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1

Nontoxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strains Causing Acute Gastroenteritis  

PubMed Central

We investigated the virulence properties of four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains causing acute gastroenteritis following consumption of indigenous mussels in Italy. The isolated strains were cytotoxic and adhesive but, surprisingly, lacked tdh, trh, and type three secretion system 2 (T3SS2) genes. We emphasize that nontoxigenic V. parahaemolyticus can induce acute gastroenteritis, highlighting the need for more investigation of the pathogenicity of this microorganism. PMID:23052317

Leoni, Francesca; Serra, Roberto; Serracca, Laura; Decastelli, Lucia; Rocchegiani, Elena; Masini, Laura; Canonico, Cristina; Talevi, Giulia; Carraturo, Antonio

2012-01-01

2

Codfish may cause acute abdomen?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Foreign bodies ingestion is frequent and can cause several complications. Perforation is rare but can occur in any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Fish bones are one of the most frequent objects responsible. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 77-year-old patient resorted to emergency room for severe abdominal pain with 5 days of evolution. A CT scan showed an undefined liquid collection involving a linear image with 25 mm, suggestive of a foreign body. On laparotomy an abscess was resected with a fish bone inside. DISCUSSION Bowel perforation by foreign bodies can mimic other abdominal emergency conditions. Since fish bone ingestion is usually not remembered, diagnosis can be late. Surgery is the treatment of choice and is most commonly performed by laparotomy. CONCLUSION A low threshold of suspicion along with a good clinical history and radiological studies is extremely important in order to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:24055920

Costa Almeida, Carlos E.; Rainho, Rui; Gouveia, Antonio

2013-01-01

3

Spatio-temporal patterns of bacteria caused by collective motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In incubation experiments on bacterial colonies of Proteus mirabilis, collective motion of bacteria is found to generate macroscopic turbulent patterns on the surface of agar media. We propose a mathematical model to describe the time evolution of the positional and directional distributions of motile bacteria in such systems, and investigate this model both numerically and analytically. It is shown that as the average density of bacteria increases, nonuniform swarming patterns emerge from a uniform stationary state. For a sufficient large density, we find that spiral patterns are caused by interactions between the local bacteria densities and the rotational mode of the collective motion. Unidirectional spiral patterns similar to those observed in experiments appear in the case in which the equilibrium directional distribution is asymmetric.

Kitsunezaki, So

2006-04-01

4

Accidental and iatrogenic causes of acute kidney injury  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Ingestions and iatrogenic administration of drugs are all too common causes of acute kidney injury. This review will discuss these preventable causes of acute kidney injury. Recent findings Recent studies have examined the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury by several commonly used drugs. These studies have shown that drugs and toxins can cause acute kidney injury by altering renal hemodynamics, direct tubular injury or causing renal tubular obstruction. Summary Knowledge of the drugs that cause acute kidney injury and how this injury is manifested can lead to improved diagnosis and treatment with the ultimate goal of prevention. PMID:21293274

Twombley, Katherine; Baum, Michel; Gattineni, Jyothsna

2014-01-01

5

Osteomyelitis in dogs and cats caused by anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Localised osteomyelitis was diagnosed in 2 dogs and 2 cats. The disease was caused by fight wounds in 3 cases. Radiographic examination demonstrated a circumscribed zone of cortical bone lysis, sequestra and periosteal new bone. Each case was treated surgically by sequestrectomy and debridement. Infection was due mainly to anaerobic bacteria. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from the lesions of dogs were Actinomyces viscosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides spp, and from the lesions in cats were Clostridium villosum , Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Wolinella recta and Bacteroides gingivalis. As all the bacteria were sensitive to penicillin, each case was treated with penicillin and by irrigation of the wound. This resulted in resolution of the disease, within 4 weeks, in all cases. PMID:6732670

Johnson, K A; Lomas, G R; Wood, A K

1984-02-01

6

Epidemiology of respiratory infections caused by atypical bacteria in two Kenyan refugee camps.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. are common causes of atypical pneumonia; however, data about these atypical pathogens are limited in the refugee setting. Paired nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens were collected from patients with respiratory illness presenting to healthcare centers in two refugee camps in Kenya. The specimens were tested for C. pneumoniae, M. pneumoniae, and Legionella spp. as well as eight respiratory viruses. Atypical pathogens were detected in 5.5% of the specimens of which 54% were co-infected with at least one of the eight viruses tested. Patients positive for atypical bacteria co-infected with virus were significantly more likely to have severe acute respiratory illness than patients infected with only atypical bacteria (P = 0.04). While the percentage of atypical pathogens identified was lower than expected, we found a significant relationship between atypical bacterial-viral co-infection and severity of disease in this refugee population. PMID:21701900

Kim, Curi; Nyoka, Raymond; Ahmed, Jamal A; Winchell, Jonas M; Mitchell, Stephanie L; Kariuki Njenga, M; Auko, Erick; Burton, Wagacha; Breiman, Robert F; Eidex, Rachel B

2012-02-01

7

Clinical review: Bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children  

PubMed Central

This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children. Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and Fusobacterium sp. were the most common clinically significant anaerobic isolates. The strains of anaerobic organisms found depended, to a large extent, on the portal of entry and the underlying disease. Predisposing conditions include: malignant neoplasms, immunodeficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, decubitus ulcers, perforation of viscus and appendicitis, and neonatal age. Organisms identical to those causing anaerobic bacteremia can often be recovered from other infected sites that may have served as a source of persistent bacteremia. When anaerobes resistant to penicillin are suspected or isolated, antimicrobial drugs such as clindamycin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, cefoxitin, a carbapenem, or the combination of a beta-lactamase inhibitor and a penicillin should be administered. The early recognition of anaerobic bacteremia and administration of appropriate antimicrobial and surgical therapy play a significant role in preventing mortality and morbidity in pediatric patients. PMID:12133179

Brook, Itzhak

2002-01-01

8

[Acute dyskinesia as the cause of jaw dislocation].  

PubMed

A case of an acute dyskinesia of a young, schizophrenic woman caused by neuroleptic therapy is reported. The acute dyskinesia was the reason for a complete luxation in the jaw-joint. The patient showed phenomenons (brain-atrophy, cognitive dysfunction, negative symptoms) which are discussed to be connected with acute dyskinesia. They also are a danger-signal regarding the beginning of a tardive dyskinesia. PMID:1354880

Kozian, R; Kiszka, T; Peter, K; Kühne, G E

1992-07-01

9

Ecstasy: A common cause of severe acute hepatotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Ecstasy is a synthetic amphetamine recently identified as a possible cause of acute liver injury. This drug is consumed by young people and has a marked effect on improving sociability. The extent of ecstasy-associated severe hepatic damage is unknown to date.Methods: The clinical histories of 62 patients with acute liver failure admitted to the Intensive Care Liver Unit between

Victoria Andreu; Antoni Mas; Miquel Bruguera; Joan Manuel Salmerón; Vicente Moreno; Santiago Nogué; Joan Rodés

1998-01-01

10

Acute paraplegia caused by Schistosoma mansoni.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis affects over 200 million people worldwide. Involvement of the CNS is a rare occurrence. We report 2 young males who presented with rapidly progressing paraparesis associated with urinary incontinence. In both cases, MRI of the spine demonstrated a diffusely enhancing mass at the conus medullaris with extensive spinal cord edema. Laboratory investigations revealed mild peripheral eosinophilia and abnormal, but non-specific, CSF analysis. In one patient, the diagnosis was made based on a rising schistosomal titer with a positive rectal biopsy. In the other patient, spinal cord biopsy revealed a granuloma. Both cases were caused by Schistosoma mansoni and patients were treated with praziquantel and steroid therapy. They both made a remarkable neurological recovery. We emphasize that a high index of suspicion should be raised in the differential diagnosis of transverse myelitis in endemic areas. PMID:24419450

Algahtani, Hussein A; Aldarmahi, Ahmed A; Al-Rabia, Mohammed W; Baeesa, Saleh S

2014-01-01

11

Fouling of carbon steel heat exchanger caused by iron bacteria  

SciTech Connect

A carbon steel heat exchanger installed in a reverse osmosis unit failed after 1 1/2 years from start-up as a result of tubes, lids, tube sheets, and connection pipes clogging from rust deposits. Chemical analysis of cooling water and scraped precipitates, as well laboratory screening of the deposits for bacteria, revealed that activity of iron-oxidizing bacteria present in cooling water could lead to heat exchanger blockage.

Starosvetsky, J.; Armon, R.; Starosvetsky, D. (Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech. (Israel)); Groysman, A.

1999-01-01

12

The Most Common Detected Bacteria in Sputum of Patients with the Acute Exacerbation of COPD  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) may be triggered by infection with bacteria or viruses or by environmental pollutants; the cause of about one-third of exacerbations cannot be identified. Objective: To determine the most common bacteria in sputum culture of patients with AECOPD hospitalized in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB “Podhrastovi” in the 2012. Material and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of sputum bacterial cultures of patients with AECOPD treated in the Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB “Podhrastovi” during 2012 .year. Each patient was required to give two sputum for bacterial examination. Each patient was treated with antibiotics prior to admission in Clinic “Podhrastovi”. The results of sputum bacterial culture findings are expressed in absolute number and percentage of examined patients. Results: In 2012, 75 patients with AECOPD were treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB“Podhrastovi”. 44 (58.66%) of patients had normal –nonpathogenic – usual bacterial flora isolated in sputum cultures, 31 (41.34%) had a pathogen bacteria in sputum culture as follows: 7 had Streptoccocus pneumoniae, 8 had Klebsiella pneumoniae (2 with Streptococcus pneumoniae, one with Acinetobacter baumani) ,4 Escherichia colli, others are one or two cases with other bacteria. Conclusion: Bacterial airway infections play a great role in many, but not in all, of cases of AECOPD. So there is the need to do a sputum bacterial culture examination in each patient with AECOPD and with appropriate antibiotics to contribute to curing of them. PMID:24511262

Cukic, Vesna

2013-01-01

13

The Chemotherapy of Infectious Diseases caused by Protozoa and Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The possibility of combating infectious diseases with chemotherapeutically active substances depends to a large extent on the structure of the pathogenic organism. Apart from the cure of contagious pleuro-pneumonia in horses with neosalvarsan, we have, as yet, no chemotherapeutic substance which is active in virus diseases. The position is scarcely better when we turn to bacterial infections due to cocci and bacilli. These two types of infective organisms occupy the lowest level in the scale of micro-organisms. On the other hand, the spirochætes, which also belong to the bacteria group, and, still more so, those causal organisms belonging to the protozoa, represent relatively highly differentiated species, and the more highly developed a pathogenic organism is, the more points for attack it appears to offer to the action of chemotherapeutic substances. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that the best results with chemotherapeutically active substances have been obtained in spirochætal diseases (syphilis, relapsing fever, frambœsia, etc.), and above all, in protozoal diseases. There is scarcely a protozoal disease of man which cannot be cured nowadays by early treatment with the appropriate synthetic drug. (Sleeping sickness, malaria, amœbic dysentery, leishmaniasis.) Epizootics resembling human diseases, as for example, trypanoses, are also relatively easily dealt with by the same drugs as have been found of value in the treatment of disease in man. On the other hand, there has been a lack of success, up to the present, in the treatment of those diseases of animals which are not generally related to the tropical diseases of man. The most important of these epizootics are the piroplasmoses, which are caused by babesiæ and theileriæ and which are found, not only in tropical and subtropical regions, but also in temperate zones. In this paper the discovery of a new remedy against piroplasmosis will be reported (acaprin). Further, advice will be given of a new class of substances, which have an actual chemotherapeutic action in streptococcal infections (prontosil, prontosil S), so that one can hope to be able in the future also to attack bacterial infections due to cocci chemotherapeutically. PMID:19990605

Hörlein, H.

1936-01-01

14

Metabolic profiling of biofilm bacteria known to cause microbial influenced corrosion.  

PubMed

This study builds upon previous research that demonstrated the simplicity of obtaining metabolite profiles of bacteria in urban water networks, by using the metabolic profile of bacteria extracted from a reticulation pipe biofilm, which is known to cause microbial influenced corrosion (MIC). The extracellular metabolites of the isolated bacteria, and those bacteria in consortium, were analysed in isolation, and after exposure to low levels of copper. Applying chemometric analytical methodologies to the metabolomic data, we were able to better understand the profile of the isolated biofilm bacteria, which were differentiated according to their activity and copper exposure. It was found that the metabolic activity of the isolated bacteria and the bacteria in consortium varied according to the bacterium's ability to metabolise copper. This demonstrates the power of metabolomic techniques for the discrimination of water reticulation biofilms comprising similar bacteria in consortium, but undergoing different physico-chemical activities, such as corrosion and corrosion inhibition. PMID:24434961

Beale, D J; Morrison, P D; Key, C; Palombo, E A

2014-01-01

15

Acute Myelopathy Caused by a Cervical Synovial Cyst  

PubMed Central

Synovial cysts of the cervical spine, although they occur infrequently, may cause acute radiculopathy or myelopathy. Here, we report a case of a cervical synovial cyst presenting as acute myelopathy after manual stretching. A 68-year-old man presented with gait disturbance, decreased touch senses, and increased sensitivity to pain below T12 level. These symptoms developed after manual stretching 3 days prior. Computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 1-cm, small multilocular cystic lesion in the spinal canal with cord compression at the C7-T1 level. We performed a left partial laminectomy of C7 and T1 using a posterior approach and completely removed the cystic mass. Histological examination of the resected mass revealed fibrous tissue fragments with amorphous materials and granulation tissue compatible with a synovial cyst. The patient's symptoms resolved after surgery. We describe a case of acute myelopathy caused by a cervical synovial cyst that was treated by surgical excision. Although cervical synovial cysts are often associated with degenerative facet joints, clinicians should be aware of the possibility that these cysts can cause acute neurologic symptoms.

Kim, Dong Shin; Cho, Yong Jun; Kang, Suk Hyung

2014-01-01

16

Central serous retinopathy: an unusual cause of acute visual loss.  

PubMed

ABSTRACTOphthalmologic complaints represent approximately 2% of emergency department (ED) visits. Acute vision loss is the most serious of such presentations and requires prompt assessment for a treatable cause. The differential diagnosis for acute vision loss includes retinal detachment, macular disorders, vaso-occlusive disorders, temporal arteritis, neuro-ophthalmologic disorders, and functional disorders. We report the case of a previously healthy 33-year-old man who presented to the ED with acute bilateral vision loss that was ultimately diagnosed as central serous retinopathy (CSR), an idiopathic, self-limited condition that typically affects males age 20 to 50 years. This condition is not mentioned in standard emergency medicine textbooks or the emergency medicine literature, and our hope is that our report will serve to illustrate a typical case of CSR and help prompt emergency physicians to consider this diagnosis in the appropriate circumstances. PMID:23972138

Chu, Jennifer L; Tyberg, Jeffrey

2013-09-01

17

Central serous retinopathy: an unusual cause of acute visual loss.  

PubMed

ABSTRACTOphthalmologic complaints represent approximately 2% of emergency department (ED) visits. Acute vision loss is the most serious of such presentations and requires prompt assessment for a treatable cause. The differential diagnosis for acute vision loss includes retinal detachment, macular disorders, vaso-occlusive disorders, temporal arteritis, neuro-ophthalmologic disorders, and functional disorders. We report the case of a previously healthy 33-year-old man who presented to the ED with acute bilateral vision loss that was ultimately diagnosed as central serous retinopathy (CSR), an idiopathic, self-limited condition that typically affects males age 20 to 50 years. This condition is not mentioned in standard emergency medicine textbooks or the emergency medicine literature, and our hope is that our report will serve to illustrate a typical case of CSR and help prompt emergency physicians to consider this diagnosis in the appropriate circumstances. PMID:23544930

Chu, Jennifer L; Tyberg, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

18

Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: A Rare Cause of Oliguric Acute Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare clinical condition that causes the accumulation of mucinous ascites, which gradually results in the compression of intra-abdominal organs. Most published reports of pseudomyxoma peritonei concern the mass effect of the resulting ascites, which presents as abdominal pain or intestinal ileus in severe cases. However, few reports of renal complications of the disease have been published. Here, we present a case of oliguric acute kidney injury caused by external compression by pseudomyxoma peritonei. After decompression with external drainage, the patient's renal function rapidly improved. PMID:24010072

Min, Hye Sook; Pyo, Jeung Hui; Moon, Eul Sun; Choi, Jonghyun; Kang, Young Sun; Lee, Mi Jin; Cha, Jin Joo

2013-01-01

19

In vitro growth inhibition of mastitis causing bacteria by phenolics and metal chelators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial activities of three phenolic compounds and four metal chelators were tested at 0, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm in vitro against four major mastitis-causing bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, and Escherichia coli. Overall, butylated hydroxyanisole and tert-butylhydroquinone showed the greatest antimicrobial activity. These phenolics were bactericidal at 250 to 500 ppm against all four bacteria tested. The

B. P. Chew; L. W. Tjoelker; T. S. Tanaka

1985-01-01

20

Acute cadmium exposure causes systemic and thromboembolic events in mice.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd), an environmental and industrial pollutant, poses a potential threat and affects many systems in human and animals. Although several reports on Cd toxicity were presented, the acute effect of Cd on systemic and thrombotic events was not reported so far. Cd (2.284 mg/kg) or saline (control) was injected intraperitoneally (ip), and the systemic parameters were assessed in mice. Compared to control group, acute intraperitoneal injection of Cd, in mice showed significant quickening of platelet aggregation (P<0.001) leading to pial cerebral thrombosis. Likewise, Cd exposure caused a significant increase in white blood cell numbers (P<0.05) indicating the occurrence of systemic inflammation. Also, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P<0.05) and creatinine (P<0.01) levels were both significantly increased. Interestingly, the superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in Cd treated group compared to control group (P<0.001), suggesting the occurrence of oxidative stress. We conclude that the Cd exposure in mice causes acute thromboembolic events, oxidative stress and alter liver and kidney functions. PMID:22188109

Fahim, M A; Nemmar, A; Dhanasekaran, S; Singh, S; Shafiullah, M; Yasin, J; Zia, S; Hasan, M Y

2012-01-01

21

[Ogilvie's syndrome: a rare cause of the acute abdomen].  

PubMed

Ogilvie's syndrome (acute colonic pseudo-obstruction) is a rare clinical disease characterized by segmental distension of the proximal colon caused by a paralysis without mechanic obstruction. It may be a sequel of underlying neurological, medical or surgical disease. Risk factors are respiratory decompensation, electrolyte disturbances and different drugs. A special kind is the primary idiopathic pseudoobstruction with a high risk of perforation or necrosis. Especially elderly patients (> 70 years) with cardiovascular or neurologic diseases and accordant drugs are concerned. Clinical symptoms are progressive abdominal distension and abdominal pain like an acute abdomen. The differential diagnosis of a mechanic ileus is important for further treatment. This case report should draw attention to this rare disease. PMID:12592600

Kuhn, R; Schulz, H-U; Pross, M; Lippert, H

2003-02-01

22

Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh Thuan Province, to describe the characteristics of dengue patients, and analyze the diagnostic accuracy of the health care workers and the determinants of the diagnostic process. Methods All patients presenting with acute undifferentiated fever at twelve community health posts and one clinic at the provincial malaria station, Binh Thuan Province, a dengue endemic province in southern Vietnam, were included. Record forms were used to fill in patient and diseases characteristics, pre-referral treatment, signs and symptoms, provisional diagnosis and prescribed treatment, referral and final outcome. Serum samples were collected at first presentation and after 3 weeks for serologic diagnosis. Results 2096 patients were included from April 2001 to March 2002. All 697 patients with paired serum samples were tested for dengue virus IgM and IgG. Acute dengue was found in 33.6% cases and past dengue virus infections were found in 57.1% cases. Acute primary infections were more common among children under 15 years old than among adults (7.7% vs. 3.5%, p value < 0.001). Younger age significantly predicted acute dengue (RR per increasing year of age (95 % CI): 0.986 (0.975–0.997, p value = 0.014). 48.9% of cases with clinical diagnosis of acute dengue were serologically confirmed and 32.5% of cases without clinical diagnosis of acute dengue were positive by serology after all (OR = 1.981, p value 0.025, 95% CI: 1.079 – 3.635). Tourniquet test was not a predictor for dengue diagnosis. Conclusion Dengue is responsible for one third of the fevers presented to the public primary health services in Binh Thuan, southern Vietnam. It presents as a highly unspecific illness and is hardly recognized as a clinical entity by primary physicians. PMID:16869969

Phuong, Hoang Lan; de Vries, Peter J; Nga, Tran TT; Giao, Phan T; Hung, Le Q; Binh, Tran Q; Nam, Nguyen V; Nagelkerke, Nico; Kager, Piet A

2006-01-01

23

Structure-based Inhibitor Discovery against Adenylyl Cyclase Toxins from Pathogenic Bacteria That Cause Anthrax and  

E-print Network

That Cause Anthrax and Whooping Cough* Received for publication, February 4, 2003, and in revised form, March bacteria that cause anthrax and whooping cough, respectively. Using the structure of the catalytic site pathogenesis and to fight against anthrax and whooping cough. The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States

Mrksich, Milan

24

[2 cases of acute cholestasis caused by ticlopidine].  

PubMed

We report the case of two patients suffered from cholestatic jaundice occurred 3-4 weeks after starting ticlopidine therapy. In both cases the diagnosis was made by ruling out any other known cause of acute hepatitis or cholestasis. One patient underwent liver biopsy, which showed a typical intralobular cholestatic pattern and a slight lymphocytic infiltration of the portal tracts. The other patient, a 29 year-old woman, was taking ticlopidine as the sole drug, further to an ischemic stroke occurred while she was taking oral contraceptives; she presented a diffuse itchy dermatitis, fever and slight eosinophilia besides cholestasis. In both patients ticlopidine was discontinued and liver tests returned to normal values within 4-8 weeks; no rechallenge was attempted and ticlopidine was replaced with another antiplatelet drug. To the best of our knowledge 19 cases of ticlopidine-related cholestatic disease have been described so far in the literature. Its pathogenesis is still unknown, although some clinical findings and experimental results from patients with acute enteropathy or agranulocytosis induced by ticlopidine suggest that the drug may act through a toxic mechanism, perhaps mediated by prostaglandins. PMID:9173469

Guzzini, F; Banfi, L; Gomitoni, A; Marchegiani, C; Novati, P; Mesina, M; Frigerio, B

1997-03-01

25

Citrullus colocynthis as the Cause of Acute Rectorrhagia.  

PubMed

Introduction. Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. is a commonly used medicinal plant especially as a hypoglycemic agent. Case Presentation. Four patients with colocynth intoxication are presented. The main clinical feature was acute rectorrhagia preceeded by mucosal diarrhea with tenesmus, which gradually progressed to bloody diarrhea and overt rectorrhagia within 3 to 4 hours. The only colonoscopic observation was mucosal erosion which was completely resolved in follow-up colonoscopy after 14 days. Conclusion. The membranolytic activity of some C. colocynthis ingredients is responsible for the intestinal damage. Patients and herbalists should be acquainted with the proper use and side effects of the herb. Clinicians should also be aware of C. colocynthis as a probable cause of lower GI bleeding in patients with no other suggestive history, especially diabetics. PMID:23819072

Javadzadeh, Hamid Reza; Davoudi, Amir; Davoudi, Farnoush; Valizadegan, Ghasem; Goodarzi, Hasan; Mahmoodi, Sadrollah; Ghane, Mohammad Reza; Faraji, Mehrdad

2013-01-01

26

Citrullus colocynthis as the Cause of Acute Rectorrhagia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. is a commonly used medicinal plant especially as a hypoglycemic agent. Case Presentation. Four patients with colocynth intoxication are presented. The main clinical feature was acute rectorrhagia preceeded by mucosal diarrhea with tenesmus, which gradually progressed to bloody diarrhea and overt rectorrhagia within 3 to 4 hours. The only colonoscopic observation was mucosal erosion which was completely resolved in follow-up colonoscopy after 14 days. Conclusion. The membranolytic activity of some C. colocynthis ingredients is responsible for the intestinal damage. Patients and herbalists should be acquainted with the proper use and side effects of the herb. Clinicians should also be aware of C. colocynthis as a probable cause of lower GI bleeding in patients with no other suggestive history, especially diabetics. PMID:23819072

Javadzadeh, Hamid Reza; Davoudi, Farnoush; Valizadegan, Ghasem; Goodarzi, Hasan; Mahmoodi, Sadrollah; Ghane, Mohammad Reza; Faraji, Mehrdad

2013-01-01

27

[Star fruit as a cause of acute kidney injury].  

PubMed

The star fruit belongs to the family Oxalidacea, species Averrhoa carambola. It is rich in minerals, vitamin A, C, B complex vitamins and oxalic acid. Recent studies show that the toxicity of the fruit differs between the patients and may be explained by single biological responses, age, and the intake quantity of the neurotoxin in each fruit in addition to glomerular filtration rate given by each patient. Additionally, the nephrotoxicity caused by the fruit is dose-dependent and may lead to the deposition of crystals of calcium oxalate intratubular, as well as by direct injury to the renal tubular epithelium, leading to apoptosis of the same. We report the case of a patient who after ingestion of the juice and fresh fruit, developed acute renal failure requiring dialysis, evolving with favourable outcome and recovery of renal function. PMID:25055366

Scaranello, Karilla Lany; Alvares, Valeria Regina de Cristo; Carneiro, Daniely Maria Queiroz; Barros, Flávio Henrique Soares; Gentil, Thais Marques Sanches; Thomaz, Myriam José; Pereira, Benedito Jorge; Pereira, Mariana Batista; Leme, Graziella Malzoni; Diz, Mary Carla Esteves; Laranja, Sandra Maria Rodrigues

2014-01-01

28

[Rare causes of acute esophago-gastroduodenal hemorrhages].  

PubMed

Rare causes of acute esophagogastroduodenal hemorrhages were identified in 61 (4%) of 1,532 patients. Their number has increased 2.5-fold in the recent years due to the wide use of emergency endoscopy. Neoplastic diseases were encountered in 32, nonneoplastic diseases--in 29 patients. The source of the bleeding was in the esophagus in half of the cases, and emergency endoscopy was decisive in its identification. The greatest difficulties arise in the diagnosis of extragastric carcinoma complicated by bleeding. Active therapeutic tactics is advisable in nonepithelial tumors of the stomach complicated by hemorrhage, nonoperative treatment--in nonneoplastic diseases. Arrest of hemorrhage during endoscopy, by means of the polymer hemostatic ferracryl among other methods, increases the effect of nonoperative therapy. A fatal outcome occurred in 12 cases, 10 of them were with carcinoma of extragastric localization. PMID:2786974

Pinski?, S B; Ageenko, V A; Kel'chevskaia, E A

1989-04-01

29

[Epidemiology-biological features of the acute intestinal infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus].  

PubMed

Nowadays the structure of acute intestinal infections pathogens changed substantially. It is caused by constant evolution of bacteria and involvement of the opportunistic pathogens in the pathological processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of the acute intestinal infections caused by staphylococci in the North-Eastern region of Ukraine, to determine the pathogenic factors in isolated pathogens. The materials for the study were the data of statistical reporting of Sumy regional sanitary-epidemiological station. Biological properties of the 50 Staphylococcus aureus strains were investigated. In the work used The descriptive and analytical techniques of the epidemiological, bacteriological and statistical methods were used. In the 2007-2012 the incidence of acute intestinal infections caused by staphylococci was in the range 17,1-20,3 on the 100 thousand. 2 years children were prevailed in the age structure. The largest numbers of cases were recorded in January, February, April, June and August. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from the patients were characterized by a wide spectrum of pathogenic and persistence factors. Anti-lisozym activity was in 100% of the investigated cultures, anti-interferon and anti-complement activity were detected in 96,0 and 64,0% stains, ability to adhesion was present in 36,0% stains. At the same time anti-lisozym, anti-interferon and anti-complement activity were showed in the 52,0% stains of the Staphylococcus aureus. These data characterize negatively predicted for the near future regional trends in morbidity. PMID:24340641

Golubnichaia, V N; Malysh, N G

2013-01-01

30

Acute Liver Failure Caused by Amanita phalloides Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure (ALF). The present paper analyzes the pathogenesis, clinical features, prognostic indicators, and therapeutic strategies of ALF secondary to ingestion of Amanita phalloides, which represents the most common and deadly cause of mushroom poisoning. Liver damage from Amanita phalloides is related to the amanitins, powerful toxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II resulting in a deficient protein synthesis and cell necrosis. After an asymptomatic lag phase, the clinical picture is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, followed by the liver and kidney involvement. Amatoxin poisoning may progress into ALF and eventually death if liver transplantation is not performed. The mortality rate after Amanita phalloides poisoning ranges from 10 to 20%. The management of amatoxin poisoning consists of preliminary medical care, supportive measures, detoxification therapies, and orthotopic liver transplantation. The clinical efficacy of any modality of treatment is difficult to demonstrate since randomized, controlled clinical trials have not been reported. The use of extracorporeal liver assist devices as well as auxiliary liver transplantation may represent additional therapeutic options. PMID:22811920

Santi, Luca; Maggioli, Caterina; Mastroroberto, Marianna; Tufoni, Manuel; Napoli, Lucia; Caraceni, Paolo

2012-01-01

31

Acute Liver Failure Caused by Amanita phalloides Poisoning.  

PubMed

Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure (ALF). The present paper analyzes the pathogenesis, clinical features, prognostic indicators, and therapeutic strategies of ALF secondary to ingestion of Amanita phalloides, which represents the most common and deadly cause of mushroom poisoning. Liver damage from Amanita phalloides is related to the amanitins, powerful toxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II resulting in a deficient protein synthesis and cell necrosis. After an asymptomatic lag phase, the clinical picture is characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms, followed by the liver and kidney involvement. Amatoxin poisoning may progress into ALF and eventually death if liver transplantation is not performed. The mortality rate after Amanita phalloides poisoning ranges from 10 to 20%. The management of amatoxin poisoning consists of preliminary medical care, supportive measures, detoxification therapies, and orthotopic liver transplantation. The clinical efficacy of any modality of treatment is difficult to demonstrate since randomized, controlled clinical trials have not been reported. The use of extracorporeal liver assist devices as well as auxiliary liver transplantation may represent additional therapeutic options. PMID:22811920

Santi, Luca; Maggioli, Caterina; Mastroroberto, Marianna; Tufoni, Manuel; Napoli, Lucia; Caraceni, Paolo

2012-01-01

32

An unusual cause of acute abdominal pain in dengue fever.  

PubMed

Dengue fever is an acute febrile viral disease caused by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. It is a major health problem especially in tropical and subtropical areas including South East Asia and Pakistan. In the past few years, dengue fever has been endemic in Northern Punjab. Physicians managing dengue fever come across varied and uncommon complications of dengue fever. We report a case of dengue fever that developed severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain and induration after extreme retching and vomiting for 2 days. A rectus sheath hematoma was confirmed on noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Rectus sheath hematoma as a complication of dengue fever has rarely been reported before and never from this part of the world. Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon and often clinically misdiagnosed cause of abdominal pain. It is the result of bleeding into the rectus sheath from damage to the superior or inferior epigastric artery or their branches or from a direct tear of the rectus muscle. It can mimic almost any abdominal condition (See Fig.) (See Table). PMID:24560393

Waseem, Tariq; Latif, Hina; Shabbir, Bilquis

2014-07-01

33

Antiseptic and antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of 802 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections was made from general practice, antenatal clinics, and local hospitals. The organisms were tested for their sensitivity to chlorhexidine, cetrimide, glutaraldehyde, phenyl mercuric nitrate, a phenolic formulation, and a proprietary antiseptic containing a mixture of picloxydine, octyl phenoxy polyethoxyethanol, and benzalkonium chloride. Escherichia coli, the major species isolated,

D J Stickler; B Thomas

1980-01-01

34

Epithelial Cell Apoptosis Causes Acute Lung Injury Masquerading as Emphysema  

PubMed Central

Theories of emphysema traditionally revolved around proteolytic destruction of extracellular matrix. Models have recently been developed that show airspace enlargement with the induction of pulmonary cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which a model of epithelial cell apoptosis caused airspace enlargement. Mice were treated with either intratracheal microcystin (MC) to induce apoptosis, intratracheal porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), or their respective vehicles. Mice from all groups were inflated and morphometry was measured at various time points. Physiology measurements were performed for airway resistance, tissue elastance, and lung volumes. The groups were further analyzed by air–saline quasistatic measurements, surfactant staining, and surfactant functional studies. Mice treated with MC showed evidence of reversible airspace enlargement. In contrast, PPE-treated mice showed irreversible airspace enlargement. The airspace enlargement in MC-treated mice was associated with an increase in elastic recoil due to an increase in alveolar surface tension. PPE-treated mice showed a loss of lung elastic recoil and normal alveolar surface tension, a pattern more consistent with human emphysema. Airspace enlargement that occurs with the MC model of pulmonary epithelial cell apoptosis displays physiology distinct from human emphysema. Reversibility, restrictive physiology due to changes in surface tension, and alveolar enlargement associated with heterogeneous alveolar collapse are most consistent with a mild acute lung injury. Inflation near total lung capacity gives the appearance of enlarged alveoli as neighboring collapsed alveoli exert tethering forces. PMID:19188661

Mouded, Majd; Egea, Eduardo E.; Brown, Matthew J.; Hanlon, Shane M.; Houghton, A. McGarry; Tsai, Larry W.; Ingenito, Edward P.; Shapiro, Steven D.

2009-01-01

35

Delayed retroperitoneal bleeding causing acute abdominal compartment syndrome: case report.  

PubMed

Delayed acute abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) due to retroperitoneal bleeding is rare. Herein, we report the clinical management of such a rare case. A 46-year-old male who fell from a height of 12 meters was admitted to Al-Ain Hospital. He was hemodynamically stable. His abdomen was soft and not distended. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was normal on admission. On day 7, the patient tolerated enteral feeding. On day 15, he became suddenly hypotensive. CT of the abdomen showed a large retroperitoneal hematoma compressing the inferior vena cava (IVC) associated with contrast blush indicating active bleeding. The abdomen became distended and tense. The patient developed respiratory failure and severe acidosis, increased airway pressure and reduced urine output. A clinical diagnosis of ACS was made. There was dramatic improvement in the hemodynamic and respiratory function directly after laparotomy. Exploration of the retroperitoneal hematoma showed an actively bleeding ligated ileocolic vessel. The abdomen was temporarily closed using saline IV bags sandwiched between two layers of Steri-Drape. The abdomen was closed primarily on day 6. The patient was discharged home on day 50. Life-threatening delayed retroperitoneal bleeding may occur suddenly two weeks after trauma causing ACS. PMID:21644100

Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Jawas, Ali; Boraie, Mustafa; Ahmed, Misbah U

2011-03-01

36

Miliary tuberculosis as a cause of acute empyema.  

PubMed

Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis are known, life-threatening complications of miliary tuberculosis. This report describes a patient with miliary tuberculosis who rapidly developed an acute tuberculous empyema. She had a fulminant course culminating in ARDS, sepsis and subsequent death. This case highlights the rare association of acute empyema with miliary tuberculosis. PMID:14665781

Runo, James R; Welch, Derek C; Ness, Erik M; Robbins, Ivan M; Milstone, Aaron P

2003-01-01

37

In vitro growth inhibition of mastitis causing bacteria by phenolics and metal chelators  

SciTech Connect

Antimicrobial activities of three phenolic compounds and four metal chelators were tested at 0, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm in vitro against four major mastitis-causing bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, and Escherichia coli. Overall, butylated hydroxyanisole and tert-butylhydroquinone showed the greatest antimicrobial activity. These phenolics were bactericidal at 250 to 500 ppm against all four bacteria tested. The butylated hydroxytoluene was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but was ineffective against the coliforms. At 250 ppm, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but much less effective against the gram-negatives. However, diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid was more growth inhibitory than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid against the gram-negative bacteria and especially against Escherichia coli. All other compounds were generally much less effective or ineffective against all four microorganisms. Therefore, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tert-butylhydroquinone, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid may have practical implications in the prevention or treatment of bovine mastitis.

Chew, B.P.; Tjoelker, L.W.; Tanaka, T.S.

1985-11-01

38

In vitro suppression of fungi caused by combinations of apparently non-antagonistic soil bacteria.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that apparently non-antagonistic soil bacteria may contribute to suppression of fungi during competitive interactions with other bacteria. Four soil bacteria (Brevundimonas sp., Luteibacter sp., Pedobacter sp. and Pseudomonas sp.) that exhibited little or no visible antifungal activity on different agar media were prescribed. Single and mixed strains of these species were tested for antagonism on a nutrient-poor agar medium against the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium culmorum and Rhizoctonia solani and the saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Single bacterial strains caused little to moderate growth reduction of fungi (quantified as ergosterol), most probably due to nutrient withdrawal from the media. Growth reduction of fungi by the bacterial mixture was much stronger than that by the single strains. This appeared to be mostly due to competitive interactions between the Pseudomonas and Pedobacter strains. We argue that cohabitation of these strains triggered antibiotic production via interspecific interactions and that the growth reduction of fungi was a side-effect caused by the sensitivity of the fungi to bacterial secondary metabolites. Induction of gliding behavior in the Pedobacter strain by other strains was also observed. Our results indicate that apparently non-antagonistic soil bacteria may be important contributors to soil suppressiveness and fungistasis when in a community context. PMID:17233750

de Boer, Wietse; Wagenaar, Anne-Marieke; Klein Gunnewiek, Paulien J A; van Veen, Johannes A

2007-01-01

39

Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Uncommon Cause of Hematemesis  

PubMed Central

Acute esophageal necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity, diagnosed at the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. Very often no definite etiology will be identified even though a large list of potential associations has been postulated. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common clinical presentation, others being epigastric pain, retrosternal chest discomfort and dysphagia. Only about a hundred cases of acute esophageal necrosis have been described in medical literature till this date. We report a case of acute esophageal necrosis in an elderly female who had presented with hematemesis. PMID:25170416

Zacharia, George Sarin; Sandesh, K; Ramachandran, TM

2014-01-01

40

Acute rhabdomyolysis caused by combination therapy with atorvastatin and warfarin.  

PubMed

Atorvastatin and warfarin are commonly prescribed in combination. Acute rhabdomyolysis is a rare but recognized side effect of atorvastatin occurring within a few weeks of initiation. This article presents a case of a 69-year-old man, on stable atorvastatin therapy, who developed acute rhabdomyolysis following initiation of warfarin. Rising international normalized ratio is a well-recognized feature of interaction between warfarin and various statins (fluvastatin, lovastatin and simva-statin). There has only been one previous similar case of acute rhabdomyolysis following the commencement of warfarin, reported in a patient on stable simvastatin therapy. To the authors' knowledge, no similar case has been reported with atorvastatin. PMID:22504754

Mackay, J W; Fenech, M E; Myint, K S

2012-02-01

41

Mediastinal tubercular lymph node eroding into pericardium causing acute pyopericardium and cardiac tamponade.  

PubMed

Cardiac tamponade due to tuberculosis is a well-known complication. However, acute erosion of TB lymphadenitis and its caseous material into the pericardium causing pericardial tamponade is rare. We describe a case of extensive mediastinal tubercular lymph node mass in which the caseous necrotic material found its way into pericardial sac causing acute pyopericardium and cardiac tamponade. PMID:24401544

Kasilingam, Sangeeth Kumar; Sinha, Nishant; Kambar, Vivekanand; Govindagoudar, Manjunath B

2014-04-01

42

Organ distribution of gut-derived bacteria caused by bowel manipulation or ischemia  

SciTech Connect

Translocation of carbon-14-labeled Escherichia coli from the gut was studied at the specified times in the following groups of rats: Group 1, 5 hours after ligation of the superior mesenteric artery; Group 2, 5 hours after laparotomy and exposure of the superior mesenteric artery with gentle removal and replacement of the intestines; and Group 3, 5 hours after handling but no surgical manipulation. Both living and dead bacteria were administered by means of gavage, and the effect of viability, intestinal ischemia without reperfusion, and bowel manipulation on the translocation of enteric bacteria was assessed. We demonstrated that (1) even gentle bowel manipulation causes bacteremia as great as that associated with ligation of the superior mesenteric artery; (2) dead E. coli are absorbed into the blood in the presence of bowel manipulation or ischemia but less effectively than are live E. coli; (3) live bacteria are found in highest concentration in the lung and in descending order in the liver, kidney, heart, and spleen; (4) dead bacteria absorbed from the gut are found in highest concentration in the kidney and the liver. Lesser amounts are found in the lung, spleen, and heart.

Redan, J.A.; Rush, B.F. Jr.; Lysz, T.W.; Smith, S.; Machiedo, G.W. (Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark (USA))

1990-01-01

43

Bath Salts: A Newly Recognized Cause of Acute Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

Bath salts are substance of abuse that are becoming more common and are difficult to recognize due to negative toxicology screening. Acute kidney injury due to bath salt use has not previously been described. We present the case of a previously healthy male who developed acute kidney injury and dialysis dependence after bath salt ingestion and insufflation. This was self-reported with negative toxicology screening. Clinical course was marked by severe hyperthermia, hyperkalemia, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oliguria, and sepsis. We discuss signs and symptoms, differential diagnoses, potential mechanisms of injury, management, and review of the literature related to bath salt toxicity. PMID:24555135

McNeely, Jonathan; Parikh, Samir; Valentine, Christopher; Haddad, Nabil; Shidham, Ganesh; Rovin, Brad; Hebert, Lee; Agarwal, Anil

2012-01-01

44

[Mycolic acids--potential biomarkers of opportunistic infections caused by bacteria of the suborder Corynebacterineae].  

PubMed

Mycolic acids are one of the basic elements of the cell wall structure of bacteria belonging to the suborder Corynebacterineae, constituting from 20% to 40% of dry weight. Additionally, they show high structural diversity within each family and species. Nowadays, profiles of mycolic acids are widely described for the genus Mycobacterium, the causative agent of tuberculosis. However, the suborder Corynebacterineae also includes many representatives of opportunistic human pathogens, e.g. Dietzia, Gordonia, Nocardia and Rhodococcus. Currently, an increased infection risk caused by this group of microorganisms especially in immunocompromised patients has been observed. Better knowledge of mycolic acid profiles for Corynebacterineae may allow identification of mycolic acids as diagnostic markers in the detection of opportunistic bacterial infections. Modern techniques of chemical analysis, including mass spectrometry, may enable the development of new chemotaxonomic methods for the detection and differentiation of bacteria within the suborder Corynebacterineae. PMID:22922146

Kowalski, Konrad; Szewczyk, Rafa?; Druszczy?ska, Magdalena

2012-01-01

45

An unusual cause of acute cor pulmonale – Significance of the ‘continuous diaphragm sign’  

PubMed Central

A patient presented with chest pain and clinical features of acute right heart failure. Initial work up revealed the presence of severe PAH. Acute pulmonary embolism is the commonest and most life-threatening cause for acute cor pulmonale. Even though the clinical picture suggested pulmonary embolism, a subtle sign was missed from the first chest X-ray taken in the emergency department. However on reanalysis the ‘continuous diaphragm sign’ later guided us towards the diagnosis. Our case represents one of the first reports of a rare etiology for acute cor pulmonale – hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Right ventricular dysfunction was caused by an acute rise in pulmonary artery pressures as well as by the compressive effects of pneumomediastinum. We emphasize the role played by a good quality chest X-ray early in the management of acute chest pain syndromes. However pulmonary embolism should be ruled out conclusively before redirecting attention to less malignant conditions.

Mohanan, Sandeep; Sajeev, C.G.; Muneer, Kader; Rajesh, G.; Krishnan, M.N.; Pillai, Vivek

2014-01-01

46

Spontaneous Renal Artery Thrombosis: An Unusual Cause of Acute Abdomen  

PubMed Central

Context: Spontaneous thrombosis of renal artery is extremely rare. Its presentation is that of commonly encountered problem of acute abdomen underscoring the need for a clinician to be aware of it. Case Report: We report a case of a 56-year-old male with no previous health problems presented with complaint of abdominal pain and nausea. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA) of the abdomen and pelvis confirmed thrombus in left renal artery. He showed good response to the treatment with resolution of the thrombus and improvement in the renal perfusion. Conclusion: Our case does conform to the others experience of good outcome when treatment is initiated in a timely manner. This patient had resolution of symptoms and restoration of perfusion with anticoagulation. The purpose of this case report is to remind busy practicing physicians to keep spontaneous renal thromboembolism in differential diagnosis in a patient with acute abdomen. PMID:24926451

Singh, Shantanu; Wang, Li; Yao, Qi Sheng; Jyotimallika, Juthika; Singh, Shivank

2014-01-01

47

Regulatory T Cell Ablation Causes Acute T Cell Lymphopenia  

PubMed Central

Regulatory T (Treg) cells enforce T cell homeostasis and maintain peripheral T cell tolerance. Here we report a previously unappreciated phenomenon of acute T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs and non-lymphoid tissues triggered by Treg cell depletion that precedes the expansion of self-reactive T cells. Lymphopenia affects both neonates and adults indicating a dominant role of Treg cells in maintaining peripheral T cell numbers regardless of the developmental stage. The lymphopenia was neither triggered by caspase-dependent apoptosis nor macrophage-mediated clearance of T cells, nor diminished survival of naïve or recently activated T cells due to paucity of IL-7. It is possible that transient lymphopenia associated with congenital or acute Treg cell deficiency may contribute to the development of T cell mediated autoimmune disorders. PMID:24466225

Moltedo, Bruno; Hemmers, Saskia; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

2014-01-01

48

Surgical and interventional management of complications caused by acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. It requires acute hospitalization, with a reported annual incidence of 13 to 45 cases per 100000 persons. In severe cases there is persistent organ failure and a mortality rate of 15% to 30%, whereas mortality of mild pancreatitis is only 0% to 1%. Treatment principles of necrotizing pancreatitis and the role of surgery are still controversial. Despite surgery being effective for infected pancreatic necrosis, it carries the risk of long-term endocrine and exocrine deficiency and a morbidity and mortality rate of between 10% to 40%. Considering high morbidity and mortality rates of operative necrosectomy, minimally invasive strategies are being explored by gastrointestinal surgeons, radiologists, and gastroenterologists. Since 1999, several other minimally invasive surgical, endoscopic, and radiologic approaches to drain and debride pancreatic necrosis have been described. In patients who do not improve after technically adequate drainage, necrosectomy should be performed. When minimal invasive management is unsuccessful or necrosis has spread to locations not accessible by endoscopy, open abdominal surgery is recommended. Additionally, surgery is recognized as a major determinant of outcomes for acute pancreatitis, and there is general agreement that patients should undergo surgery in the late phase of the disease. It is important to consider multidisciplinary management, considering the clinical situation and the comorbidity of the patient, as well as the surgeons experience.

Karakayali, Feza Y

2014-01-01

49

Acute Urinary Retention in a 47-month-old Girl Caused by the Giant Fecaloma  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 47-month-old female suffering from acute urinary bladder neck obstruction and bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to a fecaloma. Fecaloma is defined as an accumulation of inspissated feces in the colon or rectum giving the appearance of an abdominal mass. A fecaloma can be developed by diverse causes and the causes of the fecaloma in this case were septum reformation after the Duhamel procedure and long-term constipation. Chronic constipation is very common at outpatient clinic. However, acute urinary retention and voiding difficulty caused by fecaloma in the giant Duhamel pouch has never been reported in Korea. We would like to present our case with acute urinary retention due to a fecaloma and suggest that fecaloma might be considered as one of the causes for acute urinary retention, especially in cases with previous Duhamel operation for repair of Hischsprung disease. PMID:24224155

Park, Ji Sook; Park, Tae-Jin; Hwa, Jung Seok; Park, Chan-Hoo; Youn, Hee-Shang

2013-01-01

50

Colchicine and NSAID combination causing acute kidney injury.  

PubMed

Colchicine is used mainly for the treatment of gout and familial mediterranean fever. The use of colchicine is limited by its toxicity, and colchicine overdose is associated with a high mortality rate. Herein, we are reporting a young man who presented to the emergency department after ingesting 13.5 mg of colchicine and 1200 mg of aceclofenac (non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug) for deliberate self harm. He developed acute kidney injury, metabolic acidosis, and bradycardia after admission. A combination effect of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug and colchicines was responsible for this event. PMID:23146861

Chen, Hsuan-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Chan; Chen, Jin-Shuen

2012-11-01

51

Intramural tracheal haematoma causing acute respiratory obstruction in a dog.  

PubMed

Respiratory obstruction resulting from a discrete haematoma within the dorsal tracheal membrane was seen in an 11-year-old neutered female greyhound that had been involved in a fight two days earlier. There was no history or evidence of rodenticide toxicity or other coagulopathy, and it is suggested that the tracheal haematoma resulted from trauma. A right third intercostal thoracotomy was performed and this allowed resection of the haematoma from within the dorsal membrane of the cranial thoracic trachea, relieving the obstruction with no subsequent signs of dyspnoea. Intramural haematoma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis for dogs presenting with acute respiratory obstruction. PMID:16512849

Pink, J J

2006-03-01

52

Dengue as a cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Dengue is a common cause of fever in the tropics but its contribution to the total burden of febrile illnesses that is presented to primary health facilities in endemic regions such as Vietnam, is largely unknown. We aimed to report the frequency of dengue as a cause of fever in Binh Thuan Province, to describe the characteristics of dengue

Hoang Lan Phuong; Peter J de Vries; Tran TT Nga; Phan T Giao; Le Q Hung; Tran Q Binh; Nguyen V Nam; Nico Nagelkerke; Piet A Kager

2006-01-01

53

Liver histology of acute brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis.  

