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Daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic with similar action as vancomycin, is used to treat complicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by resistant Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-resistant streptococci, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), characterized by acute onset of numerous sterile, nonfollicular pinhead sized pustules, is common secondary to drugs, in particular, antibiotics. We present the first case of AGEP following the use of daptomycin. PMID:22346259
Leng, Teoh Yee; Aan, Mark Koh Jean; Chan, Michelle; Tsien, Liu Tsun
Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in aerosols, originating from cyanobacteria and gram-negative bacteria, were the likely etiological agent behind outbreaks of a transient, flu-like syndrome, described from four Scandinavian towns and Harare, Zimbabwe. The syndrome with fever, malaise, muscle pains, tightness of the chest and respiratory-tract symptoms, also known as toxic pneumonitis, occurred 1.5–6 hours after taking a bath or shower. The outbreaks
... of the bronchial tubes, the part of the respiratory system that leads into the lungs. Acute bronchitis has a sudden onset and usually appears after a respiratory infection, such as a cold, and can be ...
The case history of a 71-year-old woman with acute dyspnoea caused by a giant leiomyoma and severe acute anemia due to intratumoral hemorrhage is presented. Urgent operation was performed, and a 13.5 kg pendular tumor was removed. The cornerstones of the differential diagnoses and therapy of giant abdominal tumors is discussed. PMID:23461980
We investigated the virulence properties of four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains causingacute gastroenteritis following consumption of indigenous mussels in Italy. The isolated strains were cytotoxic and adhesive but, surprisingly, lacked tdh, trh, and type three secretion system 2 (T3SS2) genes. We emphasize that nontoxigenic V. parahaemolyticus can induce acute gastroenteritis, highlighting the need for more investigation of the pathogenicity of this microorganism.
The authors present the case of a 40-year-old female with a massive anterior mediastinal tumor who presented with acute respiratory distress. She required emergent intubation and ventilatory support for respiratory compromise caused by lung compression. Preoperative computed tomographic scan results suggested a mediastinal lipomatous mass. Resection of the tumor resulted in immediate improvement in her pulmonary status. Because thymolipomas can attain enormous dimensions and compress adjacent structures, they should be resected at the time of diagnosis. PMID:15586609
Halkos, Michael E; Symbas, John D; Symbas, Panagiotis N
In incubation experiments on bacterial colonies of Proteus mirabilis, collective motion of bacteria is found to generate macroscopic turbulent patterns on the surface of agar media. We propose a mathematical model to describe the time evolution of the positional and directional distributions of motile bacteria in such systems, and investigate this model both numerically and analytically. It is shown that as the average density of bacteria increases, nonuniform swarming patterns emerge from a uniform stationary state. For a sufficient large density, we find that spiral patterns are caused by interactions between the local bacteria densities and the rotational mode of the collective motion. Unidirectional spiral patterns similar to those observed in experiments appear in the case in which the equilibrium directional distribution is asymmetric.
The many viruses associated with Pagetic osteoclasts could be opportunistic rather than causative. Some mouth bacteria can lyse bone. One (Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) can grow and even multiply inside human cell lines in culture, producing osteolytic materials – one 62 kDa protein having a potency in the picomolar range. A small focus of this, or of one of the other periodontitis-causing
Research has found that certain bacteria are associated with human cancers. Their role, however, is still unclear. Convincing evidence links some species to carcinogenesis while others appear promising in the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of cancers. The complex relationship between bacteria and humans is demonstrated by Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella typhi infections. Research has shown that H. pylori can cause gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma in some individuals. In contrast, exposure to H. pylori appears to reduce the risk of esophageal cancer in others. Salmonella typhi infection has been associated with the development of gallbladder cancer; however S. typhi is a promising carrier of therapeutic agents for melanoma, colon and bladder cancers. Thus bacterial species and their roles in particular cancers appear to differ among different individuals. Many species, however, share an important characteristic: highly site-specific colonization. This critical factor may lead to the development of non-invasive diagnostic tests, innovative treatments and cancer vaccines.
... more likely to be caused by bacteria in people who smoke. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae are the bacteria ... whooping cough) may causeacute bronchitis. Smokers and people who ... inhaling smoke, or a combination of factors. Undernutrition increases the ...
OBJECTIVES.The goals were to (1) compare the causes, clinical presentation, and prevalence of acute renal failure in pediatric rhabdomyolysis with the published data for adults; (2) determine predictors of acute renal failure in pediatric patients with rhabdomyolysis; and (3) explore the relationship of acute renal failure with treatment modalities such as fluid and bicarbonate administration. METHODS.We performed a retrospective chart
Rebekah Mannix; Mei Lin Tanb; Robert Wright; Marc Baskin
Objective. The purpose of the study was to identify the bacterial composition of the microbiota from acute endodontic abscesses\\/cellulitis and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. Study Design. Purulence from 17 patients with acute endodontic abscesses\\/cellulitis was obtained by needle aspiration and processed under anaerobic conditions. Bacteria were isolated and identified by biochemical or molecular methods. The antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated bacteria was
Saengusa Khemaleelakul; J. Craig Baumgartner; Sumalee Pruksakorn
Brucellosis is a common zoonosis in many parts of the world. Human brucellosis is a multisystemic disease with a wide range of clinical symptoms. Billiary involvement in the form of acute cholecystitis is a very rare manifestation of brucellosis. Here we report the case of a 34-year-old male with acute cholecystitis caused by Brucella melitensis and review seven other cases.
R. Tirado Miranda; A. Espinosa Gimeno; T. Fernández Rodriguez; J. Javier de Arriba; D. Garc??a Olmo; J. Solera
Leptospirosis, caused by a spirochete, is the most common zoonosis in domestic or wild animals. Animals excrete infected urine in soil or water and may cause human infections through abrased wound, mucosa, conjunctiva, or by swallowing contaminated water. Clinical presentations of leptospirosis are mostly subclinical. Five to ten percent of leptospirosis are fatal, causing fever, hemorrhage, jaundice, and acute renal
ObjectiveTo report on the development and treatment of thrombotic microangiopathy, an atypical cause of acute renal failure in patients with acute pancreatitis.DesignCase reports.SettingA 21-bed medical intensive care unit at an university hospital.PatientsTwo men with acute pancreatitis presented with acute renal failure, neurological manifestations, haemolytic anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Both patients required intensive care.MeasurementsFragmented red cell count; levels of haptoglobin, amylase and
Alexandre Boyer; Karim Chadda; Amar Salah; Guy Bonmarchand
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of right lower quadrant acute abdominal pain in adults. Some other conditions, including appendicitis epiploicae, can simulate an acute abdomen. Appendicitis epiploicae or epiploic appendicitis usually originates in the sigmoid colon and rarely from other parts of colon. We report a case of a 20-year-old man with appendicitis epiploicae of the caecum, who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis. Analysis of this uncommon condition, together with a review of the pertinent literature, are presented. PMID:22736317
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of right lower quadrant acute abdominal pain in adults. Some other conditions, including appendicitis epiploicae, can simulate an acute abdomen. Appendicitis epiploicae or epiploic appendicitis usually originates in the sigmoid colon and rarely from other parts of colon. We report a case of a 20-year-old man with appendicitis epiploicae of the caecum, who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis. Analysis of this uncommon condition, together with a review of the pertinent literature, are presented.
The infected intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is a well-described cause of the acute abdomen. However, severe pelvic infection from Candida is an extremely rare complication of the IUCD. We present the first reported description of a Candida-infected IUCD manifesting as an acute abdomen where the degree of infection precluded a conclusive diagnostic workup and necessitated multiple laparotomies. This case highlights the importance for the clinicians to thoroughly exclude such causes of acute sepsis even after exclusion in the presenting history.
Thrumurthy, Sri Ganeshamurthy; Tiew, Stephenie; Wood, Nicholas; Bhowmick, Arnab
We studied a group of 31 bacterial isolates from clinical specimens, received by the Centers for Disease Control since 1961, which have been denoted thermophilic for their unusual ability to grow at 50 degrees C. Microbiological characteristics were determined for the group, and an assessment of their clinical significance was made based on retrospective chart review. These bacteria are all gram-negative, nonfermentative, nonsporulating rods, most of which grow better at 42 or 50 degrees C than at 35 degrees C. Some of the bacteria could be implicated as the etiological agents for meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia. Thermophilic bacteria should be considered potential pathogens when isolated from appropriate clinical specimens. PMID:3988899
Rabkin, C S; Galaid, E I; Hollis, D G; Weaver, R E; Dees, S B; Kai, A; Moss, C W; Sandhu, K K; Broome, C V
We studied a group of 31 bacterial isolates from clinical specimens, received by the Centers for Disease Control since 1961, which have been denoted thermophilic for their unusual ability to grow at 50 degrees C. Microbiological characteristics were determined for the group, and an assessment of their clinical significance was made based on retrospective chart review. These bacteria are all gram-negative, nonfermentative, nonsporulating rods, most of which grow better at 42 or 50 degrees C than at 35 degrees C. Some of the bacteria could be implicated as the etiological agents for meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia. Thermophilic bacteria should be considered potential pathogens when isolated from appropriate clinical specimens.
Rabkin, C S; Galaid, E I; Hollis, D G; Weaver, R E; Dees, S B; Kai, A; Moss, C W; Sandhu, K K; Broome, C V
Background\\/Aims: Ecstasy is a synthetic amphetamine recently identified as a possible cause of acute liver injury. This drug is consumed by young people and has a marked effect on improving sociability. The extent of ecstasy-associated severe hepatic damage is unknown to date.Methods: The clinical histories of 62 patients with acute liver failure admitted to the Intensive Care Liver Unit between
Victoria Andreu; Antoni Mas; Miquel Bruguera; Joan Manuel Salmerón; Vicente Moreno; Santiago Nogué; Joan Rodés
This review summarizes the microbiology, and antimicrobial management of mycotic aneurysm of the aorta (MAA) due to anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria are an uncommon but important cause of MAA. Most cases of anaerobic MAA are caused anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (mostly B. fragilis group), Clostridium spp. (mostly Clostridium septicum, and Propionobacterium spp. (mostly P. acnes). Clostridial infection is frequently associated with
A number of diseases may cause right atrial mass. Primary cardiac tumors range from 0.002 to 0.25%. Intracardiac manifestation and pulmonary embolism of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare finding and uncommon even at autopsy. Here we describe the case of a 32-year-old Asian man who was referred for shortness of breath lasting for a month, along with unproductive cough. He was a manual laborer with a history of diabetes, alcoholism, and smoking. Clinically he was diagnosed as having pulmonary embolism. Echocardiogram showed a mass in the right atrium. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that he had a large mass in the right atrium extending down into the inferior vena cava. Further evaluation showed that he had chronic liver disease with portal hypertension and was hepatitis B surface antigen-positive, indicating hepatitis B infection. He underwent excision of the mass, and the pathological report showed metastasis of HCC with multiple vascular emboli in the lungs. As this is the second reported case of this kind in the literature, we highlight the need of screening at least 6-monthly all patients with chronic liver disease, hepatitis B and C virus infection for the early detection of HCC. PMID:21712949
Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm (HAP) is a very rare disease but in cases of complication, there is a very high mortality. The most common cause of HAP is iatrogenic trauma such as liver biopsy, transhepatic biliary drainage, cholecystectomy and hepatectomy. HAP may also occur with complications such as infections or inflammation associated with septic emboli. HAP has been reported rarely in patients with acute pancreatitis. As far as we are aware, there is no report of a case caused by acute idiopathic pancreatitis, particularly. We report a case of HAP caused by acute idiopathic pancreatitis which developed in a 61-year-old woman. The woman initially presented with acute pancreatitis due to unknown cause. After conservative management, her symptoms seemed to have improved. But eight days after admission, abdominal pain abruptly became worse again. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was rechecked and it detected a new HAP that was not seen in a previous abdominal CT. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed because of a suspicion of hemobilia as a cause of aggravated abdominal pain. ERCP confirmed hemobilia by observing fresh blood clots at the opening of the ampulla and several filling defects in the distal common bile duct on cholangiogram. Without any particular treatment such as embolization or surgical ligation, HAP thrombosed spontaneously. Three months after discharge, abdominal CT demonstrated that HAP in the left lateral segment had disappeared.
Yu, Yeon Hwa; Sohn, Joo Hyun; Kim, Tae Yeob; Jeong, Jae Yoon; Han, Dong Soo; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Kim, Min Young
Background To investigate the induction of acute asthmatic attacks caused by several kinds of antiallergic eyedrops for the treatment of allergic conjunctival diseases in a patient with bronchial asthma and aspirin sensitivity. Case A 42-year-old man with a 10-year history of bronchial asthma and with aspirin sensitivity, who had been given disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) to be applied topically, developed asthma
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent pathogen in young children's acute otitis media. It also plays a significant role in nosocomial ear infection in children, while it causes pneumonia with or without bacteremia in hospitalized elderly people. Multiple antibiotic resistant strains are prevalent among S. pneumoniae isolates from the respiratory tract of hospitalized patients in Hungary. This fact makes therapeutic
Anna Marton; Anikó Nagy; Gábor Katona; Ferenc Fekete; Peter Votisky; Zoltán Lajos
A case of non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis, which causedacute aortic regurgitation in a middle-aged, otherwise healthy woman, is presented. The diagnosis was confirmed with echocardiography and documented by a histopathological study of the excised aortic valve after operation for valve replacement. PMID:8665981
Kardaras, F G; Kardara, D F; Rontogiani, D P; Sioras, E P; Christopoulou-Cokkinou, V; Lolas, C T; Anthopoulos, L P
We describe an interesting case of intramural duodenal hematoma in an otherwise healthy male who presented to emergency room with gradually progressive abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. This condition was missed on initial evaluation and patient was discharged from emergency room with diagnosis of acute gastritis. After 3 days, patient came back to emergency room and abdominal imaging studies were conducted which showed that patient had intramural duodenal hematoma associated with gastric outlet obstruction and pancreatitis. Hematoma was the cause of acute pancreatitis as pancreatic enzymes levels were normal at the time of first presentation, but later as the hematoma grew in size, it caused compression of pancreas and subsequent elevation of pancreatic enzymes. We experienced a case of pancreatitis which was caused by intramural duodenal hematoma. This case was missed on initial evaluation. We suggest that physicians should be more vigilant about this condition.
Appendicolithiasis is a condition characterized by a concretion in the vermiform appendix. Appendicoliths are found in 10% of patients with acute appendicitis, but they are seen more frequently in perforated appendicitis and in abscess formation. We herein report a case of acute appendicitis due to appendicolithiasis, which mimics acute disorders of the genitourinary tract and causes diagnostic confusion. A38- year-old man presented to our emergency department with a history of intense, acute, recurrent, crampy right lower quadrant pain radiating to the right groin region, accompanied by nausea. Physical examination revealed muscular defense and rebound tenderness in the right lower quadrant, tenderness in the line of the right ureter and right costovertebral angle tenderness. On X-ray examination, a right kidney stone was identified as was an incidental 3-cm density in the right lower quadrant. The patient underwent appendectomy. The diagnosis was made by operation and also X-ray examination of the appendectomy material showing appendicolithiasis. Acute appendicitis may manifest as a variety of genitourinary disorders. The possibility of an appendicolith with or without acute appendicitis must always be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute lower abdominal and pelvic disorders, and in the consideration of common acute urological disorders. PMID:18988058
Acute intraoperative superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is an exceedingly rare complication in the cardiac surgical population. We describe the case of a 71-year-old female undergoing multi-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting who developed acute intraoperative SVC syndrome following internal thoracic artery harvest retractor placement. Her symptoms included severe plethora, facial engorgement and scleral edema, which was associated with hypotension and severe elevation of central venous pressure. Transesophageal echocardiography was crucial in the diagnosis, management, and optimal retractor placement ensuring adequate SVC flow. Potential causes of intraoperative SVC syndrome are reviewed as well as management options. PMID:23545869
Amundson, Adam W; Pulido, Juan N; Hayward, Geoffrey L
Atrial myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumor. Its clinical presentation spreads from asymptomatic incidental mass to serious life-threatening cardiovascular complications. We report the case of a 44-year-old man with evening fever and worsening dyspnea in the last weeks, admitted to our hospital for acute pulmonary edema. The cardiac auscultation was very suspicious for mitral valve stenosis, but the echocardiography revealed a huge atrial mass with a diastolic prolapse into mitral valve orifice causing an extremely high transmitral gradient pressure. Awareness of this uncommon acute presentation of atrial myxoma is necessary for timely diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention. PMID:23762077
Fisicaro, Andrea; Slavich, Massimo; Agricola, Eustachio; Marini, Claudia; Margonato, Alberto
Hamman-Rich syndrome, also known as acute interstitial pneumonia, is a rare and fulminant form of idiopathic interstitial lung disease. It should be considered as a cause of idiopathic acute respiratory distress syndrome. Confirmatory diagnosis requires demonstration of diffuse alveolar damage on lung histopathology. The main treatment is supportive care. It is not clear if glucocorticoid therapy is effective in acute interstitial pneumonia. We report the case of a 77-year-old woman without pre-existing lung disease who initially presented with mild upper respiratory tract infection and then progressed to rapid onset of hypoxic respiratory failure similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome with unknown etiology. Despite glucocorticoid therapy, she did not achieve remission and expired after 35 days of hospitalization. The diagnosis of acute interstitial pneumonia was supported by the histopathologic findings on her lung biopsy. PMID:21687544
Bruminhent, Jackrapong; Yassir, Shahla; Pippim, James
Hamman-Rich syndrome, also known as acute interstitial pneumonia, is a rare and fulminant form of idiopathic interstitial lung disease. It should be considered as a cause of idiopathic acute respiratory distress syndrome. Confirmatory diagnosis requires demonstration of diffuse alveolar damage on lung histopathology. The main treatment is supportive care. It is not clear if glucocorticoid therapy is effective in acute interstitial pneumonia. We report the case of a 77-year-old woman without pre-existing lung disease who initially presented with mild upper respiratory tract infection and then progressed to rapid onset of hypoxic respiratory failure similar to acute respiratory distress syndrome with unknown etiology. Despite glucocorticoid therapy, she did not achieve remission and expired after 35 days of hospitalization. The diagnosis of acute interstitial pneumonia was supported by the histopathologic findings on her lung biopsy.
Bruminhent, Jackrapong; Yassir, Shahla; Pippim, James
ABSTRACTOphthalmologic complaints represent approximately 2% of emergency department (ED) visits. Acute vision loss is the most serious of such presentations and requires prompt assessment for a treatable cause. The differential diagnosis for acute vision loss includes retinal detachment, macular disorders, vaso-occlusive disorders, temporal arteritis, neuro-ophthalmologic disorders, and functional disorders. We report the case of a previously healthy 33-year-old man who presented to the ED with acute bilateral vision loss that was ultimately diagnosed as central serous retinopathy (CSR), an idiopathic, self-limited condition that typically affects males age 20 to 50 years. This condition is not mentioned in standard emergency medicine textbooks or the emergency medicine literature, and our hope is that our report will serve to illustrate a typical case of CSR and help prompt emergency physicians to consider this diagnosis in the appropriate circumstances. PMID:23972138
ABSTRACTOphthalmologic complaints represent approximately 2% of emergency department (ED) visits. Acute vision loss is the most serious of such presentations and requires prompt assessment for a treatable cause. The differential diagnosis for acute vision loss includes retinal detachment, macular disorders, vaso-occlusive disorders, temporal arteritis, neuro-ophthalmologic disorders, and functional disorders. We report the case of a previously healthy 33-year-old man who presented to the ED with acute bilateral vision loss that was ultimately diagnosed as central serous retinopathy (CSR), an idiopathic, self-limited condition that typically affects males age 20 to 50 years. This condition is not mentioned in standard emergency medicine textbooks or the emergency medicine literature, and our hope is that our report will serve to illustrate a typical case of CSR and help prompt emergency physicians to consider this diagnosis in the appropriate circumstances. PMID:23544930
Invasive infection with animal-associated bacteria, Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae, is unusual and has, to our knowledge, never been described as the cause of infected total hip arthroplasty. We describe how an infected total hip arthroplasty caused by these bacteria is eradicated using standard surgical and antibiotic treatment. Before 2-stage revision surgery, the patient had persistent groin pain, elevated C-reactive protein, radiographic periprosthetic
Andres Troelsen; Jens K. Møller; Lars Bolvig; Thomas Prynø; Lisbeth N. Pedersen; Kjeld Søballe
Herbaspirillum species, colonized the plant rhizosphere, also called rhizobacteria, are plant growth-promoting bacteria. Recently we isolated Herbaspirillum from blood cultures of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and identified by PCR and gene sequencing. Herbaspirillum may be a potential pathogenic bacteria. Although the exact role that these species play in ALL patients is unknown, their differentiation from other species has serious implications for clinical care and patient well-being. PMID:20625732
Acute pulmonary oedema usually has a fatal outcome. In this clinical report, we present rare cases of pulmonary oedema that were associated with Japanese B encephalitis, lymphangitis in breast carcinoma, fat embolism due to long-bone fracture, and the rupture of cerebral mycotic aneurysms. A total of 18 patients in the four disease categories were collected in two teaching hospitals in Taipei and Hualien. Upon admission, routine and specific examinations were taken and all patients showed clear lungs by chest X-ray; however, signs of acute pulmonary oedema occurred within 7 days. After resuscitation, all patients died of acute pulmonary oedema. In patients with fat embolism, the levels of non-esterified plasma fatty acids, cGMP, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) and nitrates/nitrites were increased during pulmonary oedema. Immunohistochemical staining revealed virus infection and neuronal death, predominantly in the medial, ventral and caudal medulla in cases of Japanese B encephalitis. The pulmonary oedema due to central sympathetic activation in Japanese B encephalitis may be related to destruction of depressor mechanisms in the medulla. The rupture of mycotic aneurysms is known to cause cerebral compression that results in acute pulmonary oedema. Blockade of lymphatics, capillaries and venules in breast carcinoma with lymphangitis causes the development of rapid lung oedema. The pathogenesis of pulmonary oedema is much more complicated in fat embolism. Mediators such as cGMP, 5-hydroxytryptamine, nitric oxide and presumably other chemical substances may also be involved. PMID:12605583
Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Kao, Shang Jyh; Lee, Ru-Ping; Chen, Hsing I
Taeniasis is a helminthic infection endemic in southeast Asia, including Taiwan. Recent studies suggest that Asian Taenia is a new subspecies of Taenia saginata and has been renamed as Taenia saginata asiatica. It is usually asymptomatic or associated with only mild gastrointestinal symptoms. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with acute epigastric pain and vomiting. Her levels of amylase and lipase were significantly elevated on admission. Gastrointestinal endoscopy showed proglottids of a tapeworm in the papilla of the duodenum. The epigastric pain subsided and the amylase and lipase levels decreased after removal of the tapeworm by endoscopy and anthelminthic treatment. Although parasites are not an uncommon cause of pancreatitis, especially in disease-endemic areas, it is rare for Taenia to causeacute pancreatitis. PMID:16103608
Many different drugs and agents may cause nephrotoxic acute kidney injury (AKI) in children. Predisposing factors such as\\u000a age, pharmacogenetics, underlying disease, the dosage of the toxin, and concomitant medication determine and influence the\\u000a severity of nephrotoxic insult. In childhood AKI, incidence, prevalence, and etiology are not well defined. Pediatric retrospective\\u000a studies have reported incidences of AKI in pediatric intensive
Transmissible spongioform enchephalopathies (TSE's), include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also called BSE or “mad cow disease”), Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, and scrapie in sheep. They remain a mystery, their cause hotly debated. But between 1994 and 1996, 12 people in England came down with CJD, the human form of mad cow, and all had eaten beef from suspect cows. Current
Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare clinical condition that causes the accumulation of mucinous ascites, which gradually results in the compression of intra-abdominal organs. Most published reports of pseudomyxoma peritonei concern the mass effect of the resulting ascites, which presents as abdominal pain or intestinal ileus in severe cases. However, few reports of renal complications of the disease have been published. Here, we present a case of oliguric acute kidney injury caused by external compression by pseudomyxoma peritonei. After decompression with external drainage, the patient's renal function rapidly improved.
Min, Hye Sook; Pyo, Jeung Hui; Moon, Eul Sun; Choi, Jonghyun; Kang, Young Sun; Lee, Mi Jin; Cha, Jin Joo
Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a rare clinical condition that causes the accumulation of mucinous ascites, which gradually results in the compression of intra-abdominal organs. Most published reports of pseudomyxoma peritonei concern the mass effect of the resulting ascites, which presents as abdominal pain or intestinal ileus in severe cases. However, few reports of renal complications of the disease have been published. Here, we present a case of oliguric acute kidney injury caused by external compression by pseudomyxoma peritonei. After decompression with external drainage, the patient's renal function rapidly improved. PMID:24010072
Min, Hye Sook; Pyo, Jeung Hui; Moon, Eul Sun; Choi, Jonghyun; Kang, Young Sun; Lee, Mi Jin; Cha, Jin Joo; Cha, Dae Ryong
A condition evidenced by retarded growth of wool with alteration of the yolk into a yellow, sticky, wax-like substance was investigated. The condition was associated with hyperaemia and cellular infiltration into the dermis in the affected areas. Three bacterial species, viz. Enterobacter aerogenes, E. agglomerans and Hafnia alvei, which could grow on the water-extractable component of wool-yolk, were incriminated as the cause of the condition. PMID:6676689
Background Knowledge of the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and antibiotic resistance is important for resource allocation in infection control. Although national surveillance networks do not routinely cover all HAIs due to multidrug-resistant bacteria, estimates are nevertheless possible: in the EU, 25,000 patients die from such infections annually. We assessed the burden of HAIs due to multidrug-resistant bacteria in Finland in 2010. Methods By combining data from the National Infectious Disease Registry on the numbers of bacteremias caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., and susceptibility data from the National Antimicrobial Resistance Network and the Finnish Hospital Infection Program, we assessed the numbers of healthcare-associated bacteremias due to selected multidrug-resistant bacteria. We estimated the number of pneumonias, surgical site and urinary tract infections by applying the ratio of these infections in the first national prevalence survey for HAI in 2005. Attributable HAI mortality (3.2%) was also derived from the prevalence survey. Results The estimated annual number of the most common HAIs due to the selected multidrug-resistant bacteria was 2804 (530 HAIs per million), 6% of all HAIs in Finnish acute care hospitals. The number of attributable deaths was 89 (18 per million). Conclusions Resources for infection control should be allocated not only in screening and isolation of carriers of multidrug-resistant bacteria, even when they are causing a small proportion of all HAIs, but also in preventing all clinical infections.
Agranulocytosis and aplastic anaemia associated with sulphasalazine are well recognised, but pancytopenia caused by acute megaloblastic arrest of haemopoiesis while taking sulphasalazine has not previously been described. We report three patients who, after taking sulphasalazine for over two years, suddenly developed severe pancytopenia with gross megaloblastic changes in the marrow. In two patients there was a good response to high dose oral folic acid but the third required folinic acid. The mechanism appears to be acute folate deficiency, and the requirement for folinic acid in one case suggests that the known inhibition of folate metabolism by sulphasalazine also contributes. The syndrome appears to be associated with high dosage and slow acetylator status. The drug has been successfully restarted at reduced dosage with folate supplements in two patients both of whom were slow acetylators. In the third case, whose acetylator status is not known, progression of her disease led to colectomy.
Ogilvie's syndrome (acute colonic pseudo-obstruction) is a rare clinical disease characterized by segmental distension of the proximal colon caused by a paralysis without mechanic obstruction. It may be a sequel of underlying neurological, medical or surgical disease. Risk factors are respiratory decompensation, electrolyte disturbances and different drugs. A special kind is the primary idiopathic pseudoobstruction with a high risk of perforation or necrosis. Especially elderly patients (> 70 years) with cardiovascular or neurologic diseases and accordant drugs are concerned. Clinical symptoms are progressive abdominal distension and abdominal pain like an acute abdomen. The differential diagnosis of a mechanic ileus is important for further treatment. This case report should draw attention to this rare disease. PMID:12592600
Severe acute headache is a common presenting symptom to an accident and emergency department. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an increasingly recognised cause of these symptoms and has characteristic clinical and imaging findings. SIH is characterised by headache worse on standing, low opening cerebrospinal fluid pressures at lumbar puncture and uniform pachymeningeal enhancement with gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, all in the absence of dural trauma. Atypical presentations occur and severe neurological decline can rarely be associated with this condition. A review of five patients presenting recently to our institution with classical imaging findings together with a review of the literature is presented.
Vaidhyanath, Ram; Kenningham, Richard; Khan, Arshad; Messios, Nicholas
Severe acute headache is a common presenting symptom to an accident and emergency department. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an increasingly recognised cause of these symptoms and has characteristic clinical and imaging findings. SIH is characterised by headache worse on standing, low opening cerebrospinal fluid pressures at lumbar puncture and uniform pachymeningeal enhancement with gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, all in the absence of dural trauma. Atypical presentations occur and severe neurological decline can rarely be associated with this condition. A review of five patients presenting recently to our institution with classical imaging findings together with a review of the literature is presented.
Vaidhyanath, Ram; Kenningham, Richard; Khan, Arshad; Messios, Nicholas
The meromictic sdinc Lake Fnro ( Mcssina, Sicily) contains n layer of brownish-red wntcr at the interface bctwccn hypo- and epilimnion, the clcpth of which varies bctwccn 8 and 13 m. The photosynthetic sulfur bacteria that cause this phcnomcnon were isolated and clcscribccl. The prcclominant organism of the red water is the brown pliotolitliotropic bacterium Chlorobium. phcreobncteroicles Pfcnnig (Chlorobnctcriaccac). In
Four endoscopes were cleaned by an experienced endoscopy technician using an enzyme detergent solution with brushing, rinsing with tap water, and then high-level disinfection in an automatic endoscope reprocessing machine using CIDEX orthophthalaldehyde solution (CIDEX OPA). After disinfection, the channels of these patient-ready endoscopes were flushed with sterile neutralizing medium, brushed with a sterile brush, and then flushed again with sterile medium. The effluent from each flush was collected in sterile bottles, immediately returned on ice to a laboratory, and tested for the presence of bacteria. An average of about 200 colony-forming units of bacteria were recovered from each endoscope. Upon staining and microscopic examination, 3 of these colonies were spore-forming bacteria, and 7 colonies were nonspore-forming bacteria. These results suggest that the endoscopes might have been contaminated with a biofilm. Bacterial biofilms have been speculated to commonly occur in endoscopes as a result of the many possible inadequacies of cleaning, disinfecting, rinsing, drying, storage, and other functions associated with the difficulties of reprocessing endoscopes. As one possible cause for a biofilm, three high-level disinfectants (CIDEX activated dialdehyde solution, CIDEX OPA, and Aldahol high-level disinfectant) were tested for their sporicidal activity against high-protein or low-protein cultures of spore-forming bacteria in suspension. The potential importance of killing spore-forming bacteria within a practical exposure time in order to prevent the formation of biofilms is discussed. PMID:17724404
To determine the proportion of acute undifferentiated fevers without neurologic deficits related to infection with Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, flavivirus serology (dengue and JE) was performed in a cohort of 156 adults presenting to a hospital in Chiangrai, Thailand. Recent flavivirus infection was diagnosed for any individual with an IgM result > 40 units. A ratio of dengue virus IgM to JE virus IgM < 0.91 defined a JE virus infection. Diagnostic criteria for Japanese encephalitis were met in 22 individuals (14%), and were unequivocal in 8 patients. The admission findings in these eight subjects were similar to those described for other flavivirus infections. Thrombocytopenia was the most striking laboratory abnormality (median platelet count = 119,000/mm3, range = 44,000-236,000/mm3). Headache (75%), nausea (50%), myalgia (38%), rash (38%), and diarrhea (25%) were the most frequently encountered signs and symptoms. Infection with Japanese encephalitis virus is an underappreciated cause of acute undifferentiated fever in Asia. PMID:12887030
Introduction. Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. is a commonly used medicinal plant especially as a hypoglycemic agent. Case Presentation. Four patients with colocynth intoxication are presented. The main clinical feature was acute rectorrhagia preceeded by mucosal diarrhea with tenesmus, which gradually progressed to bloody diarrhea and overt rectorrhagia within 3 to 4 hours. The only colonoscopic observation was mucosal erosion which was completely resolved in follow-up colonoscopy after 14 days. Conclusion. The membranolytic activity of some C. colocynthis ingredients is responsible for the intestinal damage. Patients and herbalists should be acquainted with the proper use and side effects of the herb. Clinicians should also be aware of C. colocynthis as a probable cause of lower GI bleeding in patients with no other suggestive history, especially diabetics.
Introduction. Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. is a commonly used medicinal plant especially as a hypoglycemic agent. Case Presentation. Four patients with colocynth intoxication are presented. The main clinical feature was acute rectorrhagia preceeded by mucosal diarrhea with tenesmus, which gradually progressed to bloody diarrhea and overt rectorrhagia within 3 to 4 hours. The only colonoscopic observation was mucosal erosion which was completely resolved in follow-up colonoscopy after 14 days. Conclusion. The membranolytic activity of some C. colocynthis ingredients is responsible for the intestinal damage. Patients and herbalists should be acquainted with the proper use and side effects of the herb. Clinicians should also be aware of C. colocynthis as a probable cause of lower GI bleeding in patients with no other suggestive history, especially diabetics. PMID:23819072
The adult patients who, between July 2001 and June 2002, presented at any of five hospitals in Thailand with acute febrile illness in the absence of an obvious focus of infection were prospectively investigated. Blood samples were taken from all of the patients and checked for aerobic bacteria and leptospires by culture. In addition, at least two samples of serum were collected at different times (on admission and 2-4 weeks post-discharge) from each patient and tested, in serological tests, for evidence of leptospirosis, rickettsioses, dengue and influenza. The 845 patients investigated, of whom 661 were male, had a median age of 38 years and a median duration of fever, on presentation, of 3.5 days. Most (76.5%) were agricultural workers and most (68.3%) had the cause of their fever identified, as leptospirosis (36.9%), scrub typhus (19.9%), dengue infection or influenza (10.7%), murine typhus (2.8%), Rickettsia helvetica infection (1.3%), Q fever (1%), or other bacterial infection (1.2%). The serological results indicated that 103 (12.2%) and nine (1%) of the patients may have had double and triple infections, respectively. Leptospirosis and rickettsioses, especially scrub typhus, were thus found to be major causes of acute, undifferentiated fever in Thai agricultural workers. PMID:16762116
Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes dizziness and vertigo. Reports suggest responsible lesions are often in the intra-pontine 8th nerve fascicle. We sought to determine frequency and clinical features of demyelinating acute vestibular syndrome (AVS). This is a prospective observational study (1999-2011). Consecutive AVS patients (vertigo, nystagmus, nausea/vomiting, head-motion intolerance, unsteady gait) with a risk for central localization underwent structured bedside examination and neuroimaging. When applicable, we identified MS based on clinical, imaging, and laboratory features. Of 170 AVS presentations, 4% (n = 7) were due to demyelinating disease. Five had an acute MS plaque likely responsible for the clinical syndrome. Lesion location varied-1 medulla; 1 inferior cerebellar peduncle; 1 middle cerebellar peduncle; 1 posterior pontine tegmentum; 1 in the intrapontine 8th nerve fascicle; 1 superior cerebellar peduncle; 1 midbrain. Only two had a lesion in or near the intra-pontine 8th nerve fascicle. Three were first presentations (i.e., clinically isolated demyelinating syndrome), while the others were known MS. All had central oculomotor signs. In two patients, the only central sign was a normal horizontal head impulse test (h-HIT) of vestibular function. All patients improved with steroid therapy. Demyelinating disease was an uncommon cause of AVS in our series. Symptomatic lesions were not restricted to the 8th nerve fascicle. Five patients had relatively obvious oculomotor signs, making differentiation from vestibular neuritis straightforward. Two patients had unidirectional, horizontal nystagmus that followed Alexander's law and was suppressed with fixation (true pseudoneuritis). The presence of a normal h-HIT in these suggested central localization. PMID:23392781
There are described, in the paper, morphological, chemical and biochemical signs in acute alcoholic intoxication. A complex approach is suggested to diagnosing an acute alcoholic intoxication as death reason. PMID:15881136
Antimicrobial activities of three phenolic compounds and four metal chelators were tested at 0, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm in vitro against four major mastitis-causingbacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, and Escherichia coli. Overall, butylated hydroxyanisole and tert-butylhydroquinone showed the greatest antimicrobial activity. These phenolics were bactericidal at 250 to 500 ppm against all four bacteria tested. The butylated hydroxytoluene was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but was ineffective against the coliforms. At 250 ppm, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but much less effective against the gram-negatives. However, diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid was more growth inhibitory than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid against the gram-negative bacteria and especially against Escherichia coli. All other compounds were generally much less effective or ineffective against all four microorganisms. Therefore, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tert-butylhydroquinone, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid may have practical implications in the prevention or treatment of bovine mastitis.
Invasive infection with animal-associated bacteria, Erysipelotrix rhusiopathiae, is unusual and has, to our knowledge, never been described as the cause of infected total hip arthroplasty. We describe how an infected total hip arthroplasty caused by these bacteria is eradicated using standard surgical and antibiotic treatment. Before 2-stage revision surgery, the patient had persistent groin pain, elevated C-reactive protein, radiographic periprosthetic osteolysis, excessive intra-articular fluid, and periprosthetic activity accumulation on the white cell scan. The patient was treated with benzylpenicillin after confirmed sensitivity of E rhusiopathiae diagnosed by culture of five tissue samples and polymerase chain reaction of the prosthetic sonicate sample. Sixteen weeks after the last stage of revision surgery, there were no signs of reoccurring infection. PMID:19195828
Delayed acute abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) due to retroperitoneal bleeding is rare. Herein, we report the clinical management of such a rare case. A 46-year-old male who fell from a height of 12 meters was admitted to Al-Ain Hospital. He was hemodynamically stable. His abdomen was soft and not distended. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was normal on admission. On day 7, the patient tolerated enteral feeding. On day 15, he became suddenly hypotensive. CT of the abdomen showed a large retroperitoneal hematoma compressing the inferior vena cava (IVC) associated with contrast blush indicating active bleeding. The abdomen became distended and tense. The patient developed respiratory failure and severe acidosis, increased airway pressure and reduced urine output. A clinical diagnosis of ACS was made. There was dramatic improvement in the hemodynamic and respiratory function directly after laparotomy. Exploration of the retroperitoneal hematoma showed an actively bleeding ligated ileocolic vessel. The abdomen was temporarily closed using saline IV bags sandwiched between two layers of Steri-Drape. The abdomen was closed primarily on day 6. The patient was discharged home on day 50. Life-threatening delayed retroperitoneal bleeding may occur suddenly two weeks after trauma causing ACS. PMID:21644100
Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Jawas, Ali; Boraie, Mustafa; Ahmed, Misbah U
Theories of emphysema traditionally revolved around proteolytic destruction of extracellular matrix. Models have recently been developed that show airspace enlargement with the induction of pulmonary cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which a model of epithelial cell apoptosis caused airspace enlargement. Mice were treated with either intratracheal microcystin (MC) to induce apoptosis, intratracheal porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), or their respective vehicles. Mice from all groups were inflated and morphometry was measured at various time points. Physiology measurements were performed for airway resistance, tissue elastance, and lung volumes. The groups were further analyzed by air–saline quasistatic measurements, surfactant staining, and surfactant functional studies. Mice treated with MC showed evidence of reversible airspace enlargement. In contrast, PPE-treated mice showed irreversible airspace enlargement. The airspace enlargement in MC-treated mice was associated with an increase in elastic recoil due to an increase in alveolar surface tension. PPE-treated mice showed a loss of lung elastic recoil and normal alveolar surface tension, a pattern more consistent with human emphysema. Airspace enlargement that occurs with the MC model of pulmonary epithelial cell apoptosis displays physiology distinct from human emphysema. Reversibility, restrictive physiology due to changes in surface tension, and alveolar enlargement associated with heterogeneous alveolar collapse are most consistent with a mild acute lung injury. Inflation near total lung capacity gives the appearance of enlarged alveoli as neighboring collapsed alveoli exert tethering forces.
Mouded, Majd; Egea, Eduardo E.; Brown, Matthew J.; Hanlon, Shane M.; Houghton, A. McGarry; Tsai, Larry W.; Ingenito, Edward P.; Shapiro, Steven D.
Translocation of carbon-14-labeled Escherichia coli from the gut was studied at the specified times in the following groups of rats: Group 1, 5 hours after ligation of the superior mesenteric artery; Group 2, 5 hours after laparotomy and exposure of the superior mesenteric artery with gentle removal and replacement of the intestines; and Group 3, 5 hours after handling but no surgical manipulation. Both living and dead bacteria were administered by means of gavage, and the effect of viability, intestinal ischemia without reperfusion, and bowel manipulation on the translocation of enteric bacteria was assessed. We demonstrated that (1) even gentle bowel manipulation causes bacteremia as great as that associated with ligation of the superior mesenteric artery; (2) dead E. coli are absorbed into the blood in the presence of bowel manipulation or ischemia but less effectively than are live E. coli; (3) live bacteria are found in highest concentration in the lung and in descending order in the liver, kidney, heart, and spleen; (4) dead bacteria absorbed from the gut are found in highest concentration in the kidney and the liver. Lesser amounts are found in the lung, spleen, and heart.
