; Dyack, Sarah; Horne, S. Gabrielle; Chang, Guijuan; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Coselli, Joseph S.; Li, Zhenyu; Leal, Suzanne M.; Shendure, Jay; Rieder, Mark J.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Kim, Choel; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2013-01-01

    Gene mutations that lead to decreased contraction of vascular smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) can cause inherited thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Exome sequencing of distant relatives affected by thoracic aortic disease and subsequent Sanger sequencing of additional probands with familial thoracic aortic disease identified the same rare variant, PRKG1 c.530G>A (p.Arg177Gln), in four families. This mutation segregated with aortic disease in these families with a combined two-point LOD score of 7.88. The majority of affected individuals presented with acute aortic dissections (63%) at relatively young ages (mean 31 years, range 17–51 years). PRKG1 encodes type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG-1), which is activated upon binding of cGMP and controls SMC relaxation. Although the p.Arg177Gln alteration disrupts binding to the high-affinity cGMP binding site within the regulatory domain, the altered PKG-1 is constitutively active even in the absence of cGMP. The increased PKG-1 activity leads to decreased phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain in fibroblasts and is predicted to cause decreased contraction of vascular SMCs. Thus, identification of a gain-of-function mutation in PRKG1 as a cause of thoracic aortic disease provides further evidence that proper SMC contractile function is critical for maintaining the integrity of the thoracic aorta throughout a lifetime. PMID:23910461

  3. Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Laura E; Kelly, Patrick V; Eliot, Kathrin A; Weiss, Edward P

    2013-06-01

    Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg?kg?¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg?kg?¹) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P < .0001). Furthermore, 10 of the 11 subjects (91%) experienced diarrhea, 64% experience bloating and thirst, and 45% experienced nausea after bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress. PMID:23746564

  4. Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Laura E.; Kelly, Patrick V.; Eliot, Kathrin A.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (i.e. 300 mg·kg?1) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind cross-over trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6±0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65±6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg·kg?1) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate (HR) were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (p=0.38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3±1.1 mmHg, p=0.01) and higher HR (main treatment effect, +10.1±2.4 bpm, p=0.002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0–10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1±0.5 vs. 0.5±0.2, p<0.0001). Furthermore, 10 of the 11 subjects (91%) experienced diarrhea, 64% experience bloating and thirst, and 45% experienced nausea after bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial GI distress. PMID:23746564

  5. Attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n?=?52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n?=?23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n?=?10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs occasionally and is problematic. A range of causative factors contribute to the onset of this behaviour. Attitudes toward the management of aggression are complex and somewhat contradictory and can affect the way staff manage this behaviour; therefore, wide-ranging initiatives are needed to prevent and deal with this type of challenging behaviour. PMID:24642026

  6. Acute suppurative parotitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in an HIV-infected man.

    PubMed

    Guzman Vinasco, Luis; Bares, Sara; Sandkovsky, Uriel

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 32-year-old man who presented with progressive unilateral parotid gland enlargement and subsequently tested positive for HIV. A CT scan of the neck performed with contrast showed a phlegmon in the region of the right parotid tail measuring approximately 2.5×2.4?cm. Cultures of the aspirated fluid grew Streptococcus pneumoniae and the S. pneumoniae urinary antigen test was also positive. The patient underwent surgical debridement and received antimicrobial therapy with complete resolution of the parotitis. Parotitis caused by S. pneumoniae is rare, and HIV infection should be suspected in any case of invasive pneumococcal disease. PMID:25733094

  7. Guts & Glory H. pylori: Cause of Peptic Ulcer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley Johnson; Bryan Kratz; Lorraine Scanlon; Alina Spivak

    Summary Due to the 1983 discovery of H. pylori bacteria as the leading cause of peptic ulcers, the understanding of the disease dramatically changed. We now know that stress and spicy foods are not the leading causes of peptic ulcers. Symptoms including acute abdominal pain, vomiting of blood, and weight loss are characteristic of peptic ulcers. Ulcers form because of

  8. Preliminary pediatric clinical evaluation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in preventing recurrent pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and recurrent acute otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Donato, Guido; Fomia, Federico; Adami, Teresa; Careddu, Domenico; Cassandro, Claudia; Albera, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background The oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 has been shown clearly to antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans, by releasing two bacteriocins named salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B. Unpublished observations indicate that it can also antagonize the growth of other bacteria involved in acute otitis media. Because of its ability to colonize the oral cavity and its safety profile, we have tested its efficacy in reducing the incidence of streptococcal pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis and episodes of acute otitis media. Methods We enrolled 82 children, including 65 with and 17 without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology. Of those with recurrent pathology, 45 were treated daily for 90 days with an oral slow-release tablet containing five billion colony-forming units of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®), and the remaining 20 served as an untreated control group. The 17 children without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral pathology were used as an additional control group. After 90 days of treatment, a 6-month follow-up period without treatment was included to evaluate a possible persistent protective role for the previously administered product. Results The 41 children who completed the 90-day course of Bactoblis showed a reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (about 90%) and/or acute otitis media (about 40%), calculated by comparing infection rates in the previous year. The 90-day treatment also reduced the reported incidence of pharyngeal and ear infections by about 65% in the 6-month follow-up period during which the product was not administered. Subjects tolerated the product well, with no side effects or dropouts reported. Conclusion Prophylactic administration of S. salivarius K12 to children with a history of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology reduced episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infections and/or tonsillitis as well as episodes of acute otitis media. PMID:23233809

  9. Histopathological Findings of Hemorrhagic Ganglion Cyst Causing Acute Radicular Pain: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hee Kyung; Hwang, Sun Chul; Shin, Dong-Seung; Shin, Won Han; Kim, Bum-Tae

    2013-01-01

    Although juxtafacet cysts of the lumbar spine are being reported with increasing frequency, hemorrhage from a ganglion cyst is rare, and the pathophysiologic mechanism of the hemorrhage from the cyst is still unclear. A 75-year-old male presented with sudden radicular leg pain caused by hemorrhage from the ganglion cyst. Computed tomography revealed bony erosion of vertebral body and multiple punched-out lesions on facets. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the neural structure was compressed by a sharply delineating mass. Capsule and old hematoma with elastic consistency that extended to the epidural space were removed through a paramedian transforaminal approach, which led to the resolution of the patient's symptoms. Histopathologically, chronic inflammation with neovascularization and myxoid degeneration were present in the capsule. Alcian blue staining demonstrated the mixture of mucin and hematoma. The probable pathogenesis of hemorrhage from the cyst was discussed from the unique histopathological findings of surgical specimen. PMID:24891856

  10. Acute septic arthritis of the acromioclavicular joint caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae: a rare causative origin.

    PubMed

    Hong, Myong-Joo; Kim, Yeon-Dong; Ham, Hyang-Do

    2015-04-01

    Septic arthritis of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint is a rare entity with symptoms that include erythema, swelling, and tenderness over the AC joint, fever, and limitation of shoulder motion with pain. In previous reports, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species have been mentioned as common causative organisms. Haemophilus parainfluenzae is a normal inhabitant of the oral cavity, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract. However, it sometimes causes opportunistic infections leading to septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. AC joint infection associated with H.parainfluenzae is very rare, and only one case has been reported in the literature. Moreover, septic arthritis in immunocompetent patients is also very rare. Here, we report the case of a healthy patient with H. parainfluenzae-related septic arthritis of the AC joint. PMID:24584486

  11. ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY CAUSED BY Crotalus AND Bothrops SNAKE VENOM: A REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Polianna L.M.M.; Jacinto, Camilla N.; Silva, Geraldo B.; Lima, Juliana B.; Veras, Maria do Socorro B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Ophidic accidents are an important public health problem due to their incidence, morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of cases have been registered in Brazil in the last few years. Several studies point to the importance of knowing the clinical complications and adequate approach in these accidents. However, knowledge about the risk factors is not enough and there are an increasing number of deaths due to these accidents in Brazil. In this context, acute kidney injury (AKI) appears as one of the main causes of death and consequences for these victims, which are mainly young males working in rural areas. Snakes of the Bothrops and Crotalus genera are the main responsible for renal involvement in ophidic accidents in South America. The present study is a literature review of AKI caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snake venom regarding diverse characteristics, emphasizing the most appropriate therapeutic approach for these cases. Recent studies have been carried out searching for complementary therapies for the treatment of ophidic accidents, including the use of lipoic acid, simvastatin and allopurinol. Some plants, such as Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae seem to have a beneficial role in the treatment of this type of envenomation. Future studies will certainly find new therapeutic measures for ophidic accidents. PMID:24037282

  12. Bacteria that are resistant to current antibiotics have wreaked havoc in the clinic and are a primary cause of

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Garland R.

    infections are caused by impor- tant bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, that are penicillin processes that are crucial for microbial survival. In our current battle against infectious diseases

  13. Acute cigarette smoke exposure causes lung injury in rabbits treated with ibuprofen

    SciTech Connect

    Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Magarelli, J.L.; Bruck, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    We studied lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA), plasma concentrations of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2, and pulmonary edema as indices of lung injury in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke (CSE). Forty-six rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control sham smoke exposure (SS, N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), and CSE ibuprofen-pretreated (CSE-I, N = 19). Ibuprofen (cyclooxygenase eicosanoid inhibitor) was administered as a single daily intramuscular injection (25 mg/kg) for 7 days before the experiment. Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 15-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biological half-life (T1/2). In the ibuprofen pretreated group, CSE caused significant decreases in /sup 99m/TcDTPA T1/2 and dynamic lung compliance. Furthermore, these changes in lung function were accompanied by severe injury to type I alveolar cell epithelium, pulmonary edema, and frequently death of the rabbits. These findings suggest that inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway before CSE exacerbates lung injury in rabbits.

  14. Serological cross reactivity to CMV and EBV causes problems in the diagnosis of acute hepatitis E virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hyams, Catherine; Mabayoje, Diana A; Copping, Ruth; Maranao, Desmond; Patel, Mauli; Labbett, Wendy; Haque, Tanzina; Webster, Daniel P

    2014-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important public health concern as a major cause of enterically-transmitted hepatitis worldwide. The detectable window of viraemia is narrow, and HEV IgM and IgG rise simultaneously in acute infection. Furthermore, previous investigators have shown HEV IgM false positive reactions occur against EBV, CMV and potentially hepatitis A. A retrospective analysis of HEV serology testing was performed at a London tertiary referral hospital over a 3-year period. A thousand four hundred and twenty three serum samples were tested for HEV serology, with 33 samples HEV IgM positive and 28 HEV IgM equivocal. One hundred and eleven samples were HEV IgG positive but IgM negative suggesting past infection. No patients with HEV IgM positivity had false positive reactions against hepatitis A. A high degree of EBV and CMV cross reactivity was noted, with 33.3% and 24.2% of HEV IgM positive samples also testing positive for EBV and CMV IgM, respectively. HEV RNA was detected in four HEV IgM positive samples, indicating true positivity, although three demonstrated cross reactivity against EBV. Only 13.3% of samples with positive HEV IgM were HEV PCR positive, highlighting a low positive predictive value of serology testing. Overall a high level of HEV, EBV and CMV IgM cross reactivity was demonstrated, indicating that serology is unreliable in the diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis. It is concluded that that the diagnosis of viral hepatitis should be based on clinical features, raised transaminases, serology, and confirmatory PCR testing. PMID:24402843

  15. Long-term outcomes and causes of death after acute coronary syndrome in patients in the Bologna, Italy, area.

    PubMed

    Vagnarelli, Fabio; Taglieri, Nevio; Ortolani, Paolo; Norscini, Giulia; Cinti, Laura; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Marino, Massimiliano; Lorenzini, Massimiliano; Bugani, Giulia; Corsini, Anna; Semprini, Franco; Nanni, Samuele; Tricoci, Pierluigi; De Palma, Rossana; Rapezzi, Claudio; Melandri, Giovanni

    2015-01-15

    We sought to evaluate the rates, time course, and causes of death in the long-term follow-up of unselected patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We enrolled 2046 consecutive patients hospitalized from January 2004 to December 2005 with an audited final diagnosis of ACS. The primary study end point was 5-year all-cause mortality. In our series, 896 patients had ST-segment elevation (STE) and 1,150 non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE). Mean age of the study population was 71.6 years. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 86% of STE-ACS, and 70% of NSTE-ACS was managed invasively. The 5-year all-cause mortality was 36.4% for STE-ACS and 42.0% for NSTE-ACS, with patients with STE-ACS showing a trend boarding statistical significance toward a lower risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76 to 1.02, p = 0.08). Landmark analysis demonstrated that patients with STE-ACS had a higher risk of 30-day mortality (STE-ACS vs NSTE-ACS HR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.06, p = 0.003) whereas the risk of NSTE-ACS increased markedly after 1 year (STE-ACS vs NSTE-ACS HR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.84, p = 0.001). The contribution of noncardiovascular (CV) causes to overall mortality increased from 3% at 30 days to 34% at 5 years, with cancer and infections being the most common causes of non-CV death both in STE-ACS and NSTE-ACS. In conclusion, long-term mortality after ACS is still too high both for STE-ACS and NSTE-ACS. Although patients with STE-ACS have a higher mortality during the first year, the mortality of patients with NSTE-ACS increases later, when non-CV co-morbidities gain greater importance. PMID:25465930

  16. Plasma needle treatment of bacteria known to cause infections of the soft tissue of the oral region and bones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dejan Maletic; Sasa Lazovic; Nevena Puac; Gordana Malovic; Zoran Lj. Petrovic; Maja P. Miletic; Dusan B. Pavlica; Milena Z. Jovanovic; Pavle Milenkovic

    2009-01-01

    Plasma needle can be used for non-contact disinfection of dental cavities and wounds, minimum-destructive precise treatment, as well as the removal of damaged tissue. The effect of bacterial deactivation is probably caused by reactive oxygen species while nitric oxide provided by plasma plays major role in many processes in the organism. Mass spectrometry was done to provide better insight into

  17. Medication safety in acute care in Australia: where are we now? Part 1: a review of the extent and causes of medication problems 2002–2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth E Roughead; Susan J Semple

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents Part 1 of a two-part literature review examining medication safety in the Australian acute care setting. This review was undertaken for the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care to update a previous national report on medication safety conducted in 2002. This first part of the review examines the extent and causes of medication

  18. Using technetium-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal cortex scintigraphy to differentiate acute pyelonephritis from other causes of fever in patients with spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Hung Kao; Jih-Fang Hsieh; Shih-Chung Tsai; Yung-Jen Ho; Sheng-Ping Changlai; Shung-Shung Sun; Jong-Kang Lee

    2000-01-01

    Objectives. To differentiate acute pyelonephritis (APN) from fever due to other sources in patients with spinal cord injury by using technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal cortex scintigraphy (DMSA scan).Methods. A total of 24 patients with spinal cord injury were admitted with fever. DMSA scans were performed on all patients. The final determination of the cause of the fever was based

  19. Bacteria: More Than Pathogens

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Trudy Wassenaar (; )

    2002-07-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article reveals that there are more bacteria on Earth than there are humans. Bacteria: inhabit every environment on the planet, playing a key ecological role, can be good for our health -- for example, by helping us digest food, and can cause disease even though the human body is not the natural host for many bacteria.

  20. Efficacy of 5-day parenteral versus intramammary benzylpenicillin for treatment of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to penicillin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kalmus, P; Simojoki, H; Orro, T; Taponen, S; Mustonen, K; Holopainen, J; Pyörälä, S

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of parenteral (intramuscular) or intramammary (IMM) benzylpenicillin treatment for clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to penicillin in vitro was investigated. Cows with clinical mastitis in 1 udder quarter were randomly placed into 2 treatment groups. The preliminary bacteriological diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI) was based on on-farm culturing, and the bacteriological diagnoses were later confirmed by a quantitative PCR assay. Clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to benzylpenicillin was treated with penicillin via either the parenteral route (20mg/kg) or IMM route (600mg) once per day for 5d. The outcome of the treatment was evaluated 3 to 4wk after the onset of the treatment. The affected quarter was examined to assess the clinical cure, and milk samples were collected from the affected quarter to determine the bacteriological cure and milk N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity. The survival and the composite milk somatic cell counts of the treated cows were followed up for 6 and 3mo after treatment, respectively. A total of 140 cows with clinical mastitis were included in the study, 61 being treated with benzylpenicillin parenterally and 79 via the IMM route. From all quarters treated, 108 of 140 (77.1%) were cured clinically and 77 of 140 (55.0%) were cured bacteriologically. The route of treatment did not significantly affect the outcome of the treatment; 80.3% of the quarters with parenteral treatment and 74.7% of the quarters with IMM treatment showed a clinical cure, and 54.1 and 55.7% a bacteriological cure, respectively. The milk N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity was significantly lower in the quarters with a clinical or bacteriological cure than in the quarters with no cure. The 6-mo survival and the proportion of cows with composite milk somatic cell counts <200,000/mL among the treated cows during the 3-mo follow-up period did not significantly differ between the treatment groups. In conclusion, the outcome of either parenteral or IMM benzylpenicillin treatment of clinical mastitis caused by penicillin-susceptible bacteria was similar. PMID:24485692

  1. Cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy as a cause of acute kidney injury in dogs in the UK.

    PubMed

    Holm, L P; Hawkins, I; Robin, C; Newton, R J; Jepson, R; Stanzani, G; McMahon, L A; Pesavento, P; Carr, T; Cogan, T; Couto, C G; Cianciolo, R; Walker, D J

    2015-04-11

    To describe the signalment, clinicopathological findings and outcome in dogs presenting with acute kidney injury (AKI) and skin lesions between November 2012 and March 2014, in whom cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy (CRGV) was suspected and renal thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) was histopathologically confirmed. The medical records of dogs with skin lesions and AKI, with histopathologically confirmed renal TMA, were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty dogs from across the UK were identified with clinicopathological findings compatible with CRGV. These findings included the following: skin lesions, predominantly affecting the distal extremities; AKI; and variably, anaemia, thrombocytopaenia and hyperbilirubinaemia. Known causes of AKI were excluded. The major renal histopathogical finding was TMA. All thirty dogs died or were euthanised. Shiga toxin was not identified in the kidneys of affected dogs. Escherichia coli genes encoding shiga toxin were not identified in faeces from affected dogs. CRGV has previously been reported in greyhounds in the USA, a greyhound in the UK, without renal involvement, and a Great Dane in Germany. This is the first report of a series of non-greyhound dogs with CRGV and AKI in the UK. CRGV is a disease of unknown aetiology carrying a poor prognosis when azotaemia develops. PMID:25802439

  2. An outbreak of acute febrile illness caused by Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus in the Afar region of Ethiopia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Woyessa, Abyot Bekele; Omballa, Victor; Wang, David; Lambert, Amy; Waiboci, Lilian; Ayele, Workenesh; Ahmed, Abdi; Abera, Negga Asamene; Cao, Song; Ochieng, Melvin; Montgomery, Joel M; Jima, Daddi; Fields, Barry

    2014-12-01

    In malaria-endemic regions, many medical facilities have limited capacity to diagnose non-malarial etiologies of acute febrile illness (AFI). As a result, the etiology of AFI is seldom determined, although AFI remains a major cause of morbidity in developing countries. An outbreak of AFI was reported in the Afar region of Ethiopia in August of 2011. Retrospectively, 12,816 suspected AFI cases were identified by review of medical records. Symptoms were mild and self-limiting within 3 days after the date of onset; no fatalities were identified. All initial test results of AFI patient specimens were negative for selected pathogens using standard microbiological and molecular techniques. High-throughput sequencing of nucleic acid extracts of serum specimens from 29 AFI cases identified 17 (59%) of 29 samples as positive for Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus (SFSV). These results were further confirmed by specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. This is the first study implicating SFSV as an etiological agent for AFI in Ethiopia. PMID:25266349

  3. Hypercalcemia and acute kidney injury caused by abuse of a parenteral veterinary compound containing vitamins A, D, and E.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Paulo Novis; Santos, Caroline Sancho; Avila, Maria Olinda; Neves, Carolina Lara; Bahiense-Oliveira, Marilia

    2011-12-01

    A previously healthy 19 year-old male presented to the hospital with anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. Laboratory studies were significant for hypercalcemia (peak calcium value of 14.8 mg/dL) and acute kidney injury (peak serum creatinine of 2.88 mg/dL). He admitted to using a parenteral formulation of vitamins A, D and E restricted for veterinary use containing 20,000,000 IU of vitamin A; 5,000,000 IU of vitamin D3; and 6,800 IU of vitamin E per 100 mL vial. The patient stated to have used close to 300 mL of the product over the preceding year. Interestingly, the young man was not interested in the massive amounts of vitamins that the product contained; he was only after the local effects of the oily vehicle. The swelling produced by the injection resulted in a silicone-like effect, which gave the impression of bigger muscles. Nevertheless, the product was absorbed and caused hypervitaminosis. The serum level of 25(OH) vitamin D was clearly elevated at 150 ng/mL (reference range from 30 to 60 ng/mL), but in most published cases of vitamin D toxicity, serum levels have been well above 200 ng/mL. His PTH level was undetectable and other potential causes of hypercalcemia were excluded. Therefore, we posit that the severity of the hypercalcemia observed in this case was the result of a synergistic effect of vitamins A and D. The patient was treated with normal saline, furosemide and zolendronic acid, with rapid normalization of calcium levels and renal function. PMID:22189812

  4. Chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia may cause subtle changes of the spinal cord detectable by somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Vainionpää, L; Kovala, T; Tolonen, U; Lanning, M

    1997-01-01

    Intrathecal chemotherapy has been determined to cause transient or permanent paraparesis due to myelopathy in patients with leukemia or other malignancies. To systematically evaluate the effect of methotrexate on spinal cord function, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) were measured in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A prospective evaluation was performed in 38 consecutive children aged 1.4-15.3 years with newly diagnosed ALL during treatment. Intrathecal methotrexate therapy was included in the therapy schedule of all patients as central nervous system (CNS) therapy in addition to intravenous chemotherapy in 19 standard risk patients and intravenous chemotherapy with cranial irradiation in 19 intermediate or high-risk patients. The measured conduction times were compared with those of 38 control children matched for age, height, and sex. A significant increase in the conduction time of the tibial nerve SEP was found between the Th12 level and the cortex in children with ALL after receiving intrathecal methotrexate therapy during the induction and CNS therapy phases when compared with their controls. The difference of the mean latencies was 1.45 ms (95% CI 0.39-2.51; P < 0.01). There was no significant delay in the median nerve SEP from the brain stem to the cortex, indicating that the conduction delay was in the area of the spinal cord exposed to intrathecal methotrexate. Moreover, the cortical amplitudes of the median nerve SEPs were significantly reduced when measured immediately after intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate and compared to the amplitudes measured after induction therapy in standard risk patients (P = 0.001). Intrathecal methotrexate with systemic chemotherapy causes a deterioration in the somatosensory pathways within the CNS, suggesting also spinal cord dysfunction in children with ALL in addition to the cerebral dysfunction described earlier. PMID:8950335

  5. Direct Evidence by DNA Fingerprinting that Endoscopic Cross-Infection of Helicobacter pylori Is a Cause of Postendoscopic Acute Gastritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TOSHIRO SUGIYAMA; HIROJI NAKA; AKIRA YACHI; MASAHIRO ASAKA

    2000-01-01

    The DNA fingerprinting of Helicobacter pylori strains in two cases of acute gastritis that occurred after endoscopy was examined. H. pylori was isolated from the stomachs of two patients with acute gastritis and from the stomachs of the patients in whom the same gastrofiberscope had previously been used. The genomic DNA digested with HaeIII was subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

  6. Combination of Quantitative Capnometry, N-Terminal Pro-brain Natriuretic Peptide, and Clinical Assessment in Differentiating Acute Heart Failure from Pulmonary Disease as Cause of Acute Dyspnea in Pre-hospital Emergency Setting: Study of Diagnostic Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Klemen, Petra; Golub, Mirjam; Grmec, Štefek