PubMed

As a major organ of the mononuclear phagocytic system, the liver is probably involved in all cases of brucellosis. In this prospective study, liver slides prepared from percutaneous liver biopsy samples of 20 patients with clinical and laboratory evidence of acute brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis were examined for the presence or absence of granulomas by pathologists in Iran and the United States. Nineteen men and one woman ranging in age from 14 to 62 years were studied. All patients had clinical signs and symptoms compatible with acute brucellosis, and all had significantly elevated titers of antibodies to Brucella in their serum. Liver function tests were mildly elevated in 11 (55%) cases, and C-reactive protein was positive in 15 (65%) patients. Thirteen (65%) patients had blood cultures positive for B melitensis. Iranian and American pathologists reported granulomas in 3 (15%) and in 4 (20%) cases, respectively. There was agreement between Iranian and American pathologists in 17 (85%) cases. The most prevalent findings were mild portal or lobular lymphocytic inflammation (16 cases). Two cases revealed noncaseating epithelioid granulomas, and 2 had microgranulomas. The results show that all patients had microscopic evidence of liver involvement. The predominant histologic finding was mild portal or lobular inflammation with lymphocytes. Granulomas were present in only 4 cases. PMID:25147098

Young, Edward J; Hasanjani Roushan, Mohammad Reza; Shafae, Shariar; Genta, Robert M; Taylor, Shari L

2014-10-01

54

Factors promoting acute and chronic diseases caused by yersiniae.  

PubMed Central

The experimental system constructed with the medically significant yersiniae provides a powerful basic model for comparative study of factors required for expression of acute versus chronic disease. The system exploits the close genetic similarity between Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of bubonic plague, and enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica. Y. pestis possesses three plasmids, of which one, shared by the enteropathogenic species, mediates a number of virulence factors that directly or indirectly promote survival within macrophages and immunosuppression. The two remaining plasmids are unique and encode functions that promote acute disease by enhancing bacterial dissemination in tissues and resistance to phagocytosis by neutrophils and monocytes. These properties are replaced in the enteropathogenic yersiniae by host cell invasins and an adhesin which promote chronic disease; the latter are cryptic in Y. pestis. Additional distinctions include specific mutational losses in Y. pestis which result in loss of fitness in natural environments plus gain of properties that facilitate transmission and infection via fleabite. Images PMID:1889045

Brubaker, R R

1991-01-01

55

Do We Know What Causes Acute Myeloid Leukemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... great progress in understanding how certain changes in DNA can cause normal bone marrow cells to become ... each cell’s chromosomes. Chromosomes are long molecules of DNA in each cell. DNA is the chemical that ...

56

Small Bowel Perforation due to Gossypiboma Caused Acute Abdomen.  

PubMed

Gossypiboma, an infrequent surgical complication, is a mass lesion due to a retained surgical sponge surrounded by foreign body reaction. In this case report, we describe gossypiboma in the abdominal cavity which was detected 14 months after the hysterectomy due to acute abdominal pain. Gossypiboma was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). The CT findings were a rounded mass with a dense central part and an enhancing wall. In explorative laparotomy, small bowel loops were seen to be perforated due to inflammation of long standing gossypiboma. Jejunal resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The patient was discharged whithout complication. This case was presented to point to retained foreign body (RFB) complications and we believed that the possibility of a retained foreign body should be considered in the differential diagnosis of who had previous surgery and complained of pain, infection, or palpable mass. PMID:24288645

Colak, Tahsin; Olmez, Tolga; Turkmenoglu, Ozgur; Dag, Ahmet

2013-01-01

57

Blunt chest trauma as a cause of acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Chest pain after thoracic trauma may be a symptom of cardiac injury or myocardial infarction. A 63-year-old healthy man had chest pain after blunt chest trauma in a motor vehicle accident. Chest computed tomography scan showed a displaced sternal fracture, lung contusion in the left upper lobe, atelectasis and consolidation in both lower lobes, and bilateral haemothorax. Electrocardiography showed ST elevation (2 mm) in leads II, III, and aVF and ST depression (2 mm) in leads I and aVL, consistent with acute inferior myocardial infarction. Urgent coronary angiography showed ostial occlusion of the right coronary artery. After the right coronary occlusion was passed with a guide wire, dissection of the right coronary artery was observed and treated with a balloon and stent to reestablish normal flow. This case emphasizes the importance of a high index of suspicion for coronary artery injury and myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma. PMID:25092198

Kara, H; Avc?, A; Akinci, M; Degirmenci, S; Bayir, A; Ak, A

2014-10-01

58

Geranylgeranylacetone ameliorates acute cochlear damage caused by 3-nitropropionic acid.  

PubMed

3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) induces hearing loss by impairing mitochondrial energy generation. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is known to protect the cochlea from various injuries. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of GGA against acute 3-NP-induced damage to the cochlear mitochondria. Female Hartley guinea pigs were divided into 4 groups. The 3-NP vehicle was injected to control animals and in animals receiving GGA alone, only GGA was administered for 7 days. 3-NP (500 mM, 4 microl) was administered with (animals receiving both GGA and 3-NP) or without (animals receiving 3-NP alone) GGA pretreatment (800 mg/kg, 7 days). The auditory brainstem response (ABR) was recorded at click and at 8, 16 and 32 kHz before and after injection, respectively. After cochlear harvest, hematoxylin/eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for anti-HSP70 antibody were done. 3-NP exposure resulted in elevated ABR thresholds that exceeded the maximum recording limit, while GGA pretreatment before 3-NP exposure led to a significant decrease in hearing threshold shift. Histological analysis of above former group revealed loss of type II fibrocytes in the spiral ligament, hair cells in the organ of Corti, stellate fibrocytes in the spiral limbus and spiral ganglion cells, while in above latter group, these cells were preserved. Control animals revealed weak HSP70 expression in the nuclei of some supporting cells (pillar cells, Deiters' cells and Hensen's cells) and interdental cells. Animals receiving GGA alone showed strong HSP70 expression in the same area as in control animals, while animals receiving both GGA and 3-NP demonstrated slightly decreased HSP70 expression in that area. These results suggest that GGA may protect the cochlea against acute injury resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:20226206

Kim, Young Ho; Song, Jae-Jin; Kim, Young Chul; Park, Kyung Tae; Lee, Jin Hee; Choi, Jong Min; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung-Ha; Chang, Sun O

2010-06-01

59

Chikungunya as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Sri Lanka in late 2006 after a 40-year hiatus. We sought to identify and characterize acute chikungunya infection (CHIK) in patients presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in unstudied rural and semi-urban southern Sri Lanka in 2007. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled febrile patients ? 2 years of age, collected uniform epidemiologic and clinical data, and obtained serum samples for serology, virus isolation, and real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Serology on paired acute and convalescent samples identified acute chikungunya infection in 3.5% (28/797) patients without acute dengue virus (DENV) infection, 64.3% (18/28) of which were confirmed by viral isolation and/or real-time RT-PCR. No CHIKV/DENV co-infections were detected among 54 patients with confirmed acute DENV. Sequencing of the E1 coding region of six temporally distinct CHIKV isolates (April through October 2007) showed that all isolates posessed the E1-226A residue and were most closely related to Sri Lankan and Indian isolates from the same time period. Except for more frequent and persistent musculoskeletal symptoms, acute chikungunya infections mimicked DENV and other acute febrile illnesses. Only 12/797 (1.5%) patients had serological evidence of past chikungunya infection. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest CHIKV is a prominent cause of non-specific acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka. PMID:24312651

Reller, Megan E.; Akoroda, Ufuoma; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikaarachchi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J.; Chua, Robert; Hou, Yan'an; Chow, Angelia; Sessions, October M.; ?stbye, Truls; Gubler, Duane J.; Woods, Christopher W.; Bodinayake, Champica

2013-01-01

60

Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

2012-10-01

61

Nonatherosclerotic causes of acute coronary syndrome: recognition and management.  

PubMed

Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) frequently result from the rupture or erosion of a vulnerable coronary plaque, with associated intracoronary thrombosis. ACS also may occur in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. Some of these patients, however, still have angiographically silent underlying coronary artery disease. In this setting, subtle atherosclerotic changes frequently associated with unstable morphologic features or residual intracoronary thrombus may be detected with intracoronary imaging techniques. Nevertheless, other patients develop ACS as a result of nonatherosclerotic coronary artery disease (NA-CAD). ACS in patients with NA-CAD may be the consequence of coronary spasm or transient coronary embolic phenomena. In these patients, after the initial ischemic insult, late coronary angiography usually reveals normal epicardial coronary vessels. Kounis syndrome is a type of ACS generated by allergic reactions. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by normal coronary arteries with a distinct pattern of transient left ventricular wall motion abnormalities. ACS also may occur in young patients following illicit drug use. Finally, spontaneous coronary artery dissection and intramural hematoma represent other etiologies of NA-CAD. In this review, we discuss current evidence regarding diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients presenting with ACS as a result of NA-CAD. PMID:25308305

Bastante, Teresa; Rivero, Fernando; Cuesta, Javier; Benedicto, Amparo; Restrepo, Jorge; Alfonso, Fernando

2014-11-01

62

Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2013-01-01

63

A Case of Acute Pyogenic Sacroiliitis and Bacteremia Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a rare osteoarticular infection, occurring most frequently in children and young adults. Diagnosis of the disease is challenging because of a general lack of awareness of the disease and its nonspecific signs and symptoms. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative bacteria in pyogenic sacroiliitis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has typically been considered a hospital-associated pathogen; however, community-acquired (CA)-MRSA infections are becoming increasingly common in Korea. We report the first domestic case of acute pyogenic sacroiliitis with abscess and bacteremia caused by CA-MRSA. The pathogen carried the type IV-A staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) without the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, and was identified as sequence type (ST) 72 by multilocus sequence typing. PMID:24475359

Kim, Suyoung; Lee, Kang Lock; Baek, Hae Lim; Jang, Seung Jun; Moon, Song Mi

2013-01-01

64

Apophysomyces elegans causing acute otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis involving salivary glands.  

PubMed

Zygomycosis is an invasive, life threatening fungal infection that usually affects immunocompromised hosts. In the head and neck region, rhino-orbito-cerebral zygomycosis is more common than the cervicofacial variety. We report the first case of otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis caused by Apophysomyces elegans involving the salivary glands, an uncommon site of infection. The case began after a trivial trauma in a diabetic patient and despite surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin B therapy, the patient died due to extensive involvement and metabolic/hemodynamic complications. PMID:17654273

Goyal, Amit; Tyagi, Isha; Syal, Rajan; Marak, R S K; Singh, Jagdeep

2007-08-01

65

Perforated Duodenal Ulcer -A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Acute abdomen during pregnancy is a medico-surgical emergency demanding concerted, synchronized specialties approach of obstetrician, surgeon and gastroenterologist. Duodenal perforation is one of the rarer causes of acute abdomen in pregnancy. Here, we report a case of duodenal perforation with peritonitis in third trimester of pregnancy requiring surgical management. Our aim of reporting this case is to stress the physicians to keep the differential of duodenal perforation also in mind while dealing with cases of acute abdomen in pregnancy and to proceed with multidisciplinary approach for better feto-maternal outcome. PMID:25386494

Rani, Jyotsna; Huria, Anju; Gupta, Pratiksha; Dalal, Usha

2014-01-01

66

Imaging in emphysematous epididymo-orchitis: A rare cause of acute scrotum.  

PubMed

Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis is an uncommon, acute inflammatory process of epididymis and testis characterized by the presence of air within the tissue. Patient presents with fever, acute pain, swelling and tenderness in the scrotum. Imaging is needed for rapid accurate diagnosis and to differentiate it from other causes of acute scrotum such as testicular torsion. We report a case of emphysematous epididymo-orchitis with imaging findings on plain radiography, ultrasound, CT and MRI and a brief review of the literature. PMID:25114397

Mandava, Anitha; Rao, R Prabhakar; Kumar, D Anjani; Naga Prasad, I Shiva

2014-07-01

67

Imaging in emphysematous epididymo-orchitis: A rare cause of acute scrotum  

PubMed Central

Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis is an uncommon, acute inflammatory process of epididymis and testis characterized by the presence of air within the tissue. Patient presents with fever, acute pain, swelling and tenderness in the scrotum. Imaging is needed for rapid accurate diagnosis and to differentiate it from other causes of acute scrotum such as testicular torsion. We report a case of emphysematous epididymo-orchitis with imaging findings on plain radiography, ultrasound, CT and MRI and a brief review of the literature. PMID:25114397

Mandava, Anitha; Rao, R Prabhakar; Kumar, D Anjani; Naga Prasad, I Shiva

2014-01-01

68

Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient  

PubMed Central

A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature. PMID:22605801

Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vivian Wunderlich

2012-01-01

69

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of some antimicrobial drugs against bacteria causing uterine infections in cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oxytetracycline, cephapirin, cephapirin\\/mecillinam, cefquinome, ceftiofur and enrofloxacin, candidate antibiotics for the principal bacteria associated with uterine infections: Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and the anaerobic bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella melaninogenicus, were determined by the agar dilution method. The bacteria were isolated from animals with clinical metritis and\\/or endometritis. For E coli, cefquinome and enrofloxacin

I. M. Sheldon; M. Bushnell; J. Montgomery; A. N. Rycroft

2004-01-01

70

Mutualistic relationships between phytoplankton and bacteria caused by carbon excretion from phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the competition system of phytoplankton and bacteria through inorganic phosphorus, our mathematical model showed that mutualistic relationships between them could occur due to production and consumption of extracellular organic carbon by phytoplankton and bacteria. In our model, phytoplankton are limited in their growth by light and phosphorus, and bacteria are limited in their growth by phosphorus and carbon released

Yasuaki Aota; Hisao Nakajima

2001-01-01

71

A huge bladder calculus causing acute renal failure.  

PubMed

We present a 39-year-old man with repeated urinary tract infection and lower abdominal pain. Kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) and IVU film showed a huge 450-g elliptical pelvic calculus that was surgically removed with excellent results. Surgical intervention by cystolithotomy or endoscopic cystolithotripsy can achieve satisfactory results. Bladder outlet obstruction should be treated simultaneously. Bladder stone is a common disease, but it is rare for such a calculus to be so large as to cause bilateral hydronephrosis. Close follow-up, however, is mandatory because the recurrence of urolithiasis is high in those patients with voiding problems and recurrent urinary infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest bladder stone in a human male. PMID:20033143

Wei, Wuran; Wang, Jia

2010-08-01

72

Bacteria causing important diseases of citrus utilise distinct modes of pathogenesis to attack a common host.  

PubMed

In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on three pathogens that exhibit distinct tissue specificity and modes of pathogenesis in citrus plants. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes canker disease and invades the host leaf mesophyll tissue through natural openings and can also survive as an epiphyte. Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter are vectored by insects and proliferate in the vascular system of the host, either in the phloem (Candidatus Liberibacter) or xylem (X. fastidiosa) causing variegated chlorosis and huanglongbing diseases, respectively. Candidatus Liberibacter can be found within host cells and is thus unique as an intracellular phytopathogenic bacterium. Genome sequence comparisons have identified groups of species-specific genes that may be associated with the particular lifestyle, mode of transmission or symptoms produced by each phytopathogen. In addition, components that are conserved amongst bacteria may have diverse regulatory actions underpinning the different bacterial lifestyles; one example is the divergent role of the Rpf/DSF cell-cell signalling system in X. citri and X. fastidiosa. Biofilm plays a key role in epiphytic fitness and canker development in X. citri and in the symptoms produced by X. fastidiosa. Bacterial aggregation may be associated with vascular occlusion of the xylem vessels and symptomatology of variegated chlorosis. PMID:20449739

Vojnov, Adrián Alberto; do Amaral, Alexandre Morais; Dow, John Maxwell; Castagnaro, Atilio Pedro; Marano, Marìa Rosa

2010-06-01

73

Chemical effectors cause different motile behavior and deposition of bacteria in porous media.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis whether chemically induced motility patterns of bacteria may affect their transport in porous media. Naphthalene-degrading Pseudomonas putida G7 cells were exposed to glucose, salicylate, and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and their motility was assessed by computer-assisted, quantitative swimming and capillary-based taxis determinations. Exposure to salicylate induced smooth movement with few acceleration events and positive taxis, whereas cells exposed to AgNPs exhibited tortuous movement and a repellent response. Although metabolized by strain G7, glucose did not cause attraction and induced a hyper-motile mode of swimming, characterized by a high frequency of acceleration events, high swimming speed (>60 ?m s(-1)), and a high tortuosity in the trajectories. Chemically induced motility behavior correlated with distinct modes of attachment to sand in batch assays and breakthrough curves in percolation column experiments. Salicylate significantly reduced deposition of G7 cells in column experiments whereas glucose and AgNPs enhanced attachment and caused filter blocking that resulted in a progressive decrease in deposition. These findings are relevant for bioremediation scenarios that require an optimized outreach of introduced inoculants and in other environmental technologies, such as water disinfection and microbially enhanced oil recovery. PMID:22642849

Jimenez-Sanchez, Celia; Wick, Lukas Y; Ortega-Calvo, José-Julio

2012-06-19

74

Acute cholestatic hepatitis caused by amoxicillin/clavulanate.  

PubMed

Amoxicillin/clavulanate is a synthetic penicillin that is currently commonly used, especially for the treatment of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In general, it is a well-tolerated oral antibiotic. However, amoxicillin/clavulanate can cause adverse effects, mainly cutaneous, gastrointestinal, hepatic and hematologic, in some cases. Presented here is a case report of a 63-year-old male patient who developed cholestatic hepatitis after recent use of amoxicillin/clavulanate. After 6 wk of prolonged use of the drug, he began to show signs of cholestatic icterus and developed severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin > 300 mg/L). Diagnostic investigation was conducted by ultrasonography of the upper abdomen, serum tests for infection history, laboratory screening of autoimmune diseases, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the abdomen with bile duct-NMR and transcutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound. The duration of disease was approximately 4 mo, with complete resolution of symptoms and laboratory changes at the end of that time period. Specific treatment was not instituted, only a combination of anti-emetic (metoclopramide) and cholestyramine for pruritus. PMID:24379601

Beraldo, Daniel Oliveira; Melo, Joanderson Fernandes; Bonfim, Alexandre Vidal; Teixeira, Andrei Alkmim; Teixeira, Ricardo Alkmim; Duarte, André Loyola

2013-12-14

75

Acute cholestatic hepatitis caused by amoxicillin/clavulanate  

PubMed Central

Amoxicillin/clavulanate is a synthetic penicillin that is currently commonly used, especially for the treatment of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In general, it is a well-tolerated oral antibiotic. However, amoxicillin/clavulanate can cause adverse effects, mainly cutaneous, gastrointestinal, hepatic and hematologic, in some cases. Presented here is a case report of a 63-year-old male patient who developed cholestatic hepatitis after recent use of amoxicillin/clavulanate. After 6 wk of prolonged use of the drug, he began to show signs of cholestatic icterus and developed severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin > 300 mg/L). Diagnostic investigation was conducted by ultrasonography of the upper abdomen, serum tests for infection history, laboratory screening of autoimmune diseases, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the abdomen with bile duct-NMR and transcutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound. The duration of disease was approximately 4 mo, with complete resolution of symptoms and laboratory changes at the end of that time period. Specific treatment was not instituted, only a combination of anti-emetic (metoclopramide) and cholestyramine for pruritus. PMID:24379601

Beraldo, Daniel Oliveira; Melo, Joanderson Fernandes; Bonfim, Alexandre Vidal; Teixeira, Andrei Alkmim; Teixeira, Ricardo Alkmim; Duarte, Andre Loyola

2013-01-01

76

Leptospirosis as frequent cause of acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka.  

PubMed

To determine the proportion of fevers caused by leptospirosis, we obtained serum specimens and epidemiologic and clinical data from patients in Galle, Sri Lanka, March-October 2007. Immunoglobulin M ELISA was performed on paired serum specimens to diagnose acute (seroconversion or 4-fold titer rise) or past (titer without rise) leptospirosis and seroprevalence (acute). We compared (individually) the diagnostic yield of acute-phase specimens and clinical impression with paired specimens for acute leptospirosis. Of 889 patients with paired specimens, 120 had acute leptosoirosis and 241 had past leptospirosis. The sensitivity and specificity of acute-phase serum specimens were 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.2%-25.5%) and 69.2% (95% CI 65.5%-72.7%), respectively, and of clinical impression 22.9% (95% CI 15.4%-32.0%) and 91.7% (95% CI 89.2%-93.8%), respectively. For identifying acute leptospirosis, clinical impression is insensitive, and immunoglobulin M results are more insensitive and costly. Rapid, pathogen-based tests for early diagnosis are needed. PMID:21888794

Reller, Megan E; Bodinayake, Champika; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikara-Arachichi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J; Flom, Judith E; Dumler, J Stephen; Woods, Christopher W

2011-09-01

77

Weakening Effect of Cell Permeabilizers on Gram-Negative Bacteria Causing Biodeterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-negative bacteria play an important role in the formation and stabilization of biofilm structures on stone surfaces. Therefore, the control of growth of gram-negative bacteria offers a way to diminish biodete- rioration of stone materials. The effect of potential permeabilizers on the outer membrane (OM) properties of gram-negative bacteria was investigated and further characterized. In addition, efficacy of the agents

H.-L. Alakomi; A. Paananen; M.-L. Suihko; I. M. Helander; M. Saarela

2006-01-01

78

The inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil on drug-resistant bacteria and evaluation of its acute toxicity  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The excessive and irregular use of antibiotics could result in the generation and diffusion of drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil (ZCHO) on drug-resistant bacteria, especially on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Material/Methods Susceptibility testing was used to evaluate the effect of ZCHO on growth inhibition of drug-resistant bacteria by paper disk method. Mice orally administered with ZCHO were used to observe acute toxicity and to determine median lethal dose (LD50) of ZCHO. Broth dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Results ZCHO exhibited an obvious inhibitory effect not only on gram-negative drug-resistant bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumannii, but also on gram-positive drug-resistant bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The ZCHO containing 79% terpinen-4-ol revealed better bacteriostatic effect than ZCHO with 34% terpinen-4-ol. The LD50 of ZCHO was 1790.427 mg/kg. The MIC and MBC of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 1457.81 mg/L. Conclusions ZCHO has obvious bacteriostasis and bactericidal effects, especially against drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Therefore, ZCHO is a promising natural bioactive component with antibacterial effect and satisfactory safety due to its low toxicity. PMID:21525802

Yang, Ce; Zhou, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Na; Liu, Qing; Hu, Shi-Lin; Li, Ting-Rong; Chen, Yan-Bing; Jiang, Jian-Xin

2011-01-01

79

Toxicity testing with luminescent bacteria--characterization of an automated method for the combined assessment of acute and chronic effects.  

PubMed

The luminescent bacteria test according to EN ISO 11348 is frequently applied in (eco) toxicity testing and is applicable for a huge variety of environmental and industrial samples. A big disadvantage of this method is the very short exposure time, which is expressed in a low sensitivity in regard to substances with a delayed effect. Chronic effects, i.e. interference with cell growth, cannot be assessed with this conventional standard method. The goal of this research was to develop an automated testing system for long term toxicity towards the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri by implementing microtitration-based instrumentation. The optimized method, hereinafter referred to as "kinetic luminescent bacteria test", can be described as a miniaturized combination of the conventional short-term luminescence inhibition test according to EN ISO 11348 and the Photobacterium phosphoreum growth inhibition test (DIN 38412-37). The validation procedure included the evaluation of six reference compounds (3,4-Dichloroaniline, 3,5-Dichlorophenol, Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin sulfate, Potassium dichromate, Zinc sulfate heptahydrate) and three different endpoints that are acute luminescence inhibition (acute LI) after 30 min, chronic luminescence inhibition (chronic LI) after 24h and growth inhibition (GI) after 14 h. The optimized method allows the assessment of acute and chronic effects within one test, by what a misinterpretation of the toxicity of substances with delayed bacterial toxicity can be prevented, without abandoning most of the advantages of the conventional short-term test. Therefore, the kinetic luminescent bacteria test is exceptional as an initial screening test for environmental samples or substances with unknown (eco) toxicological characteristics. PMID:23806483

Menz, J; Schneider, M; Kümmerer, K

2013-10-01

80

A case of cerebellar infarction caused by acute subclavian thrombus following minor trauma.  

PubMed

Subclavian steal syndrome caused by an acute thrombus is very rare. We present a case of cerebellar infarction with proximal subclavian artery thrombosis. A 56-year-old woman was admitted for sudden vertigo. One day prior to admission, she received a shoulder massage comprised of chiropractic manipulation. On examination, her left hand was pale and radial pulses were absent. Blood pressure was weak in the left arm. Downbeat nystagmus and a right falling tendency were observed. Brain MRI showed multiple acute infarctions in the left cerebellum. The findings of Doppler ultrasonography in the left vertebral artery were compatible with a partial subclavian artery steal phenomenon. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a large thrombus in the left subclavian artery. After heparin infusion, thrombus size markedly decreased. Cerebellar infarction caused by acute subclavian thrombosis following minor trauma is rare, but the thrombus can be successfully resolved with anticoagulation. PMID:24142663

Park, Hyeyoung; Kim, Hee-Jin; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jong Yun; Koh, Im-Seok; Nam, Hyo Suk

2013-11-01

81

A Case of Cerebellar Infarction Caused by Acute Subclavian Thrombus Following Minor Trauma  

PubMed Central

Subclavian steal syndrome caused by an acute thrombus is very rare. We present a case of cerebellar infarction with proximal subclavian artery thrombosis. A 56-year-old woman was admitted for sudden vertigo. One day prior to admission, she received a shoulder massage comprised of chiropractic manipulation. On examination, her left hand was pale and radial pulses were absent. Blood pressure was weak in the left arm. Downbeat nystagmus and a right falling tendency were observed. Brain MRI showed multiple acute infarctions in the left cerebellum. The findings of Doppler ultrasonography in the left vertebral artery were compatible with a partial subclavian artery steal phenomenon. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a large thrombus in the left subclavian artery. After heparin infusion, thrombus size markedly decreased. Cerebellar infarction caused by acute subclavian thrombosis following minor trauma is rare, but the thrombus can be successfully resolved with anticoagulation. PMID:24142663

Park, Hyeyoung; Kim, Hee-Jin; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jong Yun; Koh, Im-Seok

2013-01-01

82

Understanding the patterns of antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria causing urinary tract infection in West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of empirical therapy, the susceptibility of antibiotics and resistance pattern of bacteria responsible for UTI in West Bengal, India, were evaluated throughout the period of 2008–2013. The infection reports belonging to all age groups and both sexes were considered. Escherichia coli was the most abundant uropathogen with a prevalence rate of 67.1%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (22%) and Pseudomonas spp. (6%). Penicillin was least effective against UTI-causing E. coli and maximum susceptibility was recorded for the drugs belonging to fourth generation cephalosporins. Other abundant uropathogens, Klebsiella spp., were maximally resistant to broad-spectrum penicillin, followed by aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporin. The antibiotic resistance pattern of two principal UTI pathogens, E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in West Bengal, appears in general to be similar to that found in other parts of the Globe. Higher than 50% resistance were observed for broad-spectrum penicillin. Fourth generation cephalosporin and macrolides seems to be the choice of drug in treating UTIs in Eastern India. Furthermore, improved maintenance of infection incident logs is needed in Eastern Indian hospitals in order to facilitate regular surveillance of the occurrence of antibiotic resistance patterns, since such levels continue to change. PMID:25278932

Saha, Sunayana; Nayak, Sridhara; Bhattacharyya, Indrani; Saha, Suman; Mandal, Amit K.; Chakraborty, Subhanil; Bhattacharyya, Rabindranath; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Franco, Octavio L.; Mandal, Santi M.; Basak, Amit

2014-01-01

83

Acute Cortisol Elevations Cause Heightened Arousal Ratings of Objectively Nonarousing Stimuli  

E-print Network

Acute Cortisol Elevations Cause Heightened Arousal Ratings of Objectively Nonarousing Stimuli the effects of cortisol on affective experience, the authors orally administered a placebo, 20 mg cortisol, or 40 mg cortisol to 85 men. Participants' affective responses to negative and neutral stimuli were

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

84

The Human Bone Marrow Response to Acute Air Pollution Caused by Forest Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pollution increases cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality by unexplained mechanisms. Phagocytosis of fine parti- cles (PM 10 ) by rabbit alveolar macrophages elevates white blood cells (WBC) by releasing precursors from the bone marrow and this could contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiopulmonary disease. The present study examined the association between acute air pol- lution caused by biomass burning and

WAN C. TAN; DIWEN QIU; BENG L. LIAM; TZE P. NG; SZU H. LEE; STEPHAN F. van EEDEN; JAMES C. HOGG

2000-01-01

85

Unsuspected Leptospirosis Is a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemic severe leptospirosis was recognized in Nicaragua in 1995, but unrecognized epidemic and endemic disease remains unstudied. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the burden of and risk factors associated with symptomatic leptospirosis in Nicaragua, we prospectively studied patients presenting with fever at a large teaching hospital. Epidemiologic and clinical features were systematically recorded, and paired sera tested by IgM-ELISA to identify patients with probable and possible acute leptospirosis. Microscopic Agglutination Test and PCR were used to confirm acute leptospirosis. Among 704 patients with paired sera tested by MAT, 44 had acute leptospirosis. Patients with acute leptospirosis were more likely to present during rainy months and to report rural residence and fresh water exposure. The sensitivity of clinical impression and acute-phase IgM detected by ELISA were poor. Conclusions/Significance Leptospirosis is a common (6.3%) but unrecognized cause of acute febrile illness in Nicaragua. Rapid point-of-care tests to support early diagnosis and treatment as well as tests to support population-based studies to delineate the epidemiology, incidence, and clinical spectrum of leptospirosis, both ideally pathogen-based, are needed. PMID:25058149

Reller, Megan E.; Wunder, Elsio A.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Flom, Judith E.; Mayorga, Orlando; Woods, Christopher W.; Ko, Albert I.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Matute, Armando J.

2014-01-01

86

Bilateral stones as a cause of acute renal failure in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) due to obstructive uropathy is a urological emergency. The standard radiological investigations in the emergency setting include X-ray, ultrasonography and computed tomography. But occasionally the cause of obstruction may be elusive. METHODS: We present a case of obstructive uropathy due to bilateral stones presenting as acute renal failure. The patient underwent successful shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for dissolution of calculi. RESULTS: The patient was successfully treated, and reported asymptomatic in a follow-up. CONCLUSION: Close collaboration between nephrological, urological, and radiological services is required.

Alonso, Joaquin V.; cachinero, Pedro L.; Ubeda, Fran R.; Ruiz, Daniel J. L.; Blanco, Alfredo

2014-01-01

87

Are acute infarcts the cause of leukoaraiosis? Brain mapping for 16 consecutive weeks.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging of older adults commonly reveals abnormality (leukoaraiosis) in the cerebral white matter. Studies have established that extensive leukoaraiosis predicts dementia and disability, but the pathogenesis of leukoaraiosis remains unclear. We recruited 5 patients with leukoaraiosis and performed magnetic resonance mapping of the brain for 16 consecutive weeks. We observed tiny lesions arising de novo in the cerebral white matter. These lesions were clinically silent. They had the signature features of acute ischemic stroke. With time, the characteristics of these lesions approached those of pre-existing leukoaraiosis. Together, these findings suggest that tiny silent acute infarcts are a cause of leukoaraiosis. Ann Neurol 2014;76:899-904. PMID:25283088

Conklin, John; Silver, Frank L; Mikulis, David J; Mandell, Daniel M

2014-12-01

88

Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ?2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy. PMID:24996276

Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

2014-09-01

89

Development and evaluation of a safe and effective sugar-free herbal lollipop that kills cavity-causing bacteria.  

PubMed

Dental caries (tooth decay) is caused by a specific group of cariogenic bacteria, like Streptococcus mutans, which convert dietary sugars into acids that dissolve the mineral in tooth structure. Killing cariogenic bacteria is an effective way to control or prevent tooth decay. In a previous study, we discovered a novel compound (Glycyrrhizol A), from the extraction of licorice roots, with strong antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria. In the current study, we developed a method to produce these specific herbal extracts in large quantities, and then used these extracts to develop a sugar-free lollipop that effectively kills cariogenic bacteria like Streptococcus mutans. Further studies showed that these sugar-free lollipops are safe and their antimicrobial activity is stable. Two pilot human studies indicate that a brief application of these lollipops (twice a day for ten days) led to a marked reduction of cariogenic bacteria in oral cavity among most human subjects tested. This herbal lollipop could be a novel tool to promote oral health through functional foods. PMID:21449211

Hu, Chu-Hong; He, Jian; Eckert, Randal; Wu, Xiao-Yang; Li, Li-Na; Tian, Yan; Lux, Renate; Shuffer, Justin A; Gelman, Faina; Mentes, Janet; Spackman, Sue; Bauer, Janet; Anderson, Maxwell H; Shi, Wen-Yuan

2011-01-01

90

Liver infection caused by Coniothyrium fuckelii in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia.  

PubMed

A case of liver infection caused by Coniothyrium fuckelii is described in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. This fungus is found in the soil and can be a pathogen of plants. Coniothyrium spp. are members of the order Sphaeropsidales, an order composed of fungi whose conidiomata are usually pycnidia with the conidiogenous hymenium lining the walls of the locule. Coniothyrium spp. must be differentiated from Phoma spp. and Hendersonula spp., the two most commonly isolated members of the Sphaeropsidales. PMID:3480895

Kiehn, T E; Polsky, B; Punithalingam, E; Edwards, F F; Brown, A E; Armstrong, D

1987-12-01

91

Coronary artery air embolism causing pulmonary edema secondary to acute coronary syndrome in a diver.  

PubMed

Air embolism in the coronary arteries is a known complication of coronary angiography. Diving is a non-iatrogenic cause of arterial air embolism, commonly presenting with neurological and musculoskeletal symptoms. This is the first known case of coronary air embolism confirmed on coronary angiography in a diver presenting with pulmonary edema secondary to acute coronary syndrome. The possible mechanisms of coronary air embolism during a dive are reviewed in this article. PMID:19057040

Sammut, Mark Adrian; Cassar, Andrew; Felice, Herbert

2008-12-01

92

Rectus sheath hematoma caused by non-contact strenuous exercise mimicking acute appendicitis.  

PubMed

A healthy 26-year-old man visited the Emergency Department due to right lower quadrant pain of 2 days' duration that developed after wakeboarding. There was no history of direct trauma to the abdomen. Physical examination revealed tenderness and rebound tenderness on the right lower quadrant area. There was no palpable abdominal mass. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was undertaken to discern the causes of acute abdomen, including acute appendicitis. CT revealed a small-size rectus sheath hematoma beneath the lower end of the right rectus muscle. The patient was admitted for supportive care including pain control and was discharged with improvement after 5 days. Rectus sheath hematoma can be caused by not only a direct blow but also non-contact strenuous exercise, for example, wakeboarding in this case. Although the majority of rectus sheath hematomas are self-limiting, some can cause peritoneal irritation signs, mimicking acute abdomen, and eventually lead to unnecessary laparotomy without clinical suspicion and ancillary tests including CT scan and ultrasonography. PMID:18722739

Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Tae Han; Cha, Sung Jae; Kim, Seung Ho

2010-09-01

93

Evaluation of the acute toxicity of perfluorinated carboxylic acids using eukaryotic cell lines, bacteria and enzymatic assays.  

PubMed

The acute biological activity of a homologous series of perfluorinated carboxylic acids - perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) - was studied. To analyze the potential risk of the perfluorinated acids to humans and the environment, different in vitro toxicity test systems were employed. The cytotoxicity of the chemicals towards two different types of mammalian cell lines and one marine bacteria was investigated. The viability of cells from the promyelocytic leukemia rat cell line (IPC-81) and the rat glioma cell line (C6) was assayed calorimetrically with WST-1 reagent. The evaluation was combined with the Vibrio fischeri acute bioluminescence inhibition assay. The biological activity of the compounds was also determined at the molecular level with acetylcholinesterase and glutathione reductase inhibition assays. This is the first report of the effects of perfluorinated acids on the activity of purified enzymes. The results show these compounds have a very low acute biological activity. The observed effective concentrations lie in the millimole range, which is well above probable intracellular concentrations. A relationship was found between the toxicity of the perfluorinated carboxylic acids and the perfluorocarbon chain length: in every test system applied, the longer the perfluorocarbon chain, the more toxic was the acid. The lowest effective concentrations were thus recorded for perfluorononanoic and perfluorodecanoic acids. PMID:21783770

Mulkiewicz, E; Jastorff, B; Sk?adanowski, A C; Kleszczy?ski, K; Stepnowski, P

2007-05-01

94

Scrub Typhus Is an Under-recognized Cause of Acute Febrile Illness with Acute Kidney Injury in India  

PubMed Central

Background Infection-related acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropical region. The prevalence and outcome of kidney involvement, especially AKI, in scrub typhus is not known. We investigated all patients with undiagnosed fever and multisystem involvement for scrub typhus and present the pattern of renal involvement seen. Methods From September 2011 to November 2012, blood samples of all the patients with unexplained acute febrile illness and/or varying organ involvement were evaluated for evidence of scrub typhus. A confirmed case of scrub typhus was defined as one with detectable Orientia tsutsugamushi deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in patient's blood sample by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the gene encoding 56-kDa antigen and without any alternative etiological diagnosis. Renal involvement was defined by demonstration of abnormal urinalysis and/or reduced glomerular filtration rate. AKI was defined as per Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition. Results Out of 201 patients tested during this period, 49 were positive by nested PCR for scrub typhus. Mean age of study population was 34.1±14.4 (range 11–65) years. Majority were males and a seasonal trend was evident with most cases following the rainy season. Overall, renal abnormalities were seen in 82% patients, 53% of patients had AKI (stage 1, 2 and 3 in 10%, 8% and 35%, respectively). The urinalysis was abnormal in 61%, with dipstick positive albuminuria (55%) and microscopic hematuria (16%) being most common. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and shock were seen in 57% and 16% of patients, respectively. Hyperbilirubinemia was associated with AKI (p?=?0.013). A total of 8 patients (including three with dialysis dependent AKI) expired whereas rest all made uneventful recovery. Jaundice, oliguria, ARDS and AKI were associated with mortality. However, after multivariate analysis, only oliguric AKI remained a significant predictor of mortality (p?=?0.002). Conclusions Scrub typhus was diagnosed in 24% of patients presenting with unexplained febrile illness according to a strict case definition not previously used in this region. Renal abnormalities were seen in almost 82% of all patients with evidence of AKI in 53%. Our finding is contrary to current perception that scrub typhus rarely causes renal dysfunction. We suggest that all patients with unexplained febrile illness be investigated for scrub typhus and AKI looked for in scrub typhus patients. PMID:24498445

Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Vinod; Yadav, Ashok K.; Iyengar, Sreenivasa; Bhalla, Ashish; Sharma, Navneet; Aggarwal, Ritesh; Jain, Sanjay; Jha, Vivekanand

2014-01-01

95

Interactions between amphibians' symbiotic bacteria cause the production of emergent anti-fungal metabolites.  

PubMed

Amphibians possess beneficial skin bacteria that protect against the disease chytridiomycosis by producing secondary metabolites that inhibit the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Metabolite production may be a mechanism of competition between bacterial species that results in host protection as a by-product. We expect that some co-cultures of bacterial species or strains will result in greater Bd inhibition than mono-cultures. To test this, we cultured four bacterial isolates (Bacillus sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Chitinophaga arvensicola) from red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and cultured isolates both alone and together to collect their cell-free supernatants (CFS). We challenged Bd with CFSs from four bacterial species in varying combinations. This resulted in three experimental treatments: (1) CFSs of single isolates; (2) combined CFSs of two isolates; and (3) CFSs from co-cultures. Pair-wise combinations of four bacterial isolates CFSs were assayed against Bd and revealed additive Bd inhibition in 42.2% of trials, synergistic inhibition in 42.2% and no effect in 16.6% of trials. When bacteria isolates were grown in co-cultures, complete Bd inhibition was generally observed, and synergistic inhibition occurred in four out of six trials. A metabolite profile of the most potent co-culture, Bacillus sp. and Chitinophaga arvensicola, was determined with LC-MS and compared with the profiles of each isolate in mono-culture. Emergent metabolites appearing in the co-culture were inhibitory to Bd, and the most potent inhibitor was identified as tryptophol. Thus mono-cultures of bacteria cultured from red-backed salamanders interacted synergistically and additively to inhibit Bd, and such bacteria produced emergent metabolites when cultured together, with even greater pathogen inhibition. Knowledge of how bacterial species interact to inhibit Bd can be used to select probiotics to provide amphibians with protection against Bd. PMID:25191317

Loudon, Andrew H; Holland, Jessica A; Umile, Thomas P; Burzynski, Elizabeth A; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Harris, Reid N

2014-01-01

96

CSWS Versus SIADH as the Probable Causes of Hyponatremia in Children With Acute CNS Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective There is a major problem about the incidence, diagnosis, and differentiation of cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) in patients with acute central nervous system (CNS) disorders. According to rare reports of these cases, this study was performed in children with acute CNS disorders for diagnosis of CSWS versus SIADH. Materials & Methods This prospective study was done on children with acute CNS disorders. The definition of CSWS was hyponatremia (serum sodium ?130 mEq/L), urine volume output ?3 ml/kg/hr, urine specific gravity ?1020 and urinary sodium concentration ?100 mEq/L. Also, patients with hyponatremia (serum sodium ?130 mEq/L), urine output < 3 ml/kg/hr, urine specific gravity ?1020, and urinary sodium concentration >20 mEq/L were considered to have SIADH. Results Out of 102 patients with acute CNS disorders, 62 (60.8%) children were male with mean age of 60.47±42.39 months. Among nine children with hyponatremia (serum sodium ?130 mEq/L), 4 children had CSWS and 3 patients had SIADH. In 2 cases, the cause of hyponatremia was not determined. The mean day of hyponatremia after admission was 5.11±3.31 days. It was 5.25±2.75 and 5.66±7.23 days in children with CSWS and SIADH, respectively. Also, the urine sodium (mEq/L) was 190.5±73.3 and 58.7±43.8 in patients with CSWS and SIADH, respectively. Conclusion According to the results of this study, the incidence of CSWS was more than SIADH in children with acute CNS disorders. So, more attention is needed to differentiate CSWS versus SIADH in order to their different management. PMID:24665304

SORKHI, Hadi; SALEHI OMRAN, Mohammad Reza; BARARI SAVADKOOHI, Rahim; BAGHDADI, Farkhondeh; NAKHJAVANI, Naeemeh; BIJANI, Ali

2013-01-01

97

Jejunal diverticulitis ascending to the duodenum as a rare cause of acute abdomen.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 73 year-old Caucasian male with acute abdominal pain, peritonism and vomiting. Due to the severity of symptoms a CT examination of the abdomen was performed. The scans revealed multiple jejunal diverticula, wall thickening of the duodenum and jejunum, and free peritoneal fluid. No clear signs of mesenteric infarction, free abdominal air or abscess formation were seen. An additional exploratory laparotomy was conducted to confirm the CT findings and rule out the need for resection of small bowel. Since the results were matching, conservative therapy was scheduled and the patient recovered well. Jejunal diverticulitis is a rare cause of acute abdomen, however has to be considered as a differential diagnosis to more common entities. It usually stays localized, while in our case the inflammation ascended to the duodenum. CT is the modality of choice to diagnose and rule out potentially life threatening complications. PMID:25302248

Fresow, Robert; Vieweg, Hendryk; Kamusella, Peter; Talanow, Roland; Andresen, Reimer

2014-08-01

98

Acute respiratory failure caused by organizing pneumonia secondary to antineoplastic therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Interstitial lung diseases belong to a group of diseases that typically exhibit a subacute or chronic progression but that may cause acute respiratory failure. The male patient, who was 37 years of age and undergoing therapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, was admitted with cough, fever, dyspnea and acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation and antibiotic therapy were initiated but were associated with unfavorable progression. Thoracic computed tomography showed bilateral pulmonary "ground glass" opacities. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy was initiated with satisfactory response because the patient had used three drugs related to organizing pneumonia (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and rituximab), and the clinical and radiological symptoms were suggestive. Organizing pneumonia may be idiopathic or linked to collagen diseases, drugs and cancer and usually responds to corticosteroid therapy. The diagnosis was anatomopathological, but the patient's clinical condition precluded performing a lung biopsy. Organizing pneumonia should be a differential diagnosis in patients with apparent pneumonia and a progression that is unfavorable to antimicrobial treatment. PMID:23917942

Santana, Adriell Ramalho; Amorim, Fabio Ferreira; Soares, Paulo Henrique Alves; de Moura, Edmilson Bastos; Maia, Marcelo de Oliveira

2012-01-01

99

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection causing acute coronary syndrome in a young patient without risk factors  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction that is more common in younger patients (under age 50) and in women. Although the etiology is not known, some predisposing conditions to SCAD are well known and include Marfan syndrome, pregnancy and peripartum state, drug abuse, and some anatomical abnormalities of the coronary arteries such as aneurysms and severe kinking. We describe a case of SCAD in a young woman who presented with sudden onset of chest pain and was admitted for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. The coronary angiography showed dissection of the left anterior descending artery. The patient underwent successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and stent placement.

Chevli, Parag; Kelash, Fnu; Gadhvi, Pragnesh; Grandhi, Sreeram; Syed, Amer

2014-01-01

100

Jejunal Diverticulitis Ascending to the Duodenum as a Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 73 year-old Caucasian male with acute abdominal pain, peritonism and vomiting. Due to the severity of symptoms a CT examination of the abdomen was performed. The scans revealed multiple jejunal diverticula, wall thickening of the duodenum and jejunum, and free peritoneal fluid. No clear signs of mesenteric infarction, free abdominal air or abscess formation were seen. An additional exploratory laparotomy was conducted to confirm the CT findings and rule out the need for resection of small bowel. Since the results were matching, conservative therapy was scheduled and the patient recovered well. Jejunal diverticulitis is a rare cause of acute abdomen, however has to be considered as a differential diagnosis to more common entities. It usually stays localized, while in our case the inflammation ascended to the duodenum. CT is the modality of choice to diagnose and rule out potentially life threatening complications.

Fresow, Robert; Kamusella, Peter; Talanow, Roland; Andresen, Reimer

2014-01-01

101

Predation as a cause of neurologic signs and acute mortality in a pheasant flock.  

PubMed

A flock of approximately 15,000 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) was evaluated for a sudden increase in mortality and acute neurological signs after having been previously diagnosed 3 wk earlier with a chronic respiratory disease of undetermined etiology. Approximately 25 live birds were displaying neurological signs including circling, ataxia, and obtunded behavior and 50 birds were dead. Three birds with neurological signs were submitted for evaluation. Extensive subcutaneous hemorrhage over the head and penetrating puncture wounds through the skull and into the brain were found. Trauma from a wild predatory mammal, most likely the long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata) that had invaded the pheasant house and expressed surplus killing behavior was determined to be the cause of the acute neurological signs and mortality. The relationship of the chronic respiratory disease to the predation episode was not determined but it is possible that pheasants with severe respiratory disease may have had increased susceptibility to predation. PMID:17039853

Martin, M P; Anderson, C M; Johnson, B; Wakenell, P S

2006-09-01

102

Plasma needle treatment of bacteria known to cause infections of the soft tissue of the oral region and bones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma needle can be used for non-contact disinfection of dental cavities and wounds, minimum-destructive precise treatment, as well as the removal of damaged tissue. The effect of bacterial deactivation is probably caused by reactive oxygen species while nitric oxide provided by plasma plays major role in many processes in the organism. Mass spectrometry was done to provide better insight into plasma-cell interactions. Our measurements were performed on a plasma needle that we originally used for the treatment of plant cells.Our research was done on species that are known to cause primary and secondary infections of the soft tissue of the oral region, as well as bones. The bacteria cultures used are bacterial reference culture species Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. We investigated the effect of the plasma needle discharge on different concentration of bacteria using several exposure times and power transmitted to the plasma. It was found that excellent removal of this and other bacteria may be achieved by the plasma needle treatment.

Maletic, Dejan; Lazovic, Sasa; Puac, Nevena; Malovic, Gordana; Petrovic, Zoran Lj.; Miletic, Maja P.; Pavlica, Dusan B.; Jovanovic, Milena Z.; Milenkovic, Pavle

2009-10-01

103

Defining the Cause of Death in Hospitalised Patients with Acute Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

Background The high mortality rates that follow the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI) are well recognised. However, the mode of death in patients with AKI remains relatively under-studied, particularly in general hospitalised populations who represent the majority of those affected. We sought to describe the primary cause of death in a large group of prospectively identified patients with AKI. Methods All patients sustaining AKI at our centre between 1st October 2010 and 31st October 2011 were identified by real-time, hospital-wide, electronic AKI reporting based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) diagnostic criteria. Using this system we are able to generate a prospective database of all AKI cases that includes demographic, outcome and hospital coding data. For those patients that died during hospital admission, cause of death was derived from the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death. Results During the study period there were 3,930 patients who sustained AKI; 62.0% had AKI stage 1, 20.6% had stage 2 and 17.4% stage 3. In-hospital mortality rate was 21.9% (859 patients). Cause of death could be identified in 93.4% of cases. There were three main disease categories accounting for three quarters of all mortality; sepsis (41.1%), cardiovascular disease (19.2%) and malignancy (12.9%). The major diagnosis leading to sepsis was pneumonia, whilst cardiovascular death was largely a result of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease. AKI was the primary cause of death in only 3% of cases. Conclusions Mortality associated with AKI remains high, although cause of death is usually concurrent illness. Specific strategies to improve outcomes may therefore need to target not just the management of AKI but also the most relevant co-existing conditions. PMID:23133643

Selby, Nicholas M.; Kolhe, Nitin V.; McIntyre, Christopher W.; Monaghan, John; Lawson, Nigel; Elliott, David; Packington, Rebecca; Fluck, Richard J.

2012-01-01

104

Identification of the cause of weak acute toxicity to rainbow trout at a petroleum refinery  

SciTech Connect

The refinery in question performs flow through acute toxicity tests on its effluent four times per month using three fish species: fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus oculeatus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Several months of monitoring data indicated a transient low level acute toxicity to rainbow trout. In most cases, several days were required for mortality to occur in the flow through tests and numerous attempts to reproduce toxicity in static and static renewal tests were unsuccessful. A decision was made to manipulate the effluent in an attempt to enhance the toxic effect in the static mode so that conventional methods could be used to identify the cause. these tests indicated that toxicity was pH dependent. Additional testing, using EPA`s Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation methods suggested that the cause of toxicity was probably an organic acid. Experiments were subsequently begun to identify the specific cause and source of toxicity. This paper reviews the problems confronted during the various phases of the study and the decisions that were made that eventually led to an understanding of the basis of toxicity.