Redan, J.A.; Rush, B.F. Jr.; Lysz, T.W.; Smith, S.; Machiedo, G.W. (Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark (USA))
A 12-year-old boy was brought to the hospital with a 3-week history of watery diarrhea mixed with mucus and colicky abdominal pain. Stool culture identified Edwardsiella tarda O4: H4, and no other pathogenic bacteria were detected. Acute gastroenteritis caused by Edwardsiella tarda O4: H4 was diagnosed. This bacterium was shown to be sensitive to ampicillin hydrate. When this antibiotic was administered, the condition of the patient improved within a week. The patient had a history of eating raw shrimp and fish while traveling with his parents. PMID:19089557
Although the gut microbiome influences numerous aspects of organismal fitness, its role in animal evolution and the origin of new species is largely unknown. Here we present evidence that beneficial bacterial communities in the guts of closely related species of the genus Nasonia form species-specific phylosymbiotic assemblages that cause lethality in interspecific hybrids. Bacterial constituents and abundance are irregular in hybrids relative to parental controls, and antibiotic curing of the gut bacteria significantly rescues hybrid survival. Moreover, feeding bacteria to germ-free hybrids reinstates lethality and recapitulates the expression of innate immune genes observed in conventionally reared hybrids. We conclude that in this animal complex, the gut microbiome and host genome represent a coadapted "hologenome" that breaks down during hybridization, promoting hybrid lethality and assisting speciation. PMID:23868918
Sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria and that caused by gram-positive bacteria often manifest similar clinical features. We investigated plasma proinflammatory cytokine profiles in patients with sepsis due to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and studied the cytokine production and differential gene regulation of leukocytes stimulated ex vivo with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide or heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha,
Robert J. Feezor; Caroline Oberholzer; Henry V. Baker; Daniela Novick; Menachem Rubinstein; Lyle L. Moldawer; John Pribble; Sonia Souza; Charles A. Dinarello; Wolfgang Ertel; Andreas Oberholzer
Atorvastatin and warfarin are commonly prescribed in combination. Acute rhabdomyolysis is a rare but recognized side effect of atorvastatin occurring within a few weeks of initiation. This article presents a case of a 69-year-old man, on stable atorvastatin therapy, who developed acute rhabdomyolysis following initiation of warfarin. Rising international normalized ratio is a well-recognized feature of interaction between warfarin and various statins (fluvastatin, lovastatin and simva-statin). There has only been one previous similar case of acute rhabdomyolysis following the commencement of warfarin, reported in a patient on stable simvastatin therapy. To the authors' knowledge, no similar case has been reported with atorvastatin. PMID:22504754
Acute abdominal aortic thrombosis is a rare and potential fatal event, which occurs in adult subjects. We present the case of a 72-year-old-man, who referred to the emergency Department of our hospital because of persistent severe abdominal and perineal pain. Doppler ultrasounds and computerized tomography angiography revealed the acute thrombosis of the abdominal aorta. Immediate revascularization through aortic thrombo-endoarterectomy resolved the disease. PMID:23830410
Eleven patients, median age 38 years, with spinal cord lesion (SCL) and urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by multiply resistant bacteria entered an open clinical trial of peroral ciprofloxacin 250 mg b.i.d. for 6 days. P. aeruginosa was the most prevalent bacteria. Ciprofloxacin was clinically effective in all patients who had symptoms of UTI at entry. Bacterial eradication was achieved
S S Pedersen; S Hørbov; F Biering-Sørensen; N Høiby
Bacteriophages are virsues that infect bacteria and contribute significant changes in the overall bacterial community. Prophages are formed when temperate bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the bacterial chromosome during the lysogenic cycle of the phage infection to bacteria. The prophage (phage DNA integrated into bacterial genome) on the bacterial genome remains dormant, but can cause cell lysis under certain environmental
Bacterial endocarditis is a rare complication amongst solid organ transplant recipients and is often linked to bacteremia. Majority of these recipients do not have underlying valvular heart disease or congenital valvular abnormalities. Staphylococoocusaureus and Enterococcus species are the most commonly isolated organisms. There are very few reports of gram-negative bacteriacausing endocarditis in liver transplant recipients. We report a 51-year-old male, a liver transplant recipient, who developed bacterial endocarditis of the mitral valve due to extended spectrum of betalactamase producing strain of Escherichia coli and was managed successfully with antibiotics. PMID:23717742
Overseas travel, as a risk factor for the acquisition of infections due to antimicrobial-resistant organisms, has recently been linked to carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria. Multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii strains were isolated from a wound of a Canadian patient with a recent history of hospitalization in India. This resulted in the initiation of outbreak management that included surveillance cultures. Epidemiological and molecular investigations showed that NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae ST16 and OXA-23-producing A. baumannii ST10 strains were transmitted to 5 other patients, resulting in the colonization of 4 patients and the death of 1 patient due to septic shock caused by the OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strain. The high rate of false positivity of the screening cultures resulted in additional workloads and increased costs for infection control and clinical laboratory work. We believe that this is the first report of an infection with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria resulting in death attributed to a patient with recent foreign hospitalization. We recommend routine rectal and wound screening for colonization with multiresistant bacteria for patients who have recently been admitted to hospitals outside Canada. PMID:23612195
Ahmed-Bentley, Jasmine; Chandran, A Uma; Joffe, A Mark; French, Desiree; Peirano, Gisele; Pitout, Johann D D
Q fever is a zoonosis found worldwide and is produced by Coxiella burnetii. It may be acute or chronic with neurological manifestations being infrequent. Several cases of acute encephalitis or meningoencephalitis have been described, generally with an evolution towards cure regardless of the use of selective antibiotic treatment. Recently the authors had the opportunity to study a 33 year old male presenting acute meningoencephalitis in which the clinical manifestations, CSF findings (increase in cellularity with lymphocytic predominance and excess proteins ) and neurophysiological findings (appearance of periodic bilateral complexes in the EEG) suggested the diagnosis of herpetic meningoencephalitis. Treatment with acyclovir was initiated. However, serologic studies demonstrated, a posteriori, that the germ responsible had been Coxiella burnetii. The patient evolved satisfactorily with no specific treatment and the EEG anomalies disappeared within a few days. The authors insist on the need to include Q Fever in the diagnostic differential of acute meningoencephalitis and emphasize the possibility that germs of a non viral nature may produce periodic EEG complexes in all that similar to those found in herpetic encephalitis. PMID:1596401
We present the case of an elderly woman chronically treated with valproate as migraine prophylaxis. She developed acute chorea secondary to valproate dose increase. Choreiform movements ceased following valproate discontinuation. Chorea is a rare and dose dependent side effect of valproate. PMID:22141287
van de Velde, Kirsten; Cras, Patrick; Helsen, Gregory
To determine the proportion of acute undifferentiated fevers without neurologic deficits related to infec- tion with Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, flavivirus serology (dengue and JE) was performed in a cohort of 156 adults presenting to a hospital in Chiangrai, Thailand. Recent flavivirus infection was diagnosed for any individual with an IgM result > 40 units. A ratio of dengue virus
Acute dyspnea is one of the leading causes of emergency hospitalization of elderly patients. Clinical diagnostic procedures are difficult in this geriatric population. Acute heart failure is the most frequent cause of acute dyspnea in geriatric patients. The use of plasma B natriuretic peptide (BNP) assays in the general population has profoundly improved its medical management. There has also been progress recently for other frequent causes of dyspnea in the elderly, including infection and venous thromboembolic disease. Procalcitonin assays may be useful as a prognostic factor for infectious disease. Nevertheless, the real value of BNP assays in geriatric populations must be clarified by interventional studies. PMID:19297125
West Nile virus (WNV) is one of the leading causes of insect-borne encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis in the US. Acute flaccid paralysis is a potentially serious illness, which manifests itself as a Guillain-Barré-like syndrome with generalized weakness and shortness of breath. We report a case involving a patient who presented with acute flaccid paralysis due to WNV infection and was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin from Israeli donors.
The experimental system constructed with the medically significant yersiniae provides a powerful basic model for comparative study of factors required for expression of acute versus chronic disease. The system exploits the close genetic similarity between Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of bubonic plague, and enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica. Y. pestis possesses three plasmids, of which one, shared by the enteropathogenic species, mediates a number of virulence factors that directly or indirectly promote survival within macrophages and immunosuppression. The two remaining plasmids are unique and encode functions that promote acute disease by enhancing bacterial dissemination in tissues and resistance to phagocytosis by neutrophils and monocytes. These properties are replaced in the enteropathogenic yersiniae by host cell invasins and an adhesin which promote chronic disease; the latter are cryptic in Y. pestis. Additional distinctions include specific mutational losses in Y. pestis which result in loss of fitness in natural environments plus gain of properties that facilitate transmission and infection via fleabite. Images
The excessive growth of filamentous bacteria and the resultant bulking of activated sludge constitute a serious problem in numerous wastewater treatment plants. Lecane inermis rotifers were previously shown to be capable of reducing the abundance of Microthrix parvicella and Nostocoida limicola in activated sludge. In the present study, the effectiveness of four Lecane clones in reducing the abundance of Type 021N filamentous bacteria was investigated. Three independent experiments were carried out on activated sludge from three different treatment plants. We found that Lecane rotifers are efficient consumers of Type 021N filaments. PMID:23552245
A 51-year-old healthy man was hit in the chest by the shock-waves generated by an explosion, without being injured by any physical object. He felt immediate chest pain, but, in spite of electrocardiographic tracings highly suspicious for an acute anteroseptal infarction in the emergency room, he was discharged from hospital. The electrocardiogram recorded three weeks later was pathognomonic of anteroseptal
Classically, Lemierre syndrome is a rare clinical entity in which acute oropharyngeal infection causes septic internal jugular vein thrombosis and leads to septic lesions to distant organs, such as the lung. Lemierre syndrome also presents with odontogenic infections, mastoiditis, parotitis, and sinusitis. We report the first case of Lemierre syndrome following acute isolated sphenoid sinusitis that was complicated with cavernous
Sang-Chul Lim; Sung-Su Lee; Tae-Mi Yoon; Joon-Kyoo Lee
A 46 year old male developed spontaneous acute carpal tunnel syndrome of the right wrist without any antecedent trauma. Surgical exploration revealed hemorrhage secondary to diffuse giant cell tumor of tendon sheath as the underlying cause.
Ward, Christina M; Lueck, Nathan E; Steyers, Curtis M
We describe a patient with acute cardiogenic shock due to cardiac involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (Löffler endocarditis). At the echocardiography, there was a huge mass in the left ventricular cavity, resulting in inflow- and outflow tract obstruction. The posterior leaflet of the mitral valve apparatus was completely embedded in a big (organized) thrombus mass. The patient was treated with high dose corticosteroids, however without effect. Partial remission was achieved after treatment with hydroxycarbamide. He was also treated with anticoagulants and high dose beta-blockers. The patient's condition improved remarkably after correction of the mitral valve insufficiency by a mitral valve bioprosthesis. PMID:23046536
Niemeijer, Nicolasine D; van Daele, Paul L A; Caliskan, Kadir; Oei, Frans B S; Loosveld, Olaf J L; van der Meer, Nardo J M
A six-year-old boy was admitted with symptoms consistent with acute appendicitis. Immediately before placement of the first trocar, a large abdominal mass was observed which on imaging was identified as a torsioned spleen. Due to suboptimal reperfusion and risk of reperfusion-mediated morbidity a splenectomy was performed. The recovery was uneventful. The child had a twin brother who on a routine ultrasound examination was found to have a normally positioned spleen. Challenges in diagnosis and treatment of children with splenic torsion is discussed. PMID:23608013
After excluding the typical causes, the underlying etiology of severe acute pancreatitis is often elusive; tumors are on the differential but may be difficult to prove in the absence of a discrete mass on imaging. In this report, we describe the case of an elderly woman with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma masquerading as acute pancreatitis. To our knowledge, only twelve other cases of pancreatic B-cell lymphoma presenting as acute pancreatitis have been described. However, while other cases involved well-circumscribed tumors of the pancreas, this is the first known case of pancreatic lymphoma of a diffusely infiltrating pattern presenting as acute pancreatitis.
To, Christina A.; Quigley, Michael M.; Saven, Alan
... great progress in understanding how certain changes in DNA can cause normal bone marrow cells to become ... each cell’s chromosomes. Chromosomes are long molecules of DNA in each cell. DNA is the chemical that ...
Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.
This is a case report of a 26 years old female who presented in emergency with sudden onset of chest heaviness and dyspnoea. She had suffered a stroke in the past and was treated with anti-tuberculous medication. Her ECG revealed STelevation myocardial infarction and thrombolysis was performed but was unsuccessful. Further workup during in-hospital stay revealed evidence of infective endocarditis and Streptococcus species were isolated. She was started on penicillin and gentamycin with good recovery. This case presented a management problem during initial presentation as there was insufficient data on thrombolysis during such situation. It is also a diagnostic problem as the initial picture was dominated by acute coronary syndrome. There is need to develop consensus based on expert opinion about management in such situations. PMID:22482383
Khan, Javaid Arif; Panwar, Ziauddin; Mujtaba, Fayyaz; Shah, Kashif
Background Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare disease and its visual prognosis is poor. Case Reports We present two patients, a 60-year-old man and a 53-year-old man, who developed endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Gram-positive organisms but recovered good vision after antibiotics and vitrectomy. Results The first patient complained of ocular pain and visual decrease in his right eye. Ophthalmoscopy showed inflammation in the anterior chamber and vitreous opacities. Antibiotic was administrated systemically, and blood culture detected Streptococcus anginosus. He underwent successful heart surgery for endocarditis and total dental extraction for severe gingivitis. Vitrectomy was performed 36 days after the onset and vision improved from 0.02 to 0.7. The second patient was referred for acute visual decrease in his left eye. Severe iritis and vitreous opacities were observed, and systemic examination showed acute pyelitis and prostatic abscesses. Blood cultures detected Staphylococcus sp., and systemic antibiotics were given. Vitrectomy was performed 12 days after the onset, and vision improved from 0.06 to 1.2. Conclusions We conclude that the rapid treatment with systemic antibiotics for the organisms at the primary site, and the vitrectomy, even though delayed, can lead to a good recovery of vision.
BACKGROUND: Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare disease and its visual prognosis is poor. CASE REPORTS: We present two patients, a 60-year-old man and a 53-year-old man, who developed endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Gram-positive organisms but recovered good vision after antibiotics and vitrectomy. RESULTS: The first patient complained of ocular pain and visual decrease in his right eye. Ophthalmoscopy showed inflammation in the anterior chamber and vitreous opacities. Antibiotic was administrated systemically, and blood culture detected Streptococcus anginosus. He underwent successful heart surgery for endocarditis and total dental extraction for severe gingivitis. Vitrectomy was performed 36 days after the onset and vision improved from 0.02 to 0.7. The second patient was referred for acute visual decrease in his left eye. Severe iritis and vitreous opacities were observed, and systemic examination showed acute pyelitis and prostatic abscesses. Blood cultures detected Staphylococcus sp., and systemic antibiotics were given. Vitrectomy was performed 12 days after the onset, and vision improved from 0.06 to 1.2. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the rapid treatment with systemic antibiotics for the organisms at the primary site, and the vitrectomy, even though delayed, can lead to a good recovery of vision. PMID:21103197
Technologies proposed in the last decades for the reduction of the sludge production in wastewater treatment plants and based on the mechanism of cell lysis-cryptic growth (physical, mechanical, thermal, chemical, oxidative treatments) have been widely investigated at lab-, pilot- and, in some cases, at full-scale but the effects on cellular lysis have not always been demonstrated in depth. The research presented in this paper aims to investigate how these sludge reduction technologies affect the integrity and permeabilization of bacterial cells in sludge using flow cytometry (FCM), which permits the rapid and statistically accurate quantification of intact, permeabilised or disrupted bacteria in the sludge using a double fluorescent DNA-staining instead of using conventional methods like plate counts and microscope. Physical/mechanical treatments (ultrasonication and high pressure homogenisation) caused moderate effects on cell integrity and caused significant cell disruption only at high specific energy levels. Conversely, thermal treatment caused significant damage of bacterial membranes even at moderate temperatures (45-55 °C). Ozonation significantly affected cell integrity, even at low ozone dosages, below 10 mgO(3)/gTSS, causing an increase of permeabilised and disrupted cells. At higher ozone dosages the compounds solubilised after cell lysis act as scavengers in the competition between soluble compounds and (particulate) bacterial cells. An original aspect of this paper, not yet reported in the literature, is the comparison of the effects of these sludge reduction technologies on bacterial cell integrity and permeabilization by converting pressure, temperature and ozone dosage to an equivalent value of specific energy. Among these technologies, comparison of the applied specific energy demonstrates that achieving the complete disruption of bacterial cells is not always economically advantageous because excessive energy levels may be required. PMID:20674957
In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on three pathogens that exhibit distinct tissue specificity and modes of pathogenesis in citrus plants. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes canker disease and invades the host leaf mesophyll tissue through natural openings and can also survive as an epiphyte. Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter are vectored by insects and proliferate in the vascular system of the host, either in the phloem (Candidatus Liberibacter) or xylem (X. fastidiosa) causing variegated chlorosis and huanglongbing diseases, respectively. Candidatus Liberibacter can be found within host cells and is thus unique as an intracellular phytopathogenic bacterium. Genome sequence comparisons have identified groups of species-specific genes that may be associated with the particular lifestyle, mode of transmission or symptoms produced by each phytopathogen. In addition, components that are conserved amongst bacteria may have diverse regulatory actions underpinning the different bacterial lifestyles; one example is the divergent role of the Rpf/DSF cell-cell signalling system in X. citri and X. fastidiosa. Biofilm plays a key role in epiphytic fitness and canker development in X. citri and in the symptoms produced by X. fastidiosa. Bacterial aggregation may be associated with vascular occlusion of the xylem vessels and symptomatology of variegated chlorosis. PMID:20449739
Vojnov, Adrián Alberto; do Amaral, Alexandre Morais; Dow, John Maxwell; Castagnaro, Atilio Pedro; Marano, Marìa Rosa
We tested the hypothesis whether chemically induced motility patterns of bacteria may affect their transport in porous media. Naphthalene-degrading Pseudomonas putida G7 cells were exposed to glucose, salicylate, and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and their motility was assessed by computer-assisted, quantitative swimming and capillary-based taxis determinations. Exposure to salicylate induced smooth movement with few acceleration events and positive taxis, whereas cells exposed to AgNPs exhibited tortuous movement and a repellent response. Although metabolized by strain G7, glucose did not cause attraction and induced a hyper-motile mode of swimming, characterized by a high frequency of acceleration events, high swimming speed (>60 ?m s(-1)), and a high tortuosity in the trajectories. Chemically induced motility behavior correlated with distinct modes of attachment to sand in batch assays and breakthrough curves in percolation column experiments. Salicylate significantly reduced deposition of G7 cells in column experiments whereas glucose and AgNPs enhanced attachment and caused filter blocking that resulted in a progressive decrease in deposition. These findings are relevant for bioremediation scenarios that require an optimized outreach of introduced inoculants and in other environmental technologies, such as water disinfection and microbially enhanced oil recovery. PMID:22642849
. Jejunal diverticula is rare and in most cases without any symptoms. They become clinically relevant when complications, such\\u000a as diverticulitis, malabsorption caused by bacterial overgrowth, intestinal hemorrhage, or obstruction, occur. In this case\\u000a report a case of perforated jejunal diverticulitis is presented and the problems in finding the correct diagnosis are discussed.
R. Peters; A. Grust; C.-D. Gerharz; C. Dumon; G. Fürst
Pain abdomen is one of the most commonly encountered complaints in pediatric emergency room. We report a seven-year-old resident of Delhi, who presented with sudden onset abdominal pain for three hours, and later went on to develop neuro-muscular paralysis and respiratory failure. The cause was found to be snake-bite. The child had a stormy course and full recovery. PMID:18057483
Acid aspiration or intrapulmonary instillation of gastric particles causes lung inflammation leading to acute lung injury (ALI). Hypercapnia exerts different effects on ALI caused by various in- sults. The effects of hypercapnia on lung inflammation and injury due to acid aspiration are yet to be determined. The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of inducible nitric oxide synthase
Demeral David Liu; Hen I Lin; Nan-Kuang Hsieh; Hsing I Chen
Introduction Burkitt's lymphoma is a highly malignant, aggressive and rapidly growing B-cell neoplasm, which has low long-term survival rates. The abdomen is the most frequent onset site of non endemic Burkitt's lymphoma. Symptoms are often misleading and make diagnosis difficult. Ileum intussusception as acute abdomen caused by Burkitt lymphoma is rare. Case presentation We are presenting a case of a 16 year-old male with acute abdomen, which three weeks prior initially has been surgically treated for acute appendicitis and Meckel diverticulitis. Following this was a second urgent operation of ileoileal intusussception caused by Burkitt lymphoma. Right extended haemicolectomy was performed. Conclusion Affected terminal ileum by Burkitt's lymphoma may mimic clinically acute appendicitis and investigation tools sometimes may not provide proper diagnosis. Complete resection results in improved survival.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is a common pathogen in cases of atypical pneumonia. Most individuals with Mycoplasma pneumonia run a benign course, with non-specific symptoms of malaise, fever and non-productive cough that usually resolve with no long-term sequelae. Acute lung injury is not commonly seen in Mycoplasma pneumonia. We report a case of acute respiratory distress syndrome cause by M. pneumoniae diagnosed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
We report a case of primary fibroepithelial polyps (FEPs) in the middle of both ureters in a patient with advanced gastric cancer and acute renal failure. Ureteral FEPs are rare benign lesions, and multiple, bilateral lesions are extremely rare. To our knowledge, this report is the seventh case of bilateral FEPs in the literature. Our case has clinical implications because FEPs should be considered as a cause of ureteral obstruction inducing acute renal failure in advanced gastric cancer.
Kim, Sun-Ouck; Youn, Chul Woong; Im, Chang Min; Jung, Sung Il; Oh, Kyung Jin; Kwon, Dongdeuk; Park, Kwangsung; Ryu, Soo Bang
Amiodarone is a commonly used anti-arrhythmic agent, with well-recognized chronic toxicity. Less well known is amiodarone's potential to causeacute lung damage, which can be severe or, occasionally, life-threatening. Lungs that have already been exposed to physical insults, such as the lungs of patients undergoing cardiac surgery, are particularly susceptible to acute pulmonary toxicity (APT). Unfortunately, cardiac surgery is one
We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis and acute renal failure in a white male patient, 28 years of age, infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The clinical presentation of the patient was diarrheic syndrome of long evolution, fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia, accompanied by nephrotic syndrome and irreversible acute renal failure. Renal biopsy showed glomerular AA amyloid deposits. This is the first case described in humans of secondary amyloidosis caused by visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:17227255
Introduction. Crossed renal ectopia is a congenital anomaly which usually goes unnoticed as most cases are asymptomatic. The majority, 90% of these are fused. Case Presentation. We report an unusual presentation of a case of crossed renal ectopia without fusion. Our patient is a 16-year-old adolescent male, previously fit and healthy, who presented with acute onset of abdominal pain. The clinical suspicion was that of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Computed tomography with intravenous contrast revealed nonfused crossed renal ectopia. Conclusion. Although renal ectopia is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain, there should be an index of clinical suspicion in previously healthy individuals presenting with acute abdominal pain.
We present a 39-year-old man with repeated urinary tract infection and lower abdominal pain. Kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) and IVU film showed a huge 450-g elliptical pelvic calculus that was surgically removed with excellent results. Surgical intervention by cystolithotomy or endoscopic cystolithotripsy can achieve satisfactory results. Bladder outlet obstruction should be treated simultaneously. Bladder stone is a common disease, but it is rare for such a calculus to be so large as to cause bilateral hydronephrosis. Close follow-up, however, is mandatory because the recurrence of urolithiasis is high in those patients with voiding problems and recurrent urinary infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest bladder stone in a human male. PMID:20033143
Intestinal commensal bacteria have recently been shown to trigger macrophages to produce diffusible clastogens (or chromosome-breaking factors) through a bystander effect (BSE) that mediates DNA damage and induces chromosomal instability in neighboring cells. Colon macrophages appear central to colon carcinogenesis and BSE through the expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The former induces netrin-1, a regulator of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and the latter generates trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), an endogenous mutagen. To test whether colon macrophages are key effectors for BSE, we depleted these cells in interleukin-10 knockout mice colonized with Enterococcus faecalis using encapsulated liposomal clodronate (ELC), a bisphosphonate that causes macrophage apoptosis. We observed that E. faecalis polarizes colon macrophages to an M1 phenotype. In addition, depleting these cells suppressed COX-2 and TNF-?, blocked the formation of 4-HNE protein adducts, and inhibited up-regulation of netrin-1-all markers for BSE. Finally, treatment with ELC prevented colitis, ?-catenin activation, and cancer formation. These results show that selected human commensals can polarize colon macrophages to the M1 phenotype and, when activated, serve as the key effector for bacterial-induced BSE. Our findings suggest that depleting M1-polarized macro-phages is a mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of bisphosphonates and that it represents a new strategy for preventing colon cancer induced by intestinal commensals. PMID:24151540
Yang, Yonghong; Wang, Xingmin; Huycke, Thomas; Moore, Danny R; Lightfoot, Stanley A; Huycke, Mark M
Enteric pathogens can cause relapsing infections in a proportion of treated patients, but greater understanding of this phenomenon is hindered by the lack of appropriate animal models. We report here a robust animal model of relapsing primary typhoid that initiates after apparently successful antibiotic treatment of susceptible mice. Four days of enrofloxacin treatment were sufficient to reduce bacterial loads below detectable levels in all major organs, and mice appeared otherwise healthy. However, any interruption of further antibiotic therapy allowed renewed fecal shedding and renewed bacterial growth in systemic tissues to occur, and mice eventually succumbed to relapsing infection. In vivo imaging of luminescent Salmonella identified the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) as a major reservoir of relapsing infection. A magnetic-bead enrichment strategy isolated MLN-resident CD11b+ Gr-1? monocytes associated with low numbers of persistent Salmonella. However, the removal of MLNs increased the severity of typhoid relapse, demonstrating that this organ serves as a protective filter to restrain the dissemination of bacteria during antibiotic therapy. Together, these data describe a robust animal model of typhoid relapse and identify an important intestinal phagocyte subset involved in protection against the systemic spread of enteric infection.
Griffin, Amanda J.; Li, Lin-Xi; Voedisch, Sabrina; Pabst, Oliver; McSorley, Stephen J.
Intestinal commensal bacteria have recently been shown to trigger macrophages to produce diffusible clastogens (or chromosome-breaking factors) through a bystander effect (BSE) that mediates DNA damage and induces chromosomal instability in neighboring cells. Colon macrophages appear central to colon carcinogenesis and BSE through the expression of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The former induces netrin-1, a regulator of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and the latter generates trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), an endogenous mutagen. To test whether colon macrophages are key effectors for BSE, we depleted these cells in interleukin-10 knockout mice colonized with Enterococcus faecalis using encapsulated liposomal clodronate (ELC), a bisphosphonate that causes macrophage apoptosis. We observed that E. faecalis polarizes colon macrophages to an M1 phenotype. In addition, depleting these cells suppressed COX-2 and TNF-?, blocked the formation of 4-HNE protein adducts, and inhibited up-regulation of netrin-1—all markers for BSE. Finally, treatment with ELC prevented colitis, ?-catenin activation, and cancer formation. These results show that selected human commensals can polarize colon macrophages to the M1 phenotype and, when activated, serve as the key effector for bacterial-induced BSE. Our findings suggest that depleting M1-polarized macro-phages is a mechanism for the chemopreventive activity of bisphosphonates and that it represents a new strategy for preventing colon cancer induced by intestinal commensals.
Yang, Yonghong; Wang, Xingmin; Huycke, Thomas; Moore, Danny R; Lightfoot, Stanley A; Huycke, Mark M
False positive transformants obtained during plant transformation experiments on species of the monocotyledonous genus Dioscorea (yam) are described. The false positive results were found to be due to endophytic bacteria which exist within aseptically micropropagated shoot cultures and which express ß-glucuronidase (GUS). The bacteria were isolated and identified as two species of Curtobacterium. The expression of GUS in these organisms
Mahmut Tör; Sinclair H. Mantell; Charles Ainsworth
The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical, microbiological, radiological, haematological and cytological features of foals with pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi infection and with other bacteria, in order to provide markers for early diagnosis and treatment. A retrospective study of 113 cases of bacterial pneumonia was undertaken.Although there was considerable overlap in the affected populations, foals with
Mathilde Leclere; K. Gary Magdesian; Philip H. Kass; Nicola Pusterla; Diane M. Rhodes
Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a rare, potentially fatal condition, which most frequently complicates rheumatological conditions and is often associated with liver dysfunction. In this case report of a patient with MAS, acute liver failure developed despite conventional immunosuppressive therapy. Liver transplantation resulted in rapid recovery and the patient has remained well for six years. A recent diagnosis of Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD) provides additional supporting evidence that the initial presentation was caused by MAS. While transplantation in the context of systemic disease remains controversial, this first reported case of successful adult liver transplantation for acute liver failure caused by MAS raises an interesting clinical dilemma. PMID:23981123
Orr, James; Bury, Yvonne; Hudson, Mark; Masson, Steven
To determine the proportion of fevers caused by leptospirosis, we obtained serum specimens and epidemiologic and clinical data from patients in Galle, Sri Lanka, March–October 2007. Immunoglobulin M ELISA was performed on paired serum specimens to diagnose acute (seroconversion or 4-fold titer rise) or past (titer without rise) leptospirosis and seroprevalence (acute). We compared (individually) the diagnostic yield of acute-phase specimens and clinical impression with paired specimens for acute leptospirosis. Of 889 patients with paired specimens, 120 had acute leptosoirosis and 241 had past leptospirosis. The sensitivity and specificity of acute-phase serum specimens were 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.2%–25.5%) and 69.2% (95% CI 65.5%–72.7%), respectively, and of clinical impression 22.9% (95% CI 15.4%–32.0%) and 91.7% (95% CI 89.2%–93.8%), respectively. For identifying acute leptospirosis, clinical impression is insensitive, and immunoglobulin M results are more insensitive and costly. Rapid, pathogen-based tests for early diagnosis are needed.
Bodinayake, Champika; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikara-Arachichi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J.; Flom, Judith E.; Dumler, J. Stephen; Woods, Christopher W.
The use of dermal fillers is increasingly common. Side effects associated with their use are usually limited to local reactions. Acute pancreatitis is also a common condition with a wide range of aetiologies. To date, no potential associations between acute pancreatitis and dermal filler injections have been reported. A 58-year-old lady was admitted with an acute onset of epigastric pain and vomiting. She was diagnosed with acute severe pancreatitis. No cause could be found for her pancreatitis. She did, however, have dermal filler injection 24 hours previous to her initial symptoms. Causality is difficult to prove beyond doubt in the present isolated case report. However, given the exponential rise in accessible and affordable cosmetic procedures such as dermal filler injections such case reporting is necessary to establish whether such associations truly exist and to examine underlying mechanisms.
Summary: The mammalian immune system is optimized to cope effectively with the constant threat of pathogens. However, when the immune system overreacts, sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock can develop. Despite extensive research, these conditions remain the leading cause of death in intensive care units. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a family of proteases that are expressed in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes and also in response to infections. Studies using MMP inhibitors and MMP knockout mice indicate that MMPs play essential roles in infection and in the host defense against infection. This review provides a brief introduction to some basic concepts of infections caused by gram-negative bacteria and reviews reports describing MMP expression and inhibition, as well as studies with MMP-deficient mice in models of infection caused by gram-negative bacteria and of septic shock. We discuss whether MMPs should be considered novel drug targets in infection and septic shock.
Certain bacteria indigenous to estuaries are capable of acting as opportunistic pathogens of humans. While it is sometimes\\u000a difficult to prove that a given bacterium is a bona fide inhabitant of the estuary from which it was isolated, it is even\\u000a more difficult to describe the niche of that bacterial species. This statement applies to all estuarine bacteria, including\\u000a opportunistic
Bezoars are concretions of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract. It generally develops in patients with previous gastric surgery or patients with delayed gastric emptying. Cases of periampullary duodenal divericular bezoar are rare. Clinical manifestations by a bezoar vary from no symptom to acute abdominal syndrome depending on the location of the bezoar. Biliary obstruction or acute pancreatitis caused by a bezoar has been rarely reported. Small bowel obstruction by a bezoar is also rare, but it is a complication that requires surgery. This is a case of acute pancreatitis and subsequent duodenal obstruction caused by a large duodenal bezoar migrating from a periampullary diverticulum to the duodenal lumen, which mimicked pancreatic abscess or microperforation on abdominal computerized tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the bezoar and recovered completely. PMID:23082068
Kim, Ji Hun; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Nam, Sung Min; Lee, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Il Ho; Park, Jin Young; Im, Yun Sun; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Il Young; Han, Sok Won
Bezoars are concretions of indigestible materials in the gastrointestinal tract. It generally develops in patients with previous gastric surgery or patients with delayed gastric emptying. Cases of periampullary duodenal divericular bezoar are rare. Clinical manifestations by a bezoar vary from no symptom to acute abdominal syndrome depending on the location of the bezoar. Biliary obstruction or acute pancreatitis caused by a bezoar has been rarely reported. Small bowel obstruction by a bezoar is also rare, but it is a complication that requires surgery. This is a case of acute pancreatitis and subsequent duodenal obstruction caused by a large duodenal bezoar migrating from a periampullary diverticulum to the duodenal lumen, which mimicked pancreatic abscess or microperforation on abdominal computerized tomography. The patient underwent surgical removal of the bezoar and recovered completely.
Kim, Ji Hun; Chang, Jae Hyuck; Nam, Sung Min; Lee, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Il Ho; Park, Jin Young; Im, Yun Sun; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Il Young; Han, Sok Won
Subclavian steal syndrome caused by an acute thrombus is very rare. We present a case of cerebellar infarction with proximal subclavian artery thrombosis. A 56-year-old woman was admitted for sudden vertigo. One day prior to admission, she received a shoulder massage comprised of chiropractic manipulation. On examination, her left hand was pale and radial pulses were absent. Blood pressure was weak in the left arm. Downbeat nystagmus and a right falling tendency were observed. Brain MRI showed multiple acute infarctions in the left cerebellum. The findings of Doppler ultrasonography in the left vertebral artery were compatible with a partial subclavian artery steal phenomenon. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a large thrombus in the left subclavian artery. After heparin infusion, thrombus size markedly decreased. Cerebellar infarction caused by acute subclavian thrombosis following minor trauma is rare, but the thrombus can be successfully resolved with anticoagulation. PMID:24142663
Park, Hyeyoung; Kim, Hee-Jin; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jong Yun; Koh, Im-Seok; Nam, Hyo Suk
Subclavian steal syndrome caused by an acute thrombus is very rare. We present a case of cerebellar infarction with proximal subclavian artery thrombosis. A 56-year-old woman was admitted for sudden vertigo. One day prior to admission, she received a shoulder massage comprised of chiropractic manipulation. On examination, her left hand was pale and radial pulses were absent. Blood pressure was weak in the left arm. Downbeat nystagmus and a right falling tendency were observed. Brain MRI showed multiple acute infarctions in the left cerebellum. The findings of Doppler ultrasonography in the left vertebral artery were compatible with a partial subclavian artery steal phenomenon. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a large thrombus in the left subclavian artery. After heparin infusion, thrombus size markedly decreased. Cerebellar infarction caused by acute subclavian thrombosis following minor trauma is rare, but the thrombus can be successfully resolved with anticoagulation.
Park, Hyeyoung; Kim, Hee-Jin; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jong Yun; Koh, Im-Seok
Parasitic infestations of the galdbladder and biliary tract are quite rare. Taenia saginata is an intestinal helmint and patients harbouring adult T.saginata tapeworms are mostly asymptomatic and discharge only fecal proglottids. In some cases there might be nonspecific symptoms like vomiting, nausea, epigastric pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Tenia saginata is a also rare cause of ileus, pancreatitis, cholecystitis and cholangitis. We report a case of acute cholangitis caused by T. saginata presenting with fever, nausea, vomiting, jaundice and right upper quadrant pain. Although parasites are not an uncommon cause of cholangitis especially in diseaseendemic areas like the Far East, this is not true for T. saginata causingacute cholangitis. PMID:23340150
Uygur-Bayramiçli, O; Ak, O; Dabak, R; Demirhan, G; Ozer, S
The luminescent bacteria test according to EN ISO 11348 is frequently applied in (eco) toxicity testing and is applicable for a huge variety of environmental and industrial samples. A big disadvantage of this method is the very short exposure time, which is expressed in a low sensitivity in regard to substances with a delayed effect. Chronic effects, i.e. interference with cell growth, cannot be assessed with this conventional standard method. The goal of this research was to develop an automated testing system for long term toxicity towards the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri by implementing microtitration-based instrumentation. The optimized method, hereinafter referred to as "kinetic luminescent bacteria test", can be described as a miniaturized combination of the conventional short-term luminescence inhibition test according to EN ISO 11348 and the Photobacterium phosphoreum growth inhibition test (DIN 38412-37). The validation procedure included the evaluation of six reference compounds (3,4-Dichloroaniline, 3,5-Dichlorophenol, Chloramphenicol, Streptomycin sulfate, Potassium dichromate, Zinc sulfate heptahydrate) and three different endpoints that are acute luminescence inhibition (acute LI) after 30min, chronic luminescence inhibition (chronic LI) after 24h and growth inhibition (GI) after 14h. The optimized method allows the assessment of acute and chronic effects within one test, by what a misinterpretation of the toxicity of substances with delayed bacterial toxicity can be prevented, without abandoning most of the advantages of the conventional short-term test. Therefore, the kinetic luminescent bacteria test is exceptional as an initial screening test for environmental samples or substances with unknown (eco) toxicological characteristics. PMID:23806483
A rare case of acute posterior interosseous nerve palsy caused by septic elbow arthritis is reported. The nerve was compressed beneath the arcade of Frohse by hypertrophied synovium and joint fluid at the anterior aspect of the radial neck. Decompression of the nerve, synovectomy, and irrigation of the elbow joint were done. effective. Six months after the surgery the nerve
The purpose of this report is to describe the case of a 28-year-old woman in whom acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) following cholecystectomy led to the discovery of eosinophilic lung disease. Outcome was favorable after oxygenotherapy and medical treatment using ivermectin and corticosteroids. The case shows that hypereosinophilic syndrome can be the underlying cause of ARDS. PMID:21695880
Chani, M; Iken, M; Eljahiri, Y; Nzenze, J R; Mion, G
Exposure of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and hybrid bass (M. saxatilis female X Morone chrysops male) to an acute (2-hour) confinement stress caused skin ulceration on the fins but not on the body of all confined fish. Striped bass displayed more severe lesions than did hybrid bass. Histologically, lesions had varying degrees of epithelial erosion and ulceration, which was most
? ? ? ? ? Background: Ultrafiltration failure is an important clini- cal problem in patients on maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Acute ultrafiltration failure (AUFF) is usually secondary to mechanical problems with the peritoneal catheter or peri- toneal leakage. Retroperitoneal leakage (RPL) is an impor- tant cause of AUFF and often poses
Man Fai Lam; Wai Kei; Kai Chung Tse; Terrence P. S. Yip
Cefaclor was used to treat 13 children with acute otitis media caused by ampicillin-resistant strains of Hemophilus influenzae. The children were re-examined on days 4, 10, and 28. Phar macologic compliance was assessed by means of a bioinhibition assay on a urine specimen obtained on days 4, 7, and 100 Nine of the 13 children had evidence by tympanogram of
Richard H. Schwartz; William J. Rodriguez; Waheed N. Khan; Lori Brigham; Sydney Ross
Dental caries (tooth decay) is caused by a specific group of cariogenic bacteria, like Streptococcus mutans, which convert dietary sugars into acids that dissolve the mineral in tooth structure. Killing cariogenic bacteria is an effective way to control or prevent tooth decay. In a previous study, we discovered a novel compound (Glycyrrhizol A), from the extraction of licorice roots, with strong antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria. In the current study, we developed a method to produce these specific herbal extracts in large quantities, and then used these extracts to develop a sugar-free lollipop that effectively kills cariogenic bacteria like Streptococcus mutans. Further studies showed that these sugar-free lollipops are safe and their antimicrobial activity is stable. Two pilot human studies indicate that a brief application of these lollipops (twice a day for ten days) led to a marked reduction of cariogenic bacteria in oral cavity among most human subjects tested. This herbal lollipop could be a novel tool to promote oral health through functional foods. PMID:21449211
Background Acute end points of catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia (VT) remain incompletely defined. The aim of this study is to identify causes for failure in patients with structural heart disease and to assess the relation of this acute outcome to longer?term management and outcomes. Methods and Results From 2002 to 2010, 518 consecutive patients (84% male, 62±14 years) with structural heart disease underwent a first ablation procedure for sustained VT at our institution. Acute ablation failure was defined as persistent inducibility of a clinical VT. Acute ablation failure was seen in 52 (10%) patients. Causes for failure were: intramural free wall VT in 13 (25%), deep septal VT in 9 (17%), decision not to ablate due to proximity to the bundle of His, left phrenic nerve, or a coronary artery in 3 (6%), and endocardial ablation failure with inability or decision not to attempt to access the epicardium in 27 (52%) patients. In multivariable analysis, ablation failure was an independent predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 2.010, 95% CI 1.147 to 3.239, P=0.004) and VT recurrence (hazard ratio 2.385, 95% CI 1.642 to 3.466, P<0.001). Conclusions With endocardial or epicardial ablation, or both, acute ablation failure was seen in 10% of patients, largely due to anatomic factors. Persistence of a clinical VT is associated with recurrence and comparatively higher mortality.