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the combination of quantitative capnometry (QC), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and clinical assessment in differentiating heart failure (HF)-related acute dyspnea from pulmonary-related acute dyspnea in a pre-hospital setting. Methods This prospective study was performed in the Center for Emergency Medicine Maribor, Slovenia, January 2005 - June 2007. Two groups of patients with acute dyspnea apnea were compared: HF-related acute dyspnea group (n?=?238) vs pulmonary-related acute dyspnea (asthma/COPD) group (n?=?203). The primary outcome was the comparison of combination of QC, NT-proBNP, and clinical assessment vs NT-proBNP alone or NT-proBNP in combination with clinical assessment, in differentiating HF-related acute dyspnea from pulmonary-related acute dyspnea (asthma/COPD) in pre-hospital emergency setting, using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The secondary outcomes were identification of independent predictors for final diagnosis of acute dyspnea (caused by acute HF or pulmonary diseases), and determination of NT-proBNP levels, as well as capnometry, in the subgroup of patients with a previous history of HF and in the subgroup of patients with a previous history of pulmonary disease. Results In differentiating between cardiac and respiratory causes of acute dyspnea in pre-hospital emergency setting, NT-proBNP in combination with PetCO2 and clinical assessment (AUROC, 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-0.99) was superior to combination of NT-proBNP and clinical assessment (AUROC, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88-0.96; P?=?0.006) or NT-proBNP alone (AUROC, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.94; P?=?0.005). The values of NT-proBNP?2000 pg/mL and PetCO2???4 kPa were strong independent predictors for acute HF. In the group of acute HF dyspneic patients, subgroup of patients with previous COPD/asthma had significantly higher PetCO2 (3.8?±?1.2 vs 5.8?±?1.3 kPa, P?=?0.009). In the group of COPD/asthma dyspneic patients, NT-proBNP was significantly higher in the subgroup of patients with previous HF (1453.3?±?552.3 vs 741.5?±?435.5 pg/mL, P?=?0.010). Conclusion In differentiating between cardiac and respiratory causes of acute dyspnea in pre-hospital emergency setting, NT-proBNP in combination with capnometry and clinical assessment was superior to NT-proBNP alone or NT-proBNP in combination with clinical assessment. ClinicalTrials.gov trial registration number NCT00878475 PMID:19399946

  7. Living donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure in pediatric patients caused by the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Ates, Mustafa; Dirican, Abuzer; Ozgor, Dincer; Aydin, Cemalettin; Isik, Burak; Ara, Cengiz; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Ayse Selimoglu, M; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

    2011-11-01

    Yellow phosphorus is a protoplasmic toxicant that targets the liver. The ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus, either by children who accidentally consume them or by adults who are attempting suicide, often results in death due to acute liver failure (ALF). We present the outcomes of 10 children who ingested fireworks containing yellow phosphorus. There were 6 boys and 4 girls, and their ages ranged from 21 to 60 months. One patient remained stable without liver complications and was discharged. Three patients died of hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed for 6 patients. The patients had grade II or III encephalopathy, a mean alanine aminotransferase level of 1148.2 IU/L, a mean aspartate aminotransferase level of 1437.5 IU/L, a mean total bilirubin level of 6.9 mg/dL, a mean international normalized ratio of 6.6, a mean Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease score of 33.7, and a mean Child-Pugh score of 11.3. Postoperatively, 2 patients had persistent encephalopathy and died on the second or third postoperative day, and 1 patient died of cardiac arrest on the first postoperative day despite a well-functioning graft. The other 3 patients were still alive at a mean of 204 days. In conclusion, the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus causes ALF with a high mortality rate. When signs of irreversible ALF are detected, emergency LDLT should be considered as a lifesaving procedure; however, if yellow phosphorus toxicity affects both the brain and the heart in addition to the liver, the mortality rate remains very high despite liver transplantation. PMID:21761550

  8. Determinants of Noninvasive Ventilation Outcomes during an Episode of Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The Effects of Comorbidities and Causes of Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pacilli, Angela Maria Grazia; Valentini, Ilaria; Carbonara, Paolo; Marchetti, Antonio; Nava, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effect of the cause of acute respiratory failure and the role of comorbidities both acute and chronic on the outcome of COPD patients admitted to Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) with acute respiratory failure and treated with NIV. Design. Observational prospective study. Patients and Methods. 176 COPD patients consecutively admitted to our RICU over a period of 3 years and treated with NIV were evaluated. In all patients demographic, clinical, and functional parameters were recorded including the cause of acute respiratory failure, SAPS II score, Charlson comorbidity index, and further comorbidities not listed in the Charlson index. NIV success was defined as clinical improvement leading to discharge to regular ward, while exitus or need for endotracheal intubation was considered failure. Results. NIV outcome was successful in 134 patients while 42 underwent failure. Univariate analysis showed significantly higher SAP II score, Charlson index, prevalence of pneumonia, and lower serum albumin level in the failure group. Multivariate analysis confirmed a significant predictive value for pneumonia and albumin. Conclusions. The most important determinants of NIV outcome in COPD patients are the presence of pneumonia and the level of serum albumin as an indicator of the patient nutritional status. PMID:24563868

  9. Mutations in GATA2 cause primary lymphedema associated with a predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia (Emberger syndrome).

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, Pia; Simpson, Michael A; Connell, Fiona C; Steward, Colin G; Brice, Glen; Woollard, Wesley J; Dafou, Dimitra; Kilo, Tatjana; Smithson, Sarah; Lunt, Peter; Murday, Victoria A; Hodgson, Shirley; Keenan, Russell; Pilz, Daniela T; Martinez-Corral, Ines; Makinen, Taija; Mortimer, Peter S; Jeffery, Steve; Trembath, Richard C; Mansour, Sahar

    2011-10-01

    We report an allelic series of eight mutations in GATA2 underlying Emberger syndrome, an autosomal dominant primary lymphedema associated with a predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia. GATA2 is a transcription factor that plays an essential role in gene regulation during vascular development and hematopoietic differentiation. Our findings indicate that haploinsufficiency of GATA2 underlies primary lymphedema and predisposes to acute myeloid leukemia in this syndrome. PMID:21892158

  10. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Acute childhood leukemia; Cancer - acute childhood leukemia (ALL); Leukemia - acute childhood (ALL) ... Most of the time, no clear cause can be found for ALL. But the ... Past treatment with chemotherapy drugs Receiving a bone marrow ...

  11. Repeated thermal stressor causes chronic elevation of baseline corticosterone and suppresses the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressor in the cane toad (Rhinella marina).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    Extreme environmental temperature could impact the physiology and ecology of animals. The stress endocrine axis provides necessary physiological stress response to acute (day-day) stressors. Presently, there are no empirical evidences showing that exposure to extreme thermal stressor could cause chronic stress in amphibians. This could also modulate the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressors and have serious implications for stress coping in amphibians, particularly those living in fragmented and disease prone environments. We addressed this important question using the cane toad (Rhinella marina) model from its introduced range in Queensland, Australia. We quantified their physiological endocrine sensitivity to a standard acute (capture and handling) stressor after exposing the cane toads to thermal shock at 35°C for 30min daily for 34 days. Corticosterone (CORT) responses to the capture and handling protocol were measured on three sampling intervals (days 14, 24, and 34) to determine whether the physiological endocrine sensitivity was maintained or modulated over-time. Two control groups (C1 for baseline CORT measurement only and C2 acute handled only) and two temperature treatment groups (T1 received daily thermal shock up to day 14 only and a recovery phase of 20 days and T2 received thermal shock daily for 34 days). Results showed that baseline CORT levels remained high on day 14 (combined effect of capture, captivity and thermal stress) for both T1 and T2. Furthermore, baseline CORT levels decreased for T1 once the thermal shock was removed after day 14 and returned to baseline by day 29. On the contrary, baseline CORT levels kept on increasing for T2 over the 34 days of daily thermal shocks. Furthermore, the magnitudes of the acute CORT responses or physiological endocrine sensitivity were consistently high for both C1 and T1. However, acute CORT responses for T2 toads were dramatically reduced between days 24 and 34. These novel findings suggest that repeated exposure to extreme thermal stressor could cause chronic stress and consequently suppress the physiological endocrine sensitivity to acute stressors (e.g. pathogenic diseases) in amphibians. PMID:24679975

  12. Acute toxic hepatitis caused by an aloe vera preparation in a young patient: a case report with a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeonghun; Lee, Mi Sun; Nam, Kwan Woo

    2014-07-01

    Aloe is one of the leading products used in phytomedicine. Several cases of aloe-induced toxic hepatitis have been reported in recent years. However, its toxicology has not yet been systematically described in the literature. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatitis after taking an aloe vera preparation for four weeks. Her history, clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and histological findings all led to the diagnosis of aloe vera-induced toxic hepatitis. We report herein on a case of acute toxic hepatitis induced by aloe vera. PMID:25073673

  13. BOGUS BACTERIA...

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Deaton

    2007-01-24

    Here are some websites to get you started... Just click on the links and start searching! microbe world- bacteria Bacteria Rule Quiz! Bacteria.... Harmful Bacteria Bacteria Museum Bacteria! Microbes- all sorts of info... When you are finished looking at the sites or when you have enough information concerning bacteria, ask Mrs. Deaton for some books that can give you even more DETAIL!!! *Don\\'t forget to keep track of your information on your I-CHARTS... ...

  14. Interaction of Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin L with Lipopolysaccharide In Vitro and in Experimental Rat Models of Septic Shock Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Giacometti, Andrea; Cirioni, Oscar; Ghiselli, Roberto; Mocchegiani, Federico; Orlando, Fiorenza; Silvestri, Carmela; Bozzi, Argante; Di Giulio, Antonio; Luzi, Carla; Mangoni, Maria Luisa; Barra, Donatella; Saba, Vittorio; Scalise, Giorgio; Rinaldi, Andrea C.

    2006-01-01

    Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, despite intense efforts to improve survival. The primary lead for septic shock results from activation of host effector cells by endotoxin, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria. For these reasons, the quest for compounds with antiendotoxin properties is actively pursued. We investigated the efficacy of the amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide temporin L in binding Escherichia coli LPS in vitro and counteracting its effects in vivo. Temporin L strongly bound to purified E. coli LPS and lipid A in vitro, as proven by fluorescent displacement assay, and readily penetrated into E. coli LPS monolayers. Furthermore, the killing activity of temporin L against E. coli was progressively inhibited by increasing concentrations of LPS added to the medium, further confirming the peptide's affinity for endotoxin. Antimicrobial assays showed that temporin L interacted synergistically with the clinically used ?-lactam antibiotics piperacillin and imipenem. Therefore, we characterized the activity of temporin L when combined with imipenem and piperacillin in the prevention of lethality in two rat models of septic shock, measuring bacterial growth in blood and intra-abdominal fluid, endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) concentrations in plasma, and lethality. With respect to controls and single-drug treatments, the simultaneous administration of temporin L and ?-lactams produced the highest antimicrobial activities and the strongest reduction in plasma endotoxin and TNF-? levels, resulting in the highest survival rates. PMID:16801429

  15. Retroperitoneal abscess with consecutive acute renal failure caused by a lost gallstone 2 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Justinger, Christoph; Sperling, Jens; Katoh, Marcus; Kollmar, Otto; Schilling, Martin K; Schuld, Jochen

    2010-03-01

    A 70-year-old male patient presented with abdominal pain, acute renal failure, and fever 2 years after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. During the surgical drainage of the abscess formation on the patient's right flank, a huge gallstone was found in the retroperitoneum. The patient was dismissed from the hospital 11 days after admission with normal lab panel and restored renal function. PMID:20082093

  16. Acute myelogenous leukemia as the cause of a nonhealing infection in a 10-month-old infant.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    The treating podiatric physician should consider underlying malignant disease when evaluating a child with any slowly healing or nonhealing infection involving the lower extremity. This article reports on an infant who was treated for suspected osteomyelitis involving his right fifth toe that did not improve with standard surgical, medical, and antibiotic treatments. He was later diagnosed as having acute myelogenous leukemia. PMID:17369321

  17. Outbreak of acute respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae on board a deployed U.S. navy ship.

    PubMed

    Sliman, Joseph A; Metzgar, David; Asseff, David C; Coon, Robert G; Faix, Dennis J; Lizewski, Stephen

    2009-12-01

    We identified 179 cases of acute respiratory illness including 50 cases of radiographically confirmed pneumonia over the course of 4 months on a deployed U.S. Navy vessel. Laboratory tests showed Mycoplasma pneumoniae to be the etiological agent. This report represents the first published description of a shipboard outbreak of this pathogen. PMID:19846632

  18. Clavibacter: a New Genus Containing Some Phytopathogenic Coryneform Bacteria, Including Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis subsp. nov. Pathogens That Cause Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane and Bermudagrass Stunting Disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL J. DAVIS; A. GRAVES GILLASPIE; ANNE K. VIDAVER; RUSSELL W. HARRIS

    A total of 23 strains of coryneform bacteria that cause ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane and Bermudagrass stunting disease were examined. These included 17 sugarcane strains from Florida, Louisiana, South Africa, Brazil, and Japan and six Bermudagrass strains from Florida and Taiwan. The sugarcane and Bermudagrass strains contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, rhamnose, and fucose in their cell walls, suggesting a relationship

  19. Acute hemorrhagic and necrotizing pneumonia, splenitis, and dermatitis in a pet rabbit caused by a novel herpesvirus (leporid herpesvirus-4)

    PubMed Central

    Brash, Marina L.; Nagy, Éva; Pei, Yanlong; Carman, Susy; Emery, Susan; Smith, Alec E.; Turner, Patricia V.

    2010-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old female rabbit (doe) was presented with a 3-day history of lethargy, anorexia, and mild facial swelling. The animal died shortly after examination and severe, acute hemorrhagic pneumonia was noted grossly. An alphaherpesvirus consistent with leporid herpesvirus-4 was isolated and characterized from this animal. This is the first confirmed report of the disease in Canada. PMID:21358932

  20. Candida hellenica var. hellenica as a possible cause of respiratory infection in a child with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ioakimidou, Aliki; Vyzantiadis, Timoleon-Achilleas; Tragiannidis, Athanassios; Arabatzis, Michael; Papageorgiou, Theodotis; Velegraki, Aristea; Athanassiadou, Fani; Malissiovas, Nikolaos

    2011-10-01

    Candida hellenica var. hellenica (teleomorph Zygoascus meyerae) is a member of the genus Zygoascus that comprises species isolated from environmental sources such as damaged grapes. A case of a possible pneumonia due to this uncommon yeast in a pediatric oncology patient suffering from acute myeloid leukemia is described. To our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the isolation of the species from a pediatric patient and the second in humans. PMID:21375432

  1. Unusual cause of acute neurologic deficit in childhood: primary central nervous system vasculitis presenting with basilar arterial occlusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eren Kale Çekinmez; Nurcan Cengiz; ?lknur Erol; Osman K?z?lk?l?ç; Yasemin Uslu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  Primary central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis of childhood is a rare disorder. The most common signs and symptoms are acute\\u000a severe headache and focal neurologic deficit. It should be suspected in children who have an acquired neurologic deficit that\\u000a remains unexplained after an initial basic evaluation. Diagnosis usually depends on brain magnetic resonance imaging and conventional\\u000a angiography of cerebral vasculature.

  2. Evaluation of bacteria isolated from rice rhizosphere for biological control of charcoal rot of sorghum caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Humayun, Pagidi; Kiran, Bandru Keerthi; Kannan, Iyer Girish Kumar; Vidya, Meesala Sree; Deepthi, Kanala; Rupela, Om

    2011-06-01

    A total of 360 bacteria, isolated from the rhizospheres of a system of rice intensification (SRI) fields, were characterized for the production of siderophore, fluorescence, indole acetic acid (IAA), hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and solubilization of phosphorus. Of them, seven most promising isolates (SRI-156, -158, -178, -211, -229, -305 and -360) were screened for their antagonistic potential against Macrophomina phaseolina (causes charcoal rot in sorghum) by dual culture assay, blotter paper assay and in greenhouse. All the seven isolates inhibited M. phaseolina in dual culture assay, whereas six isolates solubilized phosphorous (except SRI-360), all seven produced siderophore, four produced fluorescence (except SRI-178, -229 and -305), six produced IAA (except SRI-305) and five produced HCN (except SRI-158 and -305). In the blotter paper assay, no charcoal rot infection was observed in SRI-156-treated sorghum roots, indicating complete inhibition of the pathogen, while the roots treated with the other isolates showed 49-76% lesser charcoal rot infection compared to the control. In the antifungal activity test (in green house on sorghum), all the isolates increased shoot dry mass by 15-23% and root dry mass by 15-20% (except SRI-158 and -360), over the control. In order to confirm the plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits of the isolates, the green house experiment was repeated but, in the absence of M. phaseolina. The results further confirmed the PGP traits of the isolates as evidenced by increases in shoot and root dry mass, 22-100% and 5-20%, respectively, over the control. The sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the isolates SRI-156, -158, -178, -211, -229, -305 and -360 were matched with Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Brevibacterium antiquum, Bacillus altitudinis, Enterobacter ludwigii, E. ludwigii, Acinetobacter tandoii and P. monteilii, respectively in BLAST analysis. This study indicates that the selected bacterial isolates have the potential for PGP and control of charcoal rot disease in sorghum. PMID:25187130

  3. Depth-Related Changes in Community Structure of Culturable Mineral Weathering Bacteria and in Weathering Patterns Caused by Them along Two Contrasting Soil Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Xi, Jun; Huang, Zhi; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation. However, few reports of mineral weathering bacteria inhabiting subsurfaces of soil profiles have been published, raising the question of whether the subsurface weathering bacteria are fundamentally distinct from those in surface communities. To address this question, we isolated and characterized mineral weathering bacteria from two contrasting soil profiles with respect to their role in the weathering pattern evolution, their place in the community structure, and their depth-related changes in these two soil profiles. The effectiveness and pattern of bacterial mineral weathering were different in the two profiles and among the horizons within the respective profiles. The abundance of highly effective mineral weathering bacteria in the Changshu profile was significantly greater in the deepest horizon than in the upper horizons, whereas in the Yanting profile it was significantly greater in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Most of the mineral weathering bacteria from the upper horizons of the Changshu profile and from the deeper horizons of the Yanting profile significantly acidified the culture media in the mineral weathering process. The proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Changshu profile was similar in all horizons except in the Bg2 horizon, whereas the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Yanting profile was higher in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Both profiles existed in different highly depth-specific culturable mineral weathering community structures. The depth-related changes in culturable weathering communities were primarily attributable to minor bacterial groups rather than to a change in the major population structure. PMID:24077700

  4. Genetic Characteristics of the Coxsackievirus A24 Variant Causing Outbreaks of Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis in Jiangsu, China, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Qi, Xian; Xu, Ke; Ji, Hong; Zhu, Yefei; Tang, Fenyang; Zhou, Minghao

    2014-01-01

    During September 2010, an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis reemerged in Jiangsu, three years after the nationwide epidemic in China in 2007. In total, 2409 cases were reported, 2118 of which were reported in September; 79.8% of those affected were students or teachers, with a median age of 16 years. To identify and demonstrate the genetic characteristics of the etiological agent, 52 conjunctival swabs were randomly collected from four different cities. After detection and isolation, 43 patients were positive for coxsackievirus A24 variant according to PCR and 20 according to culture isolation. Neither adenovirus nor EV70 was detected. A phylogenetic study of the complete 3Cpro and VP1 regions showed that the Jiangsu isolates clustered into a new lineage, GIV-C5, with two uniform amino-acid mutations that distinguished them from all previous strains. Another new cluster, GIV-C4, formed by Indian isolates from 2007 and Brazilian isolates from 2009, was also identified in this study. Interestingly, our isolates shared greatest homology with the GIV-C4 strains, not with the isolates that were responsible for the nationwide acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic in China in 2007. Although all our isolates were closely related, they could be differentiated into two subclusters within GIV-C5. In conclusion, our study suggests that a new cluster of coxsackievirus A24 variant that had already evolved into diverse strains was associated with the acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks in Jiangsu in September 2010. These viruses might have originated from the virus isolated in India in 2007, rather than from the epidemic strains isolated in China in 2007. PMID:24475191

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection: an uncommon cause of post-renal obstruction following induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Karolina M; Leonard, Michael; Feber, Janusz; Halton, Jacqueline; Filler, Guido

    2006-04-01

    A 14-month-old infant presented with gastroenteritis with febrile pancytopenia and was diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Ten days post induction therapy, the patient developed hypertension that was ascribed to steroid therapy and treated with metoprolol and amlodipine. As leukocyte numbers began to recover the asymptomatic patient became anuric. Ultrasound showed echoic floating structures in the bladder. Following cystoscopy and retrograde pyelography examination, purulent debris was irrigated from the bladder and grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ciprofloxacin therapy was initiated and renal function was restored within 2 days. The case highlights the potential for renal obstruction after neutropenia recovery in children undergoing induction therapy for ALL. PMID:15929136

  6. Acupuncture at Houxi (SI 3) acupoint for acute neck pain caused by stiff neck: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhong-ren; Yue, Jin-huan; Tian, Hong-zhao; Zhang, Qin-hong

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The use of acupuncture has been suggested for the treatment of acute neck pain caused by stiff neck in China. However, current evidence is insufficient to draw any conclusions about its efficacy. Therefore this pilot study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of acupuncture at the Houxi (SI3) acupoint for treatment of acute neck pain. Methods/analysis This pilot study will be a two-parallel-group, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Thirty-six stiff neck participants with acute neck pain will be recruited and randomly divided into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the control group will receive massage on the local neck region (5?min each session, three times a day for 3?days). In addition to massage, patients in the treatment group will receive acupuncture (one session a day for 3?days). Measures will be taken at 0, 3 and 15?days. The primary outcome is the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ). The secondary outcome is the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Ethics/dissemination The protocol for this pilot randomised clinical trial has undergone ethics scrutiny and been approved by the ethics review boards of the First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Permission number: HZYLL201303502). The findings of this study will provide important clinical evidence on the feasibility and efficacy of acupuncture treatment for stiff neck patients with acute neck pain. In addition, it will explore the feasibility of further acupuncture research. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-13003911. PMID:25537784

  7. Urinothorax—An Underdiagnosed Cause of Acute Dyspnea: Report of a Bilateral and of an Ipsilateral Urinothorax Case

    PubMed Central

    Laskaridis, Leonidas; Kampantais, Spyridon; Toutziaris, Chrysovalantis; Chachopoulos, Basileios; Perdikis, Ioannis; Tahmatzopoulos, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Urinothorax (UT) is a rare and often undiagnosed condition, defined as the presence of urine in the pleural cavity due to the retroperitoneal leakage of urine accumulation, known as urinoma, into the pleural space. UT usually is a transudative pleural effusion that presents in patients with obstructive uropathy and it may occur following surgical procedures in the ureter or kidney such as ESWL, PCNL, and URS. Its diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion since the respiratory symptoms tend to be absent or mild and the urological signs tend to dominate. However, UT may rarely present with severe and acute dyspnea as well. The objectives of this study are to describe two new cases of this rare entity, a bilateral case and an ipsilateral case focusing on the side that occurs according to the affected renal insult, and to alert the physicians to include UT in their differential diagnosis of pleural effusions especially in patients with recent urinary tract disorders. PMID:23326713

  8. Torsion- of para-ovarian cyst resulting in secondary torsion of the fallopian tube: a cause of acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Gedam, Jaya Kundan; Rajput, Disha Andhiwal; Bhalerao, Minal V

    2014-05-01

    A 32-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain in the left lower quadrant, of one day's duration. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed a cystic structure in the right adnexa, probably with torsion. Computerized tomography of abdomen and pelvis showed a large pelvic cyst which arose most likely from the left ovary. An urgent laparotomy was done, which however showed a twisted para-ovarian cyst with a twisted fallopian tube on the left side. The para-ovarian cyst was removed along with left sided fallopian tube and the patient made an uneventful recovery. Torsion of a para-ovarian cyst and fallopian tube is rare, but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen in women who are in the reproductive age group. PMID:24995222

  9. Acute Intravenous Injection of Serelaxin (Recombinant Human Relaxin?2) Causes Rapid and Sustained Bradykinin?Mediated Vasorelaxation

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Chen Huei; Jelinic, Maria; Parkington, Helena C.; Tare, Marianne; Parry, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Background A recent clinical trial (RELAXin in Acute Heart Failure [RELAX?AHF]) demonstrated that 48 hours of continuous intravenous infusion of the vasorelaxant peptide serelaxin (recombinant human relaxin?2) to patients with acute heart failure reduced cardiovascular mortality at 180 days. The persistence of a vasorelaxant response as a potential mechanism for this long?term benefit and the vascular effects of a bolus intravenous injection of serelaxin have not been examined. This study investigates changes in resistance artery reactivity and passive mechanical wall properties following an intravenous serelaxin injection and whether these vascular effects persist in the absence of detectable circulating serelaxin. Methods and Results Male rats were injected with 13.3 ?g/kg serelaxin into the tail vein; mesenteric arteries were assessed 3 and 24 hours after treatment by using wire?myography. Serelaxin increased basal nitric oxide synthase activity and reduced maximal contraction to endothelin?1 at 3 hours after administration. Serelaxin treatment also selectively enhanced bradykinin?mediated endothelium?dependent relaxation. This effect was sustained for 24 hours in the absence of circulating serelaxin. Serelaxin?mediated augmentation of bradykinin?evoked relaxation involved endothelium?derived hyperpolarization after 3 hours and prostacyclin?mediated relaxation after 24 hours. Furthermore, upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, phosphorylation of protein kinase B at Ser473 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase at Ser1177 was observed at 24 hours after serelaxin injection. There were no effects of serelaxin on passive arterial wall stiffness. Conclusion Our data show that a bolus intravenous injection of serelaxin modulates endothelial vasodilator function 3 hours after administration, an effect that was sustained for 24 hours. The prolonged bradykinin?mediated vasorelaxation is principally mediated through prostacyclin. PMID:24584737

  10. [Acute intestinal ischaemia].

