Sample records for bacteria causing acute

  1. [Non-clostridial anaerobic bacteria can cause acute pyelonephritis (an experimental trial)].

    PubMed

    Kogan, M I; Pasechnik, D G; Naboka, Iu L; Ibishev, Kh S; Gazaev, Z I; Gudima, I A

    2012-01-01

    Acute obstructive pyelonephritis (PN) caused by Peptococcus niger (Pn), E. coli and mixed infection (Pn + E. coli) was modeled in rabbits. Morphologic examination showed that in animals with peptococcal infection renal lesions were identical to those in escherichial PN. Hemorrhagic infarctions and vasculitis develop in animals with mixed infection. These morphological findings were confirmed bacteriologically. The experimental trial confirms the role of Pn in development of acute obstructive PN in animals. PMID:22876624

  2. [Nonsurgical causes of acute abdomen].

    PubMed

    Stiefelhagen, Peter

    2007-10-01

    In a case of acute abdomen, the presence of a life-threatening condition that requires immediate surgery must be precluded as quickly as possible. Generally speaking, the faster the pain develops, the more likely that it is a life-threatening emergency situation. If no urgent indication for surgery is found, the possibility of an internal disease should be considered, even pancreatitis for example. PMID:18018505

  3. [Enterobius vermicularis causing symptoms of acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Antal, András; Kocsis, Béla

    2008-08-01

    The authors present a case of enterobiasis of the appendix. Enterobius infection is an uncommon cause of acute appendicitis. Preoperative diagnosis of pinworm infestation is almost impossible unless there is a strong clinical suspicion. Parasites may produce symptoms which resemble acute appendicitis. Careful observation of the appendix stump may lead to intraoperative diagnosis of enterobiasis. A quick diagnosis and appropriate treatment may prevent future complications. PMID:18799410

  4. Codfish may cause acute abdomen?

    PubMed Central

    Costa Almeida, Carlos E.; Rainho, Rui; Gouveia, António

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Foreign bodies ingestion is frequent and can cause several complications. Perforation is rare but can occur in any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Fish bones are one of the most frequent objects responsible. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 77-year-old patient resorted to emergency room for severe abdominal pain with 5 days of evolution. A CT scan showed an undefined liquid collection involving a linear image with 25 mm, suggestive of a foreign body. On laparotomy an abscess was resected with a fish bone inside. DISCUSSION Bowel perforation by foreign bodies can mimic other abdominal emergency conditions. Since fish bone ingestion is usually not remembered, diagnosis can be late. Surgery is the treatment of choice and is most commonly performed by laparotomy. CONCLUSION A low threshold of suspicion along with a good clinical history and radiological studies is extremely important in order to make a correct diagnosis. PMID:24055920

  5. Acute meningitis caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Yu; Lu, Po-Liang; Lee, Kun-Mu; Chang, Tsung Chain; Lai, Chung-Chih; Chang, Ko; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2013-12-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis of the central nervous system is rare but typically associated with high mortality. Treatment has not been standardized, but the combination of antifungal chemotherapy with surgical debridement is recommended. We report a 73-year-old, retired, male timber merchant with acute meningitis caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The patient, who had well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, presented with fever and weakness of the lower limbs. No brain abscess was apparent by cranial computed tomography. C. sphaerospermum was isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid and identified based on both morphology and DNA sequencing. He was treated with combination antifungal chemotherapy with amphotericin B and voriconazole for 28 days, followed by voriconazole monotherapy for 46 days. To date, the patient has recovered without significant sequelae. This patient represents the first reported case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by C. sphaerospermum. Moreover, the therapy was successful for totally less than 3 months of treatment duration. PMID:24263083

  6. Quetiapine-induced hypertriglyceridaemia causing acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Franco, John Mark; Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Griffin, Timothy John

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics have well-known metabolic side effects such as hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia. A middle-aged man presented with epigastric and flank pain associated with nausea, and was noted to have elevated triglycerides (3590?mg/dL or 40.53?mmol/L), lipase and glucose. Haematological parameters revealed neutropenia with pancytopaenia. The patient was started on conservative management for acute pancreatitis, and on intravenous insulin and oral gemfibrozil for lowering of his triglycerides. He gradually improved and was transitioned to oral atorvastatin and fenofibrate. His triglycerides, glucose and leucocyte counts normalised at discharge and he was transitioned to ziprasidone. The combination of hypertriglyceridaemia, worsening hyperglycaemia and neutropenia made us suspect quetiapine as the causative agent. Medications cause only 0.1-7% of acute pancreatitis cases, with quetiapine implicated in only five-reported cases. Hypertriglyceridaemia (>600?mg/dL or 6.77?mmol/L) is frequently reported with quetiapine use, but severe hypertriglyceridaemia (>1000?mg/dL or 11.29?mmol/L) has been reported in <10 patients. PMID:25976202

  7. Osteomyelitis in dogs and cats caused by anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K A; Lomas, G R; Wood, A K

    1984-02-01

    Localised osteomyelitis was diagnosed in 2 dogs and 2 cats. The disease was caused by fight wounds in 3 cases. Radiographic examination demonstrated a circumscribed zone of cortical bone lysis, sequestra and periosteal new bone. Each case was treated surgically by sequestrectomy and debridement. Infection was due mainly to anaerobic bacteria. The pathogenic bacteria isolated from the lesions of dogs were Actinomyces viscosus, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Bacteroides spp, and from the lesions in cats were Clostridium villosum , Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Wolinella recta and Bacteroides gingivalis. As all the bacteria were sensitive to penicillin, each case was treated with penicillin and by irrigation of the wound. This resulted in resolution of the disease, within 4 weeks, in all cases. PMID:6732670

  8. Bacteria and cancer: cause, coincidence or cure? A review

    PubMed Central

    Mager, DL

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that certain bacteria are associated with human cancers. Their role, however, is still unclear. Convincing evidence links some species to carcinogenesis while others appear promising in the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of cancers. The complex relationship between bacteria and humans is demonstrated by Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella typhi infections. Research has shown that H. pylori can cause gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma in some individuals. In contrast, exposure to H. pylori appears to reduce the risk of esophageal cancer in others. Salmonella typhi infection has been associated with the development of gallbladder cancer; however S. typhi is a promising carrier of therapeutic agents for melanoma, colon and bladder cancers. Thus bacterial species and their roles in particular cancers appear to differ among different individuals. Many species, however, share an important characteristic: highly site-specific colonization. This critical factor may lead to the development of non-invasive diagnostic tests, innovative treatments and cancer vaccines. PMID:16566840

  9. [Acute renal failure caused by viper: report of 48 cases].

    PubMed

    Zou, R L; Zhang, Y M

    1994-02-01

    Viper is common in China and its secretion is a mixture consisting of both hemo-toxin and neuro-toxin that cause acute renal failure and respiratory paralysis. In 4860 cases of snake-bites treated from 1984 to 1991, 48 (0.99%) resulted in acute renal failure. After treatment, 43 cases were completely recovered and 5 (10.4%) died of serious failure. Because the toxicity of viper directly attacks both kidneys and toxaemia may cause massive hemolysis to rapidly develop acute renal failure. Instant etiological treatment, alkalization urine, peritoneal dialysis are necessary to sustain the function of heart, liver and lung. PMID:7924665

  10. Acute Cytomegalovirus Infection as a Cause of Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Francesca; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Mojoli, Francesco; Baldanti, Fausto; Brunetti, Enrico; Pascarella, Michela; Giordani, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Acute Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is an unusual cause of venous thromboembolism, a potentially life-threatening condition. Thrombus formation can occur at the onset of the disease or later during the recovery and may also occur in the absence of acute HCMV hepatitis. It is likely due to both vascular endothelium damage caused by HCMV and impairment of the clotting balance caused by the virus itself. Here we report on two immunocompetent women with splanchnic thrombosis that occurred during the course of acute HCMV infection. Although the prevalence of venous thrombosis in patients with acute HCMV infection is unknown, physicians should be aware of its occurrence, particularly in immunocompetent patients presenting with fever and unexplained abdominal pain. PMID:24959338

  11. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Caused by Rare Cardiac Tumor Embolus

    PubMed Central

    Monzur, Farah; Rajapakse, Ramona

    2014-01-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a rare vascular emergency associated with a high mortality rate. The most common cause of AMI is cardiac emboli from thrombi associated with atrial fibrillation or following myocardial infarction. We present a case of AMI caused by a unique source of emboli, confirmed as an embolization of a cardiac sarcoma to the small bowel by matching biopsies obtained from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and the embolic source.

  12. Ammonium dichromate poisoning: A rare cause of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, H; Gopi, M; Arumugam, A

    2014-11-01

    Ammonium dichromate is an inorganic compound frequently used in screen and color printing. Being a strong oxidizing agent, it causes oxygen free radical injury resulting in organ failure. We report a 25-year-old female who presented with acute kidney injury after consumption of ammonium dichromate. She was managed successfully with hemodialysis and supportive measures. This case is reported to highlight the toxicity of ammonium dichromate. PMID:25484533

  13. Scrotoschisis: A rare cause of acute scrotum in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Pujar, Vijay C.; Joshi, Shirin S.; Singh, Dinesh R.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous extrusion of the testis from the scrotum is a very rare cause of acute scrotum in neonates. It has been described as scrotoschisis in few case reports. The exact etiology of this condition is not known. Replacing the testes and repair of scrotum is needed and associated with good prognosis. We report two cases that presented in a short interval to us with a review of the literature.

  14. Metabolic profiling of biofilm bacteria known to cause microbial influenced corrosion.

    PubMed

    Beale, D J; Morrison, P D; Key, C; Palombo, E A

    2014-01-01

    This study builds upon previous research that demonstrated the simplicity of obtaining metabolite profiles of bacteria in urban water networks, by using the metabolic profile of bacteria extracted from a reticulation pipe biofilm, which is known to cause microbial influenced corrosion (MIC). The extracellular metabolites of the isolated bacteria, and those bacteria in consortium, were analysed in isolation, and after exposure to low levels of copper. Applying chemometric analytical methodologies to the metabolomic data, we were able to better understand the profile of the isolated biofilm bacteria, which were differentiated according to their activity and copper exposure. It was found that the metabolic activity of the isolated bacteria and the bacteria in consortium varied according to the bacterium's ability to metabolise copper. This demonstrates the power of metabolomic techniques for the discrimination of water reticulation biofilms comprising similar bacteria in consortium, but undergoing different physico-chemical activities, such as corrosion and corrosion inhibition. PMID:24434961

  15. [A case of acute pancreatitis and acute hepatitis caused by ingestion of Ceramium kondoi].

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-bin; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Song, Hyun Joo; Song, Byung-Cheol

    2013-11-01

    In Korea, the use of herbal remedies is a common cause of drug-induced liver injury. However, the occurrence of both acute pancreatitis and acute hepatitis after taking herbal remedies has rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of concurrent acute pancreatitis and acute hepatitis associated with Ceramium kondoi ingestion. A 58-year-old woman was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer 7 months ago. Total gastrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy was performed without complications. The patient had been well until recently, when she presented with severe abdominal pain after ingestion of Ceramium kondoifor 4 weeks. The laboratory findings demonstrated elevated liver enzymes and lipase, and abdominal computed tomography revealed pancreas swelling with fat infiltration. The diagnosis was made based on the diagnostic criteria for drug induced pancreatitis and the Russel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method scale for drug-induced liver injury. After cessation of Ceramium kondoi, she showed clinical and biochemical improvement. PMID:24262598

  16. The Chemotherapy of Infectious Diseases caused by Protozoa and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hörlein, H.

    1936-01-01

    The possibility of combating infectious diseases with chemotherapeutically active substances depends to a large extent on the structure of the pathogenic organism. Apart from the cure of contagious pleuro-pneumonia in horses with neosalvarsan, we have, as yet, no chemotherapeutic substance which is active in virus diseases. The position is scarcely better when we turn to bacterial infections due to cocci and bacilli. These two types of infective organisms occupy the lowest level in the scale of micro-organisms. On the other hand, the spirochætes, which also belong to the bacteria group, and, still more so, those causal organisms belonging to the protozoa, represent relatively highly differentiated species, and the more highly developed a pathogenic organism is, the more points for attack it appears to offer to the action of chemotherapeutic substances. It is, therefore, not to be wondered at that the best results with chemotherapeutically active substances have been obtained in spirochætal diseases (syphilis, relapsing fever, frambœsia, etc.), and above all, in protozoal diseases. There is scarcely a protozoal disease of man which cannot be cured nowadays by early treatment with the appropriate synthetic drug. (Sleeping sickness, malaria, amœbic dysentery, leishmaniasis.) Epizootics resembling human diseases, as for example, trypanoses, are also relatively easily dealt with by the same drugs as have been found of value in the treatment of disease in man. On the other hand, there has been a lack of success, up to the present, in the treatment of those diseases of animals which are not generally related to the tropical diseases of man. The most important of these epizootics are the piroplasmoses, which are caused by babesiæ and theileriæ and which are found, not only in tropical and subtropical regions, but also in temperate zones. In this paper the discovery of a new remedy against piroplasmosis will be reported (acaprin). Further, advice will be given of a new class of substances, which have an actual chemotherapeutic action in streptococcal infections (prontosil, prontosil S), so that one can hope to be able in the future also to attack bacterial infections due to cocci chemotherapeutically. PMID:19990605

  17. Does virus-bacteria coinfection increase the clinical severity of acute respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Damasio, Guilherme A C; Pereira, Luciane A; Moreira, Suzana D R; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia N; Dalla-Costa, Libera M; Raboni, Sonia M

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective cohort study investigated the presence of bacteria in respiratory secretions of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections and analyzed the impact of viral and bacterial coinfection on severity and the mortality rate. A total of 169 patients with acute respiratory infections were included, viruses and bacteria in respiratory samples were detected using molecular methods. Among all samples, 73.3% and 59.7% were positive for viruses and bacteria, respectively; 45% contained both virus and bacteria. Bacterial coinfection was more frequent in patients infected by community respiratory viruses than influenza A H1N1pdm (83.3% vs. 40.6%). The most frequently bacteria detected were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Both species were co-detected in 54 patients and identified alone in 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences in the period of hospitalization, severity, or mortality rate between patients infected with respiratory viruses alone and those coinfected by viruses and bacteria. The detection of mixed respiratory pathogens is frequent in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infections, but its impact on the clinical outcome does not appear substantial. However, it should be noted that most of the patients received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, which may have contributed to this favorable outcome. J. Med. Virol. 87:1456-1461, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25976175

  18. Actinomyces infection causing acute right iliac fossa pain.

    PubMed

    Govindarajah, Narendranath; Hameed, Waseem; Middleton, Simon; Booth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This is a case of a 75-year-old man being admitted to the on-call surgical department with acute abdominal pain. On arrival he was clinically dehydrated and shocked with localised pain over McBurney's point and examination findings were suggestive of appendiceal or other colonic pathology. Full blood testing revealed a white cell count of 38×10(9)/L and a C reactive protein (CRP) of 278?mg/L. A CT scan revealed a gallbladder empyema that extended into the right iliac fossa. This case highlights the potential for a hyperdistended gallbladder empyema to present as acute right iliac fossa pain with blood tests suggestive of complicated disease. Further analysis confirmed Actinomyces infection as the underlying aetiology prior to a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy. This case serves to remind clinicians of this as a rare potential cause of atypical gallbladder pathology. PMID:24872493

  19. The role of anaerobic bacteria in acute and chronic mastoiditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itzhak Brook

    2005-01-01

    Mastoiditis (M) is the most common intratemporal complication of otitis media. The incidence of M has decreased since the advent of antimicrobial agents. In the last decade, however, there has been a marked increased in the incidence of acute M in several communities, sometimes in association with the growing resistance of pneumococci. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophillus

  20. Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicated with peritonitis caused by Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Tena, Daniel; Martínez, Nora Mariela; Losa, Cristina; Fernández, Cristina; Medina, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Lactobacillus spp. rarely causes human disease. We report a case of a 57-year-old man with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and vascular disease admitted to our hospital with severe abdominal pain and fever. Signs of peritonitis were found upon examination. The patient underwent surgery, and a diagnosis of perforated cholecystitis with purulent peritonitis was made intra-operatively. A cholecystectomy was performed, and therapy with imipenem was initiated. Lactobacillus plantarum was isolated from bile and peritoneal fluid cultures 2 days later. The patient recovered well and was discharged on post-operative day 16 after 14 days of treatment with imipenem. To our knowledge, this is the second case reported of acute cholecystitis caused by Lactobacillus spp. This organism should be considered as a cause of biliary infections, especially in patients with underlying diseases. Correct identification is often difficult, but it is very important because these organisms are usually resistant to vancomycin and other antibiotics. PMID:23886436

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria that cause gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Romney M; Schuetz, Audrey N

    2015-06-01

    Gastroenteritis due to enteric pathogens is generally a self-limiting disease for which antimicrobial treatment is not required. However, treatment should be considered for cases of severe or prolonged diarrhea, extraintestinal isolation of bacteria, or diarrhea in immunocompromised hosts, the elderly, and infants. Various resistance trends and current issues concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of enteric pathogens are reviewed in this article, including Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, and Clostridium difficile. Updated interpretive criteria from breakpoint-setting organizations are reviewed, along with explanations for recent changes in antimicrobial breakpoints. PMID:26004645

  2. Worms' bacteria main cause of river blindness - Parasites - medical research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education)

    This news article reports that Wolbachia may play a role in river blindness, the second-leading infectious cause of blindness in the world. While the disease is caused by parasitic worms that burrow into the skin, researchers discovered that treating the worms of their Wolbachia infections with doxycycline led to significantly less thickening and haze of the eye's cornea.

  3. Surface changes in mild steel coupons from the action of corrosion-causing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Obuekwe, C O; Westlake, D W; Cook, F D; William Costerton, J

    1981-03-01

    Changes which occur on the surface of mild steel coupons submerged in cultures of an Fe(III)-reducing bacterium, isolated from corroded pipe systems carrying crude oil, were studied microscopically to investigate the interaction between the corrosion-causing bacterium and the corroding mild steel coupon. Under micro-aerobic conditions and in the absence of the bacteria, a dense, crystalline, amorphous coat formed on the surface of the steel coupons. In the presence of bacteria the surface coat was extensively removed, exposing the bare metal to the environment. After about 2 weeks of exposure, the removal of the surface coating was followed by colonization of the metal surface by the bacteria. Colonization was mediated by fibrous, exopolysaccharidic material formed by the bacteria. Extension of studies to other bacteria isolated from crude oil and corroded pipes reveals that the formation of exopolysaccharide fibers and possession of adherent properties are common characteristics of bacteria from crude oil systems. PMID:16345735

  4. Can fruit seeds and undigested plant residuals cause acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Engin, Omer; Yildirim, Mehmet; Yakan, Savas; Coskun, Gulnihal Ay

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation between fruit seeds, plants residuals and appendicitis. Methods Among cases that underwent appendectomy, the appendicitis cases having fruit seeds and undigested plant residuals in their etiology were examined retrospectively. Also, histopathological features, age, sex, and parameters of morbidity and mortality were used. Results Fruit seed was found in one case (0.05%) with presence of pus in appendix lumen, undigested plant residuals in 7 cases (0.35%). It was determined that there were appendix inflammation in 2 of the plant residuals cases, while there were obstruction and lymphoid hyperplasia in the appendix lumen of 5 cases. No mortality was observed. Conclusions The ratio of acute appendicitis caused by plants is minimal among all appendectomised patients, but avoidence of eating undigested fruit seeds and chewing plants well may help to prevent appendicitis. PMID:23569736

  5. Acute oral toxicity and bacterial translocation studies on potentially probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S Zhou; Q Shu; K. J Rutherfurd; J Prasad; P. K Gopal; H. S Gill

    2000-01-01

    Three potentially probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20TM), Lb. acidophilus HN017 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10™), have recently been identified and characterized. The present study was designed to evaluate the acute oral toxicity of these strains to mice, and also to investigate bacterial translocation and gut mucosal pathology in BALB\\/c mice fed HN019, HN001 or HN017

  6. STROKE is an acute disease that can cause severe brain damage and is one of the main causes of mor-

    E-print Network

    Lorenzo, Jorge Ripoll

    STROKE is an acute disease that can cause severe brain damage and is one of the main causes of mor an immunodepression syn- drome that renders animals more susceptible to infec- tion,2 which is the main cause in the brain and depresses the immune system. We sought to assess longitu- dinal changes in T-cell numbers

  7. Glutamine Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Caused by Acid Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Chin-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Inadequate ventilator settings may cause overwhelming inflammatory responses associated with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, we examined potential benefits of glutamine (GLN) on a two-hit model for VILI after acid aspiration-induced lung injury in rats. Rats were intratracheally challenged with hydrochloric acid as a first hit to induce lung inflammation, then randomly received intravenous GLN or lactated Ringer’s solution (vehicle control) thirty min before different ventilator strategies. Rats were then randomized to receive mechanical ventilation as a second hit with a high tidal volume (TV) of 15 mL/kg and zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or a low TV of 6 mL/kg with PEEP of 5 cm H2O. We evaluated lung oxygenation, inflammation, mechanics, and histology. After ventilator use for 4 h, high TV resulted in greater lung injury physiologic and biologic indices. Compared with vehicle treated rats, GLN administration attenuated lung injury, with improved oxygenation and static compliance, and decreased respiratory elastance, lung edema, extended lung destruction (lung injury scores and lung histology), neutrophil recruitment in the lung, and cytokine production. Thus, GLN administration improved the physiologic and biologic profiles of this experimental model of VILI based on the two-hit theory. PMID:25100435

  8. Acute liver failure caused by severe acute hepatitis B: a case series from a multi-center investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Few data can be available regarding acute liver failure (ALF) caused by severe acute hepatitis B up to now. This study aims to report such cases from China. Findings We conducted a multi-center investigation on ALF from 7 tertiary hospitals in different areas of China. A total of 11 patients with ALF caused by severe acute hepatitis B were finally identified. In these patients, there were 10 male and 1 female patients. As a serious complication, apparent hemorrhage occurred in 9 patients. Eventually, in these 11 patients, 4 survived and 7 died. 4 died of heavy bleeding, 2 died of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and 1 died of irreversible coma. No patients received liver transplantation. Conclusions ALF caused by severe acute hepatitis B is worthy of formal studies based on its rarity and severity. PMID:24958233

  9. Protective Effect of Endotoxin Instillation on Subsequent Bacteria-induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIEL JEAN; SAÏDA REZAIGUIA-DELCLAUX; CHRISTOPHE DELACOURT; ROLAND LECLERCQ; CHANTAL LAFUMA; CHRISTIAN BRUN-BUISSON; ALAIN HARF; CHRISTOPHE DELCLAUX

    The phagocytic capability afforded by neutrophil influx into the lungs is essential to ward off invad- ing bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prior neutrophil recruitment in- duced by alveolar instillation of endotoxin (LPS, 200 m g\\/kg) 16 h before a pulmonary infection caused by instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa ((PYO): 1.5 3 10

  10. Acute toxicity assessment of ANAMMOX substrates and antibiotics by luminescent bacteria test.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuang; Wu, Junwei; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Huifeng; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng, Ping

    2015-12-01

    Acute toxicities of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) substrates and four antibiotics from pharmaceutical wastewaters on ANAMMOX process were reported. Individual and joint acute toxicity assays were performed using 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Results showed that IC50 values and their 95% confidence interval of ammonium chloride (A), sodium nitrite (B), penicillin G-Na (C), polymyxin B sulfate (D), chloramphenicol (E) and kanamycin sulfate (F) were 2708.9 (2247.9-3169.9), 1475.4 (1269.9-1680.9), 5114.4 (4946.4-5282.4), 10.2 (1.8-18.6), 409.9 (333.7-486.1) and 5254.1 (3934.4-6573.8) mgL(-1) respectively, suggesting toxicities were in the order of D>E>B>A>C>F. Joint acute toxicities of bicomponent mixtures A and B, C and D, C and F, D and F were independent; D and E, E and F were additive while C and E were synergistic. Joint acute toxicities of multicomponent mixtures were synergistic or additive. Luminescent bacteria test is an easy and robust method for forecasting the feasibility of ANAMMOX process for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment. PMID:25912634

  11. A Case of Life-Threatening Acute Kidney Injury with Toxic Encephalopathy Caused by Dioscorea quinqueloba

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Some herbal medications induce acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injuries caused by herbal medications are mild and commonly treated by palliative care. A 51-years-old man who drank the juice squeezed from the raw tubers of Dioscorea quinqueloba (D. quinqueloba) was admitted with nausea, vomiting and chilling. He developed a seizure with decreased level of consciousness. He was diagnosed with acute kidney injury, which was cured by continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration. Non-detoxified D. quinqueloba can cause severe acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy. It is critical to inform possible adverse effects of the medicinal herbs and to implement more strict regulation of these products. PMID:25510780

  12. In vitro growth inhibition of mastitis causing bacteria by phenolics and metal chelators

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, B.P.; Tjoelker, L.W.; Tanaka, T.S.

    1985-11-01

    Antimicrobial activities of three phenolic compounds and four metal chelators were tested at 0, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm in vitro against four major mastitis-causing bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, and Escherichia coli. Overall, butylated hydroxyanisole and tert-butylhydroquinone showed the greatest antimicrobial activity. These phenolics were bactericidal at 250 to 500 ppm against all four bacteria tested. The butylated hydroxytoluene was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but was ineffective against the coliforms. At 250 ppm, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but much less effective against the gram-negatives. However, diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid was more growth inhibitory than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid against the gram-negative bacteria and especially against Escherichia coli. All other compounds were generally much less effective or ineffective against all four microorganisms. Therefore, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tert-butylhydroquinone, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid may have practical implications in the prevention or treatment of bovine mastitis.

  13. Spontaneous Infection or Vaccination as Cause of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Murphy; James Austin

    1985-01-01

    This report describes an approach to determine which of 2 possible etiologies could be responsible for a disease, in this instance acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Information about latency periods was obtained from eighteen reference sources in the literature. Analysis of these data indicate that it would be 9–18 times more likely for ADEM to develop 5 days after a wild

  14. Organ distribution of gut-derived bacteria caused by bowel manipulation or ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Redan, J.A.; Rush, B.F. Jr.; Lysz, T.W.; Smith, S.; Machiedo, G.W. (Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Translocation of carbon-14-labeled Escherichia coli from the gut was studied at the specified times in the following groups of rats: Group 1, 5 hours after ligation of the superior mesenteric artery; Group 2, 5 hours after laparotomy and exposure of the superior mesenteric artery with gentle removal and replacement of the intestines; and Group 3, 5 hours after handling but no surgical manipulation. Both living and dead bacteria were administered by means of gavage, and the effect of viability, intestinal ischemia without reperfusion, and bowel manipulation on the translocation of enteric bacteria was assessed. We demonstrated that (1) even gentle bowel manipulation causes bacteremia as great as that associated with ligation of the superior mesenteric artery; (2) dead E. coli are absorbed into the blood in the presence of bowel manipulation or ischemia but less effectively than are live E. coli; (3) live bacteria are found in highest concentration in the lung and in descending order in the liver, kidney, heart, and spleen; (4) dead bacteria absorbed from the gut are found in highest concentration in the kidney and the liver. Lesser amounts are found in the lung, spleen, and heart.

  15. Hyperkalemia: A rare cause of acute flaccid quadriparesis

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Suneel Kumar; Saxena, Sanjay; Juneja, Deven; Singh, Omender; Kumar, Mukesh; Mukherji, Joy Dev

    2014-01-01

    Acute flaccid quadriparesis secondary to hyperkalemia is a very rare and serious but reversible medical emergency. We present a case of a 73-year-old female who was admitted with rapidly progressive ascending paraparesis progressing to quadriparesis in about 10 h due to hyperkalemia. Patient was treated with antihyperkalemic measures. Her power improved dramatically as potassium levels normalized and she had an uneventful recovery. PMID:24550615

  16. Surgical and interventional management of complications caused by acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Karakayali, Feza Y

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. It requires acute hospitalization, with a reported annual incidence of 13 to 45 cases per 100000 persons. In severe cases there is persistent organ failure and a mortality rate of 15% to 30%, whereas mortality of mild pancreatitis is only 0% to 1%. Treatment principles of necrotizing pancreatitis and the role of surgery are still controversial. Despite surgery being effective for infected pancreatic necrosis, it carries the risk of long-term endocrine and exocrine deficiency and a morbidity and mortality rate of between 10% to 40%. Considering high morbidity and mortality rates of operative necrosectomy, minimally invasive strategies are being explored by gastrointestinal surgeons, radiologists, and gastroenterologists. Since 1999, several other minimally invasive surgical, endoscopic, and radiologic approaches to drain and debride pancreatic necrosis have been described. In patients who do not improve after technically adequate drainage, necrosectomy should be performed. When minimal invasive management is unsuccessful or necrosis has spread to locations not accessible by endoscopy, open abdominal surgery is recommended. Additionally, surgery is recognized as a major determinant of outcomes for acute pancreatitis, and there is general agreement that patients should undergo surgery in the late phase of the disease. It is important to consider multidisciplinary management, considering the clinical situation and the comorbidity of the patient, as well as the surgeons experience. PMID:25309073

  17. Neutrophil extracellular traps formation by bacteria causing endometritis in the mare.

    PubMed

    Rebordão, M R; Carneiro, C; Alexandre-Pires, G; Brito, P; Pereira, C; Nunes, T; Galvão, A; Leitão, A; Vilela, C; Ferreira-Dias, G

    2014-12-01

    Besides the classical functions, neutrophils (PMNs) are able to release DNA in response to infectious stimuli, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and killing pathogens. The pathogenesis of endometritis in the mare is not completely understood. The aim was to evaluate the in vitro capacity of equine PMNs to secrete NETs by chemical activation, or stimulated with Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (Szoo), Escherichia coli (Ecoli) or Staphylococcus capitis (Scap) strains obtained from mares with endometritis. Ex vivo endometrial mucus from mares with bacterial endometritis were evaluated for the presence of NETs. Equine blood PMNs were used either without or with stimulation by phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA), a strong inducer of NETs, for 1-3h. To evaluate PMN ability to produce NETs when phagocytosis was impaired, the phagocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin (Cyt) was added after PMA. After the addition of bacteria, a subsequent 1-h incubation was carried out in seven groups. NETs were visualized by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and anti-histone. Ex vivo samples were immunostained for myeloperoxidase and neutrophil elastase. A 3-h incubation period of PMN + PMA increased NETs (p < 0.05). Bacteria + 25 nM PMA and bacteria + PMA + Cyt increased NETs (p<0.05). Szoo induced fewer NETs than Ecoli or Scap (p < 0.05). Ex vivo NETs were present in mares with endometritis. Scanning electron microscopy showed the spread of NETs formed by smooth fibers and globules that can be aggregated in thick bundles. Formation of NETs and the subsequent entanglement of bacteria suggest that equine NETs might be a complementary mechanism in fighting some of the bacteria causing endometritis in the mare. PMID:25218891

  18. An unusual cause of acute scrotum in a child.

    PubMed

    Aworanti, O; Awadalla, S

    2014-01-01

    Acute non-traumatic scrotal pain in children, commonly due to a torted testicular appendage (hydatid of Morgagni) or torted epididymal appendage is well described. These vestigial embryonal duct remnants are of Müllerian and Wolffian duct origin respectively. Very rarely, the other infrequently encountered Wolffian duct remnants known as the paradidymis or organ of Giraldés and the superior and inferior aberrant ducts known as the organs of Haller can become torted. We describe the presentation, management and diagnosis of a torted embryonal remnant arising from the distal spermatic cord. PMID:25551901

  19. Intramural tracheal haematoma causing acute respiratory obstruction in a dog.

    PubMed

    Pink, J J

    2006-03-01

    Respiratory obstruction resulting from a discrete haematoma within the dorsal tracheal membrane was seen in an 11-year-old neutered female greyhound that had been involved in a fight two days earlier. There was no history or evidence of rodenticide toxicity or other coagulopathy, and it is suggested that the tracheal haematoma resulted from trauma. A right third intercostal thoracotomy was performed and this allowed resection of the haematoma from within the dorsal membrane of the cranial thoracic trachea, relieving the obstruction with no subsequent signs of dyspnoea. Intramural haematoma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis for dogs presenting with acute respiratory obstruction. PMID:16512849

  20. [Boerhaave syndrome: a rare cause of acute thoracic pain].

    PubMed

    Anastasiadou, K; Pilavaki, M; Vafiadis, E; Petridis, A; Drevelengas, A

    1998-03-01

    In a 74-year old female patient suffering from acute thoracic pain, vomiting, and dyspnoea, the diagnosis of Boerhaave's syndrome was made. After medical treatment the patient was dismissed in a sufficiently satisfactory condition. If symptoms like vomiting, severe thoracic pain, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax or hydropneumothorax on the left side occur, a rupture of the oesophagus should be taken into account especially in case of abuse of alcohol. The early diagnosis is decisive for the course of the disease and a lethality reduction. PMID:9564186

  1. Acute fulminant necrotizing amoebic colitis: a potentially fatal cause of diarrhoea on the Acute Medical Unit.

    PubMed

    Desai, Purav; Sivaramakrishnan, Nurani

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhoea is a common presenting complaint to the Acute Medical Unit. We report a case of acute fulminant necrotizing amebic colitis in a 73 year old man with no recent travel history preceding his admission. Such cases are often difficult to diagnose and hence associated with a high mortality, unless treated promptly and appropriately. This case report highlights the importance of early diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment. PMID:21904710

  2. Acute pancreatitis possibly caused by allergy to bananas.

    PubMed

    Inamura, H; Kashiwase, Y; Morioka, J; Kurosawa, M

    2005-01-01

    We are reporting a forty-seven year old female who had three attacks of acute pancreatitis after having; eaten bananas. She was treated with a light diet and intravenous fluids during each of her admissions. The treatment concluded with the disappearance of clinical symptoms such as epigastralgia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea within a few days. In addition, elevated serum and urine amylase levels returned to normal values in parallel with the clinical symptoms. The data during her three attacks of acute pancreatitis were as follows: serum total IgE level = 644 IU/mL, specific IgE to bananas = 2.18 UA/ml. No remarkable abnormalities were present in sonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Endoscopic examination of the upper digestive tract showed the ampulla of Vater swollen and edematous, thus a biopsy was performed. Toluidine blue staining and immunohistochemical staining against human mast cell tryptase with the biopsy specimens showed mast cells accumulating in mucosa and submucosa. By avoiding consumption of bananas, she has not suffered from any additional attacks of pancreatitis since the third attack in the last thirty-four months up to this day of December 10, 2004. PMID:16261961

  3. Laparoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment of an Acute Epiploic Appendagitis with Torsion and Necrosis Causing an Acute Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda, Pablo; Valencia, Salvador; Cueto, Jorge

    2000-01-01

    Acute epiploic appendagitis is not as rare as previously thought; but, since the presenting signs and symptoms are not specific, preoperative diagnosis has been rarely made. At the present time, a laparoscopic exploration of the peritoneal cavity will establish the correct diagnosis, and the treatment can be provided during the same procedure. Herein, a case of a 63-year-old female patient with acute abdominal syndrome caused by a necrotic epiploic appendix that was successfully diagnosed and treated laparoscopically is described. A review of the literature is made, as well. PMID:10987404

  4. Chikungunya as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; Akoroda, Ufuoma; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikaarachchi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J.; Chua, Robert; Hou, Yan'an; Chow, Angelia; Sessions, October M.; Østbye, Truls; Gubler, Duane J.; Woods, Christopher W.; Bodinayake, Champica

    2013-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Sri Lanka in late 2006 after a 40-year hiatus. We sought to identify and characterize acute chikungunya infection (CHIK) in patients presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in unstudied rural and semi-urban southern Sri Lanka in 2007. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled febrile patients ? 2 years of age, collected uniform epidemiologic and clinical data, and obtained serum samples for serology, virus isolation, and real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Serology on paired acute and convalescent samples identified acute chikungunya infection in 3.5% (28/797) patients without acute dengue virus (DENV) infection, 64.3% (18/28) of which were confirmed by viral isolation and/or real-time RT-PCR. No CHIKV/DENV co-infections were detected among 54 patients with confirmed acute DENV. Sequencing of the E1 coding region of six temporally distinct CHIKV isolates (April through October 2007) showed that all isolates posessed the E1-226A residue and were most closely related to Sri Lankan and Indian isolates from the same time period. Except for more frequent and persistent musculoskeletal symptoms, acute chikungunya infections mimicked DENV and other acute febrile illnesses. Only 12/797 (1.5%) patients had serological evidence of past chikungunya infection. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest CHIKV is a prominent cause of non-specific acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka. PMID:24312651

  5. Small Bowel Perforation due to Gossypiboma Caused Acute Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Colak, Tahsin; Olmez, Tolga; Turkmenoglu, Ozgur; Dag, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Gossypiboma, an infrequent surgical complication, is a mass lesion due to a retained surgical sponge surrounded by foreign body reaction. In this case report, we describe gossypiboma in the abdominal cavity which was detected 14 months after the hysterectomy due to acute abdominal pain. Gossypiboma was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). The CT findings were a rounded mass with a dense central part and an enhancing wall. In explorative laparotomy, small bowel loops were seen to be perforated due to inflammation of long standing gossypiboma. Jejunal resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The patient was discharged whithout complication. This case was presented to point to retained foreign body (RFB) complications and we believed that the possibility of a retained foreign body should be considered in the differential diagnosis of who had previous surgery and complained of pain, infection, or palpable mass. PMID:24288645

  6. Small Bowel Perforation due to Gossypiboma Caused Acute Abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Turkmenoglu, Ozgur; Dag, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Gossypiboma, an infrequent surgical complication, is a mass lesion due to a retained surgical sponge surrounded by foreign body reaction. In this case report, we describe gossypiboma in the abdominal cavity which was detected 14 months after the hysterectomy due to acute abdominal pain. Gossypiboma was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). The CT findings were a rounded mass with a dense central part and an enhancing wall. In explorative laparotomy, small bowel loops were seen to be perforated due to inflammation of long standing gossypiboma. Jejunal resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The patient was discharged whithout complication. This case was presented to point to retained foreign body (RFB) complications and we believed that the possibility of a retained foreign body should be considered in the differential diagnosis of who had previous surgery and complained of pain, infection, or palpable mass. PMID:24288645

  7. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Harald; Meineke, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed. PMID:22114866

  8. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed. PMID:22114866

  9. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma causing acute liver failure: a rare case of survival.

    PubMed

    Kapuria, Devika; Strasser, Kristen; Qasem, Abdulraheem

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure is a rare but life-threatening illness with an incidence of 2-8 per million population. The most common causes of acute liver failure include drug ingestion and viral hepatitis followed by ischaemic hepatocellular injury and, less commonly, malignancy. Our patient presented with acute liver failure, which was found to be secondary to hepatic infiltration by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. He received early treatment and has been in remission for more than a year after his initial presentation. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the second reported survivor of acute liver failure caused by malignant hepatic infiltration by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PMID:25969490

  10. Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

    2012-10-01

    Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

  11. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-01-01

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature. PMID:22605801

  12. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-01-01

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature. PMID:22605801

  13. Mortality and causes of death of acute and transient psychotic disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Augusto C. Castagnini; Aksel Bertelsen

    Background  Little is known about mortality associated with acute transient psychoses. This paper examines mortality and causes of death\\u000a of ICD-10 F23 ‘Acute and transient psychotic disorders’ (ATPD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Data from all subjects aged over 15 years who were enrolled in 1996 in the Danish psychiatric register with a first-admission\\u000a diagnosis of ATPD were linked to the national register of causes of death.

  14. Hepatitis E as a cause of acute jaundice syndrome in northern Uganda, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Gerbi, Gemechu B; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7-24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. PMID:25448237

  15. Citrin deficiency: A treatable cause of acute psychosis in adults.

    PubMed

    Bijarnia-Mahay, Sunita; Häberle, Johannes; Rüfenacht, V Ronique; Shigematsu, Yosuke; Saxena, Renu; Verma, Ishwar C

    2015-01-01

    Citrin deficiency is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a defect in the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate antiporter, citrin. The disorder manifests either as neonatal intra-hepatic cholestasis or occurs in adulthood with recurrent hyperammonemia and neuropsychiatric disturbances. It has a high prevalence in the East Asian population, but is actually pan-ethnic. We report the case of a 26-year-old male patient presenting with episodes of abnormal neuro-psychiatric behavior associated with hyperammonemia, who was diagnosed to be having citrin deficiency. Sequencing of the SLC25A13 gene revealed two novel mutations, a single base pair deletion, c. 650delT (p.Phe217SerfsFNx0133) in exon 7, and a missense mutation, c. 869T>C (p.Ile290Thr) in exon 9. Confirmation of the diagnosis allowed establishment of the appropriate management. The latter is an essential pre-requisite for obtaining a good prognosis as well as for family counseling. PMID:25947987

  16. Acute cholestatic hepatitis caused by amoxicillin/clavulanate.

    PubMed

    Beraldo, Daniel Oliveira; Melo, Joanderson Fernandes; Bonfim, Alexandre Vidal; Teixeira, Andrei Alkmim; Teixeira, Ricardo Alkmim; Duarte, André Loyola

    2013-12-14

    Amoxicillin/clavulanate is a synthetic penicillin that is currently commonly used, especially for the treatment of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In general, it is a well-tolerated oral antibiotic. However, amoxicillin/clavulanate can cause adverse effects, mainly cutaneous, gastrointestinal, hepatic and hematologic, in some cases. Presented here is a case report of a 63-year-old male patient who developed cholestatic hepatitis after recent use of amoxicillin/clavulanate. After 6 wk of prolonged use of the drug, he began to show signs of cholestatic icterus and developed severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin > 300 mg/L). Diagnostic investigation was conducted by ultrasonography of the upper abdomen, serum tests for infection history, laboratory screening of autoimmune diseases, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the abdomen with bile duct-NMR and transcutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound. The duration of disease was approximately 4 mo, with complete resolution of symptoms and laboratory changes at the end of that time period. Specific treatment was not instituted, only a combination of anti-emetic (metoclopramide) and cholestyramine for pruritus. PMID:24379601

  17. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV) from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and B. longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1, and GII.4 strains) to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E. coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders) and one non-HBGA expressing E. coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder) were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E. coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E. coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission. PMID:26191052

  18. Biallelic Mutations in NBAS Cause Recurrent Acute Liver Failure with Onset in Infancy.

    PubMed

    Haack, Tobias B; Staufner, Christian; Köpke, Marlies G; Straub, Beate K; Kölker, Stefan; Thiel, Christian; Freisinger, Peter; Baric, Ivo; McKiernan, Patrick J; Dikow, Nicola; Harting, Inga; Beisse, Flemming; Burgard, Peter; Kotzaeridou, Urania; Kühr, Joachim; Himbert, Urban; Taylor, Robert W; Distelmaier, Felix; Vockley, Jerry; Ghaloul-Gonzalez, Lina; Zschocke, Johannes; Kremer, Laura S; Graf, Elisabeth; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Bader, Daniel M; Gagneur, Julien; Wieland, Thomas; Terrile, Caterina; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Hoffmann, Georg F; Prokisch, Holger

    2015-07-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) in infancy and childhood is a life-threatening emergency. Few conditions are known to cause recurrent acute liver failure (RALF), and in about 50% of cases, the underlying molecular cause remains unresolved. Exome sequencing in five unrelated individuals with fever-dependent RALF revealed biallelic mutations in NBAS. Subsequent Sanger sequencing of NBAS in 15 additional unrelated individuals with RALF or ALF identified compound heterozygous mutations in an additional six individuals from five families. Immunoblot analysis of mutant fibroblasts showed reduced protein levels of NBAS and its proposed interaction partner p31, both involved in retrograde transport between endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. We recommend NBAS analysis in individuals with acute infantile liver failure, especially if triggered by fever. PMID:26073778

  19. Acute Cortisol Elevations Cause Heightened Arousal Ratings of Objectively Nonarousing Stimuli

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Acute Cortisol Elevations Cause Heightened Arousal Ratings of Objectively Nonarousing Stimuli the effects of cortisol on affective experience, the authors orally administered a placebo, 20 mg cortisol, or 40 mg cortisol to 85 men. Participants' affective responses to negative and neutral stimuli were

  20. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: a neglected cause of acute myocardial ischaemia and sudden death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Basso; G. L. Morgagni; G. Thiene

    1996-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute myocardial ischaemia. Eight consecutive fatal cases which occurred in women aged 34-54 years (mean 43) are described. The dissection involved the left anterior descending coronary artery in four, the left main trunk in two, the right coronary artery in one, and both left anterior descending and circumflex arteries in one.

  1. Disseminated Infection Caused by Scedosporium prolificans in a Patient with Acute Multilineal Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    de Batlle, J.; Motjé, M.; Balanzà, R.; Guardia, R.; Ortiz, R.