Tokuda, Michifumi; Kojodjojo, Pipin; Tung, Stanley; Tedrow, Usha B.; Nof, Eyal; Inada, Keiichi; Koplan, Bruce A.; Michaud, Gregory F.; John, Roy M.; Epstein, Laurence M.; Stevenson, William G.
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of bacteremia caused by non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria (NFGNB) has been increasing over the past decade. Although many studies have already investigated epidemiology of NFGNB bacteremia, most focused only on common NFGNB including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (AB). Knowledge of uncommon NFGNB bacteremia is very limited. Our study aimed to investigate epidemiology and identify factors associated with uncommon NFGNB bacteremia. METHODS: This observational study was conducted at a university hospital in Thailand during July 1, 2007-Dec 31, 2008. All patients who had at least one blood culture positive for NFGNB and met the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome within 24 hours before/after obtaining the blood culture were enrolled. The NFGNB isolates that could not be satisfactorily identified by the standard biochemical assays were further characterized by molecular sequencing methods. To identify factors associated with uncommon NFGNB bacteremia, characteristics of patients in the uncommon NFGNB group were subsequently compared to patients in the common NFGNB group (AB and PA bacteremia). RESULTS: Our study detected 223 clinical isolates of NFGNB in 221 unique patients. The major causative pathogens were AB (32.7%), followed by PA (27.8%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (5.4%), Acinetobacter lwoffii (4.9%) and Burkholderia pseudomallei (2.7%). Infection-related mortality was 63.0% in the AB group, 40.3% in the PA group and 17.4% in the uncommon NFGNB group. Factors associated with uncommon NFGNB bacteremia (OR [95%CI];p-value) were male sex (0.28[0.14-0.53];p < 0.001), hospital-acquired infection (0.23[0.11-0.51];p < 0.001), recent aminoglycosides exposure 0.23[0.06-0.8];p = 0.01), primary bacteremia (6.43[2.89-14.2];p < 0.001]), catheter related infection (4.48[1.54-13.06];p < 0.001) and recent vancomycin exposure (3.88[1.35-11.1];p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our distribution of causative pathogens was slightly different from other studies. The common NFGNB group had a remarkably higher ID-mortality than the uncommon NFGNB group. Knowledge of factors associated with uncommon NFGNB bacteremia would help physicians to distinguish between low vs. high risk patients. PMID:23566113
Abdominal complications following cardiac surgery remain unusual, but are associated with high mortality. The most common abdominal surgical complications are mesenteric ischaemia, diverticulitis, pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleeding and cholecystitis. We describe a case of a 73-year old woman with acute abdominal pain mimicking cholecystitis on day 10 after aortic valve replacement. An abdominal examination showed tenderness of the right upper quadrant with Murphy's sign. Complete blood count, blood chemistries and urinalysis were normal as were the abdominal and chest X-rays and abdominal ultrasonography. The abdominal computed-tomography (CT) scan enabled us to rule out cholecystitis, as it demonstrated the typical appearance of epiploic appendagitis on the right colon, 1 cm below the gallbladder. Epiploic appendagitis results from twisting, kinking or venous thrombosis of an epiploic appendage. Depending on its localization, it mimics many diagnoses requiring surgery: colitis, diverticulitis, appendicitis and cholecystitis. An abdominal CT scan is the diagnostic imaging tool of choice. All physicians involved in post-cardiac surgery care should be aware of this self-limiting disease that usually resolves with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and watchful waiting, and to avoid unnecessary surgery because the spontaneous evolution of epiploic appendagitis is usually benign.
Abdominal complications following cardiac surgery remain unusual, but are associated with high mortality. The most common abdominal surgical complications are mesenteric ischaemia, diverticulitis, pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleeding and cholecystitis. We describe a case of a 73-year old woman with acute abdominal pain mimicking cholecystitis on day 10 after aortic valve replacement. An abdominal examination showed tenderness of the right upper quadrant with Murphy's sign. Complete blood count, blood chemistries and urinalysis were normal as were the abdominal and chest X-rays and abdominal ultrasonography. The abdominal computed-tomography (CT) scan enabled us to rule out cholecystitis, as it demonstrated the typical appearance of epiploic appendagitis on the right colon, 1 cm below the gallbladder. Epiploic appendagitis results from twisting, kinking or venous thrombosis of an epiploic appendage. Depending on its localization, it mimics many diagnoses requiring surgery: colitis, diverticulitis, appendicitis and cholecystitis. An abdominal CT scan is the diagnostic imaging tool of choice. All physicians involved in post-cardiac surgery care should be aware of this self-limiting disease that usually resolves with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and watchful waiting, and to avoid unnecessary surgery because the spontaneous evolution of epiploic appendagitis is usually benign. PMID:22547560
This is the case of a 31 year old man with Brucella aortic valvular endocarditis which first manifested itself clinically as an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). He subsequently developed an acute aortic regurgitation, which together with the ventricular disfunction secondary to the myocardial necrosis caused severe heart failure requiring aortic valve replacement and aortic coronary graft in a first operation. The patient's subsequent evolution was negative with congestive heart failure refractory to medical treatment. For this reason he was submitted to a second operation in which an orthotopic cardiac transplant was carried out with good results. The patient remains symptom-free and has returned to his work. PMID:7973020
Bayón, J; Sabugo, R; Berrot, A D; Rodríguez, M A; Fidalgo, M L; Santos, I; Fraile, J; Simarro, E
The development of delayed disorders caused by acute ethylene glycol poisoning has been studied in experiments on male rats. These disorders include chronic renal failure and secondary combined immunodeficiency status of the "circulus vitiosus" type. Urgent pharmacological correction was shown to be necessary shortly after the poisoning. The experimental therapy (administration of immunomodulators with various mechanisms of action in addition to conventional antidote treatment with ethanol) resulted in the restoration of nonspecific resistance and both cellular and humoral immunity. Reduction of the urinary system damage after the administration of immunomodulators was observed. The results demonstrated the importance of multiagent immunotherapy for the correction of delayed effects of acute ethylene glycol poisoning. PMID:23323331
Liubishin, M M; Sivak, K V; Savateeva-Liubimova, T N
A71-year-old man with advanced lung cancer developed a life-threatening cerebral edema caused by the acute occlusion of a superior vena cava (SVC) stent and was successfully treated by an additional stent placement. Although stent occlusion is a common early complication, no life-threatening situations have been reported until now. Our experience highlights the fact that acute stent occlusion can potentially lead to the complete venous shutdown of the SVC, resulting in life-threatening cerebral edema, after SVC stent placement. Immediate diagnosis and countermeasures are required. PMID:22588276
Sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria and that caused by gram-positive bacteria often manifest similar clinical features. We investigated plasma proinflammatory cytokine profiles in patients with sepsis due to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and studied the cytokine production and differential gene regulation of leukocytes stimulated ex vivo with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide or heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 binding protein, procalcitonin, and protein C in plasma did not differ between patients with sepsis due to gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. However, plasma IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-18 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with sepsis due to gram-positive bacteria. Ex vivo stimulation of whole blood with heat-killed S. aureus markedly increased IL-1? and IL-18 levels more than E. coli lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Microarray analysis revealed at least 359 cross-validated probe sets (genes) significant at the P < 0.001 level whose expression discriminated among gram-negative-organism-stimulated, gram-positive-organism-stimulated, and unstimulated whole-blood leukocytes. The host inflammatory responses to gram-negative and gram-positive stimuli share some common response elements but also exhibit distinct patterns of cytokine appearance and leukocyte gene expression.
Feezor, Robert J.; Oberholzer, Caroline; Baker, Henry V.; Novick, Daniela; Rubinstein, Menachem; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Pribble, John; Souza, Sonia; Dinarello, Charles A.; Ertel, Wolfgang; Oberholzer, Andreas
Tightly spiral shaped Gram negative bacteria were seen in the gastric biopsies obtained from two patients undergoing gastroscopy. Active chronic gastritis was present in both patients and one patient also had gastric ulceration. Attempts to culture the organism by a number of methods were unsuccessful but positive urease results were obtained in both patients. Both patients were treated with colloidal
Evidence that resistance to the calcemic action of parathyroid hormone in rats with acute uremia is caused by phosphate retention. An animal model was developed to examine the cause of resistance to the calcemic action of PTH in renal failure. Thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) rats were repeatedly reinfused with their excreted urine, over a 5-hour period, to produce an acute uremic animal
Spinal solitary epidural cavernous angiomas are rare benign vascular malformations, which occur even less frequently in children than in adults. It is uncommon to find such lesions without adjacent vertebral involvement. Occasionally, these lesions can lead to neurological symptoms through growth or due to intralesional hemorrhage. In this report the authors describe 2 children presenting with acute symptoms and neurological deficits caused by hemorrhage within solitary spinal epidural cavernous angiomas. A 13-year-old girl and a 9-year-old girl, previously healthy, were admitted to the authors' department due to acute radicular pain and neurological deficits. In both cases MR imaging revealed a solitary epidural mass with signs of bleeding and compression of the spinal cord. Complete resection of the lesion via a dorsal approach was performed in both patients. The histological examination of the lesions revealed the characteristic structures of a cavernous angioma with hemosiderin deposits and acute hemorrhage. Both patients recovered fully after surgical removal of the lesions. Review of the literature confirmed that spinal epidural cavernous angiomas are extremely rare in the pediatric patient population, described currently in only 2 instances, but without acute hemorrhage. These cases suggest that epidural cavernous angiomas also have to be considered in the pediatric patient population in the differential diagnosis of intraspinal lesions with acute or progressive neurological symptoms. Microsurgical resection of these cavernous malformations is an effective and curative treatment option. PMID:20043742
Sarikaya-Seiwert, Sevgi; Gierga, Kristin; Wessalowski, Rüdiger; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel
Survivors of severe acute kidney injury remain at high risk of death well after apparent recovery from the initial insult. Here we determine whether early nephrology follow-up after a hospitalization complicated by severe acute kidney injury associates with patient survival. This consisted of a cohort study of all hospitalized adults in Ontario from 1996 to 2008 with acute kidney injury who received temporary inpatient dialysis and survived for 90 days following discharge independent from dialysis. Propensity scores were used to match individuals with early nephrology follow-up, defined as a visit with a nephrologist within 90 days of discharge, to those without. The outcome was time to all-cause mortality of 3877 patients who met the eligibility criteria within a maximum follow-up of 2 years. A total of 1583 patients had early nephrology follow-up of whom 1184 were successfully matched 1:1 to those not receiving early follow-up. The incidence of all-cause mortality was lower in those patients with early nephrology follow-up compared with those without (8.4 compared with 10.6 per 100-patient years, hazard ratio 0.76 (95% CI: 0.62-0.93)). Thus, early nephrology follow-up after hospitalization with acute kidney injury and temporary dialysis was associated with improved survival. This finding requires definitive testing in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:23325077
Harel, Ziv; Wald, Ron; Bargman, Joanne M; Mamdani, Muhammad; Etchells, Edward; Garg, Amit X; Ray, Joel G; Luo, Jin; Li, Ping; Quinn, Robert R; Forster, Alan; Perl, Jeff; Bell, Chaim M
In more than 90% of patients with acute cholecystitis, gallstones are impacted in the cystic duct. In the presence of cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, an appreciable number of various bacteria may be found in the bile and walls of the gall- bladder. Usually, the organisms found in the biliary tract are the normal intestinal flora: namely, enteric Gram-negative bacilli, including Escherichia
Mustafa Yildirim; Ismet Ozaydin; Idris Sahin; Mehmet Yasar
Summary Volatile anaesthetic agents are known to causeacute hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure in susceptible individuals. Four patients were identified with prolonged liver injury due to volatile anaesthetic-induced hepatitis. Three had liver biopsy confirmation and all gave blood for specific diagnostic tests (TFA and CYP 2E1 IgG4 antibodies). The Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) drug causality scale was used to determine the likelihood of volatile anaesthetics causing the chronic liver injury. We describe four cases of volatile anaesthetic hepatitis in which three evolved into chronic hepatitis. The fourth followed a more typical pattern of acute hepatitis; however, resolution took a few months. These cases all occurred with modern volatile anaesthetics, predominantly sevoflurane, and all cases were proven with specific antibody tests, liver histology and a drug causality scale. This is the first report of chronic liver injury due to volatile anaesthetic exposure.
Gram-negative bacteria play an important role in the formation and stabilization of biofilm structures on stone surfaces. Therefore, the control of growth of gram-negative bacteria offers a way to diminish biodeterioration of stone materials. The effect of potential permeabilizers on the outer membrane (OM) properties of gram-negative bacteria was investigated and further characterized. In addition, efficacy of the agents in enhancing the activity of a biocide (benzalkonium chloride) was assessed. EDTA, polyethylenimine (PEI), and succimer (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic) were shown to be efficient permeabilizers of the members of Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas genera, as indicated by an increase in the uptake of a hydrophobic probe (1-N-phenylnaphthylamine) and sensitization to hydrophobic antibiotics. Visualization of Pseudomonas cells treated with EDTA or PEI by atomic force microscopy revealed damage in the outer membrane structure. PEI especially increased the surface area and bulges of the cells. Topographic images of EDTA-treated cells were compatible with events assigned for the effect of EDTA on outer membranes, i.e., release of lipopolysaccharide and disintegration of OM structure. In addition, the effect of EDTA treatment was visualized in phase-contrast images as large areas with varying hydrophilicity on cell surfaces. In liquid culture tests, EDTA and PEI supplementation enhanced the activity of benzalkonium chloride toward the target strains. Use of permeabilizers in biocide formulations would enable the use of decreased concentrations of the active biocide ingredient, thereby providing environmentally friendlier products.
Alakomi, H.-L.; Paananen, A.; Suihko, M.-L.; Helander, I. M.; Saarela, M.
Summary Background The worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is associated with a newly discovered coronavirus, SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS- CoV). We did clinical and experimental studies to assess the role of this virus in the cause of SARS. Methods We tested clinical and postmortem samples from 436 SARS patients in six countries for infection with SARS- CoV, human
Thijs Kuiken; Ron A M Fouchier; Martin Schutten; Guus F Rimmelzwaan; Geert van Amerongen; Debby van Riel; Jon D Laman; Ton de Jong; Gerard van Doornum; Wilina Lim; Ai Ee Ling; Paul K S Chan; John S Tam; Maria C Zambon; Robin Gopal; Christian Drosten; Sylvie van der Werf; Nicolas Escriou; Jean-Claude Manuguerra; Klaus Stöhr; J S Malik Peiris; Albert D M E Osterhaus
· Background: Although enterovirus 70 (EV70) has been identified as the major aetiological agent of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivities\\u000a (ACH),no EV70 strain has been isolated by cell culture method since 1988. Therefore, recent clinical and epidemiological characteristics\\u000a of AHC caused by EV70 have not been clarified. · Methods: Clinical and serological studies were carried out on patients during\\u000a the AHC epidemic
We describe the case of a 76-year-old man presenting with a gas-filled intradural cyst that increased in size over a 10-month period and causedacute bilateral foot drop. The gas-filled intradural cyst was resected from the adherent cauda equina, and histopathological examination identified cystic tissue with degenerated fibrocartilage. Leg pain disappeared immediately following surgery, and the bilateral foot drop resolved within 8 months. PMID:23793353
Jeon, Chang-Hoon; Park, Jeong-Uk; Choo, Ho-Sik; Chung, Nam-Su
We report the case of a 41-year-old man with abdominal pain after envenomization by a puss caterpillar. The patient's medical history and physical examination revealed classic symptoms, leading to the correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy with intravenous calcium gluconate. Although severe, local reactions to puss caterpillar envenomization have been previously described, to our knowledge this is the first report of a patient with severe, acute abdominal pain caused by a puss caterpillar's sting. PMID:8701388
An investigation was conducted into whether running a marathon causesacute alterations in menisci, cartilage, bone marrow, ligaments, or joint effusions, which could be evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-two non-professional marathon runners underwent MRI of the knee before and immediately after running a marathon. Lesions of menisci and cartilage (five-point scale), bone marrow, ligaments (three-point scale), joint effusion,
C. Schueller-Weidekamm; G. Schueller; M. Uffmann; T. R. Bader
A retrospective study of 81 patients with dementia in a long-term care facility was conducted to determine the causes and frequency of acute hospitalization and the cause of death in the patients who succumbed during the acute hospital admission. Pneumonia and urinary tract infections were the most frequent causes of acute hospitalization; septicemia and respiratory failure were the most frequent causes of death. These results suggest that patients with dementia are prone to acquire life-threatening infections. Preventive measures to decrease the incidence of these complications are discussed.
Zarian, D. A.; Peter, S. A.; Lee, S.; Kleinfeld, M.
A healthy 26-year-old man visited the Emergency Department due to right lower quadrant pain of 2 days' duration that developed after wakeboarding. There was no history of direct trauma to the abdomen. Physical examination revealed tenderness and rebound tenderness on the right lower quadrant area. There was no palpable abdominal mass. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was undertaken to discern the causes of acute abdomen, including acute appendicitis. CT revealed a small-size rectus sheath hematoma beneath the lower end of the right rectus muscle. The patient was admitted for supportive care including pain control and was discharged with improvement after 5 days. Rectus sheath hematoma can be caused by not only a direct blow but also non-contact strenuous exercise, for example, wakeboarding in this case. Although the majority of rectus sheath hematomas are self-limiting, some can cause peritoneal irritation signs, mimicking acute abdomen, and eventually lead to unnecessary laparotomy without clinical suspicion and ancillary tests including CT scan and ultrasonography. PMID:18722739
Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Tae Han; Cha, Sung Jae; Kim, Seung Ho
Few recent reports have indicated that Mycobacterium massiliense causes various infections including respiratory infection. However, there is scarce information on the clinical significance, natural history of the infection, and therapeutic strategy. This report describes a case of an immunocompetent old man infected by M. massiliense that causesacute respiratory failure. In light of the general courses of non-tuberculous mycobacterium infections, rapid progression and fatality are very rare and odd. In addition, we discuss the biological and pathological properties of M. massiliense with the review of cases reported previously including our fatal one.
Choi, Kyoung Hwa; Yu, Hae Min; Jeong, Jae Seok; Kim, So Ri
Tightly spiral shaped Gram negative bacteria were seen in the gastric biopsies obtained from two patients undergoing gastroscopy. Active chronic gastritis was present in both patients and one patient also had gastric ulceration. Attempts to culture the organism by a number of methods were unsuccessful but positive urease results were obtained in both patients. Both patients were treated with colloidal bismuth subcitrate. Biopsies taken after treatment showed resolution of infection and histological gastritis. These results suggest that Helicobacter pylori is not the only organism associated with chronic active gastritis in man. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6
Background: The long-term health consequences of acute bacter- ial gastroenteritis remain uncertain. We studied the risk of hy- pertension and reduced kidney function after an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis due to contamination of a regional drink- ing water supply with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campy- lobacter species. Methods: A total of 1958 adults with no known history of hyper- tension
Amit X. Garg; Douglas Matsell; Heather R. Thiessen-Philbrook; R. Brian Haynes; Rita S. Suri; Marina Salvadori; William F. Clark
Use of classical microbiological methods to differentiate bacteria that cause gastroenteritis is cumbersome but usually very efficient. The high cost of reagents and the time required for such identifications, approximately four days, could have serious consequences, however, mainly when the patients are children, the elderly, or adults with low resistance. The search for new methods enabling rapid and reagentless differentiation of these microorganisms is, therefore, extremely relevant. In this work the main microorganisms responsible for gastroenteritis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Shigella flexneri, were studied. For each microorganism sixty different dispersions were prepared in physiological solution. The Raman spectra of these dispersions were recorded using a diode laser operating in the near infrared region. Partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis was used to differentiate among the bacteria by use of their respective Raman spectra. This approach enabled correct classification of 100% of the bacteria evaluated and unknown samples from the clinical environment, in less time ( approximately 10 h), by use of a low-cost, portable Raman spectrometer, which can be easily used in intensive care units and clinical environments. PMID:16158301
The acute biological activity of a homologous series of perfluorinated carboxylic acids - perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) - was studied. To analyze the potential risk of the perfluorinated acids to humans and the environment, different in vitro toxicity test systems were employed. The cytotoxicity of the chemicals towards two different types of mammalian cell lines and one marine bacteria was investigated. The viability of cells from the promyelocytic leukemia rat cell line (IPC-81) and the rat glioma cell line (C6) was assayed calorimetrically with WST-1 reagent. The evaluation was combined with the Vibrio fischeri acute bioluminescence inhibition assay. The biological activity of the compounds was also determined at the molecular level with acetylcholinesterase and glutathione reductase inhibition assays. This is the first report of the effects of perfluorinated acids on the activity of purified enzymes. The results show these compounds have a very low acute biological activity. The observed effective concentrations lie in the millimole range, which is well above probable intracellular concentrations. A relationship was found between the toxicity of the perfluorinated carboxylic acids and the perfluorocarbon chain length: in every test system applied, the longer the perfluorocarbon chain, the more toxic was the acid. The lowest effective concentrations were thus recorded for perfluorononanoic and perfluorodecanoic acids. PMID:21783770
Mulkiewicz, E; Jastorff, B; Sk?adanowski, A C; Kleszczy?ski, K; Stepnowski, P
Compartment syndrome usually occurs in the muscles of an extremity as a consequence of trauma or reperfusion. However, it can also occur from minor injuries with resulting hematoma.We reviewed the charts of 5 individuals who presented to the emergency department after minimal or no known trauma and were ultimately diagnosed with acute compartment syndrome. None sustained fractures, and 2 had documented muscle tears. All patients were found to have hematomas in the affected compartment at the time of surgery. Low-impact trauma can causeacute compartment syndrome in the lower extremities. These cases could be the result of muscle hemorrhage and subsequent hematoma formation, rather than muscle swelling itself. Anticoagulation therapy can increase the risk of hemorrhage. PMID:23481157
Aliano, Kristen; Gulati, Salil; Stavrides, Steve; Davenport, Thomas; Hines, George
Pregnancy constitutes a significant factor for thyroid enlargement. However, acute respiratory failure as a result of airway obstruction from an enlarged thyroid gland is an unusual incident. The case presented here concerns a 27-year-old black woman in her 20th gestational week who underwent an urgent operation for removal of a nontoxic, multinodular, mildly substernal goiter that was causing severe upper airway obstruction leading to acute life-threatening respiratory failure. Diagnosis of an extrathoracic tracheal stenosis was based on spirometry with analysis of the flow volume curve and was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the neck. Despite operational risks to the mother as well as the fetus during gestation, an urgent thyroidectomy was carried out successfully. The postoperative period progressed normally and the patient completed her pregnancy with no further respiratory symptoms. PMID:16487019
Aloumanis, K; Mavroudis, K; Vassiliou, I; Arkadopoulos, N; Smyrniotis, V; Kontoyannis, S; Papapetrou, P D; Kostopoulos, C H
Inhalation of inhaled environmental chemicals has long been recognized as a cause of acute increases in airway responsiveness. Extensive studies of the mechanisms of action of two of these chemicals, ozone and toluene diisocyanate, have been conducted during the past decade. The results of these studies suggest that acute airway inflammation plays an important role in the effect of inhaled chemicals but that the specific aspects of the inflammatory response that lead to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness are different for different stimuli and among different mammalian species. These observations suggest that in vivo airway hyperresponsiveness can arise via several different mechanisms and is thus not likely to reflect a single underlying defect. 24 references.
The data obtained in the clinical and laboratory study of 72 hospitalized patients with acute enteric infection are presented. The observed outbreak was caused by H. alvei producing heat-stable enterotoxin. The role of this etiological agent is also confirmed by simultaneous occurrence of the disease after using the same foodstuff, a short incubation period, the severity of the course of the disease with pronounced symptoms of neurotoxicosis, a high detection rate of H. alvei in material taken from patients at the acute period of the disease, rapid disappearance of this agent in the period of convalescence and a pronounced rise in the titer of specific antibodies to H. alvei in the dynamics of the disease. At the same time in the feces of 8 patients rotavirus antigen was detected, which, in combination with residual catarrhal phenomena, hyperemia and granularity of the pharynx, yellow stool, was indicative of the simultaneous circulation of rotavirus among these patients. PMID:12886610
Gracheva, N M; Leont'eva, N I; Bondarenko, V M; Fialkina, S V; Konovalova, G N; Partin, O S; Shcherbakov, I T; Solov'eva, A I; Blokhina, T A
Out of 82 patients with acute swelling of the scrotum, 25 (30.5%) had hydatid torsion. Hydatid torsion was the second most common cause of acute scrotal swelling in the entire patient group. In the group of patients up to 14 years of age (n = 36), hydatid torsion was found in 47.2% and was the most common cause of acute scrotal swelling, followed by torsion of the spermatic cord. Only 3 patients had torsion of an appendage of the epididymis. All other patients (n = 22) had torsion of the hydatid of Morgagni (appendage of the testicle). A difference in anatomical structure and vascularization during childhood seems to be the most important aspect regarding hydatid torsion and hemorrhagic infarction. Ultrasonographic examination of the scrotum and checking to see if the typical physical signs are present can help in making the exact diagnosis. In 13 patients with hydatid torsion, the scrotum was examined with ultrasound high-frequency transducers (7.5, 10 and 12 MHz). In 4 patients, the diagnosis was hydatid torsion, as determined by ultrasonography. Two patients were treated conservatively with a daily follow-up including a clinical examination and investigation of the scrotum with ultrasound. The patients recovered very quickly and the acute symptoms resolved within a few days in virtually all instances. Thus, in cases where the diagnosis is proven and the course of the disease is reasonably mild and painless, conservative management of intrascrotal hydatid torsion is possible and can be an effective means of treatment in lien of surgical intervention. PMID:2646809
Kuber, W; Ganser, R; Hainz, A; Kratzik, C; Tschabitscher, M
Q fever is a zoonotic disease of worldwide significance caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Humans with Q fever may experience an acute flu-like illness and pneumonia and\\/or chronic hepatitis or endocarditis. Various markers demonstrate significant phylogenetic separation between and clustering among isolates from acute and chronic human disease. The clinical and pathological responses to infection with phase
K. E. Russell-Lodrigue; M. Andoh; M. W. J. Poels; H. R. Shive; G. Q. Zhang; C. Tersteeg; T. Masegi; A. Hotta; T. Yamaguchi; H. Fukushima; K. Hirai; D. N. McMurray; J. E. Samuel
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been reported to be a potent mitogen for hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro. Recent reports have shown that HGF has cytoprotective actions in acute liver injury models, but its mechanisms remain to be resolved. In the present study, we investigated whether HGF could work as an anti-hepatitis agent for acute liver injury caused by
T-wave oversensing can be a serious problem that often results in inappropriate device therapy. We report here a patient with binge alcohol use who received multiple, inappropriate ICD shocks due to T-wave oversensing from repolarization changes induced by acute alcohol intoxication and no other relevant metabolic derangements. Following recovery from his alcohol intoxication a few days later, the T-wave amplitude decreased so the device no longer inappropriately sensed or delivered therapies. This case represents an uncommon, but reversible cause of T-wave oversensing, that should be considered before more aggressive measures are taken to correct the abnormality.
Rasania, Suraj P.; Mountantonakis, Stavros; Patel, Vickas V.
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. Involvement of the left main coronary artery is uncommon accounting for 9% of all cases. The condition commonly affects premenopausal females with about one third of the cases occurring during pregnancy and the peripartum period. The diagnosis may occasionally be overlooked as the patients are often young and have no risk factors for coronary artery disease. The clinical presentation and interesting angiographic findings of a 42-year-old female patient with left main coronary artery dissection are described along with a brief discussion of the pathogenesis and management of the condition. PMID:19882065
A case of acute acoustic trauma in 32 year male, caused by a noise from car airbag, was described. The symptoms occurring directly after the airbag shot were tinnitus and hearing loss in right ear. Patient was admitted to ENT Clinic in Gda?sk just after 5 months after an accident. Treatment--vasodilatators and oxygen hyperbaric therapy--was ineffective. Review of literature, concerning the side effects of car airbag shot, was made. A mechanism of airbag action was presented as a source of short time noise. PMID:11265391
It is known that insects can cause various clinical effects such as myocardial ischaemia and hypotension from vasospasm and the myocardial toxic effects of the venom and anaphylaxis. Although myocardial ischaemia resulting from centipede sting has been reported once before, myocardial injury has not. In this report, the authors present the case of a 20?year old male patient bitten by a centipede and admitted to the emergency room with chest pain, abnormal electrocardiographic findings, and increased cardiac enzymes (cardiac troponin T) suggesting acute myocardial infarction.
The antibacterial activities of 10 different plant polyphenols were evaluated by comparing their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against several food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (20 strains), some serotypes of the genus Salmonella (26 strains), Escherichia coli (23 strains), and some species of the genus Vibrio (27 strains). The polyphenols examined were epigallocatechin (1), epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (2), punicalagin (3), tannic acid (4), castalagin (5), prodelphinidin (6), geraniin (7), procyanidins (8), a theaflavin mixture of black tea (9), and green tea polyphenols treated with loquat polyphenol oxidase (10). The average MICs of all polyphenols against S. aureus and the genus Vibrio (192+/-91 and 162+/-165 microg/ml, respectively) were much lower than the values against the genus Salmonella and E. coli (795+/-590 and 1519+/-949 microg/ml, respectively) (p<0.01). The coefficient of variation of the MICs of all polyphenols against S. aureus was the least and that against the genus Vibrio was the greatest. The mean MICs of each plant polyphenol against S. aureus (98-389 microg/ml) and the genus Vibrio (68-488 microg/ml) were similar. The relatively lower mean MIC values of 1, 2, 5, and 6 suggest the importance of 3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl groups in antibacterial activity. PMID:15577214
Study design:Case report and literature review.Objective:To illustrate that ossification of the proximal thoracic ligamenta flava can be a rare cause of acute myelopathy in a Caucasian patient and that timely surgery can lead to a good outcome.Setting:Nottingham, UK.Methods:Proximal multiple contiguous ossified thoracic ligamenta flava from T3\\/T4 to T5\\/T6 causingacute myelopathy was diagnosed in a Caucasian man based on history
Background: This study is performed to reveal most common species and subspecies of leptospires that are main causes of human leptospirosis in Guilan, Northern Province of Iran. Methods: We performed IgM-ELISA and MAT on 282 blood samples from patients who attended to 3 hospitals in the flat area of Guilan Province with clinical symptoms consisted with leptospirosis. All specimens with titers ? 160 against at least one pathogenic strain in MAT and with titers ?160 in IgM-ELISA were regarded confirmed positive cases indicative acute disease. For any confirmed positive cases, we determined the strains, which had the highest titer to determine the frequency of most common serovars and serogroups. Results: Seventy of 282 sera had titers ?160 against at least one pathogenic strain in MAT and titers ? 160 in IgM-ELISA. We determined frequency of common causative serogroups which had highest titers in 70 positive cases and only cases which had high titers in MAT and in IgM-ELISA were selected which is a reliable criterion to detect acute disease and to determine causative serogroup. Conclusion: Nine serogroups including sejroe, grippotyphosa, mini, ictero haemorrhagiae, celledoni, autumnalis, cynopteri, pomona, and javanica were more responsible of acute leptospirosis in Guilan.
SUMMARY Background Military recruits receiving training are vulnerable to acute respiratory disease and a significant proportion of illness is due to unidentified pathogens. While some countries use surveillance programs to monitor such illness, few data exist for recruits of the British Armed Forces. Objectives Through active surveillance of approximately 1000 Royal Navy trainees during 2001, we sought to describe and determine the aetiology of acute respiratory illness. Methods Standard viral culture was used together with serology and a novel highly sensitive real-time PCR and molecular beacon probe assay for RSV detection. Results Among 54 Royal Navy recruits with respiratory symptoms adenovirus was identified in 35%, influenza viruses in 19% and RSV in 14% of this group. All of the recruits were absent from training for almost a week, most of whom were confined to the sickbay. Conclusions This study is the first to document adenovirus and RSV as important causes of acute respiratory illness among Royal Navy trainees. The study findings demonstrate the clinical significance and challenges of diagnosing RSV infection in young adults.
O'Shea, Matthew K.; Pipkin, Christopher; Cane, Patricia A.; Gray, Gregory C.
Background Despite extensive investigation, the cause of liver injury in 14% of acute liver failure patients remains unknown (indeterminate). In a pilot study, using a novel assay, highly specific acetaminophen-cysteine adducts were detected in 7 of 36 (19%) indeterminate patients. Methods To extend these observations, sera from 110 subjects enrolled in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry with indeterminate acute liver failure were analyzed using a similar but more efficient and sensitive adduct assay. As positive controls, an additional 199 patients with known or presumed acetaminophen-induced liver failure were assessed for the presence and quantity of adducts. Clinical, laboratory and outcome data were compared for the two groups. Results Based on previous data from known therapeutic exposures and acetaminophen overdoses, an adduct concentration of ?1.0 nmol/mL serum indicated a definite acetaminophen overdose. Among the 110 indeterminate cases, 18% had assay values ?1.0, with a median level of 9.2 nmol/mL; 94.5 % of the positive control (known APAP) cases had values ?1.0 nmol/mL. Regardless of initial diagnosis, subjects with elevated adduct levels demonstrated the clinical profile and hyperacute biochemical injury pattern associated with acetaminophen overdose: predominance of female gender, very high aminotransferase levels and low bilirubin levels. Conclusions These data confirm and extend previous observations regarding the high (18%) prevalence of unrecognized or uncertain acetaminophen toxicity among subjects with indeterminate acute liver failure. N-acetylcysteine use was limited in this group, presumably because of the lack of a specific diagnosis of acetaminophen toxicity.
Khandelwal, Niraj; James, Laura P.; Sanders, Corron; Larson, Anne M.; Lee, William M.
A hospital-based surveillance was undertaken between May 2005 and April 2006 to elucidate the contribution of Chandipura virus (CHPV) to acute viral encephalitis cases in children, seroconversion in recovered cases and to compare the seroprevalences of anti-CHPV IgM and N antibodies in areas reporting cases with those without any case of acute viral encephalitis. During this period, 90 cases of acute encephalitis were hospitalized in the pediatric wards of Mahatma Gandhi Memorial (MGM) Hospital, Warangal. There were 49 deaths (Case Fatality Rate, i.e., CFR of 54.4%). Clinical samples and records were obtained from 52 suspected cases. The cases were below 15 years, majority in 0-4 years (35/52, 67.3%). Computerized tomography (CT) scans and cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) picture favored viral etiology. No neurological sequelae were observed. CHPV etiology was detected in 25 cases (48.1%, n = 52; RNA in 20, IgM in 3 and N antibody seroconversion in 2). JEV etiology was detected in 5 cases (IgM in 4 cases and seroconversion in 1 case). Anti-CHPV IgM seroprevalence in contacts (26/167, 15.6%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in non-contacts (11/430, 2.6%); which was also observed in children <15 years (19/90, 21.1% vs. 3/109, 2.7%). Anti-CHPV N antibody seroprevalence in <15 years contacts (66/90, 73.3%) and non-contacts (77/109, 70.6%) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in contacts (75/77, 97.4%) and non-contacts (302/321, 94.1%) more than 15 years respectively. CHPV appears to be the major cause of acute viral encephalitis in children in endemic areas during early monsoon months. PMID:18041027
Iron (Fe0) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H2S, and scavenge of ‘cathodic’ H2 from chemical reaction of Fe0 with H2O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe0 year?1), while conventional H2-scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO3, Mg/CaCO3) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m?1). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe0 ? 4Fe2+ + 8e?) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e? + SO42? + 9H+ ? HS? + 4H2O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H2 rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments.
Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich
We have evaluated the interaction that bacterial genotypes and plant hosts have with the loss of pathogenicity in tumors, using seven Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains inoculated on 12 herbaceous and woody hosts. We performed a screening of the agrobacteria present inside the tumors, looking for nonpathogenic strains, and found a high variability of those strains in this niche. To verify the origin of the putative nonpathogenic mutant bacteria, we applied an efficient, reproducible, and specific randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis method. In contrast with previous studies, we recovered a very small percentage (0.01%) of nonpathogenic strains that can be considered true mutants. Of 5,419 agrobacterial isolates examined, 662 were nonpathogenic in tomato, although only 7 (from pepper and tomato tumors induced by two A. tumefaciens strains) could be considered to derive from the inoculated strain. Six mutants were affected in the transferred DNA (T-DNA) region; one of them contained IS426 inserted into the iaaM gene, whereas the whole T-DNA region was apparently deleted in three other mutants, and the virulence of the remaining two mutants was fully restored with the T-DNA genes as well. The plasmid profile was altered in six of the mutants, with changes in the size of the Ti plasmid or other plasmids and/or the acquisition of new plasmids. Our results also suggest that the frequent occurrence of nonpathogenic clones in the tumors is probably due to the preferential growth of nonpathogenic agrobacteria, of either endophytic or environmental origin, but different from the bacterial strain inducing the tumor.
Llop, Pablo; Murillo, Jesus; Lastra, Beatriz; Lopez, Maria M.
Background: Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare disease and its visual prognosis is poor. Case Reports: We present two patients, a 60-year-old man and a 53-year-old man, who developed endogenous endophthalmitis caused byGram-positive organismsbut recovered good vision after antibiotics and vitrectomy. Results: The first patient complained of ocular pain and visual decrease in his right eye. Ophthalmoscopy showed inflammation in the
Antibiotic-resistant organisms causing both hospital-and community-acquired complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (cSSTI) are increasingly reported. A substantial medical and economical burden associated with MRSA colonisation or infection has been documented. The number of currently available appropriate antimicrobial agents is limited. Good quality randomised, controlled clinical trial data on antibiotic efficacy and safety is available for cSSTI caused by MRSA. Linezolid, tigecycline, daptomycin and vancomycin showed efficacy and safety in MRSA-caused cSSTI. None of these drugs showed significant superiority in terms of clinical cure and eradication rates. To date, linezolid offers by far the greatest number of patients included in controlled trials with a strong tendency of superiority over vancomycin in terms of eradication and clinical success. Tigecycline is an alternative in polymicrobial infections except by diabetic foot infections. Daptomycin might be a treatment option for cases of cSSTI with MRSA bacteremia. cSSTI caused by resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a matter of great concern. The development of new antibiotics in this area is an urgent priority to avoid the risk of a postantibiotic era with no antimicrobial treatment options. An individual approach for every single patient is mandatory to evaluate the optimal antimicrobial treatment regimen.
Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of severe, acute urolithiasis in infants and toddlers, caused by melamine contamination in infant formula milk. The clinical data of 28 patients were collected and analyzed. Among the 28 patients, 17 patients received indwelling ureteral stents by cystoscopy (60.71%) and 5 patients received open surgery to extract calculi (17.86%). Four patients received catheterization or diuretic, anti-inflammatory or antispasmodic treatment (14.28%). Two patients underwent a second open surgery to extract calculi (7.14%). Eventually, the stones were eliminated from 23 patients and 5 patients had residual stones. In the 5 patients with residual stones, 3 patients had kidney stones, hydronephrosis or unilateral ureteral stones, resulting in urinary obstruction following surgery. Urolithiasis in infants and toddlers caused by melamine contamination was diagnosed, with common symptoms, including acute anuria, oliguria and dysurias. Ultrasonic inspection may be used to successfully examine urinary stones. Computed tomography (CT) scanning further detects the position of the stones and the degree of edema. Ureteral stenting via cystoscopy is a useful method, resulting in minimal trauma and a positive prognosis. PMID:23737868
In cancer patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), early adequate therapy is associated with better outcomes. We investigated the performance of the DIRECT approach, which uses criteria available at the bedside at admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), to identify causes of ARF in cancer patients. This cohort study included cancer patients with ARF of determined aetiology. Associations of aetiological groups with the selected criteria were evaluated using correspondence analysis. 424 cancer patients were included: 201 (47%) with bacterial pneumonia, 131 (31%) with opportunistic infections and 92 (22%) with noninfectious disorders. Mechanical ventilation (both invasive and noninvasive) was needed in 328 (77%) patients, treatment for shock in 217 (51%) patients and dialysis in 82 (19%) patients. 142 (34%) patients died in the ICU. Correspondence plots showed that bacterial pneumonia was associated with neutropenia, solid tumour, multiple myeloma, <3 days since symptom onset, shock, unilateral crackles and unilateral radiographic pattern. Opportunistic infections were associated with steroids, lymphoproliferative disorders and haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation, whereas noninfectious disorders were associated with acute leukaemia The selected criteria are strongly associated with causes of ARF in cancer patients and could be used to develop an algorithm for selecting first-line diagnostic investigations and empirical treatments. PMID:23143549
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of severe, acute urolithiasis in infants and toddlers, caused by melamine contamination in infant formula milk. The clinical data of 28 patients were collected and analyzed. Among the 28 patients, 17 patients received indwelling ureteral stents by cystoscopy (60.71%) and 5 patients received open surgery to extract calculi (17.86%). Four patients received catheterization or diuretic, anti-inflammatory or antispasmodic treatment (14.28%). Two patients underwent a second open surgery to extract calculi (7.14%). Eventually, the stones were eliminated from 23 patients and 5 patients had residual stones. In the 5 patients with residual stones, 3 patients had kidney stones, hydronephrosis or unilateral ureteral stones, resulting in urinary obstruction following surgery. Urolithiasis in infants and toddlers caused by melamine contamination was diagnosed, with common symptoms, including acute anuria, oliguria and dysurias. Ultrasonic inspection may be used to successfully examine urinary stones. Computed tomography (CT) scanning further detects the position of the stones and the degree of edema. Ureteral stenting via cystoscopy is a useful method, resulting in minimal trauma and a positive prognosis.