    PubMed

    Bakos, E; Osuský, M; Korcek, J; Bakos, M

    2007-04-01

    In spite of introduction modern diagnostics and therapeutics modalities in clinical practice diagnostics of acute intestinal ischaemia is very difficult. Acute intestinal ischaemia is rare cause of acute abdominal dissease but results of surgical treatment and prognosis of the patients with acute intestinal ischaemia is very poor. The aim of study is occurence, diagnostics and therapeutics possibilities of acute intestinal ischaemia, because tretament of acute intestinal ischaemia have high rate of mortality. Authors claiming on own small set of patients that in diagnostics of acute abdominal pain everything in once mind on acute intestinal ischaemia. PMID:17626460

  11. Bacteria Museum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Who knew that bacteria had their own virtual museum? Here, visitors will "learn that not all bacteria are harmful, how they are used in industry, that they belong to the oldest living creatures on Earth", and many more interesting facts to discover about the diverse world of bacteria. The "Bacterial Species Files" tab at the top of the page, allows visitors to look up information on 40 different specific bacteria, from Anthrax to Yersinia enterocolitica. The information provided for each bacterium includes photographs, consumer guides, fact sheets, and scientific links. Visitors will find that the "Main Exhibits" tab addresses the basics about bacteria, as well as "Pathogenic Bacteria", "Evolution", "How We Fight Bacteria", and "Food and Water Safety". Visitors will surely enjoy the "Good Bacteria in Food" link found in the Food and Water Safety section, as it explains how some foods benefit from good bacteria, such as Swiss cheese, sausage, sauerkraut, chocolate, and coffee.

  12. Hypoalbuminemia Is a Strong Predictor of 30-Day All-Cause Mortality in Acutely Admitted Medical Patients: A Prospective, Observational, Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jellinge, Marlene Ersgaard; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Emergency patients with hypoalbuminemia are known to have increased mortality. No previous studies have, however, assessed the predictive value of low albumin on mortality in unselected acutely admitted medical patients. We aimed at assessing the predictive power of hypoalbuminemia on 30-day all-cause mortality in a cohort of acutely admitted medical patients. Methods We included all acutely admitted adult medical patients from the medical admission unit at a regional teaching hospital in Denmark. Data on mortality was extracted from the Danish Civil Register to ensure complete follow-up. Patients were divided into three groups according to their plasma albumin levels (0–34, 35–44 and ?45 g/L) and mortality was identified for each group using Kaplan-Meier survival plot. Discriminatory power (ability to discriminate patients at increased risk of mortality) and calibration (precision of predictions) for hypoalbuminemia was determined. Results We included 5,894 patients and albumin was available in 5,451 (92.5%). A total of 332 (5.6%) patients died within 30 days of admission. Median plasma albumin was 40 g/L (IQR 37–43). Crude 30-day mortality in patients with low albumin was 16.3% compared to 4.3% among patients with normal albumin (p<0.0001). Patients with low albumin were older and admitted for a longer period of time than patients with a normal albumin, while patients with high albumin had a lower 30-day mortality, were younger and were admitted for a shorter period. Multivariable logistic regression analyses confirmed the association of hypoalbuminemia with mortality (OR: 1.95 (95% CI: 1.31–2.90)). Discriminatory power was good (AUROC 0.73 (95% CI, 0.70–0.77)) and calibration acceptable. Conclusion We found hypoalbuminemia to be associated with 30-day all-cause mortality in acutely admitted medical patients. Used as predictive tool for mortality, plasma albumin had acceptable discriminatory power and good calibration. PMID:25148079

  13. EFFECTS OF THE COMBINATION ANTIBIOTIC—EDTA–TRIS IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC BOVINE ENDOMETRITIS CAUSED BY ANTIMICROBIAL-RESISTANT BACTERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. FARCA; P. NEBBIA; P. ROBINO; G. RE

    1997-01-01

    The combined effects of the uterine infusion of EDTA–Tris solution and antibiotics have been evaluated in 75 cases of slight, moderate or severe bovine endometritis which did not respond to local routine antimicrobial therapy. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were isolated from uterine swabs. The cows were divided into three groups on the basis of the severity of endometritis and treated with 100

  14. Acute liver failure caused by concurrent autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis B in a 16-year old girl.

    PubMed

    Paw?owska, Ma?gorzata; Halota, Waldemar

    2010-10-27

    A 16 year-old girl was admitted to hospital because of fatigue and somnolence, nausea, epistaxis and jaundice. Physical examination revealed jaundice, an enlarged liver and tenderness of upper right abdomen. Laboratory tests revealed an increased level of acute liver failure, bilirubin, bile acids, GGTP and a decreased prothrombin ratio, with elevated gamma-globulin and IgG levels, and the presence of anti-mitochondrial M2 antibodies and HBV infection markers. The patient was diagnosed with liver failure resulting from chronic hepatitis B with an autoimmune component. The treatment consisted of steroids, azathioprine, vitamin K, low-protein diet and lactulose enemas. After undergoing a molecular test (HBV DNA 3.23 × 10(5) IU/mL and mutations I 204 and I 80), the treatment was modified by adding entecavir. After one month the patient was discharged in good clinical condition, with the recommendation of continued entecavir, prednisone and azathioprine. In subsequent months, no clinical deterioration or abnormal biochemical liver function test results were found, despite the discontinuation of immunosuppressive therapy after 10 mo. The patient continues entecavir therapy. PMID:21160949

  15. Development of a Western Blot Assay for Detection of Antibodies against Coronavirus Causing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    He, Qigai; Chong, Kooi Hoong; Hee Chng, Hiok; Leung, Bernard; Ee Ling, Ai; Wei, Ting; Chan, Shzu-Wei; Eong Ooi, Eng; Kwang, Jimmy

    2004-01-01

    To identify a major antigenic determinant for use in the development of a rapid serological diagnostic test for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus infection and to study the immune response during SARS coronavirus infection in humans, we cloned the full length and six truncated fragments of the nucleocapsid gene, expressed them, and purified them as glutathione S-transferase-tagged recombinant proteins. The reactivities of the recombinant proteins to a panel of antibodies containing 33 SARS coronavirus-positive sera and 66 negative sera and to antibodies against other animal coronaviruses were screened. A truncated 195-amino-acid fragment from the C terminus of the nucleocapsid protein (N195) was identified that had a strong ability to detect antibodies against SARS coronavirus. No cross-reaction was found between the N195 protein and antibodies against chicken, pig, and canine coronaviruses. The N195 protein was used to develop a Western blot assay to detect antibodies against SARS coronavirus in 274 clinically blinded samples. The specificity and sensitivity of this test were 98.3 and 90.9%, respectively. The correlation between our Western blotting assay and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was also analyzed. The results of our Western blot assay and IFA for the detection of SARS coronavirus-positive sera were the same. Thus, the N195 protein was identified as a suitable protein to be used as an antigen in Western blot and other possible assays for the detection of SARS coronavirus infection. PMID:15013997

  16. Acute subdural hematoma without subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by ruptured A1-A2 junction aneurysm. Case report.

    PubMed

    Takada, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Zaboronok, Alexander; Kujiraoka, Yuji; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Ihara, Satoshi; Nakai, Kei; Matsumura, Akira

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with complaint of sudden headache. The patient had suffered two episodes of transient headache before admission. Computed tomography (CT) revealed acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) on the right side of the cerebral convexity with bilateral extension along the tentorium cerebelli without signs of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Three-dimensional CT angiography and conventional cerebral angiography revealed a left A1-A2 junction aneurysm. Neck clipping of the aneurysm was performed. The aneurysm extended inferiorly, with the dome embedded in the chiasmatic cistern and tightly adhered to the arachnoid membrane. There was no evidence of hematoma in the subarachnoid space. The patient was discharged without neurological deficit. Ruptured aneurysms resulting in ASDH without SAH or ICH are very rare. Radiological investigation such as three-dimensional CT angiography should be performed to find the causative aneurysm in a patient with ASDH with a history of repeated headaches and without traumatic signs or episodes, and the appropriate treatment should be planned with expediency. PMID:22729076

  17. Comparative effects of disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate against testicular toxicity in rats caused by acute exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Ono, H; Funakoshi, T; Shimada, H; Kojima, S

    1997-03-01

    Disulfiram (DSF) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DED) were compared for their protective effects against the testicular toxicity induced by acute exposure to cadmium (Cd) in rats. Rats were injected subcutaneously with CdCl2 126.7 mumol (3 mg) Cd/kgl, and 30 min later they were injected intraperitoneally with DSF (0.05-0.5 mmol/kg) or DED (0.1-1 mmol/kg). The treatment with DSF at dose levels of 0.1-0.5 mmol/kg prevented the increases in testicular lipid peroxidation and calcium (Ca) concentrations and the decreases in testicular weight that were observed at 7 d after Cd injection. DED at dosage levels of 0.2-1 mmol/kg likewise reduced Cd-induced testicular toxicity. An increase in testicular iron (Fe) concentrations at 7 d and sterility at 59 d after Cd injection were almost completely blocked by treatment with DSF or DED at the highest doses, but lower doses of DSF or DED were ineffective. These results indicated that DSF, which is metabolized to DED, had a protective effect against Cd-induced testicular toxicity nearly equivalent to DED at approximately one-half the dose. PMID:9120875

  18. SPRED1, a RAS MAPK pathway inhibitor that causes Legius syndrome, is a tumour suppressor downregulated in paediatric acute myeloblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Pasmant, E; Gilbert-Dussardier, B; Petit, A; de Laval, B; Luscan, A; Gruber, A; Lapillonne, H; Deswarte, C; Goussard, P; Laurendeau, I; Uzan, B; Pflumio, F; Brizard, F; Vabres, P; Naguibvena, I; Fasola, S; Millot, F; Porteu, F; Vidaud, D; Landman-Parker, J; Ballerini, P

    2015-01-29

    Constitutional dominant loss-of-function mutations in the SPRED1 gene cause a rare phenotype referred as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-like syndrome or Legius syndrome, consisted of multiple café-au-lait macules, axillary freckling, learning disabilities and macrocephaly. SPRED1 is a negative regulator of the RAS MAPK pathway and can interact with neurofibromin, the NF1 gene product. Individuals with NF1 have a higher risk of haematological malignancies. SPRED1 is highly expressed in haematopoietic cells and negatively regulates haematopoiesis. SPRED1 seemed to be a good candidate for leukaemia predisposition or transformation. We performed SPRED1 mutation screening and expression status in 230 paediatric lymphoblastic and acute myeloblastic leukaemias (AMLs). We found a loss-of-function frameshift SPRED1 mutation in a patient with Legius syndrome. In this patient, the leukaemia blasts karyotype showed a SPRED1 loss of heterozygosity, confirming SPRED1 as a tumour suppressor. Our observation confirmed that acute leukaemias are rare complications of the Legius syndrome. Moreover, SPRED1 was significantly decreased at RNA and protein levels in the majority of AMLs at diagnosis compared with normal or paired complete remission bone marrows. SPRED1 decreased expression correlated with genetic features of AML. Our study reveals a new mechanism which contributes to deregulate RAS MAPK pathway in the vast majority of paediatric AMLs. PMID:24469042

  19. The etiology and management of acute prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Brede, Christopher M; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2011-04-01

    Acute bacterial prostatitis is a common and clinically important genitourinary disorder. Patient populations who are at especially high risk of acute prostatitis include those with diabetes, cirrhosis, and suppressed immune systems. The cause is usually an ascending infection, but bacteria can also be introduced during transrectal prostate biopsy. Clinical presentation ranges from mild lower urinary tract symptoms to full sepsis. The causative organisms are usually similar to those that cause other common genitourinary infections, and include Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. Oral or intravenous antibiotics are usually effective for curing the infection and progression to chronic bacterial prostatitis is, therefore, uncommon. Immunosuppressed patients require special consideration, as bacterial prostatitis in these patients can be caused by atypical infecting organisms and might, therefore, require additional therapies. A lack of response to standard therapy can lead to complications such as a prostatic abscess or fistula. PMID:21403661

  20. Acute colic possibly caused by phytobezoar derived from napier grass in 5 Japanese black cows reared in the same farm.

    PubMed

    Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Daisaku; Kirino, Yumi; Sasa, Takafumi; Fushimi, Yasuo; Ikeda, Teppei; Tshering, Chenga; Takagi, Mitsuhiro

    2011-08-01

    For 6 years, 5 Japanese Black cows of the same herd showed anorexia, depression, and dehydration with no feces in the rectum. Biomedical examination of 3 animals showed severe hypokalemia and hypochloremia. Although the first 3 animals died or were slaughtered (causes unknown), necropsy results showed that the cow in case 4 had intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoar derived from napier grass, fed mainly to the cattle as roughage. Therefore, farmers were recommended to avoid the hard root-stem portion of napier grass as roughage. Consequently, less phytobezoar was recovered from the fifth cow, and no similar clinical case of intestinal obstruction was observed thereafter. This is the first report on intestinal obstruction caused by phytobezoars derived from napier grass. PMID:21498963

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi IV Causing Outbreaks of Acute Chagas Disease and Infections by Different Haplotypes in the Western Brazilian Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre Costa; de Sá, Amanda Regina Nichi; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Borges, Lara; Pires, Isa; de Oliveira Guerra, Jorge Augusto; Silveira, Henrique; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is an emergent tropical disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region, with an increasing number of cases in recent decades. In this region, the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, which constitutes a reservoir of parasites that might be associated with specific molecular, epidemiological and clinical traits, has been little explored. The objective of this work is to genetically characterize stocks of T. cruzi from human cases, triatomines and reservoir mammals in the State of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 96 T. cruzi samples from four municipalities in distant locations of the State of Amazonas. Molecular characterization of isolated parasites from cultures in LIT medium or directly from vectors or whole human blood was performed by PCR of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon and of the 24 S alfa ribosomal RNA gene, RFLP and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene, and by sequencing of the glucose-phosphate isomerase gene. The T. cruzi parasites from two outbreaks of acute disease were all typed as TcIV. One of the outbreaks was triggered by several haplotypes of the same DTU. TcIV also occurred in isolated cases and in Rhodnius robustus. Incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies is likely to be indicative of historical genetic exchange events resulting in mitochondrial introgression between TcIII and TcIV DTUs from Western Brazilian Amazon. TcI predominated among triatomines and was the unique DTU infecting marsupials. Conclusion/Significance DTU TcIV, rarely associated with human Chagas disease in other areas of the Amazon basin, is the major strain responsible for the human infections in the Western Brazilian Amazon, occurring in outbreaks as single or mixed infections by different haplotypes. PMID:22848457

  2. Fat necrosis of transverse colon and necrotizing pancreatitis in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): cause of massive ascites and high fever.

    PubMed

    Acer, Tu?ba; Malbora, Bar??; Ötgün, ?brahim; Özdemir, Binnaz Handan; Co?kun, Mehmet; Özçay, Figen; Hiçsönmez, Akgün

    2013-01-01

    We report a nine-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia L3 (ALL-L3) and necrotizing pancreatitis in which necrosis was not limited to the pancreas. As our patient had a defective inflammatory process as a result of underlying malignant disease and neutropenia, the peripancreatic collection could not be limited and no pseudocyst was formed. In our patient, the unlimited inflammatory process and pancreatic secretions infiltrated the transverse mesocolon and transverse colon, leading to fat necrosis of the transverse colon, causing massive ascites and high fever. As there was no response to medical treatment, the success was achieved only by surgical resection. The infiltration of surrounding tissue and nearby organs by inflammation and fat necrosis in necrotizing pancreatitis has not been reported previously in a pediatric patient. PMID:24292046

  3. Acute Aortic Stenosis of a Porcine Valve Heterograft Apparently Caused by Graft Rejection: Case Report with Discussion of Immune Mediated Host Response

    PubMed Central

    Talbert, Wilmier M.; Wright, Philip

    1982-01-01

    This report describes a patient with a gluteraldehyde preserved porcine xenograft in which acute prosthetic aortic valve stenosis developed during the postoperative period. Thrombotic occlusion was ruled out by direct visualization at reoperation, when a fibrin fusion of two leaflets was released to relieve the stenosis. After a fatal arrhythmia (79 days following insertion of the prosthesis), histological evaluation of the xenograft revealed a reaction on the leaflets, interpreted as predominantly transformed or blast lymphocytes. Microscopically, a thin layer of fibrin was visible over these cells. This fibrin layer could have stitched the commissure closed, producing the aortic stenosis. Such a sequence of events is unique in our past experience with 68 porcine xenograft valves. We believe that this case is an example of an immune mediated host response caused by rapid early fibrin fusion of prosthetic aortic leaflet margins, which resulted in prosthetic stenosis. Images PMID:15226963

  4. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePLUS

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  5. Worsening of Renal Function During 1 Year After Hospital Discharge Is a Strong and Independent Predictor of All?Cause Mortality in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Tomoya; Kawakami, Rika; Sugawara, Yu; Okada, Sadanori; Nishida, Taku; Onoue, Kenji; Soeda, Tsunenari; Okayama, Satoshi; Takeda, Yukiji; Watanabe, Makoto; Kawata, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Shiro; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal impairment is a common comorbidity and the strongest risk factor for poor prognosis in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). In clinical practice, renal function is labile during episodes of ADHF, and often worsens after discharge. The significance of worsening of renal function (WRF) after discharge has not been investigated as extensively as baseline renal function at admission or WRF during hospitalization. Methods and Results Among 611 consecutive patients with ADHF emergently admitted to our hospital, 233 patients with 3 measurements of serum creatinine (SCr) level measurements (on admission, at discharge, and 1 year after discharge) were included in the present study. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of WRF at 1 year after discharge (1y?WRF), defined as an absolute increase in SCr >0.3 mg/dL (>26.5 ?mol/L) plus a ?25% increase in SCr at 1 year after discharge compared to the SCr value at discharge. All?cause and cardiovascular mortality were assessed as adverse outcomes. During a mean follow?up of 35.4 months, 1y?WRF occurred in 48 of 233 patients. There were 66 deaths from all causes. All?cause and cardiovascular mortality were significantly higher in patients with 1y?WRF (log?rank P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively) according to Kaplan–Meier analysis. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, 1y?WRF was a strong and independent predictor of all?cause and cardiovascular mortality. Hemoglobin and B?type natriuretic peptide at discharge, as well as left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, were independent predictors of 1y?WRF. Conclusions In patients with ADHF, 1y?WRF is a strong predictor of all?cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:25370599

  6. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency: a still overlooked cause of recurrent acute liver failure and Reye-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brassier, Anaïs; Ottolenghi, Chris; Boutron, Audrey; Bertrand, Anne-Marie; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Cervoni, Jean-Paul; Chrétien, Dominique; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Hubert, Laurence; Rabier, Daniel; Lacaille, Florence; de Keyzer, Yves; Di Martino, Vincent; de Lonlay, Pascale

    2013-05-01

    The causes of Reye-like syndrome are not completely understood. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD or E3) deficiency is a rare metabolic disorder causing neurological or liver impairment. Specific changes in the levels of urinary and plasma metabolites are the hallmark of the classical form of the disease. Here, we report a consanguineous family of Algerian origin with DLD deficiency presenting without suggestive clinical laboratory and anatomopathological findings. Two children died at birth from hepatic failure and three currently adult siblings had recurrent episodes of hepatic cytolysis associated with liver failure or Reye-like syndrome from infancy. Biochemical investigation (lactate, pyruvate, aminoacids in plasma, organic acids in urine) was normal. Histologic examination of liver and muscle showed mild lipid inclusions that were only visible by electron microscopy. The diagnosis of DLD deficiency was possible only after genome-wide linkage analysis, confirmed by a homozygous mutation (p.G229C) in the DLD gene, previously reported in patients with the same geographic origin. DLD and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities were respectively reduced to 25% and 70% in skin fibroblasts of patients and were unresponsive to riboflavin supplementation. In conclusion, this observation clearly supports the view that DLD deficiency should be considered in patients with Reye-like syndrome or liver failure even in the absence of suggestive biochemical findings, with the p.G229C mutation screening as a valuable test in the Arab patients because of its high frequency. It also highlights the usefulness of genome-wide linkage analysis for decisive diagnosis advance in inherited metabolic disorders. PMID:23478190

  7. Impact of Extended-Spectrum ?-Lactamase Production on Treatment Outcomes of Acute Pyelonephritis Caused by Escherichia coli in Patients without Health Care-Associated Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Su-Mi; Lee, Dong-Gun; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Choi, Jae-Ki; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong

    2015-04-01

    Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is increasingly identified as a cause of acute pyelonephritis (APN) among patients without recent health care contact, i.e., community-associated APN. This case-control study compared 75 cases of community-associated ESBL-EC APN (CA-ESBL) to 225 controls of community-associated non-ESBL-EC APN (CA-non-ESBL) to identify the risk factors for ESBL-EC acquisition and investigate the impact of ESBL on the treatment outcomes of community-associated APN (CA-APN) caused by E. coli at a Korean hospital during 2007 to 2013. The baseline characteristics were similar between the cases and controls; the risk factors for ESBL-EC were age (>55 years), antibiotic use within the previous year, and diabetes with recurrent APN. The severity of illness did not differ between CA-ESBL and CA-non-ESBL (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II scores [mean ± standard deviation], 7.7 ± 5.9 versus 6.4 ± 5.3; P = 0.071). The proportions of clinical (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 5.38; P = 0.323) and microbiological (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.51 to 2.65; P = 0.730) cures were similar, although the CA-ESBL APN patients were less likely to receive appropriate antibiotics within 48 h. A multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis of the prognostic factors for CA-APN caused by E. coli showed that ESBL production was not a significant factor for clinical (hazard ratio [HR], 0.39; 95% CI, 0.12 to 1.30; P = 0.126) or microbiological (HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.21 to 1.12; P = 0.091) failure. The estimates did not change after incorporating weights calculated using propensity scores for acquiring ESBL-EC. Therefore, ESBL production did not negatively affect treatment outcomes among patients with community-associated E. coli APN. PMID:25583722

