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1

Acute Postoperative Endophthalmitis Caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis?  

PubMed Central

Acute postoperative endophthalmitis caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis is infrequently reported in clinical studies. Five cases of acute postcataract surgery endophthalmitis caused by S. lugdunensis were taken from a multicenter prospective study conducted in four university-affiliated hospitals in France (2004 to 2005). These cases were characterized by severe ocular inflammation occurring with a mean delay of 7.6 days after cataract surgery, severe visual loss (hand motions or less in three cases), and dense infiltration of the vitreous. Each of these patients was initially treated by using a standard protocol with intravitreal (vancomycin and ceftazidime), systemic, and topical antibiotics. Given the severity of the endophthalmitis, even though bacteria were sensitive to intravitreal antibiotics, pars plana vitrectomy was needed in four cases. The final visual prognosis was complicated by severe retinal detachment in three cases. The microbiological diagnosis was reached by using conventional cultures with specific biochemical tests and eubacterial PCR amplification followed by direct sequencing. PMID:17392442

Chiquet, C.; Pechinot, A.; Creuzot-Garcher, C.; Benito, Y.; Croize, J.; Boisset, S.; Romanet, J. P.; Lina, G.; Vandenesch, F.

2007-01-01

2

Acute appendicitis caused by acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message A case of appendiceal involvement by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in an adult with recent history of AML transformed from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) was presented. Being aware of this rare presentation in particular in a patient with history of MDS and/or AML is important for prompt clinical diagnosis and management.

Zhang, Shanxiang; Chen, Shaoxiong

2014-01-01

3

Acute esophageal necrosis caused by alcohol abuse  

PubMed Central

Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is extremely rare and the pathogenesis of this is still unknown. We report a case of AEN caused by alcohol abuse. In our case, the main pathogenesis could be accounted for low systemic perfusion caused by severe alcoholic lactic acidosis. After the healing of AEN, balloon dilatation was effective to manage the stricture. PMID:16222758

Endo, Tetsu; Sakamoto, Juichi; Sato, Ken; Takimoto, Miyako; Shimaya, Koji; Mikami, Tatsuya; Munakata, Akihiro; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Fukuda, Shinsaku

2005-01-01

4

Clinical Study of Acute Childhood Diarrhoea Caused by Bacterial Enteropathogens  

PubMed Central

Objective:There are not a large number of studies in India which can enlighten us regarding acute childhood diarrhoea and far lesser in number when it comes to its bacterial enteropathogenesis. The present study is specially targeted to determine the prevalence of various bacterial enteropathogens causing acute childhood diarrhoea and to find out their respective pattern of clinical features. Method: All children under 12 years of age enrolled between 1st June, 2012 and 31st July 2012, in the Outpatient department, Inpatient department of pediatrics section and casualty of hospital, who presented with acute diarrhoea. Data collected by mean of study questionnaire. Stool sample were processed for bacteriological analysis. In 280 samples bacteria were isolated with the help of microscopy, culture and biochemical reactions. The isolates obtained were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity over Mueller Hinton agar by Kirby Bauer-disk diffusion method. Results:Out of 280 children frequency of diarrhoeagenic bacteria isolated from the samples showed that Escherichia coli was recorded as the predominant bacteria with 44.2% of prevalence followed by Shigella, Salmonella, Klebsiella and Campylobacter with 28.2%, 13.6%, 7.8% and 6.1% respectively. Patients falling in the age group of 1-3 years. were the major sufferers of diarrhoea due to all etiologies except Klebsiella which mainly had impact on the patients below six months. Majority of isolated bacterial agents were resistant to Co-trimoxazole and Shigella being highly resistant enteropathogen isolated. Salmonella spp. were least resistant isolates. None of the isolates were resistant to Cefotaxime, Cefuroxime and Azetronam. Conclusion: Results of study reveal that Escherichia coli is a predominant bacterial enteropathogen causing diarrhoea and Salmonella is a major contributor to the diarrhoea causing severe dehydration and to the clinical features like fever, vomiting and more than 10 times of frequency of stools. Shigella is among highly resistant isolates while Salmonella isolates had least resistance to majority of antibiotics. PMID:24995223

Rathaur, Vyas Kumar; Jayara, Aparna; Yadav, Neeraj

2014-01-01

5

Acute respiratory distress caused by massive thymolipoma.  

PubMed

The authors present the case of a 40-year-old female with a massive anterior mediastinal tumor who presented with acute respiratory distress. She required emergent intubation and ventilatory support for respiratory compromise caused by lung compression. Preoperative computed tomographic scan results suggested a mediastinal lipomatous mass. Resection of the tumor resulted in immediate improvement in her pulmonary status. Because thymolipomas can attain enormous dimensions and compress adjacent structures, they should be resected at the time of diagnosis. PMID:15586609

Halkos, Michael E; Symbas, John D; Symbas, Panagiotis N

2004-11-01

6

Acute respiratory distress caused by Neosartorya udagawae  

PubMed Central

We describe the first reported case of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) attributed to Neosartorya udagawae infection. This mold grew rapidly in cultures of multiple respiratory specimens from a previously healthy 43-year-old woman. Neosartorya spp. are a recently recognized cause of invasive disease in immunocompromised patients that can be mistaken for their sexual teleomorph, Aspergillus fumigatus. Because the cultures were sterile, phenotypic identification was not possible. DNA sequencing of ITS, calmodulin and ?-tubulin genes supported identification of Neosartorya udagawae. Our case is the first report of ARDS associated with Neosartorya sp. infection and defines a new clinical entity. PMID:25379388

Farrell, John J.; Kasper, Douglas J.; Taneja, Deepak; Baman, Sudhakar; O?Rourke, Lindsay M.; Lowery, Kristin S.; Sampath, Rangarajan; Bonomo, Robert A.; Peterson, Stephen W.

2014-01-01

7

Acute meningitis caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum.  

PubMed

Phaeohyphomycosis of the central nervous system is rare but typically associated with high mortality. Treatment has not been standardized, but the combination of antifungal chemotherapy with surgical debridement is recommended. We report a 73-year-old, retired, male timber merchant with acute meningitis caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The patient, who had well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, presented with fever and weakness of the lower limbs. No brain abscess was apparent by cranial computed tomography. C. sphaerospermum was isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid and identified based on both morphology and DNA sequencing. He was treated with combination antifungal chemotherapy with amphotericin B and voriconazole for 28 days, followed by voriconazole monotherapy for 46 days. To date, the patient has recovered without significant sequelae. This patient represents the first reported case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by C. sphaerospermum. Moreover, the therapy was successful for totally less than 3 months of treatment duration. PMID:24263083

Chen, Chi-Yu; Lu, Po-Liang; Lee, Kun-Mu; Chang, Tsung Chain; Lai, Chung-Chih; Chang, Ko; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

2013-12-01

8

Recidivous acute urticaria caused by Anisakis simplex.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the cause of acute recidivous urticaria in patients who usually eat fish or other seafood. Twenty-five patients were studied. The skin prick test with larval Anisakis simplex extract was performed; total and specific IgE against A. simplex was measured with the CAP System; specific antibodies to A. simplex were determined by ELISA; and immunorecognition patterns of the sera were studied by Western blot. Nineteen patients showed specific IgE to A. simplex, but specific IgE to Ascaris was demonstrated in only two patients. No patients reacted to Toxocara canis or Echinoccocus granulosus antigens with the same test. The skin prick test was positive in 16 patients, in two of them persisting for 48 h. Five patients showed neither skin reaction nor specific IgE to A. simplex. Sera showed specific immunoglobulin levels against A. simplex larval crude extract, by both ELISA and Western blot. Likewise, specific immunoglobulin levels against excretory-secretory antigen were also measured by ELISA. Only one patient showed sensitization to fish. A. simplex was found to be the main cause of acute recidivous urticaria in patients who usually eat fish and are not sensitized to it. PMID:9360749

Montoro, A; Perteguer, M J; Chivato, T; Laguna, R; Cuéllar, C

1997-10-01

9

[Acute renal failure caused by phenazopyridine].  

PubMed

A 27 years old woman was admitted due to abdominal cramps, jaundice and oligoanuria, starting 48 hours after eating Chinese food. Hepatic biochemical tests, abdominal ultrasound and retrograde pyelography were normal. The urine was intensely orange colored and microscopic analysis was normal. The serum creatinine and urea nitrogen on admission were 4.59 and 42.5 mg/dl and rose to 13.5 and 72.4 mg/dl, respectively, at the 6th hospital day. Oliguria lasted only 48 hours. Dialysis was not used, since the patient was in good general condition and uremic symptoms were absent. On the 7th day, azotemia began to subside and at the 14th day, serum creatinine was 1.0 mg/dl. Before hospital discharge, she confessed the ingestion of 2.000 mg of phenazopyridine, during a nervous breakdown, aiming to sleep deeply. Remarkable was the persistence of the orange color of her urine during several days and the dissociation between the rate of increase of serum creatinine with respect to urea nitrogen. This is an unusual case of acute renal failure caused by an overdose of a drug, commonly prescribed for urinary tract infections. PMID:12879816

Vega, Jorge

2003-05-01

10

[Acute kidney injury caused by hantavirus in the Netherlands].  

PubMed

Although unusual in the Netherlands, acute kidney injury is sometimes caused by infection with Hantavirus, a zoonosis transmitted by rodents. Hantavirus infections can cause a syndrome known as 'haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome', characterized by fever, acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. Recovery is spontaneous and treatment is mostly supportive. PMID:25650030

de Weerd, E C; Douma, C E; Wattel-Louis, H W

2015-01-01

11

Bacteria and cancer: cause, coincidence or cure? A review  

PubMed Central

Research has found that certain bacteria are associated with human cancers. Their role, however, is still unclear. Convincing evidence links some species to carcinogenesis while others appear promising in the diagnosis, prevention or treatment of cancers. The complex relationship between bacteria and humans is demonstrated by Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella typhi infections. Research has shown that H. pylori can cause gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma in some individuals. In contrast, exposure to H. pylori appears to reduce the risk of esophageal cancer in others. Salmonella typhi infection has been associated with the development of gallbladder cancer; however S. typhi is a promising carrier of therapeutic agents for melanoma, colon and bladder cancers. Thus bacterial species and their roles in particular cancers appear to differ among different individuals. Many species, however, share an important characteristic: highly site-specific colonization. This critical factor may lead to the development of non-invasive diagnostic tests, innovative treatments and cancer vaccines. PMID:16566840

Mager, DL

2006-01-01

12

Bacteria causing ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections in a Kenyan population.  

PubMed

OBJECT Ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hydrocephalus. Most data about these infections come from the Western literature. Few data about infecting organisms in Africa are available, yet knowledge of these organisms is important for the prevention and treatment of infectious complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the organisms cultured from infected shunts in a rural Kenyan hospital. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective study of patients with VPS infections recorded in the neurosurgical database of BethanyKids at Kijabe Hospital between September 2010 and July 2012. RESULTS Among 53 VPS infections confirmed by culture, 68% occurred in patients who were younger than 6 months. Seventy-nine percent of the infections occurred within 2 months after shunt insertion. Only 51% of infections were caused by Staphylococcus species (Staphylococcus aureus 25%, other Staphylococcus species 26%), whereas 40% were caused by gram-negative bacteria. All S. aureus infections and 79% of other Staphylococcus infections were sensitive to cefazolin, but only 1 of 21 gram-negative bacteria was sensitive to it. The majority of gram-negative bacterial infections were multidrug resistant, but 17 of the 20 gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to meropenem. Gram-negative bacterial infections were associated with worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS The high proportion of gram-negative infections differs from data in the Western literature, in which Staphylococcus epidermidis is by far the most common organism. Once a patient is diagnosed with a VPS infection in Kenya, immediate treatment is recommended to cover both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections. Data from other Sub-Saharan countries are needed to determine if those countries have the same increased frequency of gram-negative infections. PMID:25431903

Ochieng', Naomi; Okechi, Humphrey; Ferson, Susan; Albright, A Leland

2014-11-28

13

Appendicitis epiploicae: An unusual cause of acute abdomen in children  

PubMed Central

Appendicitis epiploicae is described as a rare entity in an 8-year-old boy presented with the features of acute abdomen simulating acute appendicitis. Surgical exploration revealed a torsion of appendices epiploicae of the cecum. The excision of infarcted epiploicae with seromuscular inversion resulted in satisfactory recovery. Authors describe this uncommon cause of pediatric acute abdomen along with the review of pertinent literature. PMID:20011477

Gupta, Vipul; Kumar, Sunil

2008-01-01

14

Acute myocardial injury and rhabdomyolysis caused by multiple bee stings.  

PubMed

Massive envenomation by honey bees is capable of causing multiorgan dysfunction as a result of direct toxic effect of massive envenomation and secondary to systemic anaphylactic reactions. Acute myocardial ischemia due to bee envenomation is a rare event. We report the case of a 65 year old lady who presented with acute myocardial ischemia, severe rhabdomyolysis and angioedema following massive bee envenomation. PMID:21887913

Mathew, Anu; Chrispal, Anugrah; David, Thambu

2011-08-01

15

Tricuspid valve thrombus causing acute pulmonary embolism  

PubMed Central

The development of thrombus on the tricuspid valve is very rare in adulthood and it needs special attention in clinical practice as it can be confused with vegetation or a tumour. Embolisation due to thrombus may have an acute and unexpected course with a detrimental prognosis and a high death rate during the first 24?h after diagnosis. In this report, we presented a case of mobile tricuspid valve thrombus detected by transthoracic echocardiography that led to recurrent pulmonary embolism. PMID:23345530

Gunduz, Yasemin; Ucar, Aysenur; Vatan, Mehmet Bulent; Keser, Nurgul

2013-01-01

16

Role of atypical bacteria in children undergoing tonsillectomy because of severely recurrent acute tonsillopharyngitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to verify the frequency of atypical bacterial infections in children undergoing tonsillectomy because of severely recurrent acute tonsillopharyngitis (AT) and the possible benefit of surgery in cases in which Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae seem to play a role in causing the recurrences. A total of 118 patients (76 males; mean age +/- standard deviation, 6.67 +/- 3.31 years) were enrolled: 59 underwent tonsillectomy because of severely recurrent AT and 59 underwent adenotonsillectomy because of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The results show, for the first time, that the great majority of children with a history of severely recurrent AT (and, therefore, considered to be eligible for elective tonsillectomy) are infected by atypical bacteria, mainly M. pneumoniae, and that tonsillectomy seems to be effective in reducing the recurrence of both AT and acute respiratory disease during 12 months follow-up postsurgery. PMID:18566843

Esposito, S; Marchisio, P; Capaccio, P; Bellasio, M; Corti, F; Dusi, E; Blasi, F; Pignataro, L; Principi, N

2008-12-01

17

Clinical review: Bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children  

PubMed Central

This review describes the microbiology, diagnosis and management of bacteremia caused by anaerobic bacteria in children. Bacteroides fragilis, Peptostreptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and Fusobacterium sp. were the most common clinically significant anaerobic isolates. The strains of anaerobic organisms found depended, to a large extent, on the portal of entry and the underlying disease. Predisposing conditions include: malignant neoplasms, immunodeficiencies, chronic renal insufficiency, decubitus ulcers, perforation of viscus and appendicitis, and neonatal age. Organisms identical to those causing anaerobic bacteremia can often be recovered from other infected sites that may have served as a source of persistent bacteremia. When anaerobes resistant to penicillin are suspected or isolated, antimicrobial drugs such as clindamycin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole, cefoxitin, a carbapenem, or the combination of a beta-lactamase inhibitor and a penicillin should be administered. The early recognition of anaerobic bacteremia and administration of appropriate antimicrobial and surgical therapy play a significant role in preventing mortality and morbidity in pediatric patients. PMID:12133179

Brook, Itzhak

2002-01-01

18

Appendicitis epiploicae: a rare cause of acute abdomen  

PubMed Central

Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of right lower quadrant acute abdominal pain in adults. Some other conditions, including appendicitis epiploicae, can simulate an acute abdomen. Appendicitis epiploicae or epiploic appendicitis usually originates in the sigmoid colon and rarely from other parts of colon. We report a case of a 20-year-old man with appendicitis epiploicae of the caecum, who underwent surgery for acute appendicitis. Analysis of this uncommon condition, together with a review of the pertinent literature, are presented. PMID:22736317

Karakoc, Sinan Cumhur; Yetkin, Gürkan; Citgez, Bülent; Uluda?, Mehmet; Akgün, Ismail; Kartal, Abdulcabbar

2010-01-01

19

Acute Cytomegalovirus Infection as a Cause of Venous Thromboembolism  

PubMed Central

Acute Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is an unusual cause of venous thromboembolism, a potentially life-threatening condition. Thrombus formation can occur at the onset of the disease or later during the recovery and may also occur in the absence of acute HCMV hepatitis. It is likely due to both vascular endothelium damage caused by HCMV and impairment of the clotting balance caused by the virus itself. Here we report on two immunocompetent women with splanchnic thrombosis that occurred during the course of acute HCMV infection. Although the prevalence of venous thrombosis in patients with acute HCMV infection is unknown, physicians should be aware of its occurrence, particularly in immunocompetent patients presenting with fever and unexplained abdominal pain. PMID:24959338

Rinaldi, Francesca; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Mojoli, Francesco; Baldanti, Fausto; Brunetti, Enrico; Pascarella, Michela; Giordani, Maria Teresa

2014-01-01

20

Ecstasy: A common cause of severe acute hepatotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Ecstasy is a synthetic amphetamine recently identified as a possible cause of acute liver injury. This drug is consumed by young people and has a marked effect on improving sociability. The extent of ecstasy-associated severe hepatic damage is unknown to date.Methods: The clinical histories of 62 patients with acute liver failure admitted to the Intensive Care Liver Unit between

Victoria Andreu; Antoni Mas; Miquel Bruguera; Joan Manuel Salmerón; Vicente Moreno; Santiago Nogué; Joan Rodés

1998-01-01

21

Comparative Pathogenomics of Bacteria Causing Infectious Diseases in Fish  

PubMed Central

Fish living in the wild as well as reared in the aquaculture facilities are susceptible to infectious diseases caused by a phylogenetically diverse collection of bacterial pathogens. Control and treatment options using vaccines and drugs are either inadequate, inefficient, or impracticable. The classical approach in studying fish bacterial pathogens has been looking at individual or few virulence factors. Recently, genome sequencing of a number of bacterial fish pathogens has tremendously increased our understanding of the biology, host adaptation, and virulence factors of these important pathogens. This paper attempts to compile the scattered literature on genome sequence information of fish pathogenic bacteria published and available to date. The genome sequencing has uncovered several complex adaptive evolutionary strategies mediated by horizontal gene transfer, insertion sequence elements, mutations and prophage sequences operating in fish pathogens, and how their genomes evolved from generalist environmental strains to highly virulent obligatory pathogens. In addition, the comparative genomics has allowed the identification of unique pathogen-specific gene clusters. The paper focuses on the comparative analysis of the virulogenomes of important fish bacterial pathogens, and the genes involved in their evolutionary adaptation to different ecological niches. The paper also proposes some new directions on finding novel vaccine and chemotherapeutic targets in the genomes of bacterial pathogens of fish. PMID:22675651

Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S.; Al-Ghabshi, Aliya; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud

2012-01-01

22

Acute hydrocephalus caused by intraspinal neurocysticercosis: case report  

PubMed Central

Background Intraspinal neurocysticercosis is an uncommon manifestation that may present as an isolated lesion. Furthermore, acute hydrocephalus caused by isolated intraspinal neurocysticercosis without concomitant cerebral involvement is extremely rare. Case presentation A 64-year-old man presented with a history of severe headache, an unsteady gait, and occasional urinary incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoraco-lumbar spine revealed multiple, cystic, contrast-enhancing intraspinal lesions. A computed tomographic scan of the brain showed marked ventricular dilatation but no intraparenchymal lesions or intraventricular cysticercal lesions. This case of acute hydrocephalus was found to be caused by isolated intraspinal neurocysticercosis and was treated by ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and surgical removal of the intraspinal lesions (which were histologically confirmed as neurocysticercosis), followed by administration of dexamethasone and albendazole. Conclusion Isolated spinal neurocysticercosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute hydrocephalus when no explanation is found in the brain, particularly in geographical regions endemic for cysticercosis. PMID:24383427

2014-01-01

23

Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background An outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been reported in Hong Kong. We investigated the viral cause and clinical presentation among 50 patients. Methods We analysed case notes and microbiological findings for 50 patients with SARS, representing more than five separate epidemiologically linked transmission clusters. We defined the clinical presentation and risk factors associated with severe

JSM Peiris; ST Lai; LLM Poon; Y Guan; LYC Yam; W Lim; J Nicholls; WKS Yee; WW Yan; MT Cheung; VCC Cheng; KH Chan; DNC Tsang; RWH Yung; TK Ng; KY Yuen

2003-01-01

24

Acute myonecrosis in horse caused by Clostridium novyi type A  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to describe the first report involving a case of equine acute myonecrosis caused by C. novyi type A with an emphasis on clinical signs, the pathological and bacteriological analysis, and molecular identification of the microorganisms as the key of the definitive diagnosis. PMID:24948935

Farias, Luana D’avila; Azevedo, Marcos Da Silva; Trost, Maria Elisa; De La Côrte, Flávio Desessards; Irigoyen, Luiz Francisco; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

2014-01-01

25

Acute myonecrosis in horse caused by Clostridium novyi type A.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to describe the first report involving a case of equine acute myonecrosis caused by C. novyi type A with an emphasis on clinical signs, the pathological and bacteriological analysis, and molecular identification of the microorganisms as the key of the definitive diagnosis. PMID:24948935

Farias, Luana D'avila; Azevedo, Marcos Da Silva; Trost, Maria Elisa; De La Côrte, Flávio Desessards; Irigoyen, Luiz Francisco; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna

2014-01-01

26

The Most Common Detected Bacteria in Sputum of Patients with the Acute Exacerbation of COPD  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) may be triggered by infection with bacteria or viruses or by environmental pollutants; the cause of about one-third of exacerbations cannot be identified. Objective: To determine the most common bacteria in sputum culture of patients with AECOPD hospitalized in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB “Podhrastovi” in the 2012. Material and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of sputum bacterial cultures of patients with AECOPD treated in the Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB “Podhrastovi” during 2012 .year. Each patient was required to give two sputum for bacterial examination. Each patient was treated with antibiotics prior to admission in Clinic “Podhrastovi”. The results of sputum bacterial culture findings are expressed in absolute number and percentage of examined patients. Results: In 2012, 75 patients with AECOPD were treated in Intensive care unit of Clinic for pulmonary disease and TB“Podhrastovi”. 44 (58.66%) of patients had normal –nonpathogenic – usual bacterial flora isolated in sputum cultures, 31 (41.34%) had a pathogen bacteria in sputum culture as follows: 7 had Streptoccocus pneumoniae, 8 had Klebsiella pneumoniae (2 with Streptococcus pneumoniae, one with Acinetobacter baumani) ,4 Escherichia colli, others are one or two cases with other bacteria. Conclusion: Bacterial airway infections play a great role in many, but not in all, of cases of AECOPD. So there is the need to do a sputum bacterial culture examination in each patient with AECOPD and with appropriate antibiotics to contribute to curing of them. PMID:24511262

Cukic, Vesna

2013-01-01

27

Acute myocardial infarction in young adults: causes and management  

PubMed Central

The case report in this review illustrates an acute myocardial infarction in a young adult probably due to arterial thrombosis that can be attributed to a hypercoagulable state resulting from the nephrotic syndrome. Although rare, acute myocardial infarction should be considered in young adults presenting with chest pain. A detailed clinical history may help to identify the aetiology, and guide subsequent management, but diagnostic coronary angiography is essential. Careful risk factor modification and treatment of the underlying cause should reduce the incidence of recurrent cardiac events. PMID:11796868

Osula, S; Bell, G; Hornung, R

2002-01-01

28

Graves' disease as an uncommon cause of acute pericarditis.  

PubMed

Acute pericarditis is either dry, fibrinous or effusive, independent of its aetiology. A case is presented involving a 44-year-old man with acute pericarditis. The cause was established to be an aggravation of Graves' disease due to non-compliance with treatment. Pericarditis is an uncommon cardiac complication of Graves' disease and is associated with more recurrent episodes when not detected. Pharmacological treatment should include anti-inflammatory drugs in combination with treatment for hyperthyroidism. The specific pathophysiological link between the two conditions is still to be elucidated. PMID:24769665

Kortekaas, Kirsten A; Kortekaas, Kirsten; van der Lienden, Bas; Jong, Simone; Riezebos, Robert

2014-01-01

29

Acute Myelopathy Caused by a Cervical Synovial Cyst  

PubMed Central

Synovial cysts of the cervical spine, although they occur infrequently, may cause acute radiculopathy or myelopathy. Here, we report a case of a cervical synovial cyst presenting as acute myelopathy after manual stretching. A 68-year-old man presented with gait disturbance, decreased touch senses, and increased sensitivity to pain below T12 level. These symptoms developed after manual stretching 3 days prior. Computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 1-cm, small multilocular cystic lesion in the spinal canal with cord compression at the C7-T1 level. We performed a left partial laminectomy of C7 and T1 using a posterior approach and completely removed the cystic mass. Histological examination of the resected mass revealed fibrous tissue fragments with amorphous materials and granulation tissue compatible with a synovial cyst. The patient's symptoms resolved after surgery. We describe a case of acute myelopathy caused by a cervical synovial cyst that was treated by surgical excision. Although cervical synovial cysts are often associated with degenerative facet joints, clinicians should be aware of the possibility that these cysts can cause acute neurologic symptoms. PMID:25289127

Kim, Dong Shin; Cho, Yong Jun; Kang, Suk Hyung

2014-01-01

30

Chlamydia trachomatis as a cause of acute "idiopathic" epididymitis.  

PubMed

To assess the etiologic role of C. trachomatis and other micro-organisms in "idiopathic" epididymitis, 23 men underwent microbiologic studies, including cultures of epididymal aspirates in 16. Eleven of 13 men under the age of 35 years had C. trachomatis infection whereas eight of 10 over 35 had coliform urinary-tract infection. Cultures of epididymal aspirates yielded C. trachomatis alone in five of six men under 35, and coliform bacteria alone in five of 10 over 35. These results suggest that C. trachomatis is the major cause of "idiopathic" epididymitis, and coliform bacteria the major cause of epididymitis in older men. Expressible urethral discharge and inguinal pain were more common in the chlamydial cases, whereas concurrent genitourinary abnormality and scrotal edema and erythema occurred more commonly in the coliform cases. The morbidity attributable to C. trachomatis is as serious as that attributable to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. PMID:622087

Berger, R E; Alexander, E R; Monda, G D; Ansell, J; McCormick, G; Holmes, K K

1978-02-01

31

Fetal Circulatory Variation in an Acute Incident Causing Bradycardia  

PubMed Central

Umbilical artery\\vein, middle cerebral artery, and ductus venosus Doppler velocimetry were performed at 33 weeks of gestation in the settings of an intrauterine growth restricted fetus during a heart rate deceleration. Interestingly, we recorded a sudden onset redistribution of fetal blood flow with fetal bradycardia. Spontaneous normalization of waveforms was observed once fetal heart rate returned to normal. Our case provides evidence to circulatory variation of a human fetus resulting from an acute incident causing bradycardia. PMID:25580322

Olgan, Safak; Sakinci, Mehmet; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Cagliyan, Erkan; Altunyurt, Sabahattin

2014-01-01

32

Acute phosphate nephropathy: a cause of chronic kidney disease  

PubMed Central

Acute phosphate nephropathy occurs whenever a patient with renal dysfunction is exposed to high doses of phosphate. Bowel purgative agents are a common source of high doses of sodium phosphate and are widely used as bowel preparation agents prior to colonoscopy due to their efficacy and tolerability. Oral sodium phosphate (OSP) preparations used to prepare patients for colonoscopy may be a cause of acute and chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD associated with OSP agents is the result of nephrocalcinosis, or calcium phosphorus crystal deposition in the renal parenchyma leading to interstitial disease. It is often irreversible and progressive in nature. The authors report a case of CKD which presented with non-specific symptoms weeks after use of an OSP agent as part of a bowel preparation regimen. Renal biopsy confirmed nephrocalcinosis. PMID:22696698

Weiss, Jessica; Thorp, Micah L

2011-01-01

33

[Ogilvie's syndrome: a rare cause of the acute abdomen].  

PubMed

Ogilvie's syndrome (acute colonic pseudo-obstruction) is a rare clinical disease characterized by segmental distension of the proximal colon caused by a paralysis without mechanic obstruction. It may be a sequel of underlying neurological, medical or surgical disease. Risk factors are respiratory decompensation, electrolyte disturbances and different drugs. A special kind is the primary idiopathic pseudoobstruction with a high risk of perforation or necrosis. Especially elderly patients (> 70 years) with cardiovascular or neurologic diseases and accordant drugs are concerned. Clinical symptoms are progressive abdominal distension and abdominal pain like an acute abdomen. The differential diagnosis of a mechanic ileus is important for further treatment. This case report should draw attention to this rare disease. PMID:12592600

Kuhn, R; Schulz, H-U; Pross, M; Lippert, H

2003-02-01

34

All-cause readmission to acute care for cancer patients.  

PubMed

A recent Canadian Institute for Health Information report on all-cause readmission identified that cancer patients had higher-than-average readmission rates. This study provides further insight on the experience of cancer patients, exploring the risk factors associated with readmission at patient, hospital and community levels. An analysis showed that patient characteristics, including the reason for initial hospitalization, sex, co-morbidity levels, admission through the emergency department and the number of previous acute care admissions, were associated with readmission for cancer patients. In addition, we found that the readmission rate for these patients varied by hospital size and whether the patients lived in rural or urban locations. PMID:22986560

Ji, Hong; Abushomar, Hani; Chen, Xi-Kuan; Qian, Cheng; Gerson, Darren

2012-01-01

35

Acute scrotum in a neonate caused by renal vein thrombosis.  

PubMed

The authors report on a rare case of neonatal scrotal oedema occurring concurrently with pain upon palpation of the spermatic cord on the first day of life. An ultrasound examination showed poor perfusion of the left testicle and a thrombosis of the left renal vein; intraoperative exploration indicated necrosis of the left testicle without signs of torsion. Gorged vessels with paravasal bleeding were found in the spermatic cord. The authors hypothesise that necrosis of the testicle may result from haemorrhagic infarction caused by renal venous thrombosis. Acute scrotal discolouration with pain upon palpation in neonates is usually attributed to testicular torsion. The authors report a case where these symptoms had a different cause. PMID:20921154

Maas, C; Müller-Hansen, I; Flechsig, H; Poets, C F

2011-03-01

36

Hyperexcitability of inferior colliculus neurons caused by acute noise exposure.  

PubMed

Noise exposure is one of the most common causes of hearing loss. Recent studies found that noise exposure-induced cochlear damage may change the excitability and tonotopic organization of the central auditory system (CAS). This plasticity was suspected to be related to tinnitus and hyperacusis. However, how cochlear damage affects CAS function and causes these neurologic diseases is still not clear. CAS function is activity dependent, so we hypothesize that a restricted cochlear lesion might disrupt the balance of excitation and inhibition in the CAS and thereby affect its neural activity. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of narrow-band noise exposure on the firing properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC), which has complex neural circuits and plays an important role in sound processing. We found that noise exposure (20 kHz, 105 dB SPL, 30 min) caused a dramatic decrease of the characteristic frequency in about two-thirds of high-frequency neurons with/without causing a significant threshold shift. The noise exposure also caused an increase in firing rate of the low-frequency neurons at suprathreshold levels, whereas it dramatically decreased the firing rate of the high-frequency neurons. Our results suggest that acute high-frequency noise exposure may increase low-frequency responsiveness by causing hyperexcitability of low-frequency neurons. The functional change of the low-frequency neurons may be related to the disruption of side-band inhibition at the noise exposure frequencies caused by cochlear damage. PMID:23151900

Niu, Yuguang; Kumaraguru, Anand; Wang, Rongguang; Sun, Wei

2013-02-01

37

Is mad cow disease caused by a bacteria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmissible spongioform enchephalopathies (TSE's), include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (also called BSE or “mad cow disease”), Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, and scrapie in sheep. They remain a mystery, their cause hotly debated. But between 1994 and 1996, 12 people in England came down with CJD, the human form of mad cow, and all had eaten beef from suspect cows. Current

L. Broxmeyer

2004-01-01

38

Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: A Rare Cause of Acute Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare cause of acute renal failure (ARF) with only a handful of cases reported in literature. We report a case of a 40-year-old male with an incidental finding of retroperitoneal fibrosis. Case Presentation. Patient is a 40-year-old African American male with no significant past medical history who presented with a four-month history of low back pain and associated nausea with vomiting. Physical examination was significant for elevated blood pressure at 169/107?mmhg and bilateral pedal edema. Significant admission laboratory include blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of 108?mg/dL, serum creatinine (Cr) of 23?mg/dL, bicarbonate of 19?mg/dL, and potassium of 6.2?mmL/L. Renal ultrasound showed bilateral hydronephrosis. Post-void residual urine volume was normal. Abdominopelvic CT scan showed retroperitoneal fibrosis confirmed with fine-needle biopsy. He was treated with a combination of bilateral ureteral stent placement, hemodialysis, and steroid therapy. Four months after hospital discharge, his BUN and Cr levels Improved to 18?mg/dL and 1.25?mg/dL, respectively. Conclusion. Retroperitoneal fibrosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with acute renal failure and obstructive uropathy. Abdominal CT scan is the examination of choice for diagnosis. Full resolution with treatment depends on the duration of obstruction. PMID:24533204

Ezimora, Amaka; Faulkner, Marquetta L.; Adebiyi, Oluwafisayo; Ogungbemile, Abimbola; Marianna, Salas-Vega; Nzerue, Chike

2012-01-01

39

Citrullus colocynthis as the Cause of Acute Rectorrhagia.  