Investigation of bacteria involved in pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited by infant fragility, analysis restricted to feces, use of culture-based methods and lack of clinically-relevant animal models. This study used a unique preterm piglet model to characterize spontaneous differences in microbiome composition of NEC-predisposed regions of gut. Preterm piglets (n = 23) were cesarean-delivered and nurtured for 30 h over which time 52% developed NEC. Bacterial DNA from ileal content, ileal mucosa and colonic mucosa were PCR amplified, subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and targeted 16s rDNA qPCR. Preterm ileal mucosa was specifically bereft in diversity of bacteria compared to ileal content and colonic mucosa. Preterm ileum was restricted to representation by only Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. In piglets with NEC, ileal mucosa was uniquely characterized by increases in number of Firmicutes and diversity of phyla to include Actinobacteria and uncultured bacteria. Five specific TRFLP profiles, corresponding in closest identity to Clostridium butyricum, C. neonatale, C. proteolyticum, Streptomyces spp. and Leptolyngbya spp., were significantly more prevalent or observed only among samples from piglets with NEC. Total numbers of Clostridium spp. and C. butyricum were significantly greater in samples of NEC ileal mucosa but not ileal content or colonic mucosa. These results provide strong support for ileal mucosa as a focus for investigation of specific dysbiosis associated with NEC and suggest a significant role for Clostridium spp., and members of the Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria in the pathogenesis of NEC in preterm piglets.
Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea; Foster, Derek M; Cadenas, Maria B; Stone, Maria R; Jacobi, Sheila K; Stauffer, Stephen H; Pease, Anthony
AIM: To assess all clinically and bacteriologically documented episodes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis diagnosed in a single unit over a 20 year period, to identify changes in the nature and antibiotic resistance of the causative bacteria. SETTING: A specialist liver disease unit in a tertiary care centre. MATERIAL: Cultured ascitic fluid obtained in the course of 240 consecutive episodes of clinically and bacteriologically proven spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Patient recruitment remained stable during the 20 year period in terms of the number of cirrhotic patients admitted and the severity of their condition. RESULTS: 78.7% of isolates were Enterobacteriaceae (Escherichia coli in 51%) and 19% were Gram positive cocci. Until 1979 all the Enterobacteriaceae had the wild phenotype, compared with only 50% at the end of the study period. Since 1993, 22% of Enterobacteriaceae have been resistant to third generation cephalosporins. Methicillin resistant staphylococci were only isolated after 1989. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of bacteriacausing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis must be monitored for optimal treatment.
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria and contribute significant changes in the overall bacterial community. Prophages are formed when temperate bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the bacterial chromosome during the lysogenic cycle of the phage infection to bacteria. The prophage (phage DNA integrated into bacterial genome) on the bacterial genome remains dormant, but can cause cell lysis under certain environmental conditions. This research examined the effect of various environmental stress factors on the ammonia oxidation and prophage induction in a model ammonia oxidizing bacteria Nitrosospira multiformis ATCC 25196. The factors included in the study were pH, temperature, organic carbon (COD), the presence of heavy metal in the form of chromium (VI) and the toxicity as potassium cyanide (KCN). The selected environmental factors are commonly encountered in wastewater treatment processes, where ammonia oxidizing bacteria play a pivotal role of converting ammonia into nitrite. All the factors could induce prophage from N. multiformis demonstrating that cell lysis due to prophage induction could be an important mechanism contributing to the frequent upset in ammonia oxidation efficiency in full scale treatment plants. Among the stress factors considered, pH in the acidic range was the most detrimental to the nitrification efficiency by N. multiformis. The number of virus like particles (VLPs) increased by 2.3E+10 at pH 5 in 5h under acidic pH conditions. The corresponding increases in VLPs at pH values of 7 and 8 were 9.67E+9 and 1.57E+10 in 5h respectively. Cell lysis due to stress resulting in phage induction seemed the primary reason for deteriorated ammonia oxidation by N. multiformis at lower concentrations of Cr (VI) and potassium cyanide. However, direct killing of N. multiformis due to the binding of Cr (VI) and potassium cyanide with cell protein as demonstrated in the literature at higher concentrations of these toxic compounds was the primary mechanism of cell lysis of N. multiformis. Organics represented by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) did not have any effect on the phage induction in N. multiformis. This AOB remained dormant at low temperature (4 degrees C) without any phage induction. Significant decrease in the number of live N. multiformis cells with a corresponding increase in the number of VLPs was recorded when the temperature was increased to 35 degrees C. Death of N. multiformis at 45 degrees C was attributed to the destruction of cell wall rather than to the phage induction. PMID:20630557
Background Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most frequently encountered bacterial infections in children aged < 5 years; Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are historically identified as primary AOM causes. Nevertheless, recent data on bacterial pathogens causing AOM in Latin America are limited. This prospective study aimed to identify and characterize bacterial etiology and serotypes of AOM cases including antimicrobial susceptibility in < 5 year old Colombian children. Methods From February 2008 to January 2009, children ?3 months and < 5 years of age presenting with AOM and for whom a middle ear fluid (MEF) sample was available were enrolled in two medical centers in Cali, Colombia. MEF samples were collected either by tympanocentesis procedure or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling. Bacteria were identified using standard laboratory methods, and antimicrobial resistance testing was performed based on the 2009 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. Most of the cases included in the study were sporadic in nature. Results Of the 106 enrolled children, 99 were included in the analysis. Bacteria were cultured from 62/99 (63%) of samples with S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, or S. pyogenes. The most commonly isolated bacteria were H. influenzae in 31/99 (31%) and S. pneumoniae in 30/99 (30%) of samples. The majority of H. influenzae episodes were NTHi (27/31; 87%). 19F was the most frequently isolated pneumococcal serotype (10/30; 33%). Of the 30 S. pneumoniae positive samples, 8/30 (27%) were resistant to tetracycline, 5/30 (17%) to erythromycin and 8/30 (27%) had intermediate resistance to penicillin. All H. influenzae isolates tested were negative to beta-lactamase. Conclusions NTHi and S. pneumoniae are the leading causes of AOM in Colombian children. A pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that prevents both pathogens could be useful in maximizing protection against AOM.
BACKGROUND: Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant inborn error, results from the half-normal activity of the heme biosynthetic enzyme hydroxymethylbilane synthase (EC 126.96.36.199; HMB-synthase). This disease is characterized by acute, life-threatening neurologic attacks that are precipitated by various drugs, hormones, and other factors. The enzymatic and/or biochemical diagnosis of AIP heterozygotes is problematic; therefore, efforts have focused on the identification of HMB-synthase mutations so that heterozygotes can be identified and educated to avoid the precipitating factors. In Spain, the occurrence of AIP has been reported, but the nature of the HMB-synthase mutations causing AIP in Spanish families has not been investigated. Molecular analysis was therefore undertaken in nine unrelated Spanish AIP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from affected probands and family members of nine unrelated Spanish families with AIP. The HMB-synthase gene was amplified by long-range PCR and the nucleotide sequence of each exon was determined by cycle sequencing. RESULTS: Three new mutations, a missense, M212V; a single base insertion, g4715insT; and a deletion/insertion, g7902ACT-->G, as well as five previously reported mutations (G111R, R116W, R149X R167W, and R173W) were detected in the Spanish probands. Expression of the novel missense mutation M212V in E. coli revealed that the mutation was causative, having <2% residual activity. CONCLUSIONS: These studies identified the first mutations in the HMB-synthase gene causing AIP in Spanish patients. Three of the mutations were novel, while five previously reported lesions were found in six Spanish families. These findings enable accurate identification and counseling of presymptomatic carriers in these nine unrelated Spanish AIP families and further demonstrate the genetic heterogeneity of mutations causing AIP. Images Fig. 1
Solis, C.; Lopez-Echaniz, I.; Sefarty-Graneda, D.; Astrin, K. H.; Desnick, R. J.
Background Recent observational studies suggest that ?-blockers may improve long-term prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We assessed whether ?-blocker use improves all-cause mortality in patients with episodes of acute bronchitis. Methods An observational cohort study using data from the electronic medical records of 23 general practices in the Netherlands. The data included standardized information about daily patient contacts, diagnoses, and drug prescriptions. Cox regression was applied with time-varying treatment and covariates. Results The study included 4,493 patients aged 45 years and older, with at least one episode of acute bronchitis between 1996 and 2006. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 66.9 (11.7) years, and 41.9% were male. During a mean (SD) follow up period of 7.7 (2.5) years, 20.4% developed COPD. In total, 22.7% had cardiovascular comorbidities, resulting in significant higher mortality rates than those without (51.7% vs. 12.0%, p<0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio of cardioselective ?-blocker use for mortality was 0.62 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50–0.77), and 1.01 (95% CI 0.75–1.36) for non-selective ones. Some other cardiovascular drugs also reduced the risk of mortality, with adjusted HRs of 0.60 (95% CI 0.46–0.79) for calcium channel blockers, 0.88 (95% CI 0.73–1.06) for ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, and 0.42 (95% CI 0.31–0.57) for statins, respectively. Conclusion Cardiovascular comorbidities are common and increase the risk of mortality in adults with episodes of acute bronchitis. Cardioselective ?-blockers, but also calcium channel blockers and statins may reduce mortality, possibly as a result of cardiovascular protective properties.
Rutten, Frans H.; Groenwold, Rolf H. H.; Sachs, Alfred P. E.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Hoes, Arno W.
We prospectively analyzed the impact of post-transplant infections on the renal function in 532 stable renal transplant recipients (M=340; F=192) over a period of 5 years. Their age ranged from 3-75 years (40+14 years). During the follow-up period, 52 patients expired and 64 lost on followup. We defined renal impairment (RI) as a persistent rise in serum creatinine above 20% from baseline value. 495 episodes of RI occurred in 269 recipients. This included 180-36% episodes of acute rejection, 53-10.7% Cyclosporine toxicity, 236-47.7% infection related renal impairment [IRRI] and 26-5.3% others. The severity of renal failure is less in IRRI (100+90.2) than that of acute rejection (166+127.1), but was more than that in cyclosporine toxicity (50+42.2). Sites of infection in IRRI were urinary (33%), respiratory (26.3%), septicemia (15.7%) and others (25.4%). Episode of IRRI occurred more frequently in LURD (159-67.4%) compared to LRD-RTR (50-21.2%). Occurrence of IRRI is more significantly higher in patients on triple drug immunosuppression (IS) (34.3%) than those on two drug IS (13.2%) (P=or<0.01). Ecoli (23.1%), Pseudomonas (11.1%), Salmonella (8.8%), Klebsiella (8.8%) and Staphylococai (8.3%) were the major organisms producing IRRI. IRRI is frequent (27.8%) during the first six months. Present study denotes that IRRI is a major cause of acute failure in RTR. PMID:15859909
Objective To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases. Methods Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Results Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains. Conclusions The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well.
Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali
Low-back pain is a common problem in neu-rosurgery practice, and an algorithm has been developed for assessing these cases. However, one subgroup of these patients shares several clinical features and these individuals are not easy to categorize and diagnose. We present our observations for 8 of these patients, individuals with low-back pain caused by atypical annulus fibrosus rupture (AAR). The aim of this study is to show the consequences of overlooked annular tears on acute onset of low back pain. Eight patients with acute-onset severe low-back pain were admitted. Physical examinations were normal and each individual was examined neurologically and assessed with neuroradiologic studies [plain x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), discography and computed tomography (CT) discography]. AAR was ultimately diagnosed with provocative discography. In all cases, MRI showed a healthy disc or mild degeneration, whereas discography and CT discography demonstrated disc disease. Anterior interbody cage implantation was performed in 3 of the 8 cases and posterior dynamic stabilization was carried out in 3 cases. The other 2 individuals refused surgery, and we were informed that one of them developed disc herniation at the affected level 1 year after our diagnosis. Clinical and radiological outcomes were evaluated. In cases where AAR is suspected, MRI, discography, and CT discography should be performed in addition to routine neuroradiologic studies.
Low-back pain is a common problem in neu-rosurgery practice, and an algorithm has been developed for assessing these cases. However, one subgroup of these patients shares several clinical features and these individuals are not easy to categorize and diagnose. We present our observations for 8 of these patients, individuals with low-back pain caused by atypical annulus fibrosus rupture (AAR). The aim of this study is to show the consequences of overlooked annular tears on acute onset of low back pain. Eight patients with acute-onset severe low-back pain were admitted. Physical examinations were normal and each individual was examined neurologically and assessed with neuroradiologic studies [plain x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), discography and computed tomography (CT) discography]. AAR was ultimately diagnosed with provocative discography. In all cases, MRI showed a healthy disc or mild degeneration, whereas discography and CT discography demonstrated disc disease. Anterior interbody cage implantation was performed in 3 of the 8 cases and posterior dynamic stabilization was carried out in 3 cases. The other 2 individuals refused surgery, and we were informed that one of them developed disc herniation at the affected level 1 year after our diagnosis. Clinical and radiological outcomes were evaluated. In cases where AAR is suspected, MRI, discography, and CT discography should be performed in addition to routine neuroradiologic studies. PMID:22802990
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute myocardial ischaemia. Eight consecutive fatal cases which occurred in women aged 34-54 years (mean 43) are described. The dissection involved the left anterior descending coronary artery in four, the left main trunk in two, the right coronary artery in one, and both left anterior descending and circumflex arteries in one. The clinical presentation was sudden death in six cases, and acute myocardial infarction in two. Diagnosis was made at necropsy in every case but one, in which coronary dissection was diagnosed during life by selective coronary angiography. The only ascertained risk factor was hypertension in one patient; none of the women was in the puerperium, and Marfan syndrome was excluded in all. Histology showed a haematoma between the coronary tunica media and adventitia, that flattened and occluded the lumen; a coronary intimal tear was detected in only two cases. Unusual histological findings were cystic medial necrosis in one case, eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrates in four, and angiomatosis of the tunica adventitia in one. Patients dying of spontaneous coronary dissection are usually middle aged women, with no coronary atherosclerosis and apparently no risk factors. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is unpredictable, and sudden death is the usual mode of clinical presentation. Prompt diagnosis and life saving treatment is far from being achieved. Images
The incidence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing P. aeruginosa has increased worldwide. The treatment options are limited for infectious diseases caused by these two organisms. The use of colistin has been of recent interest in cases involving both types. We report the case of a 74-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia who was successfully treated with intravenous colistin for maxillary sinusitis and orbital cellulites due to MBL-producing MDRPA during neutropenia, and then for pneumonia caused by the bacteria after the recovery of neutrophil counts. PMID:19308657
An acute tick-borne rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia heilongjiangensis was diagnosed in 13 patients from the Russian Far East in 2002. We amplified and sequenced four portions of three rickettsial genes from the patients’ skin biopsy results and blood samples and showed that the amplified rickettsial genes belong to R. heilongjiangensis, which was recently isolated from Dermacentor sylvarum ticks in nearby regions of China. This rickettsia, belonging to subgroup of R. japonica, was previously suggested to be pathogenic for humans on the basis of serologic findings. We tested serum samples with different rickettsial antigens from 11 patients and confirmed increasing titers of immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM to spotted fever group rickettsiae, including R. heilongjiangensis. Clinical and epidemiologic data on these patients shows that this disease is similar to other tick-borne rickettsioses.
Pleural effusion has various causes. In the setting of aortic stenosis, new onset pleural effusion is generally considered as a consequence of heart failure. Here, we describe a 50-year-old male patient who had been followed with aortic stenosis for 30 years. During his admission he presented with exertional dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain. He had no other symptoms or findings of cardiac failure. Complete blood count revealed neutrophilic leukocytosis, a normal hemoglobin level and normal platelet count. Left sided pleural effusion was noted on the posteroanterior chest X-ray. Examination of the pleural fluid revealed myeloid blasts. Bone marrow aspiration smear and flow cytometric analysis of the bone marrow and pleural fluid were consistent with acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:17380003
Several fibrinogen binding proteins (Fibs) play important roles in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Most Fibs can promote the aggregation of platelets during infection, but the extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) is an exception. It is reported that Efb can specifically bind fibrinogen and inhibit the aggregation of platelet with its N terminal. However, the biological significance of platelet aggregation inhibition in the infection caused by S. aureus is unclear until now. Here, we demonstrated that the persistence and aggregation of platelets were important for killing S. aureus in whole blood. It was found that the N terminal of Efb (EfbN) and platelets inhibitors could increase the survival of S. aureus in whole blood. The study in vivo also showed that EfbN and platelets inhibitors could reduce the killing of S. aureus and increase the lethality rate of S. aureus in the acute infection mouse model. PMID:21265599
Background There is a consensus that the large fluctuations in mortality seen in Russia in the past two decades can be attributed to trends in alcohol consumption. However, the precise mechanisms linking alcohol to mortality from circulatory disease remain unclear. It has recently been argued that a substantial number of such deaths currently ascribed to cardiovascular disorders are misclassified cases of acute alcohol poisoning. Methods Analysis of routine mortality data and of a case–control study of mortality among working-age (25–54 years) men occurring in the Russian city of Izhevsk, west of the Ural mountains, 2003–05. Interviews were carried out with proxy informants for both the dead cases (N?=?1750) and the controls (N?=?1750) selected at random from a population register. Mortality was analysed according to indicators of alcohol problems. Results Hazardous drinking was associated with an increased risk of death from circulatory diseases as a whole [odds ratio (OR)?=?4.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.23, 5.31] adjusted for age, smoking and education. The association with alcoholic cardiomyopathy was particularly strong (OR?=?15.7, 95% CI 9.5, 25.9). Although there was no association with deaths from myocardial infarction (MI; OR?=?1.17, 95% CI 0.59, 2.32), there was a strong association with the aggregate of all other ischaemic heart disease (IHD; OR?=?4.04, 95% CI 2.79, 5.84). Stronger associations for each of these causes (other than MI) were seen with whether or not the man had drunk very heavily in the previous week. However, associations also remained when analyses were restricted to subjects with no evidence of recent heavy drinking, suggesting that misclassification of acute alcohol poisonings is unlikely to explain these overall associations. Conclusion Taken as a whole, the available evidence suggests that the positive association of alcohol with increased cardiovascular disease mortality may be best explained as being the result of a combination of chronic and acute alcohol consumption resulting in alcohol-related cardiac disorders, especially cardiomyopathy, rather than being due to misclassification of acute alcohol poisoning. Further work is required to understand the mechanisms underlying the link between heavy alcohol consumption and deaths classified as being due to IHD (other than MI).
Leon, David A; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M; McKee, Martin; Kiryanov, Nikolay; Andreev, Evgueny
Many stimuli such as ischemia, hypoxia, heat shock, amino acid starvation, and gene mutation, exhibit a cellular response called endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress induces expression of a series of genes, leading to cell survival or apoptosis. Previously, we found that in an animal model of hearing loss caused by acute mitochondrial dysfunction, several ER stress markers including C/EBP homologous protein were induced in the cochlear lateral wall. To elucidate the mechanism of hearing loss caused by ER stress, we established a novel animal model of hearing loss by perilymphatic perfusion of tunicamycin, an ER stress activator that inhibits N-acetylglucosamine transferases. Subacute and progressive hearing loss was observed at all sound frequencies studied, and stimulation of ER stress marker genes was noted in the cochlea. The outer hair cells were the most sensitive to ER stress in the cochlea. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated degeneration of the subcellular organelles of the inner hair cells and nerve endings of the spiral ganglion cells. This newly established animal model of hearing loss from ER stress will provide additional insight into the mechanism of sensorineural hearing loss. PMID:22362185
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) cause neurobehavioral toxicity, but their effects on visual behavior remain unknown. In the present study, the impact of PBDEs on visual behavior was examined using optokinetic responses and phototaxis in zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to pentabrominated diphenyl ethers mixture (DE-71) at concentrations of 0, 0.32, 3.58, and 31.0?µg/L until 15 d postfertilization. The authors then assessed photoreceptor opsin expression, retinal histology, and visual behavior of the larvae. The results showed that the transcriptions of the opsin genes, zfrho and zfgr1, were significantly upregulated. Western blotting further demonstrated a significant increase in rhodopsin protein expression after exposure of the larvae to DE-71. Histological examination revealed the following morphological alterations in the retina: increased area of inner nuclear layer, decreased area of inner plexiform layer, and decreased density of ganglion cells. Tests of optokinetic and phototactic behavior showed hyperactive responses on exposure to DE-71, including increased saccadic eye movements and phototactic response. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the acute exposure of zebrafish larvae to DE-71 causes biochemical and structural changes in the eye that lead to behavioral alterations. Analysis of these visual behavioral paradigms may be useful in predicting the adverse effects of toxicants on visual function in fish. PMID:23400899
Acute, severe aortic regurgitation due to dilatation of the aortic root was studied in a 16-year-old Japanese female with Takayasu's arteritis. The patient was admitted because of acute pulmonary edema followed by systemic illness characterized by fever, anorexia, and general fatigue. The echocardiogram and aortogram demonstrated acute, severe aortic regurgitation due to dilatation of the aortic root. She was successfully
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a poorly understood condition with greater than 30% mortality. Massive recruitment of neutrophils to the lung occurs in the initial stages of the ARDS. Significant variability in the severity and duration of ARDS-associated pulmonary inflammation could be linked to heterogeneity in the inflammatory capacity of neutrophils. Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are a broad gene family induced by Type I interferons. While ISGs are central to anti-viral immunity, the potential exists for these genes to evoke extensive modification in cellular response in other clinical settings. In this prospective study, we sought to determine if ISG expression in circulating neutrophils from ARDS patients is associated with changes in neutrophil function. Circulating neutrophil RNA was isolated, and hierarchical clustering ranked patients' expression of three ISGs. Neutrophil response to pathogenic bacteria was compared between normal and high ISG-expressing neutrophils. High neutrophil ISG expression was found in 25 of 95 (26%) of ARDS patients and was associated with reduced migration toward interleukin-8, and altered responses to Staphylococcus aureus, but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which included decreased p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation, superoxide anion release, interleukin-8 release, and a shift from necrotic to apoptotic cell death. These alterations in response were reflected in a decreased capacity to kill S. aureus, but not P. aeruginosa. Therefore, the ISG expression signature is associated with an altered circulating neutrophil response phenotype in ARDS that may predispose a large subgroup of patients to increased risk of specific bacterial infections. PMID:21755013
Malcolm, Kenneth C; Kret, Jennifer E; Young, Robert L; Poch, Katie R; Caceres, Silvia M; Douglas, Ivor S; Coldren, Chris D; Burnham, Ellen L; Moss, Marc; Nick, Jerry A
We present detailed ophthalmic findings in a case of tuberculum sellae meningioma with acute visual symptoms due to optic canal involvement. A 62-year-old Japanese woman reported a 1-week history of headaches and blurred vision in her left eye. Her visual acuity was 0.3 in the left eye with no ophthalmoscopic abnormalities. A relative afferent pupillary defect and inferior temporal field defect were found in the left eye. Pattern visual evoked potentials were undetectable in the left eye. Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a 9 mm intracranial lesion around the left optic nerve anterior to the chiasm. She was diagnosed with granulomatous inflammation because of the increased cell counts and protein concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid. She was treated with steroid pulse therapy, and her visual acuity and visual field defect improved to normal in 3 weeks. However, 16 months after the onset, she suffered from headaches again and had a complete loss of vision in her left eye. There was no response to steroid pulse therapy. Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the lesion had extended into the left optic canal, and emergency tumor removal surgery was carried out. The histopathological diagnosis was meningioma. One month after the surgery, her left visual acuity improved to 1.2, and her visual field was almost normal. Pattern visual evoked potentials were present but had a prolonged P(100) latency of 170 ms. A thinning of the ganglion cell complex was detected by optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmologists should be aware that a small tuberculum sellae meningioma can causeacute visual symptoms due to optic canal involvement. Early consultation with a neurosurgeon is necessary. Visual evoked potentials and optical coherence tomography are sensitive and helpful in following patients with optic nerve compression. PMID:22654490
We present detailed ophthalmic findings in a case of tuberculum sellae meningioma with acute visual symptoms due to optic canal involvement. A 62-year-old Japanese woman reported a 1-week history of headaches and blurred vision in her left eye. Her visual acuity was 0.3 in the left eye with no ophthalmoscopic abnormalities. A relative afferent pupillary defect and inferior temporal field defect were found in the left eye. Pattern visual evoked potentials were undetectable in the left eye. Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a 9 mm intracranial lesion around the left optic nerve anterior to the chiasm. She was diagnosed with granulomatous inflammation because of the increased cell counts and protein concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid. She was treated with steroid pulse therapy, and her visual acuity and visual field defect improved to normal in 3 weeks. However, 16 months after the onset, she suffered from headaches again and had a complete loss of vision in her left eye. There was no response to steroid pulse therapy. Enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the lesion had extended into the left optic canal, and emergency tumor removal surgery was carried out. The histopathological diagnosis was meningioma. One month after the surgery, her left visual acuity improved to 1.2, and her visual field was almost normal. Pattern visual evoked potentials were present but had a prolonged P100 latency of 170 ms. A thinning of the ganglion cell complex was detected by optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmologists should be aware that a small tuberculum sellae meningioma can causeacute visual symptoms due to optic canal involvement. Early consultation with a neurosurgeon is necessary. Visual evoked potentials and optical coherence tomography are sensitive and helpful in following patients with optic nerve compression.
At 25° C, Rtsl+ bacteria grow to about 5x109 bacterial\\/ml before leveling off, whereas at 42° C they grow from 2.6x108 bacteria\\/ml for only 2.3 generations after temperature shift before the growth is inhibited with a zig-zag pattern at the plateau. When diluted, Rtsl+ bacteria grow rapidly at 42° C, until the concentration reaches as high as the undiluted 42°
An outbreak of acute, fatal, hemorrhagic pneumonia was observed in more than 1,000 mixed breed dogs in a single animal shelter. The Department of Anatomic Pathology at the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine performed necropsies on dogs that were found moribund in acute respiratory distress or found dead with evidence of nasal bleeding. All dogs had hemothorax and an acute, fibrinosuppurative pneumonia. Large numbers of gram-positive cocci were observed within the lungs of all dogs and within septic thromboemboli of remote organs in about 50% of cases. Bacterial cultures from the dogs and their environment revealed widespread beta-hemolytic Streptococus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (Lancefield Group C). Extensive diagnostic testing failed to reveal the consistent presence of copathogens in individual cases. The clinical, epidemiologic, molecular biologic, and pathologic data indicate that a single clone of S. zooepidemicus was the cause of an acutely fatal respiratory infection in these dogs. PMID:18192575
Pesavento, P A; Hurley, K F; Bannasch, M J; Artiushin, S; Timoney, J F
Environmental strain Burkholderia sp. DNT mineralizes the xenobiotic compound 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) owing to the catabolic dnt genes borne by plasmid DNT, but the process fails to promote significant growth. To investigate this lack of physiological return of such an otherwise complete metabolic route, cells were exposed to DNT under various growth conditions and the endogenous formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) monitored in single bacteria. These tests revealed the buildup of a strong oxidative stress in the population exposed to DNT. By either curing the DNT plasmid or by overproducing the second activity of the biodegradation route (DntB) we could trace a large share of ROS production to the first reaction of the route, which is executed by the multicomponent dioxygenase encoded by the dntA gene cluster. Naphthalene, the ancestral substrate of the dioxygenase from which DntA has evolved, also caused significant ROS formation. That both the old and the new substrate brought about a considerable cellular stress was indicative of a still-evolving DntA enzyme which is neither optimal any longer for naphthalene nor entirely advantageous yet for growth of the host strain on DNT. We could associate endogenous production of ROS with likely error-prone repair mechanisms of DNA damage, and the ensuing stress-induced mutagenesis in cells exposed to DNT. It is thus plausible that the evolutionary roadmap for biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds like DNT was largely elicited by mutagenic oxidative stress caused by faulty reactions of precursor enzymes with novel but structurally related substrates-to-be. PMID:24009532
Pérez-Pantoja, Danilo; Nikel, Pablo I; Chavarría, Max; de Lorenzo, Víctor
Sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are needed for efficient and evidence-based treatment of septic patients. Recently, new molecular tools have emerged to complement the conventional culture-based diagnostic methods. In this study, we used spiked whole blood samples to evaluate together two ready-to-use molecular solutions for the detection of sepsis-causingbacteria. We spiked whole blood with bacterial species relevant in sepsis and extracted bacterial DNA with the NorDiag Arrow device, using the SelectNA Blood pathogen DNA isolation kit. DNA extracts were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and microarray-based Prove-it™ Bone and Joint assay, resulting in correctly identified bacterial species with detection limits of 11-600 colony-forming unit/mL (CFU/mL). To understand the recovery losses of bacterial DNA during the sample preparation step and the capability of the PCR- and microarray-based platform to respond to the sensitivity requirements, we also determined the analytical sensitivity of the PCR and microarray platform to be 1-21 genome equivalents for the tested bacterial species. In addition, the inclusivity of the Prove-it™ Bone and Joint assay was demonstrated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones carrying SCCmec types I, II, IV, or V and a nontypable SCCmec type. The proof-of-concept for accurate multiplex pathogen and antibacterial resistance marker detection from spiked whole blood samples was demonstrated by the selective bacterial DNA extraction method combined with the high-throughput PCR- and microarray-based platform. Further investigations are needed to study the promising potential of the concept for sensitive, semi-automated identification of sepsis-causing pathogens directly from whole blood. PMID:23417871
Sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are needed for efficient and evidence-based treatment of septic patients. Recently, new molecular tools have emerged to complement the conventional culture-based diagnostic methods. In this study, we used spiked whole blood samples to evaluate together two ready-to-use molecular solutions for the detection of sepsis-causingbacteria. We spiked whole blood with bacterial species relevant in sepsis and extracted bacterial DNA with the NorDiag Arrow device, using the SelectNA Blood pathogen DNA isolation kit. DNA extracts were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and microarray-based Prove-it™ Bone and Joint assay, resulting in correctly identified bacterial species with detection limits of 11–600 colony-forming unit/mL (CFU/mL). To understand the recovery losses of bacterial DNA during the sample preparation step and the capability of the PCR- and microarray-based platform to respond to the sensitivity requirements, we also determined the analytical sensitivity of the PCR and microarray platform to be 1–21 genome equivalents for the tested bacterial species. In addition, the inclusivity of the Prove-it™ Bone and Joint assay was demonstrated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones carrying SCCmec types I, II, IV, or V and a nontypable SCCmec type. The proof-of-concept for accurate multiplex pathogen and antibacterial resistance marker detection from spiked whole blood samples was demonstrated by the selective bacterial DNA extraction method combined with the high-throughput PCR- and microarray-based platform. Further investigations are needed to study the promising potential of the concept for sensitive, semi-automated identification of sepsis-causing pathogens directly from whole blood.
Environmental strain Burkholderia sp. DNT mineralizes the xenobiotic compound 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) owing to the catabolic dnt genes borne by plasmid DNT, but the process fails to promote significant growth. To investigate this lack of physiological return of such an otherwise complete metabolic route, cells were exposed to DNT under various growth conditions and the endogenous formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) monitored in single bacteria. These tests revealed the buildup of a strong oxidative stress in the population exposed to DNT. By either curing the DNT plasmid or by overproducing the second activity of the biodegradation route (DntB) we could trace a large share of ROS production to the first reaction of the route, which is executed by the multicomponent dioxygenase encoded by the dntA gene cluster. Naphthalene, the ancestral substrate of the dioxygenase from which DntA has evolved, also caused significant ROS formation. That both the old and the new substrate brought about a considerable cellular stress was indicative of a still-evolving DntA enzyme which is neither optimal any longer for naphthalene nor entirely advantageous yet for growth of the host strain on DNT. We could associate endogenous production of ROS with likely error-prone repair mechanisms of DNA damage, and the ensuing stress-induced mutagenesis in cells exposed to DNT. It is thus plausible that the evolutionary roadmap for biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds like DNT was largely elicited by mutagenic oxidative stress caused by faulty reactions of precursor enzymes with novel but structurally related substrates-to-be.
Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, despite intense efforts to improve survival. The primary lead for septic shock results from activation of host effector cells by endotoxin, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria. For these reasons, the quest for compounds with antiendotoxin properties is actively pursued. We investigated the efficacy
Andrea Giacometti; Oscar Cirioni; Roberto Ghiselli; Federico Mocchegiani; Fiorenza Orlando; Carmela Silvestri; Argante Bozzi; A. Di Giulio; C. Luzi; M. L. Mangoni; D. Barra; V. Saba; G. Scalise; A. C. Rinaldi
In up to 90% of cases, severe halitosis is a result of gastrointestinal or orolaryngeal problems. This case study reports on a girl with bad breath caused by increased formation of malodorous intestinal gases (halitosis), which could be successfully treated with a suspension of living non-pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli. Conclusion: in unclear cases of bad breath, an increased formation of
From a case of acute endocarditis of the aortic and mitral valves with infarctions m the spleen and kidneys a micrococcus was twice isolated in pure culture from the blood during life and was demonstrated after death both microscopically and in pure culture in large numbers in the valvular vegetations, the infarctions and other parts. No other species of microorganism was found. This micrococcus is very small, occurs mainly in pairs, sometimes in short chains, stains by Gram's method, grows in small, pale, grayish-white colonies on gelatine and agar, at first clouds bouillon, which then becomes clear with a whitish sediment, does not produce gas in glucose media, liquefies gelatine slowly and to some extent also blood serum, and is especially characterized by its behavior in milk, which it acidifies, coagulates and subsequently liquefies. It produces a milk-curdling ferment and also a proteolytic ferment, each of which is separable from the bacterial cells. It remains viable for months in old cultures and is tolerably resistant to the action of heat and antiseptics. The micrococcus is pathogenic for mice and rabbits, causing either abscesses or general infections. Typical acute vegetative endocarditis was experimentally produced by intravenous inoculation of the organism in a rabbit and a dog, and the cocci were demonstrated in pure culture in the vegetations and other parts of these animals after death. Although the micrococcus here described has some points of resemblance to the pneumococcus and Streptococcus pyogenes on the one hand and to the pyogenic staphylococci on the other, it is readily distinguished from each of these species by cultural features which have been described and which are so obvious that the differentiation of these species from our micrococcus need not be discussed in detail. We have searched through the records concerning microorganisms described in association with endocarditis and other diseases, as well as those isolated from water, soil and other sources, and have been unable to find a description of a micrococcus identical in all particulars with that here described. Such points as staining by Gram, liquefaction of gelatine, coagulation and peptonization of milk, served singly or in combination to distinguish our micrococcus from other forms which in some respects might resemble it. We feel justified, therefore, in recognizing this organism as a new species and from its fermentative properties propose for it the name "Micrococcus zymogenes." Micrococcus zymogenes must be added to the already considerable list of bacteria which have been found as the specific infective agents in endocarditis. That it was the cause of this affection in our case was conclusively demonstrated by its repeated isolation in pure culture from the blood during life, by its presence in pure culture and large numbers after death in the cardiac vegetations, the infarctions, and other parts of the body, and by the experimental proof of its pathogenic properties, and notably its capacity to produce vegetative endocarditis by intravenous inoculation in animals. PMID:19866921
We present a case of limb ischemia in a young man. For acute alcohol withdrawal, this patient was given chlordiazepoxide (Librium) through an angiocatheter inadvertently placed into a brachial arterial line. This caused severe spasm of the brachial artery and its branches. These findings were confirmed by angiography. Successful treatment occurred with intra-arterial papaverin. PMID:10903461
Bovine acute phase proteins (APPs), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were evaluated as inflammatory markers during an outbreak of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) caused by bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves (n=10) presented mild to moderate signs of respiratory disease. Secondary bacterial infections, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma dispar as major species,
Toomas Orro; Tarja Pohjanvirta; Ulla Rikula; Anita Huovilainen; Sakari Alasuutari; Liisa Sihvonen; Sinikka Pelkonen; Timo Soveri
The proximal straight tubule (S3 segment) of the kidney is highly susceptible to ischemia and toxic insults but has a remarkable capacity to repair its structure and function. In response to such injuries, complex processes take place to regenerate the epithelial cells of the S3 segment; however, the precise molecular mechanisms of this regeneration are still being investigated. By applying the "toxin receptor mediated cell knockout" method under the control of the S3 segment-specific promoter/enhancer, Gsl5, which drives core 2 ?-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase gene expression, we established a transgenic mouse line expressing the human diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor only in the S3 segment. The administration of DT to these transgenic mice caused the selective ablation of S3 segment cells in a dose-dependent manner, and transgenic mice exhibited polyuria containing serum albumin and subsequently developed oliguria. An increase in the concentration of blood urea nitrogen was also observed, and the peak BUN levels occurred 3-7 days after DT administration. Histological analysis revealed that the most severe injury occurred in the S3 segments of the proximal tubule, in which tubular cells were exfoliated into the tubular lumen. In addition, aquaporin 7, which is localized exclusively to the S3 segment, was diminished. These results indicate that this transgenic mouse can suffer acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by S3 segment-specific damage after DT administration. This transgenic line offers an excellent model to uncover the mechanisms of AKI and its rapid recovery. PMID:21431867
Purpose To report the first case of acute endophthalmitis caused by Alloiococcus otitidis after a dexamethasone intravitreal implant. Methods A 74-year-old female was treated with intravitreal Ozurdex® in her left eye for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the eye was 4/20. Intravitreal injection was uneventful. At 48 h after injection, she developed ocular pain and visual acuity had dropped to light perception. Endophthalmitis associated with intravitreal injection was suspected. Results The patient did not show a favorable clinical response following systemic, intravitreal, and topical fortified antibiotics. We then performed a vitreous biopsy and removed the Ozurdex implant by pars plana vitrectomy. A vitreous culture was positive for A. otitidis. At the 2-month follow up, no inflammation was observed, but due to CRVO and probably aggravated by endophthalmitis, the fundus showed macular fibrosis. The final BCVA was finger counting at 30 cm in her left eye. Conclusions In cases of an intravitreal implant associated with endophthalmitis, we recommend removal of the device because it may act as a permanent reservoir of organisms if it remains in the vitreous cavity.
Marchino, Tizana; Vela, Jose I.; Bassaganyas, Francisca; Sanchez, Saskia; Buil, Jose A.
In this study, the authors report the distribution of serogroups/serotypes and their susceptibility profiles of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing recurrent and difficulties to treat acute otitis media (AOM) in children obtained at the ENT outpatient clinic of Robert Debré Hospital in Paris, between 2002-2008 after the implementation of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. In this retrospective study, 126 S. pneumoniae isolates were obtained by tympanocentesis from 126 children with AOM during three different periods: 2002-2003 (period 1), 2004-2005 (period 2), and 2006-2008 (period 3). In period 1, the most common serotype was 19F. Between period 1 and period 3, the proportion of serotype 19F decreased from 39 to 13% (P=0.03). In contrast, the proportion of serotype 19A increased from 25 to 60% (P=0.03). So, they observed that vaccine-related serotype 19A became dominant among young children with AOM in 2006-2008. Overall, 15.1% of the isolates were penicillin susceptible, 73.8% intermediate and 11.1% were resistant. Most (94%) of the S. pneumoniae serotype 19A were penicillin intermediate. PMID:18926673
Mahjoub-Messai, F; Doit, C; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; François, M; Bingen, E
The Colilert-18 system for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli is approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use in drinking water analysis and is also used by various agencies and research studies for enumeration of indicator organisms in fresh and saline waters. During monitoring of Pinellas County, Fla., marine waters, estimates of E. coli numbers (by Colilert-18) frequently exceeded fecal coliform counts (by membrane filtration) by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. Samples from freshwater sites did not display similar discrepancies. Fecal coliforms, including E. coli, could be cultured from 100% of yellow fluorescent wells (denoting E. coli-positive results) inoculated with freshwater samples but could be cultured from only 17.1% of the “positive” wells inoculated with marine samples. Ortho-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactopyranoside (ONPG)-positive or 4-methylumbelliferyl-?-d-glucuronide (MUG)-positive noncoliform bacteria were readily cultured from Colilert-18 test wells inoculated with marine samples. Filtered cell-free seawater did not cause false positives. Coculture preparations of as few as 5 CFU of Vibrio cholerae (ONPG positive) and Providencia sp. (MUG positive) ml?1 inoculated into Colilert-18 caused false-positive E. coli results. Salinity conditions influenced coculture results, as the concentration of coculture inoculum required to cause false positives in most wells increased from about 5 CFU ml?1 in seawater diluted 1:10 with freshwater to ?5,000 CFU ml?1 in seawater diluted 1:20 with freshwater. Estimated E. coli numbers in various marine water samples processed at the 1:10 dilution ranged from 10 to 7,270 CFU·100 ml?1, while E. coli numbers in the same samples processed at the 1:20 dilution did not exceed 40 CFU·100 ml?1. The lower estimates of E. coli numbers corresponded well with fecal coliform counts by membrane filtration. This study indicates that assessment of E. coli in subtropical marine waters by Colilert-18 is not accurate when the recommended 1:10 sample dilution is used. The results suggest that greater dilution may diminish the false-positive problem, but further study of this possibility is recommended.