  8. Re-emergent human adenovirus genome type 7d caused an acute respiratory disease outbreak in Southern China after a twenty-one year absence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55?kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed. PMID:25482188

  9. Re-emergent Human Adenovirus Genome Type 7d Caused an Acute Respiratory Disease Outbreak in Southern China After a Twenty-one Year Absence

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55?kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed. PMID:25482188

  10. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Pancreatic Head: An Unusual Cause of Recurrent Acute Pancreatitis – Case Presentation of a Palliative Approach after Failed Resection and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Kerstin; Kandulski, Arne; Kuester, Doerthe; Meyer, Frank; Wieners, Gero; Schulz, Hans-Ulrich; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are a rare cause of echo-poor pancreatic head enlargement. Histologically, IMTs are characterized by spindle-shaped myofibroblasts or fibroblasts accompanied by a mixed immune cell infiltration. The most common localizations of IMTs have been reported in lung, mesentery and omentum, especially in children and young adults. IMTs show infiltrating growth, multilocular appearance and also metastasis have been reported. Curative resection is the only therapeutic option so far. In the palliative situation, evident data and clear guidelines for this rare tumor entity are missing. We report on a 44-year-old male with an unresectable IMT of the pancreatic head causing recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis that resulted in a chronic obstructive course of the disease. The patient entered a palliative therapeutic regimen including radiation therapy and antiinflammatory medication. In a regular follow-up of 12 months, he presented with stable disease after initial progression. This case of local progressive IMT of the pancreatic head was managed with a palliative therapeutic regimen and is discussed based on the current literature. PMID:21113286

  11. The Association between Triglyceride/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and All-Cause Mortality in Acute Coronary Syndrome after Coronary Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Ke; Zhao, Jianxun; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Xi; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Li; Chen, Yucheng

    2015-01-01

    Aims High triglycerides (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are cardiovascular risk factors. A positive correlation between elevated TG/HDL-C ratio and all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events exists in women. However, utility of TG to HDL-C ratio for prediction is unknown among acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods Fasting lipid profiles, detailed demographic data, and clinical data were obtained at baseline from 416 patients with ACS after coronary revascularization. Subjects were stratified into three levels of TG/HDL-C. We constructed multivariate Cox-proportional hazard models for all-cause mortality over a median follow-up of 3 years using log TG to HDL-C ratio as a predictor variable and analyzing traditional cardiovascular risk factors. We constructed a logistic regression model for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) to prove that the TG/HDL-C ratio is a risk factor. Results The subject’s mean age was 64 ± 11 years; 54.5% were hypertensive, 21.8% diabetic, and 61.0% current or prior smokers. TG/HDL-C ratio ranged from 0.27 to 14.33. During the follow-up period, there were 43 deaths. In multivariate Cox models after adjusting for age, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and severity of angiographic coronary disease, patients in the highest tertile of ACS had a 5.32-fold increased risk of mortality compared with the lowest tertile. After adjusting for conventional coronary heart disease risk factors by the logistic regression model, the TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with MACEs. Conclusion The TG to HDL-C ratio is a powerful independent predictor of all-cause mortality and is a risk factor of cardiovascular events. PMID:25880982

  12. Alterations in intestinal motility and microflora in experimental acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Leveau; Xiangdong Wang; Vasile Soltesz; Ingemar Ihse; Roland Andersson

    1996-01-01

    Summary\\u000a Conclusion  \\u000a A delay in intestinal transit time appears as an early event in acute pancreatitis, preceding intestinal bacterial overgrowth\\u000a and translocation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  Septic complications, primarily caused by bacteria of enteric origin, are frequent in severe acute pancreatitis. Impairment\\u000a in intestinal motility probably plays a pathophysiological role in the development of bacterial overgrowth and ensuing translocation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In the present study, the

  13. In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of 21 Indian Timber-Yielding Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Monali P.; Padhy, Rabindra N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To screen methanolic leaf extracts of 21 timber-yielding plants for antibacterial activity against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of a hospital (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Methods Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests by the Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method. The antibacterial potentiality of leaf extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of nine uropathogens. Results Two Gram-positive isolates, E. faecalis and S. aureus, were resistant to 14 of the 18 antibiotics used. Gram-negative isolates A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 10, 12, 9, 11, 11, 10, and 11 antibiotics, respectively, of the 14 antibiotics used. Methanolic leaf extracts of Anogeissus acuminata had the maximum zone of inhibition size—29 mm against S. aureus and 28 mm against E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. Cassia tora had 29 mm as the zone of inhibition size for E. faecalis, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, the most effective 10 plants against uropathogens could be arranged in decreasing order as follows: C. tora > A. acuminata > Schleichera oleosa > Pterocarpus santalinus > Eugenia jambolana > Bridelia retusa > Mimusops elengi > Stereospermum kunthianum > Tectona grandis > Anthocephalus cadamba. The following eight plants had moderate control capacity: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia latifolia, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gmelina arborea, Pongamia pinnata, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Shorea robusta. E. coli, followed by A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were controlled by higher amounts/levels of leaf extracts. Phytochemicals of all plants were qualitatively estimated. Conclusions A majority of timber-yielding plants studied had in vitro control capacity against MDR uropathogenic bacteria. PMID:24524024

  14. New Antibiotic May Combat Resistant Bacteria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please enable JavaScript. New Antibiotic May Combat Resistant Bacteria Teixobactin shows promise in early experiments, researchers say (* ... that could prove valuable in fighting disease-causing bacteria that no longer respond to older, more frequently ...

  15. Bacteria Transformation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students construct paper recombinant plasmids to simulate the methods genetic engineers use to create modified bacteria. They learn what role enzymes, DNA and genes play in the modification of organisms. For the particular model they work on, they isolate a mammal insulin gene and combine it with a bacteria's gene sequence (plasmid DNA) for production of the protein insulin.

  16. update: acute KIDNEY INJURY

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    Guidelines update: acute KIDNEY INJURY August 2012, Issue 8 Tlaleletso is a monthly publication that have acute kidney injury. We review the common presentations and causes, especially in patients living it to cover, please send us your feedback­ either on content or format. Respectfully, Mike Reid Acute kidney

  17. Acute postobstructive pulmonary edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS N. GUFFIN; GADY HAR-EL; ABRAHAM SANDERS; FRANK E. LUCENTE; MICHAEL NASH

    1995-01-01

    Acute postobstructive pulmonary edema may occur after airway obstruction. A decrease in intrathoracic and intraalveolar pressures causes an increased blood flow into the pulmonary vasculature and favors the development of pulmonary edema. Two mechanisms for the development of acute postobstructive pulmonary edema are proposed: type 1 follows acute airway obstruction, and type 2 follows relief of chronic airway obstruction. (OTOLARYNGOL

  18. Acute Hematogenous Infection of Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty by Oral Bacteria in a Patient without a History of Dental Procedures: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sonohata, Motoki; Kitajima, Masaru; Kawano, Syunsuke; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    The risk of periprosthetic joint infection from hematogenous bacterial seeding is increased in patients undergoing dental procedures that facilitate the development of bacteremia. We herein report the case of a patient without a history of dental procedures who suffered from an acute metastatic infection of a hip prosthesis by the oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans 18 months after undergoing revision total hip arthroplasty. The patient was successfully treated by two-stage revision surgery. It is important to realize that the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis against joint infections has not yet been convincingly proven. As a result, optimal dental hygiene and regular dental visits may be more important than antibiotic prophylaxis for maintaining joint health. Therefore, orthopedic surgeons should educate patients with joint prostheses about good oral health. PMID:24741380

  19. Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) extracts on pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress caused by acute coal dust exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, T.P.; Silveira, P.C.; Rocha, L.G.; Rezin, G.T.; Rocha, J.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.T.; Dal-Pizzol, F.; Pinho, R.A.; Andrade, V.M.; Streck, E.L. [University Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.

  20. Early Administration of Therapeutic Anticoagulation Following Intravenous Thrombolysis for Acute Cardiogenic Embolic Stroke Caused by Left Ventricular Thrombus: Case Report and Topic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Rick; Donahey, Elisabeth; Ruland, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Cardiogenic cerebral embolism represents 20% of all acute ischemic strokes (AISs) with one-third of these being caused by left ventricular thrombus (LVT). LVT is not a contraindication for treatment with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rtPA) for AIS. However, the subsequent treatment of a potentially unstable LVT is contraindicated for 24?h following the use of IV rtPA according to current guidelines. We present a 66-year-old man with AIS treated with IV rtPA. Echocardiogram shortly after treatment demonstrated both a large apical and septal thrombus in the left ventricle and at 12?h post IV rtPA infusion, therapeutic anticoagulation with heparin was started without complication. In practice, the action of IV rtPA outlasts its apparent half-life because of thrombin-binding and the prolonged effects and longer half-life of its product, plasmin; however, the pharmacokinetics do not warrant prolonged avoidance of therapeutic anticoagulation when clinically indicated. Our case demonstrates that anticoagulation for potentially unstable LVT can be safely initiated at 12?h following IV rtPA treatment for AIS. PMID:25699011

  1. JAK3 mutants transform hematopoietic cells through JAK1 activation, causing T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Degryse, Sandrine; de Bock, Charles E; Cox, Luk; Demeyer, Sofie; Gielen, Olga; Mentens, Nicole; Jacobs, Kris; Geerdens, Ellen; Gianfelici, Valentina; Hulselmans, Gert; Fiers, Mark; Aerts, Stein; Meijerink, Jules P; Tousseyn, Thomas; Cools, Jan

    2014-11-13

    JAK3 is a tyrosine kinase that associates with the common ? chain of cytokine receptors and is recurrently mutated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). We tested the transforming properties of JAK3 pseudokinase and kinase domain mutants using in vitro and in vivo assays. Most, but not all, JAK3 mutants transformed cytokine-dependent Ba/F3 or MOHITO cell lines to cytokine-independent proliferation. JAK3 pseudokinase mutants were dependent on Jak1 kinase activity for cellular transformation, whereas the JAK3 kinase domain mutant could transform cells in a Jak1 kinase-independent manner. Reconstitution of the IL7 receptor signaling complex in 293T cells showed that JAK3 mutants required receptor binding to mediate downstream STAT5 phosphorylation. Mice transplanted with bone marrow progenitor cells expressing JAK3 mutants developed a long-latency transplantable T-ALL-like disease, characterized by an accumulation of immature CD8(+) T cells. In vivo treatment of leukemic mice with the JAK3 selective inhibitor tofacitinib reduced the white blood cell count and caused leukemic cell apoptosis. Our data show that JAK3 mutations are drivers of T-ALL and require the cytokine receptor complex for transformation. These results warrant further investigation of JAK1/JAK3 inhibitors for the treatment of T-ALL. PMID:25193870

  2. Comparison of morphologic findings obtained by optical coherence tomography in acute coronary syndrome caused by vasospasm and chronic stable variant angina.

    PubMed

    Park, Hwan-Cheol; Shin, Jeong Hun; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Choi, Sung Il; Kim, Soon-Gil

    2015-02-01

    This study used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate morphologic changes in vasospastic lesions, which can cause acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or chronic stable VA. Thirty-nine patients (52.4 ± 9.0 years, 33 males) with vasospasm-induced ACS who presented with chest pain and displayed transient ST segment elevation on electrocardiography were included in the ACS group. Forty-one patients (49.3 ± 7.7 years, 33 males) who presented with chronic stable variant angina were included in the VA group. The clinical characteristics and morphologic OCT results of the two groups were compared. There were no differences in baseline characteristics, including the proportions of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and smoking, between the two groups. Intimal tear, erosion, and intra-luminal thrombi were more frequent in the ACS group than the VA group (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.006, respectively). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein level was higher in the ACS group than the VA group (1.33 ± 1.93 vs 0.48 ± 0.50 mg/l, P = 0.011). Maximal intima thickness of spastic segment (0.38 ± 0.06 vs 0.31 ± 0.05 mm, P < 0.001) was significantly greater in the ACS group than in the VA group. In patients with vasospasm-induced ACS, intimal tear, intimal erosion, and microthrombi are major abnormal morphologic findings of OCT compared with patients with chronic stable VA. PMID:25293371

  3. Acute spontaneous cervical disc herniation causing rapidly progressive myelopathy in a patient with comorbid ossified posterior longitudinal ligament: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Westwick, Harrison J.; Goldstein, Christina L.; Shamji, Mohammed F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and cervical disc herniation are commonly encountered neurosurgical conditions. Here we present an unusual case of nontraumatic rapidly progressive myelopathy due to cervical disc herniation with comorbid OPLL and conduct a literature review focusing on the frequency and management of disc herniations with OPLL. Case Description: A 52-year-old healthy female presented with a 72-h history of rapid progression of dense quadriparesis with sensory deficits, with a precedent 4-week history of nontraumatic midline neck pain. Clinical examination revealed profound motor deficits below the C5 myotome. Spinal neuroimaging revealed OPLL (computed tomography [CT]) and a cervical disc herniation spanning from C4/5 to C5/6 with significant retrovertebral disease (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). Operative management involved an anterior cervical corpectomy and instrumented fusion, with removal of both the sequestered disc material and the locally compressive OPLL. The patient recovered full motor function and independent ambulation with no residual signs or symptoms of myelopathy at the time of discharge. Conclusion: This unique case of a spontaneous cervical disc herniation in the context of OPLL causing rapidly progressive myelopathy illustrates the complementarity of CT and MRI in diagnosing the underlying cause of a rapidly progressive neurologic deficit in the absence of antecedent trauma. Though the optimal surgical management of such pathology remains uncertain; in this case, the anterior approach was motivated by the significant retrovertebral ventrally compressive sequestrum, and provided for excellent neurologic outcome. This article also reviews the occurrence/management of such acute cervical discs with OPLL. PMID:25289163

  4. Guillain-Barré syndrome as a cause of acute flaccid paralysis in Iraqi children: a result of 15 years of nation-wide study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in the post-poliomyelitis eradication era. This is the first study done to identify the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome of GBS in Iraqi children over 15 years. Methods The surveillance database about AFP cases?cause of AFP, especially in those between the age of 1 to 4 years living in rural areas. PMID:24325332

  5. Jaundice as a first clinical sign of necrotizing fasciitis, caused by monomicrobial Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. De Kerpel; P. Roelandt; M. Depoorter

    2004-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening infection, mostly caused by a mixture of gram-negative, gram-positive and anaerobic organisms, frequently including haemolytic streptococci. This polyculture of bacteria demands early diagnosis and aggressive treatment to diminish the high morbidity and mortality rates. We report a young, healthy patient with acute necrotizing fasciitis with jaundice as a first clinical sign, caused by a monomicrobial

  6. Effects of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and other organisms on the probability of conception in New York State Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hertl, J A; Gröhn, Y T; Leach, J D G; Bar, D; Bennett, G J; González, R N; Rauch, B J; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Schukken, Y H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of different types of clinical mastitis (CM) on the probability of conception in New York State Holstein cows. Data were available on 55,372 artificial inseminations (AI) in 23,695 lactations from 14,148 cows in 7 herds. We used generalized linear mixed models to model whether or not a cow conceived after a particular AI. Independent variables included AI number (first, second, third, fourth), parity, season when AI occurred, farm, type of CM (due to gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, or other organisms) in the 6 wk before and after an AI, and occurrence of other diseases. Older cows were less likely to conceive. Inseminations occurring in the summer were least likely to be successful. Retained placenta decreased the probability of conception. Conception was also less likely with each successive AI. The probability of conception associated with the first AI was 0.29. The probability of conception decreased to 0.26, 0.25, and 0.24 for the second, third, and fourth AI, respectively. Clinical mastitis occurring any time between 14 d before until 35 d after an AI was associated with a lower probability of conception; the greatest effect was an 80% reduction associated with gram-negative CM occurring in the week after AI. In general, CM due to gram-negative bacteria had a more detrimental effect on probability of conception than did CM caused by gram-positive bacteria or other organisms. Furthermore, CM had more effect on probability of conception immediately around the time of AI. Additional information about CM (i.e., its timing with respect to AI, and whether the causative agent is gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria, or other organisms) is valuable to dairy personnel in determining why some cows are unable to conceive in a timely manner. These findings are also beneficial for the management of mastitic cows (especially those with gram-negative CM) when mastitis occurs close to AI. PMID:20338432

  7. Aquatic Bacteria Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On April 20, 2010, the BP Deepwater Horizon drilling platform collapsed and sank in the Gulf of Mexico, causing one of the largest oil spills in history. One of the big dilemmas in responding to the oil spil is how to clean up the oil itself. One way currently under research is to use bacteria that ...

  8. Seasonal Behavior of Xylella fastidiosa Causing Almond Leaf Scorch Disease Under Field Conditions and Improved Detection of the Bacteria by Means of Array-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) caused by Xylella fastidiosa is potentially a serious threat to the almond industry in San Joaquin Valley of California. Knowledge of X. fastidiosa behavior in the plant host under field conditions is important for disease control and this issue is being addressed i...

  9. Seasonal Behavior of Xylella fastidiosa Causing Almond Leaf Scorch Under Field Conditions and Detection of the Bacteria by Means of Array-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa have re-emerged as a serious threat to several economically important crops, such as grape and almond, in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Knowledge of bacterial behavior in plant hosts under field condition is important for disease control. This research c...

  10. Diminution of QRS complexes caused by anasarca after an acute myocardial infarction: A case report and a discussion of the plausible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Madias; Virenjan Narayan

    2003-01-01

    We describe the case of an 81-year-old man with an acute anterior myocardial infarction (MI), complicated by anoxic encephalopathy, respiratory, and acute renal failure, who developed gradually marked reduction in the QRS complexes of his electrocardiogram (ECG) in the process of gaining 44 pounds, due to anasarca. Such ECG pattern has been recently associated with marked peripheral edema in the

  11. Reflections on the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the acute avian leukosis\\/sarcoma viruses with special reference to avian erythroblastosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Darcel

    1994-01-01

    The various diseases that follow experimental infection with the acute and non-acute avian oncoviruses are discussed with special reference to the pathogenesis of avian erythroblastosis. One view, based onin vitro studies, sees erythroblastosis as the product of a failure in the differentiation of virus-infected stem cells to mature erythrocytes, as a result of cell ‘transformation’. The results of somein vivo

  12. Characterization of Damage to Bacteria and Bio-macromolecules Caused by (V)UV Radiation and Particles Generated by a Microscale Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Schneider, Simon; Narberhaus, Franz; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E.

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets effectively inactivate bacteria on ­surfaces including infected tissues. This is due to the combined effects of (V)UV radiation, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ions, and high electric fields. A well-characterized microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet (?-APPJ) operated with He/O2 gas mixture has been modified so that (V)UV radiation and heavy reactive particles (mainly O3 molecules and O atoms) emitted from the plasma source can be separated effectively. The separation is achieved by an additional lateral He flow, which diverts the heavy particles from the jet axis. The new jet geometry is called X-Jet. Separation of different plasma components allows studying their effects on living cells and bio-macromolecules separately. First, the effectiveness of the separation of different plasma components was demonstrated by treatment of monolayers of vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells. To characterize effects on nucleic acids, dried plasmid DNA and total cellular RNA were treated with the separated plasma components. Dried bovine serum albumin was used to study etching effects of (V)UV radiation and heavy particles on proteins. We found that heavy particles emitted from the X-Jet kill vegetative cells more effectively than the (V)UV radiation from this type of plasma source. All bio-macromolecules investigated, DNA, RNA, and proteins, are affected by plasma treatment. DNA exposed to the (V)UV-channel of the jet seems to be prone to thymine dimer formation not only in vitro but also in vivo as indicated by induction of the photolyase in Escherichia coli, while DNA strand breaks occur under both jet channels. Heavy particles seem more effective in degrading RNA and in etching protein in vitro.

  13. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  14. Two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence for label-free in vivo imaging ingestion of disease-causing bacteria by human leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2013-02-01

    Real time and in vivo monitoring leukocyte behavior provides unique information to understand the physiological and pathological process of infection. In this study, we demonstrate that two-photon excited reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence provides imaging contrast to distinguish granulocyte and agranulocyte. By using spectral and time-resolved NADH fluorescence, we study the immune response of human neutrophils against bacterial infection (Escherichia coli). The two-photon excited NADH fluorescence images clearly review the morphological changes from resting neutrophils (round shape) to activated neutrophils (ruffle shape) during phagocytosis. The free-tobound NADH ratio of neutrophils decreases after ingesting disease-causing pathogen: Escherichia coli. This finding may provide a new optical tool to investigate inflammatory processes by using NADH fluorescence in vivo.

  15. Correlation between vancomycin MIC values and those of other agents against gram-positive bacteria among patients with bloodstream infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Patel, N; Lubanski, P; Ferro, S; Bonafede, M; Harrington, S; Evans, A; Stellrecht, K; Lodise, T P

    2009-12-01

    An increase in the distribution of vancomycin MIC values among methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates has been noted. It is postulated that the shift in vancomycin MIC values may be associated with a concurrent rise in the MIC values of other anti-MRSA agents. Scant data are available on the correlation between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of other anti-MRSA agents. This study examined the correlation between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and teicoplanin among 120 patients with bloodstream infections caused by MRSA at a tertiary care hospital between January 2005 and May 2007. For each included patient, the MIC values of the antibiotics under study were determined by the Etest method and were separated into the following two categories: day 1 (index) and post-day 1 (subsequent). For subsequent isolates, the MIC values for each antibiotic from the post-day 1 terminal isolate were used. Among the index isolates, there was a significant correlation (P value, <0.01) between the MIC values for vancomycin and daptomycin and between the MIC values for vancomycin and teicoplanin. The MIC values for daptomycin were significantly correlated with linezolid, tigecycline, and teicoplanin MIC values. Among the 48 patients with subsequent isolates, vancomycin MIC values were significantly correlated with MIC values for daptomycin, linezolid, and teicoplanin (rho value of >or=0.38 for all comparisons). This study documented an association between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of other anti-MRSA antibiotics among patients with bloodstream infections caused by MRSA primarily treated with vancomycin. PMID:19805558

  16. Acute and chronic impacts caused by aromatic hydrocarbons on bacterial communities at Boa Viagem and Forte do Rio Branco Beaches, Guanabara Bay, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. C Crapez; Z. T Tosta; M. das G. S Bispo; D. C Pereira

    2000-01-01

    The bacterial community presented significantly different hydrocarbonoclastic activity under acute and chronic impacts. Benzoic acid, toluene, benzene and xylene were used in final concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 mM and bacterial biomass was quantified through protein dosage. Under acute impact, the highest biomass percentages occurred between the 11th and 14th days; under chronic impact, between the 20th and 29th

  17. Ice-Nucleating Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Hitoshi

    Since the discovery of ice-nucleating bacteria in 1974 by Maki et al., a large number of studies on the biological characteristics, ice-nucleating substance, ice nucleation gene and frost damage etc. of the bacteria have been carried out. Ice-nucleating bacteria can cause the freezing of water at relatively warm temperature (-2.3°C). Tween 20 was good substrates for ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens KUIN-1. Major fatty acids of Isolate (Pseudomonas fluorescens) W-11 grown at 30°C were palmitic, cis-9-hexadecenoic and cis-11-octadecenoic which amounted to 90% of the total fatty acids. Sequence analysis shows that an ice nucleation gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens is related to the gene of Pseudomonas syringae.

  18. Travelers Bringing Drug-Resistant Bacteria to United States

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enable JavaScript. Travelers Bringing Drug-Resistant Bacteria to United States Strain of Shigella is easily transmitted and causes ... bacteria that causes diarrhea is spreading in the United States, federal health officials warned Thursday. Travelers are bringing ...

  19. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    DOEpatents

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  20. What Causes Bad Breath?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can often be prevented with some simple steps. Bad breath is caused by odor-producing bacteria that grow in the mouth. When you don' ... your teeth. The sulfur compounds released by these bacteria make your breath ... can contribute to bad breath because the oils are carried to your lungs ...

