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1

Acute urinary retention: causes and treatment.  

PubMed

Acute urinary retention often is secondary to obstruction of the bladder or distal genitourinary system, which may be induced by any of a number of medical or surgical conditions. Treatment varies according to the cause. PMID:7058160

Ochsner, M G

1982-02-01

2

Acute hemolysis caused by incidental trichlorfon exposure.  

PubMed

Trichlorfon (o-o-dimethyl-2,2,2-trichloro-hydroxyethylphosphate), an organophosphate, has a moderately potent anticholinesterase activity. Organophosphate poisoning is well known for its characteristic symptoms and signs, but acute hemolysis caused by trichlorfon is rarely reported. We present a patient who developed acute hemolysis and renal function impairment after percutaneous trichlorfon exposure. A 54-year-old man applied trichlorfon powder to his dog to kill its parasites. Half an hour later, the dog was suspected to die of cholinergic crisis and the patient felt abdominal cramping pain. Later, he developed severe nausea, vomiting, chills, high fever, and cold sweat. Laboratory work-up disclosed a picture of acute hemolysis, jaundice, renal function impairment and leukocytosis. However, there were no clinical features of acute cholinergic syndrome except gastrointestinal symptoms, and blood cholinesterase activities were also normal. He eventually had a full recovery. Trichlorfon should be added to the toxins known to cause acute hemolysis. PMID:19372080

Wu, Ming-Ling; Deng, Jou-Fang

2009-04-01

3

Acute Appendicitis Caused by Colonoscopy  

PubMed Central

A 48-year-old woman who was without any abnormal past medical history underwent colonoscopy as a screening procedure for colorectal disease. The procedure was uneventful and there was no sign of inflammation around the appendicular orifice or the luminal surface of the cecum. The patient did not complain of pain or significant discomfort throughout the procedure. She then developed pain in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen that evening and this persisted for four days. She visited the outpatient department and underwent abdominal ultrasonography, which showed a swollen appendix with a collection of pericecal fluid. Surgical exploration and appendectomy were performed; the final diagnosis was acute suppurative appendicitis. Colonoscopists should be aware of this rare complication and consider it when making the differential diagnosis of post-colonoscopy abdominal pain.

Chae, Hiun-Suk; Jeon, Su-Yun; Nam, Woo-Seok; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Soo

2007-01-01

4

[Enterobius vermicularis causing symptoms of acute appendicitis].  

PubMed

The authors present a case of enterobiasis of the appendix. Enterobius infection is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible unless there is a strong clinical suspicion. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis. Careful observation of the appendix stump may lead to intraoperative diagnosis of enterobiasis. A quick diagnosis and appropriate treatment may prevent future complications. PMID:18799410

Antal, András; Kocsis, Béla

2008-08-01

5

Nontoxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Causing Acute Gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

We investigated the virulence properties of four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains causing acute gastroenteritis following consumption of indigenous mussels in Italy. The isolated strains were cytotoxic and adhesive but, surprisingly, lacked tdh, trh, and type three secretion system 2 (T3SS2) genes. We emphasize that nontoxigenic V. parahaemolyticus can induce acute gastroenteritis, highlighting the need for more investigation of the pathogenicity of this microorganism.

Leoni, Francesca; Serra, Roberto; Serracca, Laura; Decastelli, Lucia; Rocchegiani, Elena; Masini, Laura; Canonico, Cristina; Talevi, Giulia; Carraturo, Antonio

2012-01-01

6

Codfish may cause acute abdomen?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Foreign bodies ingestion is frequent and can cause several complications. Perforation is rare but can occur in any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Fish bones are one of the most frequent objects responsible. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 77-year-old patient resorted to emergency room for severe abdominal pain with 5 days of evolution. A CT scan showed an undefined liquid collection involving a linear image with 25 mm, suggestive of a foreign body. On laparotomy an abscess was resected with a fish bone inside. DISCUSSION Bowel perforation by foreign bodies can mimic other abdominal emergency conditions. Since fish bone ingestion is usually not remembered, diagnosis can be late. Surgery is the treatment of choice and is most commonly performed by laparotomy. CONCLUSION A low threshold of suspicion along with a good clinical history and radiological studies is extremely important in order to make a correct diagnosis.

Costa Almeida, Carlos E.; Rainho, Rui; Gouveia, Antonio

2013-01-01

7

Lectin-mediated reactions in histamine release caused by bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacteria-induced release of histamine was studied in human basophil leukocytes and in isolated rat mast cells. Whole bacteria ofStaph. aureus caused release in a 98% pure population of peritoneal mast cells from germ-free rats, indicating a non-immunological mechanism and a direct interaction between the bacteria and the target cells. Probably the bacterial cell wall interacts with the cell membrane,

S. Norn; P. Stahl Skov; C. Jensen; T. C. Bøg-Hansen; A. Lihme; F. Espersen; H. Permin

1984-01-01

8

Clinical Study of Acute Childhood Diarrhoea Caused by Bacterial Enteropathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective:There are not a large number of studies in India which can enlighten us regarding acute childhood diarrhoea and far lesser in number when it comes to its bacterial enteropathogenesis. The present study is specially targeted to determine the prevalence of various bacterial enteropathogens causing acute childhood diarrhoea and to find out their respective pattern of clinical features. Method: All children under 12 years of age enrolled between 1st June, 2012 and 31st July 2012, in the Outpatient department, Inpatient department of pediatrics section and casualty of hospital, who presented with acute diarrhoea. Data collected by mean of study questionnaire. Stool sample were processed for bacteriological analysis. In 280 samples bacteria were isolated with the help of microscopy, culture and biochemical reactions. The isolates obtained were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity over Mueller Hinton agar by Kirby Bauer-disk diffusion method. Results:Out of 280 children frequency of diarrhoeagenic bacteria isolated from the samples showed that Escherichia coli was recorded as the predominant bacteria with 44.2% of prevalence followed by Shigella, Salmonella, Klebsiella and Campylobacter with 28.2%, 13.6%, 7.8% and 6.1% respectively. Patients falling in the age group of 1-3 years. were the major sufferers of diarrhoea due to all etiologies except Klebsiella which mainly had impact on the patients below six months. Majority of isolated bacterial agents were resistant to Co-trimoxazole and Shigella being highly resistant enteropathogen isolated. Salmonella spp. were least resistant isolates. None of the isolates were resistant to Cefotaxime, Cefuroxime and Azetronam. Conclusion: Results of study reveal that Escherichia coli is a predominant bacterial enteropathogen causing diarrhoea and Salmonella is a major contributor to the diarrhoea causing severe dehydration and to the clinical features like fever, vomiting and more than 10 times of frequency of stools. Shigella is among highly resistant isolates while Salmonella isolates had least resistance to majority of antibiotics.

Rathaur, Vyas Kumar; Jayara, Aparna; Yadav, Neeraj

2014-01-01

9

Clinical study of acute childhood diarrhoea caused by bacterial enteropathogens.  

PubMed

Objective:There are not a large number of studies in India which can enlighten us regarding acute childhood diarrhoea and far lesser in number when it comes to its bacterial enteropathogenesis. The present study is specially targeted to determine the prevalence of various bacterial enteropathogens causing acute childhood diarrhoea and to find out their respective pattern of clinical features. Method: All children under 12 years of age enrolled between 1st June, 2012 and 31st July 2012, in the Outpatient department, Inpatient department of pediatrics section and casualty of hospital, who presented with acute diarrhoea. Data collected by mean of study questionnaire. Stool sample were processed for bacteriological analysis. In 280 samples bacteria were isolated with the help of microscopy, culture and biochemical reactions. The isolates obtained were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity over Mueller Hinton agar by Kirby Bauer-disk diffusion method. Results:Out of 280 children frequency of diarrhoeagenic bacteria isolated from the samples showed that Escherichia coli was recorded as the predominant bacteria with 44.2% of prevalence followed by Shigella, Salmonella, Klebsiella and Campylobacter with 28.2%, 13.6%, 7.8% and 6.1% respectively. Patients falling in the age group of 1-3 years. were the major sufferers of diarrhoea due to all etiologies except Klebsiella which mainly had impact on the patients below six months. Majority of isolated bacterial agents were resistant to Co-trimoxazole and Shigella being highly resistant enteropathogen isolated. Salmonella spp. were least resistant isolates. None of the isolates were resistant to Cefotaxime, Cefuroxime and Azetronam. Conclusion: Results of study reveal that Escherichia coli is a predominant bacterial enteropathogen causing diarrhoea and Salmonella is a major contributor to the diarrhoea causing severe dehydration and to the clinical features like fever, vomiting and more than 10 times of frequency of stools. Shigella is among highly resistant isolates while Salmonella isolates had least resistance to majority of antibiotics. PMID:24995223

Rathaur, Vyas Kumar; Pathania, Monika; Jayara, Aparna; Yadav, Neeraj

2014-05-01

10

Does orlistat cause acute kidney injury?  

PubMed Central

Orlistat is an inhibitor of gastric and pancreatic lipase with proven efficacy in the augmentation and maintenance of weight loss. Although its use has been limited by troublesome but benign gastrointestinal side effects, it has more recently been associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). In this review, we summarize orlistat’s benefits and drawbacks and discuss the body of evidence supporting its role as a cause of AKI. Although we cannot yet draw an unequivocal causal link between orlistat and AKI, there is enough evidence to include orlistat exposure in the clinical assessment of patients with AKI.

Beyea, Michael M.; Garg, Amit X.

2012-01-01

11

Acute meningitis caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum.  

PubMed

Phaeohyphomycosis of the central nervous system is rare but typically associated with high mortality. Treatment has not been standardized, but the combination of antifungal chemotherapy with surgical debridement is recommended. We report a 73-year-old, retired, male timber merchant with acute meningitis caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The patient, who had well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, presented with fever and weakness of the lower limbs. No brain abscess was apparent by cranial computed tomography. C. sphaerospermum was isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid and identified based on both morphology and DNA sequencing. He was treated with combination antifungal chemotherapy with amphotericin B and voriconazole for 28 days, followed by voriconazole monotherapy for 46 days. To date, the patient has recovered without significant sequelae. This patient represents the first reported case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by C. sphaerospermum. Moreover, the therapy was successful for totally less than 3 months of treatment duration. PMID:24263083

Chen, Chi-Yu; Lu, Po-Liang; Lee, Kun-Mu; Chang, Tsung Chain; Lai, Chung-Chih; Chang, Ko; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

2013-12-01

12

Accidental and iatrogenic causes of acute kidney injury  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Ingestions and iatrogenic administration of drugs are all too common causes of acute kidney injury. This review will discuss these preventable causes of acute kidney injury. Recent findings Recent studies have examined the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury by several commonly used drugs. These studies have shown that drugs and toxins can cause acute kidney injury by altering renal hemodynamics, direct tubular injury or causing renal tubular obstruction. Summary Knowledge of the drugs that cause acute kidney injury and how this injury is manifested can lead to improved diagnosis and treatment with the ultimate goal of prevention.

Twombley, Katherine; Baum, Michel; Gattineni, Jyothsna

2014-01-01

13

Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins.  

PubMed Central

Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation. Images FIGURE 7.

Oken, D E

1976-01-01

14

Epidemiology of respiratory infections caused by atypical bacteria in two Kenyan refugee camps.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. are common causes of atypical pneumonia; however, data about these atypical pathogens are limited in the refugee setting. Paired nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens were collected from patients with respiratory illness presenting to healthcare centers in two refugee camps in Kenya. The specimens were tested for C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. as well as eight respiratory viruses. Atypical pathogens were detected in 5.5% of the specimens of which 54% were co-infected with at least one of the eight viruses tested. Patients positive for atypical bacteria co-infected with virus were significantly more likely to have severe acute respiratory illness than patients infected with only atypical bacteria (P = 0.04). While the percentage of atypical pathogens identified was lower than expected, we found a significant relationship between atypical bacterial-viral co-infection and severity of disease in this refugee population. PMID:21701900

Kim, Curi; Nyoka, Raymond; Ahmed, Jamal A; Winchell, Jonas M; Mitchell, Stephanie L; Kariuki Njenga, M; Auko, Erick; Burton, Wagacha; Breiman, Robert F; Eidex, Rachel B

2012-02-01

15

Acute rhabdomyolysis caused by Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis).  

PubMed

Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life-threatening disorder that occurs as a primary disease or as a complication of a broad spectrum of other diseases. We report the first case of acute rhabdomyolysis after ingestion of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), a plantonic blue-green alga, as a dietary supplement. PMID:18434120

Mazokopakis, Elias E; Karefilakis, Christos M; Tsartsalis, Athanasios N; Milkas, Anastasios N; Ganotakis, Emmanuel S

2008-06-01

16

Acute rhabdomyolysis caused by Spirulina ( Arthrospira platensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life-threatening disorder that occurs as a primary disease or as a complication of a broad spectrum of other diseases. We report the first case of acute rhabdomyolysis after ingestion of Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), a plantonic blue-green alga, as a dietary supplement.

Elias E. Mazokopakis; Christos M. Karefilakis; Athanasios N. Tsartsalis; Anastasios N. Milkas; Emmanuel S. Ganotakis

2008-01-01

17

[Opportunistic infections caused by Shewanella, new emergent bacteria].  

PubMed

Shewanella putrefaciens and Shewanella algae are Gram negative, nonfermentative and oxidative bacilli whose the main phenotypic feature is the production of hydrogen sulfide gas. Widespread in the environment, both S. putrefaciens and S. algae species are rare human bacteria although they are reported with increasing frequency as a cause of opportunistic infection in humans, such as skin and soft tissue infections and bacteremia. Chronic infections of the lower limbs and liver disease have been identified as risk factors for bloodstream infection, with a faster course and a poorer prognosis in the last case. S. algae appears to be more virulent than S. putrefaciens. Most human S. putrefaciens strains are isolated from bacterial flora, which puts to question its clinical significance. Molecular biology must be used for an adequate identification because S. algae can easily be mistaken for S. putrefaciens with usual tests. PMID:15914286

Pagniez, H; Berche, P

2005-04-01

18

Reflex anuria: a rare cause of acute kidney injury  

PubMed Central

Background Acute Kidney Injury results from pre renal, post renal or intrinsic renal causes. Reflex anuria is a very rare cause of renal impairment which happens due to irritation or trauma to one kidney or ureter, or severely painful stimuli to other nearby organs. Case Presentation Here we present a case of acute kidney injury secondary to reflex anuria in a patient who underwent extensive gynecological surgery along with ureteral manipulation which recovered spontaneously. Conclusion Reflex Anuria is a rare and often not considered as cause of acute kidney injury. This case illustrates that this should be kept as a differential in potential cause of acute kidney injury in patient undergoing urogenital or gynecological surgeries.

Adediran, Samuel; Dhakarwal, Pradeep

2014-01-01

19

Sarcoidosis: an unusual cause of acute pericarditis.  

PubMed

Mild to moderate asymptomatic pericardial effusions are commonly detected in patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis. However, symptomatic pericarditis is rare during the course of the disease. All reported cases at presentation were life-threatening tamponades. We describe the first case of a patient in whom sarcoidosis was revealed by an acute benign pericarditis persisting despite administration of colchicine and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Similar cases may have been ignored since the initial diagnosis of sarcoidosis is challenging and corticosteroids are frequently given to patients with persistent chest pain. Clinicians should consider the possibility of sarcoidosis in case of pericarditis resistant to first-line therapy. PMID:20306895

Wyplosz, Benjamin; Marijon, Eloi; Dougados, Julie; Pouchot, Jacques

2010-02-01

20

Acute Cytomegalovirus Infection as a Cause of Venous Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Acute Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is an unusual cause of venous thromboembolism, a potentially life-threatening condition. Thrombus formation can occur at the onset of the disease or later during the recovery and may also occur in the absence of acute HCMV hepatitis. It is likely due to both vascular endothelium damage caused by HCMV and impairment of the clotting balance caused by the virus itself. Here we report on two immunocompetent women with splanchnic thrombosis that occurred during the course of acute HCMV infection. Although the prevalence of venous thrombosis in patients with acute HCMV infection is unknown, physicians should be aware of its occurrence, particularly in immunocompetent patients presenting with fever and unexplained abdominal pain.

Rinaldi, Francesca; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Mojoli, Francesco; Baldanti, Fausto; Brunetti, Enrico; Pascarella, Michela; Giordani, Maria Teresa

2014-01-01

21

Acute conjunctivitis caused by Ewingella americana.  

PubMed

The first case of Ewingella americana conjunctivitis in an otherwise healthy child is reported. Cultures of the conjunctival purulent exudate taken from both eyes grew E. americana. The infection resolved completely after successful treatment with amoxicillin/clavulanate. E. americana should be considered a rare but potential pathogen causing conjunctivitis. PMID:22998132

Maraki, Sofia

2012-01-01

22

Acute urinary retention caused by OVHIRA syndrome.  

PubMed

Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly (OVHIRA) syndrome is a congenital urogenital malformation that associates a bifid uterus with a longitudinal vaginal septum, resulting in a blind hemivagina and an ipsilateral renal agenesis. The clinical presentation is highly variable, delaying diagnosis and leading to important complications. An 18-year-old woman was diagnosed with OVHIRA syndrome following acute urinary retention. An agenesis in the left-sided renal system and an enormous pelvic mass compressing the adjacent structures were revealed in the intravenous urography. Nuclear magnetic resonance was the imaging modality that provided most diagnostic information, defining the pelvic mass as a giant left hematometrocolpos contained with a longitudinal vaginal septum. Resection of the septum was performed draining all reduced hematic content and both hemiuteri communicated with a single vagina, resulting in an asymptomatic patient. OVHIRA syndrome is a little known entity that can occur atypically, which makes the diagnosis difficult and delays the treatment. It is important to maintain a high degree of clinical suspicion to avoid irreversible complications. PMID:23958832

Alumbreros Andújar, María Trinidad; Aguilar Galán, Esther Vanessa; Céspedes Casas, Carmen

2014-05-01

23

Comparative Pathogenomics of Bacteria Causing Infectious Diseases in Fish  

PubMed Central

Fish living in the wild as well as reared in the aquaculture facilities are susceptible to infectious diseases caused by a phylogenetically diverse collection of bacterial pathogens. Control and treatment options using vaccines and drugs are either inadequate, inefficient, or impracticable. The classical approach in studying fish bacterial pathogens has been looking at individual or few virulence factors. Recently, genome sequencing of a number of bacterial fish pathogens has tremendously increased our understanding of the biology, host adaptation, and virulence factors of these important pathogens. This paper attempts to compile the scattered literature on genome sequence information of fish pathogenic bacteria published and available to date. The genome sequencing has uncovered several complex adaptive evolutionary strategies mediated by horizontal gene transfer, insertion sequence elements, mutations and prophage sequences operating in fish pathogens, and how their genomes evolved from generalist environmental strains to highly virulent obligatory pathogens. In addition, the comparative genomics has allowed the identification of unique pathogen-specific gene clusters. The paper focuses on the comparative analysis of the virulogenomes of important fish bacterial pathogens, and the genes involved in their evolutionary adaptation to different ecological niches. The paper also proposes some new directions on finding novel vaccine and chemotherapeutic targets in the genomes of bacterial pathogens of fish.

Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S.; Al-Ghabshi, Aliya; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud

2012-01-01

24

Ecstasy: A common cause of severe acute hepatotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Ecstasy is a synthetic amphetamine recently identified as a possible cause of acute liver injury. This drug is consumed by young people and has a marked effect on improving sociability. The extent of ecstasy-associated severe hepatic damage is unknown to date.Methods: The clinical histories of 62 patients with acute liver failure admitted to the Intensive Care Liver Unit between

Victoria Andreu; Antoni Mas; Miquel Bruguera; Joan Manuel Salmerón; Vicente Moreno; Santiago Nogué; Joan Rodés

1998-01-01

25

Thermophilic bacteria: a new cause of human disease.  

PubMed Central

We studied a group of 31 bacterial isolates from clinical specimens, received by the Centers for Disease Control since 1961, which have been denoted thermophilic for their unusual ability to grow at 50 degrees C. Microbiological characteristics were determined for the group, and an assessment of their clinical significance was made based on retrospective chart review. These bacteria are all gram-negative, nonfermentative, nonsporulating rods, most of which grow better at 42 or 50 degrees C than at 35 degrees C. Some of the bacteria could be implicated as the etiological agents for meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia. Thermophilic bacteria should be considered potential pathogens when isolated from appropriate clinical specimens.

Rabkin, C S; Galaid, E I; Hollis, D G; Weaver, R E; Dees, S B; Kai, A; Moss, C W; Sandhu, K K; Broome, C V

1985-01-01

26

Fouling of carbon steel heat exchanger caused by iron bacteria  

SciTech Connect

A carbon steel heat exchanger installed in a reverse osmosis unit failed after 1 1/2 years from start-up as a result of tubes, lids, tube sheets, and connection pipes clogging from rust deposits. Chemical analysis of cooling water and scraped precipitates, as well laboratory screening of the deposits for bacteria, revealed that activity of iron-oxidizing bacteria present in cooling water could lead to heat exchanger blockage.

Starosvetsky, J.; Armon, R.; Starosvetsky, D. (Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech. (Israel)); Groysman, A.

1999-01-01

27

Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm caused by acute idiopathic pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm (HAP) is a very rare disease but in cases of complication, there is a very high mortality. The most common cause of HAP is iatrogenic trauma such as liver biopsy, transhepatic biliary drainage, cholecystectomy and hepatectomy. HAP may also occur with complications such as infections or inflammation associated with septic emboli. HAP has been reported rarely in patients with acute pancreatitis. As far as we are aware, there is no report of a case caused by acute idiopathic pancreatitis, particularly. We report a case of HAP caused by acute idiopathic pancreatitis which developed in a 61-year-old woman. The woman initially presented with acute pancreatitis due to unknown cause. After conservative management, her symptoms seemed to have improved. But eight days after admission, abdominal pain abruptly became worse again. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was rechecked and it detected a new HAP that was not seen in a previous abdominal CT. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed because of a suspicion of hemobilia as a cause of aggravated abdominal pain. ERCP confirmed hemobilia by observing fresh blood clots at the opening of the ampulla and several filling defects in the distal common bile duct on cholangiogram. Without any particular treatment such as embolization or surgical ligation, HAP thrombosed spontaneously. Three months after discharge, abdominal CT demonstrated that HAP in the left lateral segment had disappeared.

Yu, Yeon Hwa; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Jeong, Jae Yoon; Han, Dong Soo; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Kim, Min Young

2012-01-01

28

The Chemotherapy of Infectious Diseases caused by Protozoa and Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The possibility of combating infectious diseases with chemotherapeutically active substances depends to a large extent on the structure of the pathogenic organism. Apart from the cure of contagious pleuro-pneumonia in horses with neosalvarsan, we have, as yet, no chemotherapeutic substance which is active in virus diseases. The position is scarcely better when we turn to bacterial infections due to cocci and bacilli. These two types of infective organisms occupy the lowest level in the scale of micro-organisms. On the other hand, the spirochætes, which also belong to the bacteria group, and, still more so, those causal organisms belonging to the protozoa, represent relatively highly differentiated species, and the more highly developed a pathogenic organism is, the more points for attack it appears to offer to the action of chemotherapeutic substances. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that the best results with chemotherapeutically active substances have been obtained in spirochætal diseases (syphilis, relapsing fever, frambœsia, etc.), and above all, in protozoal diseases. There is scarcely a protozoal disease of man which cannot be cured nowadays by early treatment with the appropriate synthetic drug. (Sleeping sickness, malaria, amœbic dysentery, leishmaniasis.) Epizootics resembling human diseases, as for example, trypanoses, are also relatively easily dealt with by the same drugs as have been found of value in the treatment of disease in man. On the other hand, there has been a lack of success, up to the present, in the treatment of those diseases of animals which are not generally related to the tropical diseases of man. The most important of these epizootics are the piroplasmoses, which are caused by babesiæ and theileriæ and which are found, not only in tropical and subtropical regions, but also in temperate zones. In this paper the discovery of a new remedy against piroplasmosis will be reported (acaprin). Further, advice will be given of a new class of substances, which have an actual chemotherapeutic action in streptococcal infections (prontosil, prontosil S), so that one can hope to be able in the future also to attack bacterial infections due to cocci chemotherapeutically.

Horlein, H.

1936-01-01

29

The Most Common Detected Bacteria in Sputum of Patients with the Acute Exacerbation of COPD  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) may be triggered by infection with bacteria or viruses or by environmental pollutants; the cause of about one-third of exacerbations cannot be identified. Objective: To determine the most common bacteria in sputum culture of patients with AECOPD hospitalized in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB “Podhrastovi” in the 2012. Material and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of sputum bacterial cultures of patients with AECOPD treated in the Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB “Podhrastovi” during 2012 .year. Each patient was required to give two sputum for bacterial examination. Each patient was treated with antibiotics prior to admission in Clinic “Podhrastovi”. The results of sputum bacterial culture findings are expressed in absolute number and percentage of examined patients. Results: In 2012, 75 patients with AECOPD were treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB“Podhrastovi”. 44 (58.66%) of patients had normal –nonpathogenic – usual bacterial flora isolated in sputum cultures, 31 (41.34%) had a pathogen bacteria in sputum culture as follows: 7 had Streptoccocus pneumoniae, 8 had Klebsiella pneumoniae (2 with Streptococcus pneumoniae, one with Acinetobacter baumani) ,4 Escherichia colli, others are one or two cases with other bacteria. Conclusion: Bacterial airway infections play a great role in many, but not in all, of cases of AECOPD. So there is the need to do a sputum bacterial culture examination in each patient with AECOPD and with appropriate antibiotics to contribute to curing of them.

Cukic, Vesna

2013-01-01

30

Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been reported in Hong Kong. We investigated the viral cause and clinical presentation among 50 patients. Methods We analysed case notes and microbiological findings for 50 patients with SARS, representing more than five separate epidemiologically linked transmission clusters. We defined the clinical presentation and risk factors associated with severe

JSM Peiris; ST Lai; LLM Poon; Y Guan; LYC Yam; W Lim; J Nicholls; WKS Yee; WW Yan; MT Cheung; VCC Cheng; KH Chan; DNC Tsang; RWH Yung; TK Ng; KY Yuen

2003-01-01

31

Acute myonecrosis in horse caused by Clostridium novyi type A  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to describe the first report involving a case of equine acute myonecrosis caused by C. novyi type A with an emphasis on clinical signs, the pathological and bacteriological analysis, and molecular identification of the microorganisms as the key of the definitive diagnosis.

Farias, Luana D'avila; Azevedo, Marcos Da Silva; Trost, Maria Elisa; De La Corte, Flavio Desessards; Irigoyen, Luiz Francisco; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

2014-01-01

32

Acute Pulmonary Edema Caused by a Giant Atrial Myxoma  

PubMed Central

Atrial myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumor. Its clinical presentation spreads from asymptomatic incidental mass to serious life-threatening cardiovascular complications. We report the case of a 44-year-old man with evening fever and worsening dyspnea in the last weeks, admitted to our hospital for acute pulmonary edema. The cardiac auscultation was very suspicious for mitral valve stenosis, but the echocardiography revealed a huge atrial mass with a diastolic prolapse into mitral valve orifice causing an extremely high transmitral gradient pressure. Awareness of this uncommon acute presentation of atrial myxoma is necessary for timely diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention.

Agricola, Eustachio; Marini, Claudia; Margonato, Alberto

2013-01-01

33

Graves' disease as an uncommon cause of acute pericarditis.  

PubMed

Acute pericarditis is either dry, fibrinous or effusive, independent of its aetiology. A case is presented involving a 44-year-old man with acute pericarditis. The cause was established to be an aggravation of Graves' disease due to non-compliance with treatment. Pericarditis is an uncommon cardiac complication of Graves' disease and is associated with more recurrent episodes when not detected. Pharmacological treatment should include anti-inflammatory drugs in combination with treatment for hyperthyroidism. The specific pathophysiological link between the two conditions is still to be elucidated. PMID:24769665

Kortekaas, Kirsten; van der Lienden, Bas; Jong, Simone; Riezebos, Robert

2014-01-01

34

Hydatidosis as a cause of acute appendicitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Acute appendicitis is considered the most common cause of emergency surgery in children and young adults. The association between parasitic infections and appendicitis has been widely investigated. Hydatidosis, a zoonotic helminthic disease caused by the larval stage of the Echinococcus granulosus, may cause illness in intermediate hosts, generally human and herbivorous animals. This disease is considered hyper endemic in northwest of Iran and is a serious public health problem. Hydatidosis predominantly is located in internal organs especially liver and lung but is considered a rare cause of acute appendicitis. Our aim was to study hydatid cyst that causes appendicitis. In this retrospective descriptive, 275 appendectomies performed during the years 2007-2012 in Tabriz Emam Reza hospital. Depending on the clinical notes, serological method, laboratory, surgical findings and attention to the histopathologic results, we found a patient with appendiceal hydatidosis. Acute appendicitis of hydatidosis origin is not seen frequently even in the hyper endemic area. Therefore, described an unusual cases of hydatidosis, should be considered in the differential diagnoses of appendicitis also education on how to prevent hydatidosis and eradication of stray dogs should be included in training programs to avoid and decrease the appendectomy operations.

Hajizadeh, Maryam; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sadat, Amir Taher Eftekhar; Spotin, Adel

2013-01-01

35

Cecocolic intussusception in adult caused by acute appendicitis.  

PubMed

Intussusception in adult is rare. The etiology is different from that of childhood. The most common cause of intussusception in adult is known as malignancy. When dealing with adult intussusception, surgical resection is usually warranted for correct diagnosis and proper treatment. This is a case report of cecocolic intussusception caused by an acute appendicitis in adult. The causes of cecocolic intussusception were reported as appendiceal adenocarcinoma, appendiceal mucocele, appendiceal adenoma, or idiopathic. Although this patient underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy under suspicion of malignancy at cecum base, final pathologic diagnosis revealed only acute appendicitis. Thus, the present case emphasizes the importance of prior thorough examinations including colonoscopy when we encounter this rare kind of intussusception in adult. PMID:24826358

Kang, Jeonghyun; Lee, Kang Young; Sohn, Seung-Kook

2014-01-01

36

Cecocolic Intussusception in Adult Caused by Acute Appendicitis  

PubMed Central

Intussusception in adult is rare. The etiology is different from that of childhood. The most common cause of intussusception in adult is known as malignancy. When dealing with adult intussusception, surgical resection is usually warranted for correct diagnosis and proper treatment. This is a case report of cecocolic intussusception caused by an acute appendicitis in adult. The causes of cecocolic intussusception were reported as appendiceal adenocarcinoma, appendiceal mucocele, appendiceal adenoma, or idiopathic. Although this patient underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy under suspicion of malignancy at cecum base, final pathologic diagnosis revealed only acute appendicitis. Thus, the present case emphasizes the importance of prior thorough examinations including colonoscopy when we encounter this rare kind of intussusception in adult.

Lee, Kang Young; Sohn, Seung-Kook

2014-01-01

37

Acute Interstitial Pneumonia (Hamman-Rich Syndrome) as a Cause of Idiopathic Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hamman-Rich syndrome, also known as acute interstitial pneumonia, is a rare and fulminant form of idiopathic interstitial lung disease. It should be considered as a cause of idiopathic acute respiratory distress syndrome. Confirmatory diagnosis requires demonstration of diffuse alveolar damage on lung histopathology. The main treatment is supportive care. It is not clear if glucocorticoid therapy is effective in acute interstitial pneumonia. We report the case of a 77-year-old woman without pre-existing lung disease who initially presented with mild upper respiratory tract infection and then progressed to rapid onset of hypoxic respiratory failure similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome with unknown etiology. Despite glucocorticoid therapy, she did not achieve remission and expired after 35 days of hospitalization. The diagnosis of acute interstitial pneumonia was supported by the histopathologic findings on her lung biopsy.

Bruminhent, Jackrapong; Yassir, Shahla; Pippim, James

2011-01-01

38

Acute Cholecystitis Accompanied by Acute Pancreatitis Potentially Caused by Dolosigranulum pigrum  

PubMed Central

We report a case of acute cholecystitis accompanied by acute pancreatitis and caused by Dolosigranulum pigrum in a 76-year-old male with gallstones. D. pigrum was isolated from a blood culture and confirmed by biochemistry tests and 16S rRNA sequencing. The isolate was susceptible to the ?-lactams ampicillin, penicillin, cephalothin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin but was intermediate to erythromycin and clindamycin. The patient recovered without sequelae after treatment with appropriate antibiotics for two weeks.

Lin, Jung-Chung; Hou, Shu-Jin; Huang, Li-Ung; Sun, Jun-Ren; Chang, Wei-Kuo; Lu, Jang-Jih

2006-01-01

39

Acute kidney injury caused by bothrops snake venom.  

PubMed

Medically important venomous snakes in Latin America belong to the genus Bothrops, Crotalus, Lachesis and Micrurus. The Bothrops genus is responsible for the majority of accidents. The WHO globally estimates 2,500,000 poisonous snakebites and 125,000 deaths annually. In its last report in 2001, the Brazilian Ministry of Health accounted 359 deaths due to snakebites, of which the Bothrops genus was responsible for 185. Snake venoms cause local and systemic damage, including acute kidney injury, which is the most important cause of death among patients surviving the early effects of envenoming by the Crotalus and Bothrops genuses. Venom-induced acute kidney injury is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite, carrying relevant morbidity and mortality. PMID:21757950

Rodrigues Sgrignolli, Lívia; Florido Mendes, Glória Elisa; Carlos, Carla Patricia; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

2011-01-01

40

Nephrotoxicity as a cause of acute kidney injury in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many different drugs and agents may cause nephrotoxic acute kidney injury (AKI) in children. Predisposing factors such as\\u000a age, pharmacogenetics, underlying disease, the dosage of the toxin, and concomitant medication determine and influence the\\u000a severity of nephrotoxic insult. In childhood AKI, incidence, prevalence, and etiology are not well defined. Pediatric retrospective\\u000a studies have reported incidences of AKI in pediatric intensive

Ludwig Patzer

2008-01-01

41

Worms' bacteria main cause of river blindness - Parasites - medical research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news article reports that Wolbachia may play a role in river blindness, the second-leading infectious cause of blindness in the world. While the disease is caused by parasitic worms that burrow into the skin, researchers discovered that treating the worms of their Wolbachia infections with doxycycline led to significantly less thickening and haze of the eye's cornea.

USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education); Network, Bnet B.

42

Surface Changes in Mild Steel Coupons from the Action of Corrosion-Causing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Changes which occur on the surface of mild steel coupons submerged in cultures of an Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, isolated from corroded pipe systems carrying crude oil, were studied microscopically to investigate the interaction between the corrosion-causing bacterium and the corroding mild steel coupon. Under micro-aerobic conditions and in the absence of the bacteria, a dense, crystalline, amorphous coat formed on the surface of the steel coupons. In the presence of bacteria the surface coat was extensively removed, exposing the bare metal to the environment. After about 2 weeks of exposure, the removal of the surface coating was followed by colonization of the metal surface by the bacteria. Colonization was mediated by fibrous, exopolysaccharidic material formed by the bacteria. Extension of studies to other bacteria isolated from crude oil and corroded pipes reveals that the formation of exopolysaccharide fibers and possession of adherent properties are common characteristics of bacteria from crude oil systems. Images

Obuekwe, Christian O.; Westlake, Donald W. S.; Cook, Fred D.; William Costerton, J.

1981-01-01

43

Acute cadmium exposure causes systemic and thromboembolic events in mice.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd), an environmental and industrial pollutant, poses a potential threat and affects many systems in human and animals. Although several reports on Cd toxicity were presented, the acute effect of Cd on systemic and thrombotic events was not reported so far. Cd (2.284 mg/kg) or saline (control) was injected intraperitoneally (ip), and the systemic parameters were assessed in mice. Compared to control group, acute intraperitoneal injection of Cd, in mice showed significant quickening of platelet aggregation (P<0.001) leading to pial cerebral thrombosis. Likewise, Cd exposure caused a significant increase in white blood cell numbers (P<0.05) indicating the occurrence of systemic inflammation. Also, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P<0.05) and creatinine (P<0.01) levels were both significantly increased. Interestingly, the superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in Cd treated group compared to control group (P<0.001), suggesting the occurrence of oxidative stress. We conclude that the Cd exposure in mice causes acute thromboembolic events, oxidative stress and alter liver and kidney functions. PMID:22188109

Fahim, M A; Nemmar, A; Dhanasekaran, S; Singh, S; Shafiullah, M; Yasin, J; Zia, S; Hasan, M Y

2012-01-01

44

Nephrotoxicity as a cause of acute kidney injury in children.  

PubMed

Many different drugs and agents may cause nephrotoxic acute kidney injury (AKI) in children. Predisposing factors such as age, pharmacogenetics, underlying disease, the dosage of the toxin, and concomitant medication determine and influence the severity of nephrotoxic insult. In childhood AKI, incidence, prevalence, and etiology are not well defined. Pediatric retrospective studies have reported incidences of AKI in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) of between 8% and 30%. It is widely recognized that neonates have higher rates of AKI, especially following cardiac surgery, severe asphyxia, or premature birth. The only two prospective studies in children found incidence rates of 4.5% and 2.5% of AKI in children admitted to PICU, respectively. Nephrotoxic drugs account for about 16% of all AKIs most commonly associated with AKI in older children and adolescents. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics, amphotericin B, antiviral agents, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcineurin inhibitors, radiocontrast media, and cytostatics are the most important drugs to indicate AKI as significant risk factor in children. Direct pathophysiological mechanisms of nephrotoxicity include constriction of intrarenal vessels, acute tubular necrosis, acute interstitial nephritis, and-more infrequently-tubular obstruction. Furthermore, AKI may also be caused indirectly by rhabdomyolysis. Frequent therapeutic measures consist of avoiding dehydration and concomitant nephrotoxic medication, especially in children with preexisting impaired renal function. PMID:18228043

Patzer, Ludwig

2008-12-01

45

Acute phosphate nephropathy: a cause of chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Acute phosphate nephropathy occurs whenever a patient with renal dysfunction is exposed to high doses of phosphate. Bowel purgative agents are a common source of high doses of sodium phosphate and are widely used as bowel preparation agents prior to colonoscopy due to their efficacy and tolerability. Oral sodium phosphate (OSP) preparations used to prepare patients for colonoscopy may be a cause of acute and chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD associated with OSP agents is the result of nephrocalcinosis, or calcium phosphorus crystal deposition in the renal parenchyma leading to interstitial disease. It is often irreversible and progressive in nature. The authors report a case of CKD which presented with non-specific symptoms weeks after use of an OSP agent as part of a bowel preparation regimen. Renal biopsy confirmed nephrocalcinosis.

Weiss, Jessica; Thorp, Micah L

2011-01-01

46

Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicated with peritonitis caused by Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus spp. rarely causes human disease. We report a case of a 57-year-old man with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and vascular disease admitted to our hospital with severe abdominal pain and fever. Signs of peritonitis were found upon examination. The patient underwent surgery, and a diagnosis of perforated cholecystitis with purulent peritonitis was made intra-operatively. A cholecystectomy was performed, and therapy with imipenem was initiated. Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated from bile and peritoneal fluid cultures 2 days later. The patient recovered well and was discharged on post-operative day 16 after 14 days of treatment with imipenem. To our knowledge, this is the second case reported of acute cholecystitis caused by Lactobacillus spp. This organism should be considered as a cause of biliary infections, especially in patients with underlying diseases. Correct identification is often difficult, but it is very important because these organisms are usually resistant to vancomycin and other antibiotics. PMID:23886436

Tena, Daniel; Martínez, Nora Mariela; Losa, Cristina; Fernández, Cristina; Medina, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

2013-08-01

47

[Clinical study of acute diarrhea caused by rotavirus].  

PubMed

To establish the implication of Rotavirus in acute diarrhea of babies and children. Prospective study on 164 patients aged between 1 month and 3 years with acute diarrhea, admitted in the Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases Ia?i between 01.01.2005 - 31.03.2005. Rotavirus cause the illness in 30 patients (18.29%). The disease was more prevalent among children with dystrophy or with other comorbidities like: iron-deficiency anemia, intestinal parasitosis, rhinopharyngitis, pneumococcal meningitidis. In seven cases the infectious was considered to be nosocomial. During the illness patients also accused other symptoms, while in order of frequency were: common respiratory infection (13.3%), nausea and vomiting (40%), maculopapular eruption and intestinal pneumonia (16.6%), acute pharyngitis (10%). In this study latex agglutination confirmed the diagnosis. Vomiting and diarrhea led in all cases to moderate or severe dehydration. Appropriate rehydration was necessary but only in 12 cases was made through intravenous access with: Ringer lactate, isotonic sodium chloride solutions. Most children recovered with in 5 days. PMID:16607737

Mihalache, Doina; Fîntînaru, Rodica; Iacob, Monica; Simonca, Cornelia

2005-01-01

48

Morbidity of infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial resistance can have 2 effects on the outcome of infection: there can be an accompanying change in the virulence of the organism, and there can be a poorer response to treatment because of the empiric choice of an antimicrobial to which the organism is resistant. We have reviewed published studies relating antimicrobial resistance to the outcomes of infection caused by enteric pathogens. The data for Salmonella and Campylobacter infections suggest that antimicrobial-resistant strains are somewhat more virulent than susceptible strains-that is, they cause more prolonged or more severe illness than do antimicrobial-susceptible strains. However, not all studies corrected for possible differences in age and underlying diseases between patients infected by antimicrobial-resistant and -susceptible strains of Salmonella. Two studies of Campylobacter infection suggest that poorer outcomes with antimicrobial-resistant pathogens could be related to the initial choice of an ineffective antimicrobial for treatment. Estimates from various sources indicate that fluoroquinolone resistance, likely acquired from the administration of antimicrobials to food animals, leads to >400,000 excess days of diarrhea in the United States per year compared with the duration that would occur if all of the isolates were susceptible. Antimicrobial resistance also could account for an extra 8677 days of hospitalization for nontyphoidal salmonellosis, mainly arising from food animals. PMID:11988884

Travers, Karin; Barza, Michael

2002-06-01

49

[Acute lead intoxication--a rare cause of abdominal pain].  

PubMed

Abdominal pain is a common symptom of various diseases and conditions of different aetiology. The aim of the interpretation of abdominal pain is to reach an early and accurate diagnosis, thereby enabling appropriate treatment. Acute abdominal pain may be the result of a number of abdominal, as well as extra-abdominal causes, lead poisoning being one such extra-abdominal cause. Here, we report the case of a 73-year-old male patient, admitted for clinical investigation of a suspected tumour of the colon, due to the presence of acute convulsive abdominal pain, without propagation, constipation, and anaemia. A history provided by the patient's family indicated his exposure to lead. The absence of any abdominal pathology, increased levels of lead in the blood (5.249 micromol/l), the presence of basophilically punctuated red blood cells, as well as a ring of sideroblasts, all indicated that the patient's symptoms (abdominal pain, constipation, and anaemia) were the result of acute lead intoxication. The patient's case history, including lead exposure, the absence of pathological findings via endoscopic and x-ray examination, laboratory findings (normocytic anaemia, an increased serum lead concentration, basophilically punctuated red blood cells, and the presence of an abundant ring of sideroblasts), all indicated that his symptoms were the result of lead intoxication. After six months of chelation therapy (EDTA), his symptoms completely disappeared, and his laboratory findings returned to normal. This presentation aims to underscore the importance of meticulous history taking, as well as of the selection of suitable laboratory and other auxiliary diagnostic methods in the correct diagnosis of this rare condition. PMID:16758853

Alempuevi?, Tamara; Duranovi?, Srdan; Bogdanovi?, Andrija; Kovacevi?, Nada

2005-01-01

50

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Cause of Acute Delirium  

PubMed Central

Delirium is a transient global disorder of cognition related to a variety of structural or functional neural disorders. Descriptions and characterizations of delirium associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are rare. We describe a 52-year-old man with severe OSAS associated with sudden onset of delirium and with a fluctuating nighttime course, prolonged for several days. The delirium disappeared after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). The patient remained free of symptoms under CPAP during a follow-up of 8 years. Citation: Lombardi C; Rocchi R; Montagna P; Silani V; Parati G. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a cause of acute delirium. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(6):569-570.

Lombardi, Carolina; Rocchi, Raffaele; Montagna, Pasquale; Silani, Vincenzo; Parati, Gianfranco

2009-01-01

51

Crowned dens syndrome: a rare cause of acute neck pain.  

PubMed

Crowned dens syndrome (CDS) is a rare but underrecognized cause of severe neck pain in older adults. It is characterized by acute onset pain and stiffness of the cervical spine. Accompanying fever and elevated inflammatory markers often lead to misdiagnosis. It is frequently associated with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, hydroxyapatite crystals, and sometimes other inflammatory conditions. Periodontoid calcification is seen on cervical computed tomography (CT) scan but is not typically visible on plain radiographs, making CT scanning invaluable in diagnosis. We describe a case of CDS in a 59-year-old woman, who presented with severe neck pain, elevated inflammatory markers, and progressive evolution in the appearance of her CT scans. The pathophysiology, clinical and radiographic findings, and dramatic response to corticosteroid therapy are reviewed. PMID:23392827

Uh, Mitchell; Dewar, Catharine; Spouge, David; Blocka, Kenneth

2013-05-01

52

Citrullus colocynthis as the Cause of Acute Rectorrhagia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. is a commonly used medicinal plant especially as a hypoglycemic agent. Case Presentation. Four patients with colocynth intoxication are presented. The main clinical feature was acute rectorrhagia preceeded by mucosal diarrhea with tenesmus, which gradually progressed to bloody diarrhea and overt rectorrhagia within 3 to 4 hours. The only colonoscopic observation was mucosal erosion which was completely resolved in follow-up colonoscopy after 14 days. Conclusion. The membranolytic activity of some C. colocynthis ingredients is responsible for the intestinal damage. Patients and herbalists should be acquainted with the proper use and side effects of the herb. Clinicians should also be aware of C. colocynthis as a probable cause of lower GI bleeding in patients with no other suggestive history, especially diabetics.

Javadzadeh, Hamid Reza; Davoudi, Farnoush; Valizadegan, Ghasem; Goodarzi, Hasan; Mahmoodi, Sadrollah; Ghane, Mohammad Reza; Faraji, Mehrdad

2013-01-01

53

Citrullus colocynthis as the Cause of Acute Rectorrhagia.  

PubMed

Introduction. Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. is a commonly used medicinal plant especially as a hypoglycemic agent. Case Presentation. Four patients with colocynth intoxication are presented. The main clinical feature was acute rectorrhagia preceeded by mucosal diarrhea with tenesmus, which gradually progressed to bloody diarrhea and overt rectorrhagia within 3 to 4 hours. The only colonoscopic observation was mucosal erosion which was completely resolved in follow-up colonoscopy after 14 days. Conclusion. The membranolytic activity of some C. colocynthis ingredients is responsible for the intestinal damage. Patients and herbalists should be acquainted with the proper use and side effects of the herb. Clinicians should also be aware of C. colocynthis as a probable cause of lower GI bleeding in patients with no other suggestive history, especially diabetics. PMID:23819072

Javadzadeh, Hamid Reza; Davoudi, Amir; Davoudi, Farnoush; Valizadegan, Ghasem; Goodarzi, Hasan; Mahmoodi, Sadrollah; Ghane, Mohammad Reza; Faraji, Mehrdad

2013-01-01

54

[Star fruit as a cause of acute kidney injury].  

PubMed

The star fruit belongs to the family Oxalidacea, species Averrhoa carambola. It is rich in minerals, vitamin A, C, B complex vitamins and oxalic acid. Recent studies show that the toxicity of the fruit differs between the patients and may be explained by single biological responses, age, and the intake quantity of the neurotoxin in each fruit in addition to glomerular filtration rate given by each patient. Additionally, the nephrotoxicity caused by the fruit is dose-dependent and may lead to the deposition of crystals of calcium oxalate intratubular, as well as by direct injury to the renal tubular epithelium, leading to apoptosis of the same. We report the case of a patient who after ingestion of the juice and fresh fruit, developed acute renal failure requiring dialysis, evolving with favourable outcome and recovery of renal function. PMID:25055366

Scaranello, Karilla Lany; Alvares, Valeria Regina de Cristo; Carneiro, Daniely Maria Queiroz; Barros, Flávio Henrique Soares; Gentil, Thais Marques Sanches; Thomaz, Myriam José; Pereira, Benedito Jorge; Pereira, Mariana Batista; Leme, Graziella Malzoni; Diz, Mary Carla Esteves; Laranja, Sandra Maria Rodrigues

2014-04-01

55

[Subclinical acute intermittent porphyria. An uncommon cause of chronic hepatitis].  

PubMed

Acute porphyria is a term that encompasses a group of hereditary disorders involving defects in heme metabolism, characterized by acute episodes of abdominal pain, acute hypertension, tachycardia and neuropsychiatric disorders, sometimes leading to convulsions, ascending paralysis and coma. Misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis can seriously worsen prognosis. We report the case of a woman with subclinical acute intermittent porphyria and chronic hepatitis incidentally diagnosed due to transaminase elevation on laboratory analysis. PMID:21477889

Pérez Martínez, Juan; Castro Márquez, Cristina; Pereira Gallardo, Sofía; Jiménez Sáenz, Manuel; Herrerías Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

2011-04-01

56

Torsion of an indirect hernia sac causing acute scrotum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6-year-old boy presented with an acute scrotum and was found at surgical exploration to have torsion and infarction of an indirect hernia sac. This represents the sixth reported case of this entity in the literature. The pediatric surgical specialist and those in the acute care setting should be aware of this consideration in the differential diagnosis of the acute

Jeremy B Myers; Mark A Lovell; Robert S Lee; Peter D Furness; Martin Koyle

2004-01-01

57

[Diverticulitis of the appendix: a rare cause of acute abdomen].  

PubMed

Diverticulosis of the vermiform appendix, either single or multiple, congenital or acquired, is rather infrequent and usually asymptomatic. However, it may be complicated by flogosis configuring an acute abdomen hardly recognizable from an acute appendicitis not related to the diverticular disease. The Authors report a case of acute appendicular diverticulitis surgically treated. A brief review of the literature is also reported. PMID:8398620

Tommasi, G V; Barabino, M; Casolino, V; Morelli, N; Vassallo, S; Mondello, R; Guasone, F; Valente, U

1993-07-01

58

Antiseptic and antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of 802 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections was made from general practice, antenatal clinics, and local hospitals. The organisms were tested for their sensitivity to chlorhexidine, cetrimide, glutaraldehyde, phenyl mercuric nitrate, a phenolic formulation, and a proprietary antiseptic containing a mixture of picloxydine, octyl phenoxy polyethoxyethanol, and benzalkonium chloride. Escherichia coli, the major species isolated,

D J Stickler; B Thomas

1980-01-01

59

Torsion of an indirect hernia sac causing acute scrotum.  