Pisciotta, John M.; Rath, Damon F.; Stanek, Paul A.; Flanery, D. Michael; Harwood, Valerie J.
ACUTE PYELONEPHRITIS is an infection of the upper urinary tract involving bacterial invasion of the renal parenchyma. There are about 250,000 cases of acute pyelonephritis in the United States each year.t It is considered one of the most serious forms of urinary tract infection and usually is caused by the ascent of bacteria from the bladder to the renal medulla
Andy G. Pinson; John T. Philbrick; George H. Lindbeck; John B. Schorling
Objective. To study the value of the inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and C-reactive protein (CRP)) in predicting the outcome of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF) on top of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the role of bacteria in the systemic inflammation. Methods. Thirty three patients were subjected to standard treatment plus NIV, and accordingly, they were classified into responders and nonresponders. Serum samples were collected for IL-6, IL-8, and CRP analysis. Sputum samples were taken for microbiological evaluation. Results. A wide spectrum of bacteria was revealed; Gram-negative and atypical bacteria were the most common (31% and 28% resp.; single or copathogen). IL-8 and dyspnea grade was significantly higher in the non-responder group (P = 0.01 and 0.023 resp.). IL-6 correlated positivity with the presence of infection and type of pathogen (P = 0.038 and 0.034 resp.). Gram-negative bacteria were associated with higher significant IL-6 in comparison between others (196.4 ± 239.1?pg/dL; P = 0.011) but insignificantly affected NIV outcome (P > 0.05). Conclusions. High systemic inflammation could predict failure of NIV. G-ve bacteria correlated with high IL-6 but did not affect the response to NIV.
We evaluated PCR methods for diagnosis of acute and chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in an area of Colombia where Leishmania (Viannia) is endemic. The PCR method specifically amplified whole linearized minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) of the Leishmania subgenus Viannia from biopsy lysates. PCR products were detected in agarose gels. For 255 acute cases, this PCR method had greater sensitivity (75.7%)
Kristen A. Weigle; Luz Angela Labrada; Caterin Lozano; Cecilia Santrich; Douglas C. Barker
The analysis of observations on 36 patients is presented. Anuria complicated by acute pyelonephritis is considered as an acute surgical pathology requiring emergency operative intervention. The suggested tactics for complex examination and treatment of the patients contributed to decrease in the postoperative lethality down to 5.9%. PMID:2082089
Skliar, V N; Shtan'ko, L V; Ba?lo, V D; Popov, V A; Ishmuradov, B T
We report a case of a 27-year-old man who ingested a fungicide containing iminoctadine with suicidal intent. He developed acute and severe circulatory failure which responded well to noradrenaline. PMID:8303820
This report describes a patient with acute renal failure that resulted from the ingestion of djenkol beans. Features of acute djenkolism include nausea, vomiting, bilateral loin pain, gross hematuria, and oliguria. The blood urea level was 16.2 mmol\\/L and the serum creatinine was 460 ?mol\\/L. Phase contrast microscopy of the urinary sediment indicated that the hematuria was nonglomerular. Ultrasound of
M. Segasothy; M. Swaminathan; N. C. T. Kong; William M. Bennett
Traumatic coronary artery dissection is an uncommon cause of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We report a case of blunt chest trauma resulting from a motorcycle collision causing ostial dissection of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery in a 31-year-old previously healthy male. The patient also suffered from compound comminuted fractures of the humerus and ulna and severe liver laceration, which hampered both percutaneous and surgical acute revasularization. After a stormy hospital course, a bare metal stent was implanted to seal the LAD artery dissection. The patient was discharged in a stable condition and was followed-up for rehabilitation. This case report underscores the multidisciplinary approach in facing challenges encountered after rare sequelae of chest trauma. PMID:22121464
Background: Telavancin, a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic, is a semisynthetic derivative of vancomycin. It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by grampositive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.Objective: This article summarizes the pharmacology, in vitro and in vivo activity, pharmacokinetic properties, and clinical efficacy and
Introduction Dynasilan is a fluoroalkylsilan that is able to interact with surface active centres on intraocular lenses (IOL), offering a new way for surface modification of different IOL materials. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of this new surface modification on the adherence of two typical endophthalmitis causingbacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes).Materials and methods In
Antonia Kienast; Regine Kämmerer; Claudia Weiss; Matthias Klinger; Dirk-Henning Menz; Joachim Dresp; Helge Ohgke; Werner Solbach; Horst Laqua; Hans Hoerauf
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been identified as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide. However, the precise role of TLR4 in regulating gene expression in response to an infection caused by gram-negative bacteria has not been fully elucidated. The role of TLR4 signaling in coordinating gene expression was assessed by gene expression profiling in lung tissue in a mouse model of experimental
Jill R. Schurr; Erana Young; Pat Byrne; Chad Steele; Judd E. Shellito; Jay K. Kolls
The complete nucleotide sequence was determined for the cDNAs that represent the RNA genome of the standard strain of a variant of coxsackievirus A24, the EH24\\/70, one of the agents causingacute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. The genome is 7461 nucleotide long and is polyadenylated at the 3'-end terminus. Following a 750-nucleotide 5'-noncoding region, there was a long open reading frame of
Kasama Supanaranond; Naokazu Takeda; Shudo Yamazaki
Aneurysm of the mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa (MAIF) is an exceptionally rare but a potentially catastrophic complication, commonly following aortic valve endocarditis. We present a 24-year-old male presenting with acute onset dyspnea secondary to MAIF aneurysm rupturing into a left atrium causing large shunt which was diagnosed on echocardiography. The MAIF aneurysm in the absence of infective endocarditis rupturing into left atrium is extremely rare.
Acute pain caused by musculoskeletal disorders is very common and has a significant negative impact on quality-of-life and societal costs. Many types of acute pain have been managed with traditional oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors (coxibs). Data from prospective, randomised controlled clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance indicate that use of oral traditional NSAIDs and coxibs is associated with an elevated risk of developing gastrointestinal, renovascular and/or cardiovascular adverse events (AEs). Increasing awareness of the AEs associated with NSAID therapy, including coxibs, has led many physicians and patients to reconsider use of these drugs and look for alternative treatment options. Treatment with NSAIDs via the topical route of administration has been shown to provide clinically effective analgesia at the site of application while minimising systemic absorption. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic potency of the traditional oral NSAID diclofenac, along with its physicochemical properties, makes it well suited for topical delivery. Several topical formulations of diclofenac have been developed. A topical patch containing diclofenac epolamine 1.3% (DETP, FLECTOR® Patch), approved for use in Europe in 1993, has recently been approved for use in the United States and is indicated for the treatment of acute pain caused by minor strains, sprains and contusions. In this article, we review the available clinical trial data for this product in the treatment of pain caused by soft tissue injury.
Utilising incomplete data supplied by the Hospital Inpatient Analysis, the annual incidence of acute pancreatitis in Northern Ireland was estimated to be about 170 cases per million population. The annual mortality rate for the years 1974-1983, using figures obtained from the Registrar-General for Northern Ireland, was 12.3 cases per million. An increase in both incidence and mortality from acute pancreatitis was demonstrated during the study. There was 191 deaths from pancreatitis during the study period and in 27 of these the diagnosis was made only at postmortem examination. Of the undiagnosed fatalities, 10 occurred in individuals with a history of alcohol abuse. Eight of the 27 undiagnosed cases had not sought medical attention, five had presented with a systemic complication of acute pancreatitis, and a further five had only minor gastrointestinal tract symptoms prior to death. The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis requires a high index of suspicion and should be considered in acutely ill patients, particularly those with a history of alcohol abuse, who fail to respond to appropriate therapy.
Research of ancient pathogens in ancient human skeletons has been mainly carried out on the basis of one essential historical or archaeological observation, permitting specific pathogens to be targeted. Detection of ancient human pathogens without such evidence is more difficult, since the quantity and quality of ancient DNA, as well as the environmental bacteria potentially present in the sample, limit
Catherine Thèves; Alice Senescau; Stefano Vanin; Christine Keyser; François Xavier Ricaut; Anatoly N. Alekseev; Henri Dabernat; Bertrand Ludes; Richard Fabre; Eric Crubézy
The influence of intestinal bacterial decontamination on the occurrence of grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was retrospectively analyzed in 194 predominantly adult patients treated by genotypically identical sibling marrow transplantation under conditions of strict protective isolation and intestinal antimicrobial decontamination. Forty-five patients (23%) developed acute GVHD and univariate analysis identified four features that significantly increased the risk for this reaction: chronic myeloid leukemia as the underlying disease, as compared with all other disease categories (P < .0001); female marrow donors for male recipients, as compared with other gender combinations (P < .005); ineffective, as compared with sustained growth suppression of intestinal anaerobic bacteria (P < .006); and methotrexate as the sole immunoprophylactic compound, as compared with cyclosporine containing regimens (P < .05). Using the duration of anaerobic growth suppression as a time-dependent explanatory variable, proportional hazards regression analysis confirmed these features as independent predictors for acute GVHD with relative risk estimates of 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3 to 2.7) for the immunoprophylactic regimen (P < .0004), of 1.8 (95% CI, 1.3 to 2.5) for the underlying disease (P < .0005), of 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.5) for anaerobic decontamination (P < .002), and of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6) for the donor/recipient gender combination (P < .008), respectively. Best subset selection modeling also identified the quality of anaerobic decontamination as the third most important predictor for acute GVHD, when all four significant features were included. Estimates of acute GVHD stratified by the quality of anaerobic bacterial growth suppression showed a strong influence of anaerobic decontamination in patients burdened by at least one of the other unfavorable factors (P < .009). In conclusion, this study provides strong evidence that sustained growth suppression of intestinal anaerobic bacteria after clinical sibling marrow transplantation can independently modulate the occurrence of grades II to IV acute GVHD, which is in concordance with previous results from animal transplantation models. Antimicrobial chemotherapy specifically targeted to the intestinal anaerobic bacterial microflora may be complementarily useful in preventing acute GVHD and should be investigated in a prospective trial. PMID:1421380
Beelen, D W; Haralambie, E; Brandt, H; Linzenmeier, G; Müller, K D; Quabeck, K; Sayer, H G; Graeven, U; Mahmoud, H K; Schaefer, U W
We report the successful management of acute cholecystitis using cystic duct stent placement in 3 patients with inoperable malignant cystic duct obstruction (2 cholangiocarcinoma and 1 pancreatic carcinoma). All patients underwent stent placement in the bile duct, using an uncovered stent in 2 and a covered stent in 1, to relieve jaundice occurring 8-184 days (mean 120 days) before the development of acute cholecystitis. The occluded cystic duct was traversed by a microcatheter and a stent was implanted 4-17 days (mean 12 days) after cholecystostomy. Acute cholecystitis was improved after the procedure in all patients. Two patients died 3 and 10 months later, while 1 has survived without cholecystitis for 22 months after the procedure to date.
Miyayama, Shiro, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Yamashiro, Masashi; Takeda, Taro; Aburano, Hiroyuki [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Komatsu, Tetsuya [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology (Japan); Sanada, Taku; Kosaka, Shotaro; Toya, Daisyu [Fukuiken Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine (Japan); Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)
Background The manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism with acute pancreatitis is a rare event. Ectopic paraesophageal parathyroid adenomas account for about 5%–10% of primary hyperparathyroidism and surgical resection results in cure of the disease. Case presentation A 71-year-old woman was presented with acute pancreatitis and hypercalcaemia. During the investigation of hypercalcemia, a paraesophageal ectopic parathyroid mass was detected by computerized tomography (CT) scan and 99mTc sestamibi scintigraphy. The tumor was resected via a cervical collar incision and calcium and parathormone tumor levels returned to normal within 48 hours. Conclusions Acute pancreatitis associated with hypercalcaemia should pose the suspicion of primary hyperparathyroidism. Accurate preoperative localization of an ectopic parathyroid adenoma, by using the combination of 99mTc sestamibi scintigraphy and CT scan of the neck and chest allows successful surgical treatment.
Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is common in critically ill patients, and causes significant\\u000a morbidity and mortality. The underlying etiology of ATN can be divided into pure ischemic, pure nephrotoxic, and mixed causes.\\u000a This post-hoc analysis of a prospective cohort study aimed to investigate whether the cause (pure vs. mixed) of ATN affects\\u000a the short-
A 64-year-old woman developed an acute organic psychosis secondary to thyrotoxicosis and B12 deficiency, without the overt clinical features of pernicious anemia. The psychosis resolved with B12 and thyroid hormone replacement. The patient relapsed after an erroneous iatrogenic tripling of the levothyroxine dosage, but her condition normalized after dosage correction. PMID:3972777
Nuclear Factor ?B (NF?B) is an ubiquitous rapid response transcription factor involved in inflammatory reactions and exerts its action by expressing cytokines, chemokines, and cell adhesion molecules. We investigated the role of NF-?B in acute hypovolemic hemorrhagic (Hem) shock. Hem shock was induced in male anesthetized rats by intermittently withdrawing blood from an iliac catheter over a period of 20
Domenica Altavilla; Antonino Saitta; Salvatore Guarini; Mariarosaria Galeano; Giovanni Squadrito; Domenico Cucinotta; Letterio B. Santamaria; Anna T Mazzeo; Giuseppe M Campo; Marcella Ferlito; Letteria Minutoli; Carla Bazzani; Alfio Bertolini; Achille P Caputi; Francesco Squadrito
This is a case of 49 year-old-female with left lower quadrant pain. Initial diagnosis of acute diverticulitis entertained and treated accordingly. Diagnosis of epiploic appendagitis was done by abdominal CT-Scan. Epiploic appendagitis is commonly misdiagnosed as diverticulitis and appendicitis. Non-invasive studies may lead to early diagnosis avoiding unnecessary hospitalizations, antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention. PMID:21696102
Maldonado-Rivera, Sandra N; Calviño-Acosta, Lázaro; Santiago-Casiano, Mónica; de Lourdes Miranda, María; Mercedes Maldonado, Milciades; Hernan Martínez, José
The incompatibility of the anticoccidial monensin and the antibiotic tiamulin when administered simultaneously to chickens is well documented. Signs similar to monensin poisoning have been seen in turkeys given these two drugs together in field cases. This work describes a preliminary trial in which simultaneous administration of therapeutic doses resulted in acute severe poisoning with a high mortality.
Infusion of supramaximal doses of cerulein induces acute edematous pancreatitis in the rat. Cannulation of the main pancreatic duct does not prevent the formation of the edema but reveals an almost complete reduction of pancreatic flow. Using freeze-fracture techniques and thin-section electron microscopy, earliest structural alterations were observed at membranes of zymogen granules and the plasma membrane. Fusion of zymogen
Acute fulminant pancreatitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To examine the outcome of conservative and surgical treatment of this disorder, 36 patients who survived an initial episode were restudied after a mean of six years. Fifty three per cent had developed diabetes mellitus, half of whom required insulin therapy. Pancreatic resection was associated with a 100% frequency of
J Eriksson; M Doepel; E Widén; L Halme; A Ekstrand; L Groop; K Höckerstedt
Cellulomonas denverensis is a small and thin gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium that was proposed as a new species in 2005. Here we report a female case of acute cholecystitis and sepsis in which C. denverensis was determined to be causative. PMID:19656981
Granulosa cell tumors (GCT) constitute 70% of all ovarian sex-cord stromal tumors, which account for less than five percent of all ovarian carcinoma. The authors herein report a rare case of a ruptured GCT of the ovary in a 43-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency department with signs of acute abdomen. PMID:23967560
Bastu, E; Akhan, S E; Karamustafaoglu, B; Gungor-Ugurlucan, F; Sozen, H; Iyibozkurt, A C
This Note explores antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains in humans and their roots in American industrial livestock practices. Factory farms promote the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria—or “superbugs”—by giving animals subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics to prevent the diseases that result from confinement and unhygienic conditions. Although Congress has repeatedly attempted to pass legislation to curtail the use of sub-therapeutic antibiotic dosing in livestock,
Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is the third most common cause of death in the United States. Appearing as a sudden blockage in a major pulmonary artery, APE may cause mild, moderate or severe right ventricular (RV) overload. Although severe RV overload produces diagnostically obvious RV mechanical failure, little progress has been made in gaining a clinical and biophysical understanding of moderate and mild acute RV overload and its impact on RV functionality. In the research described here, we conducted a pilot study in pigs using echocardiography and observed the following abnormalities in RV functionality under acute mild or moderate RV overload: (i) occurrence of paradoxical septal motion with "waving" dynamics; (ii) decrease in local curvature of the septum (p < 0.01); (iii) lower positive correlation between movement of the RV free wall and movement of the septum (p < 0.05); (iv) slower rate of RV fractional area change (p < 0.05); and (v) decrease in movement stability, particularly in the middle of the septum (p < 0.05). PMID:23969162
Gynostemma pentaphyllum was investigated to determine its antimicrobial activities against human.and animal pathogens that produce aflatoxin, fumonisin, and diarrheal disease. The fungi were Aspergillusflavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium verticillioides. The bacteria were Vibrio, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. G. pentaphyllum was extracted by five different methods. The obtained extracts were designated Extracts A, B, C, D and E. The results of the antifungal assay against A.flavus andA. parasiticus showed Extracts A and B at 10,000 ppm inhibited growth at 8-28%. Extracts A and B at 10,000 ppm also showed activity against F. verticillioides at 41-43%. Extract A, B and C were able to inhibit the tested strains better than the Extracts D and E. The MIC values of the extracts against gram-negative bacteria ranged from bacteria, was 3.9-15.62 mg/ml. G. pentaphyllum extracts had activity against bacterial and fungal infections and could be used to control these organisms. PMID:21706950
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a common cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease and sometimes causes severe neurologic complications, mainly in children. We report a case of adult-onset encephalitis caused by intrafamilial transmission of a subgenogroup C4 strain of EV71. This case elucidates the risk for EV71 encephalitis even in adults.
This study investigated Polo-like kinase 1, a mitotic regulator often over-expressed in solid tumors and adult hematopoietic malignancies, as a potential new target in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Polo-like kinase 1 protein and Thr210 phosphorylation levels were higher in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=172) than in normal bone marrow mononuclear cells (n=10) (P<0.0001). High Polo-like kinase 1 protein phosphorylation, but not expression, was associated with a lower probability of event-free survival (P=0.042) and was a borderline significant prognostic factor (P=0.065) in a multivariate analysis including age and initial white blood cell count. Polo-like kinase 1 was necessary for leukemic cell survival, since short hairpin-mediated Polo-like kinase 1 knockdown in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines inhibited cell proliferation by G2/M cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Primary patient cells with a high Polo-like kinase 1 protein expression were sensitive to the Polo-like kinase 1-specific inhibitor NMS-P937 in vitro, whereas cells with a low expression and normal bone marrow cells were resistant. This sensitivity was likely not caused by Polo-like kinase 1 mutations, since only one new mutation (Ser335Arg) was found by 454-sequencing of 38 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases. This mutation did not affect Polo-like kinase 1 expression or NMS-P937 sensitivity. Together, these results indicate a pivotal role for Polo-like kinase 1 in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and show potential for Polo-like kinase 1-inhibiting drugs as an addition to current treatment strategies for cases expressing high Polo-like kinase 1 levels.
Hartsink-Segers, Stefanie A.; Exalto, Carla; Allen, Matthew; Williamson, Daniel; Clifford, Steven C.; Horstmann, Martin; Caron, Huib N.; Pieters, Rob; Den Boer, Monique L.
A 50-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with acute, bilateral lower extremity weakness and loss of sensation, as well as absent pulses bilaterally. Computed tomography angiography showed complete occlusion of the aorta below the inferior mesenteric artery, extending to the iliac bifurcations. Echocardiographic findings showed severe systolic dysfunction (ejection fraction of 15%) and cryptic cardiogenic shock in spite of stable vital signs. Prior to early operative intervention, an early goal-oriented hemodynamic strategy of shock management resulted in the resolution of motor and sensory deficits.After definitive surgical intervention, the patient was discharged neurologically intact. Acute aortic occlusion is frequently accompanied by myocardial dysfunction, which can be from mild to severe. The most severe form can even occur with normal vital signs or occult cardiogenic shock. Early detection and goal-directed preoperative hemodynamic optimization, along with surgical intervention in the ED, is required to optimize outcomes.
Mitchell, Matthew L.; Yucebey, Elif; Weaver, Mitchell R.; Jaehne, A. Kathrin; Rivers, Emanuel P.
The objective was to evaluate whether hormone therapy (HT) gives any benefit against the possible impairment of cognitive performance when challenged by acute sleep deprivation. Twenty postmenopausal women volunteered (age range 59–72 years, mean=64.4 years, SD=4.4): 10 HT users and 10 nonusers. Eleven young women served as a control group for the cognitive age effect (age range 20–26 years, mean
Maija Karakorpi; Paula Alhola; Anna Sofia Urrila; Mervi Kylmälä; Raija Portin; Nea Kalleinen; Päivi Polo-Kantola
A rare case of acute abdomen syndrome due to a ruptured ovarian tumor and a penetrated fallopian tube is described. Based\\u000a on the intraoperative finding and patient’s age, a right-sided salpingo-oophorectomy, appendectomy and peritoneal washings\\u000a were performed. After a histological diagnosis of malignant granulosa cell tumors and FIGO IIA clinical classification, the\\u000a patient returned 1 month after the procedure. A
Dubravko Habek; Jasna ?erkez Habek; Ante Barbir; Mira Barbir
Multiple organ damage in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) patients is common; however, the pathogenesis remains controversial.\\u000a This study was to determine whether the damage was correlated with expression of the SARS coronavirus receptor, angiotensin\\u000a converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), in different organs, especially in the endocrine tissues of the pancreas, and to elucidate the\\u000a pathogenesis of glucose intolerance in SARS
Deletion of chromosome 9p21 is a crucial event for the development of several cancers including acute lymphoblastic leukemia\\u000a (ALL). Double strand breaks (DSBs) triggering 9p21 deletions in ALL have been reported to occur at a few defined sites by\\u000a illegitimate action of the V(D)J recombination activating protein complex. We have cloned 23 breakpoint junctions for a total\\u000a of 46 breakpoints
Francesca Novara; Silvana Beri; Maria Ester Bernardo; Riccardo Bellazzi; Alberto Malovini; Roberto Ciccone; Angela Maria Cometa; Franco Locatelli; Roberto Giorda; Orsetta Zuffardi
This descriptive, hospital-based study, performed in western Turkey, was designed to assess the level of pre-hospital delay and reasons for such delay in acute stroke patients, taking into consideration certain factors such as socioeconomic status, availability of transport options at onset of symptoms. Data were collected from hospital records, and a questionnaire was administered that included questions about socio-demographics, self-reported
Sakine Memis; Emel Tugrul; E Didem Evci; Filiz Ergin
AIMSTo report the clinical features of five patients with non-progressive central ring scotomas of acute onset associated with excellent retained visual acuity.METHODSComplete neuro-ophthalmological examinations were performed. Visual fields were performed by tangent screen, Goldmann, or Humphrey perimetry. In some cases further testing was carried out including fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, ERG, VEP, and neuroimaging.RESULTSThe patients were three women and two
John B Kerrison; Stephen C Pollock; Valerie Biousse; Nancy J Newman
Background In 2008 there was an epidemic of renal disease affecting infants after consumption of melaminetainted milk products. Most\\u000a of the infected children were asymptomatic or with mild symptoms, and a few suffered from acute obstructive kidney injury\\u000a secondary to melamine-contained renal stones (8 of 15 577 children screened at our hospital for urolithiasis). This study\\u000a was intended to retrospectively review
Yang Zi-Hao; Zhang Chen-Mei; Liu Tao; Lou Xiao-Fang; Chen Zhen-Jie; Ye Sheng
54.3%, while in males the recorded value was 45.7%. Gram-negative isolates had a prevalence of 74.7%, while gram-positive isolates had 25.30%. The bacteria isolated in order of ranking were E. coli (24.5%), K. pneumoniae (17.3%), P. mirabilis (14.6%), S. faecalis (13.4%), S. aureus (5.3 %), P. vulgaris (4.7%), P. stuartii (4.1%), S. epidermidis (3.8%), A. faecalis (3.4%), S. saprophyticus (2.8%),
We describe a case, which gives an answer to the question of 'Does the surgical repair of the acute Achilles tendon ruptures cause the structural changes in the 15-year follow-up?' The only complaint of the patient was the feeling of that the size of the left foot is smaller than the right side. Dynamic pedobarography (EMED-SF, Novel, Munich) demonstrated that left foot has less total contact area, higher pressure values, lower arch index, more laterally located center of pressure, and higher medial arch than that of the right one. PMID:21417988
Introduction The authors present a 14-year-old patient who developed an anaplastic oligoastrocytoma of the left parietal lobe 9 years after\\u000a a successful treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). He had a history of induction chemotherapy, intrathecal methotrexate\\u000a and prophylactic whole brain irradiation (1,800 cGy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion Radiation-induced neoplasia is suggested to be the late complication of ALL treatment, and evaluation
Necmettin Tanriover; Mustafa Onur Ulu; Mehmet Sar; Mustafa Uzan
We describe a patient with acute cardiogenic shock due to cardiac involvement in idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (Löffler endocarditis). At the echocardiography, there was a huge mass in the left ventricular cavity, resulting in inflow- and outflow tract obstruction. The posterior leaflet of the mitral valve apparatus was completely embedded in a big (organized) thrombus mass. The patient was treated with high dose corticosteroids, however without effect. Partial remission was achieved after treatment with hydroxycarbamide. He was also treated with anticoagulants and high dose beta-blockers. The patient’s condition improved remarkably after correction of the mitral valve insufficiency by a mitral valve bioprosthesis.
We report the case of a 78-year-old woman with a three-day history of abdominal pain and vomiting. An abdominal plain film showed a distended small bowel loop and no signs of free intra-abdominal gas. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a mass containing a linear, hyperechoic structure. The mass was connected through a sinus tract to an adjacent aperistaltic small bowel loop. A laparotomy revealed a jejunal perforation and an omental granuloma containing a fish bone. Accidentally ingested foreign bodies should always be suspected in cases of acute abdomen, and ultrasonography remains a firstline examination tool for preoperative diagnoses of unsuspected foreign bodies and their complications. PMID:20683816
Drakonaki, Eleni; Chatzioannou, Maria; Spiridakis, Konstantinos; Panagiotakis, George
An acute amnesic syndrome accompanied the development of a hematoma of the upper part of the third ventricle affecting the fornix. The initial deficit was substantial with corresponding forgetfulness, but there was no false recognition nor fabulation. Recollection of past events was fairly well conserved, subject to difficulties with the temporal structuring of memories. Secondarily. psychometric tests showed preferential impairment of spontaneous recollection and logical learning. The role of lesions of the upper fornix projecting onto the dorsomedian nuclei of the thalamus is discussed. PMID:6524296
Rousseaux, M; Lesoin, F; Nzeymana, C; Cabaret, M; Jomin, M
We report the case of a 49-year-old woman with a prior history of breast cancer who presented with a subacute course of progressive dyspnoea, culminating in cardiovascular collapse from acute right heart failure. D-dimer serum level was elevated. While a computed tomography of the chest was negative for pulmonary embolism, the autopsy study revealed multiple carcinomatous emboli in distal pulmonary arteries, veins, and lymphatics. Pulmonary tumor embolism may be more frequent than previously thought, and could be mistaken for pulmonary thrombo-embolism. PMID:19057276
Lipoblastoma is a rare benign tumor arising from embryonic fat; it occurs mainly in the extremities and almost exclusively in infants and children younger than 3 years. We present a case of giant mediastinal lipoblastoma in a 16-month-old boy who presented with acute respiratory distress. The mass was completely excised through a left posterolateral thoracotomy. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the pathologic final diagnosis was lipoblastoma. Although extremely rare, mediastinal lipoblastoma can be life threatening; therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass in younger subjects. PMID:22115267
Spontaneous rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm into the inferior vena cava is rare and is associated with high mortality and morbidity. The clinical presentation can be variable and thus the diagnosis can be difficult. It can present with symptoms and signs of an abdominal emergency, venous hypertension, or systemic hypoperfusion. The traditional method of repair has been open surgery which is associated with high rate of complications. We report a case of aortocaval fistula (ACF) presenting with acute renal failure and heart failure, which was treated successfully with a novel, endovascular approach.
In order to test the harmlessness of potentially beneficial bacterial strains when raising young calves, their safety level should be verified before they are included into a probiotic formulation. In the present study, an inoculum composed of three lactic acid bacteria of bovine origin, Lactobacillus casei DSPV 318T, Lactobacillus salivarius DSPV 315T and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T, was evaluated to
L. S. Frizzo; E. Bertozzi; L. P. Soto; G. J. Sequeira; R. Rodriguez Armesto; M. R. Rosmini
Background. Gut bacteria trigger colitis in animal models and are suspected to aggravate inflammatory bowel diseases. We have recently reported that Escherichia coli accumulates in murine ileitis and exacerbates small intestinal inflammation via Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Methodology and Principal Findings. Because knowledge on shifts in the intestinal microflora during colitis is limited, we performed a global survey of the
Markus M. Heimesaat; André Fischer; Britta Siegmund; Andreas Kupz; Julia Niebergall; David Fuchs; Hannah-Katharina Jahn; Marina Freudenberg; Christoph Loddenkemper; Arvind Batra; Hans-Anton Lehr; Oliver Liesenfeld; Michael Blaut; Ulf B. Göbel; Ralf R. Schumann; Stefan Bereswill
Urinary tract infection (UTI) may predominantly involve the lower urinary tract, i.e. acute cystitis, or upper urinary tract consisting of the renal pelvis and kidney,, i.e. acute pyelonephritis The incidence of acute pyelonephritis is higher in young women than in men but the incidence in men over 65 is similar to that in older women. Women have up to a 10% risk of recurrent acute pyelonephritis in the year following a first acute episode. The equivalent risk in men is 6%. Acute pyelonephritis may be uncomplicated and resolve without serious sequelae. A minority of episodes may be complicated by acute kidney injury, papillary necrosis, renal or perinephric abscess or the development of emphysematous pyelonephritis. Acute pyelonephritis is generally caused by microorganisms ascending from the urethra via the bladder into the upper urinary tract. Rarely the kidney may be seeded by blood-borne infection. Ecoli is the most common uropathogen causing pyelonephritis accounting for 70-90% of infections. Species of Enterococci, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Proteus and Staphylococci are responsible for the remaining infections. There is a rising incidence in the community of UTI with bacteria that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes. These ESBL bacteria have developed resistance to antibiotics such as penicillin, cephalosporins and increasingly to quinolones. Risk factors for uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis include recent sexual intercourse, acute cystitis, stress incontinence and diabetes and for complicated acute pyelonephritis include pregnancy, diabetes, anatomical abnormalities of the urinary tract and renal calculi. PMID:20486480
The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the resistance rates of Streptococcus pneumonia to penicillin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin in patients with meningitis; to analyze possible risk factors to the antimicrobian resistance; to describe the serotypes detected and to suggest an initial empirical treatment for meningitis. The sensitiveness and serotypes of all isolated S. pneumoniae of patients with acute bacterial meningitis received by the Paraná State Central Laboratory from April 2001 to august 2002 have been evaluated. One hundred S. pneumoniae have been isolated, of which 15% were resistant to penicillin, 1% to cephalosporin and 0% to vancomycin. The serotypes most found were 14 (19%), 3 and 23F (10% each). When only the resistant serotypes were analyzed, the most prevalent was the 14 with 44%. The risk factors found in relation to the S. pneumoniae resistance were: age under one year old (p=0.01) and previous use of antibiotic (p=0.046). The resistance rates found, which were moderate to penicillin, low to cephalosporin and neutral to vancomycin, suggest the isolated use of a 3rd generation cephalosporin as an initial empirical therapy for the treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with a communitarian background. PMID:18813710
Rossoni, Andrea Maciel de Oliveira; Dalla Costa, Libera Maria; Berto, Denize Bonato; Farah, Sônia Santos; Gelain, Marilene; Brandileone, Maria Cristina de Cunto; Ramos, Vitor Hugo Mariano; Almeida, Sergio Monteiro de
Background Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, causes an unusual acute peripheral neuropathy. Oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy appears in almost all patients rapidly after infusion, and is triggered or exacerbated by cold, while its mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the involvement of thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPA1, TRPM8 and TRPV1) in oxaliplatin-induced acute hypersensitivity was investigated in mice. Results A single intraperitoneal administration of oxaliplatin (1–10?mg/kg) induced cold but not mechanical hypersensitivity within 2?h in a dose-dependent manner. Infusion of the oxaliplatin metabolite, oxalate (1.7?mg/kg), also induced acute cold hypersensitivity, while another platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin (5?mg/kg), or the non-platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel (6?mg/kg) failed to induce mechanical or cold hypersensitivity. The oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity was abolished by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (100?mg/kg) and by TRPA1 deficiency. The nocifensive behaviors evoked by intraplantar injections of allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC; TRPA1 agonist) were significantly enhanced in mice treated for 2?h with oxaliplatin (1–10?mg/kg) in a dose-dependent manner, while capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist)-evoked nocifensive behaviors were not affected. Menthol (TRPM8/TRPA1 agonist)-evoked nocifensive-like behaviors were also enhanced by oxaliplatin pretreatment, which were inhibited by TRPA1 deficiency. Similarly, oxalate enhanced, but neither cisplatin nor paclitaxel affected AITC-evoked nocifensive behaviors. Pretreatment of cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons with oxaliplatin (30–300??M) for 1, 2, or 4?h significantly increased the number of AITC-sensitive neurons in a concentration-dependent manner whereas there was no change in the number of menthol- or capsaicin-sensitive neurons. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that a brief treatment with oxaliplatin or its metabolite oxalate is sufficient to enhance the responsiveness of TRPA1 but not that of TRPM8 and TRPV1 expressed by DRG neurons, which may contribute to the characteristic acute peripheral neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin.
A case of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in an adolescent patient is presented. The patient presented with resting angina and echocardiographic evidence of wall motion abnormalities in the inferior and posterior segments. The patient was known to have metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. Tumor was seen in the left inferior pulmonary vein and is proposed to be the source of embolism-causing myocardial infarction. Secondary to intracranial metastatic lesions, the patient was treated conservatively with opiates, nitrates, and beta-blockers. This case is an opportunity to review the causes and management of myocardial infraction in pediatric patients and represents a rare cause of embolic myocardial infraction. PMID:14667262
Research of ancient pathogens in ancient human skeletons has been mainly carried out on the basis of one essential historical or archaeological observation, permitting specific pathogens to be targeted. Detection of ancient human pathogens without such evidence is more difficult, since the quantity and quality of ancient DNA, as well as the environmental bacteria potentially present in the sample, limit the analyses possible. Using human lung tissue and/or teeth samples from burials in eastern Siberia, dating from the end of 17th to the 19th century, we propose a methodology that includes the: 1) amplification of all 16S rDNA gene sequences present in each sample; 2) identification of all bacterial DNA sequences with a degree of identity ?95%, according to quality criteria; 3) identification and confirmation of bacterial pathogens by the amplification of the rpoB gene; and 4) establishment of authenticity criteria for ancient DNA. This study demonstrates that from teeth samples originating from ancient human subjects, we can realise: 1) the correct identification of bacterial molecular sequence signatures by quality criteria; 2) the separation of environmental and pathogenic bacterial 16S rDNA sequences; 3) the distribution of bacterial species for each subject and for each burial; and 4) the characterisation of bacteria specific to the permafrost. Moreover, we identified three pathogens in different teeth samples by 16S rDNA sequence amplification: Bordetella sp., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Shigella dysenteriae. We tested for the presence of these pathogens by amplifying the rpoB gene. For the first time, we confirmed sequences from Bordetella pertussis in the lungs of an ancient male Siberian subject, whose grave dated from the end of the 17th century to the early 18th century.
A 59-year-old man presented with a skin eruption and bilateral swelling of the legs. Soon after the initial presentation, he developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with miliary lung nodules. Culture of samples from the skin ulcers, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid all revealed Mycobacterium szulgai infection. The patient was successfully treated with antituberculosis drugs. M. szulgai infection is very rarely reported worldwide, and disseminated infection usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. However, the present patient was a non-immunocompromised case, although he was a hepatitis B virus carrier. While the progression to ARDS from M. tuberculosis infection is well known, this is the first case of M. szulgai infection progressing to ARDS. PMID:22084610
A 59-year-old man presented with a skin eruption and bilateral swelling of the legs. Soon after the initial presentation, he developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with miliary lung nodules. Culture of samples from the skin ulcers, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid all revealed Mycobacterium szulgai infection. The patient was successfully treated with antituberculosis drugs. M. szulgai infection is very rarely reported worldwide, and disseminated infection usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. However, the present patient was a non-immunocompromised case, although he was a hepatitis B virus carrier. While the progression to ARDS from M. tuberculosis infection is well known, this is the first case of M. szulgai infection progressing to ARDS.
Three antigen-antibody systems are so far known to be related to viral hepatitis type B. Tests for evidencing HBsAg and antiHBs are easily performed and important for the diagnosis, prevention and study of hepatitis B. The tests for evidencing HBcAg and HBc are still the subject of study and research. The presence of HBsAg in a subject shows he is hosting hepatitis B virus. It may also be present without hepatopathy or it may be associated with acute or chronic hepatitis B. At the present time there is no feasible way of eliminating the chronic carrier condition. The problem represented by healthy carriers as infection risks is currently under study. PMID:431867
After our recent discovery of a Streptococcus pneumoniae 19A "superbug" (Legacy strain) that is resistant to all Food and Drug Administration-approved antimicrobial drugs for treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) in children, other S. pneumoniae isolates from children with AOM were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among 40 isolates studied, 16 (40%) were serotype 19A, and 9 (23%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. Two others had unreported sequence types (STs) that expressed the 19A capsule, and 8 (88%) of the 9 multidrug-resistant strains were serotype 19A, including the Legacy strain with the new ST-2722. In genetic relatedness, ST-2722 belonged to a cluster of reported strains of S. pneumoniae in which all strains had 6 of the same alleles as ST-156. The multidrug-resistant strains related to ST-156 expressed different capsular serotypes: 9V, 14, 11A, 15C, and 19F. PMID:19331730
Xu, Qingfu; Pichichero, Michael E; Casey, Janet R; Zeng, Mingtao
Gossypiboma or textiloma is used to describe a retained surgical swab in the body after an operation. Inadvertent retention of a foreign body in the abdomen often requires another surgery. This increases morbidity and mortality of the patient, cost of treatment, and medicolegal problems. We are reporting case of a 45-year-old woman who was referred from periphery with acute pain in abdomen. She had a surgical history of abdominal hysterectomy 3 years back, performed at another hospital. On clinical examination and investigation, twisted ovarian cyst was suspected. That is a cystic mass further confirmed by abdominal computerized tomography (CT). During laparotomy, the cyst wall was opened incidentally which lead to the drainage of a large amount of dense pus. In between pus, there was found retained surgical gauze that confirmed the diagnosis of gossypiboma.
Gossypiboma or textiloma is used to describe a retained surgical swab in the body after an operation. Inadvertent retention of a foreign body in the abdomen often requires another surgery. This increases morbidity and mortality of the patient, cost of treatment, and medicolegal problems. We are reporting case of a 45-year-old woman who was referred from periphery with acute pain in abdomen. She had a surgical history of abdominal hysterectomy 3 years back, performed at another hospital. On clinical examination and investigation, twisted ovarian cyst was suspected. That is a cystic mass further confirmed by abdominal computerized tomography (CT). During laparotomy, the cyst wall was opened incidentally which lead to the drainage of a large amount of dense pus. In between pus, there was found retained surgical gauze that confirmed the diagnosis of gossypiboma. PMID:22229142
Study of hantavirus infections in India is in its early stages. As early symptoms of hantavirus disease can be non-specific and the diagnosis confirmed only by laboratory testing, use of appropriate diagnostic tools is important. To improve the diagnosis of hantavirus infections in India, commercial ELISA systems followed by indirect immunofluorescence assays were used to detect anti-hantavirus IgM and IgG in samples from patients with acute febrile illness. Of 347 patients tested, 5.2% showed serological evidence of hantavirus infection. Sequences obtained from patients showing molecular evidence of hantavirus infection were related to Hantaan virus. In the absence of mu-capture ELISA, we recommend the use of combination testing systems in areas non-endemic for hantavirus infections. In India there is an increased risk of rodent-borne infections and the differential diagnosis of undifferentiated febrile illness should include hantavirus infection. PMID:19237179
We report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation.