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of disseminated infection caused by Scedosporium prolificans (S. inflatum) in a patient affected by chemotherapy-induced acute multilineal leukemia and neutropenia. For the fungus isolated in four blood cultures, high MICs of currently available antifungal agents were found. Postmortem examination revealed multiorgan involvement. PMID:10747173

  2. Intussusceptions as acute abdomen caused by Burkitt lymphoma: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Faton T Hoxha; Shemsedin I Hashani; Avdyl S Krasniqi; Fisnik I Kurshumliu; Driton S Komoni; Shpresa M Hasimja; Mehmet Maxhuni

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Burkitt's lymphoma is a highly malignant, aggressive and rapidly growing B-cell neoplasm, which has low long-term survival rates. The abdomen is the most frequent onset site of non endemic Burkitt's lymphoma. Symptoms are often misleading and make diagnosis difficult. Ileum intussusception as acute abdomen caused by Burkitt lymphoma is rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We are presenting a case of a

  3. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of some antimicrobial drugs against bacteria causing uterine infections in cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Sheldon; M. Bushnell; J. Montgomery; A. N. Rycroft

    2004-01-01

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oxytetracycline, cephapirin, cephapirin\\/mecillinam, cefquinome, ceftiofur and enrofloxacin, candidate antibiotics for the principal bacteria associated with uterine infections: Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and the anaerobic bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella melaninogenicus, were determined by the agar dilution method. The bacteria were isolated from animals with clinical metritis and\\/or endometritis. For E coli, cefquinome and enrofloxacin

  4. Acute Failure of Catheter Ablation for Ventricular Tachycardia Due to Structural Heart Disease: Causes and Significance

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Michifumi; Kojodjojo, Pipin; Tung, Stanley; Tedrow, Usha B.; Nof, Eyal; Inada, Keiichi; Koplan, Bruce A.; Michaud, Gregory F.; John, Roy M.; Epstein, Laurence M.; Stevenson, William G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute end points of catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia (VT) remain incompletely defined. The aim of this study is to identify causes for failure in patients with structural heart disease and to assess the relation of this acute outcome to longer?term management and outcomes. Methods and Results From 2002 to 2010, 518 consecutive patients (84% male, 62±14 years) with structural heart disease underwent a first ablation procedure for sustained VT at our institution. Acute ablation failure was defined as persistent inducibility of a clinical VT. Acute ablation failure was seen in 52 (10%) patients. Causes for failure were: intramural free wall VT in 13 (25%), deep septal VT in 9 (17%), decision not to ablate due to proximity to the bundle of His, left phrenic nerve, or a coronary artery in 3 (6%), and endocardial ablation failure with inability or decision not to attempt to access the epicardium in 27 (52%) patients. In multivariable analysis, ablation failure was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 2.010, 95% CI 1.147 to 3.239, P=0.004) and VT recurrence (hazard ratio 2.385, 95% CI 1.642 to 3.466, P<0.001). Conclusions With endocardial or epicardial ablation, or both, acute ablation failure was seen in 10% of patients, largely due to anatomic factors. Persistence of a clinical VT is associated with recurrence and comparatively higher mortality. PMID:23727700

  5. Enteritis caused by Campylobacter jejuni followed by acute motor axonal neuropathy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Campylobacter species represent the main cause of bacterial diarrhea in developed countries and one of the most frequent causes of enterocolitis in developing ones. In some patients, Campylobacter jejuni infection of the gastrointestinal tract has been observed as an antecedent illness of acute motor axonal neuropathy, a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Case presentation We present a case of acute motor axonal neuropathy following infection with Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni, biotype II, heat stable serotype O:19. A 46-year-old Caucasian man developed acute motor neuropathy 10 days after mild intestinal infection. The proximal and distal muscle weakness of his upper and lower extremities was associated with serum antibodies to Campylobacter jejuni and antibodies to ganglioside GM1. The electromyographic signs of neuropathic muscle action potentials with almost normal nerve conduction velocities indicated axonal neuropathy. Our patient's clinical and electrophysiological features fulfilled criteria for the diagnosis of an acute motor axonal neuropathy, a subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Conclusion As this is the first case of acute motor axonal neuropathy following infection with Campylobacter jejuni subspecies jejuni reported from the Balkan area, the present findings indicate the need for systematic studies and further clinical, epidemiological and microbiological investigations on the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and its heat stable serotypes in the etiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other post-infectious sequelae. PMID:20356396

  6. Necrotizing fasciitis and myositis caused by streptococcal flesh-eating bacteria.

    PubMed

    García-Casares, E; Mateo Soria, L; García-Melchor, E; Riera Alonso, E; Olivé Marqués, A; Holgado Pérez, S; Tena Marsà, X; Molinos Abós, S

    2010-12-01

    Three types of group A streptococcal infections are particularly feared: necrotizing fasciitis, myositis, and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS). We present 3 cases of necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pyogenes, one in an immunocompromised patient who had received kidney transplant and 2 healthy patients. Mean age of patients was 52 years (range, 42-67 years), and all 3 were male. One spontaneous case in absence of any obvious portal of entry is reported. The clinical course was initially indolent but quickly destructive. All patients required emergency surgical debridement and intravenous antibiotics. In 2 cases, intravenous immunoglobulin therapy was added. Differential diagnoses include septic arthritis, cellulitis, gout, other causes of tenosynovitis, erysipelas, and deep vein thrombosis.Blood and soft-tissue cultures should be obtained to identify the bacteria, and emergency computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan should be performed to confirm the diagnosis and define the extension of the necrosis. Aggressive surgical debridement in the first 24 to 48 hours and antibiotic treatment, including penicillin and clindamycin, are the cornerstones in the management of these infections. Adjuvant intravenous immunoglobulin therapy might be useful in case of TSS. Diagnostic and treatment delays are the main causes of mortality in these infections. PMID:21085016

  7. The inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil on drug-resistant bacteria and evaluation of its acute toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ce; Zhou, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Na; Liu, Qing; Hu, Shi-Lin; Li, Ting-Rong; Chen, Yan-Bing; Jiang, Jian-Xin

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The excessive and irregular use of antibiotics could result in the generation and diffusion of drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil (ZCHO) on drug-resistant bacteria, especially on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Material/Methods Susceptibility testing was used to evaluate the effect of ZCHO on growth inhibition of drug-resistant bacteria by paper disk method. Mice orally administered with ZCHO were used to observe acute toxicity and to determine median lethal dose (LD50) of ZCHO. Broth dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Results ZCHO exhibited an obvious inhibitory effect not only on gram-negative drug-resistant bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumannii, but also on gram-positive drug-resistant bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The ZCHO containing 79% terpinen-4-ol revealed better bacteriostatic effect than ZCHO with 34% terpinen-4-ol. The LD50 of ZCHO was 1790.427 mg/kg. The MIC and MBC of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 1457.81 mg/L. Conclusions ZCHO has obvious bacteriostasis and bactericidal effects, especially against drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Therefore, ZCHO is a promising natural bioactive component with antibacterial effect and satisfactory safety due to its low toxicity. PMID:21525802

  8. Bilateral stones as a cause of acute renal failure in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Joaquín V.; cachinero, Pedro L.; Ubeda, Fran R.; Ruiz, Daniel J. L.; Blanco, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) due to obstructive uropathy is a urological emergency. The standard radiological investigations in the emergency setting include X-ray, ultrasonography and computed tomography. But occasionally the cause of obstruction may be elusive. METHODS: We present a case of obstructive uropathy due to bilateral stones presenting as acute renal failure. The patient underwent successful shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for dissolution of calculi. RESULTS: The patient was successfully treated, and reported asymptomatic in a follow-up. CONCLUSION: Close collaboration between nephrological, urological, and radiological services is required. PMID:25215151

  9. Weakening Effect of Cell Permeabilizers on Gram-Negative Bacteria Causing Biodeterioration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-L. Alakomi; A. Paananen; M.-L. Suihko; I. M. Helander; M. Saarela

    2006-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria play an important role in the formation and stabilization of biofilm structures on stone surfaces. Therefore, the control of growth of gram-negative bacteria offers a way to diminish biodete- rioration of stone materials. The effect of potential permeabilizers on the outer membrane (OM) properties of gram-negative bacteria was investigated and further characterized. In addition, efficacy of the agents

  10. Trichloroethylene degradation by butane-oxidizing bacteria causes a spectrum of toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Kimberly H; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A; Bottomley, Peter J; Arp, Daniel J

    2005-10-01

    The physiological consequences of trichloroethylene (TCE) transformation by three butane oxidizers were examined. Pseudomonas butanovora, Mycobacterium vaccae, and Nocardioides sp. CF8 utilize distinctly different butane monooxygenases (BMOs) to initiate degradation of the recalcitrant TCE molecule. Although the primary toxic event resulting from TCE cometabolism by these three strains was loss of BMO activity, species differences were observed. P. butanovora and Nocardioides sp. CF8 maintained only 4% residual BMO activity following exposure to 165 microM TCE for 90 min and 180 min, respectively. In contrast, M. vaccae maintained 34% residual activity even after exposure to 165 microM TCE for 300 min. Culture viability was reduced 83% in P. butanovora, but was unaffected in the other two species. Transformation of 530 nmol of TCE by P. butanovora (1.0 mg total protein) did not affect the viability of BMO-deficient P. butanovora cells, whereas transformation of 482 nmol of TCE by toluene-grown Burkholderia cepacia G4 caused 87% of BMO-deficient P. butanovora cells to lose viability. Together, these results contrast with those previously reported for other bacteria carrying out TCE cometabolism and demonstrate the range of cellular toxicities associated with TCE cometabolism. PMID:15754184

  11. Colon Macrophages Polarized by Commensal Bacteria Cause Colitis and Cancer through the Bystander Effect12

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yonghong; Wang, Xingmin; Huycke, Thomas; Moore, Danny R; Lightfoot, Stanley A; Huycke, Mark M

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal commensal bacteria have recently been shown to trigger macrophages to produce diffusible clastogens (or chromosome-breaking factors) through a bystander effect (BSE) that mediates DNA damage and induces chromosomal instability in neighboring cells. Colon macrophages appear central to colon carcinogenesis and BSE through the expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The former induces netrin-1, a regulator of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and the latter generates trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), an endogenous mutagen. To test whether colon macrophages are key effectors for BSE, we depleted these cells in interleukin-10 knockout mice colonized with Enterococcus faecalis using encapsulated liposomal clodronate (ELC), a bisphosphonate that causes macrophage apoptosis. We observed that E. faecalis polarizes colon macrophages to an M1 phenotype. In addition, depleting these cells suppressed COX-2 and TNF-?, blocked the formation of 4-HNE protein adducts, and inhibited up-regulation of netrin-1—all markers for BSE. Finally, treatment with ELC prevented colitis, ?-catenin activation, and cancer formation. These results show that selected human commensals can polarize colon macrophages to the M1 phenotype and, when activated, serve as the key effector for bacterial-induced BSE. Our findings suggest that depleting M1-polarized macro-phages is a mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of bisphosphonates and that it represents a new strategy for preventing colon cancer induced by intestinal commensals. PMID:24151540

  12. Colon Macrophages Polarized by Commensal Bacteria Cause Colitis and Cancer through the Bystander Effect.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yonghong; Wang, Xingmin; Huycke, Thomas; Moore, Danny R; Lightfoot, Stanley A; Huycke, Mark M

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal commensal bacteria have recently been shown to trigger macrophages to produce diffusible clastogens (or chromosome-breaking factors) through a bystander effect (BSE) that mediates DNA damage and induces chromosomal instability in neighboring cells. Colon macrophages appear central to colon carcinogenesis and BSE through the expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The former induces netrin-1, a regulator of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and the latter generates trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), an endogenous mutagen. To test whether colon macrophages are key effectors for BSE, we depleted these cells in interleukin-10 knockout mice colonized with Enterococcus faecalis using encapsulated liposomal clodronate (ELC), a bisphosphonate that causes macrophage apoptosis. We observed that E. faecalis polarizes colon macrophages to an M1 phenotype. In addition, depleting these cells suppressed COX-2 and TNF-?, blocked the formation of 4-HNE protein adducts, and inhibited up-regulation of netrin-1-all markers for BSE. Finally, treatment with ELC prevented colitis, ?-catenin activation, and cancer formation. These results show that selected human commensals can polarize colon macrophages to the M1 phenotype and, when activated, serve as the key effector for bacterial-induced BSE. Our findings suggest that depleting M1-polarized macro-phages is a mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of bisphosphonates and that it represents a new strategy for preventing colon cancer induced by intestinal commensals. PMID:24151540

  13. Linezolid in late-chronic prosthetic joint infection caused by gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Javier; Lora-Tamayo, Jaime; Euba, Gorane; Jover-Sáenz, Alfredo; Palomino, Julián; del Toro, Ma Dolores; Rodríguez-Pardo, Dolors; Riera, Melchor; Ariza, Javier

    2013-05-01

    Linezolid may be an interesting alternative for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) due to its bioavailability and its antimicrobial spectrum. However, experience in this setting is scarce. The aim of the study was to assess linezolid's clinical and microbiological efficacy, and also its tolerance. This was a prospective, multicenter, open-label, non-comparative study of 25 patients with late-chronic PJI caused by Gram-positive bacteria managed with a two-step exchange procedure plus 6 weeks of linezolid. Twenty-two (88%) patients tolerated linezolid without major adverse effects, although a global decrease in the platelet count was observed. Three patients were withdrawn because of major toxicity, which reversed after linezolid stoppage. Among patients who completed treatment, 19 (86%) demonstrated clinical and microbiological cure. Two patients presented with clinical and microbiological failure, and one showed clinical cure and microbiological failure. In conclusion, linezolid showed good results in chronic PJI managed with a two-step exchange procedure. Tolerance seems acceptable, though close surveillance is required. PMID:23541692

  14. Advanced stage ovarian juvenile granuloza cell tumor causing acute abdomen: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bedir, Recep; Mürtezao?lu, Af?in Rahman; Calapo?lu, Ahmet Salih; ?ehito?lu, ?brahim; Yurdakul, Cüneyt

    2014-09-01

    Ovary juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) are rare sex cord-stromal tumors that are most commonly encountered in prepubertal girls. These tumors can be of the adult type (95%) and juvenile type (5%). The main causes of complaint are abdominal distention and abdominal pain. Definitive diagnosis is confirmed by histopathologal and immunohistochemical examinations. A 10-year old girl presented with massive abdominal distention, acute abdomen findings and ascites. Abdominopelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed masses with multiple cysts and solid components in the left ovary. Tumor markers were normal, but serum estradiol level was elevated. The patient underwent mass resection with left salpingo-oophorectomy and total omentectomy. Final histopathological diagnosis was JGCT. We herein reporte an extremely rare case of advanced stage JGCT causing massive ascites and acute abdomen. PMID:25204485

  15. Histopathological Studies on Rabbits Infected by Bacteria Causing Infectious Keratitis in Human through Eye Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Mohamed, Hala A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to investigate the pathogenic effect of bacteria causing infectious keratitis among patients through experimental study conducted on rabbits’ eyes with the aid of histopathology as eye infection is a common disease in developing countries that may complicate to loss of vision. Methodology 100 swab samples were collected from human infected eyes, at Qassim region during 2012, for the isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated pathogenic bacteria were tested to various antibiotics using some selected antibiotics discs through agar-well diffusion method. Then, experimental study conducted on 27 rabbits. The rabbits were divided randomly into three equal groups, each containing 9 rabbits. Rabbits of group (1) served as control group (Negative Control) and their eyes were inoculated with the buffer only. Rabbits of group (2) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rabbits of group (3) were inoculated through eyes with the isolated Staphylococcus aureus. Results Out of 100 collected swab samples from human infected eyes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated with a total percentage of 25.21% and 15.65%; respectively and used in this study. Both bacterial isolates were sensitive to Gentamicin and Cefuroxime. Clinically, experimentally infected rabbits by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealed varying degree corneal abrasions, corneal abscess and dense corneal opacity. Histopathologically, at 3rd day post-infection (PI), the cornea revealed polymorpho-nuclear cells infiltration with loss of the outer epithelial lining. At 7th day PI, neutrophils were seen in the stroma. At 15th day PI, proliferation of fibroblasts and new vascularisation were seen in the stroma. Clinically, rabbits experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, revealed corneal ulcers and focal abscesses. Histopathologically, at 3rd and 7th day PI, the cornea revealed edema and infiltration of leukocytes. At 15th day PI, hyperplasia of corneal epithelium and proliferation of keratocytes were evident. The liver and kidneys of experimented rabbits revealed no remarkable histopathological alterations along the period of experiment. Conclusion Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are common eye infection in human, both induced severe lesions in the eyes of rabbits that could interfere with vision, therefore, strict measures to control these infections in human is recommended. PMID:25505861

  16. Severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by the influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Sandra Aparecida; Brasileiro, Graziela Sgreccia; Soleiman, Luciana Novaes Campello; Silva, Cristiano Cruz; Kavaguti, Cláudio Shoki

    2010-01-01

    In view of the pandemic caused by a new virus, influenza A (H1N1), we report the case of a 56-year-old patient without relevant risk factors and with severe acute respiratory syndrome resulting from infection with this virus. We present the results of laboratory tests and the imaging findings (chest X-ray and CT scans). The evolution was favorable, and the patient was discharged after 14 days. PMID:20625677

  17. Endophytic bacteria expressing ?-glucuronidase cause false positives in transformation of Dioscorea species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmut Tör; Sinclair H. Mantell; Charles Ainsworth

    1992-01-01

    False positive transformants obtained during plant transformation experiments on species of the monocotyledonous genus Dioscorea (yam) are described. The false positive results were found to be due to endophytic bacteria which exist within aseptically micropropagated shoot cultures and which express ß-glucuronidase (GUS). The bacteria were isolated and identified as two species of Curtobacterium. The expression of GUS in these organisms

  18. Acute infective colitis caused by endemic pathogens in western Europe: endoscopic features.

    PubMed

    Rutgeerts, P; Geboes, K; Ponette, E; Coremans, G; Vantrappen, G

    1982-11-01

    In a 4-year period 45 patients were admitted to our gastroenterological u nit with acute infective colitis. The endemic pathogens responsible for the colitis were Yersinia enterocolitica (46%), Campylobacter fetus jejuni (20%), common Salmonellae (13%), less virulent strains of Shigella (9%), Entamoeba hystolytica (7%) and Cytomegalovirus (4%). These microorganisms caused very severe disease in 18% of the patients, who were mostly predisposed. While Salmonella- and amoebic colitis always mimicked ulcerative colitis by the presence of diffuse lesions, the other pathogens caused focal colitis, thus necessitating differential diagnosis vis a vis Crohn's colitis. Two patients (4%) died of complications, while 93% of the patients were cured by proper antimicrobial therapy. In the same period 12 patients were admitted with an acute attack of inflammatory bowel disease due to an intercurrent infection with the same pathogens. In most of these patients clinical remission of IBD was achieved by treating the intercurrent infection. These data indicate that in the presence of an acute attack of colitis an infective etiologic agent must always be sought, and that an attack of chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease may be caused by an intercurrent infection. PMID:7140655

  19. Prospective evaluation of HSV , Candida spp., and oral bacteria on the severity of oral mucositis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina Maria Holanda de Mendonça; Marcela de Araújo; Carlos Emilio Levy; Joseane Morari; Rosângela A. Silva; José Andres Yunes; Silvia Regina Brandalise

    Background  Oral mucositis is a common collateral effect among the secondary complications resulting from chemotherapy. The objective\\u000a of this study was to prospectively evaluate the association of HSV-1, Candida spp., and oral bacteria on the severity of oral mucositis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Procedure  Seventy-one prospective patients were included. Analyses of oral microbiota were conducted on days 14 (D14) and 56

  20. Endophytic bacteria expressing ?-glucuronidase cause false positives in transformation of Dioscorea species.

    PubMed

    Tör, M; Mantell, S H; Ainsworth, C

    1992-08-01

    False positive transformants obtained during plant transformation experiments on species of the monocotyledonous genus Dioscorea (yam) are described. The false positive results were found to be due to endophytic bacteria which exist within aseptically micropropagated shoot cultures and which express ?-glucuronidase (GUS). The bacteria were isolated and identified as two species of Curtobacterium. The expression of GUS in these organisms was found to be induced by a variety of glucuronide substrates. The induction of GUS activity in the bacteria can be inhibited by chloramphenicol, tetracycline, ticarcillin and sodium azide. Implications of these results for use of the gus gene in plant transformation work are discussed. PMID:24201588

  1. Parasitic infection of the appendix as a cause of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Danielle Fernandes; da Silva, Reinaldo José; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães; Sartorelli, Alesso Cervantes; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan

    2007-12-01

    The association between parasitic infection of the appendix and acute appendicitis has been widely investigated. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the prevalence of parasitic infection of the appendix in a tropical area at southeast Brazil and to assess its possible relation to acute appendicitis in surgically removed appendices. Of the 1,600 appendectomies performed during a 10-year period, 24 (1.5%) were found to have helminths within the appendix. Enterobius vermicularis was observed in 23 of the 24 specimens (95.8%), and Taenia sp. was detected in only one case. Sixteen patients (66.7%) were less than 10 years old; 15 patients were male and nine female; 21 patients were white, and three were nonwhites. Pathologic analysis disclosed acute neutrophilic inflammation in the appendix wall in 12 of the 24 specimens and lymphoid hyperplasia in 10 of the 24 appendices. Gangrenous appendicitis was diagnosed in three cases, and peritonitis was found in 11 of the 24 infected appendices. The results of the present study indicate that E. vermicularis is the commonest worm found in the appendix and that its presence can cause pathologic changes ranging from lymphoid hyperplasia to acute phlegmonous inflammation with life-threatening complications like gangrene and peritonitis. PMID:17851689

  2. Necrotizing mycotic vasculitis with cerebral infarction caused by Aspergillus niger in a horse with acute typholocolitis.

    PubMed

    Tunev, S S; Ehrhart, E J; Jensen, H E; Foreman, J H; Richter, R A; Messick, J B

    1999-07-01

    An 18-year-old Morgan mare was presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of Illinois, with a 10-day history of watery diarrhea, depression, and dysphagia. On admission, the animal was severely dehydrated, depressed, and unable to swallow and had no clinical signs of diarrhea. The respiratory and heart rate and body temperature were within normal limits. Following fluid therapy, the mare developed severe watery diarrhea and continued to be depressed, incoordinated, and dysphagic. The animal died on the fourth day after admission and was sent to the Laboratories of Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine for necropsy. Gross postmortem findings were consistent with an acute cerebral infarction in the right cerebral hemisphere, an acute necrotizing typhlocolitis, multifocal petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, enlarged and congested pars intermedia of the pituitary gland, and marked bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia with multifocal areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Histologic evaluation of the affected brain demonstrated an area of coagulative necrosis of the gray matter, with hemorrhage, vasculitis, and thrombosis. There were many fungal hyphae 3.5-6.0 microm, pale basophilic, septate, and occasionally branching at 45 degrees present in the arterial walls and throughout the necrotic tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed Aspergillus niger as the etiologic agent responsible for the mycotic vasculitis and infarction in the brain. Bacteria culture and immunohistochemical staining of the colon and cecum failed to demonstrate specific pathogens. PMID:10421105

  3. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of some antimicrobial drugs against bacteria causing uterine infections in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, I M; Bushnell, M; Montgomery, J; Rycroft, A N

    2004-09-25

    The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oxytetracycline, cephapirin, cephapirin/mecillinam, cefquinome, ceftiofur and enrofloxacin, candidate antibiotics for the principal bacteria associated with uterine infections: Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and the anaerobic bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella melaninogenicus, were determined by the agar dilution method. The bacteria were isolated from animals with clinical metritis and/or endometritis. For E coli, cefquinome and enrofloxacin had the lowest MIC90 and MIC50 values (< 0.06 microg/ml), and oxytetracycline and cephapirin had the highest values. For A pyogenes, oxytetracycline had the highest MIC50 value (16 microg/ml), but all the cephalosporins had values below 0.06 microg/ml. For the anaerobic bacteria, enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline had the highest MIC50 values but all the cephalosporins had values of 0.06 microg/ml or below. PMID:15499809

  4. Coxiella burnetii Isolates Cause Genogroup-Specific Virulence in Mouse and Guinea Pig Models of Acute Q Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. E. Russell-Lodrigue; M. Andoh; M. W. J. Poels; H. R. Shive; G. Q. Zhang; C. Tersteeg; T. Masegi; A. Hotta; T. Yamaguchi; H. Fukushima; K. Hirai; D. N. McMurray; J. E. Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease of worldwide significance caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Humans with Q fever may experience an acute flu-like illness and pneumonia and\\/or chronic hepatitis or endocarditis. Various markers demonstrate significant phylogenetic separation between and clustering among isolates from acute and chronic human disease. The clinical and pathological responses to infection with phase

  5. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection causing acute coronary syndrome in a young patient without risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Chevli, Parag; Kelash, Fnu; Gadhvi, Pragnesh; Grandhi, Sreeram; Syed, Amer

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction that is more common in younger patients (under age 50) and in women. Although the etiology is not known, some predisposing conditions to SCAD are well known and include Marfan syndrome, pregnancy and peripartum state, drug abuse, and some anatomical abnormalities of the coronary arteries such as aneurysms and severe kinking. We describe a case of SCAD in a young woman who presented with sudden onset of chest pain and was admitted for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. The coronary angiography showed dissection of the left anterior descending artery. The patient underwent successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and stent placement. PMID:25317268

  6. Lung Postmortem Autopsy Revealing Extramedullary Involvement in Multiple Myeloma Causing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ravinet, Aurélie; Perbet, Sébastien; Guièze, Romain; Guérin, Renaud; Gayraud, Guillaume; Aliane, Jugurtha; Tremblay, Aymeric; Pascal, Julien; Ledoux, Albane; Chaleteix, Carine; Dechelotte, Pierre; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement with multiple myeloma is rare. We report the case of a 61-year-old man with past medical history of chronic respiratory failure with emphysema, and a known multiple myeloma (Durie and Salmon stage III B and t(4;14) translocation). Six months after diagnosis and first line of treatment, he presented acute dyspnea with interstitial lung disease. Computed tomography showed severe bullous emphysema and diffuse, patchy, multifocal infiltrations bilaterally with nodular character, small bilateral pleural effusions, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and a known lytic lesion of the 12th vertebra. He was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, oseltamivir, and methylprednisolone. Finally, outcome was unfavourable. Postmortem analysis revealed diffuse and nodular infracentimetric infiltration of the lung parenchyma by neoplastic plasma cells. Physicians should be aware that acute respiratory distress syndrome not responding to treatment of common causes could be a manifestation of the disease, even with negative BAL or biopsy and could be promptly treated with salvage therapy. PMID:25165587

  7. Predation as a cause of neurologic signs and acute mortality in a pheasant flock.

    PubMed

    Martin, M P; Anderson, C M; Johnson, B; Wakenell, P S

    2006-09-01

    A flock of approximately 15,000 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) was evaluated for a sudden increase in mortality and acute neurological signs after having been previously diagnosed 3 wk earlier with a chronic respiratory disease of undetermined etiology. Approximately 25 live birds were displaying neurological signs including circling, ataxia, and obtunded behavior and 50 birds were dead. Three birds with neurological signs were submitted for evaluation. Extensive subcutaneous hemorrhage over the head and penetrating puncture wounds through the skull and into the brain were found. Trauma from a wild predatory mammal, most likely the long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata) that had invaded the pheasant house and expressed surplus killing behavior was determined to be the cause of the acute neurological signs and mortality. The relationship of the chronic respiratory disease to the predation episode was not determined but it is possible that pheasants with severe respiratory disease may have had increased susceptibility to predation. PMID:17039853

  8. Identification of the cause of weak acute toxicity to rainbow trout at a petroleum refinery

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.R.; Zaleski, R.T.; Biddinger, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    The refinery in question performs flow through acute toxicity tests on its effluent four times per month using three fish species: fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus oculeatus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Several months of monitoring data indicated a transient low level acute toxicity to rainbow trout. In most cases, several days were required for mortality to occur in the flow through tests and numerous attempts to reproduce toxicity in static and static renewal tests were unsuccessful. A decision was made to manipulate the effluent in an attempt to enhance the toxic effect in the static mode so that conventional methods could be used to identify the cause. these tests indicated that toxicity was pH dependent. Additional testing, using EPA`s Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation methods suggested that the cause of toxicity was probably an organic acid. Experiments were subsequently begun to identify the specific cause and source of toxicity. This paper reviews the problems confronted during the various phases of the study and the decisions that were made that eventually led to an understanding of the basis of toxicity.

  9. Acute myocardial infarction in a young man caused by centipede sting.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, A; Biçeroglu, S; Yakut, N; Bilir, C; Akdemir, R; Akilli, A

    2006-04-01

    It is known that insects can cause various clinical effects such as myocardial ischaemia and hypotension from vasospasm and the myocardial toxic effects of the venom and anaphylaxis. Although myocardial ischaemia resulting from centipede sting has been reported once before, myocardial injury has not. In this report, the authors present the case of a 20 year old male patient bitten by a centipede and admitted to the emergency room with chest pain, abnormal electrocardiographic findings, and increased cardiac enzymes (cardiac troponin T) suggesting acute myocardial infarction. PMID:16549562

  10. [Experience of the use of silodosin in acute urinary retention caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Ne?mark, A I; Nozdrachev, N A

    2013-01-01

    For the treatment of acute urinary retention (AUR) as one of the most serious complications of adenoma of the prostate (BPH), alpha-adrenoblockers are widely used. The article presents an experience of the use of the new uroselective alpha-adrenoblocker silodosin approved for the treatment of patients with urination disorders caused by BPH. Its pharmacological profile has a number of advantages, including the highest uroselectiveness at the present day, immediate action, the potential for the use of standard dose of 8 mg 1 time a day, which does not require a correction depending on the age, and the possibility of the simultaneous application with antihypertensive drugs. PMID:24159765

  11. Beware of paracetamol use in alcohol abusers: a potential cause of acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, Achala; Cameron, Christina; Robinson, Geoffrey

    2013-09-27

    There may be under-recognition of acute liver injury following reported therapeutic use of paracetamol in alcoholics. We present the case of an alcoholic patient who developed acute liver injury suspicious for chronic paracetamol toxicity on two occasions. The likely contribution of chronic paracetamol was not recognised at her second presentation, reflecting a need for increased awareness of this potential cause of acute liver injury. The biochemical hallmark of the syndrome is the 'towering' aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), often in the thousands; transaminases above 500 U/L should never be dismissed as secondary to alcoholic liver disease alone. Whether alcoholics are at increased risk of toxicity from therapeutic doses of paracetamol remains controversial, although many cases have been described for over 30 years. Randomised controlled trials to date have failed to show significant hepatic derangement in newly abstinent alcoholics exposed to short courses of paracetamol. We argue that these studies do not reflect the realities of paracetamol use in this population. In addition, alcoholics are at risk of accidental 'staggered overdoses', or repeated supra-therapeutic ingestions. In cases of suspected paracetamol toxicity, administration of the antidote n-acetyl cysteine (NAC) should be considered, even when the patient's serum paracetamol level is normal. PMID:24157994

  12. Acute renal failure in a child with thrombocytopenic purpura caused by acute Epstein-Barr virus infection after treatment with anti-D immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Kossiva, Lydia; Kyriakou, Dimitrios; Mitsioni, Andromachi; Garoufi, Anastasia

    2013-06-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children is usually a benign, self-limiting disorder. An acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection usually causes atypical lymphocytosis and mild decrease in platelets. Severe thrombocytopenia is an extremely rare complication. Anti-D immunoglobulin has been used for treatment of ITP in Rh(D)-positive nonsplenectomized patients. Severe hemolysis and acute renal failure are extremely rare complications that may be aggravated by the presence of an acute EBV infection. It is believed that anti-D immunoglobulin triggers an unusual virus-induced immune response causing hemolysis. We present a 4-year-old girl with ITP caused by an acute EBV infection that developed acute kidney injury following treatment with anti-D immunoglobulin. The patient recovered completely from thrombocytopenia and renal dysfunction. Intravascular hemolysis and acute kidney injury are consistent with anti-D immunoglobulin mechanism of action. Pediatric patients treated with anti-D immunoglobulin for ITP should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of hemolysis that may be aggravated by the presence of EBV infection leading to impaired renal function. PMID:23736070

  13. Potential of bulb-associated bacteria for biocontrol of hyacinth soft rot caused by Dickeya zeae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jafra; J. Przysowa; A. Gwizdek-Wisniewska; Wolf van der J. M

    2009-01-01

    Dickeya zeae is a pectinolytic bacterium responsible for soft rot disease in flower bulb crops. In this study, the possibility of controlling soft rot disease in hyacinth by using antagonistic bacteria isolated from hyacinth bulbs was explored. Bacterial isolates with potential for biocontrol were selected on the basis of antibiosis against D. zeae, siderophore production, and the N-acyl homoserine lactones

  14. Control filamentous bulking caused by chlorine-resistant Type 021N bacteria through adding a biocide CTAB.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jianhua; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Zhongwei; Yuan, Zhiguo; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Shuying

    2012-12-01

    Filamentous bulking sludge due to excessive growth of filamentous bacteria is a serious operational problem in activated sludge plants. The addition of chemicals is one of widespread ways to control filamentous bulking. In this study, filamentous bulking in a continuous activated sludge system was found to be mainly caused by Eikelboom Type 021N filamentous bacteria likely due to low substrate concentration gradients. These Type 021N bacteria were found to be resistant to chlorination, maintaining cell integrity at a dosage of up to 80 mg Cl/gSS. An alternative biocidal agent, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), exhibited a much stronger biocidal effect on these filaments, which significantly improved sludge settleability. Type 021N with filamentous index of 5 was selectively killed, but floc-formers recovery their activity after CTAB termination. The study implied that CTAB might have more penetration capacity to cell wall of chlorine-resistant Type 021N bacteria. We therefore suggest the penetration property of filament cell wall should be considered or tested before the selection of biocide type in practice. PMID:23079128

  15. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for acute respiratory failure caused by liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Katsuhara, Kazuhiro; Nakada, Taka-Aki; Yamada, Mami; Fuse, Takashi; Idoguchi, Koji; Matsuoka, Tetsuya

    2015-06-01

    Liver abscess remains a life-threatening disease, particularly when it results in systemic organ failure necessitating intensive care. Only few cases of respiratory failure caused by liver abscess and treated with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) have been reported. Here we present a case of liver abscess with rapid progression of multiple organ dysfunction, including severe acute respiratory failure on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Upon admission, we immediately initiated artificial organ support systems, including ventilator, continuous renal replacement therapy, and cardiovascular drug infusion for septic multiple organ failure and source control. Despite this initial management, respiratory failure deteriorated and V-V ECMO was introduced. The case developed abdominal compartment syndrome, for which we performed a bedside decompressive laparotomy in the ICU. The case gradually recovered from multiple organ failure and was discharged from the ICU on day 22 and from the hospital on day 53. Since liver abscess is potentially lethal and respiratory failure on admission is an additional risk factor of mortality, V-V ECMO may serve as an adjunctive choice of artificial organ support for cases of severe acute respiratory failure caused by liver abscess. PMID:25420925

  16. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae as primary causes of acute otitis media in colombian children: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most frequently encountered bacterial infections in children aged < 5 years; Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are historically identified as primary AOM causes. Nevertheless, recent data on bacterial pathogens causing AOM in Latin America are limited. This prospective study aimed to identify and characterize bacterial etiology and serotypes of AOM cases including antimicrobial susceptibility in < 5 year old Colombian children. Methods From February 2008 to January 2009, children ?3 months and < 5 years of age presenting with AOM and for whom a middle ear fluid (MEF) sample was available were enrolled in two medical centers in Cali, Colombia. MEF samples were collected either by tympanocentesis procedure or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling. Bacteria were identified using standard laboratory methods, and antimicrobial resistance testing was performed based on the 2009 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. Most of the cases included in the study were sporadic in nature. Results Of the 106 enrolled children, 99 were included in the analysis. Bacteria were cultured from 62/99 (63%) of samples with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, or S. pyogenes. The most commonly isolated bacteria were H. influenzae in 31/99 (31%) and S. pneumoniae in 30/99 (30%) of samples. The majority of H. influenzae episodes were NTHi (27/31; 87%). 19F was the most frequently isolated pneumococcal serotype (10/30; 33%). Of the 30 S. pneumoniae positive samples, 8/30 (27%) were resistant to tetracycline, 5/30 (17%) to erythromycin and 8/30 (27%) had intermediate resistance to penicillin. All H. influenzae isolates tested were negative to beta-lactamase. Conclusions NTHi and S. pneumoniae are the leading causes of AOM in Colombian children. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that prevents both pathogens could be useful in maximizing protection against AOM. PMID:21208431

  17. Outbreak of acute fluoride poisoning caused by a fluoride overfeed, Mississippi, 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Penman, A D; Brackin, B T; Embrey, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent and confirm the cause of an August 1993 outbreak of acute fluoride poisoning in a small Mississippi community, thought to result from excess fluoride in the public water supply. METHODS: State health department investigators interviewed patrons of a restaurant where the outbreak first became manifest and obtained blood and urine samples for measurement of fluoride levels. State health department staff conducted a random sample telephone survey of community households. Public health environmentalists obtained water and ice samples from the restaurant and tap water samples from a household close to one of the town's water treatment plant for analysis. Health department investigators and town water department officials inspected the fluoridation system at the town's main water treatment plant. RESULTS: Thirty-four of 62 restaurant patrons reported acute gastrointestinal illness over a 24-hour period. Twenty of 61 households that used the community water supply reported one or more residents with acute gastrointestinal illness over a four-day period, compared with 3 of 13 households that did not use the community water supply. Restaurant water and ice samples contained more than 40 milligrams of fluoride per liter (mg/L), more than 20 times the recommended limit, and a tap water sample from a house located near the main treatment plant contained 200 mg/l of fluoride. An investigation determined that a faulty feed pump at one of the town's two treatment plants had allowed saturated fluoride solution to siphon from the saturator tank into the ground reservoir and that a large bolus of this overfluoridated water had been pumped accidentally into the town system. CONCLUSIONS: Correct installation and regular inspection and maintenance of fluoridation systems are needed to prevent such incidents. PMID:9323392

  18. ?-Blockers and All-Cause Mortality in Adults with Episodes of Acute Bronchitis: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Rutten, Frans H.; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Sachs, Alfred P. E.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Hoes, Arno W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent observational studies suggest that ?-blockers may improve long-term prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We assessed whether ?-blocker use improves all-cause mortality in patients with episodes of acute bronchitis. Methods An observational cohort study using data from the electronic medical records of 23 general practices in the Netherlands. The data included standardized information about daily patient contacts, diagnoses, and drug prescriptions. Cox regression was applied with time-varying treatment and covariates. Results The study included 4,493 patients aged 45 years and older, with at least one episode of acute bronchitis between 1996 and 2006. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 66.9 (11.7) years, and 41.9% were male. During a mean (SD) follow up period of 7.7 (2.5) years, 20.4% developed COPD. In total, 22.7% had cardiovascular comorbidities, resulting in significant higher mortality rates than those without (51.7% vs. 12.0%, p<0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio of cardioselective ?-blocker use for mortality was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50–0.77), and 1.01 (95% CI 0.75–1.36) for non-selective ones. Some other cardiovascular drugs also reduced the risk of mortality, with adjusted HRs of 0.60 (95% CI 0.46–0.79) for calcium channel blockers, 0.88 (95% CI 0.73–1.06) for ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and 0.42 (95% CI 0.31–0.57) for statins, respectively. Conclusion Cardiovascular comorbidities are common and increase the risk of mortality in adults with episodes of acute bronchitis. Cardioselective ?-blockers, but also calcium channel blockers and statins may reduce mortality, possibly as a result of cardiovascular protective properties. PMID:23840599

  19. Splenic infarction – A rare cause of acute abdominal pain following gastric surgery: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Yazici, Pinar; Kaya, Cemal; Isil, Gurhan; Bozkurt, Emre; Mihmanli, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes in gastric cancer surgery is indispensable for treating gastric cancers located in the proximal third of the stomach. Splenic vascular injury is a matter of debate resulting on time or delayed splenectomy. We aimed to share our experience and plausible mechanisms causing this complication in two case reports. Case presentations Two male patients with gastric cancer were diagnosed with acute splenic infarction following gastric surgery in the early postoperative period. Both underwent emergent exploratory laparotomy. Splenectomy was performed due to splenic infarction. Discussion Because we observed this rare complication in recent patients whose surgery was performed using vessel-sealing device for splenic hilar dissection, we suggested that extensive mobilization of the surrounding tissues of splenic vascular structures hilum using the vessel sealer could be the reason. Conclusion In case of acute abdominal pain radiating to left shoulder, splenic complications should be taken into consideration in gastric cancer patients performed radical gastrectomy. Meticulous dissection of splenic hilar lymph nodes should be carried out to avoid any splenic vascular injury. PMID:25818369

  20. Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholecystoscopic Lithotomy in the Management of Acute Cholecystitis Caused by Gallbladder Stones

    PubMed Central

    1998-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic cholecystic drainage (PTCCD) with percutaneous transhepatic cholecystoscopic lithotomy (PTCCSL) were performed in 53 patients with acute cholecystitis caused by gallbladder stones and studied stone removal rates, complications, endoscopic findings, and stone recurrence. The stones were successfully removed in 96% of the patients, and there were no serious complications. The coexistence of cancer was confirmed in three patients, and all cases were accurately diagnosed on the basis of uitrasonographic, endoscopic, and biopsy findings. The mean duration of follow-up after stone removal was 42 months, and the stone recurrence rate was 2.5%. Among the 39 patients followed up for at least 1 year, the gallbladder could be preserved with no evidence of sludge in patients in whom drainage was performed early after the onset of symptoms, those with a normal gallbladder after PTCCSL, and those with normal gallbladder contractility after PTCCSL. Sludge was present in patients with evidence of extensive areas of yellowish white fibers on percutaneous transhepatic cholecystoscopy. If instituted early after the onset of symptoms, PTCCD combined with PTCCSL was considered useful in the treatment of patients with acute cholecystitis associated with gallbladder stones. PMID:18493476

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin metastasising to the right atrium causing acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sladden, David; Yamagata, Kentaro; Pllaha, Elton; Busuttil, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of metastasis to the heart, which was initially suspected to be a myxoma, causing acute right heart failure. Emergency surgery was carried out by opening the right atrium and superior vena cava, and debulking the tumour in a piecemeal fashion, providing temporary relief of symptoms. The histology showed this to be metastatic squamous cell carcinoma possibly of head and neck origin. This is extremely rare, with few published cases. Full endoscopic and CT, including positron emission tomography CT, investigation of the head and neck was performed with no primary findings. Only two such cases of squamous cell carcinoma of unknown origin metastasising to the heart have been described, and, in both cases, the patients died within several weeks of diagnosis. This patient remains alive 2?months postoperatively and is receiving radiotherapy to the chest, but his prognosis remains poor. PMID:26101300

  2. Sensor Node for Remote Monitoring of Waterborne Disease-Causing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyukwang; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A sensor node for sampling water and checking for the presence of harmful bacteria such as E. coli in water sources was developed in this research. A chromogenic enzyme substrate assay method was used to easily detect coliform bacteria by monitoring the color change of the sampled water mixed with a reagent. Live webcam image streaming to the web browser of the end user with a Wi-Fi connected sensor node shows the water color changes in real time. The liquid can be manipulated on the web-based user interface, and also can be observed by webcam feeds. Image streaming and web console servers run on an embedded processor with an expansion board. The UART channel of the expansion board is connected to an external Arduino board and a motor driver to control self-priming water pumps to sample the water, mix the reagent, and remove the water sample after the test is completed. The sensor node can repeat water testing until the test reagent is depleted. The authors anticipate that the use of the sensor node developed in this research can decrease the cost and required labor for testing samples in a factory environment and checking the water quality of local water sources in developing countries. PMID:25951340

  3. Sensor node for remote monitoring of waterborne disease-causing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyukwang; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A sensor node for sampling water and checking for the presence of harmful bacteria such as E. coli in water sources was developed in this research. A chromogenic enzyme substrate assay method was used to easily detect coliform bacteria by monitoring the color change of the sampled water mixed with a reagent. Live webcam image streaming to the web browser of the end user with a Wi-Fi connected sensor node shows the water color changes in real time. The liquid can be manipulated on the web-based user interface, and also can be observed by webcam feeds. Image streaming and web console servers run on an embedded processor with an expansion board. The UART channel of the expansion board is connected to an external Arduino board and a motor driver to control self-priming water pumps to sample the water, mix the reagent, and remove the water sample after the test is completed. The sensor node can repeat water testing until the test reagent is depleted. The authors anticipate that the use of the sensor node developed in this research can decrease the cost and required labor for testing samples in a factory environment and checking the water quality of local water sources in developing countries. PMID:25951340

  4. Acute upregulation of hedgehog signaling in mice causes differential effects on cranial morphology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nandini; Dutka, Tara; Devenney, Benjamin M.; Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling, and particularly signaling by sonic hedgehog (SHH), is implicated in several essential activities during morphogenesis, and its misexpression causes a number of developmental disorders in humans. In particular, a reduced mitogenic response of cerebellar granule cell precursors to SHH signaling in a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS), Ts65Dn, is substantially responsible for reduced cerebellar size. A single treatment of newborn trisomic mice with an agonist of the SHH pathway (SAG) normalizes cerebellar morphology and restores some cognitive deficits, suggesting a possible therapeutic application of SAG for treating the cognitive impairments of DS. Although the beneficial effects on the cerebellum are compelling, inappropriate activation of the HH pathway causes anomalies elsewhere in the head, particularly in the formation and patterning of the craniofacial skeleton. To determine whether an acute treatment of SAG has an effect on craniofacial morphology, we quantitatively analyzed the cranial form of adult euploid and Ts65Dn mice that were injected with either SAG or vehicle at birth. We found significant deformation of adult craniofacial shape in some animals that had received SAG at birth. The most pronounced differences between the treated and untreated mice were in the midline structures of the facial skeleton. The SAG-driven craniofacial dysmorphogenesis was dose-dependent and possibly incompletely penetrant at lower concentrations. Our findings illustrate that activation of HH signaling, even with an acute postnatal stimulation, can lead to localized dysmorphology of the skull by generating modular shape changes in the facial skeleton. These observations have important implications for translating HH-agonist-based treatments for DS. PMID:25540129

  5. The mechanism of acute renal ischaemia caused by adrenalectomy in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Peart, W S; Pessina, A C

    1975-01-01

    1. The acute reduction of renal blood flow following adrenalectomy in the rat, which had previously been shown to be associated with sequestration of blood volume in the splanchnic area, was further investigated. An attempt was made to define the role of the renal sympathetic nerves in causing the blood flow change. 2. The systemic and renal intra-arterial administration of phenoxybenzamine, isoprenaline and propranolol and denervation of the renal pedicle failed to re-establish normal renal function. 3. Infusion of P113 (sarcosyl1 alanine8), an angiotensin blocker, failed to improve renal function. 4. In contrast, volume replacement with high-molecular weight PVP caused a prompt increase of RPF and GFR without altering arterial pressure and central venous pressure. 5. Angiographic studies demonstrated that the calibre of the aorta of adrenalectomized rats was significantly smaller than that of the sham operated and increased after the administration of this plasma volume expander. 6. It was concluded that after adrenalectomy the major arteries readjusted their calibre to the reduced volume of blood in the arterial tree with maintenance of a constant pressure/volume relationship. Their contracted state in the case of the kidney then led to flow reduction. Images Plate 2 Plate 1 PMID:1177121

  6. Isolation and Molecular Detection of Gram Negative Bacteria Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Patients Referred to Shahrekord Hospitals, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Tajbakhsh, Elahe; Tajbakhsh, Sara; Khamesipour, Faham

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTI), and their complications, cause serious health problems, which affect millions of people every year. Infections of the urinary tract are the second most common type of infection in the body and approximately 20% of women are especially prone to UTIs for reasons not yet well understood. Urinary Tract Infections in men are not as common as in women yet can be very serious when they do occur. Accurate identification of bacterial isolates is an essential task of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and variety of the causative microbial agents of UTIs in patients who had referred to a medical laboratory of Kashani and Hajar hospital in Shahrekord, Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study 147 urine samples of patients (urine test results were positive for UTIs) were examined during April to September 2013. A total of 147 urine samples of patients with clinical symptoms of UTI who had been referred to a medical laboratory of Kashani and Hajar hospital in Shahrekord (Iran), were collected and processed immediately for laboratory analysis. Results: Escherichia coli was identified as the most common causative agent of UTIs (51.70% of total isolates in both sexes), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. Pneumoniae) (16.32%). Frequency of Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Entrobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Providencia spp. was 10.88%, 6.12%, 5.44%, 4.08%, 3.40% and 2.04%, respectively. Statistical analysis by Fisher exact test showed that there was no significant relationship between the type of bacteria and gender (P > 0.05). Chi square test showed that there was no significant relationship between the type of bacteria and the use of catheter and age group (P > 0.05). However, there was a significant relationship between the type of bacteria and the history of hospitalization (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings implied that a wide range of bacteria could be involved in creating urinary tract infection in patients referred to a medical laboratory of Kashani and Hajar hospital in Shahrekord, Iran. Regardless of age, sex and the use of catheter, a wide range of bacteria could be involved in urinary tract infections.

  7. Acute toxicity test of leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills using luminescent bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Pivato, Alberto [IMAGE Department, University of Padua, Via Loredan 20, 35131 Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: alberto.pivato@libero.it; Gaspari, Lorenzo [IMAGE Department, University of Padua, Via Loredan 20, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Landfilling is a fundamental step in any waste management strategy, but it can constitute a hazard for the environment for a long time. The need to protect the environment from potential landfill emissions makes risk assessment a decision tool of extreme necessity. The heterogeneity of wastes and the complexity of physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in the body of a landfill need specific procedures in order to evaluate the groundwater risk for the environment. Given the complexity of the composition of landfill leachates, the exact contribution of each potential toxic substance cannot be known precisely. Some reference contaminants that constitute the hazard (toxicity) of leachate have to be found to perform the risk assessment. A preliminary ecotoxicological investigation with luminescent bacteria has been carried out on different leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills in order to rank the chemicals that better characterize the leachate (heavy metals, ammonia and dissolved organic content). The attention has been focused on ammonia because it is present in high concentration and can last for centuries and can seriously contaminate the groundwater. The results showed that the toxicity of the leachate might reliably depend on the ammonia concentration and that the leachate toxicity is considerably lower in sustainable landfills where the ammonia had been degraded. This has an important consequence because if the containment system fails (as usually occur within 30-50 yr), the risk of groundwater contamination will be calculated easier only in terms of the probability that the ammonia concentration is higher than a reference concentration.

  8. Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust.

    PubMed

    Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

    2012-07-01

    Iron (Fe(0) ) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H(2) S, and scavenge of 'cathodic' H(2) from chemical reaction of Fe(0) with H(2) O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10?mm?×?10?mm?×?1?mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7?mm?Fe(0) year(-1) ), while conventional H(2) -scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO(3) , Mg/CaCO(3) ) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50?S?m(-1) ). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe(0) ???4Fe(2+) ?+?8e(-) ) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e(-) ?+?SO(4) (2-) ?+?9H(+) ???HS(-) ?+?4H(2) O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H(2) rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments. PMID:22616633

  9. Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust

    PubMed Central

    Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe0) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H2S, and scavenge of ‘cathodic’ H2 from chemical reaction of Fe0 with H2O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe0 year?1), while conventional H2-scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO3, Mg/CaCO3) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m?1). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe0 ? 4Fe2+ + 8e?) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e? + SO42? + 9H+ ? HS? + 4H2O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H2 rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments. PMID:22616633

  10. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing otitis externa in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamed Zamankhan Malayeri; Shahram Jamshidi; Taghi Zahraei Salehi

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial agents are considered important pathogens causing external otitis in dogs. It is essential to carry out bacterial\\u000a culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test in the case of otitis externa, particularly for chronic or recurring cases.\\u000a Sterile swab samples were obtained from terminal part of vertical ear canals of 74 dogs with otitis externa for cytology,\\u000a bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility

  11. Bacteria causing important diseases of citrus utilise distinct modes of pathogenesis to attack a common host

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrián Alberto Vojnov; Alexandre Morais do Amaral; John Maxwell Dow; Atilio Pedro Castagnaro; Marìa Rosa Marano

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on three pathogens that exhibit distinct tissue specificity and modes of\\u000a pathogenesis in citrus plants. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes canker disease and invades the host leaf mesophyll tissue through natural openings and can also survive as an epiphyte.\\u000a Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter are vectored by insects and proliferate in the

  12. Crystals cause acute necrotic cell death in renal proximal tubule cells, but not in collecting tubule cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIEKE S J SCHEPERS; EDDY S VAN BALLEGOOIJEN; CHRIS H BANGMA; CARL F VERKOELEN

    2005-01-01

    Crystals cause acute necrotic cell death in renal proximal tubule cells, but not in collecting tubule cells.BackgroundThe interaction between renal tubular cells and crystals generated in the tubular fluid could play an initiating role in the pathophysiology of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. Crystals are expected to form in the renal collecting ducts, but not in the proximal tubule. In the present

  13. Coxiella burnetii Isolates Cause Genogroup-Specific Virulence in Mouse and Guinea Pig Models of Acute Q Fever? †

    PubMed Central

    Russell-Lodrigue, K. E.; Andoh, M.; Poels, M. W. J.; Shive, H. R.; Weeks, B. R.; Zhang, G. Q.; Tersteeg, C.; Masegi, T.; Hotta, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Fukushi, H.; Hirai, K.; McMurray, D. N.; Samuel, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease of worldwide significance caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Humans with Q fever may experience an acute flu-like illness and pneumonia and/or chronic hepatitis or endocarditis. Various markers demonstrate significant phylogenetic separation between and clustering among isolates from acute and chronic human disease. The clinical and pathological responses to infection with phase I C. burnetii isolates from the following four genomic groups were evaluated in immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice and in guinea pig infection models: group I (Nine Mile, African, and Ohio), group IV (Priscilla and P), group V (G and S), and group VI (Dugway). Isolates from all of the groups produced disease in the SCID mouse model, and genogroup-consistent trends were noted in cytokine production in response to infection in the immunocompetent-mouse model. Guinea pigs developed severe acute disease when aerosol challenged with group I isolates, mild to moderate acute disease in response to group V isolates, and no acute disease when infected with group IV and VI isolates. C. burnetii isolates have a range of disease potentials; isolates within the same genomic group cause similar pathological responses, and there is a clear distinction in strain virulence between these genomic groups. PMID:19786560

  14. Coxiella burnetii isolates cause genogroup-specific virulence in mouse and guinea pig models of acute Q fever.

    PubMed

    Russell-Lodrigue, K E; Andoh, M; Poels, M W J; Shive, H R; Weeks, B R; Zhang, G Q; Tersteeg, C; Masegi, T; Hotta, A; Yamaguchi, T; Fukushi, H; Hirai, K; McMurray, D N; Samuel, J E

    2009-12-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease of worldwide significance caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Humans with Q fever may experience an acute flu-like illness and pneumonia and/or chronic hepatitis or endocarditis. Various markers demonstrate significant phylogenetic separation between and clustering among isolates from acute and chronic human disease. The clinical and pathological responses to infection with phase I C. burnetii isolates from the following four genomic groups were evaluated in immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice and in guinea pig infection models: group I (Nine Mile, African, and Ohio), group IV (Priscilla and P), group V (G and S), and group VI (Dugway). Isolates from all of the groups produced disease in the SCID mouse model, and genogroup-consistent trends were noted in cytokine production in response to infection in the immunocompetent-mouse model. Guinea pigs developed severe acute disease when aerosol challenged with group I isolates, mild to moderate acute disease in response to group V isolates, and no acute disease when infected with group IV and VI isolates. C. burnetii isolates have a range of disease potentials; isolates within the same genomic group cause similar pathological responses, and there is a clear distinction in strain virulence between these genomic groups. PMID:19786560

  15. Embolization followed by surgery for treatment of perimedullary arteriovenous fistula causing acute myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, I-Han; Lee, Han-Chung; Yen, Pao-Sheng; Cho, Der-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perimedullary arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is rare. There are three subtypes, and the treatment strategies for each are different. Subtype B (multiple fistulas) can be treated by either embolization or surgery. On the basis of a case from our treatment experience, we propose a method for achieving optimal outcome while minimizing nerve injury. Case Description: A 51-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with acute myelopathy caused by a perimedullary AVF. Initially, we treated her by embolization using the chemical agent Onyx. Her symptoms improved immediately but gradually returned beginning 1 week later. Two months later, the symptoms had returned to pretreatment status, so we removed the fistulas surgically. Severe adhesions between nerve and occult venous varices were noted during the operation. Afterward, the patient's symptoms improved significantly. Histopathological sections showed an inflammatory reaction around the varices. Conclusions: We initially considered several possible reasons for the return of symptoms: (a) Hypoperfusion of the spinal cord; (b) mass effect of the occult vein varices; (c) residual AVF or vascular remodeling resulting in recurrent cord hypertension; (d) Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation resulting in nerves adhering to each other and to occult venous varices. Clinical, surgical, and pathological findings ruled out the first three, leaving Onyx-induced perivascular inflammation as the probable reason. Given our treatment experience and the pros and cons of the two methods, we propose that initial embolization followed by surgery after 5 days to remove occult venous varices is the ideal strategy for treating perimedullary AVF of subtype B.