PubMed

Introduction. Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. is a commonly used medicinal plant especially as a hypoglycemic agent. Case Presentation. Four patients with colocynth intoxication are presented. The main clinical feature was acute rectorrhagia preceeded by mucosal diarrhea with tenesmus, which gradually progressed to bloody diarrhea and overt rectorrhagia within 3 to 4 hours. The only colonoscopic observation was mucosal erosion which was completely resolved in follow-up colonoscopy after 14 days. Conclusion. The membranolytic activity of some C. colocynthis ingredients is responsible for the intestinal damage. Patients and herbalists should be acquainted with the proper use and side effects of the herb. Clinicians should also be aware of C. colocynthis as a probable cause of lower GI bleeding in patients with no other suggestive history, especially diabetics. PMID:23819072

Javadzadeh, Hamid Reza; Davoudi, Amir; Davoudi, Farnoush; Valizadegan, Ghasem; Goodarzi, Hasan; Mahmoodi, Sadrollah; Ghane, Mohammad Reza; Faraji, Mehrdad

2013-01-01

40

Citrullus colocynthis as the Cause of Acute Rectorrhagia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. is a commonly used medicinal plant especially as a hypoglycemic agent. Case Presentation. Four patients with colocynth intoxication are presented. The main clinical feature was acute rectorrhagia preceeded by mucosal diarrhea with tenesmus, which gradually progressed to bloody diarrhea and overt rectorrhagia within 3 to 4 hours. The only colonoscopic observation was mucosal erosion which was completely resolved in follow-up colonoscopy after 14 days. Conclusion. The membranolytic activity of some C. colocynthis ingredients is responsible for the intestinal damage. Patients and herbalists should be acquainted with the proper use and side effects of the herb. Clinicians should also be aware of C. colocynthis as a probable cause of lower GI bleeding in patients with no other suggestive history, especially diabetics. PMID:23819072

Javadzadeh, Hamid Reza; Davoudi, Farnoush; Valizadegan, Ghasem; Goodarzi, Hasan; Mahmoodi, Sadrollah; Ghane, Mohammad Reza; Faraji, Mehrdad

2013-01-01

41

Structure-based Inhibitor Discovery against Adenylyl Cyclase Toxins from Pathogenic Bacteria That Cause Anthrax and  

E-print Network

That Cause Anthrax and Whooping Cough* Received for publication, February 4, 2003, and in revised form, March bacteria that cause anthrax and whooping cough, respectively. Using the structure of the catalytic site pathogenesis and to fight against anthrax and whooping cough. The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States

Mrksich, Milan

42

Acute septicemia caused by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus in turkey poults.  

PubMed

Streptococcus gallolyticus, previously known as Streptococcus bovis biotypes I and II/2, is a well-known cause of sepsis and meningitis in humans and birds. The present case report describes an outbreak of fatal septicemia associated with S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (S. bovis biotype II/2) in 11 turkey flocks in Pennsylvania between 2010 and 2013. Affected poults were 2-3 wk of age. Major clinical observation was sudden increase in mortality among turkey poults without any premonitory clinical signs. Postmortem examination findings revealed acute septicemia with lesions such as fibrinous pericarditis, meningitis, splenic multifocal fibrinoid necrosis, hepatitis, osteochondritis, myositis, and airsacculitis. Gram-positive cocci were isolated from several organs by routine bacterial culture. Biotyping identified bacteria as streptococci, whereas 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing identified them as S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles revealed that all the strains isolated were sensitive to penicillin and erythromycin with different sensitivity profiles for other antibacterial agents tested. The present study reports the first confirmed case of acute septicemia in turkey poults caused by S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. PMID:25055641

Saumya, Dona; Wijetunge, S; Dunn, Patricia; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva; Lintner, Valerie; Matthews, Tammy; Pierre, Traci; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie

2014-06-01

43

[Acute diarrheal disease caused by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in Colombia].  

PubMed

Intestinal Escherichia coli pathogens are leading causes of acute diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years in Latin America, Africa and Asia and a leading cause of death in children living in poorest communities in Africa and South East Asia. Studies on the role of E. coli pathogens in childhood diarrhea in Colombia and other countries in Latin America are limited due to the lack of detection assays in clinical laboratories at the main urban medical centers. Recent studies report that enterotoxigenic E. coli is the most common E. coli pathogens associated with diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. Other E. coli pathotypes have been detected in children with diarrhea including enteropathogenic, enteroaggregative, shiga-toxin producing and diffusely adherent E. coli. It was also found that meat and vegetables at retail stores are contaminated with Shiga-toxin producing E. coli and enteroaggregative E. coli, suggesting that food products are involved in transmission and infection of the susceptible host. More studies are necessary to evaluate the mechanisms of transmission, the impact on the epidemiology of diarrheal disease, and management strategies and prevention of these pathogens affecting the pediatric population in Colombia. PMID:25491457

Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G

2014-10-01

44

Left paraduodenal hernia: A rare cause of acute abdomen  

PubMed Central

Paraduodenal hernia is a rare congenital anomaly that arises from an error of rotation of the midgut. The duodenum and the small intestine become trapped in a sac which is lined by the peritoneum, behind the mesentery of the colon, either to the right or left of the midline. It is therfore a rare and potentially life-threatening condition that can cause intestinal obstruction progressing to strangulation and perforation. We report a case of a 55-year-old patient presenting a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed intraoperatively after being operated on in the emergency setting for acute abdomen. The small bowel was twisted upon its mesentery and was entrapped in a large left paraduodenal space. Fortunately, once the bowel was reduced from the paraduodenal space, the blood flow was reestablished and the small bowel resumed a proper functioning. The mouth of the sac was obliterated by suture opposition to the posterior wall. The patient's subsequent hospital course was uneventful, and he was discharged in satisfactory condition 4 days postoperatively. PMID:25170374

Hassani, Karim Ibn Majdoub; Aggouri, Younes; laalim, Said Ait; Toughrai, Imane; Mazaz, Khalid

2014-01-01

45

Left paraduodenal hernia: A rare cause of acute abdomen.  

PubMed

Paraduodenal hernia is a rare congenital anomaly that arises from an error of rotation of the midgut. The duodenum and the small intestine become trapped in a sac which is lined by the peritoneum, behind the mesentery of the colon, either to the right or left of the midline. It is therfore a rare and potentially life-threatening condition that can cause intestinal obstruction progressing to strangulation and perforation. We report a case of a 55-year-old patient presenting a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed intraoperatively after being operated on in the emergency setting for acute abdomen. The small bowel was twisted upon its mesentery and was entrapped in a large left paraduodenal space. Fortunately, once the bowel was reduced from the paraduodenal space, the blood flow was reestablished and the small bowel resumed a proper functioning. The mouth of the sac was obliterated by suture opposition to the posterior wall. The patient's subsequent hospital course was uneventful, and he was discharged in satisfactory condition 4 days postoperatively. PMID:25170374

Hassani, Karim Ibn Majdoub; Aggouri, Younes; Laalim, Said Ait; Toughrai, Imane; Mazaz, Khalid

2014-01-01

46

Glutamine Attenuates Acute Lung Injury Caused by Acid Aspiration  

PubMed Central

Inadequate ventilator settings may cause overwhelming inflammatory responses associated with ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, we examined potential benefits of glutamine (GLN) on a two-hit model for VILI after acid aspiration-induced lung injury in rats. Rats were intratracheally challenged with hydrochloric acid as a first hit to induce lung inflammation, then randomly received intravenous GLN or lactated Ringer’s solution (vehicle control) thirty min before different ventilator strategies. Rats were then randomized to receive mechanical ventilation as a second hit with a high tidal volume (TV) of 15 mL/kg and zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) or a low TV of 6 mL/kg with PEEP of 5 cm H2O. We evaluated lung oxygenation, inflammation, mechanics, and histology. After ventilator use for 4 h, high TV resulted in greater lung injury physiologic and biologic indices. Compared with vehicle treated rats, GLN administration attenuated lung injury, with improved oxygenation and static compliance, and decreased respiratory elastance, lung edema, extended lung destruction (lung injury scores and lung histology), neutrophil recruitment in the lung, and cytokine production. Thus, GLN administration improved the physiologic and biologic profiles of this experimental model of VILI based on the two-hit theory. PMID:25100435

Lai, Chih-Cheng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Chen, Chin-Ming

2014-01-01

47

["Acute scrotum" in the neonate. Adrenal haemorrhage as cause].  

PubMed

The most common causes of an 'acute scrotum' in childhood are testicular torsion, torsion of an appendix testis, epididyoorchitis, idiopathic edema, and hematoma. In rare cases a scrotal hematoma can originate from an extra- or intraperitoneal adrenal bleeding. 12 such cases have been described in the literature, yet. We report on 3 further cases, that occurred in our institution between 1992 and 1997. In the first case we performed a scrotal exploration due to a suspected testicular torsion, but only a normal testicle and liquid hematoma were seen. Postoperatively we discovered an ipsilateral adrenal hemorrhage by sonography. In the latter two cases the adrenal bleeding was recognized primarily as causal for the scrotal mass and operation remained undone. In newborns adrenal hemorrhage is mostly due to birth-trauma, large birth-weight, hypoxia, and asphyxia. This was present as well with our 3 children. If the clinical situation of the child is stable, complete restitution under conservative therapy can be expected. PMID:10663196

Anding, R; Fastnacht-Urban, E; Walz, P H

2000-01-01

48

Acute liver failure caused by severe acute hepatitis B: a case series from a multi-center investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Few data can be available regarding acute liver failure (ALF) caused by severe acute hepatitis B up to now. This study aims to report such cases from China. Findings We conducted a multi-center investigation on ALF from 7 tertiary hospitals in different areas of China. A total of 11 patients with ALF caused by severe acute hepatitis B were finally identified. In these patients, there were 10 male and 1 female patients. As a serious complication, apparent hemorrhage occurred in 9 patients. Eventually, in these 11 patients, 4 survived and 7 died. 4 died of heavy bleeding, 2 died of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and 1 died of irreversible coma. No patients received liver transplantation. Conclusions ALF caused by severe acute hepatitis B is worthy of formal studies based on its rarity and severity. PMID:24958233

2014-01-01

49

Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Uncommon Cause of Hematemesis  

PubMed Central

Acute esophageal necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity, diagnosed at the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. Very often no definite etiology will be identified even though a large list of potential associations has been postulated. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common clinical presentation, others being epigastric pain, retrosternal chest discomfort and dysphagia. Only about a hundred cases of acute esophageal necrosis have been described in medical literature till this date. We report a case of acute esophageal necrosis in an elderly female who had presented with hematemesis. PMID:25170416

Zacharia, George Sarin; Sandesh, K; Ramachandran, TM

2014-01-01

50

Silicone Injection Causing Acute Pneumonitis: A Case Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local and systemic complications following injected silicone have been described, especially after cosmetic procedures by\\u000a unlicensed practitioners. We report a retrospective case series of acute pneumonitis following silicone injection to the buttock.\\u000a Medical records, pulmonary function tests, blood arterial gases, chest radiographs, and high-resolution computed tomography\\u000a scans were reviewed. Five patients with acute pneumonitis after injected silicone were identified. All

Ana C. Zamora; Harold R. Collard; Lourdes Barrera; Felipe Mendoza; W. Richard Webb; Guillermo Carrillo

2009-01-01

51

In vitro growth inhibition of mastitis causing bacteria by phenolics and metal chelators  

SciTech Connect

Antimicrobial activities of three phenolic compounds and four metal chelators were tested at 0, 250, 500, and 1000 ppm in vitro against four major mastitis-causing bacteria, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pnuemoniae, and Escherichia coli. Overall, butylated hydroxyanisole and tert-butylhydroquinone showed the greatest antimicrobial activity. These phenolics were bactericidal at 250 to 500 ppm against all four bacteria tested. The butylated hydroxytoluene was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but was ineffective against the coliforms. At 250 ppm, disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was bactericidal against the gram-positive bacteria but much less effective against the gram-negatives. However, diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid was more growth inhibitory than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid against the gram-negative bacteria and especially against Escherichia coli. All other compounds were generally much less effective or ineffective against all four microorganisms. Therefore, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tert-butylhydroquinone, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid may have practical implications in the prevention or treatment of bovine mastitis.

Chew, B.P.; Tjoelker, L.W.; Tanaka, T.S.

1985-11-01

52

A Case of Life-Threatening Acute Kidney Injury with Toxic Encephalopathy Caused by Dioscorea quinqueloba  

PubMed Central

Some herbal medications induce acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injuries caused by herbal medications are mild and commonly treated by palliative care. A 51-years-old man who drank the juice squeezed from the raw tubers of Dioscorea quinqueloba (D. quinqueloba) was admitted with nausea, vomiting and chilling. He developed a seizure with decreased level of consciousness. He was diagnosed with acute kidney injury, which was cured by continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration. Non-detoxified D. quinqueloba can cause severe acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy. It is critical to inform possible adverse effects of the medicinal herbs and to implement more strict regulation of these products. PMID:25510780

Kang, Kyung-Sik

2015-01-01

53

A Case of Life-Threatening Acute Kidney Injury with Toxic Encephalopathy Caused by Dioscorea quinqueloba.  

PubMed

Some herbal medications induce acute kidney injury. The acute kidney injuries caused by herbal medications are mild and commonly treated by palliative care. A 51-years-old man who drank the juice squeezed from the raw tubers of Dioscorea quinqueloba (D. quinqueloba) was admitted with nausea, vomiting and chilling. He developed a seizure with decreased level of consciousness. He was diagnosed with acute kidney injury, which was cured by continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration. Non-detoxified D. quinqueloba can cause severe acute kidney injury with toxic encephalopathy. It is critical to inform possible adverse effects of the medicinal herbs and to implement more strict regulation of these products. PMID:25510780

Kang, Kyung Sik; Heo, Sang Taek

2015-01-01

54

Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Caused by Potentially Drug-resistant Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by potentially drug-resis- tant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acineto- bacter baumannii , and\\/or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , 135 consecutive episodes of VAP observed in a single ICU over a 25-mo period were prospectively studied. For all patients, VAP was diagnosed based on results of bronchoscopic protected

JEAN-LOUIS TROUILLET; JEAN CHASTRE; ALBERT VUAGNAT; MARIE-LAURE JOLY-GUILLOU; DANIÈLE COMBAUX; MARIE-CHRISTINE DOMBRET; CLAUDE GIBERT

1998-01-01

55

An unusual cause of acute cor pulmonale – Significance of the ‘continuous diaphragm sign’  

PubMed Central

A patient presented with chest pain and clinical features of acute right heart failure. Initial work up revealed the presence of severe PAH. Acute pulmonary embolism is the commonest and most life-threatening cause for acute cor pulmonale. Even though the clinical picture suggested pulmonary embolism, a subtle sign was missed from the first chest X-ray taken in the emergency department. However on reanalysis the ‘continuous diaphragm sign’ later guided us towards the diagnosis. Our case represents one of the first reports of a rare etiology for acute cor pulmonale – hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Right ventricular dysfunction was caused by an acute rise in pulmonary artery pressures as well as by the compressive effects of pneumomediastinum. We emphasize the role played by a good quality chest X-ray early in the management of acute chest pain syndromes. However pulmonary embolism should be ruled out conclusively before redirecting attention to less malignant conditions. PMID:25443610

Mohanan, Sandeep; Sajeev, C.G.; Muneer, Kader; Rajesh, G.; Krishnan, M.N.; Pillai, Vivek

2014-01-01

56

Acute chorea caused by valproate in an elderly.  

PubMed

We present the case of an elderly woman chronically treated with valproate as migraine prophylaxis. She developed acute chorea secondary to valproate dose increase. Choreiform movements ceased following valproate discontinuation. Chorea is a rare and dose dependent side effect of valproate. PMID:22141287

van de Velde, Kirsten; Cras, Patrick; Helsen, Gregory

2011-09-01

57

Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing otitis externa in dogs.  

PubMed

Bacterial agents are considered important pathogens causing external otitis in dogs. It is essential to carry out bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test in the case of otitis externa, particularly for chronic or recurring cases. Sterile swab samples were obtained from terminal part of vertical ear canals of 74 dogs with otitis externa for cytology, bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. Cytologic smears were stained using Gram and Giemsa staining methods. Aerobic bacterial culture performed on blood agar and MacConkey agar. Among total number of 92 isolated bacteria, 68 were Staphylococcus intermedius. Other isolated bacteria included: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella canis, and six other species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Antimicrobial susceptibility test were performed for all isolated bacteria using 14 antibiotics. Based on the results of this study, all isolated Staphylococcus spp. were sensitive to amikacin, enrofloxacin, and rifampin, and had low resistance to gentamicin, cephalothin and ceftriaxone. More than half of gram-positive isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. Generally, all isolated gram-negative bacteria, were sensitive to amikacin and enrofloxacin, and had low resistance to ceftriaxone and gentamicin. They were highly resistant to penicillin, eythromycin, and cephalothin. Regarding the results of this study, in cases of uncomplicated otitis externa, it is possible to select antimicrobial drugs merely based on cytology, but it is recommended to perform bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. However, in complicated or refractory cases, antimicrobials should be selected based on bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test. PMID:20526674

Zamankhan Malayeri, Hamed; Jamshidi, Shahram; Zahraei Salehi, Taghi

2010-06-01

58

Regulatory T cell ablation causes acute T cell lymphopenia.  

PubMed

Regulatory T (Treg) cells enforce T cell homeostasis and maintain peripheral T cell tolerance. Here we report a previously unappreciated phenomenon of acute T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs and non-lymphoid tissues triggered by Treg cell depletion that precedes the expansion of self-reactive T cells. Lymphopenia affects both neonates and adults indicating a dominant role of Treg cells in maintaining peripheral T cell numbers regardless of the developmental stage. The lymphopenia was neither triggered by caspase-dependent apoptosis nor macrophage-mediated clearance of T cells, nor diminished survival of naïve or recently activated T cells due to paucity of IL-7. It is possible that transient lymphopenia associated with congenital or acute Treg cell deficiency may contribute to the development of T cell mediated autoimmune disorders. PMID:24466225

Moltedo, Bruno; Hemmers, Saskia; Rudensky, Alexander Y

2014-01-01

59

Regulatory T Cell Ablation Causes Acute T Cell Lymphopenia  

PubMed Central

Regulatory T (Treg) cells enforce T cell homeostasis and maintain peripheral T cell tolerance. Here we report a previously unappreciated phenomenon of acute T cell lymphopenia in secondary lymphoid organs and non-lymphoid tissues triggered by Treg cell depletion that precedes the expansion of self-reactive T cells. Lymphopenia affects both neonates and adults indicating a dominant role of Treg cells in maintaining peripheral T cell numbers regardless of the developmental stage. The lymphopenia was neither triggered by caspase-dependent apoptosis nor macrophage-mediated clearance of T cells, nor diminished survival of naïve or recently activated T cells due to paucity of IL-7. It is possible that transient lymphopenia associated with congenital or acute Treg cell deficiency may contribute to the development of T cell mediated autoimmune disorders. PMID:24466225

Moltedo, Bruno; Hemmers, Saskia; Rudensky, Alexander Y.

2014-01-01

60

Endocarditis with acute mitral regurgitation caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infective endocarditis is uncommon in young children, especially in the absence of structural heart disease. We report the case of a 2-year-old boy who presented with acute rupture of the mitral valve chordae 6 weeks after an episode ofFusobacterium necrophorum septicemia. His heart had been structurally normal before. Mitral valve replacement was successfully performed. This is the first recorded case

Graham Stuart; Christopher Wren

1992-01-01

61

Surgical and interventional management of complications caused by acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. It requires acute hospitalization, with a reported annual incidence of 13 to 45 cases per 100000 persons. In severe cases there is persistent organ failure and a mortality rate of 15% to 30%, whereas mortality of mild pancreatitis is only 0% to 1%. Treatment principles of necrotizing pancreatitis and the role of surgery are still controversial. Despite surgery being effective for infected pancreatic necrosis, it carries the risk of long-term endocrine and exocrine deficiency and a morbidity and mortality rate of between 10% to 40%. Considering high morbidity and mortality rates of operative necrosectomy, minimally invasive strategies are being explored by gastrointestinal surgeons, radiologists, and gastroenterologists. Since 1999, several other minimally invasive surgical, endoscopic, and radiologic approaches to drain and debride pancreatic necrosis have been described. In patients who do not improve after technically adequate drainage, necrosectomy should be performed. When minimal invasive management is unsuccessful or necrosis has spread to locations not accessible by endoscopy, open abdominal surgery is recommended. Additionally, surgery is recognized as a major determinant of outcomes for acute pancreatitis, and there is general agreement that patients should undergo surgery in the late phase of the disease. It is important to consider multidisciplinary management, considering the clinical situation and the comorbidity of the patient, as well as the surgeons experience. PMID:25309073

Karakayali, Feza Y

2014-01-01

62

Enterolith causing acute afferent loop syndrome after Billroth II gastrectomy: a case report  

PubMed Central

Summary: Enterolith is a rare cause of afferent loop obstruction following Billroth II gastrectomy. We report a case of acute afferent loop syndrome (ALS) due to a huge enterolith, necessitating prompt surgery. The clinical pattern may mimic acute cholangitis and/or pancreatitis. Delayed diagnosis may result in severe complications such as bowel ischemia or perforation. Only 14 reported cases of enterolith causing afferent loop obstruction were found in the English literature. PMID:23837955

CARTANESE, C.; CAMPANELLA, G.; MILANO, E.; SACCÒ, M.

2013-01-01

63

Acute Compartment Syndrome in Orthopedics: Causes, Diagnosis, and Management  

PubMed Central

Almost all orthopaedic surgeons come across acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in their clinical practice. Diagnosis of ACS mostly relies on clinical findings. If the diagnosis is missed and left untreated, it can lead to serious consequences which can endanger limb and life of the patient and also risk the clinician to face lawsuits. This review article highlights the characteristic features of ACS which will help an orthopaedic surgeon to understand the pathophysiology, natural history, high risk patients, diagnosis, and surgical management of the condition.

Raza, Hasnain; Mahapatra, Anant

2015-01-01

64

Colchicine and NSAID combination causing acute kidney injury.  

PubMed

Colchicine is used mainly for the treatment of gout and familial mediterranean fever. The use of colchicine is limited by its toxicity, and colchicine overdose is associated with a high mortality rate. Herein, we are reporting a young man who presented to the emergency department after ingesting 13.5 mg of colchicine and 1200 mg of aceclofenac (non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug) for deliberate self harm. He developed acute kidney injury, metabolic acidosis, and bradycardia after admission. A combination effect of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug and colchicines was responsible for this event. PMID:23146861

Chen, Hsuan-Wei; Chen, Kuan-Chan; Chen, Jin-Shuen

2012-11-01

65

Liver histology of acute brucellosis caused by Brucella melitensis.  

PubMed

As a major organ of the mononuclear phagocytic system, the liver is probably involved in all cases of brucellosis. In this prospective study, liver slides prepared from percutaneous liver biopsy samples of 20 patients with clinical and laboratory evidence of acute brucellosis due to Brucella melitensis were examined for the presence or absence of granulomas by pathologists in Iran and the United States. Nineteen men and one woman ranging in age from 14 to 62 years were studied. All patients had clinical signs and symptoms compatible with acute brucellosis, and all had significantly elevated titers of antibodies to Brucella in their serum. Liver function tests were mildly elevated in 11 (55%) cases, and C-reactive protein was positive in 15 (65%) patients. Thirteen (65%) patients had blood cultures positive for B melitensis. Iranian and American pathologists reported granulomas in 3 (15%) and in 4 (20%) cases, respectively. There was agreement between Iranian and American pathologists in 17 (85%) cases. The most prevalent findings were mild portal or lobular lymphocytic inflammation (16 cases). Two cases revealed noncaseating epithelioid granulomas, and 2 had microgranulomas. The results show that all patients had microscopic evidence of liver involvement. The predominant histologic finding was mild portal or lobular inflammation with lymphocytes. Granulomas were present in only 4 cases. PMID:25147098

Young, Edward J; Hasanjani Roushan, Mohammad Reza; Shafae, Shariar; Genta, Robert M; Taylor, Shari L

2014-10-01

66

Gram-Negative Bacteria That Produce Carbapenemases Causing Death Attributed to Recent Foreign Hospitalization  

PubMed Central

Overseas travel, as a risk factor for the acquisition of infections due to antimicrobial-resistant organisms, has recently been linked to carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria. Multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii strains were isolated from a wound of a Canadian patient with a recent history of hospitalization in India. This resulted in the initiation of outbreak management that included surveillance cultures. Epidemiological and molecular investigations showed that NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae ST16 and OXA-23-producing A. baumannii ST10 strains were transmitted to 5 other patients, resulting in the colonization of 4 patients and the death of 1 patient due to septic shock caused by the OXA-23-producing A. baumannii strain. The high rate of false positivity of the screening cultures resulted in additional workloads and increased costs for infection control and clinical laboratory work. We believe that this is the first report of an infection with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria resulting in death attributed to a patient with recent foreign hospitalization. We recommend routine rectal and wound screening for colonization with multiresistant bacteria for patients who have recently been admitted to hospitals outside Canada. PMID:23612195

Ahmed-Bentley, Jasmine; Chandran, A. Uma; Joffe, A. Mark; French, Desiree; Peirano, Gisele

2013-01-01

67

Do We Know What Causes Acute Myeloid Leukemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer. Scientists have learned how certain changes in DNA can cause normal bone marrow cells to become ... each cell’s chromosomes. Chromosomes are long strands of DNA in each cell. The DNA inside our cells ...

68

Blunt chest trauma as a cause of acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Chest pain after thoracic trauma may be a symptom of cardiac injury or myocardial infarction. A 63-year-old healthy man had chest pain after blunt chest trauma in a motor vehicle accident. Chest computed tomography scan showed a displaced sternal fracture, lung contusion in the left upper lobe, atelectasis and consolidation in both lower lobes, and bilateral haemothorax. Electrocardiography showed ST elevation (2 mm) in leads II, III, and aVF and ST depression (2 mm) in leads I and aVL, consistent with acute inferior myocardial infarction. Urgent coronary angiography showed ostial occlusion of the right coronary artery. After the right coronary occlusion was passed with a guide wire, dissection of the right coronary artery was observed and treated with a balloon and stent to reestablish normal flow. This case emphasizes the importance of a high index of suspicion for coronary artery injury and myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma. PMID:25092198

Kara, H; Avc?, A; Akinci, M; Degirmenci, S; Bayir, A; Ak, A

2014-10-01

69

Paraphenylene diamine ingestion: an uncommon cause of acute renal failure.  

PubMed

Paraphenylene diamine (PPD) is a major component of hair dyes. The aim is to study the renal manifestations and outcome of PPD consumption. During a four-year period from 2002 to February 2006, 10 persons were admitted to our Institute after consuming a hair dye in a suicidal bid. The percentage of ARF due to PPD at our Institute was 0.95%. Seven patients out of 10 (70%) who consumed PPD developed ARF. All 10 patients, including the patients who had normal renal function had features of rhabdomyolysis. Two patients required ventilator support for respiratory distress and two more required tracheostomy due to upper airway tract edema. One patient has expired after two sessions of dialysis. Renal biopsy in two patients (one, postmortem) showed acute tubular necrosis along with presence of casts in tubules due to myoglobin. PMID:17699992

Ram, R; Swarnalatha, G; Prasad, N; Dakshinamurty, K V

2007-01-01

70

Laparoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment of an Acute Epiploic Appendagitis with Torsion and Necrosis Causing an Acute Abdomen  

PubMed Central

Acute epiploic appendagitis is not as rare as previously thought; but, since the presenting signs and symptoms are not specific, preoperative diagnosis has been rarely made. At the present time, a laparoscopic exploration of the peritoneal cavity will establish the correct diagnosis, and the treatment can be provided during the same procedure. Herein, a case of a 63-year-old female patient with acute abdominal syndrome caused by a necrotic epiploic appendix that was successfully diagnosed and treated laparoscopically is described. A review of the literature is made, as well. PMID:10987404

Castañeda, Pablo; Valencia, Salvador; Cueto, Jorge

2000-01-01

71

Chikungunya as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Southern Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Sri Lanka in late 2006 after a 40-year hiatus. We sought to identify and characterize acute chikungunya infection (CHIK) in patients presenting with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in unstudied rural and semi-urban southern Sri Lanka in 2007. Methodology/Principal Findings We enrolled febrile patients ? 2 years of age, collected uniform epidemiologic and clinical data, and obtained serum samples for serology, virus isolation, and real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). Serology on paired acute and convalescent samples identified acute chikungunya infection in 3.5% (28/797) patients without acute dengue virus (DENV) infection, 64.3% (18/28) of which were confirmed by viral isolation and/or real-time RT-PCR. No CHIKV/DENV co-infections were detected among 54 patients with confirmed acute DENV. Sequencing of the E1 coding region of six temporally distinct CHIKV isolates (April through October 2007) showed that all isolates posessed the E1-226A residue and were most closely related to Sri Lankan and Indian isolates from the same time period. Except for more frequent and persistent musculoskeletal symptoms, acute chikungunya infections mimicked DENV and other acute febrile illnesses. Only 12/797 (1.5%) patients had serological evidence of past chikungunya infection. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest CHIKV is a prominent cause of non-specific acute febrile illness in southern Sri Lanka. PMID:24312651

Reller, Megan E.; Akoroda, Ufuoma; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikaarachchi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J.; Chua, Robert; Hou, Yan'an; Chow, Angelia; Sessions, October M.; Østbye, Truls; Gubler, Duane J.; Woods, Christopher W.; Bodinayake, Champica

2013-01-01

72

A rare cause of acute massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding.  

PubMed

Even if lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) can present as trivial haematochezia, massive hemorrhage with shock may occur. Acute massive LGIB is defined as bleeding of recent duration that originates beyond the ligament of Treitz and encompasses: passage of a large volume of red or maroon blood through the rectum, haemodynamic instability and shock, initial decrease in haematocrit level of 6 g/dL or less, transfusion of at least 2 U of packed red blood cells, bleeding that continues for 3 days or significant rebleeding in 1 week. This report presents the case of a 58-year-old man with massive LGI bleeding. Colonoscopy was performed in emergency with a poor colonic preparation, but the examiner fortunately and with difficulty managed to identify the source of the haemorrhage- a Dieulafoy's lesion of the right colon. The bleeding was successfully stopped permanently by injecting sclerosing agents into the spurting vessel. We have preferred colonoscopy as our first choice of investigation due to the facile availability and the opportunity of endoscopic haemostasis in case of finding the source of bleeding. Angiography was planned in case of failure of the first method. The definition, clinical presentation, and treatment of Dieulafoy's lesion are further discussed. PMID:23464779

Constantinescu, G; Grin?escu, I; Stanciulescu, L; Ilie, M; Beuran, M; Chiotoroiu, A

2013-01-01

73

Nonatherosclerotic causes of acute coronary syndrome: recognition and management.  

PubMed

Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) frequently result from the rupture or erosion of a vulnerable coronary plaque, with associated intracoronary thrombosis. ACS also may occur in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. Some of these patients, however, still have angiographically silent underlying coronary artery disease. In this setting, subtle atherosclerotic changes frequently associated with unstable morphologic features or residual intracoronary thrombus may be detected with intracoronary imaging techniques. Nevertheless, other patients develop ACS as a result of nonatherosclerotic coronary artery disease (NA-CAD). ACS in patients with NA-CAD may be the consequence of coronary spasm or transient coronary embolic phenomena. In these patients, after the initial ischemic insult, late coronary angiography usually reveals normal epicardial coronary vessels. Kounis syndrome is a type of ACS generated by allergic reactions. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by normal coronary arteries with a distinct pattern of transient left ventricular wall motion abnormalities. ACS also may occur in young patients following illicit drug use. Finally, spontaneous coronary artery dissection and intramural hematoma represent other etiologies of NA-CAD. In this review, we discuss current evidence regarding diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients presenting with ACS as a result of NA-CAD. PMID:25308305

Bastante, Teresa; Rivero, Fernando; Cuesta, Javier; Benedicto, Amparo; Restrepo, Jorge; Alfonso, Fernando

2014-11-01

74

Bath salt intoxication causing acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Traditional bath salts contain a combination of inorganic salts like Epsom salts, table salt, baking soda, sodium metaphosphate, and borax that have cleansing properties. Since 2010, there have been rising concerns about a new type of substance abuse in the name of "bath salts." They are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs and are derivates of cathinone, a naturally occurring amphetamine analog found in the "khat" plant (Catha edulis). Effects reported with intake included increased energy, empathy, openness, and increased libido. Serious adverse effects reported with intoxication included cardiac, psychiatric, and neurological signs and symptoms. Not much is known about the toxicology and metabolism of these compounds. They inhibit monoamine reuptake (dopamine, nor epinephrine, etc.) and act as central nervous system stimulants with high additive and abuse potential because of their clinical and biochemical similarities to effects from use of cocaine, amphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine. Deaths associated with use of these compounds have also been reported. We report a case of acute kidney injury associated with the use of "bath salt" pills that improved with hemodialysis. PMID:23036036

Regunath, Hariharan; Ariyamuthu, Venkatesh Kumar; Dalal, Pranavkumar; Misra, Madhukar

2012-10-01

75

[Thrombosis of an extraspermatic blood vessel--first description as a cause of acute scrotum].  