PubMed

A 6-year-old boy presented with an acute scrotum and was found at surgical exploration to have torsion and infarction of an indirect hernia sac. This represents the sixth reported case of this entity in the literature. The pediatric surgical specialist and those in the acute care setting should be aware of this consideration in the differential diagnosis of the acute scrotum. PMID:14694389

Myers, Jeremy B; Lovell, Mark A; Lee, Robert S; Furness, Peter D; Koyle, Martin

2004-01-01

60

[Evaluation of the acute toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewater to luminescent bacteria].  

PubMed

Acute toxicity of wastewater from 5 nodes of technological process in the pharmaceutical factory sewage treatment station was studied by luminescent bacteria tests. The EC50, TUa and LID of the wastewater in underground regulating tanks was 3.44%, 29 and 625, respectively, indicating the water was extremely/highly toxic; for the wastewater in surface regulating tanks, the EC50, TUa and LID was 2.46%, 41 and 244, respectively, also extremely/highly toxic; for the wastewater in middle sediment tanks, the EC50 > 100% and LID was 10, which was moderately toxic; for the wastewater in secondary sediment tanks and the final effluents, the EC50 was above 100% and LID was 1, with no observed toxicity. The results indicated that the existing treatment process effectively reduced the acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical wastewater to luminescent bacteria, the effluents showed no observed toxicity to luminescent bacteria, which was lower than the relative effluent limits of pharmaceutical wastewater. The wastewater in lower concentration did not inhibit the luminosity, but enhanced the luminosity. PMID:24720217

Du, Li-Na; Yang, Fan; Mu, Yu-Feng; Yu, Ruo-Zhen; Zuo, Jian-E; Gao, Jun-Fa; Yu, Xin; Teng, Li-Jun; Tang, Xin-Yao

2014-01-01

61

Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Caused by Potentially Drug-resistant Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by potentially drug-resis- tant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acineto- bacter baumannii , and\\/or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , 135 consecutive episodes of VAP observed in a single ICU over a 25-mo period were prospectively studied. For all patients, VAP was diagnosed based on results of bronchoscopic protected

JEAN-LOUIS TROUILLET; JEAN CHASTRE; ALBERT VUAGNAT; MARIE-LAURE JOLY-GUILLOU; DANIÈLE COMBAUX; MARIE-CHRISTINE DOMBRET; CLAUDE GIBERT

1998-01-01

62

Acute myocardial infarction caused by intravenous amphetamine abuse.  

PubMed Central

A man aged 27 years presented with an acute myocardial infarction after injecting himself intravenously with amphetamine. Soon after admission ventricular fibrillation developed. This was successfully cardioverted. Coronary arteriography was normal. Images

Packe, G E; Garton, M J; Jennings, K

1990-01-01

63

Acute liver failure caused by severe acute hepatitis B: a case series from a multi-center investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Few data can be available regarding acute liver failure (ALF) caused by severe acute hepatitis B up to now. This study aims to report such cases from China. Findings We conducted a multi-center investigation on ALF from 7 tertiary hospitals in different areas of China. A total of 11 patients with ALF caused by severe acute hepatitis B were finally identified. In these patients, there were 10 male and 1 female patients. As a serious complication, apparent hemorrhage occurred in 9 patients. Eventually, in these 11 patients, 4 survived and 7 died. 4 died of heavy bleeding, 2 died of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and 1 died of irreversible coma. No patients received liver transplantation. Conclusions ALF caused by severe acute hepatitis B is worthy of formal studies based on its rarity and severity.

2014-01-01

64

Spontaneous Renal Artery Thrombosis: An Unusual Cause of Acute Abdomen  

PubMed Central

Context: Spontaneous thrombosis of renal artery is extremely rare. Its presentation is that of commonly encountered problem of acute abdomen underscoring the need for a clinician to be aware of it. Case Report: We report a case of a 56-year-old male with no previous health problems presented with complaint of abdominal pain and nausea. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA) of the abdomen and pelvis confirmed thrombus in left renal artery. He showed good response to the treatment with resolution of the thrombus and improvement in the renal perfusion. Conclusion: Our case does conform to the others experience of good outcome when treatment is initiated in a timely manner. This patient had resolution of symptoms and restoration of perfusion with anticoagulation. The purpose of this case report is to remind busy practicing physicians to keep spontaneous renal thromboembolism in differential diagnosis in a patient with acute abdomen.

Singh, Shantanu; Wang, Li; Yao, Qi Sheng; Jyotimallika, Juthika; Singh, Shivank

2014-01-01

65

[Mitotane as possible cause of acute intermittent porphyria].  

PubMed

A 54 year-old woman with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) developed an attack of porphyria after 156 days of treatment with mitotane following a non-radical adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma. Mitotane therapy was discontinued but the attack of porphyria persisted for more than four months and included episodes with severe metabolic and neurologic toxicities. Mitotane is probably porphyrinogenic for patients with AIP. PMID:21917227

von Eyben, Finn Edler

2011-09-12

66

Hypothyroidism causing paralytic ileus and acute kidney injury - case report.  

PubMed

We present a patient with severe hypothyroidism complicated by paralytic ileus and acute kidney injury. A 65 year old male patient, diagnosed with hypothyroidism one year ago was transferred to our unit in a state of drowsiness and confusion. He was severely hypothyroid and had paralytic ileus and impaired renal function at the time of transfer. Hypokalaemia was present, and was likely to have contributed to the paralytic ileus and this together with dehydration was likely to have contributed to renal injury. Nonetheless, hypothyroidism is very likely to have been the principal precipitant of both these complications, and both paralytic ileus and acute kidney injury improved with thyroxine replacement. Unfortunately, the patient died unexpectedly eight days after admission to the unit.Hypothyroidism may induce de novo acute kidney injury or it may exacerbate ongoing chronic kidney disease. This rare complication is assumed to be due to the hypodynamic circulatory state created by thyroid hormone deficiency. Paralytic ileus is an even rarer fatal manifestation of hypothyroidism and is thought to be due to an autonomic neuropathy affecting the intestines that is reversible with thyroxine replacement. To our knowledge, both these complications have not been observed in a single patient so far.It is important that clinicians are aware of these rare manifestations of hypothyroidism as in most occasions, thyroxine deficiency may be missed, and treatment can reverse the complications. PMID:21303532

Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Gamakaranage, Champika Sssk; Epa, Dhanesha S; Gnanathasan, Ariaranee; Rajapakse, Senaka

2011-01-01

67

Treatment of acute renal failure caused by renal artery occlusion with renal artery angioplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Renovascular disease is a common cause of renal impairment and hypertension, particularly in the older population. Oligoanuric acute renal failure secondary to renal artery occlusion is not well recognized; however, it is potentially reversible if identified and treated. Methods: Five patients presented to our institution with oligoanuric acute renal failure. Each had evidence of vascular disease, and a prerenal

Karen M. Dwyer; John I. Vrazas; Robert S. Lodge; Timothy J. Humphery; Stephen M. Schlicht; Brendan F. Murphy; Peter J. Mossop; David J. Goodman

2002-01-01

68

Fatal hemopericardium caused by retrograde acute abdominal aortic dissection: An autopsy report and morphological consideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of acute aortic dissection in which entry is formed at the abdominal aorta is unusual. In addition, an autopsy case of cardiac tamponade caused by spontaneous acute retrograde abdominal aortic dissection is extremely rare and such a report has never previously been published to our knowledge. We herein present an autopsy case of sudden unexpected death due to

Takashi Chiba; Naoki Nishida; Maki Ohtani; Ichiro Suzuki; Naofumi Yoshioka

2006-01-01

69

Long-term follow-up of acute renal failure caused by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are useful in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. However, acute renal failure (ARF) may occur in patients who are taking these drugs in situations associated with decreased glomerular filtration pressure, such as dehydration caused by acute diarrhea or diuretic therapy.Sixty-four patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit for ARF associated with

Alain Wynckel; Bertin Ebikili; Jean-Pierre Melin; Christine Randoux; Sylvie Lavaud; Jacques Chanard

1998-01-01

70

Acute Heart Failure Caused by Parvovirus B-19 Myocarditis Treated with Human Immunoglobulin  

PubMed Central

We describe the case of a 42-year-old woman developing cardiogenic shock with cardiac tamponade due to an acute myo-pericarditis caused by Parvovirus B19 (PVB19), successfully treated with intravenous (iv) immunoglobulin administration.

Alberti, Luca; Loffi, Marco; Fragasso, Gabriele; Spoladore, Roberto; Ballarotto, Carlo; Margonato, Alberto

2012-01-01

71

An unusual cause of acute renal failure in a newborn: hydrometrocolpos.  

PubMed

Here we report on an unusual cause of acute renal failure in a newborn: hydrometrocolpos due to imperforate hymen. Hymenotomy resolved all of the laboratory and clinical abnormalities of the patient and the baby was sent home healthy. PMID:16523263

Aygun, Canan; Ozkaya, Ozan; Ayyýldýz, Suat; Güngör, Olcay; Mutlu, Birgül; Küçüködük, Sükrü

2006-04-01

72

White Band Disease (type I) of endangered caribbean acroporid corals is caused by pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Diseases affecting coral reefs have increased exponentially over the last three decades and contributed to their decline, particularly in the Caribbean. In most cases, the responsible pathogens have not been isolated, often due to the difficulty in isolating and culturing marine bacteria. White Band Disease (WBD) has caused unprecedented declines in the Caribbean acroporid corals, resulting in their listings as threatened on the US Threatened and Endangered Species List and critically endangered on the IUCN Red List. Yet, despite the importance of WBD, the probable pathogen(s) have not yet been determined. Here we present in situ transmission data from a series of filtrate and antibiotic treatments of disease tissue that indicate that WBD is contagious and caused by bacterial pathogen(s). Additionally our data suggest that Ampicillin could be considered as a treatment for WBD (type I). PMID:22355526

Kline, David I; Vollmer, Steven V

2011-01-01

73

White Band Disease (type I) of Endangered Caribbean Acroporid Corals is Caused by Pathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Diseases affecting coral reefs have increased exponentially over the last three decades and contributed to their decline, particularly in the Caribbean. In most cases, the responsible pathogens have not been isolated, often due to the difficulty in isolating and culturing marine bacteria. White Band Disease (WBD) has caused unprecedented declines in the Caribbean acroporid corals, resulting in their listings as threatened on the US Threatened and Endangered Species List and critically endangered on the IUCN Red List. Yet, despite the importance of WBD, the probable pathogen(s) have not yet been determined. Here we present in situ transmission data from a series of filtrate and antibiotic treatments of disease tissue that indicate that WBD is contagious and caused by bacterial pathogen(s). Additionally our data suggest that Ampicillin could be considered as a treatment for WBD (type I).

Kline, David I.; Vollmer, Steven V.

2011-01-01

74

Enterolith causing acute afferent loop syndrome after Billroth II gastrectomy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Summary: Enterolith is a rare cause of afferent loop obstruction following Billroth II gastrectomy. We report a case of acute afferent loop syndrome (ALS) due to a huge enterolith, necessitating prompt surgery. The clinical pattern may mimic acute cholangitis and/or pancreatitis. Delayed diagnosis may result in severe complications such as bowel ischemia or perforation. Only 14 reported cases of enterolith causing afferent loop obstruction were found in the English literature.

CARTANESE, C.; CAMPANELLA, G.; MILANO, E.; SACCO, M.

2013-01-01

75

Acute pancreatitis possibly caused by allergy to bananas.  

PubMed

We are reporting a forty-seven year old female who had three attacks of acute pancreatitis after having; eaten bananas. She was treated with a light diet and intravenous fluids during each of her admissions. The treatment concluded with the disappearance of clinical symptoms such as epigastralgia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea within a few days. In addition, elevated serum and urine amylase levels returned to normal values in parallel with the clinical symptoms. The data during her three attacks of acute pancreatitis were as follows: serum total IgE level = 644 IU/mL, specific IgE to bananas = 2.18 UA/ml. No remarkable abnormalities were present in sonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Endoscopic examination of the upper digestive tract showed the ampulla of Vater swollen and edematous, thus a biopsy was performed. Toluidine blue staining and immunohistochemical staining against human mast cell tryptase with the biopsy specimens showed mast cells accumulating in mucosa and submucosa. By avoiding consumption of bananas, she has not suffered from any additional attacks of pancreatitis since the third attack in the last thirty-four months up to this day of December 10, 2004. PMID:16261961

Inamura, H; Kashiwase, Y; Morioka, J; Kurosawa, M

2005-01-01

76

Acute right and left heart failure caused by an intrathoracic stomach.  

PubMed

Hiatus hernia (HH) is a frequent condition and is asymptomatic most of the time. Common symptoms can include epigastric pain, postprandial fullness, and nausea. We report a case of postprandial acute right and left heart failure caused by an intrathoracic stomach in a previously asymptomatic woman. Clinical manifestations included acute pulmonary edema and severe hypotension after administration of vasodilators for treatment of acute left heart failure. Chest computed tomography images showed a pre- and afterload compromise caused by a large compressive HH with massive gastric distension. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first report of both acute right and left heart failure due to an HH. The prompt placement of a nasogastric tube was lifesaving. We believe that the diagnosis of HH ought to be taken into consideration by emergency physicians and included in the differential diagnosis for acute postprandial heart failure. PMID:22030202

Buss, Guillaume; Mosimann, Pascal J R; Moix, Paul-André; Hugli, Olivier

2012-10-01

77

Do We Know What Causes Acute Myeloid Leukemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... great progress in understanding how certain changes in DNA can cause normal bone marrow cells to become ... each cell’s chromosomes. Chromosomes are long molecules of DNA in each cell. DNA is the chemical that ...

78

Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles  

PubMed Central

Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

2011-01-01

79

The use of rotifers for limiting filamentous bacteria Type 021N, a bacteria causing activated sludge bulking.  

PubMed

The excessive growth of filamentous bacteria and the resultant bulking of activated sludge constitute a serious problem in numerous wastewater treatment plants. Lecane inermis rotifers were previously shown to be capable of reducing the abundance of Microthrix parvicella and Nostocoida limicola in activated sludge. In the present study, the effectiveness of four Lecane clones in reducing the abundance of Type 021N filamentous bacteria was investigated. Three independent experiments were carried out on activated sludge from three different treatment plants. We found that Lecane rotifers are efficient consumers of Type 021N filaments. PMID:23552245

Kocerba-Soroka, Wioleta; Fia?kowska, Edyta; Pajdak-Stós, Agnieszka; Klimek, Beata; Kowalska, Ewa; Drzewicki, Adam; Salvadó, Humbert; Fyda, Janusz

2013-01-01

80

Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.

Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2013-01-01

81

Laparoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment of an Acute Epiploic Appendagitis with Torsion and Necrosis Causing an Acute Abdomen  

PubMed Central

Acute epiploic appendagitis is not as rare as previously thought; but, since the presenting signs and symptoms are not specific, preoperative diagnosis has been rarely made. At the present time, a laparoscopic exploration of the peritoneal cavity will establish the correct diagnosis, and the treatment can be provided during the same procedure. Herein, a case of a 63-year-old female patient with acute abdominal syndrome caused by a necrotic epiploic appendix that was successfully diagnosed and treated laparoscopically is described. A review of the literature is made, as well.

Castaneda, Pablo; Valencia, Salvador; Cueto, Jorge

2000-01-01

82

Antiseptic and antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection.  

PubMed Central

A collection of 802 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections was made from general practice, antenatal clinics, and local hospitals. The organisms were tested for their sensitivity to chlorhexidine, cetrimide, glutaraldehyde, phenyl mercuric nitrate, a phenolic formulation, and a proprietary antiseptic containing a mixture of picloxydine, octyl phenoxy polyethoxyethanol, and benzalkonium chloride. Escherichia coli, the major species isolated, proved to be uniformly sensitive to these agents. Approximately 10% of the total number of isolates, however, exhibited a degree of resistance to the cationic agents. These resistant organisms were members of the genera Proteus, Providencia, and Pseudomonas; they were also generally resistant to five, six, or seven antibiotics. It is proposed therefore that an antiseptic policy which involves the intensive use of cationic antiseptics might lead to the selection of a flora of notoriously drug-resistant species.

Stickler, D J; Thomas, B

1980-01-01

83

Are multiple acute small subcortical infarctions caused by embolic mechanisms?  

PubMed Central

Objective: To seek evidence of potential embolic sources or other stroke mechanisms in patients who, on chance observation, had several apparently recent small subcortical infarcts on diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). Methods: Patients presenting with stroke and multiple hyperintense subcortical infarcts visible on DWI were identified prospectively. Detailed clinical and radiological assessments were done independently and blinded to each other. Results: Of 10 patients with multiple hyperintense subcortical infarcts on DWI, a definite embolic source was identified in only one. Most patients were hypertensive and smoked. The DWI appearance suggested that the subcortical lesions had occurred within several weeks rather than at exactly the same time. Most patients also had significant white matter hyperintensities and four had microhaemorrhages. Conclusions: Embolic sources were not identified in most patients but they did have systemic vascular risk factors and brain imaging features of "small vessel disease." A more generalised intrinsic process affecting many small cerebral vessels contemporaneously could explain multiple acute small subcortical infarcts. White matter hyperintensities, microhaemorrhages, and multiple small subcortical infarcts may share a common pathophysiological mechanism such as a diffuse cerebral microvascular abnormality which requires further exploration.

Chowdhury, D; Wardlaw, J; Dennis, M

2004-01-01

84

Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

2012-10-01

85

Green tea extract: A potential cause of acute liver failure  

PubMed Central

The use of herbal products has increased significantly in recent years. Because these products are not subject to regulation by the Food and Drug Administration and are often used without supervision by a healthcare provider, the indication for and consumption of these supplements is quite variable. Moreover, their use is generally regarded as safe and natural by the lay-public. Unfortunately, there has been an increase in the number of reported adverse events occurring with the use of herbal products. We present a case of acute impending liver failure in an adolescent male using a weight-loss product containing green tea extract. Our case adds to the growing concern surrounding the ingestion of green tea extract and serves to heighten healthcare provider awareness of a potential green tea extract hepatotoxicity. Despite the generally touted benefits of green tea as a whole, clinical concern regarding its use is emerging and has been linked to its concentration in multiple herbal supplements. Interestingly, the suspected harmful compounds are those previously proposed to be advantageous for weight-loss, cancer remedy, and anti-inflammatory purposes. Yet, we emphasize the need to be aware of not just green tea extract, but the importance of monitoring patient use of all dietary supplements and herbal products.

Patel, Shreena S; Beer, Stacey; Kearney, Debra L; Phillips, Garrett; Carter, Beth A

2013-01-01

86

A rare cause of acute massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

Even if lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) can present as trivial haematochezia, massive hemorrhage with shock may occur. Acute massive LGIB is defined as bleeding of recent duration that originates beyond the ligament of Treitz and encompasses: passage of a large volume of red or maroon blood through the rectum, haemodynamic instability and shock, initial decrease in haematocrit level of 6 g/dL or less, transfusion of at least 2 U of packed red blood cells, bleeding that continues for 3 days or significant rebleeding in 1 week. This report presents the case of a 58-year-old man with massive LGI bleeding. Colonoscopy was performed in emergency with a poor colonic preparation, but the examiner fortunately and with difficulty managed to identify the source of the haemorrhage- a Dieulafoy's lesion of the right colon. The bleeding was successfully stopped permanently by injecting sclerosing agents into the spurting vessel. We have preferred colonoscopy as our first choice of investigation due to the facile availability and the opportunity of endoscopic haemostasis in case of finding the source of bleeding. Angiography was planned in case of failure of the first method. The definition, clinical presentation, and treatment of Dieulafoy's lesion are further discussed. PMID:23464779

Constantinescu, G; Grin?escu, I; Stanciulescu, L; Ilie, M; Beuran, M; Chiotoroiu, A

2013-01-01

87

Human Metapneumovirus: An Important Cause of Acute Respiratory Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology and clinical manifestations associated with hMPV have been found to be reminiscent of those of the hRSV,\\u000a with most severe RTI occuring in young infants, elderly subjects, and immunocompromised hosts. The seasonal distribution resembles\\u000a that of hRSV and influenza virus infections, with recurrent epidemics during the winter months. hMPV is the second most important\\u000a cause, after hRSV, of

Adilia Warris; Ronald de Groot

2006-01-01

88

Acute stent thrombosis in a sirolimus eluting stent after wasp sting causing acute myocardial infarction: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hymenoptera venoms contain thrombogenic substances that might be responsible for cardiovascular events independent of anaphylactic reactions. Case presentation We report a 55-year-old man who experienced an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction after wasp sting. The patient presented without signs of anaphylaxis or shock. The coronary angiography showed an acute stent thrombosis of the right coronary artery. Percutanous coronary intervention was performed immediately and this is an example for a cardiovascular complication associated with a hymenoptera sting, since the vasoactive, inflammatory, and thrombogenic substances of hymenoptera venoms potentially cause stent thrombosis and myocardial ischemia. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of acute stent thrombosis in a sirolimus-eluting stent following hymenoptera sting. Conclusion Stent thrombosis is a possible complication after wasp sting induced by thrombogenic substances of the hymenoptera venom.

Greif, Martin; Pohl, Tilmann; Oversohl, Nico; Reithmann, Christopher; Steinbeck, Gerhard

2009-01-01

89

A Case of Acute Pyogenic Sacroiliitis and Bacteremia Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a rare osteoarticular infection, occurring most frequently in children and young adults. Diagnosis of the disease is challenging because of a general lack of awareness of the disease and its nonspecific signs and symptoms. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative bacteria in pyogenic sacroiliitis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has typically been considered a hospital-associated pathogen; however, community-acquired (CA)-MRSA infections are becoming increasingly common in Korea. We report the first domestic case of acute pyogenic sacroiliitis with abscess and bacteremia caused by CA-MRSA. The pathogen carried the type IV-A staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) without the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, and was identified as sequence type (ST) 72 by multilocus sequence typing. PMID:24475359

Kim, Suyoung; Lee, Kang Lock; Baek, Hae Lim; Jang, Seung Jun; Moon, Song Mi; Cho, Yong Kyun

2013-12-01

90

A Case of Acute Pyogenic Sacroiliitis and Bacteremia Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a rare osteoarticular infection, occurring most frequently in children and young adults. Diagnosis of the disease is challenging because of a general lack of awareness of the disease and its nonspecific signs and symptoms. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative bacteria in pyogenic sacroiliitis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has typically been considered a hospital-associated pathogen; however, community-acquired (CA)-MRSA infections are becoming increasingly common in Korea. We report the first domestic case of acute pyogenic sacroiliitis with abscess and bacteremia caused by CA-MRSA. The pathogen carried the type IV-A staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) without the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, and was identified as sequence type (ST) 72 by multilocus sequence typing.

Kim, Suyoung; Lee, Kang Lock; Baek, Hae Lim; Jang, Seung Jun; Moon, Song Mi

2013-01-01

91

Occult gallbladder microlithiasis causing acute recurrent pancreatitis. A report of three cases.  

PubMed

Gallbladder microlithiasis may be a cause of acute recurrent pancreatitis. When this process cannot be detected with routine investigative procedures, a precise etiologic diagnosis cannot be formulated. In such circumstances, endoscopic collection of bile followed by microscopic examination for presence of cholesterol crystals constitutes a valid diagnostic tool. Three cases of acute recurrent pancreatitis are presented in which cholesterol crystals were found in the bile. The technique and advantages of the method are described and a useful diagnostic approach is proposed. PMID:6495984

Negro, P; Flati, G; Flati, D; Porowska, B; Tuscano, D; Carboni, M

1984-01-01

92

A huge bladder calculus causing acute renal failure.  

PubMed

We present a 39-year-old man with repeated urinary tract infection and lower abdominal pain. Kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) and IVU film showed a huge 450-g elliptical pelvic calculus that was surgically removed with excellent results. Surgical intervention by cystolithotomy or endoscopic cystolithotripsy can achieve satisfactory results. Bladder outlet obstruction should be treated simultaneously. Bladder stone is a common disease, but it is rare for such a calculus to be so large as to cause bilateral hydronephrosis. Close follow-up, however, is mandatory because the recurrence of urolithiasis is high in those patients with voiding problems and recurrent urinary infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest bladder stone in a human male. PMID:20033143

Wei, Wuran; Wang, Jia

2010-08-01

93

[Intestinal tuberculosis--cause of acute surgical abdomen].  

PubMed

Tuberculosis, in its various forms, remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries in immunodeficitary patients. The indicatives of epidemiology of tuberculosis show that Romania presents a fresh outbreak of the disease in the last few years. The purpose of this paper is to present from the various forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, the intestinal tipe which have a high incidence. The authors describe theirs preliminary experience of intraoperative small and large bowel emergencies resections in a short period (1 year) of three young patients (between 30 and 40 years old) with history of pulmonary tuberculosis. The pathology was complex (bowel obstructions, peritonitis) and so were the surgical operations (resections, devirations). The patients showed short and long term good results. PMID:12731239

Ciurea, M; Ion, D; Ionescu, S; Tica, M R

2001-01-01

94

Anaerobic bacteria  

MedlinePLUS

Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow in the presence of oxygen. In humans, ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

95

A case of severe acute pancreatitis and ischemic gastropathy caused by acute aortic dissection.  

PubMed

A 49-year-old man presented with chest pain and was given a diagnosis of aortic dissection based on computed tomography (CT) findings. Two days later the dissection reached the origin of the celiac artery and there was poor blood flow from the body to the tail of the pancreas and fundus of the stomach wall. Severe acute pancreatitis developed. Endoscopy showed a near-circumferential gastric ulcer in the gastric cardia and we diagnosed ischemic gastropathy. A fistula between the area of infected pancreatic necrosis and the stomach had formed spontaneously and the necrotic tissue was draining into the stomach. His recovery was uneventful. PMID:21212601

Umeda, Ikumi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Yoshida, Makoto; Miyanishi, Kouji; Sato, Yasushi; Kofune, Masayoshi; Takimoto, Risyu; Kato, Junji; Meguro, Makoto; Hirata, Kouichi

2011-01-01

96

Weakening Effect of Cell Permeabilizers on Gram-Negative Bacteria Causing Biodeterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-negative bacteria play an important role in the formation and stabilization of biofilm structures on stone surfaces. Therefore, the control of growth of gram-negative bacteria offers a way to diminish biodete- rioration of stone materials. The effect of potential permeabilizers on the outer membrane (OM) properties of gram-negative bacteria was investigated and further characterized. In addition, efficacy of the agents

H.-L. Alakomi; A. Paananen; M.-L. Suihko; I. M. Helander; M. Saarela

2006-01-01

97

Colon Macrophages Polarized by Commensal Bacteria Cause Colitis and Cancer through the Bystander Effect12  

PubMed Central

Intestinal commensal bacteria have recently been shown to trigger macrophages to produce diffusible clastogens (or chromosome-breaking factors) through a bystander effect (BSE) that mediates DNA damage and induces chromosomal instability in neighboring cells. Colon macrophages appear central to colon carcinogenesis and BSE through the expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The former induces netrin-1, a regulator of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and the latter generates trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), an endogenous mutagen. To test whether colon macrophages are key effectors for BSE, we depleted these cells in interleukin-10 knockout mice colonized with Enterococcus faecalis using encapsulated liposomal clodronate (ELC), a bisphosphonate that causes macrophage apoptosis. We observed that E. faecalis polarizes colon macrophages to an M1 phenotype. In addition, depleting these cells suppressed COX-2 and TNF-?, blocked the formation of 4-HNE protein adducts, and inhibited up-regulation of netrin-1—all markers for BSE. Finally, treatment with ELC prevented colitis, ?-catenin activation, and cancer formation. These results show that selected human commensals can polarize colon macrophages to the M1 phenotype and, when activated, serve as the key effector for bacterial-induced BSE. Our findings suggest that depleting M1-polarized macro-phages is a mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of bisphosphonates and that it represents a new strategy for preventing colon cancer induced by intestinal commensals.

Yang, Yonghong; Wang, Xingmin; Huycke, Thomas; Moore, Danny R; Lightfoot, Stanley A; Huycke, Mark M

2013-01-01

98

Effect of Antibiotics on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity of Bacteria Causing Orthopedic Wound Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment, the incidence of wound infections in orthopedic surgery is significant. Postoperative wound infection is a multifactorial process, which can be modified by several bacterial factors. Cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria is a very important physicochemical feature, which has a great influence on the ability of bacteria to adhere to the surface of host cells

Tamás Kustos; Ildikó Kustos; Ferenc Kilár; Gábor Rappai; Béla Kocsis

2003-01-01

99

Does aspirin cause acute or chronic renal failure in experimental animals and in humans?  

PubMed

There are conflicting reports on the ability of aspirin as a single agent to cause acute or chronic renal failure in experimental animals. Chronic administration of aspirin alone over 18 to 68 weeks in doses of 120 to 500 mg/kg/d has been reported to cause renal papillary necrosis in rats. However, some investigators have been unable to produce renal papillary necrosis in other species or in rats given lower divided doses comparable to therapeutic doses used in humans. In a variety of rat strains, aspirin administered as a single high dose intravenously or by oral gavage produces acute tubular necrosis of proximal tubules, rarely accompanied by renal papillary necrosis in susceptible strains. Several human studies have addressed the chronic nephrotoxicity of aspirin alone or relative risk of end-stage renal disease in association with aspirin use after correction for other analgesics. With the exception of one case control study demonstrating a low, but statistically significant risk of end-stage renal disease in association with aspirin use, all other case control studies and several prospective studies have been unable to identify a significant risk of chronic renal failure in patients using aspirin alone in therapeutic doses. In healthy adults, short-term aspirin administration in therapeutic doses has no effect on creatinine clearance, urine volume, osmolar clearance, or sodium and potassium excretion. However, in predisposed individuals with glomerulonephritis, cirrhosis, and chronic renal insufficiency, and in children with congestive heart failure, short-term aspirin use in therapeutic doses may precipitate reversible acute renal failure. Acute aspirin intoxication (>300 mg/kg) frequently causes acute renal failure and doses of 500 mg/kg may be lethal. Chronic salicylate intoxication has been reported to cause reversible or irreversible acute renal failure in association with a pseudosepsis syndrome. PMID:8669425

D'Agati, V

1996-07-01

100

Spinal aneurysmal bone cyst causing acute cord compression without vertebral collapse: CT and MRI findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the spine can cause acute spinal cord compression in young patients. We report the CT and MRI findings in a histology-proven case of spinal ABC presenting with sudden paraplegia. Typical features of a spinal ABC at the thoracic level with considerable extension into the posterior epidural space and cord compression were demonstrated. Special note was

Monica S. M. Chan; Yiu-Chung Wong; Ming-Keung Yuen; Dicky Lam

2002-01-01

101

Acute aluminum encephalopathy in a dialysis center caused by a cement mortar water distribution pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute aluminum encephalopathy in a dialysis center caused by a cement mortar water distribution pipe.BackgroundIn Curaçao, distilled seawater from the water plant was used without further purification for hemodialysis for several decades. A new distribution pipe supplying water to a dialysis center on the island was installed in May 1996. To protect it from corrosion, this pipe was lined on

Kenrick Berend; Gijsbert Van Der Voet; Walther H. Boer

2001-01-01

102

Acute conjunctivitis caused by an atypical chlamydial strain: Chlamydia IOL 207.  

PubMed

A case of acute conjunctivitis in man caused by Chlamydia IOL 207 is described. Chlamydiae were isolated from the eye, and rising titres of type-specific antibodies to C. IOL 207, in serum and tears demonstrated an aetiological role for this agent. C. IOL 207 is an atypical chlamydial strain which serological studies suggest is widespread in some communities. PMID:6722073

Forsey, T; Darougar, S

1984-06-01

103

[Sensitivity of bacteria causing urinary tract infections towards terizidon (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In agar diffusion tests 2603 bacterial strains of species known to cause urinary tract infections were tested routinely in regard to their sensitivity towards Terizidon, a derivative of cycloserine. In order to relate the results which were obtained in terms of the diameter of the inhibiton zone, to the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 304 of these strains were tested additionally in agar dilution tests. The MICs of the other strains were estimated from the results of these tests. Since it is known that after the oral administration of 500 mg Terizidon the urine contains, on average, more than 128 mug/ml Terizidon for 12 hours and longer, it may be concluded from the results of this investigation that 75% of the strains of E. coli and Citrobacter, 45% of enterobacter, 40% of Proteus mirabilis and enterococci, 35% of the indole-positive Proteus strains and 30% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa would have been successfully attacked by Terizidon in the case or urinary tract infections. By contrast, Klebsiella must be reagarded as being completely resistant to this antibiotic. It follows that the administration of Terizidon is mainly indicated in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections with E. coli as the predominant causative agent. PMID:826024

Wewalka, G; Rotter, M; Fischer, A

1976-05-28

104

Toxicity testing with luminescent bacteria--characterization of an automated method for the combined assessment of acute and chronic effects.  

PubMed

The luminescent bacteria test according to EN ISO 11348 is frequently applied in (eco) toxicity testing and is applicable for a huge variety of environmental and industrial samples. A big disadvantage of this method is the very short exposure time, which is expressed in a low sensitivity in regard to substances with a delayed effect. Chronic effects, i.e. interference with cell growth, cannot be assessed with this conventional standard method. The goal of this research was to develop an automated testing system for long term toxicity towards the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri by implementing microtitration-based instrumentation. The optimized method, hereinafter referred to as "kinetic luminescent bacteria test", can be described as a miniaturized combination of the conventional short-term luminescence inhibition test according to EN ISO 11348 and the Photobacterium phosphoreum growth inhibition test (DIN 38412-37). The validation procedure included the evaluation of six reference compounds (3,4-Dichloroaniline, 3,5-Dichlorophenol, Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin sulfate, Potassium dichromate, Zinc sulfate heptahydrate) and three different endpoints that are acute luminescence inhibition (acute LI) after 30 min, chronic luminescence inhibition (chronic LI) after 24h and growth inhibition (GI) after 14 h. The optimized method allows the assessment of acute and chronic effects within one test, by what a misinterpretation of the toxicity of substances with delayed bacterial toxicity can be prevented, without abandoning most of the advantages of the conventional short-term test. Therefore, the kinetic luminescent bacteria test is exceptional as an initial screening test for environmental samples or substances with unknown (eco) toxicological characteristics. PMID:23806483

Menz, J; Schneider, M; Kümmerer, K

2013-10-01

105

Acute Failure of Catheter Ablation for Ventricular Tachycardia Due to Structural Heart Disease: Causes and Significance  

PubMed Central

Background Acute end points of catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia (VT) remain incompletely defined. The aim of this study is to identify causes for failure in patients with structural heart disease and to assess the relation of this acute outcome to longer?term management and outcomes. Methods and Results From 2002 to 2010, 518 consecutive patients (84% male, 62±14 years) with structural heart disease underwent a first ablation procedure for sustained VT at our institution. Acute ablation failure was defined as persistent inducibility of a clinical VT. Acute ablation failure was seen in 52 (10%) patients. Causes for failure were: intramural free wall VT in 13 (25%), deep septal VT in 9 (17%), decision not to ablate due to proximity to the bundle of His, left phrenic nerve, or a coronary artery in 3 (6%), and endocardial ablation failure with inability or decision not to attempt to access the epicardium in 27 (52%) patients. In multivariable analysis, ablation failure was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 2.010, 95% CI 1.147 to 3.239, P=0.004) and VT recurrence (hazard ratio 2.385, 95% CI 1.642 to 3.466, P<0.001). Conclusions With endocardial or epicardial ablation, or both, acute ablation failure was seen in 10% of patients, largely due to anatomic factors. Persistence of a clinical VT is associated with recurrence and comparatively higher mortality.

Tokuda, Michifumi; Kojodjojo, Pipin; Tung, Stanley; Tedrow, Usha B.; Nof, Eyal; Inada, Keiichi; Koplan, Bruce A.; Michaud, Gregory F.; John, Roy M.; Epstein, Laurence M.; Stevenson, William G.

2013-01-01

106

Lipotoxicity Causes Multisystem Organ Failure and Exacerbates Acute Pancreatitis in Obesity  

PubMed Central

Obesity increases the risk of adverse outcomes during acute critical illnesses such as burns, severe trauma, and acute pancreatitis. Although individuals with more body fat and higher serum cytokines and lipase are more likely to experience problems, the roles that these characteristics play are not clear. We used severe acute pancreatitis as a representative disease to investigate the effects of obesity on local organ function and systemic processes. In obese humans, we found that an increase in the volume of intrapancreatic adipocytes was associated with more extensive pancreatic necrosis during acute pancreatitis and that acute pancreatitis was associated with multisystem organ failure in obese individuals. In vitro studies of pancreatic acinar cells showed that unsaturated fatty acids were proinflammatory, releasing intracellular calcium, inhibiting mitochondrial complexes I and V, and causing necrosis. Saturated fatty acids had no such effects. Inhibition of lipolysis in obese (ob/ob) mice with induced pancreatitis prevented a rise in serum unsaturated fatty acids and prevented renal injury, lung injury, systemic inflammation, hypocalcemia, reduced pancreatic necrosis, and mortality. Thus, therapeutic approaches that target unsaturated fatty acid–mediated lipotoxicity may reduce adverse outcomes in obese patients with critical illnesses such as severe acute pancreatitis.

Navina, Sarah; Acharya, Chathur; DeLany, James P.; Orlichenko, Lidiya S.; Baty, Catherine J.; Shiva, Sruti S.; Durgampudi, Chandra; Karlsson, Jenny M.; Lee, Kenneth; Bae, Kyongtae T.; Furlan, Alessandro; Behari, Jaideep; Liu, Shiguang; McHale, Teresa; Nichols, Larry; Papachristou, Georgios Ioannis; Yadav, Dhiraj; Singh, Vijay P.

2012-01-01

107

Unsuspected Leptospirosis Is a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemic severe leptospirosis was recognized in Nicaragua in 1995, but unrecognized epidemic and endemic disease remains unstudied. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the burden of and risk factors associated with symptomatic leptospirosis in Nicaragua, we prospectively studied patients presenting with fever at a large teaching hospital. Epidemiologic and clinical features were systematically recorded, and paired sera tested by IgM-ELISA to identify patients with probable and possible acute leptospirosis. Microscopic Agglutination Test and PCR were used to confirm acute leptospirosis. Among 704 patients with paired sera tested by MAT, 44 had acute leptospirosis. Patients with acute leptospirosis were more likely to present during rainy months and to report rural residence and fresh water exposure. The sensitivity of clinical impression and acute-phase IgM detected by ELISA were poor. Conclusions/Significance Leptospirosis is a common (6.3%) but unrecognized cause of acute febrile illness in Nicaragua. Rapid point-of-care tests to support early diagnosis and treatment as well as tests to support population-based studies to delineate the epidemiology, incidence, and clinical spectrum of leptospirosis, both ideally pathogen-based, are needed.

Reller, Megan E.; Wunder, Elsio A.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Flom, Judith E.; Mayorga, Orlando; Woods, Christopher W.; Ko, Albert I.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Matute, Armando J.

2014-01-01

108

Appropriateness of Empirical Treatment and Outcome in Bacteremia Caused by Extended-Spectrum-?-Lactamase-Producing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

We studied clinical characteristics, appropriateness of initial antibiotic treatment, and other factors associated with day 30 mortality in patients with bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in eight Dutch hospitals. Retrospectively, information was collected from 232 consecutive patients with ESBL bacteremia (due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae) between 2008 and 2010. In this cohort (median age of 65 years; 24 patients were <18 years of age), many had comorbidities, such as malignancy (34%) or recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) (15%). One hundred forty episodes (60%) were nosocomial, 54 (23%) were otherwise health care associated, and 38 (16%) were community acquired. The most frequent sources of infection were UTI (42%) and intra-abdominal infection (28%). Appropriate therapy within 24 h after bacteremia onset was prescribed to 37% of all patients and to 54% of known ESBL carriers. The day 30 mortality rate was 20%. In a multivariable analysis, a Charlson comorbidity index of ?3, an age of ?75 years, intensive care unit (ICU) stay at bacteremia onset, a non-UTI bacteremia source, and presentation with severe sepsis, but not inappropriate therapy within <24 h (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 3.45), were associated with day 30 mortality. Further assessment of confounding and a stratified analysis for patients with UTI and non-UTI origins of infection did not reveal a statistically significant effect of inappropriate therapy on day 30 mortality, and these results were insensitive to the possible misclassification of patients who had received ?-lactam–?-lactamase inhibitor combinations or ceftazidime as initial treatment. In conclusion, ESBL bacteremia occurs mostly in patients with comorbidities requiring frequent hospitalization, and 84% of episodes were health care associated. Factors other than inappropriate therapy within <24 h determined day 30 mortality.

Frakking, Florine N. J.; Dorigo-Zetsma, J. Wendelien; van Hattem, Jarne M.; van Hees, Babette C.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; Lutgens, Suzanne P. M.; Prins, Jan M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; Verbon, Annelies; Vlaminckx, Bart J. M.; Cohen Stuart, James W.; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

2013-01-01

109

The Mckittrick-Wheelock Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Severe Hydroelectrolyte Disorders and Acute Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

The McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome is a rare cause of severe hydroelectrolyte disorders and fluid depletion as a result of rectal tumor hypersecretion, which can lead to acute renal failure. We report the case of a 70-year-old female who presented with hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and acute renal failure, due to a watery, mucinous diarrhea. A large rectal villous adenoma was discovered on ileocolonoscopy, and definitive management was achieved by removal of the tumor. In conclusion, reversal of the biochemical derangement is the cornerstone of successful management of the McKittrick-Wheelock syndrome. Then, immediate surgical resection of the tumor is the treatment of choice.

Bruno, Andrea; Chimienti, Domenico; Montanaro, Alda; Prete, Fernando; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Basile, Carlo

2011-01-01

110

A Case of Effective Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage for Paraplegia Caused by Acute Aortic Dissection  

PubMed Central

A 65-year-old man with sudden back pain was transferred to our hospital by ambulance, who also complained of sensory and motor disorder of bilateral legs on arrival. The neurological disorder was gradually aggravated and paraplegia below the level of Th10 was manifested. Computed tomography demonstrated DeBakey IIIb acute aortic dissection; therefore, the paraplegia was thought to be due to spinal cord ischemia caused by the acute aortic dissection. Emergent cerebrospinal fluid drainage was performed, and it was very effective for the relief from paraplegia. The hospital course after the drainage was uneventful and he was discharged on the 39th day after the onset of symptoms.

Hayatsu, Yukihiro; Nagaya, Koichi; Sakuma, Kei; Nagamine, Susumu

2011-01-01

111

Bilateral renal artery thrombosis in inherited thrombophilia: a rare cause of acute kidney injury  

PubMed Central

We describe the case of a 47-year-old man who developed significant acute, and subsequently chronic, kidney injury due to bilateral renal infarction. This occurred in the context of a combined inherited thrombophilia including antithrombin III deficiency and a prothrombin gene mutation. Bilateral renal artery thrombosis developed despite prophylactic treatment for thromboembolism. Arterial thrombosis is rare in the context of inherited thrombophilia and bilateral renal infarction is an unusual cause of acute kidney injury. Bilateral renal infarction due to primary renal artery thrombosis has not been previously described in antithrombin III deficiency, either as an isolated defect or in combination with other hereditary thrombophilia.

Wiles, Kate S; Hastings, Laura; Muthuppalaniappan, Vasantha Muthu; Hanif, Muhammad; Abeygunasekara, Sumith

2014-01-01

112

Segmental omental infarction: a rare cause of acute abdominal pain in children.  

PubMed

Segmental omental infarction (SOI) is an unusual and rare cause of abdominal pain in children and is often mistaken for acute appendicitis preoperatively. SOI once diagnosed preoperatively should be treated conservatively. Surgical intervention, however, may be necessary in order to establish definitive diagnosis and treatment. We present 2 children with SOI diagnosed as acute appendicitis preoperatively. Laparoscopy established the diagnosis and treatment. Laparoscopy should be the procedure of choice in children presenting with right-sided abdominal pain that is not well established preoperatively. This is especially so in obese children. Laparoscopy not only establishes the diagnosis of SOI but laparoscopic omentectomy results in resolution of symptoms and faster recovery. PMID:24487175

Hamchou, Moustafa; Kothari, Mukul; Sahari, Bahjat; Swid, Adnan; Al-Salem, Ahmed H

2014-02-01

113

[A case of sustained cholestasis caused by acute A viral hepatitis in Dubin-Johnson syndrome].  

PubMed

Dubin-Johnson syndrome is a rare clinical entity. It shows intermittent symptoms such as chronic or intermittent jaundice, abdominal pain, weakness, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and diarrhea. Symptoms are precipitated or aggravated by pregnancy, alcoholism, surgical procedures and intercurrent disease. Chronic idiopathic jaundice is typical of Dubin-Johnson syndrome and its prognosis is good. We describe a case of prolonged cholestasis for more than 10 months caused by acute A viral hepatitis in a patient with Dubin-Johnson syndrome. It is a first report of cholestasis complicated by acute A viral hepatitis in a patient with Dubin-Johnson syndrome. PMID:22544030

Ra, Sang Ho; Sung, Se Yong; Jung, Ho Yeon; Cha, Jae Hwang; Baik, Soon Koo; Cho, Mee Yon; Kim, Moon Young

2012-04-01

114

Primary Cutaneous Blastomycosis as a Cause of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrom  

PubMed Central

Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. Exposure in endemic regions frequently occurs when spores in soil are disturbed and subsequently inhaled. Less commonly, primary cutaneous blastomycosis may follow after traumatic inoculation of the fungus into the skin. Most patients infected with blastomycosis are asymptomatic, but an unfortunate small number present with fulminant disease. Rarely, the infection can affect organs, such as the skin, bone, or genitourinary system. In a small percentage of cases, blastomycosis may cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is associated with a very high mortality rate. Increased survival rates have been shown when the clinician has a high index of suspicion and facilitates rapid evaluation and initiation of the appropriate therapy. We present a rare case of a patient presenting with primary cutaneous blastomycosis that progressed to disseminated disease causing acute respiratory distress syndrome. High clinical suspicion, prompt diagnostic testing, and therapy with amphotericin B, confirmed the diagnosis and resulted in a swift recovery.

Spear, Joel B.

2009-01-01

115

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of some antimicrobial drugs against bacteria causing uterine infections in cattle.  

PubMed

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oxytetracycline, cephapirin, cephapirin/mecillinam, cefquinome, ceftiofur and enrofloxacin, candidate antibiotics for the principal bacteria associated with uterine infections: Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and the anaerobic bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella melaninogenicus, were determined by the agar dilution method. The bacteria were isolated from animals with clinical metritis and/or endometritis. For E coli, cefquinome and enrofloxacin had the lowest MIC90 and MIC50 values (< 0.06 microg/ml), and oxytetracycline and cephapirin had the highest values. For A pyogenes, oxytetracycline had the highest MIC50 value (16 microg/ml), but all the cephalosporins had values below 0.06 microg/ml. For the anaerobic bacteria, enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline had the highest MIC50 values but all the cephalosporins had values of 0.06 microg/ml or below. PMID:15499809

Sheldon, I M; Bushnell, M; Montgomery, J; Rycroft, A N

2004-09-25

116

Management of cardiac arrest caused by acute massive pulmonary thromboembolism: importance of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support.  

PubMed

Cardiac arrest caused by acute pulmonary embolism is associated with high patient mortality. We reviewed patients who had cardiac arrest caused by acute pulmonary embolism. Between January 2001 and September 2013, we identified 20 patients at our institution with a confirmative diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism and cardiac arrest. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) and surgical embolectomy are the standard course of care for patients with shock or cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary thromboembolism at our institution. Patients were divided into two groups (PCPS group and non-PCPS group). Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was used in 60% of patients. Surgical embolectomy was performed for 85% of patients. Overall in-hospital and surgical mortalities were 35% and 29%, respectively. On the basis of the multivariate analysis, both cardiopulmonary resuscitation more than 15 minutes and absence of PCPS were significant risk factors affecting survival (p = 0.001 and 0.049, respectively). When the duration of cardiac arrest is short, surgical embolectomy is a viable option after cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary thromboembolism. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support may be a useful tool for both stabilizing the patient and providing a bridge when deciding on further management options. PMID:24625535

Cho, Yang Hyun; Kim, Wook Sung; Sung, Kiick; Jeong, Dong Seop; Lee, Young Tak; Park, Pyo Won; Kim, Duk-Kyung

2014-01-01

117

Solitary spinal epidural cavernous angiomas in children presenting with acute neurological symptoms caused by hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Spinal solitary epidural cavernous angiomas are rare benign vascular malformations, which occur even less frequently in children than in adults. It is uncommon to find such lesions without adjacent vertebral involvement. Occasionally, these lesions can lead to neurological symptoms through growth or due to intralesional hemorrhage. In this report the authors describe 2 children presenting with acute symptoms and neurological deficits caused by hemorrhage within solitary spinal epidural cavernous angiomas. A 13-year-old girl and a 9-year-old girl, previously healthy, were admitted to the authors' department due to acute radicular pain and neurological deficits. In both cases MR imaging revealed a solitary epidural mass with signs of bleeding and compression of the spinal cord. Complete resection of the lesion via a dorsal approach was performed in both patients. The histological examination of the lesions revealed the characteristic structures of a cavernous angioma with hemosiderin deposits and acute hemorrhage. Both patients recovered fully after surgical removal of the lesions. Review of the literature confirmed that spinal epidural cavernous angiomas are extremely rare in the pediatric patient population, described currently in only 2 instances, but without acute hemorrhage. These cases suggest that epidural cavernous angiomas also have to be considered in the pediatric patient population in the differential diagnosis of intraspinal lesions with acute or progressive neurological symptoms. Microsurgical resection of these cavernous malformations is an effective and curative treatment option. PMID:20043742

Sarikaya-Seiwert, Sevgi; Gierga, Kristin; Wessalowski, Rüdiger; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

2010-01-01

118

Pulmonary alveolar septal calcinosis causing progressive respiratory failure in acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood.  