  16. Intestinal Amebiasis: A Concerning Cause of Acute Gastroenteritis Among Hospitalized Lebanese Children

    PubMed Central

    Naous, Amal; Naja, Ziad; Zaatari, Nour; Kamel, Raymond; Rajab, Mariam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intestinal amebiasis is an important public health problem worldwide. More severe disease is associated with young age, malnutrition and immunosuppression. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and characteristic nature of intestinal amebiasis among pediatric population, and compare it with other causes of gastroenteritis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective comparative study conducted at Makassed General Hospital between January 2008 and December 2012, including all pediatric patients between birth and 15 years of age, who presented with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. Results: One thousand three hundred ninety-five patients were included in the study, and were divided into four groups: Group I (Entameba histolytica group = 311 cases, 22.3%), group II (Rotavirus group = 427 cases, 30.6%), group III (bacterial group = 107 cases, 7.7%), group IV (unidentified group = 550 cases, 39.4%). Significant leukocytosis, neutrophilia and positive C-reactive protein were found among more than 50% of admitted Entemaba histolytica cases with a picture of severe invasive disease in young infants. Conclusion: Entameba histolytica can be an emerging serious infection, especially when it finds suitable environmental conditions and host factors, so we should be ready to face it with effective preventive measures. PMID:24404551

  17. Anthrax Lethal Toxin Disrupts Intestinal Barrier Function and Causes Systemic Infections with Enteric Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chen; Fang, Hui; Xie, Tao; Auth, Roger D.; Patel, Nayana; Murray, Patrick R.; Frucht, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs). Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis. PMID:22438953

  18. Systemic Inflammation with Multiorgan Dysfunction Is the Cause of Death in Murine Ligation-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuobiao Yuan; David K. Meyerholz; Erik C. Twait; Duraisamy Kempuraj; Deborah E. Williard; Isaac Samuel

    Background  We have previously shown that distal pancreatic duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in mice is associated with substantial\\u000a mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We examined the cause of death in duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in mice by serial examination of multiple parameters\\u000a in three experimental groups: distal pancreatic duct ligation (PD), bile duct ligation alone (BD), and sham operation (S).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  BD and S had no

  19. Vinpocetine ameliorates acute hepatic damage caused by administration of carbon tetrachloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel Salam, O M E; Oraby, Fatma Hassan; Hassan, Nabila S

    2007-12-01

    Vinpocetine is a widely used drug for the treatment of cerebrovascular and memory disorders. This study aimed to investigate the effect of vinpocetine on the acute hepatic injury caused in the rat by the administration of CCl4 in vivo. Vinpocetine (2.1, 4.2, 8.4 mg/kg) or silymarin (30 mg/kg) was given once daily orally simultaneously with CCl4 and for 15 days thereafter. Liver damage was assessed by determining serum enzyme activities and hepatic histopathology. Stained sections were subjected to morphometric evaluation using computerized image analyzer. The results showed that vinpocetine administered to CCl4-treated rats decreased the elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) by 49.3, 58.1 and 63.6%, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) by 10.5, 22.6 and 27.2% and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) by 52.5, 59.6 and 64.9%, respectively, and in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, silymarin reduced elevated ALT, AST and ALP levels by 53.1, 26.9 and 66%, respectively. Histological examination of liver specimens revealed a marked reduction in liver cell necrosis in vinpocetine and silymarin-treated rats compared with vehicle-treated CCl4-treated rats. Quantitative analysis of the area of damage showed 85.3% reduction in the area of damage after silymarin and 72.2, 78.9 and 82.6% reduction after vinpocetine treatment at 2.1, 4.2, 8.4 mg/kg, respectively. It is concluded that administration of vinpocetine in a model of CCl4-induced liver injury in rats reduced liver damage. The reduction obtained by 4.2 mg/kg of vinpocetine was similar to that obtained by 30 mg/kg silymarin. Therefore, it is suggested that vinpocetine might be a good pharmacological agent in the treatment of liver disease besides its neuroprotective effects. PMID:18277467

  20. Global metabolomic profiling of acute myocarditis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Gironès, Núria; Carbajosa, Sofía; Guerrero, Néstor A; Poveda, Cristina; Chillón-Marinas, Carlos; Fresno, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, being cardiomyopathy the more frequent manifestation. New chemotherapeutic drugs are needed but there are no good biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. There is growing evidence linking immune response and metabolism in inflammatory processes and specifically in Chagas disease. Thus, some metabolites are able to enhance and/or inhibit the immune response. Metabolite levels found in the host during an ongoing infection could provide valuable information on the pathogenesis and/or identify deregulated metabolic pathway that can be potential candidates for treatment and being potential specific biomarkers of the disease. To gain more insight into those aspects in Chagas disease, we performed an unprecedented metabolomic analysis in heart and plasma of mice infected with T. cruzi. Many metabolic pathways were profoundly affected by T. cruzi infection, such as glucose uptake, sorbitol pathway, fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis that were increased in heart tissue but decreased in plasma. Tricarboxylic acid cycle was decreased in heart tissue and plasma whereas reactive oxygen species production and uric acid formation were also deeply increased in infected hearts suggesting a stressful condition in the heart. While specific metabolites allantoin, kynurenine and p-cresol sulfate, resulting from nucleotide, tryptophan and phenylalanine/tyrosine metabolism, respectively, were increased in heart tissue and also in plasma. These results provide new valuable information on the pathogenesis of acute Chagas disease, unravel several new metabolic pathways susceptible of clinical management and identify metabolites useful as potential specific biomarkers for monitoring treatment and clinical severity in patients. PMID:25412247

  1. Computational identification and structural analysis of deleterious functional SNPs in MLL gene causing acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    George Priya Doss, C; Rajasekaran, R; Sethumadhavan, Rao

    2010-09-01

    A promising application of the huge amounts of data from the Human Genome Project currently available offers new opportunities for identifying the genetic predisposition and developing a better understanding of complex diseases such as cancers. The main focus of cancer genetics is the study of mutations that are causally implicated in tumorigenesis. The identification of such causal mutations does not only provide insight into cancer biology but also presents anticancer therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers. In this study, we evaluated the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that can alter the expression and the function in MLL gene through computational methods. We applied an evolutionary perspective to screen the SNPs using a sequence homologybased SIFT tool, suggested that 10 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) (50%) were found to be deleterious. Structure based approach PolyPhen server suggested that 5 nsSNPS (25%) may disrupt protein function and structure. PupaSuite tool predicted the phenotypic effect of SNPs on the structure and function of the affected protein. Structure analysis was carried out with the major mutations that occurred in the native protein coded by MLL gene is at amino acid positions Q1198P and K1203Q. The solvent accessibility results showed that 7 residues changed from exposed state in the native type protein to buried state in Q1198P mutant protein and remained unchanged in the case of K1203Q. From the overall results obtained, nsSNP with id (rs1784246) at the amino acid position Q1198P could be considered as deleterious mutation in the acute leukemia caused by MLL gene. PMID:20658337

  2. Acute intermittent porphyria causes hepatic mitochondrial energetic failure in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Homedan, Chadi; Laafi, Jihane; Schmitt, Caroline; Gueguen, Naïg; Lefebvre, Thibaud; Karim, Zoubida; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Wetterwald, Céline; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Gouya, Laurent; Puy, Hervé; Reynier, Pascal; Malthièry, Yves

    2014-06-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an inherited hepatic disorder, is due to a defect of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), an enzyme involved in heme biosynthesis. AIP is characterized by recurrent, life-threatening attacks at least partly due to the increased hepatic production of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). Both the mitochondrial enzyme, ALA synthase (ALAS) 1, involved in the first step of heme biosynthesis, which is closely linked to mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways, and the promise of an ALAS1 siRNA hepatic therapy in humans, led us to investigate hepatic energetic metabolism in Hmbs KO mice treated with phenobarbital. The mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were explored in the Hmbs(-/-) mouse model. RC and TCA cycle were significantly affected in comparison to controls in mice treated with phenobarbital with decreased activities of RC complexes I (-52%, (**)p<0.01), II (-50%, (**)p<0.01) and III (-55%, (*)p<0.05), and decreased activity of ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (-64%, (*)p<0.05), citrate synthase (-48%, (**)p<0.01) and succinate dehydrogenase (-53%, (*)p<0.05). Complex II-driven succinate respiration was also significantly affected. Most of these metabolic alterations were at least partially restored after the phenobarbital arrest and heme arginate administration. These results suggest a cataplerosis of the TCA cycle induced by phenobarbital, caused by the massive withdrawal of succinyl-CoA by ALAS induction, such that the TCA cycle is unable to supply the reduced cofactors to the RC. This profound and reversible impact of AIP on mitochondrial energetic metabolism offers new insights into the beneficial effect of heme, glucose and ALAS1 siRNA treatments by limiting the cataplerosis of TCA cycle. PMID:24727425

  3. [A case of pediatric recurrent acute mastoiditis caused by penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumonia complicated by primary immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Fukuiwa, T; Ushikai, M; Miyanohara, I; Matsune, S; Kurono, Y

    2001-11-01

    Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) is a frequently detected pathogen of intractable acute otitis media and is associated with prolonged or recurrent infection. The use of antibiotics has made the incidence of secondary acute mastoiditis following acute otitis media relatively rare, but when it does occur, its severe complications may be life-threatening. We report a case of pediatric recurrent acute mastoiditis caused by PRSP in a 6-year-old boy suffering from PRSP acute mastoiditis on 4 occasions, twice undergoing simple mastoidectomy. Although we initially suspected PRSP to be the chief factor in iterative infection, immunological analysis demonstrated significantly decreased IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and the patient was diagnosed as having common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). As the first middle ear infection occurred at the age of 6 and there was no history of upper respiratory tract infection, CVID may be the main pathological factor of recurrent mastoiditis, although infection occurred, only in the ear and did not involve other organs. This suggests that recurrent mastoiditis in the present case involved the coexistence of PRSP and CVID. PMID:11766394

  4. Acute cerebellar dysfunction with neuromuscular manifestations after scorpionism presumably caused by Tityus obscurus in Santarém, Pará / Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torrez, Pasesa P Q; Quiroga, Mariana M M; Abati, Paulo A M; Mascheretti, Melissa; Costa, Walter Silva; Campos, Luciana P; França, Francisco O S

    2015-03-01

    Scorpionism is a public health problem in many tropical countries, especially in North Africa, South India, Latin America and the Middle East. In Brazil, patients with severe scorpion envenoming have mainly cardiovascular events, including acute heart failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome and shock, death is rare. We described 58 accidents presumably caused by Tityus obscurus in Brazilian Amazonia. Patients reported a sensation of "electric shocks" which could last hours. The vast majority of patients presented a clinical picture compatible with acute cerebellar dysfunction, beginning minutes and lasting up to 2 days after the accident. They presented cerebellar ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, dysmetry, dysarthria, dyslalia, nausea and vomiting. Besides, some patients presented myoclonus and fasciculation which can also be attributed to cerebellar dysfunction or maybe the result of direct action on skeletal muscle. Two patients had evidence of intense rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury. The clinical picture in this scorpion envenoming is mainly characterized by an acute dysfunction of cerebellar activities and abnormal neuromuscular manifestations and in some cases muscle injury which are not described in any other region of the world. This work presents clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory and treatment aspects of this unmatched scorpion envenoming in the state of Pará, northern Brazil. PMID:25549940

  5. Dengue and Other Common Causes of Acute Febrile Illness in Asia: An Active Surveillance Study in Children

    PubMed Central

    Capeding, Maria Rosario; Chua, Mary Noreen; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Hussain, Ismail I. H. M.; Nallusamy, Revathy; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Rusmil, Kusnandi; Thisyakorn, Usa; Thomas, Stephen J.; Huu Tran, Ngoc; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Yoon, In-Kyu; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Hutagalung, Yanee; Laot, Thelma; Wartel, Tram Anh

    2013-01-01

    Background Common causes of acute febrile illness in tropical countries have similar symptoms, which often mimic those of dengue. Accurate clinical diagnosis can be difficult without laboratory confirmation and disease burden is generally under-reported. Accurate, population-based, laboratory-confirmed incidence data on dengue and other causes of acute fever in dengue-endemic Asian countries are needed. Methods and principal findings This prospective, multicenter, active fever surveillance, cohort study was conducted in selected centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam to determine the incidence density of acute febrile episodes (?38°C for ?2 days) in 1,500 healthy children aged 2–14 years, followed for a mean 237 days. Causes of fever were assessed by testing acute and convalescent sera from febrile participants for dengue, chikungunya, hepatitis A, influenza A, leptospirosis, rickettsia, and Salmonella Typhi. Overall, 289 participants had acute fever, an incidence density of 33.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 30.0; 37.8); 57% were IgM-positive for at least one of these diseases. The most common causes of fever by IgM ELISA were chikungunya (in 35.0% of in febrile participants) and S. Typhi (in 29.4%). The overall incidence density of dengue per 100 person-years was 3.4 by nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen positivity (95% CI: 2.4; 4.8) and 7.3 (95% CI: 5.7; 9.2) by serology. Dengue was diagnosed in 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0; 15.7) and 23.9% (95% CI: 19.1; 29.2) of febrile participants by NS1 positivity and serology, respectively. Of the febrile episodes not clinically diagnosed as dengue, 5.3% were dengue-positive by NS1 antigen testing and 16.0% were dengue-positive by serology. Conclusions During the study period, the most common identified causes of pediatric acute febrile illness among the seven tested for were chikungunya, S. Typhi and dengue. Not all dengue cases were clinically diagnosed; laboratory confirmation is essential to refine disease burden estimates. PMID:23936565

  6. Acute intermittent porphyria caused by novel mutation in HMBS gene, misdiagnosed as cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhel, Majid; Saleh, Neam; Alenazi, Helal; Baffoe-Bonnie, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant neurovisceral inherited disorder due to a defect in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Misdiagnosis of the porphyrias is not uncommon. Case report We present a case of a 26-year-old female with suspected acute cholecystitis, mental status changes, and seizures. Biochemical and molecular investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AIP by findings of elevated urinary porphobilinogen, 5-aminolevulinic acid, and total porphyrins. DNA molecular testing showed a novel heterozygous mutation (c. 760delC p.L254X) in the exon11 of the HMBS gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a misdiagnosis of AIP presenting with acute cholecystitis. Conclusion Clinicians are alerted to consider the possibility of AIP in an adult presenting with an acute abdomen, features of cholecystitis, and neuropsychiatric manifestations. PMID:25419136

  7. Validation of the verbal autopsy method to ascertain acute respiratory infection as cause of death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leticia Rodriguez; Hortensia Reyes; Patricia Tome; Cecilia Ridaura; Sergio Flores; Hector Guiscafre

    1998-01-01

    The validity of the Verbal Autopsy (VA) in death due to acute respiratory infection (ARI), Was tested in 36 children who died\\u000a by any acute infectious disease as stated by the necropsy diagnosis, at two public hospitals in Mexico City; the illness started\\u000a at home. Clinical data obtained through VA were compared with diagnoses of necropsies, which were considered as

  8. Soft tissue infections caused by spore-forming bacteria in injecting drug users in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Brett, M. M.; Hood, J.; Brazier, J. S.; Duerden, B. I.; Hahné, S. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    From 2000 to May 2004 there has been a marked increase in illness resulting from spore-forming bacteria in injecting heroin users in the United Kingdom. Clostridium novyi caused 63 cases of severe illness in 2000 and seven further cases from 2001. Wound botulism first occurred in 2000 (six cases) with 51 further cases to March 2004. Tetanus occurred in 20 cases between late 2003 and March 2004. Infections with C. histolyticum (nine cases), C. sordellii (one case) and Bacillus cereus (one case) were also reported. The reasons for the increase in illness are unclear. The major risk factor was skin- or muscle-popping. The problem appears to be here to stay. This review describes the causative organisms, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, epidemiology and treatment of cases. Clinical vigilance and a high standard of anaerobic microbiology are essential. Clinicians and laboratories must report such cases (or likely cases) rapidly so that clusters can be rapidly identified, in order to control disease. Prevention relies on tetanus immunization. PMID:16050501

  9. Structure-based inhibitor discovery against adenylyl cyclase toxins from pathogenic bacteria that cause anthrax and whooping cough.

    PubMed

    Soelaiman, Sandriyana; Wei, Binqing Q; Bergson, Pamela; Lee, Young-Sam; Shen, Yuequan; Mrksich, Milan; Shoichet, Brian K; Tang, Wei-Jen

    2003-07-11

    Edema factor (EF) and CyaA are adenylyl cyclase toxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria that cause anthrax and whooping cough, respectively. Using the structure of the catalytic site of EF, we screened a data base of commercially available, small molecular weight chemicals for those that could specifically inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity of EF. From 24 compounds tested, we have identified one quinazoline compound, ethyl 5-aminopyrazolo[1,5-a]quinazoline-3-carboxylate, that specifically inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity of EF and CyaA with approximately 20 microm Ki. This compound neither affects the activity of host resident adenylyl cyclases type I, II, and V nor exhibits promiscuous inhibition. The compound is a competitive inhibitor, consistent with the prediction that it binds to the adenine portion of the ATP binding site on EF. EF is activated by the host calcium sensor, calmodulin. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic analysis shows that this compound does not affect the binding of calmodulin to EF. This compound is dissimilar from a previously described, non-nucleoside inhibitor of host adenylyl cyclase. It may serve as a lead to design antitoxins to address the role of adenylyl cyclase toxins in bacterial pathogenesis and to fight against anthrax and whooping cough. PMID:12676933

  10. Assessment of a semi-automated protocol for multiplex analysis of sepsis-causing bacteria with spiked whole blood samples.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Sanna; Mäki, Minna

    2013-04-01

    Sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are needed for efficient and evidence-based treatment of septic patients. Recently, new molecular tools have emerged to complement the conventional culture-based diagnostic methods. In this study, we used spiked whole blood samples to evaluate together two ready-to-use molecular solutions for the detection of sepsis-causing bacteria. We spiked whole blood with bacterial species relevant in sepsis and extracted bacterial DNA with the NorDiag Arrow device, using the SelectNA Blood pathogen DNA isolation kit. DNA extracts were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and microarray-based Prove-it™ Bone and Joint assay, resulting in correctly identified bacterial species with detection limits of 11-600 colony-forming unit/mL (CFU/mL). To understand the recovery losses of bacterial DNA during the sample preparation step and the capability of the PCR- and microarray-based platform to respond to the sensitivity requirements, we also determined the analytical sensitivity of the PCR and microarray platform to be 1-21 genome equivalents for the tested bacterial species. In addition, the inclusivity of the Prove-it™ Bone and Joint assay was demonstrated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones carrying SCCmec types I, II, IV, or V and a nontypable SCCmec type. The proof-of-concept for accurate multiplex pathogen and antibacterial resistance marker detection from spiked whole blood samples was demonstrated by the selective bacterial DNA extraction method combined with the high-throughput PCR- and microarray-based platform. Further investigations are needed to study the promising potential of the concept for sensitive, semi-automated identification of sepsis-causing pathogens directly from whole blood. PMID:23417871

  11. Interaction of Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin L with Lipopolysaccharide In Vitro and in Experimental Rat Models of Septic Shock Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Giacometti; Oscar Cirioni; Roberto Ghiselli; Federico Mocchegiani; Fiorenza Orlando; Carmela Silvestri; Argante Bozzi; A. Di Giulio; C. Luzi; M. L. Mangoni; D. Barra; V. Saba; G. Scalise; A. C. Rinaldi

    2006-01-01

    Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, despite intense efforts to improve survival. The primary lead for septic shock results from activation of host effector cells by endotoxin, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria. For these reasons, the quest for compounds with antiendotoxin properties is actively pursued. We investigated the efficacy

  12. Successful treatment of gut-caused halitosis with a suspension of living non-pathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria- a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jobst Henker; Frank Schuster; Karl Nissler

    2001-01-01

    In up to 90% of cases, severe halitosis is a result of gastrointestinal or orolaryngeal problems. This case study reports on a girl with bad breath caused by increased formation of malodorous intestinal gases (halitosis), which could be successfully treated with a suspension of living non-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli. Conclusion: in unclear cases of bad breath, an increased formation of

  13. Acute Cholecystitis Caused by Malignant Cystic Duct Obstruction: Treatment with Metallic Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro, E-mail: s-miyayama@fukui.saiseikai.or.jp; Yamashiro, Masashi; Takeda, Taro; Aburano, Hiroyuki [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Komatsu, Tetsuya [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology (Japan); Sanada, Taku; Kosaka, Shotaro; Toya, Daisyu [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine (Japan); Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    We report the successful management of acute cholecystitis using cystic duct stent placement in 3 patients with inoperable malignant cystic duct obstruction (2 cholangiocarcinoma and 1 pancreatic carcinoma). All patients underwent stent placement in the bile duct, using an uncovered stent in 2 and a covered stent in 1, to relieve jaundice occurring 8-184 days (mean 120 days) before the development of acute cholecystitis. The occluded cystic duct was traversed by a microcatheter and a stent was implanted 4-17 days (mean 12 days) after cholecystostomy. Acute cholecystitis was improved after the procedure in all patients. Two patients died 3 and 10 months later, while 1 has survived without cholecystitis for 22 months after the procedure to date.

  14. Acute renal infarct without apparent cause: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Decoste, Ryan; Himmelman, Jeffrey G.; Grantmyre, John

    2015-01-01

    Acute renal infarction is a rare clinical entity most commonly occurring as a result of a thromboembolic event in patients with predisposing risk factors. Its non-specific presentation can lead to delayed or missed diagnosis. However, modern imaging technology has allowed for the diagnosis of renal infarction to be made earlier in its clinical course. Due to its rare nature, treatment guidelines do not exist. We report a case of acute renal infarction identified on computed tomography scan in a patient with no known predisposing factors to thromboembolism that was treated through suction thrombectomy.

  15. Acute abdomen and hemorrhagic shock caused by spontaneous rupture of renal cyst in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yaman, ?smail; Sa?lam, ?smet; Kurt, Kamile

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is an important cause of end stage renal failure. Rarely, these patients may present with hemorrhagic shock caused by rupture of the renal cyst. The aim of this study was to report a rare case of a patient who arrived at the emergency department with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting with acute abdominal pain and hemorrhagic shock. A 58-year-old male with chronic renal failure was admitted to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain and hemorrhagic shock. The patient was admitted to the Department of Surgery with diagnosis of acute abdomen and perirenal hematoma. Although the patient was on conservative treatment, his symptoms did not improve and the patient was operated emergently. During exploration, there was bleeding from the right polycystic kidney, which was 30×20 cm in dimension. The patient underwent nephrectomy and drainage of the hematoma, and was discharged on the fifth postoperative day without any problems. Bleeding due to rupture of a cyst in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease occurs rarely but it may be life threatening. Although conservative methods are often preferable in treatment, surgery can be life saving for patients in whom the clinical situation does not improve. PMID:25931844

  16. An Indian hospital study of viral causes of acute respiratory infection in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. JAIN; A. PANDE; P. K. MISRA; A. MATHURt; U. C. CHATURVEDI

    1991-01-01

    Summary. From Sept. 1986 to Jan. 1989, a hospital-based study was conducted on 736 children, under 5 years of age, with acute respiratory infection. Nasopharyngeal secretions were examined for viruses by culture and by immunofluorescence. Viruses were detected in 22% of specimens : respiratory syncytial(5%), parainfluenza (5%), influenza A (4%), influenza B (273, adenovirus (373, measles (3%). The highest rates

  17. Facial nerve paralysis in acute otitis media: Cause and management revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ERIC M. JOSEPH; NEIL M. SPERLING

    1998-01-01

    Facial nerve paralysis (FNP) complicating acute otitis media (AOM) is thought to be mediated by intrafallopian inflammatory edema and consequent ischemia with neuropraxia. Presumably this occurs either through (1) preexistent bony dehiscences, (2) physiologic canaliculi between the middle ear and fallopian canal, or (3) the vascular connections between the fallopian canal and the mastoid air cells.1-3Although there is little scientific

  18. Massive infiltration of liver by metastatic adenocarcinoma: a rare cause of acute hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Joy; Jayanthi, Venkataraman; Patra, Susma; Rela, Mohamed

    2012-09-01

    Acute liver cell failure can occur by diffuse infiltration of malignant cells in liver parenchyma. The malignant cells might be either primary hepatocellular carcinoma or metastatic liver disease. Mostly, CT abdomen with intravenous contrast fails to detect liver malignancy. We report a case of liver metastasis masquerading as fulminant hepatic failure. PMID:25755446

  19. First Report of Acute Cholecystitis with Sepsis Caused by Cellulomonas denverensis?

    PubMed Central

    Ohtaki, Hirofumi; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Sawamura, Haruki; Ohta, Hirotoshi; Inoue, Rina; Iwasa, Junpei; Ito, Hiroyasu; Murakami, Nobuo; Ezaki, Takayuki; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    Cellulomonas denverensis is a small and thin gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium that was proposed as a new species in 2005. Here we report a female case of acute cholecystitis and sepsis in which C. denverensis was determined to be causative. PMID:19656981

  20. Characterization and PCR Detection Of Binary, Pir-Like Toxins from Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolates that Cause Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) in Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Sirikharin, Ratchanok; Taengchaiyaphum, Suparat; Sanguanrut, Piyachat; Chi, Thanh Duong; Mavichak, Rapeepat; Proespraiwong, Porranee; Nuangsaeng, Bunlung; Thitamadee, Siripong; Flegel, Timothy W.; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2015-01-01

    Unique isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND) have previously been identified as the causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp. AHPND is characterized by massive sloughing of tubule epithelial cells of the hepatopancreas (HP), proposed to be induced by soluble toxins released from VPAHPND that colonize the shrimp stomach. Since these toxins (produced in broth culture) have been reported to cause AHPND pathology in reverse gavage bioassays with shrimp, we used ammonium sulfate precipitation to prepare protein fractions from broth cultures of VPAHPND isolates for screening by reverse gavage assays. The dialyzed 60% ammonium sulfate fraction caused high mortality within 24–48 hours post-administration, and histological analysis of the moribund shrimp showed typical massive sloughing of hepatopancreatic tubule epithelial cells characteristic of AHPND. Analysis of the active fraction by SDS-PAGE revealed two major bands at marker levels of approximately 16 kDa (ToxA) and 50 kDa (ToxB). Mass spectrometry analysis followed by MASCOT analysis revealed that both proteins had similarity to hypothetical proteins of V. parahaemolyticus M0605 (contig034 GenBank accession no. JALL01000066.1) and similarity to known binary insecticidal toxins called 'Photorhabdus insect related' proteins A and B (Pir-A and Pir-B), respectively, produced by the symbiotic, nematode bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. In in vivo tests, it was shown that recombinant ToxA and ToxB were both required in a dose dependent manner to cause AHPND pathology, indicating further similarity to Pir-A and -B. A single-step PCR method was designed for detection of the ToxA gene and was validated using 104 bacterial isolates consisting of 51 VPAHPND isolates, 34 non-AHPND VP isolates and 19 other isolates of bacteria commonly found in shrimp ponds (including other species of Vibrio and Photobacterium). The results showed 100% specificity and sensitivity for detection of VPAHPND isolates in the test set. PMID:26017673

  1. Inhibiting Polo-like kinase 1 causes growth reduction and apoptosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Hartsink-Segers, Stefanie A.; Exalto, Carla; Allen, Matthew; Williamson, Daniel; Clifford, Steven C.; Horstmann, Martin; Caron, Huib N.; Pieters, Rob; Den Boer, Monique L.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated Polo-like kinase 1, a mitotic regulator often over-expressed in solid tumors and adult hematopoietic malignancies, as a potential new target in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Polo-like kinase 1 protein and Thr210 phosphorylation levels were higher in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=172) than in normal bone marrow mononuclear cells (n=10) (P<0.0001). High Polo-like kinase 1 protein phosphorylation, but not expression, was associated with a lower probability of event-free survival (P=0.042) and was a borderline significant prognostic factor (P=0.065) in a multivariate analysis including age and initial white blood cell count. Polo-like kinase 1 was necessary for leukemic cell survival, since short hairpin-mediated Polo-like kinase 1 knockdown in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines inhibited cell proliferation by G2/M cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Primary patient cells with a high Polo-like kinase 1 protein expression were sensitive to the Polo-like kinase 1-specific inhibitor NMS-P937 in vitro, whereas cells with a low expression and normal bone marrow cells were resistant. This sensitivity was likely not caused by Polo-like kinase 1 mutations, since only one new mutation (Ser335Arg) was found by 454-sequencing of 38 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases. This mutation did not affect Polo-like kinase 1 expression or NMS-P937 sensitivity. Together, these results indicate a pivotal role for Polo-like kinase 1 in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and show potential for Polo-like kinase 1-inhibiting drugs as an addition to current treatment strategies for cases expressing high Polo-like kinase 1 levels. PMID:23753023

  2. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Disease Different Syndromes?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LUCIANO GATTINONI; PAOLO PELOSI; PETER M. SUTER; ALESSIA PEDOTO; PAOLA VERCESI; ALFREDO LISSONI

    To assess the possible differences in respiratory mechanics between the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) originating from pulmonary disease (ARDS p ) and that originating from extrapul- monary disease (ARDS exp ) we measured the total respiratory system (Est,rs), chest wall (Est,w) and lung (Est,L) elastance, the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and the end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) at 0, 5, 10,

  3. Unusual cause of acute back pain mimicking aortic dissection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Czesla, Markus; Karnari, Olga; Götte, Julia; Schulte, Bernhard; Pfeilsticker, Ulrich; Narr, Anita; Doll, Nicolas

    2012-12-01

    We report the case of a 62-year-old woman who initially presented with symptoms suggesting acute type A aortic dissection. Imaging studies revealed hemorrhagic pericardial fluid without the evidence of dissection. Foreign body material was noted floating in the inferior vena cava (IVC) and also piercing the right ventricular wall. Upon surgical exploration, the extracted material could be identified to be acrylic bone cement (palacos). The patient had reported a history of kyphoplasty in 2008. PMID:22207371

  4. Cellular Correlates of Enhanced Anxiety Caused by Acute Treatment with the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Fluoxetine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ravinder, Shilpa; Pillai, Anup G.; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2011-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are used extensively in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. The therapeutic benefits of SSRIs typically require several weeks of continuous treatment. Intriguingly, according to clinical reports, symptoms of anxiety may actually increase during the early stages of treatment although more prolonged treatment alleviates affective symptoms. Consistent with earlier studies that have used animal models to capture this paradoxical effect of SSRIs, we find that rats exhibit enhanced anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze 1?h after a single injection of the SSRI fluoxetine. Next we investigated the potential neural substrates underlying the acute anxiogenic effects by analyzing the morphological and physiological impact of acute fluoxetine treatment on principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a brain area that plays a pivotal role in fear and anxiety. Although earlier studies have shown that behavioral or genetic perturbations that are anxiogenic for rodents also increase dendritic spine density in the BLA, we find that a single injection of fluoxetine does not cause spinogenesis on proximal apical dendritic segments on BLA principal neurons an hour later. However, at the same time point when a single dose of fluoxetine caused enhanced anxiety, it also enhanced action potential firing in BLA neurons in ex vivo slices. Consistent with this finding, in vitro bath application of fluoxetine caused higher spiking frequency and this increase in excitability was correlated with an increase in the input resistance of these neurons. Our results suggest that enhanced excitability of amygdala neurons may contribute to the increase in anxiety-like behavior observed following acute fluoxetine treatment. PMID:22232580

  5. ACUTE TOXICITY, SUBLETHAL EFFECTS AND BIOCONCENTRATION OF CHLORINATION PRODUCTS, VIRUSES, AND BACTERIA IN EDIBLE SHELLFISH: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies, synthesizes, and summarizes published scientific data concerning toxicity, sublethal physiological effects, and uptake/depuration rates of chlorine, viruses, and bacteria in edible marine shellfish of the United States. The summary may provide environmental...

  6. Alterations in coagulation parameters in dairy cows affected with acute mastitis caused by E. coli and S. aureus pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zuhair A Bani; Dickinson, Charles

    2010-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate alterations in coagulation parameters in dairy cows affected with acute Escherichia coli (E. coli) mastitis and to compare those values to cows affected with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ) mastitis. Twenty-four, adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows affected with acute E. coli mastitis and 17 cows affected with S. aureus mastitis were studied. Cows affected with E. coli mastitis had significantly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (P < 0.01), prothrombin time (PT) (P < 0.05) and decreased (P < 0.05) platelets numbers. Cows with S. aureus mastitis had only significantly prolonged APTT (P < 0.05) and decreased (P < 0.05) platelet counts. In the hematology evaluation, cows affected with E. coli and those affected with S. aureus mastitis had elevated hematocrit values but only significantly (P < 0.05) so in mastitic cows caused by E. coli. Both groups of mastitic cows had significantly (P < 0.05) lower leukocyte counts. Only cows with E. coli mastitis had significantly (P < 0.05) lower neutrophil count. In the plasma biochemical evaluation, creatinine concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in both groups of cows. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was only significantly elevated in cows affected with E. coli mastitis. Results of this study indicated that dairy cows affected with acute E. coli mastitis are more likely to develop clinical manifestations of disseminated intravascular coagulation than cows affected with S. aureus mastitis. PMID:20607398

  7. Old drug new trick: levamisole-adulterated cocaine causing acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Abeer T; Livak, Mark; Witsil, Joanne C

    2015-02-01

    Levamisole is an agent previously used in humans and later withdrawn from the US drug market due to concerns of agranulocytosis.It is currently used as an adulterating agent in cocaine, bringing to light toxicities typically manifested by vasculitis and skin necrosis.We report a case of a 36-year-old crack cocaine user who presented with a purpuric rash on her face and limbs. Levamisole-induced vasculitis was suspected, and she therefore underwent an extensive work-up. In addition to these findings, she also presented with acute kidney injury of unknown etiology, which was later attributed to levamisoleadulterated cocaine. PMID:25195046

  8. Biliary Cystadenoma: An Unusual Cause of Acute Pancreatitis and Indication for Mesohepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Bilal; Meschino, Michael; Mercado, Ashley; Hernandez-Alejandro, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The classic presentation of cystic hepatobiliary lesions is usually nonspecific and often identified incidentally. Here we describe the case of a patient presenting with acute pancreatitis resulting from a large centrally located biliary cystadenoma compressing the pancreas. Determination of the origin of the cystic lesion was difficult on imaging studies. Due to the difficult location of the lesion, a complete surgical resection was achieved with mesohepatectomy and the suspected diagnosis confirmed by pathology. The patient continues to do well 2 years post-op with no signs of recurrence. PMID:25506000

  9. Acute ethanol administration causes transient impairment of blue-yellow color vision.

    PubMed

    Russell, R M; Carney, E A; Feiock, K; Garrett, M; Karwoski, P

    1980-10-01

    The higher incidence of blue-yellow color blindness (tritanopia) found among alcoholics could be due to genetic or acquired factors. The acute administration of ethanol to alcoholics and normal subjects transiently resulted in poorer color discrimination in all spectra but with significantly more errors in the blue-yellow versus the red-green color range (p < 0.005, p < 0.01). Thus, ethanol appears to act as a toxin to inner retinal layers, which could account for the higher incidence of tritanopia found among alcoholics. PMID:7004239

  10. Lithobezoar, a rare cause of acute oesophageal obstruction: surgery after failure of endoscopic removal

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Ikram; Asban, Ammar; Kazoun, Rabih; Khurshid, Imtiaz

    2013-01-01

    Oesophageal lithobezoar is a very rare clinical entity, especially presenting as a case of acute dysphagia. A 54-year-old man, with long-standing psychiatric illness, presented with a recent episode of vomiting and chest pain followed by dysphagia. Chest x-ray revealed a radio opaque shadow in the posterior mediastinum. Endoscopy showed a calcified foreign body in the lower oesophagus. Endoscopic attempts to remove or fragment the foreign body were unsuccessful. Foreign body was removed successfully through oesophagotomy using left posterolateral thoracotomy. Pathology revealed oesophageal lithobezoar. PMID:23749856

  11. Industrial halide wastes cause acute mortality of snow geese in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andreasen, J.K.; Stroud, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    An examination of 97 dead migratory waterfowl collected at an industrial facility showed that the birds had had severe gastric and intestinal hemorrhaging. Water samples taken at on-site waste lagoons contained 6,750 mg/L fluoride, 4,500 mg/L bromine and 1,500 mg/L boron. Brain and liver tissues contained high levels of fluoride, as compared with tissues of birds collected at a control site. From the necropsy results, the high concentration of fluoride in the water samples and the elevated tissue residues, we conclude that the birds died from acute fluoride poisoning.

  12. Acute Fascioliasis-Rare Cause of Obstructive Jaundice - A Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kundan Patil; Satish Kulkarni; Kedar Gorad; Anuradha Panchal; Sahil Arora; Raj Gautam

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica. Humans can become acciden- tal hosts of this parasite by ingesting contaminated drinking water or plants in fluke prone area. In India this is of rare occurrence. This disease is rarely seen with jaundice caused by obstruction of the biliary tree. We report a case of human fascioliasis with obstructive jaundice

  13. Acute hepatitis B caused by a vaccine-escape HBV strain in vaccinated subject: sequence analysis and therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Luongo, Monica; Critelli, Rosina; Grottola, Antonella; Gitto, Stefano; Bernabucci, Veronica; Bevini, Mirco; Vecchi, Chiara; Montagnani, Giuliano; Villa, Erica

    2015-01-01

    HBV vaccine contains the 'a' determinant region, the major immune-target of antibodies (anti-HBs). Failure of immunization may be caused by vaccine-induced or spontaneous 'a' determinant surface gene mutants. Here, we evaluate the possible lack of protection by HBV vaccine, describing the case of an acute hepatitis B diagnosed in a 55-year-old Caucasian male unpaid blood donor, vaccinated against HBV. Sequencing data for preS-S region revealed multiple point mutations. Of all the substitutions found, Q129H, located in the "a" determinant region of HBsAg, can alter antigenicity, leading to mutants. This mutant may cause vaccine failure especially when associated with high viremia of infecting source. PMID:25542480

  14. Spontaneous spleen rupture in a teenager: an uncommon cause of acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Maria, Verroiotou; Saad, Al Mogrampi; Fardellas, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous spleen rupture is a rare complication of infectious diseases and it can become a potentially life-threatening condition if not diagnosed in time. A 17-year-old Greek female presented to the ER due to acute abdominal pain, mainly of the left upper quadrant. She had no recent report of trauma. The patient was pale, her blood pressure was 90/70?mmHg, and her pulse was 120?b/min. Clinical examination of the abdomen revealed muscle contraction and resistance. The patient was submitted to an ultrasound of the upper abdomen and to a CT scanning of the abdomen that revealed an extended intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to spleen rupture. Due to the patient's hemodynamic instability, she was taken to the operation room and splenectomy was performed. Following a series of laboratory examinations, the patient was diagnosed to be positive for current cytomegalovirus infection. The postoperative course was uneventful, and in a two year follow-up the patient is symptom-free. Spontaneous spleen rupture due to Cytomegalovirus infection is a rare clinical entity, described in few case reports in the world literature and should always be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially in adolescents with no recent report of trauma. PMID:23710190

  15. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part I: Overview, vaccines for enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Salazar, Juan Carlos; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    Efforts to develop vaccines for prevention of acute diarrhea have been going on for more than 40 y with partial success. The myriad of pathogens, more than 20, that have been identified as a cause of acute diarrhea throughout the years pose a significant challenge for selecting and further developing the most relevant vaccine candidates. Based on pathogen distribution as identified in epidemiological studies performed mostly in low-resource countries, rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, Shigella, diarrheogenic E. coli and V. cholerae are predominant, and thus the main targets for vaccine development and implementation. Vaccination against norovirus is most relevant in middle/high-income countries and possibly in resource-deprived countries, pending a more precise characterization of disease impact. Only a few licensed vaccines are currently available, of which rotavirus vaccines have been the most outstanding in demonstrating a significant impact in a short time period. This is a comprehensive review, divided into 2 articles, of nearly 50 vaccine candidates against the most relevant viral and bacterial pathogens that cause acute gastroenteritis. In order to facilitate reading, sections for each pathogen are organized as follows: i) a discussion of the main epidemiological and pathogenic features; and ii) a discussion of vaccines based on their stage of development, moving from current licensed vaccines to vaccines in advanced stage of development (in phase IIb or III trials) to vaccines in early stages of clinical development (in phase I/II) or preclinical development in animal models. In this first article we discuss rotavirus, norovirus and Vibrio cholerae. In the following article we will discuss Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic), and Campylobacter jejuni. PMID:25715048

  16. Triclosan causes toxic effects to algae in marine biofilms, but does not inhibit the metabolic activity of marine biofilm bacteria.

    PubMed

    Johansson, C Henrik; Janmar, Lisa; Backhaus, Thomas

    2014-07-15

    Effects of the antimicrobial agent triclosan to natural periphyton communities (biofilms, comprising primarily microalgae and bacteria) were assessed in two independent experiments during spring and summer. For that purpose a semi-static test system was used in which periphyton was exposed to a concentration range of 5-9054 nmol/L triclosan. Effects on algae were analyzed as content and composition of photosynthetic pigments. The corresponding EC50 values were 39.25 and 302.45 nmol/L for the spring and summer experiment, respectively. Effects on periphytic bacteria were assessed as effects on carbon utilization patterns, using Biolog Ecoplates. No inhibition of either total carbon utilization or functional diversity was observed, indicating a pronounced triclosan tolerance of the marine bacteria. In contrast, a small stimulation of the total carbon utilization was observed at triclosan concentrations exceeding 100 nmol/L. PMID:24928457

  17. Acute-onset hypomagnesemia-induced hypocalcemia caused by the refractoriness of bones and renal tubules to parathyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Toru; Yamauchi, Mika; Yano, Shozo; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2011-11-01

    Chronic hypomagnesemia is closely associated with hypocalcemia, which is caused by impaired parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion or the refractoriness of bone and renal tubules to PTH. The dominant mechanism of acute-onset, hypomagnesemia-induced hypocalcemia is currently unclear. An 83-year-old man who had undergone chemotherapy with carboplatin for prostate cancer suffered from acute diarrhea and finger paresthesia. Laboratory data confirmed hypocalcemia as well as hypomagnesemia. Urinary calcium levels were not measured. However, the urinary fractional excretion of Mg (FE(Mg)) was elevated. Despite elevated PTH levels, the renal tubular maximal reabsorption rate of phosphate to GFR (TmP/GFR) was elevated, and bone formation and resorption markers were suppressed. A magnesium loading test revealed a clear magnesium deficiency. After administration of magnesium, bone marker levels were increased, and TmP/GFR was reduced to normal levels, despite the persistent elevation of PTH. Serum calcium levels eventually increased to approximately the reference range. Clinical histories and these observations both suggest that when patients with hypomagnesemia-induced hypocalcemia rapidly lose magnesium through complications such as diarrhea, the primary cause may be the refractoriness of bone and renal tubules to PTH, rather than impaired PTH secretion. PMID:21594582

  18. Quinine allergy causing acute severe systemic illness: report of 4 patients manifesting multiple hematologic, renal, and hepatic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    Quinine is widely used for the common symptom of leg cramps. Quinine tablets require a prescription, but quinine and the product from which it is derived, cinchona, are also available without prescription. They are components of over-the-counter remedies for many common symptoms, of nutrition products, and of beverages such as tonic water and bitter lemon. Although quinine has been used for centuries, initially as an extract from the bark of the cinchona tree, allergic reactions to quinine can be severe and can affect multiple organs. These allergic reactions can cause thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, liver toxicity, and neurological abnormalities. Because quinine use is often intermittent, defining quinine as a cause of an acute disorder may be difficult. Moreover, since quinine use is often self-regulated, patients may not mention it in response to direct questions about medication use, adding to diagnostic difficulty. The diversity and severity of quinine-associated disorders and the difficulties of diagnosis are illustrated by the presentation of 4 case histories. Awareness of the variety of potential quinine-associated reactions is important for accurate diagnosis and critical for prevention of recurrent illness. PMID:16278718

  19. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Laghari, Abid Hussain; Khan, Aamir Hameed; Kazmi, Khawar Abbas

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 71-year-old man, with a history of hypertension and dyslipidaemia, who presented with typical cardiac chest pain and palpitations of 2?h duration. The examination revealed irregular pulse of 138?bpm, blood pressure 115/75?mm?Hg, variable first and normal second heart sounds. The lungs were clear to auscultation. The ECG showed atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular rate. His heart rate was controlled with ? blockers and the acute coronary syndrome treatment protocol was initiated. His baseline blood reports were within normal limits and two serial troponin I tests were negative. Coronary angiogram showed dissection in the left coronary system extending into the branch vessels and 30–40% stenosis in the right coronary artery. The patient underwent coronary artery bypass graft as an emergent case. He suffered a mild stroke postsurgery with complete functional recovery. He is being followed up in the clinic and has performed well. PMID:23709531

  20. Gossypiboma, a rare cause of acute abdomen: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Indu; Kapoor, Deepa; Sahu, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Gossypiboma or textiloma is used to describe a retained surgical swab in the body after an operation. Inadvertent retention of a foreign body in the abdomen often requires another surgery. This increases morbidity and mortality of the patient, cost of treatment, and medicolegal problems. We are reporting case of a 45-year-old woman who was referred from periphery with acute pain in abdomen. She had a surgical history of abdominal hysterectomy 3 years back, performed at another hospital. On clinical examination and investigation, twisted ovarian cyst was suspected. That is a cystic mass further confirmed by abdominal computerized tomography (CT). During laparotomy, the cyst wall was opened incidentally which lead to the drainage of a large amount of dense pus. In between pus, there was found retained surgical gauze that confirmed the diagnosis of gossypiboma. PMID:22229142

  1. Telomere length dynamics in human memory T cells specific for viruses causing acute or latent infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Declining telomere length (TL) is associated with T cell senescence. While TL in naïve and memory T cells declines with increasing age, there is limited data on TL dynamics in virus-specific memory CD4+ T cells in healthy adults. We combined BrdU-labeling of virus-stimulated T cells followed with flow cytometry-fluorescent in situ hybridization for TL determination. We analyzed TL in T cells specific for several virus infections: non-recurring acute (vaccinia virus, VACV), recurring-acute (influenza A virus, IAV), and reactivating viruses (varicella-zoster virus, VZV, and cytomegalovirus, CMV) in 10 healthy subjects. Additionally, five subjects provided multiple blood samples separated by up to 10 years. Results VACV- and CMV-specific T cells had longer average TL than IAV-specific CD4+ T cells. Although most virus-specific cells were CD45RA-, we observed a minor population of BrdU+ CD45RA+ T cells characterized by long telomeres. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated a slow decline in average TL in virus-specific T cells. However, in one subject, VZV reactivation led to an increase in average TL in VZV-specific memory T cells, suggesting a conversion of longer TL cells from the naïve T cell repertoire. Conclusions TLs in memory CD4+ T cells in otherwise healthy adults are heterogeneous and follow distinct virus-specific kinetics. These findings suggests that the distribution of TL and the creation and maintenance of long TL memory T cells could be important for the persistence of long-lived T cell memory. PMID:23971624

  2. Acute inhalation exposure to vaporized methamphetamine causes lung injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Wells, Sandra M; Buford, Mary C; Braseth, Sarah N; Hutchison, James D; Holian, Andrij

    2008-07-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is currently the most widespread illegally used stimulant in the United States. Use of MA by smoking is the fastest growing mode of administration, which increases concerns about potential pulmonary and other medical complications. A murine exposure system was developed to study the pulmonary affects of inhaled MA. Mice were exposed to 25-100 mg vaporized MA and assessments were made 3 h following initiation of exposure to model acute lung injury. Inhalation of MA vapor resulted in dose-dependent increases in MA plasma levels that were in the range of those experienced by MA users. At the highest MA dose, histological changes were observed in the lung and small but significant increases in lung wet weight to body weight ratios (5.656 +/- 0.176 mg/g for the controls vs. 6.706+/- 0.135 mg/g for the 100 mg MA-exposed mice) were found. In addition, there was 53% increase in total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, greater than 20% increase in albumin levels in the BAL fluid, greater than 2.5-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase levels in the BAL fluid, and reduced total BAL cell numbers (approximately 77% of controls). Levels of the early response cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 were dose-dependently increased in BAL fluid of MA-exposed mice. Exposure to 100 mg MA significantly increased free radical generation in the BAL cells to 107-146% of controls and to approximately 135% of the controls in lung tissue in situ. Together, these data show that acute inhalation exposure to relevant doses of volatilized MA is associated with elevated free radical formation and significant lung injury. PMID:18645723

  3. Clinical efficacy of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh and a commercially available breath-freshening dentifrice in reducing mouth-odor-causing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Joe; Pilch, Shira; Williams, Malcolm I; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this double-blind clinical study was to compare the long-lasting overnight (10- to 12-hour) and 4-hour effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh toothpaste to a commercial fluoridated breath-freshening dentifrice in controlling the level of mouth-odor-causing bacteria. Thirty-two adult men and women from New Jersey participated in the randomized, crossover design clinical study. After a 1-week "washout" period of brushing with a regular fluoride dentifrice, subjects refrained from dental hygiene, eating, and drinking in preparation for the morning visit. After providing a baseline salivary sample, subjects were issued a soft-bristled toothbrush and instructed to brush their teeth twice a day (once in the morning and once before bed) for 1 minute with the assigned test dentifrice. After a 7-day product use cycle, the subjects returned to the test site, having refrained from dental hygiene, eating, and drinking. Subjects provided an overnight salivary sample (10 to 12 hours postbrushing). Subjects then ate, brushed for 1 minute with the assigned dentifrice, and returned for 2- and 4-hour postbrushing evaluations. Subjects refrained from dental hygiene, eating, or drinking during the 4-hour evaluation period. To collect the oral microflora samples, subjects rinsed with 10 mL of sterile water for 10 seconds and deposited their samples into sterile tubes. Each collected sample was serially diluted in sterile phosphate-buffered saline and duplicate-plated onto lead acetate agar. When plated onto this medium, mouth-odor-causing bacteria that produce hydrogen sulfide appear as dark pigmented colonies. After 96 hours of incubation, hydrogen-sulfide-producing bacteria were counted, expressed as log colony-forming units per milliliter, and reduction from baseline was calculated. The results of this clinical study support the conclusion that Colgate Total Advanced Fresh provides a significantly greater reduction in mouth-odor-causing bacteria than a commercial fluoridated breath-freshening dentifrice (P < or = 0.05). PMID:14692208

  4. N-Acetyl-Heparin Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Caused by Acid Aspiration Mainly by Antagonizing Histones in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanlin; Zhao, Zanmei; Guan, Li; Mao, Lijun; Li, Shuqiang; Guan, Xiaoxu; Chen, Ming; Guo, Lixia; Ding, Lihua; Cong, Cuicui; Wen, Tao; Zhao, Jinyuan

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Extracellular histones have recently been recognized to be pivotal inflammatory mediators. Heparin and its derivatives can bind histones through electrostatic interaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate 1) the role of extracellular histones in the pathogenesis of ALI caused by acid aspiration and 2) whether N-acetyl-heparin (NAH) provides more protection than heparin against histones at the high dose. ALI was induced in mice via intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl). Lethality rate, blood gas, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lung edema and pathological changes were used to evaluate the degree of ALI. Heparin/NAH was administered intraperitoneally, twice a day, for 3 days or until death. Acid aspiration caused an obvious increase in extracellular histones. A significant correlation existed between the concentration of HCl aspirated and the circulating histones. Heparin/NAH (10 mg/kg) improved the lethality rate, blood gas, MPO activity, lung edema and pathological score. At a dose of 20 mg/kg, NAH still provided protection, however heparin tended to aggravate the injury due to hemorrhagic complications. The specific interaction between heparin and histones was verified by the binding assay. In summary, high levels of extracellular histones can be pathogenic in ALI caused by acid aspiration. By neutralizing extracellular histones, heparin/NAH can offer similar protection at the moderate doses. At the high dose, NAH provides better protection than heparin. PMID:24816808

  5. Specific and Rapid Detection by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization of Bacteria in Clinical Samples Obtained from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL HOGARDT; KARLHEINZ TREBESIUS; ANNA M. GEIGER; MATHIAS HORNEF; JOSEF ROSENECKER; JURGEN HEESEMANN

    bacteria within sputum samples by FISH was approximately 4 3 105 CFU\\/ml of sputum (resulting in a 90% sen- sitivity for FISH). Moreover, we demonstrated that FISH will be useful for the rapid detection of bacteria that cause acute pulmonary exacerbations in CF patients, as demonstrated in patients with H. influenzae, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa exacerbations. Therefore, FISH is

  6. The role of proinflammatory cytokines in the cause of neuropathic osteoarthropathy (acute Charcot foot) in diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R Cavanagh DSc

    2005-01-01

    1 although he acknow- ledged that the condition had been first reported by the American physician John Kearsley Mitchell (1798-1858) in 1831. 2 Mitchell's cases were secondary to spinal damage caused by tuberculosis, whereas Charcot's were the result of tertiary syphilis. Sir James Paget suggested in 1881 that the condition should be called Charcot's disease. The Charcot foot was recognised

  7. A case of acute hepatitis C caused by interspousal transmission after 30 years of marriage.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Naoyuki; Isoda, Norio; Higashizawa, Toshihiko; Otake, Toshiya; Tsukui, Mamiko; Nagashima, Shigeo; Takahashi, Masaharu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Sugano, Kentaro

    2010-02-01

    We describe a case of interspousal transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after 30 years of marriage which was confirmed by gene analysis. A 60-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of severe hepatic dysfunction. Laboratory findings showed that HCV-Ab titer and qualitative Amplicor HCV were both positive in low levels. Because the patient regularly consumes various health foods, it was initially difficult to rule out drug-induced hepatopathy, but the patient was diagnosed with acute hepatitis C when HCV antibody titer increased 4 months later. Because his wife also tested positive for HCV antibody, interspousal transmission was suspected, and gene analysis was performed. Both husband and wife had HCV 1b, and the base sequence homology of 1087 base pairs (bp) in the NS5B region was 98.6% (99.4% at the amino acid level). In addition, upon analysis of the E1 and E2 junctional region sequence (268 bp) including hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1), a close relationship (89.2-99.6%) between clones obtained from each spouse was observed, thus confirming that the source of infection was his wife. Thorough medical history taking suggested that sexual intercourse was the most likely route of infection. In previous large-scale clinical studies, the frequency of HCV infection between married couples has been extremely low, but it is important to obtain informed consent regarding the potential risk of infection. PMID:26189908

  8. Efficacy of enrofloxacin for the treatment of acute clinical mastitis caused by Escherichia coli in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Persson, Y; Katholm, J; Landin, H; Mörk, M J

    2015-06-27

    Evidence for the efficacy of antimicrobial treatments in Escherichia coli mastitis is limited. The aim of this double-blinded field trial was to investigate the efficacy of enrofloxacin compared with placebo, with a special focus on survival, in dairy cows with acute clinical mastitis caused by E. coli. Dairy cows (n=116) with acute clinical mastitis were included in the study. A clinical examination was performed and a milk sample from the affected udder quarter was collected for investigation of somatic cell count (SCC) and bacteriology on the first day of treatment (day 0) and at day 3 (clinical examination only), day 22 and day 28. Data regarding culled cows, SCC and daily milk yield were retrieved from monthly milk recording each month until 180?days after treatment. All cows were treated with either enrofloxacin or placebo once a day for three days, starting at day 0. After culturing, 56 cows with confirmed E. coli mastitis remained in the study. Nine (16 per cent) of them died within the first week. Enrofloxacin-treated cows had lower SCC compared with placebo-treated cows at first monthly milk recordings after being treated for mastitis. Treatment with enrofloxacin did not result in a higher probability of survival compared with placebo. PMID:25724541

  9. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA.