PubMed

Testicular torsion is a well known emergency situation in clinical urology. Usually cases with torsion of the testis, epididimis or Morgagni's hydatid present for operative emergency procedures due to an "acute scrotum". Also Amyand's hernia, anterior wall abscess, tumours of the testis or cholesterol granulomas have been described as mimicking a testicular torsion. We present the first case of thrombosis of an extraspermatic blood vessel as an unusual cause of an acute scrotum in 15-year-old boy. PMID:23712278

Wiedemann, A; Maykan, R; Bongert, M; Füsgen, I

2013-05-01

76

Imaging in emphysematous epididymo-orchitis: A rare cause of acute scrotum  

PubMed Central

Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis is an uncommon, acute inflammatory process of epididymis and testis characterized by the presence of air within the tissue. Patient presents with fever, acute pain, swelling and tenderness in the scrotum. Imaging is needed for rapid accurate diagnosis and to differentiate it from other causes of acute scrotum such as testicular torsion. We report a case of emphysematous epididymo-orchitis with imaging findings on plain radiography, ultrasound, CT and MRI and a brief review of the literature. PMID:25114397

Mandava, Anitha; Rao, R Prabhakar; Kumar, D Anjani; Naga Prasad, I Shiva

2014-01-01

77

Imaging in emphysematous epididymo-orchitis: A rare cause of acute scrotum.  

PubMed

Emphysematous epididymo-orchitis is an uncommon, acute inflammatory process of epididymis and testis characterized by the presence of air within the tissue. Patient presents with fever, acute pain, swelling and tenderness in the scrotum. Imaging is needed for rapid accurate diagnosis and to differentiate it from other causes of acute scrotum such as testicular torsion. We report a case of emphysematous epididymo-orchitis with imaging findings on plain radiography, ultrasound, CT and MRI and a brief review of the literature. PMID:25114397

Mandava, Anitha; Rao, R Prabhakar; Kumar, D Anjani; Naga Prasad, I Shiva

2014-07-01

78

Perforated Duodenal Ulcer –A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Acute abdomen during pregnancy is a medico-surgical emergency demanding concerted, synchronized specialties approach of obstetrician, surgeon and gastroenterologist. Duodenal perforation is one of the rarer causes of acute abdomen in pregnancy. Here, we report a case of duodenal perforation with peritonitis in third trimester of pregnancy requiring surgical management. Our aim of reporting this case is to stress the physicians to keep the differential of duodenal perforation also in mind while dealing with cases of acute abdomen in pregnancy and to proceed with multidisciplinary approach for better feto-maternal outcome. PMID:25386494

Rani, Jyotsna; Huria, Anju; Gupta, Pratiksha; Dalal, Usha

2014-01-01

79

A Case of Acute Pyogenic Sacroiliitis and Bacteremia Caused by Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

Pyogenic sacroiliitis is a rare osteoarticular infection, occurring most frequently in children and young adults. Diagnosis of the disease is challenging because of a general lack of awareness of the disease and its nonspecific signs and symptoms. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common causative bacteria in pyogenic sacroiliitis. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has typically been considered a hospital-associated pathogen; however, community-acquired (CA)-MRSA infections are becoming increasingly common in Korea. We report the first domestic case of acute pyogenic sacroiliitis with abscess and bacteremia caused by CA-MRSA. The pathogen carried the type IV-A staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) without the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene, and was identified as sequence type (ST) 72 by multilocus sequence typing. PMID:24475359

Kim, Suyoung; Lee, Kang Lock; Baek, Hae Lim; Jang, Seung Jun; Moon, Song Mi; Cho, Yong Kyun

2013-12-01

80

Response of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea to acute zinc stress and different moisture regimes in soil.  

PubMed

Ammonia oxidation has been intensively studied for its sensitivity to environmental shifts and stresses. However, acute stress effects on the occurrence and composition of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) based on expression of related molecular markers in complex soil environments have been to an extent overlooked, particularly concerning transient but commonly occurring environmental changes like soil moisture shifts. The present study investigates the responses of AOB and AOA to moisture shifts and high Zn soil content. AmoA gene copies and transcripts of AOB and AOA along with potential nitrification activity were measured in a soil microcosm approach for investigating the referred environmental shifts. Moisture change from 87 to 50 % of the water holding capacity caused a ~99 % reduction of AOB but not of AOA amoA transcripts that did not change significantly. Increasing applied zinc concentrations resulted in a reduction of potential nitrification rates and negatively affected studied gene expressions of both AOB and AOA, with AOB being more responsive. Both 16 S rRNA and amoA transcripts of AOB had an inverse relation to the applied zinc, indicating a gradual loss in total cell activity. Our results suggest the existence of pronounced differences between AOB and AOA concerning ammonia oxidation activity. PMID:22688860

Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Coppolecchia, Damiano; Puglisi, Edoardo; Balloi, Annalisa; Mapelli, Francesca; Hamon, Rebecca E; Daffonchio, Daniele; Trevisan, Marco

2012-11-01

81

Probiotic bacteria Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 attenuates acute gastric lesions induced by stress.  

PubMed

Probiotic bacteria Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN) was shown to prevent or heal acute murine colitis, but gastroprotective effects of EcN against mucosal injury have been little studied. In this study, the effects of EcN on formation of stress-induced gastric erosions were assessed in rats. Rats were divided in following treatment groups: 1) vehicle (control); 2) EcN 10(1) CFU/ml; 3) EcN 10(4) CFU/ml and 4) EcN 10(8) CFU/ml. One hour after treatment, the rats were exposed to 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) and then sacrificed. Involvement of prostaglandins was tested using indomethacin given one hour before EcN, whereas that of sensory nerves was assessed using neurotoxic dose of capsaicin in rats pretreated with EcN or vehicle. The expression of proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1beta), ghrelin, peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and heat-shock protein (HSP70) was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Exposure to WRS in vehicle-pretreated rats induced acute erosions. Pretreatment with EcN significantly reduced WRS lesions and increased gastric blood flow. This protective effect was completely abolished by indomethacin and significantly attenuated by capsaicin-denervation. The exposure to WRS was accompanied by an increase in gastric mucosal expression of IL-1beta, ghrelin, PPARgamma, HSP70 and COX-2. In rats pretreated with EcN, a significant downregulation of mRNA and protein expression for IL-1beta, COX-2 and PPARgamma and increased expression of HSP70 without major change in activation of NFkappaB were observed. We conclude that EcN protects gastric mucosa against WRS erosions due to antiinflammatory and vasodilatory actions involving HSP70, prostaglandins and sensory afferent neurons. PMID:20224150

Konturek, P C; Sliwowski, Z; Koziel, J; Ptak-Belowska, A; Burnat, G; Brzozowski, T; Konturek, S J

2009-12-01

82

[A case of acute intracranial epidural hematoma caused by chronic nasal sinusitis].  

PubMed

Non-traumatic intracranial acute epidural hematoma(EDH)is rare. It is mostly caused by coagulation disorders, dural metastasis, or vascular malformations of the dura. We report a case of non-traumatic acute EDH caused by chronic nasal sinusitis and review the literature comprising 10 cases of acute EDH caused by chronic nasal sinusitis. A 16-year-old boy visited our outpatient clinic with a 2-day history of severe headache. He did not have fever or neurological abnormalities and showed no evidence of head trauma. Cranial computed tomography(CT)revealed sphenoid sinusitis and a small amount of epidural air in the middle fossa, but no other intracranial abnormalities. After eight days with no subsequent history of trauma, radiological exams showed a massive acute epidural hematoma in the left middle fossa and temporal convexity without any vascular lesion or skull fracture. The patient underwent a hematoma evacuation that revealed neither a skull fracture nor a vascular abnormality. In this adolescent, chronic nasal sinusitis caused fragility of the meningeal artery wall, an air collection in the epidural space, and the detachment of the dura mater from the inner surface of the skull, thereby resulting in a non-traumatic acute EDH. PMID:25557102

Kihara, Kazunori; Sato, Motoki; Kado, Ken; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Takao; Yamakami, Iwao

2015-01-01

83

Acute Pelvic Pain: A Ball Pen May Be a Cause?  

PubMed Central

Chronic Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem in women and can be seen without any significant anatomical and functional pathology. Foreign bodies within the urinary bladder are not rare and should be considered as a cause of chronic and recurrent UTI. Intravesical foreign bodies can be self inflicted, iatrogenic or migration from adjacent organs. History in these cases is often misleading and presentation of foreign body mostly becomes apparent as suprapubic pain, dysuria with or without hematuria. We present a case of self-inflicted foreign body within the bladder of a young female who presented with recurrent urinary tract infections for six months that did not respond to medical treatment. PMID:25654009

Rai, Garjesh Singh; Roshan, Rakesh; Vyas, Mahendra Mohan; Goel, Deepak

2014-01-01

84

Oxidative stress caused by acute and chronic exposition to altitude.  

PubMed

In this article, current views on cellular and molecular biology (biochemical) mechanisms are discussed under the aspect of altitude exposition. The Andean, Tibetan, and Ethiopian patterns of adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia are known [Beal et al. (2002) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99: 17215-17218]. The phylogenetic tree of the human species suggests that there are genetic differences in adaptation patterns to chronic hypoxic hypoxia. Five defense mechanisms are well established for lowlanders who are exposed to acute hypoxic hypoxia. Consequences of the cellular decrease in ATP are the formation of hypoxanthine and xanthine, which are the substrates for the massive formation of superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide via the oxidase activity of the xanthine oxidoreductase reaction. Under severe hypoxia, about 51 % of the total inhaled oxygen is used to form superoxide anion radicals in rat liver [Gerber et al. (1989) Adv Exp Med Biol 253B, Plenum Press, New York, 497-504]. The reactivity and selectivity of the superoxide anion radical are modified by specific interactions and electron exchange. It is commonly accepted that the superoxide anion radical in aqueous solutions has a lifetime in the millisecond range. However, electron spin resonance spectroscopy studies in a KO2/H2O/iron ion system revealed for the first time a stabilization of a part of the initially added superoxide anion radicals lasting up to hours at room temperature [Földes-Papp (1992) Gen Physiol Biophys 11: 3-38]. Superoxide anion radicals adsorbed on an oxidic iron hydrate phase in aqueous systems might function as a strong oxidant similar to that species which has been suggested to be a complex between oxygen and different valence states of iron in the initiation of lipid peroxidation by ferrous iron. There were serious doubts about the identity of alkoxy radicals. For the first time, alkoxy radicals were directly demonstrated in solution by electron spin resonance spectroscopy [Földes-Papp et al. (1991) Adv Synth Catal 333: 293-301]. The redox status in mammalian cells is mainly determined by the antioxidant glutathione, which is a key player in maintaining the intracellular redox equilibrium and in the metabolic regulation of the cellular defense against oxidative stress. As reactive oxygen species occupy an essential role in membrane damage, the idea of membrane-bound enzymatic defense mechanisms gets a new dimension [Földes-Papp et al. (1981) Acta Biol Med Ger 40: 1129-1132; Földes-Papp and Maretzki (1982) Acta Biol Med Ger 41: 1003-1008]. The steady-state between antioxidants and pro-oxidants affects the gene expression via hypoxia-induced transcription activities. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a global regulator of oxygen homeostasis. As discussed in this article, hypoxia or 'oxidative stress' is accompanied by appropriate molecular adaptation mechanisms at the enzymatic or epigenetic level (enzymatic and non-enzymatic radical inhibitors, posttranslational modifications) and at the genetic level (transcription, translation). PMID:15966258

Földes-Papp, Zeno; Domej, Wolfgang; Demel, Ulrike; Tilz, Gernot P

2005-04-01

85

Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2013-01-01

86

Acute cholestatic hepatitis caused by amoxicillin/clavulanate  

PubMed Central

Amoxicillin/clavulanate is a synthetic penicillin that is currently commonly used, especially for the treatment of respiratory and cutaneous infections. In general, it is a well-tolerated oral antibiotic. However, amoxicillin/clavulanate can cause adverse effects, mainly cutaneous, gastrointestinal, hepatic and hematologic, in some cases. Presented here is a case report of a 63-year-old male patient who developed cholestatic hepatitis after recent use of amoxicillin/clavulanate. After 6 wk of prolonged use of the drug, he began to show signs of cholestatic icterus and developed severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin > 300 mg/L). Diagnostic investigation was conducted by ultrasonography of the upper abdomen, serum tests for infection history, laboratory screening of autoimmune diseases, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the abdomen with bile duct-NMR and transcutaneous liver biopsy guided by ultrasound. The duration of disease was approximately 4 mo, with complete resolution of symptoms and laboratory changes at the end of that time period. Specific treatment was not instituted, only a combination of anti-emetic (metoclopramide) and cholestyramine for pruritus. PMID:24379601

Beraldo, Daniel Oliveira; Melo, Joanderson Fernandes; Bonfim, Alexandre Vidal; Teixeira, Andrei Alkmim; Teixeira, Ricardo Alkmim; Duarte, André Loyola

2013-01-01

87

Acute Drug-Induced Hepatitis Caused by Albendazole  

PubMed Central

Albendazole binds to parasite's tubulin inhibiting its glucose absorption. Its common adverse effects are nausea, vomiting, constipation, thirst, dizziness, headache, hair loss and pruritus. Although mainly metabolized in the liver, abnormal liver function tests were a rare adverse effect during clinical trials and we found no literature about albendazole-induced hepatitis requiring admission. This patient had a previous history of albendazole ingestion in 2002 resulting in increase of liver function tests. And in 2005, the episode repeated. We evaluated the patient for viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and autoimmune hepatitis, but no other cause of hepatic injury could be found. Liver biopsy showed periportal steatosis and periportal necrosis. The initial abnormal liver function test improved only with supportive care. These findings and the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (RUCAM/CIOMS) score of 9 are compatible with drug-induced hepatitis so we report the case of this patient with a review of the literature. PMID:18955802

Choi, Gi Young; Cho, Soung Hoon; Kang, Dong Wook; Go, Hoon; Lee, Woong Chul; Lee, Yun Jung; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, An Na; Cha, Sang Woo

2008-01-01

88

Hepatitis e as a cause of acute jaundice syndrome in northern Uganda, 2010-2012.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7-24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. PMID:25448237

Gerbi, Gemechu B; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D; Teshale, Eyasu H

2015-02-01

89

Comment on "The hologenomic basis of speciation: gut bacteria cause hybrid lethality in the genus Nasonia".  

PubMed

Brucker and Bordenstein (Reports, 9 August 2013, p. 667) claim that adaptive codivergence of gut bacteria with hosts contributes to hybrid lethality. Yet, they provide no evidence for coadaptation of bacteria and Nasonia hosts. Their data on hybrid viability suggest that bacteria contribute to inviability only because intrinsic hybrid dysfunction increases susceptibility to free-living bacteria. Hologenomic speciation remains testable speculation without experimental support. PMID:25170144

Chandler, James Angus; Turelli, Michael

2014-08-29

90

A case of cerebellar infarction caused by acute subclavian thrombus following minor trauma.  

PubMed

Subclavian steal syndrome caused by an acute thrombus is very rare. We present a case of cerebellar infarction with proximal subclavian artery thrombosis. A 56-year-old woman was admitted for sudden vertigo. One day prior to admission, she received a shoulder massage comprised of chiropractic manipulation. On examination, her left hand was pale and radial pulses were absent. Blood pressure was weak in the left arm. Downbeat nystagmus and a right falling tendency were observed. Brain MRI showed multiple acute infarctions in the left cerebellum. The findings of Doppler ultrasonography in the left vertebral artery were compatible with a partial subclavian artery steal phenomenon. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a large thrombus in the left subclavian artery. After heparin infusion, thrombus size markedly decreased. Cerebellar infarction caused by acute subclavian thrombosis following minor trauma is rare, but the thrombus can be successfully resolved with anticoagulation. PMID:24142663

Park, Hyeyoung; Kim, Hee-Jin; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jong Yun; Koh, Im-Seok; Nam, Hyo Suk

2013-11-01

91

A Case of Cerebellar Infarction Caused by Acute Subclavian Thrombus Following Minor Trauma  

PubMed Central

Subclavian steal syndrome caused by an acute thrombus is very rare. We present a case of cerebellar infarction with proximal subclavian artery thrombosis. A 56-year-old woman was admitted for sudden vertigo. One day prior to admission, she received a shoulder massage comprised of chiropractic manipulation. On examination, her left hand was pale and radial pulses were absent. Blood pressure was weak in the left arm. Downbeat nystagmus and a right falling tendency were observed. Brain MRI showed multiple acute infarctions in the left cerebellum. The findings of Doppler ultrasonography in the left vertebral artery were compatible with a partial subclavian artery steal phenomenon. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a large thrombus in the left subclavian artery. After heparin infusion, thrombus size markedly decreased. Cerebellar infarction caused by acute subclavian thrombosis following minor trauma is rare, but the thrombus can be successfully resolved with anticoagulation. PMID:24142663

Park, Hyeyoung; Kim, Hee-Jin; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Lee, Jong Yun; Koh, Im-Seok

2013-01-01

92

Evaluation of Cefaclor in Acute Otitis Media Caused by Ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cefaclor was used to treat 13 children with acute otitis media caused by ampicillin-resistant strains of Hemophilus influenzae. The children were re-examined on days 4, 10, and 28. Phar macologic compliance was assessed by means of a bioinhibition assay on a urine specimen obtained on days 4, 7, and 100 Nine of the 13 children had evidence by tympanogram of

Richard H. Schwartz; William J. Rodriguez; Waheed N. Khan; Lori Brigham; Sydney Ross

1982-01-01

93

Seasonality of Antibiotic-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae That Causes Acute Otitis Media  

E-print Network

Seasonality of Antibiotic-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae That Causes Acute Otitis Media: A Clue in antibiotic consumption leads to a reduction in the antibiotic resis- tance of Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance in S. pneumoniae, particularly high- Received 5 September 2007; accepted 26 October 2007

Cohen, Ted

94

Non Obstetric Causes and Presentation of Acute Abdomen among the Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the non-obstetric causes and presentation of acute abdomen among pregnant women. Materials and methods: This was a cross sectional hospital-based study among 128 pregnant women by face to face interview using a semi-structured questionnaire. This study was conducted at the Gynecology & Obstetric Ward of 250 Bed General Hospital, Noakhali, Bangladesh, from January to August 2013. Data were analyzed by a software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS) version 11.5 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Mean age of participants was 25±4 years. Our findings showed that 81% were Muslim, 67% were lower middle income group, as well as 47% completed primary level of education. The results revealed that 28% had biliary ascariasis, 24% had peptic ulcer disease and 10% had lower urinary tract infection. We also found that 6% had acute pyelonephritis, 6% had acute gastroenteritis, 6% had acute cholecystitis, 6% had acute appendicitis, 2% had acute pancreatitis, 3% had choledocolithiasis, 2% had ovarian solid mass, 2% had twisted ovarian cyst, 4% had renal colic, and 1% had renal calculus. In non-obstetrical presentation of acute abdomen, the study found that 84% of respondents complained their pain lasting more than 24 hours. Besides, half of respondents felt pain in epigastrium and right hypochondrium. Cramping, prickling and aching type of pain were more, while 66% suffered from continuous pain. Our results also showed that 73% did not explain any aggravating factor and relieving factor, and the rest said food, fasting state and position change aggravated pain as well as relieved pain. Conclusion: The study concludes that precise diagnosis of the acute abdomen in pregnant women by continual updating of abdominal assessment knowledge, and clinical skills is necessary in the management of abdominal pain in obstetric settings.

Haque, Monoarul; Kamal, Farah; Chowdhury, Shahanaz; Uzzaman, Monir; Aziz, Itrat

2014-01-01

95

An unusual cause of acute abdominal pain after cardiac surgery: acute epiploic appendagitis  

PubMed Central

Abdominal complications following cardiac surgery remain unusual, but are associated with high mortality. The most common abdominal surgical complications are mesenteric ischaemia, diverticulitis, pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleeding and cholecystitis. We describe a case of a 73-year old woman with acute abdominal pain mimicking cholecystitis on day 10 after aortic valve replacement. An abdominal examination showed tenderness of the right upper quadrant with Murphy's sign. Complete blood count, blood chemistries and urinalysis were normal as were the abdominal and chest X-rays and abdominal ultrasonography. The abdominal computed-tomography (CT) scan enabled us to rule out cholecystitis, as it demonstrated the typical appearance of epiploic appendagitis on the right colon, 1 cm below the gallbladder. Epiploic appendagitis results from twisting, kinking or venous thrombosis of an epiploic appendage. Depending on its localization, it mimics many diagnoses requiring surgery: colitis, diverticulitis, appendicitis and cholecystitis. An abdominal CT scan is the diagnostic imaging tool of choice. All physicians involved in post-cardiac surgery care should be aware of this self-limiting disease that usually resolves with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and watchful waiting, and to avoid unnecessary surgery because the spontaneous evolution of epiploic appendagitis is usually benign. PMID:22547560

Maillet, Jean-Michel; Thierry, Stéphane; Sverzut, Jean-Michel; Brodaty, Denis

2012-01-01

96

An unusual cause of acute abdominal pain after cardiac surgery: acute epiploic appendagitis.  

PubMed

Abdominal complications following cardiac surgery remain unusual, but are associated with high mortality. The most common abdominal surgical complications are mesenteric ischaemia, diverticulitis, pancreatitis, gastrointestinal bleeding and cholecystitis. We describe a case of a 73-year old woman with acute abdominal pain mimicking cholecystitis on day 10 after aortic valve replacement. An abdominal examination showed tenderness of the right upper quadrant with Murphy's sign. Complete blood count, blood chemistries and urinalysis were normal as were the abdominal and chest X-rays and abdominal ultrasonography. The abdominal computed-tomography (CT) scan enabled us to rule out cholecystitis, as it demonstrated the typical appearance of epiploic appendagitis on the right colon, 1 cm below the gallbladder. Epiploic appendagitis results from twisting, kinking or venous thrombosis of an epiploic appendage. Depending on its localization, it mimics many diagnoses requiring surgery: colitis, diverticulitis, appendicitis and cholecystitis. An abdominal CT scan is the diagnostic imaging tool of choice. All physicians involved in post-cardiac surgery care should be aware of this self-limiting disease that usually resolves with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and watchful waiting, and to avoid unnecessary surgery because the spontaneous evolution of epiploic appendagitis is usually benign. PMID:22547560

Maillet, Jean-Michel; Thierry, Stéphane; Sverzut, Jean-Michel; Brodaty, Denis

2012-08-01

97

[Experimental justification of approaches to pharmacological correction of delayed disorders caused by acute ethylene glycol poisoning].  

PubMed

The development of delayed disorders caused by acute ethylene glycol poisoning has been studied in experiments on male rats. These disorders include chronic renal failure and secondary combined immunodeficiency status of the "circulus vitiosus" type. Urgent pharmacological correction was shown to be necessary shortly after the poisoning. The experimental therapy (administration of immunomodulators with various mechanisms of action in addition to conventional antidote treatment with ethanol) resulted in the restoration of nonspecific resistance and both cellular and humoral immunity. Reduction of the urinary system damage after the administration of immunomodulators was observed. The results demonstrated the importance of multiagent immunotherapy for the correction of delayed effects of acute ethylene glycol poisoning. PMID:23323331

Liubishin, M M; Sivak, K V; Savateeva-Liubimova, T N

2012-01-01

98

Bilateral stones as a cause of acute renal failure in the emergency department  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) due to obstructive uropathy is a urological emergency. The standard radiological investigations in the emergency setting include X-ray, ultrasonography and computed tomography. But occasionally the cause of obstruction may be elusive. METHODS: We present a case of obstructive uropathy due to bilateral stones presenting as acute renal failure. The patient underwent successful shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for dissolution of calculi. RESULTS: The patient was successfully treated, and reported asymptomatic in a follow-up. CONCLUSION: Close collaboration between nephrological, urological, and radiological services is required. PMID:25215151

Alonso, Joaquín V.; cachinero, Pedro L.; Ubeda, Fran R.; Ruiz, Daniel J. L.; Blanco, Alfredo

2014-01-01

99

Life-threatening Cerebral Edema Caused by Acute Occlusion of a Superior Vena Cava Stent  

SciTech Connect

A71-year-old man with advanced lung cancer developed a life-threatening cerebral edema caused by the acute occlusion of a superior vena cava (SVC) stent and was successfully treated by an additional stent placement. Although stent occlusion is a common early complication, no life-threatening situations have been reported until now. Our experience highlights the fact that acute stent occlusion can potentially lead to the complete venous shutdown of the SVC, resulting in life-threatening cerebral edema, after SVC stent placement. Immediate diagnosis and countermeasures are required.

Sofue, Keitaro, E-mail: keitarosofue@yahoo.co.jp; Takeuchi, Yoshito, E-mail: yotake62@qg8.so-net.ne.jp; Arai, Yasuaki, E-mail: arai-y3111@mvh.biglobe.ne.jp [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan)] [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Sugimura, Kazuro, E-mail: sugimura@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Kobe University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)] [Kobe University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

2013-02-15

100

Bilateral renal artery thrombosis in inherited thrombophilia: a rare cause of acute kidney injury  

PubMed Central

We describe the case of a 47-year-old man who developed significant acute, and subsequently chronic, kidney injury due to bilateral renal infarction. This occurred in the context of a combined inherited thrombophilia including antithrombin III deficiency and a prothrombin gene mutation. Bilateral renal artery thrombosis developed despite prophylactic treatment for thromboembolism. Arterial thrombosis is rare in the context of inherited thrombophilia and bilateral renal infarction is an unusual cause of acute kidney injury. Bilateral renal infarction due to primary renal artery thrombosis has not been previously described in antithrombin III deficiency, either as an isolated defect or in combination with other hereditary thrombophilia. PMID:24465133

Wiles, Kate S; Hastings, Laura; Muthuppalaniappan, Vasantha Muthu; Hanif, Muhammad; Abeygunasekara, Sumith

2014-01-01

101

The inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil on drug-resistant bacteria and evaluation of its acute toxicity  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The excessive and irregular use of antibiotics could result in the generation and diffusion of drug-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Zingiber corallinum Hance essential oil (ZCHO) on drug-resistant bacteria, especially on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Material/Methods Susceptibility testing was used to evaluate the effect of ZCHO on growth inhibition of drug-resistant bacteria by paper disk method. Mice orally administered with ZCHO were used to observe acute toxicity and to determine median lethal dose (LD50) of ZCHO. Broth dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Results ZCHO exhibited an obvious inhibitory effect not only on gram-negative drug-resistant bacteria including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Acinetobacter baumannii, but also on gram-positive drug-resistant bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus. The ZCHO containing 79% terpinen-4-ol revealed better bacteriostatic effect than ZCHO with 34% terpinen-4-ol. The LD50 of ZCHO was 1790.427 mg/kg. The MIC and MBC of ZCHO on drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 1457.81 mg/L. Conclusions ZCHO has obvious bacteriostasis and bactericidal effects, especially against drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Therefore, ZCHO is a promising natural bioactive component with antibacterial effect and satisfactory safety due to its low toxicity. PMID:21525802

Yang, Ce; Zhou, Lin-Lin; Wang, Hai-Yan; Huang, Su-Na; Liu, Qing; Hu, Shi-Lin; Li, Ting-Rong; Chen, Yan-Bing; Jiang, Jian-Xin

2011-01-01

102

Primary Cutaneous Blastomycosis as a Cause of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrom  

PubMed Central

Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. Exposure in endemic regions frequently occurs when spores in soil are disturbed and subsequently inhaled. Less commonly, primary cutaneous blastomycosis may follow after traumatic inoculation of the fungus into the skin. Most patients infected with blastomycosis are asymptomatic, but an unfortunate small number present with fulminant disease. Rarely, the infection can affect organs, such as the skin, bone, or genitourinary system. In a small percentage of cases, blastomycosis may cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is associated with a very high mortality rate. Increased survival rates have been shown when the clinician has a high index of suspicion and facilitates rapid evaluation and initiation of the appropriate therapy. We present a rare case of a patient presenting with primary cutaneous blastomycosis that progressed to disseminated disease causing acute respiratory distress syndrome. High clinical suspicion, prompt diagnostic testing, and therapy with amphotericin B, confirmed the diagnosis and resulted in a swift recovery. PMID:20729940

Spear, Joel B.