Arnold, W.R.; Zaleski, R.T.; Biddinger, G.R.

1995-12-31

105

[Acute ear trauma caused by failure of mobile phone/cellular phone].  

PubMed

The case of acute acoustic and burn ear trauma caused by mobile phone failure is presented. A woman aged 24 after dialling a phone number and putting a phone into the ear heard a sound of high frequency and intensity. At the same time she felt a pain and heat and there was also a smoke from the phone. With otoscopic examination a burn of external acoustic duct (I0) and sensitive hearing loss (examination made with tuning forks) were stated. The patient did not agree to stay in hospital and she was administered prednizone, trimetazidin and xantylol nicotinate. Audiometric examination, which was made on another day, showed hearing loss of 30 dB for frequency 4000Hz. After 2 days she started to hear a sound like a sea noise in her right ear. In the control examination, made 2 weeks after injury, no abnormalities in audiogram were stated but the patient steal heard ear noise. She continued to take trimetazidin and betahistin and after one month all symptoms of ear injury relieved. Patient is still under control of otolaryngologist. Unfortunately our efforts to explain the cause of such accident from phone producer were ineffective. Described case proves that mobile phone failure can be a cause of acute ear injury. PMID:18260236

Amernik, Katarzyna; Kabaci?ska, Anna; Tarnowska, Czes?awa; Paradowska-Opa?ka, Beata

2007-01-01

106

Acute pancreatitis caused by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for bilateral renal pelvic calculi.  

PubMed

An elderly woman with a history of cholecystectomy and a re-operation for postoperative peritonitis underwent extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for right and left renal pelvic calculi, 11 x 6 and 12 x 5 mm in size, to which 2400 and 1400 shots at 20 kV were given, respectively, on the same day. During the evening after the operation, the patient started to complain of upper abdominal pain. Laboratory examination on the next day revealed elevations in blood and urine amylase levels and a diagnosis of pancreatitis was made. Conservative treatment, including administration of protease inhibitor, did not improve her symptoms; abdominal distension became marked and she underwent laparotomy. Necrosection and indwelling of several drain tubes in abdomen were performed with an operative diagnosis of acute necrotic pancreatitis. With daily irrigation of drain tubes and treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphyloococcus aureus infection of the lungs and abdominal cavity, septicemia and duodenal fistula, the patient gradually recovered and was discharged on postoperative day 151. It was suggested that ESWL was responsible for the acute pancreatitis. Either an obstruction of the pancreatic duct by fragments of common duct stone, or mechanical injury of the pancreas due to adhesion between the pancreas and surrounding tissue caused by the lapalotomy, was considered as a possible cause of pancreatitis. To our knowledge, there has been no previous report of severe acute pancreatitis and the present case suggests that ESWL may cause severe pancreatic even in cases without stone shadow in the bile, common duct or pancreatic duct. PMID:10710251

Abe, H; Nisimura, T; Osawa, S; Miura, T; Oka, F

2000-02-01

107

Role of special pathogenicity versus prevalence theory in pathogenesis of acute cystitis caused by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen causing acute cystitis in sexually active women. Human faeces are generally considered the primary reservoir for infection and the faecal-perineal-urethral pathway is the accepted route of infection. Two theories have been proposed for the pathogenesis of acute cystitis: (1) special pathogenicity, where uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) encoding special virulence factors causes infection; and (2) prevalence, wherein ordinary faecal E. coli causes infection by simple mass action. The aim of this study was to compare concurrent urinary E. coli isolates from women with acute cystitis with their own dominant faecal, vaginal E. coli isolates; thus, these patients served as their own control. E. coli isolates from 80 women were analysed by phylotyping, virulence profiling (for 15 putative virulence genes) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR. A virulence score was calculated for each isolate based on the number of virulence genes detected. Four host ecological groups of E. coli were created on the basis of ERIC PCR: group UVF, where vaginal and faecal isolates yielded the infecting urine clone; group UV, where only vaginal isolates yielded the infecting urine clone; group UF, where faecal isolates yielded the infecting urine clone; and group U, where the infecting urine clone was distinct. In the majority of cases the infecting E. coli clone from urine was also the dominant faecal clone (56.3%; groups UVF and UF possessing high virulence scores of 4.6 and 3.9, respectively), indicating that both mechanisms play a role in pathogenesis. Non-dominant yet virulent faecal clones or an external source of E. coli seems a possibility in the UV group (13.7%, VF score 4.8). In 30% of patients (U group) the infecting urine clone was non-dominant and possessed a low virulence score (2.7); suggesting a possible role for host factors in establishing infection. PMID:24899598

Srivastava, Richa; Agarwal, Jyotsna; Srivastava, Sugandha; Mishra, Bharti

2014-08-01

108

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: an unusual cause of acute jaundice after paracetamol overdose.  

PubMed

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest human enzyme defect causing haemolytic anaemia after exposure to specific triggers. Paracetamol-induced haemolysis in G6PD deficiency is a rare complication and mostly reported in children. We report the first case (to the best of our knowledge) of acute jaundice without overt clinical features of a haemolytic crisis, in an otherwise healthy adult female following paracetamol overdose, due to previously undiagnosed G6PD deficiency. It is important that clinicians consider this condition when a patient presents following a paracetamol overdose with significant and disproportionate jaundice, without transaminitis or coagulopathy. PMID:24684729

Phillpotts, Simon; Tash, Elliot; Sen, Sambit

2014-11-01

109

Inappropriate ICD Shocks caused by T-wave Oversensing due to Acute Alcohol Intoxication  

PubMed Central

T-wave oversensing can be a serious problem that often results in inappropriate device therapy. We report here a patient with binge alcohol use who received multiple, inappropriate ICD shocks due to T-wave oversensing from repolarization changes induced by acute alcohol intoxication and no other relevant metabolic derangements. Following recovery from his alcohol intoxication a few days later, the T-wave amplitude decreased so the device no longer inappropriately sensed or delivered therapies. This case represents an uncommon, but reversible cause of T-wave oversensing, that should be considered before more aggressive measures are taken to correct the abnormality. PMID:22385111

Rasania, Suraj P.; Mountantonakis, Stavros; Patel, Vickas V.

2012-01-01

110

Acute myocardial infarction in a young man caused by centipede sting  

PubMed Central

It is known that insects can cause various clinical effects such as myocardial ischaemia and hypotension from vasospasm and the myocardial toxic effects of the venom and anaphylaxis. Although myocardial ischaemia resulting from centipede sting has been reported once before, myocardial injury has not. In this report, the authors present the case of a 20?year old male patient bitten by a centipede and admitted to the emergency room with chest pain, abnormal electrocardiographic findings, and increased cardiac enzymes (cardiac troponin T) suggesting acute myocardial infarction. PMID:16549562

Yildiz, A; Biceroglu, S; Yakut, N; Bilir, C; Akdemir, R; Akilli, A

2006-01-01

111

ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

112

Acute small bowel obstruction caused by endometriosis: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal involvement of endometriosis has been found in 3%-37% of menstruating women and exclusive localization on the ileum is very rare (1%-7%). Endometriosis of the distal ileum is an infrequent cause of intestinal obstruction, ranging from 7% to 23% of all cases with intestinal involvement. We report a case in which endometrial infiltration of the small bowel caused acute obstruction requiring emergency surgery, in a woman whose symptoms were not related to menses. Histology of the resected specimen showed that endometriosis was mainly prevalent in the muscularis propria and submucosa and that the mucosa was not ulcerated but had inflammation and glandular alteration. Endometrial lymph node involvement, with a cystic glandular pattern was also detected. PMID:18528943

De Ceglie, Antonella; Bilardi, Claudio; Blanchi, Sabrina; Picasso, Massimo; Di Muzio, Marcello; Trimarchi, Alberto; Conio, Massimo

2008-06-01

113

Mesenteric inflammatory veno-occlusive disease as a rare cause of acute abdomen.  

PubMed

Mesenteric inflammatory veno-occlusive disease is a rare but recognized cause of intestinal ischemia, who can be defined as phlebitis or venulitis affecting mesentery or the bowel, without any evidence of coexisting of an obvious predisposing cause or a coexisting arterial inflammatory involvement. We report the case of a male patient, 63 year old, admitted in the Emergency County Hospital of Craiova, who after presenting with an acute abdomen, underwent exploratory laparotomy and resection of the ischemic sigmoid, temporary colostomy and after four months we reintroduced descendent colon in the digestive transit. The resected specimen of the patient was examined histopathologically, and distinctive histopathological characteristics of the mesenteric inflammatory veno-occlusive disease were identified. PMID:17502958

Me?in?, C; Vasile, I; Pa?alega, M; Calot?, F; Vâlcea, I D; Me?in?-Botoran, Mihaela Iustina; Paraliov, T; Foarf?, Camelia; Ghilu?i, Mirela

2007-01-01

114

Acute Hypersensitivity Syndrome Caused by Valproic Acid: A Review of the Literature and a Case Report  

PubMed Central

Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic medication used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Its toxicity profile is characterized by a very rare but well-documented complication—hepatotoxicity. The risk of acute hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) caused by VPA is less well known. In the vast majority of reported cases of AHS, the syndrome is the result of aromatic anticonvulsants (AAs), such as carbamazepine or phenytoin. These compounds also have in-class cross-reactivity. We present the case of a 25-year-old woman with bipolar disorder who was unable to tolerate aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and lamotrigine. She was given extended-release VPA as a trial and developed AHS with a generalized rash, fever, liver and kidney involvement, and eosinophilia one week after the initiation of treatment. She recovered after one month of treatment, which included ten days of hospitalization. Our review of the literature focuses on AA and non-AA medications causing AHS. PMID:21841930

Bota, Robert G; Ligasan, Allein P; Najdowski, Tom G; Novac, Andrei

2011-01-01

115

Acute hypersensitivity syndrome caused by valproic Acid: a review of the literature and a case report.  

PubMed

Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic medication used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Its toxicity profile is characterized by a very rare but well-documented complication-hepatotoxicity. The risk of acute hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) caused by VPA is less well known. In the vast majority of reported cases of AHS, the syndrome is the result of aromatic anticonvulsants (AAs), such as carbamazepine or phenytoin. These compounds also have in-class cross-reactivity. We present the case of a 25-year-old woman with bipolar disorder who was unable to tolerate aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and lamotrigine. She was given extended-release VPA as a trial and developed AHS with a generalized rash, fever, liver and kidney involvement, and eosinophilia one week after the initiation of treatment. She recovered after one month of treatment, which included ten days of hospitalization. Our review of the literature focuses on AA and non-AA medications causing AHS. PMID:21841930

Bota, Robert G; Ligasan, Allein P; Najdowski, Tom G; Novac, Andrei

2011-01-01

116

Acute pulmonary embolism caused by enlarged uterine leiomyoma: A rare presentation  

PubMed Central

Patient: Female, 42 Final Diagnosis: Acute pulmonary embolism Symptoms: Chest pain • dyspnea Medication: Streptokinase • Warfarin Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology and Neoplasm Objective: Management of emergency care Background: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and subsequent pulmonary embolism (PE) caused by pelvic vein compression are rare and life-threatening complications of leiomyoma of the uterus. Case Report: We report a 42-year-old virgin woman with a history of leiomyoma who presented to the emergency department with complaints of dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain with transient spotting. On physical examination, she had a non-tender abdomen with a 20-week size uterus. Imaging investigations revealed an acute DVT in her left leg and a huge uterine-derived mass compressing the common iliac veins. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated an echogenic mass in her right pulmonary artery consistent with thrombosis. The patient was completely cured using thrombolytic therapy and myomectomy, and was well at 1 year after thrombolysis. Conclusions: PE caused by pelvic vein compression is a rare complication of leiomyoma, which should be considered. Thrombolytic therapy associated with myomectomy can be implemented for treating such cases, and TEE can be used for diagnosing suspected high-risk PE. PMID:25061497

Khademvatani, Kamal; Rezaei, Yousef; Kerachian, Abdollah; Seyyed-Mohammadzad, Mir Hossein; Eskandari, Ramin; Rostamzadeh, Alireza

2014-01-01

117

Outbreak of acute fluoride poisoning caused by a fluoride overfeed, Mississippi, 1993.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent and confirm the cause of an August 1993 outbreak of acute fluoride poisoning in a small Mississippi community, thought to result from excess fluoride in the public water supply. METHODS: State health department investigators interviewed patrons of a restaurant where the outbreak first became manifest and obtained blood and urine samples for measurement of fluoride levels. State health department staff conducted a random sample telephone survey of community households. Public health environmentalists obtained water and ice samples from the restaurant and tap water samples from a household close to one of the town's water treatment plant for analysis. Health department investigators and town water department officials inspected the fluoridation system at the town's main water treatment plant. RESULTS: Thirty-four of 62 restaurant patrons reported acute gastrointestinal illness over a 24-hour period. Twenty of 61 households that used the community water supply reported one or more residents with acute gastrointestinal illness over a four-day period, compared with 3 of 13 households that did not use the community water supply. Restaurant water and ice samples contained more than 40 milligrams of fluoride per liter (mg/L), more than 20 times the recommended limit, and a tap water sample from a house located near the main treatment plant contained 200 mg/l of fluoride. An investigation determined that a faulty feed pump at one of the town's two treatment plants had allowed saturated fluoride solution to siphon from the saturator tank into the ground reservoir and that a large bolus of this overfluoridated water had been pumped accidentally into the town system. CONCLUSIONS: Correct installation and regular inspection and maintenance of fluoridation systems are needed to prevent such incidents. PMID:9323392

Penman, A D; Brackin, B T; Embrey, R

1997-01-01

118

Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae as primary causes of acute otitis media in colombian children: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most frequently encountered bacterial infections in children aged < 5 years; Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are historically identified as primary AOM causes. Nevertheless, recent data on bacterial pathogens causing AOM in Latin America are limited. This prospective study aimed to identify and characterize bacterial etiology and serotypes of AOM cases including antimicrobial susceptibility in < 5 year old Colombian children. Methods From February 2008 to January 2009, children ?3 months and < 5 years of age presenting with AOM and for whom a middle ear fluid (MEF) sample was available were enrolled in two medical centers in Cali, Colombia. MEF samples were collected either by tympanocentesis procedure or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling. Bacteria were identified using standard laboratory methods, and antimicrobial resistance testing was performed based on the 2009 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. Most of the cases included in the study were sporadic in nature. Results Of the 106 enrolled children, 99 were included in the analysis. Bacteria were cultured from 62/99 (63%) of samples with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, or S. pyogenes. The most commonly isolated bacteria were H. influenzae in 31/99 (31%) and S. pneumoniae in 30/99 (30%) of samples. The majority of H. influenzae episodes were NTHi (27/31; 87%). 19F was the most frequently isolated pneumococcal serotype (10/30; 33%). Of the 30 S. pneumoniae positive samples, 8/30 (27%) were resistant to tetracycline, 5/30 (17%) to erythromycin and 8/30 (27%) had intermediate resistance to penicillin. All H. influenzae isolates tested were negative to beta-lactamase. Conclusions NTHi and S. pneumoniae are the leading causes of AOM in Colombian children. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that prevents both pathogens could be useful in maximizing protection against AOM. PMID:21208431

2011-01-01

119

Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust  

PubMed Central

Iron (Fe0) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H2S, and scavenge of ‘cathodic’ H2 from chemical reaction of Fe0 with H2O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe0 year?1), while conventional H2-scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO3, Mg/CaCO3) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m?1). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe0 ? 4Fe2+ + 8e?) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e? + SO42? + 9H+ ? HS? + 4H2O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H2 rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments. PMID:22616633

Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

2012-01-01

120

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: a neglected cause of acute myocardial ischaemia and sudden death.  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute myocardial ischaemia. Eight consecutive fatal cases which occurred in women aged 34-54 years (mean 43) are described. The dissection involved the left anterior descending coronary artery in four, the left main trunk in two, the right coronary artery in one, and both left anterior descending and circumflex arteries in one. The clinical presentation was sudden death in six cases, and acute myocardial infarction in two. Diagnosis was made at necropsy in every case but one, in which coronary dissection was diagnosed during life by selective coronary angiography. The only ascertained risk factor was hypertension in one patient; none of the women was in the puerperium, and Marfan syndrome was excluded in all. Histology showed a haematoma between the coronary tunica media and adventitia, that flattened and occluded the lumen; a coronary intimal tear was detected in only two cases. Unusual histological findings were cystic medial necrosis in one case, eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrates in four, and angiomatosis of the tunica adventitia in one. Patients dying of spontaneous coronary dissection are usually middle aged women, with no coronary atherosclerosis and apparently no risk factors. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is unpredictable, and sudden death is the usual mode of clinical presentation. Prompt diagnosis and life saving treatment is far from being achieved. Images PMID:8665336

Basso, C.; Morgagni, G. L.; Thiene, G.

1996-01-01

121

Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing otitis externa in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial agents are considered important pathogens causing external otitis in dogs. It is essential to carry out bacterial\\u000a culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test in the case of otitis externa, particularly for chronic or recurring cases.\\u000a Sterile swab samples were obtained from terminal part of vertical ear canals of 74 dogs with otitis externa for cytology,\\u000a bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility

Hamed Zamankhan Malayeri; Shahram Jamshidi; Taghi Zahraei Salehi

2010-01-01

122

Bacteria causing important diseases of citrus utilise distinct modes of pathogenesis to attack a common host  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on three pathogens that exhibit distinct tissue specificity and modes of\\u000a pathogenesis in citrus plants. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes canker disease and invades the host leaf mesophyll tissue through natural openings and can also survive as an epiphyte.\\u000a Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter are vectored by insects and proliferate in the

Adrián Alberto Vojnov; Alexandre Morais do Amaral; John Maxwell Dow; Atilio Pedro Castagnaro; Marìa Rosa Marano

2010-01-01

123

[Prevalence of the bacteria causing diarrea in a Rosario Hospital, Argentina].  

PubMed

Bacterial agents causing diarrea in patients attended in a hospital of Rosario, Argentina. The frequency of bacterial agents causing diarrhea can vary in patients of different areas, and through the time. In an epidemiological surveillance we studied 304 patients with diarrheal diseases looking for Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp, Campylobacter spp, Aeromonas spp, Yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheogenic Escherichia coli. C. jejuni was isolated in 30 patients (9,9 %), Salmonella in 18 (5,9 %), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in 7 (2,3 %). Most cases due ton C. jejuni had mucus and/or blood in their feces. Unexpectedly we didn't fine any cases due to Shigella spp. There was much less cases due to EPEC than in our previous studies, and occurred only in children of less than 5 years old. It is necesary to take in consideration that C. jejuni cause nearly all the cases of diarrhea in patients with mucus and blood in their feces actually in our region. PMID:17639815

Gambandé, Telma; Damiano, Mario; Borda, Noemí; Notario, Rodolfo; Aita, José

2006-01-01

124

Small bowel enterocyte abnormalities caused by methotrexate treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia of childhood.  

PubMed Central

Jejunal biopsy specimens from 10 children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia on methotrexate treatment were compared with 10 from children being investigated for diarrhoea or failure to thrive. In association with methotrexate treatment on both light and electron microscopy, there were marked morphological abnormalities in the villus enterocytes. These consisted of a striking distention of the lateral basal intercellular spaces, cell vacuolation and patchy necrosis and was most marked when methotrexate treatment was given between 24 and 72 h before biopsy. Two mechanisms may be involved: an early direct toxic effect on the mature enterocyte coupled with interference with crypt cell generation, possibly causing ageing and loss of cells proximal to the normal extrusion zone. These pathological changes may account for the malabsorption in association with methotrexate treatment. Images PMID:6943149

Gwavava, N J; Pinkerton, C R; Glasgow, J F; Sloan, J M; Bridges, J M

1981-01-01

125

A rare case of acute leukemia relapsing with a granulocytic sarcoma causing ectopic pregnancy.  

PubMed

A 33 year old female was admitted to department of obstetric and gynaecology with profuse vaginal bleeding. She was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia 3 months ago. Pelvic ultrasound was unremarkable. Since vaginal bleeding persisted despite normal platelet counts low dose methotrexate was administered with the presumptive diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. A laparoscopic investigation was performed as she did not respond to this treatment which revealed an intraluminal ectopic pregnancy in her right fallopian tube. A pathological specimen was obtained. Granulocytic sarcoma is an infiltrate of immature granulocytic precursor cells in an extramedullary site. To best of our knowledge, this case is the third patient with GS in the fallopian tube and the first case causing ectopic pregnancy. PMID:25332544

Pamukçuo?lu, Merve; Acar, Kadir; Akyürek, Nalan; Sucak, Gülsan Türköz

2014-09-01

126

Alcohol increases circulatory disease mortality in Russia: acute and chronic effects or misattribution of cause?  

PubMed Central

Background There is a consensus that the large fluctuations in mortality seen in Russia in the past two decades can be attributed to trends in alcohol consumption. However, the precise mechanisms linking alcohol to mortality from circulatory disease remain unclear. It has recently been argued that a substantial number of such deaths currently ascribed to cardiovascular disorders are misclassified cases of acute alcohol poisoning. Methods Analysis of routine mortality data and of a case–control study of mortality among working-age (25–54 years) men occurring in the Russian city of Izhevsk, west of the Ural mountains, 2003–05. Interviews were carried out with proxy informants for both the dead cases (N?=?1750) and the controls (N?=?1750) selected at random from a population register. Mortality was analysed according to indicators of alcohol problems. Results Hazardous drinking was associated with an increased risk of death from circulatory diseases as a whole [odds ratio (OR)?=?4.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.23, 5.31] adjusted for age, smoking and education. The association with alcoholic cardiomyopathy was particularly strong (OR?=?15.7, 95% CI 9.5, 25.9). Although there was no association with deaths from myocardial infarction (MI; OR?=?1.17, 95% CI 0.59, 2.32), there was a strong association with the aggregate of all other ischaemic heart disease (IHD; OR?=?4.04, 95% CI 2.79, 5.84). Stronger associations for each of these causes (other than MI) were seen with whether or not the man had drunk very heavily in the previous week. However, associations also remained when analyses were restricted to subjects with no evidence of recent heavy drinking, suggesting that misclassification of acute alcohol poisonings is unlikely to explain these overall associations. Conclusion Taken as a whole, the available evidence suggests that the positive association of alcohol with increased cardiovascular disease mortality may be best explained as being the result of a combination of chronic and acute alcohol consumption resulting in alcohol-related cardiac disorders, especially cardiomyopathy, rather than being due to misclassification of acute alcohol poisoning. Further work is required to understand the mechanisms underlying the link between heavy alcohol consumption and deaths classified as being due to IHD (other than MI). PMID:20591986

Leon, David A; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; McKee, Martin; Kiryanov, Nikolay; Andreev, Evgueny

2010-01-01

127

Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticle-coated fabric and leather against odor and skin infection causing bacteria.  

PubMed

We present a simple, eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using a natural polymer pine gum solution as the reducing and capping agent. The pine gum solution was combined with silver nitrate (AgNO3) or a chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), respectively. The reaction process was simple; formation of the nanoparticles was achieved by autoclaving the silver and gold ions with the pine gum. UV-Vis spectra showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for silver and gold nanoparticles at 432 and 539 nm, respectively. The elemental forms of AgNPs and AuNPs were confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the biomolecules present in the pine gum, AgNPs, and AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed the shape and size of AgNPs and AuNPs. The crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs was confirmed by X-ray crystallography [X-ray diffraction (XRD)]. Application of synthesized AgNPs onto cotton fabrics and leather, in order to evaluate their antibacterial properties against odor- or skin infection-causing bacteria, is also discussed. Among the four tested bacteria, AgNP-coated cotton fabric and leather samples displayed excellent antibacterial activity against Brevibacterium linens. PMID:25073519

Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Cho, Min; Park, Jung-Hee; Seo, Sang-Ki; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

2014-10-01

128

Various physico-chemical stress factors cause prophage induction in Nitrosospira multiformis 25196--an ammonia oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and contribute significant changes in the overall bacterial community. Prophages are formed when temperate bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the bacterial chromosome during the lysogenic cycle of the phage infection to bacteria. The prophage (phage DNA integrated into bacterial genome) on the bacterial genome remains dormant, but can cause cell lysis under certain environmental conditions. This research examined the effect of various environmental stress factors on the ammonia oxidation and prophage induction in a model ammonia oxidizing bacteria Nitrosospira multiformis ATCC 25196. The factors included in the study were pH, temperature, organic carbon (COD), the presence of heavy metal in the form of chromium (VI) and the toxicity as potassium cyanide (KCN). The selected environmental factors are commonly encountered in wastewater treatment processes, where ammonia oxidizing bacteria play a pivotal role of converting ammonia into nitrite. All the factors could induce prophage from N. multiformis demonstrating that cell lysis due to prophage induction could be an important mechanism contributing to the frequent upset in ammonia oxidation efficiency in full scale treatment plants. Among the stress factors considered, pH in the acidic range was the most detrimental to the nitrification efficiency by N. multiformis. The number of virus like particles (VLPs) increased by 2.3E+10 at pH 5 in 5h under acidic pH conditions. The corresponding increases in VLPs at pH values of 7 and 8 were 9.67E+9 and 1.57E+10 in 5h respectively. Cell lysis due to stress resulting in phage induction seemed the primary reason for deteriorated ammonia oxidation by N. multiformis at lower concentrations of Cr (VI) and potassium cyanide. However, direct killing of N. multiformis due to the binding of Cr (VI) and potassium cyanide with cell protein as demonstrated in the literature at higher concentrations of these toxic compounds was the primary mechanism of cell lysis of N. multiformis. Organics represented by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) did not have any effect on the phage induction in N. multiformis. This AOB remained dormant at low temperature (4 degrees C) without any phage induction. Significant decrease in the number of live N. multiformis cells with a corresponding increase in the number of VLPs was recorded when the temperature was increased to 35 degrees C. Death of N. multiformis at 45 degrees C was attributed to the destruction of cell wall rather than to the phage induction. PMID:20630557

Choi, Jeongdong; Kotay, Shireen M; Goel, Ramesh

2010-08-01

129

In vitro activities of E1101, a novel oral cephalosporin, against bacteria causing infections in obstetric and gynecological patients.  

PubMed

E1101 is a new oral cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. It inhibited more than 90% of clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli and Peptostreptococcus magnus at the concentration of 3.13 mg/l. E1101 was the most active agent against S. agalactiae and E. coli. Since none of the compounds was sufficiently active against the Bacteroides fragilis and Prevotella bivia isolates, they are not appropriate in the treatment of patients with infections caused by these organisms. The results of this study suggest that, subject to confirmation by clinical trials, E1101, in combination with an agent with reliable activity against anaerobic bacteria, is suitable as empirical therapy of patients with obstetric and gynecological infections. PMID:9732148

Mikamo, H; Sato, Y; Hayasaki, Y; Kawazoe, K; Tamaya, T

1998-01-01

130

Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of death in children in developing countries.  

PubMed

A paper by Hazlett et al. is of particular importance because it addresses the question of the role of acute respiratory infections (ARI) as a cause of morbidity and especially mortality in 3rd world children. Diarrheal disease and malnutrition are generally thought to be the major killers of these children, and until recently little attention was paid to ARI. Recent data suggest that ARI are more important than realized previously and almost certainly are the leading cause of death in children in developing countries. It is estimated that each year more than 15 million children less than 5 years old die, obviously most in socially and economically deprived countries. Since death usually is due to a combination of social, economic, and medical factors, it is impossible to obtain precise data on the causes of death. It has been estimated that 5 million of the deaths are due to diarrhea, over 3 million due to pneumonia, 2 million to measles, 1.5 million to pertussis, 1 million to tetanus, and the other 2.5 million or less to other causes. Since pertussis is an acute respiratory infection and measles deaths frequently are due to infections of the respiratory tract, it is becoming clear that ARI are associated with more deaths than any other single cause. The significance of this is emphasized when the mortality rates from ARI in developed and underdeveloped nations are compared. Depending on the countries compared, age group, and other factors, increases of 5-10-fold have been reported. These factors raise the question of why respiratory infections are so lethal for 3rd world children. The severity of pneumonia, which is the cause of most ARI deaths, seems to be the big difference. Data are accumulating which show that bacterial infections are associated with the majority of severe infections and "Streptococcus pneumoniae" and "Haemophilus influenzae," infrequent causes of pneumonia in developed world children, are the microorganisms incriminated in a large proportion of cases. The increase in severity of ARI in 3rd world children has been associated, at least in port, with malnutrition, diarrheal diseases, an increased parasite load, and more recently with air pollution. Crowding and other factors associated with poverty doubtless also play a role. How these various factors contribute to increased severity and lethality is not well understood. The increasing recognition of the important role played by ARI as causes of mortality in 3rd world children is encouraging. The UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) has joined the World Health Organization in the battle against ARI in developing countries, and the 2 organizations recently issued a joint statement on the subject in which they pledged to collaborate to integrate an ARI component into the primary health care program. PMID:3946732

Denny, F W; Loda, F A

1986-01-01

131

The Role of Adipose Tissue and Obesity in Causing Treatment Resistance of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Obesity is responsible for ~90,000 cancer deaths/year, increasing cancer incidence and impairing its treatment. Obesity has also been shown to impact hematological malignancies, through as yet unknown mechanisms. Adipocytes are present in bone marrow and the microenvironments of many types of cancer, and have been found to promote cancer cell survival. In this review, we explore several ways in which obesity might cause leukemia treatment resistance. Obese patients may be at a treatment disadvantage due to altered pharmacokinetics of chemotherapy and dosage “capping” based on ideal body weight. The adipose tissue provides fuel to cancer cells in the form of amino acids and free fatty acids. Adipocytes have been shown to cause cancer cells to resist chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. In addition, obese adipose tissue is phenotypically altered, producing a milieu of pro-inflammatory adipokines and cytokines, some of which have been linked to cancer progression. Given the prevalence of obesity, understanding its role and adipose tissue in acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment is necessary for evaluating current treatment regimen and revealing new therapeutic targets. PMID:24926474

Sheng, Xia; Mittelman, Steven D.

2014-01-01

132

Coronary subclavian steal syndrome: an extracoronary cause of acute coronary syndrome.  

PubMed

Significant atherosclerotic changes of the coronary arteries are the common cause of cardiac chest pain. We report the case of an 80-year-old woman suffering from unstable angina caused by extracoronary atherosclerosis. The patient had an extensive medical history with severe coronary heart disease and cardiac bypass surgery (LIMA to LAD, two venous bypass grafts). An urgent coronary angiography was performed. The angiogram displayed the already known three-vessel disease, the bypass grafts were in a good functional condition. Subsequently, a stenosis of the proximal segment of the left subclavian artery was detected. Measurement of the pullback pressure gradient confirmed the significance of the stenosis. We suspected a "steal phenomenon" concerning the bypass graft LIMA to LAD. An ad hoc PTA with consecutive stenting (self-expandable stent) enabled a successful revascularization of the left subclavian artery without any adverse effects to the vertebral arteries. Cardiac chest pain did not occur any more. Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome should be considered a rare but important differential diagnosis in acute coronary syndrome after bypass surgery. PMID:23817863

Schatzl, Stefan; Karnik, Ronald; Gattermeier, Martin

2013-08-01

133

An acute urinary retention in an old man caused by a giant m?llerian duct cyst: a case report  

PubMed Central

Müllerian duct cysts result from an abnormality in regression of the Müllerian system. They may occasionally give rise to symptoms. We report an unusual case of acute urinary retention in an old man caused by a giant Müllerian duct cyst. A 77-year-old man presented with of acute urinary retention. After bladder drainage, digital rectal examination found a large soft supraprostatic mass. Transrectal ultrasound and computed tomography scans revealed a large multilocular retrovesical cystic mass. The patient underwent open surgical resection of the cyst. Histologically, the cystic lesion was lined with stratified cubocolumnar cells, consistent with a Müllerian duct cyst. Acute urinary retention in the elderly is not always related to prostatic diseases. Other causes, even congenital ones, may be involved PMID:19946447

2009-01-01

134

Molecular identification of pathogenic bacteria in eschars from acute febrile patients, senegal.  

PubMed

Fever caused by Rickettsia felis was recently shown to play an important role in infectious diseases morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. We collected 68 cotton swabs from fever-associated eschars in four different regions of Senegal. In 5 of 68 eschar samples (7.4%), we have identified DNA from R. felis. In 49 of 68 eschar samples (72.1%), we have identified DNA from Staphylococcus aureus. In 35 of 68 eschar samples (51.5%), we have identified DNA from Streptococcus pyogenes, and in 4 of 68 eschar samples (5.9%), we have identified DNA from Streptococcus pneumoniae. In 34 cases, S. aureus was found together with S. pyogenes. DNA from R. felis was also found in swabs from the skin of the healthy Senegalese villagers (3 of 60; 5%) but not French urbanites. The presence of S. aureus and S. pyogenes was significantly associated with the presence of eschars in febrile patients compared with the healthy skin from the control group. Finally, we confirmed that Senegal is an endemic region for R. felis, which is found in both eschars and healthy skin swabs. PMID:25200258

Mediannikov, Oleg; Socolovschi, Cristina; Million, Matthieu; Sokhna, Cheikh; Bassene, Hubert; Diatta, Georges; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier

2014-11-01

135

Current knowledge on Chlamydia pneumoniae , strain TWAR, an important cause of pneumonia and other acute respiratory diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews current knowledge ofChlamydia pneumoniae strain TWAR, a newly recognizedChlamydia organism that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia. Information is included on the microbiology, classification and laboratory diagnosis of the organism. Details of a series of studies of both endemic and epidemic respiratory infections are reviewed to present information on both the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of

J. T. Grayston; S. P. Wang; C. C. Kuo; L. A. Campbell

1989-01-01

136

Thiamine deficiency as a single cause of life-threatening lactic acidosis in a patient with acute axonal polyneuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIMI 2009 We present a patient without a history of alcohol abuse with an acute axonal polyneuropathy in combination with a sudden lactic acidosis in whom by exclusion a thiamine deficiency could be established as the only cause of his illness. A 56-year-old man presented with muscle weakness increasing during the prior 4 weeks. He had a history of myocardial

Petronella Johanna Van den Berg; Peter J. Bijlstra; Geert J. F. Brekelmans

2009-01-01

137

Diagnostic challenge: bilateral infected lumbar facet cysts--a rare cause of acute lumbar spinal stenosis and back pain.  

PubMed

Symptomatic synovial lumbar facet cysts are a relatively rare cause of radiculopathy and spinal stenosis. This case and brief review of the literature, details a patient who presented with acutely symptomatic bilateral spontaneously infected synovial facet (L4/5) cysts. This report highlights diagnostic clues for identifying infection of a facet cyst. PMID:20205727

Freedman, Brett A; Bui, Tuan L; Yoon, S Timothy

2010-01-01

138

Uncommon conditions in surgical oncology: acute abdomen caused by ileocolic intussusception  

PubMed Central

Background Bowel intussusception represents an infrequent and challenging condition in adult patients. Preoperative diagnosis and treatment strategies often remain difficult especially in emergency patients. Primary reduction of intussusception before surgical resection is discussed controversially in adult patients and at the moment there is no consensus about the best treatment in literature. Case report We report the case of a 40-year-old male patient with a ten-day history of increasing colicky abdominal pain and constipation associated with nausea and vomiting. Clinical examination revealed acute abdomen with a palpable mass in the right upper abdomen. Ultrasonography and CT-scan showed typical signs of bowel intussusception. Emergency laparotomy and extended right hemicolectomy were performed. Histological examination detected an adenocarcinoma of the ileocecal valve as leading pathology. Conclusions In adults most cases of intussusception are caused by structural lesions. The high incidence of malignancies in adult patients, which require an optimal oncological treatment, should be the main reason for primary surgical resection without reduction. PMID:25083311

2014-01-01

139

Acute airway obstruction following facial scalding: differential diagnosis between a thermal and infective cause.  

PubMed

A 16-month-old boy received a 6 per cent hot water scald to his face and chest. The child had been suffering from an upper respiratory tract infection for 10 days prior to the injury. However, as the child rapidly developed respiratory tract obstruction, a differential diagnosis between acute infective epiglottitis and thermal injury to the hypopharynx was required. In fact, the hot water had reached the epiglottis and the aryepiglottic folds causing significant damage, whilst sparing the tongue and mouth. The child was admitted to the intensive care unit, intubated and ventilated for 4 1/2 days. The external burns eventually healed spontaneously. This case report demonstrates the rare occurrence of a minor scalding injury resulting in significant obstruction to the upper airway. Of additional interest is the presence of pre-existing symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection and the total absence of any signs of intraoral burning. These additional factors demonstrate the necessity for absolute vigilance in the management of any scald in the region of a child's mouth. Intubation can be life saving and should be considered in any case of scalding associated with increasing respiratory distress. PMID:8909764

Watts, A M; McCallum, M I

1996-11-01

140

Acute-Onset Endophthalmitis Caused by Alloiococcus otitidis following a Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the first case of acute endophthalmitis caused by Alloiococcus otitidis after a dexamethasone intravitreal implant. Methods A 74-year-old female was treated with intravitreal Ozurdex® in her left eye for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the eye was 4/20. Intravitreal injection was uneventful. At 48 h after injection, she developed ocular pain and visual acuity had dropped to light perception. Endophthalmitis associated with intravitreal injection was suspected. Results The patient did not show a favorable clinical response following systemic, intravitreal, and topical fortified antibiotics. We then performed a vitreous biopsy and removed the Ozurdex implant by pars plana vitrectomy. A vitreous culture was positive for A. otitidis. At the 2-month follow up, no inflammation was observed, but due to CRVO and probably aggravated by endophthalmitis, the fundus showed macular fibrosis. The final BCVA was finger counting at 30 cm in her left eye. Conclusions In cases of an intravitreal implant associated with endophthalmitis, we recommend removal of the device because it may act as a permanent reservoir of organisms if it remains in the vitreous cavity. PMID:23626572

Marchino, Tizana; Vela, Jose I.; Bassaganyas, Francisca; Sanchez, Saskia; Buil, Jose A.

2013-01-01

141

NPMc+ cooperates with Flt3/ITD mutations to cause acute leukemia recapitulating human disease.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic nucleophosmin (NPMc(+)) mutations and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are two of the most common known molecular alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); they frequently occur together, suggesting cooperative leukemogenesis. To explore the specific relationship between NPMc+ and FLT3/ITD in vivo, we crossed Flt3/ITD knock-in mice with transgenic NPMc+ mice. Mice with both mutations develop a transplantable leukemia of either myeloid or lymphoid lineage, definitively demonstrating cooperation between Flt3/ITD and NPMc+. In mice with myeloid leukemia, functionally significant loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type Flt3 allele is common, similar to what is observed in human FLT3/ITD+ AML, providing further in vivo evidence of the importance of loss of wild-type FLT3 in leukemic initiation and progression. Additionally, in vitro clonogenic assays reveal that the combination of Flt3/ITD and NPMc+ mutations causes a profound monocytic expansion, in excess of that seen with either mutation alone consistent with the predominance of myelomonocytic phenotype in human FLT3/ITD+/NPMc+ AML. This in vivo model of Flt3/ITD+/NPMc+ leukemia closely recapitulates human disease and will therefore serve as a tool for the investigation of the biology of this common disease entity. PMID:24184354

Rau, Rachel; Magoon, Daniel; Greenblatt, Sarah; Li, Li; Annesley, Colleen; Duffield, Amy S; Huso, David; McIntyre, Emily; Clohessy, John G; Reschke, Markus; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Small, Donald; Brown, Patrick

2014-02-01

142

Intestinal Amebiasis: A Concerning Cause of Acute Gastroenteritis Among Hospitalized Lebanese Children  

PubMed Central

Background: Intestinal amebiasis is an important public health problem worldwide. More severe disease is associated with young age, malnutrition and immunosuppression. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and characteristic nature of intestinal amebiasis among pediatric population, and compare it with other causes of gastroenteritis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective comparative study conducted at Makassed General Hospital between January 2008 and December 2012, including all pediatric patients between birth and 15 years of age, who presented with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. Results: One thousand three hundred ninety-five patients were included in the study, and were divided into four groups: Group I (Entameba histolytica group = 311 cases, 22.3%), group II (Rotavirus group = 427 cases, 30.6%), group III (bacterial group = 107 cases, 7.7%), group IV (unidentified group = 550 cases, 39.4%). Significant leukocytosis, neutrophilia and positive C-reactive protein were found among more than 50% of admitted Entemaba histolytica cases with a picture of severe invasive disease in young infants. Conclusion: Entameba histolytica can be an emerging serious infection, especially when it finds suitable environmental conditions and host factors, so we should be ready to face it with effective preventive measures. PMID:24404551

Naous, Amal; Naja, Ziad; Zaatari, Nour; Kamel, Raymond; Rajab, Mariam

2013-01-01

143

Acute Ethanol Causes Hepatic Mitochondrial Depolarization in Mice: Role of Ethanol Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims An increase of ethanol metabolism and hepatic mitochondrial respiration occurs in vivo after a single binge of alcohol. Here, our aim was to determine how ethanol intake affects hepatic mitochondrial polarization status in vivo in relation to ethanol metabolism and steatosis. Methods Hepatic mitochondrial polarization, permeability transition (MPT), and reduce pyridine nucleotides, and steatosis in mice were monitored by intravital confocal/multiphoton microscopy of the fluorescence of rhodamine 123 (Rh123), calcein, NAD(P)H, and BODIPY493/503, respectively, after gavage with ethanol (1–6 g/kg). Results Mitochondria depolarized in an all-or-nothing fashion in individual hepatocytes as early as 1 h after alcohol. Depolarization was dose- and time-dependent, peaked after 6 to 12 h and maximally affected 94% of hepatocytes. This mitochondrial depolarization was not due to onset of the MPT. After 24 h, mitochondria of most hepatocytes recovered normal polarization and were indistinguishable from untreated after 7 days. Cell death monitored by propidium iodide staining, histology and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was low throughout. After alcohol, mitochondrial NAD(P)H autofluorescence increased and decreased, respectively, in hepatocytes with polarized and depolarized mitochondria. Ethanol also caused steatosis mainly in hepatocytes with depolarized mitochondria. Depolarization was linked to ethanol metabolism, since deficiency of alcohol dehydrogenase and cytochrome-P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), the major ethanol-metabolizing enzymes, decreased mitochondrial depolarization by ?70% and ?20%, respectively. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased depolarization, whereas inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase enhanced depolarization. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase also markedly decreased steatosis. Conclusions Acute ethanol causes reversible hepatic mitochondrial depolarization in vivo that may contribute to steatosis and increased mitochondrial respiration. Onset of this mitochondrial depolarization is linked, at least in part, to metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde. PMID:24618581

Zhong, Zhi; Ramshesh, Venkat K.; Rehman, Hasibur; Liu, Qinlong; Theruvath, Tom P.; Krishnasamy, Yasodha; Lemasters, John J.

2014-01-01

144

Characterization of rotavirus causing acute diarrhoea in children in Kathmandu, Nepal, showing the dominance of serotype G12.  

PubMed

Diarrhoeal diseases are a major problem in developing countries. Though precise data on childhood mortality associated with diarrhoeal diseases in Nepal are not available, it has been estimated that approximately 25 % of child deaths are associated with diarrhoeal disease, particularly acute diarrhoea. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of rotavirus causing acute diarrhoea in children less than 5 years of age. A total of 525 children with acute diarrhoea in a children's hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal, were enrolled between April and September 2011. The incidence of acute diarrhoea due to rotavirus was 25.9 % (136/525) as determined by ELISA. The percentage of rotavirus-infected males was higher (64.5 %) than females (35.5 %). The frequency of rotavirus cases was higher in children less than 2 years of age, among which the majority of cases (80.2 %) were in children between 6 and 24 months old (P<0.01). Genotypic characterization by RT-PCR revealed that the serotype G12 represented 55.9 % of cases in this study associated with P-types of either P[6], P[4] or P[8]. Further to this, a total of eight G/P combinations were identified, G12P[6] being the most common strain type of rotavirus in Nepal, with a prevalence rate of 46.4 %. The aim of this study was to find out the major genotypes of rotavirus causing acute diarrhoea in children. PMID:23038804

Ansari, Shamshul; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Rijal, Basista Prasad; Parajuli, Keshab; Mishra, Shyam Kumar; Dahal, Rajan Kumar; Shrestha, Shovita; Tandukar, Sarmila; Chaudhary, Raina; Kattel, Hari Prasad; Basnet, Amul; Pokhrel, Bharat Mani

2013-01-01

145

Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus.  

PubMed

Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were studied. Nine pigs were infected intratracheally, and five served as controls. Antibodies against SIV were measured by haemagglutination inhibition assay, and the influenza-virus-specific T-cell response was measured using a proliferation assay. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) the concentrations in serum and concentration of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-? and IFN-? in lung tissues were measured using commercial ELISAs. PMID:24846450

Pomorska-Mól, Ma?gorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Czy?ewska, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Rachubik, Jaros?aw; Pejsak, Zygmunt

2014-10-01

146

Low-Dose Dopamine in Treating Acute Renal Failure Caused by Preeclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute renal failure is a serious complication of preeclampsia that usually requires the termination of pregnancy. We present a case of acute renal failure due to severe preeclampsia successfully treated with the infusion of a low dose of dopamine. This 25-year-old Japanese primigravida was admitted at 31 weeks of gestation for the treatment of preeclampsia. Urine output was decreased to

Kaei Nasu; Jun Yoshimatsu; Takanobu Anai; Isao Miyakawa

1996-01-01

147

Endogenous Stress Caused by Faulty Oxidation Reactions Fosters Evolution of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene-Degrading Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Environmental strain Burkholderia sp. DNT mineralizes the xenobiotic compound 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) owing to the catabolic dnt genes borne by plasmid DNT, but the process fails to promote significant growth. To investigate this lack of physiological return of such an otherwise complete metabolic route, cells were exposed to DNT under various growth conditions and the endogenous formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) monitored in single bacteria. These tests revealed the buildup of a strong oxidative stress in the population exposed to DNT. By either curing the DNT plasmid or by overproducing the second activity of the biodegradation route (DntB) we could trace a large share of ROS production to the first reaction of the route, which is executed by the multicomponent dioxygenase encoded by the dntA gene cluster. Naphthalene, the ancestral substrate of the dioxygenase from which DntA has evolved, also caused significant ROS formation. That both the old and the new substrate brought about a considerable cellular stress was indicative of a still-evolving DntA enzyme which is neither optimal any longer for naphthalene nor entirely advantageous yet for growth of the host strain on DNT. We could associate endogenous production of ROS with likely error-prone repair mechanisms of DNA damage, and the ensuing stress-induced mutagenesis in cells exposed to DNT. It is thus plausible that the evolutionary roadmap for biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds like DNT was largely elicited by mutagenic oxidative stress caused by faulty reactions of precursor enzymes with novel but structurally related substrates-to-be. PMID:24009532

Chavarria, Max; de Lorenzo, Victor

2013-01-01

148

Assessment of a semi-automated protocol for multiplex analysis of sepsis-causing bacteria with spiked whole blood samples  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are needed for efficient and evidence-based treatment of septic patients. Recently, new molecular tools have emerged to complement the conventional culture-based diagnostic methods. In this study, we used spiked whole blood samples to evaluate together two ready-to-use molecular solutions for the detection of sepsis-causing bacteria. We spiked whole blood with bacterial species relevant in sepsis and extracted bacterial DNA with the NorDiag Arrow device, using the SelectNA Blood pathogen DNA isolation kit. DNA extracts were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and microarray-based Prove-it™ Bone and Joint assay, resulting in correctly identified bacterial species with detection limits of 11–600 colony-forming unit/mL (CFU/mL). To understand the recovery losses of bacterial DNA during the sample preparation step and the capability of the PCR- and microarray-based platform to respond to the sensitivity requirements, we also determined the analytical sensitivity of the PCR and microarray platform to be 1–21 genome equivalents for the tested bacterial species. In addition, the inclusivity of the Prove-it™ Bone and Joint assay was demonstrated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones carrying SCCmec types I, II, IV, or V and a nontypable SCCmec type. The proof-of-concept for accurate multiplex pathogen and antibacterial resistance marker detection from spiked whole blood samples was demonstrated by the selective bacterial DNA extraction method combined with the high-throughput PCR- and microarray-based platform. Further investigations are needed to study the promising potential of the concept for sensitive, semi-automated identification of sepsis-causing pathogens directly from whole blood. PMID:23417871

Laakso, Sanna; Maki, Minna

2013-01-01

149

Assessment of a semi-automated protocol for multiplex analysis of sepsis-causing bacteria with spiked whole blood samples.  