    PubMed

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad's coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

  10. Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

    2014-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad’s coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

  11. An uncommon cause of visceral arterial embolism in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Ulenaers, M; Buchel, O C; Van Olmen, A; Moons, V; D'Haens, G; Christiaens, P

    2010-01-01

    We report on 2 cases of visceral arterial embolism presenting with acute abdominal pain. In neither patient a cause could be established on initial clinical, laboratory, echographic or radiological investigation. Both patients were subsequently found to have a mural thrombus in the thoracic aorta, with visceral arterial embolism. Each underwent a successful operative thrombectomy. Both patients had a normal underlying aortic intima at inspection. The first patient was a young male with no known diseases. He regularly used cannabis and tested positive on admission, an association not yet reported with aortic mural thrombus. He was found to have a slightly reduced protein C. The second patient was a middle aged man with non-insulin dependent diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension and hyperthyroidism. He was found to have an underlying adenocarcinoma of the lung and received chemotherapy. He died due to his cancer, 4 months after first presentation. PMID:20458852

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Human-Pathogenic Lactococcus garvieae LG-ilsanpaik-gs201105 That Caused Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus garvieae, which is generally known as a marine and freshwater fish pathogen, is now considered to be an emerging zoonotic pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. In recent years, we have reported the infection of L. garvieae LG-ilsanpaik-gs201105 in the gallbladder of an old fisherman. In this study, we present the draft genome sequence of L. garvieae LG-ilsanpaik-gs201105, with a total genome size of 1,960,261 bp in 53 contigs and a 38.1% average G+C content. Interestingly, the capsule gene cluster, which was known as one of the crucial virulence factors in L. garvieae, was not detected in our isolate. This is the first genome sequence of human-pathogenic L. garvieae, which caused acute acalculous cholecystitis. PMID:26044414

  13. Significance of inducible nitric oxide synthase in acute myocarditis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (Tulahuen strain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhulika Chandra; Herbert B. Tanowitz; Stefka B. Petkova; Huan Huang; Louis M. Weiss; Murray Wittner; Stephen M. Factor; Vitaliy Shtutin; Linda A. Jelicks; John Chan; Jamshid Shirani

    2002-01-01

    Chagas’ disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is associated with myocarditis and expression of myocardial cytokines and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). To assess the functional significance of NOS2 in murine Chagas’ disease, we infected NOS2 knockout (NOS2?\\/?) and C57BL\\/6×129sv (wild type) mice with the Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi. Serial transthoracic echocardiography was performed to assess the progression of left

  14. Acute phase proteins in milk in naturally acquired bovine mastitis caused by different pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Pyörälä; M. Hovinen; H. Simojoki; J. Fitzpatrick; P. D. Eckersall; T. Orro

    2011-01-01

    The concentrations of haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) and the activity of N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) in milk from 234 cows with spontaneous mastitis caused by different pathogens were measured to assess whether they corresponded with the clinical signs of mastitis and whether there were any differences between pathogens. Ninety-eight of the cows had clinical mastitis and 136 had subclinical

  15. Recurrent Gain-of-Function Mutation in PRKG1 Causes Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Acute Aortic Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Regalado, Ellen; Casteel, Darren E.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Gong, Limin; Kim, Jeong Joo; Dyack, Sarah; Horne, S. Gabrielle; Chang, Guijuan; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Coselli, Joseph S.; Li, Zhenyu; Leal, Suzanne M.; Shendure, Jay; Rieder, Mark J.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Kim, Choel; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2013-01-01

    Gene mutations that lead to decreased contraction of vascular smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) can cause inherited thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Exome sequencing of distant relatives affected by thoracic aortic disease and subsequent Sanger sequencing of additional probands with familial thoracic aortic disease identified the same rare variant, PRKG1 c.530G>A (p.Arg177Gln), in four families. This mutation segregated with aortic disease in these families with a combined two-point LOD score of 7.88. The majority of affected individuals presented with acute aortic dissections (63%) at relatively young ages (mean 31 years, range 17–51 years). PRKG1 encodes type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG-1), which is activated upon binding of cGMP and controls SMC relaxation. Although the p.Arg177Gln alteration disrupts binding to the high-affinity cGMP binding site within the regulatory domain, the altered PKG-1 is constitutively active even in the absence of cGMP. The increased PKG-1 activity leads to decreased phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain in fibroblasts and is predicted to cause decreased contraction of vascular SMCs. Thus, identification of a gain-of-function mutation in PRKG1 as a cause of thoracic aortic disease provides further evidence that proper SMC contractile function is critical for maintaining the integrity of the thoracic aorta throughout a lifetime. PMID:23910461

  16. Infective endocarditis caused by Scedosporium prolificans infection in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing induction chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Yotaro; Hiramoto, Nobuhiro; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Yonetani, Noboru; Doi, Asako; Ichikawa, Chihiro; Imai, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Takayuki

    2015-06-01

    Disseminated Scedosporium prolificans infection occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. The mortality rate is high, as the fungus is resistant to most antifungal agents. Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old female with acute myeloid leukemia who developed infective endocarditis caused by S. prolificans infection during induction chemotherapy. Her 1,3-?-D-glucan levels were elevated and computed tomography revealed bilateral sinusitis and disseminated small nodular masses within the lungs and spleen; it nonetheless took 6 days to identify S. prolificans by blood culture. The patient died of multi-organ failure despite the combined use of voriconazole and terbinafine. Autopsy revealed numerous mycotic emboli within multiple organs (caused by mitral valve vegetation) and endocarditis (caused by S. prolificans). The geographic distribution of this infection is limited to Australia, the United States, and southern Europe, particularly Spain. The first Japanese case was reported in 2011, and four cases have been reported to date, including this one. Recently, the incidence of S. prolificans-disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients has increased in Japan. Therefore, clinicians should consider S. prolificans infection as a differential diagnosis when immunocompromised patients suffer disseminated infections with elevated 1,3-?-D-glucan levels. PMID:25630434

  17. Acute thrombocytopenia in patients treated with amiodarone is caused by antibodies specific for platelet membrane glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Sahud, Mervyn A.; Caulfield, Michael; Clarke, Nigel; Koch, Robert; Bougie, Daniel; Aster, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Summary Amiodarone has been implicated as a cause of thrombocytopenia but the responsible mechanism is unknown. We performed studies in three patients to characterize the pathogenesis of this complication. No amiodarone-dependent, platelet-reactive antibodies were identified using conventional serological techniques. However, water-insoluble amiodarone solubilized in methanol and diluted to 1·0 mg/ml in aqueous buffer reproducibly promoted binding of IgG antibodies in patient serum to platelets. Solid phase assays identified drug-dependent antibodies specific for platelet gly coproteins (GP)Ia/IIa (integrin ?2?1) in each patient and a second antibody specific for GPIIb/IIIa (?IIb?3 integrin) in one patient. When studied by ion mobility analysis and transmission electron microscopy, the serologically active amiodarone preparation, a milky suspension, was found to consist of particles 2–30 nm in diameter, typical of a coacervate, a state characteristic of amiodarone in aqueous medium. The findings provide evidence that thrombocytopenia in the three patients studied was caused by drug-dependent antibodies specific for platelet glycoproteins GPIa/IIa and/or GPIIb/IIIa. We postulate that, in vivo, amiodarone may become incorporated into occult lipophilic domains in platelet glycoproteins, producing structural modifications that are immunogenic in some individuals, and that the resulting antibodies can cause platelet destruction in a person taking this drug. PMID:23952260

  18. Guts & Glory H. pylori: Cause of Peptic Ulcer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashley Johnson; Bryan Kratz; Lorraine Scanlon; Alina Spivak

    Summary Due to the 1983 discovery of H. pylori bacteria as the leading cause of peptic ulcers, the understanding of the disease dramatically changed. We now know that stress and spicy foods are not the leading causes of peptic ulcers. Symptoms including acute abdominal pain, vomiting of blood, and weight loss are characteristic of peptic ulcers. Ulcers form because of

  19. Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Laura E; Kelly, Patrick V; Eliot, Kathrin A; Weiss, Edward P

    2013-06-01

    Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg?kg?¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg?kg?¹) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P < .0001). Furthermore, 10 of the 11 subjects (91%) experienced diarrhea, 64% experience bloating and thirst, and 45% experienced nausea after bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress. PMID:23746564

  20. Development of acute pancreatitis caused by sodium valproate in a patient with bipolar disorder on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cases of acute pancreatitis caused by sodium valproate (VPA) have been reported by many authors thus far. However, most of these were cases with epilepsy. Chronic renal failure is also regarded as a risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Here, we report a case of acute pancreatitis development due to VPA in a patient with bipolar disorder on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure. Case presentation The patient was a 52-year-old Japanese male who was diagnosed as bipolar disorder on hemodialysis for renal failure. He was treated with VPA and manic symptoms gradually stabilized. However, the patient complained of severe abdominal pain. Blood amylase was found to be markedly high, and computed tomography revealed pancreatomegaly and an increased amount of peripancreatic fat. Hence, we diagnosed the case as acute pancreatitis caused by VPA. We discontinued oral medication, and he was started on a pancreatic enzyme inhibitor, antibiotics, and transfusion, and he showed improvement. Conclusion It has been reported that acute pancreatitis induced by VPA is caused by intermediate metabolites of VPA. We consider that patients with renal failure are prone to pancreatitis caused by VPA because of the accumulation of these intermediate metabolites. We need close monitoring for serious adverse effects such as pancreatitis when we prescribe VPA to patients with bipolar disorder on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure, although VPA is safer than other mood stabilizers. PMID:24679075

  1. Preliminary pediatric clinical evaluation of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 in preventing recurrent pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes and recurrent acute otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Donato, Guido; Fomia, Federico; Adami, Teresa; Careddu, Domenico; Cassandro, Claudia; Albera, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Background The oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 has been shown clearly to antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans, by releasing two bacteriocins named salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B. Unpublished observations indicate that it can also antagonize the growth of other bacteria involved in acute otitis media. Because of its ability to colonize the oral cavity and its safety profile, we have tested its efficacy in reducing the incidence of streptococcal pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis and episodes of acute otitis media. Methods We enrolled 82 children, including 65 with and 17 without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology. Of those with recurrent pathology, 45 were treated daily for 90 days with an oral slow-release tablet containing five billion colony-forming units of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®), and the remaining 20 served as an untreated control group. The 17 children without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral pathology were used as an additional control group. After 90 days of treatment, a 6-month follow-up period without treatment was included to evaluate a possible persistent protective role for the previously administered product. Results The 41 children who completed the 90-day course of Bactoblis showed a reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (about 90%) and/or acute otitis media (about 40%), calculated by comparing infection rates in the previous year. The 90-day treatment also reduced the reported incidence of pharyngeal and ear infections by about 65% in the 6-month follow-up period during which the product was not administered. Subjects tolerated the product well, with no side effects or dropouts reported. Conclusion Prophylactic administration of S. salivarius K12 to children with a history of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology reduced episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infections and/or tonsillitis as well as episodes of acute otitis media. PMID:23233809

  2. Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yellapu, Radha K; Mittal, Vivek; Grewal, Priya; Fiel, Mariaisabel; Schiano, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, nonconventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful. PMID:21499580

  3. Acute hemorrhage causes hepatic insulin sensitizing substance (HISS)-dependent insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Seredycz, Larissa I; Ming, Zhi; Lautt, W Wayne

    2006-11-01

    Hepatic insulin sensitizing substance (HISS) has been shown to account for 55% of the action of insulin in the fed state. HISS blockade leads to HISS-dependent insulin resistance (HDIR). The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that insulin resistance produced by hemorrhage was HDIR. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the rapid insulin sensitivity test (RIST), which can identify HISS-dependent and independent components. Hemorrhage was performed in anesthetized rats by removing blood to reduce mean arterial pressure to 50 mmHg. Subsequent to blood removal, a RIST was performed. The results show that hemorrhage caused complete HDIR as subsequent administration of atropine failed to further reduce insulin sensitivity. However, the post-hemorrhage RIST was reduced by 34% and not the anticipated 55%. The lesser reduction of the RIST index by hemorrhage was related to reduced apparent volume of distribution and clearance of insulin, since occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, which caused a similar decrease in portal venous flow as did hemorrhage, resulted in a similar degree of reduction of insulin clearance. The response to administered insulin was confounded by the impact of reduced hepatic blood flow on insulin metabolism that resulted in an increase in the HISS independent (direct) action of injected insulin against a background of complete HDIR. HDIR represents a useful hormonal response to assure a hyperglycemic response to hemorrhage. PMID:17218979

  4. Acute septic arthritis of the acromioclavicular joint caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae: a rare causative origin.

    PubMed

    Hong, Myong-Joo; Kim, Yeon-Dong; Ham, Hyang-Do

    2015-04-01

    Septic arthritis of the acromioclavicular (AC) joint is a rare entity with symptoms that include erythema, swelling, and tenderness over the AC joint, fever, and limitation of shoulder motion with pain. In previous reports, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species have been mentioned as common causative organisms. Haemophilus parainfluenzae is a normal inhabitant of the oral cavity, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract. However, it sometimes causes opportunistic infections leading to septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. AC joint infection associated with H.parainfluenzae is very rare, and only one case has been reported in the literature. Moreover, septic arthritis in immunocompetent patients is also very rare. Here, we report the case of a healthy patient with H. parainfluenzae-related septic arthritis of the AC joint. PMID:24584486

  5. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Memphis 37 Causes Acute Respiratory Disease in Perinatal Lamb Lung

    PubMed Central

    van Geelen, Albert; Gallup, Jack M.; Kienzle, Thomas; Shelly, Daniel A.; Cihlar, Tomas; King, Robert R.; Ackermann, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization due to respiratory illness among infants and young children of industrialized countries. There is a lack of understanding of the severe disease mechanisms as well as limited treatment options, none of which are fully satisfactory. This is partly due to lack of a relevant animal model of perinatal RSV infection that mimics moderate to severe disease in infants. We and others have shown mild disease in perinatal lambs with either a bovine or a human A2 strain of RSV. The Memphis 37 clinical strain of human RSV has been used to produce mild to moderate upper respiratory disease in healthy adult volunteers. We hypothesized that the Memphis 37 strain of RSV would infect perinatal lambs and produce clinical disease similar to that in human infants. Perinatal (3- to 5-day-old) lambs were inoculated intranasally with 2?mL/nostril of 1×105 focus-forming units (FFU)/mL (n=2) or 2.1×108 FFU/mL (n=3) of RSV Memphis 37. Clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, and immune and inflammatory responses were assessed. Memphis 37 caused moderate to severe gross and histologic lesions along with increased mRNA expression of macrophage inflammatory protein. Clinically, four of the five infected lambs had a mild to severe increase in expiratory effort. Intranasally administered RSV strain Memphis 37 infects neonatal lambs with gross, histologic, and immune responses similar to those observed in human infants. PMID:24804166

  6. Toxic myopathy and acute hepatic necrosis in cattle caused by ingestion of Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Zanata, Carina; Damasceno, Everson Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Leonardo Pintar; da Silva, Leilane Aparecida; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-12-15

    The epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of field and experimental Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) poisoning in cattle are described. The low availability of good quality forage and high rate of infestation of pastures by S. obtusifolia were the factors that led to poisonous plant ingestion. In this study, the morbidity ranged between 2% and 27.9%, and the lethality was 100%. For the experimental study, six cattle were fed with the aerial parts of S. obtusifolia collected in three different seasons at 9%-38% of the animal's body weight. The experimental and field diseases were similar. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, reluctance to move, muscular weakness and recumbency. The gross findings included pale discoloration of the skeletal muscle. Microscopically, the affected cattle showed degeneration and necrosis of the skeletal muscles and occasionally of the cardiac muscles. Additionally, two cattle showed centrilobular hepatic necrosis. In this study, S. obtusifolia collected from the same farm showed seasonal variation in toxicity. Poisoning by S. obtusifolia is an important cause of death of cattle in the Central Western region of Brazil. The toxicosis caused by this plant is similar to S. occidentalis poisoning; however, in S. obtusifolia poisoning, acute hepatic necrosis is sometimes present. PMID:25255730

  7. ProANP plasma measurement predicts all-cause mortality in acutely hospitalised patients: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lauridsen, Bo K; Iversen, Kasper; Hunter, Ingrid; Bay, Morten; Kirk, Vibeke; Nielsen, Olav W; Nielsen, Henrik; Boesgaard, Søren; Køber, Lars; Goetze, Jens P

    2013-01-01

    Importance The association of natriuretic peptide measurement with all-cause mortality in a broad selection of acutely admitted patients has not yet been examined. Objective To test the risk association between pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and short-term and long-term mortality and its predictive value in acutely hospitalised patients and compare this to N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Design, setting and patients Participants were selected from the Copenhagen Hospital Heart Failure Study (n=3644). Medical history, satisfactory echocardiography and blood samples were available on 2193 participants in 1998–1999 where NT-proBNP was measured. Vital status after discharge was obtained from national central data registers. A total of 1337 participants with eligible blood samples were selected in 2010–2011 for proANP measurement. Among these, 1255 (94%) were acutely hospitalised in 1998–1999. Main outcome measure(s) 1-year and long-term mortality. Results Median follow-up period was 11.5?years. At the end of follow-up, 926 patients had died, 239 during the first year. ProANP quartiles to 2–4 (median proANP levels 594?pmol/L, 990?pmol/L and 2052?pmol/L, respectively) associated with a stepwise increase in risk of 1-year and long-term mortality compared to the first quartile (336?pmol/L) in multivariable adjusted Cox proportional regression models (HR 1.53 95% CI 1.30 to 1.81 and HR 1.26 95% CI 1.17 to 1.36, respectively). An addition of NT-proBNP attenuated proANP's association with mortality in the models (HR 1.24 95% CI 1.01 to 1.53 and 1.14 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26, respectively). The increased risk was observed in participants with the highest proANP levels (fourth quartile). Similar results were observed in subgroups of participants with no evidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). ProANP in quartiles improved discrimination when added to traditional risk factors in prediction models for 1-year (integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) 0.141 95% CI 0.085 to 0.197; C-index 0.753 95% CI 0.724 to 0.783, P for improvement 0.003) and long-term mortality (IDI 0.053 95% CI 0.032 to 0.074; C-index 0.736 95% CI 0.720 to 0.752, P for improvement <0.001) with similar results in subgroups. Discrimination was best in a combined model with proANP as well as NT-proBNP included. Conclusions and relevance High plasma proANP concentrations are associated with and predict short-term and long-term all-cause mortality in acutely hospitalised patients irrespective of CVD status at admission. PMID:24282239

  8. Acute Sulfonylurea Therapy at Disease Onset Can Cause Permanent Remission of KATP-Induced Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Remedi, Maria Sara; Agapova, Sophia E.; Vyas, Arpita K.; Hruz, Paul W.; Nichols, Colin G.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) can be caused by gain-of-function ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel mutations. This realization has led to sulfonylurea therapy replacing insulin injections in many patients. In a murine model of KATP-dependent NDM, hyperglycemia and consequent loss of ?-cells are both avoided by chronic sulfonylurea treatment. Interestingly, KATP mutations may underlie remitting-relapsing, transient, or permanent forms of the disease in different patients, but the reason for the different outcomes is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To gain further insight into disease progression and outcome, we examined the effects of very early intervention by injecting NDM mice with high-dose glibenclamide for only 6 days, at the beginning of disease onset, then after the subsequent progression with measurements of blood glucose, islet function, and insulin sensitivity. RESULTS Although ?70% of mice developed severe diabetes after treatment cessation, ?30% were essentially cured, maintaining near-normal blood glucose until killed. Another group of NDM mice was initiated on oral glibenclamide (in the drinking water), and the dose was titrated daily, to maintain blood glucose <200 mg/dL. In this case, ?30% were also essentially cured; they were weaned from the drug after ?4 weeks and again subsequently maintained near-normal blood glucose. These cured mice maintain normal insulin content and were more sensitive to insulin than control mice, a compensatory mechanism that together with basal insulin secretion may be sufficient to maintain near-normal glucose levels. CONCLUSIONS At least in a subset of animals, early sulfonylurea treatment leads to permanent remission of NDM. These cured animals exhibit insulin-hypersensitivity. Although untreated NDM mice rapidly lose insulin content and progress to permanently extremely elevated blood glucose levels, early tight control of blood glucose may permit this insulin-hypersensitivity, in combination with maintained basal insulin secretion, to provide long-term remission. PMID:21813803

  9. Characterization of Novel StAR (Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein) Mutations Causing Non-Classic Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Flück, Christa E.; Pandey, Amit V.; Dick, Bernhard; Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Clemente, María; Gussinyé, Miquel; Carrascosa, Antonio; Mullis, Primus E.; Audi, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Context Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is crucial for transport of cholesterol to mitochondria where biosynthesis of steroids is initiated. Loss of StAR function causes lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH). Objective StAR gene mutations causing partial loss of function manifest atypical and may be mistaken as familial glucocorticoid deficiency. Only a few mutations have been reported. Design To report clinical, biochemical, genetic, protein structure and functional data on two novel StAR mutations, and to compare them with published literature. Setting Collaboration between the University Children's Hospital Bern, Switzerland, and the CIBERER, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Autonomous University, Barcelona, Spain. Patients Two subjects of a non-consanguineous Caucasian family were studied. The 46,XX phenotypic normal female was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at the age of 10 months, had normal pubertal development and still has no signs of hypergonodatropic hypogonadism at 32 years of age. Her 46,XY brother was born with normal male external genitalia and was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at 14 months. Puberty was normal and no signs of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism are present at 29 years of age. Results StAR gene analysis revealed two novel compound heterozygote mutations T44HfsX3 and G221S. T44HfsX3 is a loss-of-function StAR mutation. G221S retains partial activity (?30%) and is therefore responsible for a milder, non-classic phenotype. G221S is located in the cholesterol binding pocket and seems to alter binding/release of cholesterol. Conclusions StAR mutations located in the cholesterol binding pocket (V187M, R188C, R192C, G221D/S) seem to cause non-classic lipoid CAH. Accuracy of genotype-phenotype prediction by in vitro testing may vary with the assays employed. PMID:21647419

  10. A case report: a pediatric patient with acute lupus hemophagocytic syndrome; differences from reactive hemophagocytosis caused by hypercytokinemia.

    PubMed

    Inamo, Y; Ryou, N; Abe, O; Fuchigami, S; Hashimoto, K; Fuchigami, T; Hayashi, K

    2002-03-01

    Abstract We report the youngest known girl with acute lupus hemophagocytic syndrome (ALHS) at the onset of her illness. We investigated the pathogenesis of ALHS by assessment of factors thought to influence the onset, such as cytokines, Th1/Th2 balance, immune complexes, and autoantibodies. A girl 8 years and 10 months old with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) had high fever, pancytopenia, and hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow. We diagnosed SLE complicated by ALHS. Treatment with predonisolone (2 mg/kg/day) was started, and her clinical features improved. Th2 dominance of the Th1/Th2 balance, hypocomplementemia, and high levels of anti-ds-DNA antibody, PAIgG, and immune complexes were seen, but no hypercytokinenemia, hyperferritinemia, or hypertriglyceridemia. ALHS at the onset of SLE, excluding that caused by infections, could be a form of reactive hemophagocytosis caused by excessive production of autoantibodies and immune complexes. High-dose steroid therapy is effective without need for immunosuppressive drugs. Our patient showed hypocomplementemia along with high levels of anti-dsDNA antibody, anticardiolipin antibody, platelet-associated IgG (PAIgG), and immune complexes. The autoimmune-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (AAHS) is thought to involve an autoantibody-mediated mechanism or an immune complex-mediated mechanism. On the basis of our data, ALHS could simultaneously involve both these mechanisms. We demonstrated that there was no hypercytokinemia and no hyperferritinemia in ALHS associated with Th2 dominance. Autoantibodies and immune complexes may cause histiocytic hemophagocytosis in ALHS. High-dose steroids and high-dose immunoglobulin are effective but immunosuppressive drugs are not needed. PMID:24383836

  11. Acute intoxication caused by overdose of flunitrazepam and triazolam: high concentration of metabolites detected at autopsy examination.

    PubMed

    Namera, Akira; Makita, Ryosuke; Saruwatari, Tatsuro; Hatano, Aiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Nagao, Masataka

    2012-12-01

    A 52-year-old woman was found dead on the floor of the living room on the first floor of a house, which belonged to the man with whom she shared the house. On visiting the site, her clothes were found to be undisturbed. Packages of flunitrazepam (Silece, 2 mg/tablet) and triazolam (Halcion, 0.25 mg/tablet) were found strewn around the victim. Toxicological analysis was performed, and the concentrations of flunitrazepam, triazolam, and their metabolites in the victim's blood and urine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry. A high blood concentration of 7-aminoflunitrazepam was detected (1,270 ng/g), and further metabolites such as 7-acetamidoflunitrazepam, 7-acetamidodesmethylflunitrazepam, and 7-aminodesmethylflunitrazepam were detected in the blood and urine samples. In addition, 4-hydroxytriazolam and ?-hydroxytriazolam were detected in her urine at a concentration of 950 and 12,100 ng/mL, respectively.On the basis of the autopsy findings and toxicology results of high concentrations of both flunitrazepam and triazolam derivatives, the cause of death was determined to be acute intoxication from flunitrazepam and triazolam. PMID:21372658

  12. Bacteria: More Than Pathogens

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Trudy Wassenaar (; )

    2002-07-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article reveals that there are more bacteria on Earth than there are humans. Bacteria: inhabit every environment on the planet, playing a key ecological role, can be good for our health -- for example, by helping us digest food, and can cause disease even though the human body is not the natural host for many bacteria.

  13. Efficacy of 5-day parenteral versus intramammary benzylpenicillin for treatment of clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to penicillin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kalmus, P; Simojoki, H; Orro, T; Taponen, S; Mustonen, K; Holopainen, J; Pyörälä, S

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of parenteral (intramuscular) or intramammary (IMM) benzylpenicillin treatment for clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to penicillin in vitro was investigated. Cows with clinical mastitis in 1 udder quarter were randomly placed into 2 treatment groups. The preliminary bacteriological diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI) was based on on-farm culturing, and the bacteriological diagnoses were later confirmed by a quantitative PCR assay. Clinical mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria susceptible to benzylpenicillin was treated with penicillin via either the parenteral route (20mg/kg) or IMM route (600mg) once per day for 5d. The outcome of the treatment was evaluated 3 to 4wk after the onset of the treatment. The affected quarter was examined to assess the clinical cure, and milk samples were collected from the affected quarter to determine the bacteriological cure and milk N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity. The survival and the composite milk somatic cell counts of the treated cows were followed up for 6 and 3mo after treatment, respectively. A total of 140 cows with clinical mastitis were included in the study, 61 being treated with benzylpenicillin parenterally and 79 via the IMM route. From all quarters treated, 108 of 140 (77.1%) were cured clinically and 77 of 140 (55.0%) were cured bacteriologically. The route of treatment did not significantly affect the outcome of the treatment; 80.3% of the quarters with parenteral treatment and 74.7% of the quarters with IMM treatment showed a clinical cure, and 54.1 and 55.7% a bacteriological cure, respectively. The milk N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity was significantly lower in the quarters with a clinical or bacteriological cure than in the quarters with no cure. The 6-mo survival and the proportion of cows with composite milk somatic cell counts <200,000/mL among the treated cows during the 3-mo follow-up period did not significantly differ between the treatment groups. In conclusion, the outcome of either parenteral or IMM benzylpenicillin treatment of clinical mastitis caused by penicillin-susceptible bacteria was similar. PMID:24485692

  14. Use of two bacteria for biological control of bayoud disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Dihazi, Abdelhi; Jaiti, Fatima; Wafataktak; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Jaoua, Samir; Driouich, Azeddine; Baaziz, Mohamed; Daayf, Fouad; Serghini, Mohammed Amine

    2012-06-01

    The Bayoud, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa), is the most destructive disease of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) in Morocco and Algeria, with no effective control strategy yet available. In this work, two bacteria, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Ag1 (Ag) and Burkholderia cepacia strain Cs5 (Cs), were examined for their potential to control this disease. Both bacterial strains inhibited both growth and sporulation of Foa. They released compounds into the culture medium, which resulted into cytological changes in Foa's mycelial structure. When Jihel-date palm plantlets, a susceptible cultivar, were induced with these bacteria, the size of the necrosis zone, which reflected the spreading of the pathogen, was reduced by more than 70%, as compared with uninduced controls. To further investigate the mechanisms of such disease reduction, phenolic compounds and peroxidase activity were assessed. One month after inoculation, date palm defense reactions against Foa were different depending on the bacterium used, B. cepacia led to higher accumulation of constitutive caffeoylshikimic acid isomers while B. amyloliquefaciens triggered the induction of new phenolic compounds identified as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Peroxidase activity has also been stimulated significantly and varied with the bacterial strain used and with Foa inoculation. These results add to the promising field of investigation in controlling Bayoud disease. PMID:22480991

  15. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

    2008-01-01

    Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds. PMID:18327481

  16. Frequency and Susceptibility of Bacteria Caused Urinary Tract Infection in Neonates: Eight-Year Study at Neonatal Division of Bahrami Children’s Hospital, Tehran Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Taheri, Peymaneh; Navabi, Behdad; Khatibi, Efat

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Susceptibility pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection (UTI) in neonate would potentially improve the clinical management by enabling clinicians to choose most reasonable first line empirical antibiotics. This study aimed to this end by studying isolated organisms from neonates with UTI in an inpatient setting. Methods Current retrospective study has recruited all cases of neonatal UTI diagnosed through a suprapubic/catheterized sample, admitted to Neonatal Division of Bahrami Children’s Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from June 2004 to June 2012. Results Escherichia coli was the dominant (64.4%) bacteria among a total of 73 cases (69.9% boys and 30.1% girls; aged 14.14 ± 7.68 days; birth weight of 3055.85 ± 623.00 g) and Enterobacter (19.2%), Klebsiella (12.3%), and Staphylococcus epidermdisis (4.1%) were less frequent isolated bacteria. E. coli was mostly resistant to ampicillin (93.6%), cefixime (85.7%) and cephalexin (77.3%), and sensitive to cefotaxime (63.6%). Enterobacter found to be most resistant to amikacin (100%), ampicillin (92.85%), and most sensitive to ceftizoxime (71.4%). Conclusion A high ratio (> 92.85%) of resistance toward ampicillin was observed among common neonatal UTI bacterial agents. Having this finding along with previous reports of emerging resistance of neonatal uropathogensto ampicillin could be a notion that a combination of a third generation cephalosporin and an aminoglycoside would be a more reasonable first choice than ampicillin plus an aminoglycoside.

  17. Study in vitro of the impact of endophytic bacteria isolated from Centella asiatica on the disease incidence caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum.

    PubMed

    Rakotoniriana, Erick Francisco; Rafamantanana, Mamy; Randriamampionona, Denis; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Urveg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; El Jaziri, Mondher; Munaut, Françoise; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Declerck, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Thirty-one endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of Centella asiatica were screened in vitro for their ability to reduce the growth rate and disease incidence of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of anthracnose. Isolates of Cohnella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Pantoea sp. significantly stimulated the growth rate of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, while isolates of Achromobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas putida had no influence on this plant pathogen. By contrast, Bacillus subtilis BCA31 and Pseudomonas fluorescens BCA08 caused a marked inhibition of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 growth by 46 and 82 %, respectively. Cell-free culture filtrates of B. subtilis BCA31 and P. fluorescens BCA08 were found to contain antifungal compounds against C. higginsianum MUCL 44942. Inoculation assays on in vitro-cultured plants of C. asiatica showed that foliar application of B. subtilis BCA31, three days before inoculation with C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, significantly reduced incidence and severity of the disease. The role of endophytic bacteria in maintaining the apparent inactivity of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 in C. asiatica grown in the wild is discussed. PMID:22903452

  18. Alterations in coagulation parameters in dairy cows affected with acute mastitis caused by E. coli and S. aureus pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zuhair A. Bani Ismail; Charles Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate alterations in coagulation parameters in dairy cows affected with acute Escherichia coli (E. coli) mastitis and to compare those values to cows affected with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ) mastitis. Twenty-four, adult Holstein-Friesian dairy cows affected with acute E. coli mastitis and 17 cows affected with S. aureus mastitis were studied. Cows affected with

  19. Acute Antiarrhythmic Effects of Bi-Level Positive Airway Pressure Ventilation in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure Caused by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Marvisi; Marco Brianti; Giuseppe Marani; Gabriele Turrini; Paolo Zambrelli; Corrado Ajolfi; Roberto Delsignore

    2004-01-01

    Background: Cardiac arrhythmias are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute respiratory failure (ARF) and may be life threatening. Recently, non-invasive positive pressure ventilation has been advanced as a useful tool in COPD patients with ARF. This method can affect global cardiac performance through its effects on many determinants of cardiac function and may be helpful

  20. Acute Tumor Lysis Syndrome Caused by Transcatheter Oily Chemoembolization in a Patient with a Large Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Noriaki [National Cancer Center Hospital, Division of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan)], E-mail: saknm76@yahoo.co.jp; Monzawa, Shuichi [Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Department of Radiology (Japan); Nagano, Hidenobu; Nishizaki, Hogara [Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Department of Internal Medicine (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Acute tumor lysis syndrome results from a sudden and rapid release of products of cellular breakdown after anticancer therapy. Severe alterations of metabolic profile might occur and result in acute renal failure. We present a patient with a large hepatocellular carcinoma who received transcatheter oily chemoembolization and died subsequently of this syndrome. To our knowledge, there has been only one report of this syndrome induced by chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma. This case illustrates the need to anticipate the development of acute tumor lysis syndrome when chemoembolization is planned for a large hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Determinants of Noninvasive Ventilation Outcomes during an Episode of Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: The Effects of Comorbidities and Causes of Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pacilli, Angela Maria Grazia; Valentini, Ilaria; Carbonara, Paolo; Marchetti, Antonio; Nava, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effect of the cause of acute respiratory failure and the role of comorbidities both acute and chronic on the outcome of COPD patients admitted to Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (RICU) with acute respiratory failure and treated with NIV. Design. Observational prospective study. Patients and Methods. 176 COPD patients consecutively admitted to our RICU over a period of 3 years and treated with NIV were evaluated. In all patients demographic, clinical, and functional parameters were recorded including the cause of acute respiratory failure, SAPS II score, Charlson comorbidity index, and further comorbidities not listed in the Charlson index. NIV success was defined as clinical improvement leading to discharge to regular ward, while exitus or need for endotracheal intubation was considered failure. Results. NIV outcome was successful in 134 patients while 42 underwent failure. Univariate analysis showed significantly higher SAP II score, Charlson index, prevalence of pneumonia, and lower serum albumin level in the failure group. Multivariate analysis confirmed a significant predictive value for pneumonia and albumin. Conclusions. The most important determinants of NIV outcome in COPD patients are the presence of pneumonia and the level of serum albumin as an indicator of the patient nutritional status. PMID:24563868

  2. Necrotizing fasciitis and myositis caused by group A streptococci. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of "flesh-eating bacteria".

    PubMed

    Abolnik, I Z; Sexton, D J

    1994-10-01

    Despite the absence of conclusive proof, the incidence of necrotizing fasciitis and myositis due to GAS may be increasing, possibly related to shifts in the proportion of GAS isolates of M-Types 1 and 3. These M-types (or the production of exotoxins and proteases associated with them) may lead to severe GAS infections in individuals who lack immunity. Recent television and newspaper reports underscore the potential virulence of GAS even in young and previously well individuals although they do this at the expense of raising fear in the general population. It is unfortunate that these reports often fail to emphasize the rarity with which GAS causes myositis and fasciitis. The overall incidence of these dreadful diseases is very low. In fact, by extrapolating the CDC estimates, we suspect that only 14-40 cases of GAS-induced myositis or fasciitis occur annually in North Carolina. Each of these infections is a true calamity for the affected patients and their physicians, but together they represent only a tiny fraction of all GAS infections that occur in North Carolinians each year. It is relatively easy to separate uncomplicated streptococcal cellulitis from GAS-induced fasciitis and/or myositis by bedside exam and old-fashioned clinical judgment. Prompt and aggressive surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy are needed for all patients with myositis and/or fasciitis due to GAS; others can be treated with simple beta-lactam antibiotics and careful observation. PMID:7800056

  3. Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve: A cause of acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a three-year-old child: A case report and comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Classen, Dale; Bruce, Garth; Kanthan, Rani

    2014-01-01

    A three-year-old boy was investigated for inexplicable incessant crying. On examination, his left wrist was mildly swollen (three to four months) and sensitive. Exploration and carpal tunnel decompression of the left wrist with incisional biopsy was performed for the presence of a fusiform swelling intimately associated with the median nerve. Histopathology revealed the presence of enlarged nerve bundles admixed with mature fat cells and diffuse fibroblastic proliferation. Three months later, he underwent urgent contralateral carpal tunnel decompression for a similar presentation. The final diagnosis was bilateral fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH) of the median nerves causing acute bilateral compression neuropathy. FLH of the median nerve is an extremely unusual cause of acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a young child presenting with 'incessant crying'. A comprehensive review of FLH including epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, imaging, pathology, treatment and prognosis is discussed. PMID:25332651

  4. Tolerization of Mice to Schistosoma mansoni Egg Antigens Causes Elevated Type 1 and Diminished Type 2 Cytokine Responses and Increased Mortality in Acute Infection1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Padraic G. Fallon; David W. Dunne

    The granuloma that surrounds the Schistosoma mansoni egg is the cause of pathology in murine schistosomiasis, and its formation is driven by egg Ag-stimulated type 1 and type 2 cytokines. To determine the role of egg-driven immune responses during schistosome infection we rendered CBA\\/Ca mice unresponsive to schistosome eggs by combined cyclophosphamide treatment and thymectomy. In the early acute stages

  5. Acute subdural hematoma caused by a ruptured cavernous internal carotid artery giant aneurysm following abducens nerve palsy: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Hideaki; Sorimachi, Takatoshi; Aoki, Rie; Osada, Takahiro; Srivatanakul, Kittipong; Matsumae, Mitsunori

    2015-07-01

    The authors report a 61-year-old female patient with a giant cavernous aneurysm in the right internal carotid artery (ICA) leading to acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) 7 days after the occurrence of abducens nerve palsy. She underwent ICA occlusion associated with high-flow bypass. In all five reported patients with a cavernous ICA aneurysm causing ASDH, the size of the aneurysm was giant and cranial nerve signs preceded the rupture. When a patient with a symptomatic cavernous ICA giant aneurysm experiences sudden-onset headache and/or consciousness disturbance, rupture of the aneurysm should be differentiated, even though a cavernous ICA aneurysm rarely causes ASDH. PMID:25948076

  6. Spindle cell sarcoma of the mitral valve: an unusual cause of acute coronary syndrome in a child.

    PubMed

    Martens, Thomas; Vandekerckhove, Kristof; François, Katrien; Bove, Thierry

    2014-10-01

    We present an unusual case of acute myocardial infarction by embolic obstruction of both the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries in a 14-year-old girl. Echocardiography showed mobile lesions on the mitral valve and into the left ventricular outflow tract with poor left ventricular function, eventually suggesting endocarditis. Successful surgery comprised mitral valve plasty after complete resection of the tumoral lesion, in association with coronary artery embolectomy. Histologic examination revealed a malignant spindle cell sarcoma treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. We emphasize here the differential diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in children by a rare cardiac tumor. PMID:25282213

  7. Rapid and Reversible Impairments of Short- and Long-Term Social Recognition Memory Are Caused by Acute Isolation of Adult Rats via Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shahar-Gold, Hadar; Gur, Rotem; Wagner, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian social organizations require the ability to recognize and remember individual conspecifics. This social recognition memory (SRM) can be examined in rodents using their innate tendency to investigate novel conspecifics more persistently than familiar ones. Here we used the SRM paradigm to examine the influence of housing conditions on the social memory of adult rats. We found that acute social isolation caused within few days a significant impairment in acquisition of short-term SRM of male and female rats. Moreover, SRM consolidation into long-term memory was blocked following only one day of social isolation. Both impairments were reversible, but with different time courses. Furthermore, only the impairment in SRM consolidation was reversed by systemic administration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). In contrast to SRM, object recognition memory was not affected by social isolation. We conclude that acute social isolation rapidly induces reversible changes in the brain neuronal and molecular mechanisms underlying SRM, which hamper its acquisition and completely block its consolidation. These changes occur via distinct, AVP sensitive and insensitive mechanisms. Thus, acute social isolation of rats swiftly causes changes in their brain and interferes with their normal social behavior. PMID:23741464

  8. Diagnostic imaging and pathogenesis of the traumatic intratumoural haemorrhage of schwannoma causing acute high radial nerve palsy: case report.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Takada, Jun; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2012-12-01

    We describe the first report of haemorrhaged schwannoma presenting with acute high radial nerve palsy after traumatic injury of the upper arm. Anticoagulant therapy may induce intratumoural haemorrhage, resulting in symptomatic increases in size within the limited space of the upper arm. The radiological, surgical and pathological findings are discussed. PMID:22612066

  9. Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicating an imported case of mixed malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahmi Yousef; El-Hiday, Abdul Haleem

    2010-09-01

    A 40-year-old man was admitted with a 6-day history of fever and abdominal pain. His right upper quadrant was tender on palpation. A blood smear revealed trophozoite forms of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. Abdominal ultrasound findings were consistent with acute acalculous cholecystitis. He was treated successfully with quinine and doxycycline and discharged in good clinical condition. PMID:19932042

  10. Clavibacter: a New Genus Containing Some Phytopathogenic Coryneform Bacteria, Including Clavibacter xyli subsp. xyli sp. nov., subsp. nov. and Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis subsp. nov. Pathogens That Cause Ratoon Stunting Disease of Sugarcane and Bermudagrass Stunting Disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL J. DAVIS; A. GRAVES GILLASPIE; ANNE K. VIDAVER; RUSSELL W. HARRIS

    A total of 23 strains of coryneform bacteria that cause ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane and Bermudagrass stunting disease were examined. These included 17 sugarcane strains from Florida, Louisiana, South Africa, Brazil, and Japan and six Bermudagrass strains from Florida and Taiwan. The sugarcane and Bermudagrass strains contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, rhamnose, and fucose in their cell walls, suggesting a relationship

  11. BOGUS BACTERIA...

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Deaton

    2007-01-24

    Here are some websites to get you started... Just click on the links and start searching! microbe world- bacteria Bacteria Rule Quiz! Bacteria.... Harmful Bacteria Bacteria Museum Bacteria! Microbes- all sorts of info... When you are finished looking at the sites or when you have enough information concerning bacteria, ask Mrs. Deaton for some books that can give you even more DETAIL!!! *Don\\'t forget to keep track of your information on your I-CHARTS... ...

  12. Acute right ventricular failure caused by concomitant coronary and pulmonary embolism: successful treatment with endovascular coronary and pulmonary thrombectomy

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Sasha; Roijer, Anders; Holmqvist, Jasminka; Keussen, Inger; Cwikiel, Wojciech; Öhlin, Bertil; Erlinge, David

    2013-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is present in approximately 25% of the general population. PFO is characterized by intermittent shunting of blood from the right to the left atrium, especially in the context of increased right-sided filling pressures, with risk of paradoxical embolism. We describe a 69-year-old woman presenting with acute chest pain, severe dyspnoea, and acute inferolateral ST-segment elevation on the electrocardiogram. The patient was diagnosed with myocardial infarction and failure of the right cardiac ventricle, which was considered to be secondary to extensive pulmonary embolism leading to increased filling pressures and paradoxical coronary embolism. The patient underwent emergent percutaneous interventions with coronary thrombus extraction and pulmonary thrombus fragmentation and local thrombolysis. The patient was free of symptoms at follow up 6 months later and echocardiography showed substantially improved right ventricular function. We discuss issues related to the diagnosis, treatment, and secondary prevention for patients with concomitant pulmonary and coronary arterial thrombosis. PMID:24222822

  13. Object recognition memory deficit and depressive-like behavior caused by chronic ovariectomy can be transitorialy recovered by the acute activation of hippocampal estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Cristiane P; Pereira, Luciana M; Ferreira-Vieira, Talita H; Drumond, Luciana E; Massensini, André R; Moraes, Márcio F D; Pereira, Grace S

    2015-07-01

    It is well known that estradiol (E2) replacement therapy is effective on restoring memory deficits and mood disorders that may occur during natural menopause or after surgical ovarian removal (ovariectomy, OVX). However, it is still unknown the effectiveness of acute and localized E2 administration on the effects of chronic OVX. Here we tested the hypothesis that the intra-hippocampal E2 infusion, as well as specific agonists of estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha (ER?) and beta (ER?), are able to mend novel object recognition (NOR) memory deficit and depressive-like behavior caused by 12 weeks of OVX. We found that both ER? and ER? activation, at earlier stages of consolidation, recovered the NOR memory deficit caused by 12w of OVX. Conversely, only the ER? activation was effective in decreasing the depressive-like behavior caused by 12w of OVX. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of OVX on hippocampal volume and ERs expression. The structural MRI showed no alteration in the hippocampus volume of 12w OVX animals. Interestingly, ER? expression in the hippocampus decreased after one week of OVX, but increased in 12w OVX animals. Overall, we may conclude that the chronic estrogen deprivation, induced by 12 weeks of OVX, modulates the hippocampal ER? expression and induces NOR memory deficit and depressive-like behaviors. Nonetheless, it is noteworthy that the acute effects of E2 on NOR memory and depressive-like behavior are still apparent even after 12 weeks of OVX. PMID:25867995

  14. Genetic Characteristics of the Coxsackievirus A24 Variant Causing Outbreaks of Acute Hemorrhagic Conjunctivitis in Jiangsu, China, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; Qi, Xian; Xu, Ke; Ji, Hong; Zhu, Yefei; Tang, Fenyang; Zhou, Minghao

    2014-01-01

    During September 2010, an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis reemerged in Jiangsu, three years after the nationwide epidemic in China in 2007. In total, 2409 cases were reported, 2118 of which were reported in September; 79.8% of those affected were students or teachers, with a median age of 16 years. To identify and demonstrate the genetic characteristics of the etiological agent, 52 conjunctival swabs were randomly collected from four different cities. After detection and isolation, 43 patients were positive for coxsackievirus A24 variant according to PCR and 20 according to culture isolation. Neither adenovirus nor EV70 was detected. A phylogenetic study of the complete 3Cpro and VP1 regions showed that the Jiangsu isolates clustered into a new lineage, GIV-C5, with two uniform amino-acid mutations that distinguished them from all previous strains. Another new cluster, GIV-C4, formed by Indian isolates from 2007 and Brazilian isolates from 2009, was also identified in this study. Interestingly, our isolates shared greatest homology with the GIV-C4 strains, not with the isolates that were responsible for the nationwide acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic in China in 2007. Although all our isolates were closely related, they could be differentiated into two subclusters within GIV-C5. In conclusion, our study suggests that a new cluster of coxsackievirus A24 variant that had already evolved into diverse strains was associated with the acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks in Jiangsu in September 2010. These viruses might have originated from the virus isolated in India in 2007, rather than from the epidemic strains isolated in China in 2007. PMID:24475191

  15. Depth-Related Changes in Community Structure of Culturable Mineral Weathering Bacteria and in Weathering Patterns Caused by Them along Two Contrasting Soil Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jing; Xi, Jun; Huang, Zhi; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation. However, few reports of mineral weathering bacteria inhabiting subsurfaces of soil profiles have been published, raising the question of whether the subsurface weathering bacteria are fundamentally distinct from those in surface communities. To address this question, we isolated and characterized mineral weathering bacteria from two contrasting soil profiles with respect to their role in the weathering pattern evolution, their place in the community structure, and their depth-related changes in these two soil profiles. The effectiveness and pattern of bacterial mineral weathering were different in the two profiles and among the horizons within the respective profiles. The abundance of highly effective mineral weathering bacteria in the Changshu profile was significantly greater in the deepest horizon than in the upper horizons, whereas in the Yanting profile it was significantly greater in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Most of the mineral weathering bacteria from the upper horizons of the Changshu profile and from the deeper horizons of the Yanting profile significantly acidified the culture media in the mineral weathering process. The proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Changshu profile was similar in all horizons except in the Bg2 horizon, whereas the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Yanting profile was higher in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Both profiles existed in different highly depth-specific culturable mineral weathering community structures. The depth-related changes in culturable weathering communities were primarily attributable to minor bacterial groups rather than to a change in the major population structure. PMID:24077700

  16. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the University of Michigan. In a series of experiments, her team showed that hypochlorous acid causes bacterial ... produced by almost all organisms, from bacteria to humans, may be one of the oldest molecular chaperones ...