PubMed

A syndrome of pulmonary alveolar septal calcinosis, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum, leading to rapidly progressive acute respiratory insufficiency and death was observed in 2 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Primary clinical and radiological considerations in these patients were pulmonary edema and infection, and the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar septal calcification was established only at autopsy. One patient, a 15-year-old girl, was found also to have parathyroid hyperplasia typical of familial hyperparathyroidism. The other, a 16-month-old girl, showed osteitis fibrosa of the bones and parathyroid hyperplasia of secondary type, suggesting that the pulmonary calcinosis resulted from hypercalcemia caused by a parathormone or prostaglandin-secreting tumor. The cause of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum may have been rupture of calcified alveolar septa induced by high PEEP during ventilation of these patients. Other possible mechanisms contributing to hypercalcemia and pulmonary calcinosis in children with acute leukemia include bone resorption due to marrow infiltration, immobilization syndrome, renal failure, and administration of calcium, phosphate, or bicarbonate. This complication of acute leukemia in childhood is rare (2 patients in 430 autopsied over the period 1961-1982 at Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles). How often the process can be reversed if diagnosed before severe respiratory insufficiency is present is not known. PMID:3473456

Sinniah, D; Landing, B H; Siegel, S E; Laug, W E; Gwinn, J L

1986-01-01

119

Acute Calculous Cholecystitis Caused by Candida lusitaniae: an Unusual Causative Organism in a Patient without Underlying Malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In more than 90% of patients with acute cholecystitis, gallstones are impacted in the cystic duct. In the presence of cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, an appreciable number of various bacteria may be found in the bile and walls of the gall- bladder. Usually, the organisms found in the biliary tract are the normal intestinal flora: namely, enteric Gram-negative bacilli, including Escherichia

Mustafa Yildirim; Ismet Ozaydin; Idris Sahin; Mehmet Yasar

120

Epidemiology of bacteremia caused by uncommon non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Prevalence of bacteremia caused by non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria (NFGNB) has been increasing over the past decade. Although many studies have already investigated epidemiology of NFGNB bacteremia, most focused only on common NFGNB including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (AB). Knowledge of uncommon NFGNB bacteremia is very limited. Our study aimed to investigate epidemiology and identify factors associated with uncommon NFGNB bacteremia. Methods This observational study was conducted at a university hospital in Thailand during July 1, 2007-Dec 31, 2008. All patients who had at least one blood culture positive for NFGNB and met the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome within 24 hours before/after obtaining the blood culture were enrolled. The NFGNB isolates that could not be satisfactorily identified by the standard biochemical assays were further characterized by molecular sequencing methods. To identify factors associated with uncommon NFGNB bacteremia, characteristics of patients in the uncommon NFGNB group were subsequently compared to patients in the common NFGNB group (AB and PA bacteremia). Results Our study detected 223 clinical isolates of NFGNB in 221 unique patients. The major causative pathogens were AB (32.7%), followed by PA (27.8%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5.4%), Acinetobacter lwoffii (4.9%) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (2.7%). Infection-related mortality was 63.0% in the AB group, 40.3% in the PA group and 17.4% in the uncommon NFGNB group. Factors associated with uncommon NFGNB bacteremia (OR [95% CI]; p-value) were male sex (0.28 [0.14-0.53]; p?

2013-01-01

121

Repeated exposure to modern volatile anaesthetics may cause chronic hepatitis as well as acute liver injury  

PubMed Central

Summary Volatile anaesthetic agents are known to cause acute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure in susceptible individuals. Four patients were identified with prolonged liver injury due to volatile anaesthetic-induced hepatitis. Three had liver biopsy confirmation and all gave blood for specific diagnostic tests (TFA and CYP 2E1 IgG4 antibodies). The Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) drug causality scale was used to determine the likelihood of volatile anaesthetics causing the chronic liver injury. We describe four cases of volatile anaesthetic hepatitis in which three evolved into chronic hepatitis. The fourth followed a more typical pattern of acute hepatitis; however, resolution took a few months. These cases all occurred with modern volatile anaesthetics, predominantly sevoflurane, and all cases were proven with specific antibody tests, liver histology and a drug causality scale. This is the first report of chronic liver injury due to volatile anaesthetic exposure.

Nicoll, Amanda; Moore, David; Njoku, Dolores; Hockey, Brad

2013-01-01

122

Causes of acute poisoning in adults: a retrospective study, in a hospital in Istanbul, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  Acute poisoning is one of the major topics in emergency medicine practices. Despite the recent developments in toxicology,\\u000a technological advances and changing lifestyles reveal new factors, and poisoning cases remain to be a problem. All poisonings\\u000a should be considered serious and independent from their clinical presentation at the time of admission. Identifying the cause\\u000a and prompt initiation of treatment is

Zuhal Aydan Saglam; Baris Demir; Esra Hayriye Ataoglu; Mustafa Yenigun; Levent Umit Temiz; Tayyibe Saler

123

Increased size of a gas-filled intradural cyst causing acute foot drop: a case report.  

PubMed

We describe the case of a 76-year-old man presenting with a gas-filled intradural cyst that increased in size over a 10-month period and caused acute bilateral foot drop. The gas-filled intradural cyst was resected from the adherent cauda equina, and histopathological examination identified cystic tissue with degenerated fibrocartilage. Leg pain disappeared immediately following surgery, and the bilateral foot drop resolved within 8 months. PMID:23793353

Jeon, Chang-Hoon; Park, Jeong-Uk; Choo, Ho-Sik; Chung, Nam-Su

2013-12-01

124

Urethral caruncle: Case report of a rare acute urinary retension cause  

PubMed Central

A urethral caruncle is a benign vascular tumour usually originating from the rear lip of the external urethral mea and often observed in postmenopausal women. Urethral caruncle is not included within the list of bladder overdistension causes in women. We present urethral caruncle as a rare cause of acute urinary obstruction in a 41-year-old woman. The case was evaluated with physical examination and the bladder was evacuated with a 12-Fr urethral catheter. A pressure flow study was performed. The caruncle was excised under spinal anesthesia. There were no complications. The urethral catheter was withdrawn on the sixth day and she was discharged with local estrogen.

Coban, Soner; B?y?k, Ismail

2014-01-01

125

Control filamentous bulking caused by chlorine-resistant Type 021N bacteria through adding a biocide CTAB.  

PubMed

Filamentous bulking sludge due to excessive growth of filamentous bacteria is a serious operational problem in activated sludge plants. The addition of chemicals is one of widespread ways to control filamentous bulking. In this study, filamentous bulking in a continuous activated sludge system was found to be mainly caused by Eikelboom Type 021N filamentous bacteria likely due to low substrate concentration gradients. These Type 021N bacteria were found to be resistant to chlorination, maintaining cell integrity at a dosage of up to 80 mg Cl/gSS. An alternative biocidal agent, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), exhibited a much stronger biocidal effect on these filaments, which significantly improved sludge settleability. Type 021N with filamentous index of 5 was selectively killed, but floc-formers recovery their activity after CTAB termination. The study implied that CTAB might have more penetration capacity to cell wall of chlorine-resistant Type 021N bacteria. We therefore suggest the penetration property of filament cell wall should be considered or tested before the selection of biocide type in practice. PMID:23079128

Guo, Jianhua; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Zhongwei; Yuan, Zhiguo; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Shuying

2012-12-01

126

Parasitic infection of the appendix as a cause of acute appendicitis.  

PubMed

The association between parasitic infection of the appendix and acute appendicitis has been widely investigated. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitic infection of the appendix in a tropical area at southeast Brazil and to assess its possible relation to acute appendicitis in surgically removed appendices. Of the 1,600 appendectomies performed during a 10-year period, 24 (1.5%) were found to have helminths within the appendix. Enterobius vermicularis was observed in 23 of the 24 specimens (95.8%), and Taenia sp. was detected in only one case. Sixteen patients (66.7%) were less than 10 years old; 15 patients were male and nine female; 21 patients were white, and three were nonwhites. Pathologic analysis disclosed acute neutrophilic inflammation in the appendix wall in 12 of the 24 specimens and lymphoid hyperplasia in 10 of the 24 appendices. Gangrenous appendicitis was diagnosed in three cases, and peritonitis was found in 11 of the 24 infected appendices. The results of the present study indicate that E. vermicularis is the commonest worm found in the appendix and that its presence can cause pathologic changes ranging from lymphoid hyperplasia to acute phlegmonous inflammation with life-threatening complications like gangrene and peritonitis. PMID:17851689

da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; da Silva, Reinaldo José; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; Sartorelli, Alesso Cervantes; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan

2007-12-01

127

Scrub Typhus Is an Under-recognized Cause of Acute Febrile Illness with Acute Kidney Injury in India  

PubMed Central

Background Infection-related acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropical region. The prevalence and outcome of kidney involvement, especially AKI, in scrub typhus is not known. We investigated all patients with undiagnosed fever and multisystem involvement for scrub typhus and present the pattern of renal involvement seen. Methods From September 2011 to November 2012, blood samples of all the patients with unexplained acute febrile illness and/or varying organ involvement were evaluated for evidence of scrub typhus. A confirmed case of scrub typhus was defined as one with detectable Orientia tsutsugamushi deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in patient's blood sample by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the gene encoding 56-kDa antigen and without any alternative etiological diagnosis. Renal involvement was defined by demonstration of abnormal urinalysis and/or reduced glomerular filtration rate. AKI was defined as per Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition. Results Out of 201 patients tested during this period, 49 were positive by nested PCR for scrub typhus. Mean age of study population was 34.1±14.4 (range 11–65) years. Majority were males and a seasonal trend was evident with most cases following the rainy season. Overall, renal abnormalities were seen in 82% patients, 53% of patients had AKI (stage 1, 2 and 3 in 10%, 8% and 35%, respectively). The urinalysis was abnormal in 61%, with dipstick positive albuminuria (55%) and microscopic hematuria (16%) being most common. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and shock were seen in 57% and 16% of patients, respectively. Hyperbilirubinemia was associated with AKI (p?=?0.013). A total of 8 patients (including three with dialysis dependent AKI) expired whereas rest all made uneventful recovery. Jaundice, oliguria, ARDS and AKI were associated with mortality. However, after multivariate analysis, only oliguric AKI remained a significant predictor of mortality (p?=?0.002). Conclusions Scrub typhus was diagnosed in 24% of patients presenting with unexplained febrile illness according to a strict case definition not previously used in this region. Renal abnormalities were seen in almost 82% of all patients with evidence of AKI in 53%. Our finding is contrary to current perception that scrub typhus rarely causes renal dysfunction. We suggest that all patients with unexplained febrile illness be investigated for scrub typhus and AKI looked for in scrub typhus patients.

Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Vinod; Yadav, Ashok K.; Iyengar, Sreenivasa; Bhalla, Ashish; Sharma, Navneet; Aggarwal, Ritesh; Jain, Sanjay; Jha, Vivekanand

2014-01-01

128

Weakening Effect of Cell Permeabilizers on Gram-Negative Bacteria Causing Biodeterioration  

PubMed Central

Gram-negative bacteria play an important role in the formation and stabilization of biofilm structures on stone surfaces. Therefore, the control of growth of gram-negative bacteria offers a way to diminish biodeterioration of stone materials. The effect of potential permeabilizers on the outer membrane (OM) properties of gram-negative bacteria was investigated and further characterized. In addition, efficacy of the agents in enhancing the activity of a biocide (benzalkonium chloride) was assessed. EDTA, polyethylenimine (PEI), and succimer (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic) were shown to be efficient permeabilizers of the members of Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas genera, as indicated by an increase in the uptake of a hydrophobic probe (1-N-phenylnaphthylamine) and sensitization to hydrophobic antibiotics. Visualization of Pseudomonas cells treated with EDTA or PEI by atomic force microscopy revealed damage in the outer membrane structure. PEI especially increased the surface area and bulges of the cells. Topographic images of EDTA-treated cells were compatible with events assigned for the effect of EDTA on outer membranes, i.e., release of lipopolysaccharide and disintegration of OM structure. In addition, the effect of EDTA treatment was visualized in phase-contrast images as large areas with varying hydrophilicity on cell surfaces. In liquid culture tests, EDTA and PEI supplementation enhanced the activity of benzalkonium chloride toward the target strains. Use of permeabilizers in biocide formulations would enable the use of decreased concentrations of the active biocide ingredient, thereby providing environmentally friendlier products.

Alakomi, H.-L.; Paananen, A.; Suihko, M.-L.; Helander, I. M.; Saarela, M.

2006-01-01

129

Weakening effect of cell permeabilizers on gram-negative bacteria causing biodeterioration.  

PubMed

Gram-negative bacteria play an important role in the formation and stabilization of biofilm structures on stone surfaces. Therefore, the control of growth of gram-negative bacteria offers a way to diminish biodeterioration of stone materials. The effect of potential permeabilizers on the outer membrane (OM) properties of gram-negative bacteria was investigated and further characterized. In addition, efficacy of the agents in enhancing the activity of a biocide (benzalkonium chloride) was assessed. EDTA, polyethylenimine (PEI), and succimer (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic) were shown to be efficient permeabilizers of the members of Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas genera, as indicated by an increase in the uptake of a hydrophobic probe (1-N-phenylnaphthylamine) and sensitization to hydrophobic antibiotics. Visualization of Pseudomonas cells treated with EDTA or PEI by atomic force microscopy revealed damage in the outer membrane structure. PEI especially increased the surface area and bulges of the cells. Topographic images of EDTA-treated cells were compatible with events assigned for the effect of EDTA on outer membranes, i.e., release of lipopolysaccharide and disintegration of OM structure. In addition, the effect of EDTA treatment was visualized in phase-contrast images as large areas with varying hydrophilicity on cell surfaces. In liquid culture tests, EDTA and PEI supplementation enhanced the activity of benzalkonium chloride toward the target strains. Use of permeabilizers in biocide formulations would enable the use of decreased concentrations of the active biocide ingredient, thereby providing environmentally friendlier products. PMID:16820461

Alakomi, H-L; Paananen, A; Suihko, M-L; Helander, I M; Saarela, M

2006-07-01

130

Chronic ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine) abuse: a recurrent and unpredictable cause of severe acute hepatitis.  

PubMed

Fifteen reports of hepatitis induced by ecstasy (MDMA, 3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine) have been published over the last 3 years. With the increasing enthusiasm for "Rave" parties, the incidence appears to be increasing, and is an important and often concealed cause of acute hepatitis in young people. We report two cases of recurrent ecstasy-associated hepatitis where the interval between drug consumption and jaundice was variable and the link therefore initially obscured. Liver biopsies of both patients showed acute hepatitis. One was of relatively mild degree, and the other was severe, with features suggesting auto-immune hepatitis. Both cases resolved spontaneously. A high index of suspicion and careful specific enquiry are necessary to make the diagnosis and warn the patient to abstain in future, since subsequent attacks may be fatal and insidious chronic damage may occur. PMID:8912157

Fidler, H; Dhillon, A; Gertner, D; Burroughs, A

1996-10-01

131

Mechanisms of acute increases in airway responsiveness caused by environmental chemicals  

SciTech Connect

Inhalation of inhaled environmental chemicals has long been recognized as a cause of acute increases in airway responsiveness. Extensive studies of the mechanisms of action of two of these chemicals, ozone and toluene diisocyanate, have been conducted during the past decade. The results of these studies suggest that acute airway inflammation plays an important role in the effect of inhaled chemicals but that the specific aspects of the inflammatory response that lead to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness are different for different stimuli and among different mammalian species. These observations suggest that in vivo airway hyperresponsiveness can arise via several different mechanisms and is thus not likely to reflect a single underlying defect. 24 references.

Sheppard, D.

1988-01-01

132

Acute respiratory failure caused by organizing pneumonia secondary to antineoplastic therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Interstitial lung diseases belong to a group of diseases that typically exhibit a subacute or chronic progression but that may cause acute respiratory failure. The male patient, who was 37 years of age and undergoing therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, was admitted with cough, fever, dyspnea and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation and antibiotic therapy were initiated but were associated with unfavorable progression. Thoracic computed tomography showed bilateral pulmonary "ground glass" opacities. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was initiated with satisfactory response because the patient had used three drugs related to organizing pneumonia (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and rituximab), and the clinical and radiological symptoms were suggestive. Organizing pneumonia may be idiopathic or linked to collagen diseases, drugs and cancer and usually responds to corticosteroid therapy. The diagnosis was anatomopathological, but the patient's clinical condition precluded performing a lung biopsy. Organizing pneumonia should be a differential diagnosis in patients with apparent pneumonia and a progression that is unfavorable to antimicrobial treatment.

Santana, Adriell Ramalho; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Soares, Paulo Henrique Alves; de Moura, Edmilson Bastos; Maia, Marcelo de Oliveira

2012-01-01

133

A case of effective cerebrospinal fluid drainage for paraplegia caused by acute aortic dissection.  

PubMed

A 65-year-old man with sudden back pain was transferred to our hospital by ambulance, who also complained of sensory and motor disorder of bilateral legs on arrival. The neurological disorder was gradually aggravated and paraplegia below the level of Th10 was manifested. Computed tomography demonstrated DeBakey IIIb acute aortic dissection; therefore, the paraplegia was thought to be due to spinal cord ischemia caused by the acute aortic dissection. Emergent cerebrospinal fluid drainage was performed, and it was very effective for the relief from paraplegia. The hospital course after the drainage was uneventful and he was discharged on the 39th day after the onset of symptoms. PMID:23555433

Hayatsu, Yukihiro; Nagaya, Koichi; Sakuma, Kei; Nagamine, Susumu

2011-01-01

134

[Prevention of acute tubular necrosis caused by the administration of non-ionic radiologic contrast media].  

PubMed

Radiographic contrast agents can cause acute renal failure that may be due to acute tubular necrosis (ATN). We prospectively studied 45 patients with risk factors for ATN who were undergoing computed tomography with three nonionic contrast agents (ioversolo, iobitridolo and iodixanolo). Patients were randomly assigned either to receive preventive management (0.45% saline intravenously, before and after administration of the contrast agent; mannitol 20% 250 mL i.v. 60 min before and 60 min after the contrast agent; furosemide 80 mg i.v. 30 min before the contrast agent; dopamine 3 g/Kg/min i.v. after administration of the contrast agent for 24 hours) or to receive placebo. Prophylactic management prevents the reduction in renal function induced by ioversolo, iobitridolo and iodixanolo, three noninonic contrast agents in patients with risk factors for ATN. PMID:11141713

Spoto, S; Galluzzo, S; De Galasso, L; Zobel, B; Navajas, M F

2000-01-01

135

Paradoxical coronary embolism, a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction on positive pressure ventilation.  

PubMed

A 65-year-old man developed respiratory failure and was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit for positive pressure ventilation and antibiotic and antifungal therapy.There was a sudden deterioration with chest pain, worsening hypoxia and hypotension. Serial electrocardiograms showed new onset right bundle-branch block with developing anterior ST-segment elevation. An urgent coronary angiogram revealed acute occlusion of the left anterior descending artery with a single large distinct thrombus, which was successfully removed with an aspiration catheter. A presumptive diagnosis of paradoxical coronary embolus was made. A short review is provided of this relatively rare clinical entity which has the potential to present in intensive care patients who have an underlying intra-cardiac defect and require positive pressure ventilation. This case emphasises the importance of being aware of less common causes of acute clinical deterioration and electrocardiographic changes in the ventilated patient. PMID:22998006

Bennett, Johan; Ong, Li; Hanratty, Colm

2012-08-01

136

Coxiella burnetii Isolates Cause Genogroup-Specific Virulence in Mouse and Guinea Pig Models of Acute Q Fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Q fever is a zoonotic disease of worldwide significance caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Humans with Q fever may experience an acute flu-like illness and pneumonia and\\/or chronic hepatitis or endocarditis. Various markers demonstrate significant phylogenetic separation between and clustering among isolates from acute and chronic human disease. The clinical and pathological responses to infection with phase

K. E. Russell-Lodrigue; M. Andoh; M. W. J. Poels; H. R. Shive; G. Q. Zhang; C. Tersteeg; T. Masegi; A. Hotta; T. Yamaguchi; H. Fukushima; K. Hirai; D. N. McMurray; J. E. Samuel

2009-01-01

137

Defining the Cause of Death in Hospitalised Patients with Acute Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

Background The high mortality rates that follow the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI) are well recognised. However, the mode of death in patients with AKI remains relatively under-studied, particularly in general hospitalised populations who represent the majority of those affected. We sought to describe the primary cause of death in a large group of prospectively identified patients with AKI. Methods All patients sustaining AKI at our centre between 1st October 2010 and 31st October 2011 were identified by real-time, hospital-wide, electronic AKI reporting based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) diagnostic criteria. Using this system we are able to generate a prospective database of all AKI cases that includes demographic, outcome and hospital coding data. For those patients that died during hospital admission, cause of death was derived from the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death. Results During the study period there were 3,930 patients who sustained AKI; 62.0% had AKI stage 1, 20.6% had stage 2 and 17.4% stage 3. In-hospital mortality rate was 21.9% (859 patients). Cause of death could be identified in 93.4% of cases. There were three main disease categories accounting for three quarters of all mortality; sepsis (41.1%), cardiovascular disease (19.2%) and malignancy (12.9%). The major diagnosis leading to sepsis was pneumonia, whilst cardiovascular death was largely a result of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease. AKI was the primary cause of death in only 3% of cases. Conclusions Mortality associated with AKI remains high, although cause of death is usually concurrent illness. Specific strategies to improve outcomes may therefore need to target not just the management of AKI but also the most relevant co-existing conditions.

Selby, Nicholas M.; Kolhe, Nitin V.; McIntyre, Christopher W.; Monaghan, John; Lawson, Nigel; Elliott, David; Packington, Rebecca; Fluck, Richard J.

2012-01-01

138

Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome: An Important Cause of Acute Severe Headache  

PubMed Central

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is an increasingly recognized and important cause of acute headache. The majority of these patients develop potentially serious neurological complications. Rigorous investigation is required to exclude other significant differential diagnoses. Differentiating RCVS from subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) may be difficult but has important therapeutic implications. This paper describes what is currently known about the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical, and diagnostic features of the syndrome, an approach to investigation, a summary of treatments, and what is known of prognosis.

Tan, Li Huey; Flower, Oliver

2012-01-01

139

Malignant melanoma embolus as a cause of acute aortic occlusion: report of a case.  

PubMed

A case of acute aortic occlusion caused by embolization of malignant melanoma tumor fragments is presented. Transfemoral catheter embolectomy restored normal lower extremity circulation. Noncardiac tumor emboli, although rare, originate either from primary pulmonary malignancies or nonpulmonary malignancies with pulmonary metastases and pulmonary vein invasion. Tumor embolization should be considered a possible source of peripheral arterial emboli when there is no other obvious source, such as the fibrillating or infarcted heart. In such cases, early surgical intervention should be considered in preference to therapy with heparin or streptokinase. PMID:3951038

Harris, R W; Andros, G; Dulawa, L B; Oblath, R W

1986-03-01

140

Acute renal failure caused by bilateral ureteral herniation through the sciatic foramen.  

PubMed

Ureteral herniation is rare. Only a few cases of bilateral ureterosciatic herniation have been reported. We report the case of a 74-year-old woman with flank pain and acute renal failure. The initial ultrasound scan showed bilateral hydronephrosis. Follow-up computed tomography imaging demonstrated sciatic herniation of both ureters, causing bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter. The patient underwent bilateral retrograde ureterography and ureteral stent placement, with improvement in renal function to normal limits. Observation after stent removal demonstrated recurrent sciatic herniation of both ureters. Definitive surgical correction was performed by way of laparoscopic bilateral ureterolysis and sciatic notch hernia repair using mesh. PMID:23602799

Whyburn, James J; Alizadeh, Ahmadreza

2013-06-01

141

Causes of death among persons who survive an acute ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Stroke and especially its complications are a leading cause of death. Despite reduced morbidity in some developed countries, mortality in stroke patients is still high worldwide. In the past decades, treatment of acute stroke has focused on early intervention, such as revascularization and cerebral edema prevention. However, long-term clinical observations indicate that poststroke pneumonia, cardiovascular complications, and vascular embolism are the major reasons for the increased death rate after stroke. Few evidence-based data are available currently to guide the management of these complications. Thus, systematic studies of these adverse events are essential and urgent to improve survival after stroke. PMID:24951970

Zhang, Shuai; He, Wen-Bin; Chen, Nai-Hong

2014-08-01

142

Are heat stroke and physical exhaustion underestimated causes of acute hepatic failure?  

PubMed Central

While cardiopulmonary symptoms are common in patients undergoing classical or, due to physical exercise, exertional heat stroke, the failure of other organs is a rarely described phenomenon. Here we present two cases of acute hepatic failure, one due to classic heat shock, while the other occurred while the patient was doing a marathon-type running. Both cases presented with very high transaminases and significantly elevated international normalized ratio (INR). No other causes for liver failure could be identified but physical exhaustion and hyperthermia.

Weigand, Kilian; Riediger, Carina; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Encke, Jens

2007-01-01

143

Detection of Leptospires serogroups, Which Are Common Causes of Human Acute Leptospirosis in Guilan, Northern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: This study is performed to reveal most common species and subspecies of leptospires that are main causes of human leptospirosis in Guilan, Northern Province of Iran. Methods: We performed IgM-ELISA and MAT on 282 blood samples from patients who attended to 3 hospitals in the flat area of Guilan Province with clinical symptoms consisted with leptospirosis. All specimens with titers ? 160 against at least one pathogenic strain in MAT and with titers ?160 in IgM-ELISA were regarded confirmed positive cases indicative acute disease. For any confirmed positive cases, we determined the strains, which had the highest titer to determine the frequency of most common serovars and serogroups. Results: Seventy of 282 sera had titers ?160 against at least one pathogenic strain in MAT and titers ? 160 in IgM-ELISA. We determined frequency of common causative serogroups which had highest titers in 70 positive cases and only cases which had high titers in MAT and in IgM-ELISA were selected which is a reliable criterion to detect acute disease and to determine causative serogroup. Conclusion: Nine serogroups including sejroe, grippotyphosa, mini, ictero haemorrhagiae, celledoni, autumnalis, cynopteri, pomona, and javanica were more responsible of acute leptospirosis in Guilan.

Honarmand, HR; Eshraghi, SS

2011-01-01

144

RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS: AN IMPORTANT CAUSE OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY ILLNESS AMONG YOUNG ADULTS UNDERGOING MILITARY TRAINING  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Background Military recruits receiving training are vulnerable to acute respiratory disease and a significant proportion of illness is due to unidentified pathogens. While some countries use surveillance programs to monitor such illness, few data exist for recruits of the British Armed Forces. Objectives Through active surveillance of approximately 1000 Royal Navy trainees during 2001, we sought to describe and determine the aetiology of acute respiratory illness. Methods Standard viral culture was used together with serology and a novel highly sensitive real-time PCR and molecular beacon probe assay for RSV detection. Results Among 54 Royal Navy recruits with respiratory symptoms adenovirus was identified in 35%, influenza viruses in 19% and RSV in 14% of this group. All of the recruits were absent from training for almost a week, most of whom were confined to the sickbay. Conclusions This study is the first to document adenovirus and RSV as important causes of acute respiratory illness among Royal Navy trainees. The study findings demonstrate the clinical significance and challenges of diagnosing RSV infection in young adults.

O'Shea, Matthew K.; Pipkin, Christopher; Cane, Patricia A.; Gray, Gregory C.

2008-01-01

145

Clinical Analysis of Cause, Treatment and Prognosis in Acute Kidney Injury Patients  

PubMed Central

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by an abrupt decline in renal function, resulting in an inability to secrete waste products and maintain electrolyte and water balance, and is associated with high risks of morbidity and mortality. This study retrospectively analyzed clinical data, treatment, and prognosis of 271 hospitalized patients (172 males and 99 females) diagnosed with AKI from December, 2008 to December, 2011. In addition, this study explored the association between the cause of AKI and prognosis, severity and treatment of AKI. The severity of AKI was classified according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Renal recovery was defined as a decrease in a serum creatinine level to the normal value. Prerenal, renal, and postrenal causes accounted for 36.5% (99 patients), 46.5% (126 patients) and 17.0% (46 patients), respectively, of the incidence of AKI. Conservative, surgical, and renal replacement treatments were given to 180 (66.4%), 30 (11.1%) and 61 patients (22.5%), respectively. The overall recovery rate was 21.0%, and the mortality rate was 19.6%. Levels of Cl?, Na+ and carbon dioxide combining power decreased with increasing severity of AKI. Cause and treatment were significantly associated with AKI prognosis. Likewise, the severity of AKI was significantly associated with cause, treatment and prognosis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that respiratory injury and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) were associated with AKI patient death. Cause, treatment and AKIN stage are associated with the prognosis of AKI. Respiratory injury and MODS are prognostic factors for death of AKI patients.

Yang, Fan; Zhang, Li; Wu, Hao; Zou, Hongbin; Du, Yujun

2014-01-01

146

Risk of hypertension and reduced kidney function after acute gastroenteritis from bacteria-contaminated drinking water  

PubMed Central

Background The long-term health consequences of acute bacterial gastroenteritis remain uncertain. We studied the risk of hypertension and reduced kidney function after an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to contamination of a regional drinking water supply with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter species. Methods A total of 1958 adults with no known history of hypertension or kidney disease before the outbreak participated in a long-term follow-up study. Of the participants, 675 had been asymptomatic during the outbreak, 909 had had moderate symptoms of acute self-limited gastroenteritis, and 374 had had severe symptoms that necessitated medical attention. The outcomes of interest were a diagnosis of hypertension or the presence of reduced kidney function and albuminuria during the follow-up period. Results After a mean follow-up of 3.7 years after the outbreak, hypertension was diagnosed in 27.0% of participants who had been asymptomatic during the outbreak and in 32.3% and 35.9% of those who had had moderate and severe symptoms of acute gastroenteritis respectively (trend p = 0.009). Compared with the asymptomatic participants, those with moderate and severe symptoms of gastroenteritis had an adjusted relative risk of hypertension of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97–1.35) and 1.28 (95% CI 1.04–1.56) respectively. A similar graded association was seen for reduced kidney function, defined as the presence of an estimated glomerular filtration rate below 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (trend p = 0.03). No association was observed between gastroenteritis and the subsequent risk of albuminuria. Interpretation Acute bacterial gastroenteritis necessitating medical attention was associated with an increased risk of hypertension and reduced kidney function 4 years after infection. Maintaining safe drinking water remains essential to human health, as transient bacterial contaminations may have implications well beyond a period of acute self-limited illness.

Garg, Amit X.; Moist, Louise; Matsell, Douglas; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather R.; Haynes, R. Brian; Suri, Rita S.; Salvadori, Marina; Ray, Joel; Clark, William F.

2005-01-01

147

Factors associated with isolation of pathogenic bacteria from sputum of patients with acute bronchospasm.  

PubMed

Patients with obstructive airways disease (asthma and chronic obstructive airways disease) with an acute exacerbation of symptoms were studied. Those requiring hospitalization were chosen to study the pattern of respiratory pathogens isolated on a supervised sputum culture. Certain variables were studied in a case control design to determine an association with culture positivity. PMID:1302753

Nayyar, V; Antonisamy, B; John, G

1992-01-01

148

Acute Hypersensitivity Syndrome Caused by Valproic Acid: A Review of the Literature and a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic medication used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Its toxicity profile is characterized by a very rare but well-documented complication—hepatotoxicity. The risk of acute hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) caused by VPA is less well known. In the vast majority of reported cases of AHS, the syndrome is the result of aromatic anticonvulsants (AAs), such as carbamazepine or phenytoin. These compounds also have in-class cross-reactivity. We present the case of a 25-year-old woman with bipolar disorder who was unable to tolerate aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and lamotrigine. She was given extended-release VPA as a trial and developed AHS with a generalized rash, fever, liver and kidney involvement, and eosinophilia one week after the initiation of treatment. She recovered after one month of treatment, which included ten days of hospitalization. Our review of the literature focuses on AA and non-AA medications causing AHS.

Bota, Robert G; Ligasan, Allein P; Najdowski, Tom G; Novac, Andrei

2011-01-01

149

[Analysis of the structure and causes of acute poisoning of chemical etiology in the Northern Fleet].  

PubMed

Data for the incidence of acute poisoning among the personnel of the Northern Fleet in 2002-2010 is analyzed, its dynamics and proportion of primary morbidity of sailors. In the class of clinical entity of "injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes" proportion of poisoning in servicemen of different categories was ranging from 0.5 to 1.8%. Deaths occurred in 23.4% of cases of poisoning. Among the causes of poisoning major were--failure to comply with requirements to ensure safe conditions of military service and safe conduct of work, personal indiscipline of injured. Proposals for the prevention of poisoning in the current conditions of service in the Navy are suggested. PMID:22558853

Khankevich, Iu R; Askerko, I V; Myznikov, I L; Domashov, V I

2012-02-01

150

Serotonin causes acute gastric mucosal injury in rats, probably via 5HT1D receptors.  

PubMed Central

5-HT-induced acute gastric mucosal injury was assessed in rats by using 5HT1, 5HT2, 5HT3, 5HT4 or muscarinic receptor related drugs. Rats were treated with antagonists i.p. and 30 minutes later either vehicle, 5-HT (20 mg/kg) or other agonists were administered s.c. The stomachs were removed 4 hours after the last injection and mucosal integrity was assessed by light microscopy using a histological ulcer index (HUI). The HUI was found to be significantly increased following 5-HT administration (1.57 +/- 0.3) when compared with controls (0.14 +/- 0.1). 5HT1 agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine (20 mg/kg) produced acute gastric erosion and increased the HUI (P < 0.05). The HUI in the animals receiving 5-HT1D agonist sumatriptan (7 mg/kg) was found to be 1.62 +/- 0.24. 5HT2 antagonist ketanserine (2.5-15 mg/kg), 5HT3 antagonist ondansetron (1-5 mg/kg), 5HT4 antagonist DAU 6285 (1-10 mg/kg) and atropine (1.5-30 mg/kg) exerted no effect whereas 5HT1/2 antagonist metitepine (0.05-0.5 mg/kg) caused a dose dependent inhibition of the effect of 5-HT. The results from this study demonstrate that 5-HT causes acute gastric mucosal injury and this injury is probably due to the activation of the 5-HT1D receptors.

Gidener, S.; Apaydin, S.; Kupelioglu, A.; Guven, H.; Gelal, A.; Gure, A.

1995-01-01

151

Serotonin causes acute gastric mucosal injury in rats, probably via 5HT1D receptors.  

PubMed

5-HT-induced acute gastric mucosal injury was assessed in rats by using 5HT1, 5HT2, 5HT3, 5HT4 or muscarinic receptor related drugs. Rats were treated with antagonists i.p. and 30 minutes later either vehicle, 5-HT (20 mg/kg) or other agonists were administered s.c. The stomachs were removed 4 hours after the last injection and mucosal integrity was assessed by light microscopy using a histological ulcer index (HUI). The HUI was found to be significantly increased following 5-HT administration (1.57 +/- 0.3) when compared with controls (0.14 +/- 0.1). 5HT1 agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine (20 mg/kg) produced acute gastric erosion and increased the HUI (P < 0.05). The HUI in the animals receiving 5-HT1D agonist sumatriptan (7 mg/kg) was found to be 1.62 +/- 0.24. 5HT2 antagonist ketanserine (2.5-15 mg/kg), 5HT3 antagonist ondansetron (1-5 mg/kg), 5HT4 antagonist DAU 6285 (1-10 mg/kg) and atropine (1.5-30 mg/kg) exerted no effect whereas 5HT1/2 antagonist metitepine (0.05-0.5 mg/kg) caused a dose dependent inhibition of the effect of 5-HT. The results from this study demonstrate that 5-HT causes acute gastric mucosal injury and this injury is probably due to the activation of the 5-HT1D receptors. PMID:7547436

Gidener, S; Apaydin, S; Küpelio?lu, A; Güven, H; Gelal, A; Güre, A

1995-08-01

152

Diagnosis and therapy of acute urolithiasis caused by melamine contamination in infant formula milk  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of severe, acute urolithiasis in infants and toddlers, caused by melamine contamination in infant formula milk. The clinical data of 28 patients were collected and analyzed. Among the 28 patients, 17 patients received indwelling ureteral stents by cystoscopy (60.71%) and 5 patients received open surgery to extract calculi (17.86%). Four patients received catheterization or diuretic, anti-inflammatory or antispasmodic treatment (14.28%). Two patients underwent a second open surgery to extract calculi (7.14%). Eventually, the stones were eliminated from 23 patients and 5 patients had residual stones. In the 5 patients with residual stones, 3 patients had kidney stones, hydronephrosis or unilateral ureteral stones, resulting in urinary obstruction following surgery. Urolithiasis in infants and toddlers caused by melamine contamination was diagnosed, with common symptoms, including acute anuria, oliguria and dysurias. Ultrasonic inspection may be used to successfully examine urinary stones. Computed tomography (CT) scanning further detects the position of the stones and the degree of edema. Ureteral stenting via cystoscopy is a useful method, resulting in minimal trauma and a positive prognosis.

HE, JUN; ZHENG, WEI; ZHAO, YAOWANG; LIU, LI; YONG, JIANG

2013-01-01

153

Acute pulmonary embolism caused by enlarged uterine leiomyoma: A rare presentation  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 42 Final Diagnosis: Acute pulmonary embolism Symptoms: Chest pain • dyspnea Medication: Streptokinase • Warfarin Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology and Neoplasm Objective: Management of emergency care Background: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and subsequent pulmonary embolism (PE) caused by pelvic vein compression are rare and life-threatening complications of leiomyoma of the uterus. Case Report: We report a 42-year-old virgin woman with a history of leiomyoma who presented to the emergency department with complaints of dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain with transient spotting. On physical examination, she had a non-tender abdomen with a 20-week size uterus. Imaging investigations revealed an acute DVT in her left leg and a huge uterine-derived mass compressing the common iliac veins. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated an echogenic mass in her right pulmonary artery consistent with thrombosis. The patient was completely cured using thrombolytic therapy and myomectomy, and was well at 1 year after thrombolysis. Conclusions: PE caused by pelvic vein compression is a rare complication of leiomyoma, which should be considered. Thrombolytic therapy associated with myomectomy can be implemented for treating such cases, and TEE can be used for diagnosing suspected high-risk PE.

Khademvatani, Kamal; Rezaei, Yousef; Kerachian, Abdollah; Seyyed-Mohammadzad, Mir Hossein; Eskandari, Ramin; Rostamzadeh, Alireza

2014-01-01

154

[Surgical treatment of acute respiratory failure caused by mediastinal goiter. Clinical experience and results].  

PubMed

In the regions where goitre is endemic, onset of the disease with acute respiratory insufficiency caused by thyroid compression is an uncommon situation requiring a rapid diagnosis and urgent surgical treatment. From January 1997 to December 2000 we observed 81 patients with thyroid pathologies, (69 males and 12 females; mean age 64 years). We found colloid-cystic goitre in 39 cases, adenomatous goitre in 26, carcinoma in 12, Hürthle's cell tumours in 3 and inflammatory disease in 1. All patients underwent thyroidectomy. Nine patients (11%) presented acute respiratory insufficiency caused by thyroid compression, with various associated phonesis disorders; in these cases we performed emergency surgery with postoperative maintenance of tracheal intubation or tracheotomy or the possible positioning of a self-expanding tracheal stent. In these 9 patients there were 4 deaths (44%), 3 in the immediate postoperative period and one after 10 months. We also observed one hydropneumothorax. Functional recovery was achieved in the remaining 5 patients. The treatment of this clinical picture requires urgent tracheal intubation, before the use of diagnostic tools, and it is important to maintain it after the surgical procedure for as long as is necessary for the tracheal wall to be reconstituted. In the severest cases a temporary tracheotomy is needed or the positioning of a tracheal stent, which offers a valid and effective alternative. PMID:12613328

Carditello, Antonio; Milone, Antonino; Stilo, Francesco; Mollo, Francesco; Basile, Maurizio

2002-01-01

155

Benign acute childhood myositis--a rare cause of abnormal gait.  

PubMed

Benign acute childhood myositis is a rare postviral myositis seen in school-aged children after a common upper respiratory infection (URI), most commonly caused by influenza [J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2004;37:95-98]. Predominantly seen in boys, this condition causes bilateral calf tenderness and pain with ambulation, often presenting as a refusal to bear weight. To avoid activation within the gastroc-soleus complex, the child will frequently compensate with a “Frankenstein gait,” described as a stiff-legged posture with shuffling gait [CMAJ 2009;181:711-713]. The child may also walk on his toes or refuse to walk at all. This refusal to bear weight can be alarming to both providers and parents, resulting in extensive workups. We present the case of a 5-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of leg pain and refusal to walk. Further history revealed a resolved URI approximately 5 days prior. He was noted to have an elevated creatinine kinase with no evidence of renal insufficiency. He had no progression or complications, and his symptoms resolved spontaneously with minimal supportive treatment. Benign acute childhood myositis should be considered within the broad differential that surrounds a limping child or one who refuses to bear weight. Having insight into the condition with its characteristic gait abnormalities and associated URI history can often prevent extensive workups and be treated supportively in the outpatient setting. PMID:24126025

Hall, Gregory; Schranz, Craig I

2014-02-01

156

The acute phase of experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is more severe in mice monoassociated with strict anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

1. The influence of some components of the normal human intestinal flora on the acute phase of experimental infection with strain CL of Trypanosoma cruzi was studied in 30-day-old germ-free or gnotobiotic CFW (LOB) mice monoassociated with Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus sp or Clostridium sp by intragastric inoculation of 10(6) bacteria 10 days before the intraperitoneal infection with 5 x 10(3) trypomastigotes/g body weight. 2. Significantly earlier parasitemia peak and mortality were observed in Bacteroides fragilis- and Clostridium-associated mice (16.75 +/- 0.96 and 15.00 +/- 1.15 days, respectively) when compared with germfree animals (18.83 +/- 1.17 days). More precocious mortality (10.40 +/- 2.06 days) and, curiously, much lower blood parasitemia were observed in Peptostreptococcus-associated mice than in other gnotobiotic mice. 3. The extent of cardiac tissue parasitism decreased in the following order: germfree, B. fragilis-associated, Clostridium-associated, and Peptostreptococcus-associated animals. The levels of inflammatory reaction decreased in the following order: germfree, Peptostreptococcus-associated, Clostridium-associated, and B. fragilis-associated mice. 4. These results show that the acute phase of experimental infection with T. cruzi was more severe in mice associated with strict anaerobic bacteria when compared with germfree animals. This suggests that a normal intestinal flora may be another factor, in addition to nutritional and genetic factors, responsible for the different susceptibility of organisms of the same species infected with T. cruzi. PMID:1342224

Barros, M C; Vieira, E C; Silva, M E; Silva, M E; Bambirra, E A; Nicoli, J R

1992-01-01

157

Pathophysiology of acute meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and adjunctive therapy approaches.  

PubMed

Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by an acute purulent infection affecting piamater, arachnoid and the subarachnoid space. The intense inflammatory host's response is potentially fatal and contributes to the neurological sequelae. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx, followed by bacteremia, microbial invasion and blood-brain barrier traversal. S. pneumoniae is recognized by antigen-presenting cells through the binding of Toll-like receptors inducing the activation of factor nuclear kappa B or mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and subsequent up-regulation of lymphocyte populations and expression of numerous proteins involved in inflammation and immune response. Many brain cells can produce cytokines, chemokines and others pro-inflammatory molecules in response to bacteria stimuli, as consequence, polymorphonuclear are attracted, activated and released in large amounts of superoxide anion and nitric oxide, leading to the peroxynitrite formation, generating oxidative stress. This cascade leads to lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial damage, blood-brain barrier breakdown contributing to cell injury during pneumococcal meningitis. PMID:22618789

Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Collodel, Allan; Moreira, Ana Paula; Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro de

2012-05-01

158

Antimicrobial activity of 10 different plant polyphenols against bacteria causing food-borne disease.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activities of 10 different plant polyphenols were evaluated by comparing their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against several food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (20 strains), some serotypes of the genus Salmonella (26 strains), Escherichia coli (23 strains), and some species of the genus Vibrio (27 strains). The polyphenols examined were epigallocatechin (1), epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (2), punicalagin (3), tannic acid (4), castalagin (5), prodelphinidin (6), geraniin (7), procyanidins (8), a theaflavin mixture of black tea (9), and green tea polyphenols treated with loquat polyphenol oxidase (10). The average MICs of all polyphenols against S. aureus and the genus Vibrio (192+/-91 and 162+/-165 microg/ml, respectively) were much lower than the values against the genus Salmonella and E. coli (795+/-590 and 1519+/-949 microg/ml, respectively) (p<0.01). The coefficient of variation of the MICs of all polyphenols against S. aureus was the least and that against the genus Vibrio was the greatest. The mean MICs of each plant polyphenol against S. aureus (98-389 microg/ml) and the genus Vibrio (68-488 microg/ml) were similar. The relatively lower mean MIC values of 1, 2, 5, and 6 suggest the importance of 3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl groups in antibacterial activity. PMID:15577214

Taguri, Toshitsugu; Tanaka, Takashi; Kouno, Isao

2004-12-01

159

Programmed Allee effect in bacteria causes a tradeoff between population spread and survival.  

PubMed

Dispersal is necessary for spread into new habitats, but it has also been shown to inhibit spread. Theoretical studies have suggested that the presence of a strong Allee effect may account for these counterintuitive observations. Experimental demonstration of this notion is lacking due to the difficulty in quantitative analysis of such phenomena in a natural setting. We engineered Escherichia coli to exhibit a strong Allee effect and examined how the Allee effect would affect the spread of the engineered bacteria. We showed that the Allee effect led to a biphasic dependence of bacterial spread on the dispersal rate: spread is promoted for intermediate dispersal rates but inhibited at low or high dispersal rates. The shape of this dependence is contingent upon the initial density of the source population. Moreover, the Allee effect led to a tradeoff between effectiveness of population spread and survival: increasing the number of target patches during dispersal allows more effective spread, but it simultaneously increases the risk of failing to invade or of going extinct. We also observed that total population growth is transiently maximized at an intermediate number of target patches. Finally, we demonstrate that fluctuations in cell growth may contribute to the paradoxical relationship between dispersal and spread. Our results provide direct experimental evidence that the Allee effect can explain the apparently paradoxical effects of dispersal on spread and have implications for guiding the spread of cooperative organisms. PMID:24449896

Smith, Robert; Tan, Cheemeng; Srimani, Jaydeep K; Pai, Anand; Riccione, Katherine A; Song, Hao; You, Lingchong

2014-02-01

160

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae as primary causes of acute otitis media in colombian children: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most frequently encountered bacterial infections in children aged < 5 years; Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are historically identified as primary AOM causes. Nevertheless, recent data on bacterial pathogens causing AOM in Latin America are limited. This prospective study aimed to identify and characterize bacterial etiology and serotypes of AOM cases including antimicrobial susceptibility in < 5 year old Colombian children. Methods From February 2008 to January 2009, children ?3 months and < 5 years of age presenting with AOM and for whom a middle ear fluid (MEF) sample was available were enrolled in two medical centers in Cali, Colombia. MEF samples were collected either by tympanocentesis procedure or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling. Bacteria were identified using standard laboratory methods, and antimicrobial resistance testing was performed based on the 2009 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. Most of the cases included in the study were sporadic in nature. Results Of the 106 enrolled children, 99 were included in the analysis. Bacteria were cultured from 62/99 (63%) of samples with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, or S. pyogenes. The most commonly isolated bacteria were H. influenzae in 31/99 (31%) and S. pneumoniae in 30/99 (30%) of samples. The majority of H. influenzae episodes were NTHi (27/31; 87%). 19F was the most frequently isolated pneumococcal serotype (10/30; 33%). Of the 30 S. pneumoniae positive samples, 8/30 (27%) were resistant to tetracycline, 5/30 (17%) to erythromycin and 8/30 (27%) had intermediate resistance to penicillin. All H. influenzae isolates tested were negative to beta-lactamase. Conclusions NTHi and S. pneumoniae are the leading causes of AOM in Colombian children. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that prevents both pathogens could be useful in maximizing protection against AOM.

2011-01-01

161

?-Blockers and All-Cause Mortality in Adults with Episodes of Acute Bronchitis: An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent observational studies suggest that ?-blockers may improve long-term prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We assessed whether ?-blocker use improves all-cause mortality in patients with episodes of acute bronchitis. Methods An observational cohort study using data from the electronic medical records of 23 general practices in the Netherlands. The data included standardized information about daily patient contacts, diagnoses, and drug prescriptions. Cox regression was applied with time-varying treatment and covariates. Results The study included 4,493 patients aged 45 years and older, with at least one episode of acute bronchitis between 1996 and 2006. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 66.9 (11.7) years, and 41.9% were male. During a mean (SD) follow up period of 7.7 (2.5) years, 20.4% developed COPD. In total, 22.7% had cardiovascular comorbidities, resulting in significant higher mortality rates than those without (51.7% vs. 12.0%, p<0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio of cardioselective ?-blocker use for mortality was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50–0.77), and 1.01 (95% CI 0.75–1.36) for non-selective ones. Some other cardiovascular drugs also reduced the risk of mortality, with adjusted HRs of 0.60 (95% CI 0.46–0.79) for calcium channel blockers, 0.88 (95% CI 0.73–1.06) for ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and 0.42 (95% CI 0.31–0.57) for statins, respectively. Conclusion Cardiovascular comorbidities are common and increase the risk of mortality in adults with episodes of acute bronchitis. Cardioselective ?-blockers, but also calcium channel blockers and statins may reduce mortality, possibly as a result of cardiovascular protective properties.

Rutten, Frans H.; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Sachs, Alfred P. E.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Hoes, Arno W.

2013-01-01

162

Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust.  