  1. Parasitic Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Ellett C. Wayne; C. W. Ellett; C. W. Ellett; Plate I

    species and 2 varieties of bacteria parasitic on plants in Ohio. Bacterial plant diseases in Ohio, such as alfalfa wilt, cucurbit wilt, corn leaf blight and wilt (Stewart's disease), fire blight of apple and pear, FIGURE 1. Bacterial wilt of carnation. crown gall, soft rot of many vegetables, and

  2. Magnetotactic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Blakemore

    1975-01-01

    Bacteria with motility directed by the local geomagnetic field have been observed in marine sediments. These magnetotactic microorganisms possess flagella and contain novel structured particles, rich in iron, within intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles. Conceivably these particles impart to cells a magnetic moment. This could explain the observed migration of these organisms in fields as weak as 0.5 gauss.

  3. Third generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria causing bacteremia in febrile neutropenia adult cancer patients in Lebanon, broad spectrum antibiotics use as a major risk factor, and correlation with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Moghnieh, Rima; Estaitieh, Nour; Mugharbil, Anas; Jisr, Tamima; Abdallah, Dania I.; Ziade, Fouad; Sinno, Loubna; Ibrahim, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complications in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. The spectrum and susceptibility profiles of causative microorganisms differ with time and place. Data from Lebanon are scarce. We aim at evaluating the epidemiology of bacteremia in cancer patients in a university hospital in Lebanon, emphasizing antibiotic resistance and risk factors of multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO)-associated bacteremia. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 75 episodes of bacteremia occurring in febrile neutropenic patients admitted to the hematology-oncology unit at Makassed General Hospital, Lebanon, from October 2009-January 2012. It corresponds to epidemiological data on bacteremia episodes in febrile neutropenic cancer patients including antimicrobial resistance and identification of risk factors associated with third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR) and MDRO-associated bacteremia. Results: Out of 75 bacteremias, 42.7% were gram-positive (GP), and 57.3% were gram-negative (GN). GP bacteremias were mostly due to methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (28% of total bacteremias and 66% of GP bacteremias). Among the GN bacteremias, Escherichia coli (22.7% of total, 39.5% of GN organisms) and Klebsiella pneumoniae(13.3% of total, 23.3% of GN organisms) were the most important causative agents. GN bacteremia due to 3GC sensitive (3GCS) bacteria represented 28% of total bacteremias, while 29% were due to 3GCR bacteria and 9% were due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. There was a significant correlation between bacteremia with MDRO and subsequent intubation, sepsis and mortality. Among potential risk factors, only broad spectrum antibiotic intake >4 days before bacteremia was found to be statistically significant for acquisition of 3GCR bacteria. Using carbapenems or piperacillin/tazobactam>4 days before bacteremia was significantly associated with the emergence of MDRO (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings have major implications for the management of febrile neutropenia, especially in breakthrough bacteremia and fever when patients are already on broadspectrum antibiotics. Emergence of resistance to 3GCs and, to a lesser extent, to carbapenems in GN isolates has to be considered seriously in our local guidelines for empiric treatment of febrile neutropenia, especially given that their occurrence was proven to be associated with poorer outcomes. PMID:25729741

  4. Can Acute Myeloid Leukemia Be Prevented?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... GO » SEE A LIST » What are the risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia? Do we know what causes acute myeloid leukemia? ... What Is Leukemia - Acute Myeloid (AML)? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Leukemia - Acute Myeloid (AML) Talking With Your Doctor After ...

  5. Acute biliary conditions.

    PubMed

    de C Ferreira, Lincoln E V V; Baron, Todd H

    2013-10-01

    Acute biliary complications may result from several medical conditions such as gallstone pancreatitis, acute cholangitis, acute cholecystitis, bile leak, liver abscess and hepatic trauma. Gallstones are the most common cause of acute pancreatitis. About 25% of theses patients will develop clinically severe acute pancreatitis, usually due to necrotizing pancreatitis. Choledocholithiasis, malignant and benign biliary strictures, and stent dysfunction may cause partial or complete obstruction and infection in the biliary tract with acute cholangitis. Bile leaks are most commonly associated with hepatobiliary surgeries or invasive procedures such as open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy, hepatic resection, hepatic transplantation, liver biopsy, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) may have an essential role in the management of these complications. PMID:24160931

  6. Causes and prognostic factors of remission induction failure in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and idarubicin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serna de J; P. Montesinos; E. Vellenga; C. Rayón; R. Parody; A. León; J. Esteve; J. M. Bergua; G. Milone; G. Debén; C. Rivas; M. González; M. Tormo; J. Díaz-Mediavilla; J. D. González; S. Negri; E. Amutio; S. Brunet; B. Löwenberg; M. A. Sanz

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of the prognostic factors associated with the various forms of induction mortality in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has remained remarkably limited. This study reports the incidence, time of occurrence, and prognostic factors of the major categories of induction failure in a series of 732 patients of all ages (range, 2-83 years) with newly diagnosed APL who

  7. Bacteria are like Popeye the sailor man

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2004-09-10

    Popeye the sailor man and infection-causing bacteria have something in common -- they need to consume iron to perform their best. In cartoons, Popeye gets his iron from spinach. New research shows exactly where the bacteria that often cause pneumonia get their iron.

  8. Comparing the Similarity of Different Groups of Bacteria to the Human Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Brett; Pajon, Rolando; Jayaprakash, Teenus; Kusalik, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Numerous aspects of the relationship between bacteria and human have been investigated. One aspect that has recently received attention is sequence overlap at the proteomic level. However, there has not yet been a study that comprehensively characterizes the level of sequence overlap between bacteria and human, especially as it relates to bacterial characteristics like pathogenicity, G-C content, and proteome size. In this study, we began by performing a general characterization of the range of bacteria-human similarity at the proteomic level, and identified characteristics of the most- and least-similar bacterial species. We then examined the relationship between proteomic similarity and numerous other variables. While pathogens and nonpathogens had comparable similarity to the human proteome, pathogens causing chronic infections were found to be more similar to the human proteome than those causing acute infections. Although no general correspondence between a bacterium’s proteome size and its similarity to the human proteome was noted, no bacteria with small proteomes had high similarity to the human proteome. Finally, we discovered an interesting relationship between similarity and a bacterium’s G-C content. While the relationship between bacteria and human has been studied from many angles, their proteomic similarity still needs to be examined in more detail. This paper sheds further light on this relationship, particularly with respect to immunity and pathogenicity. PMID:22558081

  9. Intestinal microcirculation and gut permeability in acute pancreatitis: Early changes and therapeutic implications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hubert G. Hotz; Thomas Foitzik; Janine Rohweder; Joerg D. Schulzke; Micbael Fromm; Norbert S. F. Runkel; Heinz J. Bubr

    1998-01-01

    Translocation of bacteria from the intestine causes local and systemic infection in severe acute pancreatitis. Increased intestinal\\u000a permeability is considered a promoter of bacterial translocation. The mechanism leading to increased gut permeability may\\u000a involve impaired intestinal capillary blood flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate early changes in capillary\\u000a blood flow and permeability of the colon

  10. Acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Pena-Gil; Jaume Figueras; Jordi Soler-Soler

    2005-01-01

    The frequency distribution and severity of the cardiac disease underlying acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (APE) to define appropriate subsequent diagnostic and management strategies were investigated in 216 consecutive patients. To this effect, the clinical, electrocardiographic, ecocardiographic and angiographic characteristics were analyzed. Coronary artery disease was identified in 185 patients (86%)—146 with acute myocardial infarction—as the underlying cause, isolated valvular disease

  11. Acute stress causes rapid synaptic insertion of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors to facilitate long-term potentiation in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Jihoon; Hogg, Ellen L.; Piers, Thomas; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Seaton, Gillian; Seok, Heon; Bru-Mercier, Gilles; Son, Gi Hoon; Regan, Philip; Hildebrandt, Lars; Waite, Eleanor; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Kerrigan, Talitha L.; Kim, Kyungjin; Whitcomb, Daniel J.; Lightman, Stafford L.

    2013-01-01

    The neuroendocrine response to episodes of acute stress is crucial for survival whereas the prolonged response to chronic stress can be detrimental. Learning and memory are particularly susceptible to stress with cognitive deficits being well characterized consequences of chronic stress. Although there is good evidence that acute stress can enhance cognitive performance, the mechanism(s) for this are unclear. We find that hippocampal slices, either prepared from rats following 30 min restraint stress or directly exposed to glucocorticoids, exhibit an N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor-independent form of long-term potentiation. We demonstrate that the mechanism involves an NMDA receptor and PKA-dependent insertion of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors into synapses. These then trigger the additional NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP during high frequency stimulation. PMID:24271563

  12. Capnocytophaga canimorsus sepsis presenting as an acute abdomen in an asplenic patient.

    PubMed

    Deprés-Brummer, P; Buijs, J; van Engelenburg, K C; Oosten, H R

    2001-11-01

    Acute abdominal symptoms are frequently caused by surgical intra-abdominal problems. However, the differential diagnosis also includes several internal diseases. Overwhelming infections may present with acute abdominal signs, particularly in the immunocompromised host. Asplenic patients are highly susceptible to infections with encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis. Severe infections due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus (DF2), are also common in this group. C. canimorsus is a Gram-negative rod, present as a commensal organism in cat and dog saliva. We describe the atypical presentation of a fatal C. canimorsus-sepsis in a 46-year-old man, who underwent traumatic splenectomy two decades earlier. PMID:11705640

  13. Acute effects of wheel running on adult hippocampal precursor cells in mice are not caused by changes in cell cycle length or S phase length

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Tim J.; Walker, Tara L.; Overall, Rupert W.; Brandt, Moritz D.; Kempermann, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Exercise stimulates cellular brain plasticity by extending the pool of proliferating neural precursor cells in the adult hippocampus. This effect has been investigated extensively, but the most immediate cellular effect induced by exercise that results in this acute increase in the number of cycling cells remained unclear. In the developing brain as well as adult pathological models, cell cycle alterations have a major influence on the balance between proliferative and neurogenic divisions. In this study we investigated whether this might also apply to the acute physiological pro-neurogenic stimulus of physical exercise in adulthood. Do changes in cell cycle precede the measurable increase in proliferation? After 5 days of voluntary wheel running, however, we measured only a very small, statistically not significant acceleration in cell cycle, which could not quantitatively explain the observed increase in proliferating cells after exercise. Thus, at this acute stage, changes at the level of cell cycle control is not the primary causal mechanism for the expansion of the precursor cell population, although with time after the stimulus changes in cell cycle of the entire population of labeled cells might be the result of the expanded pool of cells that have progressed to the advanced neurogenic stages with shorter cell cycle length. PMID:25339861

  14. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis Causing a Highway to the Colon with Subsequent Road Closure: Pancreatic Colonic Fistula Presenting as a Large Bowel Obstruction Treated with Pancreatic Duct Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Justin; Schlepp, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Context. Colonic complications associated with acute pancreatitis have a low incidence but carry an increased risk of mortality with delayed diagnosis and treatment. Pancreatic colonic fistula is most commonly associated with walled off pancreatic necrosis or abscess formation and rarely forms spontaneously. Classic clinical manifestations for pancreatic colonic fistula include diarrhea, hematochezia, and fever. Uncommonly pancreatic colonic fistula presents as large bowel obstruction. Case. We report a case of a woman with a history of recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis who presented with large bowel obstruction secondary to pancreatic colonic fistula. Resolution of large bowel obstruction and pancreatic colonic fistula was achieved with pancreatic duct stenting. Conclusion. Pancreatic colonic fistula can present as large bowel obstruction. Patients with resolved acute pancreatitis who have radiographic evidence of splenic flexure obstruction, but without evidence of mechanical obstruction on colonoscopy, should be considered for ERCP to evaluate for PCF. PCF not associated with walled off pancreatic necrosis or peritoneal abscess can be treated conservatively with pancreatic duct stenting.

  15. Acute Pancreatitis in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pancreatitis in children include physical injury, certain medications, gallstones, or problems in the anatomy of the ducts ( ... some treatable causes of acute pancreatitis. These include gallstone disease, high blood calcium, high blood triglycerides, and ...

  16. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePLUS

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you climb ...

  17. Metatarsal fracture (acute) - aftercare

    MedlinePLUS

    Broken foot-metatarsal; Jones fracture; Dancer’s fracture; Foot fracture ... long bones in your foot that connect your ankle to your toes. They ... cause a break or acute (sudden) fracture in one of the bones.

  18. Bronchitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acute bronchitis affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens. The role of smoking or of environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear. One third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute bronchitis in people without chronic respiratory disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics, antibiotics (macrolides, tetracyclines, cephalosporins, penicillins, or trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole [co-trimoxazole]), antihistamines, antitussives, beta2 agonists (inhaled or oral), and expectorants/mucolytics. PMID:21711957

  19. Acute and Impaired Wound Healing: Pathophysiology and Current Methods for Drug Delivery, Part 1: Normal and Chronic Wounds: Biology, Causes, and Approaches to Care

    PubMed Central

    Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first installment of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, review the role that growth factors play in this process, and describe current ways of growth factor delivery into the wound bed. Part 1 discusses the latest advances in clinicians’ understanding of the control points that regulate wound healing. Importantly, biological similarities and differences between acute and chronic wounds are considered, including the signaling pathways that initiate cellular and tissue responses after injury, which may be impeded during chronic wound healing. PMID:22713781

  20. Management of acute hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Mitchell L

    2010-02-01

    Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common cause of acute icteric hepatitis in adults. The vast majority of these patients resolve this acute infection and develop long-lasting immunity. In contrast, the vast majority of patients who develop chronic HBV have minimal symptoms and do not develop jaundice after becoming infected with HBV. These patients will frequently remain undiagnosed for years or decades. Approximately 1% of persons with acute HBV develop acute liver failure. Preventing acute HBV with vaccination is the best treatment. Although universal vaccination is now administered to newborns in many countries, the majority of adults have not been vaccinated and remain at risk. Because the majority of patients with acute HBV resolve this infection spontaneously, treatment with an oral anti-HBV agent is not necessary. However, the use of an oral anti-HBV agent is not unreasonable to use in a patient who is developing acute liver failure from severe acute HBV. PMID:20123442

  1. Changes in Pain, Dysfunction, and Grip Strength of Patients with Acute Lateral Epicondylitis Caused by Frequency of Physical Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soyoung; Ko, Youngjun; Lee, Wanhee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in pain, dysfunction, and grip strength of patients with acute lateral epicondylitis and to suggest the appropriate treatment frequency and period. [Subjects] The subjects were divided into three: 2 days per week group (n=12), 3 days per week group (n=15), and 6 days per week group (n=13). [Methods] All groups received conventional physical therapy for 40 minutes and therapeutic exercises for 20 minutes per session during 6 weeks. The outcome measurements were the visual analogue scale (VAS), Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and grip strength. [Results] The results of this study were as follows: at 3 weeks, there were no significant differences in VAS and PRTEE in the 3 groups, but at 6 weeks, 6 days per week group significantly decreased these two outcomes. Grip strength was significantly increased in 3 and 6 days per week groups at 6 weeks. [Conclusion] In conclusion, physical therapy is needed 3 days per week for 3 weeks in patients with acute lateral epicondylitis. After 3 weeks, 6 days per week is the most effective treatment frequency. PMID:25140091

  2. Antimicrobial Resistance in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis B. Rice

    2006-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are common causes of bloodstream and other infections in hospitalized patients in the United States, and the percentage of nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria is increasing. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are of particular concern. In the United States, approximately 60% of staphylococcal infections in the intensive care unit are now caused

  3. Acute Bleeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact Us My Cart Healthy Children > Health Issues > Injuries & Emergencies > Acute Bleeding Health Issues Listen Acute Bleeding Article Body Cuts and Lacerations Nearly all youngsters scrape their knees ...

  4. Cows' milk protein-sensitive enteropathy: an important contributing cause of secondary sugar intolerance in young infants with acute infective enteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, N; Davis, K; Robinson, M J; Boey, C G; Sumithran, E; Yadav, M; Lam, S K; Puthucheary, S D

    1979-01-01

    The effect of cows' milk protein (CMP) on the mucosal disaccharidases was investigated in 23 infants with acute infective enteritis. Jejunal biopsies performed before and after cows' milk provocation were subjected to histological examination and to mucosal disaccharidase enzyme (lactase, sucrase, and maltase) analyses. After milk challenge, changes in mucosal histology were observed in 18 infants, in 17 of them the levels of all 3 mucosal disaccharidases were much reduced. 10 of these infants developed diarrhoea and, in 6, the stools were positive for reducing sugar. It is concluded that CMP has a deleterious effect on the jejunal mucosa of young infants recovering from infective enteritis, so that in the management of young infants with sugar intolerance secondary to infective enteritis, CMP and lactose should be excluded from the diet. PMID:570376

  5. A Nonpancreatic Source of the Proteolytic-enzyme Amidase and Bacteriology in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Keynes, W. Milo

    1980-01-01

    In previous studies of human and experimental acute pancreatitis, three main assumptions have been made. First, that the disease is due to activation of pancreatic proteolytic enzymes in the pancreas with resulting “autodigestion” of the gland. Second, that interstitial pancreatitis is a mild form of hemorrhagic pancreatitis into which it may progress, and third, that bacteria play little part, if any, in the initiation of the disease. These assumptions are now questioned. In the present study in dogs, levels of proteolytic enzymes in blood, thoracicduct lymph and peritoneal fluid were measured using benzoylarginine amide. Raised levels of amidase were found in hemorrhagic, but not with interstitial, pancreatitis, and biochemical examination of amidase suggested it was not a pancreatic protease, but with its broad specificity and stability derived from bacteria. Addition of antibiotic to the blind duodenal loop in hemorrhagic pancreatitis reduced the level of blood amidase, but Trasylol given intravenously did not, nor did it inhibit amidase in vitro. In all animals, histological examination was made of the pancreas at time of death. On bacteriology, it is concluded that experimental interstitial pancreatitis results from damage to the pancreatic duct system without infection, and haemorrhagic pancreatitis mainly from reflux of bacteria into the pancreatic ducts from the duodenum. Only bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Clostridium welchii that produce proteolytic enzymes and cytotoxins appear to be able to cause haemorrhagic pancreatitis, and these bacteria may explain the release of vasoactive polypeptides and the vascular effects. In hemorrhagic pancreatitis such bacteria were found in the pancreas, but none in interstitial pancreatitis. Evidence is given to suggest that pancreatic proteolytic enzymes are unlikely to cause the cell necrosis which is a pathological feature of hemorrhagic pancreatitis, and that “autodigestion” is likewise unlikely to be a cause of this condition. An extrapancreatic source of proteolytic enzymes from bacteria is now suggested in haemorrhagic pancreatitis, and more attention to bacteriology in human acute pancreatitis is urgently needed. Amidase levels were highest in peritoneal fluid, suggesting a rationale for peritoneal lavage in the treatment of acute pancreatitis, and it is unlikely that Trasylol can give any benefit. The assessment of treatment of acute pancreatitis will be unsatisfactory as long as the proportion of haemorrhagic to interstitial pancreatitis in any series is not known accurately. PMID:6987958

  6. Sampling bacteria with a laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We also compared these data to samples of usual collection and filtering. The results of these laser measurements are very promising.

  7. Magnetic bacteria against MIC

    SciTech Connect

    Javaherdashti, R. [I.D.R.O.-IR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    In this article, it is suggested to use the sensitivity of magnetotactic bacteria to changes of magnetic field direction and the natural ability of this bacteria in rapid growth during relatively short time intervals against corrosion-enhancing bacteria and especially sulfate-reducing bacteria. If colonies of sulfate-reducing bacteria could be packed among magnetotactic bacteria, then, by applying sufficiently powerful magnetic field (about 0.5 gauss), all of these bacteria (magnetic and non-magnetic) will be oriented towards an Anti-bacteria agent (oxygen or biocide). So, Microbiologically-Influenced Corrosion in the system would be controlled to a large extent.

  8. Back To Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Explores new research about bacteria. Discusses bacterial genomes, archaea, unusual environments, evolution, pathogens, bacterial movement, biofilms, bacteria in the body, and a bacterial obsession. Contains 29 references. (JRH)

  9. The Impact of Different Antibiotic Regimens on the Emergence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Ruan, Shigui

    The Impact of Different Antibiotic Regimens on the Emergence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria-resistant bacteria is a major public health threat. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria by antimicrobial-susceptible bacteria. The emergence and spread of these bacteria is complex and requires

  10. Management of a subclavian artery thrombosis causing acute anterior wall infarction and concurrent left arm ischemia in a patient with prior coronary bypass.

    PubMed

    Akgüllü, Ça?da?; Ery?lmaz, Ufuk; Zencir, Cemil; Güngör, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    We report a 57-year-old patient with acute anterior wall infarction with a history of a coronary baypass graft operation in 2007. He also had concurrent left arm cyanosis and severe pain. He had received diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma one month previously and had had his first chemotherapy in the previous week with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil. After the angiography, a giant thrombus was detected in the proximal left subclavian artery, deteriorating the flows of both left internal mammarian artery (LIMA) to left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery graft, as well as the left brachial artery. The proximal subclavian artery was stented and good flow was achieved. Through the LIMA, the distal part of LAD, which was totally obstructed with probable distal thrombus embolization, was reached and a percutaneous balloon angioplasty performed. However, the no-reflow phenomenon was observed in distal LAD. A Fogarty traction of thrombus was performed successfully for the revascularization of the left arm. Approximately 30 minutes after the procedure, both angina and ST segment elevation in ECG were resolved under unfractioned heparin and nitroglycerin infusion. However, the patient died due to sepsis seven days after admission to hospital. In the literature, there are only a few previous reports on this rare clinical entity. The eitology, presentation, and the possible management strategies of this clinical entity is presented in this report. PMID:25620337

  11. KIT exon 8 mutations associated with core-binding factor (CBF)-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cause hyperactivation of the receptor in response to stem cell factor.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Tobias M; Schnittger, Susanne; Ellwart, Joachim W; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Spiekermann, Karsten

    2005-04-15

    KIT exon 8 mutations are located in the extracellular portion of the receptor and are strongly associated with core-binding factor (CBF)-acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To characterize the functional role of these mutants, we analyzed the proproliferative and antiapoptotic potential of 3 KIT exon 8 mutations in interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent Ba/F3 cells. All KIT exon 8 mutants induced receptor hyperactivation in response to stem cell factor (SCF) stimulation in terms of proliferation and resistance toward apoptotic cell death. A representative KIT exon 8 mutant showed spontaneous receptor dimerization, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and conferred IL-3-independent growth to Ba/F3 cells. MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activation was essential for the phenotype of this mutant. Additionally, imatinib inhibited proliferation of KIT exon 8 mutant-expressing Ba/F3 cells. Our data show that KIT exon 8 mutations represent gain-of-function mutations and might represent a new molecular target for treatment of CBF leukemias. PMID:15618474

  12. The effect of recurrent episodes of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and other organisms on mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Bar, D; Bennett, G J; González, R N; Rauch, B J; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of recurrent episodes of different types of clinical mastitis (CM) caused by gram-positive (Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp.) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas) bacteria, and other organisms (Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Corynebacterium bovis, yeast, miscellaneous) on the probability of mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows. Data from 30,233 lactations in cows of 7 dairy farms in New York State were analyzed. Cows were followed for the first 10 mo in lactation, or until death or culling occurred, or until the end of our study period. Generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson error distribution were used to study the effects of recurrent cases of the different types of CM and several other factors (herd, parity, month of lactation, current year and season, profitability, net replacement cost, other diseases) on cows' probability of death (model 1) or being culled (model 2). Primiparous and multiparous cows were modeled separately because they had different risks of mortality and culling and potentially different CM effects on mortality and culling. Approximately 30% of multiparous cows had at least one case of CM in lactation compared with 16.6% of primiparous cows. Multipara also had higher lactational incidence risks of second (10.7%) and third (4.4%) cases than primipara (3.7% and 1.1%, respectively). For primipara, CM increased the probability of death, with each successive case occurring in a month being increasingly lethal. In multipara, gram-negative CM increased the probability of death, especially when the gram-negative case was the first or second CM case in lactation. Primiparous cows with CM were more likely to be culled after CM than if they did not have CM, particularly after a second or third case. In multipara, any type of CM increased the probability of being culled. Gram-negative CM cases were associated with the numerically highest risk of culling. PMID:21943738

  13. Acute Lung Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mac Sweeney, Rob; McAuley, Daniel F.; Matthay, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Lung failure is the most common organ failure seen in the intensive care unit. The pathogenesis of acute respiratory failure (ARF) can be classified as (1) neuromuscular in origin, (2) secondary to acute and chronic obstructive airway diseases, (3) alveolar processes such as cardiogenic and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and pneumonia, and (4) vascular diseases such as acute or chronic pulmonary embolism. This article reviews the more common causes of ARF from each group, including the pathological mechanisms and the principles of critical care management, focusing on the supportive, specific, and adjunctive therapies for each condition. PMID:21989697

  14. The Museum of Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Museum of Bacteria serves as a clearinghouse of Web links on bacteria and bacteriology and also provides "crystal-clear information about many aspects of bacteria." The Museum of Bacteria is provided by the Foundation of Bacteria, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the field of bacteriology. Links are selected for a general audience, although one section is geared toward professionals in the field. Some of the latest features of the Museum are an "exhibit" on the good bacteria found in food and a Student Hall where students can present their own bacteria-related projects.