2009-01-01

103

Understanding the patterns of antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria causing urinary tract infection in West Bengal, India.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of empirical therapy, the susceptibility of antibiotics and resistance pattern of bacteria responsible for UTI in West Bengal, India, were evaluated throughout the period of 2008-2013. The infection reports belonging to all age groups and both sexes were considered. Escherichia coli was the most abundant uropathogen with a prevalence rate of 67.1%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (22%) and Pseudomonas spp. (6%). Penicillin was least effective against UTI-causing E. coli and maximum susceptibility was recorded for the drugs belonging to fourth generation cephalosporins. Other abundant uropathogens, Klebsiella spp., were maximally resistant to broad-spectrum penicillin, followed by aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporin. The antibiotic resistance pattern of two principal UTI pathogens, E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in West Bengal, appears in general to be similar to that found in other parts of the Globe. Higher than 50% resistance were observed for broad-spectrum penicillin. Fourth generation cephalosporin and macrolides seems to be the choice of drug in treating UTIs in Eastern India. Furthermore, improved maintenance of infection incident logs is needed in Eastern Indian hospitals in order to facilitate regular surveillance of the occurrence of antibiotic resistance patterns, since such levels continue to change. PMID:25278932

Saha, Sunayana; Nayak, Sridhara; Bhattacharyya, Indrani; Saha, Suman; Mandal, Amit K; Chakraborty, Subhanil; Bhattacharyya, Rabindranath; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Franco, Octavio L; Mandal, Santi M; Basak, Amit

2014-01-01

104

Understanding the patterns of antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria causing urinary tract infection in West Bengal, India  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of empirical therapy, the susceptibility of antibiotics and resistance pattern of bacteria responsible for UTI in West Bengal, India, were evaluated throughout the period of 2008–2013. The infection reports belonging to all age groups and both sexes were considered. Escherichia coli was the most abundant uropathogen with a prevalence rate of 67.1%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (22%) and Pseudomonas spp. (6%). Penicillin was least effective against UTI-causing E. coli and maximum susceptibility was recorded for the drugs belonging to fourth generation cephalosporins. Other abundant uropathogens, Klebsiella spp., were maximally resistant to broad-spectrum penicillin, followed by aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporin. The antibiotic resistance pattern of two principal UTI pathogens, E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in West Bengal, appears in general to be similar to that found in other parts of the Globe. Higher than 50% resistance were observed for broad-spectrum penicillin. Fourth generation cephalosporin and macrolides seems to be the choice of drug in treating UTIs in Eastern India. Furthermore, improved maintenance of infection incident logs is needed in Eastern Indian hospitals in order to facilitate regular surveillance of the occurrence of antibiotic resistance patterns, since such levels continue to change. PMID:25278932

Saha, Sunayana; Nayak, Sridhara; Bhattacharyya, Indrani; Saha, Suman; Mandal, Amit K.; Chakraborty, Subhanil; Bhattacharyya, Rabindranath; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Franco, Octavio L.; Mandal, Santi M.; Basak, Amit

2014-01-01

105

Natural Killer Cells Are Involved in Acute Lung Immune Injury Caused by Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

It is known that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in young children. RSV infection often leads to severe acute lung immunopathology, but the underlying immune mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated. Here, we found that RSV infection induced severe acute lung immune injury and promoted the accumulation and activation of lung natural killer (NK) cells at the early stage of infection in BALB/c mice. Activated lung NK cells highly expressed activating receptors NKG2D and CD27 and became functional NK cells by producing a large amount of gamma interferon (IFN-?), which was responsible for acute lung immune injury. NK cell depletion significantly attenuated lung immune injury and reduced infiltration of total inflammatory cells and production of IFN-? in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). These data show that NK cells are involved in exacerbating the lung immune injury at the early stage of RSV infection via IFN-? secretion. PMID:22171263

Li, Fengqi; Zhu, Hanqing; Sun, Rui; Wei, Haiming

2012-01-01

106

Myeloid Sarcoma: An Unusual Presentation of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Causing Spinal Cord Compression  

PubMed Central

Acute promyelocytic leukemia with concurrent myeloid sarcoma is a rare clinical event. Herein we describe a patient that presented with back pain and bilateral leg weakness caused by spinal cord compression due to extramedullary deposition of leukemic cells. Acute promyelocytic leukemia was suspected based on immunophenotypic findings of malignant cells in bone marrow aspirate. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of PML-RAR? fusion copies. MRI showed multiple hyperintense changes on the vertebral bodies, together with intraspinal masses causing spinal cord compression. The patient immediately underwent radiotherapy, and was treated with all-trans retinoic acid and idarubicin. Reassessment MRI showed complete resolution of all intraspinal masses and the disappearance of most of the bony lesions. Post-treatment bone marrow aspirate showed complete hematological and molecular remission. The motor power of his legs fully recovered from 0/5 to 5/5; however, sensory loss below the T4 level persisted. PMID:24744674

Kyaw, Tay Za; Maniam, Jayaranee A.S.; Bee, Ping Chong; Chin, Edmund Fui; Nadarajan, Veera Sekaran; Shanmugam, Hemalatha; Kadir, Khairul Azmi Abd

2012-01-01

107

Sting of the puss caterpillar: an unusual cause of acute abdominal pain.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 41-year-old man with abdominal pain after envenomization by a puss caterpillar. The patient's medical history and physical examination revealed classic symptoms, leading to the correct diagnosis and appropriate therapy with intravenous calcium gluconate. Although severe, local reactions to puss caterpillar envenomization have been previously described, to our knowledge this is the first report of a patient with severe, acute abdominal pain caused by a puss caterpillar's sting. PMID:8701388

Neustater, B R; Stollman, N H; Manten, H D

1996-08-01

108

Newly discovered coronavirus as the primary cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background The worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is associated with a newly discovered coronavirus, SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS- CoV). We did clinical and experimental studies to assess the role of this virus in the cause of SARS. Methods We tested clinical and postmortem samples from 436 SARS patients in six countries for infection with SARS- CoV, human

Thijs Kuiken; Ron A M Fouchier; Martin Schutten; Guus F Rimmelzwaan; Geert van Amerongen; Debby van Riel; Jon D Laman; Ton de Jong; Gerard van Doornum; Wilina Lim; Ai Ee Ling; Paul K S Chan; John S Tam; Maria C Zambon; Robin Gopal; Christian Drosten; Sylvie van der Werf; Nicolas Escriou; Jean-Claude Manuguerra; Klaus Stöhr; J S Malik Peiris; Albert D M E Osterhaus

109

Endoscopic Management of Acute Cholecystitis and Cholangitis Caused by Limy Bile  

PubMed Central

Limy bile is a relatively rare condition in which a radiopaque material is visible in the gallbladder, extending rarely into the bile duct, on plain radiography. Acute cholangitis or cholecystitis caused by limy bile is a very rare condition. There are no definite treatment guidelines for limy bile, but in most cases with cholangitis or cholecystitis, laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been the preferred treatment. We report a case of limy bile with biliary symptoms that was treated only with an endoscopic procedure. PMID:20431775

Lee, Sang Heon; Choi, Hyun Jong; Kim, Hyung Ki; Cho, Young Deok; Lee, Moon Sung; Shim, Chan Sup

2009-01-01

110

Ileal Neobladder With Mucous Plugs as a Cause of Obstructive Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Emergent Hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Ileal neobladder is the preferred technique in the management of urinary diversion postradical cystectomy for bladder malignancy. The common complications associated with this procedure are atrophied kidney, chronic pyelonephritis, decreased renal function, ureteroileal or urethral anastomotic site stricture, urinary tract stones, incontinence, and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Mucous plugs are also seen in 2%-3% patients. We present a rare presentation of a patient who required hemodialysis for severe hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury caused by mucous plugging of ileal neobladder. PMID:25420078

Singla, Montish; Shikha, Deep; Lee, Sunggeun; Baumstein, Donald; Chaudhari, Ashok; Carbajal, Roger

2014-11-21

111

Appropriateness of Empirical Treatment and Outcome in Bacteremia Caused by Extended-Spectrum-?-Lactamase-Producing Bacteria  

PubMed Central

We studied clinical characteristics, appropriateness of initial antibiotic treatment, and other factors associated with day 30 mortality in patients with bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum-?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in eight Dutch hospitals. Retrospectively, information was collected from 232 consecutive patients with ESBL bacteremia (due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae) between 2008 and 2010. In this cohort (median age of 65 years; 24 patients were <18 years of age), many had comorbidities, such as malignancy (34%) or recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) (15%). One hundred forty episodes (60%) were nosocomial, 54 (23%) were otherwise health care associated, and 38 (16%) were community acquired. The most frequent sources of infection were UTI (42%) and intra-abdominal infection (28%). Appropriate therapy within 24 h after bacteremia onset was prescribed to 37% of all patients and to 54% of known ESBL carriers. The day 30 mortality rate was 20%. In a multivariable analysis, a Charlson comorbidity index of ?3, an age of ?75 years, intensive care unit (ICU) stay at bacteremia onset, a non-UTI bacteremia source, and presentation with severe sepsis, but not inappropriate therapy within <24 h (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 3.45), were associated with day 30 mortality. Further assessment of confounding and a stratified analysis for patients with UTI and non-UTI origins of infection did not reveal a statistically significant effect of inappropriate therapy on day 30 mortality, and these results were insensitive to the possible misclassification of patients who had received ?-lactam–?-lactamase inhibitor combinations or ceftazidime as initial treatment. In conclusion, ESBL bacteremia occurs mostly in patients with comorbidities requiring frequent hospitalization, and 84% of episodes were health care associated. Factors other than inappropriate therapy within <24 h determined day 30 mortality. PMID:23612198

Frakking, Florine N. J.; Dorigo-Zetsma, J. Wendelien; van Hattem, Jarne M.; van Hees, Babette C.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; Lutgens, Suzanne P. M.; Prins, Jan M.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; Verbon, Annelies; Vlaminckx, Bart J. M.; Cohen Stuart, James W.; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

2013-01-01

112

Matrix Metalloproteinases as Drug Targets in Infections Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria and in Septic Shock  

PubMed Central

Summary: The mammalian immune system is optimized to cope effectively with the constant threat of pathogens. However, when the immune system overreacts, sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock can develop. Despite extensive research, these conditions remain the leading cause of death in intensive care units. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a family of proteases that are expressed in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes and also in response to infections. Studies using MMP inhibitors and MMP knockout mice indicate that MMPs play essential roles in infection and in the host defense against infection. This review provides a brief introduction to some basic concepts of infections caused by gram-negative bacteria and reviews reports describing MMP expression and inhibition, as well as studies with MMP-deficient mice in models of infection caused by gram-negative bacteria and of septic shock. We discuss whether MMPs should be considered novel drug targets in infection and septic shock. PMID:19366913

Vanlaere, Ineke; Libert, Claude

2009-01-01

113

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of some antimicrobial drugs against bacteria causing uterine infections in cattle.  

PubMed

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of oxytetracycline, cephapirin, cephapirin/mecillinam, cefquinome, ceftiofur and enrofloxacin, candidate antibiotics for the principal bacteria associated with uterine infections: Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and the anaerobic bacteria Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella melaninogenicus, were determined by the agar dilution method. The bacteria were isolated from animals with clinical metritis and/or endometritis. For E coli, cefquinome and enrofloxacin had the lowest MIC90 and MIC50 values (< 0.06 microg/ml), and oxytetracycline and cephapirin had the highest values. For A pyogenes, oxytetracycline had the highest MIC50 value (16 microg/ml), but all the cephalosporins had values below 0.06 microg/ml. For the anaerobic bacteria, enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline had the highest MIC50 values but all the cephalosporins had values of 0.06 microg/ml or below. PMID:15499809

Sheldon, I M; Bushnell, M; Montgomery, J; Rycroft, A N

2004-09-25

114

Right sided transmesentric hernia: A rare cause of acute abdomen in adults  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Transmesenteric mesocolic hernias are a rare cause of acute abdomen in adults with few reported cases in published literature. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report a rare case of a 30-year-old male with right-sided transmesenteric hernia of ileum due to a congenital mesocolic defect resulting in acute abdomen, presenting as acute abdomen. The hernia was reduced, small bowel inspected for gangrene and mesenteric hernia repaired, following which the patient made a good recovery and was discharged 5 days later. DISCUSSION The insidious onset of transmesenteric herniae and lack of specific radiological or laboratory investigations reaffirms the importance of surgeons maintaining a high index of suspicion for this surgical emergency. CONCLUSION Transmesentric hernia though rare can present as a case of acute abdomen in an emergency. The diagnosis is purely by a CT scan and close monitoring of the patient's general condition in cases of non-specific abdominal pain is essential to identify the rare deteriorating patient for early surgical intervention and optimal outcome. PMID:25437662

Bharatam, Kaundinya Kiran; Kaliyappa, C.; Reddy, Raja Raghavendra

2014-01-01

115

Development and evaluation of a safe and effective sugar-free herbal lollipop that kills cavity-causing bacteria  

PubMed Central

Dental caries (tooth decay) is caused by a specific group of cariogenic bacteria, like Streptococcus mutans, which convert dietary sugars into acids that dissolve the mineral in tooth structure. Killing cariogenic bacteria is an effective way to control or prevent tooth decay. In a previous study, we discovered a novel compound (Glycyrrhizol A), from the extraction of licorice roots, with strong antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria. In the current study, we developed a method to produce these specific herbal extracts in large quantities, and then used these extracts to develop a sugar-free lollipop that effectively kills cariogenic bacteria like Streptococcus mutans. Further studies showed that these sugar-free lollipops are safe and their antimicrobial activity is stable. Two pilot human studies indicate that a brief application of these lollipops (twice a day for ten days) led to a marked reduction of cariogenic bacteria in oral cavity among most human subjects tested. This herbal lollipop could be a novel tool to promote oral health through functional foods. PMID:21449211

Hu, Chu-hong; He, Jian; Eckert, Randal; Wu, Xiao-yang; Li, Li-na; Tian, Yan; Lux, Renate; Shuffer, Justin A; Gelman, Faina; Mentes, Janet; Spackman, Sue; Bauer, Janet; Anderson, Maxwell H; Shi, Wen-yuan

2011-01-01

116

Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ?2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy. PMID:24996276

Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

2014-09-01

117

Scrub Typhus Is an Under-recognized Cause of Acute Febrile Illness with Acute Kidney Injury in India  

PubMed Central

Background Infection-related acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropical region. The prevalence and outcome of kidney involvement, especially AKI, in scrub typhus is not known. We investigated all patients with undiagnosed fever and multisystem involvement for scrub typhus and present the pattern of renal involvement seen. Methods From September 2011 to November 2012, blood samples of all the patients with unexplained acute febrile illness and/or varying organ involvement were evaluated for evidence of scrub typhus. A confirmed case of scrub typhus was defined as one with detectable Orientia tsutsugamushi deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in patient's blood sample by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the gene encoding 56-kDa antigen and without any alternative etiological diagnosis. Renal involvement was defined by demonstration of abnormal urinalysis and/or reduced glomerular filtration rate. AKI was defined as per Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition. Results Out of 201 patients tested during this period, 49 were positive by nested PCR for scrub typhus. Mean age of study population was 34.1±14.4 (range 11–65) years. Majority were males and a seasonal trend was evident with most cases following the rainy season. Overall, renal abnormalities were seen in 82% patients, 53% of patients had AKI (stage 1, 2 and 3 in 10%, 8% and 35%, respectively). The urinalysis was abnormal in 61%, with dipstick positive albuminuria (55%) and microscopic hematuria (16%) being most common. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and shock were seen in 57% and 16% of patients, respectively. Hyperbilirubinemia was associated with AKI (p?=?0.013). A total of 8 patients (including three with dialysis dependent AKI) expired whereas rest all made uneventful recovery. Jaundice, oliguria, ARDS and AKI were associated with mortality. However, after multivariate analysis, only oliguric AKI remained a significant predictor of mortality (p?=?0.002). Conclusions Scrub typhus was diagnosed in 24% of patients presenting with unexplained febrile illness according to a strict case definition not previously used in this region. Renal abnormalities were seen in almost 82% of all patients with evidence of AKI in 53%. Our finding is contrary to current perception that scrub typhus rarely causes renal dysfunction. We suggest that all patients with unexplained febrile illness be investigated for scrub typhus and AKI looked for in scrub typhus patients. PMID:24498445

Kumar, Vivek; Kumar, Vinod; Yadav, Ashok K.; Iyengar, Sreenivasa; Bhalla, Ashish; Sharma, Navneet; Aggarwal, Ritesh; Jain, Sanjay; Jha, Vivekanand

2014-01-01

118

Bacteria and Foodborne Illness  

MedlinePLUS

... Some parasites and chemicals also cause foodborne illnesses. Bacteria Bacteria are tiny organisms that can cause infections of the GI tract. Not all bacteria are harmful to humans. Some harmful bacteria may ...

119

Clinical course of acute chemical lung injury caused by 3-chloropentafluoropene.  

PubMed

Perfluoroallyl chloride (PFAC), a fluorine-containing compound, has very severe toxicity, but this toxicity is not well characterised. We report a fatal case of acute chemical lung injury caused by the inhalation of PFAC. A 39-year-old man, working at a chemical factory, inhaled PFAC gas and died 16 days later of acute lung injury with severe pneumothorax. We present his clinical course together with thoracic CT findings, autopsy and analysis of PFAC in blood and urine samples with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Previously, a fatal case of PFAC was reported in 1981 but PFAC was not identified in any of the patient's samples. In our patient, we identified PFAC in both blood and urine samples. Our toxicological analysis may be used as a reference to detect PFAC toxicity in the future. Our study should be helpful for diagnosing lung injury induced by a highly toxic gas, such as PFAC. PMID:24311414

Morita, Satomu; Takimoto, Takayuki; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Nishi, Katsuji; lino, Morio

2013-01-01

120

Predation as a cause of neurologic signs and acute mortality in a pheasant flock.  

PubMed

A flock of approximately 15,000 ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) was evaluated for a sudden increase in mortality and acute neurological signs after having been previously diagnosed 3 wk earlier with a chronic respiratory disease of undetermined etiology. Approximately 25 live birds were displaying neurological signs including circling, ataxia, and obtunded behavior and 50 birds were dead. Three birds with neurological signs were submitted for evaluation. Extensive subcutaneous hemorrhage over the head and penetrating puncture wounds through the skull and into the brain were found. Trauma from a wild predatory mammal, most likely the long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata) that had invaded the pheasant house and expressed surplus killing behavior was determined to be the cause of the acute neurological signs and mortality. The relationship of the chronic respiratory disease to the predation episode was not determined but it is possible that pheasants with severe respiratory disease may have had increased susceptibility to predation. PMID:17039853

Martin, M P; Anderson, C M; Johnson, B; Wakenell, P S

2006-09-01

121

Solitary C1 spinal osteochondroma causing vertebral artery compression and acute cerebellar infarct.  

PubMed

Osteochondroma is a common benign bone lesion, usually involving the long bones. Spinal involvement is rare. The clinical presentation of spinal osteochondroma varies according to the site of the lesion. The most common reported clinical presentation is secondary to encroachment of the lesion on the spinal canal or nerve roots. Less common presentations such as a palpable neck mass, dysphagia, sleep apnea, paralysis of left vocal cord or acute respiratory distress have been reported when the lesions compress the anatomic structures anteriorly. We describe a rare case of a young patient who presented with an emergent critical condition of acute cerebellar infarct as a result of vertebral artery compression caused by a solitary C1 spinal osteochondroma. PMID:25109381

Zhang, Yaxia; Ilaslan, Hakan; Hussain, Muhammad S; Bain, Mark; Bauer, Thomas W

2015-02-01

122

[Hydatid torsion as a cause of acute scrotum--clinical, sonographic and anatomic aspects].  

PubMed

Out of 82 patients with acute swelling of the scrotum, 25 (30.5%) had hydatid torsion. Hydatid torsion was the second most common cause of acute scrotal swelling in the entire patient group. In the group of patients up to 14 years of age (n = 36), hydatid torsion was found in 47.2% and was the most common cause of acute scrotal swelling, followed by torsion of the spermatic cord. Only 3 patients had torsion of an appendage of the epididymis. All other patients (n = 22) had torsion of the hydatid of Morgagni (appendage of the testicle). A difference in anatomical structure and vascularization during childhood seems to be the most important aspect regarding hydatid torsion and hemorrhagic infarction. Ultrasonographic examination of the scrotum and checking to see if the typical physical signs are present can help in making the exact diagnosis. In 13 patients with hydatid torsion, the scrotum was examined with ultrasound high-frequency transducers (7.5, 10 and 12 MHz). In 4 patients, the diagnosis was hydatid torsion, as determined by ultrasonography. Two patients were treated conservatively with a daily follow-up including a clinical examination and investigation of the scrotum with ultrasound. The patients recovered very quickly and the acute symptoms resolved within a few days in virtually all instances. Thus, in cases where the diagnosis is proven and the course of the disease is reasonably mild and painless, conservative management of intrascrotal hydatid torsion is possible and can be an effective means of treatment in lien of surgical intervention. PMID:2646809

Kuber, W; Ganser, R; Hainz, A; Kratzik, C; Tschabitscher, M

1989-01-01

123

Defining the Cause of Death in Hospitalised Patients with Acute Kidney Injury  

PubMed Central

Background The high mortality rates that follow the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI) are well recognised. However, the mode of death in patients with AKI remains relatively under-studied, particularly in general hospitalised populations who represent the majority of those affected. We sought to describe the primary cause of death in a large group of prospectively identified patients with AKI. Methods All patients sustaining AKI at our centre between 1st October 2010 and 31st October 2011 were identified by real-time, hospital-wide, electronic AKI reporting based on the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) diagnostic criteria. Using this system we are able to generate a prospective database of all AKI cases that includes demographic, outcome and hospital coding data. For those patients that died during hospital admission, cause of death was derived from the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death. Results During the study period there were 3,930 patients who sustained AKI; 62.0% had AKI stage 1, 20.6% had stage 2 and 17.4% stage 3. In-hospital mortality rate was 21.9% (859 patients). Cause of death could be identified in 93.4% of cases. There were three main disease categories accounting for three quarters of all mortality; sepsis (41.1%), cardiovascular disease (19.2%) and malignancy (12.9%). The major diagnosis leading to sepsis was pneumonia, whilst cardiovascular death was largely a result of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease. AKI was the primary cause of death in only 3% of cases. Conclusions Mortality associated with AKI remains high, although cause of death is usually concurrent illness. Specific strategies to improve outcomes may therefore need to target not just the management of AKI but also the most relevant co-existing conditions. PMID:23133643

Selby, Nicholas M.; Kolhe, Nitin V.; McIntyre, Christopher W.; Monaghan, John; Lawson, Nigel; Elliott, David; Packington, Rebecca; Fluck, Richard J.

2012-01-01

124

Clinical characteristics, causes and outcomes of acute interstitial nephritis in the elderly.  

PubMed

Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an important cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), and its prevalence in the elderly may be increasing. It is largely unknown whether AIN in the elderly is similar to that in younger adults; therefore, we investigated the causes and characteristics of AIN in 45 elderly patients (65 years and older) and in 88 younger adults (18-64 years old). Compared with younger patients, the elderly had significantly more drug-induced AIN (87 vs. 64%), proton pump inhibitor-induced AIN (18 vs. 6%), but significantly less AIN due to autoimmune or systemic causes (7 vs. 27%). The two most common culprit drugs in the elderly were penicillin and omeprazole. Compared with younger patients, the elderly had higher prevalence of baseline CKD, higher peak creatinine, and more need for dialysis, all of which were significant. Among the elderly, 86% showed partial or complete recovery within 6 months. Significantly shorter delays in initiation of steroids correlated with recovery at 6 months. Lack of early recovery tended to correlate with progressive CKD. Compared with antibiotic-induced AIN, proton pump inhibitor-induced AIN had less severe AKI, but a longer duration of drug exposure, and was less likely to recover by 6 months, all significant. Thus, the vast majority of AIN cases in the elderly are due to drugs, primarily owing to proton pump inhibitors and antibiotics, while AIN of autoimmune or systemic origin is uncommon. PMID:25185078

Muriithi, Angela K; Leung, Nelson; Valeri, Anthony M; Cornell, Lynn D; Sethi, Sanjeev; Fidler, Mary E; Nasr, Samih H

2015-02-01

125

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: an unusual cause of acute jaundice after paracetamol overdose.  

PubMed

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest human enzyme defect causing haemolytic anaemia after exposure to specific triggers. Paracetamol-induced haemolysis in G6PD deficiency is a rare complication and mostly reported in children. We report the first case (to the best of our knowledge) of acute jaundice without overt clinical features of a haemolytic crisis, in an otherwise healthy adult female following paracetamol overdose, due to previously undiagnosed G6PD deficiency. It is important that clinicians consider this condition when a patient presents following a paracetamol overdose with significant and disproportionate jaundice, without transaminitis or coagulopathy. PMID:24684729

Phillpotts, Simon; Tash, Elliot; Sen, Sambit

2014-11-01

126

Acute renal failure caused by bilateral ureteral herniation through the sciatic foramen.  

PubMed

Ureteral herniation is rare. Only a few cases of bilateral ureterosciatic herniation have been reported. We report the case of a 74-year-old woman with flank pain and acute renal failure. The initial ultrasound scan showed bilateral hydronephrosis. Follow-up computed tomography imaging demonstrated sciatic herniation of both ureters, causing bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter. The patient underwent bilateral retrograde ureterography and ureteral stent placement, with improvement in renal function to normal limits. Observation after stent removal demonstrated recurrent sciatic herniation of both ureters. Definitive surgical correction was performed by way of laparoscopic bilateral ureterolysis and sciatic notch hernia repair using mesh. PMID:23602799

Whyburn, James J; Alizadeh, Ahmadreza

2013-06-01

127

[Experience of the use of silodosin in acute urinary retention caused by benign prostatic hyperplasia].  

PubMed

For the treatment of acute urinary retention (AUR) as one of the most serious complications of adenoma of the prostate (BPH), alpha-adrenoblockers are widely used. The article presents an experience of the use of the new uroselective alpha-adrenoblocker silodosin approved for the treatment of patients with urination disorders caused by BPH. Its pharmacological profile has a number of advantages, including the highest uroselectiveness at the present day, immediate action, the potential for the use of standard dose of 8 mg 1 time a day, which does not require a correction depending on the age, and the possibility of the simultaneous application with antihypertensive drugs. PMID:24159765

Ne?mark, A I; Nozdrachev, N A

2013-01-01

128

Relationships between antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial infections from 1991-2003 at a university hospital in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use in a university hospital in Taiwan. Disk susceptibility data of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and other non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli causing nosocomial infections were evaluated. Data on annual patient-days and annual consumption (defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 patient-days) of extended-spectrum cephalosporins (cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, flumoxef, cefepime and cefpirome), beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations (ticarcillin/clavulanic acid and piperacillin/tazobactam), carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem), aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin and tobramycin), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin (oral and injectable) and oral levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) from 1991 to 2003 were analysed. Increasing trends of incidences of several of these bacteria causing all nosocomial infections or nosocomial bloodstream infections were noted from 1991 to 2003. The annual patient-days of the hospital significantly increased, from 360210 in 1991 to 672676 in 2002 (linear regression analysis, P < 0.05), but slightly decreased in 2003 (629168) owing to the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in Taiwan. The rise in cefotaxime-resistant or ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and meropenem-resistant P. aeruginosa was significantly correlated with increased consumption of extended-spectrum cephalosporins, beta-lactam-beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides (for ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and meropenem-resistant P. aeruginosa only) in the hospital (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r > 0.72 (or < -0.72) and P-value < 0.05). Increased ciprofloxacin-resistant K. pneumoniae and meropenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. was significantly associated with the increased usage of extended-spectrum cephalosporins but not with the other four classes of antibiotics. This 13-year study in a hospital demonstrated significant changes in antimicrobial use, which may have affected antimicrobial resistance in certain Gram-negative bacteria at the hospital. PMID:16280243

Hsueh, Po-Ren; Chen, Wen-Hwei; Luh, Kwen-Tay

2005-12-01

129

Torsion of an indirect hernia sac within a hydrocele causing acute scrotum: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute scrotum in a 2-year-old child caused by torsion of an indirect hernia sac within a hydrocele. This is an extremely rare cause of acute scrotal swelling and pain in the pediatric population, with this case representing only the eighth instance reported in the literature. Despite the scarcity with which this diagnosis has been encountered, clinicians should include torsion of an indirect hernia sac on the differential diagnosis for acute scrotum in a child. PMID:17013626

Tillett, John W; Elmore, James; Smith, Edwin A

2006-12-01

130

Plasma needle treatment of bacteria known to cause infections of the soft tissue of the oral region and bones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma needle can be used for non-contact disinfection of dental cavities and wounds, minimum-destructive precise treatment, as well as the removal of damaged tissue. The effect of bacterial deactivation is probably caused by reactive oxygen species while nitric oxide provided by plasma plays major role in many processes in the organism. Mass spectrometry was done to provide better insight into plasma-cell interactions. Our measurements were performed on a plasma needle that we originally used for the treatment of plant cells.Our research was done on species that are known to cause primary and secondary infections of the soft tissue of the oral region, as well as bones. The bacteria cultures used are bacterial reference culture species Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. We investigated the effect of the plasma needle discharge on different concentration of bacteria using several exposure times and power transmitted to the plasma. It was found that excellent removal of this and other bacteria may be achieved by the plasma needle treatment.

Maletic, Dejan; Lazovic, Sasa; Puac, Nevena; Malovic, Gordana; Petrovic, Zoran Lj.; Miletic, Maja P.; Pavlica, Dusan B.; Jovanovic, Milena Z.; Milenkovic, Pavle

2009-10-01

131

Interactions between amphibians' symbiotic bacteria cause the production of emergent anti-fungal metabolites  

PubMed Central

Amphibians possess beneficial skin bacteria that protect against the disease chytridiomycosis by producing secondary metabolites that inhibit the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Metabolite production may be a mechanism of competition between bacterial species that results in host protection as a by-product. We expect that some co-cultures of bacterial species or strains will result in greater Bd inhibition than mono-cultures. To test this, we cultured four bacterial isolates (Bacillus sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Chitinophaga arvensicola) from red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and cultured isolates both alone and together to collect their cell-free supernatants (CFS). We challenged Bd with CFSs from four bacterial species in varying combinations. This resulted in three experimental treatments: (1) CFSs of single isolates; (2) combined CFSs of two isolates; and (3) CFSs from co-cultures. Pair-wise combinations of four bacterial isolates CFSs were assayed against Bd and revealed additive Bd inhibition in 42.2% of trials, synergistic inhibition in 42.2% and no effect in 16.6% of trials. When bacteria isolates were grown in co-cultures, complete Bd inhibition was generally observed, and synergistic inhibition occurred in four out of six trials. A metabolite profile of the most potent co-culture, Bacillus sp. and Chitinophaga arvensicola, was determined with LC-MS and compared with the profiles of each isolate in mono-culture. Emergent metabolites appearing in the co-culture were inhibitory to Bd, and the most potent inhibitor was identified as tryptophol. Thus mono-cultures of bacteria cultured from red-backed salamanders interacted synergistically and additively to inhibit Bd, and such bacteria produced emergent metabolites when cultured together, with even greater pathogen inhibition. Knowledge of how bacterial species interact to inhibit Bd can be used to select probiotics to provide amphibians with protection against Bd. PMID:25191317

Loudon, Andrew H.; Holland, Jessica A.; Umile, Thomas P.; Burzynski, Elizabeth A.; Minbiole, Kevin P. C.; Harris, Reid N.

2014-01-01

132

Interactions between amphibians' symbiotic bacteria cause the production of emergent anti-fungal metabolites.  

PubMed

Amphibians possess beneficial skin bacteria that protect against the disease chytridiomycosis by producing secondary metabolites that inhibit the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Metabolite production may be a mechanism of competition between bacterial species that results in host protection as a by-product. We expect that some co-cultures of bacterial species or strains will result in greater Bd inhibition than mono-cultures. To test this, we cultured four bacterial isolates (Bacillus sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Chitinophaga arvensicola) from red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and cultured isolates both alone and together to collect their cell-free supernatants (CFS). We challenged Bd with CFSs from four bacterial species in varying combinations. This resulted in three experimental treatments: (1) CFSs of single isolates; (2) combined CFSs of two isolates; and (3) CFSs from co-cultures. Pair-wise combinations of four bacterial isolates CFSs were assayed against Bd and revealed additive Bd inhibition in 42.2% of trials, synergistic inhibition in 42.2% and no effect in 16.6% of trials. When bacteria isolates were grown in co-cultures, complete Bd inhibition was generally observed, and synergistic inhibition occurred in four out of six trials. A metabolite profile of the most potent co-culture, Bacillus sp. and Chitinophaga arvensicola, was determined with LC-MS and compared with the profiles of each isolate in mono-culture. Emergent metabolites appearing in the co-culture were inhibitory to Bd, and the most potent inhibitor was identified as tryptophol. Thus mono-cultures of bacteria cultured from red-backed salamanders interacted synergistically and additively to inhibit Bd, and such bacteria produced emergent metabolites when cultured together, with even greater pathogen inhibition. Knowledge of how bacterial species interact to inhibit Bd can be used to select probiotics to provide amphibians with protection against Bd. PMID:25191317

Loudon, Andrew H; Holland, Jessica A; Umile, Thomas P; Burzynski, Elizabeth A; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Harris, Reid N

2014-01-01

133

Bacteria causing respiratory infections in children and their sensitivity to antibiotics.  

PubMed

The author lists the most frequent bacterial agents isolated from the nose and pharynx samples of children that visited the Child Health Centre from 1983 to 1986. The gram-positive bacteria found most often were: Staphylococcus aureus (44% in 1983, 40% in 1986). Streptococcus pneumoniae (6% in 1983, 12% in 1986), and Streptococcus haemolyticus of group "A" (14% in 1983, 19% in 1986). The isolated gram-negative bacteria were: E. coli (14%), Klebsiella enterobacter (8%), and Proteus species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2 to 4% [4, 6, 7, 16]). According to the author's analyses Staphylococcus aureus is highly sensitive to cloxacilline (96%, no changes in the 4-year period), then to sulphametoxasol-trimetropin (95%), to lincomycine (85% no change), while to penicillin it is entirely resistant. Streptococcus pneumoniae proved sensitive to ampicillin, lincocine and erythromycin (96%), to cephalosporins (83%) and to sulphamides (85%). Streptococcus haemolyticus from group "A" reacted to penicillin excellently. The greatest sensitivity to gram-negative bacteria E. coli related to aminoglycosides (97%), sulphonamides (96%), chloramphenicol (91%), and to cephalosporines (90%, in 1986 only 60%). Klebsiella enterobacter reacted to aminoglycosides (97%), sulphonamides (92%) and chloramphenicol (83%) and Pseudomonas to aminoglycosides (95%), gentamycin (92%), while to cephalosporines and ampicillin preparations it proved totally resistant. PMID:2291383

Stancic, M A

1990-01-01

134

Acute eosinophilic pneumonia caused by calcium stearate, an additive agent for an oral antihistaminic medication.  

PubMed

A 70-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea after taking an antihistaminic agent (homochlorcyclizine hydrochloride) for itching. Chest roentgenogram showed infiltration in the left lung field, and laboratory data revealed eosinophilia. Examination of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed an increased eosinophil count. A drug lymphocyte stimulation test was positive only for calcium stearate, an additive contained in the homochlorcyclizine hydrochloride tablet. The pulmonary infiltration and clinical symptoms subsided after withdrawal of all drugs and initiation of glucocorticoid therapy. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's pulmonary disease was caused by calcium stearate, an additive for an antihistaminic drug. An allergic reaction to a drug's additive material should be considered as a rare cause of drug-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:17016002

Kurai, Jun; Chikumi, Hiroki; Kodani, Masahiro; Sako, Takanori; Watanabe, Masanari; Miyata, Masanori; Makino, Haruhiko; Touge, Hirokazu; Hitsuda, Yutaka; Shimizu, Eiji

2006-01-01

135

Cutaneous Infection Caused by Cylindrocarpon lichenicola in a Patient with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Cylindrocarpon lichenicola is a saprophytic soil fungus which has rarely been associated with human disease. We report the first case of localized invasive cutaneous infection caused by this fungus in a 53-year-old male from the rural midwestern United States with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia. On admission for induction chemotherapy, the patient was noted to have an abrasive laceration between the fourth and fifth metacarpophalangeal joints and on the dorsum of the right hand, which progressed to frank ulceration following chemotherapy. A biopsy provided an initial diagnosis of an invasive fungal infection consistent with aspergillosis based on the histopathological appearance of the mold in tissue. Multiple positive fungal cultures which were obtained from the biopsied tissue were subsequently identified by microscopic and macroscopic characteristics to be C. lichenicola. The infection resolved following marrow regeneration, aggressive debridement of the affected tissue, and treatment with amphotericin B. This case extends the conditions associated with invasive disease caused by C. lichenicola. PMID:10970386

Iwen, Peter C.; Tarantolo, Stefano R.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Hinrichs, Steven H.

2000-01-01

136

Benign acute childhood myositis--a rare cause of abnormal gait.  