PubMed

Iron (Fe(0) ) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H(2) S, and scavenge of 'cathodic' H(2) from chemical reaction of Fe(0) with H(2) O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10?mm?×?10?mm?×?1?mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7?mm?Fe(0) year(-1) ), while conventional H(2) -scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO(3) , Mg/CaCO(3) ) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50?S?m(-1) ). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe(0) ???4Fe(2+) ?+?8e(-) ) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e(-) ?+?SO(4) (2-) ?+?9H(+) ???HS(-) ?+?4H(2) O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H(2) rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments. PMID:22616633

Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

2012-07-01

163

N-acetylcysteine attenuates the acute lung injury caused by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat lungs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute lung injury (ALI) caused by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is characterized by pulmonary edema and inflammatory cells infiltration. PMA-activated neutrophils in vivo and in vitro to release free radicals, pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and other mediators. These mediators may be the causes of pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. In the present study, we used isolated perfused rat

I Chun Chuang; Demeral David Liu; Shang Jyh Kao; Hsing I Chen

2007-01-01

164

Corticosteroids prevent acute lung dysfunction caused by thoracic irradiation in unanesthetized sheep  

SciTech Connect

We sought to determine the effect of corticosteroid therapy in a new acute model of oxidant lung injury, thoracic irradiation in awake sheep. Sheep were irradiated with 1,500 rads to the whole chest except for blocking the heart and adjacent ventral lung. Seven experimental sheep were given methylprednisolone (1 g intravenously every 6 h for four doses) and thoracic irradiation; control sheep received only irradiation. In irradiated control sheep, lung lymph flow increased from baseline (7.6 ml/h) to peak at 3 h (13.2), and lung lymph protein clearance increased from 5.1 to 9.7 ml/h. Mean pulmonary artery pressure increased in the irradiated control sheep from 19 to 32.4 cm H/sub 2/O, whereas the lung lymph thromboxane concentration increased from 0.09 to 6.51 ng/ml at 3 h. Arterial oxygen tension in irradiated control sheep fell gradually from 86 mm Hg at baseline to 65 mm Hg at 8 h. Methylprednisolone administration significantly prevented the increase in lung lymph protein clearance, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and lung lymph thromboxane concentration. Methylprednisolone also prevented the fall in arterial oxygen tension after thoracic irradiation, but did not prevent a further decrease in lymphocytes in blood or lung lymph after radiation. We conclude that corticosteroid therapy prevents most of the acute physiologic changes caused by thoracic irradiation in awake sheep.

Loyd, J.E.; Bolds, J.M.; Wickersham, N.; Malcolm, A.W.; Brigham, K.L.

1988-11-01

165

A8 Immune response in human pathology: Infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the middle of the 19th century, it became clear that micro-organisms could cause disease. Effective treatment, however,\\u000a was not possible at that time; prevention and spread of infectious diseases depended solely on proper hygienic means. At the\\u000a beginning of the 20th century, passive and active vaccination procedures were developed against a number of these PATHOGENIC\\u000a MICRO-ORGANISMS to prevent the

Jan Verhoef; Kok van Kessel; Harm Snippe

166

Acute Tick-borne Rickettsiosis Caused by Rickettsia sibirica in the Russian Far East  

PubMed Central

An acute tick-borne rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia heilongjiangensis was diagnosed in 13 patients from the Russian Far East in 2002. We amplified and sequenced four portions of three rickettsial genes from the patients’ skin biopsy results and blood samples and showed that the amplified rickettsial genes belong to R. heilongjiangensis, which was recently isolated from Dermacentor sylvarum ticks in nearby regions of China. This rickettsia, belonging to subgroup of R. japonica, was previously suggested to be pathogenic for humans on the basis of serologic findings. We tested serum samples with different rickettsial antigens from 11 patients and confirmed increasing titers of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM to spotted fever group rickettsiae, including R. heilongjiangensis. Clinical and epidemiologic data on these patients shows that this disease is similar to other tick-borne rickettsioses.

Sidelnikov, Yuri; Ivanov, Leonid; Mokretsova, Eugenia; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Tarasevich, Irina; Raoult, Didier

2004-01-01

167

Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency--unrecognized cause of recurrent acute kidney injury.  

PubMed

Metabolic myopathies represent a small percentage of rhabdomyolysis causes that could lead to acute kidney injury (AKI). This could be prevented if this condition is suspected and timely treated. Carnitine palmityl transferase (CPT) deficiency is the most frequent metabolic myopathy and should be considered whenever recurrent myoglobinuria is suspected, and distinguished from the second frequent one, McArdle disease. We present a case of a patient with two medically misinterpreted episodes of AKI in whom the subsequent diagnosis of CPT deficiency was established based on high index of clinical suspicion and correlation of clinical manifestations to specific metabolic defects. Application of simple measures and lifestyle changes improved our patient's life quality and prevented potential new life-threatening complications. PMID:23560446

Ale?kovi?-Halilovi?, Mirna; Meši?, Enisa; Sinanovi?, Osman; Zuki?, Sanela; Mustedanagi?, Jasminka

2013-01-01

168

Coronary artery vasospasm causing acute myocardial infarction in a heart transplant recipient.  

PubMed

The etiology of cardiac allograft vasculopathy is not known, but may be preceded by both endothelial cell and smooth muscle dysfunction of the epicardial coronary arteries. We here report a case of acute, reversible coronary artery vasospasm which caused a myocardial infarction in a cardiac transplant recipient. The patient had a complex post-transplant course, including an episode of severe vascular rejection several months before this presentation. Interestingly, the event was captured in its early stages because the patient presented with chest pain: a rare event because of the denervation of the transplanted heart. Our ability to document the etiology of this patient's myocardial infarction supports the concept that cardiac allograft vasculopathy is a progressive disease that, in its early stages, may include a reversible component of abnormal vasoreactivity. PMID:15737767

Bisognano, John D; Lindenfeld, Joann; Hammond, Elizabeth; Zisman, Lawrence S

2005-03-01

169

Acute epiglottitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b: a case report.  

PubMed

Acute epiglottitis is an inflammatory, edematous disease of the epiglottis and adjacent structures, usually caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b. It is a life-threatening condition, occurring mainly in childhood. There have never been any reports of this condition in Taiwan. We report a case of 4-year-old boy who presented with characteristics of systemic illness combined with respiratory distress on arrival at the emergency room. His mouth was open and his neck was hyperextended. The diagnosis of epiglottitis was established on the basis of physical examination, lateral neck x-ray, and the finding of an enlarged, swollen, erythematous epiglottis on flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy. Urine latex agglutination test for H. influenzae type b was positive and a blood culture grew H. influenzae type b. He was treated with cefotaxime and did not require intubation. PMID:12741738

Jiang, Jia-Horng; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Lin, Yu-Ying; Lee, Kuo-Sheng; Lee, Hung-Chang; Huang, Fu-Yuan

2003-03-01

170

Perforated jejunal diverticula- a rare cause of acute abdominal pain: a case report  

PubMed Central

Jejunal diverticula have a prevalence of approximately 1% in the general population. Perforation of jejunal diverticulum is a rare. Clinically this diagnosis may be easily confused with other causes of an acute abdomen. In the article, we discuss a 74-year–old man with a 2-day history of constipation and left–sided abdominal pain. The day before admission he developed an abrupt exacerbation his symptoms with pain localized to periumbilical and left lower quadrant. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed soft tissue stranding within the left upper quadrant, bilateral plural effusions , larger on the left, an opacity with the right and left pulmonary lobes and polypoid lesion with in stomach. Physical examination revealed left upper quadrant fullness. An emergency laparotomy was carried out. This revealed multiple jejunal diverticula, one of which had perforated 40 centimeters distal to the ligament of Treitz.

Akbari, Mohammad Esmail; Atqiaee, Khashayar; Lotfollahzadeh, Saran; Moghadam, Amir Naser Jadbbaeey

2013-01-01

171

Acute exposure of Drosophila melanogaster to paraquat causes oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.  

PubMed

Paraquat (PQ; 1, 1'-dimethyl-4-4'-bipyridinium), an herbicide and model neurotoxicant, is identified to be one of the prime risk factors in Parkinson's disease (PD). In the Drosophila system, PQ is commonly used to measure acquired resistance against oxidative stress (PQ resistance test). Despite this, under acute PQ exposure, data on the oxidative stress response and associated impact on mitochondria among flies is limited. Accordingly, in this study, we measured markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions among adult male flies (8-10 days old) exposed to varying concentrations of PQ (10, 20, and 40 mM in 5% sucrose solution) employing a conventional filter disc method for 24 h. PQ exposure resulted in significant elevation in the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde: 43% increase: hydroperoxide: 32-39% increase), with concomitant enhancement in reduced glutathione and total thiol levels in cytosol. Higher activity of antioxidant enzymes were also evident along with increased free iron levels. Furthermore, PQ exposure caused a concentration-dependent increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation and activity of manganese-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD). The activity levels of complex I-III, complex II-III, and Mg+2 adinosine triphosphatase (ATPase) were also decreased significantly. A robust diminution in the activity of succinate dehydrogenase and moderate decline in the citrate synthase activity suggested a specific effect on citric acid cycle enzymes. Collectively, these data suggest that acute PQ exposure causes significant oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction among flies in vivo. It is suggested that in various experimental settings, while conducting the "PQ resistance stress test" incorporation of selected biochemical end points is likely to enhance the quality of the data. PMID:23564607

Hosamani, Ravikumar

2013-05-01

172

Sepsis from the gut: the enteric habitat of bacteria that cause late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections.  

PubMed

Background.?Late-onset sepsis is a major problem in neonatology, but the habitat of the pathogens before bloodstream invasion occurs is not well established. Methods.?We examined prospectively collected stools from premature infants with sepsis to find pathogens that subsequently invaded their bloodstreams, and sought the same organisms in stools of infants without sepsis. Culture-based techniques were used to isolate stool bacteria that provisionally matched the bloodstream organisms, which were then genome sequenced to confirm or refute commonality. Results.?Of 11 children with late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections, 7 produced at least 1 stool that contained group B Streptococcus (GBS), Serratia marcescens, or Escherichia coli before their sepsis episode with provisionally matching organisms. Of 96 overlap comparison subjects without sepsis temporally associated with these cases, 4 were colonized with provisionally matching GBS or S. marcescens. Of 175 comparisons of stools from randomly selected infants without sepsis, 1 contained a GBS (this infant had also served as an overlap comparison subject and both specimens contained provisionally matching GBS). Genome sequencing confirmed common origin of provisionally matching fecal and blood isolates. The invasive E. coli were present in all presepticemic stools since birth, but gut colonization with GBS and S. marcescens occurred closer to time of bloodstream infection. Conclusions.?The neonatal gut harbors sepsis-causing pathogens, but such organisms are not inevitable members of the normal microbiota. Surveillance microbiology, decolonization, and augmented hygiene might prevent dissemination of invasive bacteria between and within premature infants. PMID:24647013

Carl, Mike A; Ndao, I Malick; Springman, A Cody; Manning, Shannon D; Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian D; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Weinstock, Erica Sodergren; Weinstock, George M; Wylie, Todd N; Mitreva, Makedonka; Abubucker, Sahar; Zhou, Yanjiao; Stevens, Harold J; Hall-Moore, Carla; Julian, Samuel; Shaikh, Nurmohammad; Warner, Barbara B; Tarr, Phillip I

2014-05-01

173

Acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor carpi ulnaris causing acute compressive neuropathy of the ulnar nerve: a case report.  

PubMed

This study reports a case of acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor carpi ulnaris in a 64-year-old woman. She presented with symptoms of acute ulnar nerve compression mimicking a volar compartment syndrome. Owing to rapidly progressive symptoms, emergency surgical exploration was carried out. Intra-operatively a large mass of calcium phosphate carbonate was noted in association with the flexor carpi ulnaris near its insertion at the wrist compressing the ulnar nerve and artery in Guyon's canal. Postoperatively the patient had complete resolution of symptoms. Conservative management with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, rest, splinting, and steroid therapy is recommended for acute calcific tendinitis, but this case suggests a role for surgical treatment when there is acute neural compression and severe pain. PMID:23255660

Yasen, Sam

2012-12-01

174

Brief report: no evidence for parvovirus B19 or hepatitis E virus as a cause of acute liver failure.  

PubMed

Viral hepatitis A and B are known to cause acute liver failure. While nearly 20% of acute liver failure cases are of indeterminate etiology, screening for other viruses has not been uniformly performed. We looked for evidence for parvovirus B19 and hepatitis E virus in sera from U.S. acute liver failure patients. For B19, 78 patients' sera, including 34 with indeterminate etiology, were evaluated by DNA dot-blot hybridization, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunoglobin G and M antibodies; none showed evidence for infection. PMID:16964546

Lee, W M; Brown, K E; Young, N S; Dawson, G J; Schlauder, G G; Gutierrez, R A; Fontana, R; Rossaro, L; Davern, T; Lalani, E

2006-10-01

175

Direct Evidence by DNA Fingerprinting that Endoscopic Cross-Infection of Helicobacter pylori Is a Cause of Postendoscopic Acute Gastritis  

PubMed Central

The DNA fingerprinting of Helicobacter pylori strains in two cases of acute gastritis that occurred after endoscopy was examined. H. pylori was isolated from the stomachs of two patients with acute gastritis and from the stomachs of the patients in whom the same gastrofiberscope had previously been used. The genomic DNA digested with HaeIII was subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The corresponding paired electrophoretic patterns were completely identical. These findings provide direct evidence that postendoscopic acute gastritis can be caused by cross-infection with H. pylori via endoscopy.

Sugiyama, Toshiro; Naka, Hiroji; Yachi, Akira; Asaka, Masahiro

2000-01-01

176

Unusual cause of acute right ventricular dysfunction: rapid progression of superior vena cava aneurysm complicated by thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism.  

PubMed

Aneurysms of the major thoracic veins are rare. They are usually asymptomatic and thus treated conservatively. We report an extremely rare case of rapidly progressing superior vena cava (SVC) aneurysm complicated by thrombosis and acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) with right ventricular dysfunction. Thrombolytic therapy for hemodynamically significant acute PTE was harmful to the patient in the present case, because it induced further thrombosis and mobilization of the thrombi within the aneurysm, subsequently causing de novo PTE. Surgical aneurysmectomy combined with pulmonary artery embolectomy would be a treatment of choice in patients with SVC aneurysm complicated by acute PTE. PMID:21532864

Oh, Sang Gi; Kim, Kye Hun; Seon, Hyun Ju; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Kang, Jung Chaee

2011-05-01

177

Piscirickettsia-like organisms as a cause of acute necrotic lesions in Colombian tilapia larvae.  

PubMed

Rickettsial organisms are well-known fish pathogens in both natural and culture environments. This study reports an outbreak of disease in red tilapia larvae caused by piscirickettsia-like organisms (PLOs), which lasted from June until October 2009. Severe mortality was recorded almost exclusively in larvae and postlarvae aged 1-22 days old. Although clinical or gross findings were not evident in diseased fish, histopathology revealed severe necrosis of the epidermis and gill epithelium, with concomitant changes in the underlying skeletal muscle as being the most relevant microscopic lesions. Although PLOs were visible with the routine hematoxylin eosin technique, they were better observed with Giemsa and toluidine blue stains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the bacterium was located within the cytoplasm and phagolysosoma-like structures of epithelial cells from the gills and the skin. The bacteria measured 0.9 ± 0.2 µm × 2.1 ± 0.6 µm and had a double cell membrane (the outer one having undulating projections), with variable electron-dense and electron-lucent areas. Ultrastructurally, abundant myelin figures surrounded the microorganisms within host cell cytoplasm. Results indicated that Piscirickettsia-like organisms can cause massive epithelial cell damage associated with concomitant alteration of the electrolyte balance. PMID:21217048

Iregui, Carlos A; Vasquez, Gersson M; Rey, Alba L; Verjan, Noel

2011-01-01

178

The laboratory diagnosis of opportunistic infections caused by uncommon bacteria in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed

Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Chromobacterium violaceum and Listeria monocytogenes are opportunistic pathogens of man and are occasional but important causes of infections in neonates, infants and adults in Papua New Guinea. Mortality is high. Flavobacterium meningosepticum should be suspected when a weak indole producing oxidase positive Gram-negative bacillus producing a discrete yellow non-diffusing pigment at room temperature and showing a resistant antibiotic sensitivity pattern is isolated from the blood and/or C.S.F. of a neonate. Chromobacterium violaceum can be presumptively identified if a Gram-negative bacillus producing an intense non-diffusing violet pigment is cultured, commonly in associated with multiple abscess formation in the host. The isolation of a slender Gram-positive bacillus from C.S.F. or blood which produces catalase and acetylmethylcarbinol is consistent with Listeria monocytogenes. This organism forms discretely beta haemolytic colonies on blood agar and attacks the carbohydrates salicin and trehalose. PMID:6951339

Gratten, M

1981-09-01

179

Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases. Methods Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Results Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains. Conclusions The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well.

Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

2012-01-01

180

Analytic Reviews: Cardiac Surgery as a Cause of Acute Kidney Injury: Pathogenesis and Potential Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiopulmonary bypass surgery occurs in nearly 1 million patients per year. Acute kidney injury requiring dialysis can occur in up to 1% of these patients. The development of acute kidney injury is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality independent of all other factors, and many patients are left dependent on dialysis therapies. The pathogenesis of acute kidney injury involves multiple

Mitchell H. Rosner; Didier Portilla; Mark D. Okusa

2008-01-01

181

A case of acute retinal toxicity caused by an intraocular foreign body composed of cobalt alloy.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: We describe a case of acute retinal toxicity caused by an intraocular foreign body composed of a cobalt alloy. Case presentation: A 36-year-old man presented to an outside clinic with a traumatic cataract and corneal laceration of his left eye, which had occurred while grinding a shelf. The lacerated cornea was closed primarily and the traumatic cataract was phacoemulsified. He was transferred to our hospital due to identification of a metallic intraocular foreign body in the vitreous. On arrival at our institution, the intraocular foreign body was removed as soon as possible after vitrectomy. On the first postoperative day, vasculitis and serous retinal detachment were observed on the retina at the previous site of the foreign body. Two months after surgery, atrophy of nearly half of the inferior retina was noted on funduscopy, and visual acuity was such that the patient could only count fingers at 30?cm. Analysis of the foreign body revealed that it was composed of 84.99% tungsten carbide, 15% cobalt and had traces of titanium and alumina. Discussion: Cobalt containing metallic foreign bodies should be immediately removed, as they have the potential to cause permanent visual disturbance. PMID:23826809

Kang, Jung Youb; Lee, Seung Uk; Nam, Ki Yup; Kim, Tae Won; Lee, Sang Joon

2014-06-01

182

Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms.

Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kubra; Karagoz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gumuscu, Hasan Huseyin; Basak, Mustafa; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avc?, Deniz; Poyrazoglu, Orhan Kursat

2013-01-01

183

A Therapeutic Dose of Ketoprofen Causes Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Erosions, and Ulcers in Rats  

PubMed Central

Perioperative treatment of several rats in our facility with ketoprofen (5 mg/kg SC) resulted in blood loss, peritonitis, and death within a day to a little more than a week after surgery that was not related to the gastrointestinal tract. Published reports have established the 5-mg/kg dose as safe and effective for rats. Because ketoprofen is a nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug that can damage the gastrointestinal tract, the putative diagnosis for these morbidities and mortalities was gastrointestinal toxicity caused by ketoprofen (5 mg/kg). We conducted a prospective study evaluating the effect of this therapeutic dose of ketoprofen on the rat gastrointestinal tract within 24 h. Ketoprofen (5 mg/kg SC) was administered to one group of rats that then received gas anesthesia for 30 min and to another group without subsequent anesthesia. A third group was injected with saline followed by 30 min of gas anesthesia. Our primary hypothesis was that noteworthy gastrointestinal bleeding and lesions would occur in both groups treated with ketoprofen but not in rats that received saline and anesthesia. Our results showed marked gastrointestinal bleeding, erosions, and small intestinal ulcers in the ketoprofen-treated rats and minimal damages in the saline-treated group. The combination of ketoprofen and anesthesia resulted in worse clinical signs than did ketoprofen alone. We conclude that a single 5-mg/kg dose of ketoprofen causes acute mucosal damage to the rat small intestine.

Shientag, Lisa J; Wheeler, Suzanne M; Garlick, David S; Maranda, Louise S

2012-01-01

184

Coronary subclavian steal syndrome: an extracoronary cause of acute coronary syndrome.  

PubMed

Significant atherosclerotic changes of the coronary arteries are the common cause of cardiac chest pain. We report the case of an 80-year-old woman suffering from unstable angina caused by extracoronary atherosclerosis. The patient had an extensive medical history with severe coronary heart disease and cardiac bypass surgery (LIMA to LAD, two venous bypass grafts). An urgent coronary angiography was performed. The angiogram displayed the already known three-vessel disease, the bypass grafts were in a good functional condition. Subsequently, a stenosis of the proximal segment of the left subclavian artery was detected. Measurement of the pullback pressure gradient confirmed the significance of the stenosis. We suspected a "steal phenomenon" concerning the bypass graft LIMA to LAD. An ad hoc PTA with consecutive stenting (self-expandable stent) enabled a successful revascularization of the left subclavian artery without any adverse effects to the vertebral arteries. Cardiac chest pain did not occur any more. Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome should be considered a rare but important differential diagnosis in acute coronary syndrome after bypass surgery. PMID:23817863

Schatzl, Stefan; Karnik, Ronald; Gattermeier, Martin

2013-08-01

185

The Role of Adipose Tissue and Obesity in Causing Treatment Resistance of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Obesity is responsible for ~90,000 cancer deaths/year, increasing cancer incidence and impairing its treatment. Obesity has also been shown to impact hematological malignancies, through as yet unknown mechanisms. Adipocytes are present in bone marrow and the microenvironments of many types of cancer, and have been found to promote cancer cell survival. In this review, we explore several ways in which obesity might cause leukemia treatment resistance. Obese patients may be at a treatment disadvantage due to altered pharmacokinetics of chemotherapy and dosage “capping” based on ideal body weight. The adipose tissue provides fuel to cancer cells in the form of amino acids and free fatty acids. Adipocytes have been shown to cause cancer cells to resist chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. In addition, obese adipose tissue is phenotypically altered, producing a milieu of pro-inflammatory adipokines and cytokines, some of which have been linked to cancer progression. Given the prevalence of obesity, understanding its role and adipose tissue in acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment is necessary for evaluating current treatment regimen and revealing new therapeutic targets.

Sheng, Xia; Mittelman, Steven D.

2014-01-01

186

Acute toxicity test of leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills using luminescent bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Landfilling is a fundamental step in any waste management strategy, but it can constitute a hazard for the environment for a long time. The need to protect the environment from potential landfill emissions makes risk assessment a decision tool of extreme necessity. The heterogeneity of wastes and the complexity of physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in the body of a landfill need specific procedures in order to evaluate the groundwater risk for the environment. Given the complexity of the composition of landfill leachates, the exact contribution of each potential toxic substance cannot be known precisely. Some reference contaminants that constitute the hazard (toxicity) of leachate have to be found to perform the risk assessment. A preliminary ecotoxicological investigation with luminescent bacteria has been carried out on different leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills in order to rank the chemicals that better characterize the leachate (heavy metals, ammonia and dissolved organic content). The attention has been focused on ammonia because it is present in high concentration and can last for centuries and can seriously contaminate the groundwater. The results showed that the toxicity of the leachate might reliably depend on the ammonia concentration and that the leachate toxicity is considerably lower in sustainable landfills where the ammonia had been degraded. This has an important consequence because if the containment system fails (as usually occur within 30-50 yr), the risk of groundwater contamination will be calculated easier only in terms of the probability that the ammonia concentration is higher than a reference concentration.

Pivato, Alberto [IMAGE Department, University of Padua, Via Loredan 20, 35131 Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: alberto.pivato@libero.it; Gaspari, Lorenzo [IMAGE Department, University of Padua, Via Loredan 20, 35131 Padova (Italy)

2006-07-01

187

Bacteria-Specific Neutrophil Dysfunction Associated with Interferon-Stimulated Gene Expression in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a poorly understood condition with greater than 30% mortality. Massive recruitment of neutrophils to the lung occurs in the initial stages of the ARDS. Significant variability in the severity and duration of ARDS-associated pulmonary inflammation could be linked to heterogeneity in the inflammatory capacity of neutrophils. Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are a broad gene family induced by Type I interferons. While ISGs are central to anti-viral immunity, the potential exists for these genes to evoke extensive modification in cellular response in other clinical settings. In this prospective study, we sought to determine if ISG expression in circulating neutrophils from ARDS patients is associated with changes in neutrophil function. Circulating neutrophil RNA was isolated, and hierarchical clustering ranked patients' expression of three ISGs. Neutrophil response to pathogenic bacteria was compared between normal and high ISG-expressing neutrophils. High neutrophil ISG expression was found in 25 of 95 (26%) of ARDS patients and was associated with reduced migration toward interleukin-8, and altered responses to Staphylococcus aureus, but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which included decreased p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation, superoxide anion release, interleukin-8 release, and a shift from necrotic to apoptotic cell death. These alterations in response were reflected in a decreased capacity to kill S. aureus, but not P. aeruginosa. Therefore, the ISG expression signature is associated with an altered circulating neutrophil response phenotype in ARDS that may predispose a large subgroup of patients to increased risk of specific bacterial infections.

Malcolm, Kenneth C.; Kret, Jennifer E.; Young, Robert L.; Poch, Katie R.; Caceres, Silvia M.; Douglas, Ivor S.; Coldren, Chris D.; Burnham, Ellen L.; Moss, Marc; Nick, Jerry A.

2011-01-01

188

A CASE OF ACUTE ENDOCARDITIS CAUSED BY MICROCOCCUS ZYMOGENES (NOV. SPEC.), WITH A DESCRIPTION OF THE MICROORGANISM.  

PubMed

From a case of acute endocarditis of the aortic and mitral valves with infarctions m the spleen and kidneys a micrococcus was twice isolated in pure culture from the blood during life and was demonstrated after death both microscopically and in pure culture in large numbers in the valvular vegetations, the infarctions and other parts. No other species of microorganism was found. This micrococcus is very small, occurs mainly in pairs, sometimes in short chains, stains by Gram's method, grows in small, pale, grayish-white colonies on gelatine and agar, at first clouds bouillon, which then becomes clear with a whitish sediment, does not produce gas in glucose media, liquefies gelatine slowly and to some extent also blood serum, and is especially characterized by its behavior in milk, which it acidifies, coagulates and subsequently liquefies. It produces a milk-curdling ferment and also a proteolytic ferment, each of which is separable from the bacterial cells. It remains viable for months in old cultures and is tolerably resistant to the action of heat and antiseptics. The micrococcus is pathogenic for mice and rabbits, causing either abscesses or general infections. Typical acute vegetative endocarditis was experimentally produced by intravenous inoculation of the organism in a rabbit and a dog, and the cocci were demonstrated in pure culture in the vegetations and other parts of these animals after death. Although the micrococcus here described has some points of resemblance to the pneumococcus and Streptococcus pyogenes on the one hand and to the pyogenic staphylococci on the other, it is readily distinguished from each of these species by cultural features which have been described and which are so obvious that the differentiation of these species from our micrococcus need not be discussed in detail. We have searched through the records concerning microorganisms described in association with endocarditis and other diseases, as well as those isolated from water, soil and other sources, and have been unable to find a description of a micrococcus identical in all particulars with that here described. Such points as staining by Gram, liquefaction of gelatine, coagulation and peptonization of milk, served singly or in combination to distinguish our micrococcus from other forms which in some respects might resemble it. We feel justified, therefore, in recognizing this organism as a new species and from its fermentative properties propose for it the name "Micrococcus zymogenes." Micrococcus zymogenes must be added to the already considerable list of bacteria which have been found as the specific infective agents in endocarditis. That it was the cause of this affection in our case was conclusively demonstrated by its repeated isolation in pure culture from the blood during life, by its presence in pure culture and large numbers after death in the cardiac vegetations, the infarctions, and other parts of the body, and by the experimental proof of its pathogenic properties, and notably its capacity to produce vegetative endocarditis by intravenous inoculation in animals. PMID:19866921

Maccallum, W G; Hastings, T W

1899-09-01

189

Syndromic thrombocytopenia and predisposition to acute myelogenous leukemia caused by constitutional microdeletions on chromosome 21q.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence support the presence of dosage-sensitive genes on chromosome 21 that regulate leukemogenesis and hematopoiesis. We report a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of 3 patients with chronic thrombocytopenia caused by distinct constitutional microdeletions involving chromosomal region 21q22.12. The patients exhibited growth restriction, dysmorphic features, and developmental delays. One patient developed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) at 6 years of age. All 3 deletions included the RUNX1, CLIC6, DSCR, and KCNE1 genes. Our data provide additional support for the role of RUNX1 haploinsufficiency in megakaryopoiesis and predisposition to AML. The leukemic clone had trisomy 21 resulting from duplication of chromosome 21 containing the RUNX1 deletion. This shows that genes other than RUNX1 must also play a role in AML associated with trisomy 21. We recommend that children with syndromic thrombocytopenia have clinical array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis and appropriate cytogenetic studies to facilitate our ability to provide a definitive diagnosis. PMID:18487507

Shinawi, Marwan; Erez, Ayelet; Shardy, Deborah L; Lee, Brendan; Naeem, Rizwan; Weissenberger, George; Chinault, A Craig; Cheung, Sau Wai; Plon, Sharon E

2008-08-15

190

Syndromic thrombocytopenia and predisposition to acute myelogenous leukemia caused by constitutional microdeletions on chromosome 21q  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence support the presence of dosage-sensitive genes on chromosome 21 that regulate leukemogenesis and hematopoiesis. We report a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of 3 patients with chronic thrombocytopenia caused by distinct constitutional microdeletions involving chromosomal region 21q22.12. The patients exhibited growth restriction, dysmorphic features, and developmental delays. One patient developed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) at 6 years of age. All 3 deletions included the RUNX1, CLIC6, DSCR, and KCNE1 genes. Our data provide additional support for the role of RUNX1 haploinsufficiency in megakaryopoiesis and predisposition to AML. The leukemic clone had trisomy 21 resulting from duplication of chromosome 21 containing the RUNX1 deletion. This shows that genes other than RUNX1 must also play a role in AML associated with trisomy 21. We recommend that children with syndromic thrombocytopenia have clinical array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis and appropriate cytogenetic studies to facilitate our ability to provide a definitive diagnosis.

Shinawi, Marwan; Erez, Ayelet; Shardy, Deborah L.; Lee, Brendan; Naeem, Rizwan; Weissenberger, George; Chinault, A. Craig; Cheung, Sau Wai

2008-01-01

191

NPMc+ cooperates with Flt3/ITD mutations to cause acute leukemia recapitulating human disease.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic nucleophosmin (NPMc(+)) mutations and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are two of the most common known molecular alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); they frequently occur together, suggesting cooperative leukemogenesis. To explore the specific relationship between NPMc+ and FLT3/ITD in vivo, we crossed Flt3/ITD knock-in mice with transgenic NPMc+ mice. Mice with both mutations develop a transplantable leukemia of either myeloid or lymphoid lineage, definitively demonstrating cooperation between Flt3/ITD and NPMc+. In mice with myeloid leukemia, functionally significant loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type Flt3 allele is common, similar to what is observed in human FLT3/ITD+ AML, providing further in vivo evidence of the importance of loss of wild-type FLT3 in leukemic initiation and progression. Additionally, in vitro clonogenic assays reveal that the combination of Flt3/ITD and NPMc+ mutations causes a profound monocytic expansion, in excess of that seen with either mutation alone consistent with the predominance of myelomonocytic phenotype in human FLT3/ITD+/NPMc+ AML. This in vivo model of Flt3/ITD+/NPMc+ leukemia closely recapitulates human disease and will therefore serve as a tool for the investigation of the biology of this common disease entity. PMID:24184354

Rau, Rachel; Magoon, Daniel; Greenblatt, Sarah; Li, Li; Annesley, Colleen; Duffield, Amy S; Huso, David; McIntyre, Emily; Clohessy, John G; Reschke, Markus; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Small, Donald; Brown, Patrick

2014-02-01

192

Uncommon conditions in surgical oncology: acute abdomen caused by ileocolic intussusception  

PubMed Central

Background Bowel intussusception represents an infrequent and challenging condition in adult patients. Preoperative diagnosis and treatment strategies often remain difficult especially in emergency patients. Primary reduction of intussusception before surgical resection is discussed controversially in adult patients and at the moment there is no consensus about the best treatment in literature. Case report We report the case of a 40-year-old male patient with a ten-day history of increasing colicky abdominal pain and constipation associated with nausea and vomiting. Clinical examination revealed acute abdomen with a palpable mass in the right upper abdomen. Ultrasonography and CT-scan showed typical signs of bowel intussusception. Emergency laparotomy and extended right hemicolectomy were performed. Histological examination detected an adenocarcinoma of the ileocecal valve as leading pathology. Conclusions In adults most cases of intussusception are caused by structural lesions. The high incidence of malignancies in adult patients, which require an optimal oncological treatment, should be the main reason for primary surgical resection without reduction.

2014-01-01

193

The phenoptosis problem: what is causing the death of an organism? Lessons from acute kidney injury.  

PubMed

Programmed execution of various cells and intracellular structures is hypothesized to be not the only example of elimination of biological systems - the general mechanism can also involve programmed execution of organs and organisms. Modern rating of programmed cell death mechanisms includes 13 mechanistic types. As for some types, the mechanism of actuation and manifestation of cell execution has been basically elucidated, while the causes and intermediate steps of the process of fatal failure of organs and organisms remain unknown. The analysis of deaths resulting from a sudden heart arrest or multiple organ failure and other acute and chronic pathologies leads to the conclusion of a special role of mitochondria and oxidative stress activating the immune system. Possible mechanisms of mitochondria-mediated induction of the signaling cascades involved in organ failure and death of the organism are discussed. These mechanisms include generation of reactive oxygen species and damage-associated molecular patterns in mitochondria. Some examples of renal failure-induced deaths are presented with mechanisms and settings determined by some hypothetical super system rather than by the kidneys themselves. This system plays the key role in the process of physiological senescence and termination of an organism. The facts presented suggest that it is the immune system involved in mitochondrial signaling that can act as the system responsible for the organism's death. PMID:22817538

Zorov, D B; Plotnikov, E Y; Jankauskas, S S; Isaev, N K; Silachev, D N; Zorova, L D; Pevzner, I B; Pulkova, N V; Zorov, S D; Morosanova, M A

2012-07-01

194

Mating due to loss of surface exclusion as a cause for thermosensitive growth of bacteria containing the Rtsl plasmid  

Microsoft Academic Search

At 25° C, Rtsl+ bacteria grow to about 5x109 bacterial\\/ml before leveling off, whereas at 42° C they grow from 2.6x108 bacteria\\/ml for only 2.3 generations after temperature shift before the growth is inhibited with a zig-zag pattern at the plateau. When diluted, Rtsl+ bacteria grow rapidly at 42° C, until the concentration reaches as high as the undiluted 42°

Jonathan T. Ou

1980-01-01

195

Cannabinoid HU210 Protects Isolated Rat Stomach against Impairment Caused by Serum of Rats with Experimental Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis (AP), especially severe acute pancreatitis often causes extra-pancreatic complications, such as acute gastrointestinal mucosal lesion (AGML) which is accompanied by a considerably high mortality, yet the pathogenesis of AP-induced AGML is still not fully understood. In this report, we investigated the alterations of serum components and gastric endocrine and exocrine functions in rats with experimental acute pancreatitis, and studied the possible contributions of these alterations in the pathogenesis of AGML. In addition, we explored the intervention effects of cannabinoid receptor agonist HU210 and antagonist AM251 on isolated and serum-perfused rat stomach. Our results showed that the AGML occurred after 5 h of AP replication, and the body homeostasis was disturbed in AP rat, with increased levels of pancreatic enzymes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), proinflammtory cytokines and chemokines in the blood, and an imbalance of the gastric secretion function. Perfusing the isolated rat stomach with the AP rat serum caused morphological changes in the stomach, accompanied with a significant increment of pepsin and [H+] release, and increased gastrin and decreased somatostatin secretion. HU210 reversed the AP-serum-induced rat pathological alterations, including the reversal of transformation of the gastric morphology to certain degree. The results from this study prove that the inflammatory responses and the imbalance of the gastric secretion during the development of AP are responsible for the pathogenesis of AGML, and suggest the therapeutic potential of HU210 for AGML associated with acute pancreatitis.

Cao, Ming-hua; Li, Yong-yu; Xu, Jing; Feng, Ya-jing; Lin, Xu-hong; Li, Kun; Han, Tong; Chen, Chang-Jie

2012-01-01

196

[Acute encephalopathy caused by cyanogenic fungi in 2004, and magic mushroom regulation in Japan].  

PubMed

Two topics, related to mushroom poisoning of recent interest in Japan, have been presented. In autumn 2004, 59 cases of acute encephalopathy were reported across 9 prefectures in Japan (24 from Akita Prefecture with 8 deaths; age 48-93, average 70; female 14, male 10). Of 24 cases, 20 had kidney dysfunction. Four poisoned subjects showed no kidney trouble. Of the 24 poisoning cases, 23 people ate Pleurocybella porrigens, and one ate Grifola frondosa. The latter subject (female, late 40's) was receiving dialysis for more than 35 years. In August, she felt dizziness, headache and tinnitus. She visited hospital and asked to stay there. In the hospital she ate 5g of stewed G. frondosa and 10g of the same fungus boiled with chicken and taro on different days. Fourteen to 18 days after the eatings, she developed cramps and lost consciousness, and fell into a coma. Her cramp and coma continued for about 10 days almost until her death. Her symptoms caused by G. frondosa were similar to those observed for the above 23 cases of P. porrigens ingestion. Therefore, we concluded that encephalopathy experienced in Akita Prefecture caused by was the cyanogenic fungi such as P. porrigens , G. frondosa, Pleurotus eringii etc. Although the amounts of mushrooms eaten by poisoned subjects were not so clear, we estimated that the amounts of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) taken into human bodies exceeded the detoxication limit of HCN, resulting in HCN poisoning. However, it has not been proved that the encephalopathy is directly or indirectly caused by the HCN poisoning. Many typhoons came across Japan and landed 10 times in 2004, and mushroom size was larger than usual one, and HCN contents in fruit-bodies seemed to be increased especially in the late-stage of their growth. Thirteen species of magic mushrooms were prohibited by the law from 2002 in Japan. They include Copelandia (Panaeolus) cyanescens, Panaeolus papilionaceus, Panaeolus sphinctrinus, Panaeolus subbalteatus, Psilocybe argentipes, Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybe fasciata, Psilocybe lonchophorus, Psilocybe subaeruginascens, Psilocybe subcaerulipes, Psilocybe subcubensis, Psilocybe tampanensis, and Psilocybe venenata. PMID:19344063

Gonmori, Kunio; Yokoyama, Kazumasa

2009-03-01

197

Comparison of the clinical, microbiological, radiological and haematological features of foals with pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi and other bacteria.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical, microbiological, radiological, haematological and cytological features of foals with pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi infection and with other bacteria, in order to provide markers for early diagnosis and treatment. A retrospective study of 113 cases of bacterial pneumonia was undertaken. Although there was considerable overlap in the affected populations, foals with R. equi pneumonia were significantly younger and had higher respiratory rates. Radiological evidence of thoracic abscessation had a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 85% for the diagnosis of R. equi pneumonia. Foals positive for R. equi also had higher peripheral white cell counts and fibrinogen concentrations than animals not infected with this pathogen. Respiratory rate, fibrinogen concentration and the log of the neutrophil count were retained in the final multivariate analysis. Using microbiological culture as the 'gold standard', identification of Gram-positive coccobacilli in tracheal aspirates was highly specific (91%), but poorly sensitive (35%) for R. equi infection. White cell counts >20,000cells/?L (86% specificity), fibrinogen concentrations >700mg/dL (92% specificity), radiological evidence of thoracic abscessation (85% specificity), and the presence of Gram-positive coccobacilli in tracheal aspirates (91% specificity) in pneumonic foals are highly suggestive of R. equi infection and justify early targeted antimicrobial intervention while awaiting culture results. PMID:19932977

Leclere, Mathilde; Magdesian, K Gary; Kass, Philip H; Pusterla, Nicola; Rhodes, Diane M

2011-01-01

198

Soft tissue infections caused by spore-forming bacteria in injecting drug users in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

From 2000 to May 2004 there has been a marked increase in illness resulting from spore-forming bacteria in injecting heroin users in the United Kingdom. Clostridium novyi caused 63 cases of severe illness in 2000 and seven further cases from 2001. Wound botulism first occurred in 2000 (six cases) with 51 further cases to March 2004. Tetanus occurred in 20 cases between late 2003 and March 2004. Infections with C. histolyticum (nine cases), C. sordellii (one case) and Bacillus cereus (one case) were also reported. The reasons for the increase in illness are unclear. The major risk factor was skin- or muscle-popping. The problem appears to be here to stay. This review describes the causative organisms, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, epidemiology and treatment of cases. Clinical vigilance and a high standard of anaerobic microbiology are essential. Clinicians and laboratories must report such cases (or likely cases) rapidly so that clusters can be rapidly identified, in order to control disease. Prevention relies on tetanus immunization. PMID:16050501

Brett, M M; Hood, J; Brazier, J S; Duerden, B I; Hahné, S J M

2005-08-01

199

Solitary Main Pancreatic Ductal Calculus of Possible Biliary Origin Causing Acute Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context Pancreatic ductal calculi are most often associated with chronic pancreatitis. Radiological features of chronic pancreatitis are readily evident in the presence of these calculi. However, acute pancreatitis due to a solitary main pancreatic ductal calculus of biliary origin is rare. Case report A 59 -year-old man presented with a first episode of acute pancreatitis. Contrast enhanced computerized tomography (CT)

Ramakrishna Prasad; Chowdary Chaparala; Rafiuddin Patel; James Ahsley Guthrie; Mervyn Huw Davies; Pierre J Guillou; Krishna V Menon

200

Endogenous Stress Caused by Faulty Oxidation Reactions Fosters Evolution of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene-Degrading Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Environmental strain Burkholderia sp. DNT mineralizes the xenobiotic compound 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) owing to the catabolic dnt genes borne by plasmid DNT, but the process fails to promote significant growth. To investigate this lack of physiological return of such an otherwise complete metabolic route, cells were exposed to DNT under various growth conditions and the endogenous formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) monitored in single bacteria. These tests revealed the buildup of a strong oxidative stress in the population exposed to DNT. By either curing the DNT plasmid or by overproducing the second activity of the biodegradation route (DntB) we could trace a large share of ROS production to the first reaction of the route, which is executed by the multicomponent dioxygenase encoded by the dntA gene cluster. Naphthalene, the ancestral substrate of the dioxygenase from which DntA has evolved, also caused significant ROS formation. That both the old and the new substrate brought about a considerable cellular stress was indicative of a still-evolving DntA enzyme which is neither optimal any longer for naphthalene nor entirely advantageous yet for growth of the host strain on DNT. We could associate endogenous production of ROS with likely error-prone repair mechanisms of DNA damage, and the ensuing stress-induced mutagenesis in cells exposed to DNT. It is thus plausible that the evolutionary roadmap for biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds like DNT was largely elicited by mutagenic oxidative stress caused by faulty reactions of precursor enzymes with novel but structurally related substrates-to-be.

Chavarria, Max; de Lorenzo, Victor

2013-01-01

201

Prevalence of acute conjunctivitis caused by chlamydia, adenovirus, and herpes simplex virus in an ophthalmic casualty department.  

PubMed

The causes of acute conjunctivitis in 140 consecutive patients attending an ophthalmic casualty department in London were investigated. Laboratory evidence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, adenovirus, or herpes simplex virus was found in 52 (37%) cases. In 70 cases (50%) no evidence of infection with these agents was found. In the remaining 18 cases (13%) laboratory results were inconclusive. The importance of these findings, the role of laboratory investigations in the differential diagnosis of acute conjunctivitis, and their cost-benefit are discussed. PMID:6087876

Wishart, P K; James, C; Wishart, M S; Darougar, S

1984-09-01

202

Interaction of Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin L with Lipopolysaccharide In Vitro and in Experimental Rat Models of Septic Shock Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, despite intense efforts to improve survival. The primary lead for septic shock results from activation of host effector cells by endotoxin, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria. For these reasons, the quest for compounds with antiendotoxin properties is actively pursued. We investigated the efficacy

Andrea Giacometti; Oscar Cirioni; Roberto Ghiselli; Federico Mocchegiani; Fiorenza Orlando; Carmela Silvestri; Argante Bozzi; A. Di Giulio; C. Luzi; M. L. Mangoni; D. Barra; V. Saba; G. Scalise; A. C. Rinaldi

2006-01-01

203

Antibiotic resistance patterns in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria causing septicemia in newborns in León, Nicaragua: correlation with environmental samples.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify the bacteria causing neonatal septicemia in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in León, Nicaragua and its relation with bacteria isolated from the environment at the NICU. Our data showed that 74% (34/46) of the bacteria related to newborns with septicemia were Gram-negative and highly resistant to beta-lactams (>85%) and aminoglycosides (80%), leading to treatment failure in 10 neonates with fatal outcome. Although, the prevalence of Gram-positive bacteria (26%) was lower than Gram-negative bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis was related to the death of three newborns. No clonal similarity was found among Enterobacter cloacae , Escherichia coli and Serratia liquefaciens isolated from the neonates with septicemia and the NICU environment. However, in order to improve the outcome for neonates with septicemia, infection control practices and appropriate empirical therapy should be considered to reduce the high prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacteria isolated from neonates with septicemia (80%) and from the NICU environment (34%). PMID:20227989

Amaya, E; Caceres, M; Fanc, H; Torres Ramirez, A; Palmgren, A-C; Nord, C E; Weintraub, A

2010-02-01

204

Acute intermittent porphyria causes hepatic mitochondrial energetic failure in a mouse model.  

PubMed

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an inherited hepatic disorder, is due to a defect of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), an enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis. AIP is characterized by recurrent, life-threatening attacks at least partly due to the increased hepatic production of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). Both the mitochondrial enzyme, ALA synthase (ALAS) 1, involved in the first step of heme biosynthesis, which is closely linked to mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways, and the promise of an ALAS1 siRNA hepatic therapy in humans, led us to investigate hepatic energetic metabolism in Hmbs KO mice treated with phenobarbital. The mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were explored in the Hmbs(-/-) mouse model. RC and TCA cycle were significantly affected in comparison to controls in mice treated with phenobarbital with decreased activities of RC complexes I (-52%, (**)p<0.01), II (-50%, (**)p<0.01) and III (-55%, (*)p<0.05), and decreased activity of ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (-64%, (*)p<0.05), citrate synthase (-48%, (**)p<0.01) and succinate dehydrogenase (-53%, (*)p<0.05). Complex II-driven succinate respiration was also significantly affected. Most of these metabolic alterations were at least partially restored after the phenobarbital arrest and heme arginate administration. These results suggest a cataplerosis of the TCA cycle induced by phenobarbital, caused by the massive withdrawal of succinyl-CoA by ALAS induction, such that the TCA cycle is unable to supply the reduced cofactors to the RC. This profound and reversible impact of AIP on mitochondrial energetic metabolism offers new insights into the beneficial effect of heme, glucose and ALAS1 siRNA treatments by limiting the cataplerosis of TCA cycle. PMID:24727425

Homedan, Chadi; Laafi, Jihane; Schmitt, Caroline; Gueguen, Naïg; Lefebvre, Thibaud; Karim, Zoubida; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Wetterwald, Céline; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Gouya, Laurent; Puy, Hervé; Reynier, Pascal; Malthièry, Yves

2014-06-01

205

Ethanol Potentiates the Acute Fatty Infiltration of Liver Caused by Burn Injury: Prevention by Insulin Treatment  

PubMed Central

Burn injury is a significant and severe representation of critical illness. Nearly, 50% of patients admitted to hospitals for burn injuries have detectable levels of ethanol in their circulations and these patients have poorer clinical outcomes than burned individuals without measurable circulating ethanol. We report here data on a clinically relevant form of hepatic injury, the development of microvesicular steatosis, in a murine model wherein animals were either given ethanol or saline, and were subjected to burn or sham injury. Because better glycemic control with insulin has been shown in clinical studies to impart major clinical benefit, an additional group of burn ethanol animals were treated with insulin. Insulin significantly reduced blood glucose in injured animals to levels no different from those seen in animals that were neither ethanol exposed nor burned. A single intraperitoneal injection of ethanol was insufficient to raise blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT), measured as an index of liver injury. However, burn injury led to significant increases in ALT at 24 and 48 hours, which had returned to preinjury levels by 7 days. This ALT rise was completely prevented with insulin treatment. A single injection of ethanol did not evoke increased microvesicular steatosis but did potentiate the ability of burn to do so at 24 hours after injury. The burn induced increase in microvesicular steatosis was also seen at 48 hours, but had subsided by 7 days. The increased microvesicular steatosis was prevented by insulin therapy. Thus, ethanol potentiates the ability of burn to cause acute liver injury, which is completely preventable by insulin therapy. These findings may have substantial clinical significance and suggest this model may be useful for the study of the mechanisms of hepatic injury as well as the mechanisms, probably multiple, of insulin action in this setting.

Emanuele, Nicholas V.; Emanuele, Mary Ann; Morgan, Michelle O.; Sulo, Denise; Yong, Sheri; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Himes, Ryan D.; Callaci, John J.

2011-01-01

206

Epidemiology of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by Noroviruses in Okayama, Japan.  

PubMed

Noroviruses (called formerly "Norwalk-like viruses") cause food-borne gastroenteritis outbreaks. These outbreaks were thought to be related to shellfish consumption, although non-shellfish related outbreaks also occurred frequently in Japan. To clarify the epidemiology of Norovirus outbreaks, 435 stool samples were collected from 60 acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks occurring over 8 years in Okayama, Japan. Using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), Noroviruses were detected in 257 cases (59.1% of all samples) from 46 outbreaks (77% of all outbreaks). The majority of the 46 Norovirus outbreaks (89%) occurred during November to March; notably one-third occurred in December. Restaurants, schools, and welfare institutions accounted for the major settings in 50%, 20%, and 15% of the Norovirus outbreaks, respectively. This was similar to other reports from Japan, but differed from those from the United Kingdom. The transmission routes were assigned in 27 of the Norovirus outbreaks. In 18 outbreaks the routes were related to human contact (7 from food handlers and 11 from person-to-person contact), whereas those related directly to shellfish occurred only in 9 outbreaks. These results suggest that transmission routes related to human contact are more important than recognized previously in the context of preventive medicine. Furthermore, all outbreaks in which some of the samples contained dual genogroups of Noroviruses were related to shellfish, suggesting that consumption of contaminated shellfish frequently results in mixed Norovirus infections in contrast to other transmission routes and that coexistence of genogroups is a useful marker for shellfish-related outbreaks. PMID:16121370

Hamano, Masako; Kuzuya, Mitsutaka; Fujii, Ritsushi; Ogura, Hajime; Yamada, Masao

2005-10-01

207

Immunomodulatory Clarithromycin Treatment of Experimental Sepsis and Acute Pyelonephritis Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Clarithromycin was administered intravenously to 55 rabbits to evaluate its effect on experimental sepsis caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acute pyelonephritis was induced after ligation of the right ureter and injection of 108 CFU of the test isolate per kg of body weight into the renal pelvis. The animals were divided into six groups: group A, controls; group B, rabbits that received one intravenous dose of 80 mg of clarithromycin per kg concomitantly with bacterial challenge; group C, rabbits that received two doses of clarithromycin, the second one of which was given 2 h after the first one; group D, rabbits that received 15 mg of amikacin per kg; group E, rabbits that received one dose of clarithromycin and amikacin; and group F, rabbits that received two doses of clarithromycin and amikacin. Serum endotoxin levels were estimated by the QCL-1000 Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) levels were measured by a bioassay, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured by the thiobarbiturate assay. Viable bacterial counts in various tissue samples were also assessed. The mean survival times of the animals in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F were 4.50, 7.69, 4.07, 4.55, 11.55, and 11.60 days, respectively (P = 0.033 for group D versus group F, P = 0.006 for group D versus group E, P = not significant for group B versus group E, P = 0.042 for group C versus group F). Serum endotoxin levels were similar between groups at all sampling times; TNF-? and MDA levels in groups B, C, E, and F decreased significantly over follow-up. The numbers of viable bacterial cells in the infected kidney were similar among the groups; those in the liver, spleen, lungs, and mesenteral lymph nodes were significantly decreased in groups B, E, and F compared to those in groups A and D. It is concluded that a prolongation of survival in animals with experimental sepsis caused by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa was achieved after coadministration of clarithromycin and amikacin and that the increased survival was probably attributable to the immunomodulatory properties of clarithromycin.

Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J.; Adamis, Theodoros; Laoutaris, George; Sabracos, Lambros; Koussoulas, Vassilios; Mouktaroudi, Maria; Perrea, Despina; Karayannacos, Panayotis E.; Giamarellou, Helen

2004-01-01

208

Marine bacteria cause false-positive results in the Colilert-18 rapid identification test for Escherichia coli in Florida waters.  

PubMed

The Colilert-18 system for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli is approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use in drinking water analysis and is also used by various agencies and research studies for enumeration of indicator organisms in fresh and saline waters. During monitoring of Pinellas County, Fla., marine waters, estimates of E. coli numbers (by Colilert-18) frequently exceeded fecal coliform counts (by membrane filtration) by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. Samples from freshwater sites did not display similar discrepancies. Fecal coliforms, including E. coli, could be cultured from 100% of yellow fluorescent wells (denoting E. coli-positive results) inoculated with freshwater samples but could be cultured from only 17.1% of the "positive" wells inoculated with marine samples. Ortho-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG)-positive or 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG)-positive noncoliform bacteria were readily cultured from Colilert-18 test wells inoculated with marine samples. Filtered cell-free seawater did not cause false positives. Coculture preparations of as few as 5 CFU of Vibrio cholerae (ONPG positive) and Providencia sp. (MUG positive) ml(-1) inoculated into Colilert-18 caused false-positive E. coli results. Salinity conditions influenced coculture results, as the concentration of coculture inoculum required to cause false positives in most wells increased from about 5 CFU ml(-1) in seawater diluted 1:10 with freshwater to approximately equal to 5,000 CFU ml(-1) in seawater diluted 1:20 with freshwater. Estimated E. coli numbers in various marine water samples processed at the 1:10 dilution ranged from 10 to 7,270 CFU.100 ml(-1), while E. coli numbers in the same samples processed at the 1:20 dilution did not exceed 40 CFU.100 ml(-1). The lower estimates of E. coli numbers corresponded well with fecal coliform counts by membrane filtration. This study indicates that assessment of E. coli in subtropical marine waters by Colilert-18 is not accurate when the recommended 1:10 sample dilution is used. The results suggest that greater dilution may diminish the false-positive problem, but further study of this possibility is recommended. PMID:11823188

Pisciotta, John M; Rath, Damon F; Stanek, Paul A; Flanery, D Michael; Harwood, Valerie J

2002-02-01

209

Marine Bacteria Cause False-Positive Results in the Colilert-18 Rapid Identification Test for Escherichia coli in Florida Waters  

PubMed Central

The Colilert-18 system for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli is approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use in drinking water analysis and is also used by various agencies and research studies for enumeration of indicator organisms in fresh and saline waters. During monitoring of Pinellas County, Fla., marine waters, estimates of E. coli numbers (by Colilert-18) frequently exceeded fecal coliform counts (by membrane filtration) by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. Samples from freshwater sites did not display similar discrepancies. Fecal coliforms, including E. coli, could be cultured from 100% of yellow fluorescent wells (denoting E. coli-positive results) inoculated with freshwater samples but could be cultured from only 17.1% of the “positive” wells inoculated with marine samples. Ortho-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactopyranoside (ONPG)-positive or 4-methylumbelliferyl-?-d-glucuronide (MUG)-positive noncoliform bacteria were readily cultured from Colilert-18 test wells inoculated with marine samples. Filtered cell-free seawater did not cause false positives. Coculture preparations of as few as 5 CFU of Vibrio cholerae (ONPG positive) and Providencia sp. (MUG positive) ml?1 inoculated into Colilert-18 caused false-positive E. coli results. Salinity conditions influenced coculture results, as the concentration of coculture inoculum required to cause false positives in most wells increased from about 5 CFU ml?1 in seawater diluted 1:10 with freshwater to ?5,000 CFU ml?1 in seawater diluted 1:20 with freshwater. Estimated E. coli numbers in various marine water samples processed at the 1:10 dilution ranged from 10 to 7,270 CFU·100 ml?1, while E. coli numbers in the same samples processed at the 1:20 dilution did not exceed 40 CFU·100 ml?1. The lower estimates of E. coli numbers corresponded well with fecal coliform counts by membrane filtration. This study indicates that assessment of E. coli in subtropical marine waters by Colilert-18 is not accurate when the recommended 1:10 sample dilution is used. The results suggest that greater dilution may diminish the false-positive problem, but further study of this possibility is recommended.

Pisciotta, John M.; Rath, Damon F.; Stanek, Paul A.; Flanery, D. Michael; Harwood, Valerie J.

2002-01-01

210

Erythrocyte aggregation as a cause of slow flow in patients of acute coronary syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere are multiple lines of evidence to suggest the role of erythrocyte aggregation (EA) in microcirculatory dysfunction during conditions of very slow flow. Such conditions might develop in the myocardium of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

Yaron Arbel; Shmuel Banai; Jessia Benhorin; Ariel Finkelstein; Itzhak Herz; Amir Halkin; Gad Keren; Saul Yedgar; Gershon Barashtein; Shlomo Berliner

211

Isolated fallopian tube torsion: an unusual cause of acute abdominal pain  

PubMed Central

The authors report a rare, unusual case of an isolated fallopian tube torsion in a young woman presenting with acute lower abdominal pain and a negative pregnancy test. The patient who initially presented with clinical and biochemical features suggestive of acute appendicitis was found to have a large necrotic pelvic mass at laparoscopy, discovered to be a torted fallopian tube with no ipsilateral ovarian involvement. The patient had a laparoscopic removal of the necrotic tube and recovered well postoperatively.

Bora, Shabana Ashraf; Kanapathippillai, Raj; Backos, May

2011-01-01

212

Acute isoniazid intoxication: an uncommon cause of convulsion, coma and acidosis.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread use, suicidal ingestion of isoniazid is a rare condition in Turkey. We reported a case of acute isoniazid intoxication associated with alcohol intake presenting with convulsion, coma and metabolic acidosis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous pyridoxine administration. Early recognation and appropriate treatment in the intensive care unit is very important to prevent mortality in patients with acute isoniazid toxicity. PMID:23581267

Uzman, Sinan; Uluda? Yanaral, Tümay; Topta?, Mehmet; Koç, Alparslan; Ta?, Aytül; Bican, Gül?en

2013-01-01

213

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Possible Cause of Acute Coronary Stent Thrombosis: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), as a cause of acute coronary stent thrombosis, has not yet been reported to our knowledge. We report a case of 64-year-old male, who presented with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Coronary angiography revealed right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis and a drug eluting stent was deployed. Fifteen hours following the intervention, the patient developed an inferior wall ST elevation myocardial infarction. Repeat cardiac catheterization showed an acute in-stent thrombosis. Following thrombectomy, another stent was placed. The patient noted to have an acute drop in platelet count following the second intervention. Two hours following repeat intervention, the patient again developed chest pain and EKG showed recurrent ST-segment elevations in leads II, III, and aVF. Prior to repeat cardiac catheterization, the patient became unresponsive and developed cardiogenic shock. The patient was resuscitated and intubated, and repeat catheterization showed complete stent thrombosis. Intracoronary tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was given. The platelet count further dropped. Additional studies confirmed the diagnosis of DIC. No further cardiac catheterization was done at this point. The patient then later had a cardiac arrest and unfortunately cardiopulmonary resuscitation could not revive him. Amongst the etiologies of acute stent thrombosis, DIC was deemed a possible cause.

Amer, Syed; Shafiq, Ali; Qureshi, Waqas; Muqeetadnan, Mohammed; Hassan, Syed

2012-01-01

214

Dengue and Other Common Causes of Acute Febrile Illness in Asia: An Active Surveillance Study in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Common causes of acute febrile illness in tropical countries have similar symptoms, which often mimic those of dengue. Accurate clinical diagnosis can be difficult without laboratory confirmation and disease burden is generally under-reported. Accurate, population-based, laboratory-confirmed incidence data on dengue and other causes of acute fever in dengue-endemic Asian countries are needed. Methods and principal findings This prospective, multicenter, active fever surveillance, cohort study was conducted in selected centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam to determine the incidence density of acute febrile episodes (?38°C for ?2 days) in 1,500 healthy children aged 2–14 years, followed for a mean 237 days. Causes of fever were assessed by testing acute and convalescent sera from febrile participants for dengue, chikungunya, hepatitis A, influenza A, leptospirosis, rickettsia, and Salmonella Typhi. Overall, 289 participants had acute fever, an incidence density of 33.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 30.0; 37.8); 57% were IgM-positive for at least one of these diseases. The most common causes of fever by IgM ELISA were chikungunya (in 35.0% of in febrile participants) and S. Typhi (in 29.4%). The overall incidence density of dengue per 100 person-years was 3.4 by nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen positivity (95% CI: 2.4; 4.8) and 7.3 (95% CI: 5.7; 9.2) by serology. Dengue was diagnosed in 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0; 15.7) and 23.9% (95% CI: 19.1; 29.2) of febrile participants by NS1 positivity and serology, respectively. Of the febrile episodes not clinically diagnosed as dengue, 5.3% were dengue-positive by NS1 antigen testing and 16.0% were dengue-positive by serology. Conclusions During the study period, the most common identified causes of pediatric acute febrile illness among the seven tested for were chikungunya, S. Typhi and dengue. Not all dengue cases were clinically diagnosed; laboratory confirmation is essential to refine disease burden estimates.

Capeding, Maria Rosario; Chua, Mary Noreen; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Hussain, Ismail I. H. M.; Nallusamy, Revathy; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Rusmil, Kusnandi; Thisyakorn, Usa; Thomas, Stephen J.; Huu Tran, Ngoc; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Yoon, In-Kyu; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Hutagalung, Yanee; Laot, Thelma; Wartel, Tram Anh

2013-01-01

215

Cytochrome P450 2C19 Polymorphism, Suboptimal Reperfusion and All-Cause Mortality in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine whether the 681 G>A (*2) polymorphism of cytochrome P450 (CYP2C19) is related to suboptimal reperfusion and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) pretreated with clopidogrel. Methods: Thestudy included 276 consecutive patients with AMI in whom percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stenting was attempted. Four-year follow-up for all-cause mortality was obtained. Results: There were 15 failed

Mariusz Kruk; Adam Witkowski

2010-01-01

216

Acute myocardial infarction in a 35-year-old man with coronary artery aneurysm most probably caused by Kawasaki disease  

PubMed Central

We present a 35-year-old man with history of Kawasaki disease who referred with myocardial infarction, and angiography, revealing aneurysm of left main and left anterior descending coronary arteries. The patient underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombectomy and was discharged after 6 d. Coronary artery sequels of Kawasaki disease should be considered as one of the underlying causes of acute myocardial infarction in young adults.

Parsa, Saeed Alipour; Khaheshi, Isa; Paydary, Koosha; Haybar, Habib

2014-01-01

217

Epidemiology of childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome as a cause of acute flaccid paralysis in Honduras: 1989-1999.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis in the pediatric population of Honduras over an 11-year period, determine what percentage of acute flaccid paralysis was Guillain-Barré syndrome, and identify the epidemiologic features of Guillain-Barré syndrome. There were 546 childhood cases of acute flaccid paralysis seen between January 1989 and December 1999 at the Hospital Escuela Materno-Infantil in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Of these cases with acute flaccid paralysis, 394 (72.2%) were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Our incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in the Honduran pediatric population (1.37/100,000 per year) is higher than that shown in other studies. There was a significantly higher incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in younger children (ages 1-4 years), a significant preponderance of cases from rural areas, and a mild predominance in boys but a typical clinical presentation. The Honduran pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome population had an increased mortality rate. Guillain-Barré syndrome has become the leading cause of childhood paralysis in Honduras. A better understanding of the population at highest risk and opportunities for earlier intervention with more effective therapeutic modalities may permit reducing the mortality among Honduran children who develop Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:14696900

Molinero, Marco R; Varon, Daniel; Holden, Kenton R; Sladky, John T; Molina, Ida B; Cleaves, Francisco

2003-11-01

218

Acute exudative tonsillitis caused by Shewanella algae in a healthy child.  

PubMed

Shewanella algae, mainly found in marine environments, is a rare pathogen in humans, especially in healthy children. Here we report a previously healthy boy presenting with acute exudative tonsillitis after traveling to the coast, and S. algae was isolated from the throat swab culture. PMID:17148087

Liu, Min-Chang; Gau, Shiow-Jen; Wu, Hsien-Cheng

2006-01-01

219

ECMO: an alternative support for acute respiratory failure caused by tuberculosis?  

PubMed

Late diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) may result in the development of severe acute respiratory failure. High mortality rates with conventional ventilation have been reported. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may represent an effective alternative treatment. We report a case of complicated pulmonary TB in a man who successfully underwent 3 months of ECMO. PMID:24902570

Cogliandro, V; Lapadula, G; Bandera, A; Muscatello, A; Marcolin, R; Abbruzzese, C; Rona, R; Gori, A

2014-07-01

220

Arteriovenous malformation of the spermatic cord as the cause of acute scrotal pain: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arteriovenous malformations of the lower urinary tract are uncommon lesions, usually presenting as scrotal masses. A case of recurrent acute scrotal pain mimicking testicular torsion that was attributed to the presence of an arteriovenous malformation of the spermatic cord is described. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of an arteriovenous malformation of the spermatic cord presenting with

Petros Sountoulides; Athanasios Bantis; Irene Asouhidou; Hellen Aggelonidou

2007-01-01

221

Wandering spleen torsion causing acute abdominal pain in a child: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Wandering spleen is a rare occurrence where the spleen normal fixation to the abdominal wall is lost and thus allowed to change in position. We report a case of a child who presented with acute abdominal pain secondary to a wandering spleen complicated by torsion of its vascular pedicle. The diagnosis was promptly made using computed tomography and managed with splenectomy. PMID:24791368

Llorens Marina, Carlos I; Cedeño, Alex; Lugo-Vicente, Humberto; Chapel, Cristel; Rivera, Glorimar; Diaz, Antonio

2014-01-01

222

Purine enzyme defects as a cause of acute renal failure in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute renal failure (ARF) is not listed as a usual form of presentation in hypoxanthineguanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency, despite the gross uric acid overproduction in the defect. We found that a third of such patients may present in ARF when the urinary uric acid\\/creatinine ratio may be normal, not raised, and the defect may be suspected from the disproportionate increase in

H. A. Simmonds; J. S. Cameron; T. M. Barratt; M. J. Dillon; S. R. Meadow; R. S. Trompeter

1989-01-01

223

Triclosan causes toxic effects to algae in marine biofilms, but does not inhibit the metabolic activity of marine biofilm bacteria.  

PubMed

Effects of the antimicrobial agent triclosan to natural periphyton communities (biofilms, comprising primarily microalgae and bacteria) were assessed in two independent experiments during spring and summer. For that purpose a semi-static test system was used in which periphyton was exposed to a concentration range of 5-9054nmol/L triclosan. Effects on algae were analyzed as content and composition of photosynthetic pigments. The corresponding EC50 values were 39.25 and 302.45nmol/L for the spring and summer experiment, respectively. Effects on periphytic bacteria were assessed as effects on carbon utilization patterns, using Biolog Ecoplates. No inhibition of either total carbon utilization or functional diversity was observed, indicating a pronounced triclosan tolerance of the marine bacteria. In contrast, a small stimulation of the total carbon utilization was observed at triclosan concentrations exceeding 100nmol/L. PMID:24928457

Johansson, C Henrik; Janmar, Lisa; Backhaus, Thomas

2014-07-15

224

Pattern of Diagnostic Evaluation for the Causes of Pediatric Acute Liver Failure: An Opportunity for Quality Improvement  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the frequency of diagnostic testing for the 4 most common causes of pediatric acute liver failure (PALF) (drugs, metabolic disease, autoimmune process, and infections) in indeterminate PALF within the PALF Study Group Database. Study design PALF was defined by severe hepatic dysfunction within 8 weeks of onset of illness, with no known underlying chronic liver disease in patients from birth through 17 years of age. Results Of the 703 patients in the database, 329 (47%) had indeterminate PALF. In this group, a drug history was obtained in 325 (99%) urine toxicology screenings performed in 118 (36%) and acetaminophen level measured in 124 (38%) patients. No testing for common metabolic diseases was done in 179 (54%) patients. Anti-nuclear antibody, anti-smooth muscle antibody, and anti-liver kidney microsomal autoantibodies associated with autoimmunity were determined in 239 (73%), 233 (71%), and 208 (63%) patients, and no tests were obtained in 70 (21%). Testing was performed for hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, and Epstein Barr virus in 80%, 86%, and 68%, respectively. Conclusions Current practice indicates that investigation for metabolic and autoimmune causes of PALF are infrequent in patients ultimately given a diagnosis of indeterminate acute liver failure. This offers an opportunity to improve diagnosis and potential treatment options in children with acute liver failure.

Narkewicz, Michael R.; Olio, Dominic Dell; Karpen, Saul J.; Murray, Karen F.; Schwarz, Kathy; Yazigi, Nada; Zhang, Song; Belle, Steven H.; Squires, Robert H.

2011-01-01

225

[Brain abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes as a complication of acute otitis media in 7-year-old girl - a case report].  

PubMed

Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most commonly diagnosed childhood disease, especially in infants and preschool children. Onset of AOM encourage frequent upper respiratory infections and debilitating conditions that cause nasal patency and trumpets auditory dysfunction. Complications of AOM currently are rare. We present a case of complications of acute otitis media in form of acute cerebral abscess in a 7-year-old previously healthy girl. PMID:24519780

Za??ska-Ponganis, Joanna; Jackowska, Teresa

2013-01-01

226

Inhibiting Polo-like kinase 1 causes growth reduction and apoptosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells  

PubMed Central

This study investigated Polo-like kinase 1, a mitotic regulator often over-expressed in solid tumors and adult hematopoietic malignancies, as a potential new target in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Polo-like kinase 1 protein and Thr210 phosphorylation levels were higher in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=172) than in normal bone marrow mononuclear cells (n=10) (P<0.0001). High Polo-like kinase 1 protein phosphorylation, but not expression, was associated with a lower probability of event-free survival (P=0.042) and was a borderline significant prognostic factor (P=0.065) in a multivariate analysis including age and initial white blood cell count. Polo-like kinase 1 was necessary for leukemic cell survival, since short hairpin-mediated Polo-like kinase 1 knockdown in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines inhibited cell proliferation by G2/M cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Primary patient cells with a high Polo-like kinase 1 protein expression were sensitive to the Polo-like kinase 1-specific inhibitor NMS-P937 in vitro, whereas cells with a low expression and normal bone marrow cells were resistant. This sensitivity was likely not caused by Polo-like kinase 1 mutations, since only one new mutation (Ser335Arg) was found by 454-sequencing of 38 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases. This mutation did not affect Polo-like kinase 1 expression or NMS-P937 sensitivity. Together, these results indicate a pivotal role for Polo-like kinase 1 in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and show potential for Polo-like kinase 1-inhibiting drugs as an addition to current treatment strategies for cases expressing high Polo-like kinase 1 levels.

Hartsink-Segers, Stefanie A.; Exalto, Carla; Allen, Matthew; Williamson, Daniel; Clifford, Steven C.; Horstmann, Martin; Caron, Huib N.; Pieters, Rob; Den Boer, Monique L.

2013-01-01

227

"I Can't Walk!" Acute Thrombosis of Descending Aorta Causing Paraplegia  

PubMed Central

A 50-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with acute, bilateral lower extremity weakness and loss of sensation, as well as absent pulses bilaterally. Computed tomography angiography showed complete occlusion of the aorta below the inferior mesenteric artery, extending to the iliac bifurcations. Echocardiographic findings showed severe systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction of 15%) and cryptic cardiogenic shock in spite of stable vital signs. Prior to early operative intervention, an early goal-oriented hemodynamic strategy of shock management resulted in the resolution of motor and sensory deficits.After definitive surgical intervention, the patient was discharged neurologically intact. Acute aortic occlusion is frequently accompanied by myocardial dysfunction, which can be from mild to severe. The most severe form can even occur with normal vital signs or occult cardiogenic shock. Early detection and goal-directed preoperative hemodynamic optimization, along with surgical intervention in the ED, is required to optimize outcomes.

Mitchell, Matthew L.; Yucebey, Elif; Weaver, Mitchell R.; Jaehne, A. Kathrin; Rivers, Emanuel P.

2013-01-01

228

Ruptured Granulosa Cell Tumor of the Ovary as a Cause of Acute Abdomen in Postmenopausal Woman  

PubMed Central

Acute abdomen with hemoperitoneum is a very rare entity in postmenopausal women due to gynecologic conditions. A 54-year-old, postmenopausal woman was brought to emergency department with severe abdominal pain. Physical examination revealed acute abdomen findings with 15?cm pelvic mass on the right adnexal region. Immediate exploratory laparotomy was performed. During laparotomy 1000?cc of bloodstained fluid, ruptured and actively bleeding large mass arising from right ovary was observed. Right salpingo-oopherectomy was performed in emergency conditions, and pathology report revealed an adult type of granulosa cell tumor. After this result, staging surgery was performed and patient was diagnosed as granulosa cell tumor stage 1?c. Cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin chemotherapy was given. Clinicians should be aware of granulosa cell tumors which may occur at any age and prone to rupture. Frozen section will be helpful in order to avoid incomplete surgeries especially in postmenopausal women presented with intra-abdominal bleeding.

Oge, Tufan; Ozalp, S. Sinan; Yalcin, Omer T.; Kabukcuoglu, Sare; Arslan, Emine

2012-01-01

229

Overexpression of N-Myc Rapidly Causes Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-MYC encodes a basic helix-loop-helix\\/leucine zipper (bHLH\\/ LZ) transcription factor that is frequently overexpressed in human neuroblastoma. N-MYC overexpression has also been reported in human acute myeloid leukemias (AML), which we show here is a frequent event. Myeloid cells in N-Myc- overexpressing mouse bone marrow hyperproliferate but those in c-MYC-overexpressing bone marrow do not. The NH2-terminal transactivation domain, nuclear localization

Hiroyuki Kawagoe; Ayten Kandilci; Tanya A. Kranenburg; Gerard C. Grosveld

2007-01-01

230

Synchrotron microradiography study on acute lung injury of mouse caused by PM 2.5 aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate FeSO4, ZnSO4 (the two of main metal compositions of Shanghai PM2.5 (particle matter with those aerodynamical diameter <2.5?m)) effects on acute lung injury, six solutions contained PM2.5 aerosol particles, FeSO4, ZnSO4 and their mixtures were instilled intratracheally into mouse lungs for experiment. By 2 days after instillation, the live mice were checked in vivo by synchrotron

Yongpeng Tong; Guilin Zhang; Yan Li; Mingguan Tan; Wei Wang; Jianmin Chen; Yeukuang Hwu; Pei-Chebg Hsu; Jung Ho Je; Giorgio Margaritondo; Weiming Song; Rongfang Jiang; Zhihai Jiang

2006-01-01

231

Interleukin1 Causes Acute Lung Injury via v5 and v6 Integrin-Dependent Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interleukin (IL)-1 has previously been shown to be among the most biologically active cytokines in the lungs of patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Furthermore, there is experimental evidence that lung vascular permeability increases after short-term exposure to IL-1 protein, although the exact mechanism is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of IL-1-mediated increase

Michael T. Ganter; Jeremie Roux; Byron Miyazawa; Marybeth Howard; James A. Frank; George Su; Dean Sheppard; Shelia M. Violette; Paul H. Weinreb; Gerald S. Horan; Michael A. Matthay; Jean-Francois Pittet

232

Asymmetric pulmonary perfusion causing unilateral pulmonary edema as a complication of acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Acute unilateral pulmonary edema is an unusual clinical condition occasionally associated with severe mitral valve insufficiency. We describe a patient diagnosed as having unilateral pulmonary edema after an acute anterior myocardial infarction. Echocardiograms performed in the acute phase ruled out mitral insufficiency. A perfusion lung scan showed left-sided pulmonary hypoperfusion. The diagnosis of acquired hypoplasia of the left pulmonary artery tree was made by chest computed tomography. The pathogenesis and differential diagnosis are discussed. El edema agudo de pulmón unilateral es una entidad infrecuente que en ocasiones se ha asociado con la pres-encia de insuficiencia mitral severa. Presentamos el caso de un paciente que, tras presentar un infarto agudo de miocardio anterior, presenta un edema agudo de pulmón unilateral. En los ecocardiogramas realizados en la fase aguda se descartó la presencia de insuficiencia mitral. La gammagrafía de perfusión pulmonar mostró una hipoperfusión generalizada del pulmón izquierdo. Se diagnosticó una hipoplasia adquirida del árbol arterial pulmonar izquierdo mediante tomografía computarizada torácica. Se discuten la patogenia y el diagnóstico diferencial. PMID:24774712

Peña, Carlos; Jaquet, Michel; Salgado, Julio; Pubul, Virginia; Ruibal, Alvaro; Vázquez, Begoña

2005-07-01

233

Sodium bicarbonate treatment prevents gastric emptying delay caused by acute exercise in awake rats.  

PubMed

Physical exercise, mainly after vigorous activity, may induce gastrointestinal dysmotility whose mechanisms are still unknown. We hypothesized that physical exercise and ensuing lactate-related acidemia alter gastrointestinal motor behavior. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of short-term exercise on gastric emptying rate in awake rats subjected to 15-min swimming sessions against a load equivalent to 5% of their body weight. After 0, 10, or 20 min of exercise testing, the rats were gavage fed with 1.5 ml of a liquid test meal (0.5 mg/ml of phenol red in 5% glucose solution) and euthanized 10 min postprandially to measure fractional gastric dye recovery. In addition to inducing acidemia and increasing blood lactate levels, acute exercise increased (P < 0.05) gastric retention. Such a phenomenon presented a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between blood lactate levels and fractional gastric dye recovery. Gastric retention and other acidbase-related changes were all prevented by NaHCO3 pretreatment. Additionally, exercise enhanced (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, exercise increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. Compared with sedentary control rats, acute exercise also inhibited (P < 0.05) the contractility of gastric fundus strips in vitro. In conclusion, acute exercise delayed the gastric emptying of a liquid test meal by interfering with the acid-base balance. PMID:24557800

Silva, Moisés T B; Palheta-Junior, Raimundo C; Sousa, Daniel F; Fonseca-Magalhães, Patrícia A; Okoba, Willy; Campos, Caio P S; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Magalhães, Pedro J C; Santos, Armenio A

2014-05-01

234

Causes of death – other than progressive leukemia – in childhood acute lymphoblastic (ALL) and myeloid leukemia (AML): the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed causes of death, other than resistant disease or relapse, in 875 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 229 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), treated on three different Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) ALL and three AML protocols. Overall, 23 (2.6%) ALL and 44 (19.2%) AML patients died. Early death (ED, before remission was reached) occurred in nine

A M Slats; R M Egeler; A van der Does-van den Berg; C Korbijn; K Hählen; W A Kamps; A J P Veerman; C M Zwaan

2005-01-01

235

Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing bacteria causing nosocomial urinary tract infections in an Iranian referral teaching hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective: Gram-negative bacilli are the most important cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs). The production of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is a common mechanism of resistance among these bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of ESBL producing Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTI in a referral hospital as well as their susceptibility pattern to the most commonly used antibiotics. Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study performed over a 6-month period, urinary specimens obtained from hospitalized patients with documented culture-proved nosocomial UTI (age range of 1-87 years). Isolated aerobic Gram-negative bacteria underwent further microbiologic tests for detection of ESBL, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility test using Kirby-Bauer (disk diffusion) and E-test methods. Findings: During the study period, 213 urine samples were detected to have growth of Gram-negative organism. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism (61%). ESBL was detected in 102 isolates including 38.5% of E. coli, 39.5% of Klebsiella pneumonia, 88.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 100% of Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics on E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains. P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii strains showed high resistance to all tested antibiotics. Conclusion: Large numbers of Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTIs produce ESBL with most being multidrug-resistant. Therefore, routine ESBL detection testing and subsequent antibiogram with disk diffusion method could be useful to determine the best treatment options for UTI.

Soltani, Rasool; Ehsanpoor, Mohsen; Khorvash, Farzin; Shokri, Dariush

2014-01-01

236

Acetylcholinesterase and neuropathy target esterase inhibitions in neuroblastoma cells to distinguish organophosphorus compounds causing acute and delayed neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

The differential inhibition of the target esterases acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and neuropathy target esterase (NTE, neurotoxic esterase) by organophosphorus compounds (OPs) is followed by distinct neurological consequences in exposed subjects. The present study demonstrates that neuroblastoma cell lines (human SH-SY5Y and murine NB41A3) can be used to differentiate between neuropathic OPs (i.e., those inhibiting NTE and causing organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy) and acutely neurotoxic OPs (i.e., those highly capable of inhibiting AChE). In these experiments, concentration-response data indicated that the capability to inhibit AChE was over 100x greater than the capability to inhibit NTE for acutely toxic, nonneuropathic OPs (e.g., paraoxon and malaoxon) in both cell lines. Inhibition of AChE was greater than inhibition of NTE, without overlap of the concentration-response curves, for OPs which are more likely to cause acute, rather than delayed, neurotoxic effects in vivo (e.g., chlorpyrifos-oxon, dichlorvos, and trichlorfon). In contrast, concentrations inhibiting AChE and NTE overlapped for neuropathy-causing OPs. For example, apparent IC50 values for NTE inhibition were less than 9.6-fold the apparent IC50 values for AChE inhibition when cells were exposed to the neuropathy-inducing OPs diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate, cyclic tolyl saligenin phosphate, phenyl saligenin phosphate, mipafox, dibutyl dichlorovinyl phosphate, and di-octyl-dichlorovinyl phosphate. In all cases, esterase inhibition occurred at lower concentrations than those needed for cytoxicity. These results suggest that either mouse or human neuroblastoma cell lines can be considered useful in vitro models to distinguish esterase-inhibiting OP neurotoxicants. PMID:9268605

Ehrich, M; Correll, L; Veronesi, B

1997-07-01

237

Plasma and lipids from stored packed red blood cells cause acute lung injury in an animal model.  

PubMed Central

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious complication of hemotherapy. During blood storage, lipids are generated and released into the plasma. In this study, the role of these lipids in TRALI was investigated using an isolated, perfused rat lung model. Rats were pretreated with endotoxin (LPS) or saline in vivo and the lungs were isolated, ventilated, and perfused with saline, or (a) 5% (vol/ vol) fresh human plasma, (b) plasma from stored blood from the day of isolation (D.0) or from the day of outdate (D.42), (c) lipid extracts from D.42 plasma, or (d) purified lysophosphatidylcholines. Lungs from saline or LPS-pretreated rats perfused with fresh (D.0) plasma showed no pulmonary damage as compared with saline perfused controls. LPS pretreatment/D.42 plasma perfusion caused acute lung injury (ALI) manifested by dramatic changes in both pulmonary artery pressure and edema. Incubation of LPS pre-tx rats with mibefradil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, or WEB 2170, a platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist, inhibited ALI caused by D.42 plasma. Lung histology showed neutrophil sequestration without ALI with LPS pretreatment/saline or D.0 plasma perfusion, but ALI with LPS pretreatment/D.42 plasma perfusion, and inhibition of D.42 plasma induced ALI with WEB 2170 or mibefradil. A significant increase in leukotriene E4 was present in LPS-pretreated/D.42 plasma-perfused lungs that was inhibited by WEB 2170. Lastly, significant pulmonary edema was produced when lipid extracts of D.42 plasma or lysophosphatidylcholines were perfused into LPS-pretreated lungs. Lipids caused ALI without vasoconstriction, except at the highest dose employed. In conclusion, both plasma and lipids from stored blood produced pulmonary damage in a model of acute lung injury. TRALI, like the adult respiratory distress syndrome, may be the result of two insults: one derived from stored blood and the other from the clinical condition of the patient.

Silliman, C C; Voelkel, N F; Allard, J D; Elzi, D J; Tuder, R M; Johnson, J L; Ambruso, D R

1998-01-01

238

Acute pyelonephritis can have serious complications.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infection (UTI) may predominantly involve the lower urinary tract, i.e. acute cystitis, or upper urinary tract consisting of the renal pelvis and kidney,, i.e. acute pyelonephritis The incidence of acute pyelonephritis is higher in young women than in men but the incidence in men over 65 is similar to that in older women. Women have up to a 10% risk of recurrent acute pyelonephritis in the year following a first acute episode. The equivalent risk in men is 6%. Acute pyelonephritis may be uncomplicated and resolve without serious sequelae. A minority of episodes may be complicated by acute kidney injury, papillary necrosis, renal or perinephric abscess or the development of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Acute pyelonephritis is generally caused by microorganisms ascending from the urethra via the bladder into the upper urinary tract. Rarely the kidney may be seeded by blood-borne infection. Ecoli is the most common uropathogen causing pyelonephritis accounting for 70-90% of infections. Species of Enterococci, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Staphylococci are responsible for the remaining infections. There is a rising incidence in the community of UTI with bacteria that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes. These ESBL bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporins and increasingly to quinolones. Risk factors for uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis include recent sexual intercourse, acute cystitis, stress incontinence and diabetes and for complicated acute pyelonephritis include pregnancy, diabetes, anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract and renal calculi. PMID:20486480

Shields, Joanne; Maxwell, Alexander P

2010-04-01

239

Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery as a rare cause of acute abdomen: report of two cases.  

PubMed

Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare condition. Here we report 2 cases of spontaneous SMA dissection causing acute abdomen. Bowel infarction did not occur in either case despite total occlusion or severe stenosis of the SMA;we successfully managed isolated SMA dissection without surgical intervention. Our nonoperative management regimen for spontaneous SMA dissection consisted of intestinal rest with fasting, administration of a vasodilator, and blood pressure control. Surgical intervention should be unnecessary unless complications, such as intestinal infarction and abdominal angina, occur. PMID:19571903

Totsugawa, Toshinori; Kuinose, Masahiko; Ishida, Atsuhisa; Tamaki, Takahiko; Yoshitaka, Hidenori; Tsushima, Yoshimasa

2009-06-01

240

A review of some characteristics of MIC caused by sulfate-reducing bacteria: past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiologically-influenced corrosion (MIC) is extremely harmful to both the industry and the environment. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are also important: we have to know what they really are and what they really do to us; this means we have to improve our understanding of SRB and their characteristics. MIC is the officially accepted terminology by NACE[1] to address this type of

Reza Javaherdashti

1999-01-01

241

Anaplastic oligoastrocytoma: previous treatment as a possible cause in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The authors present a 14-year-old patient who developed an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma of the left parietal lobe 9 years after\\u000a a successful treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). He had a history of induction chemotherapy, intrathecal methotrexate\\u000a and prophylactic whole brain irradiation (1,800 cGy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  Radiation-induced neoplasia is suggested to be the late complication of ALL treatment, and evaluation

Necmettin Tanriover; Mustafa Onur Ulu; Mehmet Sar; Mustafa Uzan

2007-01-01

242

"Knot stent": an unusual cause of acute renal failure in solitary kidney.  

PubMed

The insertion of indwelling ureteric stents is a routine procedure in urology practice. Complications secondary to the insertion of these stents have also increased, such as stent encrustation, stent fragmentation, stone formation, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Knot formation within the renal pelvis or in the coiled portion of the ureteral stent is an extremely rare condition, with less than 15 cases reported in literature. The authors report a rare case of knotted stent, complicated by an obstructive acute renal failure and urosepsis, in a patient with a solitary functioning kidney. PMID:22919550

Moufid, Kamal; Touiti, Driss; Mohamed, Lezrek

2012-01-01

243

Primary Burkitt's lymphoma of the colon--an uncommon cause of acute constipation and abdominal pain.  

PubMed

Constipation is a common problem in children and adolescents, accounting for over 25% of all visits to pediatric gastroenterologists. Approximately 95% of childhood constipation is functional in nature. Primary gastrointestinal malignancies are rare in childhood and adolescence. When present in the gastrointestinal tract, Burkitt's lymphoma is typically located in the ileocecal region. We present a case of primary Burkitt's lymphoma of the transverse colon in an adolescent presenting with acute exacerbation of constipation, abdominal pain, and later, rectal bleeding and progressive weight loss. PMID:22417079

Meyer, Caroline T; Wilsey, Michael J; Hale, Gregory A; Monforte, Hector L; Danielson, Paul D

2012-08-01

244

Varicella-like illness caused by live varicella vaccine in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

A varicella-like illness occurred in five of 52 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia following the administration of live varicella vaccine. Only one of the children required treatment with acyclovir. Virus isolated from two of the children was "vaccine-like" but differed slightly from the original vaccine strain when tested by restriction enzyme analysis. There did not appear to be a reversion to virulence because two of the household contacts who seroconverted had mild or subclinical infections. Vaccinees in whom this reaction developed tended to have a poor cellular immune response to varicella-zoster virus. PMID:3035478

Brunell, P A; Geiser, C F; Novelli, V; Lipton, S; Narkewicz, S

1987-06-01

245

Acute cold hypersensitivity characteristically induced by oxaliplatin is caused by the enhanced responsiveness of TRPA1 in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, causes an unusual acute peripheral neuropathy. Oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy appears in almost all patients rapidly after infusion, and is triggered or exacerbated by cold, while its mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the involvement of thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPA1, TRPM8 and TRPV1) in oxaliplatin-induced acute hypersensitivity was investigated in mice. Results A single intraperitoneal administration of oxaliplatin (1–10?mg/kg) induced cold but not mechanical hypersensitivity within 2?h in a dose-dependent manner. Infusion of the oxaliplatin metabolite, oxalate (1.7?mg/kg), also induced acute cold hypersensitivity, while another platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin (5?mg/kg), or the non-platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel (6?mg/kg) failed to induce mechanical or cold hypersensitivity. The oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity was abolished by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (100?mg/kg) and by TRPA1 deficiency. The nocifensive behaviors evoked by intraplantar injections of allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC; TRPA1 agonist) were significantly enhanced in mice treated for 2?h with oxaliplatin (1–10?mg/kg) in a dose-dependent manner, while capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist)-evoked nocifensive behaviors were not affected. Menthol (TRPM8/TRPA1 agonist)-evoked nocifensive-like behaviors were also enhanced by oxaliplatin pretreatment, which were inhibited by TRPA1 deficiency. Similarly, oxalate enhanced, but neither cisplatin nor paclitaxel affected AITC-evoked nocifensive behaviors. Pretreatment of cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons with oxaliplatin (30–300??M) for 1, 2, or 4?h significantly increased the number of AITC-sensitive neurons in a concentration-dependent manner whereas there was no change in the number of menthol- or capsaicin-sensitive neurons. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that a brief treatment with oxaliplatin or its metabolite oxalate is sufficient to enhance the responsiveness of TRPA1 but not that of TRPM8 and TRPV1 expressed by DRG neurons, which may contribute to the characteristic acute peripheral neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin.

2012-01-01

246

Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA  

PubMed Central

The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad’s coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis.

Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

2014-01-01

247

Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA.  

PubMed

The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad's coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

2014-01-01

248

Acute joint inflammation in mice after systemic injection of the cell wall, its peptidoglycan, and chemically defined peptidoglycan subunits from various bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The systemic injection of an aqueous suspension of cell wall or its peptidoglycan (PG)-rich sonicate derived from group A streptococcus and Lactobacillus casei induced acute joint lesions in BALB/c, DBA/1J, (BALB/c X DBA/1J)F1, and C3H/He mouse strains, but not in C57BL/6, DBA/2, and AKR strains. Cell walls and their enzymatically degraded PG fragments from other bacteria as well as the synthetic disaccharide dipeptide and Lactobacillus plantarum cell wall-derived disaccharide tripeptide produced similar acute inflammation in susceptible BALB/c mice. Acute swelling and erythema of the ankles and wrists were observed as early as 3 h, reached maximum severity by day 2, and generally subsided by days 4 to 6 after injection. Histological studies showed synovial proliferation, marked infiltration of many mononuclear cells and a few polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the soft tissues, and extensive deposition of fibrinous exudate in the joint space. Antibody response was detectable against the PG fraction. However, anti-PG antibody does not seem to be responsible for the pathogenesis of this disease. On the other hand, experiments on decomplementation by cobra venom factor suggest that complement components are involved in the early phase of this arthritic model. Images

Koga, T; Kakimoto, K; Hirofuji, T; Kotani, S; Ohkuni, H; Watanabe, K; Okada, N; Okada, H; Sumiyoshi, A; Saisho, K

1985-01-01

249

Spontaneous Spleen Rupture in a Teenager: An Uncommon Cause of Acute Abdomen  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous spleen rupture is a rare complication of infectious diseases and it can become a potentially life-threatening condition if not diagnosed in time. A 17-year-old Greek female presented to the ER due to acute abdominal pain, mainly of the left upper quadrant. She had no recent report of trauma. The patient was pale, her blood pressure was 90/70?mmHg, and her pulse was 120?b/min. Clinical examination of the abdomen revealed muscle contraction and resistance. The patient was submitted to an ultrasound of the upper abdomen and to a CT scanning of the abdomen that revealed an extended intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to spleen rupture. Due to the patient's hemodynamic instability, she was taken to the operation room and splenectomy was performed. Following a series of laboratory examinations, the patient was diagnosed to be positive for current cytomegalovirus infection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and in a two year follow-up the patient is symptom-free. Spontaneous spleen rupture due to Cytomegalovirus infection is a rare clinical entity, described in few case reports in the world literature and should always be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially in adolescents with no recent report of trauma.

Maria, Verroiotou; Saad, Al Mogrampi; Fardellas, Ioannis

2013-01-01

250

Spontaneous spleen rupture in a teenager: an uncommon cause of acute abdomen.  

PubMed

Spontaneous spleen rupture is a rare complication of infectious diseases and it can become a potentially life-threatening condition if not diagnosed in time. A 17-year-old Greek female presented to the ER due to acute abdominal pain, mainly of the left upper quadrant. She had no recent report of trauma. The patient was pale, her blood pressure was 90/70?mmHg, and her pulse was 120?b/min. Clinical examination of the abdomen revealed muscle contraction and resistance. The patient was submitted to an ultrasound of the upper abdomen and to a CT scanning of the abdomen that revealed an extended intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to spleen rupture. Due to the patient's hemodynamic instability, she was taken to the operation room and splenectomy was performed. Following a series of laboratory examinations, the patient was diagnosed to be positive for current cytomegalovirus infection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and in a two year follow-up the patient is symptom-free. Spontaneous spleen rupture due to Cytomegalovirus infection is a rare clinical entity, described in few case reports in the world literature and should always be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially in adolescents with no recent report of trauma. PMID:23710190

Maria, Verroiotou; Saad, Al Mogrampi; Fardellas, Ioannis

2013-01-01

251

Intracoronary Catheter Aspiration Can Be an Adequate Option in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Caused by Left Atrial Myxoma  

PubMed Central

Cardiac myxomas are the most common benign cardiac tumors and can be associated with systemic embolization including acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The probability of an arterial embolization is closely related to a tumor's villous morphology. In cases of AMI caused by cardiac myxoma, open heart surgery including excision of the coronary artery has been the one of the treatment options for removing the myxoma and embolus from the coronary artery to maintain distal coronary flow. However, preparing for emergent open heart surgery takes a considerable amount of time. Moreover, this time delay can deteriorate the coronary perfusion to the infarcted area and is associated with poor clinical prognosis. So intracoronary catheter aspiration can be an additional option to maintain the distal coronary flow. In this report we present a case with acute anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction caused by a left atrial myxoma. The embolus in the left anterior descending coronary artery was successfully removed with intracoronary catheter aspiration, and distal coronary flow was restored after the procedure.

Park, Hyung Seo; Park, Jae-Hyeong

2009-01-01

252

Clinical and epidemiological features of acute follicular conjunctivitis with special reference to that caused by herpes simplex virus type 1  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/AIMS—It is reported by the national surveillance of ocular infectious diseases in Japan that 4.3% of cases of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) diagnosed clinically were caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Clinical and virological studies of patients with HSV conjunctivitis were carried out.?METHODS—The study population consisted of 478 patients with acute follicular conjunctivitis. Virological analysis was carried out for adenovirus (Ad) and HSV by the cell culture method and fluorescein antibody (FA) method. Polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis was also carried out.?RESULTS—From 23 patients, HSV type 1 was isolated but Ad or C trachomatis was not isolated. 87% of cases were unilateral. Most cases showed clinical resolution within 9 days. Early corneal lesions and preauricular lymphadenopathy were less frequent in HSV conjunctivitis than in adenoviral conjunctivitis, especially that due to subgenus D. No case showed a positive result for HSV by the FA method using conjunctival swabs; however, the FA test was positive in all strains isolated by cell culture.?CONCLUSIONS—These results indicate that it is difficult clinically to differentiate HSV conjunctivitis from adenoviral conjunctivitis in the acute stage, since the clinical features of adenoviral conjunctivitis are similar to those of HSV conjunctivitis. A biological difference may exist between HSV strains causing keratitis and conjunctivitis.??

Uchio, E.; Takeuchi, S.; Itoh, N.; Matsuura, N.; Ohno, S.; Aoki, K.

2000-01-01

253

Quinine allergy causing acute severe systemic illness: report of 4 patients manifesting multiple hematologic, renal, and hepatic abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Quinine is widely used for the common symptom of leg cramps. Quinine tablets require a prescription, but quinine and the product from which it is derived, cinchona, are also available without prescription. They are components of over-the-counter remedies for many common symptoms, of nutrition products, and of beverages such as tonic water and bitter lemon. Although quinine has been used for centuries, initially as an extract from the bark of the cinchona tree, allergic reactions to quinine can be severe and can affect multiple organs. These allergic reactions can cause thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, liver toxicity, and neurological abnormalities. Because quinine use is often intermittent, defining quinine as a cause of an acute disorder may be difficult. Moreover, since quinine use is often self-regulated, patients may not mention it in response to direct questions about medication use, adding to diagnostic difficulty. The diversity and severity of quinine-associated disorders and the difficulties of diagnosis are illustrated by the presentation of 4 case histories. Awareness of the variety of potential quinine-associated reactions is important for accurate diagnosis and critical for prevention of recurrent illness.

2003-01-01

254

Acute inhalation exposure to titanium ethanolate as a possible cause of metal fume Fever.  

PubMed

Occupational inhalation exposure to noxious agents is not uncommon. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male student who had accidental acute inhalation exposure to a large quantity of titanium ethanolate and hydrogen chloride in chemistry lab. He was referred to the emergency department of our hospital with low-grade fever, dyspnea, headache, fatigue and myalgia. After 24 hrs of symptomatic treatment (oxygen therapy and acetaminophen), the fever was subsided and the patient discharged home in a good clinical condition. The presented symptoms could be interpreted as a form of metal fume fever. It can therefore be concluded that organo-metallic compound of titanium metal may have the potential to produce metal fume fever in human. PMID:24748002

Ahmadimanesh, M; Shadnia, S; Ghazi-Khansari, M

2014-04-01

255

A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen: An Isolated Falciform Ligament Necrosis  

PubMed Central

The falciform ligament is one of the anatomical structures which attach the liver to the diaphragm and anterior abdominal wall. Primary falciform ligament is very rare. In this article, we present a case of an isolated falciform ligament necrosis, a rare primary pathology of the falciform ligament, who was admitted with acute abdomen. Case presentation: A 64-year-old female patient was admitted with the complaints of pain. Laboratory test results showed a leukocyte count of 17,000/mm3. Imaging studies demonstrated intra-abdominal reactionary fluid along with a heterogeneous mass localized in the falciform ligament. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a necrotic mass of the falciform ligament. No other pathology responsible for falciform ligament necrosis was found. We believe that falciform ligament necrosis should be considered a preliminary diagnosis, if any ligament abnormality, tumor, intraligament air density, or the presence of reactionary fluid surrounding the ligament is detected through abdominal imaging studies.

Ozkecec?, Ziya Taner; Ozsoy, Mustafa; Celep, Bahad?r; Bal, Ahmet; Polat, Coskun

2014-01-01

256

Hantavirus: an infectious cause of acute kidney injury in the UK.  

PubMed

We present a case of an undifferentiated febrile illness in a 59-year-old man from East Yorkshire. He was initially treated for leptospirosis due to the fact that he had farm exposure and the findings of acute kidney injury (AKI), thrombocytopenia and a raised alanine transferase (ALT) on his initial blood results. Serology tests later proved him to have had another rodent-borne illness: hantavirus. An investigation by Public Health England (formerly known as Health Protection Agency) (PHE) went on to prove the presence of the same serotype of hantavirus in rats caught on the patient's property. After an initial deterioration, the patient made a relatively uneventful recovery and all his blood tests returned to normal levels. PMID:25035452

Adams, Kate; Jameson, Lisa; Meigh, Rolf; Brooks, Tim

2014-01-01

257

[Parvovirus B19 as a cause of acute liver symptoms in adults].  