  15. Resveratrol causes arrest in the S-phase prior to Fas-independent apoptosis in CEM-C7H2 acute leukemia cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Bernhard; I Tinhofer; M Tonko; H Hübl; M J Ausserlechner; R Greil; R Kofler; A Csordas

    2000-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4?-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), in the concentration range of 20 ?M and above, induced arrest in the S-phase and apoptosis in the T cell-derived T-ALL lymphocytic leukemia cell line CEM-C7H2 which is deficient in functional p53 and p16. Expression of transgenic p16\\/INK4A, which causes arrest in G0\\/G1, markedly reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells. Antagonist antibodies to Fas or FasL, or constitutive

  16. Las Bacterias: Más que Patógenos

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Trudy Wassenaar (consultant; )

    2002-07-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article reveals that there are more bacteria on Earth than there are humans. Bacteria: inhabit every environment on the planet, playing a key ecological role, can be good for our health -- for example, by helping us digest food, and can cause disease even though the human body is not the natural host for many bacteria.

  17. The identification and biogeochemical interpretation of fossil magnetotactic bacteria

    E-print Network

    The identification and biogeochemical interpretation of fossil magnetotactic bacteria Robert E. Available online 14 August 2007. Abstract Magnetotactic bacteria, which most commonly live within the oxic, specifically magnetite or greigite. The crystals cause the bacteria to orient themselves passively with respect

  18. Cystitis - acute

    MedlinePLUS

    Acute cystitis is a bacterial infection of the bladder or lower urinary tract. Acute means sudden or severe. ... may include urine cultures to make sure the bacterial infection is gone. Lifestyle changes may help prevent some ...

  19. Bronchitis - acute

    MedlinePLUS

    Davids S, Schapira RM. Respiratory diseases, acute bronchitis. In: Bope ET, Kellerman RD, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2014 . 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:section 6. Ferri FF. Acute bronchitis. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's ...

  20. Acute lung inflammation and ventilator-induced lung injury caused by ATP via the P2Y receptors: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Hiroki; Amaya, Fumimasa; Hashimoto, Soshi; Ueno, Hiroshi; Beppu, Satoru; Mizuta, Mitsuhiko; Shime, Nobuaki; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Hashimoto, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    Background Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is an endogenous signaling molecule involved in multiple biological phenomena, including inflammation. The effects of extracellular ATP in the lung have not been fully clarified. This study examined 1) the biological roles of extracellular ATP in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation and 2) the possibility of involvement of extracellular ATP in mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury. Methods The effects of intratracheal ATP on lung permeability, edema or lung inflammation were assessed by measurements of the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio and lung permeability index, immunohistochemistry and expression of key cytokines by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The ATP concentration in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from mice mechanically ventilated was measured by luciferin-luciferase assay. The suppressive effects of a P2 receptor antagonist on ventilator-induced lung inflammation were also examined. Results ATP induced inflammatory reactions in the lung mainly via the ATP-P2Y receptor system. These reactions were alleviated by the co-administration of a specific P2 receptor antagonist. Mechanical ventilation with a large tidal volume caused lung inflammation and increased the ATP concentration in BAL fluid. P2 receptor antagonism partially mitigated the inflammatory effects of large tidal volume ventilation. Conclusion Our observations suggest that the ATP-P2Y receptor system is partially involved in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury. PMID:19077288

  1. Acute obstruction.

    PubMed

    Sperry, Jason; Cohen, Mitchell Jay

    2014-02-01

    Acute obstruction of the gastrointestinal or biliary tract represents a common problem for acute care surgeons. It is with appropriate clinical evaluation, planning, and physical examination follow-up that acute care surgeons are able to appropriately diagnose, manage, and resolve this difficult group of surgical problems and minimize the morbidity associated with each. PMID:24267500

  2. Antagonism of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Phytopathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Ronèl; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Bezuidenhout, Johannes J.; Kotzé, Johannes M.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from plant surfaces and plant-associated products, were found to be antagonistic to test strains of the phytopathogens Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. Effective “in vitro” inhibition was found both on agar plates and in broth cultures. In pot trials, treatment of bean plants with a Lactobacillus plantarum strain before inoculation with P. syringae caused a significant reduction of the disease incidence. Images PMID:16347150

  3. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1995-05-30

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  4. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  5. Acute Ankle Sprain: An Update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DOUGLAS IVINS

    Acute ankle injury, a common musculoskeletal injury, can cause ankle sprains. Some evidence suggests that previous injuries or limited joint flexibility may contribute to ankle sprains. The initial assessment of an acute ankle injury should include questions about the timing and mechanism of the injury. The Ottawa Ankle and Foot Rules provide clinical guidelines for excluding a fracture in adults

  6. Bioelectricity Aware of bacteria

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    that are responsible. To verify this hypothesis, they genetically modified bacteria to replace in the pili, these amino acids with alanine, aliphatic*. Result: the genetically changed bacteria does drive more electricity

  7. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  8. Acute hand infections.

    PubMed

    Osterman, Meredith; Draeger, Reid; Stern, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The continued emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the development of only a few new classes of antibiotics over the past 50 years have made the treatment of acute hand infections problematic. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important, because hand stiffness, contractures, and even amputation can result from missed diagnoses or delayed treatment. The most common site of hand infections is subcutaneous tissue and the most common mechanism is trauma. An immunocompromised state, intravenous drug abuse, diabetes mellitus, and steroid use all predispose to infections. PMID:25070032

  9. Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This on-line exercise is focused on lactic acid bacteria, a group of related bacteria that produce lactic acid as a result of carbohydrate fermentation. It includes a protocol for the enrichment of lactic acid bacteria from enriched samples (like yogurt, sauerkraut, decaying plant matter, and tooth plaque). Three parameters are measured: growth, culture diversity, and pH. The exercise also includes instructions for the isolation of some of these bacteria by using the streak-plate method.

  10. CHAPTER IV-2 BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomopathogenic bacteria provide an alternative to chemical pesticides used in insect control programs. Today, the principal microbial insecticides utilize spore forming bacteria or toxins produced by these bacteria as their active ingredients, either in formulations or by incorporation of toxin g...

  11. Bacteria: Friend or Foe?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Brock (Roland Park Public School; )

    2003-01-10

    This lesson explores "good" and "bad" bacteria. Students can draw "Wanted!" bacteria mug shots, create composting trials and designs, produce a skit involving a boastful virus and bacterium, experiment with soil and ordinary objects in the lab, write a news story about an outbreak, complete a multiple-choice bacteria quiz and more!

  12. Acute metabolic response in myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Opie, L. H.

    1971-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is viewed as a severe trauma causing a generalized metabolic reaction; an acute emotional stress with further metabolic implications; and a localized wound in which there is an acute increase in carbohydrate metabolism, followed by protein synthetic reactions leading to scar formation. The metabolic response is vital to the patient's successful adaptation to his myocardial infarction. PMID:4324636

  13. Development of chronic and acute golden Syrian hamster infection models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo.

    PubMed

    Zuerner, R L; Alt, D P; Palmer, M V

    2012-03-01

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several Leptospira species. Onset of an acute lethal infection following inoculation with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for pathogenesis studies. An important exception is the outcome following inoculation of hamsters with live L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, the primary cause of bovine leptospirosis and a cause of human infections. Typically, inoculation of hamsters with L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo fails to induce clinical signs of infection. In this study, the authors defined LD(50) and ID(50) for 2 strains of L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo: JB197 and 203. Both strains infected hamsters with ID(50) values of approximately 1.5 × 10(2) bacteria yet differed in tissue invasion and interaction with leukocytes, resulting in widely divergent clinical outcomes. Hamsters infected with strain 203 established renal colonization within 4 days postinfection and remained asymptomatic with chronic renal infections similar to cattle infected with serovar Hardjo. In contrast, hamsters infected with strain JB197 developed a rapidly debilitating disease typical of acute leptospirosis common in accidental hosts (eg, humans) with an LD(50) of 3.6 × 10(4) bacteria. Evidence that strain JB197 resides in both extracellular and intracellular environments during hamster infection was obtained. Development of models that result in chronic and acute forms of leptospirosis provides a platform to study L. borgpetersenii pathogenesis and to test vaccines for the prevention of leptospirosis. PMID:21670193

  14. Acute phlegmonous gastritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. OToole; J. A. Morris

    1988-01-01

    A fatal case of acute phlegmonous gastritis in a 30 year old man is reported. It was caused by Group A Streptococcus (M type 1, T type 1). Although extremely rare, clinicians need to be aware of this condition as, without intervention, it is rapidly fatal. The recommended treatment is antibiotics combined with surgical resection.

  15. Bacteria Are Everywhere!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    AMPS GK-12 Program,

    Students are introduced to the concept of engineering biological organisms and studying their growth to be able to identify periods of fast and slow growth. They learn that bacteria are found everywhere, including on the surfaces of our hands. Student groups study three different conditions under which bacteria are found and compare the growth of the individual bacteria from each source. In addition to monitoring the quantity of bacteria from differ conditions, they record the growth of bacteria over time, which is an excellent tool to study binary fission and the reproduction of unicellular organisms.

  16. Bacteria make gasohol from corn stalk wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-03

    Scientists at MIT have developed two strains of bacteria that convert corn stalks into ethanol. The bacteria, isolated from the first compartment of the cows rumen, were chemically treated to cause genetic mutations that could tolerate higher concentrations of alcohol and produce little lactic acid. The bacterial methods end product is a fuel that consists of 4% ethanol and 96% water, and by the fermentation of cellulose, rather than starch, the hydrolyzation step is eliminated.

  17. Prevalence of gene rearrangements in Mexican children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a population study-report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Pompa-Mera, Ericka Nelly; Ocaña-Mondragón, Alicia; Rangel-López, Angélica; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María Del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010-2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children. PMID:25692130

  18. Prevalence of Gene Rearrangements in Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Population Study—Report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the Identification of the Causes of Childhood Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Pompa-Mera, Ericka Nelly; Ocaña-Mondragón, Alicia; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010–2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children. PMID:25692130

  19. [Infections of finger and toe nails due to fungi and bacteria].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Paasch, U; Handrick, W

    2014-04-01

    Infections of the finger and the toe nails are most frequently caused by fungi, primarily dermatophytes. Causative agents of tinea unguium are mostly anthropophilic dermatophytes. Both in Germany, and worldwide, Trichophyton rubrum represents the main important causative agent of onychomycoses. Yeasts are isolated from fungal nail infections, both paronychia and onychomycosis far more often than generally expected. This can represent either saprophytic colonization as well as acute or chronic infection of the nail organ. The main yeasts causing nail infections are Candida parapsilosis, and Candida guilliermondii; Candida albicans is only in third place. Onychomycosis due to molds, or so called non-dermatophyte molds (NDM), are being increasingly detected. Molds as cause of an onychomycosis are considered as emerging pathogens. Fusarium species are the most common cause of NDM onychomycosis; however, rare molds like Onychocola canadensis may be found. Bacterial infections of the nails are caused by gram negative bacteria, usually Pseudomonas aeruginosa (recognizable because of green or black coloration of the nails) but also Klebsiella spp. and gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of onychomycosis includes application of topical antifungal agents (amorolfine, ciclopirox). If more than 50?% of the nail plate is affected or if more than three out of ten nails are affected by the fungal infection, oral treatment using terbinafine (in case of dermatophyte infection), fluconazole (for yeast infections), or alternatively itraconazole are recommended. Bacterial infections are treated topically with antiseptic agents (octenidine), and in some cases with topical antibiotics (nadifloxacin, gentamicin). Pseudomonas infections of the nail organ are treated by ciprofloxacin; other bacteria are treated according to the results of culture and sensitivity testing. PMID:24718510

  20. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES PERSISTENT AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT The endotoxin component of organic dusts causes acute reversible airflow obstruction and airway inflammation. To test the hypothesis that endotoxin alone causes airway remodeling, we have compared the response of two inbred mouse strains to subchronic endotoxin ...

  1. Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Causes and Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Environment Spread of Disease Exposure Legionella in the Environment Legionnaires' disease (LEE-juh-nares) is caused by ... The Legionella bacteria are found naturally in the environment, usually in water. The bacteria grow best in ...

  2. Bacteria: Fossil Record

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This description of the fossil record of bacteria focuses on one particular group of bacteria, the cyanobacteria or blue-green algae, which have left a fossil record that extends far back into the Precambrian. The oldest cyanobacteria-like fossils known are nearly 3.5 billion years old and are among the oldest fossils currently known. Cyanobacteria are larger than most bacteria and may secrete a thick cell wall. More importantly, cyanobacteria may form large layered structures, called stromatolites (if more or less dome-shaped) or oncolites (if round). The site also refers to pseudomorphs of pyrite and siderite, and a group of bacteria known as endolithic. Two links are available for more information. One provides information on the discovery of possible remains of bacteria-like organisms on a meteorite from Mars and the other has a research report on fossilized filamentous bacteria and other microbes, found in Cretaceous amber.

  3. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  4. Bacteria TMDL Projects

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    of the projects are listed below. ? Peach CreekWater Quality Improvement Project ? Monitoring and Educational Programs Focused on Bacteria and Nutrient Runoff on Dairy Operations in the LeonWatershed ? Development of the Plum CreekWPP ? Impact of Proper... Star Healthy Streams * ? Environmental Management of Grazing Lands * *TWRI-managed projects More information on the initiative is available at www.tsswcb.state.tx.us/managementprogram/ initiatives/bacteria. Bacteria Projects Across the State...

  5. Introduction to Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    DiscoverySchool.com

    2007-12-12

    This science site has students research how bacteria move, where they live, and how they reproduce; learn how bacteria can be helpful or harmful; and create a design illustrating what they have learned about bacteria. Included in the lesson plan are the objectives, needed materials and Web sites, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation, extensions, suggested reading, and vocabulary. Teachers can link to Teaching Tools to create custom worksheets, puzzles, and quizzes. A printable version of the lesson plan can be downloaded. The video Bacteria, Viruses and Allergies can be purchased and comprehension questions and answers can be downloaded.

  6. Role of bacteria in oral carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Metgud, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer appears to be increasing in incidence, and mortality has hardly improved over the past 25 years. Better understanding of the etiopathogenesis should lead to more accurate and earlier diagnosis and more effective treatments with fewer adverse effects. Despite increasing interest in the possible relationships between bacteria and the different stages of cancer development, the association of bacteria with cancer of the oral cavity has yet to be adequately examined. Different bacteria have been proposed to induce carcinogenesis, either through induction of chronic inflammation or by interference, either directly or indirectly, with eukaryotic cell cycle and signaling pathways or by metabolism of potentially carcinogenic substances like acetaldehyde, causing mutagenesis. This review presents the possible carcinogenesis pathway involved in bacterial carcinogenesis, commonly implicated bacteria in oral carcinogenesis and their role in cancer therapeutics as well.

  7. Some Bacteria Are Beneficial!

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.

    1995-01-01

    Most people would agree that bacteria usually spell trouble where the quality of drinking water is con cerned. However, recent studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) under the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program have shown that some bacteria can improve the quality of water.

  8. Bacteria turn tiny gears

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-01-01

    Swarms of bacteria turn two 380-micron long gears, opening the possibility of building hybrid biological machines at the microscopic scale. Read more at Wired: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/12/bacterial-micro-machine/#more-15684 or Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=brownian-motion-bacteria

  9. Penetration of bacteria into meat.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, C O; Penney, N

    1977-01-01

    Bacteria are confined to the surface of meat during the logarithmic phase of growth. When proteolytic bacteria approach their maximum cell density, extracellular proteases secreted by the bacteria apparently break down the connective tissue between muscle fibers, allowing the bacteria to penetrate the meat. Non-proteolytic bacteria do not penetrate meat, even when grown in association with proteolytic species. Images PMID:406846

  10. Specific and Rapid Detection by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization of Bacteria in Clinical Samples Obtained from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hogardt, Michael; Trebesius, Karlheinz; Geiger, Anna M.; Hornef, Mathias; Rosenecker, Josef; Heesemann, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    We report on the rapid and specific detection of bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). On the basis of comparative sequence analysis, we designed oligonucleotide probes complementary to species-specific 16S rRNA regions of these microorganisms and demonstrated the specificities of the probes by hybridization of different remotely related as well as closely related reference strains. Furthermore, in a pilot project we investigated 75 sputum samples and 10 throat swab specimens from CF patients by FISH and detected Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus within these specimens. The specificity of FISH was 100% in comparison to the results of conventional microbial culture. In contrast, the sensitivity of standard laboratory cultivation was moderately higher, since the limit for microscopic detection of bacteria within sputum samples by FISH was approximately 4 × 105 CFU/ml of sputum (resulting in a 90% sensitivity for FISH). Moreover, we demonstrated that FISH will be useful for the rapid detection of bacteria that cause acute pulmonary exacerbations in CF patients, as demonstrated in patients with H. influenzae, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa exacerbations. Therefore, FISH is a valuable additional method for the rapid and specific detection of bacteria in clinical samples from CF patients, in particular, patients with pulmonary exacerbations. PMID:10655391

  11. BdlA, DipA and Induced Dispersion Contribute to Acute Virulence and Chronic Persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Petrova, Olga E.; Su, Shengchang; Lau, Gee W.; Panmanee, Warunya; Na, Renuka; Hassett, Daniel J.; Davies, David G.; Sauer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of causing both acute and chronic infections. Differences in virulence are attributable to the mode of growth: bacteria growing planktonically cause acute infections, while bacteria growing in matrix-enclosed aggregates known as biofilms are associated with chronic, persistent infections. While the contribution of the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth to virulence is now widely accepted, little is known about the role of dispersion in virulence, the active process by which biofilm bacteria switch back to the planktonic mode of growth. Here, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa dispersed cells display a virulence phenotype distinct from those of planktonic and biofilm cells. While the highest activity of cytotoxic and degradative enzymes capable of breaking down polymeric matrix components was detected in supernatants of planktonic cells, the enzymatic activity of dispersed cell supernatants was similar to that of biofilm supernatants. Supernatants of non-dispersing ?bdlA biofilms were characterized by a lack of many of the degradative activities. Expression of genes contributing to the virulence of P. aeruginosa was nearly 30-fold reduced in biofilm cells relative to planktonic cells. Gene expression analysis indicated dispersed cells, while dispersing from a biofilm and returning to the single cell lifestyle, to be distinct from both biofilm and planktonic cells, with virulence transcript levels being reduced up to 150-fold compared to planktonic cells. In contrast, virulence gene transcript levels were significantly increased in non-dispersing ?bdlA and ?dipA biofilms compared to wild-type planktonic cells. Despite this, bdlA and dipA inactivation, resulting in an inability to disperse in vitro, correlated with reduced pathogenicity and competitiveness in cross-phylum acute virulence models. In contrast, bdlA inactivation rendered P. aeruginosa more persistent upon chronic colonization of the murine lung, overall indicating that dispersion may contribute to both acute and chronic infections. PMID:24901523

  12. Prebiotics in ImmunoModulation for Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Refaat A. Hegazi

    \\u000a Intestinal mucosal immune system plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis and its associated\\u000a complications. Prebiotics restore intestinal bacteria flora in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Moreover, they exert\\u000a beneficial anti-infective and metabolic effects. Earlier studies show that prebiotics improve clinical outcome in patients\\u000a with severe acute pancreatitis. More research is warranted to study the effects

  13. Recombinational DNA Repair in Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Cox, Michael M.

    Recombinational DNA Repair in Bacteria: Postreplication Kevin P Rice,University of Wisconsin Recombinational DNA repair represents the primary function for homologous DNA recombination in bacteria. Most of genetic diversity, primarily during conjugation, homologous DNA recombination in bacteria is now

  14. Acute Bacterial Prostatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt G. Naber; Florian M. E. Wagenlehner; Wolfgang Weidner

    \\u000a Acute bacterial prostatitis (NIH category I) is diagnosed clinically and from urine culture. It can be a serious infection,\\u000a usually caused by uropathogens, with intense local pain, fever and other systemic symptoms. Prostatic massage is contrain-dicated,\\u000a microbiological diagnosis is usually performed by the midstream urine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Antimicrobial therapy is the most essential part of the therapeutic regimen. Treatment varies according to

  15. An inhalation model of acute Q fever in guinea pigs

    E-print Network

    Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi Elizabeth

    2009-05-15

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that can cause both acute and chronic disease (Q fever) in humans and infects many animals with varying clinical illness and persistence. A guinea pig aerosol-challenge model of acute Q fever...