PubMed

Benign acute childhood myositis is a rare postviral myositis seen in school-aged children after a common upper respiratory infection (URI), most commonly caused by influenza [J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2004;37:95-98]. Predominantly seen in boys, this condition causes bilateral calf tenderness and pain with ambulation, often presenting as a refusal to bear weight. To avoid activation within the gastroc-soleus complex, the child will frequently compensate with a “Frankenstein gait,” described as a stiff-legged posture with shuffling gait [CMAJ 2009;181:711-713]. The child may also walk on his toes or refuse to walk at all. This refusal to bear weight can be alarming to both providers and parents, resulting in extensive workups. We present the case of a 5-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of leg pain and refusal to walk. Further history revealed a resolved URI approximately 5 days prior. He was noted to have an elevated creatinine kinase with no evidence of renal insufficiency. He had no progression or complications, and his symptoms resolved spontaneously with minimal supportive treatment. Benign acute childhood myositis should be considered within the broad differential that surrounds a limping child or one who refuses to bear weight. Having insight into the condition with its characteristic gait abnormalities and associated URI history can often prevent extensive workups and be treated supportively in the outpatient setting. PMID:24126025

Hall, Gregory; Schranz, Craig I

2014-02-01

137

Diagnosis and therapy of acute urolithiasis caused by melamine contamination in infant formula milk  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and diagnosis of severe, acute urolithiasis in infants and toddlers, caused by melamine contamination in infant formula milk. The clinical data of 28 patients were collected and analyzed. Among the 28 patients, 17 patients received indwelling ureteral stents by cystoscopy (60.71%) and 5 patients received open surgery to extract calculi (17.86%). Four patients received catheterization or diuretic, anti-inflammatory or antispasmodic treatment (14.28%). Two patients underwent a second open surgery to extract calculi (7.14%). Eventually, the stones were eliminated from 23 patients and 5 patients had residual stones. In the 5 patients with residual stones, 3 patients had kidney stones, hydronephrosis or unilateral ureteral stones, resulting in urinary obstruction following surgery. Urolithiasis in infants and toddlers caused by melamine contamination was diagnosed, with common symptoms, including acute anuria, oliguria and dysurias. Ultrasonic inspection may be used to successfully examine urinary stones. Computed tomography (CT) scanning further detects the position of the stones and the degree of edema. Ureteral stenting via cystoscopy is a useful method, resulting in minimal trauma and a positive prognosis. PMID:23737868

HE, JUN; ZHENG, WEI; ZHAO, YAOWANG; LIU, LI; YONG, JIANG

2013-01-01

138

ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

139

Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion in an elderly patient with dementia: a case report.  

PubMed

Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon condition caused by aspiration of oil-based substances, occurring mainly in children. Here, we report the case of an 83-year-old patient with Alzheimer's disease who presented with coughing and hypoxia. The diagnosis of acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion was made on the basis of the patient's clinical history, and typical radiological and cytological findings. The patient's cognitive impairment and an unsafe environment, in which the patient's 91-year-old husband stored kerosene in an old shochu bottle, were responsible for the accidental ingestion. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis for acute respiratory disorders in the rapidly aging population. PMID:23286561

Gotanda, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Yumi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Masaki; Hanaoka, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Sumito; Iijima, Katsuya; Akishita, Masahiro; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi

2013-01-01

140

Torsion of pedunculated subserous myoma--a rare cause of acute abdomen.  

PubMed

Leiomyoma uteri are common benign genital neoplasia among women of late reproductive age. Most are asymptomatic. Among those having symptoms, abnormal uterine bleeding and pelvic pressure symptoms are common presenting features. Less common indications for treatment include infertility and abdominal distension. Acute onset severe abdominal pain is an unusual presenting complaint. When present, pain is usually related to complications involving the myoma including red degeneration, infection, process of expulsion of a submucous pedunculated myoma, uterine torsion, compression of myoma between the uterus and sacrum or torsion of a pedunculated subserous myoma. Standard gynecologic textbooks frequently mention torsion of pedunculated subserous myoma as one of the causes of myoma related acute abdomen. Literature search on the topic however does not yield many specific case reports of this myoma related complication or it's presenting features. The condition has not been reported from Ethiopia so far. A case of torsion of pedunculated subserous myoma presenting in early pregnancy that was managed in one of the maternity hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is presented. PMID:17642178

Gaym, Asheber; Tilahun, Solomon

2007-04-01

141

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: a neglected cause of acute myocardial ischaemia and sudden death.  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute myocardial ischaemia. Eight consecutive fatal cases which occurred in women aged 34-54 years (mean 43) are described. The dissection involved the left anterior descending coronary artery in four, the left main trunk in two, the right coronary artery in one, and both left anterior descending and circumflex arteries in one. The clinical presentation was sudden death in six cases, and acute myocardial infarction in two. Diagnosis was made at necropsy in every case but one, in which coronary dissection was diagnosed during life by selective coronary angiography. The only ascertained risk factor was hypertension in one patient; none of the women was in the puerperium, and Marfan syndrome was excluded in all. Histology showed a haematoma between the coronary tunica media and adventitia, that flattened and occluded the lumen; a coronary intimal tear was detected in only two cases. Unusual histological findings were cystic medial necrosis in one case, eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrates in four, and angiomatosis of the tunica adventitia in one. Patients dying of spontaneous coronary dissection are usually middle aged women, with no coronary atherosclerosis and apparently no risk factors. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is unpredictable, and sudden death is the usual mode of clinical presentation. Prompt diagnosis and life saving treatment is far from being achieved. Images PMID:8665336

Basso, C.; Morgagni, G. L.; Thiene, G.

1996-01-01

142

Corticosteroids prevent acute lung dysfunction caused by thoracic irradiation in unanesthetized sheep  

SciTech Connect

We sought to determine the effect of corticosteroid therapy in a new acute model of oxidant lung injury, thoracic irradiation in awake sheep. Sheep were irradiated with 1,500 rads to the whole chest except for blocking the heart and adjacent ventral lung. Seven experimental sheep were given methylprednisolone (1 g intravenously every 6 h for four doses) and thoracic irradiation; control sheep received only irradiation. In irradiated control sheep, lung lymph flow increased from baseline (7.6 ml/h) to peak at 3 h (13.2), and lung lymph protein clearance increased from 5.1 to 9.7 ml/h. Mean pulmonary artery pressure increased in the irradiated control sheep from 19 to 32.4 cm H/sub 2/O, whereas the lung lymph thromboxane concentration increased from 0.09 to 6.51 ng/ml at 3 h. Arterial oxygen tension in irradiated control sheep fell gradually from 86 mm Hg at baseline to 65 mm Hg at 8 h. Methylprednisolone administration significantly prevented the increase in lung lymph protein clearance, mean pulmonary artery pressure, and lung lymph thromboxane concentration. Methylprednisolone also prevented the fall in arterial oxygen tension after thoracic irradiation, but did not prevent a further decrease in lymphocytes in blood or lung lymph after radiation. We conclude that corticosteroid therapy prevents most of the acute physiologic changes caused by thoracic irradiation in awake sheep.

Loyd, J.E.; Bolds, J.M.; Wickersham, N.; Malcolm, A.W.; Brigham, K.L.

1988-11-01

143

Nonadherence to treatment causing acute hospitalizations in people with epilepsy: an observational, prospective study.  

PubMed

The aim was to assess the clinical relevance of antiepileptic drug (AED) nonadherence by means of therapeutic drug concentration monitoring (TDM). Two hundred eighty-two consecutive patients with epilepsy acutely admitted to hospital for seizures were included. Nonadherence was defined as having a serum concentration/dose ratio at admission of <75% of the patient's own control value (probable nonadherence: 50-75%; definite: <50%). Nonadherence was identified in 39% of patients (definite 24%; probable 15%). It was significantly more common in patients with generalized seizures compared to those with focal onset seizures, and in patients <30 years compared to older patients. When specifically asked, 44% of nonadherent patients claimed regular intake. Nonadherence is a major cause of seizure breakthrough in patients with epilepsy, particularly in young adults. Many patients seem to be unaware of missed drug intake. Prompt measurements of AED serum concentrations should be available as part of the emergency care for patients acutely hospitalized for seizures to permit this issue to be thoroughly addressed prior to discharge. PMID:25252007

Samsonsen, Christian; Reimers, Arne; Bråthen, Geir; Helde, Grethe; Brodtkorb, Eylert

2014-11-01

144

Perforation of the gallbladder: a rare cause of acute abdominal pain.  

PubMed

An 82-year-old woman without any previous medical history arrived in the emergency department with severe pain in the entire abdomen since 5 h. Blood tests showed, apart from a CRP of 28 mg/l, no abnormalities. We decided to perform an abdominal ultrasound, which showed an easily compressible gallbladder, containing a small, mobile gallstone and free fluid in the abdomen. During ultrasound-guided punction of this fluid, bile is aspirated. We performed laparoscopy and confirmed a large amount of intraperitoneal bile. Upon inspecting the gallbladder a perforation is seen in the anti-hepatic side of the gallbladder. After performing a cholecystectomy, we opened the gallbladder and detected a dissection-like lesion, which provided access to the peritoneal cavity. The confirmed diagnosis was acute onset free perforation of the gallbladder. The perforation was probably caused by the small obstructing gallstone seen on ultrasound or by another small stone, which could not be visualized. PMID:25666366

Ponten, Joep B; Selten, Jasmijn; Puylaert, Julien B C M; Bronkhorst, Maarten W G A

2015-01-01

145

Acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor carpi ulnaris causing acute compressive neuropathy of the ulnar nerve: a case report.  

PubMed

This study reports a case of acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor carpi ulnaris in a 64-year-old woman. She presented with symptoms of acute ulnar nerve compression mimicking a volar compartment syndrome. Owing to rapidly progressive symptoms, emergency surgical exploration was carried out. Intra-operatively a large mass of calcium phosphate carbonate was noted in association with the flexor carpi ulnaris near its insertion at the wrist compressing the ulnar nerve and artery in Guyon's canal. Postoperatively the patient had complete resolution of symptoms. Conservative management with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, rest, splinting, and steroid therapy is recommended for acute calcific tendinitis, but this case suggests a role for surgical treatment when there is acute neural compression and severe pain. PMID:23255660

Yasen, Sam

2012-12-01

146

What is gonorrhea? Gonorrhea is a curable infection caused by the bacteria  

E-print Network

pelvic pain and infertility. In men, gonorrhea can cause a painful condition with the testicles called epididymitis, infertility and scarring inside the urethra making it hard to urinate. gonorrhea can spread

Virginia Tech

147

Hypertonic Saline Therapy in Cystic Fibrosis: Do Population Shifts Caused by the Osmotic Sensitivity of Infecting Bacteria Explain the Effectiveness of this Treatment?  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a defect in the CF transmembrane regulator that leads to depletion and dehydration of the airway surface liquid (ASL) of the lung epithelium, providing an environment that can be infected by bacteria leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronically infects more than 80% of CF patients and one hallmark of infection is the emergence of a mucoid phenotype associated with a worsening prognosis and more rapid decline in lung function. Hypertonic saline (HS) is a clinically proven treatment that improves mucociliary clearance through partial rehydration of the ASL of the lung. Strikingly, while HS therapy does not alter the prevalence of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung it does decrease the frequency of episodes of acute, severe illness known as infective exacerbations among CF patients. In this article, we propose a hypothesis whereby the positive clinical effects of HS treatment are explained by the osmotic sensitivity of the mucoid sub-population of P. aeruginosa in the CF lung leading to selection against this group in favor of the osmotically resistant non-mucoid variants. PMID:21687721

Williams, Huw D.; Behrends, Volker; Bundy, Jacob G.; Ryall, Ben; Zlosnik, James E. A.

2010-01-01

148

The Role of Adipose Tissue and Obesity in Causing Treatment Resistance of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Obesity is responsible for ~90,000 cancer deaths/year, increasing cancer incidence and impairing its treatment. Obesity has also been shown to impact hematological malignancies, through as yet unknown mechanisms. Adipocytes are present in bone marrow and the microenvironments of many types of cancer, and have been found to promote cancer cell survival. In this review, we explore several ways in which obesity might cause leukemia treatment resistance. Obese patients may be at a treatment disadvantage due to altered pharmacokinetics of chemotherapy and dosage “capping” based on ideal body weight. The adipose tissue provides fuel to cancer cells in the form of amino acids and free fatty acids. Adipocytes have been shown to cause cancer cells to resist chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. In addition, obese adipose tissue is phenotypically altered, producing a milieu of pro-inflammatory adipokines and cytokines, some of which have been linked to cancer progression. Given the prevalence of obesity, understanding its role and adipose tissue in acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment is necessary for evaluating current treatment regimen and revealing new therapeutic targets. PMID:24926474

Sheng, Xia; Mittelman, Steven D.

2014-01-01

149

Human parechovirus as a minor cause of acute otitis media in children.  

PubMed

Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) cause mild upper respiratory infections, gastrointestinal symptoms, central nervous system infections and some studies have linked them with acute otitis media (AOM). The aim of the present study was to study further the role of HPeV infections in AOM by detecting these viruses directly from middle ear fluid (MEF), respiratory and stool samples collected from children during AOM episodes. A total of 91 MEF samples, 98 nasal swab (NS) samples and 92 stool samples were collected during 100 AOM episodes in a total of 87 children aged between five to 42 months. All specimens were analyzed by real time RT-PCR for the presence of HPeV RNA. HPeV infection was diagnosed in 12 (14%) patients. HPeV RNA was detected in altogether 13 samples, including four MEF samples, three NS samples and six stool samples. One patient was positive in both stool and MEF samples. The results suggest that HPeV may play a role in some AOM cases, but it is not a major cause of AOM in children. PMID:25464964

Sillanpää, Saara; Oikarinen, Sami; Sipilä, Markku; Seppälä, Elina; Nurminen, Noora; Rautiainen, Markus; Laranne, Jussi; Hyöty, Heikki

2015-01-01

150

Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus causing acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease in southern Thailand.  

PubMed

Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from shrimp of five farms located in the Pattani and Songkhla provinces of southern Thailand. Using a PCR method targeted to the unique DNA sequences derived from the plasmid (AP2 primers) and the toxin gene (AP3 primers) of V. parahaemolyticus that caused acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), a total of 33 of 108 isolates were positive. In contrast, all 63 and 66 isolates of clinical and environmental V. parahaemolyticus, respectively, obtained previously from 2008 to 2014 from the same area were negative. This implied that these strains were likely to be the cause of the outbreak of AHPND in this area. Intestinal samples proved to be a better source for the isolation of V. parahaemolyticus AHPND than the hepatopancreas. All isolates were investigated for haemolytic activity, virulence genes, serotypes, genotypes and antibiotic susceptibility. All the AHPND isolates had a unique O antigen, but small variations of the K antigens were detected from different farms. In addition, the DNA profiles of V. parahaemolyticus AHPND isolates were similar, but distinct from those clinical and environmental isolates. It is postulated that the causative agent of AHPND might have originated from one clone and then slightly different serotypes subsequently developed. PMID:25287127

Kongrueng, J; Yingkajorn, M; Bunpa, S; Sermwittayawong, N; Singkhamanan, K; Vuddhakul, V

2014-10-01

151

The mechanism of acute renal ischaemia caused by adrenalectomy in the rat.  

PubMed Central

1. The acute reduction of renal blood flow following adrenalectomy in the rat, which had previously been shown to be associated with sequestration of blood volume in the splanchnic area, was further investigated. An attempt was made to define the role of the renal sympathetic nerves in causing the blood flow change. 2. The systemic and renal intra-arterial administration of phenoxybenzamine, isoprenaline and propranolol and denervation of the renal pedicle failed to re-establish normal renal function. 3. Infusion of P113 (sarcosyl1 alanine8), an angiotensin blocker, failed to improve renal function. 4. In contrast, volume replacement with high-molecular weight PVP caused a prompt increase of RPF and GFR without altering arterial pressure and central venous pressure. 5. Angiographic studies demonstrated that the calibre of the aorta of adrenalectomized rats was significantly smaller than that of the sham operated and increased after the administration of this plasma volume expander. 6. It was concluded that after adrenalectomy the major arteries readjusted their calibre to the reduced volume of blood in the arterial tree with maintenance of a constant pressure/volume relationship. Their contracted state in the case of the kidney then led to flow reduction. Images Plate 2 Plate 1 PMID:1177121

Peart, W S; Pessina, A C

1975-01-01

152

Marine sulfate-reducing bacteria cause serious corrosion of iron under electroconductive biogenic mineral crust  

PubMed Central

Iron (Fe0) corrosion in anoxic environments (e.g. inside pipelines), a process entailing considerable economic costs, is largely influenced by microorganisms, in particular sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The process is characterized by formation of black crusts and metal pitting. The mechanism is usually explained by the corrosiveness of formed H2S, and scavenge of ‘cathodic’ H2 from chemical reaction of Fe0 with H2O. Here we studied peculiar marine SRB that grew lithotrophically with metallic iron as the only electron donor. They degraded up to 72% of iron coupons (10 mm × 10 mm × 1 mm) within five months, which is a technologically highly relevant corrosion rate (0.7 mm Fe0 year?1), while conventional H2-scavenging control strains were not corrosive. The black, hard mineral crust (FeS, FeCO3, Mg/CaCO3) deposited on the corroding metal exhibited electrical conductivity (50 S m?1). This was sufficient to explain the corrosion rate by electron flow from the metal (4Fe0 ? 4Fe2+ + 8e?) through semiconductive sulfides to the crust-colonizing cells reducing sulfate (8e? + SO42? + 9H+ ? HS? + 4H2O). Hence, anaerobic microbial iron corrosion obviously bypasses H2 rather than depends on it. SRB with such corrosive potential were revealed at naturally high numbers at a coastal marine sediment site. Iron coupons buried there were corroded and covered by the characteristic mineral crust. It is speculated that anaerobic biocorrosion is due to the promiscuous use of an ecophysiologically relevant catabolic trait for uptake of external electrons from abiotic or biotic sources in sediments. PMID:22616633

Enning, Dennis; Venzlaff, Hendrik; Garrelfs, Julia; Dinh, Hang T; Meyer, Volker; Mayrhofer, Karl; Hassel, Achim W; Stratmann, Martin; Widdel, Friedrich

2012-01-01

153

Excessive ?-tocopherol exacerbates microglial activation and brain injury caused by acute ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

The vitamin E family includes both tocopherols and tocotrienols, where ?-tocopherol (?TOC) is the most bioavailable form. Clinical trials testing the therapeutic efficacy of high-dose ?TOC against stroke have largely failed or reported negative outcomes when a "more is better" approach to supplementation (>400 IU/d) was used. This work addresses mechanisms by which supraphysiologic ?TOC may contribute to stroke-induced brain injury. Ischemic stroke injury and the neuroinflammatory response were studied in tocopherol transfer protein-deficient mice maintained on a diet containing ?TOC vitamin E at the equivalent human dose of 1680 IU/d. Ischemic stroke-induced brain injury was exacerbated in the presence of supraphysiologic brain ?TOC levels. At 48 h after stroke, S100B and RAGE expression was increased in stroke-affected cortex of mice with elevated brain ?TOC levels. Such increases were concomitant with aggravated microglial activation and neuroinflammatory signaling. A poststroke increase in markers of oxidative injury and neurodegeneration in the presence of elevated brain ?TOC establish that at supraphysiologic levels, ?TOC potentiates neuroinflammatory responses to acute ischemic stroke. Exacerbation of microglial activation by excessive ?TOC likely depends on its unique cell signaling regulatory properties independent of antioxidant function. Against the background of clinical failure for high-dose ?TOC, outcomes of this work identify risk for exacerbating stroke-induced brain injury as a result of supplementing diet with excessive levels of ?TOC.-Khanna, S., Heigel, M., Weist, J., Gnyawali, S., Teplitsky, S., Roy, S., Sen, C. K., Rink, C. Excessive ?-tocopherol exacerbates microglial activation and brain injury caused by acute ischemic stroke. PMID:25411436

Khanna, Savita; Heigel, Mallory; Weist, Jessica; Gnyawali, Surya; Teplitsky, Seth; Roy, Sashwati; Sen, Chandan K; Rink, Cameron

2014-11-19

154

A8 Immune response in human pathology: Infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the middle of the 19th century, it became clear that micro-organisms could cause disease. Effective treatment, however,\\u000a was not possible at that time; prevention and spread of infectious diseases depended solely on proper hygienic means. At the\\u000a beginning of the 20th century, passive and active vaccination procedures were developed against a number of these PATHOGENIC\\u000a MICRO-ORGANISMS to prevent the

Jan Verhoef; Kok van Kessel; Harm Snippe

155

[Prevalence of the bacteria causing diarrea in a Rosario Hospital, Argentina].  

PubMed

Bacterial agents causing diarrea in patients attended in a hospital of Rosario, Argentina. The frequency of bacterial agents causing diarrhea can vary in patients of different areas, and through the time. In an epidemiological surveillance we studied 304 patients with diarrheal diseases looking for Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp, Campylobacter spp, Aeromonas spp, Yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheogenic Escherichia coli. C. jejuni was isolated in 30 patients (9,9 %), Salmonella in 18 (5,9 %), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) in 7 (2,3 %). Most cases due ton C. jejuni had mucus and/or blood in their feces. Unexpectedly we didn't fine any cases due to Shigella spp. There was much less cases due to EPEC than in our previous studies, and occurred only in children of less than 5 years old. It is necesary to take in consideration that C. jejuni cause nearly all the cases of diarrhea in patients with mucus and blood in their feces actually in our region. PMID:17639815

Gambandé, Telma; Damiano, Mario; Borda, Noemí; Notario, Rodolfo; Aita, José

2006-01-01

156

Acute toxicity test of leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills using luminescent bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Landfilling is a fundamental step in any waste management strategy, but it can constitute a hazard for the environment for a long time. The need to protect the environment from potential landfill emissions makes risk assessment a decision tool of extreme necessity. The heterogeneity of wastes and the complexity of physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in the body of a landfill need specific procedures in order to evaluate the groundwater risk for the environment. Given the complexity of the composition of landfill leachates, the exact contribution of each potential toxic substance cannot be known precisely. Some reference contaminants that constitute the hazard (toxicity) of leachate have to be found to perform the risk assessment. A preliminary ecotoxicological investigation with luminescent bacteria has been carried out on different leachates from traditional and sustainable landfills in order to rank the chemicals that better characterize the leachate (heavy metals, ammonia and dissolved organic content). The attention has been focused on ammonia because it is present in high concentration and can last for centuries and can seriously contaminate the groundwater. The results showed that the toxicity of the leachate might reliably depend on the ammonia concentration and that the leachate toxicity is considerably lower in sustainable landfills where the ammonia had been degraded. This has an important consequence because if the containment system fails (as usually occur within 30-50 yr), the risk of groundwater contamination will be calculated easier only in terms of the probability that the ammonia concentration is higher than a reference concentration.

Pivato, Alberto [IMAGE Department, University of Padua, Via Loredan 20, 35131 Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: alberto.pivato@libero.it; Gaspari, Lorenzo [IMAGE Department, University of Padua, Via Loredan 20, 35131 Padova (Italy)

2006-07-01

157

Pathogenesis of acute and chronic diseases caused by cyprinid herpesvirus-3.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) was studied using different lineages of carp/koi. After exposure to the virus, infected cells were first found in the skin by histopathology and by in situ hybridization. The epidermis of the skin was most severely damaged and often sloughed off in the fish sampled on days 5 through 8, and the fish that were highly sensitive to the virus died within 8 or 10 days after infection. Serum osmolality of the infected fish, particularly just before death, was significantly lower, suggesting that the osmotic shock consequent on the damage to the skin was the direct cause of the acute deaths. On the other hand, clinical and histopathological observations indicate that the carp of a less sensitive lineage most probably died of viral encephalitis around 3 weeks after infection. For these fish, the largest number of infected cells was found in the central nervous system (CNS) sampled on day 12. A substantial amount of viral genome was found in the CNS of carp surviving more than 1 year after the infection. Thus, the CNS is probably a major target for CyHV-3, and the virus can persistently infect the CNS, presumably establishing latency. PMID:25073413

Miwa, S; Kiryu, I; Yuasa, K; Ito, T; Kaneko, T

2014-07-30

158

Role of electrophilic metabolites in 3-methylindole-caused acute lung injury  

SciTech Connect

The cytochrome P-450-catalyzed metabolism of 3-methylindole (3MI) results in acute lung injury. Activated EMI metabolites bind covalently to lung macromolecules, and binding is proportional to dose. Tissue glutathione (GSH) status modulates metabolite binding and 3MI toxicity. Pretreatment to sustain GSH decreases, while GSH depletion increases covalent binding and the severity of EMI-caused pulmonary damage. Incubations were conducted to determine whether activated 3MI metabolites are trapped by GSH in vitro. Goat lung or liver microsomes were incubated with /sup 14/C-3MI, a NADPH-generating system, and GSH. Incubation supernatants were subjected to reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography; detection was by uv absorbance and liquid scintillation counting of column eluates. A metabolite was isolated which was not formed when the NADPH-generating system, GSH, or both were omitted from incubation mixtures. Dual isotope experiments with /sup 14/C-3MI and /sup 3/H-GSH, and analysis by mass spectroscopy demonstrated that the metabolite was a 3MI-GSH adduct. The uv absorbance spectrum of the adduct was identical to that of 3MI. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies indicated that GSH conjugation occurs at the 3-methyl position. The results of these investigations support the hypothesis that metabolic activation produces electrophilic 3MI intermediates which alkylate cellular macromolecules resulting in toxicity, or are detoxified by conjugation with GSH.

Nocerini, M.R.

1985-01-01

159

Acute-Onset Endophthalmitis Caused by Alloiococcus otitidis following a Dexamethasone Intravitreal Implant  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report the first case of acute endophthalmitis caused by Alloiococcus otitidis after a dexamethasone intravitreal implant. Methods A 74-year-old female was treated with intravitreal Ozurdex® in her left eye for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the eye was 4/20. Intravitreal injection was uneventful. At 48 h after injection, she developed ocular pain and visual acuity had dropped to light perception. Endophthalmitis associated with intravitreal injection was suspected. Results The patient did not show a favorable clinical response following systemic, intravitreal, and topical fortified antibiotics. We then performed a vitreous biopsy and removed the Ozurdex implant by pars plana vitrectomy. A vitreous culture was positive for A. otitidis. At the 2-month follow up, no inflammation was observed, but due to CRVO and probably aggravated by endophthalmitis, the fundus showed macular fibrosis. The final BCVA was finger counting at 30 cm in her left eye. Conclusions In cases of an intravitreal implant associated with endophthalmitis, we recommend removal of the device because it may act as a permanent reservoir of organisms if it remains in the vitreous cavity. PMID:23626572

Marchino, Tizana; Vela, José I.; Bassaganyas, Francisca; Sánchez, Saskia; Buil, José A.

2013-01-01

160

Specific and total IgE in patients with recurrent, acute urticaria caused by Anisakis simplex.  

PubMed

Titres of parasite-specific IgE were investigated in 19 patients thought to have recurrent, acute urticaria caused by sensitization to Anisakis simplex (Dujardin, 1845), before and after they were placed on a fish-free diet. Patients with other allergic disease and those being treated with corticosteroids or antihistaminics were excluded. Skin-prick tests were carried out with A. simplex extract, and blue- and white-fish extracts. The CAP system (Pharmacia), a commercial test kit developed for the assay of food-specific IgE, was used to monitor serum concentrations of total IgE and antigen-specific IgE against Anisakis, Ascaris, Echinococcus, Toxocara, tuna, salmon, shrimp, mussel and cod. Before going on a fish-free diet, the 19 patients had CAP scores against A. simplex of 5 (three cases), 3 (seven) or 2 (nine). After a mean of 120 days on the diet, the scores against A. simplex were unchanged in 15 of the cases, reduced in three [from 5 to 4 (one case) or from 2 to 0 (two cases)] and increased in one (from 2 to 3). Most (16) of the patients no longer had any urticaria and the others reported significant reductions in the intensity and frequency of their symptoms. PMID:10884871

Perteguer, M J; Chivato, T; Montoro, A; Cuéllar, C; Mateos, J M; Laguna, R

2000-04-01

161

Spontaneous recovery of cochlear fibrocytes after severe degeneration caused by acute energy failure  

PubMed Central

Cochlear fibrocytes in the lateral wall region play a critical role in the regulation of inner ear ion and fluid homeostasis, although these are non-sensory cells. Along with other non-sensory cells, fibrocytes in the spiral ligament have been reported to repopulate themselves after damage. However, the studies of regeneration of cochlear fibrocytes have been difficult because a suitable fibrocyte-specific degeneration model did not exist. Therefore, we analyzed cochlear fibrocytes using a rat model of acute cochlear energy failure induced by a mitochondrial toxin. This model is unique because hearing loss is caused by apoptosis of fibrocytes in the cochlear lateral wall not by damage to sensory cells. Although this model involves severe damage to the cochlear lateral wall, delayed spontaneous regeneration occurs without any treatment. Moreover, partial hearing recovery is accompanied by morphological remodeling of the cochlear lateral wall. Two hypotheses are conceivable regarding this spontaneous recovery of cochlear fibrocytes. One is that residual cochlear fibrocytes proliferate spontaneously, followed by remodeling of the functional region of the lateral wall. Another is that some foreign cells such as bone marrow-derived cells promote morphological and functional recovery of the lateral wall. Acceleration of the lateral wall recovery promoted by these mechanisms may be a new therapeutic strategy against hearing loss. PMID:25206337

Mizutari, Kunio

2014-01-01

162

The phenoptosis problem: what is causing the death of an organism? Lessons from acute kidney injury.  

PubMed

Programmed execution of various cells and intracellular structures is hypothesized to be not the only example of elimination of biological systems - the general mechanism can also involve programmed execution of organs and organisms. Modern rating of programmed cell death mechanisms includes 13 mechanistic types. As for some types, the mechanism of actuation and manifestation of cell execution has been basically elucidated, while the causes and intermediate steps of the process of fatal failure of organs and organisms remain unknown. The analysis of deaths resulting from a sudden heart arrest or multiple organ failure and other acute and chronic pathologies leads to the conclusion of a special role of mitochondria and oxidative stress activating the immune system. Possible mechanisms of mitochondria-mediated induction of the signaling cascades involved in organ failure and death of the organism are discussed. These mechanisms include generation of reactive oxygen species and damage-associated molecular patterns in mitochondria. Some examples of renal failure-induced deaths are presented with mechanisms and settings determined by some hypothetical super system rather than by the kidneys themselves. This system plays the key role in the process of physiological senescence and termination of an organism. The facts presented suggest that it is the immune system involved in mitochondrial signaling that can act as the system responsible for the organism's death. PMID:22817538

Zorov, D B; Plotnikov, E Y; Jankauskas, S S; Isaev, N K; Silachev, D N; Zorova, L D; Pevzner, I B; Pulkova, N V; Zorov, S D; Morosanova, M A

2012-07-01

163

Acute ocular injuries caused by 60-Ghz millimeter-wave exposure.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine the clinical course of 60-GHz millimeter-wave induced damages to the rabbit eye and to report experimental conditions that allow reproducible induction of these injuries. The eyes of pigmented rabbits (total number was 40) were irradiated with 60-GHz millimeter-waves using either a horn antenna or one of two lens antennas (6 and 9 mm diameter; phi6, phi9) Morphological changes were assessed by slit-lamp microscopy. Additional assessments included corneal fluorescein staining, iris fluorescein angiography, and lens epithelium light microscopy. Under the standardized eye-antenna positioning, the three antennas caused varying damages to the eyelids or eyeglobes. The most reproducible injuries without concurrent eyelid edema and corneal desiccation were achieved using the phi6 lens antenna: irradiation for 6 min led to an elevation of the corneal surface temperature (reaching 54.2 +/- 0.9 degrees C) plus corneal edema and epithelial cell loss. Furthermore, mitotic cells appeared in the pupillary area of the lens epithelium. Anterior uveitis also occurred resulting in acute miosis (from 6.6 +/- 1.4 to 2.2 +/- 1.4 mm), an increase in flares (from 6.7 +/- 0.9 to 334.3 +/- 130.8 photons per second), and iris vasodilation or vessel leakage. These findings indicate that the three types of millimeter-wave antennas can cause thermal injuries of varying types and levels. The thermal effects induced by millimeter-waves can apparently penetrate below the surface of the eye. PMID:19667804

Kojima, Masami; Hanazawa, Masahiro; Yamashiro, Yoko; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Soichi; Taki, Masao; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Hirata, Akimasa; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

2009-09-01

164

Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus.  