PubMed

Parvovirus B19 (B19), also known as "erythema infectiosum", is a disease that occurs in smaller outbreaks during late winter and early summer; and in Denmark an epidemic occurs every three years. The symptoms vary from fever, fatigue and the characteristic maculopapoulous erythema to asymptomatic cases in 50% of the infected patients. Two-thirds of the Danish population have been infected. The virus has a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from erythema nodosum in children, arthralgia/arthritis (especially in adults), aplastic crisis in patients with haemolytic anaemia, chronic anaemia in immunocompromised patients, to hydrops foetalis following acute infection during pregnancy. In two adult females aged 41 and 35 years with persisting fatigue, malaise, transitory swelling and arthralgia we found elevated ALT and alkaline phosphatase (pt. 1), despite no serological evidence of hepatitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), or Epstein-Barrvirus and no story of alcohol consumption or recent travelling outside Denmark. Ongoing B19 infection was diagnosed by ELISA and confirmed by B19 DNA PCR in case 2 and IgG avidity and epitope-type specificity in case 1, who was B19 DNA negative in three different samples. The concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and ALT returned to normal as the antibody response shifted from acute B19 infection to IgG positivity. In conclusion we suggest that a serological test and/or B19 DNA for B19 infection is a relevant test to undertake when screening patients for viral hepatitis especially during B19 epidemics and in exposed individuals. PMID:9810242

Hillingsø, J G; Jensen, I P; Tom-Petersen, L

1998-10-26

258

[Fasciola hepatica--a unusual cause of acute cholecystitis with cholestatic jaundice].  

PubMed

A 29-year-old patient was admitted with acute abdomen in the 17th week of pregnancy. History revealed two episodes of colic in the right hypochondriac area during the previous six months, but no other abdominal complaints. Clinically the picture was that of acute cholecystitis. Laboratory findings included an elevated white cell count, a slight elevation of serum transaminases and a marked increase of serum alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. Echographically there were dilated intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts containing two hyperechogenic elements without casting an acoustic shadow. A hydrops of the gallbladder with sludge and a thickening of the wall could also been seen. Because of pregnancy an ERCP could not be performed due to the need for X-ray, so we had to resort to open surgery. Under tocolytic and antibiotic shielding we carried out open cholecystectomy and choledochoscopic exploration of the common bile duct. Using a Fogarty balloon catheter we extracted two live, adult liver flukes and placed a T-tube in the duct. Because of positive fecal probes for fasciola eggs the T-tube had to be left in place until childbirth. Afterwards we performed a pre-cut-papillotomy by ERCP and took the T-tube out, having confirmed a clear duct on a T-tube-cholangiogram. With negative fecal probes and the eosinophilia on the white cell count returning to normal, we decided against the planned chemotherapy and assumed self-healing of the disease. The patient has been well since.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7481618

Riedtmann, H J; Obeid, T; Aeberhard, P; Sakmann, P

1995-09-01

259

Telomere length dynamics in human memory T cells specific for viruses causing acute or latent infections  

PubMed Central

Background Declining telomere length (TL) is associated with T cell senescence. While TL in naïve and memory T cells declines with increasing age, there is limited data on TL dynamics in virus-specific memory CD4+ T cells in healthy adults. We combined BrdU-labeling of virus-stimulated T cells followed with flow cytometry-fluorescent in situ hybridization for TL determination. We analyzed TL in T cells specific for several virus infections: non-recurring acute (vaccinia virus, VACV), recurring-acute (influenza A virus, IAV), and reactivating viruses (varicella-zoster virus, VZV, and cytomegalovirus, CMV) in 10 healthy subjects. Additionally, five subjects provided multiple blood samples separated by up to 10 years. Results VACV- and CMV-specific T cells had longer average TL than IAV-specific CD4+ T cells. Although most virus-specific cells were CD45RA-, we observed a minor population of BrdU+ CD45RA+ T cells characterized by long telomeres. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated a slow decline in average TL in virus-specific T cells. However, in one subject, VZV reactivation led to an increase in average TL in VZV-specific memory T cells, suggesting a conversion of longer TL cells from the naïve T cell repertoire. Conclusions TLs in memory CD4+ T cells in otherwise healthy adults are heterogeneous and follow distinct virus-specific kinetics. These findings suggests that the distribution of TL and the creation and maintenance of long TL memory T cells could be important for the persistence of long-lived T cell memory.

2013-01-01

260

N-Acetyl-Heparin Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Caused by Acid Aspiration Mainly by Antagonizing Histones in Mice  

PubMed Central

Acute lung injury (ALI) is the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Extracellular histones have recently been recognized to be pivotal inflammatory mediators. Heparin and its derivatives can bind histones through electrostatic interaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate 1) the role of extracellular histones in the pathogenesis of ALI caused by acid aspiration and 2) whether N-acetyl-heparin (NAH) provides more protection than heparin against histones at the high dose. ALI was induced in mice via intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl). Lethality rate, blood gas, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lung edema and pathological changes were used to evaluate the degree of ALI. Heparin/NAH was administered intraperitoneally, twice a day, for 3 days or until death. Acid aspiration caused an obvious increase in extracellular histones. A significant correlation existed between the concentration of HCl aspirated and the circulating histones. Heparin/NAH (10 mg/kg) improved the lethality rate, blood gas, MPO activity, lung edema and pathological score. At a dose of 20 mg/kg, NAH still provided protection, however heparin tended to aggravate the injury due to hemorrhagic complications. The specific interaction between heparin and histones was verified by the binding assay. In summary, high levels of extracellular histones can be pathogenic in ALI caused by acid aspiration. By neutralizing extracellular histones, heparin/NAH can offer similar protection at the moderate doses. At the high dose, NAH provides better protection than heparin.

Zhang, Yanlin; Zhao, Zanmei; Guan, Li; Mao, Lijun; Li, Shuqiang; Guan, Xiaoxu; Chen, Ming; Guo, Lixia; Ding, Lihua; Cong, Cuicui; Wen, Tao; Zhao, Jinyuan

2014-01-01

261

Etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and outcomes of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates causing acute respiratory failure in cancer patients: a retrospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although previous studies have reported etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and outcomes of acute respiratory failure (ARF) in cancer patients, few studies investigated ARF in cancer patients presenting with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. Methods This was a retrospective observational study of 214 consecutive cancer patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiography admitted to the oncology medical intensive care unit for acute respiratory failure between July 2009 and June 2011. Results After diagnostic investigations including bronchoalveolar lavage in 160 (75%) patients, transbronchial lung biopsy in 75 (35%), and surgical lung biopsy in 6 (3%), the etiologies of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates causing ARF were identified in 187 (87%) patients. The most common etiology was infection (138, 64%), followed by drug-induced pneumonitis (13, 6%) and metastasis (12, 6%). Based on the etiologic diagnoses, therapies for diffuse pulmonary infiltrates were subsequently modified in 99 (46%) patients. Diagnostic yield (46%, 62%, 85%, and 100%; P for trend < 0.001) and frequency of therapeutic modifications (14%, 37%, 52%, and 100%; P for trend < 0.001) were significantly increased with additional invasive tests. Patients with therapeutic modification had a 34% lower in-hospital mortality rate than patients without therapeutic modification (38% versus 58%, P = 0.004) and a similar difference in mortality rate was observed up to 90 days (55% versus 73%, Log-rank P = 0.004). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, therapeutic modification was still significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR 0.509, 95% CI 0.281-0.920). Conclusions Invasive diagnostic tests, including lung biopsy, increased diagnostic yield and caused therapeutic modification that was significantly associated with better outcomes for diffuse pulmonary infiltrates causing ARF in cancer patients.

2013-01-01

262

Hematogenously Disseminated Skin Disease Caused by Mucor velutinosus in a Patient with Acute Myeloid Leukemia?  

PubMed Central

We report here a case of disseminated skin infection caused by Mucor velutinosus, a recently described new species. We believe this to be the first published report of a clinical case of mucormycosis due to M. velutinosus, as well as a rare case of dissemination from a deep site to skin.

Sugui, Janyce A.; Christensen, Jesica A.; Bennett, John E.; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.

2011-01-01

263

Acute intrahepatic biliary obstruction caused by hydatid cysts. Correlation between various imaging techniques  

SciTech Connect

An 18-year-old male was evaluated for recurrent attacks of right abdominal pain and intermittent jaundice caused by hydatid cysts of the liver. The case illustrates the value of dynamic functional information provided by Tc-99m-HIDA imaging over noninvasive modalities that demonstrate structural changes, such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and tin colloid liver imaging.

Bahar, R.H.; Al-Mohannadi, S.; Wafai, I.; Al-Suhaili, A.R.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.

1988-05-01

264

Evaluation of the acute toxicity of perfluorinated carboxylic acids using eukaryotic cell lines, bacteria and enzymatic assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute biological activity of a homologous series of perfluorinated carboxylic acids – perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) – was studied. To analyze the potential risk of the perfluorinated acids to humans and the environment, different in vitro toxicity test systems were employed. The cytotoxicity of the chemicals towards

E. Mulkiewicz; B. Jastorff; A. C. Sk?adanowski; K. Kleszczy?ski; P. Stepnowski

2007-01-01

265

Takayasu Arteritis with Coronary Aneurysms Causing Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Young Man  

PubMed Central

Takayasu arteritis is an inflammatory condition that involves the large cardiac vessels, predominantly the aorta and its main branches. It typically affects young women (age, ?40 yr), most often Asians and Latin Americans. Herein, we describe a rare manifestation of Takayasu arteritis in a 19-year-old black Tunisian man who presented with acute inferior myocardial infarction and complete atrioventricular block after occlusion from a giant aneurysm in the right coronary artery. The coronary artery disease was associated with aneurysmal dilations in the carotid, vertebral, and right renal arteries. Medical therapy improved Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow in the area of the giant aneurysm from grade 1 to grade 3. Upon the diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis, intravenous methylprednisolone and oral prednisone therapy was started. After 10 days of hospitalization, the patient was discharged on a medical regimen. Renovascular hypertension due to renal artery stenosis was suspected, so he underwent successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the inferior segmental artery of the right renal artery. During 12 months of close postprocedural monitoring, he experienced lower blood pressure, no chest pain, and no cardiovascular complications. This association of conditions has not been previously reported. Besides presenting this very rare combination of findings, we discuss the differential diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis in our patient.

Ouali, Sana; Kacem, Slim; Fradj, Fatma Ben; Gribaa, Rim; Naffeti, Elyes; Remedi, Fahmi; Laaoueni, Chedia; Boughzela, Essia

2011-01-01

266

Expression of aquaporins in the lungs of mice with acute injury caused by LPS treatment.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) and AQP5 in the lungs of mice with acute injury induced by LPS treatment. In the study, the concentrations of cytokines were all significantly increased in the BALF of mice received LPS at 12h and 24h (P<0.001). The lung wet/dry weight ratios (W/D) and total protein content in BALF were also increased in the mice treated with LPS (P<0.001). Interestingly the expression of AQP1 and AQP5 was significantly decreased (P<0.05) compared with these in the control mice, while TUNEL positive cells were increased. However, the AQP5 expression was significantly higher at 24h that it at 12h in the control mice. Our results showed that decreased AQP expression was associated with the increased inflammatory factors, as well as apoptotic cells. The increased expression of AQP5 at 24h in control mice might be due to its regulation in transcellular water reabsorption. PMID:24879973

Hasan, Bilal; Li, Feng-Sen; Siyit, Adila; Tuyghun, Ehbal; Luo, Jing-Hua; Upur, Halmurat; Ablimit, Abduxukur

2014-08-15

267

Molecular Identification of Bacteria by Total Sequence Screening: Determining the Cause of Death in Ancient Human Subjects  

PubMed Central

Research of ancient pathogens in ancient human skeletons has been mainly carried out on the basis of one essential historical or archaeological observation, permitting specific pathogens to be targeted. Detection of ancient human pathogens without such evidence is more difficult, since the quantity and quality of ancient DNA, as well as the environmental bacteria potentially present in the sample, limit the analyses possible. Using human lung tissue and/or teeth samples from burials in eastern Siberia, dating from the end of 17th to the 19th century, we propose a methodology that includes the: 1) amplification of all 16S rDNA gene sequences present in each sample; 2) identification of all bacterial DNA sequences with a degree of identity ?95%, according to quality criteria; 3) identification and confirmation of bacterial pathogens by the amplification of the rpoB gene; and 4) establishment of authenticity criteria for ancient DNA. This study demonstrates that from teeth samples originating from ancient human subjects, we can realise: 1) the correct identification of bacterial molecular sequence signatures by quality criteria; 2) the separation of environmental and pathogenic bacterial 16S rDNA sequences; 3) the distribution of bacterial species for each subject and for each burial; and 4) the characterisation of bacteria specific to the permafrost. Moreover, we identified three pathogens in different teeth samples by 16S rDNA sequence amplification: Bordetella sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Shigella dysenteriae. We tested for the presence of these pathogens by amplifying the rpoB gene. For the first time, we confirmed sequences from Bordetella pertussis in the lungs of an ancient male Siberian subject, whose grave dated from the end of the 17th century to the early 18th century.

Theves, Catherine; Senescau, Alice; Vanin, Stefano; Keyser, Christine; Ricaut, Francois Xavier; Alekseev, Anatoly N.; Dabernat, Henri; Ludes, Bertrand; Fabre, Richard; Crubezy, Eric

2011-01-01

268

Pathological Response of the Chicken Embryo to an Agent Which Causes Acute Leukosis (Marek's Disease) 1  

PubMed Central

A laboratory test system specific for Marek's disease was developed by using the pathological response of the chicken embryo. Chicken epidermal scales (dander) and feather calami from infected chickens contain an agent(s) which after a 3- to 4-day incubation period caused gross or microscopic pathological changes (or both) in the embryo. A cell-free inoculum was obtained from infectious dander by 5-min sonic treatment, differential centrifugation, and membrane filtering (0.45 ?m). Evidence for the cell-free existence of this agent(s) was obtained when membrane filtrates of dander preparations were shown to cause Marek's disease in 10-day-old chickens and in chickens inoculated at 1 day of age. Images

Evans, D. L.; Patterson, L. T.; Beasley, J. N.

1971-01-01

269

Hyperosmolar non-ketotic hyperglycaemia: an important and reversible cause of acute bilateral ballismus.  

PubMed

An 83-year-old lady with type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted to hospital with pneumonia. After 3 days of oral amoxicillin she developed ballism-choreiform movements of all four limbs. Her serum glucose and osmolality were raised. She had no factors suggestive of genetic or iatrogenic causes. A CT scan of the brain revealed bilateral putamen hyperintensities. She was started on tetrabenazine and subcutaneous insulin, which led to complete resolution of her symptoms. PMID:22729344

Milburn-McNulty, Philip; Michael, Benedict D; Woodford, Henry J; Nicolson, Andrew

2012-01-01

270

[Mesenteric acute ischemia caused by spontaneous and isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery].  

PubMed

Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery is an unusual cause of mesenteric ischemia. Diagnosis can be based on findings of the belicoidal computed tomography or selective angiography of the superior mesenteric artery. We report two male patients, aged 47 and 50 years, who were admitted for abdominal pain. Isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection was confirmed by angiography. Both patients were treated with anticoagulation, conservative measures and recovered uneventfully. PMID:12587512

Burgos, Luis; Mertens, Renato; Valdés, Francisco; Krämer, Albrecht; Mariné, Leopoldo; Rahmer, Alejandro; Prat, Gabriel

2002-11-01

271

Specific and Rapid Detection by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization of Bacteria in Clinical Samples Obtained from Cystic Fibrosis Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

bacteria within sputum samples by FISH was approximately 4 3 105 CFU\\/ml of sputum (resulting in a 90% sen- sitivity for FISH). Moreover, we demonstrated that FISH will be useful for the rapid detection of bacteria that cause acute pulmonary exacerbations in CF patients, as demonstrated in patients with H. influenzae, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa exacerbations. Therefore, FISH is

MICHAEL HOGARDT; KARLHEINZ TREBESIUS; ANNA M. GEIGER; MATHIAS HORNEF; JOSEF ROSENECKER; JURGEN HEESEMANN

272

Heme oxygenase-1 expression protects the heart from acute injury caused by inducible Cre recombinase.  

PubMed

The protective effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cardiovascular disease has been previously demonstrated using transgenic animal models in which HO-1 is constitutively overexpressed in the heart. However, the temporal requirements for protection by HO-1 induction relative to injury have not been investigated, but are essential to employ HO-1 as a therapeutic strategy in human cardiovascular disease states. Therefore, we generated mice with cardiac-specific, tamoxifen (TAM)-inducible overexpression of a human HO-1 (hHO-1) transgene (myosin heavy chain (MHC)-HO-1 mice) by breeding mice with cardiac-specific expression of a TAM-inducible Cre recombinase (MHC-Cre mice), with mice containing an hHO-1 transgene preceded by a floxed-stop signal. MHC-HO-1 mice overexpress HO-1 mRNA and the enzymatically active protein following TAM administration (40?mg/kg body weight on 2 consecutive days). In MHC-Cre controls, TAM administration leads to severe, acute cardiac toxicity, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and 80% mortality by day 3. This cardiac toxicity is accompanied by a significant increase in inflammatory cells in the heart that are predominantly neutrophils. In MHC-HO-1 mice, HO-1 overexpression ameliorates the depression of cardiac function and high mortality rate observed in MHC-Cre mice following TAM administration and attenuates cardiomyocyte necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. These results highlight that HO-1 induction is sufficient to prevent the depression of cardiac function observed in mice with TAM-inducible Cre recombinase expression by protecting the heart from necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. These findings are important because MHC-Cre mice are widely used in cardiovascular research despite the limitations imposed by Cre-induced cardiac toxicity, and also because inflammation is an important pathological component of many human cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23732814

Hull, Travis D; Bolisetty, Subhashini; DeAlmeida, Angela C; Litovsky, Silvio H; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Agarwal, Anupam; George, James F

2013-08-01

273

Heme oxygenase-1 expression protects the heart from acute injury caused by inducible Cre recombinase  

PubMed Central

The protective effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cardiovascular disease has been previously demonstrated using transgenic animal models in which HO-1 is constitutively overexpressed in the heart. However, the temporal requirements for protection by HO-1 induction relative to injury have not been investigated, but are essential to employ HO-1 as a therapeutic strategy in human cardiovascular disease states. Therefore, we generated mice with cardiac-specific, tamoxifen (TAM)-inducible overexpression of a human HO-1 (hHO-1) transgene (MHC-HO-1 mice) by breeding mice with cardiac-specific expression of a TAM-inducible Cre recombinase (MHC-Cre mice) with mice containing an hHO-1 transgene preceded by a floxed stop signal (CBA-flox mice). MHC-HO-1 overexpress the HO-1 gene and enzymatically protein following TAM administration (40 mg/kg body weight on two consecutive days). In MHC-Cre controls, TAM administration leads to severe, acute cardiac toxicity, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and 80% mortality by day 3. This cardiac toxicity is accompanied by a significant increase in inflammatory cells in the heart that are predominantly neutrophils. In MHC-HO-1 mice, HO-1 overexpression ameliorates the depression of cardiac function and high mortality rate observed in MHC-Cre mice following TAM administration and attenuates cardiomyocyte necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. These results highlight that HO-1 induction is sufficient to prevent the depression of cardiac function observed in mice with TAM-inducible Cre recombinase expression by protecting the heart from necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. These findings are important because MHC-Cre mice are widely used in cardiovascular research despite the limitations imposed by Cre-induced cardiac toxicity and also because inflammation is an important pathological component of many human cardiovascular diseases.

Hull, Travis D.; Bolisetty, Subashini; DeAlmeida, Angela; Litovsky, Silvio H.; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Agarwal, Anupam; George, James F.

2013-01-01

274

Thromboembolism as a Cause of Renal Artery Occlusion and Acute Kidney Injury: The Recovery of Kidney Function after Two Weeks  

PubMed Central

Thromboembolic occlusion is a rare cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It may lead to permanent loss of renal function. Our patient, who had dilated cardiomyopathy and prosthetic aortic valve, presented with AKI due to thromboembolic arterial occlusion of a solitary functioning kidney. After 2 weeks delay, local intra-arterial thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator was performed without sufficient effect. However, a subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting was successful. Diuresis began immediately, and renal function was fully recovered after 2 weeks. Although there had been no evident arterial circulation in the kidney, we think that minor flow through subtotal occlusion of the main renal artery made the hibernation of kidney tissue possible and contributed to the recovery. Thus, even after prolonged ischemia, revascularization can be useful.

Koivuviita, Niina; Tertti, Risto; Heiro, Maija; Manner, Ilkka; Metsarinne, Kaj

2014-01-01

275

Acute Gastric Dilatation: A Transient Cause of Hepatic Portal Venous Gas--Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Gastric pneumatosis (GP) and hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) have typically been thought of as an ominous radiological sign associated with a grave prognosis, and the observation of HPVG on plain abdominal radiography, ultrasonography, or computed tomography is viewed as a significant finding. It is often associated with severe or potentially lethal conditions warranting urgent diagnosis and possible surgical intervention. Early studies of HPVG based on plain abdominal radiography found an associated mortality rate of 75% primarily due to ischemic bowel. However, modern abdominal computed tomography (CT) has resulted in the detection of HPVG in an increased proportion of nonfatal and benign conditions. We report a nonfatal case of HPVG in a patient with Noonan's syndrome due to acute gastric dilatation in the setting of gastric outlet obstruction caused by a congenital band that is extremely rare in adults.

Allaparthi, Satya B.; Anand, Curuchi P.

2013-01-01

276

Recurrent gain-of-function mutation in PRKG1 causes thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections.  

PubMed

Gene mutations that lead to decreased contraction of vascular smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) can cause inherited thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Exome sequencing of distant relatives affected by thoracic aortic disease and subsequent Sanger sequencing of additional probands with familial thoracic aortic disease identified the same rare variant, PRKG1 c.530G>A (p.Arg177Gln), in four families. This mutation segregated with aortic disease in these families with a combined two-point LOD score of 7.88. The majority of affected individuals presented with acute aortic dissections (63%) at relatively young ages (mean 31 years, range 17-51 years). PRKG1 encodes type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG-1), which is activated upon binding of cGMP and controls SMC relaxation. Although the p.Arg177Gln alteration disrupts binding to the high-affinity cGMP binding site within the regulatory domain, the altered PKG-1 is constitutively active even in the absence of cGMP. The increased PKG-1 activity leads to decreased phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain in fibroblasts and is predicted to cause decreased contraction of vascular SMCs. Thus, identification of a gain-of-function mutation in PRKG1 as a cause of thoracic aortic disease provides further evidence that proper SMC contractile function is critical for maintaining the integrity of the thoracic aorta throughout a lifetime. PMID:23910461

Guo, Dong-chuan; Regalado, Ellen; Casteel, Darren E; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Gong, Limin; Kim, Jeong Joo; Dyack, Sarah; Horne, S Gabrielle; Chang, Guijuan; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Coselli, Joseph S; Li, Zhenyu; Leal, Suzanne M; Shendure, Jay; Rieder, Mark J; Bamshad, Michael J; Nickerson, Deborah A; Kim, Choel; Milewicz, Dianna M

2013-08-01

277

A Rare Cause for Acute Chest Pain in the Emergency Setting That Is Hard to Swallow  

PubMed Central

Intramural esophageal hematoma is a very rare but important cause of chest pain. This condition shares similarity with the diagnosis of other thoracic emergencies and has a high potential for misdiagnosis. The emergency clinician plays a critical role in the early identification and management of these patients. The management of intramural hematomas is typically conservative, and a misdiagnosis could lead to deleterious effects. Preexisting coagulopathy is one of the major risk factors. With the advent of new anticoagulation medications to prevent thromboembolic events, it is important that emergency medicine providers expand the differential diagnosis of chest pain.

Sharkey, Meenal

2013-01-01

278

[Acute, severe liver insufficiency caused by extrahepatic biliary atresia in a newborn].  

PubMed

A newborn female was hospitalized due to metabolic acidosis and conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) was suspected why a (99m)Tc-mebrofenin cholescintigraphy was performed. It showed poor hepatocyte tracer uptake and no drainage to the gut. The hepatocyte dysfunction was caused by an obstructing adrenal gland neuroblastoma later visualised by ultrasound and MRI. The cholescintigraphy is a non-invasive modality to exclude or confirm the suspicion of EHBA. Furthermore neonatal conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia demands the use of a multimodality imaging strategy for differential diagnosis to EHBA. PMID:23651786

Maestri Ditlevsen, Jane; Kvist, Nina; Johansen, Lars Søndergaard; Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Lando, Ane; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Højgaard, Liselotte; Borgwardt, Lise

2013-04-22

279

Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress  

PubMed Central

Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (i.e. 300 mg·kg?1) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind cross-over trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6±0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65±6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg·kg?1) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate (HR) were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (p=0.38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3±1.1 mmHg, p=0.01) and higher HR (main treatment effect, +10.1±2.4 bpm, p=0.002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0–10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1±0.5 vs. 0.5±0.2, p<0.0001). Furthermore, 10 of the 11 subjects (91%) experienced diarrhea, 64% experience bloating and thirst, and 45% experienced nausea after bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial GI distress.

Kahle, Laura E.; Kelly, Patrick V.; Eliot, Kathrin A.; Weiss, Edward P.

2013-01-01

280

Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.  

PubMed

Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg?kg?¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg?kg?¹) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P < .0001). Furthermore, 10 of the 11 subjects (91%) experienced diarrhea, 64% experience bloating and thirst, and 45% experienced nausea after bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress. PMID:23746564

Kahle, Laura E; Kelly, Patrick V; Eliot, Kathrin A; Weiss, Edward P

2013-06-01

281

Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Memphis 37 Causes Acute Respiratory Disease in Perinatal Lamb Lung  

PubMed Central

Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization due to respiratory illness among infants and young children of industrialized countries. There is a lack of understanding of the severe disease mechanisms as well as limited treatment options, none of which are fully satisfactory. This is partly due to lack of a relevant animal model of perinatal RSV infection that mimics moderate to severe disease in infants. We and others have shown mild disease in perinatal lambs with either a bovine or a human A2 strain of RSV. The Memphis 37 clinical strain of human RSV has been used to produce mild to moderate upper respiratory disease in healthy adult volunteers. We hypothesized that the Memphis 37 strain of RSV would infect perinatal lambs and produce clinical disease similar to that in human infants. Perinatal (3- to 5-day-old) lambs were inoculated intranasally with 2?mL/nostril of 1×105 focus-forming units (FFU)/mL (n=2) or 2.1×108 FFU/mL (n=3) of RSV Memphis 37. Clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, and immune and inflammatory responses were assessed. Memphis 37 caused moderate to severe gross and histologic lesions along with increased mRNA expression of macrophage inflammatory protein. Clinically, four of the five infected lambs had a mild to severe increase in expiratory effort. Intranasally administered RSV strain Memphis 37 infects neonatal lambs with gross, histologic, and immune responses similar to those observed in human infants.

van Geelen, Albert; Gallup, Jack M.; Kienzle, Thomas; Shelly, Daniel A.; Cihlar, Tomas; King, Robert R.; Ackermann, Mark R.

2014-01-01

282

Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, non-conventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful.

Radha Krishna, Y; Mittal, V; Grewal, P; Fiel, MI; Schiano, T

2011-01-01

283

Adrenal insufficiency as a cause of acute liver failure: a case report.  

PubMed

Introduction. Many diseases and conditions can contribute to elevated liver enzymes. Common causes include viral and autoimmune hepatitis, fatty liver, and bile duct diseases, but, in uncommon cases like liver involvement in endocrine disorders, liver failure is also seen. Adrenal insufficiency is the rarest endocrine disorder complicating the liver. In the previously reported cases of adrenal insufficiency, mild liver enzymes elevation was seen but we report a case with severe elevated liver enzymes and liver failure due to adrenal insufficiency. Based on our knowledge, this is the first report in this field. Case Report. A 39-year-old woman was referred to emergency ward due to drowsiness and severe fatigue. Her laboratory tests revealed prothrombin time: 21 sec, alanine aminotransferase (ALT): 2339?IU/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST): 2002?IU/L, and ALP: 90?IU/L. No common cause of liver involvement was discovered, and eventually, with diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and corticosteroid therapy, liver enzymes and function became normal. Finally, the patient was discharged with good general condition. Conclusion. With this report, we emphasize adrenal insufficiency (primary or secondary) as a reason of liver involvement in unexplainable cases and recommend that any increase in the liver enzymes, even liver failure, in these patients should be observed. PMID:23533837

Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid; Bagherzadeh, Mohammad; Parham, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

284

Adrenal Insufficiency as a Cause of Acute Liver Failure: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Many diseases and conditions can contribute to elevated liver enzymes. Common causes include viral and autoimmune hepatitis, fatty liver, and bile duct diseases, but, in uncommon cases like liver involvement in endocrine disorders, liver failure is also seen. Adrenal insufficiency is the rarest endocrine disorder complicating the liver. In the previously reported cases of adrenal insufficiency, mild liver enzymes elevation was seen but we report a case with severe elevated liver enzymes and liver failure due to adrenal insufficiency. Based on our knowledge, this is the first report in this field. Case Report. A 39-year-old woman was referred to emergency ward due to drowsiness and severe fatigue. Her laboratory tests revealed prothrombin time: 21 sec, alanine aminotransferase (ALT): 2339?IU/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST): 2002?IU/L, and ALP: 90?IU/L. No common cause of liver involvement was discovered, and eventually, with diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and corticosteroid therapy, liver enzymes and function became normal. Finally, the patient was discharged with good general condition. Conclusion. With this report, we emphasize adrenal insufficiency (primary or secondary) as a reason of liver involvement in unexplainable cases and recommend that any increase in the liver enzymes, even liver failure, in these patients should be observed.

Bagherzadeh, Mohammad; Parham, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

285

Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, nonconventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful. PMID:21499580

Yellapu, Radha K; Mittal, Vivek; Grewal, Priya; Fiel, Mariaisabel; Schiano, Thomas

2011-03-01

286

Attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units  

PubMed Central

Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n?=?52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n?=?23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n?=?10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs occasionally and is problematic. A range of causative factors contribute to the onset of this behaviour. Attitudes toward the management of aggression are complex and somewhat contradictory and can affect the way staff manage this behaviour; therefore, wide-ranging initiatives are needed to prevent and deal with this type of challenging behaviour.

2014-01-01

287

Histopathological Findings of Hemorrhagic Ganglion Cyst Causing Acute Radicular Pain: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Although juxtafacet cysts of the lumbar spine are being reported with increasing frequency, hemorrhage from a ganglion cyst is rare, and the pathophysiologic mechanism of the hemorrhage from the cyst is still unclear. A 75-year-old male presented with sudden radicular leg pain caused by hemorrhage from the ganglion cyst. Computed tomography revealed bony erosion of vertebral body and multiple punched-out lesions on facets. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the neural structure was compressed by a sharply delineating mass. Capsule and old hematoma with elastic consistency that extended to the epidural space were removed through a paramedian transforaminal approach, which led to the resolution of the patient's symptoms. Histopathologically, chronic inflammation with neovascularization and myxoid degeneration were present in the capsule. Alcian blue staining demonstrated the mixture of mucin and hematoma. The probable pathogenesis of hemorrhage from the cyst was discussed from the unique histopathological findings of surgical specimen.

Park, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hee Kyung; Hwang, Sun Chul; Shin, Dong-Seung; Shin, Won Han; Kim, Bum-Tae

2013-01-01

288

Herbal hepatotoxicity: acute hepatitis caused by a Noni preparation (Morinda citrifolia).  

PubMed

A 45-year-old patient was sent to our department because of highly elevated transaminases and elevated lactate dehydrogenase. His medical history was unremarkable and he took no medication on regular basis. Physical examination did not detect any abnormalities. There was no evidence for viral hepatitis, Epstein-Barr virus or cytomegalovirus, autoimmune hepatitis, Budd-Chiari syndrome, haemochromatosis or Wilson's disease. During the interview he admitted that for 'prophylactic reasons' he had been drinking the juice of Noni (Morinda citrifolia), a Polynesian herbal remedy made from a tropical fruit, during the preceding 3 weeks. This gave rise to the suspicion of herbal toxicity, which was confirmed by a liver biopsy. After ceasing the ingestion of Noni, transaminase levels normalized quickly and were within normal ranges 1 month after the first presentation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hepatotoxicity caused by this herbal remedy, which has been highly praised in the tabloid press. PMID:15756098

Millonig, Gunda; Stadlmann, Sylvia; Vogel, Wolfgang

2005-04-01

289

Protective effect of white tea extract against acute oxidative injury caused by adriamycin in different tissues.  

PubMed

Adriamycin (ADR) is an anticancer agent that increases oxidative stress in cells. We evaluated the protective effect of the long term consumption of white tea at two different doses against this drug. For this purpose rats were given distilled water (controls), 0.15 mg (Dose 1) or 0.45 mg (Dose 2) of solid tea extract/kg body weight for 12 months. All the animals received an injection of ADR, except half of the control group, which were given an injection of saline solution. This gave four experimental groups: Control (C), C+ADR, Dose 1+ADR, and Dose 2+ADR. The antioxidant activity (in liver, heart and brain microsomes) was analysed. White tea consumption for 12 months, at a non-pharmacological dose, reversed the oxidative damage caused by ADR, on both protein and lipid levels in all three organs. The heart recovered its antioxidant activity only at the highest dose of tea. PMID:23442621

Espinosa, Cristóbal; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; Cabrera, Lorena; Larqué, Elvira; Almajano, María Pilar; Arnao, Marino B; Zamora, Salvador; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca

2012-10-15

290

Left Atrial Myxoma: A Rare Nonatherosclerotic Cause of Acute Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Myocardial infarction from coronary artery embolism is a very rare but potentially lethal sequel of left atrial myxoma. Most atrial myxomas causing myocardial infarction are diagnosed retrospectively after a 2D echocardiogram is performed for assessment of myocardial function after a myocardial infarction. We present a relatively healthy 53-year-old male with anterolateral wall myocardial infarction and 100% occlusion at the proximal part of the obtuse marginal branch of the circumflex coronary artery that was subsequently reperfused. A 2D echocardiogram performed two days later revealed a left atrial mass, which was successfully resected and proven to be a myxoma. No recurrence of the tumor was seen on follow-up after four months. An automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator was placed for residual ischemic cardiomyopathy with clinical improvement.

Arcenas, Rey Francisco; Ali, Mir Ishtiaque

2013-01-01

291

Development of acute pancreatitis caused by sodium valproate in a patient with bipolar disorder on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Cases of acute pancreatitis caused by sodium valproate (VPA) have been reported by many authors thus far. However, most of these were cases with epilepsy. Chronic renal failure is also regarded as a risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Here, we report a case of acute pancreatitis development due to VPA in a patient with bipolar disorder on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure. Case presentation The patient was a 52-year-old Japanese male who was diagnosed as bipolar disorder on hemodialysis for renal failure. He was treated with VPA and manic symptoms gradually stabilized. However, the patient complained of severe abdominal pain. Blood amylase was found to be markedly high, and computed tomography revealed pancreatomegaly and an increased amount of peripancreatic fat. Hence, we diagnosed the case as acute pancreatitis caused by VPA. We discontinued oral medication, and he was started on a pancreatic enzyme inhibitor, antibiotics, and transfusion, and he showed improvement. Conclusion It has been reported that acute pancreatitis induced by VPA is caused by intermediate metabolites of VPA. We consider that patients with renal failure are prone to pancreatitis caused by VPA because of the accumulation of these intermediate metabolites. We need close monitoring for serious adverse effects such as pancreatitis when we prescribe VPA to patients with bipolar disorder on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure, although VPA is safer than other mood stabilizers.

2014-01-01

292

Mechanical induction of group V phospholipase A2 causes lung inflammation and acute lung injury  

PubMed Central

Ventilation at high tidal volume may cause lung inflammation and barrier dysfunction that culminates in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). However, the mechanisms by which mechanical stimulation triggers the inflammatory response have not been fully elucidated. This study tested the hypothesis that onset of VILI is triggered by activation of secretory group V phospholipase A2 (gVPLA2) in pulmonary vascular endothelium exposed to excessive mechanical stretch. High-magnitude cyclic stretch (18% CS) increased expression and surface exposure of gVPLA2 in human pulmonary endothelial cells (EC). CS-induced gVPLA2 activation was required for activation of ICAM-1 expression and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) adhesion to CS-preconditioned EC. By contrast, physiological CS (5% CS) had no effect on gVPLA2 activation or EC-PMN adhesion. CS-induced ICAM-1 expression and EC-PMN adhesion were attenuated by the gVPLA2-blocking antibody (MCL-3G1), general inhibitor of soluble PLA2, LY311727, or siRNA-induced EC gVPLA2 knockdown. In vivo, ventilator-induced lung leukocyte recruitment, cell and protein accumulation in the alveolar space, and total lung myeloperoxidase activity were strongly suppressed in gVPLA2 mouse knockout model or upon administration of MCL-3G1. These results demonstrate a novel role for gVPLA2 as the downstream effector of pathological mechanical stretch leading to an inflammatory response associated with VILI.

Meliton, Angelo Y.; Munoz, Nilda M.; Meliton, Lucille N.; Birukova, Anna A.; Leff, Alan R.

2013-01-01

293

Clinical and Histological Features of Idiosyncratic Acute Liver Injury Caused by Temozolomide  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the clinical, biochemical and histological features of 4 patients with apparent hepatotoxicity due to temozolomide and to summarize the available literature of hepatotoxicity associated with this agent. Design Case series Setting Patients were participants in the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network a United States multicenter cooperative study. Patients Four patients (ages 47 to 70 years; 3 men, 1 woman) developed liver injury 1 to 7 months after starting temozolomide chemotherapy. Intervention Discontinuation of temozolomide therapy. Results Among the first 1000 cases of drug-induced liver injury enrolled in a prospective U.S. multicenter database, 4 cases of temozolomide hepatotoxicity were identified (0.5%).Three were jaundiced and the initial pattern of serum enzyme elevations was often hepatocellular or mixed, but usually became cholestatic with time. Immunoallergic and autoimmune features were absent. Liver biopsies showed varying degrees of cholestasis, mild inflammation, focal hepatocellular injury and prominent bile duct damage or paucity. The liver injury tended to be prolonged and 3 patients still had liver tests abnormalities (one with jaundice) when they died of brain tumor or complications of its therapy 1 to 18 months later. Conclusion Temozolomide hepatotoxicity although infrequent, can necessitate interruption of cancer chemotherapy and cause significant debility in already compromised patients.

Grant, Lafaine; Kleiner, David E.; Conjeevaram, Hari S; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Lee, William M.

2013-01-01

294

Acute cigarette smoke exposure causes lung injury in rabbits treated with ibuprofen  

SciTech Connect

We studied lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA), plasma concentrations of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2, and pulmonary edema as indices of lung injury in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke (CSE). Forty-six rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control sham smoke exposure (SS, N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), and CSE ibuprofen-pretreated (CSE-I, N = 19). Ibuprofen (cyclooxygenase eicosanoid inhibitor) was administered as a single daily intramuscular injection (25 mg/kg) for 7 days before the experiment. Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 15-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biological half-life (T1/2). In the ibuprofen pretreated group, CSE caused significant decreases in /sup 99m/TcDTPA T1/2 and dynamic lung compliance. Furthermore, these changes in lung function were accompanied by severe injury to type I alveolar cell epithelium, pulmonary edema, and frequently death of the rabbits. These findings suggest that inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway before CSE exacerbates lung injury in rabbits.

Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Magarelli, J.L.; Bruck, D.C.

1987-01-01

295

Preliminary pediatric clinical evaluation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in preventing recurrent pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and recurrent acute otitis media  

PubMed Central

Background The oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 has been shown clearly to antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans, by releasing two bacteriocins named salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B. Unpublished observations indicate that it can also antagonize the growth of other bacteria involved in acute otitis media. Because of its ability to colonize the oral cavity and its safety profile, we have tested its efficacy in reducing the incidence of streptococcal pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis and episodes of acute otitis media. Methods We enrolled 82 children, including 65 with and 17 without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology. Of those with recurrent pathology, 45 were treated daily for 90 days with an oral slow-release tablet containing five billion colony-forming units of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®), and the remaining 20 served as an untreated control group. The 17 children without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral pathology were used as an additional control group. After 90 days of treatment, a 6-month follow-up period without treatment was included to evaluate a possible persistent protective role for the previously administered product. Results The 41 children who completed the 90-day course of Bactoblis showed a reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (about 90%) and/or acute otitis media (about 40%), calculated by comparing infection rates in the previous year. The 90-day treatment also reduced the reported incidence of pharyngeal and ear infections by about 65% in the 6-month follow-up period during which the product was not administered. Subjects tolerated the product well, with no side effects or dropouts reported. Conclusion Prophylactic administration of S. salivarius K12 to children with a history of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology reduced episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infections and/or tonsillitis as well as episodes of acute otitis media.

Di Pierro, Francesco; Donato, Guido; Fomia, Federico; Adami, Teresa; Careddu, Domenico; Cassandro, Claudia; Albera, Roberto

2012-01-01

296

ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY CAUSED BY Crotalus AND Bothrops SNAKE VENOM: A REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND TREATMENT  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Ophidic accidents are an important public health problem due to their incidence, morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of cases have been registered in Brazil in the last few years. Several studies point to the importance of knowing the clinical complications and adequate approach in these accidents. However, knowledge about the risk factors is not enough and there are an increasing number of deaths due to these accidents in Brazil. In this context, acute kidney injury (AKI) appears as one of the main causes of death and consequences for these victims, which are mainly young males working in rural areas. Snakes of the Bothrops and Crotalus genera are the main responsible for renal involvement in ophidic accidents in South America. The present study is a literature review of AKI caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snake venom regarding diverse characteristics, emphasizing the most appropriate therapeutic approach for these cases. Recent studies have been carried out searching for complementary therapies for the treatment of ophidic accidents, including the use of lipoic acid, simvastatin and allopurinol. Some plants, such as Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae seem to have a beneficial role in the treatment of this type of envenomation. Future studies will certainly find new therapeutic measures for ophidic accidents.

Albuquerque, Polianna L.M.M.; Jacinto, Camilla N.; Silva, Geraldo B.; Lima, Juliana B.; Veras, Maria do Socorro B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

2013-01-01

297

Use of two bacteria for biological control of bayoud disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) seedlings.  

PubMed

The Bayoud, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa), is the most destructive disease of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) in Morocco and Algeria, with no effective control strategy yet available. In this work, two bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Ag1 (Ag) and Burkholderia cepacia strain Cs5 (Cs), were examined for their potential to control this disease. Both bacterial strains inhibited both growth and sporulation of Foa. They released compounds into the culture medium, which resulted into cytological changes in Foa's mycelial structure. When Jihel-date palm plantlets, a susceptible cultivar, were induced with these bacteria, the size of the necrosis zone, which reflected the spreading of the pathogen, was reduced by more than 70%, as compared with uninduced controls. To further investigate the mechanisms of such disease reduction, phenolic compounds and peroxidase activity were assessed. One month after inoculation, date palm defense reactions against Foa were different depending on the bacterium used, B. cepacia led to higher accumulation of constitutive caffeoylshikimic acid isomers while B. amyloliquefaciens triggered the induction of new phenolic compounds identified as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Peroxidase activity has also been stimulated significantly and varied with the bacterial strain used and with Foa inoculation. These results add to the promising field of investigation in controlling Bayoud disease. PMID:22480991

Dihazi, Abdelhi; Jaiti, Fatima; Wafataktak; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Jaoua, Samir; Driouich, Azeddine; Baaziz, Mohamed; Daayf, Fouad; Serghini, Mohammed Amine

2012-06-01

298

Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).  

PubMed

Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds. PMID:18327481

Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

2008-01-01

299

Pilot study: Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on muscle fatigue caused by acute exercise in elite athletes  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle contraction during short intervals of intense exercise causes oxidative stress, which can play a role in the development of overtraining symptoms, including increased fatigue, resulting in muscle microinjury or inflammation. Recently it has been said that hydrogen can function as antioxidant, so we investigated the effect of hydrogen-rich water (HW) on oxidative stress and muscle fatigue in response to acute exercise. Methods Ten male soccer players aged 20.9?±?1.3?years old were subjected to exercise tests and blood sampling. Each subject was examined twice in a crossover double-blind manner; they were given either HW or placebo water (PW) for one week intervals. Subjects were requested to use a cycle ergometer at a 75?% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) for 30?min, followed by measurement of peak torque and muscle activity throughout 100 repetitions of maximal isokinetic knee extension. Oxidative stress markers and creatine kinase in the peripheral blood were sequentially measured. Results Although acute exercise resulted in an increase in blood lactate levels in the subjects given PW, oral intake of HW prevented an elevation of blood lactate during heavy exercise. Peak torque of PW significantly decreased during maximal isokinetic knee extension, suggesting muscle fatigue, but peak torque of HW didn’t decrease at early phase. There was no significant change in blood oxidative injury markers (d-ROMs and BAP) or creatine kinease after exercise. Conclusion Adequate hydration with hydrogen-rich water pre-exercise reduced blood lactate levels and improved exercise-induced decline of muscle function. Although further studies to elucidate the exact mechanisms and the benefits are needed to be confirmed in larger series of studies, these preliminary results may suggest that HW may be suitable hydration for athletes.

2012-01-01

300

Heart dysfunction in patients with acute ischemic stroke or TIA does not predict all-cause mortality at long-term follow-up  

PubMed Central

Background Despite heart failure being a substantial risk factor for stroke, few studies have evaluated the predictive value of heart dysfunction for all-cause mortality in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in particular in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate whether impaired heart function in elderly patients can predict all-cause mortality after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Methods A prospective long-term follow-up analysis was performed on a hospital cohort consisting of n?=?132 patients with mean age 73?±?9 years, presenting with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, without atrial fibrillation. All patients were examined by echocardiography during the hospital stay. Data about all-cause mortality were collected at the end of the follow-up period. The mean follow-up period was 56?±?22 months. Results In this cohort, 58% of patients with acute ischemic stroke or TIA had heart dysfunction. Survival analysis showed that heart dysfunction did not predict all-cause mortality in this cohort. Furthermore, in multivariate regression analysis age (HR 5.401, Cl 1.97-14.78, p?cause mortality. Conclusion In this population with acute ischemic stroke or TIA and without non-valvular atrial fibrillation, impaired heart function does not seem to be a significant predictor of all-cause mortality at long-term follow-up.

2013-01-01

301

Primary cause of mortality in the armyworm larvae simultaneously parasitized by parasitic wasp and infected with bacteria.  

PubMed

Parasitoid wasps never kill their hosts before the wasp larvae emerge from the host. However, almost 100% of the host armyworm larvae Pseudaletia separata die within 2-3 days by parasitization with the wasp Cotesia kariyai or by injection of polydnavirus, the wasp symbiont virus, when they are simultaneously infected by the pathogenic bacterium Serratia marcescens. The present study was conducted to elucidate the crucial factor causing this larval mortality. An insecticidal protein has been shown to exist in the hemolymph of dying host larvae; it has been purified by procedures consisting of reverse-phase column extraction, gel filtration and ion-exchange column chromatography. The purified protein showed a strong insecticidal effect with a median lethal dosage (LD50) of 13 pmol/larva and was estimated to have a molecular mass of 57 kDa. The amino acid sequence of the insecticidal protein was partially characterized and used for isolation and sequencing of the genomic DNA. The deduced amino acid sequence for this protein revealed striking similarity with the metalloprotease of S. marcescens enterobacter. PMID:9523701

Matsumoto, H; Noguchi, H; Hayakawa, Y

1998-03-01

302

Etiological Misidentification by Routine Biochemical Tests of Bacteremia Caused by Gordonia terrae Infection in the Course of an Episode of Acute Cholecystitis  

PubMed Central

Gordonia terrae has been reported to be a rare cause of bacteremia. We report the first case of bacteremia associated with acute cholecystitis. Commercial biochemical testing was not able to identify the strain at the genus level, classifying it instead as Rhodococcus sp. Definitive identification was obtained by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.

Gil-Sande, E.; Brun-Otero, M.; Campo-Cerecedo, F.; Esteban, E.; Aguilar, L.; Garcia-de-Lomas, J.

2006-01-01

303

The involvement of nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, neutrophil elastase, myeloperoxidase and proinflammatory cytokines in the acute lung injury caused by phorbol myristate acetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) causes acute lung injury (ALI). The present study was designed to elucidate the role of nitric\\u000a oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), neutrophil elastase (NE) and other mediators in the ALI caused by PMA. In isolated\\u000a rat’s lungs, PMA at various doses (1, 2 and 4 ?g\\/g lung weight) was added into the lung perfusate. Vehicle group

Yi-Ling Yang; Kun-Lun Huang; Huey-Ling Liou; Hsing I. Chen

2008-01-01

304

The Increasing Problem of Wound Bacterial Burden and Infection in Acute and Chronic Soft-Tissue Wounds Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a leading cause of colonization and infection in both acute and chronic soft-tissue wounds. Objective: Our objective is to define this current epidemic problem caused by both community- acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) and hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA), focusing on the similarities and differences between these 2 isolates as well as the impact on wound management decisions.

Robert H. Demling; Barbara Waterhouse

305

Direct Evidence by DNA Fingerprinting that Endoscopic Cross-Infection of Helicobacter pylori Is a Cause of Postendoscopic Acute Gastritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA fingerprinting of Helicobacter pylori strains in two cases of acute gastritis that occurred after endoscopy was examined. H. pylori was isolated from the stomachs of two patients with acute gastritis and from the stomachs of the patients in whom the same gastrofiberscope had previously been used. The genomic DNA digested with HaeIII was subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

TOSHIRO SUGIYAMA; HIROJI NAKA; AKIRA YACHI; MASAHIRO ASAKA

2000-01-01

306

Hair Analysis for Drug Abuse XIV. Identification of substances causing acute poisoning using hair root. I. Methamphetamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hair root was evaluated as a specimen for proving acute methamphetamine (MA) poisonings using an animal model and fatal cases of MA intoxicaton. First of all, male pigmented hairy rats (n = 5) were administered with acute poisonous doses (20, 40 and 60 mg\\/kg) of MA and the hair roots were plucked out with a hair nipper 5 min

Yuji Nakahara; Ruri Kikura; Masahiro Yasuhara; Toshiji Mukai

1997-01-01

307

Acute Schmorl Node in Dorsal Spine: An Unusual Cause of a Sudden Onset of Severe Back Pain in a Young Female  

PubMed Central

Schmorl nodes represent displacement of intervertebral disc tissue into the vertebral body and have been considered as an asymptomatic incidental radiological finding on plain radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although uncommon, acute symptomatic Schmorl nodes causing severe back pain do occur. We report here an unusual case of acute painful Schmorl node in a young healthy woman, with no previous trauma, presenting with a sudden significant localized back pain within hours accompanied by characteristic findings on a MRI scan. We reviewed all reports of symptomatic Schmorl nodes known in the literature, focusing mainly on MRI findings, and recent treatment options.