PubMed

Sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are needed for efficient and evidence-based treatment of septic patients. Recently, new molecular tools have emerged to complement the conventional culture-based diagnostic methods. In this study, we used spiked whole blood samples to evaluate together two ready-to-use molecular solutions for the detection of sepsis-causing bacteria. We spiked whole blood with bacterial species relevant in sepsis and extracted bacterial DNA with the NorDiag Arrow device, using the SelectNA Blood pathogen DNA isolation kit. DNA extracts were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and microarray-based Prove-it™ Bone and Joint assay, resulting in correctly identified bacterial species with detection limits of 11-600 colony-forming unit/mL (CFU/mL). To understand the recovery losses of bacterial DNA during the sample preparation step and the capability of the PCR- and microarray-based platform to respond to the sensitivity requirements, we also determined the analytical sensitivity of the PCR and microarray platform to be 1-21 genome equivalents for the tested bacterial species. In addition, the inclusivity of the Prove-it™ Bone and Joint assay was demonstrated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones carrying SCCmec types I, II, IV, or V and a nontypable SCCmec type. The proof-of-concept for accurate multiplex pathogen and antibacterial resistance marker detection from spiked whole blood samples was demonstrated by the selective bacterial DNA extraction method combined with the high-throughput PCR- and microarray-based platform. Further investigations are needed to study the promising potential of the concept for sensitive, semi-automated identification of sepsis-causing pathogens directly from whole blood. PMID:23417871

Laakso, Sanna; Mäki, Minna

2013-04-01

150

Global Metabolomic Profiling of Acute Myocarditis Caused by Trypanosoma cruzi Infection  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, being cardiomyopathy the more frequent manifestation. New chemotherapeutic drugs are needed but there are no good biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. There is growing evidence linking immune response and metabolism in inflammatory processes and specifically in Chagas disease. Thus, some metabolites are able to enhance and/or inhibit the immune response. Metabolite levels found in the host during an ongoing infection could provide valuable information on the pathogenesis and/or identify deregulated metabolic pathway that can be potential candidates for treatment and being potential specific biomarkers of the disease. To gain more insight into those aspects in Chagas disease, we performed an unprecedented metabolomic analysis in heart and plasma of mice infected with T. cruzi. Many metabolic pathways were profoundly affected by T. cruzi infection, such as glucose uptake, sorbitol pathway, fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis that were increased in heart tissue but decreased in plasma. Tricarboxylic acid cycle was decreased in heart tissue and plasma whereas reactive oxygen species production and uric acid formation were also deeply increased in infected hearts suggesting a stressful condition in the heart. While specific metabolites allantoin, kynurenine and p-cresol sulfate, resulting from nucleotide, tryptophan and phenylalanine/tyrosine metabolism, respectively, were increased in heart tissue and also in plasma. These results provide new valuable information on the pathogenesis of acute Chagas disease, unravel several new metabolic pathways susceptible of clinical management and identify metabolites useful as potential specific biomarkers for monitoring treatment and clinical severity in patients. PMID:25412247

Gironès, Núria; Carbajosa, Sofía; Guerrero, Néstor A.; Poveda, Cristina; Chillón-Marinas, Carlos; Fresno, Manuel

2014-01-01

151

Acute Regional Left Atrial Ischemia Causes Acceleration of Atrial Drivers during Atrial Fibrillation  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanisms by which acute left atrial ischemia (LAI) leads to AF initiation and perpetuation remain unclear. Methods and Results LAI (90-minute ischemia) was obtained in isolated sheep hearts by selectively perfusing microspheres into the left anterior atrial artery. Two CCD cameras and several bipolar electrodes enabled recording from multiple atrial locations: with a dual-camera set-up (Protocol 1, n=10; and 1?, n=4; for bi-atrial or atrio-ventricular camera set-ups respectively), in the presence of propranolol/atropine (1?M) added to the perfusate after LAI (protocol 2, n=3) and after a pre-treatment with glibenclamide 10 ?M (protocol 3, n=4). Spontaneous AF occurred in 41.2% (7/17) of the hearts that were in sinus rhythm before LAI. LAI caused APD shortening in both the ischemic (IZ) and non-ischemic (NIZ) zones by 21±8 and 34±13%, respectively (pacing, 5Hz, p<0.05 compared to baseline). Apparent impulse velocity was significantly reduced in the IZ but not in the NIZ (?65±19% and +9±18%, p=0.001 and n.s, respectively). During LAI-related AF, a significant NIZ maximal dominant frequency (DFmax) increase from 7.4±2.5 to 14.0±5.5 Hz; p<0.05, was observed. Glibenclamide, an IKATP channel blocker, averted LAI-related DFmax increase (NIZ: LAI vs Gli, 14.0±5.5 vs. 5.9±1.3 Hz, p<0.05). Interplay between spontaneous focal discharges and rotors, locating at the IZ-NIZ border zone, maintained LAI-related AF. Conclusions LAI leads to an IKATP conductance-dependent APD shortening and spontaneous AF maintained by both spontaneous focal discharges and reentrant circuits locating at the IZ border zone. PMID:23454487

Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Avula, Uma Mahesh R; Bandaru, Krishna; Atreya, Auras; Boppana, Venkata Subbarao C; Honjo, Haruo; Kodama, Itsuo; Kamiya, Kaichiro; Kalifa, Jerome

2014-01-01

152

Acute intermittent porphyria causes hepatic mitochondrial energetic failure in a mouse model.  

PubMed

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an inherited hepatic disorder, is due to a defect of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), an enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis. AIP is characterized by recurrent, life-threatening attacks at least partly due to the increased hepatic production of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). Both the mitochondrial enzyme, ALA synthase (ALAS) 1, involved in the first step of heme biosynthesis, which is closely linked to mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways, and the promise of an ALAS1 siRNA hepatic therapy in humans, led us to investigate hepatic energetic metabolism in Hmbs KO mice treated with phenobarbital. The mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were explored in the Hmbs(-/-) mouse model. RC and TCA cycle were significantly affected in comparison to controls in mice treated with phenobarbital with decreased activities of RC complexes I (-52%, (**)p<0.01), II (-50%, (**)p<0.01) and III (-55%, (*)p<0.05), and decreased activity of ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (-64%, (*)p<0.05), citrate synthase (-48%, (**)p<0.01) and succinate dehydrogenase (-53%, (*)p<0.05). Complex II-driven succinate respiration was also significantly affected. Most of these metabolic alterations were at least partially restored after the phenobarbital arrest and heme arginate administration. These results suggest a cataplerosis of the TCA cycle induced by phenobarbital, caused by the massive withdrawal of succinyl-CoA by ALAS induction, such that the TCA cycle is unable to supply the reduced cofactors to the RC. This profound and reversible impact of AIP on mitochondrial energetic metabolism offers new insights into the beneficial effect of heme, glucose and ALAS1 siRNA treatments by limiting the cataplerosis of TCA cycle. PMID:24727425

Homedan, Chadi; Laafi, Jihane; Schmitt, Caroline; Gueguen, Naïg; Lefebvre, Thibaud; Karim, Zoubida; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Wetterwald, Céline; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Gouya, Laurent; Puy, Hervé; Reynier, Pascal; Malthièry, Yves

2014-06-01

153

Farm Worker HygieneFarm Worker Hygiene ne of the ways that fruits and vegetables can become contaminated with illness-causing bacteria or viruses is through  

E-print Network

contaminated with illness-causing bacteria or viruses is through contact by farm workers. If these workers hands with a disposable paper towel. 6. If using a public restroom, use paper towel to turn off faucet in bathroom and handwashing areas for workers to use as a guide to follow. ** What about hand sanitizers? Hand

Liskiewicz, Maciej

154

Pulmonary Infection Caused by Gymnascella hyalinospora in a Patient with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia  

PubMed Central

We report the first case of invasive pulmonary infection caused by the thermotolerant ascomycetous fungus Gymnascella hyalinospora in a 43-year-old female from the rural midwestern United States. The patient was diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia and treated with induction chemotherapy. She was discharged in stable condition with an absolute neutrophil count of 100 cells per ?l. Four days after discharge, she presented to the Cancer Clinic with fever and pancytopenia. A solitary pulmonary nodule was found in the right middle lobe which was resected by video-assisted thoracoscopy (VATHS). Histopathological examination revealed septate branching hyphae, suggesting a diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis; however, occasional yeast-like cells were also present. The culture grew a mold that appeared dull white with a slight brownish tint that failed to sporulate on standard media. The mold was found to be positive by the AccuProbe Blastomyces dermatitidis Culture ID Test (Gen-Probe Inc., San Diego, Calif.), but this result appeared to be incompatible with the morphology of the structures in tissue. The patient was removed from consideration for stem cell transplant and was treated for 6 weeks with amphotericin B (AmB), followed by itraconazole (Itr). A VATHS with biopsy performed 6 months later showed no evidence of mold infection. In vitro, the isolate appeared to be susceptible to AmB and resistant to fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine. Results for Itr could not be obtained for the case isolate due to its failure to grow in polyethylene glycol used to solubilize the drug; however, MICs for a second isolate appeared to be elevated. The case isolate was subsequently identified as G. hyalinospora based on its formation of oblate, smooth-walled ascospores within yellow or yellow-green tufts of aerial hyphae on sporulation media. Repeat testing with the Blastomyces probe demonstrated false-positive results with the case isolate and a reference isolate of G. hyalinospora. This case demonstrates that both histopathologic and cultural features should be considered for the proper interpretation of this molecular test and extends the list of fungi recognized as a cause of human mycosis in immunocompromised patients. PMID:10618119

Iwen, Peter C.; Sigler, Lynne; Tarantolo, Stefano; Sutton, Deanna A.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Lackner, Rudy P.; McCarthy, Dora I.; Hinrichs, Steven H.

2000-01-01

155

Acute intermittent porphyria caused by novel mutation in HMBS gene, misdiagnosed as cholecystitis  

PubMed Central

Background Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant neurovisceral inherited disorder due to a defect in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Misdiagnosis of the porphyrias is not uncommon. Case report We present a case of a 26-year-old female with suspected acute cholecystitis, mental status changes, and seizures. Biochemical and molecular investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AIP by findings of elevated urinary porphobilinogen, 5-aminolevulinic acid, and total porphyrins. DNA molecular testing showed a novel heterozygous mutation (c. 760delC p.L254X) in the exon11 of the HMBS gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a misdiagnosis of AIP presenting with acute cholecystitis. Conclusion Clinicians are alerted to consider the possibility of AIP in an adult presenting with an acute abdomen, features of cholecystitis, and neuropsychiatric manifestations.

Alfadhel, Majid; Saleh, Neam; Alenazi, Helal; Baffoe-Bonnie, Henry

2014-01-01

156

Neuroleptic-induced acute dyskinesias in squirrel monkeys: Correlation with propensity to cause extrapyramidal side effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In squirrel monkeys that had undergone repeated treatment with haloperidol at intervals of 7–14 days, subsequent acute administration of haloperidol induced dystonia and dyskinesias. This acute effect of haloperidol was dose-related and occurred at the same doses that impaired Sidman avoidance performance. Chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, metoclopramide, tetrabenazine, and Su-23397, all of which have been associated with extrapyramidal side effects, reliably elicited

Jeffrey Liebman; Robert Neale

1980-01-01

157

Dengue and Other Common Causes of Acute Febrile Illness in Asia: An Active Surveillance Study in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Common causes of acute febrile illness in tropical countries have similar symptoms, which often mimic those of dengue. Accurate clinical diagnosis can be difficult without laboratory confirmation and disease burden is generally under-reported. Accurate, population-based, laboratory-confirmed incidence data on dengue and other causes of acute fever in dengue-endemic Asian countries are needed. Methods and principal findings This prospective, multicenter, active fever surveillance, cohort study was conducted in selected centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam to determine the incidence density of acute febrile episodes (?38°C for ?2 days) in 1,500 healthy children aged 2–14 years, followed for a mean 237 days. Causes of fever were assessed by testing acute and convalescent sera from febrile participants for dengue, chikungunya, hepatitis A, influenza A, leptospirosis, rickettsia, and Salmonella Typhi. Overall, 289 participants had acute fever, an incidence density of 33.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 30.0; 37.8); 57% were IgM-positive for at least one of these diseases. The most common causes of fever by IgM ELISA were chikungunya (in 35.0% of in febrile participants) and S. Typhi (in 29.4%). The overall incidence density of dengue per 100 person-years was 3.4 by nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen positivity (95% CI: 2.4; 4.8) and 7.3 (95% CI: 5.7; 9.2) by serology. Dengue was diagnosed in 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0; 15.7) and 23.9% (95% CI: 19.1; 29.2) of febrile participants by NS1 positivity and serology, respectively. Of the febrile episodes not clinically diagnosed as dengue, 5.3% were dengue-positive by NS1 antigen testing and 16.0% were dengue-positive by serology. Conclusions During the study period, the most common identified causes of pediatric acute febrile illness among the seven tested for were chikungunya, S. Typhi and dengue. Not all dengue cases were clinically diagnosed; laboratory confirmation is essential to refine disease burden estimates. PMID:23936565

Capeding, Maria Rosario; Chua, Mary Noreen; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Hussain, Ismail I. H. M.; Nallusamy, Revathy; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Rusmil, Kusnandi; Thisyakorn, Usa; Thomas, Stephen J.; Huu Tran, Ngoc; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Yoon, In-Kyu; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Hutagalung, Yanee; Laot, Thelma; Wartel, Tram Anh

2013-01-01

158

Topical diclofenac epolamine patch 1.3% for treatment of acute pain caused by soft tissue injury  

PubMed Central

Acute pain caused by musculoskeletal disorders is very common and has a significant negative impact on quality-of-life and societal costs. Many types of acute pain have been managed with traditional oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (coxibs). Data from prospective, randomised controlled clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance indicate that use of oral traditional NSAIDs and coxibs is associated with an elevated risk of developing gastrointestinal, renovascular and/or cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). Increasing awareness of the AEs associated with NSAID therapy, including coxibs, has led many physicians and patients to reconsider use of these drugs and look for alternative treatment options. Treatment with NSAIDs via the topical route of administration has been shown to provide clinically effective analgesia at the site of application while minimising systemic absorption. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic potency of the traditional oral NSAID diclofenac, along with its physicochemical properties, makes it well suited for topical delivery. Several topical formulations of diclofenac have been developed. A topical patch containing diclofenac epolamine 1.3% (DETP, FLECTOR® Patch), approved for use in Europe in 1993, has recently been approved for use in the United States and is indicated for the treatment of acute pain caused by minor strains, sprains and contusions. In this article, we review the available clinical trial data for this product in the treatment of pain caused by soft tissue injury. PMID:20666849

McCarberg, B H; Argoff, C E

2010-01-01

159

Acute Cholecystitis Caused by Malignant Cystic Duct Obstruction: Treatment with Metallic Stent Placement  

SciTech Connect

We report the successful management of acute cholecystitis using cystic duct stent placement in 3 patients with inoperable malignant cystic duct obstruction (2 cholangiocarcinoma and 1 pancreatic carcinoma). All patients underwent stent placement in the bile duct, using an uncovered stent in 2 and a covered stent in 1, to relieve jaundice occurring 8-184 days (mean 120 days) before the development of acute cholecystitis. The occluded cystic duct was traversed by a microcatheter and a stent was implanted 4-17 days (mean 12 days) after cholecystostomy. Acute cholecystitis was improved after the procedure in all patients. Two patients died 3 and 10 months later, while 1 has survived without cholecystitis for 22 months after the procedure to date.

Miyayama, Shiro, E-mail: s-miyayama@fukui.saiseikai.or.jp; Yamashiro, Masashi; Takeda, Taro; Aburano, Hiroyuki [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Komatsu, Tetsuya [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology (Japan); Sanada, Taku; Kosaka, Shotaro; Toya, Daisyu [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine (Japan); Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2008-07-15

160

The acute ulceration response (AUR): A potentially widespread and serious cause of skin infection in fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous studies, we found that rapidly confined hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis male×Morone chrysops female) developed a syndrome characterized by the immediate and dramatic loss of their skin. We have named this phenomenon the Acute Ulceration Response (AUR). AUR is characterized by the rapid onset of severe epidermal degeneration, erosion, and ulceration on the body skin and fins, as

Pareeya Udomkusonsri; Edward J. Noga

2005-01-01

161

Acute myocardial infarction caused by paradoxical coronary embolization in a patient with a patent foramen ovale  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the case of a young woman without cardiac risk factors who had an acute inferoapical myocardial infarction. Coronary angiographic appearance was consistent with thrombus in the distal left anterior descending coronary artery. A patent foramen ovale with moderate right-to-left shunting after the Valsalva maneuver was detected by contrast transesophageal echocardiography. No other cardioembolic source was identified. Paradoxical embolization

Deborah R Gersony; Sang H Kim; Marco Di Tullio; Ali Fard; Leroy Rabbani; Shunichi Homma

2001-01-01

162

Acute renal failure caused by complete bladder eversion through a vesicovaginal fistula.  

PubMed

We report a rare case of bladder eversion through a vesicovaginal fistula. The bladder prolapse was almost complete, resulting in ureteral kinking, bilateral hydronephrosis and acute renal failure. After reduction of the bladder eversion, bilateral ureteral stent placement, fistula repair using the Latzko technique and colpocleisis, the patient had rapid resolution of her renal compromise. PMID:14752599

Dunn, James S; Bent, Alfred E; Tutrone, Ronald F; Ellerkmann, R Mark

2004-01-01

163

Triclosan causes toxic effects to algae in marine biofilms, but does not inhibit the metabolic activity of marine biofilm bacteria.  

PubMed

Effects of the antimicrobial agent triclosan to natural periphyton communities (biofilms, comprising primarily microalgae and bacteria) were assessed in two independent experiments during spring and summer. For that purpose a semi-static test system was used in which periphyton was exposed to a concentration range of 5-9054 nmol/L triclosan. Effects on algae were analyzed as content and composition of photosynthetic pigments. The corresponding EC50 values were 39.25 and 302.45 nmol/L for the spring and summer experiment, respectively. Effects on periphytic bacteria were assessed as effects on carbon utilization patterns, using Biolog Ecoplates. No inhibition of either total carbon utilization or functional diversity was observed, indicating a pronounced triclosan tolerance of the marine bacteria. In contrast, a small stimulation of the total carbon utilization was observed at triclosan concentrations exceeding 100 nmol/L. PMID:24928457

Johansson, C Henrik; Janmar, Lisa; Backhaus, Thomas

2014-07-15

164

Chronic treatment with olanzapine increases adiposity by changing fuel substrate and causes desensitization of the acute metabolic side effects.  

PubMed

Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these metabolic side-effects are unknown at the moment. In this study, we investigated the metabolic changes induced by a chronic treatment, as well as the influence of a preceding chronic treatment on the acute effects of olanzapine on glucose metabolism. The effect of chronic olanzapine treatment (±6.5 mg/kg/day, administered via drinking water) on body weight, locomotor activity, body temperature, fat distribution and energy expenditure was investigated in male rats. After 5 weeks, the animals received an acute olanzapine challenge (intragastric, IG) at 3 mg/kg/h during 160 min to investigate the acute effects of olanzapine on glucose metabolism. Chronic olanzapine-treated animals showed a slight decrease in nocturnal body temperature, and increased perirenal fat pad weights as well as plasma leptin. In addition, chronic olanzapine-treated animals showed hyperinsulinaemia with unchanged blood glucose concentrations. The acute challenge with IG olanzapine elevated blood glucose levels and endogenous glucose production in control animals, but not in chronic olanzapine-pre-treated rats. Chronic olanzapine-treated animals also showed reduced locomotor activity and a higher respiratory exchange ratio. Thus, chronic treatment with olanzapine in rats causes desensitization to its acute effects on glucose metabolism but promotes adiposity probably due to a shift from lipids to carbohydrates as an energy source. Chronic exposure to olanzapine changes body fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in an unfavourable direction, but it is still unclear what the primary mechanism is. PMID:24190543

Girault, Elodie M; Guigas, Bruno; Alkemade, Anneke; Foppen, Ewout; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; la Fleur, Susanne E; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries

2014-02-01

165

Rotation of antimicrobial therapy in the intensive care unit: impact on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of antibiotic resistance is associated with high morbidity and mortality, particularly in the intensive care\\u000a unit (ICU) setting. We evaluated the effect of an antibiotic rotation programme on the incidence of ventilator-associated\\u000a pneumonia (VAP) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. We conducted a 2-year before-and-after study at two\\u000a medical–surgical ICUs at two different tertiary referral hospitals. We included all

E. Raineri; L. Crema; S. Dal Zoppo; A. Acquarolo; A. Pan; G. Carnevale; F. Albertario; A. Candiani

2010-01-01

166

The role of computed tomography in the preoperative assessment of gastrointestinal causes of acute abdomen in elderly patients.  

PubMed

Gastro-intestinal disorders in older patients is a medical emergency that requires immediate medical care. Chances of recovery improve with an early diagnosis and treatment. It might be caused by a number of different diseases, including perforations by foreign bodies, colon cancer, diverticulitis, ischemia. CT is often the initial modality used to assess patients with acute abdomen, the radiologist may be the first to suggest such a diagnosis. Computed tomography allows to identify the site of gastrointestinal perforations, of ischemia and to determine the most predictive signs in this diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of CT gastrointestinal emergency of elderly patients with nontraumatic acute abdominal pain. The cases of 126 consecutively registered patients 65 years old or older presenting to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain and who underwent CT were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated according to the level of correctly classified cases in both the entire cohort and a surgical subgroup and was compared between readings. Agreement between each reading and the reference diagnosis and interobserver agreement were assessed with kappa statistics. In both the entire cohort (87.5% vs 85.3%, p = 0.07) and the surgical group (94% vs 91%, p = 0.15), there was no significant difference in CT accuracy between diagnoses made by the radiologist. Agreement between the CT diagnosis and the final diagnosis was excellent. In the care of elderly patients, CT is accurate for diagnosing the cause of acute abdominal pain, particularly when it is of gastrointestinal surgical origin. Thus CT interpretation should not be delayed until complete clinicobiologic data are available, and the images should be quickly transmitted to the emergency physician so that appropriate therapy can be begun. PMID:25157993

Reginelli, Alfonso; Russo, Anna; Pinto, Antonio; Stanzione, Francesco; Martiniello, Ciro; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Brunese, Luca; Squillaci, Ettore

2014-10-01

167

Acute Shunt Malfunction Caused by Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy without Shunt Infection  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement is often performed in patients with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and it has been accepted as a safe procedure. The authors report a case of a 50-year-old male who developed acute exacerbation of the hydrocephalus immediately after the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement without any signs of shunt infection, which has not been reported until now. After revision of the intraperitoneal shunt catheter, the sizes of the intracranial ventricles were normalized. PMID:25371790

Choi, Jingyu; Ki, Seung Seog

2014-01-01

168

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Disease Different Syndromes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the possible differences in respiratory mechanics between the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) originating from pulmonary disease (ARDS p ) and that originating from extrapul- monary disease (ARDS exp ) we measured the total respiratory system (Est,rs), chest wall (Est,w) and lung (Est,L) elastance, the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and the end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) at 0, 5, 10,

LUCIANO GATTINONI; PAOLO PELOSI; PETER M. SUTER; ALESSIA PEDOTO; PAOLA VERCESI; ALFREDO LISSONI

169

GH replacement causing acute hyperglycaemia and ketonuria in a type 1 diabetic patient  

PubMed Central

Summary A state of insulin resistance is common to the clinical conditions of both chronic growth hormone (GH) deficiency and GH excess (acromegaly). GH has a physiological role in glucose metabolism in the acute settings of fast and exercise and is the only anabolic hormone secreted in the fasting state. We report the case of a patient in whom knowledge of this aspect of GH physiology was vital to her care. A woman with well-controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus who developed hypopituitarism following the birth of her first child required GH replacement therapy. Hours after the first dose, she developed a rapid metabolic deterioration and awoke with hyperglycaemia and ketonuria. She adjusted her insulin dose accordingly, but the pattern was repeated with each subsequent increase in her dose. Acute GH-induced lipolysis results in an abundance of free fatty acids (FFA); these directly inhibit glucose uptake into muscle, and this can lead to hyperglycaemia. This glucose–fatty acid cycle was first described by Randle et al. in 1963; it is a nutrient-mediated fine control that allows oxidative muscle to switch between glucose and fatty acids as fuel, depending on their availability. We describe the mechanism in detail. Learning points There is a complex interplay between GH and insulin resistance: chronically, both GH excess and deficiency lead to insulin resistance, but there is also an acute mechanism that is less well appreciated by clinicians.GH activates hormone-sensitive lipase to release FFA into the circulation; these may inhibit the uptake of glucose leading to hyperglycaemia and ketosis in the type 1 diabetic patient.The Randle cycle, or glucose–fatty acid cycle, outlines the mechanism for this acute relationship.Monitoring the adequacy of GH replacement in patients with type 1 diabetes is difficult, with IGF1 an unreliable marker. PMID:24616775

Cavlan, Dominic; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Gelding, Susan; Drake, William

2013-01-01

170

Acute diarrhea and metabolic acidosis caused by tuberculous vesico-rectal fistula.  

PubMed

Acquired vesico-rectal fistula is an uncommon complication of pelvic malignant tumors, surgical injury, inflammatory disorders such as tuberculosis infection, radiotherapy and less commonly diverticulum of the urinary tract. The fistula is often identified by urinary tract abnormalities such as dysuria, recurrent urinary tract infection, pneumaturia, and fecaluria. Here, we report an unusual case of a patient with a vesico-rectal fistula of tuberculous origin, presenting with severe acute diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, hyperchloremia and hypokalemia while with only mild urinary tract symptoms. The patient was cured by tuberculostatic therapy. PMID:25386096

Wei, Xiu-Qing; Zou, Yan; Wu, Zhi-E; Abassa, Kodjo-Kunale; Mao, Wei; Tao, Jin; Kang, Zhuang; Wen, Zhuo-Fu; Wu, Bin

2014-11-01

171

Acute diarrhea and metabolic acidosis caused by tuberculous vesico-rectal fistula  

PubMed Central

Acquired vesico-rectal fistula is an uncommon complication of pelvic malignant tumors, surgical injury, inflammatory disorders such as tuberculosis infection, radiotherapy and less commonly diverticulum of the urinary tract. The fistula is often identified by urinary tract abnormalities such as dysuria, recurrent urinary tract infection, pneumaturia, and fecaluria. Here, we report an unusual case of a patient with a vesico-rectal fistula of tuberculous origin, presenting with severe acute diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, hyperchloremia and hypokalemia while with only mild urinary tract symptoms. The patient was cured by tuberculostatic therapy. PMID:25386096

Wei, Xiu-Qing; Zou, Yan; Wu, Zhi-E; Abassa, Kodjo-Kunale; Mao, Wei; Tao, Jin; Kang, Zhuang; Wen, Zhuo-Fu; Wu, Bin

2014-01-01

172

Industrial halide wastes cause acute mortality of snow geese in Oklahoma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An examination of 97 dead migratory waterfowl collected at an industrial facility showed that the birds had had severe gastric and intestinal hemorrhaging. Water samples taken at on-site waste lagoons contained 6,750 mg/L fluoride, 4,500 mg/L bromine and 1,500 mg/L boron. Brain and liver tissues contained high levels of fluoride, as compared with tissues of birds collected at a control site. From the necropsy results, the high concentration of fluoride in the water samples and the elevated tissue residues, we conclude that the birds died from acute fluoride poisoning.

Andreasen, J. K.; Stroud, Richard K.

1987-01-01

173

Cricoarytenoid arthritis: a cause of acute upper airway obstruction in rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To report acute upper airway obstruction due to cricoarytenoid arthritis, a well known but uncommon complication of rheumatoid\\u000a arthritis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical features  We report the case of a 70-yr-old female scheduled for a colostomy who had been suffering from rheumatoid arthritis for 17\\u000a years. Preoperative history and physical examination revealed no cardiopulmonary compromise. Anesthesia was induced while\\u000a an assistant immobilized the cervical

Jacelyn Kolman; Ian Morris

2002-01-01

174

Spontaneously perforated pyometra: an unusual cause of acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum  

PubMed Central

Pneumoperitoneum is usually associated with gastrointestinal perforation or following surgical and endoscopic procedures. We report a rare case of spontaneously perforated pyometra presenting with generalised peritonitis and pneumoperitoneum. Perforation of the uterus is also unusual and often associated with the presence of an intrauterine device, a gravid uterus or malignancy. Our case illustrates the importance of clinical knowledge of acute and neoplastic gynaecological diseases, which are not uncommonly encountered by the general surgeon. Moreover, good appreciation of pelvic anatomy and close collaboration with gynaecology colleagues is essential as operative intervention is often required. PMID:23131215

Shapey, IM; Nasser, T; Dickens, P; Haldar, M; Solkar, MH

2012-01-01

175

Killing Us Softly: How Sub-Theraputic Dosing of Livestock Causes Drug-Resistant Bacteria in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Note explores antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains in humans and their roots in American industrial livestock practices. Factory farms promote the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria—or “superbugs”—by giving animals subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics to prevent the diseases that result from confinement and unhygienic conditions. Although Congress has repeatedly attempted to pass legislation to curtail the use of sub-therapeutic antibiotic dosing in livestock,

Ariele Lessing

2010-01-01

176

Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA.  

PubMed

The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad's coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

2014-01-01

177

The novel marker LTBP2 predicts all-cause and pulmonary death in patients with acute dyspnoea.  

PubMed

The risk stratification in patients presenting with acute dyspnoea remains a challenge. We therefore conducted a prospective, observational cohort study enrolling 292 patients presenting to the emergency department with acute dyspnoea. A proteomic approach for antibody-free targeted protein quantification based on high-end MS was used to measure LTBP2 [latent TGF (transforming growth factor)-binding protein 2] levels. Final diagnosis and death during follow-up were adjudicated blinded to LTBP2 levels. AHF (acute heart failure) was the final diagnosis in 54% of patients. In both AHF (P<0.001) and non-AHF (P=0.015) patients, LTBP2 levels at presentation were significantly higher in non-survivors compared with survivors with differences on median levels being 2.2- and 1.5-fold respectively. When assessing the cause of death, LTBP2 levels were significantly higher in patients dying from pulmonary causes (P=0.0005). Overall, LTBP2 powerfully predicted early pulmonary death {AUC (area under the curve), 0.95 [95% CI (confidence interval), 0.91-0.98]}. In ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve analyses for the prediction of 1-year mortality LTBP2 achieved an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.71-0.84); comparable with the predictive potential of NT-proBNP [N-terminal pro-B-type natriuruetic peptide; 0.77 (95% CI, 0.72-0.82)]. Importantly, the predictive potential of LTBP2 persisted in patients with AHF as the cause of dypnea (AUC 0.78) and was independent of renal dysfunction (AUC 0.77). In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, LTBP2 was the strongest independent predictor of death [HR (hazard ratio), 3.76 (95% CI, 2.13-6.64); P<0.0001]. In conclusion, plasma levels of LTBP2 present a novel and powerful predictor of all-cause mortality, and particularly pulmonary death. Cause-specific prediction of death would enable targeted prevention, e.g. with pre-emptive antibiotic therapy. PMID:22587491

Breidthardt, Tobias; Vanpoucke, Griet; Potocki, Mihael; Mosimann, Tamina; Ziller, Ronny; Thomas, Gregoire; Laroy, Wouter; Moerman, Piet; Socrates, Thenral; Drexler, Beatrice; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Kas, Koen; Mueller, Christian

2012-11-01

178

Real-Time PCR Threshold Cycle Cutoffs Help To Identify Agents Causing Acute Childhood Diarrhea in Zanzibar  

PubMed Central

Molecular assays might improve the identification of causes of acute diarrheal disease but might lead to more frequent detection of asymptomatic infections. In the present study, real-time PCR targeting 14 pathogens was applied to rectal swabs from 330 children aged 2 to 59 months in Zanzibar, including 165 patients with acute diarrhea and 165 asymptomatic control subjects. At least one pathogen was detected for 94% of the patients and 84% of the controls, with higher rates among patients for norovirus genogroup II (20% versus 2.4%; P < 0.0001), rotavirus (10% versus 1.8%; P = 0.003), and Cryptosporidium (30% versus 11%; P < 0.0001). Detection rates did not differ significantly for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-estA (33% versus 24%), ETEC-eltB (44% versus 46%), Shigella (35% versus 33%), and Campylobacter (35% versus 33%), but for these agents threshold cycle (CT) values were lower (pathogen loads were higher) in sick children than in controls. In a multivariate analysis, CT values for norovirus genogroup II, rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, ETEC-estA, and Shigella were independently associated with diarrhea. We conclude that this real-time PCR allows convenient detection of essentially all diarrheagenic agents and provides CT values that may be critical for the interpretation of results for pathogens with similar detection rates in patients and controls. The results indicate that the assessment of pathogen loads may improve the identification of agents causing gastroenteritis in children. PMID:24403298

Andersson, Maria; Msellem, Mwinyi I.; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Petzold, Max; Bjorkman, Anders; Trollfors, Birger; Martensson, Andreas

2014-01-01

179

Quinine allergy causing acute severe systemic illness: report of 4 patients manifesting multiple hematologic, renal, and hepatic abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Quinine is widely used for the common symptom of leg cramps. Quinine tablets require a prescription, but quinine and the product from which it is derived, cinchona, are also available without prescription. They are components of over-the-counter remedies for many common symptoms, of nutrition products, and of beverages such as tonic water and bitter lemon. Although quinine has been used for centuries, initially as an extract from the bark of the cinchona tree, allergic reactions to quinine can be severe and can affect multiple organs. These allergic reactions can cause thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, liver toxicity, and neurological abnormalities. Because quinine use is often intermittent, defining quinine as a cause of an acute disorder may be difficult. Moreover, since quinine use is often self-regulated, patients may not mention it in response to direct questions about medication use, adding to diagnostic difficulty. The diversity and severity of quinine-associated disorders and the difficulties of diagnosis are illustrated by the presentation of 4 case histories. Awareness of the variety of potential quinine-associated reactions is important for accurate diagnosis and critical for prevention of recurrent illness. PMID:16278718

2003-01-01

180

Can a polymorphism in the thalassemia gene and a heterozygote CFTR mutation cause acute pancreatitis?  

PubMed Central

The case of a 32-year-old black woman of African descent who suffered from repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis, initially triggered when flying on airplanes, is reported. She did not drink alcohol or smoke. Genetic analysis was negative for cationic trypsinogen, serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 and chymotrypsin C. However, hemoglobin F was elevated. Sequencing of the thalassemia gene revealed a novel alteration in the 5’ region indicative of a functional abnormality of the molecule. Sequencing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene revealed a heterozygote sequence variant. The combination of a hemoglobin gene mutation known for thalassemia in conjunction with the hitherto undescribed CFTR mutation is suggested to pave the road for initial and repetitive pancreatitis attacks. This will be discussed. PMID:24653987

Lohr, J-Matthias; Haas, Stephan

2014-01-01

181

Acute inhalation exposure to titanium ethanolate as a possible cause of metal fume fever.  

PubMed

Occupational inhalation exposure to noxious agents is not uncommon. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male student who had accidental acute inhalation exposure to a large quantity of titanium ethanolate and hydrogen chloride in chemistry lab. He was referred to the emergency department of our hospital with low-grade fever, dyspnea, headache, fatigue and myalgia. After 24 hrs of symptomatic treatment (oxygen therapy and acetaminophen), the fever was subsided and the patient discharged home in a good clinical condition. The presented symptoms could be interpreted as a form of metal fume fever. It can therefore be concluded that organo-metallic compound of titanium metal may have the potential to produce metal fume fever in human. PMID:24748002

Ahmadimanesh, M; Shadnia, S; Ghazi-Khansari, M

2014-04-01

182

Acute Reversible Heart Failure Caused by Coronary Vasoconstriction due to Continuous 5-Fluorouracil Combination Chemotherapy  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 51-year-old male patient who received adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of oxaliplatin, bolus and continuous 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin after anterior resection because of locally advanced rectal cancer. Preoperative chemotherapy with capecitabine (an oral 5-FU prodrug) had been well tolerated. Two days after initiation of the first course of chemotherapy, the patient reported typical chest pain. The ECG showed ST elevations and prominent T waves in almost all leads. Due to suspicion of a high-risk acute coronary syndrome, an urgent cardiac catheterization was performed. It showed a generally reduced coronary flow with multiple significant stenoses (including the ostia of the left and right coronary artery), as well as a highly reduced left ventricular function with diffuse hypokinesia. Due to the meanwhile completely stable situation of the patient after medical acute coronary syndrome treatment, no ad hoc intervention was performed to allow further discussion of the optimal management. Thereafter, the patient remained clinically asymptomatic, without any rise in cardiac necrosis parameters; only NT-pro-BNP was significantly elevated. A control cardiac catheterization 2 days later revealed a restored normal coronary artery flow with only coronary calcifications without significant stenoses, as well as a normal left ventricular ejection fraction. Cardiovascular symptoms occurred on the second day of continuous 5-FU treatment. As cardiotoxic effects seem to appear more frequently under continuous application of 5-FU, compared to the earlier established 5-FU bolus regimens, treating medical oncologists should pay special attention to occurring cardiac symptoms and immediately interrupt 5-FU chemotherapy and start a cardiologic work-up. PMID:22740819

Dechant, Cornelia; Baur, Martina; Böck, Rudolf; Czejka, Martin; Podczeck-Schweighofer, Andrea; Dittrich, Christian; Christ, Günter

2012-01-01

183

Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria causing urinary tract infections at the Specialist Hospital, Yola, Adamawa state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

54.3%, while in males the recorded value was 45.7%. Gram-negative isolates had a prevalence of 74.7%, while gram-positive isolates had 25.30%. The bacteria isolated in order of ranking were E. coli (24.5%), K. pneumoniae (17.3%), P. mirabilis (14.6%), S. faecalis (13.4%), S. aureus (5.3 %), P. vulgaris (4.7%), P. stuartii (4.1%), S. epidermidis (3.8%), A. faecalis (3.4%), S. saprophyticus (2.8%),

El-Mahmood Muhammad Abubakar

184

Scintigraphic demonstration of acute gastrointestinal bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding the colon  

SciTech Connect

Massive lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding into the colonic wall was demonstrated accurately by Tc-99m RBCs. In addition, retrograde bleeding into the gallbladder was also identified while arteriography did not show contrast extravasation. This case supports the use of Tc-99m RBCs over Tc-99m sulfur colloid for more accurate localization of lower GI bleeding.

Czerniak, A.; Zwas, S.T.; Rabau, M.Y.; Avigad, I.; Borag, B.; Wolfstein, I.

1985-08-01

185

Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes cause reversible acute lung injury and induce fibrosis in mice.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology is one of today's most promising technological developments, but safety concerns raise questions about its development. Risk assessments of nanomaterials during occupational exposure are crucial for their development. Here, we assessed the lung toxicity of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (f-SWCNT) exposure in C57BL/6 mice, elucidated the underlying molecular mechanism, and evaluated the self-repair ability and lung fibrosis of the mice. Soluble f-SWCNTs were administered to mice. After 18 h or 14 days, the lung histopathology, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung edema, vascular permeability, and PaO(2) levels were evaluated, and biochemical and immunostaining tests were also performed. We found that some f-SWCNTs could induce acute lung injury (ALI) in mice via proinflammatory cytokine storm signaling through the NF-?B pathway in vivo. We illustrated that corticosteroid treatments could ameliorate the ALI induced by the f-SWCNTs in mice. Surprisingly, the ALI was almost completely reversed within 14 days, while mild to moderate fibrosis, granuloma, and DNA damage remained in the mice at day 14. Our studies indicate potential remedies to address the growing concerns about the safety of nanomaterials. In addition, we notify that the type of functional groups should be considered in nanomedicine application as differently functionalized SWCNTs generated different effects on the lung toxicity. PMID:22878607

Zhang, Yanli; Deng, Jiejie; Zhang, Yanxu; Guo, Feng; Li, Chenggang; Zou, Zhen; Xi, Wen; Tang, Jun; Sun, Yang; Yang, Peng; Han, Zongsheng; Li, Dangsheng; Jiang, Chengyu

2013-01-01

186

Regression of long standing anorexia nervosa following acute renal failure caused by gentamicin intoxication.  

PubMed

A female patient aged 22 with fully developed symptoms of anorexia nervosa presented the following metabolic disturbances: persistent hyperuricemia, hyponatruria, (sometimes with sodium lack in urine) as well as frequent hyponatremia and hyper-uricosuria. The patient's low arterial blood pressure (70/40 mm Hg on average) was not improved by pharmacological treatment, and only high oral doses of table salt (20-70 g/24 h) did prove effective in the therapy. The subject passed seven renal calculi composed of sodium urate and uric acid. Numerous urinalyses did not reveal any changes, and bacterial cultures of the urine were also negative. After 14 years of anorexia nervosa, the patient was treated for pneumonia with gentamicin at doses of 2 x 80 mg/24 h. Following third dose of the antibiotic, the patient developed acute renal failure and was treated by haemodialysis for six weeks. The renal function came gradually to the norm. Simultaneously, all the anorexia nervosa symptoms subsided along with sodium metabolism disturbances, while purine metabolism disorders got considerably alleviated. The patient started to have her menstrual cycles again, gained 12 kg in body weight, and one year afterwards bore a son. A further 10-year follow-up period was free of any pathological changes except for a slight hyperuricemia. To the best of our knowledge, the similar case has not been reported in the medical literature and electronic data bases. PMID:16225114

Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Rutkowski, Boles?aw; Sein Anand, Jacek; Rutkowski, Przemys?aw

2005-01-01

187

Selective BCL-2 Inhibition by ABT-199 Causes On Target Cell Death in Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) prevents commitment to programmed cell death at the mitochondrion. It remains a challenge to identify those tumors that are best treated by inhibition of BCL-2. Here we demonstrate that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, primary patient samples, and murine primary xenografts are very sensitive to treatment with the selective BCL-2 antagonist ABT-199. In primary patient cells, the median IC50 was approximately 10 nM, and cell death occurred within 2 h. Our ex vivo sensitivity results compare favorably with those observed for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a disease for which ABT-199 has demonstrated consistent activity in clinical trials. Moreover, mitochondrial studies using BH3 profiling demonstrate activity at the mitochondrion that correlates well with cytotoxicity, supporting an on target mitochondrial mechanism of action. Our protein and BH3 profiling studies provide promising tools that can be tested as predictive biomarkers in any clinical trial of ABT-199 in AML. PMID:24346116

Pan, Rongqing; Hogdal, Leah J.; Benito, Juliana M; Bucci, Donna; Han, Lina; Borthakur, Gautam; Cortes, Jorge; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Debose, LaKeisha; Mu, Hong; Dohner, Hartmut; Gaidzik, Verena I.; Galinsky, Ilene; Golfman, Leonard S.; Haferlach, Torsten; Harutyunyan, Karine G.; Hu, Jianhua; Leverson, Joel D; Marcucci, Guido; Muschen, Markus; Newman, Rachel; Park, Eugene; Ruvolo, Peter P.; Ruvolo, Vivian; Ryan, Jeremy; Schindela, Sonja; Zweidler-McKay, Patrick; Stone, Richard M.; Kantarjian, Hagop; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina; Letai, Anthony G.

2014-01-01

188

Molecular identification of bacteria by total sequence screening: determining the cause of death in ancient human subjects.  

PubMed

Research of ancient pathogens in ancient human skeletons has been mainly carried out on the basis of one essential historical or archaeological observation, permitting specific pathogens to be targeted. Detection of ancient human pathogens without such evidence is more difficult, since the quantity and quality of ancient DNA, as well as the environmental bacteria potentially present in the sample, limit the analyses possible. Using human lung tissue and/or teeth samples from burials in eastern Siberia, dating from the end of 17(th) to the 19(th) century, we propose a methodology that includes the: 1) amplification of all 16S rDNA gene sequences present in each sample; 2) identification of all bacterial DNA sequences with a degree of identity ? 95%, according to quality criteria; 3) identification and confirmation of bacterial pathogens by the amplification of the rpoB gene; and 4) establishment of authenticity criteria for ancient DNA. This study demonstrates that from teeth samples originating from ancient human subjects, we can realise: 1) the correct identification of bacterial molecular sequence signatures by quality criteria; 2) the separation of environmental and pathogenic bacterial 16S rDNA sequences; 3) the distribution of bacterial species for each subject and for each burial; and 4) the characterisation of bacteria specific to the permafrost. Moreover, we identified three pathogens in different teeth samples by 16S rDNA sequence amplification: Bordetella sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Shigella dysenteriae. We tested for the presence of these pathogens by amplifying the rpoB gene. For the first time, we confirmed sequences from Bordetella pertussis in the lungs of an ancient male Siberian subject, whose grave dated from the end of the 17(th) century to the early 18(th) century. PMID:21765907

Thèves, Catherine; Senescau, Alice; Vanin, Stefano; Keyser, Christine; Ricaut, François Xavier; Alekseev, Anatoly N; Dabernat, Henri; Ludes, Bertrand; Fabre, Richard; Crubézy, Eric

2011-01-01

189

Analysis of bacterial pathogens causing acute diarrhea on the basis of sentinel surveillance in Shanghai, China, 2006-2011.  

PubMed

Acute diarrhea is the most common infectious disease worldwide and its causes vary from one region to another. We aimed to analyze the spectrum and epidemiological characteristics of pathogens from 22,386 outpatients with acute diarrhea on the basis of surveillance data from Shanghai, China, during 2006-2011. The following 8 pathogens were isolated and identified using standard methods: Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. In total, 2,234 strains of pathogens were obtained and the overall isolation rate of these 8 pathogens gradually decreased from 17.1% in 2006 to 7.4% in 2011. V. parahaemolyticus was the most frequently identified pathogen, followed by Shigella and Salmonella. The isolation rate of V. parahaemolyticus notably varied by season, whereas Salmonella and Shigella infections showed little seasonal variation. Age-related variation was also observed. V. parahaemolyticus infection occurred more often in patients aged 20-40 years. S. enterica serovar Enteritidis and S. flexneri were the most common serotypes of Salmonella and Shigella, respectively. The descending trend observed in the isolation rate of pathogens from the current surveillance suggests an urgent requirement or improvement. PMID:25056071

Zhang, Yinghua; Zhao, Yanping; Ding, Keying; Wang, Xiaoguang; Chen, Xiuhua; Liu, Yun; Chen, Yue

2014-01-01

190

Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome Causing Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Patient Undergoing Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting  

PubMed Central

Coronary subclavian steal syndrome with retrograde blood flow in the left internal mammary-coronary bypass graft is a rare but severe complication of cardiac surgery. The authors present a case of a 68-year-old man after coronary-artery bypass grafting using an internal mammary artery. He had been suffering from angina pectoris for the last several years before surgery. The patient was resuscitated at home by emergency medical service because of primary ventricular fibrillation due to an acute myocardial infarction 5 years after surgery. An occlusion of the left subclavian artery with the retrograde blood flow in the left internal mammary coronary bypass was found. This could have been the cause of insufficiency in coronary blood flow and ischemia of the myocardial muscle. The subclavian artery occlusion was successfully treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and implantation of 2 stents. The patient remained free of any symptoms 2 years after this procedure. PMID:22969810

Mandak, Jiri; Lojik, Miroslav; Tuna, Martin; Chek, James Lago

2012-01-01

191

Inflammatory Responses Are Not Sufficient to Cause Delayed Neuronal Death in ATP-Induced Acute Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Background Brain inflammation is accompanied by brain injury. However, it is controversial whether inflammatory responses are harmful or beneficial to neurons. Because many studies have been performed using cultured microglia and neurons, it has not been possible to assess the influence of multiple cell types and diverse factors that dynamically and continuously change in vivo. Furthermore, behavior of microglia and other inflammatory cells could have been overlooked since most studies have focused on neuronal death. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the precise roles of microglia and brain inflammation in the injured brain, and determine their contribution to neuronal damage in vivo from the onset of injury. Methods and Findings Acute neuronal damage was induced by stereotaxic injection of ATP into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the cortex of the rat brain. Inflammatory responses and their effects on neuronal damage were investigated by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR, and stereological counting, etc. ATP acutely caused death of microglia as well as neurons in a similar area within 3 h. We defined as the core region the area where both TH+ and Iba-1+ cells acutely died, and as the penumbra the area surrounding the core where Iba-1+ cells showed activated morphology. In the penumbra region, morphologically activated microglia arranged around the injury sites. Monocytes filled the damaged core after neurons and microglia died. Interestingly, neither activated microglia nor monocytes expressed iNOS, a major neurotoxic inflammatory mediator. Monocytes rather expressed CD68, a marker of phagocytic activity. Importantly, the total number of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc at 3 h (?80% of that in the contralateral side) did not decrease further at 7 d. Similarly, in the cortex, ATP-induced neuron-damage area detected at 3 h did not increase for up to 7 d. Conclusions Different cellular components (microglia, astrocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) and different factors (proinflammatory and neurotrophic) could be produced in inflammatory processes depending on the nature of the injury. The results in this study suggest that the inflammatory responses of microglia and monocytes in response to ATP-induced acute injury could not be neurotoxic. PMID:21060796

Jeong, Hey-Kyeong; Ji, Kyung-min; Kim, Beomsue; Kim, Jun; Jou, Ilo; Joe, Eun-hye

2010-01-01

192

Molecular characterisation of a coxsackievirus A24 that caused an outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis, Tunisia 2003.  

PubMed

This study reports the genetic characteristics of coxsackievirus A24 isolates from Tunisia, including a coxsackievirus A24 variant (CVA24v) that caused an outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) between September and November 2003. The virus genome was detected by PCR from conjunctival swabs obtained from patients with AHC. Four virus isolates were obtained from PCR-positive samples and were serotyped by sequence analysis of the VP1 and VP4 genomic region and by seroneutralisation. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1, VP4 and 3C genomic regions was performed. Other Tunisian CVA24 isolates from paralytic cases and healthy individuals were also amplified, sequenced and included in the phylogenetic analysis. The epidemic strain belonged to the CVA24 serotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3C region of the genome revealed a strong relationship between the Tunisian epidemic strain and strains that caused outbreaks in Korea (2002) and Guadeloupe and French Guiana (2003). Phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 and VP4 regions showed a clear distinction between serotype CVA24 isolates from conjunctivitis and non-conjunctivitis cases. This is the first study to report an outbreak of AHC caused by CVA24v in the North African region. PMID:17328730

Triki, H; Rezig, D; Bahri, O; Ben Ayed, N; Ben Yahia, A; Sadraoui, A; Ayed, S

2007-02-01

193

Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress  

PubMed Central

Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (i.e. 300 mg·kg?1) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind cross-over trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6±0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65±6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg·kg?1) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate (HR) were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (p=0.38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3±1.1 mmHg, p=0.01) and higher HR (main treatment effect, +10.1±2.4 bpm, p=0.002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0–10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1±0.5 vs. 0.5±0.2, p<0.0001). Furthermore, 10 of the 11 subjects (91%) experienced diarrhea, 64% experience bloating and thirst, and 45% experienced nausea after bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial GI distress. PMID:23746564

Kahle, Laura E.; Kelly, Patrick V.; Eliot, Kathrin A.; Weiss, Edward P.

2013-01-01

194

Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.  

PubMed

Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg?kg?¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg?kg?¹) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P < .0001). Furthermore, 10 of the 11 subjects (91%) experienced diarrhea, 64% experience bloating and thirst, and 45% experienced nausea after bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress. PMID:23746564

Kahle, Laura E; Kelly, Patrick V; Eliot, Kathrin A; Weiss, Edward P

2013-06-01

195

Risk factors for hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in critically ill patients: a multicenter study in Korea.  