Bacterial genome is characterized by frequent unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) motifs. Deleterious effects can occur when synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) with unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN) are administered in a systemic fashion. We aimed to evaluate the effect of intratracheal CpG-ODN on lung inflammation and systemic inflammatory response. C57BL/6J mice received intratracheal administration of CpG-ODN (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, or 100 ?M) or control ODN without CpG motif. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was obtained 3 or 6 h or 1, 2, 7, or 14 days after the instillation and subjected to a differential cell count and cytokine measurement. Lung permeability was evaluated as the BAL fluid-to-plasma ratio of the concentration of human serum albumin that was injected 1 h before euthanasia. Nuclear factor (NF)-?B DNA binding activity was also evaluated in lung homogenates. Intratracheal administration of 10 ?M or higher concentration of CpG-ODN induced significant inflammatory cell accumulation into the airspace. The peak accumulation of neutrophils and lymphocytes occurred 1 and 2 days after the CpG-ODN administration, respectively. Lung permeability was increased 1 day after the 10 ?M CpG-ODN challenge. CpG-ODN also induced nuclear translocation of NF-?B and upregulation of various inflammatory cytokines in BAL fluid and plasma. Histopathology of the lungs and liver revealed acute lung injury and liver damage with necrosis, respectively. Control ODN without CpG motif did not induce any inflammatory change. Since intratracheal CpG-ODN induced acute lung injury as well as systemic inflammatory response, therapeutic strategies to neutralize bacterial DNA that is released after administration of bactericidal agents should be considered.
The acute biological activity of a homologous series of perfluorinated carboxylic acids – perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) – was studied. To analyze the potential risk of the perfluorinated acids to humans and the environment, different in vitro toxicity test systems were employed. The cytotoxicity of the chemicals towards
E. Mulkiewicz; B. Jastorff; A. C. Sk?adanowski; K. Kleszczy?ski; P. Stepnowski
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is known to causeacute retinal necrosis (ARN). The availability of HSV-2-specific polymerase chain reaction tests for diagnostic analysis has greatly increased our ability to discriminate ARN caused by HSV-2 from ARN caused by either herpes simplex virus type 1 or varicella zoster virus (VZV). Of great interest, HSV-2 appears to be the most common cause of viral ARN in children and adolescents. Although a few children with ARN are known to have had neonatally acquired herpes infection, most children lack a history of known herpes disease. Thus, the origin of the HSV-2 infection is a mystery. The hypothesis of this review is that HSV-2 ARN in children and adolescents may be the first sign of a previously undiagnosed and asymptomatic neonatal HSV-2 infection, which has reactivated several years later from latency in a cranial nerve and entered the retina. The review brings together 7 previously published ARN cases, plus one new case is added. Thus, this review also expands the spectrum of complications from neonatal HSV-2 infection. PMID:22889540
We report here a case of disseminated skin infection caused by Mucor velutinosus, a recently described new species. We believe this to be the first published report of a clinical case of mucormycosis due to M. velutinosus, as well as a rare case of dissemination from a deep site to skin.
Sugui, Janyce A.; Christensen, Jesica A.; Bennett, John E.; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Kwon-Chung, Kyung J.
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous rupture of the right gastroepiploic artery is an extremely rare case which can be a cause of abdominal apoplexy. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 64-year old woman with a Spontaneous rupture of the right gastroepiploic artery with hemorrhagic shock that was successfully treated by emergency surgery. CONCLUSION: Simultaneous restoration of circulating volume and rapid diagnosis
Karim Ibn Majdoub Hassani; Ali Bounekar; Jean-Manuel Gruss
Massive lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding into the colonic wall was demonstrated accurately by Tc-99m RBCs. In addition, retrograde bleeding into the gallbladder was also identified while arteriography did not show contrast extravasation. This case supports the use of Tc-99m RBCs over Tc-99m sulfur colloid for more accurate localization of lower GI bleeding.
This investigation was conducted to determine the cause of extensive deterioration of concrete above the flow line in the outlet tunnels of two lakes, and to provide guidance in the development of remedial repair schemes if necessary. The cement paste was...
A female patient aged 22 with fully developed symptoms of anorexia nervosa presented the following metabolic disturbances: persistent hyperuricemia, hyponatruria, (sometimes with sodium lack in urine) as well as frequent hyponatremia and hyper-uricosuria. The patient's low arterial blood pressure (70/40 mm Hg on average) was not improved by pharmacological treatment, and only high oral doses of table salt (20-70 g/24 h) did prove effective in the therapy. The subject passed seven renal calculi composed of sodium urate and uric acid. Numerous urinalyses did not reveal any changes, and bacterial cultures of the urine were also negative. After 14 years of anorexia nervosa, the patient was treated for pneumonia with gentamicin at doses of 2 x 80 mg/24 h. Following third dose of the antibiotic, the patient developed acute renal failure and was treated by haemodialysis for six weeks. The renal function came gradually to the norm. Simultaneously, all the anorexia nervosa symptoms subsided along with sodium metabolism disturbances, while purine metabolism disorders got considerably alleviated. The patient started to have her menstrual cycles again, gained 12 kg in body weight, and one year afterwards bore a son. A further 10-year follow-up period was free of any pathological changes except for a slight hyperuricemia. To the best of our knowledge, the similar case has not been reported in the medical literature and electronic data bases. PMID:16225114
Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Rutkowski, Boles?aw; Sein Anand, Jacek; Rutkowski, Przemys?aw
Acute fulminant pancreatitis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To examine the outcome of conservative and surgical treatment of this disorder, 36 patients who survived an initial episode were restudied after a mean of six years. Fifty three per cent had developed diabetes mellitus, half of whom required insulin therapy. Pancreatic resection was associated with a 100% frequency of diabetes, while only 26% of those treated with peritoneal lavage developed this (p less than 0.001). Insulin secretion and sensitivity were assessed using the hyperglycaemic glucose clamp technique. First phase insulin secretion was impaired in surgically treated patients (mean (SEM) 14 (5) microU/ml x 10 minutes) compared with conservatively treated patients and control subjects (144 (66) and 87 (12) microU/ml x 10 minutes, respectively; p less than 0.05). Second phase and 'maximal' insulin secretion were also impaired among the surgically treated patients compared with the conservatively treated patients and the controls. Insulin sensitivity was reduced among the surgically treated patients (2.88 (58) mg/kg.minute) when compared with conservatively treated patients and healthy control subjects (5.87 (1.02) and 6.45 (0.66) mg/kg.minute; p less than 0.05). Pancreatic resection is associated with a very high frequency of diabetes compared with peritoneal lavage, and these results favour conservative treatment of active fulminant pancreatitis whenever possible.
Eriksson, J; Doepel, M; Widen, E; Halme, L; Ekstrand, A; Groop, L; Hockerstedt, K
Hantaan virus, the etiological agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever, is transmitted to humans from persistently infected mice (Apodemus agrarius), which serve as the primary reservoir. Here we demonstrate that several strains of adult Mus musculus domesticus (C57BL/6, BALB/c, AKR/J, and SJL/J) were susceptible to Hantaan virus infection when infected intraperitoneally. First clinical signs were loss of weight, ruffled fur, and reduced activity, which were followed by neurological symptoms, such as paralyses and convulsions. Within 2 days of disease onset, the animals died of acute encephalitis. PCR analysis indicated a systemic infection with viral RNA present in all major organs. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses of postmortem material detected viral antigen and RNA in the central nervous system (predominantly brain), liver, and spleen. In the central nervous system, viral antigen and RNA colocalized with perivascular infiltrations, the predominant pathological finding. To investigate the involvement of the interferon system in Hantaan virus pathogenesis, we infected alpha/beta interferon receptor knockout mice. These animals were more susceptible to Hantaan virus infection, indicating an important role of interferon-induced antiviral defense mechanisms in Hantaan virus pathogenesis. The present model may help to overcome shortcomings in the development of therapeutic and prophylactic measurements against hantavirus infections.
This descriptive, hospital-based study, performed in western Turkey, was designed to assess the level of pre-hospital delay and reasons for such delay in acute stroke patients, taking into consideration certain factors such as socioeconomic status, availability of transport options at onset of symptoms. Data were collected from hospital records, and a questionnaire was administered that included questions about socio-demographics, self-reported risk factors and questions related to hospital arrival. The rate of patients arriving at the hospital more than 3 hours after symptom onset was found to be 31.6% for this study. Approximately 1/3 of patients delayed going to the hospital because they were waiting for symptoms to go away while 1/3 of patients were not aware of the importance of seeking immediate medical help. There was a significant relationship between the use of ambulance transportation and length of time before arrival at the hospitals, though there was no statistically significantly relationship between the existence of stroke risk factors and hospital arrival delay. These results will likely be helpful to health care decision makers as they develop a model for stroke health care and community based training.
Memis, Sakine; Tugrul, Emel; Evci, E Didem; Ergin, Filiz
Recent studies have documented that remote organs are affected by ischemic injury to the kidney. Here we studied whether the liver also suffers damage during induction of renal ischemia-reperfusion in rats and compared this to bilateral nephrectomy. Hepatic levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha increased significantly after 6 and 24 h of renal ischemia or nephrectomy. Malondialdehyde, an index of lipid peroxidation, increased while total glutathione was decreased in the liver in both the renal ischemia and nephrectomy groups, suggesting activation of oxidative stress. Expression of liver spermine-spermidine acetyl transferase, an enzyme upregulated in early phases of hepatic injury was significantly increased 6 h after either kidney ischemia or nephrectomy. Apoptosis was increased in hepatocytes 24 h after nephrectomy. We also found histological evidence of hepatocyte injury following both ischemia and bilateral nephrectomy. Infusion of reduced glutathione, before the induction of renal ischemia, significantly improved liver architecture and was associated with a reduction in hepatic malondialdehyde and serum alanine transaminase levels. Our study shows that acute kidney ischemia or renal failure activates oxidative stress and promotes inflammation, apoptosis, and tissue damage in hepatocytes. PMID:19177157
Golab, Fereshteh; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Zahmatkesh, Maryam; Hedayati, Mehdi; Arab, Hossein; Schuster, Rebecca; Zahedi, Kamyar; Lentsch, Alex B; Soleimani, Manoocher
This study sought to determine the microbiology of recurrent acute otitis media (AOM) and AOM treatment failure (AOMTF) in the context of widespread use of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). In this retrospective cohort study, 244 AOM isolates obtained by tympanocentesis during 3 respiratory seasons--2003-2004 (n = 126), 2004-2005 (n = 52), 2005-2006 (n = 66)--from three geographically diverse pediatric populations were compared. Most isolates were from children less than 2 years old, who had received PCV7. For the 3 seasons the proportion of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates was 35%, 35%, and 46% and for Haemophilus influenzae was 55%, 58%, and 39%, respectively (change in trend, P = .09). A total of 37%, 39%, and 50% of S. pneumoniae were penicillin nonsusceptible (PNSP) and 48%, 67%, and 50% of H. influenzae produced beta-lactamase, respectively. Although H. influenzae remains the most frequently isolated pathogen in children with AOMTF or recurrent AOM, S. pneumoniae that are PNSP are reemerging as important organisms. PMID:18559884
Pichichero, Michael E; Casey, Janet R; Hoberman, Alejandro; Schwartz, Richard
Previous studies in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) showed that acute hypoxia activates capacitative Ca(2+) entry (CCE) but the molecular candidate(s) mediating CCE caused by acute hypoxia remain unclear. The present study aimed to determine if transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) and Orai1 interact with stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1) and mediate CCE caused by acute hypoxia in mouse PASMCs. In primary cultured PASMCs loaded with fura-2, acute hypoxia caused a transient followed by a sustained rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). The transient but not sustained rise in [Ca(2+)](i) was partially inhibited by nifedipine. Acute hypoxia also increased the rate of Mn(2+) quench of fura-2 fluorescence that was inhibited by SKF 96365, Ni(2+), La(3+), and Gd(3+), exhibiting pharmacological properties characteristic of CCE. The nifedipine-insensitive rise in [Ca(2+)](i) and the increase in Mn(2+) quench rate were both inhibited in cells treated with TRPC1 antibody or TRPC1 small interfering (si)RNA, in STIM1 siRNA-transfected cells and in Orai1 siRNA-transfected cells. Moreover, overexpression of STIM1 resulted in a marked increase in [Ca(2+)](i) and Mn(2+) quench rate caused by acute hypoxia, and they were reduced in cells treated with TRPC1 antibody and in cells transfected with Orai1 siRNA. Furthermore, TRPC1 and Orai1 coimmunoprecipitated with STIM1 and the precipitation levels of TRPC1 and Orai1 were increased in cells exposed to acute hypoxia. Immunostaining showed colocalizations of TRPC1-STIM1 and Orai1-STIM1, and the colocalizations of these proteins were more apparent in acute hypoxia. These data provide direct evidence that TRPC1 and Orai1 channels mediate CCE through activation of STIM1 in acute hypoxic mouse PASMCs. PMID:23034388
A laboratory test system specific for Marek's disease was developed by using the pathological response of the chicken embryo. Chicken epidermal scales (dander) and feather calami from infected chickens contain an agent(s) which after a 3- to 4-day incubation period caused gross or microscopic pathological changes (or both) in the embryo. A cell-free inoculum was obtained from infectious dander by 5-min sonic treatment, differential centrifugation, and membrane filtering (0.45 ?m). Evidence for the cell-free existence of this agent(s) was obtained when membrane filtrates of dander preparations were shown to cause Marek's disease in 10-day-old chickens and in chickens inoculated at 1 day of age. Images
The occurrence of anomalous muscles in the hand is rare, and therefore the clinician frequently does not account for their\\u000a existence when reaching the diagnosis and concluding the cause of carpal tunnel syndrome. This case report describes the highly\\u000a unusual case of the occurrence of bilateral flexor digitorum superficialis muscles in a recreational climber who developed\\u000a CTS following his intensive
Frank Unglaub; Maya Barbara Wolf; Adrian Dragu; Raymund E. Horch
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most frequently encountered bacterial infections in children aged Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are historically identified as primary AOM causes. Nevertheless, recent data on bacterial pathogens causing AOM in Latin America are limited. This prospective study aimed to identify and characterize bacterial etiology and serotypes of AOM
Alexandra Sierra; Pio Lopez; Mercedes A Zapata; Beatriz Vanegas; Maria M Castrejon; Rodrigo DeAntonio; William P Hausdorff; Romulo E Colindres
In this study, risk factors were investigated in children with community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by\\u000a extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL)-producing E. coli or Klebsiella spp. One hundred and fifty-five patients were diagnosed with ESBL-positive UTI (case group) in the outpatient clinics of\\u000a Hacettepe University Children’s Hospital between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2006. A control group, 155 out of
Rezan Topaloglu; Ilkay Er; Bahar Guciz Dogan; Yelda Bilginer; Fatih Ozaltin; Nesrin Besbas; Seza Ozen; Aysin Bakkaloglu; Deniz Gur
Volume overload (VO) caused by aortocaval fistula (ACF) is associated with oxidative/inflammatory stress. The resulting inflammation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation, and collagen degradation is thought to play a pivotal role in left ventricular (LV) dilatation and failure. Since mitochondria are also targets for inflammation and oxidative stress, we hypothesized that there would be bioenergetic dysfunction with acute VO. In Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to 24 hrs of ACF, there was a two-fold increase in LV pressure-volume area in vivo, consistent with increased LV myocardial oxygen usage and increased bioenergetic demand in cardiomyocytes. Isolated cardiomyocytes from ACF LVs demonstrated increased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide formation and increased MMP activity. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) showed a 40% decrease in state 3 respiration and proteomic analysis of SSM demonstrated decreased levels of complexes I-V in ACF. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed disruption of the subsarcolemmal location of the SSM network in ACF. To test for a potential link between SSM dysfunction and loss of interstitial collagen, rats were treated with the MMP-inhibitor PD166793 prior to ACF. MMP-inhibitor preserved interstitial collagen, integrin-?5 and the SSM structural arrangement. In addition, the decrease in state 3 mitochondrial respiration with ACF was prevented by PD166793. These studies established an important interaction between degradation of interstitial collagen in acute VO and the disruption of SSM structure and function which could contribute to progression to heart failure.
Ulasova, Elena; Gladden, James D; Chen, Yuanwen; Zheng, Junying; Pat, Betty; Bradley, Wayne; Powell, Pamela; Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W; Zelickson, Blake R; Ballinger, Scott W; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Dell'Italia, Louis J
A 40-year-old man presented with a visual acuity of 20/400 in his right eye due to acute retinal necrosis involving two inferior quadrants. Diagnostic vitreous tap was positive for varicella zoster virus and he received intravitreal injections of ganciclovir (2 mg/0.1 mL) and dexamethasone (400 mcg/0.1 mL). Oral prednisone was added on day 3 and tapered over 3 months. Lesions showed pigmentation around day 5 and healed by day 9. He developed vitreous hemorrhage 5 months after presentation and was treated with 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy combined with panretinal photocoagulation. Final follow-up at 7 months showed a visual acuity of 20/30, mild optic atrophy, narrow arteries, healed retinal lesions, and good panretinal photocoagulation. Intravitreal injections of dexamethasone and ganciclovir may have a role as an adjunctive therapy in the management of patients with acute retinal necrosis, particularly those caused by varicella zoster virus. PMID:21899249
A newborn female was hospitalized due to metabolic acidosis and conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA) was suspected why a (99m)Tc-mebrofenin cholescintigraphy was performed. It showed poor hepatocyte tracer uptake and no drainage to the gut. The hepatocyte dysfunction was caused by an obstructing adrenal gland neuroblastoma later visualised by ultrasound and MRI. The cholescintigraphy is a non-invasive modality to exclude or confirm the suspicion of EHBA. Furthermore neonatal conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia demands the use of a multimodality imaging strategy for differential diagnosis to EHBA. PMID:23651786
Acute renal failure with severe loin pain which develops after anaerobic exercise is rare. One of predisposing factors of exercise-induced acute renal failure is renal hypouricemia. Idiopathic renal hypouricemia is a genetic disorder characterized by hypouricemia with abnormally high renal tubular uric acid excretion. The mutation in SCL22A12 gene which encodes renal uric acid transporter, URAT1, is the known major cause of this disorder. We here described a 25-yr-old man showing idiopathic renal hypouricemia with G774A mutation in SCL22A12 who presented exercise-induced acute renal failure. There have been a few reports of mutational analysis in Korean idiopathic renal hypouricemia without acute renal failure. This is the first report of genetically diagnosed idiopathic renal hypouricemia with exercise-induced acute renal failure in Korea.
Gastric pneumatosis (GP) and hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) have typically been thought of as an ominous radiological sign associated with a grave prognosis, and the observation of HPVG on plain abdominal radiography, ultrasonography, or computed tomography is viewed as a significant finding. It is often associated with severe or potentially lethal conditions warranting urgent diagnosis and possible surgical intervention. Early studies of HPVG based on plain abdominal radiography found an associated mortality rate of 75% primarily due to ischemic bowel. However, modern abdominal computed tomography (CT) has resulted in the detection of HPVG in an increased proportion of nonfatal and benign conditions. We report a nonfatal case of HPVG in a patient with Noonan's syndrome due to acute gastric dilatation in the setting of gastric outlet obstruction caused by a congenital band that is extremely rare in adults.
Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an adverse drug reaction that can occur in any age group. It is commonly mistaken as pustular psoriasis or cutaneous infection, resulting in unnecessary commencement of medications such as methotrexate and antibiotics that can cause harm to the patient or interact and adversely affect the efficacy of other medications. Early diagnosis of AGEP avoids unnecessary investigations and treatment, which not only can harm the patient but also escalate health care, as the condition is self-limiting. This case report illustrates AGEP secondary to Cefaclor occurring in a 72-year-old Chinese woman. Although the literature has documented the occurrence of AGEP with Cefaclor, the unique feature of this case is the occurrence of AGEP following repeated uneventful courses of Cefaclor. This case highlights that AGEP must never be forgotten in the work-up for pustular eruptions in an elderly patient. PMID:15968449
Coronary subclavian steal syndrome with retrograde blood flow in the left internal mammary-coronary bypass graft is a rare but severe complication of cardiac surgery. The authors present a case of a 68-year-old man after coronary-artery bypass grafting using an internal mammary artery. He had been suffering from angina pectoris for the last several years before surgery. The patient was resuscitated at home by emergency medical service because of primary ventricular fibrillation due to an acute myocardial infarction 5 years after surgery. An occlusion of the left subclavian artery with the retrograde blood flow in the left internal mammary coronary bypass was found. This could have been the cause of insufficiency in coronary blood flow and ischemia of the myocardial muscle. The subclavian artery occlusion was successfully treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and implantation of 2 stents. The patient remained free of any symptoms 2 years after this procedure. PMID:22969810
Mandak, Jiri; Lojik, Miroslav; Tuna, Martin; Chek, James Lago
Coronary subclavian steal syndrome with retrograde blood flow in the left internal mammary-coronary bypass graft is a rare but severe complication of cardiac surgery. The authors present a case of a 68-year-old man after coronary-artery bypass grafting using an internal mammary artery. He had been suffering from angina pectoris for the last several years before surgery. The patient was resuscitated at home by emergency medical service because of primary ventricular fibrillation due to an acute myocardial infarction 5 years after surgery. An occlusion of the left subclavian artery with the retrograde blood flow in the left internal mammary coronary bypass was found. This could have been the cause of insufficiency in coronary blood flow and ischemia of the myocardial muscle. The subclavian artery occlusion was successfully treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and implantation of 2 stents. The patient remained free of any symptoms 2 years after this procedure.
Mandak, Jiri; Lojik, Miroslav; Tuna, Martin; Chek, James Lago
Thirty-one endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of Centella asiatica were screened in vitro for their ability to reduce the growth rate and disease incidence of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of anthracnose. Isolates of Cohnella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Pantoea sp. significantly stimulated the growth rate of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, while isolates of Achromobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas putida had no influence on this plant pathogen. By contrast, Bacillus subtilis BCA31 and Pseudomonas fluorescens BCA08 caused a marked inhibition of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 growth by 46 and 82 %, respectively. Cell-free culture filtrates of B. subtilis BCA31 and P. fluorescens BCA08 were found to contain antifungal compounds against C. higginsianum MUCL 44942. Inoculation assays on in vitro-cultured plants of C. asiatica showed that foliar application of B. subtilis BCA31, three days before inoculation with C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, significantly reduced incidence and severity of the disease. The role of endophytic bacteria in maintaining the apparent inactivity of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 in C. asiatica grown in the wild is discussed. PMID:22903452
Background Brain inflammation is accompanied by brain injury. However, it is controversial whether inflammatory responses are harmful or beneficial to neurons. Because many studies have been performed using cultured microglia and neurons, it has not been possible to assess the influence of multiple cell types and diverse factors that dynamically and continuously change in vivo. Furthermore, behavior of microglia and other inflammatory cells could have been overlooked since most studies have focused on neuronal death. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the precise roles of microglia and brain inflammation in the injured brain, and determine their contribution to neuronal damage in vivo from the onset of injury. Methods and Findings Acute neuronal damage was induced by stereotaxic injection of ATP into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the cortex of the rat brain. Inflammatory responses and their effects on neuronal damage were investigated by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR, and stereological counting, etc. ATP acutelycaused death of microglia as well as neurons in a similar area within 3 h. We defined as the core region the area where both TH+ and Iba-1+ cells acutely died, and as the penumbra the area surrounding the core where Iba-1+ cells showed activated morphology. In the penumbra region, morphologically activated microglia arranged around the injury sites. Monocytes filled the damaged core after neurons and microglia died. Interestingly, neither activated microglia nor monocytes expressed iNOS, a major neurotoxic inflammatory mediator. Monocytes rather expressed CD68, a marker of phagocytic activity. Importantly, the total number of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc at 3 h (?80% of that in the contralateral side) did not decrease further at 7 d. Similarly, in the cortex, ATP-induced neuron-damage area detected at 3 h did not increase for up to 7 d. Conclusions Different cellular components (microglia, astrocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils) and different factors (proinflammatory and neurotrophic) could be produced in inflammatory processes depending on the nature of the injury. The results in this study suggest that the inflammatory responses of microglia and monocytes in response to ATP-induced acute injury could not be neurotoxic.
Jeong, Hey-Kyeong; Ji, Kyung-min; Kim, Beomsue; Kim, Jun; Jou, Ilo; Joe, Eun-hye
Background Coxsackievirus A24 variant (CA24v) is the most prevalent viral pathogen associated with acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) outbreaks. Sixteen years after its first outbreak in Brazil, this agent reemerged in 2003 in Brazil, spread to nearly all states and caused outbreaks until 2005. In 2009, a new outbreak occurred in the northeast region of the country. In this study, we performed a viral isolation in cell culture and characterized clinical samples collected from patients presenting symptoms during the outbreak of 2005 in Vitória, Espírito Santo State (ES) and the outbreak of 2009 in Recife, Pernambuco State (PE). We also performed a phylogenetic analysis of worldwide strains and all meaningful Brazilian isolates since 2003. Methods and Findings Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect eye discharges, and all 210 clinical samples were used to inoculate cell cultures. Cytopathic effects in HEp-2 cells were seen in 58 of 180 (32%) samples from Vitória and 3 of 30 (10%) samples from Recife. Phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the VP1 and 3C gene revealed that the CA24v causing outbreaks in Brazil during the years 2003, 2004 and 2005 evolved from Asian isolates that had caused the South Korean outbreak of AHC during the summer of 2002. However, the 2009 outbreak of AHC in Pernambuco was originated from the reintroduction of a new CA24v strain that was circulating during 2007 in Asia, where CA24v outbreaks has been continuously reported since 1970. Conclusions This study is the first phylogenetic analysis of AHC outbreaks caused by CA24v in Brazil. The results showed that Asian strains of CA24v were responsible for the outbreaks since 1987 and were independently introduced to Brazil in 2003 and 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of complete VP1 gene is a useful tool for studying the epidemiology of enteroviruses associated with outbreaks.
Tavares, Fernando Neto; Campos, Renata de Mendonca; Burlandy, Fernanda Marcicano; Fontella, Rachel; de Melo, Maria Mabel Monte; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias
Background The oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 has been shown clearly to antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans, by releasing two bacteriocins named salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B. Unpublished observations indicate that it can also antagonize the growth of other bacteria involved in acute otitis media. Because of its ability to colonize the oral cavity and its safety profile, we have tested its efficacy in reducing the incidence of streptococcal pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis and episodes of acute otitis media. Methods We enrolled 82 children, including 65 with and 17 without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology. Of those with recurrent pathology, 45 were treated daily for 90 days with an oral slow-release tablet containing five billion colony-forming units of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®), and the remaining 20 served as an untreated control group. The 17 children without a recent diagnosis of recurrent oral pathology were used as an additional control group. After 90 days of treatment, a 6-month follow-up period without treatment was included to evaluate a possible persistent protective role for the previously administered product. Results The 41 children who completed the 90-day course of Bactoblis showed a reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (about 90%) and/or acute otitis media (about 40%), calculated by comparing infection rates in the previous year. The 90-day treatment also reduced the reported incidence of pharyngeal and ear infections by about 65% in the 6-month follow-up period during which the product was not administered. Subjects tolerated the product well, with no side effects or dropouts reported. Conclusion Prophylactic administration of S. salivarius K12 to children with a history of recurrent oral streptococcal pathology reduced episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infections and/or tonsillitis as well as episodes of acute otitis media.
Ophidic accidents are an important public health problem due to their incidence, morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of cases have been registered in Brazil in the last few years. Several studies point to the importance of knowing the clinical complications and adequate approach in these accidents. However, knowledge about the risk factors is not enough and there are an increasing number of deaths due to these accidents in Brazil. In this context, acute kidney injury (AKI) appears as one of the main causes of death and consequences for these victims, which are mainly young males working in rural areas. Snakes of the Bothrops and Crotalus genera are the main responsible for renal involvement in ophidic accidents in South America. The present study is a literature review of AKI caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snake venom regarding diverse characteristics, emphasizing the most appropriate therapeutic approach for these cases. Recent studies have been carried out searching for complementary therapies for the treatment of ophidic accidents, including the use of lipoic acid, simvastatin and allopurinol. Some plants, such as Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae seem to have a beneficial role in the treatment of this type of envenomation. Future studies will certainly find new therapeutic measures for ophidic accidents. PMID:24037282
Albuquerque, Polianna L M M; Jacinto, Camilla N; Silva Junior, Geraldo B; Lima, Juliana B; Veras, Maria do Socorro B; Daher, Elizabeth F
BACKGROUND Lipids accumulate during the storage of red blood cells (RBCs), prime neutrophils (PMNs), and have been implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). These lipids are composed of two classes: nonpolar lipids and lysophosphatidylcholines based on their retention time on separation by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Prestorage leukoreduction significantly decreases white blood cell and platelet contamination of RBCs; therefore, it is hypothesized that prestorage leukoreduction changes the classes of lipids that accumulate during storage, and these lipids prime PMNs and induce acute lung injury (ALI) as the second event in a two-event in vivo model. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS RBC units were divided: 50% was leukoreduced (LR-RBCs), stored, and sampled on Day 1 and at the end of storage, Day 42. Priming activity was evaluated on isolated PMNs, and the purified lipids from Day 1 or Day 42 were used as the second event in the in vivo model. RESULTS The plasma and lipids from RBCs and LR-RBCs primed PMNs, and the LR-RBC activity decreased with longer storage. Unlike RBCs, nonpolar lipids comprised the PMN-priming activity from stored LR-RBCs. Mass spectroscopy identified these lipids as arachidonic acid and 5-, 12-, and 15-hydroxyeicsotetranoic acid. At concentrations from Day 42, but not Day 1, three of four of these lipids individually, and the mixture, primed PMNs. The mixture also caused ALI as the second event in a two-event model of TRALI. CONCLUSION We conclude that the nonpolar lipids that accumulate during LR-RBC storage may represent the agents responsible for antibody-negative TRALI.
Silliman, Christopher C.; Moore, Ernest E.; Kelher, Marguerite R.; Khan, Samina Y.; Gellar, Lauren; Elzi, David J.
Background Muscle contraction during short intervals of intense exercise causes oxidative stress, which can play a role in the development of overtraining symptoms, including increased fatigue, resulting in muscle microinjury or inflammation. Recently it has been said that hydrogen can function as antioxidant, so we investigated the effect of hydrogen-rich water (HW) on oxidative stress and muscle fatigue in response to acute exercise. Methods Ten male soccer players aged 20.9?±?1.3?years old were subjected to exercise tests and blood sampling. Each subject was examined twice in a crossover double-blind manner; they were given either HW or placebo water (PW) for one week intervals. Subjects were requested to use a cycle ergometer at a 75?% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2) for 30?min, followed by measurement of peak torque and muscle activity throughout 100 repetitions of maximal isokinetic knee extension. Oxidative stress markers and creatine kinase in the peripheral blood were sequentially measured. Results Although acute exercise resulted in an increase in blood lactate levels in the subjects given PW, oral intake of HW prevented an elevation of blood lactate during heavy exercise. Peak torque of PW significantly decreased during maximal isokinetic knee extension, suggesting muscle fatigue, but peak torque of HW didn’t decrease at early phase. There was no significant change in blood oxidative injury markers (d-ROMs and BAP) or creatine kinease after exercise. Conclusion Adequate hydration with hydrogen-rich water pre-exercise reduced blood lactate levels and improved exercise-induced decline of muscle function. Although further studies to elucidate the exact mechanisms and the benefits are needed to be confirmed in larger series of studies, these preliminary results may suggest that HW may be suitable hydration for athletes.
Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) reduces the activity of radioiodine required to treat multinodular goiter (MNG), but acute airway compression can be a life-threatening complication. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the efficacy and safety (including airway compression) of different doses of rhTSH associated with a fixed activity of 131I for treating MNG. Euthyroid patients with MNG (69.3 +/- 62.0 mL, 20 females, 2 males, 64 +/- 7 years) received 0.1 mg (group I, N = 8) or 0.01 mg (group II, N = 6) rhTSH or placebo (group III, N = 8), 24 h before 1.11 GBq 131I. Radioactive iodine uptake was determined at baseline and 24 h after rhTSH and thyroid volume (TV, baseline and 6 and 12 months after treatment) and tracheal cross-sectional area (TCA, baseline and 2, 7, 180, and 360 days after rhTSH) were determined by magnetic resonance; antithyroid antibodies and thyroid hormones were determined at frequent intervals. After 6 months, TV decreased significantly in groups I (28.5 +/- 17.6%) and II (21.6 +/- 17.8%), but not in group III (2.7 +/- 15.3%). After 12 months, TV decreased significantly in groups I (36.7 +/- 18.1%) and II (37.4 +/- 27.1%), but not in group III (19.0 +/- 24.3%). No significant changes in TCA were observed. T3 and free T4 increased transiently during the first month. After 12 months, 7 patients were hypothyroid (N = 3 in group I and N = 2 in groups II and III). rhTSH plus a 1.11-GBq fixed 131I activity did not causeacute or chronic changes in TCA. After 6 and 12 months, TV reduction was more pronounced among patients treated with rhTSH plus 131I. PMID:20401438
Albino, C C; Graf, H; Paz-Filho, G; Diehl, L A; Olandoski, M; Sabbag, A; Buchpiguel, C
We investigated the regulatory role of 14-kDa secretory group V phospholipase A2 (gVPLA2) in the development of acute lung injury (ALI) and neutrophilic inflammation (NI) caused by intratracheal administration of LPS. Experiments were conducted in gVPLA2 knockout (pla2g5?/?) mice, which lack the gene, and gVPLA2 wild-type littermate control (pla2g5+/+) mice. Indices of pulmonary injury were evaluated 24 h after intratracheal administration of LPS. Expression of gVPLA2 in microsections of airways and mRNA content in lung homogenates were increased substantially in pla2g5+/+ mice after LPS-administered compared with saline-treated pla2g5+/+ mice. By contrast, expression of gVPLA2 was neither localized in LPS- nor saline-treated pla2g5?/? mice. LPS also caused 1) reduced transthoracic static compliance, 2) lung edema, 3) neutrophilic infiltration, and 4) increased neutrophil myeloperoxidase activity in pla2g5+/+ mice. These events were attenuated in pla2g5?/? mice exposed to LPS or in pla2g5+/+ mice receiving MCL-3G1, a neutralizing MAb directed against gVPLA2, before LPS administration. Our data demonstrate that gVPLA2 is an inducible protein in pla2g5+/+ mice but not in pla2g5?/? mice within 24 h after LPS treatment. Specific inhibition of gVPLA2 with MCL-3G1 or gene-targeted mice lacking gVPLA2 blocks ALI and attenuates NI caused by LPS.
Munoz, Nilda M.; Meliton, Angelo Y.; Meliton, Lucille N.; Dudek, Steven M.; Leff, Alan R.
Context Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is crucial for transport of cholesterol to mitochondria where biosynthesis of steroids is initiated. Loss of StAR function causes lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH). Objective StAR gene mutations causing partial loss of function manifest atypical and may be mistaken as familial glucocorticoid deficiency. Only a few mutations have been reported. Design To report clinical, biochemical, genetic, protein structure and functional data on two novel StAR mutations, and to compare them with published literature. Setting Collaboration between the University Children's Hospital Bern, Switzerland, and the CIBERER, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Autonomous University, Barcelona, Spain. Patients Two subjects of a non-consanguineous Caucasian family were studied. The 46,XX phenotypic normal female was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at the age of 10 months, had normal pubertal development and still has no signs of hypergonodatropic hypogonadism at 32 years of age. Her 46,XY brother was born with normal male external genitalia and was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at 14 months. Puberty was normal and no signs of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism are present at 29 years of age. Results StAR gene analysis revealed two novel compound heterozygote mutations T44HfsX3 and G221S. T44HfsX3 is a loss-of-function StAR mutation. G221S retains partial activity (?30%) and is therefore responsible for a milder, non-classic phenotype. G221S is located in the cholesterol binding pocket and seems to alter binding/release of cholesterol. Conclusions StAR mutations located in the cholesterol binding pocket (V187M, R188C, R192C, G221D/S) seem to cause non-classic lipoid CAH. Accuracy of genotype-phenotype prediction by in vitro testing may vary with the assays employed.
Fluck, Christa E.; Pandey, Amit V.; Dick, Bernhard; Camats, Nuria; Fernandez-Cancio, Monica; Clemente, Maria; Gussinye, Miquel; Carrascosa, Antonio; Mullis, Primus E.; Audi, Laura
Diagnosing and selecting an appropriate treatment strategy for left main coronary artery (LMCA) obstruction is very important. Although this disease is not frequently encountered, it can cause severe hemodynamic deterioration resulting in a less favorable prognosis without a suitable management approach. Another aspect of LMCA that we must not overlook is coronary artery spasm, which can be an infrequent but important cause of acute coronary syndrome. Although it is rare, LMCA can cause critical complications. In this study, we report the case of a 35-year-old female who was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation in the aVR lead caused by a left main coronary spasm that was examined on intravascular ultrasound.
Of 368 acute otitis media (AOM) cases among 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV-7) vaccinated children, 43.5% were colonized by multiple otopathogens in the nasopharynx but only 7.1% experienced polymicrobial AOM. When co-colonization occurred, Haemophilus influenzae predominated over all Streptococcus pneumonia strains except 19A strains to cause AOM. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumonia both predominated over Moraxella catarrhalis to cause AOM.
Xu, Qingfu; Casey, Janet R.; Chang, Arthur; Pichichero, Michael
The effect of delayed administration of amoxicillin on the course of acute otitis media (AOM) caused by two Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with different susceptibilities to amoxicillin (MICs of 0.016 and 1 g\\/ml for strains A and B, respectively) was evaluated in the gerbil model. The organisms were inoculated by transbullar challenge into the middle ear, and antibiotic treatment was administered
Araceli Parra; Carmen Ponte; Carlos Cenjor; C. Martinez-Marin; Francisco Soriano
The relative abilities of pneumococcal serotypes and strains (clones) to causeacute otitis media (AOM) were investigated by comparing the serotypes and genotypes of pneumococci recovered from cases of AOM (n 149) in children <2 years of age with those from nasopharyngeal carriage (n 288) in age-matched controls from the same region. The odds ratio (OR) for association of pooled
William P. Hanage; Kari Auranen; Ritva Syrjanen; Elja Herva; P. Helena Makela; Terhi Kilpi; Brian G. Spratt
BACKGROUND: This paper presents Part 1 of a two-part literature review examining medication safety in the Australian acute care setting. This review was undertaken for the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care to update a previous national report on medication safety conducted in 2002. This first part of the review examines the extent and causes of medication
While most strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, the etiologic agent of typhoid fever, have only a phase 1 flagellar antigen, H1-d, variations of the flagellar antigen have been observed. Although H1-j strains (one of the flagellar antigen variants) account for 10 to 50% of S. enterica serotype Typhi strains found in Indonesia, there have been no published data to suggest its existence in other parts of the world. We describe a case of typhoid fever associated with acute appendicitis caused by an S. enterica serotype Typhi H1-j strain in a Chinese woman in Hong Kong. A gram-negative, motile rod was recovered from her blood and stool cultures. Conventional biochemical tests and the Vitek system (GNI+) showed that the bacterium was S. enterica serotype Typhi. The isolate agglutinated with poly(O), 9O, Vi and H1-j Salmonella antisera but not with poly(H) antisera. The patient developed antibodies against only S. enterica serotype Typhi O antigens but not against H1-d antigen by the Widal test. Flagellin C gene (fliC) sequencing showed a 261-bp deletion in the fliC gene of the isolate, confirming that the isolate possessed the H1-j antigen. The patient had no past history of travel to Indonesia or personal contact with any Indonesian. She recovered with appendectomy and antibiotic treatment. Further studies should be performed to determine the prevalence of this unusual S. enterica serotype Typhi strain in our locality.
Lau, Susanna K. P.; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Chan, Clair Y. F.; Woo, Wai-Lan; Woo, Gibson K. S.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, despite intense efforts to improve survival. The primary lead for septic shock results from activation of host effector cells by endotoxin, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) associated with cell membranes of gram-negative bacteria. For these reasons, the quest for compounds with antiendotoxin properties is actively pursued. We investigated the efficacy of the amphibian skin antimicrobial peptide temporin L in binding Escherichia coli LPS in vitro and counteracting its effects in vivo. Temporin L strongly bound to purified E. coli LPS and lipid A in vitro, as proven by fluorescent displacement assay, and readily penetrated into E. coli LPS monolayers. Furthermore, the killing activity of temporin L against E. coli was progressively inhibited by increasing concentrations of LPS added to the medium, further confirming the peptide's affinity for endotoxin. Antimicrobial assays showed that temporin L interacted synergistically with the clinically used ?-lactam antibiotics piperacillin and imipenem. Therefore, we characterized the activity of temporin L when combined with imipenem and piperacillin in the prevention of lethality in two rat models of septic shock, measuring bacterial growth in blood and intra-abdominal fluid, endotoxin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) concentrations in plasma, and lethality. With respect to controls and single-drug treatments, the simultaneous administration of temporin L and ?-lactams produced the highest antimicrobial activities and the strongest reduction in plasma endotoxin and TNF-? levels, resulting in the highest survival rates.
Giacometti, Andrea; Cirioni, Oscar; Ghiselli, Roberto; Mocchegiani, Federico; Orlando, Fiorenza; Silvestri, Carmela; Bozzi, Argante; Di Giulio, Antonio; Luzi, Carla; Mangoni, Maria Luisa; Barra, Donatella; Saba, Vittorio; Scalise, Giorgio; Rinaldi, Andrea C.