Ohana, Nissim; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Kittani, Mohamed; Shelef, Ilan

2013-01-01

308

Acute schmorl node in dorsal spine: an unusual cause of a sudden onset of severe back pain in a young female.  

PubMed

Schmorl nodes represent displacement of intervertebral disc tissue into the vertebral body and have been considered as an asymptomatic incidental radiological finding on plain radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although uncommon, acute symptomatic Schmorl nodes causing severe back pain do occur. We report here an unusual case of acute painful Schmorl node in a young healthy woman, with no previous trauma, presenting with a sudden significant localized back pain within hours accompanied by characteristic findings on a MRI scan. We reviewed all reports of symptomatic Schmorl nodes known in the literature, focusing mainly on MRI findings, and recent treatment options. PMID:23741552

Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Ohana, Nissim; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Kittani, Mohamed; Shelef, Ilan

2013-06-01

309

Interleukin-1beta causes acute lung injury via alphavbeta5 and alphavbeta6 integrin-dependent mechanisms.  

PubMed

Interleukin (IL)-1beta has previously been shown to be among the most biologically active cytokines in the lungs of patients with acute lung injury (ALI). Furthermore, there is experimental evidence that lung vascular permeability increases after short-term exposure to IL-1 protein, although the exact mechanism is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of IL-1beta-mediated increase in lung vascular permeability and pulmonary edema following transient overexpression of this cytokine in the lungs by adenoviral gene transfer. Lung vascular permeability increased with intrapulmonary IL-1beta production with a maximal effect 7 days after instillation of the adenovirus. Furthermore, inhibition of the alphavbeta6 integrin and/or transforming growth factor-beta attenuated the IL-1beta-induced ALI. The results of in vitro studies indicated that IL-1beta caused the activation of transforming growth factor-beta via RhoA/alphavbeta6 integrin-dependent mechanisms and the inhibition of the alphavbeta6 integrin and/or transforming growth factor-beta signaling completely blocked the IL-1beta-mediated protein permeability across alveolar epithelial cell monolayers. In addition, IL-1beta increased protein permeability across lung endothelial cell monolayers via RhoA- and alphavbeta5 integrin-dependent mechanisms. The final series of in vivo experiments demonstrated that pretreatment with blocking antibodies to both the alphavbeta5 and alphavbeta6 integrins had an additive protective effect against IL-1beta-induced ALI. In summary, these results demonstrate a critical role for the alphavbeta5/beta6 integrins in mediating the IL-1beta-induced ALI and indicate that these integrins could be a potentially attractive therapeutic target in ALI. PMID:18276918

Ganter, Michael T; Roux, Jérémie; Miyazawa, Byron; Howard, Marybeth; Frank, James A; Su, George; Sheppard, Dean; Violette, Shelia M; Weinreb, Paul H; Horan, Gerald S; Matthay, Michael A; Pittet, Jean-François

2008-04-11

310

Refeeding with a high-protein diet after a 48 h fast causes acute hepatocellular injury in mice.  

PubMed

Elucidating the effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting on disease development is of interest in relation to excessive protein ingestion and irregular eating habits in developed countries. The objective of the present study was to address the hepatic effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting. Mice were fasted for 48 h and then refed with a test diet containing 3, 15, 35, 40, 45 or 50 % casein. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and liver immediate-early gene expression levels were sequentially measured for the first 24 h after initiation of refeeding. Refeeding with a 50 % casein diet after 48 h of fasting led to a rapid (within 2-3 h) and abnormal elevation in serum ALT (P = 0·006) and AST (P = 0·001) activities and a marked increase in liver Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ) osteosarcoma oncogene (P = 0·007) and nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (P = 0·002) mRNA levels. In contrast, refeeding of the 3, 15 or 35 % casein diets produced no substantial increases in serum ALT and AST activities in mice. Refeeding of 40, 45 or 50 % casein increased serum ALT and AST activities in proportion to this dietary casein content. In mice refed the 3, 15 or 35, but not 50 %, casein diets, liver heat shock protein 72 transcript levels greatly increased. We conclude from these data that the consumption of a high-protein diet after fasting causes acute hepatocellular injury in healthy animals, and propose that careful attention should be paid to the use of such diets. PMID:21902856

Oarada, Motoko; Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Nikawa, Takeshi; Kohno, Shohei; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Gonoi, Tohru

2012-05-01

311

Risk of ruling out severe acute respiratory syndrome by ruling in another diagnosis: Variable incidence of atypical bacteria coinfection based on diagnostic assays  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused the first epidemic of the 21st century and continues to threaten the global community. OBJECTIVE To assess the incidence of coinfection in patients confirmed to have SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection, and thus, to determine the risk of ruling out SARS by ruling in another diagnosis. METHODS The present report is a retrospective study evaluating the incidence and impact of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV and other pulmonary pathogens in 117 patients. These patients were evaluated in a Toronto, Ontario, community hospital identified as the epicentre for the second SARS outbreak. RESULTS Coinfection with other pulmonary pathogens occured in patients with SARS. Seventy-three per cent of the patient population evaluated had laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV infection. Serology showing acute or recent Chlamydophila pneumoniae or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection revealed an incidence of 30% and 9%, respectively, in those with SARS. These rates are similar to previously published studies on coinfection in pneumonia. All nucleic acid diagnostic assays were negative for C pneumoniae and M pneumoniae in respiratory samples from patients with SARS having serological evidence for these atypical pathogens. CONCLUSIONS Diagnostic assays for well-recognized pulmonary pathogens have limitations, and ruling out SARS-CoV by ruling in another pulmonary pathogen carries significant risk. Despite positive serology for atypical pathogens, in a setting where clinical suspicion for SARS is high, specific tests for SARS should be performed to confirm or exclude a diagnosis.

Zahariadis, George; Gooley, Ted A; Ryall, Phyllis; Hutchinson, Christine; Latchford, Mary I; Fearon, Margaret A; Jamieson, Frances B; Richardson, Susan; Kuschak, Theodore; Mederski, Barbara

2006-01-01

312

Acute otitis media.  

PubMed

One in 4 children will have at least 1 episode of acute otitis media (AOM) by age 10 years. AOM results from infection of fluid that has become trapped in the middle ear. The bacteria that most often cause AOM are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Differentiating AOM from otitis media with effusion (OME) is a critical skill for physicians, as accurate diagnosis will guide appropriate treatment of these conditions. Although fluid is present in the middle ear in both conditions, the fluid is not infected in OME as is seen in AOM patients. PMID:24439877

Dickson, Gretchen

2014-03-01

313

Interaction of Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin L with Lipopolysaccharide In Vitro and in Experimental Rat Models of Septic Shock Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, despite intense efforts to improve survival. The primary lead for septic shock results from activation of host effector cells by endotoxin, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria. For these reasons, the quest for compounds with antiendotoxin properties is actively pursued. We investigated the efficacy of the amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide temporin L in binding Escherichia coli LPS in vitro and counteracting its effects in vivo. Temporin L strongly bound to purified E. coli LPS and lipid A in vitro, as proven by fluorescent displacement assay, and readily penetrated into E. coli LPS monolayers. Furthermore, the killing activity of temporin L against E. coli was progressively inhibited by increasing concentrations of LPS added to the medium, further confirming the peptide's affinity for endotoxin. Antimicrobial assays showed that temporin L interacted synergistically with the clinically used ?-lactam antibiotics piperacillin and imipenem. Therefore, we characterized the activity of temporin L when combined with imipenem and piperacillin in the prevention of lethality in two rat models of septic shock, measuring bacterial growth in blood and intra-abdominal fluid, endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) concentrations in plasma, and lethality. With respect to controls and single-drug treatments, the simultaneous administration of temporin L and ?-lactams produced the highest antimicrobial activities and the strongest reduction in plasma endotoxin and TNF-? levels, resulting in the highest survival rates.

Giacometti, Andrea; Cirioni, Oscar; Ghiselli, Roberto; Mocchegiani, Federico; Orlando, Fiorenza; Silvestri, Carmela; Bozzi, Argante; Di Giulio, Antonio; Luzi, Carla; Mangoni, Maria Luisa; Barra, Donatella; Saba, Vittorio; Scalise, Giorgio; Rinaldi, Andrea C.

2006-01-01

314

Combination of lung ultrasound (a comet-tail sign) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in differentiating acute heart failure from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma as cause of acute dyspnea in prehospital emergency setting  

PubMed Central

Introduction We studied the diagnostic accuracy of bedside lung ultrasound (the presence of a comet-tail sign), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and clinical assessment (according to the modified Boston criteria) in differentiating heart failure (HF)-related acute dyspnea from pulmonary (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)/asthma)-related acute dyspnea in the prehospital setting. Methods Our prospective study was performed at the Center for Emergency Medicine, Maribor, Slovenia, between July 2007 and April 2010. Two groups of patients were compared: a HF-related acute dyspnea group (n = 129) and a pulmonary (asthma/COPD)-related acute dyspnea group (n = 89). All patients underwent lung ultrasound examinations, along with basic laboratory testing, rapid NT-proBNP testing and chest X-rays. Results The ultrasound comet-tail sign has 100% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 100% negative predictive value (NPV) and 96% positive predictive value (PPV) for the diagnosis of HF. NT-proBNP (cutoff point 1,000 pg/mL) has 92% sensitivity, 89% specificity, 86% NPV and 90% PPV. The Boston modified criteria have 85% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 80% NPV and 90% PPV. In comparing the three methods, we found significant differences between ultrasound sign and (1) NT-proBNP (P < 0.05) and (2) Boston modified criteria (P < 0.05). The combination of ultrasound sign and NT-proBNP has 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% NPV and 100% PPV. With the use of ultrasound, we can exclude HF in patients with pulmonary-related dyspnea who have positive NT-proBNP (> 1,000 pg/mL) and a history of HF. Conclusions An ultrasound comet-tail sign alone or in combination with NT-proBNP has high diagnostic accuracy in differentiating acute HF-related from COPD/asthma-related causes of acute dyspnea in the prehospital emergency setting. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01235182.

2011-01-01

315

Acute periodontal lesions.  

PubMed

This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute disease is under control, definitive treatment should be provided, including appropriate therapy for the pre-existing gingivitis or periodontitis. Among other acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, but not caused by the microorganisms present in oral biofilms, infectious diseases, mucocutaneous diseases and traumatic or allergic lesions can be listed. In most cases, the gingival involvement is not severe; however, these conditions are common and may prompt an emergency dental visit. These conditions may have the appearance of an erythematous lesion, which is sometimes erosive. Erosive lesions may be the direct result of trauma or a consequence of the breaking of vesicles and bullae. A proper differential diagnosis is important for adequate management of the case. PMID:24738591

Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

2014-06-01

316

Acute mesenteric ischemia caused by spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery: treatment by percutaneous stent placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Spontaneous and isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery is a rare and often fatal event which has been successfully\\u000a treated by surgery in several reported cases. We present a patient with acute mesenteric ischemia due to superior mesenteric\\u000a artery dissection who was successfully treated by percutaneous endovascular placement of a Wallstent.

D. A. Leung; E. Schneider; R. Kubik-Huch; B. Marincek; T. Pfammatter

2000-01-01

317

Acute mesenteric ischemia caused by spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery: treatment by percutaneous stent placement.  

PubMed

Spontaneous and isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery is a rare and often fatal event which has been successfully treated by surgery in several reported cases. We present a patient with acute mesenteric ischemia due to superior mesenteric artery dissection who was successfully treated by percutaneous endovascular placement of a Wallstent. PMID:11305570

Leung, D A; Schneider, E; Kubik-Huch, R; Marincek, B; Pfammatter, T

2000-01-01

318

Depth-Related Changes in Community Structure of Culturable Mineral Weathering Bacteria and in Weathering Patterns Caused by Them along Two Contrasting Soil Profiles  

PubMed Central

Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation. However, few reports of mineral weathering bacteria inhabiting subsurfaces of soil profiles have been published, raising the question of whether the subsurface weathering bacteria are fundamentally distinct from those in surface communities. To address this question, we isolated and characterized mineral weathering bacteria from two contrasting soil profiles with respect to their role in the weathering pattern evolution, their place in the community structure, and their depth-related changes in these two soil profiles. The effectiveness and pattern of bacterial mineral weathering were different in the two profiles and among the horizons within the respective profiles. The abundance of highly effective mineral weathering bacteria in the Changshu profile was significantly greater in the deepest horizon than in the upper horizons, whereas in the Yanting profile it was significantly greater in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Most of the mineral weathering bacteria from the upper horizons of the Changshu profile and from the deeper horizons of the Yanting profile significantly acidified the culture media in the mineral weathering process. The proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Changshu profile was similar in all horizons except in the Bg2 horizon, whereas the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Yanting profile was higher in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Both profiles existed in different highly depth-specific culturable mineral weathering community structures. The depth-related changes in culturable weathering communities were primarily attributable to minor bacterial groups rather than to a change in the major population structure.

Huang, Jing; Xi, Jun; Huang, Zhi; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Dong

2014-01-01

319

Rapid and Reversible Impairments of Short- and Long-Term Social Recognition Memory Are Caused by Acute Isolation of Adult Rats via Distinct Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Mammalian social organizations require the ability to recognize and remember individual conspecifics. This social recognition memory (SRM) can be examined in rodents using their innate tendency to investigate novel conspecifics more persistently than familiar ones. Here we used the SRM paradigm to examine the influence of housing conditions on the social memory of adult rats. We found that acute social isolation caused within few days a significant impairment in acquisition of short-term SRM of male and female rats. Moreover, SRM consolidation into long-term memory was blocked following only one day of social isolation. Both impairments were reversible, but with different time courses. Furthermore, only the impairment in SRM consolidation was reversed by systemic administration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). In contrast to SRM, object recognition memory was not affected by social isolation. We conclude that acute social isolation rapidly induces reversible changes in the brain neuronal and molecular mechanisms underlying SRM, which hamper its acquisition and completely block its consolidation. These changes occur via distinct, AVP sensitive and insensitive mechanisms. Thus, acute social isolation of rats swiftly causes changes in their brain and interferes with their normal social behavior.

Shahar-Gold, Hadar; Gur, Rotem; Wagner, Shlomo

2013-01-01

320

Postpartum spontaneous dissection of the first obtuse marginal branch of the left circumflex coronary artery causing acute coronary syndrome: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare but important cause of acute coronary syndrome. It can cause unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden death. The condition commonly affects young females with about one-third of the cases occurring during pregnancy and the peripartum period. The diagnosis may occasionally be overlooked as the patients are often young and have no risk factors for coronary artery disease. Case presentation Here we report the case of a 29-year-old African American woman who presented with acute coronary syndrome due to spontaneous dissection of the first obtuse marginal branch of the left circumflex coronary artery at three weeks post-partum and recovered requiring only medical management, possibly by longitudinal distribution of the intramural hematoma leading to good distal flow. Conclusions Spontaneous coronary artery dissection should be suspected in all young multiparous females presenting with chest pain in the peripartum period even in the absence of risk factors. Urgent diagnosis by angiography is required. It is recommended that treatment should be tailored to meet individual circumstances. Patients who present with single-vessel disease and hemodynamic stability, and who receive medical treatment with anticoagulation, nitrates and a beta-blocker, should experience good results.

2013-01-01

321

Haemophilus influenzae type b as an important cause of culture-positive acute otitis media in young children in Thailand: a tympanocentesis-based, multi-center, cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) are considered major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM) worldwide, but data from Asia on primary causes of AOM are limited. This tympanocentesis-based, multi-center, cross-sectional study assessed bacterial etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of AOM in Thailand. Methods Children 3 to 59 months presenting with AOM (Bacteria were identified from middle ear fluid collected by tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling (causes of bacterial AOM and there was an unexpectedly high burden of Hib in this population unvaccinated by any Hib conjugate vaccine. Conjugate vaccines effective against pneumococcus and H. influenzae could potentially reduce the burden of AOM in this population.

2014-01-01

322

Successful Percutaneous Renal Artery Angioplasty and Stenting for Acute Oliguric Renal Failure in a Solitary Functioning Kidney Caused by Takayasu's Arteritis  

PubMed Central

Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a nonspecific, chronic and stenotic panarteritis which usually involves the aorta and its major branches. Corticosteroid and immunosuppressants are recommended to manage the acute inflammatory phase, but their long term benefits are uncertain. Blood pressure (BP) control during the chronic phase of TA is essential to preserve renal function, which is associated with the patient's long-term prognosis and survival. Revascularization in organ damaging arterial stenosis with percutaneous angioplasty (PTA)/stenting or bypass surgery have been accepted as established treatment options in chronic complicated phase of TA. We present a case of a 31-year-old female patient with a two-day history of sudden onset oliguria and generalized edema whose acute oliguric renal failure was successfully reversed following PTA and stenting in a solitary functioning kidney with critical renal artery stenosis (RAS) caused by TA.

Yoo, Suk-Hee; Kim, Gi-Hyun; Lee, Won-Ick; Kwon, Soon-Kil; Lee, Sang Yeub; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Kim, Dong-Woon; Cho, Myeong-Chan

2010-01-01

323

The Increasing Problem of Wound Bacterial Burden and Infection in Acute and Chronic Soft-Tissue Wounds Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a leading cause of colonization and infection in both acute and chronic soft-tissue wounds. Objective: Our objective is to define this current epidemic problem caused by both community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) and hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA), focusing on the similarities and differences between these 2 isolates as well as the impact on wound management decisions. Methods: Methods used include a literature review on the growth of the current MRSA problem and its International scope. In addition, a current up-to-date assessment had been made of the problem and the current approach to management of MRSA in acute soft-tissue and chronic wounds. Burns are not discussed because this injury usually does not fit either categories and is managed quite uniquely. Results: Results included the following: (1) There are very distinct properties of CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA, which must be considered for acute and chronic wound care. Management of both requires rigorous barrier precaution techniques to avoid cross-contamination. The presence of MRSA as a carrier state increases the risk of both a systemic and local wound infection in the carrier. There are large and increasing reservoirs of CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA worldwide leading to more bacteremias and wound problems. Topical antimicrobial therapy has not been addressed in managing MRSA in acute and chronic wounds. Conclusion: Conclusions include the fact that both HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA wound infections are rapidly increasing, especially with CA-MRSA. This high incidence requires appropriate wound prediction and management decisions as well as attempts to avoid further cross-contamination and reservoir growth. Topical antimicrobial therapy would seem to be an important component in controlling this tremendous problem. Yet this topic has yet to be adequately addressed.

Demling, Robert H.; Waterhouse, Barbara

2007-01-01

324

Bacteria and Foodborne Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... types of bacteria cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella , a bacterium found in many foods, including raw and undercooked meat, poultry, dairy products, and seafood. Salmonella may also be present on egg shells and ...

325

Acute splenic sequestration together with aplastic crisis caused by human parvovirus B19 in patients with sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

Three children with homozygous sickle cell disease, 22 months and 8 and 10 years of age, had clinical and hematologic manifestations of aplastic and splenic sequestration crisis simultaneously. They had an acute drop in hemoglobin level (16, 20, and 45 gm/L), reticulocytopenia (0.1%, 0.6%, and 0.3%), and sudden splenic enlargement. Evidence of recent parvovirus infection was demonstrated. PMID:8463907

Mallouh, A A; Qudah, A

1993-04-01

326

Lumbar Muscle Rhabdomyolysis as a Cause of Acute Renal Failure after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Rhabdomyolysis occurs when injury to skeletal muscle disrupts the integrity of the sarcolemmal membrane, allowing\\u000a release of intracellular proteins into the circulation. Serious complications, such as hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia,\\u000a compartment syndrome, cardiac dysrhythmias, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute renal failure can develop if\\u000a diagnosis and treatment are delayed. Methods: A morbidly obese patient is presented who developed this rare

Jason P. Wiltshire; Timothy Custer

2003-01-01

327

Glomerulonephritis causing acute renal failure during the course of bacterial infections. Histological varieties, potential pathogenetic pathways and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To illustrate diagnostic approaches, potential pathogenetic differences, epidemiological implications and therapeutic dilemmas\\u000a posed by glomerulonephritis (GN) with acute renal failure (ARF) complicating bacterial infections, we analyzed the course\\u000a of four male patients, aged 53–71 years, who developed GN and ARF following bacterial infections. The first two patients developed\\u000a GN with immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposits after infections with hospital-acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus

Jorge I. Zeledon; Robin L. McKelvey; Karen S. Servilla; Diedre Hofinger; Konstantin N. Konstantinov; Suzan Kellie; Yijuan Sun; Larry W. Massie; Michael F. Hartshorne; Antonios H. Tzamaloukas

2008-01-01

328

Peripheral neuropathy caused by high-dose cytosine arabinoside treatment in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central nervous system toxicity of high-dose cytosine arabinoside is well recognized, but the toxicity of cytosine arabinoside\\u000a in the peripheral nervous system has been infrequently reported. A 49-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with acute myeloid\\u000a leukemia. After he achieved complete remission, he received high-dose cytosine arabinoside treatment (2?g\\/m2 twice a day for 5 days; total, 20?g\\/m2) as consolidation therapy.

Takeshi Saito; Osamu Asai; Nobuaki Dobashi; Shingo Yano; Hiroshi Osawa; Yutaka Takei; Shinobu Takahara; Yoji Ogasawara; Yuko Yamaguchi; Jiro Minami; Noriko Usui

2006-01-01

329

Bacterial characteristics as predictors of posttherapy recurrent bacteriuria among children with acute uncomplicated cystitis caused by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Multiple characteristics of pretherapy Escherichia coli urine isolates from 39 children with acute, uncomplicated cystitis (including specific virulence genes and phylogenetic groups) identified an increased risk for recurrent bacteriuria after 3-day (but not 10-day) therapy with amoxicillin-clavulanate. Rapid testing conceivably could facilitate rational selection of treatment duration for pediatric cystitis. Certain traits might represent good targets for preventive interventions. PMID:18043456

Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Murray, Andrew; Kuskowski, Michael A; Maslow, Joel N; Johnson, Candice

2007-12-01

330

Patent Foramen Ovale, a Possible Cause of Symptomatic Migraine: A Study of 74 Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies reported an increased prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with migraine with aura (MA+). To investigate the possible relationship between MA+ and paradoxical embolism, we studied the prevalence of both conditions. Investigation of PFO was undertaken in 74 consecutive patients presenting with an acute stroke of undetermined origin. The patients were questioned about MA+ or migraine

R. Sztajzel; D. Genoud; S. Roth; B. Mermillod; J. Le Floch-Rohr

2002-01-01

331

Cystitis - acute  

MedlinePLUS

... a hip fracture Most cases are caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) , a type of bacteria found in ... in the urine, such as ascorbic acid or cranberry juice, may be recommended to decrease the concentration ...

332

Spontaneous acute tumor lysis syndrome as a cause of early deaths in short-term carcinogenicity studies using p53 +/- mice.  

PubMed

Acute tumor lysis syndrome (ATLS) is a potentially lethal condition precipitated by the massive release of intracellular components such as nucleic acids, potassium, and phosphorus, following a rapid and widespread lysis of tumor cells. Herein, the authors describe the high incidence and characteristic histopathologic lesions of acute ATLS in p53-deficient mice used in 2 short-term carcinogenicity studies. ATLS was a frequent cause of early death in p53 (+/-) mice in these studies and was consistently associated with the presence of disseminated lymphoma and leukemia. Although a heavy tumor burden and leukemia were present in all affected mice, the absence of ATLS in other mice with equally severe lymphoma and leukemia indicates that these tumor burdens are necessary but insufficient to cause ATLS in mice. The hallmark histopathologic findings of ATLS in mice are the disseminated microemboli composed of nuclear and cytoplasmic debris derived from lysed tumor cells. The mechanical obstruction of capillary beds by these microemboli appeared to be the proximate cause of the early deaths of mice in these studies. Microemboli may contribute to the pathogenesis of acute renal failure and other clinical signs associated with ATLS in other species. Recognition of ATLS in laboratory animals is critical in studies intended to evaluate the efficacy and/or toxicity of anticancer treatments, where early deaths due to ATLS might otherwise be attributed to test article toxicity. Further studies on the role of microemboli in the pathogenesis of ATLS may elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms and lead to improved approaches to clinical management and treatment of this potentially lethal condition. PMID:20435782

Vogel, P; Pletcher, J M; Liang, Y

2010-07-01

333

Modification of intestinal flora with multispecies probiotics reduces bacterial translocation and improves clinical course in a rat model of acute pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of pancreatic necrosis by gut bacteria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Use of prophylactic antibiotics remains controversial. The aim of this experiment was assess if modification of intestinal flora with specifically designed multispecies probiotics reduces bacterial translocation or improves outcome in a rat model of acute pancreatitis. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley

L. Paul van Minnen; Harro M. Timmerman; Femke Lutgendorff; André Verheem; Wil Harmsen; Sergey R. Konstantinov; Hauke Smidt; Maarten R. Visser; Ger T. Rijkers; Hein G. Gooszen; Louis M. A. Akkermans

2007-01-01

334

Proteolytic activity of sourdough bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteolytic activity during the fermentation of sourdough results in an increase in amino acid content. The proteolysis is caused by flour enzymes, microbial enzymes of flour and by sourdough bacteria. The results indicate that the lactic acid bacteria of sourdough are important for proteolytic activity during the fermentation of sourdough. This proteolytic activity depends on the species of bacteria. Homo-

Gottfried Spicher; Werner Nierle

1988-01-01

335

[A 59 year-old patient with acute anterolateral myocardial infarction, complicated by cardiogenic shock, with chest wall deformity caused by Heine-Medin disease].  

PubMed

We report a case of a 59 year-old patient in a condition of acute myocardial infarction with ST elevation, in a cardiogenic shock, with multiple cardiac arrests in mechanism of ventricular fibrillation with a significant chest wall deformity caused by Heine-Medin disease in childhood. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient in critical condition with a considerable pectus deformity after poliomyelitis who needed to undergo cardiovascular angioplasty. Although severe patient's condition and numerous difficulties during percutaneous coronary intervention, therapy was successful. PMID:22430421

Arazi?ska, Agata; Kr?cki, Rados?aw; Kasprzak, Jaros?aw D

2012-01-01

336

Role of endotoxin in acute inflammation induced by gram-negative bacteria: specific inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-mediated responses with an amino-terminal fragment of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein.  

PubMed Central

A recombinant 23-kDa amino-terminal fragment of human bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI23), a potent lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding/neutralizing protein, was used as a probe to assess the role of endotoxin in the acute inflammatory responses elicited by gram-negative bacteria in rat subcutaneous air pouches. In initial experiments, rBPI23 prevented the Escherichia coli O111:B4 LPS-induced accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and nitrite (a stable end product of nitric oxide formation) in exudate fluids. Significant inhibition of TNF-alpha production was still evident when rBPI23 treatment was delayed for 30 min after LPS instillation. In subsequent experiments, rBPI23 also prevented the nitrite and early (2-h) TNF-alpha accumulation induced by three different strains of formaldehyde-killed gram-negative bacteria (E. coli O7:K1, E. coli O111:B4, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12.4.4) but did not inhibit the PMN or late (6-h) TNF-alpha accumulation induced by these bacteria. As with LPS challenge, a significant inhibition of early TNF-alpha production was still evident when rBPI23 treatment was delayed for 30 to 60 min after instillation of killed bacteria. The results indicate that in this experimental model the NO and early TNF-alpha responses to gram-negative bacterial challenge are mediated predominantly by endotoxin, whereas the PMN and late TNF-alpha responses may be mediated by other bacterial components. Moreover, the results indicate that rBPI23 can inhibit the bacterially induced production of certain potentially harmful mediators (TNF-alpha and NO) without entirely blocking the host defense, i.e., PMN response, against the bacteria.

Kohn, F R; Kung, A H

1995-01-01

337

Genetic Characteristics of the Coxsackievirus A24 Variant Causing Outbreaks of Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis in Jiangsu, China, 2010  

PubMed Central

During September 2010, an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis reemerged in Jiangsu, three years after the nationwide epidemic in China in 2007. In total, 2409 cases were reported, 2118 of which were reported in September; 79.8% of those affected were students or teachers, with a median age of 16 years. To identify and demonstrate the genetic characteristics of the etiological agent, 52 conjunctival swabs were randomly collected from four different cities. After detection and isolation, 43 patients were positive for coxsackievirus A24 variant according to PCR and 20 according to culture isolation. Neither adenovirus nor EV70 was detected. A phylogenetic study of the complete 3Cpro and VP1 regions showed that the Jiangsu isolates clustered into a new lineage, GIV-C5, with two uniform amino-acid mutations that distinguished them from all previous strains. Another new cluster, GIV-C4, formed by Indian isolates from 2007 and Brazilian isolates from 2009, was also identified in this study. Interestingly, our isolates shared greatest homology with the GIV-C4 strains, not with the isolates that were responsible for the nationwide acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic in China in 2007. Although all our isolates were closely related, they could be differentiated into two subclusters within GIV-C5. In conclusion, our study suggests that a new cluster of coxsackievirus A24 variant that had already evolved into diverse strains was associated with the acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks in Jiangsu in September 2010. These viruses might have originated from the virus isolated in India in 2007, rather than from the epidemic strains isolated in China in 2007.

Wu, Bin; Qi, Xian; Xu, Ke; Ji, Hong; Zhu, Yefei; Tang, Fenyang; Zhou, Minghao

2014-01-01

338

Investigating an outbreak of acute viral hepatitis caused by hepatitis E virus variants in Karachi, South Pakistan.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E is a classic water-borne disease in developing countries. Detection of anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies, in addition to HEV RNA are useful epidemiological markers in diagnosis of hepatitis E. This study was conducted to investigate an outbreak of acute viral hepatitis in South-Pakistan. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG were assessed comparatively with serological kits manufactured by Abbott, Cosmic, TGH, and Wantai, selecting HEV RNA as reference assay. Molecular evolutionary analysis was performed by phylogeny and HEV spread time analysis by Bayesian Coalescent Theory approach. Of the 89 patients, 24 (26.9%) did not have acute hepatitis viral marker. Of the remaining 65 cases, 4 (6.1%) were positive for anti-HAV IgM, one (1.5%) for anti-HBc IgM, 2 (3%) for HCV, 53 (81.5%) for anti-HEV IgM, and 5 (7.7%) were hepatitis-negative. The Wantai test was 100% sensitive and specific followed by Cosmic (98.1% and 100%), TGH (98.1% and 97.2%) and Abbott (79.2% and 83.3%). Two HEV variant strains were detected by phylogeny responsible for this acute hepatitis outbreak. Estimates on demographic history of HEV showed that HEV in Pakistan has remained at a steady nonexpanding phase from around 1970 to the year 2005, in which it expanded explosively with the emergence of new HEV variants. In conclusion, the limited sensitivity of available assay (Abbott anti-HEV EIA) may be a concern in HEV diagnosis in Pakistan. This study cautions that the dissemination of the variant strains to other areas of Pakistan may lead to explosive HEV outbreaks. PMID:21328376

Khan, Anis; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Kurbanov, Fuat; Elkady, Abeer; Abbas, Zaigham; Azam, Zahid; Subhan, Amna; Raza, Sajjad; Razza, Sajjad; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim; Shih, James; Xia, Ningshao; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Mishiro, Shunji; Mizokami, Masashi

2011-04-01

339

Chemotherapy causes cancer! A case report of therapy related acute myeloid leukaemia in early stage breast cancer.  

PubMed Central

Use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the adjuvant setting has improved survival for many patients with malignancy. Unfortunately multimodality treatment can come at a price, in particular therapy-related malignancies. This has importance in that patients must be made aware of this potential detriment from therapy and doctors must consider this diagnosis in those patients who are cancer survivors and presenting with health problems. We present a case report and brief overview of the literature regarding chemotherapy-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) following therapy for early stage breast cancer.

Aidan, J Cole; Priddee, Nicole R; McAleer, James J

2013-01-01

340

Chemotherapy causes cancer! A case report of therapy related acute myeloid leukaemia in early stage breast cancer.  

PubMed

Use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the adjuvant setting has improved survival for many patients with malignancy. Unfortunately multimodality treatment can come at a price, in particular therapy-related malignancies. This has importance in that patients must be made aware of this potential detriment from therapy and doctors must consider this diagnosis in those patients who are cancer survivors and presenting with health problems. We present a case report and brief overview of the literature regarding chemotherapy-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) following therapy for early stage breast cancer. PMID:24082288

Aidan, J Cole; Priddee, Nicole R; McAleer, James J

2013-05-01

341

Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Serratia marcescens after venous access port implantation in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially life-threatening infection of deep skin layers and subcutaneous tissues that can easily spread across the fascia plate and is usually the result of a combined infection with anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms. The patient typically complains of excruciating pain, which is not necessarily in accordance with clinical signs. Early recognition of the condition is very important, and aggressive treatment with a combination of antibiotics and surgical procedure is crucial. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed necrotizing fasciitis after venous access port implantation during induction chemotherapy. PMID:22584779

Prelog, Tomaž; Jereb, Matjaž; Cu?ek, Igor; Jazbec, Janez

2012-08-01

342

Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity caused by a single intratracheal instillation of colloidal silver nanoparticles in mice: pathobiological changes and metallothionein responses.  

PubMed

To study the acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), 0 or 100 ppm of Ag-NPs were instilled intratracheally in mice. Cellular and biochemical parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histological alterations were determined 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after instillation. Ag-NPs induced moderate pulmonary inflammation and injury on BALF indices during the acute period; however, these changes gradually regressed in a time-dependent manner. Concomitant histopathological and laminin immunohistochemical findings generally correlated to BALF data. Superoxide dismutase and metallothionein expression occurred in particle-laden macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells, which correlated to lung lesions in mice treated with Ag-NPs. These findings suggest that instillation of Ag-NPs causes transient moderate acute lung inflammation and tissue damage. Oxidative stress may underlie the induction of injury to lung tissue. Moreover, the expression of metallothionein in tissues indicated the protective response to exposure to Ag-NPs. PMID:24579810

Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth; Banlunara, Wijit; Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Thammachareon, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

2014-01-01

343

EFFECTS OF THE COMBINATION ANTIBIOTIC—EDTA–TRIS IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC BOVINE ENDOMETRITIS CAUSED BY ANTIMICROBIAL-RESISTANT BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined effects of the uterine infusion of EDTA–Tris solution and antibiotics have been evaluated in 75 cases of slight, moderate or severe bovine endometritis which did not respond to local routine antimicrobial therapy. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were isolated from uterine swabs. The cows were divided into three groups on the basis of the severity of endometritis and treated with 100

A. M. FARCA; P. NEBBIA; P. ROBINO; G. RE

1997-01-01

344

Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Jerusalem 1988-91: causes, characteristics and relation to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.  

PubMed

We analyzed 321 consecutive episodes of community-based acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to the Hadassah University Hospital in Jerusalem during 1988-91. Of these 71% were in males aged 56.2 +/- 1.2 years (mean +/- SE) and 29% were in females (67.9 +/- 1.7 years, P < 0.001). The main diagnoses were duodenal ulcer (39.5%), gastric ulcer (16.9%), esophageal varices (10.0%), erosive gastritis (8.2%) and esophagitis (7.5%). The distribution of these diagnoses differed significantly between the genders (P = 0.0003). In males the prevalence of duodenal ulcer and of esophageal varices was higher, and that of gastric ulcer and esophagitis lower, than in females. Gastric ulcer patients were oldest, were the least likely to have received anti-ulcer medications prior to admission, and had the highest levels of urea and the lowest levels of hemoglobin on admission. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increased significantly with age and was reported in 35% of the cases (aspirin in doses < 1.0 g/day in 21%, nonsalicylate anti-inflammatory agents in 11%, aspirin plus other anti-inflammatory drugs in 3%). Use of systemic corticosteroids was reported in 4%. The most distinctive features of the population with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the present study compared to other series were the significantly higher proportion of duodenal ulcers and the lower proportion of Mallory-Weiss tears. PMID:8314690

Zimmerman, J; Arnon, R; Ligumski, M; Beeri, R; Keret, D; Lysy, J; Fich, A; Tsvang, E; Siguencia, J; Gonzalez, J

1993-05-01

345

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever as causes of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Bulgaria.  

PubMed

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) are the 2 widespread viral hemorrhagic fevers occurring in Europe. HFRS is distributed throughout Europe, and CCHF has been reported mainly on the Balkan Peninsula and Russia. Both hemorrhagic fevers are endemic in Bulgaria. We investigated to what extent acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Bulgaria could be due to hantaviruses or to CCHF virus. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we tested serum samples from 527 patients with acute febrile illness for antibodies against hantaviruses and CCHF virus. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against hantaviruses were detected in 15 (2.8%) of the patients. Of the 15 hantavirus-positive patients, 8 (1.5%) were positive for Dobrava virus (DOBV), 5 (0.9%) were positive for Puumala virus (PUUV), and the remaining 2 were positive for both hantaviruses. A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) confirmed 4 of the 10 DOBV-positive samples. PRNT was negative for all PUUV-positive samples. Serologic evidence of recent CCHF virus infection was found in 13 (2.5%) of the patients. Interestingly, HFRS and CCHF were not only detected in well-known endemic areas of Bulgaria but also in nonendemic regions. Our results suggested that in endemic countries, CCHF and/or HFRS might appear as a nonspecific febrile illness in a certain proportion of patients. Physicians must be aware of possible viral hemorrhagic fever cases, even if hemorrhages or renal impairment are not manifested. PMID:23421884

Christova, Iva; Younan, Rasha; Taseva, Evgenia; Gladnishka, Teodora; Trifonova, Iva; Ivanova, Vladislava; Spik, Kristin; Schmaljohn, Connie; Mohareb, Emad

2013-03-01

346

Acute pyelonephritis and renal scarring are caused by dysfunctional innate immunity in mCxcr2 heterozygous mice  

PubMed Central

The CXCR1 receptor and chemokine CXCL8 (IL-8) support neutrophil-dependent clearance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli from the urinary tract. CXCR1 is reduced in children prone to pyelonephritis, and heterozygous hCXCR1 polymorphisms are more common in this patient group than in healthy individuals, strongly suggesting a disease association. Since murine CXCR2 (mCXCR2) is functionally similar to human CXCR1, we determined effects of gene heterozygosity on the susceptibility to urinary tract infection by infecting heterozygous (mCxcr2+/?) mice with uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Clearance of infection and tissue damage were assessed as a function of innate immunity in comparison to that in knockout (mCxcr2?/?) and wild-type (mCxcr2+/+) mice. Acute sepsis-associated mortality was increased and bacterial clearance drastically impaired in heterozygous compared to wild-type mice. Chemokine and neutrophil responses were delayed along with evidence of neutrophil retention and unresolved kidney inflammation 1 month after infection. This was accompanied by epithelial proliferation and subepithelial fibrosis. The heterozygous phenotype was intermediate, between knockout and wild-type mice, but specific immune cell infiltrates that accompany chronic infection in knockout mice were not found. Hence, the known heterozygous CXCR1 polymorphisms may predispose patients to acute pyelonephritis and urosepsis.

Svensson, Majlis; Yadav, Manisha; Holmqvist, Bo; Lutay, Nataliya; Svanborg, Catharina; Godaly, Gabriela

2011-01-01

347

An Administrative Claims Measure Suitable for Profiling Hospital Performance Based on 30-Day All-Cause Readmission Rates Among Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background National attention has increasingly focused on readmission as a target for quality improvement. We present the development and validation of a model approved by the National Quality Forum and used by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for hospital-level public reporting of risk-standardized readmission rates for patients discharged from the hospital after an acute myocardial infarction. Methods and Results We developed a hierarchical logistic regression model to calculate hospital risk-standardized 30-day all-cause readmission rates for patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. The model was derived using Medicare claims data for a 2006 cohort and validated using claims and medical record data. The unadjusted readmission rate was 18.9%. The final model included 31 variables and had discrimination ranging from 8% observed 30-day readmission rate in the lowest predictive decile to 32% in the highest decile and a C statistic of 0.63. The 25th and 75th percentiles of the risk-standardized readmission rates across 3890 hospitals were 18.6% and 19.1%, with fifth and 95th percentiles of 18.0% and 19.9%, respectively. The odds of all-cause readmission for a hospital 1 SD above average were 1.35 times that of a hospital 1 SD below average. Hospital-level adjusted readmission rates developed using the claims model were similar to rates produced for the same cohort using a medical record model (correlation, 0.98; median difference, 0.02 percentage points). Conclusions This claims-based model of hospital risk-standardized readmission rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction produces estimates that are excellent surrogates for those produced from a medical record model.

Krumholz, Harlan M.; Lin, Zhenqiu; Drye, Elizabeth E.; Desai, Mayur M.; Han, Lein F.; Rapp, Michael T.; Mattera, Jennifer A.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.

2012-01-01

348

Sodium ferric gluconate causes oxidative stress but not acute renal injury in patients with chronic kidney disease: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Intravenous (i.v) iron is widely used to treat anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although beneficial and usually well tolerated, concerns have been raised about its ability to cause oxidative stress and renal injury. Methods. To determine if i.v. iron causes oxidative stress (as assessed by plasma and urine malondialdehye (MDA)) and\\/or renal injury (as assessed by

David J. Leehey; David J. Palubiak; Srivasa Chebrolu; Rajiv Agarwal

349

[Leg amputation for severe lower limb ischemia caused by type a acute aortic dissection;report of a case].  

PubMed

A 41-year-old man underwent total arch replacement and aorto-bifemoral bypass owing to type A acute aortic dissection complicated by ischemia of both lower extremities. Just after the operation, he developed myonephropathic metabolic syndrome due to severe ischemia of the right leg, and hemodiafiltration was performed. However, the serum potassium was elevated to an uncontrollable level. Ligation of the right femoral artery and the right branch of the bypass graft was performed one hour after the transfer to intensive care unit (ICU), and the serum potassium dropped to a normal level. He underwent amputation of the right lower limb above the knee on the 13th postoperative day, and was discharged after long-term rehabilitation. PMID:24917407

Watanabe, Suguru; Minagawa, Tadanori; Fujiwara, Hidenori; Kanda, Keisuke; Miura, Makoto; Tabayashi, Koichi

2014-06-01

350

Not so simple cystitis: how should prescribers be supported to make informed decisions about the increasing prevalence of infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria?  

PubMed Central

Trimethoprim is a safe, effective, and inexpensive treatment for cystitis. However, at least 25% of bacteria isolated from urine samples in general practice are now resistant to trimethoprim in the laboratory. The relationship between laboratory resistance and clinical outcome is complex. Cephalexin appears to be more active than trimethoprim in the laboratory but has been consistently less effective in clinical trials. There is little point in collecting data about the prevalence of drug resistance in urinary bacteria unless it is linked to evidence about the impact of resistance on clinical outcomes. Pragmatic clinical trials are required to provide practices with clear thresholds for managing their antibiotic policies; for example, 'Change from trimethoprim to drug X when the probability of trimethoprim resistance reaches Y%.' Prescribers should be aware that trimethoprim resistance is most likely to occur in patients who have been exposed to trimethoprim or other antibiotics in the previous six months, and that the risk increases with age. This information could be used to stratify women according to risk of infection by trimethoprim-resistant bacteria. Health education leaflets are an effective method for reducing the frequency of recurrent cystitis. Symptomatic treatment can control symptoms and allow time for microbiological investigation. Both of these strategies may help to reduce unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics in general and quinolones in particular.

Davey, P; Steinke, D; MacDonald, T; Phillips, G; Sullivan, F

2000-01-01

351

LEPTOSPIROSIS :AW ORLDWIDE RESURGENT ZOONOSIS AND IMPORTANT CAUSE OF ACUTE RENAL FAILURE AND DEATH IN DEVELOPING NATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptospirosis, a spirochetal zoonosis, is a globally re-emerging infectious disease that has disseminated from its habitual rural base to become the cause of urban epidemics in poor communities of industrialized and developing nations. This review addresses the issues in the epidemiology, clinical features, and manage- ment of the disease, as well as progress made toward understanding the pathogenesis of leptospiral

Luzia S. Cruz; Roberto Vargas; Antonio Alberto Lopes

2009-01-01

352

Post-traumatic overload or acute syndrome of the os trigonum: a possible cause of posterior ankle impingement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the post-traumatic overload syndrome of the os trigonum as a possible cause of posterior ankle impingement and hindfoot pain. We have reviewed 19 athletes who were referred to our foot unit between 1995 and 2001 because of posterior ankle pain, and in whom a post-traumatic overload syndrome of os trigonum was diagnosed.

E. Mouhsine; X. Crevoisier; P. F. Leyvraz; A. Akiki; M. Dutoit; R. Garofalo

2004-01-01

353

Acute liver failure caused by concurrent autoimmune hepatitis and hepatitis B in a 16-year old girl  

PubMed Central

A 16 year-old girl was admitted to hospital because of fatigue and somnolence, nausea, epistaxis and jaundice. Physical examination revealed jaundice, an enlarged liver and tenderness of upper right abdomen. Laboratory tests revealed an increased level of acute liver failure, bilirubin, bile acids, GGTP and a decreased prothrombin ratio, with elevated gamma-globulin and IgG levels, and the presence of anti-mitochondrial M2 antibodies and HBV infection markers. The patient was diagnosed with liver failure resulting from chronic hepatitis B with an autoimmune component. The treatment consisted of steroids, azathioprine, vitamin K, low-protein diet and lactulose enemas. After undergoing a molecular test (HBV DNA 3.23 × 105 IU/mL and mutations I 204 and I 80), the treatment was modified by adding entecavir. After one month the patient was discharged in good clinical condition, with the recommendation of continued entecavir, prednisone and azathioprine. In subsequent months, no clinical deterioration or abnormal biochemical liver function test results were found, despite the discontinuation of immunosuppressive therapy after 10 mo. The patient continues entecavir therapy.

Pawlowska, Malgorzata; Halota, Waldemar

2010-01-01

354

Implementing hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections caused by influenza and other respiratory pathogens in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Background Recent experience with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 highlighted the importance of global surveillance for severe respiratory disease to support pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. Improved surveillance in the southern hemisphere is needed to provide critical data on influenza epidemiology, disease burden, circulating strains and effectiveness of influenza prevention and control measures. Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. The aims were to measure incidence, prevalence, risk factors, clinical spectrum and outcomes for SARI and associated influenza and other respiratory pathogen cases as well as to understand influenza contribution to patients not meeting SARI case definition. Methods/Design All inpatients with suspected respiratory infections who were admitted overnight to the study hospitals were screened daily. If a patient met the World Health Organization’s SARI case definition, a respiratory specimen was tested for influenza and other respiratory pathogens. A case report form captured demographics, history of presenting illness, co-morbidities, disease course and outcome and risk factors. These data were supplemented from electronic clinical records and other linked data sources. Discussion Hospital-based SARI surveillance has been implemented and is fully functioning in New Zealand. Active, prospective, continuous, hospital-based SARI surveillance is useful in supporting pandemic preparedness for emerging influenza A(H7N9) virus infections and seasonal influenza prevention and control.

Baker, Michael; McArthur, Colin; Roberts, Sally; Williamson, Deborah; Grant, Cameron; Trenholme, Adrian; Wong, Conroy; Taylor, Susan; LeComte, Lyndsay; Mackereth, Graham; Bandaranayake, Don; Wood, Tim; Bissielo, Ange; Se, Ruth; Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Thomas, Paul; Webby, Richard; Gross, Diane; Duque, Jazmin; Thompson, Mark; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

2014-01-01

355

Unlimited access to low-energy diet causes acute malnutrition in dams and alters biometric and biochemical parameters in offspring.  

PubMed

Here we analyze the outcomes of unlimited access to a low-energy (LE) diet in dams and their offspring. At 3 weeks' gestation, pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (1) the control group received a normoenergetic diet; and (2) the experimental group received the LE diet. In dams, lactation outcomes, food intake, body weight, plasma IGF-1, prealbumin, transferrin and retinol-binding protein levels were evaluated; in offspring, biometric and biochemical parameters and food intake were evaluated. No differences were observed during pregnancy. However, after lactation, dams that received the LE diet demonstrated significant reductions in body weight (P<0.05), plasma IGF-1 (P=0.01), prealbumin and visceral fat (P<0.001). Pups born to dams that received the LE diet demonstrated reduced body length and weight at weaning (P<0.001) and were lighter than the control animals at the end of the experimental period. Pups also demonstrated reduced plasma, low-density lipoprotein (P=0.04), triglycerides (P=0.002) and glucose levels (P<0.05), and differences were noted in visceral fat. These results indicate that feeding dams with LE diet during the reproductive period induces acute malnutrition and impairs the growth and development of offspring, as well as certain metabolic parameters. PMID:24847690

do Nascimento, E; de Santana Muniz, G; das Graças de Santana Muniz, M; de Souza Alexandre, L; da Rocha, L S; Leandro, C G; de Castro, R M; Bolaños-Jimenez, F

2014-02-01

356

Comparative effects of disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate against testicular toxicity in rats caused by acute exposure to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

Disulfiram (DSF) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DED) were compared for their protective effects against the testicular toxicity induced by acute exposure to cadmium (Cd) in rats. Rats were injected subcutaneously with CdCl{sub 2} [26.7 {mu}mol (3 mg) Cd/kg], and 30 min later they were injected intraperitoneally with DSF (0.05-0.5 mmol/kg) or DED (0.1-1 mmol/kg). The treatment with DSF at dose levels of 0.1-0.5 mmol/kg prevented the increases in testicular lipid peroxidation and calcium (Ca) concentrations and the decreases in testicular weight that were observed at 7 d after Cd injection. DED at dosage levels of 0.2-1 mmol/kg likewise reduced Cd-induced testicular toxicity. An increase in testicular iron (Fe) concentrations at 7 d and sterility at 59 d after Cd injection were almost completely blocked by treatment with DSF or DED at the highest doses, but lower doses of DSF or DED were ineffective. These results indicated that DSF, which is metabolized to DED, had a protective effect against Cd-induced testicular toxicity nearly equivalent to DED at approximately one-half the dose. 37 refs., 6 tabs.