PubMed

We performed a case-control study to identify risk factors of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) as an increasing cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). The study included critically ill adult patients with HAP whose microbial etiology was identified at eight tertiary centers in Korea between June 2008 and December 2009. Eighty two patients with 86 isolates of CRGNB (62 Acinetobacter baumannii, 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 10 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) were included in the case group, and 122 patients with carbapenem-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria were included in the control group. Diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.82, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.25-6.38), radiologic score ?5 (aOR 4.56, 95% CI 2.36-8.81), prior fluoroquinolone (aOR 2.39. 95% CI = 1.07-5.35), or carbapenem usage (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.75-17.83) were found to be independent risk factors. Fluoroquinolone and carbapenem should be cautiously used to avoid HAP caused by CRGNB. PMID:24462178

Kim, Tark; Chong, Yong Pil; Park, Seong Yeon; Jeon, Min-Hyok; Choo, Eun Joo; Chung, Jin-Won; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Moon, Chisook; Kim, Dong-Min; Peck, Kyong Ran; Kim, Yang Soo

2014-04-01

196

Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, non-conventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful. PMID:21499580

Radha Krishna, Y; Mittal, V; Grewal, P; Fiel, MI; Schiano, T

2011-01-01

197

Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, nonconventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful. PMID:21499580

Yellapu, Radha K; Mittal, Vivek; Grewal, Priya; Fiel, Mariaisabel; Schiano, Thomas

2011-03-01

198

Attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units  

PubMed Central

Background In psychiatry, most of the focus on patient aggression has been in adolescent and adult inpatient settings. This behaviour is also common in elderly people with mental illness, but little research has been conducted into this problem in old age psychiatry settings. The attitudes of clinical staff toward aggression may affect the way they manage this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of clinical staff toward the causes and management of aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient settings. Methods A convenience sample of clinical staff were recruited from three locked acute old age psychiatry inpatient units in Melbourne, Australia. They completed the Management of Aggression and Violence Scale, which assessed the causes and managment of aggression in psychiatric settings. Results Eighty-five staff completed the questionnaire, comprising registered nurses (61.1%, n?=?52), enrolled nurses (27.1%, n?=?23) and medical and allied health staff (11.8%, n?=?10). A range of causative factors contributed to aggression. The respondents had a tendency to disagree that factors directly related to the patient contributed to this behaviour. They agreed patients were aggressive because of the environment they were in, other people contributed to them becoming aggressive, and patients from certain cultural groups were prone to these behaviours. However, there were mixed views about whether patient aggression could be prevented, and this type of behaviour took place because staff did not listen to patients. There was agreement medication was a valuable approach for the management of aggression, negotiation could be used more effectively in such challenging behaviour, and seclusion and physical restraint were sometimes used more than necessary. However, there was disagreement about whether the practice of secluding patients should be discontinued. Conclusions Aggression in acute old age psychiatry inpatient units occurs occasionally and is problematic. A range of causative factors contribute to the onset of this behaviour. Attitudes toward the management of aggression are complex and somewhat contradictory and can affect the way staff manage this behaviour; therefore, wide-ranging initiatives are needed to prevent and deal with this type of challenging behaviour. PMID:24642026

2014-01-01

199

In vitro activities of pazufloxacin, a novel injectable quinolone, against bacteria causing infections in obstetric and gynecological patients.  

PubMed

T-3762 is an injectable new quinolone with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Pazufloxacin (T-3761) is an active form of T-3762. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of pazufloxacin for 50% of the clinical isolates tested were 3.13 microg/ml for Streptococcus agalactiae, 6.25 microg/ml for Gardnerella vaginalis, 0.025 microg/ml for Escherichia coli, 0.78 microg/ml for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 6.25 microg/ml for Peptostreptococcus magnus, 6.25 microg/ml for Bacteroides fragilis and 12.5 microg/ml for Prevotella bivia. The MICs of T-3762 for 90% of the clinical isolates tested were 3.13 microg/ml for S. agalactiae, 6.25 microg/ml for G. vaginalis, 0.10 microg/ml for E. coli, 12.5 microg/ml for P. aeruginosa, 25 microg/ml for P. magnus, 12.5 microg/ml for B. fragilis and 25 microg/ml for P. bivia. The results of this study suggest that, subject to confirmation by clinical trials, T-3762, in combination with an agent with reliable activity against anaerobic bacteria, is suitable as an empirical therapy of patients with obstetric and gynecological infections. PMID:10224336

Mikamo, H; Sato, Y; Hayasaki, Y; Kawazoe, K; Tamaya, T

1999-01-01

200

Histopathological Findings of Hemorrhagic Ganglion Cyst Causing Acute Radicular Pain: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Although juxtafacet cysts of the lumbar spine are being reported with increasing frequency, hemorrhage from a ganglion cyst is rare, and the pathophysiologic mechanism of the hemorrhage from the cyst is still unclear. A 75-year-old male presented with sudden radicular leg pain caused by hemorrhage from the ganglion cyst. Computed tomography revealed bony erosion of vertebral body and multiple punched-out lesions on facets. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the neural structure was compressed by a sharply delineating mass. Capsule and old hematoma with elastic consistency that extended to the epidural space were removed through a paramedian transforaminal approach, which led to the resolution of the patient's symptoms. Histopathologically, chronic inflammation with neovascularization and myxoid degeneration were present in the capsule. Alcian blue staining demonstrated the mixture of mucin and hematoma. The probable pathogenesis of hemorrhage from the cyst was discussed from the unique histopathological findings of surgical specimen. PMID:24891856

Park, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Hee Kyung; Hwang, Sun Chul; Shin, Dong-Seung; Shin, Won Han; Kim, Bum-Tae

2013-01-01

201

Histopathological findings of hemorrhagic ganglion cyst causing acute radicular pain: a case report.  

PubMed

Although juxtafacet cysts of the lumbar spine are being reported with increasing frequency, hemorrhage from a ganglion cyst is rare, and the pathophysiologic mechanism of the hemorrhage from the cyst is still unclear. A 75-year-old male presented with sudden radicular leg pain caused by hemorrhage from the ganglion cyst. Computed tomography revealed bony erosion of vertebral body and multiple punched-out lesions on facets. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the neural structure was compressed by a sharply delineating mass. Capsule and old hematoma with elastic consistency that extended to the epidural space were removed through a paramedian transforaminal approach, which led to the resolution of the patient's symptoms. Histopathologically, chronic inflammation with neovascularization and myxoid degeneration were present in the capsule. Alcian blue staining demonstrated the mixture of mucin and hematoma. The probable pathogenesis of hemorrhage from the cyst was discussed from the unique histopathological findings of surgical specimen. PMID:24891856

Park, Jong-Hyun; Im, Soo Bin; Kim, Hee Kyung; Hwang, Sun Chul; Shin, Dong-Seung; Shin, Won Han; Kim, Bum-Tae

2013-12-01

202

Antimicrobial activity of certain bacteria and fungi isolated from soil mixed with human saliva against pathogenic microbes causing dermatological diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples (collected from El-Madina El-Monawara, Kingdom Saudi Arabia) were mixed with human saliva, incubated in media suitable for bacterial and fungal growth and filtered. Eighteen bacterial and five fungal species were isolated and identified. The bacterial and fungal filtrates as well as the isolated species were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities against some pathogenic microbes causing dermatological diseases (Staphylococcus

Huda Mohammed Ahmed Sheikh

2010-01-01

203

Clinical and Histological Features of Idiosyncratic Acute Liver Injury Caused by Temozolomide  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the clinical, biochemical and histological features of 4 patients with apparent hepatotoxicity due to temozolomide and to summarize the available literature of hepatotoxicity associated with this agent. Design Case series Setting Patients were participants in the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network a United States multicenter cooperative study. Patients Four patients (ages 47 to 70 years; 3 men, 1 woman) developed liver injury 1 to 7 months after starting temozolomide chemotherapy. Intervention Discontinuation of temozolomide therapy. Results Among the first 1000 cases of drug-induced liver injury enrolled in a prospective U.S. multicenter database, 4 cases of temozolomide hepatotoxicity were identified (0.5%).Three were jaundiced and the initial pattern of serum enzyme elevations was often hepatocellular or mixed, but usually became cholestatic with time. Immunoallergic and autoimmune features were absent. Liver biopsies showed varying degrees of cholestasis, mild inflammation, focal hepatocellular injury and prominent bile duct damage or paucity. The liver injury tended to be prolonged and 3 patients still had liver tests abnormalities (one with jaundice) when they died of brain tumor or complications of its therapy 1 to 18 months later. Conclusion Temozolomide hepatotoxicity although infrequent, can necessitate interruption of cancer chemotherapy and cause significant debility in already compromised patients. PMID:23212393

Grant, Lafaine; Kleiner, David E.; Conjeevaram, Hari S; Vuppalanchi, Raj; Lee, William M.

2013-01-01

204

Bronchitis - acute  

MedlinePLUS

Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation of the main air passages to the lungs. This swelling narrows ... and causing other symptoms, such as a cough. Acute means the symptoms have only been present for ...

205

Frequent Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Pneumonia-Causing Bacteria in the Pneumonia Lung Tissues of Patients with Hematological Malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pneumonia is a critical issue during the agonal phase, and often becomes lethal in the absence of pathogen detection. Autopsy\\u000a is a powerful tool for analyzing the cause of a patient’s death, progression of the disease, and the therapeutic response.\\u000a However, it is frequently limited to the identification of bacterial strains. To elucidate the pathogenesis during the agonal\\u000a phase of

Kunihiro Inai; Hiromichi Iwasaki; Sakon Noriki; Satoshi Ikegaya; Masanori Yamashita; Yoshiaki Imamura; Nobuo Takimoto; Hisataka Kato; Takanori Ueda; Hironobu Naiki

2007-01-01

206

Frequent detection of multidrug-resistant pneumonia-causing bacteria in the pneumonia lung tissues of patients with hematological malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pneumonia is a critical issue during the agonal phase, and often becomes lethal in the absence of pathogen detection. Autopsy\\u000a is a powerful tool for analyzing the cause of a patient’s death, progression of the disease, and the therapeutic response.\\u000a However, it is frequently limited to the identification of bacterial strains. To elucidate the pathogenesis during the agonal\\u000a phase of

Kunihiro Inai; Hiromichi Iwasaki; Sakon Noriki; Satoshi Ikegaya; Masanori Yamashita; Yoshiaki Imamura; Nobuo Takimoto; Hisataka Kato; Takanori Ueda; Hironobu Naiki

2007-01-01

207

ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY CAUSED BY Crotalus AND Bothrops SNAKE VENOM: A REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND TREATMENT  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Ophidic accidents are an important public health problem due to their incidence, morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of cases have been registered in Brazil in the last few years. Several studies point to the importance of knowing the clinical complications and adequate approach in these accidents. However, knowledge about the risk factors is not enough and there are an increasing number of deaths due to these accidents in Brazil. In this context, acute kidney injury (AKI) appears as one of the main causes of death and consequences for these victims, which are mainly young males working in rural areas. Snakes of the Bothrops and Crotalus genera are the main responsible for renal involvement in ophidic accidents in South America. The present study is a literature review of AKI caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snake venom regarding diverse characteristics, emphasizing the most appropriate therapeutic approach for these cases. Recent studies have been carried out searching for complementary therapies for the treatment of ophidic accidents, including the use of lipoic acid, simvastatin and allopurinol. Some plants, such as Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae seem to have a beneficial role in the treatment of this type of envenomation. Future studies will certainly find new therapeutic measures for ophidic accidents. PMID:24037282

Albuquerque, Polianna L.M.M.; Jacinto, Camilla N.; Silva, Geraldo B.; Lima, Juliana B.; Veras, Maria do Socorro B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

2013-01-01

208

Toxic myopathy and acute hepatic necrosis in cattle caused by ingestion of Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) in Brazil.  

PubMed

The epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of field and experimental Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) poisoning in cattle are described. The low availability of good quality forage and high rate of infestation of pastures by S. obtusifolia were the factors that led to poisonous plant ingestion. In this study, the morbidity ranged between 2% and 27.9%, and the lethality was 100%. For the experimental study, six cattle were fed with the aerial parts of S. obtusifolia collected in three different seasons at 9%-38% of the animal's body weight. The experimental and field diseases were similar. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, reluctance to move, muscular weakness and recumbency. The gross findings included pale discoloration of the skeletal muscle. Microscopically, the affected cattle showed degeneration and necrosis of the skeletal muscles and occasionally of the cardiac muscles. Additionally, two cattle showed centrilobular hepatic necrosis. In this study, S. obtusifolia collected from the same farm showed seasonal variation in toxicity. Poisoning by S. obtusifolia is an important cause of death of cattle in the Central Western region of Brazil. The toxicosis caused by this plant is similar to S. occidentalis poisoning; however, in S. obtusifolia poisoning, acute hepatic necrosis is sometimes present. PMID:25255730

Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Zanata, Carina; Damasceno, Everson Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Leonardo Pintar; da Silva, Leilane Aparecida; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Riet-Correa, Franklin

2014-12-15

209

ProANP plasma measurement predicts all-cause mortality in acutely hospitalised patients: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Importance The association of natriuretic peptide measurement with all-cause mortality in a broad selection of acutely admitted patients has not yet been examined. Objective To test the risk association between pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and short-term and long-term mortality and its predictive value in acutely hospitalised patients and compare this to N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Design, setting and patients Participants were selected from the Copenhagen Hospital Heart Failure Study (n=3644). Medical history, satisfactory echocardiography and blood samples were available on 2193 participants in 1998–1999 where NT-proBNP was measured. Vital status after discharge was obtained from national central data registers. A total of 1337 participants with eligible blood samples were selected in 2010–2011 for proANP measurement. Among these, 1255 (94%) were acutely hospitalised in 1998–1999. Main outcome measure(s) 1-year and long-term mortality. Results Median follow-up period was 11.5?years. At the end of follow-up, 926 patients had died, 239 during the first year. ProANP quartiles to 2–4 (median proANP levels 594?pmol/L, 990?pmol/L and 2052?pmol/L, respectively) associated with a stepwise increase in risk of 1-year and long-term mortality compared to the first quartile (336?pmol/L) in multivariable adjusted Cox proportional regression models (HR 1.53 95% CI 1.30 to 1.81 and HR 1.26 95% CI 1.17 to 1.36, respectively). An addition of NT-proBNP attenuated proANP's association with mortality in the models (HR 1.24 95% CI 1.01 to 1.53 and 1.14 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26, respectively). The increased risk was observed in participants with the highest proANP levels (fourth quartile). Similar results were observed in subgroups of participants with no evidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). ProANP in quartiles improved discrimination when added to traditional risk factors in prediction models for 1-year (integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) 0.141 95% CI 0.085 to 0.197; C-index 0.753 95% CI 0.724 to 0.783, P for improvement 0.003) and long-term mortality (IDI 0.053 95% CI 0.032 to 0.074; C-index 0.736 95% CI 0.720 to 0.752, P for improvement <0.001) with similar results in subgroups. Discrimination was best in a combined model with proANP as well as NT-proBNP included. Conclusions and relevance High plasma proANP concentrations are associated with and predict short-term and long-term all-cause mortality in acutely hospitalised patients irrespective of CVD status at admission. PMID:24282239

Lauridsen, Bo K; Iversen, Kasper; Hunter, Ingrid; Bay, Morten; Kirk, Vibeke; Nielsen, Olav W; Nielsen, Henrik; Boesgaard, S?ren; K?ber, Lars; Goetze, Jens P

2013-01-01

210

Does intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography cause acute kidney injury? Protocol of a systematic review of the evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Contrast-induced acute kidney injury is a common cause of iatrogenic acute kidney injury (AKI). Most of the published estimates of AKI after contrast use originate from the cardiac catheterization literature despite contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans being the more common setting for contrast use. This systematic review aims to summarize the current evidence about (1)the risk of AKI following intravenous (IV) contrast-enhanced CT scans and(2) the risk of clinical outcomes (i.e. death, hospitalization and need for renal replacement therapy) due to IV contrast-enhanced CT scans. Methods/Design A systematic literature search for published studies will be performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and The COCHRANE Library databases. Unpublished studies will be identified by searching through grey literature. No language restriction will be applied. The review will consider all studies that have examined the association between IV contrast media and AKI. To be selected, the study should include two arms: one group of exposed patients who received IV contrast material before CT scans and one group of unexposed group who did not receive contrast material before CT scans. Two authors will independently screen titles and abstracts obtained from electronic databases, extract data and will assess the quality of the studies selected using the Cochrane's ‘Risk of Bias’ assessment tool for randomized trials and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies. A random-effects meta-analysis will be performed if there is no remarkable heterogeneity between studies. Discussion This systematic review will provide synthesis of current evidence around the effect of IV contrast material on AKI and other clinical outcomes. Results will be helpful for making evidence-based recommendations and guidelines for clinical and radiologic settings. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42013003799. PMID:25148933

2014-01-01

211

Efficacy of 5-day parenteral versus intramammary benzylpenicillin for treatment of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to penicillin in vitro.  

PubMed

The efficacy of parenteral (intramuscular) or intramammary (IMM) benzylpenicillin treatment for clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to penicillin in vitro was investigated. Cows with clinical mastitis in 1 udder quarter were randomly placed into 2 treatment groups. The preliminary bacteriological diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI) was based on on-farm culturing, and the bacteriological diagnoses were later confirmed by a quantitative PCR assay. Clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to benzylpenicillin was treated with penicillin via either the parenteral route (20mg/kg) or IMM route (600mg) once per day for 5d. The outcome of the treatment was evaluated 3 to 4wk after the onset of the treatment. The affected quarter was examined to assess the clinical cure, and milk samples were collected from the affected quarter to determine the bacteriological cure and milk N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity. The survival and the composite milk somatic cell counts of the treated cows were followed up for 6 and 3mo after treatment, respectively. A total of 140 cows with clinical mastitis were included in the study, 61 being treated with benzylpenicillin parenterally and 79 via the IMM route. From all quarters treated, 108 of 140 (77.1%) were cured clinically and 77 of 140 (55.0%) were cured bacteriologically. The route of treatment did not significantly affect the outcome of the treatment; 80.3% of the quarters with parenteral treatment and 74.7% of the quarters with IMM treatment showed a clinical cure, and 54.1 and 55.7% a bacteriological cure, respectively. The milk N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity was significantly lower in the quarters with a clinical or bacteriological cure than in the quarters with no cure. The 6-mo survival and the proportion of cows with composite milk somatic cell counts <200,000/mL among the treated cows during the 3-mo follow-up period did not significantly differ between the treatment groups. In conclusion, the outcome of either parenteral or IMM benzylpenicillin treatment of clinical mastitis caused by penicillin-susceptible bacteria was similar. PMID:24485692

Kalmus, P; Simojoki, H; Orro, T; Taponen, S; Mustonen, K; Holopainen, J; Pyörälä, S

2014-04-01

212

Medication safety in acute care in Australia: where are we now? Part 1: a review of the extent and causes of medication problems 2002–2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This paper presents Part 1 of a two-part literature review examining medication safety in the Australian acute care setting. This review was undertaken for the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care to update a previous national report on medication safety conducted in 2002. This first part of the review examines the extent and causes of medication

Elizabeth E Roughead; Susan J Semple

2009-01-01

213

Rapid Identification of Nine Microorganisms Causing Acute Respiratory Tract Infections by Single-Tube Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR: Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) are leading causes of morbidity and, in developing countries, mortality in children. A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay was developed to allow in one test the detection of nine different microorganisms (enterovirus, influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenzaviruses type 1 and type 3, adenovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae) that do

BRITTA GRONDAHL; WOLFRAM PUPPE; ANDREA HOPPE; INKA KUHNE; JOSEF A. I. WEIGL; HEINZ-JOSEF SCHMITT

1999-01-01

214

Endocarditis due to Anaerobic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of endocarditis due to anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria are an uncommon but important cause of endocarditis. Most cases of anaerobic endocarditis are caused by anaerobic cocci, Propionibacterium acnes and Bacteroides fragilis group. Predisposing factors and signs and symptoms of endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria are similar to those seen in endocarditis with

Itzhak Brook

2002-01-01

215

Duration of clinical symptoms in female patients with acute urethral syndrome caused by Chlamydia trachomatis treated with azithromycin or doxycycline.  

PubMed

One hundred fifty-one female patients with acute urethral syndrome caused by Chlamydia trachomatis were examined. First, patients were divided into two groups, those with clinical symptoms present < 3 weeks before the start of treatment, and those with clinical symptoms > or = 3 weeks prior to the beginning of therapy. Then patients were further divided into groups and randomized to receive azithromycin once daily in a single dose of 1.0 g or 500 mg once daily for 6 days, or to receive doxycycline 100 mg b.i.d. for 14 days or 100 mg b.i.d. for 7 days (8 study groups in all). Clinical and bacteriological efficacy was evaluated 3 weeks after the end of therapy. In the group of patients with disease symptoms lasting for 3 weeks or longer, the eradication and clinical cure rates were significantly higher after administration of azithromycin in a dose of 1x500 mg/6 days than after a single dose of 1.0 g (p<0.01), and after administration of doxycycline 2x100 mg/14 days than by using doxycycline 2x100 mg/7 days (p<0.05). PMID:11330365

Skerk, V; Schönwald, S; Strapac, Z; Beus, A; Franceti?, I; Krhen, I; Lesko, V; Vukovi?, J

2001-04-01

216

Management of acute, recurrent, and chronic meningitides in adults.  

PubMed

Meningitis (inflammation of the pia, arachnoid, and sometimes dura) has diverse causes and presentations. Although viruses are the most common cause of acute meningitis, bacterial meningitides are more severe and important to exclude because morbidity and mortality are high. Chronic meningitis has a broader range of causes, including atypical bacteria, fungi, and noninfectious causes. Presentation is more insidious but, if untreated, significant damage or death may ensue. Recurrent meningitis has many of the same causes as chronic meningitis, but manifestations occur in discrete episodes. Distinguishing between acute, chronic, and recurrent meningitis is essential for proper diagnostic testing and treatment approaches. PMID:20816277

Cho, Tracey A; Venna, Nagagopal

2010-11-01

217

Acute Schmorl Node in Dorsal Spine: An Unusual Cause of a Sudden Onset of Severe Back Pain in a Young Female  

PubMed Central

Schmorl nodes represent displacement of intervertebral disc tissue into the vertebral body and have been considered as an asymptomatic incidental radiological finding on plain radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although uncommon, acute symptomatic Schmorl nodes causing severe back pain do occur. We report here an unusual case of acute painful Schmorl node in a young healthy woman, with no previous trauma, presenting with a sudden significant localized back pain within hours accompanied by characteristic findings on a MRI scan. We reviewed all reports of symptomatic Schmorl nodes known in the literature, focusing mainly on MRI findings, and recent treatment options. PMID:23741552

Ohana, Nissim; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Kittani, Mohamed; Shelef, Ilan

2013-01-01

218

Acute schmorl node in dorsal spine: an unusual cause of a sudden onset of severe back pain in a young female.  

PubMed

Schmorl nodes represent displacement of intervertebral disc tissue into the vertebral body and have been considered as an asymptomatic incidental radiological finding on plain radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although uncommon, acute symptomatic Schmorl nodes causing severe back pain do occur. We report here an unusual case of acute painful Schmorl node in a young healthy woman, with no previous trauma, presenting with a sudden significant localized back pain within hours accompanied by characteristic findings on a MRI scan. We reviewed all reports of symptomatic Schmorl nodes known in the literature, focusing mainly on MRI findings, and recent treatment options. PMID:23741552

Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Ohana, Nissim; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Kittani, Mohamed; Shelef, Ilan

2013-06-01

219

Psychological Stress and 30-Day All-Cause Hospital Readmission in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: An Observational Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Many acute coronary syndrome (ACS; myocardial infarction and unstable angina) patients are rehospitalized within 30 days of discharge, and recent US health policy initiatives have tied hospital Medicare reimbursement to 30-day readmission rates. Patient-perceived psychological stress is thought to impact prognosis after ACS. A recently offered “posthospital syndrome” model of 30-day readmissions posits that the stress level at the time of the index hospitalization itself may increase 30-day risk for readmission in ACS patients. We tested whether self-reported stress in the days surrounding the ACS hospitalization was associated with increased risk for readmission within 30 days. Methods A mean of 8.5 days after discharge, 342 consecutively hospitalized ACS patients reported on how often they felt stress during the past two weeks. Readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge for any cause was determined by follow-up telephone calls to patients and confirmed by hospital records. Results Overall, 40 (11.7%) participants were readmitted within 30 days, and 22 (6.4%) reported high stress. Readmission within 30 days was more common in patients with high stress (5 admissions, 23%) than in patients with low stress (35 admissions, 11%). After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, as well as depression, high stress was associated with a 3-fold increased risk of 30-day readmission (HR?=?3.21, 95% CI?=?1.13, 9.10). Conclusions Previous research has shown that stress in the days surrounding a hospitalization can mark long-term cardiovascular risk, but this is the first study to test a hypothesis of the posthospital syndrome model of early readmission. Further research is needed to confirm the association between stress and readmission risk, and to identify the processes of hospitalization that could be modified to both reduce the stress experienced and that would also be effective for reducing readmissions. PMID:24621575

Edmondson, Donald; Green, Philip; Ye, Siqin; Halazun, Hadi J.; Davidson, Karina W.

2014-01-01

220

Dysregulated renin-angiotensin system contributes to acute lung injury caused by hind-limb ischemia-reperfusion in mice.  

PubMed

The mechanism of acute lung injury (ALI) following limb ischemia-reperfusion (LIR) is not yet clear. We speculate that the unbalanced expression of angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE and ACE2) and angiotensins [Ang II and Ang-(1-7)] in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major cause of ALI. To prove this hypothesis, pathological changes, lung edema, and permeability of wild-type mice at different time points within 12 h of reperfusion after 2 h of hind-limb ischemia were first detected by morphological method, measurements of wet-to-dry weight ratio, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Meanwhile, the changes of lung ACE/ACE2 mRNA and protein expression were surveyed by the methods of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Angiotensin II/Ang-(1-7) levels in the blood serum and lung tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then the effects of ACE2 gene insertion and deletion on the previously mentioned parameters were investigated in the mice being exposed to hind-limb 2-h ischemia and 4-h reperfusion. The results revealed that lung injuries in the wild-type mice were gradually aggravated, and the expression of ACE in lung tissue was progressively increased, whereas that of ACE2 decreased within 12 h after LIR. Unexpectedly, both Ang II and Ang-(1-7) in the lung tissue were obviously increased after LIR, showing Ang-(1-7) higher than Ang II in the early stage of reperfusion but lower than Ang II at the late stage of reperfusion. Unlike local Ang II/Ang-(1-7) changes, circulating Ang-(1-7) became greatly descending, and Ang II was markedly ascending from the start of reperfusion, corresponding to local ACE/ACE2 unbalanced expression. ACE2 transgenosis improved the imbalance of ACE/ACE2 and Ang II/Ang-(1-7) expression and alleviated lung injuries, whereas ACE2 knockout further aggravated the imbalance of ACE/ACE2 and Ang II/Ang-(1-7) expression and made lung injuries more serious in the post-LIR mice. The results indicate that the dysregulation of local and circulating RAS with increased expression of ACE/Ang II and decreased expression of ACE2/Ang-(1-7) contribute to ALI caused by LIR in mice. Maintaining RAS homeostasis through upregulating ACE2 expression may lessen lung injury, which provides a new idea for the treatment of posttraumatic ALI. PMID:23903854

Chen, Li-Nan; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Nissen, Daniel H; Chen, Yan-Yan; Wang, Li-Jun; Wang, Jian-Hui; Gao, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Lian-Yuan

2013-11-01

221

Determinants of Noninvasive Ventilation Outcomes during an Episode of Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The Effects of Comorbidities and Causes of Respiratory Failure  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate the effect of the cause of acute respiratory failure and the role of comorbidities both acute and chronic on the outcome of COPD patients admitted to Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) with acute respiratory failure and treated with NIV. Design. Observational prospective study. Patients and Methods. 176 COPD patients consecutively admitted to our RICU over a period of 3 years and treated with NIV were evaluated. In all patients demographic, clinical, and functional parameters were recorded including the cause of acute respiratory failure, SAPS II score, Charlson comorbidity index, and further comorbidities not listed in the Charlson index. NIV success was defined as clinical improvement leading to discharge to regular ward, while exitus or need for endotracheal intubation was considered failure. Results. NIV outcome was successful in 134 patients while 42 underwent failure. Univariate analysis showed significantly higher SAP II score, Charlson index, prevalence of pneumonia, and lower serum albumin level in the failure group. Multivariate analysis confirmed a significant predictive value for pneumonia and albumin. Conclusions. The most important determinants of NIV outcome in COPD patients are the presence of pneumonia and the level of serum albumin as an indicator of the patient nutritional status. PMID:24563868

Pacilli, Angela Maria Grazia; Valentini, Ilaria; Carbonara, Paolo; Marchetti, Antonio; Nava, Stefano

2014-01-01

222

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve: A cause of acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a three-year-old child: A case report and comprehensive literature review.  

PubMed

A three-year-old boy was investigated for inexplicable incessant crying. On examination, his left wrist was mildly swollen (three to four months) and sensitive. Exploration and carpal tunnel decompression of the left wrist with incisional biopsy was performed for the presence of a fusiform swelling intimately associated with the median nerve. Histopathology revealed the presence of enlarged nerve bundles admixed with mature fat cells and diffuse fibroblastic proliferation. Three months later, he underwent urgent contralateral carpal tunnel decompression for a similar presentation. The final diagnosis was bilateral fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH) of the median nerves causing acute bilateral compression neuropathy. FLH of the median nerve is an extremely unusual cause of acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a young child presenting with 'incessant crying'. A comprehensive review of FLH including epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, imaging, pathology, treatment and prognosis is discussed. PMID:25332651

Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Classen, Dale; Bruce, Garth; Kanthan, Rani

2014-01-01

223

Acute abdomen due to ovarian congestion caused by coiling of the fallopian tube accompanied by paratubal cyst around the utero-ovarian ligament  

PubMed Central

Torsion of uterine adnexa is an important cause of acute abdominal pain in females. The main organ which can cause torsion is the ovaries, but torsions of the fallopian tube, subserosal myoma, paratubal cyst, and even the uterine body have been reported. The incidence of isolated fallopian tubal torsion is very rare. Even more rarely, it can coil around nearby organs such as the utero-ovarian ligament, showing similar clinical manifestations with those of adnexal torsion. We experienced an extremely rare case of acute abdomen induced by ovarian congestion triggered by the fallopian tube accompanying a paratubal cyst coiling around the utero-ovarian ligament. The right paratubal cyst was misinterpreted as being part of a cystic component of the left ovary on preoperative sonographic examination, and the coiling of the right fallopian tube accompanying the paratubal cyst was misdiagnosed as torsion of the right ovary. We report this rare case with a brief literature review. PMID:25105111

Kim, Juyoung; Park, Daehyun; Han, Won Bo; Jeong, Hyangjin

2014-01-01

224

Draft Genome Sequences of Four Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Three of Which Cause Early Mortality Syndrome/Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease in Shrimp in China and Thailand  

PubMed Central

We sequenced four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, three of which caused serious acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease. Sequence analysis of the virulent strains revealed not only genes related to cholera toxin and the type IV pilus/type IV secretion system but also a unique, previously unreported, large extrachromosomal plasmid that encodes a homolog to the insecticidal Photorhabdus insect-related binary toxin PirAB. PMID:25189578

Yang, Yi-Ting; Chen, I-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chen, Chien-Yu; Lin, Shih-Shun; Hor, Lien-I; Tseng, Ta-Chien; Huang, Yun-Tzu; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Thitamadee, Siripong; Wang, Han-Ching

2014-01-01

225

Do Cardiovascula r Risk Factors Explain the Relation between Socioeconomic Status, Risk of All-Cause Mortality, Cardiovascular Mortality, and Acute Myocardial Infarction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much remains to be understood about how low socioeconomic status (SES) increases cardiovascular disease and mortality risk. Data from the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (1984-1993) were used to estimate the associations between acute myocardial infarction and income, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality in a population-based sample of 2,272 Finnish men, with adjustment for 23 biologic, behavioral, psychologic,

John W. Lynch; George A. Kaplan; Richard D. Cohen; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Jukka T. Salonen

226

Pancreas divisum and duodenal diverticula as two causes of acute or chronic pancreatitis that should not be overlooked: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pancreas divisum is a congenital anatomical anomaly characterized by the lack of fusion of the ventral and dorsal parts of the pancreas during the eighth week of fetal development. This condition is found in 5% to 14% of the general population. In pancreas divisum, the increased incidence of acute and chronic pancreatitis is caused by inadequate drainage of secretions from the body, tail and part of the pancreatic head through an orifice that is too small. The incidence of diverticula in the second part of the duodenum is found in approximately 20% of the population. Compression of the duodenal diverticula at the end of the common bile duct leads to the formation of biliary lithiasis (a principal cause of acute pancreatitis), pain associated with biliary lithiasis owing to compression of the common bile duct (at times with jaundice), and compression of the last part of Wirsung's duct or the hepatopancreatic ampulla (ampulla of Vater) that may lead to both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Case presentation We describe the radiological findings of the case of a 75-year-old man with recurrent acute pancreatitis due to a combination of pancreas divisum and duodenal diverticula. Conclusion Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is advisable in patients with recurrent pancreatitis (both acute and chronic) since it is the most appropriate noninvasive treatment for the study of the pancreatic system (and the eventual presence of pancreas divisum) and the biliary systems (eventual presence of biliary microlithiasis). Moreover, it can lead to the diagnostic suspicion of duodenal diverticula, which can be confirmed through duodenography with X-ray or computed tomography scan with a radio-opaque contrast agent administered orally. PMID:18489738

De Filippo, Massimo; Giudici, Emiliano; Sverzellati, Nicola; Zompatori, Maurizio

2008-01-01

227

Spindle cell sarcoma of the mitral valve: an unusual cause of acute coronary syndrome in a child.  

PubMed

We present an unusual case of acute myocardial infarction by embolic obstruction of both the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries in a 14-year-old girl. Echocardiography showed mobile lesions on the mitral valve and into the left ventricular outflow tract with poor left ventricular function, eventually suggesting endocarditis. Successful surgery comprised mitral valve plasty after complete resection of the tumoral lesion, in association with coronary artery embolectomy. Histologic examination revealed a malignant spindle cell sarcoma treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. We emphasize here the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in children by a rare cardiac tumor. PMID:25282213

Martens, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Kristof; François, Katrien; Bove, Thierry

2014-10-01

228

A FimH Inhibitor Prevents Acute Bladder Infection and Treats Chronic Cystitis Caused by Multidrug-Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia coli ST131  

PubMed Central

Background.?Escherichia coli O25b:H4-ST131 represents a predominant clone of multidrug-resistant uropathogens currently circulating worldwide in hospitals and the community. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by E. coli ST131 are typically associated with limited treatment options and are often recurrent. Methods.?Using established mouse models of acute and chronic UTI, we mapped the pathogenic trajectory of the reference E. coli ST131 UTI isolate, strain EC958. Results.?We demonstrated that E. coli EC958 can invade bladder epithelial cells and form intracellular bacterial communities early during acute UTI. Moreover, E. coli EC958 persisted in the bladder and established chronic UTI. Prophylactic antibiotic administration failed to prevent E. coli EC958–mediated UTI. However, 1 oral dose of a small-molecular-weight compound that inhibits FimH, the type 1 fimbriae adhesin, significantly reduced bacterial colonization of the bladder and prevented acute UTI. Treatment of chronically infected mice with the same FimH inhibitor lowered their bladder bacterial burden by >1000-fold. Conclusions.?In this study, we provide novel insight into the pathogenic mechanisms used by the globally disseminated E. coli ST131 clone during acute and chronic UTI and establish the potential of FimH inhibitors as an alternative treatment against multidrug-resistant E. coli. PMID:23737602

Totsika, Makrina; Kostakioti, Maria; Hannan, Thomas J.; Upton, Mathew; Beatson, Scott A.; Janetka, James W.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Schembri, Mark A.

2013-01-01

229

Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive infections and acute otitis media in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study was conducted to determine the serotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of pneumococcal isolates from children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and acute otitis media (AOM). From October 2001 to May 2002, 65 children with IPD (28 bacteraemic pneumonia, 24 bacteraemia without focus, 7 meningitis, 6 other infections) and 78 with AOM were identified. The most common serotypes

Nikolaos P. Zissis; Vassiliki Syriopoulou; Dimitris Kafetzis; George L. Daikos; Amalia Tsilimingaki; Emanouel Galanakis; Iraklia Tsangaropoulou

2004-01-01

230

Outbreak of acute respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae on board a deployed U.S. navy ship.  

PubMed

We identified 179 cases of acute respiratory illness including 50 cases of radiographically confirmed pneumonia over the course of 4 months on a deployed U.S. Navy vessel. Laboratory tests showed Mycoplasma pneumoniae to be the etiological agent. This report represents the first published description of a shipboard outbreak of this pathogen. PMID:19846632

Sliman, Joseph A; Metzgar, David; Asseff, David C; Coon, Robert G; Faix, Dennis J; Lizewski, Stephen

2009-12-01

231

Splenic infarction: a rare cause of acute abdominal pain presenting in an older patient with primary antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splenic infarction is an uncommon condition that is rarely encountered in emergency and internal medicine. This condition is usually associated with systemic conditions such as hypercoagulable states, hemoglobinopathies, systemic lupus erythematosus, hematologic disorders, and cardiac thromboembolism during atrial fibrillation and endocarditis [1]. We describe a case of a woman with an acute abdominal pain due to splenic infarction from splenic

Marco Rossato; Martina Paccagnella; Marta Burei; Giovanni Federspil; Roberto Vettor

2009-01-01

232

Rapid and Reversible Impairments of Short- and Long-Term Social Recognition Memory Are Caused by Acute Isolation of Adult Rats via Distinct Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Mammalian social organizations require the ability to recognize and remember individual conspecifics. This social recognition memory (SRM) can be examined in rodents using their innate tendency to investigate novel conspecifics more persistently than familiar ones. Here we used the SRM paradigm to examine the influence of housing conditions on the social memory of adult rats. We found that acute social isolation caused within few days a significant impairment in acquisition of short-term SRM of male and female rats. Moreover, SRM consolidation into long-term memory was blocked following only one day of social isolation. Both impairments were reversible, but with different time courses. Furthermore, only the impairment in SRM consolidation was reversed by systemic administration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). In contrast to SRM, object recognition memory was not affected by social isolation. We conclude that acute social isolation rapidly induces reversible changes in the brain neuronal and molecular mechanisms underlying SRM, which hamper its acquisition and completely block its consolidation. These changes occur via distinct, AVP sensitive and insensitive mechanisms. Thus, acute social isolation of rats swiftly causes changes in their brain and interferes with their normal social behavior. PMID:23741464

Shahar-Gold, Hadar; Gur, Rotem; Wagner, Shlomo

2013-01-01

233

Patent Foramen Ovale, a Possible Cause of Symptomatic Migraine: A Study of 74 Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies reported an increased prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with migraine with aura (MA+). To investigate the possible relationship between MA+ and paradoxical embolism, we studied the prevalence of both conditions. Investigation of PFO was undertaken in 74 consecutive patients presenting with an acute stroke of undetermined origin. The patients were questioned about MA+ or migraine

R. Sztajzel; D. Genoud; S. Roth; B. Mermillod; J. Le Floch-Rohr

2002-01-01

234

Unusual cause of acute neurologic deficit in childhood: primary central nervous system vasculitis presenting with basilar arterial occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Primary central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis of childhood is a rare disorder. The most common signs and symptoms are acute\\u000a severe headache and focal neurologic deficit. It should be suspected in children who have an acquired neurologic deficit that\\u000a remains unexplained after an initial basic evaluation. Diagnosis usually depends on brain magnetic resonance imaging and conventional\\u000a angiography of cerebral vasculature.

Eren Kale Çekinmez; Nurcan Cengiz; ?lknur Erol; Osman K?z?lk?l?ç; Yasemin Uslu

2009-01-01

235

Acute hemorrhagic and necrotizing pneumonia, splenitis, and dermatitis in a pet rabbit caused by a novel herpesvirus (leporid herpesvirus-4)  

PubMed Central

A 1.5-year-old female rabbit (doe) was presented with a 3-day history of lethargy, anorexia, and mild facial swelling. The animal died shortly after examination and severe, acute hemorrhagic pneumonia was noted grossly. An alphaherpesvirus consistent with leporid herpesvirus-4 was isolated and characterized from this animal. This is the first confirmed report of the disease in Canada. PMID:21358932

Brash, Marina L.; Nagy, Eva; Pei, Yanlong; Carman, Susy; Emery, Susan; Smith, Alec E.; Turner, Patricia V.

2010-01-01

236

Two different causes of acute respiratory failure in a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and ankylosed cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of 73-year-old man with massive hyperostosis of the cervical spine associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal\\u000a hyperostosis (DISH), resulting in dysphagia, hoarseness and acute respiratory insufficiency. An emergency operation was performed,\\u000a which involved excision of osteophytes at the level of C6–C7, compressing the trachea against enlarged sternoclavicular joints,\\u000a also affected by DISH. Approximately 3 years later, the patient

Rok Vengust; René Mihali?; Matjaž Turel

2010-01-01

237

Effects of calcium and magnesium on acute and chronic neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

The primary toxicity of oxaliplatin is neurotoxicity. Calcium and magnesium (Ca/Mg) are reported to be beneficial in protecting against this adverse effect. However, the results obtained from clinical trials are not definitive. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Ca/Mg alleviates the neurotoxicity of oxaliplatin by performing a meta-analysis of the literature involving available randomized controlled trials. Systematic searches for trials were undertaken from the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Embase, CBMdisc and CNKI databases without language limitations. The primary outcome was severe chronic neurotoxicity and the secondary outcome was acute neurotoxicity. Four randomized double-blind trials met the search criteria. The odds ratio (OR) comparing Ca/Mg treatment with placebo was 0.44 (0.23–0.85, P=0.01) for severe chronic neurotoxicity of oxaliplatin (grade ?2) and 0.41 (0.11–1.49, P=0.18) for acute neurotoxicity. In conclusion, Ca/Mg treatment does not reduce the incidence of acute neurotoxicity of oxaliplatin, but does reduce the incidence of severe chronic neurotoxicity (grade ?2). No differences were observed in the outcomes of chemotherapy. Thus, Ca/Mg treatment is recommended for use as an adjunct with oxaliplatin. PMID:23226752

AO, RUI; WANG, YU-HUI; LI, RUI-WEN; WANG, ZHENG-RONG

2012-01-01

238

Bacteria Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Who knew that bacteria had their own virtual museum? Here, visitors will "learn that not all bacteria are harmful, how they are used in industry, that they belong to the oldest living creatures on Earth", and many more interesting facts to discover about the diverse world of bacteria. The "Bacterial Species Files" tab at the top of the page, allows visitors to look up information on 40 different specific bacteria, from Anthrax to Yersinia enterocolitica. The information provided for each bacterium includes photographs, consumer guides, fact sheets, and scientific links. Visitors will find that the "Main Exhibits" tab addresses the basics about bacteria, as well as "Pathogenic Bacteria", "Evolution", "How We Fight Bacteria", and "Food and Water Safety". Visitors will surely enjoy the "Good Bacteria in Food" link found in the Food and Water Safety section, as it explains how some foods benefit from good bacteria, such as Swiss cheese, sausage, sauerkraut, chocolate, and coffee.

239

Investigating an outbreak of acute viral hepatitis caused by hepatitis E virus variants in Karachi, South Pakistan.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E is a classic water-borne disease in developing countries. Detection of anti-HEV IgM and IgG antibodies, in addition to HEV RNA are useful epidemiological markers in diagnosis of hepatitis E. This study was conducted to investigate an outbreak of acute viral hepatitis in South-Pakistan. Anti-HEV IgM and IgG were assessed comparatively with serological kits manufactured by Abbott, Cosmic, TGH, and Wantai, selecting HEV RNA as reference assay. Molecular evolutionary analysis was performed by phylogeny and HEV spread time analysis by Bayesian Coalescent Theory approach. Of the 89 patients, 24 (26.9%) did not have acute hepatitis viral marker. Of the remaining 65 cases, 4 (6.1%) were positive for anti-HAV IgM, one (1.5%) for anti-HBc IgM, 2 (3%) for HCV, 53 (81.5%) for anti-HEV IgM, and 5 (7.7%) were hepatitis-negative. The Wantai test was 100% sensitive and specific followed by Cosmic (98.1% and 100%), TGH (98.1% and 97.2%) and Abbott (79.2% and 83.3%). Two HEV variant strains were detected by phylogeny responsible for this acute hepatitis outbreak. Estimates on demographic history of HEV showed that HEV in Pakistan has remained at a steady nonexpanding phase from around 1970 to the year 2005, in which it expanded explosively with the emergence of new HEV variants. In conclusion, the limited sensitivity of available assay (Abbott anti-HEV EIA) may be a concern in HEV diagnosis in Pakistan. This study cautions that the dissemination of the variant strains to other areas of Pakistan may lead to explosive HEV outbreaks. PMID:21328376

Khan, Anis; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Kurbanov, Fuat; Elkady, Abeer; Abbas, Zaigham; Azam, Zahid; Subhan, Amna; Raza, Sajjad; Razza, Sajjad; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim; Shih, James; Xia, Ningshao; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Mishiro, Shunji; Mizokami, Masashi

2011-04-01

240

Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity caused by a single intratracheal instillation of colloidal silver nanoparticles in mice: pathobiological changes and metallothionein responses.  

PubMed

To study the acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), 0 or 100 ppm of Ag-NPs were instilled intratracheally in mice. Cellular and biochemical parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histological alterations were determined 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after instillation. Ag-NPs induced moderate pulmonary inflammation and injury on BALF indices during the acute period; however, these changes gradually regressed in a time-dependent manner. Concomitant histopathological and laminin immunohistochemical findings generally correlated to BALF data. Superoxide dismutase and metallothionein expression occurred in particle-laden macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells, which correlated to lung lesions in mice treated with Ag-NPs. These findings suggest that instillation of Ag-NPs causes transient moderate acute lung inflammation and tissue damage. Oxidative stress may underlie the induction of injury to lung tissue. Moreover, the expression of metallothionein in tissues indicated the protective response to exposure to Ag-NPs. PMID:24579810

Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth; Banlunara, Wijit; Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Thammachareon, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

2014-01-01

241

Multiple venous and arterial thromboses of the gallbladder causing acute cholecystitis. A previously undescribed complication of essential thrombocythemia.  

PubMed

Well established complications of essential thrombocythemia are multiple thrombohemorrhagic phenomena in various abdominal organs. We describe the case of a 22 year old man with essential thrombocythemia and thrombosis of the mesenteric and splenic veins as well as cavernomatous transformation of the portal vein. The patient also had a splenic infarction and a subphrenic hematoma. Additionally, he developed signs and symptoms of acute cholecystitis which in turn led to an open cholecystectomy. The gallbladder had a markedly thickened wall due to multiple recent and recanalized thrombi predominantly in subserosal veins. Only a few arteries were occluded by thrombi. A marked vascular proliferation in the subserosal connective tissue mimicking a hemangioma was most likely the result of collateral circulation. There was also a mild acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrate and edema in the lamina propria of the gallbladder. Hyperplasia of interstitial cells of Cajal in the lamina propria and between smooth muscle cells and proliferation of nerve trunks in the subserosal connective tissue adjacent to the thrombosed veins and arteries was also noted. To our knowledge this unique gallbladder thrombotic complication of essential thrombocythemia has not been previously reported. PMID:21677342

Picón-Coronel, Gabriela; Chablé-Montero, Fredy; Angeles-Ángeles, Arturo; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge

2011-01-01

242

Efficacy of clarithromycin treatment of acute otitis media caused by infection with penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the chinchilla.  

PubMed Central

Because of the increasing frequencies of recovery of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from the middle ears of children with acute otitis media, non-beta-lactam antibiotics are being explored as treatment alternatives to amoxicillin. In this study, the efficacy of a 10-day course of clarithromycin was evaluated with chinchillas. After the pharmacokinetic profiles for clarithromycin were established, 180 animals were assigned to one of three susceptibility groups (n = 60/group; penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant S. pneumoniae), and the right middle ear was infected with the appropriate strain of S. pneumoniae. Equal numbers of animals in each group were treated orally beginning on day 2 with a 10-day course of clarithromycin (15 mg/kg of body weight; given twice a day) or amoxicillin as a control (20 mg/kg twice a day). On days 4, 9, and 13, otomicroscopy and tympanometry were performed, and on day 13, the middle ears were cultured for bacteria. The results showed 100% eradication of the challenge organism in both treatment groups for the susceptible strains of S. pneumoniae. Cultures were negative in 87 and 74% (P > 0.05) of the animals challenged with the intermediate resistant strains and in 100 and 56% (P < 0.05) of the animals challenged with the resistant strains and treated with clarithromycin and amoxicillin, respectively. There were no differences between treatments in the diagnosis of effusion for any group. These results support the use of the chinchilla to evaluate drug efficacy in the treatment of acute otitis media and show clarithromycin to be effective in sterilizing the middle ears of animals challenged with penicillin-susceptible, -intermediate, and -resistant strains of S. pneumoniae. PMID:8843299

Alper, C M; Doyle, W J; Seroky, J T; Bluestone, C D

1996-01-01

243

Sodium ferric gluconate causes oxidative stress but not acute renal injury in patients with chronic kidney disease: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Intravenous (i.v) iron is widely used to treat anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although beneficial and usually well tolerated, concerns have been raised about its ability to cause oxidative stress and renal injury. Methods. To determine if i.v. iron causes oxidative stress (as assessed by plasma and urine malondialdehye (MDA)) and\\/or renal injury (as assessed by

David J. Leehey; David J. Palubiak; Srivasa Chebrolu; Rajiv Agarwal

244

Selective BCL-2 inhibition by ABT-199 causes on-target cell death in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) prevents commitment to programmed cell death at the mitochondrion. It remains a challenge to identify those tumors that are best treated by inhibition of BCL-2. Here, we demonstrate that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, primary patient samples, and murine primary xenografts are very sensitive to treatment with the selective BCL-2 antagonist ABT-199. In primary patient cells, the median IC50 was approximately 10 nmol/L, and cell death occurred within 2 hours. Our ex vivo sensitivity results compare favorably with those observed for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, a disease for which ABT-199 has demonstrated consistent activity in clinical trials. Moreover, mitochondrial studies using BH3 profiling demonstrate activity at the mitochondrion that correlates well with cytotoxicity, supporting an on-target mitochondrial mechanism of action. Our protein and BH3 profiling studies provide promising tools that can be tested as predictive biomarkers in any clinical trial of ABT-199 in AML. PMID:24346116

Pan, Rongqing; Hogdal, Leah J; Benito, Juliana M; Bucci, Donna; Han, Lina; Borthakur, Gautam; Cortes, Jorge; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Debose, Lakeisha; Mu, Hong; Döhner, Hartmut; Gaidzik, Verena I; Galinsky, Ilene; Golfman, Leonard S; Haferlach, Torsten; Harutyunyan, Karine G; Hu, Jianhua; Leverson, Joel D; Marcucci, Guido; Müschen, Markus; Newman, Rachel; Park, Eugene; Ruvolo, Peter P; Ruvolo, Vivian; Ryan, Jeremy; Schindela, Sonja; Zweidler-McKay, Patrick; Stone, Richard M; Kantarjian, Hagop; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina; Letai, Anthony G

2014-03-01

245

Acute myocardial infarction caused by transient coronary vasospasm in a child with Kawasaki disease and no coronary aneurysms.  