PubMed

Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were studied. Nine pigs were infected intratracheally, and five served as controls. Antibodies against SIV were measured by haemagglutination inhibition assay, and the influenza-virus-specific T-cell response was measured using a proliferation assay. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) the concentrations in serum and concentration of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-? and IFN-? in lung tissues were measured using commercial ELISAs. PMID:24846450

Pomorska-Mól, Ma?gorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Czy?ewska, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Rachubik, Jaros?aw; Pejsak, Zygmunt

2014-10-01

165

Coxiella burnetii Isolates Cause Genogroup-Specific Virulence in Mouse and Guinea Pig Models of Acute Q Fever? †  

PubMed Central

Q fever is a zoonotic disease of worldwide significance caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Humans with Q fever may experience an acute flu-like illness and pneumonia and/or chronic hepatitis or endocarditis. Various markers demonstrate significant phylogenetic separation between and clustering among isolates from acute and chronic human disease. The clinical and pathological responses to infection with phase I C. burnetii isolates from the following four genomic groups were evaluated in immunocompetent and immunocompromised mice and in guinea pig infection models: group I (Nine Mile, African, and Ohio), group IV (Priscilla and P), group V (G and S), and group VI (Dugway). Isolates from all of the groups produced disease in the SCID mouse model, and genogroup-consistent trends were noted in cytokine production in response to infection in the immunocompetent-mouse model. Guinea pigs developed severe acute disease when aerosol challenged with group I isolates, mild to moderate acute disease in response to group V isolates, and no acute disease when infected with group IV and VI isolates. C. burnetii isolates have a range of disease potentials; isolates within the same genomic group cause similar pathological responses, and there is a clear distinction in strain virulence between these genomic groups. PMID:19786560

Russell-Lodrigue, K. E.; Andoh, M.; Poels, M. W. J.; Shive, H. R.; Weeks, B. R.; Zhang, G. Q.; Tersteeg, C.; Masegi, T.; Hotta, A.; Yamaguchi, T.; Fukushi, H.; Hirai, K.; McMurray, D. N.; Samuel, J. E.

2009-01-01

166

[Acute encephalopathy caused by cyanogenic fungi in 2004, and magic mushroom regulation in Japan].  

PubMed

Two topics, related to mushroom poisoning of recent interest in Japan, have been presented. In autumn 2004, 59 cases of acute encephalopathy were reported across 9 prefectures in Japan (24 from Akita Prefecture with 8 deaths; age 48-93, average 70; female 14, male 10). Of 24 cases, 20 had kidney dysfunction. Four poisoned subjects showed no kidney trouble. Of the 24 poisoning cases, 23 people ate Pleurocybella porrigens, and one ate Grifola frondosa. The latter subject (female, late 40's) was receiving dialysis for more than 35 years. In August, she felt dizziness, headache and tinnitus. She visited hospital and asked to stay there. In the hospital she ate 5g of stewed G. frondosa and 10g of the same fungus boiled with chicken and taro on different days. Fourteen to 18 days after the eatings, she developed cramps and lost consciousness, and fell into a coma. Her cramp and coma continued for about 10 days almost until her death. Her symptoms caused by G. frondosa were similar to those observed for the above 23 cases of P. porrigens ingestion. Therefore, we concluded that encephalopathy experienced in Akita Prefecture caused by was the cyanogenic fungi such as P. porrigens , G. frondosa, Pleurotus eringii etc. Although the amounts of mushrooms eaten by poisoned subjects were not so clear, we estimated that the amounts of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) taken into human bodies exceeded the detoxication limit of HCN, resulting in HCN poisoning. However, it has not been proved that the encephalopathy is directly or indirectly caused by the HCN poisoning. Many typhoons came across Japan and landed 10 times in 2004, and mushroom size was larger than usual one, and HCN contents in fruit-bodies seemed to be increased especially in the late-stage of their growth. Thirteen species of magic mushrooms were prohibited by the law from 2002 in Japan. They include Copelandia (Panaeolus) cyanescens, Panaeolus papilionaceus, Panaeolus sphinctrinus, Panaeolus subbalteatus, Psilocybe argentipes, Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybe fasciata, Psilocybe lonchophorus, Psilocybe subaeruginascens, Psilocybe subcaerulipes, Psilocybe subcubensis, Psilocybe tampanensis, and Psilocybe venenata. PMID:19344063

Gonmori, Kunio; Yokoyama, Kazumasa

2009-03-01

167

Global metabolomic profiling of acute myocarditis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, being cardiomyopathy the more frequent manifestation. New chemotherapeutic drugs are needed but there are no good biomarkers for monitoring treatment efficacy. There is growing evidence linking immune response and metabolism in inflammatory processes and specifically in Chagas disease. Thus, some metabolites are able to enhance and/or inhibit the immune response. Metabolite levels found in the host during an ongoing infection could provide valuable information on the pathogenesis and/or identify deregulated metabolic pathway that can be potential candidates for treatment and being potential specific biomarkers of the disease. To gain more insight into those aspects in Chagas disease, we performed an unprecedented metabolomic analysis in heart and plasma of mice infected with T. cruzi. Many metabolic pathways were profoundly affected by T. cruzi infection, such as glucose uptake, sorbitol pathway, fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis that were increased in heart tissue but decreased in plasma. Tricarboxylic acid cycle was decreased in heart tissue and plasma whereas reactive oxygen species production and uric acid formation were also deeply increased in infected hearts suggesting a stressful condition in the heart. While specific metabolites allantoin, kynurenine and p-cresol sulfate, resulting from nucleotide, tryptophan and phenylalanine/tyrosine metabolism, respectively, were increased in heart tissue and also in plasma. These results provide new valuable information on the pathogenesis of acute Chagas disease, unravel several new metabolic pathways susceptible of clinical management and identify metabolites useful as potential specific biomarkers for monitoring treatment and clinical severity in patients. PMID:25412247

Gironès, Núria; Carbajosa, Sofía; Guerrero, Néstor A; Poveda, Cristina; Chillón-Marinas, Carlos; Fresno, Manuel

2014-11-01

168

The Thermostable Direct Hemolysin from Grimontia hollisae Causes Acute Hepatotoxicity In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Background G. hollisae thermostable direct hemolysin (Gh-TDH) is produced by most strains of G. hollisae. This toxin has been reported to be absorbed in the intestines in humans. Secondary liver injury might be caused by venous return of the toxin through the portal system. We aimed to firstly analyze the in vitro and in vivo hepatotoxicity of Gh-TDH. Methods Liver cells (primary human non-cancer cell and FL83B mouse cells) were treated and mice (BALB/c) were fed with this toxin to investigate its hepatotoxicity. Morphological examination and cytotoxicity assays using liver cells were also performed. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated toxin was used to analyze the localization of this protein in liver cells. Mice were subjected to liver function measurements and liver biopsies following toxin treatment and wild-type bacterial infection. PET (positron emission tomography)/CT (computed tomography) images were taken to assess liver metabolism during acute injury and recovery. Results The effect of hepatotoxicity was dose and time dependent. Cellular localization showed that the toxin was initially located around the cellular margins and subsequently entered the nucleus. Liver function measurements and liver biopsies of the mice following treatment with toxin or infection with wild-type Grimontia hollisae showed elevated levels of transaminases and damage to the periportal area, respectively. The PET/CT images revealed that the reconstruction of the liver continued for at least one week after exposure to a single dose of the toxin or bacterial infection. Conclusions The hepatotoxicity of Gh-TDH was firstly demonstrated. The damage was located in the periportal area of the liver, and the liver became functionally insufficient. PMID:23437095

Lin, Yan-Ren; Chen, Yao-Li; Wang, Keh-Bin; Wu, Yi-Fang; Wang, Yu-Kuo; Huang, Sheng-Cih; Liu, Tzu-An; Nayak, Manoswini; Yip, Bak-Sau; Wu, Tung-Kung

2013-01-01

169

Computational identification and structural analysis of deleterious functional SNPs in MLL gene causing acute leukemia.  

PubMed

A promising application of the huge amounts of data from the Human Genome Project currently available offers new opportunities for identifying the genetic predisposition and developing a better understanding of complex diseases such as cancers. The main focus of cancer genetics is the study of mutations that are causally implicated in tumorigenesis. The identification of such causal mutations does not only provide insight into cancer biology but also presents anticancer therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers. In this study, we evaluated the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) that can alter the expression and the function in MLL gene through computational methods. We applied an evolutionary perspective to screen the SNPs using a sequence homologybased SIFT tool, suggested that 10 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs) (50%) were found to be deleterious. Structure based approach PolyPhen server suggested that 5 nsSNPS (25%) may disrupt protein function and structure. PupaSuite tool predicted the phenotypic effect of SNPs on the structure and function of the affected protein. Structure analysis was carried out with the major mutations that occurred in the native protein coded by MLL gene is at amino acid positions Q1198P and K1203Q. The solvent accessibility results showed that 7 residues changed from exposed state in the native type protein to buried state in Q1198P mutant protein and remained unchanged in the case of K1203Q. From the overall results obtained, nsSNP with id (rs1784246) at the amino acid position Q1198P could be considered as deleterious mutation in the acute leukemia caused by MLL gene. PMID:20658337

George Priya Doss, C; Rajasekaran, R; Sethumadhavan, Rao

2010-09-01

170

Immunomodulatory clarithromycin treatment of experimental sepsis and acute pyelonephritis caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Clarithromycin was administered intravenously to 55 rabbits to evaluate its effect on experimental sepsis caused by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Acute pyelonephritis was induced after ligation of the right ureter and injection of 10(8) CFU of the test isolate per kg of body weight into the renal pelvis. The animals were divided into six groups: group A, controls; group B, rabbits that received one intravenous dose of 80 mg of clarithromycin per kg concomitantly with bacterial challenge; group C, rabbits that received two doses of clarithromycin, the second one of which was given 2 h after the first one; group D, rabbits that received 15 mg of amikacin per kg; group E, rabbits that received one dose of clarithromycin and amikacin; and group F, rabbits that received two doses of clarithromycin and amikacin. Serum endotoxin levels were estimated by the QCL-1000 Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were measured by a bioassay, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured by the thiobarbiturate assay. Viable bacterial counts in various tissue samples were also assessed. The mean survival times of the animals in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F were 4.50, 7.69, 4.07, 4.55, 11.55, and 11.60 days, respectively (P = 0.033 for group D versus group F, P = 0.006 for group D versus group E, P = not significant for group B versus group E, P = 0.042 for group C versus group F). Serum endotoxin levels were similar between groups at all sampling times; TNF-alpha and MDA levels in groups B, C, E, and F decreased significantly over follow-up. The numbers of viable bacterial cells in the infected kidney were similar among the groups; those in the liver, spleen, lungs, and mesenteral lymph nodes were significantly decreased in groups B, E, and F compared to those in groups A and D. It is concluded that a prolongation of survival in animals with experimental sepsis caused by multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa was achieved after coadministration of clarithromycin and amikacin and that the increased survival was probably attributable to the immunomodulatory properties of clarithromycin. PMID:14693524

Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Adamis, Theodoros; Laoutaris, George; Sabracos, Lambros; Koussoulas, Vassilios; Mouktaroudi, Maria; Perrea, Despina; Karayannacos, Panayotis E; Giamarellou, Helen

2004-01-01

171

Free Silver Ion as the Main Cause of Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles to Cladocerans.  

PubMed

We investigated the interspecific variation of silver nanoparticle (SNP) sensitivity in common cladocerans (Daphnia magna, D. galeata, and Bosmina longirostris) and the exact cause of both acute and chronic toxicity focusing on the form of silver (NPs and ions). Materials tested were non-surface-coated silver nanocolloids (SNCs) and AgNO3. The results of the acute toxicity tests support the theory that the effects of SNPs on aquatic organisms is mainly due to Ag(+) released from SNPs. Among the three cladocerans, D. galeata was more sensitive to silver (as Ag(+)) than both D. magna and B. longirostris. Moreover, the chronic toxicity of SNCs was also derived from dissolved silver (especially Ag(+)). SNCs (as total silver concentration) showed far lower chronic compared with acute toxicity to daphnids because the amount of dissolved silver decreased in the presence of prey algae. The chronic end-point values (EC10 values for net reproductive rate and the probability of survival to maturation) did not differ largely from acute ones (48-h EC50 obtained from acute toxicity tests and 48-h LC50 estimated by the biotic ligand model) when the values were calculated based on Ag(+) concentration. The ? value (concentration at which intrinsic population growth rate is decreased to zero) estimated by a power function model was a reliable parameter for assessing the chronic toxicity of silver. PMID:25352442

Sakamoto, Masaki; Ha, Jin-Yong; Yoneshima, Shin; Kataoka, Chisato; Tatsuta, Haruki; Kashiwada, Shosaku

2014-10-29

172

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Possible Cause of Acute Coronary Stent Thrombosis: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), as a cause of acute coronary stent thrombosis, has not yet been reported to our knowledge. We report a case of 64-year-old male, who presented with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Coronary angiography revealed right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis and a drug eluting stent was deployed. Fifteen hours following the intervention, the patient developed an inferior wall ST elevation myocardial infarction. Repeat cardiac catheterization showed an acute in-stent thrombosis. Following thrombectomy, another stent was placed. The patient noted to have an acute drop in platelet count following the second intervention. Two hours following repeat intervention, the patient again developed chest pain and EKG showed recurrent ST-segment elevations in leads II, III, and aVF. Prior to repeat cardiac catheterization, the patient became unresponsive and developed cardiogenic shock. The patient was resuscitated and intubated, and repeat catheterization showed complete stent thrombosis. Intracoronary tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was given. The platelet count further dropped. Additional studies confirmed the diagnosis of DIC. No further cardiac catheterization was done at this point. The patient then later had a cardiac arrest and unfortunately cardiopulmonary resuscitation could not revive him. Amongst the etiologies of acute stent thrombosis, DIC was deemed a possible cause. PMID:24826332

Amer, Syed; Shafiq, Ali; Qureshi, Waqas; Muqeetadnan, Mohammed; Hassan, Syed

2012-01-01

173

Acute intermittent porphyria caused by novel mutation in HMBS gene, misdiagnosed as cholecystitis  

PubMed Central

Background Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant neurovisceral inherited disorder due to a defect in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Misdiagnosis of the porphyrias is not uncommon. Case report We present a case of a 26-year-old female with suspected acute cholecystitis, mental status changes, and seizures. Biochemical and molecular investigations confirmed the diagnosis of AIP by findings of elevated urinary porphobilinogen, 5-aminolevulinic acid, and total porphyrins. DNA molecular testing showed a novel heterozygous mutation (c. 760delC p.L254X) in the exon11 of the HMBS gene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a misdiagnosis of AIP presenting with acute cholecystitis. Conclusion Clinicians are alerted to consider the possibility of AIP in an adult presenting with an acute abdomen, features of cholecystitis, and neuropsychiatric manifestations. PMID:25419136

Alfadhel, Majid; Saleh, Neam; Alenazi, Helal; Baffoe-Bonnie, Henry

2014-01-01

174

Dengue and Other Common Causes of Acute Febrile Illness in Asia: An Active Surveillance Study in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Common causes of acute febrile illness in tropical countries have similar symptoms, which often mimic those of dengue. Accurate clinical diagnosis can be difficult without laboratory confirmation and disease burden is generally under-reported. Accurate, population-based, laboratory-confirmed incidence data on dengue and other causes of acute fever in dengue-endemic Asian countries are needed. Methods and principal findings This prospective, multicenter, active fever surveillance, cohort study was conducted in selected centers in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam to determine the incidence density of acute febrile episodes (?38°C for ?2 days) in 1,500 healthy children aged 2–14 years, followed for a mean 237 days. Causes of fever were assessed by testing acute and convalescent sera from febrile participants for dengue, chikungunya, hepatitis A, influenza A, leptospirosis, rickettsia, and Salmonella Typhi. Overall, 289 participants had acute fever, an incidence density of 33.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 30.0; 37.8); 57% were IgM-positive for at least one of these diseases. The most common causes of fever by IgM ELISA were chikungunya (in 35.0% of in febrile participants) and S. Typhi (in 29.4%). The overall incidence density of dengue per 100 person-years was 3.4 by nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen positivity (95% CI: 2.4; 4.8) and 7.3 (95% CI: 5.7; 9.2) by serology. Dengue was diagnosed in 11.4% (95% CI: 8.0; 15.7) and 23.9% (95% CI: 19.1; 29.2) of febrile participants by NS1 positivity and serology, respectively. Of the febrile episodes not clinically diagnosed as dengue, 5.3% were dengue-positive by NS1 antigen testing and 16.0% were dengue-positive by serology. Conclusions During the study period, the most common identified causes of pediatric acute febrile illness among the seven tested for were chikungunya, S. Typhi and dengue. Not all dengue cases were clinically diagnosed; laboratory confirmation is essential to refine disease burden estimates. PMID:23936565

Capeding, Maria Rosario; Chua, Mary Noreen; Hadinegoro, Sri Rezeki; Hussain, Ismail I. H. M.; Nallusamy, Revathy; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Rusmil, Kusnandi; Thisyakorn, Usa; Thomas, Stephen J.; Huu Tran, Ngoc; Wirawan, Dewa Nyoman; Yoon, In-Kyu; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Hutagalung, Yanee; Laot, Thelma; Wartel, Tram Anh

2013-01-01

175

A Blunt Chest Trauma Causing Left Anterior Descending Artery Dissection and Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated by Deferred Angioplasty  

PubMed Central

Traumatic coronary artery dissection is an uncommon cause of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We report a case of blunt chest trauma resulting from a motorcycle collision causing ostial dissection of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery in a 31-year-old previously healthy male. The patient also suffered from compound comminuted fractures of the humerus and ulna and severe liver laceration, which hampered both percutaneous and surgical acute revasularization. After a stormy hospital course, a bare metal stent was implanted to seal the LAD artery dissection. The patient was discharged in a stable condition and was followed-up for rehabilitation. This case report underscores the multidisciplinary approach in facing challenges encountered after rare sequelae of chest trauma. PMID:22121464

Al-Aqeedi, Rafid Fayadh; Ali, Waleed Muhsin; Al-Ani, Fuad; Abdulrahman, Yassir S.; Alnabti, Abdulrahman

2011-01-01

176

Acute myocardial infarction in a 35-year-old man with coronary artery aneurysm most probably caused by Kawasaki disease  

PubMed Central

We present a 35-year-old man with history of Kawasaki disease who referred with myocardial infarction, and angiography, revealing aneurysm of left main and left anterior descending coronary arteries. The patient underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombectomy and was discharged after 6 d. Coronary artery sequels of Kawasaki disease should be considered as one of the underlying causes of acute myocardial infarction in young adults. PMID:25183138

Parsa, Saeed Alipour; Khaheshi, Isa; Paydary, Koosha; Haybar, Habib

2014-01-01

177

Assessment of a semi-automated protocol for multiplex analysis of sepsis-causing bacteria with spiked whole blood samples  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are needed for efficient and evidence-based treatment of septic patients. Recently, new molecular tools have emerged to complement the conventional culture-based diagnostic methods. In this study, we used spiked whole blood samples to evaluate together two ready-to-use molecular solutions for the detection of sepsis-causing bacteria. We spiked whole blood with bacterial species relevant in sepsis and extracted bacterial DNA with the NorDiag Arrow device, using the SelectNA Blood pathogen DNA isolation kit. DNA extracts were analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and microarray-based Prove-it™ Bone and Joint assay, resulting in correctly identified bacterial species with detection limits of 11–600 colony-forming unit/mL (CFU/mL). To understand the recovery losses of bacterial DNA during the sample preparation step and the capability of the PCR- and microarray-based platform to respond to the sensitivity requirements, we also determined the analytical sensitivity of the PCR and microarray platform to be 1–21 genome equivalents for the tested bacterial species. In addition, the inclusivity of the Prove-it™ Bone and Joint assay was demonstrated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones carrying SCCmec types I, II, IV, or V and a nontypable SCCmec type. The proof-of-concept for accurate multiplex pathogen and antibacterial resistance marker detection from spiked whole blood samples was demonstrated by the selective bacterial DNA extraction method combined with the high-throughput PCR- and microarray-based platform. Further investigations are needed to study the promising potential of the concept for sensitive, semi-automated identification of sepsis-causing pathogens directly from whole blood. PMID:23417871

Laakso, Sanna; Mäki, Minna

2013-01-01

178

Farm Worker HygieneFarm Worker Hygiene ne of the ways that fruits and vegetables can become contaminated with illness-causing bacteria or viruses is through  

E-print Network

in bathroom and handwashing areas for workers to use as a guide to follow. ** What about hand sanitizers? HandFarm Worker HygieneFarm Worker Hygiene O ne of the ways that fruits and vegetables can become contaminated with illness-causing bacteria or viruses is through contact by farm workers. If these workers

Liskiewicz, Maciej

179

In Vitro Lysis and Acute Transfusion Reactions with Hemolysis Caused by Inappropriate Storage of Canine Red Blood Cell Products  

PubMed Central

Background Transfusion of red blood cell (RBC) products carries considerable risk for adverse reactions, including life-threatening hemolytic reactions. Objective To report the occurrence and investigation of life-threatening acute transfusion reactions with hemolysis in dogs likely related to inappropriate blood product storage. Animals Four dogs with acute transfusion reactions and other recipients of blood products. Methods Medical records were reviewed from 4 dogs with suspected acute hemolytic transfusion reactions after receiving RBC products at a veterinary clinic over a 1-month period. Medical records of other animals receiving blood products in the same time period also were reviewed. Blood compatibility and product quality were assessed, subsequent transfusions were closely monitored, and products were diligently audited. Results During or immediately after RBC product transfusion, 4 dogs developed hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, or both. Two dogs died and 1 was euthanized because of progressive clinical signs compatible with an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction. Blood type and blood compatibility were confirmed. RBC units from 2 blood banks were found to be hemolyzed after storage in the clinic’s refrigerator; no bacterial contamination was identified. After obtaining a new refrigerator dedicated to blood product storage, the problem of hemolyzed units and acute transfusion reactions with hemolysis completely resolved. Conclusions Acute life-threatening transfusion reactions can be caused by inappropriate storage of RBC products. In addition to infectious disease screening and ensuring blood-type compatibility, quality assessment of blood products, appropriate collection, processing, and storage techniques as well as recipient monitoring are critical to provide safe, effective transfusions. PMID:21615499

Patterson, J.; Rousseau, A.; Kessler, R.J.; Giger, U.

2012-01-01

180

Marine bacteria cause false-positive results in the Colilert-18 rapid identification test for Escherichia coli in Florida waters.  

PubMed

The Colilert-18 system for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli is approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for use in drinking water analysis and is also used by various agencies and research studies for enumeration of indicator organisms in fresh and saline waters. During monitoring of Pinellas County, Fla., marine waters, estimates of E. coli numbers (by Colilert-18) frequently exceeded fecal coliform counts (by membrane filtration) by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. Samples from freshwater sites did not display similar discrepancies. Fecal coliforms, including E. coli, could be cultured from 100% of yellow fluorescent wells (denoting E. coli-positive results) inoculated with freshwater samples but could be cultured from only 17.1% of the "positive" wells inoculated with marine samples. Ortho-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG)-positive or 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG)-positive noncoliform bacteria were readily cultured from Colilert-18 test wells inoculated with marine samples. Filtered cell-free seawater did not cause false positives. Coculture preparations of as few as 5 CFU of Vibrio cholerae (ONPG positive) and Providencia sp. (MUG positive) ml(-1) inoculated into Colilert-18 caused false-positive E. coli results. Salinity conditions influenced coculture results, as the concentration of coculture inoculum required to cause false positives in most wells increased from about 5 CFU ml(-1) in seawater diluted 1:10 with freshwater to approximately equal to 5,000 CFU ml(-1) in seawater diluted 1:20 with freshwater. Estimated E. coli numbers in various marine water samples processed at the 1:10 dilution ranged from 10 to 7,270 CFU.100 ml(-1), while E. coli numbers in the same samples processed at the 1:20 dilution did not exceed 40 CFU.100 ml(-1). The lower estimates of E. coli numbers corresponded well with fecal coliform counts by membrane filtration. This study indicates that assessment of E. coli in subtropical marine waters by Colilert-18 is not accurate when the recommended 1:10 sample dilution is used. The results suggest that greater dilution may diminish the false-positive problem, but further study of this possibility is recommended. PMID:11823188

Pisciotta, John M; Rath, Damon F; Stanek, Paul A; Flanery, D Michael; Harwood, Valerie J

2002-02-01

181

Following in real time the impact of pneumococcal virulence factors in an acute mouse pneumonia model using bioluminescent bacteria.  

PubMed

Pneumonia is one of the major health care problems in developing and industrialized countries and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in knowledge of this illness, the availability of intensive care units (ICU), and the use of potent antimicrobial agents and effective vaccines, the mortality rates remain high(1). Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and one of the most common causes of bacteremia in humans. This pathogen is equipped with an armamentarium of surface-exposed adhesins and virulence factors contributing to pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The assessment of the in vivo role of bacterial fitness or virulence factors is of utmost importance to unravel S. pneumoniae pathogenicity mechanisms. Murine models of pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis are being used to determine the impact of pneumococcal factors at different stages of the infection. Here we describe a protocol to monitor in real-time pneumococcal dissemination in mice after intranasal or intraperitoneal infections with bioluminescent bacteria. The results show the multiplication and dissemination of pneumococci in the lower respiratory tract and blood, which can be visualized and evaluated using an imaging system and the accompanying analysis software. PMID:24637643

Saleh, Malek; Abdullah, Mohammed R; Schulz, Christian; Kohler, Thomas; Pribyl, Thomas; Jensch, Inga; Hammerschmidt, Sven

2014-01-01

182

Abdominal fat tissue necrosis as a cause of acute abdominal pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Infarctions of the greater omentum and of the epiploic appendages are rare etiologies of acute abdominal pain. The aims of\\u000a the study were to determine the incidence of abdominal fat tissue necroses and to discuss the clinical features and the role\\u000a of laparoscopy in the treatment of these conditions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: A retrospective study in 563 consecutive patients with acute

D. Aronsky; K. Z'graggen; M. Banz; C. Klaiber

1997-01-01

183

Non-adherence to guidelines: an avoidable cause of failure of empirical antimicrobial therapy in the presence of difficult-to-treat bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To identify the risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to difficult-to-treat (DTT) bacteria (i.e., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), and to assess the rate and the causes of inappropriateness of empirical antimicrobial therapy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In an intensive care unit of a university hospital, patients with VAP were empirically treated with antibiotics without activity\\u000a against DTT bacteria if

Frédéric Garcin; Marc Leone; François Antonini; Aude Charvet; Jacques Albanèse; Claude Martin

2010-01-01

184

Uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain at the emergency room: epiploic appendagitis.  

PubMed

This is a case of 49 year-old-female with left lower quadrant pain. Initial diagnosis of acute diverticulitis entertained and treated accordingly. Diagnosis of epiploic appendagitis was done by abdominal CT-Scan. Epiploic appendagitis is commonly misdiagnosed as diverticulitis and appendicitis. Non-invasive studies may lead to early diagnosis avoiding unnecessary hospitalizations, antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention. PMID:21696102

Maldonado-Rivera, Sandra N; Calviño-Acosta, Lázaro; Santiago-Casiano, Mónica; de Lourdes Miranda, María; Mercedes Maldonado, Milciades; Hernan Martínez, José

2011-01-01

185

Perforated Jejunal Diverticula Secondary to a Large Faecolith: A Rare Cause of the Acute Abdomen  

PubMed Central

Jejunal diverticula are uncommon and usually asymptomatic. Very rarely, they can lead to acute complications such as bleeding, obstruction, and perforation. This report describes our experience of a case of jejunal diverticula perforation secondary to a large faecolith, with particular focus on the aetiology and management of this rare condition.

Webster, Peter John; Hyland, Abigail; Bilkhu, Amarvir; Hanavadi, Satheesh; Sharma, Narinder

2014-01-01

186

Resetting of osmoreceptor response as cause of hyponatraemia in acute idiopathic polyneuritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a patient with hyponatraemia associated with acute idiopathic polyneuritis plasma concentrations of antidiuretic hormone increased when hypertonic saline was infused intravenously, and urine osmolality rose concomitantly. A water load was excreted normally, while the plasma remained extremely hypo-osmolal. It is concluded that osmoregulation was functioning normally but was set abnormally low, possibly owing to a disturbance of the peripheral

M D Penney; D Murphy; G Walters

1979-01-01

187

Sensitivity to a Metabolite of Diclofenac as a Cause of Acute Immune Hemolytic Anemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 75-year-old woman taking the nonsteroidal anti-inflam- RBCs by the patient's serum and was identified as the gluc- matory drug diclofenac (DCF) presented with acute Coombs- uronide ester of 4*-OH DCF by proton nuclear magnetic reso- positive hemolytic anemia and subsequently developed re- nance (NMR) analysis. Studies with a panel of RBCs showed nal failure. A drug-dependent antibody specific for

D. Bougie; S. T. Johnson; L. A. Weitekamp; R. H. Aster

188

GH replacement causing acute hyperglycaemia and ketonuria in a type 1 diabetic patient  

PubMed Central

Summary A state of insulin resistance is common to the clinical conditions of both chronic growth hormone (GH) deficiency and GH excess (acromegaly). GH has a physiological role in glucose metabolism in the acute settings of fast and exercise and is the only anabolic hormone secreted in the fasting state. We report the case of a patient in whom knowledge of this aspect of GH physiology was vital to her care. A woman with well-controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus who developed hypopituitarism following the birth of her first child required GH replacement therapy. Hours after the first dose, she developed a rapid metabolic deterioration and awoke with hyperglycaemia and ketonuria. She adjusted her insulin dose accordingly, but the pattern was repeated with each subsequent increase in her dose. Acute GH-induced lipolysis results in an abundance of free fatty acids (FFA); these directly inhibit glucose uptake into muscle, and this can lead to hyperglycaemia. This glucose–fatty acid cycle was first described by Randle et al. in 1963; it is a nutrient-mediated fine control that allows oxidative muscle to switch between glucose and fatty acids as fuel, depending on their availability. We describe the mechanism in detail. Learning points There is a complex interplay between GH and insulin resistance: chronically, both GH excess and deficiency lead to insulin resistance, but there is also an acute mechanism that is less well appreciated by clinicians.GH activates hormone-sensitive lipase to release FFA into the circulation; these may inhibit the uptake of glucose leading to hyperglycaemia and ketosis in the type 1 diabetic patient.The Randle cycle, or glucose–fatty acid cycle, outlines the mechanism for this acute relationship.Monitoring the adequacy of GH replacement in patients with type 1 diabetes is difficult, with IGF1 an unreliable marker. PMID:24616775

Cavlan, Dominic; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Gelding, Susan; Drake, William

2013-01-01

189

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Disease Different Syndromes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the possible differences in respiratory mechanics between the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) originating from pulmonary disease (ARDS p ) and that originating from extrapul- monary disease (ARDS exp ) we measured the total respiratory system (Est,rs), chest wall (Est,w) and lung (Est,L) elastance, the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), and the end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) at 0, 5, 10,

LUCIANO GATTINONI; PAOLO PELOSI; PETER M. SUTER; ALESSIA PEDOTO; PAOLA VERCESI; ALFREDO LISSONI

190

Acute promyelocytic leukemia: an unusual cause of fatal secondary postpartum hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Postpartum haemorrhage can rarely be associated with an underlying coagulation or haematological disorder. We wish to discuss\\u000a a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) presenting as secondary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), its clinical and pathological\\u000a features and maternal outcome. Case report: We describe a 28-year-old woman who presented with secondary PPH accompanied by bleeding from gums, marked pallor, hematemesis,\\u000a ecchymotic

J. B. Sharma; Nupur Gupta; N. Vimala; Mona Anand; Deepika Deka; Suneeta Mittal

2006-01-01

191

Acute Shunt Malfunction Caused by Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy without Shunt Infection  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement is often performed in patients with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and it has been accepted as a safe procedure. The authors report a case of a 50-year-old male who developed acute exacerbation of the hydrocephalus immediately after the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement without any signs of shunt infection, which has not been reported until now. After revision of the intraperitoneal shunt catheter, the sizes of the intracranial ventricles were normalized. PMID:25371790

Choi, Jingyu; Ki, Seung Seog

2014-01-01

192

Acute Shunt Malfunction Caused by Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy without Shunt Infection.  

PubMed

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement is often performed in patients with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and it has been accepted as a safe procedure. The authors report a case of a 50-year-old male who developed acute exacerbation of the hydrocephalus immediately after the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement without any signs of shunt infection, which has not been reported until now. After revision of the intraperitoneal shunt catheter, the sizes of the intracranial ventricles were normalized. PMID:25371790

Choi, Jingyu; Ki, Seung Seog; Park, Seoungwoo

2014-10-01

193

Acute Bronchitis  

MedlinePLUS

... that often brings up mucus, as well as shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. The same viruses that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These ...

194

Plasma and lipids from stored packed red blood cells cause acute lung injury in an animal model.  