  17. Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Jerusalem 1988-91: causes, characteristics and relation to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, J; Arnon, R; Ligumski, M; Beeri, R; Keret, D; Lysy, J; Fich, A; Tsvang, E; Siguencia, J; Gonzalez, J

    1993-05-01

    We analyzed 321 consecutive episodes of community-based acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding admitted to the Hadassah University Hospital in Jerusalem during 1988-91. Of these 71% were in males aged 56.2 +/- 1.2 years (mean +/- SE) and 29% were in females (67.9 +/- 1.7 years, P < 0.001). The main diagnoses were duodenal ulcer (39.5%), gastric ulcer (16.9%), esophageal varices (10.0%), erosive gastritis (8.2%) and esophagitis (7.5%). The distribution of these diagnoses differed significantly between the genders (P = 0.0003). In males the prevalence of duodenal ulcer and of esophageal varices was higher, and that of gastric ulcer and esophagitis lower, than in females. Gastric ulcer patients were oldest, were the least likely to have received anti-ulcer medications prior to admission, and had the highest levels of urea and the lowest levels of hemoglobin on admission. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increased significantly with age and was reported in 35% of the cases (aspirin in doses < 1.0 g/day in 21%, nonsalicylate anti-inflammatory agents in 11%, aspirin plus other anti-inflammatory drugs in 3%). Use of systemic corticosteroids was reported in 4%. The most distinctive features of the population with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the present study compared to other series were the significantly higher proportion of duodenal ulcers and the lower proportion of Mallory-Weiss tears. PMID:8314690

  18. Acute encephalopathy associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by Escherichia coli O157: H7 and rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Imataka, G; Wake, K; Suzuki, M; Yamanouchi, H; Arisaka, O

    2015-05-01

    We reported a case of a 22-months child with hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with encephalopathy. As the cause of this case, the involvements of verotoxin 1 and 2 caused by O157: the H7 strain of the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and rotavirus were presumed. We administered brain hypothermic therapy and steroid pulse therapy in the intensive care unit, but we were not able to save his life and the child died on the 6th day from the onset. PMID:26044229

  19. Guillain-Barré syndrome as a prominent cause of childhood acute flaccid paralysis in post polio eradication era in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Halawa, Eman F; Ahmed, Dalia; Nada, Mona A F

    2011-05-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome often follows an antecedent gastrointestinal or respiratory illness but, in rare cases, follows vaccination. This study was conducted to identify preceding events, demographic, clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome after post-poliomyelitis eradication era in Egypt. This is a prospective study of all children with GBS (no = 50) admitted to pediatric Cairo University Hospital between January 2006 and June 2007 (70.42% of all acute flaccid paralysis patients during this period). Upper respiratory infection was the most common preceding event (24%) while only 4 patients (8%) reported antecedent oral polio vaccine. Motor deficit was frequent and severe (quadriparesis in 92% and paraparesis in 8%). Autonomic dysfunction was recorded in 32% of patients. Forty two percent of patients had poor outcome with 16% deaths. Presence of severe disability on admission and on nadir, cranial nerve affection or the need for mechanical ventilator were found to be significant predictors for poor outcome. PMID:21169042

  20. Bacteria Museum

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Who knew that bacteria had their own virtual museum? Here, visitors will "learn that not all bacteria are harmful, how they are used in industry, that they belong to the oldest living creatures on Earth", and many more interesting facts to discover about the diverse world of bacteria. The "Bacterial Species Files" tab at the top of the page, allows visitors to look up information on 40 different specific bacteria, from Anthrax to Yersinia enterocolitica. The information provided for each bacterium includes photographs, consumer guides, fact sheets, and scientific links. Visitors will find that the "Main Exhibits" tab addresses the basics about bacteria, as well as "Pathogenic Bacteria", "Evolution", "How We Fight Bacteria", and "Food and Water Safety". Visitors will surely enjoy the "Good Bacteria in Food" link found in the Food and Water Safety section, as it explains how some foods benefit from good bacteria, such as Swiss cheese, sausage, sauerkraut, chocolate, and coffee.

  1. Comparative effects of disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate against testicular toxicity in rats caused by acute exposure to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Hiroshige [Miyazaki Medical College Hospital (Japan); Funakoshi, Takayuki; Shimada, Hideaki; Kojima, Shoji [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Disulfiram (DSF) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DED) were compared for their protective effects against the testicular toxicity induced by acute exposure to cadmium (Cd) in rats. Rats were injected subcutaneously with CdCl{sub 2} [26.7 {mu}mol (3 mg) Cd/kg], and 30 min later they were injected intraperitoneally with DSF (0.05-0.5 mmol/kg) or DED (0.1-1 mmol/kg). The treatment with DSF at dose levels of 0.1-0.5 mmol/kg prevented the increases in testicular lipid peroxidation and calcium (Ca) concentrations and the decreases in testicular weight that were observed at 7 d after Cd injection. DED at dosage levels of 0.2-1 mmol/kg likewise reduced Cd-induced testicular toxicity. An increase in testicular iron (Fe) concentrations at 7 d and sterility at 59 d after Cd injection were almost completely blocked by treatment with DSF or DED at the highest doses, but lower doses of DSF or DED were ineffective. These results indicated that DSF, which is metabolized to DED, had a protective effect against Cd-induced testicular toxicity nearly equivalent to DED at approximately one-half the dose. 37 refs., 6 tabs.

  2. Unlimited access to low-energy diet causes acute malnutrition in dams and alters biometric and biochemical parameters in offspring.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, E; de Santana Muniz, G; das Graças de Santana Muniz, M; de Souza Alexandre, L; da Rocha, L S; Leandro, C G; de Castro, R M; Bolaños-Jimenez, F

    2014-02-01

    Here we analyze the outcomes of unlimited access to a low-energy (LE) diet in dams and their offspring. At 3 weeks' gestation, pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (1) the control group received a normoenergetic diet; and (2) the experimental group received the LE diet. In dams, lactation outcomes, food intake, body weight, plasma IGF-1, prealbumin, transferrin and retinol-binding protein levels were evaluated; in offspring, biometric and biochemical parameters and food intake were evaluated. No differences were observed during pregnancy. However, after lactation, dams that received the LE diet demonstrated significant reductions in body weight (P<0.05), plasma IGF-1 (P=0.01), prealbumin and visceral fat (P<0.001). Pups born to dams that received the LE diet demonstrated reduced body length and weight at weaning (P<0.001) and were lighter than the control animals at the end of the experimental period. Pups also demonstrated reduced plasma, low-density lipoprotein (P=0.04), triglycerides (P=0.002) and glucose levels (P<0.05), and differences were noted in visceral fat. These results indicate that feeding dams with LE diet during the reproductive period induces acute malnutrition and impairs the growth and development of offspring, as well as certain metabolic parameters. PMID:24847690

  3. Development of a Western Blot Assay for Detection of Antibodies against Coronavirus Causing Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    He, Qigai; Chong, Kooi Hoong; Hee Chng, Hiok; Leung, Bernard; Ee Ling, Ai; Wei, Ting; Chan, Shzu-Wei; Eong Ooi, Eng; Kwang, Jimmy

    2004-01-01

    To identify a major antigenic determinant for use in the development of a rapid serological diagnostic test for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus infection and to study the immune response during SARS coronavirus infection in humans, we cloned the full length and six truncated fragments of the nucleocapsid gene, expressed them, and purified them as glutathione S-transferase-tagged recombinant proteins. The reactivities of the recombinant proteins to a panel of antibodies containing 33 SARS coronavirus-positive sera and 66 negative sera and to antibodies against other animal coronaviruses were screened. A truncated 195-amino-acid fragment from the C terminus of the nucleocapsid protein (N195) was identified that had a strong ability to detect antibodies against SARS coronavirus. No cross-reaction was found between the N195 protein and antibodies against chicken, pig, and canine coronaviruses. The N195 protein was used to develop a Western blot assay to detect antibodies against SARS coronavirus in 274 clinically blinded samples. The specificity and sensitivity of this test were 98.3 and 90.9%, respectively. The correlation between our Western blotting assay and an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was also analyzed. The results of our Western blot assay and IFA for the detection of SARS coronavirus-positive sera were the same. Thus, the N195 protein was identified as a suitable protein to be used as an antigen in Western blot and other possible assays for the detection of SARS coronavirus infection. PMID:15013997

  4. Acute kidney injury during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, James W

    2014-12-01

    Acute kidney injury complicates the care of a relatively small number of pregnant and postpartum women. Several pregnancy-related disorders such as preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathies may produce acute kidney injury. Prerenal azotemia is another common cause of acute kidney injury in pregnancy. This manuscript will review pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury from a renal functional perspective. Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury will be reviewed. Specific conditions causing acute kidney injury and treatments will be compared. PMID:25264696

  5. EFFECTS OF THE COMBINATION ANTIBIOTIC—EDTA–TRIS IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC BOVINE ENDOMETRITIS CAUSED BY ANTIMICROBIAL-RESISTANT BACTERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. FARCA; P. NEBBIA; P. ROBINO; G. RE

    1997-01-01

    The combined effects of the uterine infusion of EDTA–Tris solution and antibiotics have been evaluated in 75 cases of slight, moderate or severe bovine endometritis which did not respond to local routine antimicrobial therapy. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were isolated from uterine swabs. The cows were divided into three groups on the basis of the severity of endometritis and treated with 100

  6. Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

    MedlinePLUS

    Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a condition caused by a member of the herpesvirus family. ... infection is spread by: Blood transfusions Organ transplants ... acute CMV infection develop a mononucleosis-like syndrome. In ...

  7. Acute otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Hui, Charles Ps

    2013-02-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as 'swimmer's ear', is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present. PMID:24421666

  8. Acute colic possibly caused by phytobezoar derived from napier grass in 5 Japanese black cows reared in the same farm.

    PubMed

    Hasunuma, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Daisaku; Kirino, Yumi; Sasa, Takafumi; Fushimi, Yasuo; Ikeda, Teppei; Tshering, Chenga; Takagi, Mitsuhiro

    2011-08-01

    For 6 years, 5 Japanese Black cows of the same herd showed anorexia, depression, and dehydration with no feces in the rectum. Biomedical examination of 3 animals showed severe hypokalemia and hypochloremia. Although the first 3 animals died or were slaughtered (causes unknown), necropsy results showed that the cow in case 4 had intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoar derived from napier grass, fed mainly to the cattle as roughage. Therefore, farmers were recommended to avoid the hard root-stem portion of napier grass as roughage. Consequently, less phytobezoar was recovered from the fifth cow, and no similar clinical case of intestinal obstruction was observed thereafter. This is the first report on intestinal obstruction caused by phytobezoars derived from napier grass. PMID:21498963

  9. A Sericin-Derived Peptide Protects Sf9 Insect Cells from Death Caused by Acute Serum Deprivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masakazu Takahashi; Kazuhisa Tsujimoto; Youichi Kato; Hideyuki Yamada; Hiroshi Takagi; Shigeru Nakamori

    2005-01-01

    Sericin is the silk protein enveloping fibroin fibers in cocoons. Sericin hydrolysate protects cultured Sf9 insect cells from death caused by serum deprivation; the activity depends on the repeats of 38 amino acids. A partial peptide from the 38 residues, SGGSSTYGYS, inhibited serum-deprivation death as well. Cell viabilities in the presence of 10% (v\\/v) foetal calf serum, no additives and

  10. Investigation of 89 candidate gene variants for effects on all-cause mortality following acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Thomas M; Xiao, Lan; Lyons, Patrick; Kassebaum, Bethany; Krumholz, Harlan M; Spertus, John A

    2008-01-01

    Background Many candidate genes have been reported to be risk factors for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but their impact on clinical prognosis following ACS is unknown. Methods We examined the association of putative genetic risk factors with 3-year post-ACS mortality in 811 ACS survivors at university-affiliated hospitals in Kansas City, Missouri. Through a systematic literature search, we first identified genetic variants reported as susceptibility factors for atherosclerosis or ACS. Restricting our analysis to whites, so as to avoid confounding from racial admixture, we genotyped ACS cases for 89 genetic variants in 72 genes, and performed individual Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. We then performed Cox regression to create multivariate risk prediction models that further minimized potential confounding. Results Of 89 variants tested, 16 were potentially associated with mortality (P < 0.1 for all), of which 6 were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with mortality following ACS. While these findings are not more than what would be expected by chance (P = 0.28), even after Bonferroni correction and adjustment for traditional cardiac risk factors, the IRS1 972Arg variant association (P = 0.001) retained borderline statistical significance (P < 0.1). Conclusion With the possible exception of IRS1, we conclude that multiple candidate genes were not associated with post-ACS mortality in our patient cohort. Because of power limitations, the 16 gene variants with P values < 0.1 may warrant further study. Our data do not support the hypothesis that the remaining 73 genes have substantial, clinically significant association with mortality after an ACS. PMID:18620593

  11. Worsening of Renal Function During 1 Year After Hospital Discharge Is a Strong and Independent Predictor of All?Cause Mortality in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Tomoya; Kawakami, Rika; Sugawara, Yu; Okada, Sadanori; Nishida, Taku; Onoue, Kenji; Soeda, Tsunenari; Okayama, Satoshi; Takeda, Yukiji; Watanabe, Makoto; Kawata, Hiroyuki; Uemura, Shiro; Saito, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Background Renal impairment is a common comorbidity and the strongest risk factor for poor prognosis in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). In clinical practice, renal function is labile during episodes of ADHF, and often worsens after discharge. The significance of worsening of renal function (WRF) after discharge has not been investigated as extensively as baseline renal function at admission or WRF during hospitalization. Methods and Results Among 611 consecutive patients with ADHF emergently admitted to our hospital, 233 patients with 3 measurements of serum creatinine (SCr) level measurements (on admission, at discharge, and 1 year after discharge) were included in the present study. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of WRF at 1 year after discharge (1y?WRF), defined as an absolute increase in SCr >0.3 mg/dL (>26.5 ?mol/L) plus a ?25% increase in SCr at 1 year after discharge compared to the SCr value at discharge. All?cause and cardiovascular mortality were assessed as adverse outcomes. During a mean follow?up of 35.4 months, 1y?WRF occurred in 48 of 233 patients. There were 66 deaths from all causes. All?cause and cardiovascular mortality were significantly higher in patients with 1y?WRF (log?rank P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively) according to Kaplan–Meier analysis. In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, 1y?WRF was a strong and independent predictor of all?cause and cardiovascular mortality. Hemoglobin and B?type natriuretic peptide at discharge, as well as left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, were independent predictors of 1y?WRF. Conclusions In patients with ADHF, 1y?WRF is a strong predictor of all?cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:25370599

  12. Bacteria, toxins, and the peritoneum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toni Hau

    1990-01-01

    Intraperitoneal infections are caused by members of the gastrointestinal flora, mainlyEscherichia coli, enterococci, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Bacteroides, anaerobic cocci, Clostridia, and Fusobacteria. The Gram-negative aerobic bacteria exert their pathogenic potential mainly through endotoxin which acts by way of mediators, causing systemic septic response and, initially, the local response of the peritoneal cavity. The main virulence factors of anaerobic bacteria are

  13. Re-emergent human adenovirus genome type 7d caused an acute respiratory disease outbreak in Southern China after a twenty-one year absence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55?kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed. PMID:25482188

  14. mTOR inhibition with temsirolimus causes acute increases in glomerular permeability, but inhibits the dynamic permeability actions of puromycin aminonucleoside.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, Josefin; Rippe, Anna; Rippe, Bengt

    2015-05-15

    Inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORi) can produce de novo proteinuria in kidney transplant patients. On the other hand, mTORi has been shown to suppress disease progression in several animal models of kidney disease. In the present study, we investigated whether glomerular permeability can be acutely altered by the mTORi temsirolimus and whether mTORi can affect acute puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) or angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced glomerular hyperpermeability. In anesthetized Wistar rats, the left ureter was cannulated for urine collection, while simultaneously blood access was achieved. Temsirolimus was administered as a single intravenous dose 30 min before the start of the experiments in animals infused with PAN or ANG II or in nonexposed animals. Polydispersed FITC-Ficoll-70/400 (molecular radius 10-80 Å) and (51)Cr-EDTA infusion was given during the whole experiment. Measurements of Ficoll in plasma and urine were performed sequentially before the temsirolimus injection (baseline) and at 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after the start of the experiments. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) to assess glomerular sieving coefficients (?) for Ficoll10-80Å. Temsirolimus per se increased baseline glomerular permeability to Ficoll50-80Å 45 min after its administration, a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent phenomenon. PAN caused a rapid and reversible increase in glomerular permeability, peaking at 5 min, and again at 60-120 min, which could be blocked by the ROS scavenger tempol. mTORi abrogated the second permeability peak induced by PAN. However, it had no effect on the immediate ANG II- or PAN-induced increases in glomerular permeability. PMID:25740597

  15. Effectiveness of calcium salts, hydrogen peroxide, azoxystrobin, and antagonistic bacteria to control post-harvest rot on tobacco caused by Rhizopus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Kortekamp

    2006-01-01

    Rhizopus rot, caused by the fungus Rhizopus oryzae (Mucorales, Zygomycota) is the most economically important post-harvest disease of flue-cured tobacco and is also known to cause diseases on vegetables and fruits. In case of high infection rates, losses in can reach up to 100% during curing of tobacco leaves. The primary sites of entry of this pathogen are wounds on

  16. Jaundice as a first clinical sign of necrotizing fasciitis, caused by monomicrobial Staphylococcus aureus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. De Kerpel; P. Roelandt; M. Depoorter

    2004-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening infection, mostly caused by a mixture of gram-negative, gram-positive and anaerobic organisms, frequently including haemolytic streptococci. This polyculture of bacteria demands early diagnosis and aggressive treatment to diminish the high morbidity and mortality rates. We report a young, healthy patient with acute necrotizing fasciitis with jaundice as a first clinical sign, caused by a monomicrobial

  17. JAK3 mutants transform hematopoietic cells through JAK1 activation, causing T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Degryse, Sandrine; de Bock, Charles E; Cox, Luk; Demeyer, Sofie; Gielen, Olga; Mentens, Nicole; Jacobs, Kris; Geerdens, Ellen; Gianfelici, Valentina; Hulselmans, Gert; Fiers, Mark; Aerts, Stein; Meijerink, Jules P; Tousseyn, Thomas; Cools, Jan

    2014-11-13

    JAK3 is a tyrosine kinase that associates with the common ? chain of cytokine receptors and is recurrently mutated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). We tested the transforming properties of JAK3 pseudokinase and kinase domain mutants using in vitro and in vivo assays. Most, but not all, JAK3 mutants transformed cytokine-dependent Ba/F3 or MOHITO cell lines to cytokine-independent proliferation. JAK3 pseudokinase mutants were dependent on Jak1 kinase activity for cellular transformation, whereas the JAK3 kinase domain mutant could transform cells in a Jak1 kinase-independent manner. Reconstitution of the IL7 receptor signaling complex in 293T cells showed that JAK3 mutants required receptor binding to mediate downstream STAT5 phosphorylation. Mice transplanted with bone marrow progenitor cells expressing JAK3 mutants developed a long-latency transplantable T-ALL-like disease, characterized by an accumulation of immature CD8(+) T cells. In vivo treatment of leukemic mice with the JAK3 selective inhibitor tofacitinib reduced the white blood cell count and caused leukemic cell apoptosis. Our data show that JAK3 mutations are drivers of T-ALL and require the cytokine receptor complex for transformation. These results warrant further investigation of JAK1/JAK3 inhibitors for the treatment of T-ALL. PMID:25193870

  18. TGFB2 loss of function mutations cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections associated with mild systemic features of the Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boileau, Catherine; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Hanna, Nadine; Regalado, Ellen S.; Detaint, Delphine; Gong, Limin; Varret, Mathilde; Prakash, Siddharth; Li, Alexander H.; d’Indy, Hyacintha; Braverman, Alan C.; Grandchamp, Bernard; Kwartler, Callie S.; Gouya, Laurent; Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Abifadel, Marianne; Leal, Suzanne M.; Muti, Christine; Shendure, Jay; Gross, Marie-Sylvie; Rieder, Mark J.; Vahanian, Alec; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Michel, Jean Baptiste; Jondeau, Guillaume; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2014-01-01

    A predisposition for thoracic aortic aneurysms leading to acute aortic dissections can be inherited in families in an autosomal dominant manner. Genome-wide linkage analysis of two large unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease, followed by whole exome sequencing of affected relatives, identified causative mutations in TGFB2. These mutations, a frameshift mutation in exon 6 and a nonsense mutation in exon 4, segregated with disease with a combined LOD score of 7.7. Sanger sequencing of 276 probands from families with inherited thoracic aortic disease identified two additional TGFB2 mutations. TGFB2 encodes the transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF-?2) and the mutations are predicted to cause haploinsufficiency for TGFB2, but aortic tissue from cases paradoxically shows increased TGF-?2 expression and immunostaining. Thus, haploinsufficiency of TGFB2 predisposes to thoracic aortic disease, suggesting the initial pathway driving disease is decreased cellular TGF-?2 levels leading to a secondary increase in TGF-?2 production in the diseased aorta. PMID:22772371

  19. Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) extracts on pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress caused by acute coal dust exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, T.P.; Silveira, P.C.; Rocha, L.G.; Rezin, G.T.; Rocha, J.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.T.; Dal-Pizzol, F.; Pinho, R.A.; Andrade, V.M.; Streck, E.L. [University Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.

  20. Guillain-Barré syndrome as a cause of acute flaccid paralysis in Iraqi children: a result of 15 years of nation-wide study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in the post-poliomyelitis eradication era. This is the first study done to identify the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome of GBS in Iraqi children over 15 years. Methods The surveillance database about AFP cases?cause of AFP, especially in those between the age of 1 to 4 years living in rural areas. PMID:24325332

  1. Clinical Applications of Probiotic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Salminen; A. C. Ouwehand; E. Isolauri

    1998-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are applied to balance disturbed intestinal microflora and related dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract. Current clinical applications include well-documented areas such as treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhoea, lactose maldigestion, constipation, colonic disorders and side-effects of pelvic radiotherapy, and more recently, food allergy including milk hypersensitivity and changes associated with colon cancer development. Many novel probiotics appear to be

  2. Attributable Hospital Cost and Length of Stay Associated with Health Care-Associated Infections Caused by Antibiotic-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Mauldin, Patrick D.; Salgado, Cassandra D.; Hansen, Ida Solhøj; Durup, Darshana T.; Bosso, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Determination of the attributable hospital cost and length of stay (LOS) are of critical importance for patients, providers, and payers who must make rational and informed decisions about patient care and the allocation of resources. The objective of the present study was to determine the additional total hospital cost and LOS attributable to health care-associated infections (HAIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant, gram-negative (GN) pathogens. A single-center, retrospective, observational comparative cohort study was performed. The study involved 662 patients admitted from 2000 to 2008 who developed HAIs caused by one of following pathogens: Acinetobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., or Pseudomonas spp. The attributable total hospital cost and LOS for HAIs caused by antibiotic-resistant GN pathogens were determined by comparison with the hospital costs and LOS for a control group with HAIs due to antibiotic-susceptible GN pathogens. Statistical analyses were conducted by using univariate and multivariate analyses. Twenty-nine percent of the HAIs were caused by resistant GN pathogens, and almost 16% involved a multidrug-resistant GN pathogen. The additional total hospital cost and LOS attributable to antibiotic-resistant HAIs caused by GN pathogens were 29.3% (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval, 16.23 to 42.35) and 23.8% (P = 0.0003; 95% confidence interval, 11.01 to 36.56) higher than those attributable to HAIs caused by antibiotic-susceptible GN pathogens, respectively. Significant covariates in the multivariate analysis were age ?12 years, pneumonia, intensive care unit stay, and neutropenia. HAIs caused by antibiotic-resistant GN pathogens were associated with significantly higher total hospital costs and increased LOSs compared to those caused by their susceptible counterparts. This information should be used to assess the potential cost-efficacy of interventions aimed at the prevention of such infections. PMID:19841152

  3. Bacteria Transformation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

    Students construct paper recombinant plasmids to simulate the methods genetic engineers use to create modified bacteria. They learn what role enzymes, DNA and genes play in the modification of organisms. For the particular model they work on, they isolate a mammal insulin gene and combine it with a bacteria's gene sequence (plasmid DNA) for production of the protein insulin.

  4. The Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Ertapenem for the Treatment of Complicated Urinary Tract Infections Caused by ESBL-Producing Bacteria in Children

    PubMed Central

    Karaaslan, Ayse; Atici, Serkan; Akkoc, Gulsen; Yakut, Nurhayat; Öcal Demir, Sevliya; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Background. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and important clinical problem in childhood, and extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing organisms are the leading cause of healthcare-related UTIs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of ertapenem therapy in children with complicated UTIs caused by ESBL-producing organisms. Methods. Seventy-seven children with complicated UTIs caused by ESBL-producing organisms were included in this retrospective study, and all had been treated with ertapenem between January 2013 and June 2014. Results. Sixty-one (79%) females and sixteen (21%) males with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of 76.6 ± 52 months (range 3–204, median 72 months) were enrolled in this study. Escherichia coli (E. coli) (n = 67; 87%) was the most common bacterial cause of the UTIs followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (n = 9; 11.7%) and Enterobacter cloacae (E. cloacae) (n = 1; 1.3%). The mean duration of the ertapenem therapy was 8.9 ± 1.6 days (range 4–11). No serious drug-related clinical or laboratory adverse effects were observed, and the ertapenem therapy was found to be safe and well tolerated in the children in our study. Conclusion. Ertapenem is a newer carbapenem with the advantage of once-daily dosing and is highly effective for treating UTIs caused by ESBL-producing microorganisms.

  5. Reversible peripartum liver failure: A new perspective on the diagnosis, treatment, and cause of acute fatty liver of pregnancy, based on 28 consecutive cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary A. Castro; Michael J. Fassett; Telfer B. Reynolds; Kathryn J. Shaw; T. Murphy Goodwin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: We sought to describe our experience with the clinical diagnosis, management, and course of patients with acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Study Design: Twenty-eight cases of acute fatty liver of pregnancy at the Los Angeles County and University of Southern California Medical Center from 1982 to June 1997 were identified, and presenting symptoms, clinical course, laboratory values, maternal complications,

  6. Aquatic Bacteria Samples

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On April 20, 2010, the BP Deepwater Horizon drilling platform collapsed and sank in the Gulf of Mexico, causing one of the largest oil spills in history. One of the big dilemmas in responding to the oil spil is how to clean up the oil itself. One way currently under research is to use bacteria that ...

  7. Acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Barr, Wendy; Smith, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Acute diarrhea in adults is a common problem encountered by family physicians. The most common etiology is viral gastroenteritis, a self-limited disease. Increases in travel, comorbidities, and foodborne illness lead to more bacteria-related cases of acute diarrhea. A history and physical examination evaluating for risk factors and signs of inflammatory diarrhea and/or severe dehydration can direct any needed testing and treatment. Most patients do not require laboratory workup, and routine stool cultures are not recommended. Treatment focuses on preventing and treating dehydration. Diagnostic investigation should be reserved for patients with severe dehydration or illness, persistent fever, bloody stool, or immunosuppression, and for cases of suspected nosocomial infection or outbreak. Oral rehydration therapy with early refeeding is the preferred treatment for dehydration. Antimotility agents should be avoided in patients with bloody diarrhea, but loperamide/simethicone may improve symptoms in patients with watery diarrhea. Probiotic use may shorten the duration of illness. When used appropriately, antibiotics are effective in the treatment of shigellosis, campylobacteriosis, Clostridium difficile, traveler's diarrhea, and protozoal infections. Prevention of acute diarrhea is promoted through adequate hand washing, safe food preparation, access to clean water, and vaccinations. PMID:24506120

  8. Acute toxicity screening of reservoir water and sediment using rotifers (Rotox{reg_sign}) and light emitting bacteria (Microtox{reg_sign}), reservoir vital signs monitoring, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, J.; Wade, D.C.

    1992-03-01

    Toxicological screening of reservoir sediments (porewater or interstitial water) and reservoir water (collected three meters above the sediments) was initiated in fourteen Tennessee River mainstem impoundments during the summer of 1990 as part of TVA`s Reservoir Vital Signs monitoring. Twenty-four stations representing transition-zone and forebay reservoir habitats were identified for study. Toxicity test methods evaluated acute response of the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotox{trademark}) and the light emitting bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox{trademark}). The second series of Vital Signstoxicity biomonitoring tests was conducted during the summer of 1991. Results of this study indicated toxicity at several locations. The Vital Signs Reservoir Monitoring project allows several years of testing to establish toxicity baseline data and identify trends. Comparison of results from the first two years of testing show that Wilson Reservoir forebay (TRM 260.8) and Nickajack Reservoir forebay (TRM 425.5) bothexhibited mild toxicity to Microtox{trademark} in 1990 and toxicity to rotifers in 1991. No other stations exhibited toxicity both years.

  9. Acute toxicity screening of reservoir water and sediment using rotifers (Rotox[reg sign]) and light emitting bacteria (Microtox[reg sign]), reservoir vital signs monitoring, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, J.; Wade, D.C.

    1992-03-01

    Toxicological screening of reservoir sediments (porewater or interstitial water) and reservoir water (collected three meters above the sediments) was initiated in fourteen Tennessee River mainstem impoundments during the summer of 1990 as part of TVA's Reservoir Vital Signs monitoring. Twenty-four stations representing transition-zone and forebay reservoir habitats were identified for study. Toxicity test methods evaluated acute response of the freshwater rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus (Rotox[trademark]) and the light emitting bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum (Microtox[trademark]). The second series of Vital Signstoxicity biomonitoring tests was conducted during the summer of 1991. Results of this study indicated toxicity at several locations. The Vital Signs Reservoir Monitoring project allows several years of testing to establish toxicity baseline data and identify trends. Comparison of results from the first two years of testing show that Wilson Reservoir forebay (TRM 260.8) and Nickajack Reservoir forebay (TRM 425.5) bothexhibited mild toxicity to Microtox[trademark] in 1990 and toxicity to rotifers in 1991. No other stations exhibited toxicity both years.

  10. Acute 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene exposure causes differential concentration-dependent follicle depletion and gene expression in neonatal rat ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Madden, Jill A.; Hoyer, Patricia B.; Devine, Patrick J.; Keating, Aileen F.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), generated during combustion of organic matter including cigarette smoke, depletes all ovarian follicle types in the mouse and rat, and in vitro models mimic this effect. To investigate the mechanisms involved in follicular depletion during acute DMBA exposure, two concentrations of DMBA at which follicle depletion has (75 nM) and has not (12.5 nM) been observed were investigated. Postnatal day four F344 rat ovaries were maintained in culture for four days before a single exposure to vehicle control (1% DMSO; CT) or DMBA (12 nM; low-concentration or 75 nM; high-concentration). After four or eight additional days of culture, DMBA-induced follicle depletion was evaluated via follicle enumeration. Relative to control, DMBA did not affect follicle numbers after 4 days of exposure, but induced large primary follicle loss at both concentrations after 8 days; while, the low-concentration DMBA also caused secondary follicle depletion. Neither concentration affected primordial or small primary follicle number. RNA was isolated and quantitative RT-PCR performed prior to follicle loss to measure mRNA levels of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism (Cyp2e1, Gstmu, Gstpi, Ephx1), autophagy (Atg7, Becn1), oxidative stress response (Sod1, Sod2) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway (Kitlg, cKit, Akt1) 1, 2 and 4 days after exposure. With the exception of Atg7 and cKit, DMBA increased (P < 0.05) expression of all genes investigated. Also, BECN1 and pAKTThr308 protein levels were increased while cKIT was decreased by DMBA exposure. Taken together, these results suggest an increase in DMBA bioactivation, add to the mechanistic understanding of DMBA-induced ovotoxicity and raise concern regarding female low concentration DMBA exposures. PMID:24576726

  11. Characterization of Damage to Bacteria and Bio-macromolecules Caused by (V)UV Radiation and Particles Generated by a Microscale Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Schneider, Simon; Narberhaus, Franz; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E.

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets effectively inactivate bacteria on ­surfaces including infected tissues. This is due to the combined effects of (V)UV radiation, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ions, and high electric fields. A well-characterized microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet (?-APPJ) operated with He/O2 gas mixture has been modified so that (V)UV radiation and heavy reactive particles (mainly O3 molecules and O atoms) emitted from the plasma source can be separated effectively. The separation is achieved by an additional lateral He flow, which diverts the heavy particles from the jet axis. The new jet geometry is called X-Jet. Separation of different plasma components allows studying their effects on living cells and bio-macromolecules separately. First, the effectiveness of the separation of different plasma components was demonstrated by treatment of monolayers of vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells. To characterize effects on nucleic acids, dried plasmid DNA and total cellular RNA were treated with the separated plasma components. Dried bovine serum albumin was used to study etching effects of (V)UV radiation and heavy particles on proteins. We found that heavy particles emitted from the X-Jet kill vegetative cells more effectively than the (V)UV radiation from this type of plasma source. All bio-macromolecules investigated, DNA, RNA, and proteins, are affected by plasma treatment. DNA exposed to the (V)UV-channel of the jet seems to be prone to thymine dimer formation not only in vitro but also in vivo as indicated by induction of the photolyase in Escherichia coli, while DNA strand breaks occur under both jet channels. Heavy particles seem more effective in degrading RNA and in etching protein in vitro.

  12. Results of a Double-Blind, Randomized Trial of Ceftobiprole Treatment of Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary J. Noel; Richard S. Strauss; Karen Amsler; Markus Heep; Rienk Pypstra; Joseph S. Solomkin

    2008-01-01

    Ceftobiprole is the first broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylo- coccus aureus (MRSA) to be assessed in late-stage clinical trials. As a pivotal step in the clinical development of ceftobiprole, a multicenter, global, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of ceftobiprole to that of vancomycin in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused

  13. Chinese Medicine Injection Shuanghuanglian for Treatment of Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infection: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongwei; Chen, Qin; Zhou, Weiwei; Gao, Shi; Lin, Huiguang; Ye, Shuifen; Xu, Yihui; Cai, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Acute upper respiratory tract infections (AURTIs) are the illnesses caused by an acute infection with various viruses and bacteria involving the upper respiratory tract. Shuanghuanglian (SHL) injection, a Chinese medicine intravenous preparation extracted from honeysuckle, Scutellaria baicalensis, and fructus forsythiae, is commonly used to treat AURTIs. Although it is used largely in Chinese hospitals, there is no substantial evidence to demonstrate its clinical effect on AURTIs. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Shuanghuanglian injection for the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections. PMID:23606893

  14. Thrombus formation within the right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit (Sano shunt) as a cause of acute cyanosis in a patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Recto, M R; Sobczyk, W L; Austin, E H

    2008-05-01

    We describe a case of thrombus formation within a right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit (Sano shunt) in a patient with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with resulting acute cyanosis and hypotension requiring emergency balloon angioplasty. PMID:17676367

  15. Endophytic Bacteria in Toxic South African Plants: Identification, Phylogeny and Possible Involvement in Gousiekte

    PubMed Central

    Verstraete, Brecht; Van Elst, Daan; Steyn, Hester; Van Wyk, Braam; Lemaire, Benny; Smets, Erik; Dessein, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Background South African plant species of the genera Fadogia, Pavetta and Vangueria (all belonging to Rubiaceae) are known to cause gousiekte (literally ‘quick disease’), a fatal cardiotoxicosis of ruminants characterised by acute heart failure four to eight weeks after ingestion. Noteworthy is that all these plants harbour endophytes in their leaves: nodulating bacteria in specialized nodules in Pavetta and non-nodulating bacteria in the intercellular spaces between mesophyll cells in Fadogia and Vangueria. Principal Findings Isolation and analyses of these endophytes reveal the presence of Burkholderia bacteria in all the plant species implicated in gousiekte. Although the nodulating and non-nodulating bacteria belong to the same genus, they are phylogenetically not closely related and even fall in different bacterial clades. Pavetta harborii and Pavetta schumanniana have their own specific endophyte – Candidatus Burkholderia harborii and Candidatus Burkholderia schumanniana – while the non-nodulating bacteria found in the other gousiekte-inducing plants show high similarity to Burkholderia caledonica. In this group, the bacteria are host specific at population level. Investigation of gousiekte-inducing plants from other African countries resulted in the discovery of the same endophytes. Several other plants of the genera Afrocanthium, Canthium, Keetia, Psydrax, Pygmaeothamnus and Pyrostria were tested and were found to lack bacterial endophytes. Conclusions The discovery and identification of Burkholderia bacteria in gousiekte-inducing plants open new perspectives and opportunities for research not only into the cause of this economically important disease, but also into the evolution and functional significance of bacterial endosymbiosis in Rubiaceae. Other South African Rubiaceae that grow in the same area as the gousiekte-inducing plants were found to lack bacterial endophytes which suggests a link between bacteria and gousiekte. The same bacteria are consistently found in gousiekte-inducing plants from different regions indicating that these plants will also be toxic to ruminants in other African countries. PMID:21541284

  16. Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Magnani; C. M. Didonet; L. M. Cruz; C. F. Picheth; F. O. Pedrosa; E. M. Souza

    2010-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without caus- ing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the iso- lation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using mo- lecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cul- tivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for

  17. Travelers Bringing Drug-Resistant Bacteria to United States

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 151813.html Travelers Bringing Drug-Resistant Bacteria to United States Strain of Shigella is easily transmitted and causes ... bacteria that causes diarrhea is spreading in the United States, federal health officials warned Thursday. Travelers are bringing ...

  18. Viruses, Not Bacteria, Reponsible for Many Pneumonia Cases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153607.html Viruses, Not Bacteria, Reponsible for Many Pneumonia Cases: Study But cause ... more pneumonia-related hospitalizations among American adults than bacteria, although the cause of the lung infection is ...

  19. Successful treatment with intravenous colistin for sinusitis, orbital cellulites, and pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Saito; Akifumi Takaori-Kondo; Masaharu Tashima; Kohei Yamashita; Yoshitsugu Iinuma; Shunji Takakura; Miki Nagao; Tatsuo Ichinohe; Takayuki Ishikawa; Takashi Uchiyama; Satoshi Ichiyama

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing P. aeruginosa has increased worldwide. The treatment options are limited for infectious diseases caused by these two organisms. The use\\u000a of colistin has been of recent interest in cases involving both types. We report the case of a 74-year-old man with acute\\u000a myeloid leukemia who was successfully treated with intravenous

  20. Two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence for label-free in vivo imaging ingestion of disease-causing bacteria by human leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2013-02-01

    Real time and in vivo monitoring leukocyte behavior provides unique information to understand the physiological and pathological process of infection. In this study, we demonstrate that two-photon excited reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence provides imaging contrast to distinguish granulocyte and agranulocyte. By using spectral and time-resolved NADH fluorescence, we study the immune response of human neutrophils against bacterial infection (Escherichia coli). The two-photon excited NADH fluorescence images clearly review the morphological changes from resting neutrophils (round shape) to activated neutrophils (ruffle shape) during phagocytosis. The free-tobound NADH ratio of neutrophils decreases after ingesting disease-causing pathogen: Escherichia coli. This finding may provide a new optical tool to investigate inflammatory processes by using NADH fluorescence in vivo.

  1. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria causing neonatal sepsis in India in rural and urban settings.

    PubMed

    Chandel, Dinesh S; Johnson, Judith A; Chaudhry, Rama; Sharma, Nidhi; Shinkre, Nandita; Parida, Sailajanandan; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2011-04-01

    Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) are of increasing clinical concern in all age groups worldwide. Whilst sepsis continues to be the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Indian neonates in the community, identification of microbiological attributes in this population is lacking. This population-based study enrolled 1738 infants with a diagnosis of clinical sepsis at four participating centres in India. Each study site conducted Bactec blood culture, identified bacterial species by API test and stored isolates at -70 °C. From 252 GNB isolates, 155 (113 Klebsiella species, 21 Escherichia coli and 21 other) were subjected to drug susceptibility testing, ESBL phenotyping and testing for clonal relatedness of ESBL strains by PFGE. The results demonstrated that Klebsiella species and E. coli are the most common GNB causes of neonatal sepsis in India, and over one-third are ESBL producers in both community and hospital settings. ESBL-producing strains exhibited frequent co-resistance to aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin, but remained susceptible to imipenem. PFGE analysis revealed extensive genetic diversity within the ESBL-producing isolates, showing multiple profiles (total of 23). Over 40% of all ESBL-producing isolates formed three pulsed-field profiles (PFP I-III), with PFP-II being the largest cluster (>20% of all ESBL-producing isolates), sharing strains from two distant locations. Identification of a common clone at two geographically distant centres indicated that predominant clones with increased virulence may exist, even in the absence of any clear outbreak. The presence of ESBL-producing strains in community infants with no prior history of hospitalization or antibiotic use dictates heightened vigilance and further studies on the ecology of these organisms. PMID:21183602

  2. Correlation between Vancomycin MIC Values and Those of Other Agents against Gram-Positive Bacteria among Patients with Bloodstream Infections Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, N.; Lubanski, P.; Ferro, S.; Bonafede, M.; Harrington, S.; Evans, A.; Stellrecht, K.; Lodise, T. P.

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the distribution of vancomycin MIC values among methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates has been noted. It is postulated that the shift in vancomycin MIC values may be associated with a concurrent rise in the MIC values of other anti-MRSA agents. Scant data are available on the correlation between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of other anti-MRSA agents. This study examined the correlation between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and teicoplanin among 120 patients with bloodstream infections caused by MRSA at a tertiary care hospital between January 2005 and May 2007. For each included patient, the MIC values of the antibiotics under study were determined by the Etest method and were separated into the following two categories: day 1 (index) and post-day 1 (subsequent). For subsequent isolates, the MIC values for each antibiotic from the post-day 1 terminal isolate were used. Among the index isolates, there was a significant correlation (P value, <0.01) between the MIC values for vancomycin and daptomycin and between the MIC values for vancomycin and teicoplanin. The MIC values for daptomycin were significantly correlated with linezolid, tigecycline, and teicoplanin MIC values. Among the 48 patients with subsequent isolates, vancomycin MIC values were significantly correlated with MIC values for daptomycin, linezolid, and teicoplanin (? value of ?0.38 for all comparisons). This study documented an association between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of other anti-MRSA antibiotics among patients with bloodstream infections caused by MRSA primarily treated with vancomycin. PMID:19805558

  3. Correlation between vancomycin MIC values and those of other agents against gram-positive bacteria among patients with bloodstream infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Patel, N; Lubanski, P; Ferro, S; Bonafede, M; Harrington, S; Evans, A; Stellrecht, K; Lodise, T P

    2009-12-01

    An increase in the distribution of vancomycin MIC values among methicillin (meticillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates has been noted. It is postulated that the shift in vancomycin MIC values may be associated with a concurrent rise in the MIC values of other anti-MRSA agents. Scant data are available on the correlation between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of other anti-MRSA agents. This study examined the correlation between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and teicoplanin among 120 patients with bloodstream infections caused by MRSA at a tertiary care hospital between January 2005 and May 2007. For each included patient, the MIC values of the antibiotics under study were determined by the Etest method and were separated into the following two categories: day 1 (index) and post-day 1 (subsequent). For subsequent isolates, the MIC values for each antibiotic from the post-day 1 terminal isolate were used. Among the index isolates, there was a significant correlation (P value, <0.01) between the MIC values for vancomycin and daptomycin and between the MIC values for vancomycin and teicoplanin. The MIC values for daptomycin were significantly correlated with linezolid, tigecycline, and teicoplanin MIC values. Among the 48 patients with subsequent isolates, vancomycin MIC values were significantly correlated with MIC values for daptomycin, linezolid, and teicoplanin (rho value of >or=0.38 for all comparisons). This study documented an association between vancomycin MIC values and the MIC values of other anti-MRSA antibiotics among patients with bloodstream infections caused by MRSA primarily treated with vancomycin. PMID:19805558

  4. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  5. Methanotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, R S; Hanson, T E

    1996-01-01

    Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, whereas type II methanotrophs, which employ the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, form a coherent cluster within the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Methanotrophic bacteria are ubiquitous. The growth of type II bacteria appears to be favored in environments that contain relatively high levels of methane, low levels of dissolved oxygen, and limiting concentrations of combined nitrogen and/or copper. Type I methanotrophs appear to be dominant in environments in which methane is limiting and combined nitrogen and copper levels are relatively high. These bacteria serve as biofilters for the oxidation of methane produced in anaerobic environments, and when oxygen is present in soils, atmospheric methane is oxidized. Their activities in nature are greatly influenced by agricultural practices and other human activities. Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring, uncultured methanotrophs represent new genera. Methanotrophs that are capable of oxidizing methane at atmospheric levels exhibit methane oxidation kinetics different from those of methanotrophs available in pure cultures. A limited number of methanotrophs have the genetic capacity to synthesize a soluble methane monooxygenase which catalyzes the rapid oxidation of environmental pollutants including trichloroethylene. PMID:8801441

  6. Acute Aspergillus pneumonia associated with mouldy tree bark-chippings, complicated by anti-glomerular basement membrane disease causing permanent renal failure.

    PubMed

    Butler, Louise; Brockley, Tomos; Denning, David; Richardson, Malcolm; Chisholm, Roger; Sinha, Smeeta; O'Driscoll, Ronan

    2013-06-20

    A non-immunocompromised man developed acute Aspergillus pneumonia after spreading mouldy tree bark mulch. Despite normal renal function at presentation, he developed rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with acute kidney injury due to anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies (anti-GBM) 4 weeks later. He remained dialysis dependent and died of sepsis 10 months later. We hypothesise that he contracted invasive pulmonary Aspergillosis from heavy exposure to fungal spores, leading to epitope exposure in the alveoli with subsequent development of GBM auto-antibodies. PMID:24432235

  7. Third generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria causing bacteremia in febrile neutropenia adult cancer patients in Lebanon, broad spectrum antibiotics use as a major risk factor, and correlation with poor prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Moghnieh, Rima; Estaitieh, Nour; Mugharbil, Anas; Jisr, Tamima; Abdallah, Dania I.; Ziade, Fouad; Sinno, Loubna; Ibrahim, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complications in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. The spectrum and susceptibility profiles of causative microorganisms differ with time and place. Data from Lebanon are scarce. We aim at evaluating the epidemiology of bacteremia in cancer patients in a university hospital in Lebanon, emphasizing antibiotic resistance and risk factors of multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO)-associated bacteremia. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 75 episodes of bacteremia occurring in febrile neutropenic patients admitted to the hematology-oncology unit at Makassed General Hospital, Lebanon, from October 2009-January 2012. It corresponds to epidemiological data on bacteremia episodes in febrile neutropenic cancer patients including antimicrobial resistance and identification of risk factors associated with third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR) and MDRO-associated bacteremia. Results: Out of 75 bacteremias, 42.7% were gram-positive (GP), and 57.3% were gram-negative (GN). GP bacteremias were mostly due to methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (28% of total bacteremias and 66% of GP bacteremias). Among the GN bacteremias, Escherichia coli (22.7% of total, 39.5% of GN organisms) and Klebsiella pneumoniae(13.3% of total, 23.3% of GN organisms) were the most important causative agents. GN bacteremia due to 3GC sensitive (3GCS) bacteria represented 28% of total bacteremias, while 29% were due to 3GCR bacteria and 9% were due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. There was a significant correlation between bacteremia with MDRO and subsequent intubation, sepsis and mortality. Among potential risk factors, only broad spectrum antibiotic intake >4 days before bacteremia was found to be statistically significant for acquisition of 3GCR bacteria. Using carbapenems or piperacillin/tazobactam>4 days before bacteremia was significantly associated with the emergence of MDRO (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings have major implications for the management of febrile neutropenia, especially in breakthrough bacteremia and fever when patients are already on broadspectrum antibiotics. Emergence of resistance to 3GCs and, to a lesser extent, to carbapenems in GN isolates has to be considered seriously in our local guidelines for empiric treatment of febrile neutropenia, especially given that their occurrence was proven to be associated with poorer outcomes. PMID:25729741

  8. Magnetotactic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Blakemore

    1975-01-01

    Bacteria with motility directed by the local geomagnetic field have been observed in marine sediments. These magnetotactic microorganisms possess flagella and contain novel structured particles, rich in iron, within intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles. Conceivably these particles impart to cells a magnetic moment. This could explain the observed migration of these organisms in fields as weak as 0.5 gauss.

  9. Value of Acute-Phase Angiography in the Detection of Vascular Injuries Caused by Gunshot Wounds to the Head: Analysis of 12 Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Jinkins; M. R. Dadsetan; R. N. Sener; S. Desai; R. G. Williams

    A study of the angiographic findings in consecutive civilian patients with cranial gunshot wounds examined in the acute stage has not been done. Most prior clinical studies have evaluated the findings in survivors in the subacute or chronic stages and have often been of war-time casualties. We determined the clinicoradiologic features of six cases of posttraumatic intracranial aneurysm, vascular occlusion,

  10. Nosocomial outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in a neonatal intensive care unit in tunisia caused by multiply drug resistant Salmonella wien producing SHV-2 beta-lactamase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hammami; G. Arlet; S. Ben Redjeb; F. Grimont; A. Ben Hassen; A. Rekik; A. Philippon

    1991-01-01

    In a Tunisian hospital 27 babies, including 12 who were premature, in a single intensive care unit suffered acute gastroenteritis in the period from January to May 1988. The mean age at the onset of gastroenteritis was 8.4 days; nine babies died.Salmonella wien was isolated from stools (all babies) and blood (4 babies). It was also isolated from the stools

  11. Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig A. Martin

    \\u000a Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for a broad array of infections in both the ambulatory and hospital settings. Urinary\\u000a tract infections, otitis media, pneumonia, abdominal infections, and meningitis are among the common and serious diseases\\u000a caused by these pathogens. Beta-lactams including penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems, along with fluoroquinolones\\u000a and aminoglycosides, comprise the most commonly used treatment regimens for gram-negative infections.

  12. Bacteria are like Popeye the sailor man

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2004-09-10

    Popeye the sailor man and infection-causing bacteria have something in common -- they need to consume iron to perform their best. In cartoons, Popeye gets his iron from spinach. New research shows exactly where the bacteria that often cause pneumonia get their iron.