PubMed

We report a 15-month old girl with acute myocardial infarction 3 months after treatment for Kawasaki disease (KD); she had no coronary aneurysms. In the first 2 months after KD, she had normal electrocardiograms (ECGs) and echocardiograms that showed mildly dilated coronary arteries. At 3 months, she was asymptomatic but developed ECG changes of anteroseptal MI and increased troponin levels. Echocardiogram showed regional wall-motion abnormalities and decreased left ventricular function. She was admitted and treated with heparin and nitroglycerin drips. Repeat echocardiogram at 24 h showed resolution of wall-motion abnormalities and improved function. Cardiac catheterization showed normal coronary arteries. Her troponin levels normalized within 36 h, and she was discharged on low molecular-weight heparin and aspirin. She has done well since discharge with normal ECGs and echocardiograms during the following 2.5 years. Although coronary vasospasm has been described in young adults with history of KD, we report the first such presentation in a child. This underscores the fact that vascular endothelial dysfunction occurs despite absence of overt coronary aneurysms in patients with KD as well as the need for close follow-up. PMID:20422172

Subramanian, Subhashini; Gaum, Winston E

2010-08-01

246

Acute lung injury isolated to an in situ lung preparation causes sustained reflex cardiovascular depression in dogs.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that acute lung injury (ALI) isolated to a perfused in situ left lung preparation results in sustained reflex cardiovascular depression. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an agent that activates neutrophils, administered into the isolated lung preparation of chloralose-anesthetized dogs resulted in ALI, as assessed by wet-to-dry weight ratios and histopathology, and significant decreases in heart rate (43%), mean arterial pressure (27%), aortic blood flow (29%) and maximum rate of change in left ventricular pressure (30%). Significant reflex effects occurred by 20 min after PMA administration and were sustained for 40 min (n = 7). Hemodynamic variables recovered when the left lung was denervated 60 min after PMA administration. Indomethacin administered into the isolated circulation before PMA (n = 5) did not significantly influence the ALI or reflex effects. Systemic atropinization (n = 6) prevented only the bradycardia. Left lung denervation before ALI (n = 3) prevented all reflex effects. We conclude that PMA administration into an isolated in situ lung preparation results in ALI and sustained reflex cardiovascular depression that is most likely elicited by pulmonary C-fiber stimulation and mediated by withdrawal of sympathetic efferent nerve activity. PMID:7836209

Allen, D A; Schertel, E R; Weisbrode, S E; Myerowitz, P D

1994-10-01

247

Implementing hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections caused by influenza and other respiratory pathogens in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Background Recent experience with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 highlighted the importance of global surveillance for severe respiratory disease to support pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. Improved surveillance in the southern hemisphere is needed to provide critical data on influenza epidemiology, disease burden, circulating strains and effectiveness of influenza prevention and control measures. Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. The aims were to measure incidence, prevalence, risk factors, clinical spectrum and outcomes for SARI and associated influenza and other respiratory pathogen cases as well as to understand influenza contribution to patients not meeting SARI case definition. Methods/Design All inpatients with suspected respiratory infections who were admitted overnight to the study hospitals were screened daily. If a patient met the World Health Organization’s SARI case definition, a respiratory specimen was tested for influenza and other respiratory pathogens. A case report form captured demographics, history of presenting illness, co-morbidities, disease course and outcome and risk factors. These data were supplemented from electronic clinical records and other linked data sources. Discussion Hospital-based SARI surveillance has been implemented and is fully functioning in New Zealand. Active, prospective, continuous, hospital-based SARI surveillance is useful in supporting pandemic preparedness for emerging influenza A(H7N9) virus infections and seasonal influenza prevention and control. PMID:25077034

Baker, Michael; McArthur, Colin; Roberts, Sally; Williamson, Deborah; Grant, Cameron; Trenholme, Adrian; Wong, Conroy; Taylor, Susan; LeComte, Lyndsay; Mackereth, Graham; Bandaranayake, Don; Wood, Tim; Bissielo, Ange; Se, Ruth; Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Thomas, Paul; Webby, Richard; Gross, Diane; Duque, Jazmin; Thompson, Mark; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

2014-01-01

248

Streptococcal acute pharyngitis.  

PubMed

Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A ?-hemolytic streptococci) is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Symptom onset in streptococcal infection is usually abrupt and includes intense sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, headache, tender enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and pharyngeal or tonsillar exudate. Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea are uncommon, and their presence suggests a viral cause. A diagnosis of pharyngitis is supported by the patient's history and by the physical examination. Throat culture is the gold standard for diagnosing streptococcus pharyngitis. However, it has been underused in public health services because of its low availability and because of the 1- to 2-day delay in obtaining results. Rapid antigen detection tests have been used to detect S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs within minutes. Clinical scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of S. pyogenes infection. The most commonly used scoring system is the modified Centor score. Acute S. pyogenes pharyngitis is often a self-limiting disease. Penicillins are the first-choice treatment. For patients with penicillin allergy, cephalosporins can be an acceptable alternative, although primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins can occur. Another drug option is the macrolides. Future perspectives to prevent streptococcal pharyngitis and post-infection systemic complications include the development of an anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine. PMID:25229278

Anjos, Lais Martins Moreira; Marcondes, Mariana Barros; Lima, Mariana Ferreira; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Okoshi, Marina Politi

2014-07-01

249

Investigation of 89 candidate gene variants for effects on all-cause mortality following acute coronary syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Many candidate genes have been reported to be risk factors for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but their impact on clinical prognosis following ACS is unknown. Methods We examined the association of putative genetic risk factors with 3-year post-ACS mortality in 811 ACS survivors at university-affiliated hospitals in Kansas City, Missouri. Through a systematic literature search, we first identified genetic variants reported as susceptibility factors for atherosclerosis or ACS. Restricting our analysis to whites, so as to avoid confounding from racial admixture, we genotyped ACS cases for 89 genetic variants in 72 genes, and performed individual Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. We then performed Cox regression to create multivariate risk prediction models that further minimized potential confounding. Results Of 89 variants tested, 16 were potentially associated with mortality (P < 0.1 for all), of which 6 were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with mortality following ACS. While these findings are not more than what would be expected by chance (P = 0.28), even after Bonferroni correction and adjustment for traditional cardiac risk factors, the IRS1 972Arg variant association (P = 0.001) retained borderline statistical significance (P < 0.1). Conclusion With the possible exception of IRS1, we conclude that multiple candidate genes were not associated with post-ACS mortality in our patient cohort. Because of power limitations, the 16 gene variants with P values < 0.1 may warrant further study. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the remaining 73 genes have substantial, clinically significant association with mortality after an ACS. PMID:18620593

Morgan, Thomas M; Xiao, Lan; Lyons, Patrick; Kassebaum, Bethany; Krumholz, Harlan M; Spertus, John A

2008-01-01

250

Congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia caused by a novel splicing mutation in the gene for the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein.  

PubMed

Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) plays a crucial role in the transport of cholesterol from the cytoplasm to the inner mitochondrial membrane, facilitating its conversion to pregnenolone by cytochrome P450scc. Its essential role in steroidogenesis was demonstrated after observing that StAR gene mutations gave rise to a potentially lethal disease named congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, in which virtually no steroids are produced. We report here a 2-month-old female patient, karyotype 46XY, who presented with growth failure, convulsions, dehydration, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, hypotension, and severe hyperpigmentation suggestive of adrenal insufficiency. Serum cortisol, 17OH-progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, 17OH-pregnenolone, and aldosterone levels were undetectable in the presence of high ACTH and plasma renin activity levels. Immunohistochemical analysis of testis tissues revealed the absence of StAR protein. Molecular analysis of StAR gene demonstrated a homozygous G to T mutation within the splice donor site of exon 1 (IVS1 + 1G>T). Her parents and one brother were heterozygous for this mutation. In vitro analysis of the mutation was performed in COS cells transfected with minigenes coding regions spanning exon-intron 1 to 3 carrying the mutant and the wild-type sequences. RT-PCR analyses of the mutant gene showed an abnormal mRNA transcript of 2430 bp (normal size 433 bp). Sequence analysis of the mutant mRNA demonstrated the retention of intron 1. Immunolocalization of the StAR minigene product detected the peptide in the mitochondria of COS cells transfected with the wild-type minigene but not in those transfected with the mutant minigene. We conclude that this mutation gives rise to a truncated StAR protein, which lacks an important N-terminal region and the entire lipid transfer domain. PMID:14764819

González, Alexis A; Reyes, M Loreto; Carvajal, Cristian A; Tobar, Jaime A; Mosso, Lorena M; Baquedano, Paulina; Solar, Antonieta; Venegas, Alejandro; Fardella, Carlos E

2004-02-01

251

Study of the role of epidermal growth factor on lung fluid transport in rabbits with acute lung injury caused by endotoxin  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the lung fluid transport of rabbits with acute lung injury caused by endotoxin and evaluate its therapeutic action. A total of 24 rabbits were randomly divided into control, simple acute lung injury (ALI) and EGF only treatment groups. ALI rabbit models were constructed by the administration of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and subsequent treatment with EGF. Arterial partial pressure of oxygen, lung pathomorphological changes and wet/dry weight (W/D) of the left lobe of lung tissue were observed at various time points. Results showed that following treatment with EGF, the breathing status of the rabbits continued to improve. An increase was noted in PaO2 at 12 h after EGF treatment and 24 h later PaO2 had significantly increased. A marked decrease was observed in the value of W/D and the exudation was reduced. The extrinsic EGF decreased the exudation of pulmonary capillaries and improved lung water transport. Our findings verified that epidermal growth factor had repaired the effect of ALI through continuous 48-h observation. Therefore, the present study demonstrated the therapeutic action of EGF. PMID:23170113

YANG, BINOU; HUANG, WEIQING; HAN, JIEYUN; LIANG, ZIJING

2012-01-01

252

[Serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibilities of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing acute exacerbations and pneumonia in children with chronic respiratory diseases].  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates obtained from children with chronic respiratory diseases admitted to hospital with a diagnosis of acute exacerbations between 2008-2010 at Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Sixty one S.pneumoniae strains isolated from the respiratory samples of patients were studied for erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracyline, trimethoprim-sulphametoxazole (TMP-SMX), vancomycin, levofloxacin susceptibilities by disk diffusion method; MIC values of penicillin and ceftriaxone were determined by E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden). Results were evaluated according to the CLSI standards. The erythromycin-clindamycin double disc method was applied for the detection of macrolide resistance phenotypes. The presence of macrolide resistance genes, ermB, mef(A)/(E), ermTR were determined by PCR using specific primers for each gene. The serotypes were determined by multiplex PCR using specific primers for 40 different serotypes. According to CLSI criteria, penicillin resistance in S.pneumoniae isolates were found to be 8.2% (5/61) and intermediate resistance rate was 54% (33/61) for oral penicillin. Penicillin resistance were found to be only 1.6% (1/61) for parenteral penicillin. Resistance rates of erythromycin, clindamycin, tetracyline, TMP-SMX were detected as 55.8%, 46%, 47.5% and 67.2%; respectively. No resistance was detected to vancomycin and levofloxacin. Constitutive macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (cMLSB) phenotype and M phenotype were observed in 82.4% (n= 28) and 17.6% (n= 6) of the macrolide resistant isolates, respectively. Inducible macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (iMLSB) phenotype was not detected. The macrolid resistance genotypes, ermB, mef(A)/(E), were positive 50% and 14.7%; respectively. Both ermB and mef(A)/(E) genes were detected 35.3% of the macrolid resistant isolates. None of the isolates were positive for ermTR gene. The most common S.pneumoniae serotypes were determined as serotype 19F, 23F and 6, furthermore penicillin (34%, 15.7% and 18.4%, respectively) and macrolide (38.2%, 20.6% and 14.7%, respectively) resistance rates of those serotypes were found relatively high. Serotype covarage of 7-, 10-, 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccines and 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine were 65%, 67%, 69%, and 78.6%, respectively. In our country, use of the vaccines with these coverage rates has been observed to be effective in children exposed to intensive use of antibiotics with chronic lung disease. PMID:24237437

Alt?nkanat Gelmez, Gül?en; Soysal, Ahmet; Kuzdan, Canan; Karada?, Bülent; Hasdemir, Ufuk; Bak?r, Mustafa; Söyletir, Güner

2013-10-01

253

Attachment and biofilm formation by foodborne bacteria in meat processing environments: causes, implications, role of bacterial interactions and control by alternative novel methods.  

PubMed

Attachment of potential spoilage and pathogenic bacteria to food contact surfaces and the subsequent biofilm formation represent serious challenges to the meat industry, since these may lead to cross-contamination of the products, resulting in lowered-shelf life and transmission of diseases. In meat processing environments, microorganisms are sometimes associated to surfaces in complex multispecies communities, while bacterial interactions have been shown to play a key role in cell attachment and detachment from biofilms, as well as in the resistance of biofilm community members against antimicrobial treatments. Disinfection of food contact surfaces in such environments is a challenging task, aggravated by the great antimicrobial resistance of biofilm associated bacteria. In recent years, several alternative novel methods, such as essential oils and bacteriophages, have been successfully tested as an alternative means for the disinfection of microbial-contaminated food contact surfaces. In this review, all these aspects of biofilm formation in meat processing environments are discussed from a microbial meat-quality and safety perspective. PMID:23747091

Giaouris, Efstathios; Heir, Even; Hébraud, Michel; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Langsrud, Solveig; Møretrø, Trond; Habimana, Olivier; Desvaux, Mickaël; Renier, Sandra; Nychas, George-John

2014-07-01

254

Endovascular stenting as treatment for occult perforated abdominal aorta caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis as rare complication after heart transplantation.  

PubMed

With an increase in the population of living cardiac allograft recipients, noncardiac surgery in this group of patients will be a more frequent phenomenon. The postoperative management in these patients is, however, complex. The authors present a case of an abdominal aortic rupture due to the involvement of a necrotizing pancreatitis caused by the side effects of immunosuppressive therapy. A 48-year-old man presented with a necrotizing pancreatitis with accidental affection of the abdominal aortic wall, necessitating emergency repair. Open surgical repair was considered too precarious in a cardiac allograft recipient, aortic stent-graft through endovascular surgery was therefore opted as the preferred procedure. The subsequent postoperative course was uneventful and patient could be discharged. PMID:24704055

Boeken, Udo; Ansari, Edward; Lichtenberg, Artur

2014-10-01

255

Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency: a still overlooked cause of recurrent acute liver failure and Reye-like syndrome.  

PubMed

The causes of Reye-like syndrome are not completely understood. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD or E3) deficiency is a rare metabolic disorder causing neurological or liver impairment. Specific changes in the levels of urinary and plasma metabolites are the hallmark of the classical form of the disease. Here, we report a consanguineous family of Algerian origin with DLD deficiency presenting without suggestive clinical laboratory and anatomopathological findings. Two children died at birth from hepatic failure and three currently adult siblings had recurrent episodes of hepatic cytolysis associated with liver failure or Reye-like syndrome from infancy. Biochemical investigation (lactate, pyruvate, aminoacids in plasma, organic acids in urine) was normal. Histologic examination of liver and muscle showed mild lipid inclusions that were only visible by electron microscopy. The diagnosis of DLD deficiency was possible only after genome-wide linkage analysis, confirmed by a homozygous mutation (p.G229C) in the DLD gene, previously reported in patients with the same geographic origin. DLD and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities were respectively reduced to 25% and 70% in skin fibroblasts of patients and were unresponsive to riboflavin supplementation. In conclusion, this observation clearly supports the view that DLD deficiency should be considered in patients with Reye-like syndrome or liver failure even in the absence of suggestive biochemical findings, with the p.G229C mutation screening as a valuable test in the Arab patients because of its high frequency. It also highlights the usefulness of genome-wide linkage analysis for decisive diagnosis advance in inherited metabolic disorders. PMID:23478190

Brassier, Anaïs; Ottolenghi, Chris; Boutron, Audrey; Bertrand, Anne-Marie; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Cervoni, Jean-Paul; Chrétien, Dominique; Arnoux, Jean-Baptiste; Hubert, Laurence; Rabier, Daniel; Lacaille, Florence; de Keyzer, Yves; Di Martino, Vincent; de Lonlay, Pascale

2013-05-01

256

Outbreak of acute respiratory disease caused by human adenovirus type 7 in a military training camp in Shaanxi, China.  

PubMed

Outbreaks of ARD associated with HAdV have been reported in military populations in many countries. Here, we report an ARD outbreak caused by HAdV-7 in a military training camp in Shaanxi Province, China, from February to March of 2012. Epidemic data and samples from the patients were collected, and viral nucleotides from samples and viral isolations were detected and sequenced. IgG and IgA antibodies against HAdV, and the neutralization antibodies against the viral strain isolated in this outbreak, were detected. Epidemiological study showed that all personnel affected were males with an average age of 19.1 years. Two peaks appeared on the epicurve and there was an 8-day interval between peaks. Laboratory results of viral nucleotide detection carried out with clinical specimens were positive for HAdV (83.33%, 15/18). Further study through serum antibody assay, virus isolation and phylogenetic analysis showed that HAdV-7 was the etiological agent responsible for the outbreak. IgA antibody began to appear on the 4th day after the onset and showed 100% positivity on the 8th day. The virus strain in the present outbreak was highly similar to the virus isolated in Hanzhong Shaanxi in 2009. We conclude that HAdV-7 was the pathogen corresponding to the outbreak, and this is the first report of an ARD outbreak caused by HAdV-7 in military persons in China. Vaccine development, as well as enhanced epidemiological and virological surveillance of HAdV infections in China should be emphasized. PMID:23734976

Yu, Pengbo; Ma, Chaofeng; Nawaz, Muhammad; Han, Lei; Zhang, Jianfang; Du, Quanli; Zhang, Lixia; Feng, Qunling; Wang, Jingjun; Xu, Jiru

2013-08-01

257

Bacteria Transformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students construct paper recombinant plasmids to simulate the methods genetic engineers use to create modified bacteria. They learn what role enzymes, DNA and genes play in the modification of organisms. For the particular model they work on, they isolate a mammal insulin gene and combine it with a bacteria's gene sequence (plasmid DNA) for production of the protein insulin.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

258

In Vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of 21 Indian Timber-Yielding Plants Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

Objectives To screen methanolic leaf extracts of 21 timber-yielding plants for antibacterial activity against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria isolated from clinical samples of a hospital (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Methods Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity tests by the Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method. The antibacterial potentiality of leaf extracts was monitored by the agar-well diffusion method with multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of nine uropathogens. Results Two Gram-positive isolates, E. faecalis and S. aureus, were resistant to 14 of the 18 antibiotics used. Gram-negative isolates A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were resistant to 10, 12, 9, 11, 11, 10, and 11 antibiotics, respectively, of the 14 antibiotics used. Methanolic leaf extracts of Anogeissus acuminata had the maximum zone of inhibition size—29 mm against S. aureus and 28 mm against E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa. Cassia tora had 29 mm as the zone of inhibition size for E. faecalis, E. aerogenes, and P. aeruginosa. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, the most effective 10 plants against uropathogens could be arranged in decreasing order as follows: C. tora > A. acuminata > Schleichera oleosa > Pterocarpus santalinus > Eugenia jambolana > Bridelia retusa > Mimusops elengi > Stereospermum kunthianum > Tectona grandis > Anthocephalus cadamba. The following eight plants had moderate control capacity: Artocarpus heterophyllus, Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia latifolia, Eucalyptus citriodora, Gmelina arborea, Pongamia pinnata, Pterocarpus marsupium, and Shorea robusta. E. coli, followed by A. baumannii, C. freundii, E. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, and P. aeruginosa were controlled by higher amounts/levels of leaf extracts. Phytochemicals of all plants were qualitatively estimated. Conclusions A majority of timber-yielding plants studied had in vitro control capacity against MDR uropathogenic bacteria. PMID:24524024

Mishra, Monali P.; Padhy, Rabindra N.

2013-01-01

259

Needle puncture injury causes acute and long-term mechanical deficiency in a mouse model of intervertebral disc degeneration.  

PubMed

Low back pain is a significant socioeconomic burden and intervertebral disc degeneration has been implicated as a cause. A reliable animal model of disc degeneration is necessary to evaluate therapeutics, and functional metrics are essential to quantify their benefit. To this end, needle puncture injuries were created in the caudal intervertebral discs of mice to induce disc degeneration. Compression, torsion, and creep mechanics were assessed both immediately and after eight weeks to distinguish between the effects of injury and the subsequent reparative or degenerative response. Two needle sizes (29 and 26 gauge) were used to determine injury size-dependence. Compressive stiffness (62%), torsional stiffness (60%), and early damping stiffness (84%) decreased immediately after injury with the large needle (26G). These mechanical properties did not change over time despite structural and compositional changes. At 8 weeks following large needle injury, disc height decreased (37%), nucleus pulposus (NP) glycosaminoglycan content decreased (41%), and NP collagen content increased (45%). The small needle size had no significant effect on mechanics and did not initiate degenerative changes in structure and composition. Thus, the injection of therapeutics into the NP with a minimal needle size may limit damage due to the needle insertion. These findings, along with the wide commercial availability of mouse-specific biological probes, indicate that the mouse caudal disc model can be a powerful tool for investigating disc degeneration and therapy. PMID:23553925

Martin, John T; Gorth, Deborah J; Beattie, Elizabeth E; Harfe, Brian D; Smith, Lachlan J; Elliott, Dawn M

2013-08-01

260

Effect of Antibiotic Treatment Delay on Therapeutic Outcome of Experimental Acute Otitis Media Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains with Different Susceptibilities to Amoxicillin  

PubMed Central

The effect of delayed administration of amoxicillin on the course of acute otitis media (AOM) caused by two Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with different susceptibilities to amoxicillin (MICs of 0.016 and 1 ?g/ml for strains A and B, respectively) was evaluated in the gerbil model. The organisms were inoculated by transbullar challenge into the middle ear, and antibiotic treatment was administered at various times thereafter. The bacteriological and clinical efficacies of treatment diminished significantly with the delay of antibiotic administration. The bacterial eradication rates when antibiotic treatment was started at 2, 5, 8, 18, and 21 h post-bacterial inoculation were different for both strains (95, 95, 90, 55, and 55% for strain A and 95, 95, 65, 10, and 0% for strain B). Results of further experiments using strain B with higher antibiotic doses and numbers of administrations and different follow-up times indicate that the failures observed with the delayed administration were not related to the bacterial burden, selection of antibiotic-resistant mutants, or inadequate pharmacodynamic parameters. Such failures may be related to the metabolic bacterial status. The delayed amoxicillin treatment of AOM caused by S. pneumoniae may lead to therapeutic failures, mainly when organisms with diminished antibiotic susceptibility are involved. PMID:14982776

Parra, Araceli; Ponte, Carmen; Cenjor, Carlos; Martinez-Marin, Carmen; Soriano, Francisco

2004-01-01

261

Plasma from stored packed red blood cells and MHC class I antibodies causes acute lung injury in a 2-event in vivo rat model  

PubMed Central

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion death. We hypothesize that TRALI requires 2 events: (1) the clinical condition of the patient and (2) the infusion of antibodies against MHC class I antigens or the plasma from stored blood. A 2-event rat model was developed with saline (NS) or endotoxin (LPS) as the first event and the infusion of plasma from packed red blood cells (PRBCs) or antibodies (OX18 and OX27) against MHC class I antigens as the second event. ALI was determined by Evans blue dye leak from the plasma to the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), protein and CINC-1 concentrations in the BALF, and the lung histology. NS-treated rats did not evidence ALI with any second events, and LPS did not cause ALI. LPS-treated animals demonstrated ALI in response to plasma from stored PRBCs, both prestorage leukoreduced and unmodified, and to OX18 and OX27, all in a concentration-dependent fashion. ALI was neutrophil (PMN) dependent, and OX18/OX27 localized to the PMN surface in vivo and primed the oxidase of rat PMNs. We conclude that TRALI is the result of 2 events with the second events consisting of the plasma from stored blood and antibodies that prime PMNs. PMID:19131548

Kelher, Marguerite R.; Masuno, Tomhiko; Moore, Ernest E.; Damle, Sagar; Meng, Xianzhong; Song, Yong; Liang, Xiayuan; Niedzinski, Jerry; Geier, Steven S.; Khan, Samina Y.; Gamboni-Robertson, Fabia

2009-01-01

262

Acute radiation esophagitis caused by high-dose involved field radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin and vinorelbine for stage III non-small cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

Purpose of this study is to obtain dose-volume histogram (DVH) predictors and threshold values for radiation esophagitis caused by high-dose involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) with concurrent chemotherapy in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thirty-two patients treated by 66?Gy/33?Fr, 72?Gy/36?Fr, and 78?Gy/39?Fr thoracic radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation plus concurrent cisplatin and vinorelvine were reviewed. Acute radiation esophagitis was evaluated according to common terminology criteria for adverse events version 4.0, and correlations between grade 2 or worse radiation esophagitis and DVH parameters were investigated. Grade 0-1, 2, 3, and 4-5 of radiation esophagitis were seen in 11 (34.4%), 20 (62.5%), 1 (3.1%), and 0 (0%) of the patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that whole esophagus V35 is a predictor of radiation esophagitis (OR =?0.74 [95%CI; 0.60-0.91], p =?0.006). There is a significant difference (38.4% vs. 89.4%, p =?0.027) in the cumulative rates of acute esophagitis according to V35 values of more than 20% versus less. As compared with other factors concerning patient and tumor and treatment factors, V35 ? 20% of the esophagus was an independent predictor (HR?5?0.29 [95%CI; 0.09-0.85], p?5?0.025). In conclusion, whole esophagus V35 < 20% is proposed in high-dose IFRT with concurrent chemotherapy for stage III NSCLC patients. PMID:23369154

Kuroda, Yuuki; Sekine, Ikuo; Sumi, Minako; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Inaba, Koji; Horinouchi, Hidehito; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Noboru; Kubota, Kaoru; Murakami, Naoya; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Tamura, Tomohide; Nemoto, Kenji; Itami, Jun

2013-08-01

263

Clinical Applications of Probiotic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probiotic bacteria are applied to balance disturbed intestinal microflora and related dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract. Current clinical applications include well-documented areas such as treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhoea, lactose maldigestion, constipation, colonic disorders and side-effects of pelvic radiotherapy, and more recently, food allergy including milk hypersensitivity and changes associated with colon cancer development. Many novel probiotics appear to be

S. Salminen; A. C. Ouwehand; E. Isolauri

1998-01-01

264

Effects of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and other organisms on the probability of conception in New York State Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of different types of clinical mastitis (CM) on the probability of conception in New York State Holstein cows. Data were available on 55,372 artificial inseminations (AI) in 23,695 lactations from 14,148 cows in 7 herds. We used generalized linear mixed models to model whether or not a cow conceived after a particular AI. Independent variables included AI number (first, second, third, fourth), parity, season when AI occurred, farm, type of CM (due to gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, or other organisms) in the 6 wk before and after an AI, and occurrence of other diseases. Older cows were less likely to conceive. Inseminations occurring in the summer were least likely to be successful. Retained placenta decreased the probability of conception. Conception was also less likely with each successive AI. The probability of conception associated with the first AI was 0.29. The probability of conception decreased to 0.26, 0.25, and 0.24 for the second, third, and fourth AI, respectively. Clinical mastitis occurring any time between 14 d before until 35 d after an AI was associated with a lower probability of conception; the greatest effect was an 80% reduction associated with gram-negative CM occurring in the week after AI. In general, CM due to gram-negative bacteria had a more detrimental effect on probability of conception than did CM caused by gram-positive bacteria or other organisms. Furthermore, CM had more effect on probability of conception immediately around the time of AI. Additional information about CM (i.e., its timing with respect to AI, and whether the causative agent is gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria, or other organisms) is valuable to dairy personnel in determining why some cows are unable to conceive in a timely manner. These findings are also beneficial for the management of mastitic cows (especially those with gram-negative CM) when mastitis occurs close to AI. PMID:20338432

Hertl, J A; Gröhn, Y T; Leach, J D G; Bar, D; Bennett, G J; González, R N; Rauch, B J; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Schukken, Y H

2010-04-01

265

SEASONAL BEHAVIOR OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA CAUSING ALMOND LEAF SCORCH DISEASE UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS AND DETECTION OF THE BACTERIA BY MEANS OF ARRAY-PCR Project Leader  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) have re-emerged as a serious threat to several economically important crops, such as grape and almond, in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Knowledge of the bacterial behavior in plant hosts under field condition is important for disease control. This research characterized populations of Xf almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) strains in almond orchards.

Jianchi Chen; Sam Livingston; Edwin Civerolo; Bruce Kirkpatrick

266

Aquatic Bacteria Samples  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the BP Deepwater Horizon drilling platform collapsed and sank in the Gulf of Mexico, causing one of the largest oil spills in history. One of the big dilemmas in responding to the oil spil is how to clean up the oil itself. One way currently under research is to use bacteria that ...

2010-06-14

267

Characterization of Damage to Bacteria and Bio-macromolecules Caused by (V)UV Radiation and Particles Generated by a Microscale Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure plasma jets effectively inactivate bacteria on ­surfaces including infected tissues. This is due to the combined effects of (V)UV radiation, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ions, and high electric fields. A well-characterized microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet (?-APPJ) operated with He/O2 gas mixture has been modified so that (V)UV radiation and heavy reactive particles (mainly O3 molecules and O atoms) emitted from the plasma source can be separated effectively. The separation is achieved by an additional lateral He flow, which diverts the heavy particles from the jet axis. The new jet geometry is called X-Jet. Separation of different plasma components allows studying their effects on living cells and bio-macromolecules separately. First, the effectiveness of the separation of different plasma components was demonstrated by treatment of monolayers of vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells. To characterize effects on nucleic acids, dried plasmid DNA and total cellular RNA were treated with the separated plasma components. Dried bovine serum albumin was used to study etching effects of (V)UV radiation and heavy particles on proteins. We found that heavy particles emitted from the X-Jet kill vegetative cells more effectively than the (V)UV radiation from this type of plasma source. All bio-macromolecules investigated, DNA, RNA, and proteins, are affected by plasma treatment. DNA exposed to the (V)UV-channel of the jet seems to be prone to thymine dimer formation not only in vitro but also in vivo as indicated by induction of the photolyase in Escherichia coli, while DNA strand breaks occur under both jet channels. Heavy particles seem more effective in degrading RNA and in etching protein in vitro.

Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Schneider, Simon; Narberhaus, Franz; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E.

268

Periodontitis, periodontopathic bacteria and lactoferrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactoferrin (LF) is a component of saliva and is suspected to be a defense factor against oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Periodontitis is a very common oral disease caused by periodontopathic bacteria. Antimicrobial activities and other biological\\u000a effects of LF against representative periodontopathic bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, have been widely studied. Association of

Hiroyuki Wakabayashi; Ichiro Kondo; Tetsuo Kobayashi; Koji Yamauchi; Tomohiro Toida; Keiji Iwatsuki; Hiromasa Yoshie

2010-01-01

269

Relationships between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial infections from 1991–2003 at a university hospital in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use in a university hospital in Taiwan. Disk susceptibility data of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and other non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli causing nosocomial infections were evaluated. Data on annual patient-days and annual consumption (defined daily dose

Po-Ren Hsueh; Wen-Hwei Chen; Kwen-Tay Luh

2005-01-01

270

Acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in a patient with pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

We report a case of acute chylous peritonitis mimicking acute appendicitis in a man with acute on chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatitis, both acute and chronic, causing the development of acute chylous ascites and peritonitis has rarely been reported in the English literature. This is the fourth published case of acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in the literature. PMID:19824123

Smith, Emily K; Ek, Edmund; Croagh, Daniel; Spain, Lavinia A; Farrell, Stephen

2009-01-01

271

Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) extracts on pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress caused by acute coal dust exposure  

SciTech Connect

Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.

Freitas, T.P.; Silveira, P.C.; Rocha, L.G.; Rezin, G.T.; Rocha, J.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.T.; Dal-Pizzol, F.; Pinho, R.A.; Andrade, V.M.; Streck, E.L. [University Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma (Brazil)

2008-12-15

272

TGFB2 loss of function mutations cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections associated with mild systemic features of the Marfan syndrome  

PubMed Central

A predisposition for thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections can be inherited in families in an autosomal dominant manner. Genome-wide linkage analysis of two large unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease, followed by whole exome sequencing of affected relatives, identified causative mutations in TGFB2. These mutations, a frameshift mutation in exon 6 and a nonsense mutation in exon 4, segregated with disease with a combined LOD score of 7.7. Sanger sequencing of 276 probands from families with inherited thoracic aortic disease identified two additional TGFB2 mutations. TGFB2 encodes the transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-?2) and the mutations are predicted to cause haploinsufficiency for TGFB2, but aortic tissue from cases paradoxically shows increased TGF-?2 expression and immunostaining. Thus, haploinsufficiency of TGFB2 predisposes to thoracic aortic disease, suggesting the initial pathway driving disease is decreased cellular TGF-?2 levels leading to a secondary increase in TGF-?2 production in the diseased aorta. PMID:22772371

Boileau, Catherine; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Hanna, Nadine; Regalado, Ellen S.; Detaint, Delphine; Gong, Limin; Varret, Mathilde; Prakash, Siddharth; Li, Alexander H.; d'Indy, Hyacintha; Braverman, Alan C.; Grandchamp, Bernard; Kwartler, Callie S.; Gouya, Laurent; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Abifadel, Marianne; Leal, Suzanne M.; Muti, Christine; Shendure, Jay; Gross, Marie-Sylvie; Rieder, Mark J.; Vahanian, Alec; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Jondeau, Guillaume; Milewicz, Dianna M.

2014-01-01

273

Guillain-Barr? syndrome as a cause of acute flaccid paralysis in Iraqi children: a result of 15 years of nation-wide study  

PubMed Central

Background Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in the post-poliomyelitis eradication era. This is the first study done to identify the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome of GBS in Iraqi children over 15 years. Methods The surveillance database about AFP cases?cause of AFP, especially in those between the age of 1 to 4 years living in rural areas. PMID:24325332

2013-01-01

274

Molecular epidemiology of a post-influenza pandemic outbreak of acute respiratory infections in Korea caused by human adenovirus type 3.  

PubMed

An outbreak of upper respiratory tract infections associated with human adenovirus (HAdV) occurred on a national scale in Korea from September to December 2010, following a major H1N1 influenza pandemic. Data from the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Surveillance System (KINRESS) showed an unusually high positive rate accounting for up to 20% of all diagnosed cases. To determine the principal cause of the outbreak, direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by sequence analysis targeting parts of the hexon gene of HAdV was performed. Serotypes of 1,007 PCR-diagnosed HAdV-positive samples from patients with an acute upper respiratory tract illness were determined and epidemiological characteristics including major aged group and clinical symptoms were analyzed. The principal symptom of HAdV infections was fever and the vulnerable aged group was 1-5 years old. Based on sequence analysis, HAdV-3 was the predominant serotype in the outbreak, with an incidence of 74.3%. From the beginning of 2010 until May, the major serotypes were HAdV-1, 2, and 5 (70-100%) in any given period. However, an outbreak dominated by HAdV-3 started between July and August and peaked in September. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there was no genetic variation in HAdV-3. The results demonstrated that an outbreak of upper respiratory illness followed by H1N1 influenza pandemic in Korea was caused mainly by emerged HAdV-3. J. Med. Virol. 87: 10-17, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24889391

Lee, Wan-Ji; Jung, Hee-Dong; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Kim, Kisoon

2015-01-01

275

Acute spontaneous cervical disc herniation causing rapidly progressive myelopathy in a patient with comorbid ossified posterior longitudinal ligament: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and cervical disc herniation are commonly encountered neurosurgical conditions. Here we present an unusual case of nontraumatic rapidly progressive myelopathy due to cervical disc herniation with comorbid OPLL and conduct a literature review focusing on the frequency and management of disc herniations with OPLL. Case Description: A 52-year-old healthy female presented with a 72-h history of rapid progression of dense quadriparesis with sensory deficits, with a precedent 4-week history of nontraumatic midline neck pain. Clinical examination revealed profound motor deficits below the C5 myotome. Spinal neuroimaging revealed OPLL (computed tomography [CT]) and a cervical disc herniation spanning from C4/5 to C5/6 with significant retrovertebral disease (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). Operative management involved an anterior cervical corpectomy and instrumented fusion, with removal of both the sequestered disc material and the locally compressive OPLL. The patient recovered full motor function and independent ambulation with no residual signs or symptoms of myelopathy at the time of discharge. Conclusion: This unique case of a spontaneous cervical disc herniation in the context of OPLL causing rapidly progressive myelopathy illustrates the complementarity of CT and MRI in diagnosing the underlying cause of a rapidly progressive neurologic deficit in the absence of antecedent trauma. Though the optimal surgical management of such pathology remains uncertain; in this case, the anterior approach was motivated by the significant retrovertebral ventrally compressive sequestrum, and provided for excellent neurologic outcome. This article also reviews the occurrence/management of such acute cervical discs with OPLL.

Westwick, Harrison J.; Goldstein, Christina L.; Shamji, Mohammed F.

2014-01-01

276

Rapid identification of nine microorganisms causing acute respiratory tract infections by single-tube multiplex reverse transcription-PCR: feasibility study.  

PubMed

Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) are leading causes of morbidity and, in developing countries, mortality in children. A multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay was developed to allow in one test the detection of nine different microorganisms (enterovirus, influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], parainfluenzaviruses type 1 and type 3, adenovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydia pneumoniae) that do not usually colonize the respiratory tracts of humans but, if present, must be assumed to be the cause of respiratory disease. Clinical samples from 1,118 children admitted to the Department of Pediatrics because of an ARI between November 1995 and April 1998 were used for a first clinical evaluation. Detection of one of the microorganisms included in the assay was achieved for 395 of 1,118 (35%) clinical samples, of which 37.5% were RSV, 20% were influenza A virus, 12.9% were adenovirus, 10.6% were enterovirus, 8.1% were M. pneumoniae, 4.3% were parainfluenzavirus type 3, 3.5% were parainfluenzavirus type 1, 2.8% were influenza B virus, and 0.2% were C. pneumoniae. Seasonal variations in the rates of detection of the different organisms were observed, as was expected from the literature. The levels of concordance with the data obtained by commercially available enzyme immunoassays were 95% for RSV and 98% for influenza A. The results show that the multiplex RT-PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is a useful and rapid diagnostic tool for the management of children with ARI. Studies of the overall benefit of this method with regard to the use of antibiotics, the use of diagnostic procedures including additional microbiological tests, and hospitalization rate and duration are warranted. PMID:9854054

Gröndahl, B; Puppe, W; Hoppe, A; Kühne, I; Weigl, J A; Schmitt, H J

1999-01-01

277

update: acute KIDNEY INJURY  

E-print Network

Guidelines update: acute KIDNEY INJURY August 2012, Issue 8 Tlaleletso is a monthly publication that have acute kidney injury. We review the common presentations and causes, especially in patients living it to cover, please send us your feedback­ either on content or format. Respectfully, Mike Reid Acute kidney

Bushman, Frederic

278

Methanotrophic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, whereas type II methanotrophs, which employ the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, form a coherent cluster within the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Methanotrophic bacteria are ubiquitous. The growth of type II bacteria appears to be favored in environments that contain relatively high levels of methane, low levels of dissolved oxygen, and limiting concentrations of combined nitrogen and/or copper. Type I methanotrophs appear to be dominant in environments in which methane is limiting and combined nitrogen and copper levels are relatively high. These bacteria serve as biofilters for the oxidation of methane produced in anaerobic environments, and when oxygen is present in soils, atmospheric methane is oxidized. Their activities in nature are greatly influenced by agricultural practices and other human activities. Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring, uncultured methanotrophs represent new genera. Methanotrophs that are capable of oxidizing methane at atmospheric levels exhibit methane oxidation kinetics different from those of methanotrophs available in pure cultures. A limited number of methanotrophs have the genetic capacity to synthesize a soluble methane monooxygenase which catalyzes the rapid oxidation of environmental pollutants including trichloroethylene. PMID:8801441

Hanson, R S; Hanson, T E

1996-01-01

279

Ice-Nucleating Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of ice-nucleating bacteria in 1974 by Maki et al., a large number of studies on the biological characteristics, ice-nucleating substance, ice nucleation gene and frost damage etc. of the bacteria have been carried out. Ice-nucleating bacteria can cause the freezing of water at relatively warm temperature (-2.3°C). Tween 20 was good substrates for ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens KUIN-1. Major fatty acids of Isolate (Pseudomonas fluorescens) W-11 grown at 30°C were palmitic, cis-9-hexadecenoic and cis-11-octadecenoic which amounted to 90% of the total fatty acids. Sequence analysis shows that an ice nucleation gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens is related to the gene of Pseudomonas syringae.

Obata, Hitoshi

280

Human lysozyme expressed in the mammary gland of transgenic dairy goats can inhibit the growth of bacteria that cause mastitis and the cold-spoilage of milk.  

PubMed

The addition of human milk components with intrinsic antimicrobial activity to livestock milk by genetic engineering has the potential to benefit milk safety and production as well as the health of the lactating animal. As a model for the dairy cow, we generated transgenic goats that expressed human lysozyme in their milk at 68% of the levels found in human milk. Milk from these transgenic animals had a bacteriostatic effect on both in vitro and in vivo growth of several microorganisms important to the dairy industry. In vitro, milk from transgenic animals was capable of slowing the growth of mastitis-causing strains of Escherichia coli (P < 0.02) and Staphylococcus aureus (P < 0.05) as well as the cold-spoilage organism Pseudomonas fragi (P < 0.02). The growth of an organism involved in cheese-making, Lactococcus lactis, was not affected by the presence of lysozyme in milk. The supplementation of control milk with purified lysozyme did not achieve the same inhibitory effect as milk from transgenic animals. In vivo, milk from transgenic animals supported less bacterial growth than control milk. This transgenic model demonstrates the possibilities offered by genetic engineering to enhance the antimicrobial nature of milk and the udder. PMID:17199520

Maga, Elizabeth A; Cullor, James S; Smith, Wayne; Anderson, Gary B; Murray, James D

2006-01-01

281

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without caus- ing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the iso- lation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using mo- lecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cul- tivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for

G. S. Magnani; C. M. Didonet; L. M. Cruz; C. F. Picheth; F. O. Pedrosa; E. M. Souza

2010-01-01

282

Estimating the burden of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne illness caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus by using population-based telephone survey data, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, 2005 to 2006.  

PubMed

Most cases of acute gastroenteritis and foodborne disease are not ascertained by public health surveillance because the ill person does not always seek medical care and submit a stool sample for testing, and the laboratory does not always test for or identify the causative organism. We estimated the total burden of acute gastroenteritis in Miyagi Prefecture, Japan, using data from two 2-week cross-sectional, population-based telephone surveys conducted in 2006 and 2007. To estimate the number of acute gastroenteritis illnesses caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Miyagi Prefecture, we determined the number of cases for each pathogen from active laboratory-based surveillance during 2005 to 2006 and adjusted for seeking of medical care and submission of stool specimens by using data from the population-based telephone surveys. Monte Carlo simulation was used to incorporate uncertainty. The prevalence of acute gastroenteritis in the preceding 4 weeks was 3.3% (70 of 2,126) and 3.5% (74 of 2,121) in the winter and summer months, yielding an estimated 44,200 episodes of acute gastroenteritis each year in this region. Among people with acute gastroenteritis, the physician consultation rate was 32.0%, and 10.9% of persons who sought care submitted a stool sample. The estimated numbers of Campylobacter-, Salmonella-, and V. parahaemolyticus -associated episodes of acute gastroenteritis were 1,512, 209, and 100 per 100,000 population per year, respectively, in this region. These estimates are significantly higher than the number of reported cases in surveillance in this region. Cases ascertained from active surveillance were also underrepresented in the present passive surveillance, suggesting that complementary surveillance systems, such as laboratory-based active surveillance in sentinel sites, are needed to monitor food safety in Japan. PMID:22004803

Kubota, Kunihiro; Kasuga, Fumiko; Iwasaki, Emiko; Inagaki, Shunichi; Sakurai, Yoshiharu; Komatsu, Mayumi; Toyofuku, Hajime; Angulo, Frederick J; Scallan, Elaine; Morikawa, Kaoru

2011-10-01

283

Meningococcal Disease: Causes and Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Causes & Transmission Share Compartir Causes Meningococcal disease is caused by ... certain illnesses, which are known as meningococcal disease. Transmission Neisseria meningitidis bacteria are spread through the exchange ...

284

Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease  

PubMed Central

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), one of the most common infections in nonpregnant women of reproductive age, remains an important public health problem. It is associated with major long-term sequelae, including tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In addition, treatment of acute PID and its complications incurs substantial health care costs. Prevention of these long-term sequelae is dependent upon development of treatment strategies based on knowledge of the microbiologic etiology of acute PID. It is well accepted that acute PID is a polymicrobic infection. The sexually transmitted organisms, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, are present in many cases, and microorganisms comprising the endogenous vaginal and cervical flora are frequently associated with PID. This includes anaerobic and facultative bacteria, similar to those associated with bacterial vaginosis. Genital tract mycoplasmas, most importantly Mycoplasma genitalium, have recently also been implicated as a cause of acute PID. As a consequence, treatment regimens for acute PID should provide broad spectrum coverage that is effective against these microorganisms. PMID:22228985

Sweet, Richard L.

2011-01-01

285

[Acute mesenteric ischemia].  

PubMed

Acute mesenteric ischemia is not an isolated clinical entity, but a complex of diseases, including acute mesenteric arterial embolus and thrombus, mesenteric venous thrombus, and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. These diseases have common clinical features caused by impaired blood perfusion to the intestine, bacterial translocation, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. There is substantial evidence that the mortality associated with acute mesenteric ischemia varies according to its trigger cause. Nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia is the most lethal form of the acute mesenteric ischemia, because of the poor understanding of its pathophysiology and its mild and nonspecific symptoms, which often delay its diagnosis. Mesenteric venous thrombosis is much less lethal than acute thromboembolism of the superior mesenteric artery and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. In this articles we presents an overview of acute mesenteric ischemia, based on the research. Although the mortality rates, in acute mesenteric ischemia, have remained high over the last few decades, accumulated knowledge on this condition is expected to improve its prognosis. PMID:18780610

Me?in?, C; Vasile, I; Pa?alega, M; Calot?, F; Vîlcea, D

2008-01-01

286

Acute liver failure caused by herpes simplex virus in a pregnant patient: is there a potential role for therapeutic plasma exchange?  

PubMed

A young woman presented with a febrile illness in the third trimester of pregnancy. Laboratory investigation revealed severe acute hepatitis with thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Liver injury progressed despite emergent caesarian section and delivery of a healthy infant. Therefore, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) was performed on three consecutive days post-partum for a presumed diagnosis of acute liver failure (ALF) associated with pregnancy due to hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) or acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP). Treatment with TPE was followed by biochemical and clinical improvement but during her recovery herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was diagnosed serologically and confirmed histologically. Changes in the immune system during pregnancy make pregnant patients more susceptible to acute HSV hepatitis, HSV-related ALF, and death. The disease is characterized by massive hepatic inflammation with hepatocyte necrosis, mediated by both direct viral cytotoxicity and the innate humoral immune response. TPE may have a therapeutic role in acute inflammatory disorders such as HSV hepatitis by reducing viral load and attenuating systemic inflammation and liver cell injury. Further investigation is needed to clarify this potential effect. The roles of vigilance, clinical suspicion, and currently accepted therapies are emphasized. PMID:23857723

Holt, Edward W; Guy, Jennifer; Gordon, Shelley M; Hofmann, Jan C; Garcia-Kennedy, Richard; Steady, Stephen L; Bzowej, Natalie H; Frederick, R Todd

2013-12-01

287

Acute Aspergillus pneumonia associated with mouldy tree bark-chippings, complicated by anti-glomerular basement membrane disease causing permanent renal failure?  

PubMed Central

A non-immunocompromised man developed acute Aspergillus pneumonia after spreading mouldy tree bark mulch. Despite normal renal function at presentation, he developed rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with acute kidney injury due to anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies (anti-GBM) 4 weeks later. He remained dialysis dependent and died of sepsis 10 months later. We hypothesise that he contracted invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis from heavy exposure to fungal spores, leading to epitope exposure in the alveoli with subsequent development of GBM auto-antibodies. PMID:24432235

Butler, Louise; Brockley, Tomos; Denning, David; Richardson, Malcolm; Chisholm, Roger; Sinha, Smeeta; O'Driscoll, Ronan

2013-01-01

288

A Single Application of MK801 Causes Symptoms of Acute Psychosis, Deficits in Spatial Memory, and Impairment of Synaptic Plasticity in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is mostly a progressive psychiatric illness. Although cognitive changes in chronic schizophrenia have been investi- gated, little is known about the consequences of a single psychotic epi- sode on memory mechanisms and formation. We investigated changes in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory in a rat model of an acute psychotic episode. Application of NMDA receptor antagonists, such

Denise Manahan-Vaughan; Dorothea von Haebler; Christine Winter; Georg Juckel; Uwe Heinemann

2007-01-01

289

Reclassification of rhizosphere bacteria including strains causing corky root of lettuce and proposal of Rhizorhapis suberifaciens gen. nov., comb. nov., Sphingobium mellinum sp. nov., Sphingobium xanthum sp. nov. and Rhizorhabdus argentea gen. nov., sp. nov.  