PubMed Central

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious complication of hemotherapy. During blood storage, lipids are generated and released into the plasma. In this study, the role of these lipids in TRALI was investigated using an isolated, perfused rat lung model. Rats were pretreated with endotoxin (LPS) or saline in vivo and the lungs were isolated, ventilated, and perfused with saline, or (a) 5% (vol/ vol) fresh human plasma, (b) plasma from stored blood from the day of isolation (D.0) or from the day of outdate (D.42), (c) lipid extracts from D.42 plasma, or (d) purified lysophosphatidylcholines. Lungs from saline or LPS-pretreated rats perfused with fresh (D.0) plasma showed no pulmonary damage as compared with saline perfused controls. LPS pretreatment/D.42 plasma perfusion caused acute lung injury (ALI) manifested by dramatic changes in both pulmonary artery pressure and edema. Incubation of LPS pre-tx rats with mibefradil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, or WEB 2170, a platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist, inhibited ALI caused by D.42 plasma. Lung histology showed neutrophil sequestration without ALI with LPS pretreatment/saline or D.0 plasma perfusion, but ALI with LPS pretreatment/D.42 plasma perfusion, and inhibition of D.42 plasma induced ALI with WEB 2170 or mibefradil. A significant increase in leukotriene E4 was present in LPS-pretreated/D.42 plasma-perfused lungs that was inhibited by WEB 2170. Lastly, significant pulmonary edema was produced when lipid extracts of D.42 plasma or lysophosphatidylcholines were perfused into LPS-pretreated lungs. Lipids caused ALI without vasoconstriction, except at the highest dose employed. In conclusion, both plasma and lipids from stored blood produced pulmonary damage in a model of acute lung injury. TRALI, like the adult respiratory distress syndrome, may be the result of two insults: one derived from stored blood and the other from the clinical condition of the patient. PMID:9525989

Silliman, C C; Voelkel, N F; Allard, J D; Elzi, D J; Tuder, R M; Johnson, J L; Ambruso, D R

1998-01-01

195

ACUTE TOXICITY, SUBLETHAL EFFECTS AND BIOCONCENTRATION OF CHLORINATION PRODUCTS, VIRUSES, AND BACTERIA IN EDIBLE SHELLFISH: A REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The report identifies, synthesizes, and summarizes published scientific data concerning toxicity, sublethal physiological effects, and uptake/depuration rates of chlorine, viruses, and bacteria in edible marine shellfish of the United States. The summary may provide environmental...

196

Rare cause of acute surgical abdomen with free intraperitoneal air: Spontaneous perforated pyometra. A report of 2 cases  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: The acute abdomen accounts for up to 40% of all emergency surgical hospital admissions and a large proportion are secondary to gastrointestinal perforation. Studies have shown the superiority of the abdominal CT over upright chest radiographs in demonstrating free intraperitoneal air. Spontaneous perforated pyometra is a rare cause of the surgical acute abdomen with free intraperitoneal air. Only 38 cases have been reported worldwide. Case Report: We report 2 cases of spontaneously perforated pyometra in our hospital’s general surgery department. Both underwent exploratory laparotomy: one had a total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, while the other had an evacuation of the uterine cavity, primary repair of uterine perforation and a peritoneal washout. A literature search was conducted and all reported cases reviewed in order to describe the clinical presentations and management of the condition. Of the 40 cases to date, including 2 of our cases, the most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (97.5%), fever (37.5%) and vomiting (25.0%). The main indication for exploratory laparotomy was pneumoperitoneum (97.5%). Conclusions: Pyometra is an unusual but serious condition in elderly women presenting with an acute abdomen. A high index of suspicion is needed to make the appropriate diagnosis. PMID:23569488

Lim, Siew Fung; Lee, Song Liang; Chiow, Adrian Kah Heng; Foo, Chek Siang; Wong, Andrew Siang Yih; Tan, Su-Ming

2012-01-01

197

Acute radiation enteritis caused by dose-dependent radiation exposure in dogs: Experimental research.  

PubMed

Accidental or intended radiation exposure in mass casualty settings presents a serious and on-going threat. The development of mitigating and treating agents requires appropriate animal models. Unfortunately, the majority of research on radiation enteritis in animals has lacked specific assessments and targeted therapy. Our study showed beagle dogs, treated by intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for abdominal irradiation, were administered single X-ray doses of 8-30?Gy. The degree of intestinal tract injury for all of the animals after radiation exposure was evaluated with regard to clinical syndrome, endoscopic findings, histological features, and intestinal function. The range of single doses (8?Gy, 10-14?Gy, and 16-30?Gy) represented the degree of injury (mild, moderate, and severe, respectively). Acute radiation enteritis included clinical syndrome with fever, vomiting, diarrhea, hemafecia, and weight loss; typical endoscopic findings included edema, bleeding, mucosal abrasions, and ulcers; and intestinal biopsy results revealed mucosal necrosis, erosion, and loss, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and congestion. Changes in serum diamine oxides (DAOs) and d-xylose represented intestinal barrier function and absorption function, respectively, and correlated with the extent of damage (P?acute radiation enteritis, thus obtaining a relatively objective evaluation of intestinal tract injury based on clinical performance and laboratory examination. The method of assessment of the degree of intestinal tract injury after abdominal irradiation could be beneficial in the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for acute radiation enteritis. PMID:24872437

Xu, Wenda; Chen, Jiang; Xu, Liu; Li, Hongyu; Guo, Xiaozhong

2014-12-01

198

PCR-Based Diagnosis of Acute and Chronic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Caused by Leishmania (Viannia)  

PubMed Central

We evaluated PCR methods for diagnosis of acute and chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in an area of Colombia where Leishmania (Viannia) is endemic. The PCR method specifically amplified whole linearized minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) of the Leishmania subgenus Viannia from biopsy lysates. PCR products were detected in agarose gels. For 255 acute cases, this PCR method had greater sensitivity (75.7%) than each conventional method, i.e., microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained lesion scraping (46.7%), biopsy culture (55.3%), aspirate culture (46.3%), and the conventional methods combined (70.2%). Among 44 cases of chronic CL, amplification of biopsy DNA was more sensitive (45.5%) than the individual (4.5 to 27.7%) and combined (27.3%) conventional methods. The detection of kDNA in biopsies from chronic lesions was enhanced by a chemiluminescent dot blot hybridization, which produced a sensitivity of 65.8% when alone and 90.9% when in combination with DNA extraction of biopsy lysates (P < 0.001). Three biopsies from 84 skin lesions of other etiologies were falsely positive by PCR (specificity, 96.4%). PCR detected kDNA more frequently in biopsies (detection level, 83.9%) than in aspirates (74.7%) from 103 cases of acute CL. Among aspirates from 53 chronic cases of CL, the alternative methods, DNA extraction and hybridization, increased sensitivity from 41.5 to 56.6% (P > 0.05). This enhanced PCR method in chronic biopsies was so much more sensitive than conventional methods that it should be considered the preferred diagnostic method for chronic CL. These findings support the appropriate incorporation of PCR into diagnostic strategies for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:11825977

Weigle, Kristen A.; Labrada, Luz Angela; Lozano, Caterin; Santrich, Cecilia; Barker, Douglas C.

2002-01-01

199

Cricoarytenoid arthritis: a cause of acute upper airway obstruction in rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To report acute upper airway obstruction due to cricoarytenoid arthritis, a well known but uncommon complication of rheumatoid\\u000a arthritis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical features  We report the case of a 70-yr-old female scheduled for a colostomy who had been suffering from rheumatoid arthritis for 17\\u000a years. Preoperative history and physical examination revealed no cardiopulmonary compromise. Anesthesia was induced while\\u000a an assistant immobilized the cervical

Jacelyn Kolman; Ian Morris

2002-01-01

200

Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to an Incarcerated Paraoesophageal Hernia: A Rare Cause for a Common Problem  

PubMed Central

This is a rare case report of acute pancreatitis secondary to a massive incarcerated paraoesophageal hernia. The pathogenesis resulted from obstruction of the distal pancreatic duct after displacement of the pancreatic head and body into the thorax as part of a Type IV paraoesophageal hernia. Although this condition is rare, the patient made steady progress following laparotomy and open repair of hernia. She made a good recovery after prompt therapy, therefore, this report can be a guide to the diagnosis and treatment of similar conditions. PMID:24653652

Boyce, Kathryn; Campbell, William; Taylor, Mark

2014-01-01

201

Real-Time PCR Threshold Cycle Cutoffs Help To Identify Agents Causing Acute Childhood Diarrhea in Zanzibar  

PubMed Central

Molecular assays might improve the identification of causes of acute diarrheal disease but might lead to more frequent detection of asymptomatic infections. In the present study, real-time PCR targeting 14 pathogens was applied to rectal swabs from 330 children aged 2 to 59 months in Zanzibar, including 165 patients with acute diarrhea and 165 asymptomatic control subjects. At least one pathogen was detected for 94% of the patients and 84% of the controls, with higher rates among patients for norovirus genogroup II (20% versus 2.4%; P < 0.0001), rotavirus (10% versus 1.8%; P = 0.003), and Cryptosporidium (30% versus 11%; P < 0.0001). Detection rates did not differ significantly for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-estA (33% versus 24%), ETEC-eltB (44% versus 46%), Shigella (35% versus 33%), and Campylobacter (35% versus 33%), but for these agents threshold cycle (CT) values were lower (pathogen loads were higher) in sick children than in controls. In a multivariate analysis, CT values for norovirus genogroup II, rotavirus, Cryptosporidium, ETEC-estA, and Shigella were independently associated with diarrhea. We conclude that this real-time PCR allows convenient detection of essentially all diarrheagenic agents and provides CT values that may be critical for the interpretation of results for pathogens with similar detection rates in patients and controls. The results indicate that the assessment of pathogen loads may improve the identification of agents causing gastroenteritis in children. PMID:24403298

Andersson, Maria; Msellem, Mwinyi I.; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Petzold, Max; Björkman, Anders; Trollfors, Birger; Mårtensson, Andreas

2014-01-01

202

Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing bacteria causing nosocomial urinary tract infections in an Iranian referral teaching hospital  

PubMed Central

Objective: Gram-negative bacilli are the most important cause of nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTIs). The production of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes is a common mechanism of resistance among these bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of ESBL producing Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTI in a referral hospital as well as their susceptibility pattern to the most commonly used antibiotics. Methods: In a prospective cross-sectional study performed over a 6-month period, urinary specimens obtained from hospitalized patients with documented culture-proved nosocomial UTI (age range of 1-87 years). Isolated aerobic Gram-negative bacteria underwent further microbiologic tests for detection of ESBL, as well as antimicrobial susceptibility test using Kirby-Bauer (disk diffusion) and E-test methods. Findings: During the study period, 213 urine samples were detected to have growth of Gram-negative organism. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated organism (61%). ESBL was detected in 102 isolates including 38.5% of E. coli, 39.5% of Klebsiella pneumonia, 88.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 100% of Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Imipenem and meropenem were the most effective antibiotics on E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains. P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii strains showed high resistance to all tested antibiotics. Conclusion: Large numbers of Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial UTIs produce ESBL with most being multidrug-resistant. Therefore, routine ESBL detection testing and subsequent antibiogram with disk diffusion method could be useful to determine the best treatment options for UTI. PMID:24991629

Soltani, Rasool; Ehsanpoor, Mohsen; Khorvash, Farzin; Shokri, Dariush

2014-01-01

203

[A case of acute phlegmonous gastritis causing gastroparesis and cured with medical treatment alone].  

PubMed

Acute phlegmonous gastritis is an uncommon disease, often fatal condition characterized by suppurative bacterial infection of the gastric wall. It has a high mortality rate mainly because the diagnosis is usually made late. Until recently, gastrectomy in combination with antibiotics was recommended. We had experienced a case of 66-year-old man presented with epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and hematemesis, followed by aspiration pneumonia. At upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, the gastric lumen was narrow, and the mucosa was severely inflamed, which was erythematous, swelled, and showed necrotic areas covered with purulent exudate. Klebsiella oxytoca and Acinetobacter lwoffii were isolated in the gastric tissue culture. Contrast-enhanced computerized tomography scan of abdomen demonstrated diffuse gastric wall thickening and an intramural abscess in the gastric antral wall. Although delayed gastric emptying by gastroparesis prolonged the in-hospital period, the only medical treatment with antibiotics alone successfully cured the patient without gastrectomy. PMID:21623140

Kim, Nha Young; Park, Ju Sang; Lee, Ki Jong; Yun, Han Kyeol; Kim, Ja Seon

2011-05-25

204

Can a polymorphism in the thalassemia gene and a heterozygote CFTR mutation cause acute pancreatitis?  

PubMed Central

The case of a 32-year-old black woman of African descent who suffered from repeated episodes of acute pancreatitis, initially triggered when flying on airplanes, is reported. She did not drink alcohol or smoke. Genetic analysis was negative for cationic trypsinogen, serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 and chymotrypsin C. However, hemoglobin F was elevated. Sequencing of the thalassemia gene revealed a novel alteration in the 5’ region indicative of a functional abnormality of the molecule. Sequencing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene revealed a heterozygote sequence variant. The combination of a hemoglobin gene mutation known for thalassemia in conjunction with the hitherto undescribed CFTR mutation is suggested to pave the road for initial and repetitive pancreatitis attacks. This will be discussed. PMID:24653987

Löhr, J-Matthias; Haas, Stephan

2014-01-01

205

Chemical pneumonitis and acute lung injury caused by inhalation of nickel fumes.  

PubMed

A 50-year-old man with a 30-year occupational history of welding presented with low-grade fever, fatigue and persistent dry cough. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed interlobular septal thickening and bilateral non-segmental patchy ground-glass opacities except in the sub-pleural zone. He revealed that he had inhaled nickel fumes 3 days previously at work. These findings suggested a diagnosis of pneumonitis induced by inhalation of nickel fumes. Fewer reports describe pneumonitis associated with the inhalation of nickel compared with zinc fumes. Although nickel compounds are particularly pernicious among the transition metals and more toxic than zinc compounds, nickel fume inhalation rarely induces lethal acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our patient was successfully treated with corticosteroid. PMID:21921392

Kunimasa, Kei; Arita, Machiko; Tachibana, Hiromasa; Tsubouchi, Kazuya; Konishi, Satoshi; Korogi, Yohei; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Ishida, Tadashi

2011-01-01

206

Genotoxic Evaluation of Mikania laevigata Extract on DNA Damage Caused by Acute Coal Dust Exposure  

SciTech Connect

We report data on the possible antigenotoxic activity of Mikania laevigata extract (MLE) after acute intratracheal instillation of coal dust using the comet assay in peripheral blood, bone marrow, and liver cells and the micronucleus test in peripheral blood of Wistar rats. The animals were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution (groups 1 and 2) or MLE (100 mg/kg) (groups 3 and 4). On day 15, the animals were anesthetized with ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg), and gross mineral coal dust (3 mg/0.3 mL saline) (groups 2 and 4) or saline solution (0.3 mL) (groups 1 and 3) was administered directly in the lung by intratracheal administration. Fifteen days after coal dust or saline instillation, the animals were sacrificed, and the femur, liver, and peripheral blood were removed. The results showed a general increase in the DNA damage values at 8 hours for all treatment groups, probably related to surgical procedures that had stressed the animals. Also, liver cells from rats treated with coal dust, pretreated or not with MLE, showed statistically higher comet assay values compared to the control group at 14 days after exposure. These results could be expected because the liver metabolizes a variety of organic compounds to more polar by-products. On the other hand, the micronucleus assay results did not show significant differences among groups. Therefore, our data do not support the antimutagenic activity of M. laevigata as a modulator of DNA damage after acute coal dust instillation.

Freitas, T.P.; Heuser, V.D.; Tavares, P.; Leffa, D.D.; da Silva, G.A.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.R.T.; Pinho, R.A.; Streck, E.L.; Andrade,V.M. [University of Extremo Catarinense, Criciuma, SC (Brazil)

2009-06-15

207

Necrotising soft tissue infection of bilateral upper limb caused by the injection of oral bacteria: a case report.  

PubMed

Necrotising soft tissue infection is a rare and rapid process with devastating consequence. We report one case of necrotising soft tissue infection in a bilateral upper limb with uncommon oral bacteria. Radiological imaging revealed the presence of gas in upper limb soft tissues, and an MRI showed the localised signal changes in the biceps muscle of the right upper arm, and the subcutaneous tissue of the left elbow. The patient was treated with surgical resection of the infected muscle and wide debridement of the subcutaneous tissue. Antibiotics were initiated. The patient recovered immediately without functional deficit. The unique features of this patient were possible to observe in the progression of the necrotising soft tissue infection in the bilateral upper limb with intentional injection of oral bacteria, and the effect of biceps brachii resection in a prime age worker. PMID:24164130

Yoshii, Yuichi; Ishii, Tomoo; Sakai, Shinsuke

2013-01-01

208

Killing Us Softly: How Sub-Theraputic Dosing of Livestock Causes Drug-Resistant Bacteria in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Note explores antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains in humans and their roots in American industrial livestock practices. Factory farms promote the growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria—or “superbugs”—by giving animals subtherapeutic doses of antibiotics to prevent the diseases that result from confinement and unhygienic conditions. Although Congress has repeatedly attempted to pass legislation to curtail the use of sub-therapeutic antibiotic dosing in livestock,

Ariele Lessing

2010-01-01

209

The Causes and the Control of Selective Pollution of Shallow Wells by Coliform Bacteria, Imo River Basin Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variability of water quality due to fecal coliform bacteria among shallow wells (37–67 m deep) in Aba northwest and Owerri\\u000a west flank of the Imo River basin Nigeria surpassed surface explanation. This is because the communities have similar human\\u000a and animal waste disposing habit. Analytical results show that six out of ten wells (60%) have 40–70FC\\/100 ml of water

Michael A. Nwachukwu; Huan Feng; Maureen I. Amadi; Felicia U. Umunna

2010-01-01

210

Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA  

PubMed Central

The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad’s coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

2014-01-01

211

Inhibition of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Caused by Bacteria Isolated from the Skin of Boreal Toads, Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas, from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, USA.  

PubMed

The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a significant cause of the worldwide decline in amphibian populations; however, various amphibian species are capable of coexisting with B. dendrobatidis. Among them are boreal toads (Anaxyrus (Bufo) boreas boreas) located in Grand Teton National Park (GTNP) in Wyoming, USA. The purpose of this study was to identify cultivable bacterial isolates from the skin microbiota of boreal toads from GTNP and determine if they were capable of inhibiting B. dendrobatidis in vitro, and therefore might be a factor in the toad's coexistence with this pathogen. Isolates from 6 of 21 genera tested were found to inhibit the growth of B. dendrobatidis. These bacteria represent diverse lineages such as the Gammaproteobacteria, the Betaproteobacteria, and the Bacteroidetes/Chlorobium groups. We propose that these bacteria compete via microbial antagonism with B. dendrobatidis. PMID:24826077

Park, Shawna T; Collingwood, Amanda M; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Sheridan, Peter P

2014-01-01

212

Inflammation of ectopic pancreatic tissue in a Meckel's diverticulum causing acute abdominal symptoms: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

An unusual case of acute abdomen was caused by the inflammation of ectopic pancreatic tissue in a Meckel's diverticulum. A 49-year-old man presented with acute abdominal pain, and the clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis was established. During laparotomy, a normal appendix of unusual localization near the gallbladder and a Meckel's diverticulum with an inflamed tip were found. Histological examination showed acute inflammation of heterotopic pancreatic tissue along with normal ectopic gastric and duodenal mucosa within the wall of the diverticulum. Fat necrosis was also ascertained. The authors believe that this is the first report of acute inflammation of ectopic pancreatic tissue and the presence of normal ectopic gastric and duodenal tissue in the same Meckel's diverticulum. PMID:19223375

Zarand, Attila; Bajtai, Attila; Baranyai, Zsolt; Dede, Kristof; Jakab, Ferenc

2011-06-01

213

Scintigraphic demonstration of acute gastrointestinal bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding the colon  

SciTech Connect

Massive lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding into the colonic wall was demonstrated accurately by Tc-99m RBCs. In addition, retrograde bleeding into the gallbladder was also identified while arteriography did not show contrast extravasation. This case supports the use of Tc-99m RBCs over Tc-99m sulfur colloid for more accurate localization of lower GI bleeding.

Czerniak, A.; Zwas, S.T.; Rabau, M.Y.; Avigad, I.; Borag, B.; Wolfstein, I.

1985-08-01

214

Meckel's Diverticulitis as a Cause of an Acute Abdomen in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy: Laparoscopic Management  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Meckel's diverticulitis is an extremely rare cause of an acute abdomen in pregnancy. Its clinical presentation tends to be rather unusual and therefore commonly delaying diagnosis. The surgical method of exploration can be either by laparoscopy or through an open incision. Case Report. We report a case of a 34-year-old, P1 with previous Caesarean section, who presented at 20 weeks with worsening right-sided abdominal pain, distention, and peritonism. Ultrasound scan showed an area of a possibly thickened loop of bowel inconsistent with an appendicitis. The findings at laparoscopy were purulent fluid in the pelvis, a congested appendix, and inflamed Meckel's diverticulum. An appendectomy and excision of the diverticulum was performed using stapler technique. Discussion. Meckel's diverticulitis in pregnancy can have nonspecific presentation and poses difficulties for preoperative diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis and management poses significant maternal and fetal risks. The use of laparoscopy if the gestational age and uterine size permit its use allows a thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity and management of rarer and unexpected pathology. Laparoscopic management of acute abdomen in the midtrimester of pregnancy has been found to be safe and effective.

Pandeva, Ivilina; Kumar, Sumit; Alvi, Atif; Nosib, Hema

2015-01-01

215

Meckel's Diverticulitis as a Cause of an Acute Abdomen in the Second Trimester of Pregnancy: Laparoscopic Management.  

PubMed

Introduction. Meckel's diverticulitis is an extremely rare cause of an acute abdomen in pregnancy. Its clinical presentation tends to be rather unusual and therefore commonly delaying diagnosis. The surgical method of exploration can be either by laparoscopy or through an open incision. Case Report. We report a case of a 34-year-old, P1 with previous Caesarean section, who presented at 20 weeks with worsening right-sided abdominal pain, distention, and peritonism. Ultrasound scan showed an area of a possibly thickened loop of bowel inconsistent with an appendicitis. The findings at laparoscopy were purulent fluid in the pelvis, a congested appendix, and inflamed Meckel's diverticulum. An appendectomy and excision of the diverticulum was performed using stapler technique. Discussion. Meckel's diverticulitis in pregnancy can have nonspecific presentation and poses difficulties for preoperative diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis and management poses significant maternal and fetal risks. The use of laparoscopy if the gestational age and uterine size permit its use allows a thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity and management of rarer and unexpected pathology. Laparoscopic management of acute abdomen in the midtrimester of pregnancy has been found to be safe and effective. PMID:25648324

Pandeva, Ivilina; Kumar, Sumit; Alvi, Atif; Nosib, Hema

2015-01-01

216

[Precautions regarding prevent acute urethritis caused by Neisseria meningitidis in Japan].  

PubMed

In Japan, Neisseria meningitidis is not sufficiently recognized as the primary causative bacteria of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) as the number of reported cases is small. Here, we summarize reports from 3 medical institutions, present clinical courses for each case, as well recommending precautions to prevent infection with this bacterium. Fourteen cases of N. meningitidis urethritis (MU) were admitted between April 2001 and June 2006. All patients were male, consulted a doctor after experiencing subjective symptoms, such as micturition pain and pus discharge, and were diagnosed as having urethritis using isolation culture methods. In 8 of the 14 cases, history of sexual contact in the preclinical stage was confirmed, and contact was with a commercial sex worker (CSW) in 6 of these cases. Many of these patients recalled oral contact. All strains indicated susceptibility to many drugs, and there were no problems with treatment. With regard to serotype, there were 10 cases of type Y, 1 case of type B, and 3 cases that were not classifiable or unidentified. In addition, among the 9 strains that were subjected to genotype identification, 7 strains were ST-23. The recent increase in availability of nucleic acid amplification methods has facilitated simultaneous detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. However, we fear that MU will become latent. For screening of urethritis, Gram staining and culture of urethral material must be performed to detect this disease. The relationship of the detected strain and its role in the pathogenesis of meningitis are uncertain, but its serotype and genotype are common in cases of meningitis. Thus, precautions are required to prevent spread of this bacterium. PMID:18318230

Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Keiko; Tamura, Takashi; Tsukahara, Miyuki; Goto, Mieko; Kawahata, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Masae; Okuzumi, Katsuko; Fukutake, Katsuyuki

2008-01-01

217

Pulmonary arteriovascular malformation: a rare cause of unexplained hypoxia and acute dyspnoea in young patients.  

PubMed

Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are anomalous vascular connections between arteries and veins in the lung and comprise of two types, simple and complex. PAVMs are associated with congenital conditions such as hereditary haemorrhagic telengiectasia along with acquired causes. We present a case of a 26-year-old man who presented with dyspnoea, palpitations and decreased oxygen saturation as an initial presentation of PAVM, which was treated successively with embolisation. PMID:25527686

Iqbal, Nousheen; Rehman, Karim Abdur; Khan, Javaid Ahmed; Haq, Tanveer Ul

2014-01-01

218

A single sea lamprey attack causes acute anemia and mortality in lake sturgeon.  

PubMed

The effects of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus parasitism on hematological variables have not been quantified for lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens. Our study objectives were to (1) assess changes in lake sturgeon hematology immediately after a single sea lamprey attack and after a 2-week recovery period and (2) assess changes in the histological condition of major hematopoietic organs. Lake sturgeon from four size-groups (470-570, 570-650, 650-760, and 950-1,500 mm fork length) were individually subjected to a sea lamprey attack in a series of 55 experimental trials. Survival of lake sturgeon after a single sea lamprey attack was size dependent, with fish in smaller size-groups exhibiting higher direct and indirect mortality than individuals in larger size-classes. The most sensitive blood chemistry variable was hematocrit: each 1% decline in hematocrit resulted in a 5.1% increase in mortality risk. Other important variables were plasma protein level, with a 10-g/dL decline resulting in a 4.2% increase in mortality risk; and hemoglobin, with a 1-g/dL decline resulting in a 2.9% increase in mortality risk. Most of the surviving lake sturgeon were unable to restore hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma protein to pre-attack levels by the end of the 2-week recovery period. We developed an index of histological spleen condition, which indicated that short-duration (< 5-d) sea lamprey attachments depleted red blood cell reserves faster than longer-duration attacks. Our study results indicate that sea lamprey parasitism has the potential to induce acute anemia in lake sturgeon and that nonlethal attacks on smaller (< 760-mm) fish can have serious physiological implications. PMID:22838079

Sepúlveda, Maria S; Patrick, Holly K; Sutton, Trent M

2012-06-01

219

Thromboembolism as a Cause of Renal Artery Occlusion and Acute Kidney Injury: The Recovery of Kidney Function after Two Weeks  

PubMed Central

Thromboembolic occlusion is a rare cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). It may lead to permanent loss of renal function. Our patient, who had dilated cardiomyopathy and prosthetic aortic valve, presented with AKI due to thromboembolic arterial occlusion of a solitary functioning kidney. After 2 weeks delay, local intra-arterial thrombolytic treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator was performed without sufficient effect. However, a subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting was successful. Diuresis began immediately, and renal function was fully recovered after 2 weeks. Although there had been no evident arterial circulation in the kidney, we think that minor flow through subtotal occlusion of the main renal artery made the hibernation of kidney tissue possible and contributed to the recovery. Thus, even after prolonged ischemia, revascularization can be useful. PMID:24847350

Koivuviita, Niina; Tertti, Risto; Heiro, Maija; Manner, Ilkka; Metsärinne, Kaj

2014-01-01

220

Recurrent Gain-of-Function Mutation in PRKG1 Causes Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Acute Aortic Dissections  

PubMed Central

Gene mutations that lead to decreased contraction of vascular smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) can cause inherited thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Exome sequencing of distant relatives affected by thoracic aortic disease and subsequent Sanger sequencing of additional probands with familial thoracic aortic disease identified the same rare variant, PRKG1 c.530G>A (p.Arg177Gln), in four families. This mutation segregated with aortic disease in these families with a combined two-point LOD score of 7.88. The majority of affected individuals presented with acute aortic dissections (63%) at relatively young ages (mean 31 years, range 17–51 years). PRKG1 encodes type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG-1), which is activated upon binding of cGMP and controls SMC relaxation. Although the p.Arg177Gln alteration disrupts binding to the high-affinity cGMP binding site within the regulatory domain, the altered PKG-1 is constitutively active even in the absence of cGMP. The increased PKG-1 activity leads to decreased phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain in fibroblasts and is predicted to cause decreased contraction of vascular SMCs. Thus, identification of a gain-of-function mutation in PRKG1 as a cause of thoracic aortic disease provides further evidence that proper SMC contractile function is critical for maintaining the integrity of the thoracic aorta throughout a lifetime. PMID:23910461

Guo, Dong-chuan; Regalado, Ellen; Casteel, Darren E.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Gong, Limin; Kim, Jeong Joo; Dyack, Sarah; Horne, S. Gabrielle; Chang, Guijuan; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Coselli, Joseph S.; Li, Zhenyu; Leal, Suzanne M.; Shendure, Jay; Rieder, Mark J.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Kim, Choel; Milewicz, Dianna M.

2013-01-01

221

Recurrent gain-of-function mutation in PRKG1 causes thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections.  

PubMed

Gene mutations that lead to decreased contraction of vascular smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) can cause inherited thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Exome sequencing of distant relatives affected by thoracic aortic disease and subsequent Sanger sequencing of additional probands with familial thoracic aortic disease identified the same rare variant, PRKG1 c.530G>A (p.Arg177Gln), in four families. This mutation segregated with aortic disease in these families with a combined two-point LOD score of 7.88. The majority of affected individuals presented with acute aortic dissections (63%) at relatively young ages (mean 31 years, range 17-51 years). PRKG1 encodes type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG-1), which is activated upon binding of cGMP and controls SMC relaxation. Although the p.Arg177Gln alteration disrupts binding to the high-affinity cGMP binding site within the regulatory domain, the altered PKG-1 is constitutively active even in the absence of cGMP. The increased PKG-1 activity leads to decreased phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain in fibroblasts and is predicted to cause decreased contraction of vascular SMCs. Thus, identification of a gain-of-function mutation in PRKG1 as a cause of thoracic aortic disease provides further evidence that proper SMC contractile function is critical for maintaining the integrity of the thoracic aorta throughout a lifetime. PMID:23910461

Guo, Dong-chuan; Regalado, Ellen; Casteel, Darren E; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Gong, Limin; Kim, Jeong Joo; Dyack, Sarah; Horne, S Gabrielle; Chang, Guijuan; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Coselli, Joseph S; Li, Zhenyu; Leal, Suzanne M; Shendure, Jay; Rieder, Mark J; Bamshad, Michael J; Nickerson, Deborah A; Kim, Choel; Milewicz, Dianna M

2013-08-01

222

Management of acute childhood poisonings caused by selected insecticides and herbicides.  

PubMed

Most childhood exposures to insecticides and herbicides do not result in poisonings. Decontamination and observation are usually adequate treatments. The most frequent exposures involve carbamate and organophosphate insecticides. These compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase, resulting in cholinergic signs that are reversible with atropine administration. Recent reports from poison control centers indicate that organophosphates have been associated with most of the serious childhood poisonings. Pralidoxime, a cholinesterase reactivator, must be administered along with atropine to patients with serious organophosphate poisoning, to reverse nicotinic receptor effects--in particular, respiratory paralysis. Although carbamates and organophosphates may cause clinically indistinguishable physical signs, pralidoxime therapy may be contraindicated for carbamate intoxications. In the event of a serious poisoning caused by a combination of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, or by an unknown cholinergic agent, pralidoxime should not be withheld. Many organochlorine insecticides are restricted or are no longer available in the United States. CNS excitation and seizures, manifestations of organochlorine intoxication, can occur following ingestion or inappropriate application of the 1 per cent topical formulation of lindane used to treat scabies and lice. Treatment of such intoxication consists of decontamination measures and anticonvulsant administration. Pyrethrins are generally nontoxic in doses commonly ingested. Individuals with an allergic history may be at greatest risk for the most common adverse effects, contact dermatitis and hypersensitivity reactions. Of all insecticides or herbicides, paraquat is the most toxic. Any exposure to paraquat must be evaluated, even if several days have passed since the herbicide was ingested. Signs of pulmonary status deterioration usually portend a grave prognosis in paraquat poisoning. Despite in vitro toxicity similar to paraquat, diquat does not cause lung effects in human poisonings, and reported deaths have been from other causes. Poisoned patients who receive appropriate and timely treatment are virtually assured of complete recovery from most insecticide and herbicide poisonings. Deaths and long-term sequelae most often result from respiratory complications, which may occur as complications of the intoxication or from other constituents in the insecticide or herbicide formulation. Good supportive care with meticulous attention to, and anticipation of, respiratory complications is absolutely essential to prevent long-term sequelae or death from hypoxia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3515303

Mortensen, M L

1986-04-01

223

A Rare Cause for Acute Chest Pain in the Emergency Setting That Is Hard to Swallow  

PubMed Central

Intramural esophageal hematoma is a very rare but important cause of chest pain. This condition shares similarity with the diagnosis of other thoracic emergencies and has a high potential for misdiagnosis. The emergency clinician plays a critical role in the early identification and management of these patients. The management of intramural hematomas is typically conservative, and a misdiagnosis could lead to deleterious effects. Preexisting coagulopathy is one of the major risk factors. With the advent of new anticoagulation medications to prevent thromboembolic events, it is important that emergency medicine providers expand the differential diagnosis of chest pain. PMID:23956888

Sharkey, Meenal

2013-01-01

224

Acute liver failure caused by 'fat burners' and dietary supplements: a case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Globally, people are struggling with obesity. Many effective, nonconventional methods of weight reduction, such as herbal and natural dietary supplements, are increasingly being sought. Fat burners are believed to raise metabolism, burn more calories and hasten fat loss. Despite patient perceptions that herbal remedies are free of adverse effects, some supplements are associated with severe hepatotoxicity. The present report describes a young healthy woman who presented with fulminant hepatic failure requiring emergent liver transplantation caused by a dietary supplement and fat burner containing usnic acid, green tea and guggul tree extracts. Thorough investigation, including histopathological examination, revealed no other cause of hepatotoxicity. The present case adds to the increasing number of reports of hepatotoxicity associated with dietary supplements containing usnic acid, and highlights that herbal extracts from green tea or guggul tree may not be free of adverse effects. Until these products are more closely regulated and their advertising better scrutinized, physicians and patients should become more familiar with herbal products that are commonly used as weight loss supplements and recognize those that are potentially harmful. PMID:21499580

Yellapu, Radha K; Mittal, Vivek; Grewal, Priya; Fiel, Mariaisabel; Schiano, Thomas

2011-03-01

225

Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Memphis 37 Causes Acute Respiratory Disease in Perinatal Lamb Lung  

PubMed Central

Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization due to respiratory illness among infants and young children of industrialized countries. There is a lack of understanding of the severe disease mechanisms as well as limited treatment options, none of which are fully satisfactory. This is partly due to lack of a relevant animal model of perinatal RSV infection that mimics moderate to severe disease in infants. We and others have shown mild disease in perinatal lambs with either a bovine or a human A2 strain of RSV. The Memphis 37 clinical strain of human RSV has been used to produce mild to moderate upper respiratory disease in healthy adult volunteers. We hypothesized that the Memphis 37 strain of RSV would infect perinatal lambs and produce clinical disease similar to that in human infants. Perinatal (3- to 5-day-old) lambs were inoculated intranasally with 2?mL/nostril of 1×105 focus-forming units (FFU)/mL (n=2) or 2.1×108 FFU/mL (n=3) of RSV Memphis 37. Clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, and immune and inflammatory responses were assessed. Memphis 37 caused moderate to severe gross and histologic lesions along with increased mRNA expression of macrophage inflammatory protein. Clinically, four of the five infected lambs had a mild to severe increase in expiratory effort. Intranasally administered RSV strain Memphis 37 infects neonatal lambs with gross, histologic, and immune responses similar to those observed in human infants. PMID:24804166

van Geelen, Albert; Gallup, Jack M.; Kienzle, Thomas; Shelly, Daniel A.; Cihlar, Tomas; King, Robert R.; Ackermann, Mark R.