  16. Inactivation of biofilm bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    LeChevallier, M W; Cawthon, C D; Lee, R G

    1988-01-01

    The current project was developed to examine inactivation of biofilm bacteria and to characterize the interaction of biocides with pipe surfaces. Unattached bacteria were quite susceptible to the variety of disinfectants tested. Viable bacterial counts were reduced 99% by exposure to 0.08 mg of hypochlorous acid (pH 7.0) per liter (1 to 2 degrees C) for 1 min. For monochloramine, 94 mg/liter was required to kill 99% of the bacteria within 1 min. These results were consistent with those found by other investigators. Biofilm bacteria grown on the surfaces of granular activated carbon particles, metal coupons, or glass microscope slides were 150 to more than 3,000 times more resistant to hypochlorous acid (free chlorine, pH 7.0) than were unattached cells. In contrast, resistance of biofilm bacteria to monochloramine disinfection ranged from 2- to 100-fold more than that of unattached cells. The results suggested that, relative to inactivation of unattached bacteria, monochloramine was better able to penetrate and kill biofilm bacteria than free chlorine. For free chlorine, the data indicated that transport of the disinfectant into the biofilm was a major rate-limiting factor. Because of this phenomenon, increasing the level of free chlorine did not increase disinfection efficiency. Experiments where equal weights of disinfectants were used suggested that the greater penetrating power of monochloramine compensated for its limited disinfection activity. These studies showed that monochloramine was as effective as free chlorine for inactivation of biofilm bacteria. The research provides important insights into strategies for control of biofilm bacteria. Images PMID:2849380

  17. Monika Weber, Yale University Screen fast and cheap bacteria detection

    E-print Network

    Reed, Mark

    Monika Weber, Yale University Screen fast and cheap bacteria detection Every year food-borne bacteria cause thousands of infections in humans and animals. Outbreaks of E.Coli and Salmonella commonly method for disease detection and prevention remains unattainable. The most widely used method

  18. Professional Oral Health Care Reduces the Number of Oropharyngeal Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ishikawa; T. Yoneyama; K. Hirota; Y. Miyake; K. Miyatake

    2008-01-01

    Silent aspiration of oropharyngeal pathogenic organisms is a significant risk factor causing pneumonia in the elderly. We hypothesized that regular oral hygiene care will affect the presence of oropharyngeal bacteria. Professional cleaning of the oral cavity and\\/or the gargling of a disinfectant liquid solution was performed over a five-month period in three facilities for the dependent elderly. Total oropharyngeal bacteria,

  19. Plague Bacteria Target Immune Cells During Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melanie M. Marketon; R. William DePaolo; Kristin L. DeBord; Bana Jabri; Olaf Schneewind

    2005-01-01

    The plague is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague bacteria are thought to inject effector Yop proteins into host cells via the type III pathway. The identity of the host cells targeted for injection during plague infection is unknown. We found, using Yop beta-lactamase hybrids and fluorescent staining of live cells from plague-infected animals, that Y. pestis selected immune

  20. Acute asthma during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Stenius-Aarniala, B. S.; Hedman, J.; Teramo, K. A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute asthma during pregnancy is potentially dangerous to the fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an acute attack of asthma during pregnancy on the course of pregnancy or delivery, or the health of the newborn infant, and to identify undertreatment as a possible cause of the exacerbations. METHODS: Five hundred and four pregnant asthmatic subjects were prospectively followed and treated. The data on 47 patients with an attack of asthma during pregnancy were compared with those of 457 asthmatics with no recorded acute exacerbation and with 237 healthy parturients. RESULTS: Of 504 asthmatics, 177 patients were not initially treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Of these, 17% had an acute attack compared with only 4% of the 257 patients who had been on inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment from the start of pregnancy. There were no differences between the groups as to length of gestation, length of the third stage of labour, or amount of haemorrhage after delivery. No differences were observed between pregnancies with and without an exacerbation with regard to relative birth weight, incidence of malformations, hypoglycaemia, or need for phototherapy for jaundice during the neonatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with inadequate inhaled anti-inflammatory treatment during pregnancy run a higher risk of suffering an acute attack of asthma than those treated with an anti-inflammatory agent. However, if the acute attack of asthma is relatively mild and promptly treated, it does not have a serious effect on the pregnancy, delivery, or the health of the newborn infant. PMID:8733495

  1. A Wall of Funnels Concentrates Swimming Bacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Galajda, Peter; Keymer, Juan; Chaikin, Paul; Austin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Randomly moving but self-propelled agents, such as Escherichia coli bacteria, are expected to fill a volume homogeneously. However, we show that when a population of bacteria is exposed to a microfabricated wall of funnel-shaped openings, the random motion of bacteria through the openings is rectified by tracking (trapping) of the swimming bacteria along the funnel wall. This leads to a buildup of the concentration of swimming cells on the narrow opening side of the funnel wall but no concentration of nonswimming cells. Similarly, we show that a series of such funnel walls functions as a multistage pump and can increase the concentration of motile bacteria exponentially with the number of walls. The funnel wall can be arranged along arbitrary shapes and cause the bacteria to form well-defined patterns. The funnel effect may also have implications on the transport and distribution of motile microorganisms in irregular confined environments, such as porous media, wet soil, or biological tissue, or act as a selection pressure in evolution experiments. PMID:17890308

  2. Pyogranulomatous Pneumonia in Goats Caused by an Undescribed Porphyromonas Species, "Porphyromonas katsikii".

    PubMed

    Filioussis, George; Petridou, Evanthia; Karavanis, Emmanouel; Frey, Joachim

    2015-03-01

    A yet-undescribed bacterial species, tentatively named "Porphyromonas katsikii," was isolated from individuals of a small goat herd with pyogranulomatous pneumonia during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease. The isolated bacteria grew in the form of black-pigmented colonies after 14 days of incubation under anaerobic conditions at 37°C on a tryptic soy blood agar medium. The bacteria were identified as a yet-undescribed Porphyromonas species by determination of the nucleotide sequence of the rrs 16S rRNA gene, and this species was tentatively named Porphyromonas katsikii. PCR amplification with specific primers for this yet-undescribed species revealed the presence of P. katsikii in the lung tissue of all affected animals, while no PCR signals were evidenced from the lungs of healthy goats or from goats with pasteurellosis caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. These data indicate P. katsikii as the causative agent of acute respiratory distress. P. katsikii is phylogenetically related to Porphyromonas somerae and Porphyromonas levii, which cause pathologies in humans and animals, respectively. P. katsikii was not detected by PCR from samples of the gingival pockets or of the faces of healthy goats. PMID:25540395

  3. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  4. Cultivation Media for Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Society For Microbiology

    2009-12-08

    Common bacteriological culture media (tryptic soy agar, chocolate agar, Thayer-Martin agar, MacConkey agar, eosin-methylene blue agar, hektoen agar, mannitol salt agar, and sheep blood agar) are shown uninoculated and inoculated with bacteria.

  5. Bacteria in shear flow

    E-print Network

    Marcos, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria are ubiquitous and play a critical role in many contexts. Their environment is nearly always dynamic due to the prevalence of fluid flow: creeping flow in soil, highly sheared flow in bodily conduits, and turbulent ...

  6. Genetically engineered acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria by bacteriophage transduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.E.; Bruhn, D.F.; Bulmer, D.F.

    1989-05-10

    A bacteriophage capable of infecting acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria and processes for genetically engineering acidophilic bacteria for biomining or sulfur removal from coal are disclosed. The bacteriophage is capable of growth in cells existing at pH at or below 3.0. Lytic forms of the phage introduced into areas experiencing acid drainage kill the bacteria causing such drainage. Lysogenic forms of the phage having genes for selective removal of metallic or nonmetallic elements can be introduced into acidophilic bacteria to effect removal of the desired element from ore or coal. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the ?-1, ?-3, and ?-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

  8. The Use of Bacteria for Remediation of Mercury Contaminated Groundwater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many processes of mercury transformation in the environment are bacteria mediated. Mercury properties cause some difficulties of remediation of mercury contaminated environment. Despite the significance of the problem of mercury pollution, methods of large scale bioremediation ...

  9. Acute mercurial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Milne, James; Christophers, Allen; Silva, Pamela De

    1970-01-01

    Milne, J., Christophers, A., and de Silva, Pamela (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 334-338. Acute mercurial pneumonitis. Mercury vapour has been shown to cause acute effects on the lung when inhaled in high concentrations. Four men, exposed to mercury inside a tank, developed, hours later, signs and symptoms of an acute febrile illness with severe pulmonary irritation, characterized by fever, rigors, cough, dyspnoea, and tightness in the chest. A review of the literature revealed that this syndrome had been described and investigated previously in fewer than 20 cases during the past 40 years, and is apparently little known. Fatalities have been described, particularly in children, and necropsy evidence has consistently revealed the pattern of an acute diffuse interstitial pneumonitis, accompanied by profuse fibrinous exudation and erosion of the bronchial and bronchiolar lining. The two common features in all reports are the heating of mercury or the entering into a confined space, or both. Adequate respiratory protection by an efficient air-supplied respirator is mandatory in industrial circumstances of the kind described in this report. PMID:5488692

  10. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery. PMID:8139793

  11. Stenting in Acute Lower Limb Arterial Occlusions

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Jowad; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria, E-mail: anna.belli@stgeorges.nhs.u [St George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Management of critical limb ischemia of acute onset includes surgical embolectomy, bypass grafting, aspiration thrombectomy, thrombolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy followed by treatment of the underlying cause. We present our experience with the use of stents to treat acute embolic/thrombotic occlusions in one iliac and three femoropopliteal arteries. Although this is a small case series, excellent immediate and midterm results suggest that stenting of acute occlusions of the iliac, superficial femoral, and popliteal arteries is a safe and effective treatment option.

  12. Chapter A7. Section 7.1. Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.; Sylvester, Marc A.

    1997-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the presence of several waterborne disease-causing organisms. The concentration of indicator bacteria is a measure of water safety for body-contact recreation or for consumption. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and identification, enumeration, and calculation procedures that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on fecal indicator bacteria.

  13. Biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis after treatment with moxifloxacin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Chatzikyrkou; Iyas Hamwi; Christian Clajus; Jan Becker; Carsten Hafer; Jan T Kielstein

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of reversible acute kidney injury. At least 70% of AIN is caused by various drugs, mainly penicillines and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Quinolones are only rarely known to cause AIN and so far cases have been mainly described with older fluoroquinolones. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a case of biopsy proven interstitial

  14. Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in renal transplant recipients presenting with acute diarrhea at a single center in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Kapeel; Abbas, Zaigham; Hassan, Syed Mujahid; Luck, Nasir Hassan; Aziz, Tahir; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cryptosporidium is an intracellular protozoan organism which causes diarrhea, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Renal transplant recipients are prone to develop a variety of infections including protozoal infections. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in our renal transplant recipients presenting with acute diarrhea. Patients and Methods: During six months of the study, 644 renal transplant recipients presented with acute diarrhea. Single stool sample was obtained for detailed analysis including gross and microscopic examination for red blood cells, pus cells, ova, cysts, and protozoa. The modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining was done to identify the oocysts of cryptosporidia. Results: Out of 644 renal transplant patients, oocysts of cryptosporidia were identified in 343 patients (53%). Detailed stool analysis of these patients showed the presence of numerous pus cells in 27 (7.9%) patients, co-infection with giardia intestinalis cysts in 15 (4.3%), and entamoeba histolytica cysts in 10 (2.9%). In all, out of 343 patients, 43 (12.5%) had dual infection with bacteria and protozoa in addition to cryptosporidiosis. Conclusions: Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing acute diarrhea in renal transplant recipients in our set up. Stool examination is usually negative for pus cells. It is recommended that in all transplant recipients presenting with acute diarrhea modified ZN staining should be done to rule out cryptosporidiosis in highly endemic areas like Pakistan. PMID:25374881

  15. Effect of static magnetic fields on bacteria: Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Kohno; Muneyo Yamazaki; Isao Kimura; Moriyasu Wada

    2000-01-01

    Biological effect of static magnetic field was investigated by using ferrite magnets to conduct a magnetic field exposure experiment on three species of bacteria: Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The effects were evaluated by culturing the bacteria and determining their growth rate, the maximum numbers of bacteria, and [3H]-thymidine incorporation. The results showed that the ferrite magnet caused

  16. Variations in the optical properties of a particle suspension associated with viral infection of marine bacteria

    E-print Network

    Stramski, Dariusz

    of marine bacteria Julia Uitz,a,* Dariusz Stramski,a Anne-Claire Baudoux,b,1 Rick A. Reynolds,a Vanessa M) and associated optical variability caused by viral infection of marine heterotrophic bacteria. The PSD covering, viral abundance increased, and submicron particles were produced as bacteria were disrupted and cell

  17. DCAP: A Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic That Targets the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Weibel, Douglas B.

    DCAP: A Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic That Targets the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Bacteria Ye-Jin Eun Information ABSTRACT: Persistent infections are frequently caused by dormant and biofilm-associated bacteria-based antimicrobial agents, mem- brane-targeting drugs effectively kill slow-growing bacteria. Herein we introduce 2

  18. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans].

    PubMed

    Rokosz, Natalia; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Wo?kowicz, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis. PMID:24491895

  19. Lamivudine treatment for severe acute HBV hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Lisotti; Francesco Azzaroli; Federica Buonfiglioli; Marco Montagnani; Flavio Alessandrelli; Giuseppe Mazzella

    Treatment for acute hepatitis B is recommended in order to reduce the risk of progression to fulminant hepatitis and the need of OLT. We report our experience on treatment with high dose lamivudine, in patients with severe acute HBV infection. The diagnosis was based on clinical and virological findings and exclusion of other known causes of liver damage. The decision

  20. Acute compartment syndrome of the foot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Dalmau-Coll; R. Franco-Gómez; D. Codina-Granó; J. Vega-García

    2011-01-01

    Acute and post-traumatic compartment syndrome of the foot is typically associated with mechanisms of high-energy, multiple foot fractures, particularly those caused by crushing or trapping. Early diagnosis and treatment in view of the suspicion of an acute compartment syndrome in a traumatic foot will help prevent the effects of myoneural necrosis. Even though there are various methods of compartment pressure

  1. Shewanella algae in acute gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Dey, S; Bhattacharya, D; Roy, S; Nadgir, S D; Patil, A; Kholkute, S D

    2015-01-01

    Shewanella algae is an emerging bacteria rarely implicated as a human pathogen. Previously reported cases of S. algae have mainly been associated with direct contact with seawater. Here we report the isolation of S. algae as the sole etiological agent from a patient suffering from acute gastroenteritis with bloody diarrhoea. The bacterium was identified by automated identification system and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Our report highlights the importance of looking for the relatively rare aetiological agents in clinical samples that does not yield common pathogens. It also underscores the usefulness of automated systems in identification of rare pathogens. PMID:25560029

  2. Therapeutic Strategy of Infections Caused by Antibiotic Resistant Pneumococci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael R. Jacobs

    SUMMARY Pneumococci are the commonest bacterial pathogens in acute otitis media, acute sinusitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Treatment of these diseases is usually on an outpatient basis and is empiric, and is designed to cover other common causes of these diseases such as Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis as the etiologic agents is not usually identified.

  3. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, A G; Prager, T C

    1996-02-01

    Retinal photoreceptor dysfunction is an uncommon and often unrecognized cause of acute visual loss. Acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) has been reported to cause cone and rod dysfunction. Patients with AZOOR may present with normal visual acuity, normal fluorescein angiography, and a normal fundus examination despite severe loss of visual field. A healthy young white female presented with acute, unilateral loss of visual field and an afferent pupillary defect, but normal visual acuity, color vision, fundus examination, and fluorescein angiogram. A pattern visual evoked potential was normal, but an electroretinogram showed a unilateral peripheral photoreceptor dysfunction consistent with the diagnosis of AZOOR. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the diagnosis of AZOOR and should consider an ERG in the evaluation of any patient with unexplained visual field loss even in the presence of normal visual acuity, color vision, fluorescein angiography, or retinal examination. PMID:8689493

  4. Arthropathic properties of cell wall polymers from normal flora bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Stimpson, S A; Brown, R R; Anderle, S K; Klapper, D G; Clark, R L; Cromartie, W J; Schwab, J H

    1986-01-01

    Peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PG-PS) fragments were purified from cell walls of group D streptococci (Streptococcus faecium, strains ATCC 9790 and F-24) with a protocol which minimizes autolytic activity and tested for ability to induce arthritis in rats. PG-PS fragments from cell walls of other normal flora bacteria (Peptostreptococcus productus, and Propionibacterium acnes), group A streptococci, and pseudomurein-PS fragments from cell walls of Methanobacterium formicicum, were similarly purified and tested. Upon intraarticular injection into rat ankles, all PG-PS polymers induced acute inflammation; pseudomurein-PS fragments were approximately five times less active than the PG-PS preparations. After intraperitoneal injection, P. acnes PG-PS induced a minimal acute arthritis, Peptostreptococcus productus PG-PS induced a moderately severe acute joint inflammation followed by a mild chronic arthritis, and both group A and group D streptococcal PG-PS induced severe acute arthritis which evolved into chronic, erosive joint disease; pseudomurein-PS fragments were without effect, consistent with a crucial role for the PG moiety of PG-PS. Chronic arthritis induced by group D streptococcal PG-PS subsided after 60 days, whereas that induced by group A streptococcal PG-PS was still active after 128 days. The arthropathic properties of this modest number of common normal flora bacteria suggest that different PG-PS structures derived from the normal flora have the potential to induce a wide range of responses, from transient acute to chronic erosive joint disease. Images PMID:3940996

  5. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  6. What Is Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in blood vessels caused by cuts or bruises. White blood cells White blood cells help the body fight infections. Lymphocytes ... is acute lymphocytic leukemia classified? ” Granulocytes These are white blood cells that have granules in them, which ...

  7. Acute dyspnea in a postpartum patient.

    PubMed

    Fittro, Kenneth; Nichols, William

    2014-01-01

    Topical benzocaine sprays used to relieve perineal pain in postpartum patients can, rarely, lead to methemoglobinemia. In patients with other medical issues, such as anemia, methemoglobinemia can become symptomatic, causing acute dyspnea and potentially becoming life-threatening. PMID:24361652

  8. Epileptic seizures in patients with acute catatonic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Primavera; A Fonti; P Novello; G Roccatagliata; L Cocito

    1994-01-01

    Acute catatonic syndrome is a condition that can be caused by a variety of metabolic, neurological, psychiatric, and toxic conditions, including neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Although ictal catatonia as a manifestation of non-convulsive status epilepticus has been described, reference to the occurrence of seizures in patients with acute catatonic syndrome is anecdotal. Twenty nine patients with acute catatonic syndrome were reviewed

  9. Corals diseases are a major cause of coral death

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corals, like humans, are susceptible to diseases. Some coral diseases are associated with pathogenic bacteria; however, the causes of most remain unknown. Some diseases trigger rapid and extensive mortality, while others slowly cause localized color changes or injure coral tiss...

  10. Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    1 Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency Purpose: To determine how well your E. coli cells took up and expressed GFP after transformation. Background: Transformation efficiency is a quantitative)______ (Fraction of DNA spread on plate) = ______ µg plasmid DNA spread on plate #12;2 5. Transformation efficiency

  11. Beneficial plant bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Burr; Anthony Caesar; M. N. Schrolh

    1984-01-01

    The recognition of plant growth?promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), a group of beneficial plant bacteria, as potentially useful for stimulating plant growth and increasing crop yields has evolved over the past several years to where today researchers are able to repeatedly use them successfully in field experiments. Increased growth and yields of potato, sugar beet, and radish have been reported. The most

  12. Sexual isolation in bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Majewski

    2001-01-01

    Bacteria exchange genes rarely but are promiscuous in the choice of their genetic partners. Inter-specific recombination has the advantage of increasing genetic diversity and promoting dissemination of novel adaptations, but suffers from the negative effect of importing potentially harmful alleles from incompatible genomes. Bacterial species experience a degree of 'sexual isolation' from genetically divergent organisms ^ recombination occurs more frequently

  13. Bacteria-surface interactions

    PubMed Central

    Tuson, Hannah H.; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    The interaction of bacteria with surfaces has important implications in a range of areas, including bioenergy, biofouling, biofilm formation, and the infection of plants and animals. Many of the interactions of bacteria with surfaces produce changes in the expression of genes that influence cell morphology and behavior, including genes essential for motility and surface attachment. Despite the attention that these phenotypes have garnered, the bacterial systems used for sensing and responding to surfaces are still not well understood. An understanding of these mechanisms will guide the development of new classes of materials that inhibit and promote cell growth, and complement studies of the physiology of bacteria in contact with surfaces. Recent studies from a range of fields in science and engineering are poised to guide future investigations in this area. This review summarizes recent studies on bacteria-surface interactions, discusses mechanisms of surface sensing and consequences of cell attachment, provides an overview of surfaces that have been used in bacterial studies, and highlights unanswered questions in this field. PMID:23930134

  14. Thermophilic bacteria from wool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Mulcock; Philippa E. Horn

    1965-01-01

    Twenty-one samples of wool removed from pelts either by the “pie” or “slipemaster” process were obtained from meat works throughout New Zealand. The number of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria on the samples was determined by the plate count method. The numbers of thermophiles varied from less than 102 to 1.9 × 10\\/g. Six isolates were obtained for final study; these

  15. Photobiology of Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. J. Hellingwerf; W. Crielaard; W. D. Hoff; H. C. P. Matthijs; L. R. Mur; B. J. Rotterdam

    1994-01-01

    The field of photobiology is concerned with the interactions between light and living matter. For Bacteria this interaction serves three recognisable physiological functions: provision of energy, protection against excess radiation and signalling (for motility and gene expression). The chemical structure of the primary light-absorbing components in biology (the chromophores of photoactive proteins) is surprisingly simple: tetrapyrroles, polyenes and derivatised aromats

  16. Acute kidney injury from pyelonephritis in an elderly man: case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sayed Husain; Manaf Alroumoh; Prince Mohan; Gabriel El-Kass; Surya V. Seshan; Marilyn Galler

    Pyelonephritis is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of acute kidney injury [1–5]. Acute non-obstructed bacterial pyelonephritis is an infrequent and rarely considered cause of rapidly progressive acute\\u000a kidney injury. A diagnostic challenge thus develops as it is difficult to clinically differentiate acute kidney injury secondary\\u000a to ischemic or toxic acute tubular necrosis or papillary necrosis versus acute interstitial nephritis

  17. Acute and Genetic Toxicity of Municipal Landfill Leachate

    E-print Network

    Brown, K.W.; Schrab, G.E.; Donnelly, K.C.

    sample to induce mutations in bacteria, bind to microbial DNA, or cause chromosome damage in diploid fungi. Genetically toxic chemicals may cause cancer, genetic disease, sterility, abortions, heart disease or a variety of other chronic effects...

  18. Drug induced acute pancreatitis: Does it exist?

    PubMed Central

    Tenner, Scott

    2014-01-01

    As the incidence of acute pancreatitis continues to rise, establishing the etiology in order to prevent recurrence is important. Although the etiology of acute pancreatitis is not difficult in the majority of patients, almost a quarter of patients are initially labeled as having idiopathic acute pancreatitis. When confronted with a patient with acute pancreatitis and no clear etiology defined as an absence alcoholism, gallstones (ultrasound and/or MRI), a normal triglyceride level, and absence of tumor, it often appears reasonable to consider a drug as the cause of acute pancreatitis. Over 100 drugs have been implicated by case reports as causing acute pancreatitis. While some of these case reports are well written, many case reports represent poorly written experiences of the clinician simply implicating a drug without a careful evaluation. Over-reliance on case reports while ignoring randomized clinical trials and large pharmacoepidemiologic surveys has led to confusion about drug induced acute pancreatitis. This review will explain that drug induced acute pancreatitis does occur, but it is rare, and over diagnosis leads to misconceptions about the disease resulting in inappropriate patient care, increased litigation and a failure to address the true entity: idiopathic acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469020

  19. INTER-SPECIES MODELS FOR ACUTE AQUATIC TOXICITY BASED ON MECHANISM OF ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide interspecies QSARs for acute toxicity to 17 aquatic species, such as fish, snail, tadpole, hydrozoan, crustacean, insect larvae, and bacteria developed using 5,000 toxic effect results for approximately 2400 chemicals....