PubMed

The genus Rhizorhapis gen. nov. (to replace the illegitimate genus name Rhizomonas) is proposed for strains of Gram-negative bacteria causing corky root of lettuce, a widespread and important lettuce disease worldwide. Only one species of the genus Rhizomonas was described, Rhizomonas suberifaciens, which was subsequently reclassified as Sphingomonas suberifaciens based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the presence of sphingoglycolipid in the cell envelope. However, the genus Sphingomonas is so diverse that further reclassification was deemed necessary. Twenty new Rhizorhapis gen. nov.- and Sphingomonas-like isolates were obtained from lettuce or sow thistle roots, or from soil using lettuce seedlings as bait. These and previously reported isolates were characterized in a polyphasic study including 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, DNA G+C content, whole-cell fatty acid composition, morphology, substrate oxidation, temperature and pH sensitivity, and pathogenicity to lettuce. The isolates causing lettuce corky root belonged to the genera Rhizorhapis gen. nov., Sphingobium, Sphingopyxis and Rhizorhabdus gen. nov. More specifically, we propose to reclassify Rhizomonas suberifaciens as Rhizorhapis suberifaciens gen. nov., comb. nov. (type strain, CA1(T)?=?LMG 17323(T)?=?ATCC 49355(T)), and also propose the novel species Sphingobium xanthum sp. nov., Sphingobium mellinum sp. nov. and Rhizorhabdus argentea gen. nov., sp. nov. with the type strains NL9(T) (?=?LMG 12560(T)?=?ATCC 51296(T)), WI4(T) (?=?LMG 11032(T)?=?ATCC 51292(T)) and SP1(T) (?=?LMG 12581(T)?=?ATCC 51289(T)), respectively. Several strains isolated from lettuce roots belonged to the genus Sphingomonas, but none of them were pathogenic. PMID:24436067

Francis, Isolde M; Jochimsen, Kenneth N; De Vos, Paul; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

2014-04-01

290

[Natural transformation in bacteria].  

PubMed

Transformants may be formed by some bacterial species when the growing cultures are mixed. This phenomenon caused by the DNA release from bacterial cells is called natural transformation. DNA release is most likely to be mediated by cell autolysis. Both chromosomal markers and plasmids are transferred by natural transformation. The phenomenon is reproduced while growing bacteria together in sterile soil. The DNA adsorbed on sand and other soil solid particles was more resistant to DNAse action, than the free transforming DNA. Natural transformation seems to be one of the forms of the genetic exchange in bacteria in their habitats. An indirect argument for this suggestion is perfect coordination between the different steps of transformation process, at least, in some bacterial species. PMID:2185417

Kosovich, P V; Prozorov, A A

1990-01-01

291

Acute stress causes rapid synaptic insertion of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors to facilitate long-term potentiation in the hippocampus  

PubMed Central

The neuroendocrine response to episodes of acute stress is crucial for survival whereas the prolonged response to chronic stress can be detrimental. Learning and memory are particularly susceptible to stress with cognitive deficits being well characterized consequences of chronic stress. Although there is good evidence that acute stress can enhance cognitive performance, the mechanism(s) for this are unclear. We find that hippocampal slices, either prepared from rats following 30 min restraint stress or directly exposed to glucocorticoids, exhibit an N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor-independent form of long-term potentiation. We demonstrate that the mechanism involves an NMDA receptor and PKA-dependent insertion of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors into synapses. These then trigger the additional NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP during high frequency stimulation. PMID:24271563

Jo, Jihoon; Hogg, Ellen L.; Piers, Thomas; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Seaton, Gillian; Seok, Heon; Bru-Mercier, Gilles; Son, Gi Hoon; Regan, Philip; Hildebrandt, Lars; Waite, Eleanor; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Kerrigan, Talitha L.; Kim, Kyungjin; Whitcomb, Daniel J.; Lightman, Stafford L.

2013-01-01

292

Avulsion of the perforating branch of the peroneal artery secondary to an ankle sprain: a cause of acute compartment syndrome in the leg.  

PubMed

In this report, we describe the case of an adult male who developed an acute compartment syndrome localized to the anterior compartment of the leg following an ankle sprain. Compartment syndrome in association with ankle sprain is unusual, and has been previously described in association with avulsion of the perforating peroneal artery. Because of the potential for severe morbidity, we feel that it is important to make foot and ankle surgeons aware of this unusual injury. PMID:21106410

Kemp, Mark A; Barnes, James R; Thorpe, Paul L; Williams, James L

2011-01-01

293

Acute effects of wheel running on adult hippocampal precursor cells in mice are not caused by changes in cell cycle length or S phase length  

PubMed Central

Exercise stimulates cellular brain plasticity by extending the pool of proliferating neural precursor cells in the adult hippocampus. This effect has been investigated extensively, but the most immediate cellular effect induced by exercise that results in this acute increase in the number of cycling cells remained unclear. In the developing brain as well as adult pathological models, cell cycle alterations have a major influence on the balance between proliferative and neurogenic divisions. In this study we investigated whether this might also apply to the acute physiological pro-neurogenic stimulus of physical exercise in adulthood. Do changes in cell cycle precede the measurable increase in proliferation? After 5 days of voluntary wheel running, however, we measured only a very small, statistically not significant acceleration in cell cycle, which could not quantitatively explain the observed increase in proliferating cells after exercise. Thus, at this acute stage, changes at the level of cell cycle control is not the primary causal mechanism for the expansion of the precursor cell population, although with time after the stimulus changes in cell cycle of the entire population of labeled cells might be the result of the expanded pool of cells that have progressed to the advanced neurogenic stages with shorter cell cycle length. PMID:25339861

Fischer, Tim J.; Walker, Tara L.; Overall, Rupert W.; Brandt, Moritz D.; Kempermann, Gerd

2014-01-01

294

What Causes COPD?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes COPD? Long-term exposure to lung irritants that damage ... outcomes Statin therapy does not prevent exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lower mortality from acute respiratory distress ...

295

Detection of human leptospirosis as a cause of acute fever by capture ELISA using a Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni (M20) derived antigen  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis is a potentially lethal zoonosis mainly affecting low-resource tropical countries, including Peru and its neighbouring countries. Timely diagnosis of leptospirosis is critical but may be challenging in the regions where it is most prevalent. The serodiagnostic gold standard microagglutination test (MAT) may be technically prohibitive. Our objective in this study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of an IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (MAC-ELISA) derived from the M20 strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni (M20) by comparison to MAT, which was used as the gold standard method of diagnosis. Methods Acute and convalescent sera from participants participating in a passive febrile surveillance study in multiple regions of Peru were tested by both IgM MAC-ELISA and MAT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) of the MAC-ELISA assay for acute, convalescent and paired sera by comparison to MAT were calculated. Results The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the MAC-ELISA assay for acute sera were 92.3%, 56.0%, 35.3% and 96.6% respectively. For convalescent sera, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the MAC-ELISA assay were 93.3%, 51.5%, 63.6% and 89.5% respectively. For paired sera, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the MAC-ELISA assay were 93.6%, 37.5%, 59.2%, 85.7% respectively. Conclusions The M20 MAC-ELISA assay performed with a high sensitivity and low specificity in the acute phase of illness. Sensitivity was similar as compared with MAT in the convalescent phase and specificity remained low. Paired sera were the most sensitive but least specific by comparison to MAT serodiagnosis. NPV for acute, convalescent and paired sera was high. The limited specificity and high sensitivity of the MAC-ELISA IgM suggests that it would be most valuable to exclude leptospirosis in low-resource regions that lack immediate access to definitive reference laboratory techniques such as MAT. PMID:24053555

2013-01-01

296

[Assessment of persistent potential dominant pathogens of acute intestinal infections].  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence,and etiological structure of acute intestinal infections, to investigate the dominant agents' persistence factors. According with materials of statistical reports we did the retrospective epidemiological analysis of acute intestinal infections incidence in Sumy region from 2006 till 2011. Biological properties of 40 strains of Klebsiella pneumonia, 40 strains of Enterobacter cloacae and 50 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. Moderate trend of acute intestinal infections incidence increase was indicated. Bacteria of genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Staphylococcus were predominated in etiological structure. Incidence of acute diarrheal infections caused by Klebsiella and Enterobacter was reached the maximum in the spring-summer period. The incidence of staphylococcal etiology was discrete. The strains of Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae were remarkable for different frequency and intensity of persistence factors. ?nti-interferon activity was detected in 100% of clinical isolates of microorganisms, anti-lysozym activity was detected in 87.3 ± 2.9% of clinical isolates of microorganisms, anti-complementary activity was detected in 72.3 ± 3.9% of clinical isolates of microorganisms. Biological properties of opportunistic pathogens that cause acute intestinal infections can be used as epidemiological factors for differentiation of microorganisms pathogenicity. PMID:23787508

Malysh, N G; Golubnichaia, V N; Chemich, N D; Doan, S I

2013-05-01

297

Antimicrobial Resistance in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-positive bacteria are common causes of bloodstream and other infections in hospitalized patients in the United States, and the percentage of nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria is increasing. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are of particular concern. In the United States, approximately 60% of staphylococcal infections in the intensive care unit are now caused

Louis B. Rice

2006-01-01

298

Otitis media: viruses, bacteria, biofilms and vaccines.  

PubMed

Otitis media typically presents as either acute otitis media (AOM), with symptoms including fever, otalgia, otorrhoea or irritability and short duration; or as otitis media with effusion (OME), which is often asymptomatic and characterised by accumulation of fluid in the middle ear. Diagnostic certainty of otitis media is challenging, given the young age of patients and variability of symptoms. Otitis media predominantly occurs as coincident to viral upper respiratory tract infections and/or bacterial infections. Common viruses that cause upper respiratory tract infection are frequently associated with AOM and new-onset OME. These include respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza and coronavirus. Predominant bacteria that cause otitis media are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Antibiotic therapy does not significantly benefit most patients with AOM, but long-term prophylactic antibiotic therapy can reduce the risk of otitis media recurrence among children at high risk. In Australia, 84% of AOM is treated with antibiotic therapy, which contributes to development of antibiotic resistance. Vaccine development is a key future direction for reducing the world burden of otitis media, but requires polymicrobial formulation and ongoing monitoring and modification to ensure sustained reduction in disease burden. PMID:19883356

Massa, Helen M; Cripps, Allan W; Lehmann, Deborah

2009-11-01

299

Biochemical, oxidative and histological changes caused by sub-acute oral exposure of some synthetic cyanogens in rats: ameliorative effect of ?-ketoglutarate.  

PubMed

Time-dependent cyanide generation and acute toxicity of six different cyanogens were reported earlier, out of which malononitrile (MCN), propionitrile (PCN), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were found to be very toxic. We report here 14 d sub-acute toxicity of MCN, PCN, and SNP (oral; 1/10 LD50 daily) in female rats, and its amelioration by ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG; oral; 5.26 mmol/kg; +5 min), a potential cyanide antidote. Significant decrease in white blood cells (PCN, SNP), platelets count (PCN), and blood glucose levels (MCN, PCN, SNP) was accompanied by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase (MCN, PCN, SNP), and aspartate aminotransferase (PCN, SNP). Oxidative damage was evidenced by diminished total antioxidant status in plasma and enhanced malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney. This was accompanied by diminished levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the brain, liver and kidney. We also observed increased levels of blood cyanide and thiocyanate, together with inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and thiosulfate-sulfur transferase activities in total brain and liver homogenate, respectively. Cyanogens also produced several histological changes in all the organs studied. Post-treatment with ?-KG significantly abrogated the toxicity of cyanogens, indicating its utility as an antidote for long-term cyanogen exposure. PMID:24632070

Bhattacharya, Rahul; Rao, Pooja; Singh, Poonam; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Upadhyay, Preeti; Malla, Sandhya; Gujar, Niranjan Laxman; Lomash, Vinay; Pant, Satish Chandra

2014-05-01

300

Joint bleeding in factor VIII deficient mice causes an acute loss of trabecular bone and calcification of joint soft tissues which is prevented with aggressive factor replacement.  

PubMed

While chronic degenerative arthropathy is the main morbidity of haemophilia, a very high prevalence of low bone density is also seen in men and boys with haemophilia. This study investigates bone degradation in the knee joint of haemophilic mice resulting from haemarthrosis and the efficacy of aggressive treatment with factor VIII in the period surrounding injury to prevent bone pathology. Skeletally mature factor VIII knock-out mice were subjected to knee joint haemorrhage induced by puncture of the left knee joint capsule. Mice received either intravenous factor VIII treatment or placebo immediately prior to injury and at hours 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 after haemorrhage. Mice were killed 2-weeks after injury and the joint morphology and loss of bone in the proximal tibia was assessed using microCT imaging. Quantitative microCT imaging of the knee joint found acute bone loss at the proximal tibia following injury including loss of trabecular bone volumetric density and bone mineral density, as well as trabecular connectivity density, number and thickness. Unexpectedly, joint injury also resulted in calcification of the joint soft tissues including the tendons, ligaments, menisci and cartilage. Treatment with factor VIII prevented this bone and soft tissue degeneration. Knee joint haemorrhage resulted in acute changes in adjacent bone including loss of bone density and mineralization of joint soft tissues. The rapid calcification and loss of bone has implications for the initiation and progression of osteoarthritic degradation following joint bleeding. PMID:24712867

Lau, A G; Sun, J; Hannah, W B; Livingston, E W; Heymann, D; Bateman, T A; Monahan, P E

2014-09-01

301

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)  

MedlinePLUS

... however you can Daughter's dying wish became mother's motivation Stories Anna, transplant recipient and her daughter Every ... can support the cause. For Patients and Families Learning about your disease Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) How ...

302

Acute mountain sickness  

MedlinePLUS

High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

303

Sampling bacteria with a laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We also compared these data to samples of usual collection and filtering. The results of these laser measurements are very promising.

Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter

2014-05-01

304

Acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis is most commonly caused by gallstones or chronic alcohol use, and accounts for more than 200,000 hospital admissions annually. Using the Atlanta criteria, acute pancreatitis is diagnosed when a patient presents with two of three findings, including abdominal pain suggestive of pancreatitis, serum amylase and/or lipase levels at least three times the normal level, and characteristic findings on imaging. It is important to distinguish mild from severe disease because severe pancreatitis has a mortality rate of up to 30%. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is considered the diagnostic standard for radiologic evaluation of acute pancreatitis because of its success in predicting disease severity and prognosis. The BALI and computed tomography severity index scores also can aid in determining disease severity and predicting the likelihood of complications. Treatment begins with pain control, hydration, and bowel rest. In the first 48 to 72 hours of treatment, monitoring is required to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with worsening pancreatitis. When prolonged bowel rest is indicated, enteral nutrition is associated with lower rates of complications, including death, multiorgan failure, local complications, and systemic infections, than parenteral nutrition. In severe cases involving greater than 30% necrosis, antibiotic prophylaxis with imipenem/cilastatin decreases the risk of pancreatic infection. In gallstone-associated pancreatitis, early cholecystectomy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with sphincterotomy can decrease length of hospital stay and complication rates. A multidisciplinary approach to care is essential in cases involving pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25368923

Quinlan, Jeff D

2014-11-01

305

Bronchitis (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute bronchitis affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens. The role of smoking or of environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear. One third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute bronchitis in people without chronic respiratory disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics, antibiotics (macrolides, tetracyclines, cephalosporins, penicillins, or trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole [co-trimoxazole]), antihistamines, antitussives, beta2 agonists (inhaled or oral), and expectorants/mucolytics. PMID:21711957

2011-01-01

306

Gene Expression Analysis of Children with Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Correlation with Clinical Severity of Illness  

PubMed Central

Children with acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) demonstrate a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from mild to severe. Several advances have been achieved in the study of host immune response to acute invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections through gene expression analysis. However, previous research has neither attempted to evaluate the response of children with AHO specific to Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nor to correlate gene expression with clinical phenotype. Study objective was to correlate gene expression of children with AHO due to MRSA with clinical severity of illness. Whole blood samples were obtained in Tempus tubes from 12 children with osteomyelitis once cultures obtained directly from the site of infection confirmed to be positive for MRSA. Using an Illumina platform and a systems-wide modular analysis, microarray findings from ten of these children were compared to that of nine healthy (age, ethnicity and gender) matched controls and correlated with clinical severity of illness. Children with AHO from MRSA demonstrated over-expression of innate immunity with respect to neutrophil activity, coagulation, inflammatory response, and erythrocyte development. Concurrently, these children demonstrated under-expression of adaptive immunity with respect to lymphocyte activation and activity of T-cell, cytotoxic or NK cell, and B-cell lines. Three over-expressed genes, P2RX1, SORT1, and RETN, and two under-expressed genes, LOC641788 and STAT 4, were significantly correlated with severity of illness. STAT 4 showed the strongest correlation (R2?=?–0.83). STAT4 downregulation could potentially explain under-expression of genes related to adaptive immunity in this cohort of patients with AHO. This study identified specific genes which correspond to disease severity during the early hospitalization of children with AHO from MRSA. Pattern recognition of this combination of genes could help to identify in the future severe clinical phenotypes before the disease is fully manifest and direct appropriate attention and resources to those children. PMID:25076205

Gaviria-Agudelo, Claudia; Carter, Kristen; Tareen, Naureen; Pascual, Virginia; Copley, Lawson A.

2014-01-01

307

The effect of recurrent episodes of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and other organisms on mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of recurrent episodes of different types of clinical mastitis (CM) caused by gram-positive (Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp.) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas) bacteria, and other organisms (Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Mycoplasma, Corynebacterium bovis, yeast, miscellaneous) on the probability of mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows. Data from 30,233 lactations in cows of 7 dairy farms in New York State were analyzed. Cows were followed for the first 10 mo in lactation, or until death or culling occurred, or until the end of our study period. Generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson error distribution were used to study the effects of recurrent cases of the different types of CM and several other factors (herd, parity, month of lactation, current year and season, profitability, net replacement cost, other diseases) on cows' probability of death (model 1) or being culled (model 2). Primiparous and multiparous cows were modeled separately because they had different risks of mortality and culling and potentially different CM effects on mortality and culling. Approximately 30% of multiparous cows had at least one case of CM in lactation compared with 16.6% of primiparous cows. Multipara also had higher lactational incidence risks of second (10.7%) and third (4.4%) cases than primipara (3.7% and 1.1%, respectively). For primipara, CM increased the probability of death, with each successive case occurring in a month being increasingly lethal. In multipara, gram-negative CM increased the probability of death, especially when the gram-negative case was the first or second CM case in lactation. Primiparous cows with CM were more likely to be culled after CM than if they did not have CM, particularly after a second or third case. In multipara, any type of CM increased the probability of being culled. Gram-negative CM cases were associated with the numerically highest risk of culling. PMID:21943738

Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Bar, D; Bennett, G J; González, R N; Rauch, B J; Welcome, F L; Tauer, L W; Gröhn, Y T

2011-10-01

308

Acute cholecystitis  

MedlinePLUS

Cholecystitis - acute ... uses to digest fats in the small intestine. Acute cholecystitis occurs when bile becomes trapped in the ... Siddiqui T. Early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. ...

309

Bioelectricity Aware of bacteria  

E-print Network

Bioelectricity Aware of bacteria Bacteria of the genus Geobacter carry out anaerobic respiration the mechanism that makes these bacteria conductors of electricity. Researchers have studied this for a population of G. sulfurreducens, endowed with bacteria nanometric filaments (pili) that enable them

Lovley, Derek

310

Bacteria TMDL Projects  

E-print Network

of the projects are listed below. ? Peach CreekWater Quality Improvement Project ? Monitoring and Educational Programs Focused on Bacteria and Nutrient Runoff on Dairy Operations in the LeonWatershed ? Development of the Plum CreekWPP ? Impact of Proper... above Canyon Lake: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Houston Metropolitan Area: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Leon River below Proctor Lake ? Northwest Houston Area Bacteria TMDL Project ? Oso Bay and Oso Creek: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Peach...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01

311

Causes for the evolution of case management and the development of a working model in an acute care hospital in Singapore.  

PubMed

Case management is a collaborative process which assesses, plans, implements, co-ordinates, monitors and evaluates options and services to meet an individual's health needs. The case manager performs a key role in ensuring that collaboration and communication between the multi-disciplinary healthcare team and patient is maintained, and that quality clinical outcomes are achieved and the patients reach an optimal level of wellness and function. Patients that can benefit from case management in an acute hospital setting are frequently elderly and have complex medical and care issues arising out of changes in functional status. The components of a successful case management system include identifying a suitable model for implementation and recruiting the correct persons to function as case managers. A defined assessment and recruitment guideline will ensure that appropriate patients are placed on case management. Communication and collaboration with all stakeholders in formulating a patient's plan of care are essential. The subsequent implementation and monitoring of the plan is crucial, as variances that occur must be adequately managed in order to ensure that a satisfactory clinical outcome is achieved without inappropriate expenditure of resources. The barriers to a successful case management programme can result from inappropriate case loads and failure of the other healthcare team members to understand and appreciate the case manager's role and functions. However, this can be overcome by education and using outcome data to demonstrate the effectiveness of case management. PMID:12161881

Tai, H Y

2002-07-01

312

Spontaneous vertebral arteriovenous fistula causing cervical myelopathy and acute ischemic strokes treated by endovascular balloon-assisted coiling and Onyx embolization.  

PubMed

Vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAVF) are infrequent lesions characterized by abnormal communication of the extracranial vertebral artery or one of its branches to the surrounding venous plexuses, without the presence of any intervening vessels. We describe a rare occurrence of a patient with VAVF presenting with acute ischemic stroke, encephalomalacia from multiple prior embolic events, and cervical myelopathy, which was successfully treated by coil-assisted Onyx embolization (ev3 Endovascular, Plymouth, MN, USA) with balloon for flow arrest. Our patient demonstrates that point occlusion with embolization for VAVF can be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment option for complete obliteration of the fistula, with subsequent reduction in the volume of the intra-spinal canal venous plexus. Although it is postulated that thromboembolism is less common because of redirection of flow to the venous side of the fistula, our patient also illustrates the potential for to-fro flow in such a fistula to result in embolic injury to the distal circulation. PMID:23972561

John, Seby; Jaffari, Neda; Lu, Mei; Hussain, Muhammad S; Hui, Ferdinand

2014-01-01

313

Oxysophoridine attenuates the injury caused by acute myocardial infarction in rats through anti?oxidative, anti?inflammatory and anti?apoptotic pathways.  

PubMed

Oxysophoridine (OSR), a natural alkaloid derived from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant sophora alopecuroides, can perform a variety of pharmacological actions. The aim of the present study was to assess the cardioprotective effect of OSR against acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats. OSR markedly reduced infarction size and levels of specific myocardial enzymes, including creatine kinase, the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and cardiac troponin T. A reduced level of malondialdehyde was observed, and elevated catalase, Cu/Zn?superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn?SOD, non?enzymatic scavenger glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity were also identified in the OSR?treated rats. Additionally, OSR inhibited the activities of various inflammatory cytokines in a dose?dependent manner. These included nuclear factor??B p65, tumor necrosis factor??, and interleukin?1?, ?6 and ?10. Furthermore, OSR treatment suppressed caspase?3 activity in a dose?dependent manner. These results demonstrate that OSR ameliorates cardiac damage in a rat model of AMI and that this cardioprotection may be linked with its anti?oxidative, anti?apoptotic and anti?inflammatory properties. PMID:25338622

Meng, Cong; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yuanwei; Wu, Fan

2015-01-01

314

[Changes in duodenal lymphoid structures in rats with various behavioral activity, caused by delta sleep-inducing peptide and following acute emotional stress].  

PubMed

The effect of delta sleep-inducing peptide (DSIP) on the lymphoid structures of small intestine, was investigated. Studies were conducted on 42 male Wistar rats, which were previously assessed in an "open field" test. According to the results of the test, rats were divided into behaviorally active animals (prognostically resistant to stress) and passive ones (resistant to the effects of stress). As a stress, immobilization of the animals in pens with an electrical stimulation of their back for 1 hour, was used. Intraperitoneal injection of DSIP resulted in a reduction of eosinophil number in rats of all the experimental groups. After DSIP injection to the active rats of the control group, the increase in small and medium lymphocyte numbers was detected that was more expressed than in the passive rats. After an acute exposure of behaviorally active rats to stress, the number of the cells of lymphoid series was increased,mainly due to the increase in small and medium lymphocytes. In the group of passive rats, stress exposure and DSIP injection resulted in the increase of plasma cell number in all the duodenal mucosa structures studied. PMID:20572393

Ivanova, E A; Koplik, E V

2010-01-01

315

Treatment of acute ischemic stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of adult disability. The direct and indirect costs of stroke care exceed $51 billion annually. In 1996, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first treatment for acute ischemic stroke, intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. Later that year, the National Institute of

Christopher Lewandowski; William Barsan

2001-01-01

316

Sustained Oxidative Stress Causes Late Acute Renal Failure via Duplex Regulation on p38 MAPK and Akt Phosphorylation in Severely Burned Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical evidence indicates that late acute renal failure (ARF) predicts high mortality in severely burned patients but the pathophysiology of late ARF remains undefined. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that sustained reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced late ARF in a severely burned rat model and to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved. Materials and Methods Rats were exposed to 100°C bath for 15 s to induce severe burn injury (40% of total body surface area). Renal function, ROS generation, tubular necrosis and apoptosis, and phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt were measured during 72 hours after burn. Results Renal function as assessed by serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen deteriorated significantly at 3 h after burn, alleviated at 6 h but worsened at 48 h and 72 h, indicating a late ARF was induced. Apoptotic cells and cleavage caspase-3 in the kidney went up slowly and turned into significant at 48 h and 72 h. Tubular cell ROS production shot up at 6 h and continuously rose during the 72-h experiment. Scavenging ROS with tempol markedly attenuated tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction at 72 h after burn. Interestingly, renal p38 MAPK phosphorylation elevated in a time dependent manner whereas Akt phosphorylation increased during the first 24 h but decreased at 48 h after burn. The p38 MAPK specific inhibitor SB203580 alleviated whereas Akt inhibitor exacerbated burn-induced tubular apoptosis and renal dysfunction. Furthermore, tempol treatment exerted a duplex regulation through inhibiting p38 MAPK phosphorylation but further increasing Akt phosphorylation at 72 h postburn. Conclusions These results demonstrate that sustained renal ROS overproduction induces continuous tubular cell apoptosis and thus a late ARF at 72 h after burn in severely burned rats, which may result from ROS-mediated activation of p38 MAPK but a late inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. PMID:23349934

Cai, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dexin; Wu, Kaimin; Chen, Hongli; Li, Jia; Lei, Wei

2013-01-01

317

The identification and biogeochemical interpretation of fossil magnetotactic bacteria  

E-print Network

The identification and biogeochemical interpretation of fossil magnetotactic bacteria Robert E. Available online 14 August 2007. Abstract Magnetotactic bacteria, which most commonly live within the oxic, specifically magnetite or greigite. The crystals cause the bacteria to orient themselves passively with respect

318

Las Bacterias: Más que Patógenos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article reveals that there are more bacteria on Earth than there are humans. Bacteria: inhabit every environment on the planet, playing a key ecological role, can be good for our health -- for example, by helping us digest food, and can cause disease even though the human body is not the natural host for many bacteria.

Trudy Wassenaar (consultant;)

2002-07-01

319

Automatic Tracking of Escherichia Coli Bacteria , Shahid Khan2 3  

E-print Network

bacteria (E. coli), which can generally cause several intestinal and extra-intestinal infections such as urinary tract infections, meningitis, and peritoni- tis. Escherichia coli chemotaxis has been the system of Escherichia Coli Bacteria 825 Fig. 1. (Left) A typical view of E. coli bacteria under a phase

Central Florida, University of

320

STUDIES ON LUMINOUS BACTERIA  

PubMed Central

1. A method has been described whereby the intensity of the light of luminous bacteria may be measured in a quantitative manner. 2. It is pointed out that the temperature coefficients for light intensity do not follow the van't Hoff rule, but are higher and vary with each 10° temperature interval. 3. From a comparison with other data it is found that the process is not a simple one, but that the observed curve is the resultant of several reactions which proceed simultaneously. 4. The discrepancies in the temperature coefficients in the neighborhood of the "optimum temperature" may be due to a process of coagulation of the colloidal particles of the enzyme. This coagulation will tend to cause a deviation of the curve away from that normal for chemical reactions. PMID:19872179

Morrison, Thomas F.

1925-01-01

321

Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium  

DOEpatents

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, R.L.

1995-05-30

322

Resveratrol causes arrest in the S-phase prior to Fas-independent apoptosis in CEM-C7H2 acute leukemia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol (3,5,4?-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene), in the concentration range of 20 ?M and above, induced arrest in the S-phase and apoptosis in the T cell-derived T-ALL lymphocytic leukemia cell line CEM-C7H2 which is deficient in functional p53 and p16. Expression of transgenic p16\\/INK4A, which causes arrest in G0\\/G1, markedly reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells. Antagonist antibodies to Fas or FasL, or constitutive

D Bernhard; I Tinhofer; M Tonko; H Hübl; M J Ausserlechner; R Greil; R Kofler; A Csordas

2000-01-01

323

Antagonism of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Phytopathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A variety of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from plant surfaces and plant-associated products, were found to be antagonistic to test strains of the phytopathogens Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. Effective “in vitro” inhibition was found both on agar plates and in broth cultures. In pot trials, treatment of bean plants with a Lactobacillus plantarum strain before inoculation with P. syringae caused a significant reduction of the disease incidence. Images PMID:16347150

Visser, Ronel; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Bezuidenhout, Johannes J.; Kotze, Johannes M.

1986-01-01

324

Acute bacterial suppurative parotitis: microbiology and management.  

PubMed

The parotid gland is the salivary gland most commonly affected by inflammation. The most common pathogens associated with acute bacterial parotitis are Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic bacteria. The predominant anaerobes include gram-negative bacilli (including pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp.), Fusobacterium spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. Streptococcus spp. (including S. pneumoniae) and gram-negative bacilli (including Escherichia coli) have also been reported. Gram-negative organisms are often seen in hospitalized patients. Organisms less frequently found are Arachnia, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Treponema pallidum, cat-scratch bacillus, and Eikenella corrodens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical mycobacteria are rare causes of parotitis. Therapy includes maintenance of hydration and administration of parenteral antimicrobial therapy. Once an abscess has formed surgical drainage is required. The choice of antimicrobial depends on the etiologic agent. Maintenance of good oral hygiene, adequate hydration, and early and proper therapy of bacterial infection of the oropharynx may reduce the occurrence of suppurative parotitis. PMID:12544218

Brook, Itzhak

2003-01-01

325

Sarcocystis nesbitti Causes Acute, Relapsing Febrile Myositis with a High Attack Rate: Description of a Large Outbreak of Muscular Sarcocystosis in Pangkor Island, Malaysia, 2012  

PubMed Central

Background From the 17th to 19th January 2012, a group of 92 college students and teachers attended a retreat in a hotel located on Pangkor Island, off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Following the onset of symptoms in many participants who presented to our institute, an investigation was undertaken which ultimately identified Sarcocystis nesbitti as the cause of this outbreak. Methodology/Principal Findings All retreat participants were identified, and clinical and epidemiological information was obtained via clinical review and self-reported answers to a structured questionnaire. Laboratory, imaging and muscle biopsy results were evaluated and possible sources of exposure, in particular water supply, were investigated. At an average of 9–11 days upon return from the retreat, 89 (97%) of the participants became ill. A vast majority of 94% had fever with 57% of these persons experiencing relapsing fever. Myalgia was present in 91% of patients. Facial swelling from myositis of jaw muscles occurred in 9 (10%) patients. The median duration of symptoms was 17 days (IQR 7 to 30 days; range 3 to 112). Out of 4 muscle biopsies, sarcocysts were identified in 3. S. nesbitti was identified by PCR in 3 of the 4 biopsies including one biopsy without observed sarcocyst. Non-Malaysians had a median duration of symptoms longer than that of Malaysians (27.5 days vs. 14 days, p?=?0.001) and were more likely to experience moderate or severe myalgia compared to mild myalgia (83.3% vs. 40.0%, p?=?0.002). Conclusions/Significance The similarity of the symptoms and clustered time of onset suggests that all affected persons had muscular sarcocystosis. This is the largest human outbreak of sarcocystosis ever reported, with the specific Sarcocystis species identified. The largely non-specific clinical features of this illness suggest that S. nesbitti may be an under diagnosed infection in the tropics. PMID:24854350

Italiano, Claire M.; Wong, Kum Thong; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Lau, Yee Ling; Ramli, Norlisah; Syed Omar, Sharifah Faridah; Kahar Bador, Maria; Tan, Chong Tin

2014-01-01

326

Microbiological characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates as primary causes of acute otitis media in Bulgarian children before the introduction of conjugate vaccines  

PubMed Central

Background Pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines were introduced in our national immunisation program in April 2010. The aims of this retrospective, laboratory-based study were to determine the serotypes and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae isolates from middle ear fluid (MEF) collected before the introduction of immunization. Methods S. pneumoniae (n?=?128) and H. influenzae (n?=?40) strains isolated from MEF of children with AOM between 1994 and 2011 were studied. MICs were determined by a microdilution assay. Serotyping of S. pneumoniae was done by Quellung method and PCR capsular typing was used for H. influenzae. Macrolide resistance genes were detected by PCR for erythromycin resistant S. pneumoniae (ERSP). DNA sequencing of ftsI gene was performed for ampicillin nonsusceptible H. influenzae. Results The most common serotypes found among children with pneumococcal AOM were 19 F (20.3%), 6B (15.6%), and 19A (10.9%). The potential coverage rates by the PCV7, PCV10 and PCV13 of children aged?causing severe AOM in children are high in our settings. The existence of multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae serotype 19A is of particular concern. The rate of BLNAR and BLPACR strains among H. influenzae isolates was 15%. PMID:23531034

2013-01-01

327

Engineering commensal bacteria for prophylaxis against infection  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide. The development of efficient and low cost prophylactics to prevent pathogenic infection is given high priority in the twenty-first century. Commensal bacteria are largely seen as harmless and can survive symbiotically (in many cases) in niches throughout the human body. Advances in genetic engineering and understanding of pathogenesis have revealed many potential strategies to develop engineered bacteria for prophylaxis purposes: including live vaccines and anti-infective agents. In this review we discuss recent advances and potentialities of prophylaxis with engineered bacteria. PMID:22459613

Goh, Yih-Lin; He, HongFei; March, John C.

2012-01-01

328

Bacteria make gasohol from corn stalk wastes  

SciTech Connect

Scientists at MIT have developed two strains of bacteria that convert corn stalks into ethanol. The bacteria, isolated from the first compartment of the cows rumen, were chemically treated to cause genetic mutations that could tolerate higher concentrations of alcohol and produce little lactic acid. The bacterial methods end product is a fuel that consists of 4% ethanol and 96% water, and by the fermentation of cellulose, rather than starch, the hydrolyzation step is eliminated.

Not Available

1980-11-03

329

Genetic transformation in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain species of bacteria can become competent to take up high molecular weight DNA from the surrounding medium. DNA homologous\\u000a to resident chromosomal DNA is transported, processed and recombined with the resident DNA. There are some variations in steps\\u000a leading to transformation between Gram-positive bacteria likebiplococcus pneumoniae and Gram-negative bacteria represented byHaemophilus influenzae but the integration is by single-strand displacement

N. K. Notani; V. P. Joshi; R. P. Kanade

1984-01-01

330

Species Numbers in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A modified biological species definition (BSD), i.e., that bacteria exchange genes within a species, but not usually between species, is shown to apply to bacteria. The formal definition of bacterial species, which is more conservative than the modified BSD, is framed in terms of DNA hybridization. From this I estimate there are a million species of bacteria in 30 grams of rich forest topsoil and propose that there will be at least a billion species worldwide. PMID:21874075

Dykhuizen, Daniel

2010-01-01

331

Biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial infarction causes significant mortality and morbidity. Timely diagnosis allows clinicians to risk stratify their patients and select appropriate treatment. Biomarkers have been used to assist with timely diagnosis, while an increasing number of novel markers have been identified to predict outcome following an acute myocardial infarction or acute coronary syndrome. This may facilitate tailoring of appropriate therapy to high-risk

Daniel Chan; Leong L Ng

2010-01-01

332

[Metastatic prostate cancer complicated with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy causing acute renal failure, mimicking thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome: pathomechanism, differential diagnosis and therapy related to a case].  

PubMed

Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is characterized as activation of the clotting system resulting in fibrin thrombi, gradually diminishing levels of clotting factors with increased risk of bleeding. Basically two types of DIC are distinguished: (1) chronic (compensated) - with alteration of laboratory values and (2) acute (non-compensated) - with severe clinical manifestations: bleeding, shock, acute renal failure (ARF), transient focal neurologic deficit, delirium or coma. Chronic DIC related to metastatic neoplasia is caused by pancreatic, gastric or prostatic carcinoma in most of the cases. Incidence rate of DIC is 13-30% in prostate cancer, among those only 0.4-1.65% of patients had clinical signs and symptoms of DIC. In other words, chronic DIC is developed in one of eight patients with prostate cancer. DIC is considered as a poor prognostic factor in prostatic carcinoma. The similar clinical and laboratory findings of TTP-HUS (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura - hemolytic uremic syndrome) and DIC makes it difficult to differentiate between them. A 71 years old male patient with known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, benign prostatic hyperplasia, significant carotid artery stenosis, gastric ulcer and alcoholic liver disease was admitted to another hospital with melena. Gastroscopy revealed intact gastric mucosa and actually non-bleeding duodenal ulcer covered by clots. Laboratory results showed hyperkalemia, elevated kidney function tests, indirect hyperbilirubinemia, increased liver function tests, leukocytosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia and elevated international normalized ratio (INR). He was treated with saline infusions, four units of red blood cells and one unit of fresh frozen plasma transfusions. Four days later he was transported to our Institution with ARF. Physical examination revealed dyspnoe, petechiae, hemoptoe, oliguria, chest-wall pain and aggressive behavior. Thrombocytopenia, signs of MAHA (fragmentocytes and helmet cells in the peripheral blood), normal INR, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ARF suggested TTP-HUS. Hemodialysis and six plasmaferesis (PF) were carried out. After the fifth PF, skin manifestations of thrombotic microangiopathy occurred on the feet. Clotting analysis revealed elevated D-dimer (>5 ?g/mL), normal fibrinogen (3.2 g/L), a slightly raised INR (1.36) and activated partial prothrombin time (APTT) (45.8 sec), normal reticulocyte (57 G/L) and a slightly low platelet count (123 G/L), which proved to be chronic DIC. Therapeutic dose of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was started. Elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (109.6 ng/mL) suggested prostatic carcinoma. Prostate biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma (Gleason: 4+4 for left lobe and 3+3 for right lobe). Elevated alkaline phosphatase suggested metastases in the bone, which were confirmed by bone scintigraphy. Combined androgen blockade (CAB) was started. After three months follow-up our patient's status is satisfactory. PSA is in the normal range (4.6 ng/mL). Thrombocytopenia of uncertain origin with normal or raised INR, APTT, elevated D-dimer, normal fibrinogen and reticulocyte count prove the diagnosis of chronic DIC. This process warrants searching for metastatic neoplasia. Due to the relatively low serum levels of circulating procoagulant factors (e.g. tissue factor), therapeutic dose of LMWH can be used with good efficiency in chronic DIC with low risk of bleeding. Severe DIC as a complication of metastatic prostate cancer can be treated by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or CAB in combination with ketokonazole and concomitant use of supportive treatment. Deme D, Ragán M, Kovács L, Kalmár K, Varga E, Varga T, Rakonczai E. Metastatic prostate cancer complicated with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy causing acute renal failure mimicking thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome: pathomechanism, differential diagnosis and therapy related to a case. PMID:21163766

Deme, Dániel; Ragán, Márton; Kalmár, Katalin; Kovács, Lajos; Varga, Erzsébet; Varga, Tünde; Rakonczai, Ervin

2010-12-01

333

Acute inhibition of GSK causes mitochondrial remodeling  

PubMed Central

Recent data have shown that cardioprotection can result in the import of specific proteins into the mitochondria in a process that involves heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and is blocked by geldanamycin (GD), a HSP90 inhibitor. To test the hypothesis that an alteration in mitochondrial import is a more widespread feature of cardioprotection, in this study, we used a broad-based proteomics approach to investigate changes in the mitochondrial proteome following cardioprotection induced by inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3. Mitochondria were isolated from control hearts, and hearts were perfused with the GSK inhibitor SB 216763 (SB) for 15 min before isolation of mitochondria. Mitochondrial extracts from control and SB-perfused hearts were labeled with isotope tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), and differences in mitochondrial protein levels were determined by mass spectrometry. To test for the role of HSP90-mediated protein import, hearts were perfused in the presence and absence of GD for 15 min before perfusion with SB followed by mitochondrial isolation and iTRAQ labeling. We confirmed that treatment with GD blocked the protection afforded by SB treatment in a protocol of 20 min of ischemia and 40 min of reperfusion. We found 16 proteins that showed an apparent increase in the mitochondrial fraction following SB treatment. GD treatment significantly blocked the SB-mediated increase in mitochondrial association for five of these proteins, which included annexin A6, vinculin, and pyruvate kinase. We also found that SB treatment resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial content of eight proteins, of which all but two are established mitochondrial proteins. To confirm a role for mitochondrial import versus a change in protein synthesis and/or degradation, we measured changes in these proteins in whole cell extracts. Taken together, these data show that SB leads to a remodeling of the mitochondrial proteome that is partially GD sensitive. PMID:22467305

Nguyen, Tiffany; Wong, Renee; Wang, Guanghui; Gucek, Marjan; Steenbergen, Charles

2012-01-01

334

[Infections of finger and toe nails due to fungi and bacteria].  

PubMed

Infections of the finger and the toe nails are most frequently caused by fungi, primarily dermatophytes. Causative agents of tinea unguium are mostly anthropophilic dermatophytes. Both in Germany, and worldwide, Trichophyton rubrum represents the main important causative agent of onychomycoses. Yeasts are isolated from fungal nail infections, both paronychia and onychomycosis far more often than generally expected. This can represent either saprophytic colonization as well as acute or chronic infection of the nail organ. The main yeasts causing nail infections are Candida parapsilosis, and Candida guilliermondii; Candida albicans is only in third place. Onychomycosis due to molds, or so called non-dermatophyte molds (NDM), are being increasingly detected. Molds as cause of an onychomycosis are considered as emerging pathogens. Fusarium species are the most common cause of NDM onychomycosis; however, rare molds like Onychocola canadensis may be found. Bacterial infections of the nails are caused by gram negative bacteria, usually Pseudomonas aeruginosa (recognizable because of green or black coloration of the nails) but also Klebsiella spp. and gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment of onychomycosis includes application of topical antifungal agents (amorolfine, ciclopirox). If more than 50?% of the nail plate is affected or if more than three out of ten nails are affected by the fungal infection, oral treatment using terbinafine (in case of dermatophyte infection), fluconazole (for yeast infections), or alternatively itraconazole are recommended. Bacterial infections are treated topically with antiseptic agents (octenidine), and in some cases with topical antibiotics (nadifloxacin, gentamicin). Pseudomonas infections of the nail organ are treated by ciprofloxacin; other bacteria are treated according to the results of culture and sensitivity testing. PMID:24718510

Nenoff, P; Paasch, U; Handrick, W

2014-04-01

335

Viral-Bacterial Interactions in Acute Otitis Media  

PubMed Central

Acute otitis media (AOM) is a polymicrobial disease, which usually occurs as a complication of viral upper respiratory tract infection (URI). While respiratory viruses alone may cause viral AOM, they increase the risk of bacterial middle ear infection and worsen clinical outcomes of bacterial AOM. URI viruses alter Eustachian tube (ET) function via decreased mucociliary action, altered mucus secretion and increased expression of inflammatory mediators among other mechanisms. Transient reduction in protective functions of the ET allows colonizing bacteria of the nasopharynx to ascend into the middle ear and cause AOM. Advances in research help us to better understand the host responses to viral URI, the mechanisms of viral–bacterial interactions in the nasopharynx and the development of AOM. In this review, we present current knowledge regarding viral–bacterial interactions in the pathogenesis and clinical course of AOM. We focus on the common respiratory viruses and their established role in AOM. PMID:22968233

Marom, Tal; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

2012-01-01

336

THE MITOCHONDRIA OF BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence from the biochemical, the genetic and the morphologic study of bacteria, in that chronological order, has indicated essential similarities of the bacterial cell to the cells of higher organisms. Recognition in bacteria of a large category of cytoplasmic granules as possessing characteristics which strongly sug- gest that they are the functional equivalents of the mitochondria of anirnaE and

STUART MUDD

1953-01-01

337

Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Causes and Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Legionella in the Environment Spread of Disease Exposure Legionella in the Environment Legionnaires' disease (LEE-juh-nares) is caused by a type of bacteria called Legionella . The Legionella bacteria are found naturally in the ...

338

Acute bronchial asthma.  

PubMed

Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

2011-11-01

339

Acute kidney injury at high altitude.  

PubMed

Acute ascent to high altitudes beyond 2400?m (300 feet) can cause acute mountain sickness (AMS) and may develop into life-threatening complications such as high altitude cerebral (HACE) and pulmonary edema (HAPE). We report a case of acute kidney injury (AKI) without other organ involvement in a previously healthy young man after sudden high altitude exposure of up to 5200?m. Acute systemic hypoxia as well as prolonged renal hypoperfusion may be responsible for his kidney injury. PMID:23795741

Yijiang, Zhou; Jianhua, Zhu; Feili, Lin

2013-06-01

340

Multidrug Resistance in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Large amounts of antibiotics used for human therapy, as well as for farm animals and even for fish in aquaculture, resulted in the selection of pathogenic bacteria resistant to multiple drugs. Multidrug resistance in bacteria may be generated by one of two mechanisms. First, these bacteria may accumulate multiple genes, each coding for resistance to a single drug, within a single cell. This accumulation occurs typically on resistance (R) plasmids. Second, multidrug resistance may also occur by the increased expression of genes that code for multidrug efflux pumps, extruding a wide range of drugs. This review discusses our current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in both types of resistance. PMID:19231985

Nikaido, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

341

Dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotypes Causing Acute Otitis Media Isolated from Children with Spontaneous Middle-Ear Drainage over a 12-Year Period (1999-2010) in a Region of Northern Spain  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the serotype and clonal distribution of pneumococci causing acute otitis media (AOM) and their relationship with recurrences and mixed infections with other microorganisms under the influence of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). To do this, all pneumococcal isolates collected from the spontaneous middle-ear drainage of children <5 years old diagnosed of AOM by their pediatrician or their general practitioner from 1999 to 2010 were phenotypically characterized and the most frequent serotypes were genotyped. In the 12-year study, 818 episodes of pneumococcal AOM were detected, mostly (70.5%) in children younger than 2 years old. In 262 episodes (32%), the pneumococci were isolated with another bacterium, mainly (n?=?214) Haemophilus influenzae. Mixed infections were similar in children under or over 2 years old. The most frequent serotypes were 19A (n?=?227, 27.8%), 3 (n?=?92, 11.2%) and 19F (n?=?74, 9%). Serotypes included in the PCV7 sharply decreased from 62.4% in the pre-vaccination (1999–2001) to 2.2% in the late post-vaccination period (2008–2010). Serotype diversity steadily increased after the introduction of the PCV7 but decreased from 2008–2010 due to the predominant role of serotype 19A isolates, mostly ST276 and ST320. The prevalence of serotype 3 doubled from 6.1% (20/326) in 1999–2004 to 14.6% (72/492) in 2005–2010. Relapses mainly occurred in male infants infected with isolates with diminished antimicrobial susceptibility. Reinfections caused by isolates with the same serotype but different genotype were frequent, highlighting the need for genetic studies to differentiate among similar strains. In conclusion, the main change in pneumococcal AOM observed after the introduction of the PCV7 was the sharp decrease in vaccine serotypes. Also notable was the high burden of serotype 19A in total pneumococcal AOM before and especially after the introduction of the PCV7, as well as in relapses and reinfections. PMID:23349853

Alonso, Marta; Marimon, Jose M.; Ercibengoa, Maria; Perez-Yarza, Eduardo G.; Perez-Trallero, Emilio

2013-01-01

342

Dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes causing acute otitis media isolated from children with spontaneous middle-ear drainage over a 12-year period (1999-2010) in a region of northern Spain.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the serotype and clonal distribution of pneumococci causing acute otitis media (AOM) and their relationship with recurrences and mixed infections with other microorganisms under the influence of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). To do this, all pneumococcal isolates collected from the spontaneous middle-ear drainage of children <5 years old diagnosed of AOM by their pediatrician or their general practitioner from 1999 to 2010 were phenotypically characterized and the most frequent serotypes were genotyped. In the 12-year study, 818 episodes of pneumococcal AOM were detected, mostly (70.5%) in children younger than 2 years old. In 262 episodes (32%), the pneumococci were isolated with another bacterium, mainly (n=214) Haemophilus influenzae. Mixed infections were similar in children under or over 2 years old. The most frequent serotypes were 19A (n=227, 27.8%), 3 (n=92, 11.2%) and 19F (n=74, 9%). Serotypes included in the PCV7 sharply decreased from 62.4% in the pre-vaccination (1999-2001) to 2.2% in the late post-vaccination period (2008-2010). Serotype diversity steadily increased after the introduction of the PCV7 but decreased from 2008-2010 due to the predominant role of serotype 19A isolates, mostly ST276 and ST320. The prevalence of serotype 3 doubled from 6.1% (20/326) in 1999-2004 to 14.6% (72/492) in 2005-2010. Relapses mainly occurred in male infants infected with isolates with diminished antimicrobial susceptibility. Reinfections caused by isolates with the same serotype but different genotype were frequent, highlighting the need for genetic studies to differentiate among similar strains. In conclusion, the main change in pneumococcal AOM observed after the introduction of the PCV7 was the sharp decrease in vaccine serotypes. Also notable was the high burden of serotype 19A in total pneumococcal AOM before and especially after the introduction of the PCV7, as well as in relapses and reinfections. PMID:23349853

Alonso, Marta; Marimon, José M; Ercibengoa, María; Pérez-Yarza, Eduardo G; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

2013-01-01

343

Causes of Acute Hospitalization in Adolescence: Burden and Spectrum of HIV-Related Morbidity in a Country with an Early-Onset and Severe HIV Epidemic: A Prospective Survey  

PubMed Central

Background Survival to older childhood with untreated, vertically acquired HIV infection, which was previously considered extremely unusual, is increasingly well described. However, the overall impact on adolescent health in settings with high HIV seroprevalence has not previously been investigated. Methods and Findings Adolescents (aged 10–18 y) systematically recruited from acute admissions to the two public hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe, answered a questionnaire and underwent standard investigations including HIV testing, with consent. Pre-set case-definitions defined cause of admission and underlying chronic conditions. Participation was 94%. 139 (46%) of 301 participants were HIV-positive (median age of diagnosis 12 y: interquartile range [IQR] 11–14 y), median CD4 count?=?151; IQR 57–328 cells/µl), but only four (1.3%) were herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) positive. Age (median 13 y: IQR 11–16 y) and sex (57% male) did not differ by HIV status, but HIV-infected participants were significantly more likely to be stunted (z-scorecause of adolescent hospitalisation in Harare, mainly due to adult-spectrum opportunistic infections plus a high burden of chronic complications of paediatric HIV/AIDS. Low HSV-2 prevalence and high maternal orphanhood rates provide further evidence of long-term survival following mother-to-child transmission. Better recognition of this growing phenomenon is needed to promote earlier HIV diagnosis and care. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20126383

Ferrand, Rashida A.; Bandason, Tsitsi; Musvaire, Praise; Larke, Natasha; Nathoo, Kusum; Mujuru, Hilda; Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo E.; Munyati, Shungu; Cowan, Frances M.; Gibb, Diana M.; Corbett, Elizabeth L.