Schmorl nodes represent displacement of intervertebral disc tissue into the vertebral body and have been considered as an asymptomatic incidental radiological finding on plain radiographs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although uncommon, acute symptomatic Schmorl nodes causing severe back pain do occur. We report here an unusual case of acute painful Schmorl node in a young healthy woman, with no previous trauma, presenting with a sudden significant localized back pain within hours accompanied by characteristic findings on a MRI scan. We reviewed all reports of symptomatic Schmorl nodes known in the literature, focusing mainly on MRI findings, and recent treatment options.
Ohana, Nissim; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Kittani, Mohamed; Shelef, Ilan
BACKGROUND Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused the first epidemic of the 21st century and continues to threaten the global community. OBJECTIVE To assess the incidence of coinfection in patients confirmed to have SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection, and thus, to determine the risk of ruling out SARS by ruling in another diagnosis. METHODS The present report is a retrospective study evaluating the incidence and impact of laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV and other pulmonary pathogens in 117 patients. These patients were evaluated in a Toronto, Ontario, community hospital identified as the epicentre for the second SARS outbreak. RESULTS Coinfection with other pulmonary pathogens occured in patients with SARS. Seventy-three per cent of the patient population evaluated had laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV infection. Serology showing acute or recent Chlamydophila pneumoniae or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection revealed an incidence of 30% and 9%, respectively, in those with SARS. These rates are similar to previously published studies on coinfection in pneumonia. All nucleic acid diagnostic assays were negative for C pneumoniae and M pneumoniae in respiratory samples from patients with SARS having serological evidence for these atypical pathogens. CONCLUSIONS Diagnostic assays for well-recognized pulmonary pathogens have limitations, and ruling out SARS-CoV by ruling in another pulmonary pathogen carries significant risk. Despite positive serology for atypical pathogens, in a setting where clinical suspicion for SARS is high, specific tests for SARS should be performed to confirm or exclude a diagnosis.
Zahariadis, George; Gooley, Ted A; Ryall, Phyllis; Hutchinson, Christine; Latchford, Mary I; Fearon, Margaret A; Jamieson, Frances B; Richardson, Susan; Kuschak, Theodore; Mederski, Barbara
In vitro cultures of triploid seedless watermelon cv. Arka Manik displayed a decline in shoot and root growth after 4–5 years of active culturing. Visibly clean cultures upon indexing on enriched media showed covert bacteria, and a significant improvement in proliferation and rooting in response to surface sterilization. The bacteria however survived endophytically. Low pH and reduced clarity of agar
A total of 23 strains of coryneform bacteria that cause ratoon stunting disease of sugarcane and Bermudagrass stunting disease were examined. These included 17 sugarcane strains from Florida, Louisiana, South Africa, Brazil, and Japan and six Bermudagrass strains from Florida and Taiwan. The sugarcane and Bermudagrass strains contained 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, rhamnose, and fucose in their cell walls, suggesting a relationship
MICHAEL J. DAVIS; A. GRAVES GILLASPIE; ANNE K. VIDAVER; RUSSELL W. HARRIS
Yellow phosphorus is a protoplasmic toxicant that targets the liver. The ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus, either by children who accidentally consume them or by adults who are attempting suicide, often results in death due to acute liver failure (ALF). We present the outcomes of 10 children who ingested fireworks containing yellow phosphorus. There were 6 boys and 4 girls, and their ages ranged from 21 to 60 months. One patient remained stable without liver complications and was discharged. Three patients died of hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed for 6 patients. The patients had grade II or III encephalopathy, a mean alanine aminotransferase level of 1148.2 IU/L, a mean aspartate aminotransferase level of 1437.5 IU/L, a mean total bilirubin level of 6.9 mg/dL, a mean international normalized ratio of 6.6, a mean Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease score of 33.7, and a mean Child-Pugh score of 11.3. Postoperatively, 2 patients had persistent encephalopathy and died on the second or third postoperative day, and 1 patient died of cardiac arrest on the first postoperative day despite a well-functioning graft. The other 3 patients were still alive at a mean of 204 days. In conclusion, the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus causes ALF with a high mortality rate. When signs of irreversible ALF are detected, emergency LDLT should be considered as a lifesaving procedure; however, if yellow phosphorus toxicity affects both the brain and the heart in addition to the liver, the mortality rate remains very high despite liver transplantation. PMID:21761550
Background: Cardiac arrhythmias are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute respiratory failure (ARF) and may be life threatening. Recently, non-invasive positive pressure ventilation has been advanced as a useful tool in COPD patients with ARF. This method can affect global cardiac performance through its effects on many determinants of cardiac function and may be helpful
Maurizio Marvisi; Marco Brianti; Giuseppe Marani; Gabriele Turrini; Paolo Zambrelli; Corrado Ajolfi; Roberto Delsignore
The diagnosis of ruptured aortic cusp leading to acute aortic insufficiency was made by echophonocardiographic techniques in a patient with nonvegetative aortic valvular endocarditis and a negative clinical history. Early closure of the mitral valve, weak first heart sound, tall A wave of apexcardiogram, and early diastolic murmur indicated acute aortic regurgitation. Fine high frequency echoes of the aortic root and aortic leaflets suggested ruptured aortic leafet unlike that reported in the presence of vegetations. Timing of S1 in acute aortic regurgitation by phonocardiogram, echocardiogram, and pulse techniques could not establish a single causative valvular relation in the genesis of this sound. PMID:869270
. The spread of penicillin non-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PNSSP) is an emerging problem for the treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). Attendance of children at day care centers,\\u000a as well as the spread of PNSSP, is a risk factor for AOM. The status of the spread of PNSSP during the acute infection phase\\u000a of AOM has not been evaluated. We
The global distribution of individual species of oral bacteria demonstrates their ability to survive among their human hosts. Such an ubiquitous existence is the result of efficient transmission of strains and their persistence in the oral environment. Genetic analysis has identified specific clones of pathogenic bacteriacausing infection. Presumably, these express virulence-associated characteristics enhancing colonization and survival in their hosts.
Objective—Mercury has been suggested to have negative effects on cardiovascular health. We investigated the effects of high mercury content in hair on the risk of acute coronary events and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in men from eastern Finland. Methods and Results—The population-based prospective Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) cohort of 1871 Finnish men aged 42 to 60
Jyrki K. Virtanen; Sari Voutilainen; Tiina H. Rissanen; Jaakko Mursu; Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen; Maarit J. Korhonen; Veli-Pekka Valkonen; Kari Seppanen; Jari A. Laukkanen; Jukka T. Salonen
Background.?Escherichia coli O25b:H4-ST131 represents a predominant clone of multidrug-resistant uropathogens currently circulating worldwide in hospitals and the community. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by E. coli ST131 are typically associated with limited treatment options and are often recurrent. Methods.?Using established mouse models of acute and chronic UTI, we mapped the pathogenic trajectory of the reference E. coli ST131 UTI isolate, strain EC958. Results.?We demonstrated that E. coli EC958 can invade bladder epithelial cells and form intracellular bacterial communities early during acute UTI. Moreover, E. coli EC958 persisted in the bladder and established chronic UTI. Prophylactic antibiotic administration failed to prevent E. coli EC958-mediated UTI. However, 1 oral dose of a small-molecular-weight compound that inhibits FimH, the type 1 fimbriae adhesin, significantly reduced bacterial colonization of the bladder and prevented acute UTI. Treatment of chronically infected mice with the same FimH inhibitor lowered their bladder bacterial burden by >1000-fold. Conclusions.?In this study, we provide novel insight into the pathogenic mechanisms used by the globally disseminated E. coli ST131 clone during acute and chronic UTI and establish the potential of FimH inhibitors as an alternative treatment against multidrug-resistant E. coli. PMID:23737602
Totsika, Makrina; Kostakioti, Maria; Hannan, Thomas J; Upton, Mathew; Beatson, Scott A; Janetka, James W; Hultgren, Scott J; Schembri, Mark A
We identified 179 cases of acute respiratory illness including 50 cases of radiographically confirmed pneumonia over the course of 4 months on a deployed U.S. Navy vessel. Laboratory tests showed Mycoplasma pneumoniae to be the etiological agent. This report represents the first published description of a shipboard outbreak of this pathogen. PMID:19846632
Sliman, Joseph A; Metzgar, David; Asseff, David C; Coon, Robert G; Faix, Dennis J; Lizewski, Stephen
We identified 179 cases of acute respiratory illness including 50 cases of radiographically confirmed pneumonia over the course of 4 months on a deployed U.S. Navy vessel. Laboratory tests showed Mycoplasma pneumoniae to be the etiological agent. This report represents the first published description of a shipboard outbreak of this pathogen.
Sliman, Joseph A.; Metzgar, David; Asseff, David C.; Coon, Robert G.; Faix, Dennis J.; Lizewski, Stephen
Splenic infarction is an uncommon condition that is rarely encountered in emergency and internal medicine. This condition is usually associated with systemic conditions such as hypercoagulable states, hemoglobinopathies, systemic lupus erythematosus, hematologic disorders, and cardiac thromboembolism during atrial fibrillation and endocarditis . We describe a case of a woman with an acute abdominal pain due to splenic infarction from splenic
Marco Rossato; Martina Paccagnella; Marta Burei; Giovanni Federspil; Roberto Vettor
Background & objectives: The availability of a type-specific pneumococcal vaccine for children is a worldwide problem. It is necessary to study the serotypes prevalent in a country before introducing a type-specific vaccine. The objective of the present study was to analyse the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in children suffering from acute otitis media or invasive pneumococcal disease and to
A 1.5-year-old female rabbit (doe) was presented with a 3-day history of lethargy, anorexia, and mild facial swelling. The animal died shortly after examination and severe, acute hemorrhagic pneumonia was noted grossly. An alphaherpesvirus consistent with leporid herpesvirus-4 was isolated and characterized from this animal. This is the first confirmed report of the disease in Canada.
Brash, Marina L.; Nagy, Eva; Pei, Yanlong; Carman, Susy; Emery, Susan; Smith, Alec E.; Turner, Patricia V.
A prospective study was conducted to determine the serotypes and antibiotic resistance patterns of pneumococcal isolates from children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and acute otitis media (AOM). From October 2001 to May 2002, 65 children with IPD (28 bacteraemic pneumonia, 24 bacteraemia without focus, 7 meningitis, 6 other infections) and 78 with AOM were identified. The most common serotypes
Nikolaos P. Zissis; Vassiliki Syriopoulou; Dimitris Kafetzis; George L. Daikos; Amalia Tsilimingaki; Emanouel Galanakis; Iraklia Tsangaropoulou
Objective To evaluate the effect of noninvasive Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) ventilation on the severe influenza A virus associated with pneumonia and acute respiratory failure (ARF). Methods Based on conventional therapy via face mask using BiPAP ventilator positive airway pressure ventilation in the treatment of severe pneumonia caused by influenza A (H1N1) virus with acute respiratory failure (ARF) in 18 cases, we observed and evaluated the therapeutic effects. Results PaO2 and SaO2 before and after treatment were (48.85 ± 12.15)mmHg, (68.56 ± 16.25) mmHg and (80 ± 6)%, (92 ± 5)%, respectively. The results were significantly different (P<0.05) before and after treatment. Endotracheal intubation rate was 25% (6/24) and case-fatality rate was 8.3% (2/24). Conclusion BiPAP ventilator airway pressure by face mask ventilation can reduce the rate of endotracheal intubation in the treatment of severe pneumonia caused by influenza A (H1N1) virus in acute respiratory failure. It could be an effective approach in the emergency treatment with clinical value.
A number of enteric pathogens, including enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli, Hafnia alvei, a strain of Citrobacter freundii, and rabbit EPEC strain RDEC-1 cause attaching-effacing (AE) lesions in the gut mucosa. These bacteria have a pathogenicity cassette (locus of enterocyte effacement or LEE) containing the eaeA gene. This gene encodes intimin, an outer membrane protein required for production
Tonia S. Agin; J. Robert Cantey; Edgar C. Boedeker; Marcia K. Wolf
The combined effects of the uterine infusion of EDTA–Tris solution and antibiotics have been evaluated in 75 cases of slight, moderate or severe bovine endometritis which did not respond to local routine antimicrobial therapy. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were isolated from uterine swabs. The cows were divided into three groups on the basis of the severity of endometritis and treated with 100
Pure spinal epidural cavernous angiomas are extremely rare lesions, and their normal shape is that of a fusiform mass in the\\u000a dorsal aspects of the spinal canal. We report a case of a lumbo-sacral epidural cavernous vascular malformation presenting\\u000a with acute onset of right-sided S1 radiculopathy. Clinical aspects, imaging, intraoperative findings, and histology are demonstrated.\\u000a The patient, a 27-year-old man
Frank Floeth; Markus Riemenschneider; Jörg Herdmann
Direct percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is now the standard first-line therapy for all patients. However, few studies on PCI in young patients with AMI and Kawasaki disease have been published. Herein, we report a case of AMI in a 26-year-old man with a history of Kawasaki disease. Emergency coronary angiography showed a thrombotic occlusion of
Recent studies reported an increased prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with migraine with aura (MA+). To investigate the possible relationship between MA+ and paradoxical embolism, we studied the prevalence of both conditions. Investigation of PFO was undertaken in 74 consecutive patients presenting with an acute stroke of undetermined origin. The patients were questioned about MA+ or migraine
R. Sztajzel; D. Genoud; S. Roth; B. Mermillod; J. Le Floch-Rohr
Objective: To evaluate the rate of bacteriologic failure of amoxicillin-clavulanate in the treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) and to identify the risk factors associated with failure. Methods: Ninety-nine subjects (mean age, 21.4 months) with AOM were treated with amoxicillin-clavulanate in two prospective study trials that compared efficacy of two experimental antibiotics with amoxicillin-clavulanate. Tympanocentesis for microbiologic studies was performed
Janak A. Patel; Barbara Reisner; Negar Vizirinia; Mary Owen; Tasnee Chonmaitree; Virgil Howie
The primary toxicity of oxaliplatin is neurotoxicity. Calcium and magnesium (Ca/Mg) are reported to be beneficial in protecting against this adverse effect. However, the results obtained from clinical trials are not definitive. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Ca/Mg alleviates the neurotoxicity of oxaliplatin by performing a meta-analysis of the literature involving available randomized controlled trials. Systematic searches for trials were undertaken from the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Embase, CBMdisc and CNKI databases without language limitations. The primary outcome was severe chronic neurotoxicity and the secondary outcome was acute neurotoxicity. Four randomized double-blind trials met the search criteria. The odds ratio (OR) comparing Ca/Mg treatment with placebo was 0.44 (0.23–0.85, P=0.01) for severe chronic neurotoxicity of oxaliplatin (grade ?2) and 0.41 (0.11–1.49, P=0.18) for acute neurotoxicity. In conclusion, Ca/Mg treatment does not reduce the incidence of acute neurotoxicity of oxaliplatin, but does reduce the incidence of severe chronic neurotoxicity (grade ?2). No differences were observed in the outcomes of chemotherapy. Thus, Ca/Mg treatment is recommended for use as an adjunct with oxaliplatin.
In daily hospital activity a frequent observation is that of patients in conditions of acute global suffering of the central nervous system due to a primary cause or symptomatic of other diseases. This condition shows an alteration of the state of consciousness, which involves three possible semeiologic manifestations: delirium (acute confusional state), acute confusional state associated with psychomotor underactivity and coma. The possible causes of an acute encephalopathy (AE) are: metabolic, iatrogenic and toxic, infective, primary neurologic, surgery-related and others. Diagnostic-therapeutic routes to be followed by emergency room doctors and neurologists dealing with AE are defined. PMID:16708187
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key sensors of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Their role in immunity is difficult to examine in species of veterinary interest, due to restricted access to the knockout technology and TLR-specific antibodies. An alternative approach is to generate cell lines transfected with various TLRs and to examine the recognition of PAMPs or relevant bacteria. In this report,
Katja Farhat; Kay-Sara Sauter; Marija Brcic; Joachim Frey; Artur J. Ulmer; Thomas W. Jungi
Use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the adjuvant setting has improved survival for many patients with malignancy. Unfortunately multimodality treatment can come at a price, in particular therapy-related malignancies. This has importance in that patients must be made aware of this potential detriment from therapy and doctors must consider this diagnosis in those patients who are cancer survivors and presenting with health problems. We present a case report and brief overview of the literature regarding chemotherapy-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) following therapy for early stage breast cancer.
Aidan, J Cole; Priddee, Nicole R; McAleer, James J
A hair root was evaluated as a specimen for proving acute methamphetamine (MA) poisonings using an animal model and fatal cases of MA intoxicaton. First of all, male pigmented hairy rats (n = 5) were administered with acute poisonous doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg) of MA and the hair roots were plucked out with a hair nipper 5 min and 0.5, 1, 2, 6 and 24 h after i.p. injection. The hair root samples were, directly or after washing with detergent, extracted with methanol/5 N HCl (20:1) under vortex mixing at room temperature for 14 h. After evaporation, the residue was derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and analyzed with GC/MS. From all samples including a 5-min sample, MA was detected at high concentrations (approximately 150 ng/mg) with a small amount of amphetamine (AP). Many animals died within 120 min of administration, but the concentrations in the hair roots increased up to 120 min and then slowly decreased until 24 h. Although MA was definitely detected anytime in the hair roots, almost no MA was found in 24-h plasma. In comparison of the drug levels in hair roots between the washed group and the unwashed group, the levels of the washed group were as a whole 4-5-fold higher than those of the unwashed group. These differences show that most of the drug incorporated into hair root is still not immobilized in the early stage. The ratios of the MA remainder in the washed samples increased with the elapse of time in all cases. However, the slope of the curves definitely dropped after the death of rats, probably due to the stopping of the hair growth and the incorporation of drug into the hair shaft. The ratios of AP/MA after death became a plateau probably due to the stoppage of the activity of metabolism after death, while those before death had increased over time. We analyzed the specimens of hair root of four men who died mainly due to acute poisonings with MA. Consequently, MA in the hair roots was detected at high concentrations, 30.5-134.6 ng/mg, and its metabolic, AP, at the concentrations of 1.2-9.0 ng/mg. Our results suggested that hair root is a good specimen for probing acute MA poisoning. PMID:9042721
We report a case of 73-year-old man with massive hyperostosis of the cervical spine associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), resulting in dysphagia, hoarseness and acute respiratory insufficiency. An emergency operation was performed, which involved excision of osteophytes at the level of C6-C7, compressing the trachea against enlarged sternoclavicular joints, also affected by DISH. Approximately 3 years later, the patient sustained a whiplash injury in a low impact car accident, resulting in a C3-C4 fracture dislocation, which was not immediately diagnosed because he did not seek medical attention after the accident. For the next 6 months, he had constant cervical pain, which was growing worse and eventually became associated with dysphagia and dyspnoea, ending once again in acute respiratory failure due to bilateral palsy of the vocal cords. The patient underwent a second operation, which comprised partial reduction and combined anteroposterior fixation of the fractured vertebrae. Twenty months after the second operation, mild hoarseness was still present, but all other symptoms had disappeared. The clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the two unusual complications of DISH are discussed. PMID:19798518
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) are the 2 widespread viral hemorrhagic fevers occurring in Europe. HFRS is distributed throughout Europe, and CCHF has been reported mainly on the Balkan Peninsula and Russia. Both hemorrhagic fevers are endemic in Bulgaria. We investigated to what extent acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Bulgaria could be due to hantaviruses or to CCHF virus. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we tested serum samples from 527 patients with acute febrile illness for antibodies against hantaviruses and CCHF virus. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against hantaviruses were detected in 15 (2.8%) of the patients. Of the 15 hantavirus-positive patients, 8 (1.5%) were positive for Dobrava virus (DOBV), 5 (0.9%) were positive for Puumala virus (PUUV), and the remaining 2 were positive for both hantaviruses. A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) confirmed 4 of the 10 DOBV-positive samples. PRNT was negative for all PUUV-positive samples. Serologic evidence of recent CCHF virus infection was found in 13 (2.5%) of the patients. Interestingly, HFRS and CCHF were not only detected in well-known endemic areas of Bulgaria but also in nonendemic regions. Our results suggested that in endemic countries, CCHF and/or HFRS might appear as a nonspecific febrile illness in a certain proportion of patients. Physicians must be aware of possible viral hemorrhagic fever cases, even if hemorrhages or renal impairment are not manifested. PMID:23421884
Sequestration of bacteria within the capsular fornices after cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation can cause both acute and chronic inflammation. A case of persistent postoperative endophthalmitis caused by capsular sequestration of Cellulomonas is described. The patient underwent uncomplicated cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation and subsequently developed acute postoperative endophthalmitis. Inflammation persisted despite several vitreous taps and the injection of intravitreal antibiotics. Definitive treatment required pars plana vitrectomy, intraocular lens explantation, capsular bag removal, and intravitreal and parenteral antibiotics. In patients with postoperative endophthalmitis, one must consider atypical organisms as the source and should consider explantation of the intraocular lens with capsular bag removal. PMID:18717441
Sharma, Shobha; Saffra, Norman A; Chinyadza, Tanyanyiwa; Ghitan, Monica; Chapnick, Edward K
Background. Intravenous (i.v) iron is widely used to treat anaemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although beneficial and usually well tolerated, concerns have been raised about its ability to cause oxidative stress and renal injury. Methods. To determine if i.v. iron causes oxidative stress (as assessed by plasma and urine malondialdehye (MDA)) and\\/or renal injury (as assessed by
David J. Leehey; David J. Palubiak; Srivasa Chebrolu; Rajiv Agarwal
Background National attention has increasingly focused on readmission as a target for quality improvement. We present the development and validation of a model approved by the National Quality Forum and used by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for hospital-level public reporting of risk-standardized readmission rates for patients discharged from the hospital after an acute myocardial infarction. Methods and Results We developed a hierarchical logistic regression model to calculate hospital risk-standardized 30-day all-cause readmission rates for patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. The model was derived using Medicare claims data for a 2006 cohort and validated using claims and medical record data. The unadjusted readmission rate was 18.9%. The final model included 31 variables and had discrimination ranging from 8% observed 30-day readmission rate in the lowest predictive decile to 32% in the highest decile and a C statistic of 0.63. The 25th and 75th percentiles of the risk-standardized readmission rates across 3890 hospitals were 18.6% and 19.1%, with fifth and 95th percentiles of 18.0% and 19.9%, respectively. The odds of all-cause readmission for a hospital 1 SD above average were 1.35 times that of a hospital 1 SD below average. Hospital-level adjusted readmission rates developed using the claims model were similar to rates produced for the same cohort using a medical record model (correlation, 0.98; median difference, 0.02 percentage points). Conclusions This claims-based model of hospital risk-standardized readmission rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction produces estimates that are excellent surrogates for those produced from a medical record model.
Krumholz, Harlan M.; Lin, Zhenqiu; Drye, Elizabeth E.; Desai, Mayur M.; Han, Lein F.; Rapp, Michael T.; Mattera, Jennifer A.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.
In daily hospital activity a frequent observation is that of patients in conditions of acute global suffering of the central\\u000a nervous system due to a primary cause or symptomatic of other diseases. This condition shows an alteration of the state of\\u000a consciousness, which involves three possible semeiologic manifestations: delirium (acute confusional state), acute confusional\\u000a state associated with psychomotor underactivity and
Previous epidemiological assessments of the prevalence versus special-pathogenicity hypothesis for urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogenesis in women may have been confounded by underlying host population differences between women with UTI and healthy controls and have not considered the clonal complexity of the fecal Escherichia coli population of the host. In the present study, 42 women with acute uncomplicated cystitis served as their own controls for an analysis of the causative E. coli strain and the concurrent intestinal E. coli population. Clonality among the urine isolate and 30 fecal colonies per subject was assessed by repetitive-element PCR and macrorestriction analysis. Each unique clone underwent PCR-based phylotyping and virulence genotyping. Molecular analysis resolved 109 unique clones (4 urine-only, 38 urine-fecal, and 67 fecal-only clones). Urine clones exhibited a significantly higher prevalence of group B2 than fecal-only clones (69% versus 10%; P < 0.001) and higher aggregate virulence scores (mean, 6.2 versus 2.9; P < 0.001). In multilevel regression models for predicting urine clone status, significant positive predictors included group B2, 10 individual virulence traits, the aggregate virulence score, fecal dominance, relative fecal abundance, and (unique to the present study) a pauciclonal fecal sample. In summary, within the fecal E. coli populations of women with acute cystitis, pauciclonality, clonal dominance, virulence, and group B2 status are closely intertwined. Phylogenetic group B2 status and/or associated virulence factors may promote fecal abundance and pauciclonality, thereby contributing to upstream steps in UTI pathogenesis. This relationship suggests a possible reconciliation of the prevalence and special-pathogenicity hypotheses.
Moreno, Eva; Andreu, Antonia; Pigrau, Carles; Kuskowski, Michael A.; Johnson, James R.; Prats, Guillem
For 6 years, 5 Japanese Black cows of the same herd showed anorexia, depression, and dehydration with no feces in the rectum. Biomedical examination of 3 animals showed severe hypokalemia and hypochloremia. Although the first 3 animals died or were slaughtered (causes unknown), necropsy results showed that the cow in case 4 had intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoar derived from napier grass, fed mainly to the cattle as roughage. Therefore, farmers were recommended to avoid the hard root-stem portion of napier grass as roughage. Consequently, less phytobezoar was recovered from the fifth cow, and no similar clinical case of intestinal obstruction was observed thereafter. This is the first report on intestinal obstruction caused by phytobezoars derived from napier grass. PMID:21498963
Vitamin D is synthesised by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of skin and is hypothesized to be a direct mediator of the immunosuppression that occurs following UV radiation (UVR) exposure. Both UVR and vitamin D drive immune responses towards tolerance by ultimately increasing the suppressive activities of regulatory T cells. To examine a role for UVR-induced vitamin D, vitamin D3-deficient mice were established by dietary vitamin D3 restriction. In comparison to vitamin D3-replete mice, vitamin D3-deficient mice had significantly reduced serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3, <20 nmol.L?1) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3, <20 pmol.L?1). Following either acute erythemal UVR, or chronic sub-erythemal UVR (8 exposures over 4 weeks) treatment, serum 25(OH)D3 levels significantly increased in vitamin D3-deficient female but not male mice. To determine if UVR-induced vitamin D was a mediator of UVR-induced systemic immunosuppression, responses were measured in mice that were able (female) or unable (male) to increase systemic levels of 25(OH)D3 after UVR. Erythemal UVR (?4 kJ/m2) suppressed contact hypersensitivity responses (T helper type-1 or -17), aspects of allergic airway disease (T helper type-2) and also the in vivo priming capacity of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells to a similar degree in female and male vitamin D3-deficient mice. Thus, in male mice, UVR-induced 25(OH)D3 is not essential for mediating the immunosuppressive effects of erythemal UVR.
Gorman, Shelley; Scott, Naomi M.; Tan, Daryl H. W.; Weeden, Clare E.; Tuckey, Robert C.; Bisley, Jacqueline L.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Hart, Prue H.
Accumulating evidence indicates that the polyphenol resveratrol (trans-3, 5, 4?-trihydroxystibene, RVT) potently protects against cerebral ischemia neuronal damage due to its oxygen free radicals scavenging and antioxidant properties. However, it is unknown whether RVT can attenuate ischemia-induced early impairment of neuronal excitability. To address this question, we simulated ischemic conditions by applying oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) to acute rat hippocampal slices and examined the effect of RVT on OGD-induced pyramidal neuron excitability impairment using whole-cell patch clamp recording. 100 ?M RVT largely inhibited the 15 min OGD-induced progressive membrane potential (Vm) depolarization and the reduction in evoked action potential frequency and amplitude in pyramidal neurons. In the parallel neuronal viability study using TO-PRO-3 iodide staining, 20 min OGD induced irreversible CA1 pyramidal neuronal death which was significantly reduced by 100 ?M RVT. No similar effects were found with PQQ treatment, an antioxidant also showing potent neuroprotection in the rat rMCAO ischemia model. This suggests that antioxidant action per se, is unlikely accounting for the observed early effects of RVT. RVT also markedly reduced the frequency and amplitude of AMPA mediated spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in pyramidal neurons, which is also an early consequence of OGD. RVT effects on neuronal excitability were inhibited by the large conductance potassium channel (BK channel) inhibitor paxilline. Together, these studies demonstrate that RVT attenuates OGD induced neuronal impairment occurring early in the simulated ischemia slice model by enhancing the activation of BK channel and reducing the OGD-enhanced AMPA/NMDA receptor mediated neuronal EPSCs.
Zhang, Huaqiu; Schools, Gary P.; Lei, Ting; Wang, Wei; Kimelberg, Harold; Zhou, Min
Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common upper respiratory tract infection in childhood. Children with AOM were enrolled at Tohoku Rosai Hospital between July 2006 and June 2011 if their middle ear fluid cultures after tympanocentesis yielded only Haemophilus influenzae. The susceptibilities of the isolates to ampicillin were determined, and microtiter biofilm assays and invasion assays using BEAS-2B cells were performed. The association between these bacterial characteristics and clinical relapses of AOM and treatment failures was evaluated. Seventy-four children (39 boys and 35 girls) with a median age of 1 year (interquartile range [IQR], 0.25 to 2 years) were enrolled. Among 74 H. influenzae isolates, 37 showed intermediate resistance or resistance to ampicillin (MIC, ?2 ?g/ml). In the microtiter biofilm assay, the median optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was 0.68 (IQR, 0.24 to 1.02), and 70 isolates formed biofilms. The median invasion rate was 15% (IQR, 0 to 10%), and 46 isolates invaded BEAS-2B cells. Relapses and treatment failures occurred in 19 and 6 children, respectively. There was no significant difference in the invasion rates between patients with and those without relapses or treatment failures. Also, there was no significant association between biofilm formation and relapse or treatment failure. The improvements in the severity scores after 1 week were significantly associated with the recovery time (P < 0.0001). We did not identify any significant association between relapse or treatment failure and bacterial factors. AOM has a multifactorial etiology, and this may explain why we could not find a significant association. An improvement in the severity score after 1 week of treatment may be a useful predictor of the outcome of AOM. PMID:23966504
We examined in Sprague-Dawley rats whether intranigral administration of complex-I inhibitor, rotenone, produces biochemical lesions in the striatum similar to those observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Unilateral stereotaxic infusion of rotenone (2-12 mug in 1 mul) into substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta caused significant inhibition of complex-I activity and increased production of hydroxyl radicals in vivo as measured employing spectrophotometric and HPLC-electrochemical procedures, respectively. It also caused a significant time- and dose-dependent reduction of dopamine level, but not serotonin, in the ipsilateral striatum when assayed using an HPLC electrochemical method. This effect was found to be progressive for 90 days. A dose-dependent decrease in nigral glutathione level, as measured fluorimetrically, was also observed to be progressive till 90th day. A significant decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum (73 +/- 8.4% as assessed by densitometric studies) or in SN ipsilateral to the side of infusion suggested nigrostriatal neuronal degeneration. A dose of rotenone (6 microg in 1 microl) that caused 55% striatal dopamine depletion when infused into the SN failed to affect serotonin levels in the terminal regions when infused into the nucleus raphe dorsalis, indicating rotenone's specificity of action towards dopaminergic neurons. Our findings suggest that unilateral infusion of rotenone reproduces neurochemical and neuropathological features of hemiparkinsonism in rats and indicate an active involvement of oxidative stress in rotenone-induced nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. The present study also demonstrates more sensitivity of dopaminergic neurons towards rotenone and establishes mitochondrial complex-I damage as one of the major contributory components of neurodegeneration in PD. The progressive nature of pathology in this model closely mimics idiopathic PD, and absence of mortality warrants the use of this model in drug discovery programs. PMID:15936733
Saravanan, Karuppagounder S; Sindhu, Kizhakke M; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P
Oxymetazoline (OMZ) is an alpha-adrenergic agonist which causes potent vasoconstriction in various tissues. Thus, its effects on red eye conjunctivitis induced by histamine and arachidonic acid were tested in rabbit eyes. It was found that a brief conjunctivitis induced by 0.01% of histamine can be eliminated effectively by 0.001, 0.004, and 0.016% of OMZ. The long lasting conjunctivitis induced by 0.3% arachidonic acid can also be markedly reduced by 0.004, 0.008, and 0.016% of OMZ. These results indicate that OMZ is a potent, long acting decongestant for conjunctival red eye syndrome. PMID:9261771
Determination of the attributable hospital cost and length of stay (LOS) are of critical importance for patients, providers, and payers who must make rational and informed decisions about patient care and the allocation of resources. The objective of the present study was to determine the additional total hospital cost and LOS attributable to health care-associated infections (HAIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant,
Patrick D. Mauldin; Cassandra D. Salgado; Ida Solhøj Hansen; Darshana T. Durup; John A. Bosso
Diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa have re-emerged as a serious threat to several economically important crops, such as grape and almond, in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Knowledge of bacterial behavior in plant hosts under field condition is important for disease control. This research c...
Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common complication of upper respiratory tract infection whose pathogenesis involves both viruses and bacteria. We examined risks of acute otitis media associated with specific combinations of respiratory viruses and acute otitis media bacterial pathogens. Data were from a prospective study of children ages 6 to 36 months and included viral and bacterial culture and quantitative PCR for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human bocavirus, and human metapneumovirus. Repeated-measure logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between specific viruses, bacteria, and the risk of acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection. In unadjusted analyses of data from 194 children, adenovirus, bocavirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis were significantly associated with AOM (P < 0.05 by ?2 test). Children with high respiratory syncytial virus loads (?3.16 × 107 copies/ml) experienced increased acute otitis media risk. Higher viral loads of bocavirus and metapneumovirus were not significantly associated with acute otitis media. In adjusted models controlling for the presence of key viruses, bacteria, and acute otitis media risk factors, acute otitis media risk was independently associated with high RSV viral load with Streptococcus pneumoniae (odds ratio [OR], 4.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.90 and 10.19) and Haemophilus influenzae (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.38 and 3.02). The risk was higher for the presence of bocavirus and H. influenzae together (OR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.90 and 6.86). Acute otitis media risk differs by the specific viruses and bacteria involved. Acute otitis media prevention efforts should consider methods for reducing infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus, bocavirus, and adenovirus in addition to acute otitis media bacterial pathogens.
Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Gent, Janneane F.; Pyles, Richard B.; Miller, Aaron L.; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Chonmaitree, Tasnee
The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of O serogroups of Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains that cause community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI) in children. In this study, 96 children with UTI referred to two Jahrom University-affiliated Hospitals in Iran were enrolled, during the period from August 2005 to August 2006. Drug sensitivity was tested by disk diffusion method and serotyping done by slide agglutination method. A total of 96 E. coli strains were isolated from urine samples of the study children whose age ranged from one month to 14 years. Cystitis was diagnosed in 49.2% and pyelonephritis in 50.8% of the study patients. Maximum drug resistance was seen with ampicillin (80.2%) and the least with imipenem (1.1%). The most common type of O antigen was O1 (12.2%). There was significant correlation between the presence of O antigens and sensitivity to nalidixic acid and gentamicin (P < 0.05). This is the first report of E. coli serotyping in children with UTI from the south of Iran and their relation to antibiotic resistance and clinical presentation. Further studies from other parts of Iran and on other serotypes are recommended. PMID:21566331
Epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT) is a major determinant of muscle force exerted, as well as length range of force exertion. Therefore, EMFT is of importance in remedial surgery performed, e.g., in spastic paresis. We aimed to test the following hypotheses: (1) muscle lengthening surgery (involving preparatory dissection (PD) and subsequent proximal aponeurotomy (AT)) affects the target muscle force exerted at its distal and proximal tendons differentially, (2) forces of non-operated synergistic muscles are affected as well, (3) PD causes some of these effects. In three conditions (control, post-PD, and post-AT exclusively on m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL)), forces exerted by rat anterior crural muscles were measured simultaneously. Our results confirm hypotheses (1-2), and hypothesis (3) in part: Reduction of EDL maximal force differed by location (i.e. 26.3% when tested distally and 44.5% when tested proximally). EDL length range of active force exertion increased only distally. Force reductions were shown also for non-operated tibialis anterior (by 11.9%), as well as for extensor hallucis longus (by 8.4%) muscles. In tibialis anterior only, part of the force reduction (4.9%) is attributable to PD. Due to EMFT, remedial surgery should be considered to have differential effects for targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles. PMID:23837929
Ate?, Filiz; Ozde?lik, Rana N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A
Atmospheric pressure plasma jets effectively inactivate bacteria on surfaces including infected tissues. This is due to the combined effects of (V)UV radiation, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ions, and high electric fields. A well-characterized microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet (?-APPJ) operated with He/O2 gas mixture has been modified so that (V)UV radiation and heavy reactive particles (mainly O3 molecules and O atoms) emitted from the plasma source can be separated effectively. The separation is achieved by an additional lateral He flow, which diverts the heavy particles from the jet axis. The new jet geometry is called X-Jet. Separation of different plasma components allows studying their effects on living cells and bio-macromolecules separately. First, the effectiveness of the separation of different plasma components was demonstrated by treatment of monolayers of vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells. To characterize effects on nucleic acids, dried plasmid DNA and total cellular RNA were treated with the separated plasma components. Dried bovine serum albumin was used to study etching effects of (V)UV radiation and heavy particles on proteins. We found that heavy particles emitted from the X-Jet kill vegetative cells more effectively than the (V)UV radiation from this type of plasma source. All bio-macromolecules investigated, DNA, RNA, and proteins, are affected by plasma treatment. DNA exposed to the (V)UV-channel of the jet seems to be prone to thymine dimer formation not only in vitro but also in vivo as indicated by induction of the photolyase in Escherichia coli, while DNA strand breaks occur under both jet channels. Heavy particles seem more effective in degrading RNA and in etching protein in vitro.
Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Schneider, Simon; Narberhaus, Franz; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E.
Lactoferrin (LF) is a component of saliva and is suspected to be a defense factor against oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Periodontitis is a very common oral disease caused by periodontopathic bacteria. Antimicrobial activities and other biological\\u000a effects of LF against representative periodontopathic bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, have been widely studied. Association of
Probiotic bacteria are applied to balance disturbed intestinal microflora and related dysfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract. Current clinical applications include well-documented areas such as treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhoea, lactose maldigestion, constipation, colonic disorders and side-effects of pelvic radiotherapy, and more recently, food allergy including milk hypersensitivity and changes associated with colon cancer development. Many novel probiotics appear to be
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are a rare cause of echo-poor pancreatic head enlargement. Histologically, IMTs are characterized by spindle-shaped myofibroblasts or fibroblasts accompanied by a mixed immune cell infiltration. The most common localizations of IMTs have been reported in lung, mesentery and omentum, especially in children and young adults. IMTs show infiltrating growth, multilocular appearance and also metastasis have been reported. Curative resection is the only therapeutic option so far. In the palliative situation, evident data and clear guidelines for this rare tumor entity are missing. We report on a 44-year-old male with an unresectable IMT of the pancreatic head causing recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis that resulted in a chronic obstructive course of the disease. The patient entered a palliative therapeutic regimen including radiation therapy and antiinflammatory medication. In a regular follow-up of 12 months, he presented with stable disease after initial progression. This case of local progressive IMT of the pancreatic head was managed with a palliative therapeutic regimen and is discussed based on the current literature.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the leading cause of transfusion death. We hypothesize that TRALI requires 2 events: (1) the clinical condition of the patient and (2) the infusion of antibodies against MHC class I antigens or the plasma from stored blood. A 2-event rat model was developed with saline (NS) or endotoxin (LPS) as the first event and the infusion of plasma from packed red blood cells (PRBCs) or antibodies (OX18 and OX27) against MHC class I antigens as the second event. ALI was determined by Evans blue dye leak from the plasma to the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), protein and CINC-1 concentrations in the BALF, and the lung histology. NS-treated rats did not evidence ALI with any second events, and LPS did not cause ALI. LPS-treated animals demonstrated ALI in response to plasma from stored PRBCs, both prestorage leukoreduced and unmodified, and to OX18 and OX27, all in a concentration-dependent fashion. ALI was neutrophil (PMN) dependent, and OX18/OX27 localized to the PMN surface in vivo and primed the oxidase of rat PMNs. We conclude that TRALI is the result of 2 events with the second events consisting of the plasma from stored blood and antibodies that prime PMNs.
Kelher, Marguerite R.; Masuno, Tomhiko; Moore, Ernest E.; Damle, Sagar; Meng, Xianzhong; Song, Yong; Liang, Xiayuan; Niedzinski, Jerry; Geier, Steven S.; Khan, Samina Y.; Gamboni-Robertson, Fabia
Telavancin is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide with a multifunctional mechanism of action. We conducted a randomized, double blind, active-control phase II trial. Patients >18 years of age with complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by suspected or confirmed gram-positive organisms were randomized to receive either telavancin at 10 mg\\/kg intravenously every 24 h (q24h) or standard therapy (antistaphylococcal penicillin at
Martin E. Stryjewski; Vivian H. Chu; William D. O'Riordan; Brian L. Warren; Lala M. Dunbar; David M. Young; Marc Vallee; Vance G. Fowler; J. Morganroth; S. L. Barriere; M. M. Kitt; G. R. Corey
Ceftobiprole is the first broad-spectrum cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylo- coccus aureus (MRSA) to be assessed in late-stage clinical trials. As a pivotal step in the clinical development of ceftobiprole, a multicenter, global, randomized, double-blind trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of ceftobiprole to that of vancomycin in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused
Gary J. Noel; Richard S. Strauss; Karen Amsler; Markus Heep; Rienk Pypstra; Joseph S. Solomkin
Problem: Conflicting studies exist on the microbiology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), but none identify atypical bacteria, owing to these bacteria’s fastidious nature. Atypical bacteria are common causes of pneumonia. However, their role in upper respiratory disease is less clear. Recently the polymerase chain reaction has been valuable in detecting aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, fungi, and viruses implicated in chronic rhinosinusitis.