Ono, Hiroshige [Miyazaki Medical College Hospital (Japan); Funakoshi, Takayuki; Shimada, Hideaki; Kojima, Shoji [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan)

1997-03-01

357

Trypanosoma cruzi IV Causing Outbreaks of Acute Chagas Disease and Infections by Different Haplotypes in the Western Brazilian Amazonia  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease is an emergent tropical disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region, with an increasing number of cases in recent decades. In this region, the sylvatic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, which constitutes a reservoir of parasites that might be associated with specific molecular, epidemiological and clinical traits, has been little explored. The objective of this work is to genetically characterize stocks of T. cruzi from human cases, triatomines and reservoir mammals in the State of Amazonas, in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 96 T. cruzi samples from four municipalities in distant locations of the State of Amazonas. Molecular characterization of isolated parasites from cultures in LIT medium or directly from vectors or whole human blood was performed by PCR of the non-transcribed spacer of the mini-exon and of the 24 S alfa ribosomal RNA gene, RFLP and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene, and by sequencing of the glucose-phosphate isomerase gene. The T. cruzi parasites from two outbreaks of acute disease were all typed as TcIV. One of the outbreaks was triggered by several haplotypes of the same DTU. TcIV also occurred in isolated cases and in Rhodnius robustus. Incongruence between mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies is likely to be indicative of historical genetic exchange events resulting in mitochondrial introgression between TcIII and TcIV DTUs from Western Brazilian Amazon. TcI predominated among triatomines and was the unique DTU infecting marsupials. Conclusion/Significance DTU TcIV, rarely associated with human Chagas disease in other areas of the Amazon basin, is the major strain responsible for the human infections in the Western Brazilian Amazon, occurring in outbreaks as single or mixed infections by different haplotypes.

Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Magalhaes, Laylah Kelre Costa; de Sa, Amanda Regina Nichi; Gomes, Monica Lucia; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Borges, Lara; Pires, Isa; de Oliveira Guerra, Jorge Augusto; Silveira, Henrique; Barbosa, Maria das Gracas Vale

2012-01-01

358

Investigation of 89 candidate gene variants for effects on all-cause mortality following acute coronary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Many candidate genes have been reported to be risk factors for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but their impact on clinical prognosis following ACS is unknown. Methods We examined the association of putative genetic risk factors with 3-year post-ACS mortality in 811 ACS survivors at university-affiliated hospitals in Kansas City, Missouri. Through a systematic literature search, we first identified genetic variants reported as susceptibility factors for atherosclerosis or ACS. Restricting our analysis to whites, so as to avoid confounding from racial admixture, we genotyped ACS cases for 89 genetic variants in 72 genes, and performed individual Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. We then performed Cox regression to create multivariate risk prediction models that further minimized potential confounding. Results Of 89 variants tested, 16 were potentially associated with mortality (P < 0.1 for all), of which 6 were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with mortality following ACS. While these findings are not more than what would be expected by chance (P = 0.28), even after Bonferroni correction and adjustment for traditional cardiac risk factors, the IRS1 972Arg variant association (P = 0.001) retained borderline statistical significance (P < 0.1). Conclusion With the possible exception of IRS1, we conclude that multiple candidate genes were not associated with post-ACS mortality in our patient cohort. Because of power limitations, the 16 gene variants with P values < 0.1 may warrant further study. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the remaining 73 genes have substantial, clinically significant association with mortality after an ACS.

Morgan, Thomas M; Xiao, Lan; Lyons, Patrick; Kassebaum, Bethany; Krumholz, Harlan M; Spertus, John A

2008-01-01

359

Resveratrol attenuates early pyramidal neuron excitability impairment and death in acute rat hippocampal slices caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence indicates that the polyphenol resveratrol (trans-3, 5, 4?-trihydroxystibene, RVT) potently protects against cerebral ischemia neuronal damage due to its oxygen free radicals scavenging and antioxidant properties. However, it is unknown whether RVT can attenuate ischemia-induced early impairment of neuronal excitability. To address this question, we simulated ischemic conditions by applying oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to acute rat hippocampal slices and examined the effect of RVT on OGD-induced pyramidal neuron excitability impairment using whole-cell patch clamp recording. 100 ?M RVT largely inhibited the 15 min OGD-induced progressive membrane potential (Vm) depolarization and the reduction in evoked action potential frequency and amplitude in pyramidal neurons. In the parallel neuronal viability study using TO-PRO-3 iodide staining, 20 min OGD induced irreversible CA1 pyramidal neuronal death which was significantly reduced by 100 ?M RVT. No similar effects were found with PQQ treatment, an antioxidant also showing potent neuroprotection in the rat rMCAO ischemia model. This suggests that antioxidant action per se, is unlikely accounting for the observed early effects of RVT. RVT also markedly reduced the frequency and amplitude of AMPA mediated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in pyramidal neurons, which is also an early consequence of OGD. RVT effects on neuronal excitability were inhibited by the large conductance potassium channel (BK channel) inhibitor paxilline. Together, these studies demonstrate that RVT attenuates OGD induced neuronal impairment occurring early in the simulated ischemia slice model by enhancing the activation of BK channel and reducing the OGD-enhanced AMPA/NMDA receptor mediated neuronal EPSCs.

Zhang, Huaqiu; Schools, Gary P.; Lei, Ting; Wang, Wei; Kimelberg, Harold; Zhou, Min

2008-01-01

360

In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of 21 Indian Timber-Yielding Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

Objectives To screen methanolic leaf extracts of 21 timber-yielding plants for antibacterial activity against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of a hospital (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Methods Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests by the Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method. The antibacterial potentiality of leaf extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of nine uropathogens. Results Two Gram-positive isolates, E. faecalis and S. aureus, were resistant to 14 of the 18 antibiotics used. Gram-negative isolates A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 10, 12, 9, 11, 11, 10, and 11 antibiotics, respectively, of the 14 antibiotics used. Methanolic leaf extracts of Anogeissus acuminata had the maximum zone of inhibition size—29 mm against S. aureus and 28 mm against E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. Cassia tora had 29 mm as the zone of inhibition size for E. faecalis, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, the most effective 10 plants against uropathogens could be arranged in decreasing order as follows: C. tora > A. acuminata > Schleichera oleosa > Pterocarpus santalinus > Eugenia jambolana > Bridelia retusa > Mimusops elengi > Stereospermum kunthianum > Tectona grandis > Anthocephalus cadamba. The following eight plants had moderate control capacity: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia latifolia, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gmelina arborea, Pongamia pinnata, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Shorea robusta. E. coli, followed by A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were controlled by higher amounts/levels of leaf extracts. Phytochemicals of all plants were qualitatively estimated. Conclusions A majority of timber-yielding plants studied had in vitro control capacity against MDR uropathogenic bacteria.

Mishra, Monali P.; Padhy, Rabindra N.

2013-01-01

361

Antioxidants attenuate glycerol-endotoxin induced acute renal failure in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sepsis sometimes occurs in traumatic rhabdomyolysis; however, the possibility that injection of endotoxin from Gram-negative bacteria may affect the severity of renal injury during rhabdomyolysis has not been directly examined. The aims of this study were: (i) to examine whether injection of glycerol, which causes rhabdomyolysis, simultaneously with a low dose of endotoxin will result in acute renal failure (ARF)

Y. Zurovsky; I. Zadok

1995-01-01

362

Muscle lengthening surgery causes differential acute mechanical effects in both targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles.  

PubMed

Epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT) is a major determinant of muscle force exerted, as well as length range of force exertion. Therefore, EMFT is of importance in remedial surgery performed, e.g., in spastic paresis. We aimed to test the following hypotheses: (1) muscle lengthening surgery (involving preparatory dissection (PD) and subsequent proximal aponeurotomy (AT)) affects the target muscle force exerted at its distal and proximal tendons differentially, (2) forces of non-operated synergistic muscles are affected as well, (3) PD causes some of these effects. In three conditions (control, post-PD, and post-AT exclusively on m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL)), forces exerted by rat anterior crural muscles were measured simultaneously. Our results confirm hypotheses (1-2), and hypothesis (3) in part: Reduction of EDL maximal force differed by location (i.e. 26.3% when tested distally and 44.5% when tested proximally). EDL length range of active force exertion increased only distally. Force reductions were shown also for non-operated tibialis anterior (by 11.9%), as well as for extensor hallucis longus (by 8.4%) muscles. In tibialis anterior only, part of the force reduction (4.9%) is attributable to PD. Due to EMFT, remedial surgery should be considered to have differential effects for targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles. PMID:23837929

Ate?, Filiz; Özde?lik, Rana N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A

2013-10-01

363

Acute chest pain without obvious organic cause before the age of 40 years: response to forced hyperventilation.  

PubMed

A hyperventilation provocation test (HVPT) was performed on a group (n = 63) of consecutive patients, below the age of 40 years, attending an emergency care unit complaining of chest pain without obvious organic cause. The results were compared with those for a control group (n = 32). There was no tendency to hyperventilate in the patient group, either after discontinuing hyperventilation or during the ensuing relaxation period. PETCO2 measurements during this time thus showed no significant differences between the patient group and the control group. During the HVPT, 44% of patients reported three or more listed symptoms familiar to them from earlier occasions and regarded as typical of hyperventilation, compared to 23% of the controls (P less than 0.05). In a previously reported study, 38% of the patients were found to have similar symptoms during standardized mental stress, despite lack of hypocapnia. It is concluded that, on the basis of PETCO2 measurements, there were no signs of abnormal hyperventilation in the patient group. Moreover, the HVPT did not appear to be specific for diagnosis of hyperventilation syndrome, since mental stress itself was able to reproduce symptoms without concomitant hypocapnia, and since the provocation test was 'positive' in many control subjects. PMID:2401872

Roll, M; Zetterquist, S

1990-09-01

364

Causes and prognostic factors of remission induction failure in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and idarubicin.  

PubMed

An understanding of the prognostic factors associated with the various forms of induction mortality in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has remained remarkably limited. This study reports the incidence, time of occurrence, and prognostic factors of the major categories of induction failure in a series of 732 patients of all ages (range, 2-83 years) with newly diagnosed APL who received all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus idarubicin as induction therapy in 2 consecutive studies of the Programa de Estudio y Tratamiento de las Hemopatias Malignas (PETHEMA) Group. Complete remission was attained in 666 patients (91%). All the 66 induction failures were due to induction death. Hemorrhage was the most common cause of induction death (5%), followed by infection (2.3%) and differentiation syndrome (1.4%). Multivariate analysis identified specific and distinct pretreatment characteristics to correlate with an increased risk of death caused by hemorrhage (abnormal creatinine level, increased peripheral blast counts, and presence of coagulopathy), infection (age>60 years, male sex, and fever at presentation), and differentiation syndrome (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG] score>1 and low albumin levels), respectively. These data furnish clinically relevant information that might be useful for designing more appropriately risk-adapted treatment protocols aimed at reducing the considerable problem of induction mortality in APL. PMID:18195095

de la Serna, Javier; Montesinos, Pau; Vellenga, Edo; Rayón, Chelo; Parody, Ricardo; León, Angel; Esteve, Jordi; Bergua, Juan M; Milone, Gustavo; Debén, Guillermo; Rivas, Concha; González, Marcos; Tormo, Mar; Díaz-Mediavilla, Joaquín; González, Jose D; Negri, Silvia; Amutio, Elena; Brunet, Salut; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A

2008-04-01

365

Clinical and histopathological profile of acute renal failure caused by falciparum and vivax monoinfection : An observational study from Bikaner, northwest zone of Rajasthan, India.  

PubMed

Background & objectives: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a known manifestation of severe Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria but recently it has also been observed with P. vivax (Pv) monoinfection. A clinical observational study has been conducted to evaluate the clinical and histopathological profile of ARF in malaria. Methods: This study was conducted on 288 consecutive cases of malaria with monoinfection (Pf 191 and Pv 97) diagnosed by peripheral blood film examination and rapid card test. ARF was diagnosed as per WHO criterion (serum creatinine >3 mg%). The data were analysed by Standard t-test using ANOVA software. Results: ARF was seen in 52 cases of Pf and 14 cases of Pv malaria. Mean age was 32.58 yr (ranging 15-65; Pf 33.37 and Pv 29.14) and male to female ratio was 2:1 (Pf 3:1 and Pv 1:1). Most of the cases developed ARF within 10 days of onset of the disease. Associated severe manifestations were jaundice (53 cases: Pf 44 and Pv 9), cerebral malaria (28 cases: Pf 25 and Pv 3), severe anemia (18 cases: Pf 17 and Pv 1), hypotension (16 cases: Pf 11 and Pv 5), bleeding manifestations (16 cases: Pf 14 and Pv 2), multiorgan failure (12 cases: Pf 9 and Pv 3) and ARDS (6 cases: Pf 5 and Pv 1). Kidney biopsy (16 Pf and 2 Pv) showed acute tubular necrosis (5 Pf and 1 Pv), mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (2 Pf) or both (9 Pf and 1 Pv). Haemodialysis was done in 7 (Pf 4 and Pv 3) cases, out of which four survived. Most of the cases (48.49%) recovered within two weeks (range 3-20 days). Total mortality was 27.27% (Pf 28.85% and Pv 21.43%). Interpretation & conclusion: ARF can also be caused by vivax monoinfection with similar clinical and histopathological features although outcome is less severe as compared to falciparum monoinfection. PMID:24717201

Nayak, Kailash Chandra; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Bal Kishan; Kumar, Surendra; Gupta, Anjli; Prakash, Parul; Kochar, Dhanpat Kumar

2014-01-01

366

A prospective randomized study comparing alfuzosin and tamsulosin in the management of patients suffering from acute urinary retention caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia.  

PubMed

Objective : Prospective randomized study to compare the efficacy and safety of alfuzosin and tamsulosin in patients suffering from acute urinary retention caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods : Patients with acute urinary retention (AUR) due to BPH (total 150) were catheterized and randomized into three groups: Group A: alfuzosin 10 mg (50 patients), Group B: tamsulosin 0.4 mg (50 patients), Group C: placebo (50 patients). After three days, catheter was removed, and patients were put on trial without catheter (TWOC). Patients with successful TWOC were followed up for three months, taking into account the prostate symptom score (AUA Score), post-void residual urine volume (PVRV), and peak flow rate (PFR). ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results : Both group A (alfuzosin) and group B (tamsulosin) had similar results of TWOC (group A - 66%, group B - 70%), which were significantly superior than group C (placebo) - 36%. In follow up, three (9.1%) patients in group A, three (8.6%) patients in group B and eight (44.4%) patients in group C had retention of urine, requiring recatheterization. These patients were withdrawn from the study. After three months, alfuzosin- or tamsulosin-treated patients showed a significant decrease in AUA score and PVRV; and a significant increase in PFR as compared to placebo. Conclusions : TWOC was more successful in men treated with either alfuzosin or tamsulosin and the subsequent need for recatheterization was also reduced. Tamsulosin was comparable to alfuzosin in all respects, except a small but significant side effect of retrograde ejaculation. PMID:19955671

Agrawal, Madhu S; Yadav, Abhishek; Yadav, Himanshu; Singh, Amit K; Lavania, Prashant; Jaiman, Richa

2009-01-01

367

Hematometra and acute abdomen.  

PubMed

We report a case of a young woman who presented as acute abdomen due to hematometra resulting from cervical fibroid. This uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain should be considered in women especially with amenorrhea. PMID:20606801

U Nayak, Ashwini; Swarup, Asha; G S, Jyothi; N, Sundari

2010-04-01

368

Hematometra and acute abdomen  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a young woman who presented as acute abdomen due to hematometra resulting from cervical fibroid. This uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain should be considered in women especially with amenorrhea.

U Nayak, Ashwini; Swarup, Asha; G S, Jyothi; N, Sundari

2010-01-01

369

Oral administration of antigens from intestinal flora anaerobic bacteria reduces the severity of experimental acute colitis in BALB/c mice.  

PubMed

Homeostasis between indigenous intestinal flora and host response may be broken in inflammatory bowel disease. The present study explores whether repeated oral administration of intestinal flora antigens can protect mice against dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. Sonicates of Gram-positive, Gram-negative, or anaerobic resident bacteria isolated from mouse intestinal flora were fed to BALB/c mice by gastric gavage, with or without cholera toxin. After four weekly doses of 1 mg of these antigen preparations (or of PBS as control), DSS colitis was induced. One week later colitis was evaluated by clinical scores and histology. Mice fed a pool of the three sonicates had decreased inflammation scores (5 (1-14); median (range)) compared with PBS-fed control animals (15 (7-19); P < 0.05). Decreased inflammation was observed in mice fed anaerobic bacteria antigens (7 (6-11); P < 0.05 versus control), but not in mice fed a pool of Gram-positive and -negative sonicates (16 (12-16)). Inflammation scores of mice fed antigens with cholera toxin were similar to those of PBS-fed control animals. DSS-induced colitis can be suppressed by oral administration of normal intestinal flora antigens containing anaerobes. PMID:10759762

Verdù, E F; Bercik, P; Cukrowska, B; Farre-Castany, M A; Bouzourene, H; Saraga, E; Blum, A L; Corthésy-Theulaz, I; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H; Michetti, P

2000-04-01

370

Clinical Applications of Probiotic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic bacteria are applied to balance disturbed intestinal microflora and related dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract. Current clinical applications include well-documented areas such as treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhoea, lactose maldigestion, constipation, colonic disorders and side-effects of pelvic radiotherapy, and more recently, food allergy including milk hypersensitivity and changes associated with colon cancer development. Many novel probiotics appear to be

S. Salminen; A. C. Ouwehand; E. Isolauri

1998-01-01

371

Characterization of Damage to Bacteria and Bio-macromolecules Caused by (V)UV Radiation and Particles Generated by a Microscale Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure plasma jets effectively inactivate bacteria on ­surfaces including infected tissues. This is due to the combined effects of (V)UV radiation, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ions, and high electric fields. A well-characterized microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet (?-APPJ) operated with He/O2 gas mixture has been modified so that (V)UV radiation and heavy reactive particles (mainly O3 molecules and O atoms) emitted from the plasma source can be separated effectively. The separation is achieved by an additional lateral He flow, which diverts the heavy particles from the jet axis. The new jet geometry is called X-Jet. Separation of different plasma components allows studying their effects on living cells and bio-macromolecules separately. First, the effectiveness of the separation of different plasma components was demonstrated by treatment of monolayers of vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells. To characterize effects on nucleic acids, dried plasmid DNA and total cellular RNA were treated with the separated plasma components. Dried bovine serum albumin was used to study etching effects of (V)UV radiation and heavy particles on proteins. We found that heavy particles emitted from the X-Jet kill vegetative cells more effectively than the (V)UV radiation from this type of plasma source. All bio-macromolecules investigated, DNA, RNA, and proteins, are affected by plasma treatment. DNA exposed to the (V)UV-channel of the jet seems to be prone to thymine dimer formation not only in vitro but also in vivo as indicated by induction of the photolyase in Escherichia coli, while DNA strand breaks occur under both jet channels. Heavy particles seem more effective in degrading RNA and in etching protein in vitro.

Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Schneider, Simon; Narberhaus, Franz; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E.

372

A Study to Determine the Causes of Accidents: An In-Depth Case Report Case No. TAC-SP-75-6, School Bus/Garbage Truck--Acute Oblique.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document contains an in-depth, multidisciplinary report covering Case No. TAC-SP-75-6, School Bus/Garbage Truck - Acute Oblique Collision, (AIS-4). Accident investigation research covered by DOT-HS-034-3-535, A Study to Determine the Causes of Traffic...

N. S. Tumbas H. M. Nay J. E. Pless R. A. Romberg R. L. Stansifer

1976-01-01

373

Serum and depolarizing agents cause acute neurotoxicity in cultured cerebellar granule cells: role of the glutamate receptor responsive to N-methyl-D-aspartate.  

PubMed Central

The life span of neonatal rat cerebellar granule cells, grown in basal minimal Eagle's medium containing 10% (vol/vol) fetal calf serum, was extended to 21-30 days by weekly supplementation with glucose. Addition of 1% fetal calf serum to the culture at 14 days killed 85% of the cells within 1 hr. This lethal effect could be prevented by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists dibenzocyclohepteneimine (MK-801) and 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonate (CPP). These findings suggested that the glutamate in the serum caused the dramatic neuronal death through action on the NMDA receptor. Indeed, a 5-min incubation in a Locke physiological salt solution containing 20 microM glutamate and 5 microM glycine killed 55-90% of the cells. This acute toxicity could be prevented by a lyso-GM1 ganglioside with N-acetylated sphingosine. The relatively low glutamate content of the sera analyzed suggests that factors in addition to glycine potentiate serum neurotoxicity. The above noted antagonists of the NMDA receptor also greatly reduced the lethal effect of depolarization by 90 mM KCl or 10 microM veratridine. Therefore, it is likely that the toxicity of the depolarizing agents is mediated by glutamate released from the cells. It is concluded that survival of cerebellar neurons in primary culture may be strongly affected by unsuspected neurotoxic phenomena elicited by brief action of a rather low glutamate concentration. Images

Schramm, M; Eimerl, S; Costa, E

1990-01-01

374

TGFB2 loss of function mutations cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections associated with mild systemic features of the Marfan syndrome  

PubMed Central

A predisposition for thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections can be inherited in families in an autosomal dominant manner. Genome-wide linkage analysis of two large unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease, followed by whole exome sequencing of affected relatives, identified causative mutations in TGFB2. These mutations, a frameshift mutation in exon 6 and a nonsense mutation in exon 4, segregated with disease with a combined LOD score of 7.7. Sanger sequencing of 276 probands from families with inherited thoracic aortic disease identified two additional TGFB2 mutations. TGFB2 encodes the transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-?2) and the mutations are predicted to cause haploinsufficiency for TGFB2, but aortic tissue from cases paradoxically shows increased TGF-?2 expression and immunostaining. Thus, haploinsufficiency of TGFB2 predisposes to thoracic aortic disease, suggesting the initial pathway driving disease is decreased cellular TGF-?2 levels leading to a secondary increase in TGF-?2 production in the diseased aorta.

Boileau, Catherine; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Hanna, Nadine; Regalado, Ellen S.; Detaint, Delphine; Gong, Limin; Varret, Mathilde; Prakash, Siddharth; Li, Alexander H.; d'Indy, Hyacintha; Braverman, Alan C.; Grandchamp, Bernard; Kwartler, Callie S.; Gouya, Laurent; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Abifadel, Marianne; Leal, Suzanne M.; Muti, Christine; Shendure, Jay; Gross, Marie-Sylvie; Rieder, Mark J.; Vahanian, Alec; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Jondeau, Guillaume; Milewicz, Dianna M.

2014-01-01

375

Intractable diffuse alopecia caused by multifactorial side-effects in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia: connection to iatrogenic failure of estrogen secretion.  

PubMed

Treatment of infantile acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) may cause failure to thrive and hypogonadism due to hypopituitarism induced by chemotherapy and whole-brain radiotherapy. We report the case of a 22-year-old girl with a genetic predisposition to pattern hair loss who developed inveterate diffuse alopecia. The patient had onset of ALL at 8 years old and underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Diffuse alopecia gradually advanced over her whole body. Her vellus scalp hair gradually came out, and hair loss progressed again at 8 years, after BMT. She later developed iatrogenic failure of secretion of estrogen and was treated with estrogen substitution therapy for 14 months from the age of 20. There was a small increase in the volume of hair during therapy, but alopecia returned to the former level after the therapy was suspended. Histopathologic examinations of the scalp performed during estrogen substitution therapy and 2 years after suspension of the therapy showed a 60% decrease in the number of hair follicles and prominent development of vellus hair. We conclude that estrogen influenced hair growth in the context of a genetic predisposition for pattern hair loss in this case. PMID:22211668

Nomiyama, Tomoko; Arakawa, Akiko; Hattori, Sayoko; Konishi, Keisuke; Takenaka, Hideya; Katoh, Norito

2013-01-01

376

Guillain-Barr? syndrome as a cause of acute flaccid paralysis in Iraqi children: a result of 15 years of nation-wide study  

PubMed Central

Background Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in the post-poliomyelitis eradication era. This is the first study done to identify the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome of GBS in Iraqi children over 15 years. Methods The surveillance database about AFP cases?cause of AFP, especially in those between the age of 1 to 4 years living in rural areas.

2013-01-01

377

Acute Hematogenous Infection of Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty by Oral Bacteria in a Patient without a History of Dental Procedures: Case Report  

PubMed Central

The risk of periprosthetic joint infection from hematogenous bacterial seeding is increased in patients undergoing dental procedures that facilitate the development of bacteremia. We herein report the case of a patient without a history of dental procedures who suffered from an acute metastatic infection of a hip prosthesis by the oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans 18 months after undergoing revision total hip arthroplasty. The patient was successfully treated by two-stage revision surgery. It is important to realize that the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis against joint infections has not yet been convincingly proven. As a result, optimal dental hygiene and regular dental visits may be more important than antibiotic prophylaxis for maintaining joint health. Therefore, orthopedic surgeons should educate patients with joint prostheses about good oral health.

Sonohata, Motoki; Kitajima, Masaru; Kawano, Syunsuke; Mawatari, Masaaki

2014-01-01

378

Alterations in intestinal motility and microflora in experimental acute pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a Conclusion  \\u000a A delay in intestinal transit time appears as an early event in acute pancreatitis, preceding intestinal bacterial overgrowth\\u000a and translocation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  Septic complications, primarily caused by bacteria of enteric origin, are frequent in severe acute pancreatitis. Impairment\\u000a in intestinal motility probably plays a pathophysiological role in the development of bacterial overgrowth and ensuing translocation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In the present study, the

Per Leveau; Xiangdong Wang; Vasile Soltesz; Ingemar Ihse; Roland Andersson

1996-01-01

379

Acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in a patient with pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

We report a case of acute chylous peritonitis mimicking acute appendicitis in a man with acute on chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatitis, both acute and chronic, causing the development of acute chylous ascites and peritonitis has rarely been reported in the English literature. This is the fourth published case of acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in the literature.

Smith, Emily K; Ek, Edmund; Croagh, Daniel; Spain, Lavinia A; Farrell, Stephen

2009-01-01

380

Sustained in vitro activity of human albumin microspheres containing chlorhexidine dihydrochloride against bacteria from cultures of organisms that cause urinary tract infections.  

PubMed Central

The potential of chlorhexidine dihydrochloride (CH HCl) incorporated into human albumin microspheres to provide sustained activity in vitro against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from quality controls and from cultures of organisms that cause urinary tract infections was investigated. CH HCl was entrapped into five different formulations of human albumin microspheres. A technique was developed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of these microspheres and of controls (unloaded microspheres or gel). CH HCl microspheres exhibited antibacterial activity over a period of 16 days. Similar results were obtained with microspheres suspended in a methocel gel, and their antibacterial activity also continued for about 16 days. Empty microspheres or gel media alone were ineffective. The release rates of CH HCl from human albumin microspheres coated onto catheters by use of different gel formulations were also determined. The microsphere formulations were found to provide sustained antibacterial activity even at a low drug concentration.

Egbaria, K; Friedman, M

1990-01-01

381

Two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence for label-free in vivo imaging ingestion of disease-causing bacteria by human leukocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real time and in vivo monitoring leukocyte behavior provides unique information to understand the physiological and pathological process of infection. In this study, we demonstrate that two-photon excited reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence provides imaging contrast to distinguish granulocyte and agranulocyte. By using spectral and time-resolved NADH fluorescence, we study the immune response of human neutrophils against bacterial infection (Escherichia coli). The two-photon excited NADH fluorescence images clearly review the morphological changes from resting neutrophils (round shape) to activated neutrophils (ruffle shape) during phagocytosis. The free-tobound NADH ratio of neutrophils decreases after ingesting disease-causing pathogen: Escherichia coli. This finding may provide a new optical tool to investigate inflammatory processes by using NADH fluorescence in vivo.

Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.

2013-02-01

382

Assessing acute toxicity of effluent from a textile industry and nearby river waters using sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in continuous mode.  

PubMed

Bioassays are becoming an important tool for assessing the toxicity of complex mixtures of substances in aquatic environments in which Daphnia magna is routinely used as a test organism. Bioassays outweigh physicochemical analyses and are valuable in the decision-making process pertaining to the final discharge of effluents from wastewater treatment plants as they measure the total effect of the discharge which is ecologically relevant. In this study, the aquatic toxicity of a textile plant effluent and river water downstream from the plant were evaluated with sulfur-oxidizing bacterial biosensors in continuous mode. Collected samples were analysed for different physicochemical parameters and 1,4-dioxane was detected in the effluent. The effluent contained a relatively high chemical oxygen demand of 60 mg L(-1), which exceeded the limit set by the Korean government for industrial effluent discharges. Results showed that both the effluent and river waters were toxic to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. These results show the importance of incorporating bioassays to detect toxicity in wastewater effluents for the sustainable management of water resources. PMID:22329151

Gurung, Anup; Hassan, Sedky H A; Oh, Sang-Eun

2011-10-01

383

Causes of chest pain and symptoms suggestive of acute cardiac ischemia in African-American patients presenting to the emergency department: a multicenter study.  

PubMed Central

This study examines whether race is a significant determinant of the diagnoses of acute myocardial infarction or angina pectoris in patients with symptoms suggestive of acute cardiac ischemia. The study population was comprised of 3401 (34%) African-American and 6600 (66%) white patients who presented to emergency departments with symptoms suggestive of acute cardiac ischemia. The main outcome measure was a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction or angina pectoris. African Americans were younger, predominantly female, and more often had hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or smoked. The diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction was confirmed in 6% of African-American and 12% of white men, and in 4% of African-American and 8% of white women. After adjusting for age, gender, medical history, signs and symptoms, and hospital, African Americans were half as likely to develop acute myocardial infarction and were 60% as likely to have acute cardiac ischemia. Despite having less acute cardiac ischemia, African Americans in this study had high risk levels for coronary artery disease.

Maynard, C.; Beshansky, J. R.; Griffith, J. L.; Selker, H. P.

1997-01-01

384

Reflections on the pathogenesis of diseases caused by the acute avian leukosis\\/sarcoma viruses with special reference to avian erythroblastosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The various diseases that follow experimental infection with the acute and non-acute avian oncoviruses are discussed with special reference to the pathogenesis of avian erythroblastosis. One view, based onin vitro studies, sees erythroblastosis as the product of a failure in the differentiation of virus-infected stem cells to mature erythrocytes, as a result of cell ‘transformation’. The results of somein vivo

C. Darcel

1994-01-01

385

Meningococcal Disease: Causes and Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Causes and Transmission Causes Meningococcal disease is caused by the bacterium ... certain illnesses, which are known as meningococcal disease. Transmission Neisseria meningitidis bacteria are spread through the exchange ...

386

Bacteria bites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally occurring bacteria may be a future solution for myriad pollution problems, mounting laboratory evidence suggests. Last month, USGS scientists reported in Nature that microbes living in oxygen-free sediments can break down derivatives of hydrofluorocarbons, which are among the compounds under consideration to replace ozone-destroying chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). And now, another USGS scientist reports in the July 14 Nature that microbes which degrade toxic and carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene and toluene can be boosted with an iron additive or chemical binder to work in anaerobic conditions that are commonly found in heavily polluted aquifers. Previously, scientists thought the bacteria could reduce the hard pollutants only if plenty of dissolved oxygen was in the water. Other bacteria have been shown to convert uranium to a highly insoluble form in cbntaminated waters as well.

387

Acute 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene exposure causes differential concentration-dependent follicle depletion and gene expression in neonatal rat ovaries.  

PubMed

Chronic exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), generated during combustion of organic matter including cigarette smoke, depletes all ovarian follicle types in the mouse and rat, and in vitro models mimic this effect. To investigate the mechanisms involved in follicular depletion during acute DMBA exposure, two concentrations of DMBA at which follicle depletion has (75 nM) and has not (12.5 nM) been observed were investigated. Postnatal day four F344 rat ovaries were maintained in culture for four days before a single exposure to vehicle control (1% DMSO; CT) or DMBA (12 nM; low-concentration or 75 nM; high-concentration). After four or eight additional days of culture, DMBA-induced follicle depletion was evaluated via follicle enumeration. Relative to control, DMBA did not affect follicle numbers after 4 days of exposure, but induced large primary follicle loss at both concentrations after 8 days; while, the low-concentration DMBA also caused secondary follicle depletion. Neither concentration affected primordial or small primary follicle number. RNA was isolated and quantitative RT-PCR performed prior to follicle loss to measure mRNA levels of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism (Cyp2e1, Gstmu, Gstpi, Ephx1), autophagy (Atg7, Becn1), oxidative stress response (Sod1, Sod2) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway (Kitlg, cKit, Akt1) 1, 2 and 4 days after exposure. With the exception of Atg7 and cKit, DMBA increased (P < 0.05) expression of all genes investigated. Also, BECN1 and pAKT(Thr308) protein levels were increased while cKIT was decreased by DMBA exposure. Taken together, these results suggest an increase in DMBA bioactivation, add to the mechanistic understanding of DMBA-induced ovotoxicity and raise concern regarding female low concentration DMBA exposures. PMID:24576726

Madden, Jill A; Hoyer, Patricia B; Devine, Patrick J; Keating, Aileen F

2014-05-01

388

Endophytic Bacteria in Toxic South African Plants: Identification, Phylogeny and Possible Involvement in Gousiekte  

PubMed Central

Background South African plant species of the genera Fadogia, Pavetta and Vangueria (all belonging to Rubiaceae) are known to cause gousiekte (literally ‘quick disease’), a fatal cardiotoxicosis of ruminants characterised by acute heart failure four to eight weeks after ingestion. Noteworthy is that all these plants harbour endophytes in their leaves: nodulating bacteria in specialized nodules in Pavetta and non-nodulating bacteria in the intercellular spaces between mesophyll cells in Fadogia and Vangueria. Principal Findings Isolation and analyses of these endophytes reveal the presence of Burkholderia bacteria in all the plant species implicated in gousiekte. Although the nodulating and non-nodulating bacteria belong to the same genus, they are phylogenetically not closely related and even fall in different bacterial clades. Pavetta harborii and Pavetta schumanniana have their own specific endophyte – Candidatus Burkholderia harborii and Candidatus Burkholderia schumanniana – while the non-nodulating bacteria found in the other gousiekte-inducing plants show high similarity to Burkholderia caledonica. In this group, the bacteria are host specific at population level. Investigation of gousiekte-inducing plants from other African countries resulted in the discovery of the same endophytes. Several other plants of the genera Afrocanthium, Canthium, Keetia, Psydrax, Pygmaeothamnus and Pyrostria were tested and were found to lack bacterial endophytes. Conclusions The discovery and identification of Burkholderia bacteria in gousiekte-inducing plants open new perspectives and opportunities for research not only into the cause of this economically important disease, but also into the evolution and functional significance of bacterial endosymbiosis in Rubiaceae. Other South African Rubiaceae that grow in the same area as the gousiekte-inducing plants were found to lack bacterial endophytes which suggests a link between bacteria and gousiekte. The same bacteria are consistently found in gousiekte-inducing plants from different regions indicating that these plants will also be toxic to ruminants in other African countries.

Verstraete, Brecht; Van Elst, Daan; Steyn, Hester; Van Wyk, Braam; Lemaire, Benny; Smets, Erik; Dessein, Steven

2011-01-01

389

Causes and Triggers  

MedlinePLUS

... causes of eczema include: House dust mites Pets (cats > dogs) Pollens (seasonal) Molds Dandruff Microbes: Some types of microbe can be triggers of eczema: Certain bacteria like Staphylococcusaureus Viruses Certain Fungi Hot or Cold ...

390

Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease  

PubMed Central

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), one of the most common infections in nonpregnant women of reproductive age, remains an important public health problem. It is associated with major long-term sequelae, including tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In addition, treatment of acute PID and its complications incurs substantial health care costs. Prevention of these long-term sequelae is dependent upon development of treatment strategies based on knowledge of the microbiologic etiology of acute PID. It is well accepted that acute PID is a polymicrobic infection. The sexually transmitted organisms, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, are present in many cases, and microorganisms comprising the endogenous vaginal and cervical flora are frequently associated with PID. This includes anaerobic and facultative bacteria, similar to those associated with bacterial vaginosis. Genital tract mycoplasmas, most importantly Mycoplasma genitalium, have recently also been implicated as a cause of acute PID. As a consequence, treatment regimens for acute PID should provide broad spectrum coverage that is effective against these microorganisms.

Sweet, Richard L.

2011-01-01

391

Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease.

Rocas, Isabela N.

2013-01-01

392

Successful treatment with intravenous colistin for sinusitis, orbital cellulites, and pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing P. aeruginosa has increased worldwide. The treatment options are limited for infectious diseases caused by these two organisms. The use\\u000a of colistin has been of recent interest in cases involving both types. We report the case of a 74-year-old man with acute\\u000a myeloid leukemia who was successfully treated with intravenous

Takashi Saito; Akifumi Takaori-Kondo; Masaharu Tashima; Kohei Yamashita; Yoshitsugu Iinuma; Shunji Takakura; Miki Nagao; Tatsuo Ichinohe; Takayuki Ishikawa; Takashi Uchiyama; Satoshi Ichiyama

2009-01-01

393

Acute diarrhea.  

PubMed

Acute diarrhea in adults is a common problem encountered by family physicians. The most common etiology is viral gastroenteritis, a self-limited disease. Increases in travel, comorbidities, and foodborne illness lead to more bacteria-related cases of acute diarrhea. A history and physical examination evaluating for risk factors and signs of inflammatory diarrhea and/or severe dehydration can direct any needed testing and treatment. Most patients do not require laboratory workup, and routine stool cultures are not recommended. Treatment focuses on preventing and treating dehydration. Diagnostic investigation should be reserved for patients with severe dehydration or illness, persistent fever, bloody stool, or immunosuppression, and for cases of suspected nosocomial infection or outbreak. Oral rehydration therapy with early refeeding is the preferred treatment for dehydration. Antimotility agents should be avoided in patients with bloody diarrhea, but loperamide/simethicone may improve symptoms in patients with watery diarrhea. Probiotic use may shorten the duration of illness. When used appropriately, antibiotics are effective in the treatment of shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, Clostridium difficile, traveler's diarrhea, and protozoal infections. Prevention of acute diarrhea is promoted through adequate hand washing, safe food preparation, access to clean water, and vaccinations. PMID:24506120

Barr, Wendy; Smith, Andrew

2014-02-01

394

Bacteria Counter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science Applications, Inc.'s ATP Photometer makes a rapid and accurate count of the bacteria in a body fluid sample. Instrument provides information on the presence and quantity of bacteria by measuring the amount of light emitted by the reaction between two substances. Substances are ATP adenosine triphosphate and luciferase. The reactants are applied to a human body sample and the ATP Photometer observes the intensity of the light emitted displaying its findings in a numerical output. Total time lapse is usually less than 10 minutes, which represents a significant time savings in comparison of other techniques. Other applications are measuring organisms in fresh and ocean waters, determining bacterial contamination of foodstuffs, biological process control in the beverage industry, and in assay of activated sewage sludge.

1981-01-01

395

Bacteria are like Popeye the sailor man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Popeye the sailor man and infection-causing bacteria have something in common -- they need to consume iron to perform their best. In cartoons, Popeye gets his iron from spinach. New research shows exactly where the bacteria that often cause pneumonia get their iron.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2004-09-10

396

Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis  

PubMed Central

Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases.

Ma, Edmond SK; Wong, Chris LP; Lai, Kristi TW; Chan, Edmond CH; Yam, WC; Chan, Angus CW

2005-01-01

397

Reclassification of rhizosphere bacteria including strains causing corky root of lettuce and proposal of Rhizorhapis suberifaciens gen. nov., comb. nov., Sphingobium mellinum sp. nov., Sphingobium xanthum sp. nov. and Rhizorhabdus argentea gen. nov., sp. nov.  

PubMed

The genus Rhizorhapis gen. nov. (to replace the illegitimate genus name Rhizomonas) is proposed for strains of Gram-negative bacteria causing corky root of lettuce, a widespread and important lettuce disease worldwide. Only one species of the genus Rhizomonas was described, Rhizomonas suberifaciens, which was subsequently reclassified as Sphingomonas suberifaciens based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the presence of sphingoglycolipid in the cell envelope. However, the genus Sphingomonas is so diverse that further reclassification was deemed necessary. Twenty new Rhizorhapis gen. nov.- and Sphingomonas-like isolates were obtained from lettuce or sow thistle roots, or from soil using lettuce seedlings as bait. These and previously reported isolates were characterized in a polyphasic study including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, DNA G+C content, whole-cell fatty acid composition, morphology, substrate oxidation, temperature and pH sensitivity, and pathogenicity to lettuce. The isolates causing lettuce corky root belonged to the genera Rhizorhapis gen. nov., Sphingobium, Sphingopyxis and Rhizorhabdus gen. nov. More specifically, we propose to reclassify Rhizomonas suberifaciens as Rhizorhapis suberifaciens gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain, CA1(T)?=?LMG 17323(T)?=?ATCC 49355(T)), and also propose the novel species Sphingobium xanthum sp. nov., Sphingobium mellinum sp. nov. and Rhizorhabdus argentea gen. nov., sp. nov. with the type strains NL9(T) (?=?LMG 12560(T)?=?ATCC 51296(T)), WI4(T) (?=?LMG 11032(T)?=?ATCC 51292(T)) and SP1(T) (?=?LMG 12581(T)?=?ATCC 51289(T)), respectively. Several strains isolated from lettuce roots belonged to the genus Sphingomonas, but none of them were pathogenic. PMID:24436067

Francis, Isolde M; Jochimsen, Kenneth N; De Vos, Paul; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

2014-04-01

398

Interstitial nephritis of acute onset.  

PubMed Central

Interstitial nephritis was diagnosed at renal biopsy in 10 previously healthy children. All had identical clinical symptoms: anaemia, raised sedimentation rate, low glomerular filtration rate, protein and leucocytes in the urine, but no bacteria; nine also had glycosuria. Six of the children had a history of recent ingestion of drugs or a serologically proved infection, or both. One child later developed uveitis. After the acute phase all made at least partial recovery, but after a mean follow up of two years and eight months only four were without any signs of disease, three had equivocal findings, two definite renal disease, and one renal failure. Interstitial nephritis, therefore, seems to be a clinical entity often occurring without known cause or triggering factor, its prognosis is variable, and some patients may develop chronic renal failure.

Koskimies, O; Holmberg, C

1985-01-01

399

Nosocomial outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in a neonatal intensive care unit in tunisia caused by multiply drug resistant Salmonella wien producing SHV-2 beta-lactamase  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a Tunisian hospital 27 babies, including 12 who were premature, in a single intensive care unit suffered acute gastroenteritis in the period from January to May 1988. The mean age at the onset of gastroenteritis was 8.4 days; nine babies died.Salmonella wien was isolated from stools (all babies) and blood (4 babies). It was also isolated from the stools

A. Hammami; G. Arlet; S. Ben Redjeb; F. Grimont; A. Ben Hassen; A. Rekik; A. Philippon

1991-01-01

400

Acute mesenteric ischemia caused by spontaneous isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery: Treatment by intra-arterial thrombolysis and percutaneous stent placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous and isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery is a rare event with a high mortality. It has been successfully treated by surgery and in a few cases by percutaneous stent placement. We present a patient with acute mesenteric ischemia due to superior mesenteric artery dissection who was successfully treated by intra-arterial thrombolysis and endovascular stent placement.

Soenke Langner; Inga Kobarg; Ralf Puls; Ulrich Sill; Jens Kuem; Norbert Hosten

2007-01-01

401

Acute infectious conjunctivitis in childhood  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review the etiology, clinical features and management of acute infectious conjunctivitis in children after the newborn period. DATA SOURCES: Articles obtained from MEDLINE published before March 2000. DATA SELECTION AND EXTRACTION: Representative articles on the etiology and clinical features were selected. Twenty-four clinical trials were also selected. From these articles, the main findings from three placebo controlled trials and two comparative clinical trials involving children are summarized in detail. The main findings from 19 comparative clinical trials in adults are briefly summarized. DATA SYNTHESIS AND CONCLUSIONS: Acute infectious conjunctivitis caused by bacteria or viruses is a very common problem in children after the neonatal period. The most common bacterial pathogens are nontypable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Diagnostic microbiology tests are not indicated for uncomplicated cases but may be useful for very young or very ill children if there is no response to initial therapy; for nosocomial cases; for cases suspected to be caused by sexually transmitted pathogens; and for outbreaks. Conjunctivitis is usually a mild, self-limited disease, but topical antibiotics are superior to placebo in reducing the duration and severity of symptoms. Most topical agents have equivalent efficacy; therefore, the selection of first-line agents should include inexpensive drugs with few adverse effects. Good choices include polymyxin/gramicidin, polymyxin/trimethoprim or sulfacetamide. Referral to an ophthalmologist should be considered in situations in which the diagnosis of uncomplicated conjunctivitis is in doubt or if there is no prompt response to therapy.

Chawla, Rupesh; Kellner, James D; Astle, William F

2001-01-01

402

[Does the assay of acute phase protein concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and/or in serum in patient with viral meningitis have a diagnostic value? Part II. Lymphocytic meningitis caused by echo 30 virus].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate dynamics of selected acute phase proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in children with viral meningitis and to assess diagnostic power of protein determination for detection and treatment monitoring. 51 children with viral meningitis caused by ECHO 30 virus were included in the study group. Concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), alpha2-haptoglobin (HPT) and C3 complement fragment were determined in serum and CSF at entry and at day 14 after admittance to hospital. Control group for serum determination consisted in 30 healthy children (Group K1) and control group for CSF determination consisted in 19 hospitalized children in whom the diagnosis of meningitis was not confirmed (group K2). The greatest rise of acute phase proteins concentration was observed in children in case of HPT, AAG and C3 complement when determined in serum. Meningitis in children that was caused by ECHO 30 virus produces slight acute phase reaction that is more evident in serum than in CSF. It is confirmed by remarkable increase of AAG, HPT, C3 complement in serum and HPT in CSF either at entry or at the day 14. The determination of AAG, HPT and C3 complement in serum have diagnostic power that is strong enough to meningitis diagnostics and monitoring of treatment. PMID:15517816

Mame?ka, Beata; Lobos, Marek; Sass-Just, Maria; Dworniak, Daniela; Urbaniak, Anna; Terlecka, Monika; Paradowski, Marek

2004-01-01

403

Loperamide-Induced Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is a common disease leading to hospitalizations, most often caused by gallstones or alcohol. We present a case of a patient diagnosed with acute pancreatitis considered to be due to loperamide treatment for diarrhea.

Vidarsdottir, Hanna; Moller, Pall Helgi; Bjornsson, Einar Stefan

2013-01-01

404

Acute stress causes rapid synaptic insertion of Ca2+ -permeable AMPA receptors to facilitate long-term potentiation in the hippocampus.  

PubMed

The neuroendocrine response to episodes of acute stress is crucial for survival whereas the prolonged response to chronic stress can be detrimental. Learning and memory are particularly susceptible to stress with cognitive deficits being well characterized consequences of chronic stress. Although there is good evidence that acute stress can enhance cognitive performance, the mechanism(s) for this are unclear. We find that hippocampal slices, either prepared from rats following 30 min restraint stress or directly exposed to glucocorticoids, exhibit an N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor-independent form of long-term potentiation. We demonstrate that the mechanism involves an NMDA receptor and PKA-dependent insertion of Ca2+ -permeable AMPA receptors into synapses. These then trigger the additional NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP during high frequency stimulation. PMID:24271563

Whitehead, Garry; Jo, Jihoon; Hogg, Ellen L; Piers, Thomas; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Seaton, Gillian; Seok, Heon; Bru-Mercier, Gilles; Son, Gi Hoon; Regan, Philip; Hildebrandt, Lars; Waite, Eleanor; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Kerrigan, Talitha L; Kim, Kyungjin; Whitcomb, Daniel J; Collingridge, Graham L; Lightman, Stafford L; Cho, Kwangwook

2013-12-01

405

Acute stress causes rapid synaptic insertion of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors to facilitate long-term potentiation in the hippocampus  

PubMed Central

The neuroendocrine response to episodes of acute stress is crucial for survival whereas the prolonged response to chronic stress can be detrimental. Learning and memory are particularly susceptible to stress with cognitive deficits being well characterized consequences of chronic stress. Although there is good evidence that acute stress can enhance cognitive performance, the mechanism(s) for this are unclear. We find that hippocampal slices, either prepared from rats following 30 min restraint stress or directly exposed to glucocorticoids, exhibit an N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor-independent form of long-term potentiation. We demonstrate that the mechanism involves an NMDA receptor and PKA-dependent insertion of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors into synapses. These then trigger the additional NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP during high frequency stimulation.

Jo, Jihoon; Hogg, Ellen L.; Piers, Thomas; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Seaton, Gillian; Seok, Heon; Bru-Mercier, Gilles; Son, Gi Hoon; Regan, Philip; Hildebrandt, Lars; Waite, Eleanor; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Kerrigan, Talitha L.; Kim, Kyungjin; Whitcomb, Daniel J.; Lightman, Stafford L.

2013-01-01

406

Genomic and Bioinformatics Analysis of HAdV-4, a Human Adenovirus Causing Acute Respiratory Disease: Implications for Gene Therapy and Vaccine Vector Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human adenovirus serotype 4 (HAdV-4) is a reemerging viral pathogenic agent implicated in epidemic outbreaks of acute respiratory disease (ARD). This report presents a genomic and bioinformatics analysis of the prototype 35,990-nucleotide genome (GenBank accession no. AY594253). Intriguingly, the genome analysis suggests a closer phylogenetic relationship with the chimpanzee adenoviruses (simian adenoviruses) rather than with other human adenoviruses, suggesting a

Anjan Purkayastha; Susan E. Ditty; Jing Su; John McGraw; Ted L. Hadfield; Clark Tibbetts; Donald Seto

2005-01-01

407

Detection of human leptospirosis as a cause of acute fever by capture ELISA using a Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni (M20) derived antigen  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis is a potentially lethal zoonosis mainly affecting low-resource tropical countries, including Peru and its neighbouring countries. Timely diagnosis of leptospirosis is critical but may be challenging in the regions where it is most prevalent. The serodiagnostic gold standard microagglutination test (MAT) may be technically prohibitive. Our objective in this study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of an IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (MAC-ELISA) derived from the M20 strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni (M20) by comparison to MAT, which was used as the gold standard method of diagnosis. Methods Acute and convalescent sera from participants participating in a passive febrile surveillance study in multiple regions of Peru were tested by both IgM MAC-ELISA and MAT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) of the MAC-ELISA assay for acute, convalescent and paired sera by comparison to MAT were calculated. Results The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the MAC-ELISA assay for acute sera were 92.3%, 56.0%, 35.3% and 96.6% respectively. For convalescent sera, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the MAC-ELISA assay were 93.3%, 51.5%, 63.6% and 89.5% respectively. For paired sera, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the MAC-ELISA assay were 93.6%, 37.5%, 59.2%, 85.7% respectively. Conclusions The M20 MAC-ELISA assay performed with a high sensitivity and low specificity in the