  20. Recycling Antibiotics into GUMBOS: A New Combination Strategy to Combat Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cole, Marsha R; Hobden, Jeffery A; Warner, Isiah M

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, coupled with the lack of new antibiotics in development, is fast evolving into a global crisis. New strategies utilizing existing antibacterial agents are urgently needed. We propose one such strategy in which four outmoded ?-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin and oxacillin) and a well-known antiseptic (chlorhexidine di-acetate) were fashioned into a group of uniform materials based on organic salts (GUMBOS) as an alternative to conventional combination drug dosing strategies. The antibacterial activity of precursor ions (e.g., chlorhexidine diacetate and ?-lactam antibiotics), GUMBOS and their unreacted mixtures were studied with 25 clinical isolates with varying antibiotic resistance using a micro-broth dilution method. Acute cytotoxicity and therapeutic indices were determined using fibroblasts, endothelial and cervical cell lines. Intestinal permeability was predicted using a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. GUMBOS formed from ineffective ?-lactam antibiotics and cytotoxic chlorhexidine diacetate exhibited unique pharmacological properties and profound antibacterial activity at lower concentrations than the unreacted mixture of precursor ions at equivalent stoichiometry. Reduced cytotoxicity to invasive cell types commonly found in superficial and chronic wounds was also observed using GUMBOS. GUMBOS show promise as an alternative combination drug strategy for treating wound infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria. PMID:25867831

  1. Morphological aspects of Achacin-treated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Otsuka-Fuchino, H; Watanabe, Y; Hirakawa, C; Takeda, J; Tamiya, T; Matsumoto, J J; Tsuchiya, T

    1993-01-01

    1. The morphology of bacteria treated with the bactericidal glycoprotein, Achacin, purified from the giant African snail, Achatina fulica Férussac, has been studied. 2. Achacin lengthens the bodies of Escherichia coli by three to seven times. 3. Achacin damages the surface of Staphylococcus aureus and sinks the cytoplasmic membranes into the cytoplasm. 4. Achacin causes neither the leakage nor the destruction of cells. PMID:8097453

  2. Inhibition of RND-type efflux pumps confers the FtsZ-directed prodrug TXY436 with activity against Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Malvika; Zhang, Yongzheng; Parhi, Ajit K; Lavoie, Edmond J; Pilch, Daniel S

    2014-06-01

    Infections caused by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens are often difficult to treat, with the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains further restricting clinical treatment options. As a result, there is an acute need for the development of new therapeutic agents active against Gram-negative bacteria. The bacterial protein FtsZ has recently been demonstrated to be a viable antibacterial target for treating infections caused by the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus in mouse model systems. Here, we investigate whether an FtsZ-directed prodrug (TXY436) that is effective against S. aureus can also target Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli. We find that the conversion product of TXY436 (PC190723) can bind E. coli FtsZ and inhibit its polymerization/bundling in vitro. However, PC190723 is intrinsically inactive against wild-type E. coli, with this inactivity being derived from the actions of the efflux pump AcrAB. Mutations in E. coli AcrAB render the mutant bacteria susceptible to TXY436. We further show that chemical inhibition of AcrAB in E. coli, as well as its homologs in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, confers all three Gram-negative pathogens with susceptibility to TXY436. We demonstrate that the activity of TXY436 against E. coli and K. pneumoniae is bactericidal in nature. Evidence for FtsZ-targeting and inhibition of cell division in Gram-negative bacteria by TXY436 is provided by the induction of a characteristic filamentous morphology when the efflux pump has been inhibited as well as by the lack of functional Z-rings upon TXY436 treatment. PMID:24637241

  3. Three Activities: Bacteria Study, Micro Study, and Bacteria Killers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides a problem-based activity on risk assessment of environmental health issues. The lesson consists of three related activities: Bacteria Study, Micro Study and Bacteria Killers. "Bacteria Study" gives students hands-on experience with the concepts of epidemiology. "Micro Study" has students sketch, observe, and compare different types of bacteria that can grow in moist conditions. "Bacteria Killers" has students determine what kills bateria, especially in common household products. Detailed instructions are provided for each activity. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

  4. News and Research Good Bacteria

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    News and Research Good Bacteria Part 2 Article 13 Click here for Probiotics Basics Cooperation Is A No-brainer For Symbiotic Bacteria 9-4-2003 Humans may learn cooperation in kindergarten, but what about bacteria, whose behavior is preprogrammed by their DNA? Some legume plants, which rely

  5. Exopolysaccharides from marine bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Zhenming; Fang, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives, textiles, Pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria, including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  6. Lipoprotein sorting in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes the localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Some lipoproteins play vital roles in the sorting of other lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and ?-barrel proteins to the outer membrane. On the basis of results from biochemical, genetic, and structural studies, we discuss the biogenesis of lipoproteins in bacteria, their importance in cellular functions, and the molecular mechanisms underlying efficient sorting of hydrophobic lipoproteins to the outer membrane through the hydrophilic periplasm. PMID:21663440

  7. Bacteria, food, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rooks, Michelle G.

    2011-01-01

    Gut microbes are essential components of the human organism—helping us metabolize food into energy, produce micronutrients, and shape our immune systems. Having a particular pattern of gut microbes is also increasingly being linked to medical conditions including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and diabetes. Recent studies now indicate that our resident intestinal bacteria may also play a critical role in determining one's risk of developing cancer, ranging from protection against cancer to promoting its initiation and progression. Gut bacteria are greatly influenced by diet and in this review we explore evidence that they may be the missing piece that explains how dietary intake influences cancer risk, and discuss possible prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:21876723

  8. Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Russell Vreeland

    2009-01-09

    Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

  9. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page Print this page Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a fast-growing cancer of a type ... that your body needs. Tweet Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) How transplant can treat ALL Transplant outcomes for ...

  10. Bacteria: More Than Pathogens

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wassenaar, Trudy M.

    This ActionBioscience lesson plan has students explore the many roles of bacteria, harmful and beneficial. A detailed article written for ActionBioscience by a microbiologist provides background information, which is followed by discussion questions and educational activities designed for middle school to undergraduate biology courses. The Web site also provides carefully selected links for further exploring the topic, including useful sites for student research projects.

  11. Glacial Lake Hides Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-03-01

    This article highlights the published work of a geomicrobiology research team led by Eric Gaidos from the University of Hawaii and Brian Lanoil, from the University of California, Riverside. This group reports the identification of bacteria from an Icelandic sub-glacial lake, and how the collection and description of these microorganisms immured within glacial ice and sub-surface water serve as a model in the search for extra-terrestrial life.

  12. Bacteria in Confined Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilking, Connie; Weitz, David

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial cells can display differentiation between several developmental pathways, from planktonic to matrix-producing, depending upon the colony conditions. We study the confinement of bacteria in hydrogels as well as in liquid-liquid double emulsion droplets and observe the growth and morphology of these colonies as a function of time and environment. Our results can give insight into the behavior of bacterial colonies in confined spaces that can have applications in the areas of food science, cosmetics, and medicine.

  13. Glacial lake hides bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mark Peplow

    This article highlights the published work of a geomicrobiology research team led by Eric Gaidos from the University of Hawaii and Brian Lanoil, from the University of California, Riverside. This group reports the identification of bacteria from an Icelandic sub-glacial lake, and how the collection and description of these microorganisms immured within glacial ice and sub-surface water serve as a model in the search for extra-terrestrial life.

  14. QUORUM SENSING IN BACTERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa B. Miller; Bonnie L. Bassler

    2001-01-01

    ? Abstract Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density. Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. The detection of a minimal threshold stimulatory con- centration of an autoinducer leads to an alteration in gene expression. Gram-positive and Gram-negative

  15. Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-chewed into gum and chewed gums were molded to standard dimensions, sonicated and plated to determine numbers of colony-forming-units incorporated, yielding calibration curves of colony-forming-units retrieved versus finger-chewed in. In a second method, calibration curves were created by finger-chewing known numbers of bacteria into gum and subsequently dissolving the gum in a mixture of chloroform and tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (TE)-buffer. The TE-buffer was analyzed using quantitative Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qPCR), yielding calibration curves of total numbers of bacteria versus finger-chewed in. Next, five volunteers were requested to chew gum up to 10 min after which numbers of colony-forming-units and total numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum were determined using the above methods. The qPCR method, involving both dead and live bacteria yielded higher numbers of retrieved bacteria than plating, involving only viable bacteria. Numbers of trapped bacteria were maximal during initial chewing after which a slow decrease over time up to 10 min was observed. Around 108 bacteria were detected per gum piece depending on the method and gum considered. The number of species trapped in chewed gum increased with chewing time. Trapped bacteria were clearly visualized in chewed gum using scanning-electron-microscopy. Summarizing, using novel methods to quantify and qualify oral bacteria trapped in chewed gum, the hypothesis is confirmed that chewing of gum can trap and remove bacteria from the oral cavity. PMID:25602256

  16. Quantification and qualification of bacteria trapped in chewed gum.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Stefan W; van der Mei, Henny C; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J

    2015-01-01

    Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-chewed into gum and chewed gums were molded to standard dimensions, sonicated and plated to determine numbers of colony-forming-units incorporated, yielding calibration curves of colony-forming-units retrieved versus finger-chewed in. In a second method, calibration curves were created by finger-chewing known numbers of bacteria into gum and subsequently dissolving the gum in a mixture of chloroform and tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (TE)-buffer. The TE-buffer was analyzed using quantitative Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qPCR), yielding calibration curves of total numbers of bacteria versus finger-chewed in. Next, five volunteers were requested to chew gum up to 10 min after which numbers of colony-forming-units and total numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum were determined using the above methods. The qPCR method, involving both dead and live bacteria yielded higher numbers of retrieved bacteria than plating, involving only viable bacteria. Numbers of trapped bacteria were maximal during initial chewing after which a slow decrease over time up to 10 min was observed. Around 10(8) bacteria were detected per gum piece depending on the method and gum considered. The number of species trapped in chewed gum increased with chewing time. Trapped bacteria were clearly visualized in chewed gum using scanning-electron-microscopy. Summarizing, using novel methods to quantify and qualify oral bacteria trapped in chewed gum, the hypothesis is confirmed that chewing of gum can trap and remove bacteria from the oral cavity. PMID:25602256

  17. Ticagrelor for acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bansilal, Sameer; Bonaca, Marc P; Sabatine, Marc S

    2013-11-01

    Ticagrelor is a potent P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist characterized by a rapid onset, consistent and reversible antiplatelet effect, and an acceptable safety profile compared with existing adenosine diphosphate receptor blockers. In the large Phase III trial, PLATO, ticagrelor significantly reduced the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke as well as cardiovascular and all-cause mortality compared with clopidogrel in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. With its favorable impact on mortality, ticagrelor changes the landscape of anti-thrombotic therapy for patients with acute coronary syndromes. PMID:24147518

  18. The acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of acute respiratory failure. Its development leads to high rates of mortality, as well as short- and long-term complications, such as physical and cognitive impairment. Therefore, early recognition of this syndrome and application of demonstrated therapeutic interventions are essential to change the natural course of this devastating entity. In this review article, we describe updated concepts in ARDS. Specifically, we discuss the new definition of ARDS, its risk factors and pathophysiology, and current evidence regarding ventilation management, adjunctive therapies, and intervention required in refractory hypoxemia.

  19. The acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Modrykamien, Ariel M; Gupta, Pooja

    2015-04-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of acute respiratory failure. Its development leads to high rates of mortality, as well as short- and long-term complications, such as physical and cognitive impairment. Therefore, early recognition of this syndrome and application of demonstrated therapeutic interventions are essential to change the natural course of this devastating entity. In this review article, we describe updated concepts in ARDS. Specifically, we discuss the new definition of ARDS, its risk factors and pathophysiology, and current evidence regarding ventilation management, adjunctive therapies, and intervention required in refractory hypoxemia. PMID:25829644

  20. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    2002-01-01

    This week's Topic In Depth is about antibiotic resistant bacteria.The first site is a recent news report from BBC news (1) that describes some recent research on resistant strains of two "of the world's most dangerous bacteria. Next is a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) page (2) with a brief background on antibiotic resistance and how to prevent it. A much more in-depth report is provided by the Select Committee on Science and Technology of the British House of Lords (3). There has been some public concern over the use of antibiotic resistant bacteria strains as markers in genetically modified food crops. The next two resources present information specific to this topic. The first is from the European Federation of Biotechnology (4), and the second is a shorter report from the Council for Biotechnology Information (5). The Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics (6) has a consumer and patient information section that explains what individuals can do to help prevent the problem from increasing. Readers who need a brief primer on antibiotics may appreciate this Web site from the University of Edinburgh (7). The last site is a "bugs in the news" feature from the University of Kansas (8), which is an easy-to-read explanation of "what the heck" antibiotic resistance is.

  1. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  2. Acute compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco; Spoliti, Marco; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is one of the few true emergencies in orthopedics and traumatology. It is a painful condition caused by the increase interstitial pressure (intracompart-mental pressure – ICP) within a closed osteofascial compartment which impair local circulation. It occurs most often in the legs, but it can affects also the arms, hands, feet, and buttocks. It usually develops after a severe injury such as fractures or crush injury, but it can also occurs after a relatively minor injury and it may be iatrogenic. Uncommon causes of ACS have been also described, that suggest surgeons to pay great attention to this serious complication. Diagnosing ACS is difficult in clinical practice, even among expert surgeons. Currently, the diagnosis is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated ICP measures. ICP higher than 30 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure is significant of compartment syndrome. Once diagnosis is made, fasciotomy to release the affected compartment should be performed as early as possible because delayed decompression would lead to irreversible ischemic damage to muscles and peripheral nerves. Conclusion: acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency. There is still little consensus among authors about diagnosis and treatment of these serious condition, in particular about the ICP at which fasciotomy is absolutely indicated and the timing of wound closure. New investigations are needed in order to improve diagnosis and treatment of ACS. PMID:25878982

  3. Bacteria and Foodborne Illness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... consuming raw or undercooked pork or wild game. Chemicals Harmful chemicals that cause illness may contaminate foods such as ... hours to several days. C. botulinum and some chemicals affect the nervous system, causing symptoms such as ...

  4. Pepsin homologues in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Neil D; Bateman, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Background Peptidase family A1, to which pepsin belongs, had been assumed to be restricted to eukaryotes. The tertiary structure of pepsin shows two lobes with similar folds and it has been suggested that the gene has arisen from an ancient duplication and fusion event. The only sequence similarity between the lobes is restricted to the motif around the active site aspartate and a hydrophobic-hydrophobic-Gly motif. Together, these contribute to an essential structural feature known as a psi-loop. There is one such psi-loop in each lobe, and so each lobe presents an active Asp. The human immunodeficiency virus peptidase, retropepsin, from peptidase family A2 also has a similar fold but consists of one lobe only and has to dimerize to be active. All known members of family A1 show the bilobed structure, but it is unclear if the ancestor of family A1 was similar to an A2 peptidase, or if the ancestral retropepsin was derived from a half-pepsin gene. The presence of a pepsin homologue in a prokaryote might give insights into the evolution of the pepsin family. Results Homologues of the aspartic peptidase pepsin have been found in the completed genomic sequences from seven species of bacteria. The bacterial homologues, unlike those from eukaryotes, do not possess signal peptides, and would therefore be intracellular acting at neutral pH. The bacterial homologues have Thr218 replaced by Asp, a change which in renin has been shown to confer activity at neutral pH. No pepsin homologues could be detected in any archaean genome. Conclusion The peptidase family A1 is found in some species of bacteria as well as eukaryotes. The bacterial homologues fall into two groups, one from oceanic bacteria and one from plant symbionts. The bacterial homologues are all predicted to be intracellular proteins, unlike the eukaryotic enzymes. The bacterial homologues are bilobed like pepsin, implying that if no horizontal gene transfer has occurred the duplication and fusion event might be very ancient indeed, preceding the divergence of bacteria and eukaryotes. It is unclear whether all the bacterial homologues are derived from horizontal gene transfer, but those from the plant symbionts probably are. The homologues from oceanic bacteria are most closely related to memapsins (or BACE-1 and BACE-2), but are so divergent that they are close to the root of the phylogenetic tree and to the division of the A1 family into two subfamilies. PMID:19758436

  5. Antimicrobial Resistance Among Epidemiologically Important Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cassandra D. Salgado

    \\u000a The emergence of antimicrobial resistance among clinically relevant bacteria has resulted in profound changes in the approach\\u000a to treatment of infections caused by these pathogens. This chapter will focus on three epidemiologically important gram-positive\\u000a bacteria: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus species. Common infections due to these organisms, common resistance mechanisms, and available treatment options will be\\u000a reviewed.

  6. Simultaneous enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophs and anammox bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhao-Wei; Ding, Jing; Fu, Liang; Zhang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2014-12-01

    Interaction between denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) processes may play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. In this study, a coculture of denitrifying methanotrophs (DAMO archaea and DAMO bacteria) and anammox bacteria, initially sourced from the environment, was enriched with a supply of methane, nitrate, and ammonium. After a 4.5-month enrichment, simultaneous oxidation of methane and ammonium and reduction of nitrate were observed. The highest rate of nitrate reduction in the suspended DAMO culture was 4.84 mmol/L/day, and simultaneously, the highest ammonium removal rate was 4.07 mmol/L/day. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed the coexistence of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria. The development of anammox bacteria might reduce the enrichment time of DAMO microorganisms and promote the activity of DAMO archaea. The activity of the reactor fluctuated during the long-term operation, which might be caused by the formation of microbial clusters whereby DAMO archaea grew in aggregates that were surrounded by anammox and DAMO bacteria. This study is the first to demonstrate that it is feasible to establish a coculture of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria from environmental inocula. PMID:25056292

  7. NSAIDs and Acute Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pezzilli, Raffaele; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The resulting pain is the main symptom of acute pancreatitis and it should be alleviated as soon as possible. NSAIDs are the first line therapy for pain and they are generally administered to acute pancreatitis patients upon admission to the hospital. In addition, these drugs have also been used to prevent post-endoscopic cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, there are several reports indicating that NSAIDs may be the actual cause of acute pancreatitis. We carried out a literature search on PubMed/MEDLINE; all full text papers published in from January 1966 to November 2009 on the use of NSAIDs in acute pancreatitis were collected; the literature search was also supplemented by a review of the bibliographies of the papers evaluated. Thus, in this article, we will systematically review the current literature in order to better illustrate the role of NSAIDs in acute pancreatitis, in particular: i) NSAIDs as a cause of acute pancreatitis; ii) their use to prevent post-retrograde ERCP pancreatitis and iii) their efficacy for pain relief in the acute illness of the pancreas.

  8. Acute Bronchitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infection of the bronchial (say: "brawn-kee-ull") tree. The bronchial tree is made up of the tubes that carry ... usually caused by constant irritation of the bronchial tree, such as from smoking). Symptoms What are the ...

  9. Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Batthyány, Lara; Bianco, María Noel; Pérez, Walter; Pardo, Lorena; Algorta, Gabriela; Robino, Luciana; Suárez, Ramón; Navarro, Armando; Pírez, María Catalina; Schelotto, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed “complete” HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases.

  10. Bacteria in the Cafeteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series challenges kids to go on a microbe quest to solve a riddle. The online activity begins with a page of directions for how to find the missing letters of the riddle. As kids click their way around a virtual lunchroom, they are given 11 Yes/No questions asking whether the featured bacteria helps people. Along with the answer to the riddle, kids get a round of applause when they correctly answer all 11 questions.

  11. Bacteria in Solitary Confinement

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Even in clonal bacterial cultures, individual bacteria can show substantial stochastic variation, leading to pitfalls in the interpretation of data derived from millions of cells in a culture. In this issue of the Journal of Bacteriology, as part of their study on osmoadaptation in a cyanobacterium, Nanatani et al. describe employing an ingenious microfluidic device that gently cages individual cells (J Bacteriol 197:676–687, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.02276-14). The device is a welcome addition to the toolkit available to probe the responses of individual cells to environmental cues. PMID:25488297

  12. Oxygen Sensing Strategies in Mammals and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Taabazuing, Cornelius Y.; Hangasky, John A.; Knapp, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/?KG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection. PMID:24468676

  13. Differentiation of serological responses to Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O9 and Brucella species by immunoblot or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using whole bacteria and Yersinia outer membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Schoerner, C; Wartenberg, K; Röllinghoff, M

    1990-01-01

    Serum samples from 134 patients showing by the microagglutination test serological cross-reactivity between Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O9 and Brucella spp. were analyzed by immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques for the presence of antibodies directed against plasmid-encoded, yersinia-associated outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Since these OMPs are exclusively expressed in pathogenic strains of Yersinia spp., this characteristic was chosen for serological differentiation of infections caused by these bacteria. The presence of antibodies against plasmid-encoded OMPs of pathogenic Yersinia spp. in patient sera appeared to be a suitable means to identify acute or recent infection with Y. enterocolitica serotype O9, whereas the failure to detect such antibodies indicated an acute or recent infection with Brucella spp. Images PMID:2380382

  14. Predacious bacteria, Bdellovibrio with potential for biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Markelova, Natalia Y

    2010-11-01

    Bacteria of the genus of Bdellovibrio are highly motile Gram-negative predators of other Gram-negative bacteria causing lysis of their prey. Here we report results of studies on the interactions of Bdellovibrio with species of Alcaligenes, Campylobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Helicobacter, Pseudomonas, Legionella, and Shigella in agar lower, liquid media and cells attached to a surface. Helicobacter pylori was studied employing both actively growing and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells. The majority of the bacterial strains tested were found to be susceptible to Bdellovibrio. A significant observation was that Bdellovibrio attacked both actively growing and VBNC H. pylori, that phenomenon has never been reported. The results indicate that bdellovibrios have potential as biocontrol agents. PMID:20850380

  15. Nitrogen control in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, M J; Edwards, R A

    1995-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in prokaryotes involves the coordinated expression of a large number of enzymes concerned with both utilization of extracellular nitrogen sources and intracellular biosynthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds. The control of this expression is determined by the availability of fixed nitrogen to the cell and is effected by complex regulatory networks involving regulation at both the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. While the most detailed studies to date have been carried out with enteric bacteria, there is a considerable body of evidence to show that the nitrogen regulation (ntr) systems described in the enterics extend to many other genera. Furthermore, as the range of bacteria in which the phenomenon of nitrogen control is examined is being extended, new regulatory mechanisms are also being discovered. In this review, we have attempted to summarize recent research in prokaryotic nitrogen control; to show the ubiquity of the ntr system, at least in gram-negative organisms; and to identify those areas and groups of organisms about which there is much still to learn. PMID:8531888

  16. Can entropy save bacteria?

    E-print Network

    Suckjoon Jun

    2008-08-29

    This article presents a physical biology approach to understanding organization and segregation of bacterial chromosomes. The author uses a "piston" analogy for bacterial chromosomes in a cell, which leads to a phase diagram for the organization of two athermal chains confined in a closed geometry characterized by two length scales (length and width). When applied to rod-shaped bacteria such as Escherichia coli, this phase diagram predicts that, despite strong confinement, duplicated chromosomes will demix, i.e., there exists a primordial physical driving force for chromosome segregation. The author discusses segregation of duplicating chromosomes using the concentric-shell model, which predicts that newly synthesized DNA will be found in the periphery of the chromosome during replication. In contrast to chromosomes, these results suggest that most plasmids will be randomly distributed inside the cell because of their small sizes. An active partitioning system is therefore required for accurate segregation of low-copy number plasmids. Implications of these results are also sketched, e.g., on the role of proteins, segregation mechanisms for bacteria of diverse shapes, cell cycle of an artificial cell, and evolution.

  17. TSSWCB Bacteria-Related Projects

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    of the projects are listed below. ? Peach CreekWater Quality Improvement Project ? Monitoring and Educational Programs Focused on Bacteria and Nutrient Runoff on Dairy Operations in the LeonWatershed ? Development of the Plum CreekWPP ? Impact of Proper... Star Healthy Streams * ? Environmental Management of Grazing Lands * *TWRI-managed projects More information on the initiative is available at www.tsswcb.state.tx.us/managementprogram/ initiatives/bacteria. Bacteria Projects Across the State...

  18. Remote complications of spilled gallstones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: causes, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Hawasli, Abdelkader; Schroder, Donn; Rizzo, Joseph; Thusay, Manish; Takach, Thomas J; Thao, Umeng; Goncharova, Irina

    2002-04-01

    In the last 11 years (November 1989-December 2000), 5526 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed in a community residency training program. Two cases (0.04%) of remote complications secondary to spilled gallstones were identified. A 75-year-old woman presented with a sterile abscess in the abdominal wall containing gallstones 4 years and 4 months after an elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The second patient, a 43-year-old woman, presented with a subdiaphragmatic/subhepatic abscess containing gallstones. The abscess grew the same bacteria that were present 2 years and 3 months previously during a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute gangrenous cholecystitis. In both cases, pigmented gallstones were identified. Causes of gallstone spillage, means of prevention, and ways of managing this complication are discussed. PMID:12019573

  19. Pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Crea, Filippo; Liuzzo, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Experimental models of atherogenesis have provided a growing body of information about molecular mechanisms of plaque growth; however, transition from coronary stability to instability is less well understood due to the lack of animal models reflective of human disease. The abrupt clinical presentation of acute coronary syndromes gives a strong signal of discontinuity in the natural history of atherothrombosis. The causes of such discontinuity are complex, probably multiple, and still largely unknown. A better knowledge of the causes of coronary instability might allow identification of new therapeutic targets aimed at the preservation of plaque stability in those subjects in whom primary prevention fails to prevent plaque growth. The goal of this review was to propose a pathogenetic classification of acute coronary syndromes that might help in the search of new diagnostic algorithms and therapeutic targets. PMID:23158526

  20. Particles causing lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1984-04-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. 164 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.