  13. Comparing the Similarity of Different Groups of Bacteria to the Human Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Trost, Brett; Pajon, Rolando; Jayaprakash, Teenus; Kusalik, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Numerous aspects of the relationship between bacteria and human have been investigated. One aspect that has recently received attention is sequence overlap at the proteomic level. However, there has not yet been a study that comprehensively characterizes the level of sequence overlap between bacteria and human, especially as it relates to bacterial characteristics like pathogenicity, G-C content, and proteome size. In this study, we began by performing a general characterization of the range of bacteria-human similarity at the proteomic level, and identified characteristics of the most- and least-similar bacterial species. We then examined the relationship between proteomic similarity and numerous other variables. While pathogens and nonpathogens had comparable similarity to the human proteome, pathogens causing chronic infections were found to be more similar to the human proteome than those causing acute infections. Although no general correspondence between a bacterium’s proteome size and its similarity to the human proteome was noted, no bacteria with small proteomes had high similarity to the human proteome. Finally, we discovered an interesting relationship between similarity and a bacterium’s G-C content. While the relationship between bacteria and human has been studied from many angles, their proteomic similarity still needs to be examined in more detail. This paper sheds further light on this relationship, particularly with respect to immunity and pathogenicity. PMID:22558081

  14. Automatic Tracking of Escherichia Coli Bacteria , Shahid Khan2 3

    E-print Network

    Central Florida, University of

    bacteria (E. coli), which can generally cause several intestinal and extra-intestinal infections of Escherichia Coli Bacteria 825 Fig. 1. (Left) A typical view of E. coli bacteria under a phase may appear as a white bulb (B). (Right) An sequence of E. coli bacteria. Among the efforts devoted

  15. Appendicitis: a rare cause.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Muhammad; Simha, Shruti

    2011-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common acute surgical condition in children. Parasitic infestations are ubiquitous on a worldwide basis and are seen in the United States because of increasing international travel and emigration from developing countries. These infestations may produce symptoms of acute appendicitis, although the role of parasitic infestation in relation to appendicitis is controversial. Intestinal parasites may cause significant morbidity and mortality. We report a patient with symptoms of acute appendicitis in whom intramural parasites were found during laparoscopic surgery. Histology of the appendix specimen revealed a normal appendix. The pertinent literature is also reviewed. PMID:18547775

  16. ACUTE LEUKEMIAS ACUTE MYELOGENOUS

    E-print Network

    Trisomy 8(+8), t(9;22), t(6;9) 90% myeloblasts AML-M2 Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia with Maturation Black B, & Choloacetate Esterase t(8;21) #12;9/16/2013 4 AML-M3 Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia between chromosomes 8 and 21 AML with a translocation or inversion in chromosome 16 AML with changes

  17. Efficacy of lincomycin versus penicillin and clarithromycin in patients with acute pharyngitis\\/tonsillitis caused by group a beta-hemolytic streptococci and a clinical history of recurrence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    German Angeli; Juan Fukuda; G. Belisario Gallegos; Liliana Ladue; Aroldo Miniti; Saul Suarez; Thelma Tupasi; Bernardo Vivas

    1997-01-01

    This open-label, prospective, randomized, comparative, single-masked study was performed at eight centers in the Philippines and Latin America (Chile, Colombia, Peru, Brazil, and Venezuela). The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of three different antibiotic regimens for the treatment of acute pharyngitis\\/tonsillitis as a result of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS), and to assess the

  18. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis Causing a Highway to the Colon with Subsequent Road Closure: Pancreatic Colonic Fistula Presenting as a Large Bowel Obstruction Treated with Pancreatic Duct Stenting

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Justin; Schlepp, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Context. Colonic complications associated with acute pancreatitis have a low incidence but carry an increased risk of mortality with delayed diagnosis and treatment. Pancreatic colonic fistula is most commonly associated with walled off pancreatic necrosis or abscess formation and rarely forms spontaneously. Classic clinical manifestations for pancreatic colonic fistula include diarrhea, hematochezia, and fever. Uncommonly pancreatic colonic fistula presents as large bowel obstruction. Case. We report a case of a woman with a history of recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis who presented with large bowel obstruction secondary to pancreatic colonic fistula. Resolution of large bowel obstruction and pancreatic colonic fistula was achieved with pancreatic duct stenting. Conclusion. Pancreatic colonic fistula can present as large bowel obstruction. Patients with resolved acute pancreatitis who have radiographic evidence of splenic flexure obstruction, but without evidence of mechanical obstruction on colonoscopy, should be considered for ERCP to evaluate for PCF. PCF not associated with walled off pancreatic necrosis or peritoneal abscess can be treated conservatively with pancreatic duct stenting. PMID:25893120

  19. [Acute mastoiditis in children].

    PubMed

    Kajosaari, Lauri; Sinkkonen, Saku T; Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Jero, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Acute mastoiditis in children develops when acute otitis media (AOM) spreads into the mastoid air cells inside the temporal bone. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings of AOM with simultaneous signs of infection in the mastoid area. The most common pathogen causing acute mastoiditis in children is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intravenous antimicrobial medication, tympanostomy and microbial sample are the cornerstones of the treatment. If a complication of mastoiditis is suspected, imaging studies are needed, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging. The most common complication of acute mastoiditis is a subperiosteal abscess. PMID:24660384

  20. Detection of human leptospirosis as a cause of acute fever by capture ELISA using a Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni (M20) derived antigen

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a potentially lethal zoonosis mainly affecting low-resource tropical countries, including Peru and its neighbouring countries. Timely diagnosis of leptospirosis is critical but may be challenging in the regions where it is most prevalent. The serodiagnostic gold standard microagglutination test (MAT) may be technically prohibitive. Our objective in this study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of an IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (MAC-ELISA) derived from the M20 strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni (M20) by comparison to MAT, which was used as the gold standard method of diagnosis. Methods Acute and convalescent sera from participants participating in a passive febrile surveillance study in multiple regions of Peru were tested by both IgM MAC-ELISA and MAT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) of the MAC-ELISA assay for acute, convalescent and paired sera by comparison to MAT were calculated. Results The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the MAC-ELISA assay for acute sera were 92.3%, 56.0%, 35.3% and 96.6% respectively. For convalescent sera, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the MAC-ELISA assay were 93.3%, 51.5%, 63.6% and 89.5% respectively. For paired sera, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the MAC-ELISA assay were 93.6%, 37.5%, 59.2%, 85.7% respectively. Conclusions The M20 MAC-ELISA assay performed with a high sensitivity and low specificity in the acute phase of illness. Sensitivity was similar as compared with MAT in the convalescent phase and specificity remained low. Paired sera were the most sensitive but least specific by comparison to MAT serodiagnosis. NPV for acute, convalescent and paired sera was high. The limited specificity and high sensitivity of the MAC-ELISA IgM suggests that it would be most valuable to exclude leptospirosis in low-resource regions that lack immediate access to definitive reference laboratory techniques such as MAT. PMID:24053555

  1. Evidence of unilateral metastatic pulmonary calcification with a prolonged Fever and arthralgia caused by acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a chronic dialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Saraya, Takeshi; Sada, Mitsuru; Ohkuma, Kosuke; Sakuma, Sho; Tsujimoto, Naoki; Yoshida, Shigehiko; Fujiwara, Masachika; Tsukahara, Yayoi; Kurai, Daisuke; Ishii, Haruyuki; Takizawa, Hajime; Goto, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    A 55-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with unilateral lung lesions, a persistent fever and vague chest pain with arthralgia lasting for three months. He had been treated for end-stage renal disease with hemodialysis for 15 years and had a medical history of recurrent subcutaneous calciphylaxis due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Transbronchial biopsied specimens demonstrated metastatic pulmonary calcification, and a bone marrow biopsy showed Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although metastatic calcification often lacks specific symptoms, the lungs is a primary site for deposition. This is the first report of unilateral metastatic pulmonary calcification associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism. PMID:25742896

  2. Biochemical, oxidative and histological changes caused by sub-acute oral exposure of some synthetic cyanogens in rats: ameliorative effect of ?-ketoglutarate.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Rahul; Rao, Pooja; Singh, Poonam; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Upadhyay, Preeti; Malla, Sandhya; Gujar, Niranjan Laxman; Lomash, Vinay; Pant, Satish Chandra

    2014-05-01

    Time-dependent cyanide generation and acute toxicity of six different cyanogens were reported earlier, out of which malononitrile (MCN), propionitrile (PCN), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were found to be very toxic. We report here 14 d sub-acute toxicity of MCN, PCN, and SNP (oral; 1/10 LD50 daily) in female rats, and its amelioration by ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG; oral; 5.26 mmol/kg; +5 min), a potential cyanide antidote. Significant decrease in white blood cells (PCN, SNP), platelets count (PCN), and blood glucose levels (MCN, PCN, SNP) was accompanied by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase (MCN, PCN, SNP), and aspartate aminotransferase (PCN, SNP). Oxidative damage was evidenced by diminished total antioxidant status in plasma and enhanced malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney. This was accompanied by diminished levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the brain, liver and kidney. We also observed increased levels of blood cyanide and thiocyanate, together with inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and thiosulfate-sulfur transferase activities in total brain and liver homogenate, respectively. Cyanogens also produced several histological changes in all the organs studied. Post-treatment with ?-KG significantly abrogated the toxicity of cyanogens, indicating its utility as an antidote for long-term cyanogen exposure. PMID:24632070

  3. Joint bleeding in factor VIII deficient mice causes an acute loss of trabecular bone and calcification of joint soft tissues which is prevented with aggressive factor replacement.

    PubMed

    Lau, A G; Sun, J; Hannah, W B; Livingston, E W; Heymann, D; Bateman, T A; Monahan, P E

    2014-09-01

    While chronic degenerative arthropathy is the main morbidity of haemophilia, a very high prevalence of low bone density is also seen in men and boys with haemophilia. This study investigates bone degradation in the knee joint of haemophilic mice resulting from haemarthrosis and the efficacy of aggressive treatment with factor VIII in the period surrounding injury to prevent bone pathology. Skeletally mature factor VIII knock-out mice were subjected to knee joint haemorrhage induced by puncture of the left knee joint capsule. Mice received either intravenous factor VIII treatment or placebo immediately prior to injury and at hours 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 after haemorrhage. Mice were killed 2-weeks after injury and the joint morphology and loss of bone in the proximal tibia was assessed using microCT imaging. Quantitative microCT imaging of the knee joint found acute bone loss at the proximal tibia following injury including loss of trabecular bone volumetric density and bone mineral density, as well as trabecular connectivity density, number and thickness. Unexpectedly, joint injury also resulted in calcification of the joint soft tissues including the tendons, ligaments, menisci and cartilage. Treatment with factor VIII prevented this bone and soft tissue degeneration. Knee joint haemorrhage resulted in acute changes in adjacent bone including loss of bone density and mineralization of joint soft tissues. The rapid calcification and loss of bone has implications for the initiation and progression of osteoarthritic degradation following joint bleeding. PMID:24712867

  4. Bacteria TMDL Projects

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    of TMDL projects for water bodies where swimming or wading may be unsafe or harvesting of oysters is limited or prohibited due to high concentrations of bacteria. ? Atascosa River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Buffalo andWhite Oak Bayous: A TMDL... Creek: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Lower San Antonio River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Upper San Antonio River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Trinity River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Upper Oyster Creek: A TMDL Project for Bacteria...

  5. Bacteria TMDL Projects 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    of TMDL projects for water bodies where swimming or wading may be unsafe or harvesting of oysters is limited or prohibited due to high concentrations of bacteria. ? Atascosa River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Buffalo andWhite Oak Bayous: A TMDL... Creek: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Lower San Antonio River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Upper San Antonio River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Trinity River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Upper Oyster Creek: A TMDL Project for Bacteria...

  6. Antimicrobial Resistance in Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis B. Rice

    2006-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are common causes of bloodstream and other infections in hospitalized patients in the United States, and the percentage of nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria is increasing. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are of particular concern. In the United States, approximately 60% of staphylococcal infections in the intensive care unit are now caused

  7. Anti-B-series ganglioside-recognizing autoantibodies in an acute sensory neuropathy patient cause cell death of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, T; Miyatake, T; Yuki, N

    1993-07-23

    To examine the cytotoxicity of a patient's serum with an acute relapsing sensory neuropathy syndrome, dorsal root ganglion neurons from young adult rats were cultured in the presence of the patient's serum which had an extremely higher-titer monoclonal IgM antibody recognizing B-series gangliosides, GD2, GD1b, GT1b and GQ1b. By the addition of the inactivated patient's serum, the relatively larger cells died after undergoing of metamorphosis during several hours of culture, whilst the smaller cells survived. The IgM fraction isolated from the patient's serum showed similar cytotoxicity towards the neurons as the inactivated whole serum. No cytotoxicity was observed with the IgM fraction-containing medium after it had been absorbed with ganglioside GD1b. The results suggested that the anti-B-series ganglioside-directed antibody is the causal agent for the human neurologic disease. PMID:8233048

  8. BCR-ABL1(+) acute myeloid leukemia: clonal selection of a BCR-ABL1(-) subclone as a cause of refractory disease with nilotinib treatment.

    PubMed

    Neuendorff, Nina Rosa; Schwarz, Michaela; Hemmati, Philipp; Türkmen, Seval; Bommer, Christiane; Burmeister, Thomas; Dörken, Bernd; le Coutre, Philipp; Arnold, Renate; Westermann, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a Philadelphia chromosome with a corresponding BCR-ABL1 rearrangement is the hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia, but is considered a very rare event in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we report the first case in which a dominant Philadelphia chromosome-positive subclone was detected upon relapse in a formerly Philadelphia chromosome-negative MLL-AF6(+) AML. Due to refractory disease under salvage chemotherapy, the patient was started on nilotinib treatment. As a result, the Philadelphia chromosome-positive subclone was eradicated within 1 month; however, disease progressed and was again dominated by the Philadelphia chromosome-negative founding clone, demonstrating rapid clonal expansion under nilotinib-induced selection pressure. PMID:25401297

  9. What Causes Pericarditis?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... In many cases, the cause of pericarditis (both acute and chronic) is unknown. Viral infections are likely a common cause of pericarditis, although the virus may never be found. Pericarditis often occurs after a respiratory infection. Bacterial, fungal, and other infections also can ...

  10. Acute ischemic coronary artery disease and ischemic stroke: similarities and differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Fisher; Edward Folland

    2008-01-01

    Although acute myocardial infarction (MI) and acute ischemic stroke share similarities, physicians need to recognize important differences in pathophysiology and how these differences affect acute treatment and prevention to provide optimal patient care. Potential causes of acute ischemic stroke are substantially more heterogeneous than for acute MI, and available acute therapies are substantially more limited. In acute ischemic stroke patients,

  11. Sampling bacteria with a laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We also compared these data to samples of usual collection and filtering. The results of these laser measurements are very promising.

  12. Acute Limonene Toxicity in Escherichia coli Is Caused by Limonene Hydroperoxide and Alleviated by a Point Mutation in Alkyl Hydroperoxidase AhpC.

    PubMed

    Chubukov, Victor; Mingardon, Florence; Schackwitz, Wendy; Baidoo, Edward E K; Alonso-Gutierrez, Jorge; Hu, Qijun; Lee, Taek Soon; Keasling, Jay D; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2015-07-15

    Limonene, a major component of citrus peel oil, has a number of applications related to microbiology. The antimicrobial properties of limonene make it a popular disinfectant and food preservative, while its potential as a biofuel component has made it the target of renewable production efforts through microbial metabolic engineering. For both applications, an understanding of microbial sensitivity or tolerance to limonene is crucial, but the mechanism of limonene toxicity remains enigmatic. In this study, we characterized a limonene-tolerant strain of Escherichia coli and found a mutation in ahpC, encoding alkyl hydroperoxidase, which alleviated limonene toxicity. We show that the acute toxicity previously attributed to limonene is largely due to the common oxidation product limonene hydroperoxide, which forms spontaneously in aerobic environments. The mutant AhpC protein with an L-to-Q change at position 177 (AhpC(L177Q)) was able to alleviate this toxicity by reducing the hydroperoxide to a more benign compound. We show that the degree of limonene toxicity is a function of its oxidation level and that nonoxidized limonene has relatively little toxicity to wild-type E. coli cells. Our results have implications for both the renewable production of limonene and the applications of limonene as an antimicrobial. PMID:25934627

  13. Oxysophoridine attenuates the injury caused by acute myocardial infarction in rats through anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Meng, Cong; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yuanwei; Wu, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Oxysophoridine (OSR), a natural alkaloid derived from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant sophora alopecuroides, can perform a variety of pharmacological actions. The aim of the present study was to assess the cardioprotective effect of OSR against acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats. OSR markedly reduced infarction size and levels of specific myocardial enzymes, including creatine kinase, the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and cardiac troponin T. A reduced level of malondialdehyde was observed, and elevated catalase, Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn-SOD, non-enzymatic scavenger glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity were also identified in the OSR-treated rats. Additionally, OSR inhibited the activities of various inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. These included nuclear factor-?B p65, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-1?, -6 and -10. Furthermore, OSR treatment suppressed caspase-3 activity in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that OSR ameliorates cardiac damage in a rat model of AMI and that this cardioprotection may be linked with its anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:25338622

  14. Back To Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Explores new research about bacteria. Discusses bacterial genomes, archaea, unusual environments, evolution, pathogens, bacterial movement, biofilms, bacteria in the body, and a bacterial obsession. Contains 29 references. (JRH)

  15. Fatal haemoptysis in pulmonary filamentous mycosis: an underevaluated cause of death in patients with acute leukaemia in haematological complete remission. A retrospective study and review of the literature. Gimema Infection Program (Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto)

    PubMed

    Pagano, L; Ricci, P; Nosari, A; Tonso, A; Buelli, M; Montillo, M; Cudillo, L; Cenacchi, A; Savignana, C; Melillo, L

    1995-03-01

    A retrospective study on a consecutive series of 116 patients affected by acute leukaemia with documented pulmonary filamentous mycosis (FM) admitted between 1987 and 1992 to 14 tertiary-care hospitals in Italy was made in order to evaluate the characteristics of those patients who developed fatal massive haemoptysis. In 59/116 cases of pulmonary FM the infection was the principal cause of death and in 12 of these patients a massive haemoptysis was responsible for death. The diagnosis of FM infection was made ante-mortem in only four out of these 12 patients. The autopsy was performed in 11/12 patients and documented a FM infection. The mycetes isolated were: Hyphomycetes spp. (three patients), Mucorales spp. (two patients), Aspergillus spp. (seven patients). At the time of the massive haemoptysis the mean neutrophil count was 7.2 x 10(9)/l, and no patient had relevant thrombocytopenia (mean 184 x 10(9)/l, range 28-350) or coagulative abnormalities. The mean time which elapsed between resolution of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (WBC < 10(9)/l) and occurrence of haemoptysis was 7 d. No signs or symptoms predictive of this fatal complication were identified. Massive haemoptysis can be the cause of death in patients with acute leukaemia and pulmonary FM which in the majority of patients was not diagnosed in vivo. This complication occurs most frequently shortly after the recovery from chemotherapy-induced aplasia. The mechanism of lesion is unknown, but it may involve the vascular tropism of FM and the release of leucocyte enzymes. Better preventive and therapeutic antifungal treatments are needed to avoid this serious, albeit rare, complication. PMID:7734347

  16. Interactions between nitrifying bacteria and hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria during detoxification of oil sands process affected water

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolewski, A. [Microbial Technologies, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); MacKinnon, M. [Syncrude Research, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Large quantities of process water are produced during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands by the Syncrude and Suncor operations in northern Alberta. Freshly produced tailings water is acutely toxic, but it has been shown to slowly detoxify over time. As detoxification proceeds, there is also a precipitous decrease in ammonia concentrations. The present study examines these two microbially-mediated processes in relation to levels of bacteria and toxicants in mixtures of fresh and aged (detoxified) tailings water. Detoxification of tailings water was greatly accelerated when equal volumes of fresh and detoxified (natural aging for one year) tailings water were mixed. Addition of phosphorus further stimulated detoxification, causing levels of ammonia and naphthenic acids (toxic organic acids leached during bitumen extraction) to decrease to those of detoxified water within two months. Such changes were not observed when phosphorus was not added, or when it was added to less diluted (10-.1 or 3-.1) fresh tailings water. Populations of nitrifying bacteria and naphthenic acid degraders increased markedly in the phosphorus-amended mixtures, but not in its absence. Addition of CS{sub 2} (a specific inhibitor of nitrification) to these mixtures prevented ammonia oxidation. Surprisingly, it also prevented the increase in naphthenic acid-degraders and retarded the loss of naphthenic acids. These results suggest the existence of interactions in fresh tailings water between nitrifying bacteria, naphthenic acid degraders and toxicants. The activity of naphthenic acid-degraders apparently remains low until ammonia is oxidized, whereas that of nitrifying bacteria remains low until concentrations of naphthenic acids or other toxicants decrease below some threshold level. Understanding these interactions may lead to more efficient and effective processes to detoxify oil sands process water.

  17. The identification and biogeochemical interpretation of fossil magnetotactic bacteria

    E-print Network

    The identification and biogeochemical interpretation of fossil magnetotactic bacteria Robert E. Available online 14 August 2007. Abstract Magnetotactic bacteria, which most commonly live within the oxic, specifically magnetite or greigite. The crystals cause the bacteria to orient themselves passively with respect

  18. The Museum of Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Museum of Bacteria serves as a clearinghouse of Web links on bacteria and bacteriology and also provides "crystal-clear information about many aspects of bacteria." The Museum of Bacteria is provided by the Foundation of Bacteria, a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the field of bacteriology. Links are selected for a general audience, although one section is geared toward professionals in the field. Some of the latest features of the Museum are an "exhibit" on the good bacteria found in food and a Student Hall where students can present their own bacteria-related projects.

  19. Acute lung inflammation and ventilator-induced lung injury caused by ATP via the P2Y receptors: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Hiroki; Amaya, Fumimasa; Hashimoto, Soshi; Ueno, Hiroshi; Beppu, Satoru; Mizuta, Mitsuhiko; Shime, Nobuaki; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Hashimoto, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    Background Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is an endogenous signaling molecule involved in multiple biological phenomena, including inflammation. The effects of extracellular ATP in the lung have not been fully clarified. This study examined 1) the biological roles of extracellular ATP in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation and 2) the possibility of involvement of extracellular ATP in mechanical ventilation-induced lung injury. Methods The effects of intratracheal ATP on lung permeability, edema or lung inflammation were assessed by measurements of the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio and lung permeability index, immunohistochemistry and expression of key cytokines by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The ATP concentration in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from mice mechanically ventilated was measured by luciferin-luciferase assay. The suppressive effects of a P2 receptor antagonist on ventilator-induced lung inflammation were also examined. Results ATP induced inflammatory reactions in the lung mainly via the ATP-P2Y receptor system. These reactions were alleviated by the co-administration of a specific P2 receptor antagonist. Mechanical ventilation with a large tidal volume caused lung inflammation and increased the ATP concentration in BAL fluid. P2 receptor antagonism partially mitigated the inflammatory effects of large tidal volume ventilation. Conclusion Our observations suggest that the ATP-P2Y receptor system is partially involved in the pathogenesis of ventilator-induced lung injury. PMID:19077288

  20. Acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Harper, Simon J F; Cheslyn-Curtis, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and the annual incidence appears to be increasing. It presents as a mild self-limiting illness in 80% of patients. However, one-fifth of these develop a severe complicated life-threatening disease requiring intensive and prolonged therapeutic intervention. Alcohol and gallstone disease remain the commonest causes of AP but metabolic abnormalities, obesity and genetic susceptibility are thought be increasingly important aetiological factors. The prompt diagnosis of AP and stratification of disease severity is essential in directing rapid delivery of appropriate therapeutic measures. In this review, the range of diagnostic and prognostic assays, severity scoring systems and radiological investigations used in current clinical practice are described, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. Increased understanding of the complex pathophysiology of AP has generated an array of new potential diagnostic assays and these are discussed. The multidisciplinary approach to management of severe pancreatitis is outlined, including areas of controversy and novel treatments. PMID:20926469

  1. Sarcocystis nesbitti Causes Acute, Relapsing Febrile Myositis with a High Attack Rate: Description of a Large Outbreak of Muscular Sarcocystosis in Pangkor Island, Malaysia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Italiano, Claire M.; Wong, Kum Thong; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Lau, Yee Ling; Ramli, Norlisah; Syed Omar, Sharifah Faridah; Kahar Bador, Maria; Tan, Chong Tin

    2014-01-01

    Background From the 17th to 19th January 2012, a group of 92 college students and teachers attended a retreat in a hotel located on Pangkor Island, off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Following the onset of symptoms in many participants who presented to our institute, an investigation was undertaken which ultimately identified Sarcocystis nesbitti as the cause of this outbreak. Methodology/Principal Findings All retreat participants were identified, and clinical and epidemiological information was obtained via clinical review and self-reported answers to a structured questionnaire. Laboratory, imaging and muscle biopsy results were evaluated and possible sources of exposure, in particular water supply, were investigated. At an average of 9–11 days upon return from the retreat, 89 (97%) of the participants became ill. A vast majority of 94% had fever with 57% of these persons experiencing relapsing fever. Myalgia was present in 91% of patients. Facial swelling from myositis of jaw muscles occurred in 9 (10%) patients. The median duration of symptoms was 17 days (IQR 7 to 30 days; range 3 to 112). Out of 4 muscle biopsies, sarcocysts were identified in 3. S. nesbitti was identified by PCR in 3 of the 4 biopsies including one biopsy without observed sarcocyst. Non-Malaysians had a median duration of symptoms longer than that of Malaysians (27.5 days vs. 14 days, p?=?0.001) and were more likely to experience moderate or severe myalgia compared to mild myalgia (83.3% vs. 40.0%, p?=?0.002). Conclusions/Significance The similarity of the symptoms and clustered time of onset suggests that all affected persons had muscular sarcocystosis. This is the largest human outbreak of sarcocystosis ever reported, with the specific Sarcocystis species identified. The largely non-specific clinical features of this illness suggest that S. nesbitti may be an under diagnosed infection in the tropics. PMID:24854350

  2. Swimming bacteria at complex interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Diego; Lauga, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Swimming microorganisms such as bacteria often move in confined geometries. Such confinement can be caused by the presence of solid boundaries, free surfaces, or liquid interfaces. It is well established that confinement affects significantly locomotion, generating additional forces and torques on the bacteria. In the presence of a solid boundary (imposing a no-slip condition), microorganisms using helical propulsion undergo circular motion (clockwise in the case of E. coli). Conversely, close to a free (no-shear) surface the circular motion is reversed. However, realistic interfaces are complex, and experimental results do not always agree with theoretical predictions. In this work, we show, using analytical modeling, how different complex interfaces affect a nearby bacterium and modify its swimming kinematics. Swimming microorganisms such as bacteria often move in confined geometries. Such confinement can be caused by the presence of solid boundaries, free surfaces, or liquid interfaces. It is well established that confinement affects significantly locomotion, generating additional forces and torques on the bacteria. In the presence of a solid boundary (imposing a no-slip condition), microorganisms using helical propulsion undergo circular motion (clockwise in the case of E. coli). Conversely, close to a free (no-shear) surface the circular motion is reversed. However, realistic interfaces are complex, and experimental results do not always agree with theoretical predictions. In this work, we show, using analytical modeling, how different complex interfaces affect a nearby bacterium and modify its swimming kinematics. IUSTI UMR 7343, Polytech Marseille, France.

  3. Acute hand infections.

    PubMed

    Osterman, Meredith; Draeger, Reid; Stern, Peter

    2014-08-01

    The continued emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the development of only a few new classes of antibiotics over the past 50 years have made the treatment of acute hand infections problematic. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important, because hand stiffness, contractures, and even amputation can result from missed diagnoses or delayed treatment. The most common site of hand infections is subcutaneous tissue and the most common mechanism is trauma. An immunocompromised state, intravenous drug abuse, diabetes mellitus, and steroid use all predispose to infections. PMID:25070032

  4. Antagonism of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Phytopathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Ronèl; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Bezuidenhout, Johannes J.; Kotzé, Johannes M.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from plant surfaces and plant-associated products, were found to be antagonistic to test strains of the phytopathogens Xanthomonas campestris, Erwinia carotovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. Effective “in vitro” inhibition was found both on agar plates and in broth cultures. In pot trials, treatment of bean plants with a Lactobacillus plantarum strain before inoculation with P. syringae caused a significant reduction of the disease incidence. Images PMID:16347150

  5. Profile of oritavancin and its potential in the treatment of acute bacterial skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Subhashis; Saeed, Usman; Havlichek, Daniel H; Stein, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    Oritavancin, a semisynthetic derivative of the glycopeptide antibiotic chloroeremomycin, received the US Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria in adults in August 2014. This novel second-generation semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide antibiotic has activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus. Oritavancin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis and is rapidly bactericidal against many Gram-positive pathogens. The long half-life of this drug enables a single-dose administration. Oritavancin is not metabolized in the body, and the unchanged drug is slowly excreted by the kidneys. In two large Phase III randomized, double-blind, clinical trials, oritavancin was found to be non-inferior to vancomycin in achieving the primary composite end point in the treatment of acute Gram-positive skin and skin structure infections. Adverse effects noted were mostly mild with nausea, headache, and vomiting being the most common reported side effects. Oritavancin has emerged as another useful antimicrobial agent for treatment of acute Gram-positive skin and skin structure infections, including those caused by MRSA and VISA. PMID:26185459

  6. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1995-05-30

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  7. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    DOEpatents

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  8. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a severe and rapidly progressive lung disease that can cause fatal respiratory failure. Since this disease exhibits totally different clinical features to other eosinophilic lung diseases (ELD), it is not difficult to distinguish it among other ELDs. However, this can be similar to other diseases causing acute respiratory distress syndrome or severe community-acquired pneumonia, so the diagnosis can be delayed. The cause of this disease in the majority of patients is unknown, even though some cases may be caused by smoke, other patients inhaled dust or drugs. The diagnosis is established by bronchoalveolar lavage. Treatment with corticosteroids shows a rapid and dramatic positive response without recurrence. PMID:23483613

  9. Recording acute poisoning deaths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Flanagan; C. Rooney

    2002-01-01

    Recording deaths from acute poisoning\\/substance abuse is not straightforward. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD), used to code mortality statistics, is aimed towards recording the underlying cause of death such as suicide or drug dependence rather than gathering data on poisoning per se. Despite the inherent difficulties clear trends can be observed from the data available for England and Wales.

  10. RECORDING ACUTE POISONING DEATHS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RJ Flanagan; C Rooney

    Recording deaths from acute poisoning\\/substance abuse is not straightforward. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD), used to code mortality statistics, is aimed towards recording underlying cause of death such as suicide or drug dependence rather than gathering data on poisoning per se. Despite the inherent difficulties clear trends can be observed from the data available for England & Wales. There

  11. Severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Guan; K Y Yuen; J S M Peiris

    2004-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a previously unrecognized animal coronavirus that exploited opportunities provided by 'wet markets' in southern China to adapt to become a virus readily transmissible between humans. Hospitals and international travel proved to be 'amplifiers' that permitted a local outbreak to achieve global dimensions. In this review we will discuss the substantial scientific progress

  12. Acute medial elbow ruptures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyle A. Norwood; James A. Shook; James R. Andrews

    1981-01-01

    Disruption of the ulnar collateral ligament, flexor mus cles, and anterior elbow capsule may result from valgus vector forces and subsequently cause difficulty in throwing, pulling, pushing and catching. Complete medial elbow tears were diagnosed acutely in four elbows by abduction stress tests at 15° of flexion. Three elbows had associated ulnar nerve compres sion. We repaired torn medial structures

  13. Bacteria Inactivation During Lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Sol Quintero, María; Mora, Ulises; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Mues, Enrique; Castaño, Eduardo; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.

    2006-09-01

    The influence of extracorporeal and intracorporeal lithotripsy on the viability of bacteria contained inside artificial kidney stones was investigated in vitro. Two different bacteria were exposed to the action of one extracorporeal shock wave generator and four intracorporeal lithotripters.

  14. Single-dose cephalexin therapy for acute bacterial urinary tract infections and acute urethral syndrome with bladder bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, J; Quinn, E L; Rooker, G; Bavinger, J; Pohlod, D

    1986-03-01

    The efficacy of single-dose therapy with 3 g of cephalexin was evaluated in 129 women with symptoms of acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections. Of 91 patients with significant bacteriuria, 61 (67%) were cured of their original infection; this was similar to the 54 to 79% cure rates reported in unselected populations of women of a wide age range treated for acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections with a single dose of amoxicillin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (J. Rosenstock, L. P. Smith, M. Gurney, K. Lee, W. G. Weinberg, J. N. Longfield, W. B. Tauber, and W. W. Karney, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27:652-654, 1985; N. E. Tolkoff-Rubin, M. E. Wilson, P. Zuromskis, I. Jacoby, A. R. Martin, and R. H. Rubin, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 25:626-629, 1984). The cure rates of (87%) for our younger patients, those less than 25 years of age, was better than that (46%) for our patients over 40 years of age (P less than 0.001). Patients with infections that were negative in an antibody-coated bacteria test were cured at a significantly higher rate than those with infections that were positive in an antibody-coated bacteria test (71 versus 19%; P = 0.003). Those patients with infections caused by cephalexin-susceptible organisms were cured at a rate similar to that for patients with infections caused by cephalexin-resistant organisms (68 versus 50%; P = 0.62). The cure rate for suburban patients was 90%, versus 45% for inner-city patients (P = 0.008). Of the 28 women with acute urethral syndrome due to low-level bacteriuria, 27 were cured. PMID:3717940

  15. Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This on-line exercise is focused on lactic acid bacteria, a group of related bacteria that produce lactic acid as a result of carbohydrate fermentation. It includes a protocol for the enrichment of lactic acid bacteria from enriched samples (like yogurt, sauerkraut, decaying plant matter, and tooth plaque). Three parameters are measured: growth, culture diversity, and pH. The exercise also includes instructions for the isolation of some of these bacteria by using the streak-plate method.

  16. Bacteria: Friend or Foe?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Brock (Roland Park Public School; )

    2003-01-10

    This lesson explores "good" and "bad" bacteria. Students can draw "Wanted!" bacteria mug shots, create composting trials and designs, produce a skit involving a boastful virus and bacterium, experiment with soil and ordinary objects in the lab, write a news story about an outbreak, complete a multiple-choice bacteria quiz and more!

  17. Prevalence of gene rearrangements in Mexican children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a population study-report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Pompa-Mera, Ericka Nelly; Ocaña-Mondragón, Alicia; Rangel-López, Angélica; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María Del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010-2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children. PMID:25692130

  18. Prevalence of Gene Rearrangements in Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Population Study—Report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the Identification of the Causes of Childhood Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Pompa-Mera, Ericka Nelly; Ocaña-Mondragón, Alicia; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010–2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children. PMID:25692130

  19. In vivo sodium salicylate causes tolerance to acute morphine exposure and alters the ability of high frequency stimulation to induce long-term potentiation in hippocampus area CA1.

    PubMed

    Hosseinmardi, Narges; Azimi, Lila; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Javan, Mohammad; Naghdi, Naser

    2011-11-30

    Effects of morphine on synaptic transmission and plasticity in the hippocampus area CA1 following in vivo sodium salicylate and the potential molecular mechanism were investigated. Population spikes (PS) were recorded from stratum pylamidale of area CA1 following stimulation of Schaffer collaterals in slices taken from control and sodium salicylate injected rats. To induce long term potentiation (LTP), a 100Hz tetanic stimulation was used. Acute in vitro morphine increased baseline PS amplitude in control slices but not in slices taken from sodium salicylate treated rats. In vivo chronic salicylate did slightly decrease and/or destabilize LTP of CA1 synaptic transmission. We also found that mRNA of NR2A subunit of NMDA receptor was reduced in the hippocampus of sodium salicylate treated rats as compared to control ones. Following LTP induction, the mRNA of NR2A and PP1 (protein phosphatase 1) in slices taken from salicylate-treated rats were more than those of control ones. After long-term exposure to in vitro morphine, high frequency stimulation (HFS) decreased NR2A mRNA level significantly in sodium salicylate treated slices. It is concluded that in vivo sodium salicylate causes tolerance to excitatory effect of morphine and changes the ability of HFS to induce PS LTP in the hippocampus area CA1 in vitro. These changes in synaptic response may be due to alterations in NR2A and PP1 expression. PMID:21946116

  20. Acute bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  1. Optical diagnosis of acute scrotum in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Nigro, Mark; Afshar, Kourosh; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Acute scrotum is a urologic condition defined by scrotal pain, swelling, and redness of acute onset. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to preserve testicular viability. The history and clinical symptoms reported are key to diagnosis and proper treatment, but are not always readily obtained in children, in whom common causes of acute scrotum include testicular torsion, torsion of the appendix testis, and epididymitis. These acute conditions have different causal pathology that mandate specific treatment, hence the importance of early and accurate diagnosis.

  2. Bacteria Are Everywhere!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    AMPS GK-12 Program,

    Students are introduced to the concept of engineering biological organisms and studying their growth to be able to identify periods of fast and slow growth. They learn that bacteria are found everywhere, including on the surfaces of our hands. Student groups study three different conditions under which bacteria are found and compare the growth of the individual bacteria from each source. In addition to monitoring the quantity of bacteria from differ conditions, they record the growth of bacteria over time, which is an excellent tool to study binary fission and the reproduction of unicellular organisms.

  3. Lactic acid bacteria of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Egan, A F

    1983-09-01

    When the growth of aerobic spoilage bacteria is inhibited, lactic acid bacteria may become the dominant component of the microbial flora of meats. This occurs with cured meats and with meats packaged in films of low gas permeability. The presence of a flora of psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria on vacuum-packaged fresh chilled meats usually ensures that shelf-life is maximal. When these organisms spoil meats it is generally by causing souring, however other specific types of spoilage do occur. Some strains cause slime formation and greening of cured meats, and others may produce hydrogen sulphide during growth on vacuum-packaged beef. The safety and stability of fermented sausages depends upon fermentation caused by lactic acid bacteria. Overall the presence on meats of lactic acid bacteria is more desirable than that of the types of bacteria they have replaced. PMID:6354082

  4. Bacterial entropathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility in children with acute diarrhea in Babol, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili Dooki, Mohammad Reza; Rajabnia, Ramazan; Barari Sawadkohi, Rahim; Mosaiebnia Gatabi, Zahra; Poornasrollah, Mohammad; Mirzapour, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infectious diarrhea is one of common cause of children diarrhea causing mortality and morbidity worldwide. This study was performed to identify the common bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility in children with diarrhea. Methods: Children under 14 years old with acute diarrhea who referred to Amirkola Children’s Hospital, Mazandaran, North of Iran, were enrolled during the summer and fall of 2009. From each patient, two fecal specimens were collected. Samples were cultured and bacterial isolation was done by conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility was identified by disk diffusion and micro dilution methods. Results: One hundred-seventy two patients with the mean age of 41.8±37.6 months were evaluated. The bacteria were isolated in 48 (27.9%) cases. The most common isolated bacteria was E.coli and then shigella in both bloody and nonbloody diarrheal patients. There was a significant difference between bacteria positive specimens and WBC in stool smear (p=0.003). All isolated shigella were susceptible to Ceftizoxime and ciprofloxacin and were resistant to Cefixime. Resistant to Nalidixic acid was seen in 14% of them. Conclusion: The results show that E.coli was the most frequently isolated pathogen in children with bloody and nonbloody diarrhea. Ceftizoxime is a good antibiotic for shigellosis in children in our area but Cefixime is not appropriate. PMID:24490011

  5. AIDS: "it's the bacteria, stupid!".

    PubMed

    Broxmeyer, Lawrence; Cantwell, Alan

    2008-11-01

    Acid-fast tuberculous mycobacterial infections are common in AIDS and are regarded as secondary "opportunistic infections." According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, TB is the major attributable cause of death in AIDS patients. Could such bacteria play a primary or causative role in AIDS? Certainly, In screening tests for HIV, there is frequent, up to 70%, cross-reactivity, between the gag and pol proteins of HIV and patients with mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis. By 1972, five years before gays started dying in the U.S., Rolland wrote Genital Tuberculosis, a Forgotten Disease? And ironically, in 1979, on the eve of AIDS recognition, Gondzik and Jasiewicz showed that even in the laboratory, genitally infected tubercular male guinea pigs could infect healthy females through their semen by an HIV-compatible ratio of 1 in 6 or 17%, prompting him to warn his patients that not only was tuberculosis a sexually transmitted disease, but also the necessity of the application of suitable contraceptives, such as condoms, to avoid it. Gondzik's solution and date of publication are chilling; his findings significant. Since 1982 Cantwell et al found acid-fast bacteria closely related to tuberculosis (TB) and atypical tuberculosis in AIDS tissue. On the other hand molecular biologist and virologist Duesberg, who originally defined retroviral ultrastructure, has made it clear that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that the so-called AIDS retrovirus has never been isolated in its pure state. Dr. Etienne de Harven, first to examine retroviruses under the electron, agrees. In 1993 HIV co-discoverer Luc Montagnier reported on cell-wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria which he called "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. He suspected these as a necessary "co-factor" for AIDS. Remarkably, Montagnier remained silent on Cantwell's reports of acid-fast bacteria which could simulate "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. Mattman makes clear that the differentiation between mycoplasma and CWD bacteria is difficult at best and cites Pachas's 1985 study wherein one mycoplasma was actually mistaken for a CWD form of a bacterium closely related to the mycobacteria. It is important to realize that the statement "HIV is the sole cause of AIDS" is just a hypothesis. There are unanswered questions and controversy concerning the role of HIV "as the sole cause of AIDS." And until they are resolved, a cure is not possible. This paper explores the possible role of acid-fast tuberculous mycobacteria as "primary agents" in AIDS. PMID:18691828

  6. [Acute hypertrygliceridemic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Senosiain Lalastra, Carla; Tavío Hernández, Eduardo; Moreira Vicente, Victor; Maroto Castellanos, Maite; García Sánchez, Maria Concepción; Aicart Ramos, Marta; Téllez Vivajos, Luis; Cuño Roldán, José Luis

    2013-04-01

    Acute hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis is the third cause of acute pancreatitis in the Western population. There is usually an underlying alteration in lipid metabolism and a secondary factor. Clinical presentation is similar to that of pancreatitis of other etiologies, but the course of acute hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis seems to be worse and more recurrent. Some laboratory data can be artefacts, leading to diagnostic errors. This is the case of amylase, which can show false low levels. Treatment is based on intense fluidotherapy and analgesia. When there is no response to conservative management, other methods to lower triglyceride levels should be used. Several options are available, such as plasmapheresis, insulin, and heparin. The present article provides a review of the current literature on this entity. PMID:23522394

  7. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as the sudden inflammation of the pancreas manifested ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  8. Vitamin D Predicts All-Cause and Cardiac Mortality in Females with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Comparison with Brain Natriuretic Peptide and High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein

    PubMed Central

    Naesgaard, Patrycja A.; León de la Fuente, Ricardo A.; Nilsen, Stein Tore; Woie, Leik; Aarsland, Torbjoern; Staines, Harry; Nilsen, Dennis W. T.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D may not only reflect disease but may also serve as a prognostic indicator. Our aim was to assess the gender-specific utility of vitamin D measured as 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] to predict all-cause and cardiac death in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to compare its prognostic utility to brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Blood samples were harvested on admission in 982 patients. Forty percent were women (65.9 ± 12.6 years). Mortality was evaluated in quartiles of 25(OH)D, BNP, and hsCRP, respectively, during a 5-year follow-up, applying univariate and multivariate analyses. One hundred and seventy-three patients died; 78 were women. In 92 patients (37 women), death was defined as cardiac. In women, the univariate hazard ratio (HR) for total death of 25(OH)D in Quartile (Q) 2 versus Q1, Q3 versus Q1, and Q4 versus Q1 was 0.55 (95% CI 0.33–0.93), 0.29 (95% CI 0.15–0.55), and 0.13 (95% CI 0.06–0.32), respectively. In females, it was an independent predictor of total and cardiac death, whereas BNP and hsCRP were less gender-specific. No gender differences in 25(OH)D were noted in a reference material. Accordingly, vitamin D independently predicts mortality in females with suspected ACS. PMID:24349821

  9. Bacteria: Fossil Record

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This description of the fossil record of bacteria focuses on one particular group of bacteria, the cyanobacteria or blue-green algae, which have left a fossil record that extends far back into the Precambrian. The oldest cyanobacteria-like fossils known are nearly 3.5 billion years old and are among the oldest fossils currently known. Cyanobacteria are larger than most bacteria and may secrete a thick cell wall. More importantly, cyanobacteria may form large layered structures, called stromatolites (if more or less dome-shaped) or oncolites (if round). The site also refers to pseudomorphs of pyrite and siderite, and a group of bacteria known as endolithic. Two links are available for more information. One provides information on the discovery of possible remains of bacteria-like organisms on a meteorite from Mars and the other has a research report on fossilized filamentous bacteria and other microbes, found in Cretaceous amber.

  10. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Li; Hongli Yuan; Jinshui Yang

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material. It is degraded and\\u000a modified by bacteria in the natural world, and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.\\u000a Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling, erosion, and cavitation. With the advantages\\u000a of immense environmental

  11. TSSWCB Bacteria-Related Projects

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    of TMDL projects for water bodies where swimming or wading may be unsafe or harvesting of oysters is limited or prohibited due to high concentrations of bacteria. ? Atascosa River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Buffalo andWhite Oak Bayous: A TMDL... Creek: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Lower San Antonio River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Upper San Antonio River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Trinity River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Upper Oyster Creek: A TMDL Project for Bacteria...

  12. TSSWCB Bacteria-Related Projects 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    of TMDL projects for water bodies where swimming or wading may be unsafe or harvesting of oysters is limited or prohibited due to high concentrations of bacteria. ? Atascosa River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Buffalo andWhite Oak Bayous: A TMDL... Creek: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Lower San Antonio River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Upper San Antonio River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Trinity River: A TMDL Project for Bacteria ? Upper Oyster Creek: A TMDL Project for Bacteria...

  13. Introduction to Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    DiscoverySchool.com

    2007-12-12

    This science site has students research how bacteria move, where they live, and how they reproduce; learn how bacteria can be helpful or harmful; and create a design illustrating what they have learned about bacteria. Included in the lesson plan are the objectives, needed materials and Web sites, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation, extensions, suggested reading, and vocabulary. Teachers can link to Teaching Tools to create custom worksheets, puzzles, and quizzes. A printable version of the lesson plan can be downloaded. The video Bacteria, Viruses and Allergies can be purchased and comprehension questions and answers can be downloaded.

  14. The Association of Virulent Vibrio Spp. Bacteria on Gafftopsail and Hardhead Catfish in Galveston Bay 

    E-print Network

    Gilbert, Leslie Deanne

    2011-10-21

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) are gram negative, halophilic bacteria that occur naturally in estuarine waters of Galveston Bay. Both bacteria have the potential to cause infections in humans either ...

  15. Role of bacteria in oral carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Nidhi; Metgud, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer appears to be increasing in incidence, and mortality has hardly improved over the past 25 years. Better understanding of the etiopathogenesis should lead to more accurate and earlier diagnosis and more effective treatments with fewer adverse effects. Despite increasing interest in the possible relationships between bacteria and the different stages of cancer development, the association of bacteria with cancer of the oral cavity has yet to be adequately examined. Different bacteria have been proposed to induce carcinogenesis, either through induction of chronic inflammation or by interference, either directly or indirectly, with eukaryotic cell cycle and signaling pathways or by metabolism of potentially carcinogenic substances like acetaldehyde, causing mutagenesis. This review presents the possible carcinogenesis pathway involved in bacterial carcinogenesis, commonly implicated bacteria in oral carcinogenesis and their role in cancer therapeutics as well. PMID:25767359

  16. An inhalation model of acute Q fever in guinea pigs 

    E-print Network

    Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi Elizabeth

    2009-05-15

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that can cause both acute and chronic disease (Q fever) in humans and infects many animals with varying clinical illness and persistence. A guinea pig aerosol-challenge model of acute Q fever...

  17. An inhalation model of acute Q fever in guinea pigs

    E-print Network

    Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi Elizabeth

    2009-05-15

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular pathogen that can cause both acute and chronic disease (Q fever) in humans and infects many animals with varying clinical illness and persistence. A guinea pig aerosol-challenge model of acute Q fever...

  18. [Acute urinary retention in children].

    PubMed

    Marans, Rachel; Mandel, Asaf; Gielchinsky, Ilan; Tenenbaum, Ariel

    2012-06-01

    Acute urinary retention is defined as failure to urinate in spite of an adequate amount of urine in the bladder. Acute urinary retention in children is rare, and may cause pain and distress. Diagnosis and urgent treatment are essential. Identification and treatment of underlying medical conditions such as constipation, neurological impairment or adverse reactions to medications may prevent recurrence of retention. We describe six cases of children who were hospitalized with acute urinary retention and review the medical literature on the subject. PMID:22991857

  19. Acute mesenteric ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd Berland; W. Andrew Oldenburg

    2008-01-01

    Opinion statement  Acute mesenteric ischemia is caused by a critical reduction in intestinal blood flow that frequently results in bowel necrosis\\u000a and is associated with a high mortality. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion because a prompt diagnosis and\\u000a early aggressive treatment before the onset of bowel infarction results in reduced mortality. Medical management includes\\u000a aggressive rehydration and the

  20. Acute primary herpetic gingivostomatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Verma, Sankalp; Singh, Udita; Agarwal, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a double-stranded virus belonging to human herpes virus family. Although it exists in eight various forms, HSV-1 causes most of the oral infections. Since dentists are more likely to be consulted in the case of oral infections, familiarity with these lesions becomes mandatory. It is more commonly reported in children and rarely in adults. This article presents an acute episode of primary herpetic gingivostomatitis in a 32-year-old male patient. PMID:23839615

  1. THE MITOCHONDRIA OF BACTERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STUART MUDD

    1953-01-01

    Recent evidence from the biochemical, the genetic and the morphologic study of bacteria, in that chronological order, has indicated essential similarities of the bacterial cell to the cells of higher organisms. Recognition in bacteria of a large category of cytoplasmic granules as possessing characteristics which strongly sug- gest that they are the functional equivalents of the mitochondria of anirnaE and

  2. Bacteria turn tiny gears

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2009-01-01

    Swarms of bacteria turn two 380-micron long gears, opening the possibility of building hybrid biological machines at the microscopic scale. Read more at Wired: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/12/bacterial-micro-machine/#more-15684 or Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=brownian-motion-bacteria

  3. Rotation and Restricted Use of Antibiotics in a Medical Intensive Care Unit Impact on the Incidence of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Caused by Antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DIDIER GRUSON; GILLES HILBERT; FREDERIC VARGAS; RUDDY VALENTINO; CECILE BEBEAR; ANNIE ALLERY; CHRISTIANE BEBEAR; GEORGES GBIKPI-BENISSAN; JEAN-PIERRE CARDINAUD

    To test the hypothesis that a new program of antibiotic strategy control can minimize the incidence of ventilator-associated pneu- monia (VAP) caused by potentially antibiotic-resistant microor- ganisms, we performed a prospective before-after study in 3,455 patients admitted to a single intensive care unit over a 4-yr period. Regarding the bacterial ecology and the increasing antimicrobial resistance in our medical intensive

  4. Pyogranulomatous pneumonia in goats caused by an undescribed Porphyromonas species, "Porphyromonas katsikii".

    PubMed

    Filioussis, George; Petridou, Evanthia; Karavanis, Emmanouel; Frey, Joachim

    2015-03-01

    A yet-undescribed bacterial species, tentatively named "Porphyromonas katsikii," was isolated from individuals of a small goat herd with pyogranulomatous pneumonia during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease. The isolated bacteria grew in the form of black-pigmented colonies after 14 days of incubation under anaerobic conditions at 37°C on a tryptic soy blood agar medium. The bacteria were identified as a yet-undescribed Porphyromonas species by determination of the nucleotide sequence of the rrs 16S rRNA gene, and this species was tentatively named Porphyromonas katsikii. PCR amplification with specific primers for this yet-undescribed species revealed the presence of P. katsikii in the lung tissue of all affected animals, while no PCR signals were evidenced from the lungs of healthy goats or from goats with pasteurellosis caused by Mannheimia haemolytica. These data indicate P. katsikii as the causative agent of acute respiratory distress. P. katsikii is phylogenetically related to Porphyromonas somerae and Porphyromonas levii, which cause pathologies in humans and animals, respectively. P. katsikii was not detected by PCR from samples of the gingival pockets or of the faces of healthy goats. PMID:25540395

  5. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC BACTERIA IN SOYBEAN ( GLYCINE SP.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pham Quang Hung; K. Annapurna

    Plant-associated bacteria that live inside plant tissues without causing any harm to plants are defined as endophytic bacteria. The present investigation was carried out to analyse the phenotypic and genotypic diversity in the bacterial endophytes of two species of soybean viz. Glycine max and G. soja . A total of 65 bacterial endophytes were isolated from three tissues: stem, root

  6. Acute mercurial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Milne, James; Christophers, Allen; Silva, Pamela De

    1970-01-01

    Milne, J., Christophers, A., and de Silva, Pamela (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 334-338. Acute mercurial pneumonitis. Mercury vapour has been shown to cause acute effects on the lung when inhaled in high concentrations. Four men, exposed to mercury inside a tank, developed, hours later, signs and symptoms of an acute febrile illness with severe pulmonary irritation, characterized by fever, rigors, cough, dyspnoea, and tightness in the chest. A review of the literature revealed that this syndrome had been described and investigated previously in fewer than 20 cases during the past 40 years, and is apparently little known. Fatalities have been described, particularly in children, and necropsy evidence has consistently revealed the pattern of an acute diffuse interstitial pneumonitis, accompanied by profuse fibrinous exudation and erosion of the bronchial and bronchiolar lining. The two common features in all reports are the heating of mercury or the entering into a confined space, or both. Adequate respiratory protection by an efficient air-supplied respirator is mandatory in industrial circumstances of the kind described in this report. PMID:5488692

  7. Strategies of bacteria screening in cellular blood components.

    PubMed

    Montag, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Since the impressive reduction of transfusion-transmitted virus infections, bacterial infections by blood transfusion represent the most important infection risk. Platelet concentrates are the current focus of attention, as they are stored under temperature conditions which allow growth of contaminating bacteria up to 10(10) and more microbes per platelet bag. This paper does not consider the pathogen reduction methods but will assess suitable screening methods. Beside conventional microbiological approaches or surrogate markers, several efficient methods able to detect bacterial contamination in platelets are available on the market. They need to be divided into two different methodological principles: the cultivation methods and rapid methods. Cultivation or incubation methods require some time for signal production as they depend on growth of microbes. Thus, they have to be combined with early sampling, i.e., the sample to be examined has to be drawn from the blood component 1 day after donation. Their advantage is the relatively uncomplicated implementation into the logistics of blood banks. Because of the initially very low count of bacteria after donation, a certain small sampling error in application of that strategy remains. Rapid methods are able to produce the diagnosis within a short time. Therefore, they allow postponing of sample drawing, ideally up to the time immediately before transfusion. However, this procedure causes logistic complications. On the other hand, late sampling combined with a rapid method will prevent the transfusion of highly contaminated platelet concentrates leading to acute septic shock up to the death of the patient. Considering the sum of different aspects including the supply of patients, the potential improvement of microbial safety of platelet concentrates is comparable in both strategies. PMID:18624615

  8. Stenting in Acute Lower Limb Arterial Occlusions

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, Jowad; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria, E-mail: anna.belli@stgeorges.nhs.u [St George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Management of critical limb ischemia of acute onset includes surgical embolectomy, bypass grafting, aspiration thrombectomy, thrombolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy followed by treatment of the underlying cause. We present our experience with the use of stents to treat acute embolic/thrombotic occlusions in one iliac and three femoropopliteal arteries. Although this is a small case series, excellent immediate and midterm results suggest that stenting of acute occlusions of the iliac, superficial femoral, and popliteal arteries is a safe and effective treatment option.