2010-01-01

344

Intercellular communication in bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacteria have been long considered primitive organisms, with a lifestyle focused on the survival and propagation of single cells. However, in the past few decades it became obvious that bacteria can display sophisticated group behaviors. For instance, bacteria can communicate amongst themselves and with their hosts, by producing, sensing, and responding to chemical signals. By doing so, they can sense their surroundings and adapt as to increase their chances of survival and propagation. Here, we review the discovery of bacterial intercellular communication, some of the signaling molecules identified to date, the role of intercellular signaling in symbiotic and pathogenic relationships between bacteria and their hosts and its implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies against human disease. PMID:19514909

Antunes, L Caetano M; Ferreira, Rosana B R

2009-01-01

345

Cultivation Media for Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common bacteriological culture media (tryptic soy agar, chocolate agar, Thayer-Martin agar, MacConkey agar, eosin-methylene blue agar, hektoen agar, mannitol salt agar, and sheep blood agar) are shown uninoculated and inoculated with bacteria.

American Society For Microbiology;

2009-12-08

346

Bacteria in shear flow  

E-print Network

Bacteria are ubiquitous and play a critical role in many contexts. Their environment is nearly always dynamic due to the prevalence of fluid flow: creeping flow in soil, highly sheared flow in bodily conduits, and turbulent ...

Marcos, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

347

Bacteria Identification by Phage Induced Impedance Fluctuation Analysis (BIPIF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new method for detecting and identifying bacteria by measuring impedance fluctuations (impedance noise) caused by ion release by the bacteria during phage infestation. This new method significantly increases the measured signal strength and reduces the negative effects of drift, material aging, surface imperfections, 1\\/f potential fluctuations, thermal noise and amplifier noise. Comparing BIPIF with another well known

Gabor Schmera; Laszlo B. Kish

2010-01-01

348

Bacteroides fragilis is a silent pathogen in acute appendicitis.  

PubMed

The role of Bacteroides fragilis in the pathogenesis of acute appendicitis was studied in 135 patients in four patient groups: normal (17); phlegmonous appendicitis (17); gangrenous appendicitis (75); and septic complications of appendicitis (26). Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were isolated from all groups and members of the 'B. fragilis group' were the most common anaerobic isolates. The rate of isolation of B. fragilis was similar from normal and inflamed appendices but was significantly higher from those with septic complications (p less than 0.01). Antibodies against B. fragilis were demonstrated in patients of all groups and occurred with similar frequencies in patients with normal and inflamed appendices but at a significantly higher rate in those with septic complications (p less than 0.01). Whereas patients in this latter group showed IgM-antibody responses to B. fragilis only, those with acute appendicitis had IgM antibodies against a wide range of organisms of the 'B. fragilis group' which suggests that B. fragilis does not play a significant role in acute appendicitis but may be a major cause of its septic complications. PMID:3517340

Elhag, K M; Alwan, M H; Al-Adnani, M S; Sherif, R A

1986-05-01

349

[Acute hepatic vascular complications].  

PubMed

Acute hepatic vascular complications are rare. Acute portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and the Budd-Chiari syndrome (BSC) are the leading causes. Coagulopathy and local factors are present in up to 80% of cases. Diagnosis is established by colour-coded Doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with acute PVT present with abdominal pain and disturbed intestinal motility. In the absence of cirrhosis anticoagulation with heparin is established followed by oral anticoagulation. In severe cases, surgical thrombectomy or transjugular thrombolysis with stent shunt may be necessary. Acute or fulminant BCS may require emergency liver transplantation or a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt, if patients present with acute liver failure. Milder cases receive anticoagulation for thrombolysis of occluded hepatic veins. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is diagnosed after total body irradiation or chemotherapy, the term SOS replacing the former veno-occlusive disease. The treatment of congenital vascular malformations, complications in the setting of OLTX as well as patients with hepatic involvement of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia requires significant expertise in a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:21667100

Ochs, A

2011-07-01

350

[Nonocclusive acute mesenteric ischemia].  

PubMed

The authors present one case of acute mesenteric ischemia appeared to the patient 70 years old, with HTA and coronary heart disease with heart arrhythmia treated with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, anti arrhythmia agents and antithrombin therapy (trombostop). Acute mesenteric ischemia is not an isolated clinical entity, but a complex of diseases, including acute mesenteric arterial embolus and thrombus, mesenteric venous thrombus and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. These diseases have common clinical features caused by impaired blood perfusion of the intestine, bacterial translocation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Reperfusion injury is another important feature of nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. We discuss about the nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia is the most lethal form of acute mesenteric ischemia because of the poor understanding of its pathophysiology and its nonspecific symptoms, which often delay its diagnosis. Although acute mesenteric ischemia is still lethal and in-hospital mortality rates have remained high over the last few decades, accumulated knowledge on this condition is expected to improve its prognosis. PMID:18717285

Vasile, I; Me?in?, C; Pa?alega, M; Calot?, F; Vâlcea, I D

2008-01-01

351

BdlA, DipA and Induced Dispersion Contribute to Acute Virulence and Chronic Persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of causing both acute and chronic infections. Differences in virulence are attributable to the mode of growth: bacteria growing planktonically cause acute infections, while bacteria growing in matrix-enclosed aggregates known as biofilms are associated with chronic, persistent infections. While the contribution of the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth to virulence is now widely accepted, little is known about the role of dispersion in virulence, the active process by which biofilm bacteria switch back to the planktonic mode of growth. Here, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa dispersed cells display a virulence phenotype distinct from those of planktonic and biofilm cells. While the highest activity of cytotoxic and degradative enzymes capable of breaking down polymeric matrix components was detected in supernatants of planktonic cells, the enzymatic activity of dispersed cell supernatants was similar to that of biofilm supernatants. Supernatants of non-dispersing ?bdlA biofilms were characterized by a lack of many of the degradative activities. Expression of genes contributing to the virulence of P. aeruginosa was nearly 30-fold reduced in biofilm cells relative to planktonic cells. Gene expression analysis indicated dispersed cells, while dispersing from a biofilm and returning to the single cell lifestyle, to be distinct from both biofilm and planktonic cells, with virulence transcript levels being reduced up to 150-fold compared to planktonic cells. In contrast, virulence gene transcript levels were significantly increased in non-dispersing ?bdlA and ?dipA biofilms compared to wild-type planktonic cells. Despite this, bdlA and dipA inactivation, resulting in an inability to disperse in vitro, correlated with reduced pathogenicity and competitiveness in cross-phylum acute virulence models. In contrast, bdlA inactivation rendered P. aeruginosa more persistent upon chronic colonization of the murine lung, overall indicating that dispersion may contribute to both acute and chronic infections. PMID:24901523

Li, Yi; Petrova, Olga E.; Su, Shengchang; Lau, Gee W.; Panmanee, Warunya; Na, Renuka; Hassett, Daniel J.; Davies, David G.; Sauer, Karin

2014-01-01

352

Acute Purulent Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the role of bacteria, including Mycoplasma pneumoniae and especially Chla- mydia pneumoniae in acute purulent exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we examined sputum specimens and acute and convalescent sera taken 26 d apart from 49 outpa- tients experiencing an acute purulent exacerbation of COPD. The sera were tested for antibodies to C. pneumoniae with

NESRIN MOGULKOC; SAIT KARAKURT; BARBARA ISALSKA; ÜLKÜ BAYINDIR; TURGAY ÇELIKEL; VOLKAN KORTEN; NESRIN ÇOLPAN

1999-01-01

353

Risk Factors for Acute Prostatitis after Transrectal Biopsy of the Prostate  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the incidence, clinical features, pathogenic bacteria, and risk factors associated with acute prostatitis after transrectal prostate biopsy. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 923 transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsies of the prostate in 878 patients performed at our institution from June 2004 to May 2009. The indications for biopsy were generally serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) elevation, abnormal findings on a digital rectal examination, or both. All biopsies were performed with the patient hospitalized except for 10 patients who refused to be hospitalized, and ciprofloxacin was administered as an antibiotic prophylaxis. The incidence, clinical features, pathogenic bacteria, and potential risk factors associated with acute prostatitis after prostate biopsy were evaluated. Results Acute prostatitis developed in 18 (2.0%) cases after prostate biopsy. Among them, 9 (1.0%) had bacteremia and 2 (0.2%) showed clinical features of sepsis. Of the total 50 urine or blood specimens sent for culture study, 27 (54.0%) specimens showed positive cultures, including E. coli in 25. Among the 27 culture-positive specimens, 26 (96.3%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Among the potential risk factors for acute prostatitis after prostate biopsy, biopsy performed as an outpatient procedure without a cleansing enema (p=0.001) and past history of cerebrovascular accident (p=0.048) were statistically significant. Conclusions Fluoroquinolone is effective as an antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy in most cases. The incidence of acute prostatitis after transrectal prostate biopsy was 2.0%, and almost all cases were caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli. A cleansing enema is recommended before transrectal prostate biopsy. PMID:20577611

Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Sun Il; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Choi, Jong Bo; Kim, Young Soo

2010-01-01

354

Acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm and mimicking acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

A 24-year-old healthy man consulted to our center because of typical on-and-off chest-pain and an electrocardiogram showing ST-segment elevation in inferior leads. An urgent coronary angiography showed angiographically normal coronary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging confirmed acute myocarditis. Although acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm is an uncommon association, it is important to recognize it, particularly for the management for those patients presenting with ST-segment elevation and suspect myocardial infarction and angiographically normal coronary arteries. The present report highlights the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to identify acute myocarditis as the underlying cause. PMID:25276306

Kumar, Andreas; Bagur, Rodrigo; Beliveau, Patrick; Potvin, Jean-Michel; Levesque, Pierre; Fillion, Nancy; Tremblay, Benoit; Larose, Eric; Gaudreault, Valerie

2014-01-01

355

TSSWCB Bacteria-Related Projects  

E-print Network

of the projects are listed below. ? Peach CreekWater Quality Improvement Project ? Monitoring and Educational Programs Focused on Bacteria and Nutrient Runoff on Dairy Operations in the LeonWatershed ? Development of the Plum CreekWPP ? Impact of Proper... above Canyon Lake: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Houston Metropolitan Area: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Leon River below Proctor Lake ? Northwest Houston Area Bacteria TMDL Project ? Oso Bay and Oso Creek: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Peach...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01

356

Systematics of Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, in particular green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria are actively\\u000a involved in the dissimilatory sulfur cycle by oxidizing reduced sulfur compounds. An introduction to the current state of\\u000a the systematics of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria is given here. With the introduction of 16S rDNA sequences, the consideration\\u000a of genetic relatedness of these bacteria and

Johannes F. Imhoff

357

[The value of glucose-positive coliform bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria as indicators of epidemiological safety of tap water].  

PubMed

Due to intensive anthropogenic pollution of water environment generally accepted indicators of epidemic security of water bodies - common bacteria and thermotolerant coliform bacteria do not always permit to obtain an objective characterization of bacterial contamination of tap water. From the point of view of authors the integral index - glucose positive coliform bacteria most adequately reflect the sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological situation of water bodies. In monitoring for bacterial quality of tap water it is advisable to determine glucose positive coliform bacteria, that will provide the relevance of estimation of the epidemiological safety of water use. According to the method developed by the authors the calculation of the index of population risk of acute intestinal infections occurrence in dependence on the quality of tap water in Azov and Tsimlyansk towns. PMID:23458011

Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnia, V V; Panasovets, O P; Morozova, A A; Artemova, T Z; Talaeva, Iu G; Zaga?nova, A V; Gipp, E K

2012-01-01

358

[The significance of glucose positive coliform bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria as an indicator of epidemiological safety of tap water].  

PubMed

Due to intensive anthropogenic pollution of water environment generally accepted indicators of epidemic security of water bodies--common bacteria (CB) and thermotolerant coliform bacteria (TCB) do not always permit to obtain an objective characterization of bacterial contamination of tap water. From the point of view of authors the integral index--glucose positive coliform bacteria most adequately reflect the sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological situation of water bodies. In monitoring for bacterial quality of tap water it is advisable to determine glucose positive coliform bacteria, that will provide the relevance of estimation of the epidemiological safety of water use. According to the method developed by the authors the calculation of the index of population risk of acute intestinal infections (AHI) occurrence in dependence on the quality of tap water in Azov and Tsimlyansk towns. PMID:23805697

Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnya, V V; Panasovets, O P; Morozova, A A; Artemova, T Z; Talaeva, Yu G; Zagaynova, A V

2013-01-01

359

Acute respiratory infections: the forgotten pandemic. Communiqué from the International Conference on Acute Respiratory Infections, held in Canberra, Australia, 7-10 July 1997.  

PubMed

Acute respiratory infections kill 4 million children every year in developing countries, and most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia. This huge loss of life goes virtually unnoticed, despite the fact that we have two very effective ways of preventing many of the deaths from pneumonia: Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, and standardised antibiotic treatment regimens. Although H. influenzae type b vaccine has virtually eliminated diseases caused by this organism in children in developed countries, failure to appreciate the importance of this organism and the high cost of the vaccine has meant that it has not been used in developing countries; urgent steps need to be taken to ensure that children in developing countries receive H. influenzae vaccine. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of fatal pneumonia in developing countries. Controlled trials are needed to define the role of unconjugated 23-valent S. pneumoniae vaccine, and the new conjugate vaccine must be made available to children in developing countries soon after it is licensed. The World Health Organization has developed simple and effective guidelines for the treatment of pneumonia which have been incorporated into its Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy, and this programme should be strongly supported. In developed countries, acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of morbidity. The cost of these infections is enormous, because of lost earnings and the cost of treatment. There is an urgent need for systematic evaluation of existing knowledge about acute respiratory infections in developed countries, so that this knowledge can be applied to prevention and treatment. Approximately 75% of antibiotics are prescribed for acute respiratory infections, and many of these prescriptions are unnecessary. Unnecessary use of antibiotics is very expensive, and it has contributed to the rapid increase in resistance which has already made some bacteria resistant to all antibiotics. Rational guidelines for antibiotic prescribing need to be developed, and steps taken to see that they are followed. There should be greatly increased use of the existing influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in high risk groups in developed countries. New vaccines against pertussis, S. pneumoniae, non-serotypable H. influenzae, and respiratory syncytial virus have been developed and need to be carefully evaluated. Acute respiratory infections are responsible for 8.2% of the world's total burden of disability and premature death, but they receive only 0.15% of the research and development budget for health. More resources should be allocated to research on acute respiratory infections. Drug therapy has little effect on the course of viral upper respiratory tract infections. Worldwide, US$8 billion is wasted every year on drugs used to treat the symptoms of acute respiratory infections. PMID:9562104

1998-01-01

360

SET-CAN, the Product of the t(9;9) in Acute Undifferentiated Leukemia, Causes Expansion of Early Hematopoietic Progenitors and Hyperproliferation of Stomach Mucosa in Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Leukemia-specific chromosome translocations involving the nucleoporin CAN/NUP214 lead to expression of different fusion genes including DEK-CAN, CAN-ABL, and SET-CAN. DEK-CAN and CAN-ABL1 are associated with acute myeloid leukemia and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, respectively, whereas SET-CAN was identified in a patient with acute undifferentiated leukemia. In addition, SET is overexpressed in solid tumors of the breast, uterus, stomach, and rectum. Ectopic expression of SET-CAN inhibits vitamin-D3-induced differentiation of the human promonocytic U937cells, whereas ectopic SET expression induces differentiation. Here, we assessed the leukemogenic potential of SET-CAN in the hematopoietic system of transgenic mice. Although SET-CAN mice showed expansion of an early progenitor cell pool and partial depletion of lymphocytes, the animals were not leukemia-prone and did not show shortening of disease latency after retroviral tagging. This suggests that SET-CAN expression in acute undifferentiated leukemia might determine the primitive phenotype of the disease, whereas secondary genetic lesions are necessary for disease development. Surprisingly, SET-CAN mice developed spontaneous hyperplasia of the stomach mucosa, which coincided with overexpression of ?-catenin and vastly increased numbers of proliferating gastric mucosa cells, suggesting a role of SET-CAN in proliferation of certain epithelial cells. PMID:17569777

Ozbek, Ugur; Kandilci, Ayten; van Baal, Sjozef; Bonten, Jacqueline; Boyd, Kelli; Franken, Patrick; Fodde, Riccardo; Grosveld, Gerard C.

2007-01-01

361

Variations in the optical properties of a particle suspension associated with viral infection of marine bacteria  

E-print Network

of marine bacteria Julia Uitz,a,* Dariusz Stramski,a Anne-Claire Baudoux,b,1 Rick A. Reynolds,a Vanessa M) and associated optical variability caused by viral infection of marine heterotrophic bacteria. The PSD covering, viral abundance increased, and submicron particles were produced as bacteria were disrupted and cell

Stramski, Dariusz

362

Isolation and Identification of Endophytic Bacteria Antagonistic to Camellia Oleifera Leaf Blight Base on Informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf blight is a common Camellia oleifera disease caused by Pestalotiopsis microspora. The damaged young leaves show blight symptom, resulting in yield reduction. This study was to isolate antagonistic bacteria from Camellia oleifera tissue for control of the leaf blight. Antagonistic bacteria was screened from 175 endophytic bacterias by confront culture method. The results of the study showed that the

He Li; Guoying Zhou; Junang Liu

2009-01-01

363

Isolation and identification of endophytic bacteria antagonistic to Camellia oleifera anthracnose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthracnose is a common Camellia oleifera disease caused by Colletetrichum gloeosporioide. This study was to isolate antagonistic bacteria from Camellia oleifera tissues to control the anthracnose. Antagonistic bacteria was screened from 175 endophytic bacteria with confront culture method. The results of the study showed that the antagonistic effect of YB128 strain was the best with 86.1% inhibitory rate. According to

Li He; Guoying Zhou; Lili Lu; Junang Liu

2009-01-01

364

Reduction of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Present in Food Animal Manures by Composting and Anaerobic Digestion  

E-print Network

Reduction of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Present in Food Animal Manures by Composting of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria to be $4 to $5 billion U.S. dollars. Thus, antimicrobial is the largest antimicrobial resistance reservoir because most of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria arising from

Jones, Michelle

365

Bacteria-induced sexual isolation in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Commensal bacteria can induce sexual isolation between populations of Drosophila. This phenomenon has implications for speciation, and raises questions about its behavioral and developmental mechanisms, which are not yet known. In this Extra View, we discuss related work by others, bearing directly on these issues, and we speculate about how bacteria might influence fly behavior. There are many reports of interaction between Drosophila and their microbiota that significantly impacts mating preferences. Sexual isolation can be enhanced or reduced by altering the culture media, or the microbiota inhabiting those media. More dramatically, the endoparasite Wolbachia has induced strong mate preferences in some instances. While a sudden, ecologically induced shift in mating preferences falls far short of the changes required for speciation, it might be a first step in that direction. We hypothesize that bacteria-induced sexual isolation is caused by chemosensory cues. In our experiments, bacteria altered the profile of cuticular hydrocarbons, which function as sex pheromones. Commensal bacteria may act directly on these hydrocarbons, or they may affect their synthesis. Alternatively, bacterial metabolites might perfume the flies in ways that affect mate choice. In that event, habituation or conditioning likely plays a role. PMID:21525789

Ringo, John; Sharon, Gil; Segal, Daniel

2011-01-01

366

Mineralization of Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of viable and nonviable bacteria became mineralized with hydroxyapatite when implanted in dialysis bags in the peritoneal cavities of rats. The microscopic pattern of mineral deposition appeared analogous to that in the formation of oral calculus. Since nonviable organisms were mineralized at an accelerated rate, bacterial metabolic processes may not be essential for mineralization.

A. A. Rizzo; G. R. Martin; D. B. Scott; S. E. Mergenhagen

1962-01-01

367

Enteric bacteria mandibular osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

Osteomyelitis of the mandible is a relatively rare inflammatory disease that usually stems from the odontogenic polymicrobial flora of the oral cavity. We are reporting 2 unusual cases of mandibular osteomyelitis resulting from enteric bacteria infection. In one patient, abundant clinical evidence suggested a diagnosis of a chronic factitious disease, whereas in the second patient no obvious etiology was found. PMID:15897844

Scolozzi, Paolo; Lombardi, Tommaso; Edney, Timothy; Jaques, Bertrand

2005-06-01

368

Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency  

E-print Network

took up and expressed GFP after transformation. Background: Transformation efficiency is a quantitative1 Glowing Bacteria: Transformation Efficiency Purpose: To determine how well your E. coli cells. The number represents how many cells were transformed per microgram (µg) of plasmid DNA used

Rose, Michael R.

369

Bacteria and phenoptosis.  

PubMed

Genetically programmed death of an organism, or phenoptosis, can be found not only in animals and plants, but also in bacteria. Taking into account intrapopulational relations identified in bacteria, it is easy to imagine the importance of phenoptosis in the regulation of a multicellular bacterial community in the real world of its existence. For example, autolysis of part of the population limits the spread of viral infection. Destruction of cells with damaged DNA contributes to the maintenance of low level of mutations. Phenoptosis can facilitate the exchange of genetic information in a bacterial population as a result of release of DNA from lysed cells. Bacteria use a special "language" to transmit signals in a population; it is used for coordinated regulation of gene expression. This special type of regulation of bacterial gene expression is usually active at high densities of bacteria populations, and it was named "quorum sensing" (QS). Different molecules can be used for signaling purposes. Phenoptosis, which is carried out by toxin-antitoxin systems, was found to depend on the density of the population; it requires a QS factor, which is called the extracellular death factor. The study of phenoptosis in bacteria is of great practical importance. The components that make up the systems ensuring the programmed cell death, including QS factor, may be used for the development of drugs that will activate mechanisms of phenoptosis and promote the destruction of pathogenic bacteria. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the genes encoding several key enzymes involved in apoptosis of eukaryotes, such as paracaspases and metacaspases, apoptotic ATPases, proteins containing NACHT leucine-rich repeat, and proteases similar to mitochondrial HtrA-like protease, have homologs in bacteria. Proteomics techniques have allowed for the first time to identify the proteins formed during phenoptosis that participate in orderly liquidation of Streptomyces coelicolor and Escherichia coli cells. Among these proteins enzymes have been found that are involved in the degradation of cellular macromolecules, regulatory proteins, and stress-induced proteins. Future studies involving methods of biochemistry, genetics, genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics should support a better understanding of the "mystery" of bacterial programmed cell death; this knowledge might be used to control bacterial populations. PMID:24228917

Koksharova, O A

2013-09-01

370

Unusual causes of intrahepatic cholestatic liver disease  

PubMed Central

We report five cases with unusual causes of intrahepatic cholestasis, including consumption of Teucrium polium (family Lamiaceae) in the form of tea, Stauffer’s syndrome, treatment with tamoxifen citrate for breast cancer, infection with Coxiella Burnetii (acute Q fever), and infection with Brucella melitensis (acute brucellosis). PMID:17465487

Mazokopakis, Elias E; Papadakis, John A; Kofteridis, Diamantis P

2007-01-01

371

Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

For many decades two types of acute pancreatitis have been recognized: the edematous or interstitial and the hemorrhagic or necrotic. In most cases acute pancreatitis is associated with alcoholism or biliary tract disease. Elevated serum or urinary ?-amylase is the most important finding in diagnosis. The presence of methemalbumin in serum and in peritoneal or pleural fluid supports the diagnosis of the hemorrhagic form of the disease in patients with a history and enzyme studies suggestive of pancreatitis. There is no characteristic clinical picture in acute pancreatitis, and its complications are legion. Pancreatic pseudocyst is probably the most common and pancreatic abscess is the most serious complication. The pathogenetic principle is autodigestion, but the precise sequence of biochemical events is unclear, especially the mode of trypsinogen activation and the role of lysosomal hydrolases. A host of metabolic derangements have been identified in acute pancreatitis, involving lipid, glucose, calcium and magnesium metabolism and changes of the blood clotting mechanism, to name but a few. Medical treatment includes intestinal decompression, analgesics, correction of hypovolemia and other supportive and protective measures. Surgical exploration is advisable in selected cases, when the diagnosis is in doubt, and is considered imperative in the presence of certain complications, especially pancreatic abscess. PMID:4559467

Geokas, Michael C.

1972-01-01

372

Allergy and acute leukaemia in children with Down syndrome: a population study. Report from the Mexican inter-institutional group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukaemia  

PubMed Central

Background: Allergies have been described as protective factors against the development of childhood acute leukaemia (AL). Our objective was to investigate the associations between allergy history and the development of AL and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children with Down syndrome (DS). Methods: A case–control study was performed in Mexico City. The cases (n=97) were diagnosed at nine public hospitals, and the controls (n=222) were recruited at institutions for children with DS. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Results: Asthma was positively associated with AL development (OR=4.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–11.87), whereas skin allergies were negatively associated (OR=0.42; 95% CI: 0.20–0.91). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that allergies and AL in children with DS share biological and immune mechanisms. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting associations between allergies and AL in children with DS. PMID:23695017

Nunez-Enriquez, J C; Fajardo-Gutierrez, A; Buchan-Duran, E P; Bernaldez-Rios, R; Medina-Sanson, A; Jimenez-Hernandez, E; Amador-Sanchez, R; Penaloza-Gonzalez, J G; Paredes-Aguilera, R; Alvarez-Rodriguez, F J; Bolea-Murga, V; de Diego Flores-Chapa, J; Flores-Lujano, J; Bekker-Mendez, V C; Rivera-Luna, R; del Carmen Rodriguez-Zepeda, M; Rangel-Lopez, A; Dorantes-Acosta, E M; Nunez-Villegas, N; Velazquez-Avina, M M; Torres-Nava, J R; Reyes-Zepeda, N C; Cardenas-Cardos, R; Flores-Villegas, L V; Martinez-Avalos, A; Salamanca-Gomez, F; Gorodezky, C; Arellano-Galindo, J; Mejia-Arangure, J M

2013-01-01

373

[Microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in humans].  

PubMed

Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria which are worldwide in distribution, causing a zoonotic disease in humans called campylobacteriosis. These infections are mainly caused by eating contaminated food products, most often improperly prepared poultry meat. Campylobacteriosis usually takes the form of gastroenteritis, or inflammation of the intestines, and the characteristic symptoms are watery-mucous diarrhea often with the presence of blood in stool, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever. The epidemiological data suggest that in Europe, as well as in North America, bacteria of the genus Campylobacter, especially C. jejuni and C. coli, are the most commonly isolated pathogens in infections of the gastrointestinal tract in humans. Epidemiological data indicate that these organisms are a much more common cause of acute diarrhea, mostly in young children, than Salmonella and Yersinia. The lack of specific symptoms makes the diagnosis of campylobacteriosis necessary to carry out specialized microbiological diagnostics. Because so far these studies are performed in our country only in a few laboratories, the overwhelming number of cases of campylobacteriosis are not recorded in Polish epidemiological statistics. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to the microbiological diagnosis of infections caused by C. jejuni and C. coli. It also describes the basic epidemiological and clinical data, as well as current treatment of campylobacteriosis. PMID:24491895

Rokosz, Natalia; Rastawicki, Waldemar; Wo?kowicz, Tomasz

2014-01-01

374

Stenting in Acute Lower Limb Arterial Occlusions  

SciTech Connect

Management of critical limb ischemia of acute onset includes surgical embolectomy, bypass grafting, aspiration thrombectomy, thrombolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy followed by treatment of the underlying cause. We present our experience with the use of stents to treat acute embolic/thrombotic occlusions in one iliac and three femoropopliteal arteries. Although this is a small case series, excellent immediate and midterm results suggest that stenting of acute occlusions of the iliac, superficial femoral, and popliteal arteries is a safe and effective treatment option.

Raja, Jowad; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria, E-mail: anna.belli@stgeorges.nhs.u [St George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2008-07-15

375

Denitrification by extremely halophilic bacteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extremely halophilic bacteria were isolated from widely separated sites by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. The anaerobic growth of several of these isolates was accompanied by the production of nitrite, nitrous oxide, and dinitrogen. These results are a direct confirmation of the existence of extremely halophilic denitrifying bacteria, and suggest that such bacteria may be common inhabitants of hypersaline environments.

Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.

1985-01-01

376

Genomics of cellulolytic bacteria.  

PubMed

The heterogeneous plant biomass is efficiently decomposed by the interplay of a great number of different enzymes. The enzyme systems in cellulolytic bacteria have been investigated by sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of genomes from plant biomass degrading microorganisms with valuable insights into the variety of the involved enzymes. This broadened our understanding of the biochemical mechanisms of plant polymer degradation and made the enzymes applicable for modern biotechnology. A list of the truly cellulolytic bacteria described and the available genomic information was examined for proteins with cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic capability. The importance of the isolation, characterization and genomic sequencing of cellulolytic microorganisms and their usage for sustainable energy production from biomass and other residues, is emphasized. PMID:25104562

Koeck, Daniela E; Pechtl, Alexander; Zverlov, Vladimir V; Schwarz, Wolfgang H

2014-10-01

377

Exopolysaccharides from marine bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives, textiles, Pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria, including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

Chi, Zhenming; Fang, Yan

2005-01-01

378

Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

379

Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

Russell Vreeland

2009-01-09

380

Bacteria, food, and cancer  

PubMed Central

Gut microbes are essential components of the human organism—helping us metabolize food into energy, produce micronutrients, and shape our immune systems. Having a particular pattern of gut microbes is also increasingly being linked to medical conditions including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and diabetes. Recent studies now indicate that our resident intestinal bacteria may also play a critical role in determining one's risk of developing cancer, ranging from protection against cancer to promoting its initiation and progression. Gut bacteria are greatly influenced by diet and in this review we explore evidence that they may be the missing piece that explains how dietary intake influences cancer risk, and discuss possible prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:21876723

Rooks, Michelle G.

2011-01-01

381

Allolysis in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review deals with the phenomenon of allolysis, i.e., lysis of a part of a bacterial population induced by a group of epigenetically\\u000a differentiated cells of the same species or phylotype. Allolysis is best studied in two species of gram-positive bacteria,\\u000a Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis. In S. pneumoniae, allolysis is associated with the onset of the competence stage, while

A. A. Prozorov; V. N. Danilenko

2011-01-01

382

Bacteria in Confined Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial cells can display differentiation between several developmental pathways, from planktonic to matrix-producing, depending upon the colony conditions. We study the confinement of bacteria in hydrogels as well as in liquid-liquid double emulsion droplets and observe the growth and morphology of these colonies as a function of time and environment. Our results can give insight into the behavior of bacterial colonies in confined spaces that can have applications in the areas of food science, cosmetics, and medicine.

Wilking, Connie; Weitz, David

2010-03-01

383

Adaptive mutability in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a common source of damage to cellular DNA, and have been implicated in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.\\u000a In bacteria, their mutagenicity appears to be mediated in part by the mutagenic SOS system and in part by SOS-independent\\u000a mechanisms. Since acrobically growing log-phase cells (which by definition are well adapted to their environment) would not\\u000a be especially

Donald G. Macphee

1999-01-01

384

Glacial Lake Hides Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article highlights the published work of a geomicrobiology research team led by Eric Gaidos from the University of Hawaii and Brian Lanoil, from the University of California, Riverside. This group reports the identification of bacteria from an Icelandic sub-glacial lake, and how the collection and description of these microorganisms immured within glacial ice and sub-surface water serve as a model in the search for extra-terrestrial life.

Peplow, Mark

2010-03-01

385

Paralysis caused by "nagging".  

PubMed

A woman in her 20s presented to the emergency department, malnourished and dehydrated, and with acute paralysis of the lower limbs. Over the previous 10 days, she had inhaled nitrous oxide from "whipped-cream bulbs" (10-20 per day) for pain caused by a sprained ankle. She had a history of intravenous drug use and was on a methadone program. The nitrous oxide misuse combined with the malnutrition, with low vitamin B(12) levels, apparently resulted in subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord--a rare complication of nitrous oxide misuse. PMID:17874987

Cartner, Michaela; Sinnott, Michael; Silburn, Peter

2007-09-17

386

Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in renal transplant recipients presenting with acute diarrhea at a single center in Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background: Cryptosporidium is an intracellular protozoan organism which causes diarrhea, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Renal transplant recipients are prone to develop a variety of infections including protozoal infections. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in our renal transplant recipients presenting with acute diarrhea. Patients and Methods: During six months of the study, 644 renal transplant recipients presented with acute diarrhea. Single stool sample was obtained for detailed analysis including gross and microscopic examination for red blood cells, pus cells, ova, cysts, and protozoa. The modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining was done to identify the oocysts of cryptosporidia. Results: Out of 644 renal transplant patients, oocysts of cryptosporidia were identified in 343 patients (53%). Detailed stool analysis of these patients showed the presence of numerous pus cells in 27 (7.9%) patients, co-infection with giardia intestinalis cysts in 15 (4.3%), and entamoeba histolytica cysts in 10 (2.9%). In all, out of 343 patients, 43 (12.5%) had dual infection with bacteria and protozoa in addition to cryptosporidiosis. Conclusions: Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing acute diarrhea in renal transplant recipients in our set up. Stool examination is usually negative for pus cells. It is recommended that in all transplant recipients presenting with acute diarrhea modified ZN staining should be done to rule out cryptosporidiosis in highly endemic areas like Pakistan. PMID:25374881

Raja, Kapeel; Abbas, Zaigham; Hassan, Syed Mujahid; Luck, Nasir Hassan; Aziz, Tahir; Mubarak, Muhammed

2014-01-01

387

Corals diseases are a major cause of coral death  

EPA Science Inventory

Corals, like humans, are susceptible to diseases. Some coral diseases are associated with pathogenic bacteria; however, the causes of most remain unknown. Some diseases trigger rapid and extensive mortality, while others slowly cause localized color changes or injure coral tiss...

388

Acute toxicity of arsenic to Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox bioassay) as influenced by potential competitive-protective agents.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the effect of some potential alleviative compounds against the acute toxicity of arsenic (As(V), As(III) and DMA(V)) on Aliivibrio fischeri (formerly Vibrio fischeri), a bioluminescent model bacterium, through the Microtox bioassay. The compounds studied differed in their mechanism of action, and they included the following: phosphate and glycerol, as chemical analogues (and potential competitors) of As(V) or As(III), respectively; citrate, a weak natural organic ligand; and the antioxidant ascorbic acid. Special attention was paid to phosphate effects, a widespread pollutant in natural environments. As(V) was found to be more acutely toxic than As(III) to A. fischeri, in accordance with its higher interaction with the bacteria. Both As(V) and As(III) were found to be much more acutely toxic than DMA(V), which was essentially non-acutely toxic even at very high concentrations. Phosphate presence (at equimolar P/As ratios or higher) resulted in the almost total suppression of bioluminescence inhibition, suggesting it exerts an alleviative effect against As(V) acute toxicity on A. fischeri. Interestingly, the uptake and the percentage of extracellular As(V) were not affected by the addition of phosphate, suggesting that such protective effect does not result from the competition for their common transporters. In contrast, the acute toxicity of As(III) was essentially unaffected by phosphate. Glycerol did not decrease the acute toxicity or the uptake of As(III) by A. fischeri, denoting the likely occurrence of an additional mechanism for As(III) uptake in such bacteria. Similarly, citrate and ascorbic acid essentially did not caused alleviation of As(V) or As(III) acute toxicity. As for environmental and operational implications, P could beneficially protect aquatic microorganisms against acute detrimental effects of As(V), whilst its presence could mask the toxicity due to As(V) when assessed using the Microtox bioassay, thus leading to seriously underestimate the actual ecological and health risks. PMID:24705848

Rubinos, David A; Calvo, Valeria; Iglesias, Luz; Barral, María Teresa

2014-07-01

389

Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection. PMID:22490115

2012-01-01

390

Infection Pattern of Neutropenic Patients in Post-chemotherapy Phase of Acute Leukemia Treatment  

PubMed Central

Neutropenia following chemotherapy regimens in leukemia patients is of major concern since it makes these patients vulnerable to infections. If we can identify which germs are causing these infections, they can be annihilated or, at least, the most appropriate antibiotic therapy can be started immediately, even before we have the results of the culture. This retrospective multi-center study took place in 2012 and included patients with acute leukemia who had already undergone chemotherapy and who had been febrile for at least 16 hours. In order to assess the type of infection, different environments were chosen and the results were compared by t-test and ?2 tests. This study took place in four hospitals in Tehran and Ahwaz, Iran. The study population was made up of 89 patients: 37 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 52 with acute myeloid leukemia. The results revealed that blood was the most common site of infection. From all our positive cultures, it was seen that 85.4% of them had gram-negative bacteria with a dominance of E. coli of 25.8% over the other colonies. Also, antibiograms revealed the sensitivity of almost all the gram-negatives to amino glycosides. In contrast with most of the literature, in our patients, gram-negatives are the most common cause of infection and, therefore, administering amino glycosides would be the safest antibiotic therapy to prescribe before culture results are available. PMID:24416500

Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Varnasseri, Mehran; Jalili, Mohammad Hossein; Maniavi, Fatemeh; Valizadeh, Armita; Mahmoodian, Mojtaba; Keyhani, Manouchehr

2013-01-01

391

Infection Pattern of Neutropenic Patients in Post-chemotherapy Phase of Acute Leukemia Treatment.  

PubMed

Neutropenia following chemotherapy regimens in leukemia patients is of major concern since it makes these patients vulnerable to infections. If we can identify which germs are causing these infections, they can be annihilated or, at least, the most appropriate antibiotic therapy can be started immediately, even before we have the results of the culture. This retrospective multi-center study took place in 2012 and included patients with acute leukemia who had already undergone chemotherapy and who had been febrile for at least 16 hours. In order to assess the type of infection, different environments were chosen and the results were compared by t-test and ?(2) tests. This study took place in four hospitals in Tehran and Ahwaz, Iran. The study population was made up of 89 patients: 37 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 52 with acute myeloid leukemia. The results revealed that blood was the most common site of infection. From all our positive cultures, it was seen that 85.4% of them had gram-negative bacteria with a dominance of E. coli of 25.8% over the other colonies. Also, antibiograms revealed the sensitivity of almost all the gram-negatives to amino glycosides. In contrast with most of the literature, in our patients, gram-negatives are the most common cause of infection and, therefore, administering amino glycosides would be the safest antibiotic therapy to prescribe before culture results are available. PMID:24416500

Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Varnasseri, Mehran; Jalili, Mohammad Hossein; Maniavi, Fatemeh; Valizadeh, Armita; Mahmoodian, Mojtaba; Keyhani, Manouchehr

2013-01-01

392

Living bacteria in silica gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The encapsulation of enzymes within silica gels has been extensively studied during the past decade for the design of biosensors and bioreactors. Yeast spores and bacteria have also been recently immobilized within silica gels where they retain their enzymatic activity, but the problem of the long-term viability of whole cells in an inorganic matrix has never been fully addressed. It is a real challenge for the development of sol-gel processes. Generic tests have been performed to check the viability of Escherichia coli bacteria in silica gels. Surprisingly, more bacteria remain culturable in the gel than in an aqueous suspension. The metabolic activity of the bacteria towards glycolysis decreases slowly, but half of the bacteria are still viable after one month. When confined within a mineral environment, bacteria do not form colonies. The exchange of chemical signals between isolated bacteria rather than aggregates can then be studied, a point that could be very important for 'quorum sensing'.

Nassif, Nadine; Bouvet, Odile; Noelle Rager, Marie; Roux, Cécile; Coradin, Thibaud; Livage, Jacques

2002-09-01

393

Comparative cytotoxicity of periodontal bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The direct cytotoxicity of sonic extracts (SE) from nine periodontal bacteria for human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was compared. Equivalent dosages (in terms of protein concentration) of SE were used to challenge HGF cultures. The cytotoxic potential of each SE was assessed by its ability to (1) inhibit HGF proliferation, as measured by direct cell counts; (2) inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation in HGF cultures; or (3) cause morphological alterations of the cells in challenged cultures. The highest concentration (500 micrograms SE protein/ml) of any of the SEs used to challenge the cells was found to be markedly inhibitory to the HGFs by all three of the criteria of cytotoxicity. At the lowest dosage tested (50 micrograms SE protein/ml); only SE from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum caused a significant effect (greater than 90% inhibition or overt morphological abnormalities) in the HGFs as determined by any of the criteria employed. SE from Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, or Wolinella recta also inhibited cell proliferation and thymidine incorporation at this dosage; however, the degree of inhibition (5-50%) was consistently, clearly less than that of the first group of three organisms named above. The SE of the three other organisms tested (Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis) had little or no effect (0-10% inhibition) at this concentration. The data suggest that the outcome of the interaction between bacterial components and normal resident cells of the periodontium is, at least in part, a function of the bacterial species.

Stevens, R.H.; Hammond, B.F.

1988-11-01

394

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis as the first presentation of CNS tuberculosis: report of a case with brief review  

PubMed Central

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) also known as post infectious encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that typically presents as a monophasic disorder associated with multifocal neurological symptoms and disability. It may follow vaccination in children or infection. Viral infection like measles, rubella, influenza, Epstein bar, HIV, herpes, cytomegalusvirus (CMV) and West Nile virus have been implicated in the causation. Among bacteria, group A hemolytic streptococcus, mycoplasma pneumonia, Chlamydia, Rickettesia and leptospira have been shown to cause ADEM. There are few reports of ADEM due to tuberculosis (TB). We describe acute disseminated encephalomyelitis due to tuberculosis in a 35 year old female who initially started with neuropsychiatric manifestations and later developed florid neurological deficit and classical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions suggestive of the disease. The patient recovered completely after antitubercular therapy and is following our clinic for the last 12 months now. PMID:21139988

Masoodi, Ibrahim; Farooq, Omar; Ahmad, Iqbal; Bhat, Mohammad Yaseen; Ahmad, Nazir; Wani, Hamid-ullah; Dar, Javeed Ahmad

2010-01-01

395

Evaluation and diagnosis of acute infectious diarrhea.  

PubMed

The appropriate approach to the diagnosis and management of acute infectious diarrhea is determined by the frequency and setting of the illness, the recognizable causes or syndromes, the cost and yield of available diagnostic tests, and the treatability of the disease. Acute diarrhea affects everyone throughout the world from one to more than six times each year, depending on age, location, and living conditions. The range of identifiable viral, bacterial, and parasitic etiologies is great, and the cost of indiscriminate use of etiologic studies for diagnosis is prohibitive. Because of its insensitivity for many organisms and poor selection of cases for testing, routine stool culture has been one of the most costly and ineffective microbiologic tests; the cost per positive result has traditionally exceeded $900 to $1,000. The appropriate treatment for the vast majority of cases (independent of their cause) is simple and effective: oral glucose- and electrolyte-containing rehydration solution. On the basis of an appropriate history and understanding of pathogenesis, fecal specimens can be selectively obtained and promptly examined for leukocytes and parasites, and the common noninflammatory diarrheas can be separated from the inflammatory infections in order to focus further studies on the latter group. The bacteria for which specific antimicrobial therapy should be considered usually cause inflammatory diarrhea in the United States. Therefore, only when the history or fecal leukocyte findings indicates an inflammatory process is it appropriate to culture for the routine invasive bacterial pathogens. In sporadic inflammatory diarrhea, culture methods should include those for Campylobacter jejuni as well as Salmonella and Shigella. Several special circumstances may prompt a consideration of parasites (including Giardia, Entamoeba, Strongyloides, Cryptosporidium), Vibrio, Yersinia, Clostridium difficile, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, food-borne agents, or sexually transmitted pathogens. The practical value of specific identification of rotaviruses (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Rotazyme, or electron microscopy) is primarily epidemiologic, particularly in hospitalized infants or young children. Using such a selective approach to fecal culture will greatly increase its yield and can reduce the cost per positive result from $1,000 to less than $150. PMID:4014291

Guerrant, R L; Shields, D S; Thorson, S M; Schorling, J B; Gröschel, D H

1985-06-28

396

Inhibition of RND-type efflux pumps confers the FtsZ-directed prodrug TXY436 with activity against Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Infections caused by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens are often difficult to treat, with the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains further restricting clinical treatment options. As a result, there is an acute need for the development of new therapeutic agents active against Gram-negative bacteria. The bacterial protein FtsZ has recently been demonstrated to be a viable antibacterial target for treating infections caused by the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus in mouse model systems. Here, we investigate whether an FtsZ-directed prodrug (TXY436) that is effective against S. aureus can also target Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli. We find that the conversion product of TXY436 (PC190723) can bind E. coli FtsZ and inhibit its polymerization/bundling in vitro. However, PC190723 is intrinsically inactive against wild-type E. coli, with this inactivity being derived from the actions of the efflux pump AcrAB. Mutations in E. coli AcrAB render the mutant bacteria susceptible to TXY436. We further show that chemical inhibition of AcrAB in E. coli, as well as its homologs in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, confers all three Gram-negative pathogens with susceptibility to TXY436. We demonstrate that the activity of TXY436 against E. coli and K. pneumoniae is bactericidal in nature. Evidence for FtsZ-targeting and inhibition of cell division in Gram-negative bacteria by TXY436 is provided by the induction of a characteristic filamentous morphology when the efflux pump has been inhibited as well as by the lack of functional Z-rings upon TXY436 treatment. PMID:24637241

Kaul, Malvika; Zhang, Yongzheng; Parhi, Ajit K; Lavoie, Edmond J; Pilch, Daniel S

2014-06-01

397

Simultaneous enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophs and anammox bacteria.  

PubMed

Interaction between denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) processes may play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. In this study, a coculture of denitrifying methanotrophs (DAMO archaea and DAMO bacteria) and anammox bacteria, initially sourced from the environment, was enriched with a supply of methane, nitrate, and ammonium. After a 4.5-month enrichment, simultaneous oxidation of methane and ammonium and reduction of nitrate were observed. The highest rate of nitrate reduction in the suspended DAMO culture was 4.84 mmol/L/day, and simultaneously, the highest ammonium removal rate was 4.07 mmol/L/day. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed the coexistence of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria. The development of anammox bacteria might reduce the enrichment time of DAMO microorganisms and promote the activity of DAMO archaea. The activity of the reactor fluctuated during the long-term operation, which might be caused by the formation of microbial clusters whereby DAMO archaea grew in aggregates that were surrounded by anammox and DAMO bacteria. This study is the first to demonstrate that it is feasible to establish a coculture of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria from environmental inocula. PMID:25056292

Ding, Zhao-Wei; Ding, Jing; Fu, Liang; Zhang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond J

2014-12-01

398

Acute urinary retention in a 9-year-old child: an atypical presentation of acute appendicitis.  

PubMed

Acute urinary retention is unusual in childhood and when present is likely to have an identifiable cause. Although the evaluation is often performed by the urologic specialist after relief of the obstruction, it is imperative that some causes be identified in the Emergency Department. This is a case of a 9-year-old boy in acute urinary retention caused by a ruptured appendix with a periappendiceal abscess. PMID:17044580

Place, Rick C

2006-08-01

399

Resistance of autochthonous soil bacteria to shock biocide effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was determined that bacteria in soils are characterized by a high resistance to short (1 day) treatments with saturated\\u000a solutions of mineral salts, 96% ethanol, 1 N HCl, and 1 N NaOH. The soil treatment with acid and alkali did not cause any\\u000a significant decrease of the bacteria number (staining with acridine orange) in the studied samples of alluvial

E. V. Lapygina; L. V. Lysak; E. A. Bakulina; D. G. Zvyagintsev

2006-01-01

400

iBioSeminar: Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bacteria, primitive single-celled organisms, communicate with chemical languages that allow them to synchronize their behavior and thereby act as enormous multi-cellular organisms. This process is called quorum sensing and it enables bacteria to successfully infect and cause disease in plants, animals, and humans. Investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying quorum sensing are leading to the development of novel strategies to interfere with quorum sensing. These strategies form the basis of new therapies to be used as antibiotics.

Bonnie Bassler (Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Princeton University;)

2011-06-08