Raymond E. Lee; Sarita Kaza; Gregory V. Plano; Roy R. Casiano
Objective: Prospective randomized study to compare the efficacy and safety of alfuzosin and tamsulosin in patients suffering from acute urinary retention caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: Patients with acute urinary retention (AUR) due to BPH (total 150) were catheterized and randomized into three groups: Group A: alfuzosin 10 mg (50 patients), Group B: tamsulosin 0.4 mg (50 patients), Group C: placebo (50 patients). After three days, catheter was removed, and patients were put on trial without catheter (TWOC). Patients with successful TWOC were followed up for three months, taking into account the prostate symptom score (AUA Score), post-void residual urine volume (PVRV), and peak flow rate (PFR). ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: Both group A (alfuzosin) and group B (tamsulosin) had similar results of TWOC (group A – 66%, group B – 70%), which were significantly superior than group C (placebo) – 36%. In follow up, three (9.1%) patients in group A, three (8.6%) patients in group B and eight (44.4%) patients in group C had retention of urine, requiring recatheterization. These patients were withdrawn from the study. After three months, alfuzosin- or tamsulosin-treated patients showed a significant decrease in AUA score and PVRV; and a significant increase in PFR as compared to placebo. Conclusions: TWOC was more successful in men treated with either alfuzosin or tamsulosin and the subsequent need for recatheterization was also reduced. Tamsulosin was comparable to alfuzosin in all respects, except a small but significant side effect of retrograde ejaculation.
Purpose of this study is to obtain dose-volume histogram (DVH) predictors and threshold values for radiation esophagitis caused by high-dose involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) with concurrent chemotherapy in patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thirty-two patients treated by 66?Gy/33?Fr, 72?Gy/36?Fr, and 78?Gy/39?Fr thoracic radiotherapy without elective nodal irradiation plus concurrent cisplatin and vinorelvine were reviewed. Acute radiation esophagitis was evaluated according to common terminology criteria for adverse events version 4.0, and correlations between grade 2 or worse radiation esophagitis and DVH parameters were investigated. Grade 0-1, 2, 3, and 4-5 of radiation esophagitis were seen in 11 (34.4%), 20 (62.5%), 1 (3.1%), and 0 (0%) of the patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that whole esophagus V35 is a predictor of radiation esophagitis (OR =?0.74 [95%CI; 0.60-0.91], p =?0.006). There is a significant difference (38.4% vs. 89.4%, p =?0.027) in the cumulative rates of acute esophagitis according to V35 values of more than 20% versus less. As compared with other factors concerning patient and tumor and treatment factors, V35 ? 20% of the esophagus was an independent predictor (HR?5?0.29 [95%CI; 0.09-0.85], p?5?0.025). In conclusion, whole esophagus V35 < 20% is proposed in high-dose IFRT with concurrent chemotherapy for stage III NSCLC patients. PMID:23369154
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were present in high proportions of Escherichia coli (25% [9 of 36]) and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (17% [9 of 52]) causing pediatric septicemia at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. Patients with septicemia due to ESBL-producing organisms had a significantly higher fatality rate than those with non-ESBL isolates (71% versus 39%, P = 0.039). This is the first report of the CTX-M-15 genotype of ESBLs on the African continent and the first observation of SHV-12 genotype in an isolate of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport.
Blomberg, Bj?rn; Jureen, Roland; Manji, Karim P.; Tamim, Bushir S.; Mwakagile, Davis S. M.; Urassa, Willy K.; Fataki, Maulidi; Msangi, Viola; Tellevik, Marit G.; Maselle, Samwel Y.; Langeland, Nina
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were present in high proportions of Escherichia coli (25% [9 of 36]) and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates (17% [9 of 52]) causing pediatric septicemia at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. Patients with septicemia due to ESBL-producing organisms had a significantly higher fatality rate than those with non-ESBL isolates (71% versus 39%, P = 0.039). This is the first report of the CTX-M-15 genotype of ESBLs on the African continent and the first observation of SHV-12 genotype in an isolate of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport. PMID:15695674
Blomberg, Bjørn; Jureen, Roland; Manji, Karim P; Tamim, Bushir S; Mwakagile, Davis S M; Urassa, Willy K; Fataki, Maulidi; Msangi, Viola; Tellevik, Marit G; Maselle, Samwel Y; Langeland, Nina
Acute appendicitis still is a cause of considerable morbidity and now and then of death. The diagnostic accuracy in 316 patients operated on for acute appendicitis at Holy Cross Hospital was 76 per cent. In 24 of 239 cases of proved acute appendicitis, perforation had occurred, and the morbidity in those cases was three times that in the cases without perforation. Review of the cases did not reveal any clear-cut diagnostic criteria that might be used to predict perforation. A study of 30 patients with mesenteric lymphadenitis who were inadvertently operated on in the belief they had appendicitis, revealed that this condition is most likely to occur in young females with only a slight increase in the number of leukocytes. Although positive diagnosis of acute appendicitis is a difficult problem, the morbidity associated with needless operation is so much less than that which occurs in acute perforated appendicitis, that prompt exploration in any questionable case seems warranted.
Pathogens causingacute diarrhea include a large variety of species from Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae. A method based on pyrosequencing™ was used here to differentiate bacteria commonly associated with diarrhea in China; the\\u000a method is targeted to a partial amplicon of the gyrB gene, which encodes the B subunit of DNA gyrase. Twenty-eight specific polymorphic positions were identified from sequence\\u000a alignment
Real time and in vivo monitoring leukocyte behavior provides unique information to understand the physiological and pathological process of infection. In this study, we demonstrate that two-photon excited reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence provides imaging contrast to distinguish granulocyte and agranulocyte. By using spectral and time-resolved NADH fluorescence, we study the immune response of human neutrophils against bacterial infection (Escherichia coli). The two-photon excited NADH fluorescence images clearly review the morphological changes from resting neutrophils (round shape) to activated neutrophils (ruffle shape) during phagocytosis. The free-tobound NADH ratio of neutrophils decreases after ingesting disease-causing pathogen: Escherichia coli. This finding may provide a new optical tool to investigate inflammatory processes by using NADH fluorescence in vivo.
Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.
Management of complicated bloodstream infections requires more aggressive treatment than uncomplicated bloodstream infections. We assessed the value of follow-up blood culture in bloodstream infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Candida spp. and studied the value of persistence of DNA in blood (using SeptiFast) for predicting complicated bloodstream infections. Patients with bloodstream infections caused by these microorganisms were enrolled prospectively. After the first positive blood culture, samples were obtained every third day to perform blood culture and SeptiFast analyses simultaneously. Patients were followed to detect complicated bloodstream infection. The study sample comprised 119 patients. One-third of the patients developed complicated bloodstream infections. The values of persistently positive tests to predict complicated bloodstream infections were as follows: SeptiFast positive samples (sensitivity, 56%; specificity, 79.5%; positive predictive value, 54%; negative predictive value, 80.5%; accuracy, 72.3%) and positive blood cultures (sensitivity, 30.5%; specificity, 92.8%; positive predictive value, 64%; negative predictive value, 75.5%; accuracy, 73.9%). Multivariate analysis showed that patients with a positive SeptiFast result between days 3 and 7 had an almost 8-fold-higher risk of developing a complicated bloodstream infection. In S. aureus, the combination of both techniques to exclude endovascular complications was significantly better than the use of blood culture alone. We obtained a score with variables selected by the multivariate model. With a cutoff of 7, the negative predictive value for complicated bloodstream infection was 96.6%. Patients with a positive SeptiFast result between days 3 and 7 after a positive blood culture have an almost 8-fold-higher risk of developing complicated bloodstream infections. A score combining clinical data with the SeptiFast result may improve the exclusion of complicated bloodstream infections.
Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...
... may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Acute lymphocytic leukemia By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/acute-lymphocytic-leukemia/DS00558 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Preparing for ...
Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening infection, mostly caused by a mixture of gram-negative, gram-positive and anaerobic organisms, frequently including haemolytic streptococci. This polyculture of bacteria demands early diagnosis and aggressive treatment to diminish the high morbidity and mortality rates. We report a young, healthy patient with acute necrotizing fasciitis with jaundice as a first clinical sign, caused by a monomicrobial
Since the discovery of ice-nucleating bacteria in 1974 by Maki et al., a large number of studies on the biological characteristics, ice-nucleating substance, ice nucleation gene and frost damage etc. of the bacteria have been carried out. Ice-nucleating bacteria can cause the freezing of water at relatively warm temperature (-2.3°C). Tween 20 was good substrates for ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens KUIN-1. Major fatty acids of Isolate (Pseudomonas fluorescens) W-11 grown at 30°C were palmitic, cis-9-hexadecenoic and cis-11-octadecenoic which amounted to 90% of the total fatty acids. Sequence analysis shows that an ice nucleation gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens is related to the gene of Pseudomonas syringae.
Endophytic bacteria live inside plant tissues without caus- ing disease. Studies of endophytes in sugarcane have focused on the iso- lation of diazotrophic bacteria. We examined the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the internal tissues of sugarcane stems and leaves, using mo- lecular and biochemical methods. Potato-agar medium was used to cul- tivate the endophytes; 32 isolates were selected for
G. S. Magnani; C. M. Didonet; L. M. Cruz; C. F. Picheth; F. O. Pedrosa; E. M. Souza
ObjectivesTo determine the dynamics of serotype prevalence, potential coverage by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) and antibiotic resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae causingacute otitis media (AOM) in children in southern Israel before PCV7 introduction in the routine immunization program in Israel.
Ido Somech; Ron Dagan; Noga Givon-Lavi; Nurith Porat; Simon Raiz; Alberto Leiberman; Mark Puterman; Nehama Peled; David Greenberg; Eugene Leibovitz
Introduction Mirasol Pathogen Reduction Technology® (PRT) treatment uses riboflavin and UV light to inactivate pathogens in blood components. Neutrophil [polymorphonuclear cells (PMN)] priming activity accumulates during routine storage of cellular blood components, and this activity has been implicated in transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). We hypothesize that PRT-treatment of blood components affects the priming activity generated during storage of packed RBCs (PRBCs) or platelet concentrates (PCs), which can elicit ALI in vivo. Methods Plasma, PRBCs and PCs were isolated from healthy donor’s whole blood or by apheresis. Half of a collected unit was treated with PRT treatment and the remainder was left as an unmodified control. Supernatant was collected during storage of PCs and PRBCs and assayed for PMN priming activity and used as the second event in a two-event in vivo model of TRALI. Results PRT treatment did not induce priming activity in plasma or affect the priming activity generated during storage of PCs or PRBCs as compared with the unmodified controls. The supernatants from stored, but not fresh, PCs and PRBCs did cause ALI as the second event in a two-event animal model of TRALI, which was unaffected by PRT treatment. We conclude that the PRT® treatment does not induce priming activity in plasma nor does it affect the priming activity generated during storage of PCs or PRBCs or their ability to cause ALI as the second event in a two-event in vivo model of TRALI. Moreover, the amount of priming activity in TRIMA®-isolated PCs was significantly less than SPECTRA®-isolated PCs.
Silliman, C. C.; Khan, S. Y.; Ball, J. Bradley; Kelher, M. R.; Marschner, S.
Treatment of infantile acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) may cause failure to thrive and hypogonadism due to hypopituitarism induced by chemotherapy and whole-brain radiotherapy. We report the case of a 22-year-old girl with a genetic predisposition to pattern hair loss who developed inveterate diffuse alopecia. The patient had onset of ALL at 8 years old and underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Diffuse alopecia gradually advanced over her whole body. Her vellus scalp hair gradually came out, and hair loss progressed again at 8 years, after BMT. She later developed iatrogenic failure of secretion of estrogen and was treated with estrogen substitution therapy for 14 months from the age of 20. There was a small increase in the volume of hair during therapy, but alopecia returned to the former level after the therapy was suspended. Histopathologic examinations of the scalp performed during estrogen substitution therapy and 2 years after suspension of the therapy showed a 60% decrease in the number of hair follicles and prominent development of vellus hair. We conclude that estrogen influenced hair growth in the context of a genetic predisposition for pattern hair loss in this case. PMID:22211668
Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.
A prospective, year-long study of the microbiology of childhood gastro-enteritis in Perth showed that (i) Aeromonas-associated diarrhoea was the commonest recognized bacterial cause for acute diarrhoea, especially in summer, (ii) Campylobacter infections were the next most common bacterial cause, (iii) rotavirus and parasites were not significant causes of sporadic acute childhood diarrhoea, and (iv) enteric bacterial pathogens and intestinal parasites were often isolated from Aboriginal children, whether they had diarrhoea or not. Infections with enterotoxigenic bacteria, including enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and enterotoxigenic Aeromonas spp., were important causes of acute diarrhoea in Aboriginal children. This is probably due to faecal pollution of their living environment and inadequate personal and community hygiene. Infections with enterotoxigenic bacteria, especially ETEC, are major causes of acute diarrhoea where living conditions are unsatisfactory, as in many developing countries. Simple and cheap methods are needed to identify these infections. A biotyping method was used to screen for ETEC which could improve the efficiency of recognizing these bacteria and help to reduce the number of tests needed to identify ETEC. PMID:2456732
... monocytogenes , E. coli , or other gram-negative bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus occasionally causes severe meningitis in people of ... penetrates the skull or meninges (often caused by Staphylococcus aureus ) When surgery is done on the brain ...
Objectives To determine the effectiveness of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), and the factors predicting failure of NIPPV in acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) versus other causes of ARF. Patients and methods This was a prospective observational study and all patients with ARF requiring NIPPV over a one-and-a-half year period were enrolled in the study. We recorded the etiology of ARF and prospectively collected the data for heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood gases (pH, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood [PaO2], partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood [PaCO2]) at baseline, one and four hours. The patients were further classified into two groups based on the etiology of ARF as COPD–ARF and ARF due to other causes. The primary outcome was the need for endotracheal intubation during the intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Results During the study period, 248 patients were admitted in the ICU and of these 63 (25.4%; 24, COPD–ARF, 39, ARF due to other causes; 40 male and 23 female patients; mean [standard deviation] age of 45.7 [16.6] years) patients were initiated on NIPPV. Patients with ARF secondary to COPD were older, had higher APACHE II scores, lower respiratory rates, levels compared to other causes of ARF. After one hour there was lower pH and higher PaCO2 levels with increase a significant decrease in respiratory rate and heart rate and decline in PaCO2 levels in patients successfully managed with NIPPV. However, there was no in pH and PaO2 difference in improvement of clinical and blood gas parameters between the two groups except at one hour which was significantly the rate of decline of pH at one and four hours and PaCO2 faster in the COPD group. NIPPV failures were significantly higher in ARF due to other causes (15/39) than in ARF–COPD (3/24) (p = 0.03). The mean ICU and hospital stay and the hospital mortality were similar in the two groups. In the multivariate logistic regression model (after and adjusting for gender, APACHE II scores and improvement in respiratory rate, pH, PaO2 at one hour) only the etiology of ARF, ie, ARF–COPD, was associated with a decreased PaCO2 risk of NIPPV failure (odds ratio 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.58–0.9). Conclusions NIPPV is more effective in preventing endotracheal intubation in ARF due to COPD than other causes, and the etiology of ARF is an important predictor of NIPPV failure.
The various diseases that follow experimental infection with the acute and non-acute avian oncoviruses are discussed with special reference to the pathogenesis of avian erythroblastosis. One view, based onin vitro studies, sees erythroblastosis as the product of a failure in the differentiation of virus-infected stem cells to mature erythrocytes, as a result of cell ‘transformation’. The results of somein vivo
Patients with vitamin B12 deficiency have protean neurological manifestations that are often insidious. Acute onset of cerebellar dysfunction and extrapyramidal manifestations like dystonia and chorea are rather uncommon in adults. We describe a patient who manifested with acute onset of language dysfunction, chorea and ataxia. There was no history of hypertension, diabetes or ischemic heart disease. He had low serum
C. Shyambabu; S. Sinha; A. B. Taly; J. Vijayan; J. M. E. Kovoor
We report a case of acute chylous peritonitis mimicking acute appendicitis in a man with acute on chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatitis, both acute and chronic, causing the development of acute chylous ascites and peritonitis has rarely been reported in the English literature. This is the fourth published case of acute chylous ascites mimicking acute appendicitis in the literature.
BACKGROUND: Pathogen reduction technologies (PRTs) can induce platelet (PLT) lesions that reduce PLT survival and recovery from circulation and may be associated with acute lung injury (ALI). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Human PLTs (hPLTs) in plasma with or without single or multiple Mirasol PRT treatments were assessed in vitro by aggregation and percentage of P-selectin expression. In vivo studies included PLT recovery in SCID mice and assessment of ALI in a two-event mouse model in which the sensitizing event was lipopolysaccharide injection and the second event was infusion of Mirasol-treated hPLTs. RESULTS: A single-dose Mirasol treatment (5?J/cm(2) ) did not induce any change in aggregation in response to adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) while a five-times-repeat Mirasol treatment (5×) increased aggregation response to low concentration of ADP. Mirasol PLTs (1×-5×) had increased percentage of P-selectin-positive PLTs after treatment and decreased aggregation with TRAP as the agonist. In vivo recovery in SCID mice was reduced extensively with Mirasol treatments (1× and 5×). In the two-event model of ALI, only the 5× Mirasol PLTs accumulated in the lung and this was not accompanied by changes in lung histology or increases in MIP-2 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CONCLUSIONS: Mirasol PRT treatment induced PLT activation and reduced in vivo recovery in a SCID mouse model of transfusion. In our two-event mouse model of ALI, the 5× Mirasol hPLTs accumulated in the lung, but did not cause signs of ALI. The 1× Mirasol treatment did not lead to PLT lung accumulation or ALI in this model. PMID:23656563
The mechanism of acute lung injury (ALI) following limb ischemia-reperfusion (LIR) is not yet clear. We speculate that the unbalanced expression of angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE and ACE2) and angiotensins [Ang II and Ang-(1-7)] in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a major cause of ALI. To prove this hypothesis, pathological changes, lung edema, and permeability of wild-type mice at different time points within 12 h of reperfusion after 2 h of hind-limb ischemia were first detected by morphological method, measurements of wet-to-dry weight ratio, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Meanwhile, the changes of lung ACE/ACE2 mRNA and protein expression were surveyed by the methods of real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. Angiotensin II/Ang-(1-7) levels in the blood serum and lung tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Then the effects of ACE2 gene insertion and deletion on the previously mentioned parameters were investigated in the mice being exposed to hind-limb 2-h ischemia and 4-h reperfusion. The results revealed that lung injuries in the wild-type mice were gradually aggravated, and the expression of ACE in lung tissue was progressively increased, whereas that of ACE2 decreased within 12 h after LIR. Unexpectedly, both Ang II and Ang-(1-7) in the lung tissue were obviously increased after LIR, showing Ang-(1-7) higher than Ang II in the early stage of reperfusion but lower than Ang II at the late stage of reperfusion. Unlike local Ang II/Ang-(1-7) changes, circulating Ang-(1-7) became greatly descending, and Ang II was markedly ascending from the start of reperfusion, corresponding to local ACE/ACE2 unbalanced expression. ACE2 transgenosis improved the imbalance of ACE/ACE2 and Ang II/Ang-(1-7) expression and alleviated lung injuries, whereas ACE2 knockout further aggravated the imbalance of ACE/ACE2 and Ang II/Ang-(1-7) expression and made lung injuries more serious in the post-LIR mice. The results indicate that the dysregulation of local and circulating RAS with increased expression of ACE/Ang II and decreased expression of ACE2/Ang-(1-7) contribute to ALI caused by LIR in mice. Maintaining RAS homeostasis through upregulating ACE2 expression may lessen lung injury, which provides a new idea for the treatment of posttraumatic ALI. PMID:23903854
Popeye the sailor man and infection-causingbacteria have something in common -- they need to consume iron to perform their best. In cartoons, Popeye gets his iron from spinach. New research shows exactly where the bacteria that often cause pneumonia get their iron.
American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the cause and describe the natural history of acute pancreatitis complicating pregnancy and its effect on maternal and perinatal outcomes.STUDY DESIGN: Over the last decade we admitted 43 pregnant women with acute pancreatitis to our hospital. We reviewed presentation, diagnosis, management, and maternal and perinatal outcomes.RESULTS: The incidence of acute pancreatitis was one in
Kirk D. Ramin; Susan M. Ramin; Sherrie D. Richey; F. Gary Cunningham
We describe an ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction involving the left main coronary artery in a middle-aged man who was treated by primary angioplasty with the use of sirolimus-eluting stents. To our knowledge, this is the 1st report of survival after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in a patient with acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery. We discuss the case and review the literature.
Bush, Howard S.; Strong, David E.; Novaro, Gian M.
The incidence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) and metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL)-producing P. aeruginosa has increased worldwide. The treatment options are limited for infectious diseases caused by these two organisms. The use\\u000a of colistin has been of recent interest in cases involving both types. We report the case of a 74-year-old man with acute\\u000a myeloid leukemia who was successfully treated with intravenous
Acute upper respiratory tract infections (AURTIs) are the illnesses caused by an acute infection with various viruses and bacteria involving the upper respiratory tract. Shuanghuanglian (SHL) injection, a Chinese medicine intravenous preparation extracted from honeysuckle, Scutellaria baicalensis, and fructus forsythiae, is commonly used to treat AURTIs. Although it is used largely in Chinese hospitals, there is no substantial evidence to demonstrate its clinical effect on AURTIs. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Shuanghuanglian injection for the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) a term based on the demonstration of irreversible airways obstruction, introduced to unify a range of chronic progressive diseases of the airways consequent upon inhalation of toxins. While disease is initiated and progressed by inhaled toxins, an additional pathway of damage has emerged, with particular relevance to acute exacerbations. Exacerbations of disease due to an increase in the level of intrabronchial inflammation have taken on a new significance as their role in determining both acute and chronic outcomes is better understood. This “second pathway” of disease is a consequence of bacterial colonization of damaged airways. Although bacteria have been linked to acute episodes in COPD over 50 years, only recently has quality data on antibiotic usage and the detection of “exacerbation isolates” of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) provided strong argument in support of a pathogenic role. Yet a poor correlation between detection of colonizing bacteria and clinical status remained a concern in attempts to explain a role for bacteria in a classical infection model. This presentation discusses a hypothesis that acute exacerbations reflect a T cell-dependent hypersensitivity response to colonizing bacteria, with IL-17 dependent accumulation of neutrophils within the bronchus, as the main outcome measure. Critical protection against exacerbations following oral administration of NTHi, an immunotherapy that drives a TH17 T cell response from Peyer’s patches, reduces the load of intrabronchial bacteria while preventing access of inhaled bacteria into small airways. Immunotherapy augments a physiological “loop” based on aspiration of bronchus content into the gut. A second “hypersensitivity” mechanism may cause bronchospasm – in both COPD and treatment-resistant asthma – due to specific IgE antibody directed against colonizing bacteria, as oral NTHi abrogates wheeze in subjects with recurrent “wheezy bronchitis.”
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) a term based on the demonstration of irreversible airways obstruction, introduced to unify a range of chronic progressive diseases of the airways consequent upon inhalation of toxins. While disease is initiated and progressed by inhaled toxins, an additional pathway of damage has emerged, with particular relevance to acute exacerbations. Exacerbations of disease due to an increase in the level of intrabronchial inflammation have taken on a new significance as their role in determining both acute and chronic outcomes is better understood. This "second pathway" of disease is a consequence of bacterial colonization of damaged airways. Although bacteria have been linked to acute episodes in COPD over 50 years, only recently has quality data on antibiotic usage and the detection of "exacerbation isolates" of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) provided strong argument in support of a pathogenic role. Yet a poor correlation between detection of colonizing bacteria and clinical status remained a concern in attempts to explain a role for bacteria in a classical infection model. This presentation discusses a hypothesis that acute exacerbations reflect a T cell-dependent hypersensitivity response to colonizing bacteria, with IL-17 dependent accumulation of neutrophils within the bronchus, as the main outcome measure. Critical protection against exacerbations following oral administration of NTHi, an immunotherapy that drives a TH17 T cell response from Peyer's patches, reduces the load of intrabronchial bacteria while preventing access of inhaled bacteria into small airways. Immunotherapy augments a physiological "loop" based on aspiration of bronchus content into the gut. A second "hypersensitivity" mechanism may cause bronchospasm - in both COPD and treatment-resistant asthma - due to specific IgE antibody directed against colonizing bacteria, as oral NTHi abrogates wheeze in subjects with recurrent "wheezy bronchitis." PMID:22566798
In a Tunisian hospital 27 babies, including 12 who were premature, in a single intensive care unit suffered acute gastroenteritis in the period from January to May 1988. The mean age at the onset of gastroenteritis was 8.4 days; nine babies died.Salmonella wien was isolated from stools (all babies) and blood (4 babies). It was also isolated from the stools
A. Hammami; G. Arlet; S. Ben Redjeb; F. Grimont; A. Ben Hassen; A. Rekik; A. Philippon
The molecular basis for leptospirosis infection and colonization remains poorly understood, with no efficient methods available for screening libraries of mutants for attenuation. We analysed the attenuation of leptospiral transposon mutants in vivo using a high-throughput method by infecting animals with pooled sets of transposon mutants. A total of 95 mutants was analysed by this method in the hamster model of acute infection, and one mutant was identified as attenuated (M1233, lb058 mutant). All virulence factors identified in Leptospira to date have been characterized in the acute model of infection, neglecting the carrier host. To address this, a BALB/c mouse colonization model was established. The lb058 mutant and two mutants defective in LPS synthesis were colonization deficient in the mouse model. By applying the high-throughput screening method, a further five colonization-deficient mutants were identified for the mouse model; these included two mutants in genes encoding proteins with a predicted role in iron uptake (LB191/HbpA and LB194). Two attenuated mutants had transposon insertions in either la0589 or la2786 (encoding proteins of unknown function). The final attenuated mutant had an unexpected deletion of genes la0969-la0975 at the point of transposon insertion. This is the first description of defined, colonization-deficient mutants in a carrier host for Leptospira. These mutants were either not attenuated or only weakly attenuated in the hamster model of acute leptospirosis, thus illustrating that different factors that may be required in the carrier and acute models of leptospiral infection. High-throughput screening can reduce the number of animals used in virulence studies and increase the capacity to screen mutants for attenuation, thereby enhancing the likelihood of detecting unique virulence factors. A comparison of virulence factors required in the carrier and acute models of infection will help to unravel colonization and dissemination mechanisms of leptospirosis. PMID:23813276
Marcsisin, Renee A; Bartpho, Thanatchaporn; Bulach, Dieter M; Srikram, Amporn; Sermswan, Rasana W; Adler, Ben; Murray, Gerald L
... risk of developing bacterial meningitis. Strength of the immune system: Which bacteria are likely to cause meningitis depends on whether the immune system is normal or weakened. Conditions that can weaken ...
... Can acute myeloid leukemia be found early? Can acute myeloid leukemia be prevented? It’s not known what causes most cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Since most leukemia patients have no known ...
Differentiation of "dementia with Lewy body pathology" (DLB) and delirium may be problematic in some cases, due to some of their common clinical characteristics such as fluctuations and hallucinations. Longer duration of cognitive changes usually aids in DLB diagnosis. However, presentation of DLB with an abrupt onset as a prolonged confusional state and hallucinations is also, even if rarely, described. We report the case of an elderly patient with probable dementia with Lewy body pathology, presenting with a prolonged acute confusional state, in order to draw attention to its diagnostic difficulty and the importance of careful target-oriented anamnesis in such cases. This type of dementia should be included in the differential diagnosis of elderly patients presenting with otherwise unexplained prolonged acute confusional states. PMID:22842839
Patients with vitamin B12 deficiency have protean neurological manifestations that are often insidious. Acute onset of cerebellar dysfunction and extrapyramidal manifestations like dystonia and chorea are rather uncommon in adults. We describe a patient who manifested with acute onset of language dysfunction, chorea and ataxia. There was no history of hypertension, diabetes or ischemic heart disease. He had low serum vitamin B12 and elevated serum homocystine levels. He improved dramatically following B12 replacement therapy. Our patient provides insight into the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare manifestation. Further the importance of considering vitamin B12 deficiency, in country like India, where vegetarian food practice is quite common, is being emphasized. PMID:18678379
Shyambabu, C; Sinha, S; Taly, A B; Vijayan, J; Kovoor, J M E
Through alterations primarily in the penicillin-binding proteins, a non-beta-lactamase-mediated resistance to beta-lactams has evolved in Haemophilus influenzae. The virulence of these chromosomally changed strains has been questioned. To ascertain whether these alterations involve a reduction in virulence of H. influenzae and whether they could be advantageous for the bacterium during amoxicillin treatment of acute otitis media, a total of 70
ÅSA MELHUS; HÅKAN JANSON; EVA WESTMAN; ANN HERMANSSON; ARNE FORSGREN; KARIN PRELLNER
Acute neurotoxic effects of sarin (O-isopropylmethylphospho- noflouridate) in male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. The animals were treated with intramuscular (im) injections of either 1 3 LD50 (100 mg\\/kg), and sacrificed at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 15, or 20 h after treatment, or with im injections of either 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, or 1 3 LD50 and sacrificed 15 h after treatment.
Wasiuddin A. Khan; Anjelika M. Dechkovskaia; Elizabeth A. Herrick; Katherine H. Jones; Mohamed B. Abou-Donia
Because of the increasing frequencies of recovery of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from the middle ears of children with acute otitis media, non-beta-lactam antibiotics are being explored as treatment alternatives to amoxicillin. In this study, the efficacy of a 10-day course of clarithromycin was evaluated with chinchillas. After the pharmacokinetic profiles for clarithromycin were established, 180 animals were assigned to one
CUNEYT M. ALPER; WILLIAM J. DOYLE; JAMES T. SEROKY; ANDCHARLES D. BLUESTONE
Sinusitis is a common patient complaint that carries with it a large economic burden. It is one of the most common reasons patients visit their primary care physician. Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) can be distinguished from other forms of rhinosinusitis based on symptom duration of <4 weeks in a patient with purulent rhinorrhea associated with facial pain or pressure. Native upper aerodigestive tract bacteria are the most common etiologic agents. Treatment of ABRS is targeted primarily at symptom improvement. Amoxicillin can be used based on the clinical scenario and patient comorbidities. Computed tomographic scans are reserved for complicated presentations or when there is concern for intracranial extension or other complications. A systematic approach to ABRS will allow for improved patient quality of life and a decreased overall economic burden of this common entity. PMID:24096952
Feldt, Brent; Dion, Gregory R; Weitzel, Erik K; McMains, Kevin C
|Explores new research about bacteria. Discusses bacterial genomes, archaea, unusual environments, evolution, pathogens, bacterial movement, biofilms, bacteria in the body, and a bacterial obsession. Contains 29 references. (JRH)|
Acute pancreatitis has a large number of causes. Major causes are alcohol and gallstones. Toxic causes, mainly represented by medication-induced pancreatitis account for less than 2% of the cases. Cannabis is an anecdotally reported cause of acute pancreatitis. Six cases have previously been reported. Herein we report a new case of cannabis-induced recurrent acute pancreatitis. PMID:23402090
Lactic acid and propionic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria, and fecal enterococci associated with the activity of humans and animals caused antimutagenic effects (AME) on many test systems designed for detecting point mutations and chromosomal aberrations. Bacterial cells and some of their metabolites attenuate the mutagenic action of several genotoxic agents, and this effect is mediated by the mechanism of dysmutagenesis and\\/or
The use of phages is an attractive option to battle antibiotic resistant bacteria in certain bacterial infections, but the role of phage ecology in bacterial infections is obscure. Here we surveyed the phage ecology in septicemia, the most severe type of bacterial infection. We observed that the majority of the bacterial isolates from septicemia patients spontaneously secreted phages active against other isolates of the same bacterial strain, but not to the strain causing the disease. Such phages were also detected in the initial blood cultures, indicating that phages are circulating in the blood at the onset of sepsis. The fact that most of the septicemic bacterial isolates carry functional prophages suggests an active role of phages in bacterial infections. Apparently, prophages present in sepsis-causing bacterial clones play a role in clonal selection during bacterial invasion.
Gaidelyte, Ausra; Vaara, Martti; Bamford, Dennis H.
\\u000a Purpose Poloxamer 407 (P-407) is a chemical that induces a dose-controlled dyslipidemia in mice. Our aim was to determine the acute\\u000a effects of P?407 treatment on the mechanisms that influence hepatic cholesterol homeostasis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We measured lipid levels in plasma and liver samples from control and P-407-treated mice (24 h post-i.p. injection of 0.5 g\\u000a kg?1 of P-407 or saline for the control mice).
Carlos Leon; Kishor M. Wasan; Kristina Sachs-Barrable; Thomas P. Johnston
We report on 2 cases of hyperextension/valgus elbow injuries in two adult male national team water polo goalkeepers. Both were healthy and had never sustained any major injuries of the elbow. Mechanism and type of injury in both of them was identical. Different medical treatment protocols of these injuries possibly have led to different outcomes, with one of them developing osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). Inadequate medical treatment of acute impact elbow injuries could lead to osteochondritis disecans of the elbow in top-level adult male water polo goalkeepers. PMID:24060018
This is the first installment of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, review the role that growth factors play in this process, and describe current ways of growth factor delivery into the wound bed. Part 1 discusses the latest advances in clinicians’ understanding of the control points that regulate wound healing. Importantly, biological similarities and differences between acute and chronic wounds are considered, including the signaling pathways that initiate cellular and tissue responses after injury, which may be impeded during chronic wound healing.
Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Herman, Ira M.
This is the first installment of 2 articles that discuss the biology and pathophysiology of wound healing, review the role that growth factors play in this process, and describe current ways of growth factor delivery into the wound bed. Part 1 discusses the latest advances in clinicians' understanding of the control points that regulate wound healing. Importantly, biological similarities and differences between acute and chronic wounds are considered, including the signaling pathways that initiate cellular and tissue responses after injury, which may be impeded during chronic wound healing. PMID:22713781
Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N; Hamblin, Michael R; Herman, Ira M
Acute abdominal symptoms are frequently caused by surgical intra-abdominal problems. However, the differential diagnosis also includes several internal diseases. Overwhelming infections may present with acute abdominal signs, particularly in the immunocompromised host. Asplenic patients are highly susceptible to infections with encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis. Severe infections due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus (DF2), are also common in this group. C. canimorsus is a Gram-negative rod, present as a commensal organism in cat and dog saliva. We describe the atypical presentation of a fatal C. canimorsus-sepsis in a 46-year-old man, who underwent traumatic splenectomy two decades earlier. PMID:11705640
Deprés-Brummer, P; Buijs, J; van Engelenburg, K C; Oosten, H R
Given the astonishing frequency in childhood of acute otitis media and its significant morbidity, such as hearing loss and possibly speech delay, improving treatment of response is essential. Since bacteria are an important cause of otitis media, antimicrobial treatment remains the cornerstone of such treatment. Over the last four decades, many clinical studies have shown that antibiotics can relieve symptoms and prevalent complications, although a universal cure is still elusive. This article summarizes the most pertinent clinical and experimental research on treating and preventing acute otitis media, with a focus on intervention trials and the pharmacokinetic behavior of antimicrobial drugs. PMID:1870879
Arterial entrapment syndrome (AES) at elbow level is very rare and to our knowledge no case of AES by lacertus fibrosus in the cubital fossa in presence of brachial artery duplication has been described to date. We describe a rare case of acute arterial thrombosis of one of two brachial arteries highlighted in the cubital fossa which developed after strenuous right elbow flexor muscle activity and hyper-extensions presumably related to AES by lacertus fibrosus at elbow level. A 43-year-old right-handed woman, experienced paleness, coldness and numbness of the right hand, after 8 consecutive hours of gardening. As she worked, her ipsilateral flexor elbow muscles remained in prolonged and inappropriate tension. Clinical examination evidenced the absence of radial artery pulse in the wrist and mild hypothermia in the second and third finger. During surgical exploration two anastomosed brachial arteries were detected in the cubital fossa under the lacertus fibrosus. The lateral superficial brachial artery was occluded. Intraoperative arteriography evidenced brachial artery duplication at the third superior of the arm and normal vascular pattern at the forearm level. In cases of unexplained atypical intermittent upper extremity claudication or acute ischemic symptoms an AES should always be ruled out, particularly when symptoms are exacerbated by strenuous upper extremity activity or when upper limb muscular hypertrophy is evident. In these cases a thorough dynamic clinical and instrumental examination is mandatory to confirm a diagnosis of AES and to avoid possible future ischemic complications. PMID:23140921
To determine the prevalence,and etiological structure of acute intestinal infections, to investigate the dominant agents' persistence factors. According with materials of statistical reports we did the retrospective epidemiological analysis of acute intestinal infections incidence in Sumy region from 2006 till 2011. Biological properties of 40 strains of Klebsiella pneumonia, 40 strains of Enterobacter cloacae and 50 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. Moderate trend of acute intestinal infections incidence increase was indicated. Bacteria of genera Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Staphylococcus were predominated in etiological structure. Incidence of acute diarrheal infections caused by Klebsiella and Enterobacter was reached the maximum in the spring-summer period. The incidence of staphylococcal etiology was discrete. The strains of Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae were remarkable for different frequency and intensity of persistence factors. ?nti-interferon activity was detected in 100% of clinical isolates of microorganisms, anti-lysozym activity was detected in 87.3 ± 2.9% of clinical isolates of microorganisms, anti-complementary activity was detected in 72.3 ± 3.9% of clinical isolates of microorganisms. Biological properties of opportunistic pathogens that causeacute intestinal infections can be used as epidemiological factors for differentiation of microorganisms pathogenicity. PMID:23787508
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant inborn error, results from the half-normal activity of the heme biosynthetic enzyme, hydroxymethylbilane synthase (EC 188.8.131.52). Diagnosis of AIP heterozygotes is essential to prevent acute, life-threatening neurologic attacks by avoiding various precipitating factors. Since biochemical diagnosis is problematic, the identification of hydroxymethylbilane synthase mutations has facilitated the detection of AIP heterozygotes. Molecular analyses of unrelated AIP patients revealed six exonic mutations: an initiating methionine to isoleucine substitution (M1I) in a patient with variant AIP, which precluded translation of the housekeeping, but not the erythroid-specific isozyme; four missense mutations in classical AIP patients, V93F, R116W, R201W, C247F; and a nonsense mutation W283X in a classical AIP patient, which truncated the housekeeping and erythroid-specific isozymes. Each mutation was confirmed in genomic DNA from family members. The W283X lesion was found in another unrelated AIP family. Expression of each mutation in Escherichia coli revealed that R201W, C247F, and W283X had residual activity. In vitro transcription/translation studies indicated that the M1I allele produced only the erythroid-specific enzyme, while the other mutant alleles encoded both isozymes. These mutations provide insight into the molecular pathology of classic and variant AIP and facilitate molecular diagnosis in AIP families. Images
Chen, C H; Astrin, K H; Lee, G; Anderson, K E; Desnick, R J
Antibodies provide a sensitive indicator of proteins displayed by bacteria during sepsis. Because signals produced by infection are naturally amplified during the antibody response, host immunity can be used to identify biomarkers for proteins that are present at levels currently below detectable limits. We developed a microarray comprising ?70% of the 4066 proteins contained within the Yersinia pestis proteome to identify antibody biomarkers distinguishing plague from infections caused by other bacterial pathogens that may initially present similar clinical symptoms. We first examined rabbit antibodies produced against proteomes extracted from Y. pestis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia cepecia, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, and Escherichia coli, all pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. These antibodies enabled detection of shared cross-reactive proteins, fingerprint proteins common for two or more bacteria, and signature proteins specific to each pathogen. Recognition by rabbit and non-human primate antibodies involved less than 100 of the thousands of proteins present within the Y. pestis proteome. Further antigen binding patterns were revealed that could distinguish plague from anthrax, caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, using sera from acutely infected or convalescent primates. Thus, our results demonstrate potential biomarkers that are either specific to one strain or common to several species of pathogenic bacteria.
Keasey, Sarah L.; Schmid, Kara E.; Lee, Michael S.; Meegan, James; Tomas, Patricio; Minto, Michael; Tikhonov, Alexander P.; Schweitzer, Barry; Ulrich, Robert G.
Objective: To calculate the frequency of acute abdomen in pregnancy due to non-obstetric causes in a Saudi population, to discuss the etiology of the high incidence, to discuss how pregnancy altered the symptomatology of acute abdomen and to evaluate the result of early surgical intervention and use of tocolytics on maternal and fetal health. Design: Retrospective analytic study of all
M. El-Amin Ali; M. Yahia Al-Shehri; ZMS Zaki; Saeed Abu-Eshy; Hassan Albar; Ali Sadik