  9. Signals generating anorexia during acute illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Langhans

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia is part of the body's acute-phase response to illness. Microbial products such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are also commonly used to model acute illness, trigger the acute-phase response and cause anorexia mainly through pro-inflammatory cytokines. LPS stimulate cytokine production through the cell-surface structural molecule CD14 and toll-like receptor-4. Cytokines ultimately change neural activity in brain areas controlling food intake

  10. 'Good' Bacteria Might Fight Common Hospital Infection: Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difficile seems to help prevent recurrence of its toxic cousin To use the sharing features on this ... Journal of the American Medical Association , are important. Toxic strains of C. difficile bacteria cause diarrhea, abdominal ...

  11. Cultivation Media for Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Society For Microbiology

    2009-12-08

    Common bacteriological culture media (tryptic soy agar, chocolate agar, Thayer-Martin agar, MacConkey agar, eosin-methylene blue agar, hektoen agar, mannitol salt agar, and sheep blood agar) are shown uninoculated and inoculated with bacteria.

  12. Bacteria in shear flow

    E-print Network

    Marcos, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria are ubiquitous and play a critical role in many contexts. Their environment is nearly always dynamic due to the prevalence of fluid flow: creeping flow in soil, highly sheared flow in bodily conduits, and turbulent ...

  13. How honey kills bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. S. Kwakman; A. A. te Velde; L. de Boer; D. Speijer; C. M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; S. A. J. Zaat

    2010-01-01

    With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity. To characterize all bactericidal factors in a medical-grade honey, we used a novel approach of successive neutralization of individual honey bactericidal factors. All bacteria tested, including Bacillus subtilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli, ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, were

  14. Ecophysiology of Magnetotactic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis A. Bazylinski; Timothy Williams

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a physiologically diverse group of prokaryotes whose main common features\\u000a are the biomineralization of magnetosomes and magnetotaxis, the passive alignment and active motility along\\u000a geomagnetic field lines. Magnetotactic bacteria exist in their highest numbers at or near the oxic–anoxic\\u000a interfaces (OAI) of chemically stratified aquatic habitats that contain inverse concentration gradients\\u000a of oxidants and reductants. Few species are

  15. Lipopolysaccharides in diazotrophic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Serrato, Rodrigo V.

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a process in which the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is transformed into ammonia (NH3) by a select group of nitrogen-fixing organisms, or diazotrophic bacteria. In order to furnish the biologically useful nitrogen to plants, these bacteria must be in constant molecular communication with their host plants. Some of these molecular plant-microbe interactions are very specific, resulting in a symbiotic relationship between the diazotroph and the host. Others are found between associative diazotrophs and plants, resulting in plant infection and colonization of internal tissues. Independent of the type of ecological interaction, glycans, and glycoconjugates produced by these bacteria play an important role in the molecular communication prior and during colonization. Even though exopolysaccharides (EPS) and lipochitooligosaccharides (LCO) produced by diazotrophic bacteria and released onto the environment have their importance in the microbe-plant interaction, it is the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), anchored on the external membrane of these bacteria, that mediates the direct contact of the diazotroph with the host cells. These molecules are extremely variable among the several species of nitrogen fixing-bacteria, and there are evidences of the mechanisms of infection being closely related to their structure. PMID:25232535

  16. [The significance of glucose positive coliform bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria as an indicator of epidemiological safety of tap water].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnya, V V; Panasovets, O P; Morozova, A A; Artemova, T Z; Talaeva, Yu G; Zagaynova, A V

    2013-01-01

    Due to intensive anthropogenic pollution of water environment generally accepted indicators of epidemic security of water bodies--common bacteria (CB) and thermotolerant coliform bacteria (TCB) do not always permit to obtain an objective characterization of bacterial contamination of tap water. From the point of view of authors the integral index--glucose positive coliform bacteria most adequately reflect the sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological situation of water bodies. In monitoring for bacterial quality of tap water it is advisable to determine glucose positive coliform bacteria, that will provide the relevance of estimation of the epidemiological safety of water use. According to the method developed by the authors the calculation of the index of population risk of acute intestinal infections (AHI) occurrence in dependence on the quality of tap water in Azov and Tsimlyansk towns. PMID:23805697

  17. [The value of glucose-positive coliform bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria as indicators of epidemiological safety of tap water].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnia, V V; Panasovets, O P; Morozova, A A; Artemova, T Z; Talaeva, Iu G; Zaga?nova, A V; Gipp, E K

    2012-01-01

    Due to intensive anthropogenic pollution of water environment generally accepted indicators of epidemic security of water bodies - common bacteria and thermotolerant coliform bacteria do not always permit to obtain an objective characterization of bacterial contamination of tap water. From the point of view of authors the integral index - glucose positive coliform bacteria most adequately reflect the sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological situation of water bodies. In monitoring for bacterial quality of tap water it is advisable to determine glucose positive coliform bacteria, that will provide the relevance of estimation of the epidemiological safety of water use. According to the method developed by the authors the calculation of the index of population risk of acute intestinal infections occurrence in dependence on the quality of tap water in Azov and Tsimlyansk towns. PMID:23458011

  18. [Schistosomiasis and acute appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Jacinta; Santos, Ângela; Clemente, Horácio; Lourenço, Augusto; Costa, Sandra; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Belo, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Acute appendicitis associated to Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection has been found in patients submitted to urgent appendectomy at the Hospital Américo Boavida in Luanda. Due to the high prevalence and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis) in the country, we suspect that the involvement of Schistosoma infection on appendicular pathology could be very frequent, in particular for those individuals more exposed to the parasite transmission. We report two clinical cases of acute appendicitis whose surgical specimens of the appendix revealed S. haematobium and S. mansoni eggs in histological samples. The reported patients live in endemic areas and have been exposed to schistosome during childhood, which may explain the infection's chronicity. Information of these clinical cases could be relevant, particularly for surgery specialists and clinical pathologists, due to the possibility of finding more patients with concurrent appendicitis and schistosomiasis. PMID:25017354

  19. Acute pancreatitis and hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Deborah A

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatitis is a condition characterized by painful inflammation of the pancreas and can be either chronic or acute. The most common causes of acute pancreatitis (AP) in the United States are gallstones and excessive alcohol consumption. In addition, significantly elevated serum triglyceride levels can precipitate episodes of AP. Genetic defects are associated with severe elevations in serum triglyceride levels, whereas poorly controlled diabetes, obesity, and high-fat diets can contribute to elevated triglyceride levels substantial enough to provoke pancreatitis (secondary hypertriglyceridemia). Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia-induced AP consists of immediate reduction in serum triglyceride levels and long-term medications and lifestyle modifications. Nurses are instrumental in patient education about lifelong treatment strategies. PMID:19357469

  20. Chapter A7. Section 7.1. Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.; Sylvester, Marc A.

    1997-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the presence of several waterborne disease-causing organisms. The concentration of indicator bacteria is a measure of water safety for body-contact recreation or for consumption. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and identification, enumeration, and calculation procedures that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on fecal indicator bacteria.

  1. Variations in the optical properties of a particle suspension associated with viral infection of marine bacteria

    E-print Network

    Stramski, Dariusz

    of marine bacteria Julia Uitz,a,* Dariusz Stramski,a Anne-Claire Baudoux,b,1 Rick A. Reynolds,a Vanessa M) and associated optical variability caused by viral infection of marine heterotrophic bacteria. The PSD covering, viral abundance increased, and submicron particles were produced as bacteria were disrupted and cell

  2. The fecal bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadowsky, Michael J., (Edited By); Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  3. Copper tolerance and virulence in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ladomersky, Erik; Petris, Michael J

    2015-06-10

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element for all aerobic organisms. It functions as a cofactor in enzymes that catalyze a wide variety of redox reactions due to its ability to cycle between two oxidation states, Cu(i) and Cu(ii). This same redox property of copper has the potential to cause toxicity if copper homeostasis is not maintained. Studies suggest that the toxic properties of copper are harnessed by the innate immune system of the host to kill bacteria. To counter such defenses, bacteria rely on copper tolerance genes for virulence within the host. These discoveries suggest bacterial copper intoxication is a component of host nutritional immunity, thus expanding our knowledge of the roles of copper in biology. This review summarizes our current understanding of copper tolerance in bacteria, and the extent to which these pathways contribute to bacterial virulence within the host. PMID:25652326

  4. Allergy and acute leukaemia in children with Down syndrome: a population study. Report from the Mexican inter-institutional group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Enríquez, J C; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, A; Buchán-Durán, E P; Bernáldez-Ríos, R; Medina-Sansón, A; Jiménez-Hernández, E; Amador-Sanchez, R; Peñaloza-Gonzalez, J G; Paredes-Aguilera, R; Alvarez-Rodriguez, F J; Bolea-Murga, V; de Diego Flores-Chapa, J; Flores-Lujano, J; Bekker-Mendez, V C; Rivera-Luna, R; del Carmen Rodriguez-Zepeda, M; Rangel-López, A; Dorantes-Acosta, E M; Núñez-Villegas, N; Velazquez-Aviña, M M; Torres-Nava, J R; Reyes-Zepeda, N C; Cárdenas-Cardos, R; Flores-Villegas, L V; Martinez-Avalos, A; Salamanca-Gómez, F; Gorodezky, C; Arellano-Galindo, J; Mejía-Aranguré, J M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Allergies have been described as protective factors against the development of childhood acute leukaemia (AL). Our objective was to investigate the associations between allergy history and the development of AL and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children with Down syndrome (DS). Methods: A case–control study was performed in Mexico City. The cases (n=97) were diagnosed at nine public hospitals, and the controls (n=222) were recruited at institutions for children with DS. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Results: Asthma was positively associated with AL development (OR=4.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–11.87), whereas skin allergies were negatively associated (OR=0.42; 95% CI: 0.20–0.91). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that allergies and AL in children with DS share biological and immune mechanisms. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting associations between allergies and AL in children with DS. PMID:23695017

  5. Parvovirus 4 as Potential Cause

    E-print Network

    Wang, David

    virus, chikungunya virus, dengue fever virus, and Plasmodium falciparum); in addition, CSF culture cerebrospinal fluid specimens from 12 children with acute central nervous system infection. A high- throughput encephalitis virus is the most commonly recognized cause, with 30,000­50,000 cases and 10,000 deaths annually

  6. Chloracne: Still Cause for Concern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatrice Passarini; Salvatore Domenico Infusino; Evangelia Kasapi

    2010-01-01

    Chloracne, first described by Herxheimer in 1899, is a dermatosis consisting of more or less diffuse acneiform lesions distributed prevalently on the face and on body areas not usually affected by acne and caused by chronic or acute exposure to halogenated chemical compounds. Dioxin is the common name for dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, contaminants nearly ubiquitous in the environment and highly

  7. RESEARCH Open Access A data-driven acute inflammation therapy

    E-print Network

    Obradovic, Zoran

    RESEARCH Open Access A data-driven acute inflammation therapy Vladan Radosavljevic , Kosta Philadelphia, PA, USA. 4-7 October 2012 Abstract Acute inflammation is a severe medical condition defined from clinicians. Inadequate and delayed decisions makes acute inflammation the 10th leading cause

  8. Corals diseases are a major cause of coral death

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corals, like humans, are susceptible to diseases. Some coral diseases are associated with pathogenic bacteria; however, the causes of most remain unknown. Some diseases trigger rapid and extensive mortality, while others slowly cause localized color changes or injure coral tiss...

  9. Acute Vestibulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

  10. Sinusitis (acute)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1% to 5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and in people with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, amoxicillin–clavulanic acid [co-amoxiclav], doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides; different doses, long-course regimens), antihistamines, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intranasal). PMID:22189346

  11. Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Brazilian sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Magnani, G S; Didonet, C M; Cruz, L M; Picheth, C F; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M

    2010-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without causing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the isolation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using molecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cultivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for analysis. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was partially sequenced and used for molecular identification. Gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests, and the API-20E system were used to characterize the isolates. The strains were divided into five groups, based on the 16S rRNA sequences. Group I comprised 14 representatives of the Enterobacteriaceae; group II was composed of Bacilli; group III contained one representative, Curtobacterium sp; group IV contained representatives of the Pseudomonadaceae family, and group V had one isolate with an uncultured bacterium. Four isolates were able to reduce acetylene to ethylene. Most of the bacteria isolated from the sugarcane stem and leaf tissues belonged to Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae, respectively, demonstrating niche specificity. Overall, we found the endophytic bacteria in sugarcane to be more diverse than previously reported. PMID:20198580

  12. Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nene, Yeshwant Laxman

    2007-12-01

    This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space. PMID:17913417

  13. [Parasitic infection causing appendicitis].

    PubMed

    Jarry, J; Fall, O; Blandel, B; Crevon, L; Michel, P

    2011-10-01

    Retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who underwent acute appendectomy in the Gastrointestinal Surgery Department of the Desgenettes Military Hospital in Lyon, France from the 1st of November 2009 to the 21th of February 2011, turned up two cases of appendicular parasitosis for a prevalence of 3.3%. Both patients presented acute appendicular oxyuriasis caused by Enterobius vermicularis that was discovered inadvertently after appendectomy. This unexpected diagnosis raises questions about the exact role of parasites in the physiopathology of appendicitis. Though appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency in France, appendix vermicularis is rare. In comparison, developing countries and particularly endemic areas such as sub-Saharan Africa show considerably higher appendicular parasitosis prevalence rates and greater variety in the parasites involved. The purpose of this article is to describe the different parasites with potential to affect the appendix, to discuss the different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying acute appendicitis, and to recall the need for medical treatment after appendectomy. PMID:22235628

  14. Acute inhalation toxicity of cotton plant dusts.

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, R; Snella, M C

    1976-01-01

    The number of free lung-cells was studied in guinea-pigs after acute exposure to extracts of various cotton dusts. A good correlation was found between the increase in number of leucocytes in the airways and the number of Gram-negative bacteria in the different dusts. Experiments using the Shwartzmann reaction and the Limulus titration test demonstrated a relationship between the content of different endotoxins in the dusts and the pulmonary reaction. A model for the acute exposure effects after exposure to cotton dust is proposed. PMID:963002

  15. Acute renal failure due to obstruction in Burkitt lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elpis Mantadakis; Victor M. Aquino; William R. Strand; R. Quigley

    1999-01-01

    Acute renal failure in Burkitt lymphoma is commonly the result of tumor lysis syndrome. We present a 15-year-old boy who\\u000a developed hypertension, seizures, and acute renal failure due to extrinsic compression of the bladder and ureters by a large\\u000a retrovesical Burkitt lymphoma. The causes of acute renal failure in Burkitt lymphoma and the incidence of acute urinary obstruction\\u000a in this

  16. Effectiveness of a single-day three-drug regimen of dexamethasone, palonosetron, and aprepitant for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting caused by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven M. Grunberg; Matthew Dugan; Hyman Muss; Marie Wood; Susan Burdette-Radoux; Tracey Weisberg; Marisa Siebel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting includes both Acute (0–24 h) and Delayed (24–120 h) components with different physiologic\\u000a mechanisms. A combination of a serotonin antagonist, a corticosteroid, and an NK-1 antagonist has proven effective against\\u000a this problem. However, standard antiemetic regimens require administration over 3–4 days after chemotherapy. The present study\\u000a evaluated a more convenient single-day three-drug antiemetic regimen for patients receiving moderately emetogenic

  17. Periodontal bacteria in the genital tract: are they related to adverse pregnancy outcome?

    PubMed

    Cassini, M A; Pilloni, A; Condò, S G; Vitali, L A; Pasquantonio, G; Cerroni, L

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important factors implicated in preterm birth (PTB) is acute genitourinary tract infection. The bacteria causing chronic periodontal inflammation include Gram-negative rods and anaerobes similar to those found in women with bacterial vaginosis. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the relationship between oral and vaginal microflora and preterm low birth weight. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect both the presence and level of six periodontitis-related species: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Tannerella forsythia (Tf), Treponema denticola (Td), Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp(Fn), and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) for both oral samples of subgingival plaque and cervical samples, obtained from 80 patients, during gynaecological examinations. The more representative oral pathogen (less than 60 percent) species in oral samples of preterm and term group were Tf, Td, and Fn. 24.4 percent of pregnant women presented periodontal pathogens in vaginal swab; the most representative species with a percentage over 0.1 percent of total bacteria in genital tract of preterm group were Tf, Td, and Piwith a positive correlation (less than 0.5). The presence of the bacterium T. denticolain the vagina, regardless of the amount, adversely affects preterm delivery. PMID:24355228

  18. [Fall in the levels of circulating lymphoblasts caused by intravenous administration of the A50 monoclonal antibody in a patient with acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. A step in the demonstration of serotherapy with monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Bernard, A; Gosse, C; Pico, J; Faure, E; Raynal, B; Hayat, M; Lemerle, J; Charbord, P; Boumsell, L

    1982-10-30

    In an 8-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia not previously treated intravenous administration of a single 8 mg dose of a monoclonal antibody that recognizes an epitope restricted to the surface of mature T-cells resulted, within 20 hours, in a fall in circulating lymphoblasts from 200 000 to 70 000. No adverse clinical or biological reaction was detected and no antigenic modulation occurred at lymphoblast surface. This observation constitutes a first step in the complex development of effective serotherapy for malignant diseases, using monoclonal antibodies. PMID:6960319

  19. Sexual isolation in bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Majewski

    2001-01-01

    Bacteria exchange genes rarely but are promiscuous in the choice of their genetic partners. Inter-specific recombination has the advantage of increasing genetic diversity and promoting dissemination of novel adaptations, but suffers from the negative effect of importing potentially harmful alleles from incompatible genomes. Bacterial species experience a degree of 'sexual isolation' from genetically divergent organisms ^ recombination occurs more frequently

  20. Gut bacteria and necrotizing enterocolitis: cause or effect?

    PubMed

    Stewart, Christopher James; Cummings, Stephen Paul

    2015-06-01

    Development of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is considered to be dependent on the bacterial colonisation of the gut. With little concordance between published data and a recent study failing to detect a common strain in infants with NEC, more questions than answers are arising about our understanding of this complex disease. PMID:25936867

  1. The acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of acute respiratory failure. Its development leads to high rates of mortality, as well as short- and long-term complications, such as physical and cognitive impairment. Therefore, early recognition of this syndrome and application of demonstrated therapeutic interventions are essential to change the natural course of this devastating entity. In this review article, we describe updated concepts in ARDS. Specifically, we discuss the new definition of ARDS, its risk factors and pathophysiology, and current evidence regarding ventilation management, adjunctive therapies, and intervention required in refractory hypoxemia. PMID:25829644

  2. The acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Modrykamien, Ariel M; Gupta, Pooja

    2015-04-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major cause of acute respiratory failure. Its development leads to high rates of mortality, as well as short- and long-term complications, such as physical and cognitive impairment. Therefore, early recognition of this syndrome and application of demonstrated therapeutic interventions are essential to change the natural course of this devastating entity. In this review article, we describe updated concepts in ARDS. Specifically, we discuss the new definition of ARDS, its risk factors and pathophysiology, and current evidence regarding ventilation management, adjunctive therapies, and intervention required in refractory hypoxemia. PMID:25829644

  3. Ticagrelor for acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bansilal, Sameer; Bonaca, Marc P; Sabatine, Marc S

    2013-11-01

    Ticagrelor is a potent P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist characterized by a rapid onset, consistent and reversible antiplatelet effect, and an acceptable safety profile compared with existing adenosine diphosphate receptor blockers. In the large Phase III trial, PLATO, ticagrelor significantly reduced the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke as well as cardiovascular and all-cause mortality compared with clopidogrel in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. With its favorable impact on mortality, ticagrelor changes the landscape of anti-thrombotic therapy for patients with acute coronary syndromes. PMID:24147518

  4. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page Print this page Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a fast-growing cancer of a type ... that your body needs. Tweet Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) How transplant can treat ALL Transplant outcomes for ...

  5. Acute Pericardial Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gorazd Voga

    Acute pericardial diseases include acute pericarditis and cardiac tamponade. Both conditions can be associated with acute\\u000a hemodynamic instability or cardiac failure and require immediate diagnostic workup and treatment.

  6. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  7. Disordered macrophage cytokine secretion underlies impaired acute inflammation and bacterial clearance in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew M.; Rahman, Farooq Z.; Hayee, Bu'Hussain; Graham, Simon J.; Marks, Daniel J.B.; Sewell, Gavin W.; Palmer, Christine D.; Wilde, Jonathan; Foxwell, Brian M.J.; Gloger, Israel S.; Sweeting, Trevor; Marsh, Mark; Walker, Ann P.; Bloom, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    The cause of Crohn's disease (CD) remains poorly understood. Counterintuitively, these patients possess an impaired acute inflammatory response, which could result in delayed clearance of bacteria penetrating the lining of the bowel and predispose to granuloma formation and chronicity. We tested this hypothesis in human subjects by monitoring responses to killed Escherichia coli injected subcutaneously into the forearm. Accumulation of 111In-labeled neutrophils at these sites and clearance of 32P-labeled bacteria from them were markedly impaired in CD. Locally increased blood flow and bacterial clearance were dependent on the numbers of bacteria injected. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by CD macrophages was grossly impaired in response to E. coli or specific Toll-like receptor agonists. Despite normal levels and stability of cytokine messenger RNA, intracellular levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were abnormally low in CD macrophages. Coupled with reduced secretion, these findings indicate accelerated intracellular breakdown. Differential transcription profiles identified disease-specific genes, notably including those encoding proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. Intracellular destruction of TNF was decreased by inhibitors of lysosomal function. Together, our findings suggest that in CD macrophages, an abnormal proportion of cytokines are routed to lysosomes and degraded rather than being released through the normal secretory pathway. PMID:19652016

  8. Streptococcus acidominimus infection in a child causing Gradenigo syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Finkelstein; N. Marcus; R. Mosseri; Z. Bar-Sever; B. Z. Garty

    2003-01-01

    Gradenigo syndrome is a rare presentation of acute petrositis. The clinical triad of Gradenigo syndrome consists of acute suppurative otitis media, severe unilateral headache and abducens nerve palsy. We report the first case of Gradenigo syndrome caused by Streptococcus acidominimus, a Gram-positive coccus of the Streptococcus viridans group, which rarely causes deep-seated infection in humans. Conclusion: Gradenigo syndrome may complicate

  9. Acute compartment syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Via, Alessio Giai; Oliva, Francesco; Spoliti, Marco; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: acute compartment syndrome (ACS) is one of the few true emergencies in orthopedics and traumatology. It is a painful condition caused by the increase interstitial pressure (intracompart-mental pressure – ICP) within a closed osteofascial compartment which impair local circulation. It occurs most often in the legs, but it can affects also the arms, hands, feet, and buttocks. It usually develops after a severe injury such as fractures or crush injury, but it can also occurs after a relatively minor injury and it may be iatrogenic. Uncommon causes of ACS have been also described, that suggest surgeons to pay great attention to this serious complication. Diagnosing ACS is difficult in clinical practice, even among expert surgeons. Currently, the diagnosis is made on the basis of physical examination and repeated ICP measures. ICP higher than 30 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure is significant of compartment syndrome. Once diagnosis is made, fasciotomy to release the affected compartment should be performed as early as possible because delayed decompression would lead to irreversible ischemic damage to muscles and peripheral nerves. Conclusion: acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency. There is still little consensus among authors about diagnosis and treatment of these serious condition, in particular about the ICP at which fasciotomy is absolutely indicated and the timing of wound closure. New investigations are needed in order to improve diagnosis and treatment of ACS. PMID:25878982

  10. Safe and feasible outpatient treatment following induction and consolidation chemotherapy for patients with acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Møller, Tom; Nielsen, Ove Juul; Welinder, Pernille; Dünweber, Anne; Hjerming, Maiken; Moser, Claus; Kjeldsen, Lars

    2010-04-01

    Traditionally, patients with acute leukaemia are admitted to hospital during chemotherapy-induced pancytopenia, although a few recent reports have reported the feasibility and safety of outpatient treatment. We have developed an outpatient treatment programme for patients with acute leukaemia incorporating comprehensive patient education for self-care management at home during pancytopenia and involvement of patients in care of their tunnelled central venous catheter (CVC). During neutropenia, patients are treated with prophylactic ciprofloxacine, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and fluconazole. Herein, we report the results of outpatient treatment of 60 patients with acute leukaemia (54 with acute myeloid leukaemia) followed prospectively in the period from March 2004 to 2007. After induction chemotherapy, outpatient treatment was possible after 48 of 73 induction courses, with no readmission in 19 of these (40%). A total of 129 consolidation courses were administered with outpatient treatment following 116 of these, with no readmission in 69 (59%). The median number of days spent at home with neutrophils below 0.5 x 10(9)/L was 8 d per course following induction and 12 d following consolidation chemotherapy. The predominant cause of readmission was neutropenic fever, in most instances of unknown origin. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and Enterococcus faecium were the most frequently identified bacteria in blood cultures, whereas only four positive blood cultures with multiresistant Escherichia coli were identified in the entire patient cohort, the latter exclusively observed in patients receiving antibiotic prophylaxis. The majority of the patients were able to take care of their CVC including change in dressing and heparin flushing. There were 12 CVC-related infections. There were no treatment-related deaths. We conclude that outpatient treatment of patients with acute leukaemia is feasible and safe. PMID:20002732

  11. Three Activities: Bacteria Study, Micro Study, and Bacteria Killers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides a problem-based activity on risk assessment of environmental health issues. The lesson consists of three related activities: Bacteria Study, Micro Study and Bacteria Killers. "Bacteria Study" gives students hands-on experience with the concepts of epidemiology. "Micro Study" has students sketch, observe, and compare different types of bacteria that can grow in moist conditions. "Bacteria Killers" has students determine what kills bateria, especially in common household products. Detailed instructions are provided for each activity. This resource is free to download. Users must first create a login with ATEEC's website to access the file.

  12. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Kill Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Brinkmann; Ulrike Reichard; Christian Goosmann; Beatrix Fauler; Yvonne Uhlemann; David S. Weiss; Yvette Weinrauch; Arturo Zychlinsky

    2004-01-01

    Neutrophils engulf and kill bacteria when their antimicrobial granules fuse with the phagosome. Here, we describe that, upon activation, neutrophils release granule proteins and chromatin that together form extracellular fibers that bind Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. These neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) degrade virulence factors and kill bacteria. NETs are abundant in vivo in experimental dysentery and spontaneous human appendicitis, two

  13. News and Research Good Bacteria

    E-print Network

    West, Stuart

    News and Research Good Bacteria Part 2 Article 13 Click here for Probiotics Basics Cooperation Is A No-brainer For Symbiotic Bacteria 9-4-2003 Humans may learn cooperation in kindergarten, but what about bacteria, whose behavior is preprogrammed by their DNA? Some legume plants, which rely

  14. Acute Stroke Imaging: Recent Updates

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sachin; Moonis, Gul

    2013-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke imaging is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Neuroimaging plays a crucial role in early diagnosis and yields essential information regarding tissue integrity, a factor that remains a key therapeutic determinant. Given the widespread public health implications of stroke and central role of neuroimaging in overall management, acute stroke imaging remains a heavily debated, extensively researched, and rapidly evolving subject. There has been recent debate in the scientific community due to divided opinions on the use of CT perfusion and access-related limitations of MRI. In this paper we review and summarize recent updates relevant to acute stroke imaging and propose an imaging paradigm based on the recently available evidence. PMID:23970999

  15. Microbiologic spectrum of acute and chronic dacryocystitis

    PubMed Central

    Eshraghi, Bahram; Abdi, Parisa; Akbari, Mohammadreza; Fard, Masoud Aghsaei

    2014-01-01

    AIM To report the microbiological spectrum of acute and chronic dacrocystitis. METHODS Retrospective study on 100 patients who presented to the ophthalmic plastic clinic of a tertiary eye care center from May 2011 and April 2013 with acute and chronic dacryocystitis was reviewed for demographic and microbiological profile. The culture results and organisms isolated were recorded. RESULTS Sixty patients had acute onset and the remaining 40 patients had chronic onset dacryocystitis. The female to male ratio was 1.78. The mean age of patients was 44y. Gram-positive organisms were the most commonly isolated accounting for 54%, and the commonest species isolated was S. aureus in 26%. Percentage of gram positive cultures was higher in chronic dacryocystitis than acute ones (82% vs 48% of positive cultures; P=0.003). Also in culture positive acute dacryocystitis, gram negative species were found in 52% of eyes but only in 18% of chronic dacryocystitis. CONCLUSION Gram negative bacteria, culture negative samples, unusual and more virulent organisms are more common in acute dacryocystitis than chronic ones. The results of this study have significant bearing on the treatment of patients with dacrocystitis. PMID:25349808

  16. Lipoprotein sorting in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes the localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Some lipoproteins play vital roles in the sorting of other lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and ?-barrel proteins to the outer membrane. On the basis of results from biochemical, genetic, and structural studies, we discuss the biogenesis of lipoproteins in bacteria, their importance in cellular functions, and the molecular mechanisms underlying efficient sorting of hydrophobic lipoproteins to the outer membrane through the hydrophilic periplasm. PMID:21663440

  17. Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Russell Vreeland

    2009-01-09

    Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

  18. Bacteria, food, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rooks, Michelle G.

    2011-01-01

    Gut microbes are essential components of the human organism—helping us metabolize food into energy, produce micronutrients, and shape our immune systems. Having a particular pattern of gut microbes is also increasingly being linked to medical conditions including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and diabetes. Recent studies now indicate that our resident intestinal bacteria may also play a critical role in determining one's risk of developing cancer, ranging from protection against cancer to promoting its initiation and progression. Gut bacteria are greatly influenced by diet and in this review we explore evidence that they may be the missing piece that explains how dietary intake influences cancer risk, and discuss possible prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:21876723

  19. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  20. Acute pancreatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the United States are heavy alcohol use and gallstones. Alcohol use is responsible for up to 70% ... drinks per day for 5 or more years. Gallstones are the next most common cause. The condition ...

  1. Simultaneous enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophs and anammox bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhao-Wei; Ding, Jing; Fu, Liang; Zhang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond J

    2014-12-01

    Interaction between denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) processes may play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles. In this study, a coculture of denitrifying methanotrophs (DAMO archaea and DAMO bacteria) and anammox bacteria, initially sourced from the environment, was enriched with a supply of methane, nitrate, and ammonium. After a 4.5-month enrichment, simultaneous oxidation of methane and ammonium and reduction of nitrate were observed. The highest rate of nitrate reduction in the suspended DAMO culture was 4.84 mmol/L/day, and simultaneously, the highest ammonium removal rate was 4.07 mmol/L/day. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed the coexistence of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria. The development of anammox bacteria might reduce the enrichment time of DAMO microorganisms and promote the activity of DAMO archaea. The activity of the reactor fluctuated during the long-term operation, which might be caused by the formation of microbial clusters whereby DAMO archaea grew in aggregates that were surrounded by anammox and DAMO bacteria. This study is the first to demonstrate that it is feasible to establish a coculture of DAMO archaea, DAMO bacteria, and anammox bacteria from environmental inocula. PMID:25056292

  2. QUORUM SENSING IN BACTERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa B. Miller; Bonnie L. Bassler

    2001-01-01

    ? Abstract Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density. Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. The detection of a minimal threshold stimulatory con- centration of an autoinducer leads to an alteration in gene expression. Gram-positive and Gram-negative

  3. Bacteria: More Than Pathogens

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wassenaar, Trudy M.

    This ActionBioscience lesson plan has students explore the many roles of bacteria, harmful and beneficial. A detailed article written for ActionBioscience by a microbiologist provides background information, which is followed by discussion questions and educational activities designed for middle school to undergraduate biology courses. The Web site also provides carefully selected links for further exploring the topic, including useful sites for student research projects.

  4. Glacial Lake Hides Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peplow, Mark

    2010-03-01

    This article highlights the published work of a geomicrobiology research team led by Eric Gaidos from the University of Hawaii and Brian Lanoil, from the University of California, Riverside. This group reports the identification of bacteria from an Icelandic sub-glacial lake, and how the collection and description of these microorganisms immured within glacial ice and sub-surface water serve as a model in the search for extra-terrestrial life.

  5. Bacteria in Confined Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilking, Connie; Weitz, David

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial cells can display differentiation between several developmental pathways, from planktonic to matrix-producing, depending upon the colony conditions. We study the confinement of bacteria in hydrogels as well as in liquid-liquid double emulsion droplets and observe the growth and morphology of these colonies as a function of time and environment. Our results can give insight into the behavior of bacterial colonies in confined spaces that can have applications in the areas of food science, cosmetics, and medicine.

  6. Comparative cytotoxicity of periodontal bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.H.; Hammond, B.F.

    1988-11-01

    The direct cytotoxicity of sonic extracts (SE) from nine periodontal bacteria for human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) was compared. Equivalent dosages (in terms of protein concentration) of SE were used to challenge HGF cultures. The cytotoxic potential of each SE was assessed by its ability to (1) inhibit HGF proliferation, as measured by direct cell counts; (2) inhibit 3H-thymidine incorporation in HGF cultures; or (3) cause morphological alterations of the cells in challenged cultures. The highest concentration (500 micrograms SE protein/ml) of any of the SEs used to challenge the cells was found to be markedly inhibitory to the HGFs by all three of the criteria of cytotoxicity. At the lowest dosage tested (50 micrograms SE protein/ml); only SE from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum caused a significant effect (greater than 90% inhibition or overt morphological abnormalities) in the HGFs as determined by any of the criteria employed. SE from Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eikenella corrodens, or Wolinella recta also inhibited cell proliferation and thymidine incorporation at this dosage; however, the degree of inhibition (5-50%) was consistently, clearly less than that of the first group of three organisms named above. The SE of the three other organisms tested (Actinomyces odontolyticus, Bacteroides intermedius, and Streptococcus sanguis) had little or no effect (0-10% inhibition) at this concentration. The data suggest that the outcome of the interaction between bacterial components and normal resident cells of the periodontium is, at least in part, a function of the bacterial species.

  7. Growing Unculturable Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field. PMID:22661685

  8. Acute-onset nontraumatic paraplegia in childhood: fibrocartilaginous embolism or acute myelitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin A. Davis; Geoffrey L. Klug

    2000-01-01

    Fibrocartilaginous embolus causing acute spinal cord infarction is a rare cause of acute-onset paraplegia or quadriplegia.\\u000a Few cases of survivors have been reported in the neurosurgical literature, with most reports involving post-mortem or biopsy\\u000a findings. There is little information on MRI findings in such patients. We present the youngest patient ever reported, and\\u000a discuss the important differences between fibrocartilaginous embolus

  9. Role of acute ethanol exposure and TLR4 in early events of sepsis in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bhatty, Minny; Jan, Basit L; Tan, Wei; Pruett, Stephen B; Nanduri, Bindu

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of death worldwide. The associated risks and mortality are known to significantly increase on exposure to alcohol (chronic or acute). The underlying mechanisms of the association of acute ethanol ingestion and poor prognosis of sepsis are largely unknown. The study described here was designed to determine in detail the role of ethanol and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of the sepsis syndrome. The effects of acute ethanol exposure and TLR4 on bacterial clearance, spleen cell numbers, peritoneal macrophage numbers, and cytokine production were evaluated using wild type and TLR4 hypo-responsive mice treated with ethanol and then challenged with a non pathogenic strain of Escherichia. coli (E. coli). Ethanol treated mice exhibited a decreased clearance of bacteria and produced lesser amounts of most pro-inflammatory cytokines in both strains of mice at two hours after challenge. Neither ethanol treatment nor a hypo-responsive TLR4 had significant effects on the cell numbers in the peritoneal cavity and spleen 2 hours post infection. The suppressive effect of acute ethanol exposure on cytokine and chemokine production was more pronounced in the wild type mice, but the untreated hyporesponsive mice produced less of most cytokines than untreated wild type mice. The major conclusion of this study is that acute ethanol exposure suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine production and that a hypo-responsive TLR4 (in C3H/HeJ mice) decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine levels but the cytokines and other mediators induced through other receptors are sufficient to ultimately clear the infection but not enough to induce lethal septic shock. In addition, results reported here demonstrate previously unknown effects of acute ethanol exposure on LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor) and eotaxin and provide the first evidence that IL-9 is induced through TLR4 in vivo. PMID:21872420

  10. Living bacteria in silica gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassif, Nadine; Bouvet, Odile; Noelle Rager, Marie; Roux, Cécile; Coradin, Thibaud; Livage, Jacques

    2002-09-01

    The encapsulation of enzymes within silica gels has been extensively studied during the past decade for the design of biosensors and bioreactors. Yeast spores and bacteria have also been recently immobilized within silica gels where they retain their enzymatic activity, but the problem of the long-term viability of whole cells in an inorganic matrix has never been fully addressed. It is a real challenge for the development of sol-gel processes. Generic tests have been performed to check the viability of Escherichia coli bacteria in silica gels. Surprisingly, more bacteria remain culturable in the gel than in an aqueous suspension. The metabolic activity of the bacteria towards glycolysis decreases slowly, but half of the bacteria are still viable after one month. When confined within a mineral environment, bacteria do not form colonies. The exchange of chemical signals between isolated bacteria rather than aggregates can then be studied, a point that could be very important for 'quorum sensing'.

  11. Rotating Bacteria Aggregate into Active Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroff, A. P.; Wu, X. L.; Libchaber, A.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamics of many microbial ecosystems are determined not only by the response of individual bacteria to their chemical and physical environments but also the dynamics that emerge from interactions between cells. Here we investigate collective dynamics displayed by communities of Thiovulum majus, one of the fastest known bacteria. We observe that when these bacteria swim close to a microscope cover slip, the cells spontaneously aggregate into a visually-striking, two-dimensional hexagonal lattice of rotating cells. Each cell in an aggregate rotates its flagella, exerting a force that pushes the cell into the cover slip and a torque that causes the cell to rotate. As cells rotate against their neighbors, they exert forces and torques on the aggregate that cause the crystal to move and cells to hop to new positions in the lattice. We show how these dynamics arise from hydrodynamic and surface forces between cells. We derive the equations of motion for an aggregate, show that this model reproduces many aspects of the observed dynamics, and discuss the stability of these and similar active crystals. Finally, we discuss the ecological significance of this behavior to understand how the ability to aggregate into these communities may have evolved.

  12. Oxygen Sensing Strategies in Mammals and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Taabazuing, Cornelius Y.; Hangasky, John A.; Knapp, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/?KG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection. PMID:24468676

  13. Oxygen sensing strategies in mammals and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Taabazuing, Cornelius Y; Hangasky, John A; Knapp, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The ability to sense and adapt to changes in pO2 is crucial for basic metabolism in most organisms, leading to elaborate pathways for sensing hypoxia (low pO2). This review focuses on the mechanisms utilized by mammals and bacteria to sense hypoxia. While responses to acute hypoxia in mammalian tissues lead to altered vascular tension, the molecular mechanism of signal transduction is not well understood. In contrast, chronic hypoxia evokes cellular responses that lead to transcriptional changes mediated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), which is directly controlled by post-translational hydroxylation of HIF by the non-heme Fe(II)/?KG-dependent enzymes FIH and PHD2. Research on PHD2 and FIH is focused on developing inhibitors and understanding the links between HIF binding and the O2 reaction in these enzymes. Sulfur speciation is a putative mechanism for acute O2-sensing, with special focus on the role of H2S. This sulfur-centered model is discussed, as are some of the directions for further refinement of this model. In contrast to mammals, bacterial O2-sensing relies on protein cofactors that either bind O2 or oxidatively decompose. The sensing modality for bacterial O2-sensors is either via altered DNA binding affinity of the sensory protein, or else due to the actions of a two-component signaling cascade. Emerging data suggests that proteins containing a hemerythrin-domain, such as FBXL5, may serve to connect iron sensing to O2-sensing in both bacteria and humans. As specific molecular machinery becomes identified, these hypoxia sensing pathways present therapeutic targets for diseases including ischemia, cancer, or bacterial infection. PMID:24468676

  14. A BCR-ABL(p190) fusion gene made by homologous recombination causes B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias in chimeric mice with independence of the endogenous bcr product.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, A; Pintado, B; Weruaga, E; Arévalo, R; López, A; Orfao, A; Sánchez-García, I

    1997-09-15

    BCR-ABL(p190) oncogene is the result of a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 and is associated with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) in humans. Current models expressing the BCR-ABL(p190) chimeric gene fail to consistently reproduce the phenotype with which the fusion gene is associated in human pathology, mainly due to the difficulty of being expressed in the appropriate cell type in vivo. We have used here homologous recombination in ES cells to create an in-frame fusion of BCR-ABL(p190) that mimics the consequences of the human chromosomal translocation by fusion of BCR-ABL coding sequences into the bcr endogenous gene. The chimeric mice generated with the mutant embryonic stem cells systematically develop B-ALL. Using these chimeric mice, we further show that BCR-ABL oncogene does not require the endogenous bcr product in leukemogenesis. Our results show that BCR-ABL(p190) chimeric mice are a new model to study the biology of the BCR-ABL oncogene and indicate the efficacy of this strategy for studying the role of specific chromosome abnormalities in tumor development. PMID:9310467

  15. Ascariasis cholecystitis: An unusual cause

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Balakrishna; Shetty, Prashanth Kumar; Sharma, Pritam

    2008-01-01

    Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection to infest man. Usually the adult worm lives in the small intestine. Rarely it migrates through the ampulla of vater and enters the common bile duct. We are reporting a case of gall bladder ascariasis causing acute cholecystitis treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Presence of Ascaris lumbricoides in gallbladder is rare entity as it is difficult to reach there due to the narrow and tortuous cystic duct. PMID:19547655

  16. Activating transcription in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, David J; Minchin, Stephen D; Busby, Stephen J W

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria use a variety of mechanisms to direct RNA polymerase to specific promoters in order to activate transcription in response to growth signals or environmental cues. Activation can be due to factors that interact at specific promoters, thereby increasing transcription directed by these promoters. We examine the range of architectures found at activator-dependent promoters and outline the mechanisms by which input from different factors is integrated. Alternatively, activation can be due to factors that interact with RNA polymerase and change its preferences for target promoters. We summarize the different mechanistic options for activation that are focused directly on RNA polymerase. PMID:22726217

  17. Magnetosomes in Magnetotactic Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Scheffel; Dirk Schüler

    The ability of magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) to orient and migrate along magnetic field lines is based\\u000a on magnetosomes, which are membrane-enclosed intracellular crystals of a magnetic iron mineral. The\\u000a biomineralization of magnetosomes is a process with genetic control over the accumulation of iron,\\u000a the deposition of the magnetic crystal within a specific compartment, as well as their intracellular\\u000a assembly and alignment into chain-like

  18. Predacious bacteria, Bdellovibrio with potential for biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Markelova, Natalia Y

    2010-11-01

    Bacteria of the genus of Bdellovibrio are highly motile Gram-negative predators of other Gram-negative bacteria causing lysis of their prey. Here we report results of studies on the interactions of Bdellovibrio with species of Alcaligenes, Campylobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Helicobacter, Pseudomonas, Legionella, and Shigella in agar lower, liquid media and cells attached to a surface. Helicobacter pylori was studied employing both actively growing and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells. The majority of the bacterial strains tested were found to be susceptible to Bdellovibrio. A significant observation was that Bdellovibrio attacked both actively growing and VBNC H. pylori, that phenomenon has never been reported. The results indicate that bdellovibrios have potential as biocontrol agents. PMID:20850380

  19. Acute Exacerbation of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Johannson, Kerri; Collard, Harold R.

    2013-01-01

    Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) occurs in roughly 10% of patients annually, and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this disease. While currently defined as idiopathic acute worsenings, acute exacerbations of IPF may in fact have a variety of causes, in particular infection and aspiration. Central to the pathobiology of clinically meaningful events is a diffuse injury to the IPF lung manifest histopathologically as diffuse alveolar damage, and biologically as accelerated alveolar epithelial cell injury or repair. Based on these recent observations, we propose a new paradigm for acute exacerbation of IPF that removes the idiopathic requirement and focuses on the pathophysiological mechanism involved. PMID:24416637

  20. Acute poisonings with drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Pach, J; Pach, K; Targosz, D; Winnik, L; Obara, M

    1995-01-01

    The drug overdose resulting in acute intoxication diagnosed in the 106 drug abusers in period form June to December 1994. The screening drugs identification was performed using immunoassays Triage and Vitalab Eclair manufactured by MERCK. Benzodiazepines followed by barbiturates and opiods were most often the cause of acute poisonings among the adult Kraków inhabitants. The results presented indicate that only adequate clinical observation, laboratory tests performance and establishing of intoxication state (acute poisoning, chronic intoxication or withdrawal) allows a complete patient evaluation. PMID:7644695

  1. Noninvasive ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Lara; Nava, Stefano

    2014-08-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) improves gas exchange and clinical outcome in various types of acute respiratory failure. Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a frequent cause of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF). According to several randomized controlled trials, the addition of NIV to standard medical therapy reduces mortality, intubation rate, and hospital length of stay in these patients. Indications for the use of NIV have expanded over the past decade. In this article, we discuss the clinical indications and goals of NIV in the management of AHRF. PMID:25111646

  2. Pharmacologic Management of Acute Anaphylaxis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David I. Bernstein

    \\u000a Prompt recognition and treatment of anaphylaxis are essential to assuring favorable clinical outcomes. Anaphylaxis has been\\u000a defined as a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death and is characterized by acute respiratory\\u000a compromise and\\/or profound hypotension after injection or ingestion of an allergen. Once recognized, epinephrine is the treatment\\u000a of choice and must be administered

  3. Particles causing lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1984-04-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. 164 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  4. Tetanus: Causes and Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tetanus bacteria are everywhere in the environment, including soil, dust and manure. Common Ways Tetanus Gets Into Your Body The bacteria can get into the body through broken skin, usually through injuries from contaminated objects. Certain breaks ...

  5. Acute pancreatitis in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi; Sai, Jin Kan; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    In this Topic Highlight, the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of acute pancreatitis in children are discussed. Acute pancreatitis should be considered during the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in children and requires prompt treatment because it may become life-threatening. The etiology, clinical manifestations, and course of acute pancreatitis in children are often different than in adults. Therefore, the specific features of acute pancreatitis in children must be considered. The etiology of acute pancreatitis in children is often drugs, infections, trauma, or anatomic abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms (such as abdominal pain and vomiting), serum pancreatic enzyme levels, and imaging studies. Several scoring systems have been proposed for the assessment of severity, which is useful for selecting treatments and predicting prognosis. The basic pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis does not greatly differ between adults and children, and the treatments for adults and children are similar. In large part, our understanding of the pathology, optimal treatment, assessment of severity, and outcome of acute pancreatitis in children is taken from the adult literature. However, we often find that the common management of adult pancreatitis is difficult to apply to children. With advances in diagnostic techniques and treatment methods, severe acute pancreatitis in children is becoming better understood and more controllable. PMID:25400985

  6. Molecular analysis of the rearranged genome and chimeric mRNAs caused by the t(6;11)(q27;q23) chromosome translocation involving MLL in an infant acute monocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Akao, Y; Isobe, M

    2000-04-01

    Chromosomal analysis of acute monocytic leukemia cells in a female infant revealed a t(6;11)(q27;q23) translocation. Southern blot analysis with a cDNA probe of the MLL gene at chromosome band 11q23 indicated that the breakpoint was in an 8.3-kb BamHI fragment that contained exons 5-11 of the MLL gene. Northern blot analysis showed a faint band corresponding to the MLL chimeric transcript. Structural analysis of a genomic clone with the rearranged MLL gene from der(11) chromosome demonstrated the breakpoint to be localized between exons 6 and 7 of the the MLL gene and to lie in an Alu sequence of this region. The partner gene fused to the 3' part of MLL was shown to be the AF6 gene on chromosome 6q27 by in situ chromosome hybridization and nucleotide sequencing of chimeric MLL cDNA clones. However, it was shown that MLL exon 5 was fused to AF6 in one clone, whereas most clones were MLL exon 6/AF6 chimeric cDNA clones. These findings indicate that exon 6 of MLL is spliced out in the process of transcription in a variant MLL/AF6. In addition, we were able to detect the splicing of exon 6 in either this chimeric MLL/AF6 or MLL transcripts from untranslocated chromosomes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The detailed genetic map of AF6 was determined by in situ chromosome hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. PMID:10719372

  7. Can entropy save bacteria?

    E-print Network

    Suckjoon Jun

    2008-08-29

    This article presents a physical biology approach to understanding organization and segregation of bacterial chromosomes. The author uses a "piston" analogy for bacterial chromosomes in a cell, which leads to a phase diagram for the organization of two athermal chains confined in a closed geometry characterized by two length scales (length and width). When applied to rod-shaped bacteria such as Escherichia coli, this phase diagram predicts that, despite strong confinement, duplicated chromosomes will demix, i.e., there exists a primordial physical driving force for chromosome segregation. The author discusses segregation of duplicating chromosomes using the concentric-shell model, which predicts that newly synthesized DNA will be found in the periphery of the chromosome during replication. In contrast to chromosomes, these results suggest that most plasmids will be randomly distributed inside the cell because of their small sizes. An active partitioning system is therefore required for accurate segregation of low-copy number plasmids. Implications of these results are also sketched, e.g., on the role of proteins, segregation mechanisms for bacteria of diverse shapes, cell cycle of an artificial cell, and evolution.

  8. Trail following by gliding bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Burchard, R P

    1982-01-01

    Slime trails, which are deposited on surfaces by gliding bacteria and which serve as preferential pathways for gliding motility, were tested for the species specificity of their support of movement. Among the pairs of bacteria tested, a variety of gliding bacteria and a flagellated bacterium moved along trails of unrelated species. Thus, the trails did not serve as pheromones. Rather, they may have guided gliding elasticotactically. Some biological implications of this finding are considered. Images PMID:6811562

  9. Bacteria within ovules and seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, J O; Hinkle, N F

    1976-01-01

    Surface-sterilized ovules and seeds of 27 species of plants were cultured in the water of syneresis of a nutrient medium low in agar content. Bacteria were obtained from 30% of the ovules, 15% of the seeds of herbaceous plants, 16% of the seeds of woody plants, 5.4% of the overwintered noncereal seeds, and 13.5% of overwintered cereal seeds. In no instance did every ovule or seed of a plant species contain bacteria. No bacteria were obtained from the hard, waxy seeds of mimosa or yellowwood. They were not obtained from ovules with unbroken coats or from seeds with coats that were not ruptured during the swelling of the seed. Only one species of bacteria was recovered in 93% of the instances in which bacteria were obtained. Bacteria were obtained from seeds that were embedded in the acidic parenchyma of the lemon or surrounded by the thickened flesh of the cucurbits. The bacteria were distributed among 19 genera and 46 species. The species isolated in greatest numbers were Bacillus megaterium, B. cereus, Erwinia herbicola, Flavobacterium devorans, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Bacteria recovered less frequently were in the genera Achromobacter, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Cytophaga, Leuconostoc, Micrococcus, Nocardia, Proteus, Streptococcus, Streptomyces, and Xanthomonas. Members of 11 genera and 15 species of bacteria were isolated once. PMID:984839

  10. Pathophysiologic factors in recurrent acute pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry C. Carey

    1985-01-01

    No single pathophysiologic factor has been identified as the cause of recurrent acute pancreatitis. A systematic search should\\u000a be undertaken in every patient to identify one of a myriad of factors that have been shown to play a part in causing this\\u000a distressing illness. The abuse of alcohol remains the likeliest cause, and further research may reveal an inborn error

  11. Antimicrobial Effect of the Triterpene 3?,6?,16?-Trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene on Planktonic Cells and Biofilms from Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Evaristo, Francisco Flávio Vasconcelos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; dos Santos, Hélcio Silva; Bandeira, Paulo Nogueira; Ávila, Fábio do Nascimento; da Silva, Bruno Rocha; Vasconcelos, Ariana Azevedo; Rabelo, Érica de Menezes; Nascimento-Neto, Luiz Gonzaga; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of 3?,6?,16?-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene (CLF1), a triterpene isolated from Combretum leprosum Mart., in inhibiting the planktonic growth and biofilms of Gram positive bacteria Streptococcus mutans and S. mitis. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The antibiofilm potential was determined by quantifying total biomass and enumerating biofilm-entrapped viable bacteria. In addition, the acute toxicity of CLF1 on Artemia sp. nauplii was also determined. The results showed that CLF1 was able in inhibiting the growth of S. mutans and S. mitis with MIC and MBC of 7.8??g/mL and 15.6??g/mL, respectively. CLF1 was highly effective on biofilms of both bacteria. Only 7.8??g/mL CLF1 was enough to inhibit by 97% and 90% biomass production of S. mutans and S. mitis, respectively. On the other hand, such effects were not evident on Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella oxytoca. The toxicity tests showed that the LC50 of CLF1 was 98.19??g/mL. Therefore, CLF1 isolated from C. leprosum may constitute an important natural agent for the development of new therapies for caries and other infectious diseases caused by S. mutans and S. mitis. PMID:25093179

  12. Nitrifying Bacteria in Wastewater Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Abeliovich, Aharon

    1987-01-01

    Deep wastewater reservoirs are used throughout Israel to store domestic wastewater effluents for summer irrigation. These effluents contain high concentrations of ammonia (?5 mM) that are frequently toxic to photosynthetic microorganisms and that lead to development of anoxic conditions. Population dynamics of nitrifying bacteria and rates of nitrification were studied in two wastewater reservoirs that differed in organic load and degree of oxygenation and in the laboratory under controlled conditions, both by serial dilutions in mineral medium and microscopically with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibodies prepared against local isolates. The difference in counts by the two methods was within 1 order of magnitude. In the laboratory, an O2 concentration of 0.2 mg liter?1 was close to optimal with respect to growth of NH3 oxidizers on domestic wastewater, while O2 concentrations of 0.05 mg liter?1 supported significant rates of nitrification. It was found that even hypertrophic anaerobic environments such as the anaerobic hypolimnion of the wastewater reservoir or the anaerobic settling ponds are capable of sustaining a viable, although not actively nitrifying, population of Nitrosomonas spp. and Nitrobacter spp., in contrast to their rapid decline when maintained anaerobically in mineral medium in the laboratory. Nitrification rates of NH3 in effluents during storage in the reservoirs were slower by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude compared with corresponding rates in water samples brought to the laboratory. The factors causing this inhibition were not identified. PMID:16347319

  13. Injury of Bacteria by Sanitizers 1

    PubMed Central

    Scheusner, D. L.; Busta, F. F.; Speck, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Injury of test cultures was quantitated by differences in colony counts obtained with a complete medium and those obtained on conventional selective media. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, and several strains of Escherichia coli were injured when exposed to the quaternary ammonium compound methylalkyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. Representative hypochlorite sanitizers also caused injury of E. coli ML30. Sanitizer concentration appeared to be the main factor in the cause of death and injury, a higher concentration being needed to cause death. Increases in temperature did not result in substantial increases in injury; however, the lethal effect was greater at higher temperatures. Varying the cell concentration from 107 to 109 cells per ml did not change the fraction of cell population killed or injured. The inability or failure of common selective media to detect injured bacteria in food could have serious public health consequences. PMID:4993231

  14. Identification of active fluorescence stained bacteria by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Mario; Beyer, Beatrice; Pietsch, Christian; Radt, Benno; Harz, Michaela; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2008-04-01

    Microorganisms can be found everywhere e.g. in food both as useful ingredients or harmful contaminations causing food spoilage. Therefore, a fast and easy to handle analysis method is needed to detect bacteria in different kinds of samples like meat, juice or air to decide if the sample is contaminated by harmful microorganisms. Conventional identification methods in microbiology require always cultivation and therefore are time consuming. In this contribution we present an analysis approach to identify fluorescence stained bacteria on strain level by means of Raman spectroscopy. The stained bacteria are highlighted and can be localized easier against a complex sample environment e.g. in food. The use of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrical methods allows the identification of single bacteria within minutes.

  15. Metal nanobullets for multidrug resistant bacteria and biofilms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Wen; Hsu, Chia-Yen; Lai, Syu-Ming; Syu, Wei-Jhe; Wang, Ting-Yi; Lai, Ping-Shan

    2014-11-30

    Infectious diseases were one of the major causes of mortality until now because drug-resistant bacteria have arisen under broad use and abuse of antibacterial drugs. These multidrug-resistant bacteria pose a major challenge to the effective control of bacterial infections and this threat has prompted the development of alternative strategies to treat bacterial diseases. Recently, use of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) as antibacterial agents is one of the promising strategies against bacterial drug resistance. This review first describes mechanisms of bacterial drug resistance and then focuses on the properties and applications of metallic NPs as antibiotic agents to deal with antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant bacteria. We also provide an overview of metallic NPs as bactericidal agents combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their potential in vivo toxicology for further drug development. PMID:25138828

  16. Real-time rheology of actively growing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portela, R.; Almeida, P. L.; Patrício, P.; Cidade, T.; Sobral, R. G.; Leal, C. R.

    2013-03-01

    The population growth of a Staphylococcus aureus culture, an active colloidal system of spherical cells, was followed by rheological measurements, under steady-state and oscillatory shear flows. We observed a rich viscoelastic behavior as a consequence of the bacteria activity, namely, of their multiplication and density-dependent aggregation properties. In the early stages of growth (lag and exponential phases), the viscosity increases by about a factor of 20, presenting several drops and full recoveries. This allows us to evoke the existence of a percolation phenomenon. Remarkably, as the bacteria reach their late phase of development, in which the population stabilizes, the viscosity returns close to its initial value. Most probably, this is caused by a change in the bacteria physiological activity and in particular, by the decrease of their adhesion properties. The viscous and elastic moduli exhibit power-law behaviors compatible with the “soft glassy materials” model, whose exponents are dependent on the bacteria growth stage.

  17. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Li, Sha; Gan, Ren-You; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 microbes, ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, such as supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vitamin K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal changes in the light of the use of antibiotics, illness, stress, aging, bad dietary habits, and lifestyle. Dysbiosis of the gut bacteria communities can cause many chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, and autism. This review summarizes and discusses the roles and potential mechanisms of gut bacteria in human health and diseases. PMID:25849657

  18. Comparison of minimally invasive surgery with standard open surgery for vertebral thoracic metastases causing acute myelopathy in patients with short- or mid-term life expectancy: surgical technique and early clinical results.

    PubMed

    Miscusi, Massimo; Polli, Filippo Maria; Forcato, Stefano; Ricciardi, Luca; Frati, Alessandro; Cimatti, Marco; De Martino, Luca; Ramieri, Alessandro; Raco, Antonino

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT Spinal metastasis is common in patients with cancer. About 70% of symptomatic lesions are found in the thoracic region of the spine, and cord compression presents as the initial symptom in 5%-10% of patients. Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) has recently been advocated as a useful approach for spinal metastases, with the aim of decreasing the morbidity associated with more traditional open spine surgery; furthermore, the recovery time is reduced after MISS, such that postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy can begin sooner. METHODS Two series of oncological patients, who presented with acute myelopathy due to vertebral thoracic metastases, were compared in this study. Patients with complete paraplegia for more than 24 hours and with a modified Bauer score greater than 2 were excluded from the study. The first group (n = 23) comprised patients who were prospectively enrolled from May 2010 to September 2013, and who were treated with minimally invasive laminotomy/laminectomy and percutaneous stabilization. The second group (n = 19) comprised patients from whom data were retrospectively collected before May 2010, and who had been treated with laminectomy and stabilization with traditional open surgery. Patient groups were similar regarding general characteristics and neurological impairment. Results were analyzed in terms of neurological recovery (American Spinal Injury Association grade), complications, pain relief (visual analog scale), and quality of life (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BM22 scales) at the 30-day follow-up. Operation time, postoperative duration of bed rest, duration of hospitalization, intraoperative blood loss, and the need and length of postoperative opioid administration were also evaluated. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of neurological recovery and complications. Nevertheless, the MISS group showed a clear and significant improvement in terms of blood loss, operation time, and bed rest length, which is associated with a more rapid functional recovery and discharge from the hospital. Postoperative pain and the need for opioid administration were also significantly less pronounced in the MISS group. Results from the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BM22 scales showed a more pronounced improvement in quality of life at follow-up in the MISS group. CONCLUSIONS In the authors' opinion, MISS techniques should be considered the first choice for the treatment for patients with spinal metastasis and myelopathy. MISS is as safe and effective for spinal cord decompression and spine fixation as traditional surgery, and it also reduces the impact of surgery in critical patients. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25723122

  19. Programmed Death in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kim

    2000-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in bacteria plays an important role in developmental processes, such as lysis of the mother cell during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis and lysis of vegetative cells in fruiting body formation of Myxococcus xanthus. The signal transduction pathway leading to autolysis of the mother cell includes the terminal sporulation sigma factor E?K, which induces the synthesis of autolysins CwlC and CwlH. An activator of autolysin in this and other PCD processes is yet to be identified. Autolysis plays a role in genetic exchange in Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the gene for the major autolysin, lytA, is located in the same operon with recA. DNA from lysed cells is picked up by their neighbors and recombined into the chromosome by RecA. LytA requires an unknown activator controlled by a sensory kinase, VncS. Deletion of vncS inhibits autolysis and also decreases killing by unrelated antibiotics. This observation suggests that PCD in bacteria serves to eliminate damaged cells, similar to apoptosis of defective cells in metazoa. The presence of genes affecting survival without changing growth sensitivity to antibiotics (vncS, lytA, hipAB, sulA, and mar) indicates that bacteria are able to control their fate. Elimination of defective cells could limit the spread of a viral infection and donate nutrients to healthy kin cells. An altruistic suicide would be challenged by the appearance of asocial mutants without PCD and by the possibility of maladaptive total suicide in response to a uniformly present lethal factor or nutrient depletion. It is proposed that a low rate of mutation serves to decrease the probability that asocial mutants without PCD will take over the population. It is suggested that PCD is disabled in persistors, rare cells that are resistant to killing, to ensure population survival. It is suggested that lack of nutrients leads to the stringent response that suppresses PCD, producing a state of tolerance to antibiotics, allowing cells to discriminate between nutrient deprivation and unrepairable damage. High levels of persistors are apparently responsible for the extraordinary survival properties of bacterial biofilms, and genes affecting persistence appear to be promising targets for development of drugs aimed at eradicating recalcitrant infections. PCD in unicellular eukaryotes is also considered, including aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Apoptosis-like elimination of defective cells in S. cerevisiae and protozoa suggests that all unicellular life forms evolved altruistic programmed death that serves a variety of useful functions. PMID:10974124

  20. Infection with Mycoplasma gallisepticum buffers the effects of acute stress on innate immunity in house finches.

    PubMed

    Fratto, Melanie; Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Davis, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    When wild animals become infected, they still must cope with the rigors of daily life, and, thus, they still can be exposed to acute stressors. The suite of physiological responses to acute stress includes modifying the innate immune system, but infections can also cause similar changes. We examined the effects of an acute stressor (capture stress) on leukocyte abundance and bacteria-killing ability (BKA) in wild birds (house finches Haemorhous mexicanus) with and without a naturally occurring infection (Mycoplasma gallisepticum) to determine whether infection alters the typical immune response to stress. Birds were captured and bled within 3 min (baseline sample) and then held in paper bags for 2 h and bled again (stress sample). From blood smears made at both time points, we obtained estimates of total white blood cell (WBC) counts and relative numbers of each cell. We also measured BKA of plasma at both time points. In uninfected birds (n = 26), total WBC count decreased by 30% over time, while in infected birds (n = 9), it decreased by 6%. Relative numbers of heterophils did not change over time in uninfected birds but increased in infected birds. Combined with a reduction in lymphocyte numbers, this led to a threefold increase in heterophil-lymphocyte values in infected birds after the stressor, compared to a twofold increase in uninfected birds. There was a nonsignificant tendency for BKA to decline with stress in uninfected birds but not in diseased birds. Collectively, these results suggest that infections can buffer the negative effects of acute stress on innate immunity. PMID:24642543

  1. Pharmacodynamic modeling of carbapenems andfluoroquinolones against bacteria that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leticia R Moczygemba; Christopher R. Frei; David S. Burgess

    2004-01-01

    Background:Bacteria that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are resistant to penicillins,cephalosporins, and monobactams. The results of clinical studies suggest that the carbapenems imipenem and meropenem may be effective against bacteria that produce ESBLs, although it is not known whether the new once-daily carbapenem ertapenem or the fluoroquinolones are useful against infections caused by ESBL-producing bacteria.

  2. Ascaris-induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Khuroo, M S; Zargar, S A; Yattoo, G N; Koul, P; Khan, B A; Dar, M Y; Alai, M S

    1992-12-01

    The incidence, clinical disease and outcome of acute pancreatitis caused by ascariasis in an endemic area of Kashmir, India, was studied prospectively. Ascariasis was an aetiological factor in 59 of 256 patients (23.0 per cent) with acute pancreatitis. Worms had invaded the bile duct in 51 patients, the pancreatic duct in four and both ducts in four. Pancreatitis was mild in 46 patients and severe in 13. Associated pyogenic cholangitis was present in eight. Acute complications occurred in 11 patients. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed in all cases within 72 h of admission and delineated ascarides in the duodenum invading the ampullary orifice (44 patients), in the bile duct (55) and in the pancreatic duct (eight). At ERCP, worms were extracted from the ampullary orifice and removed via the mouth of 33 patients with intractable epigastric pain, leading to rapid relief of symptoms. The eight patients with pyogenic cholangitis underwent endoscopic nasobiliary drainage to decompress the bile ducts; worms were extracted from the bile duct of three of these patients using a Dormia basket. A total of 56 patients recovered from acute illness with a combination of conservative and endoscopic treatment; the other three required emergency surgery. At a mean(s.d.) follow-up of 19(7) months, ten patients showed symptomatic worm reinvasion of the biliary tree. The overall mortality rate was 3 per cent. PMID:1486433

  3. What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... get acute myeloid leukemia? What is acute myeloid leukemia? Leukemia is a type of cancer that starts ... person to bleed or bruise easily. Acute myeloid leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) goes by many names, ...

  4. Aminopeptidase Profiles of Various Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Westley, J. W.; Anderson, P. J.; Close, V. A.; Halpern, B.; Lederberg, E. M.

    1967-01-01

    The aminopeptidase specificity of 24 strains of bacteria was determined fluorometrically by use of a series of ?-amino acid ?-naphthylamides as substrates. Provided that strict control over medium and growth time was adhered to, a reproducible profile of aminopeptidase activity was obtained which could be used for the identification of bacteria. PMID:4963444

  5. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), also called acute lymphoblastic leukemia, there are too ... of white blood cells called lymphocytes or lymphoblasts. ALL is the most common type of cancer in ...

  6. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    MedlinePLUS

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidneys need a good blood supply. The main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. ...

  7. Isolation and characterization of pigmented algicidal bacteria from seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaima, A.; Gires, U.; Asmat, A.

    2014-09-01

    Some dinoflagellate species are toxic and widely distributed in Malaysian marines ecosystems. They can cause many problems to aquatic life due to the production of various potential and natural toxins that accumulate in filter feeding shellfish and cause food poisoning to human. In recent decades, bacteria have been widely used as a biological control against these harmful algae. In the present study, pigmented bacteria isolated from marine water of Port Dickson beach was studied for their anti-algal activity towards toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Four isolates were studied and only one was capable of inhibiting algal growth when treated with bacterial culture. The algilytic effect on dinoflagellate was evaluated based on direct cell count under the microscope. Results showed that only isolate Sdpd-310 with orange colour has an inhibitory effect on A. minutum growth. This study demonstrated the rapid algicidal activity of a marine pigmented bacteria against the toxic dinoflagellate A. minutum.

  8. The role of beta-hemolytic streptococci in causing diffuse, nonculturable cellulitis: a prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Arthur; Beheshti, Manie; Li, John; Nathan, Ramesh

    2010-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and beta-hemolytic streptococci (BHS) are the 2 main types of bacteria causing soft-tissue infections. Historically, BHS were believed to be the primary cause of diffuse, nonculturable cellulitis. However, with the recent epidemic of community-associated methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) causing culturable soft-tissue infections, it is currently unclear what role either of these bacteria has in cases where the cellulitis is diffuse and nonculturable. This uncertainty has led to broad-spectrum and haphazard use of antibiotics for this infection type, which has led to increased risk of adverse drug reactions, health care costs, and emergence of resistance in bacteria. To investigate this issue, we conducted a prospective investigation between December 2004 and June 2007, enrolling all adult patients admitted to the inpatient service at the Olive View-UCLA Medical Center, a county hospital of Los Angeles, with diffuse, nonculturable cellulitis. Acute and convalescent serologies for anti-streptolysin-O and anti-DNase-B antibodies were obtained. Patient data were analyzed for response to beta-lactam antibiotics. The primary outcome was the proportion of these cases caused by BHS, as diagnosed by serologies and/or blood cultures, and the secondary outcome was the response rate of patients to beta-lactam antibiotics. Of 248 patients enrolled, 69 were dropped from analysis because of loss to follow-up or exclusion criteria. Of the 179 remaining patients, 73% of nonculturable cellulitis cases were caused by BHS. Analysis of outcomes to beta-lactam antibiotic treatment revealed that patients diagnosed with BHS had a 97% (71/73) response, while those who did not have BHS had a 91% (21/23) response, with an overall response rate of 95.8% (116/121). Results of this large, prospective study show that diffuse, nonculturable cellulitis is still mainly caused by BHS, despite the MRSA epidemic, and that for this infection type, treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics is still effective. A cost-effective, evidence-based algorithm can be useful for the empiric management of uncomplicated soft-tissue infections based on the presence or absence of a culturable source. PMID:20616661

  9. Bacteria-Targeting Nanoparticles for Managing Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar Filip

    Bacterial infections continue to be a significant concern particularly in healthcare settings and in the developing world. Current challenges include the increasing spread of drug resistant (DR) organisms, the side effects of antibiotic therapy, the negative consequences of clearing the commensal bacterial flora, and difficulties in developing prophylactic vaccines. This thesis was an investigation of the potential of a class of polymeric nanoparticles (NP) to contribute to the management of bacterial infections. More specifically, steps were taken towards using these NPs (1) to achieve greater spatiotemporal control over drug therapy by more targeted antibiotic delivery to bacteria, and (2) to develop a prophylactic vaccine formulation against the common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. In the first part, we synthesized polymeric NPs containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly(L-histidine)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PLH-PEG). We show that these NPs are able to bind to bacteria under model acidic infection conditions and are able to encapsulate and deliver vancomycin to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in vitro. Further work showed that the PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs demonstrated the potential for competition for binding bacteria at a site of infection from soluble protein and model phagocytic and tissue-resident cells in a NP composition dependent manner. The NPs demonstrated low toxicity in vitro, were well tolerated by mice in vivo, and circulated in the blood on timescales comparable to control PLGA-PEG NPs. In the second part, we used PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs to design a prophylactic vaccine against the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of bacterial STD in the world. Currently, no vaccines against this pathogen are approved for use in humans. We first formulated NPs encapsulating the TLR7 agonist R848 conjugated to poly(lactic acid) (R848-PLA) in PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs, then incubated these R848-NPs with UV-inactivated C. trachomatis bacteria in acidity, forming a construct. Mice immunized with this vaccine via genital or intranasal routes demonstrated protection from genital infection post immunization in a primarily CD4+ T cell-dependent manner. These results may suggest avenues for future work in designing and developing more targeted drug therapies or vaccine formulations for managing bacterial infections using polymeric nanoparticles. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  10. Deciphering the cause of Friedreich ataxia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kœnig; Jean-Louis Mandel

    1997-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FA), the most frequent cause of recessive ataxia, is attributable, in most cases, to a large expansion of an intronic GAA repeat, resulting in decreased expression of the target frataxin gene. This gene encodes a novel mitochondrial protein that has homologues of unknown function in yeast and even in gram-negative bacteria. Yeast deficient in the frataxin homologue accumulate

  11. First human systemic infection caused by Spiroplasma.

    PubMed

    Aquilino, Ana; Masiá, Mar; López, Pilar; Galiana, Antonio J; Tovar, Juan; Andrés, María; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2015-02-01

    Spiroplasma species are organisms that normally colonize plants and insects. We describe the first case of human systemic infection caused by Spiroplasma bacteria in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia undergoing treatment with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic agents. Spiroplasma turonicum was identified through molecular methods in several blood cultures. The infection was successfully treated with doxycycline plus levofloxacin. PMID:25428150

  12. [Acute pancreatitis: an overview of the management].

    PubMed

    Rebours, V

    2014-10-01

    Over the past decades, the incidence and the number of hospital admissions for acute pancreatitis have increased in the Western countries. The two most common etiological factors of acute pancreatitis are gallstones (including small gallstones or microlithiasis) and alcohol abuse. Acute pancreatitis is associated with a significant mortality (4-10%) and 25% in case of pancreatic necrosis, especially. Edematous pancreatitis is benign and oral feeding can be restarted once abdominal pain is decreasing and inflammatory markers are improving. Enteral tube feeding should be the primary therapy in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis who require nutritional support. Enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis can be administered via either the nasojejunal or nasogastric route. In case of necrosis, preventive antibiotics are not recommended. The single indication is infected necrosis confirmed by fine needle aspiration. The incidence trends of acute pancreatitis possibly reflect a change in the prevalence of main etiological factors (e.g. gallstones and alcohol consumption) and cofactors such as tobacco, obesity and genetic susceptibility. Priority is to search for associated causes, especially in cases with atypical symptoms. In case of first acute pancreatitis in patients older than 50 years, the presence of a tumor (benign or malignant) has to be specifically ruled out, using CT-scan, MRI and endoscopic ultrasound. PMID:24837648

  13. Development of a molecular-beacon-based multi-allelic real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of human coronavirus causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV): a general methodology for detecting rapidly mutating viruses.

    PubMed

    Hadjinicolaou, Andreas V; Farcas, Gabriella A; Demetriou, Victoria L; Mazzulli, Tony; Poutanen, Susan M; Willey, Barbara M; Low, Donald E; Butany, Jagdish; Asa, Sylvia L; Kain, Kevin C; Kostrikis, Leondios G

    2011-04-01

    Emerging infectious diseases have caused a global effort for development of fast and accurate detection techniques. The rapidly mutating nature of viruses presents a major difficulty, highlighting the need for specific detection of genetically diverse strains. One such infectious agent is SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which emerged in 2003. This study aimed to develop a real-time RT-PCR detection assay specific for SARS-CoV, taking into account its intrinsic polymorphic nature due to genetic drift and recombination and the possibility of continuous and multiple introductions of genetically non-identical strains into the human population, by using mismatch-tolerant molecular beacons designed to specifically detect the SARS-CoV S, E, M and N genes. These were applied in simple, reproducible duplex and multiplex real-time PCR assays on 25 post-mortem samples and constructed RNA controls, and they demonstrated high target detection ability and specificity. This assay can readily be adapted for detection of other emerging and rapidly mutating pathogens. PMID:21221674

  14. Using Impinging Stream to Kill Algae, Fungi and Bacteria in Cooling Water of Thermal Power Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xia Yang; Jia Guo; Yu-xin Zhou; Yuan Wu; Hong-qiang Zhang; Lin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The growth of living organism like algae, fungi and bacteria in the cooling-water system of thermal power plants may cause biological fouling. In this paper, a novel method using impinging stream was proposed to kill algae, fungi and bacteria in cooling water of thermal power plants. Using yeast cells as an example, the method of yeast cell disruption by a

  15. EXPERIMENTAL CHLORATE PRODUCT TREATMENT TO REDUCE FOOD BORNE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA IN RUMINANT AND MONOGASTRIC FOOD ANIMALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogenic bacteria that cause human food borne illness can live within the gastrointestinal tract of food animals. Many of these bacteria do not affect animal production, but do pose a threat to consumers via meat and dairy products. Over 76 million cases of food borne illness occur each year in ...

  16. [The incidence of Campylobacter jejuni and other pathogenic bacteria in childhood summer diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Mutlu, G; Kumdali, A; Sa?diç, K; Kivran, M

    1986-07-01

    It was investigated the incidence of Campylobacter jejuni which has been recognized as a common cause of akut gastroenteritis and other pathogenic bacteria in childhood summer diarrhea. It was examined 94 diarrheic patients stool in 0-5 years old in summer months 1985-86. Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, Shigella were isolated as a pathogenic bacteria. PMID:3561278

  17. Extracellular polysaccharides produced by cooling water tower biofilm bacteria and their possible degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nur Ceyhan; Guven Ozdemir

    2008-01-01

    The extracellular polymers (EPS) of biofilm bacteria that can cause heat and mass transfer problems in cooling water towers in the petrochemical industry were investigated. In addition, these microorganisms were screened for their ability to grow and degrade their own EPS and the EPS of other species. Twelve bacteria producing the most EPS were isolated from cooling water towers and

  18. Bacteria-Host Cell Interaction Mediated by Cellular Cholesterol\\/Glycolipid-Enriched Microdomains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeoung-Sook Shin; Zhimin Gao; Soman N. Abraham

    1999-01-01

    Gram negative bacterial infection is a leading cause of fatality and is attributed, at least in part, to the bacteria's capacity to persist in the host in spite of appropriate antibiotic therapy. It has been suggested that bacteria evade antibiotics by hiding within host cells. We sought to investigate this important aspect of infections in mast cells, which are inflammatory

  19. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts on foodborne bacterial pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial foodborne diseases are caused by consumption of foods contaminated with bacteria and/or their toxins. In this study, we evaluated antibacterial properties of twelve different extracts including turmeric, lemon and different kinds of teas against four major pathogenic foodborne bacteria inc...

  20. Magnetic Microstructure of Magnetotactic Bacteria by

    E-print Network

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Magnetic Microstructure of Magnetotactic Bacteria by Electron Holography Rafal E. Dunin microstructure of magnetite nanocrys- tals in magnetotactic bacteria. The magnetite crystals were all single). For example, magnetotactic bacteria contain magnetosomes, which are intracellular, ferri- magnetic crystals

  1. Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_151843.html Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria New study links bacteria found in urine in bladder to urinary incontinence ... News) -- Though it's commonly believed that urine is bacteria-free, normal urine is not sterile, a new ...

  2. Functional fermented whey-based beverage using lactic acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Micaela Pescuma; Elvira María Hébert; Fernanda Mozzi

    2010-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) is employed as functional food ingredient because of its nutritional value and emulsifying properties. However, the major whey protein ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) is the main cause of milk allergy. The aim of this study was to formulate a fermented whey beverage using selected lactic acid bacteria and WPC35 (WPC containing 35% of proteins) to obtain a fermented

  3. COMPOSITE SAMPLINGS FOR DETECTION OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN WATER SUPPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low densities of coliform bacteria introduced into distribution systems may survive in protected habitats. hese organisms may interfere with and cause confusion in the use of the coliforms as indicators of sewage contamination of drinking water. ethods of increasing the probabili...

  4. COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR DETECTION OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN WATER SUPPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low densities of coliform bacteria introduced into distribution systems may survive in protected habitats. These organisms may interfere with and cause confusion in the use of the coliforms as indicators of sewage contamination of drinking water. Methods of increasing the probabi...

  5. Neuropsychological sequelae of acute-onset sporadic viral encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jyrki Launes

    2007-01-01

    Acute encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain parenchyma. In the USA, by estimation, 20,000 cases occur every year. A variety of cognitive deficits may persist after the acute stage, and they are often the sole cause of disability. Recent literature demonstrates the heterogeneity of both mnestic disorders and the outcome following encephalitis. Herpes simplex virus is the most commonly

  6. Impact of acute clinical mastitis on cow behaviour

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jutta Siivonen; Suvi Taponen; Mari Hovinen; Matti Pastell; B. Joop Lensink; Satu Pyörälä; Laura Hänninen

    2011-01-01

    Acute mastitis is one of the most common diseases of high-producing dairy cows. However, there is still lack of knowledge on which precise behaviours change first at the beginning of acute mastitis, and whether behavioural changes might serve as a tool for early detection of clinical mastitis. In addition, mastitis can cause motivational conflict in the behavioural priorities of a

  7. Particles causing lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, K H

    1984-01-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response, appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. The insidious and probably most important human lung disease due to particles is bronchiolar obstruction and obliteration, producing progressive impairment of air flow. The responsible particle is the complex combination of poorly digestive lipids and complex carbohydrates with active chemicals which we call cigarette smoke. More research is needed to perfect, correct and quantify our preliminary picture of the pathogenesis of lung disease by particles, but a useful start has been made. Images FIGURE 1. PMID:6376114

  8. [Etiology and pathogenesis of acute respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Ziliene, Violeta; Kondrotas, Anatolijus Juozas; Kevelaitis, Egidijus

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine factors influencing acute respiratory failure and pathogenesis according to literature and clinical findings in critically ill patients. The term "respiratory failure" implies the inability to maintain either the normal delivery of oxygen to tissues and release or the normal removal of carbon dioxide from the tissues. There are many patients suffering from acute respiratory failure caused by nosocomial pneumonia, septic syndrome, aspiration, interstitial or alveolar lung edema, thromboembolism of a. pulmonalis, polytrauma and lung contusion, acute respiratory distress syndrome, long-term mechanical ventilation of the lungs, acute lung injury, status asthmaticus, rather massive transfusions of blood products, and lipid embolism in the intensive care unit. There are actually three processes involved: the transfer of oxygen across the alveolus, the transport to the tissues (by cardiac output), and the removal of carbon dioxide from blood into the alveolus with subsequent exhalation into the environment. Failure of any step in this process can lead to respiratory failure. Long-term hypoxia causes ischemic changes and dysfunction of brain, heart, kidney, lungs and can worsen the course of disease or cause higher mortality. It is important to determine the pathogenetic mechanisms of acute respiratory failure, estimate the main parameters and their interrelations and prescribe proper treatment. PMID:15064552

  9. Toxicity evaluation of pig slurry using luminescent bacteria and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

    2014-07-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

  10. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

    2014-01-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

  11. Two cases of acute mastoiditis with subperiosteal abscess.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Ryeal; Choo, Oak-Sung; Park, Hun Yi

    2013-09-01

    The incidence of mastoiditis in pediatric age has consistently increased over the last two decades due to increase of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Compared to young patients, occurrence of acute otitis media complications such as acute mastoiditis and subperiosteal abscess is relatively low in adults. Various treatments for acute mastoiditis with subperiosteal abscess such as tympanostomy tube insertion, intravenous antibiotics, and postauricular incision and drainage have avoided the morbidity and necessity of mastoid surgery. Recently, many studies have indicated mastoidectomy only in cases of severe complications or failure of disease improvement after antibiotic treatment and myringotomy. In this report, we present two cases of successful treatment of subperiosteal abscess and discuss the management of acute mastoiditis with subperiosteal abscess in both child and adult. PMID:24653915

  12. Two Cases of Acute Mastoiditis with Subperiosteal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Ryeal; Choo, Oak-Sung

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of mastoiditis in pediatric age has consistently increased over the last two decades due to increase of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Compared to young patients, occurrence of acute otitis media complications such as acute mastoiditis and subperiosteal abscess is relatively low in adults. Various treatments for acute mastoiditis with subperiosteal abscess such as tympanostomy tube insertion, intravenous antibiotics, and postauricular incision and drainage have avoided the morbidity and necessity of mastoid surgery. Recently, many studies have indicated mastoidectomy only in cases of severe complications or failure of disease improvement after antibiotic treatment and myringotomy. In this report, we present two cases of successful treatment of subperiosteal abscess and discuss the management of acute mastoiditis with subperiosteal abscess in both child and adult. PMID:24653915

  13. Separation of motile bacteria using drift velocity in a microchannel.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Shioiri, Tatsuya; Numayama-Tsuruta, Keiko; Ueno, Hironori; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2014-03-01

    Separation of certain bacteria from liquids is important in the food, water quality management, bioengineering, and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, we developed a microfluidic device for the hydrodynamic separation of motile bacteria (Escherichia coli) using drift velocity. We first investigated drift tendencies of bacteria and found that cells tended to move in a spanwise direction with similar velocities regardless of the flow rate. When the drift distance was small compared to the wetted perimeter of the cross section, the cells were not separated efficiently. We then investigated the drift phenomenon in more detail using a numerical simulation. Interestingly, the drift phenomenon was observed even without a wall boundary, indicating that drift was caused mainly by the interaction of moving cells with the background shear flow. Finally, we developed a microfluidic device to separate motile bacteria from tracer particles or less motile cells. By decreasing the channel height, the device could successfully separate motile bacteria from other particles or cells with a separation efficiency of about 40%. Connecting microchannels in a series was also found to be effective, which achieved the separation efficiency of about 60%. The knowledge obtained in this study will facilitate the development of other microfluidics devices for use with bacteria. PMID:24448484

  14. Bacteria Growth Inquiry: Bodily Bacteria and Healthy Hygiene Habits

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this inquiry activity, students generate investigable questions to explore the link between hygiene/cleanliness and bacteria growth/population. The students will present their conclusions, and video clips containing additional information will be discussed.

  15. Sampling for Bacteria in Wells

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2001-11-15

    Sampling for Bacteria in Wells E-126 11/01 Water samples for bacteria tests must always be col- lected in a sterile container. The procedure for collect- ing a water sample is as follows: 1. Obtain a sterile container from a Health Department... immediately after collecting water sample. Refrigerate the sample and transport it to the laborato- ry (in an ice chest) as soon after collection as possible (six hours is best, but up to 30 hours). Many labs will not accept bacteria samples on Friday so check...

  16. Inactivation ofBiofilm Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK W. LECHEVALLIER; CHERYL D. CAWTHON; RAMON G. LEE

    1988-01-01

    Thecurrent project was developed toexamine inactivation ofbiofilm bacteria andtocharacterize the interaction ofbiocides withpipesurfaces. Unattached bacteria were quite susceptible tothevariety of disinfectants tested. Viable bacterial counts were reduced 99%byexposureto0.08 mg ofhypochlorous acid (pH7.0) perliter (1to2°C) for1min.Formonochloramine, 94mg\\/liter wasrequired tokill 99%ofthebacteria within 1min.Theseresults wereconsistent withthose found byother investigators. Biofilm bacteria grown on thesurfaces ofgranular activated carbon particles, metal coupons,orglass microscope slides were

  17. Acute loss of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness. PMID:25702218

  18. Magnetotactic Bacteria from Extreme Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Lefère, Christopher T.

    2013-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a diverse collection of motile prokaryotes that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometer-sized crystals of a magnetic mineral called magnetosomes. Magnetosome minerals consist of either magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4) and cause cells to align along the Earth's geomagnetic field lines as they swim, a trait called magnetotaxis. MTB are known to mainly inhabit the oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) in water columns or sediments of aquatic habitats and it is currently thought that magnetosomes function as a means of making chemotaxis more efficient in locating and maintaining an optimal position for growth and survival at the OAI. Known cultured and uncultured MTB are phylogenetically associated with the Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria classes of the phylum Proteobacteria, the Nitrospirae phylum and the candidate division OP3, part of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) bacterial superphylum. MTB are generally thought to be ubiquitous in aquatic environments as they are cosmopolitan in distribution and have been found in every continent although for years MTB were thought to be restricted to habitats with pH values near neutral and at ambient temperature. Recently, however, moderate thermophilic and alkaliphilic MTB have been described including: an uncultured, moderately thermophilic magnetotactic bacterium present in hot springs in northern Nevada with a probable upper growth limit of about 63 °C; and several strains of obligately alkaliphilic MTB isolated in pure culture from different aquatic habitats in California, including the hypersaline, extremely alkaline Mono Lake, with an optimal growth pH of >9.0.

  19. Controlled clinical trial of selective decontamination for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Luiten, E J; Hop, W C; Lange, J F; Bruining, H A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A randomized, controlled, multicenter trial was undertaken in 102 patients with objective evidence of severe acute pancreatitis to evaluate whether selective decontamination reduces mortality. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Secondary pancreatic infection is the major cause of death in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Controlled clinical trials to study the effect of selective decontamination in such patients are not available. METHODS: Between April 22, 1990 and April 19, 1993, 102 patients with severe acute pancreatitis were admitted to 16 participating hospitals. Patients were entered into the study if severe acute pancreatitis was indicated, on admission, by multiple laboratory criteria (Imrie score > or = 3) and/or computed tomography criteria (Balthazar grade D or E). Patients were randomly assigned to receive standard treatment (control group) or standard treatment plus selective decontamination (norfloxacin, colistin, amphotericin; selective decontamination group). All patients received full supportive treatment, and surveillance cultures were taken in both groups. RESULTS: Fifty patients were assigned to the selective decontamination group and 52 were assigned to the control group. There were 18 deaths in the control group (35%), compared with 11 deaths (22%) in the selective decontamination group (adjusted for Imrie score and Balthazar grade: p = 0.048). This difference was mainly caused by a reduction of late mortality (> 2 weeks) due to significant reduction of gram-negative pancreatic infection (p = 0.003). The average number of laparotomies per patient was reduced in patients treated with selective decontamination (p < 0.05). Failure of selective decontamination to prevent secondary gram-negative pancreatic infection with subsequent death was seen in only three patients (6%) and transient gram-negative pancreatic infection was seen in one (2%). In both groups of patients, all gram-negative aerobic pancreatic infection was preceded by colonization of the digestive tract by the same bacteria. CONCLUSION: Reduction of gram-negative colonization of the digestive tract, preventing subsequent pancreatic infection by means of selective decontamination, significantly reduces morbidity and mortality in patients with severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID:7618970

  20. Resident bacteria on leaves enhance survival of immigrant cells of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Poza-Carrion, Cesar; Suslow, Trevor; Lindow, Steven

    2013-04-01

    Although Salmonella enterica apparently has comparatively low epiphytic fitness on plants, external factors that would influence its ability to survive on plants after contamination would be of significance in the epidemiology of human diseases caused by this human pathogen. Viable population sizes of S. enterica applied to plants preinoculated with Pseudomonas syringae or either of two Erwinia herbicola strains was ?10-fold higher than that on control plants that were not precolonized by such indigenous bacteria when assessed 24 to 72 h after the imposition of desiccation stress. The protective effect of P. fluorescens, which exhibited antibiosis toward S. enterica in vitro, was only ?50% that conferred by other bacterial strains. Although S. enterica could produce small cellular aggregates after incubation on wet leaves for several days, and the cells in such aggregates were less susceptible to death upon acute dehydration than solitary cells (as determined by propidium iodide staining), most Salmonella cells were found as isolated cells when it was applied to leaves previously colonized by other bacterial species. The proportion of solitary cells of S. enterica coincident with aggregates of cells of preexisting epiphytic species that subsequently were judged as nonviable by viability staining on dry leaves was as much as 10-fold less than those that had landed on uncolonized portions of the leaf. Thus, survival of immigrant cells of S. enterica on plants appears to be strongly context dependent, and the presence of common epiphytic bacteria on plants can protect such immigrants from at least one key stress (i.e., desiccation) encountered on leaf surfaces. PMID:23506362

  1. Mercury and cause of death in great white herons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Spalding; S. F. Sundlof; R. D. Djork; G. V. N. Powell

    1994-01-01

    Mercury contamination is suspected to adversely affect wading birds in southern Florida. To determine the magnitude of contamination associated with cause of death we followed 3 adult and 19 juvenile radio-tagged great white herons (Ardea herodias occidentalis), recovered them soon after death, and determined liver mercury content and cause of death. Birds that died from acute causes had less (P

  2. Infected Peri-Pancreatic Necrosis Causing Gallbladder Necrosis by Direct Extension

    PubMed Central

    Assalia, Ahmad; Schmulevski, Pavel; Meislin, Vladimir; Hashmonai, Moshe

    1993-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis may develop in patients suffering from necrotizing pancreatitis. Conversely, acute pancreatitis may complicate acute gallbladder disease. We present a case that lends support to the existence of another possibility: gallbladder necrosis caused by direct extension of the necrotizing pancreatitic process. PMID:8260438

  3. Beyond Bacteria: A Study of the Enteric Microbial Consortium in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Robert B.

    characterized. We used deep pyrosequencing to examine the gut- associated microbiome of 11 ELBW infants microbial diversity in ELBW enteric microbiota dominated bytypes of bacteria known to cause invasive disease

  4. Enhanced killing of antibiotic-resistant bacteria enabled by massively parallel combinatorial genetics

    E-print Network

    Ding, Huiming

    New therapeutic strategies are needed to treat infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria, which constitute a major growing threat to human health. Here, we use a high-throughput technology to identify combinatorial ...

  5. [Cholecystolithiasis as a cause of local hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Dolimov, K S; Il'khamov, F A; Abdumazhidov, A Sh; Tukhtamuradov, Z Z; Dolimov, T K; Pivnitski?, I O

    2014-08-01

    In an acute inflammation of gallbladder inflammatory process spreads on surrounding tissues, including hepatic tissue, what causes the regional hepatitis occurrence. In some patients, suffering calculous cholecystitis on background of transition of inflammatory process from gallbladder to hepatic tissue likewise a regional hepatitis, hyperbilirubinemia, the skin yellowness are revealed, what simulates choledocholithiasis and obturation jaundice. PMID:25417284

  6. Evidence of Recombination and Genetic Diversity in Human Rhinoviruses in Children with Acute Respiratory

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Background: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a highly prevalent cause of acute respiratory infection in children diagnosis of HRV strains in a 2-year study of children with acute respiratory infection visiting one amongst 827 children with acute low respiratory tract infection. Two samples were co-infected with HRV

  7. Biopsy-proven acute tubular necrosis associated with vancomycin in an adult patient.

    PubMed

    Belen, Cary; Budhiraja, Pooja; Bracamonte, Erika; Popovtzer, Mordecai

    2012-01-01

    Vancomycin causing acute kidney injury has traditionally been associated with acute interstitial nephritis. There have been a few case reports of biopsy-proven acute tubular necrosis (ATN) from vancomycin in the pediatric literature and only one previous report in the adult population. Here, we report a second case of biopsy-proven ATN resulting from vancomycin toxicity. PMID:22329801

  8. A Case of Otogenic Brain Abscess Causing Loss of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Min Kyu; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Chul Won

    2014-01-01

    Acute or chronic otitis media can cause intracranial complications, one of the most serious being brain abscess. Empirical antibiotic treatment and proper surgical management should be considered to avoid fatal consequences. However, proper extent and optimal timing of surgical intervention are still matters of debate. We present a case of a 31-year-old man who presented with acutely altered mental status, caused by otogenic brain abscess who we treated successfully with antibiotics and otologic surgery and no neurosurgical treatment. PMID:25279229

  9. Clinical microbiology of coryneform bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Funke, G; von Graevenitz, A; Clarridge, J E; Bernard, K A

    1997-01-01

    Coryneform bacteria are aerobically growing, asporogenous, non-partially-acid-fast, gram-positive rods of irregular morphology. Within the last few years, there has been a massive increase in the number of publications related to all aspects of their clinical microbiology. Clinical microbiologists are often confronted with making identifications within this heterogeneous group as well as with considerations of the clinical significance of such isolates. This review provides comprehensive information on the identification of coryneform bacteria and outlines recent changes in taxonomy. The following genera are covered: Corynebacterium, Turicella, Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Dermabacter. Propionibacterium, Rothia, Exiguobacterium, Oerskovia, Cellulomonas, Sanguibacter, Microbacterium, Aureobacterium, "Corynebacterium aquaticum," Arcanobacterium, and Actinomyces. Case reports claiming disease associations of coryneform bacteria are critically reviewed. Minimal microbiological requirements for publications on disease associations of coryneform bacteria are proposed. PMID:8993861

  10. Where Bacteria and Languages Concur

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Colin Renfrew (University of Cambridge; McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research)

    2009-01-23

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Genetic data from human gastric bacteria provide independent support for a linguistic analysis of Pacific population dispersals.

  11. Taxonomy of phosphate solublizing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kämpfer

    Although phosphate solubilizing capabilities seem to be widespread within bacterial taxa, it is surprising, that the description\\u000a of phosphate solubilizing bacteria is restricted to relatively few bacterial genera. Among the bacteria, strains belonging\\u000a to the genus Rhizobium and related organisms have been investigated most extensively until now. In addition, several other organisms belonging to\\u000a taxonomically different and phylogenetic largely unrelated

  12. Methanogenic bacteria in mangrove sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Mohanraju; R. Natarajan

    1992-01-01

    The occurrence of methanogenic bacteria in the Kodiakkarai (10° 18' N; 79° 52' E) mangrove sediments, whereAvicennia spp are predominant, was studied. Trimethylamine under N2:CO2 (80:20% v\\/v) was used as the substrate. Most Probable Number (MPN) of methanogenic bacteria was determined for a period of one year from July 1987 to June 1988 with monthly sampling. The methanogenic bacterial populations

  13. MICROBIOLOGY: How Bacteria Respire Minerals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dianne K. Newman (California Institute of Technology; Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences)

    2001-05-18

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: Some bacteria respire minerals; that is, they harvest energy from minerals through using them as electron acceptors. Many details of this respiration process have remained obscure. In her Perspective, Newman highlights the study by Lower et al., who have used a customized atomic force microscope to observe bacteria during mineral respiration.

  14. Genetic resources of nodule bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Roumiantseva

    2009-01-01

    Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) form highly specific symbiosis with leguminous plants. The efficiency of accumulation of biological\\u000a nitrogen depends on molecular-genetic interaction between the host plant and rhizobia. Genetic characteristics of microsymbiotic\\u000a strains are crucial in developing highly productive and stress-resistant symbiotic pairs: rhizobium strain-host plant cultivar\\u000a (species). The present review considers the issue of studying genetic resources of nodule bacteria

  15. Yawning in acute anterior circulation stroke

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Oliver C; Humpich, Marek C; Lanfermann, Heiner; Neumann?Haefelin, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Pathological yawning can be a clinical sign in disorders affecting the brainstem. Here we describe seven patients with pathological yawning caused by acute middle cerebral artery stroke, indicating that pathological yawning also occurs in supratentorial stroke. We hypothesise that excessive yawning is a consequence of lesions in cortical or subcortical areas, which physiologically control diencephalic yawning centres. PMID:17940172

  16. Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma in a teenager

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alpaslan Kulah; Nebahat Ta?demir; Co?kun Fiskeci

    1992-01-01

    A teenager with a history of sudden onset of headache and vomiting is described. Computed tomography revealed an acute subdural hematoma in the right temporaparietal region, causing marked compression of the right ventricular system and a shift of midline structures to the left. No operation was carried out because the symptoms and neurological signs were slight enough to allow monitoring

  17. Septic Acute Kidney Injury: New Concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rinaldo Bellomo; Li Wan; Christoph Langenberg; Clive May

    2008-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious condition that affects many ICU patients. The most common causes of AKI in ICU are severe sepsis and septic shock. The mortality of AKI in septic critically ill patients remains high despite of our increasing ability to support vital organs. This is partly due to our poor understanding of the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced

  18. Acute Renal Failure after Uterine Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, Sachin [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States); Wu, Yu-Hsin [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (United States); Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Stavropoulos, S. William [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (United States)], E-mail: stav@rad.upenn.edu

    2004-09-15

    Renal failure is a potential complication of any endovascular procedure using iodinated contrast, including uterine artery embolization (UAE). In this report we present a case of acute renal failure (ARF) following UAE performed as a treatment for uterine fibroids. The likely causes of ARF in this patient are explored and the possible etiologies of renal failure in patients undergoing UAE are reviewed.

  19. Biofouling characteristics using flow field-flow fractionation: effect of bacteria and membrane properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunkyung; Shon, H K; Cho, Jaeweon

    2010-03-01

    In this study, membrane biofouling caused by bacteria that have different characteristics was evaluated using flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF). Three different bacteria which differed from size and shape (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium lutescens) were investigated with GM ultrafiltration (UF, rough with a low negative surface charge and relatively high hydrophobicity) and NE70 nanofiltration (NF, smooth with a high negative surface charge and relatively low hydrophobicity) membranes. The FlFFF retention time of S. epidermidis, E. coli and F. lutescens was highly influenced by the ionic strength of the solution and the surface polarity of the membranes and bacteria. The NF membrane was found to have a higher potential of biofouling than the UF membrane with the bacteria tested in this study. E. coli was the most significant biofoulant among the bacteria tested on both membrane surfaces based on FlFFF retention times compared to other bacteria. PMID:19735999

  20. Acute abdomen due to small bowel anisakiasis.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, M; Occhini, R; Tordini, G; Vindigni, C; Russo, S; Marzocca, G

    2005-01-01

    The popularity in Western countries of dishes based on raw fish has led to an increased incidence of anisakiasis, a human parasitic disease caused by the ingestion of live anisakid larvae. The entire digestive tract may be involved, but the stomach and the small intestine are the most frequently affected sites. We report a case of acute abdomen due to Anisakis simplex infection that caused small bowel obstruction. PMID:15702863