2014-01-01

226

Human respiratory syncytial virus memphis 37 causes acute respiratory disease in perinatal lamb lung.  

PubMed

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization due to respiratory illness among infants and young children of industrialized countries. There is a lack of understanding of the severe disease mechanisms as well as limited treatment options, none of which are fully satisfactory. This is partly due to lack of a relevant animal model of perinatal RSV infection that mimics moderate to severe disease in infants. We and others have shown mild disease in perinatal lambs with either a bovine or a human A2 strain of RSV. The Memphis 37 clinical strain of human RSV has been used to produce mild to moderate upper respiratory disease in healthy adult volunteers. We hypothesized that the Memphis 37 strain of RSV would infect perinatal lambs and produce clinical disease similar to that in human infants. Perinatal (3- to 5-day-old) lambs were inoculated intranasally with 2?mL/nostril of 1×10(5) focus-forming units (FFU)/mL (n=2) or 2.1×10(8) FFU/mL (n=3) of RSV Memphis 37. Clinical signs, gross and histological lesions, and immune and inflammatory responses were assessed. Memphis 37 caused moderate to severe gross and histologic lesions along with increased mRNA expression of macrophage inflammatory protein. Clinically, four of the five infected lambs had a mild to severe increase in expiratory effort. Intranasally administered RSV strain Memphis 37 infects neonatal lambs with gross, histologic, and immune responses similar to those observed in human infants. PMID:24804166

Derscheid, Rachel J; van Geelen, Albert; Gallup, Jack M; Kienzle, Thomas; Shelly, Daniel A; Cihlar, Tomas; King, Robert R; Ackermann, Mark R

2014-04-01

227

ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY CAUSED BY Crotalus AND Bothrops SNAKE VENOM: A REVIEW OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND TREATMENT  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Ophidic accidents are an important public health problem due to their incidence, morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of cases have been registered in Brazil in the last few years. Several studies point to the importance of knowing the clinical complications and adequate approach in these accidents. However, knowledge about the risk factors is not enough and there are an increasing number of deaths due to these accidents in Brazil. In this context, acute kidney injury (AKI) appears as one of the main causes of death and consequences for these victims, which are mainly young males working in rural areas. Snakes of the Bothrops and Crotalus genera are the main responsible for renal involvement in ophidic accidents in South America. The present study is a literature review of AKI caused by Bothrops and Crotalus snake venom regarding diverse characteristics, emphasizing the most appropriate therapeutic approach for these cases. Recent studies have been carried out searching for complementary therapies for the treatment of ophidic accidents, including the use of lipoic acid, simvastatin and allopurinol. Some plants, such as Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae and Rubiaceae seem to have a beneficial role in the treatment of this type of envenomation. Future studies will certainly find new therapeutic measures for ophidic accidents. PMID:24037282

Albuquerque, Polianna L.M.M.; Jacinto, Camilla N.; Silva, Geraldo B.; Lima, Juliana B.; Veras, Maria do Socorro B.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

2013-01-01

228

Zinc causes acute impairment of glutathione metabolism followed by coordinated antioxidant defenses amplification in gills of brown mussels Perna perna.  

PubMed

Zinc demonstrates protective and antioxidant properties at physiological levels, although these characteristics are not attributed at moderate or high concentrations. Zinc toxicity has been related to a number of factors, including interference with antioxidant defenses. In particular, the inhibition of glutathione reductase (GR) has been suggested as a possible mechanism for acute zinc toxicity in bivalves. The present work investigates the biochemical effects of a non-lethal zinc concentration on antioxidant-related parameters in gills of brown mussels Perna perna exposed for 21 days to 2.6 ?M zinc chloride. After 2 days of exposure, zinc caused impairment of the antioxidant system, decreasing GR activity and glutathione levels. An increase in antioxidant defenses became evident at 7 and 21 days of exposure, as an increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity along with restoration of glutathione levels and GR activity. After 7 and 21 days, an increase in cellular peroxides and lipid peroxidation end products were also detected, which are indicative of oxidative damage. Changes in GR activity contrasts with protein immunoblotting data, suggesting that zinc produces a long lasting inhibition of GR. Contrary to the general trend in antioxidants, levels of peroxiredoxin 6 decreased after 21 days of exposure. The data presented here support the hypothesis that zinc can impair thiol homeostasis, causes an increase in lipid peroxidation and inhibits GR, imposing a pro-oxidant status, which seems to trigger homeostatic mechanisms leading to a subsequent increase on antioxidant-related defenses. PMID:24095941

Trevisan, Rafael; Flesch, Samira; Mattos, Jacó Joaquim; Milani, Márcio Raimundo; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

2014-01-01

229

Acute cigarette smoke exposure causes lung injury in rabbits treated with ibuprofen  

SciTech Connect

We studied lung clearance of aerosolized technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/TcDTPA), plasma concentrations of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2, and pulmonary edema as indices of lung injury in rabbits exposed to cigarette smoke (CSE). Forty-six rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 groups: control sham smoke exposure (SS, N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), sham smoke exposure ibuprofen-pretreated (SS-I, N = 10), CSE (N = 9), and CSE ibuprofen-pretreated (CSE-I, N = 19). Ibuprofen (cyclooxygenase eicosanoid inhibitor) was administered as a single daily intramuscular injection (25 mg/kg) for 7 days before the experiment. Cigarette or sham smoke was delivered by syringe in a series of 5, 10, 20, and 30 tidal volume breaths with a 15-min counting period between each subset of breaths to determine /sup 99m/TcDTPA biological half-life (T1/2). In the ibuprofen pretreated group, CSE caused significant decreases in /sup 99m/TcDTPA T1/2 and dynamic lung compliance. Furthermore, these changes in lung function were accompanied by severe injury to type I alveolar cell epithelium, pulmonary edema, and frequently death of the rabbits. These findings suggest that inhibition of the cyclooxygenase pathway before CSE exacerbates lung injury in rabbits.

Witten, M.L.; Lemen, R.J.; Quan, S.F.; Sobonya, R.E.; Magarelli, J.L.; Bruck, D.C.

1987-01-01

230

Torsion of the epiploic appendix: An unusual cause of acute abdomen  

PubMed Central

Summary: Torsion of an epiploic appendix is a rare surgical entity. We present our experience in a thirty five year old female patient and a forty year old male patient. Materials and Methods: A 35 year old lady had presented with right iliac fossa pain of 2 days duration. Guarding and rebound tenderness was present over the area. Investigations showed mild leucocytosis and neutrophilia. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed an inflamed epiploic appendix which was excised. Other intrabdominal organs were normal. A 40 year old male patient had presented with a history of recurrent, colicky, and paroxysmal right lower quadrant pain for 2 months. At laparoscopy, an inflamed torted epiploic appendix of the ascending colon was detected and excised. Other intrabdominal organs were normal. Results: Both the patients had an uneventful recovery and are asymptomatic at follow up of 10 and 7 months respectively. They have been followed up at 7 days, 4 wks and then 3 monthly. Discussion: The clinical presentation of an inflamed appendices epiploicae may be confusing. CT is helpful in disgnosis. Laparoscopy may be used to diagnose and treat the condition as well. Conclusion: Diagnostic laparoscopy is an useful tool for surgeons in assessing abdominal pain where the cause is elusive. It may be used to diagnose and treat torsion of an epiploic appendix effectively. PMID:21124656

Bandyopadhyay, Samik Kumar; Jain, Mayank; Khanna, Shashi; Sen, Bimalendu; Tantia, Om

2007-01-01

231

Acute increase in plasma osmolality as a cause of hyperkalemia in patients with renal failure.  

PubMed

These studies were performed in patients with chronic renal failure to understand the mechanism(s) of hyperkalemia secondary to hypertonic NaCl infusion. In 10 patients, after intravenous infusion of either 5% or 2.5% NaCl (6 mEq per kg body wt for 120 minutes in both solutions), the maximum increase in plasma potassium averaged 0.6 (range 0.3 to 1.3) mmol/liter (P less than 0.01) or 0.3 (range 0.2 to 0.6) mmol/liter (P less than 0.01), respectively. The rise of both plasma potassium and osmolality was significantly higher during 5% NaCl than during 2.5% NaCl infusion (P less than 0.01). A significant linear correlation (P less than 0.01) between plasma potassium and osmolality was observed. Urinary potassium excretion was increased to a similar extent by 5% NaCl and 2.5% NaCl infusion. The observed hyperkalemia, secondary to NaCl infusion, was independent of venous pH, plasma bicarbonate, anion gap, insulin levels, and urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine excretion, and was associated with a fall in plasma aldosterone concentration. In separate studies, nine patients were treated with desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 20 mg i.m. for three days) before receiving saline (5%) infusion. DOCA did not prevent the level increase in plasma potassium that remained significantly correlated with plasma osmolality (P less than 0.01). In conclusion, hypertonic NaCl infusion in patients with renal failure causes a clinically relevant hyperkalemia despite increased renal excretion of potassium. This hyperkalemia is independent of acid-base or hormonal mechanisms known to regulate extrarenal homeostasis of potassium, and is strictly correlated with a rise in plasma osmolality. PMID:2402122

Conte, G; Dal Canton, A; Imperatore, P; De Nicola, L; Gigliotti, G; Pisanti, N; Memoli, B; Fuiano, G; Esposito, C; Andreucci, V E

1990-08-01

232

Long-term outcomes and causes of death after acute coronary syndrome in patients in the bologna, Italy, area.  

PubMed

We sought to evaluate the rates, time course, and causes of death in the long-term follow-up of unselected patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We enrolled 2046 consecutive patients hospitalized from January 2004 to December 2005 with an audited final diagnosis of ACS. The primary study end point was 5-year all-cause mortality. In our series, 896 patients had ST-segment elevation (STE) and 1,150 non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE). Mean age of the study population was 71.6 years. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 86% of STE-ACS, and 70% of NSTE-ACS was managed invasively. The 5-year all-cause mortality was 36.4% for STE-ACS and 42.0% for NSTE-ACS, with patients with STE-ACS showing a trend boarding statistical significance toward a lower risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76 to 1.02, p = 0.08). Landmark analysis demonstrated that patients with STE-ACS had a higher risk of 30-day mortality (STE-ACS vs NSTE-ACS HR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.06, p = 0.003) whereas the risk of NSTE-ACS increased markedly after 1 year (STE-ACS vs NSTE-ACS HR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.84, p = 0.001). The contribution of noncardiovascular (CV) causes to overall mortality increased from 3% at 30 days to 34% at 5 years, with cancer and infections being the most common causes of non-CV death both in STE-ACS and NSTE-ACS. In conclusion, long-term mortality after ACS is still too high both for STE-ACS and NSTE-ACS. Although patients with STE-ACS have a higher mortality during the first year, the mortality of patients with NSTE-ACS increases later, when non-CV co-morbidities gain greater importance. PMID:25465930

Vagnarelli, Fabio; Taglieri, Nevio; Ortolani, Paolo; Norscini, Giulia; Cinti, Laura; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Marino, Massimiliano; Lorenzini, Massimiliano; Bugani, Giulia; Corsini, Anna; Semprini, Franco; Nanni, Samuele; Tricoci, Pierluigi; De Palma, Rossana; Rapezzi, Claudio; Melandri, Giovanni

2015-01-15

233

Frequent Detection of Multidrug-Resistant Pneumonia-Causing Bacteria in the Pneumonia Lung Tissues of Patients with Hematological Malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pneumonia is a critical issue during the agonal phase, and often becomes lethal in the absence of pathogen detection. Autopsy\\u000a is a powerful tool for analyzing the cause of a patient’s death, progression of the disease, and the therapeutic response.\\u000a However, it is frequently limited to the identification of bacterial strains. To elucidate the pathogenesis during the agonal\\u000a phase of

Kunihiro Inai; Hiromichi Iwasaki; Sakon Noriki; Satoshi Ikegaya; Masanori Yamashita; Yoshiaki Imamura; Nobuo Takimoto; Hisataka Kato; Takanori Ueda; Hironobu Naiki

2007-01-01

234

Frequent detection of multidrug-resistant pneumonia-causing bacteria in the pneumonia lung tissues of patients with hematological malignancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pneumonia is a critical issue during the agonal phase, and often becomes lethal in the absence of pathogen detection. Autopsy\\u000a is a powerful tool for analyzing the cause of a patient’s death, progression of the disease, and the therapeutic response.\\u000a However, it is frequently limited to the identification of bacterial strains. To elucidate the pathogenesis during the agonal\\u000a phase of

Kunihiro Inai; Hiromichi Iwasaki; Sakon Noriki; Satoshi Ikegaya; Masanori Yamashita; Yoshiaki Imamura; Nobuo Takimoto; Hisataka Kato; Takanori Ueda; Hironobu Naiki

2007-01-01

235

An outbreak of acute febrile illness caused by Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus in the Afar region of Ethiopia, 2011.  

PubMed

In malaria-endemic regions, many medical facilities have limited capacity to diagnose non-malarial etiologies of acute febrile illness (AFI). As a result, the etiology of AFI is seldom determined, although AFI remains a major cause of morbidity in developing countries. An outbreak of AFI was reported in the Afar region of Ethiopia in August of 2011. Retrospectively, 12,816 suspected AFI cases were identified by review of medical records. Symptoms were mild and self-limiting within 3 days after the date of onset; no fatalities were identified. All initial test results of AFI patient specimens were negative for selected pathogens using standard microbiological and molecular techniques. High-throughput sequencing of nucleic acid extracts of serum specimens from 29 AFI cases identified 17 (59%) of 29 samples as positive for Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus (SFSV). These results were further confirmed by specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. This is the first study implicating SFSV as an etiological agent for AFI in Ethiopia. PMID:25266349

Woyessa, Abyot Bekele; Omballa, Victor; Wang, David; Lambert, Amy; Waiboci, Lilian; Ayele, Workenesh; Ahmed, Abdi; Abera, Negga Asamene; Cao, Song; Ochieng, Melvin; Montgomery, Joel M; Jima, Daddi; Fields, Barry

2014-12-01

236

Acute intoxication caused by overdose of flunitrazepam and triazolam: high concentration of metabolites detected at autopsy examination.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old woman was found dead on the floor of the living room on the first floor of a house, which belonged to the man with whom she shared the house. On visiting the site, her clothes were found to be undisturbed. Packages of flunitrazepam (Silece, 2 mg/tablet) and triazolam (Halcion, 0.25 mg/tablet) were found strewn around the victim. Toxicological analysis was performed, and the concentrations of flunitrazepam, triazolam, and their metabolites in the victim's blood and urine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry. A high blood concentration of 7-aminoflunitrazepam was detected (1,270 ng/g), and further metabolites such as 7-acetamidoflunitrazepam, 7-acetamidodesmethylflunitrazepam, and 7-aminodesmethylflunitrazepam were detected in the blood and urine samples. In addition, 4-hydroxytriazolam and ?-hydroxytriazolam were detected in her urine at a concentration of 950 and 12,100 ng/mL, respectively.On the basis of the autopsy findings and toxicology results of high concentrations of both flunitrazepam and triazolam derivatives, the cause of death was determined to be acute intoxication from flunitrazepam and triazolam. PMID:21372658

Namera, Akira; Makita, Ryosuke; Saruwatari, Tatsuro; Hatano, Aiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Nagao, Masataka

2012-12-01

237

Study in vitro of the impact of endophytic bacteria isolated from Centella asiatica on the disease incidence caused by the hemibiotrophic fungus Colletotrichum higginsianum.  

PubMed

Thirty-one endophytic bacteria isolated from healthy leaves of Centella asiatica were screened in vitro for their ability to reduce the growth rate and disease incidence of Colletotrichum higginsianum, a causal agent of anthracnose. Isolates of Cohnella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Pantoea sp. significantly stimulated the growth rate of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, while isolates of Achromobacter sp., Acinetobacter sp., Microbacterium sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas putida had no influence on this plant pathogen. By contrast, Bacillus subtilis BCA31 and Pseudomonas fluorescens BCA08 caused a marked inhibition of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 growth by 46 and 82 %, respectively. Cell-free culture filtrates of B. subtilis BCA31 and P. fluorescens BCA08 were found to contain antifungal compounds against C. higginsianum MUCL 44942. Inoculation assays on in vitro-cultured plants of C. asiatica showed that foliar application of B. subtilis BCA31, three days before inoculation with C. higginsianum MUCL 44942, significantly reduced incidence and severity of the disease. The role of endophytic bacteria in maintaining the apparent inactivity of C. higginsianum MUCL 44942 in C. asiatica grown in the wild is discussed. PMID:22903452

Rakotoniriana, Erick Francisco; Rafamantanana, Mamy; Randriamampionona, Denis; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Urveg-Ratsimamanga, Suzanne; El Jaziri, Mondher; Munaut, Françoise; Corbisier, Anne-Marie; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle; Declerck, Stéphane

2013-01-01

238

Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).  

PubMed

Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds. PMID:18327481

Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

2008-01-01

239

The Overexpression of KIT Proto-Oncogene in Acute Leukemic Cells Is Not Necessarily Caused by the Gene Mutation.  

PubMed

KIT is detected in a variety of cells, also in acute leukemia. Inhibition of wild-type KIT is not always satisfactory. The aim of this work was to evaluate the frequency of the most common KIT mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and determine the correlation between mutation and expression level. Samples were obtained from 75 patients with AL. CD117 presence was shown in 45 of 51 patients with AML and in 1 of 16 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Asp816Val mutation was found in 3.5% of cases of AML and Val560Gly mutation in 1 sample with acute biclonal leukemia. Other genetic changes were found in 15 of 57 samples with AML: polymorphisms Met541Leu in 14% of cases, Lys546Lys in 7% and 1 case of acute biclonal leukemia, Ile798Ile in 5.3% of cases, Met541Leu in 1 acute biphenotypic leukemia and in 6.3% of ALL. Polymorphism Lys546Lys was also shown in 1 case of acute biclonal leukemia. Nonsilent genetic changes were detected in a total of 23% cases with core binding factor leukemia. There was no statistical significance between KIT expression and genetic changes. There was no correlation between the incidence and types of KIT mutations and its expression on cells in AML. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25247397

Szatkowski, Damian; Hellmann, Andrzej

2015-01-01

240

Living donor liver transplantation for acute liver failure in pediatric patients caused by the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus.  

PubMed

Yellow phosphorus is a protoplasmic toxicant that targets the liver. The ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus, either by children who accidentally consume them or by adults who are attempting suicide, often results in death due to acute liver failure (ALF). We present the outcomes of 10 children who ingested fireworks containing yellow phosphorus. There were 6 boys and 4 girls, and their ages ranged from 21 to 60 months. One patient remained stable without liver complications and was discharged. Three patients died of hepatorenal failure and cardiovascular collapse, and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was performed for 6 patients. The patients had grade II or III encephalopathy, a mean alanine aminotransferase level of 1148.2 IU/L, a mean aspartate aminotransferase level of 1437.5 IU/L, a mean total bilirubin level of 6.9 mg/dL, a mean international normalized ratio of 6.6, a mean Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease score of 33.7, and a mean Child-Pugh score of 11.3. Postoperatively, 2 patients had persistent encephalopathy and died on the second or third postoperative day, and 1 patient died of cardiac arrest on the first postoperative day despite a well-functioning graft. The other 3 patients were still alive at a mean of 204 days. In conclusion, the ingestion of fireworks containing yellow phosphorus causes ALF with a high mortality rate. When signs of irreversible ALF are detected, emergency LDLT should be considered as a lifesaving procedure; however, if yellow phosphorus toxicity affects both the brain and the heart in addition to the liver, the mortality rate remains very high despite liver transplantation. PMID:21761550

Ates, Mustafa; Dirican, Abuzer; Ozgor, Dincer; Aydin, Cemalettin; Isik, Burak; Ara, Cengiz; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Ayse Selimoglu, M; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Yilmaz, Sezai

2011-11-01

241

Psychological Stress and 30-Day All-Cause Hospital Readmission in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: An Observational Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Many acute coronary syndrome (ACS; myocardial infarction and unstable angina) patients are rehospitalized within 30 days of discharge, and recent US health policy initiatives have tied hospital Medicare reimbursement to 30-day readmission rates. Patient-perceived psychological stress is thought to impact prognosis after ACS. A recently offered “posthospital syndrome” model of 30-day readmissions posits that the stress level at the time of the index hospitalization itself may increase 30-day risk for readmission in ACS patients. We tested whether self-reported stress in the days surrounding the ACS hospitalization was associated with increased risk for readmission within 30 days. Methods A mean of 8.5 days after discharge, 342 consecutively hospitalized ACS patients reported on how often they felt stress during the past two weeks. Readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge for any cause was determined by follow-up telephone calls to patients and confirmed by hospital records. Results Overall, 40 (11.7%) participants were readmitted within 30 days, and 22 (6.4%) reported high stress. Readmission within 30 days was more common in patients with high stress (5 admissions, 23%) than in patients with low stress (35 admissions, 11%). After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, as well as depression, high stress was associated with a 3-fold increased risk of 30-day readmission (HR?=?3.21, 95% CI?=?1.13, 9.10). Conclusions Previous research has shown that stress in the days surrounding a hospitalization can mark long-term cardiovascular risk, but this is the first study to test a hypothesis of the posthospital syndrome model of early readmission. Further research is needed to confirm the association between stress and readmission risk, and to identify the processes of hospitalization that could be modified to both reduce the stress experienced and that would also be effective for reducing readmissions. PMID:24621575

Edmondson, Donald; Green, Philip; Ye, Siqin; Halazun, Hadi J.; Davidson, Karina W.

2014-01-01

242

Acute toxicity of heavy metals to acetate-utilizing mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria: EC100 and EC50.  

PubMed

Acid mine drainage from abandoned mines and acid mine pit lakes is an important environmental concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of acid mine drainage, knowledge of acute metal toxicity levels for SRB is essential for the proper functioning of the treatment system for acid mine drainage. Quantification of heavy metal toxicity to mixed cultures of SRB is complicated by the confounding effects of metal hydroxide and sulfide precipitation, biosorption, and complexation with the constituents of the reaction matrix. The objective of this paper was to demonstrate that measurements of dissolved metal concentrations could be used to determine the toxicity parameters for mixed cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The effective concentration, 100% (EC100), the lowest initial dissolved metal concentrations at which no sulfate reduction is observed, and the effective concentration, 50% (EC50), the initial dissolved metal concentrations resulting in a 50% decrease in sulfate reduction, for copper and zinc were determined in the present study by means of nondestructive, rapid physical and chemical analytical techniques. The reaction medium used in the experiments was designed specifically (in terms of pH and chemical composition) to provide the nutrients necessary for the sulfidogenic activity of the SRB and to preclude chemical precipitation of the metals under investigation. The toxicity-mitigating effects of biosorption of dissolved metals were also quantified. Anaerobic Hungate tubes were set up (at least in triplicate) and monitored for sulfate-reduction activity. The onset of SRB activity was detected by the blackening of the reaction mixture because of formation of insoluble ferrous sulfide. The EC100 values were found to be 12 mg/L for copper and 20 mg/L for zinc. The dissolved metal concentration measurements were effective as the indicators of the effect of the heavy metals at concentrations below EC100. The 7-d EC50 values obtained from the difference between the dissolved metal concentrations for the control tubes (tubes not containing copper or zinc) and tubes containing metals were found to be 10.5 mg/L for copper and 16.5 mg/L for zinc. Measurements of the turbidity and pH, bacterial population estimations by means of a most-probable number technique, and metal recovery in the sulfide precipitate were found to have only a limited applicability in these determinations. PMID:11764146

Utgikar, V P; Chen, B Y; Chaudhary, N; Tabak, H H; Haines, J R; Govind, R

2001-12-01

243

Acute periodontal lesions.  

PubMed

This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute disease is under control, definitive treatment should be provided, including appropriate therapy for the pre-existing gingivitis or periodontitis. Among other acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, but not caused by the microorganisms present in oral biofilms, infectious diseases, mucocutaneous diseases and traumatic or allergic lesions can be listed. In most cases, the gingival involvement is not severe; however, these conditions are common and may prompt an emergency dental visit. These conditions may have the appearance of an erythematous lesion, which is sometimes erosive. Erosive lesions may be the direct result of trauma or a consequence of the breaking of vesicles and bullae. A proper differential diagnosis is important for adequate management of the case. PMID:24738591

Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

2014-06-01

244

Fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve: A cause of acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a three-year-old child: A case report and comprehensive literature review.  

PubMed

A three-year-old boy was investigated for inexplicable incessant crying. On examination, his left wrist was mildly swollen (three to four months) and sensitive. Exploration and carpal tunnel decompression of the left wrist with incisional biopsy was performed for the presence of a fusiform swelling intimately associated with the median nerve. Histopathology revealed the presence of enlarged nerve bundles admixed with mature fat cells and diffuse fibroblastic proliferation. Three months later, he underwent urgent contralateral carpal tunnel decompression for a similar presentation. The final diagnosis was bilateral fibrolipomatous hamartoma (FLH) of the median nerves causing acute bilateral compression neuropathy. FLH of the median nerve is an extremely unusual cause of acute bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome in a young child presenting with 'incessant crying'. A comprehensive review of FLH including epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, imaging, pathology, treatment and prognosis is discussed. PMID:25332651

Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Classen, Dale; Bruce, Garth; Kanthan, Rani

2014-01-01

245

Posttraumatic stress due to an acute coronary syndrome increases risk of 42-month major adverse cardiac events and all-cause mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 15% of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to their ACS event. We assessed whether ACS-induced PTSD symptoms increase risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and all-cause mortality (ACM) in an observational cohort study of 247 patients (aged 25–93 years; 45% women) hospitalized for an ACS at one of 3 academic medical

Donald Edmondson; Nina Rieckmann; Jonathan A. Shaffer; Joseph E. Schwartz; Matthew M. Burg; Karina W. Davidson; Lynn Clemow; Daichi Shimbo; Ian M. Kronish

2011-01-01

246

Draft Genome Sequences of Four Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Three of Which Cause Early Mortality Syndrome/Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease in Shrimp in China and Thailand  

PubMed Central

We sequenced four Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, three of which caused serious acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease. Sequence analysis of the virulent strains revealed not only genes related to cholera toxin and the type IV pilus/type IV secretion system but also a unique, previously unreported, large extrachromosomal plasmid that encodes a homolog to the insecticidal Photorhabdus insect-related binary toxin PirAB. PMID:25189578

Yang, Yi-Ting; Chen, I-Tung; Lee, Chung-Te; Chen, Chien-Yu; Lin, Shih-Shun; Hor, Lien-I; Tseng, Ta-Chien; Huang, Yun-Tzu; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Thitamadee, Siripong; Wang, Han-Ching

2014-01-01

247

Tolerization of Mice to Schistosoma mansoni Egg Antigens Causes Elevated Type 1 and Diminished Type 2 Cytokine Responses and Increased Mortality in Acute Infection1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The granuloma that surrounds the Schistosoma mansoni egg is the cause of pathology in murine schistosomiasis, and its formation is driven by egg Ag-stimulated type 1 and type 2 cytokines. To determine the role of egg-driven immune responses during schistosome infection we rendered CBA\\/Ca mice unresponsive to schistosome eggs by combined cyclophosphamide treatment and thymectomy. In the early acute stages

Padraic G. Fallon; David W. Dunne

248

Acute toxic hepatitis caused by an aloe vera preparation in a young patient: a case report with a literature review.  

PubMed

Aloe is one of the leading products used in phytomedicine. Several cases of aloe-induced toxic hepatitis have been reported in recent years. However, its toxicology has not yet been systematically described in the literature. A 21-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital with acute hepatitis after taking an aloe vera preparation for four weeks. Her history, clinical manifestation, laboratory findings, and histological findings all led to the diagnosis of aloe vera-induced toxic hepatitis. We report herein on a case of acute toxic hepatitis induced by aloe vera. PMID:25073673

Lee, Jeonghun; Lee, Mi Sun; Nam, Kwan Woo

2014-07-01

249

Outbreak of acute respiratory disease caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae on board a deployed U.S. navy ship.  

PubMed

We identified 179 cases of acute respiratory illness including 50 cases of radiographically confirmed pneumonia over the course of 4 months on a deployed U.S. Navy vessel. Laboratory tests showed Mycoplasma pneumoniae to be the etiological agent. This report represents the first published description of a shipboard outbreak of this pathogen. PMID:19846632

Sliman, Joseph A; Metzgar, David; Asseff, David C; Coon, Robert G; Faix, Dennis J; Lizewski, Stephen

2009-12-01

250

Splenic infarction: a rare cause of acute abdominal pain presenting in an older patient with primary antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splenic infarction is an uncommon condition that is rarely encountered in emergency and internal medicine. This condition is usually associated with systemic conditions such as hypercoagulable states, hemoglobinopathies, systemic lupus erythematosus, hematologic disorders, and cardiac thromboembolism during atrial fibrillation and endocarditis [1]. We describe a case of a woman with an acute abdominal pain due to splenic infarction from splenic

Marco Rossato; Martina Paccagnella; Marta Burei; Giovanni Federspil; Roberto Vettor

2009-01-01

251

Postpartum spontaneous dissection of the first obtuse marginal branch of the left circumflex coronary artery causing acute coronary syndrome: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare but important cause of acute coronary syndrome. It can cause unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden death. The condition commonly affects young females with about one-third of the cases occurring during pregnancy and the peripartum period. The diagnosis may occasionally be overlooked as the patients are often young and have no risk factors for coronary artery disease. Case presentation Here we report the case of a 29-year-old African American woman who presented with acute coronary syndrome due to spontaneous dissection of the first obtuse marginal branch of the left circumflex coronary artery at three weeks post-partum and recovered requiring only medical management, possibly by longitudinal distribution of the intramural hematoma leading to good distal flow. Conclusions Spontaneous coronary artery dissection should be suspected in all young multiparous females presenting with chest pain in the peripartum period even in the absence of risk factors. Urgent diagnosis by angiography is required. It is recommended that treatment should be tailored to meet individual circumstances. Patients who present with single-vessel disease and hemodynamic stability, and who receive medical treatment with anticoagulation, nitrates and a beta-blocker, should experience good results. PMID:23510019

2013-01-01

252

Haemophilus influenzae type b as an important cause of culture-positive acute otitis media in young children in Thailand: a tympanocentesis-based, multi-center, cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) and Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) are considered major causes of bacterial acute otitis media (AOM) worldwide, but data from Asia on primary causes of AOM are limited. This tympanocentesis-based, multi-center, cross-sectional study assessed bacterial etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of AOM in Thailand. Methods Children 3 to 59 months presenting with AOM (Bacteria were identified from middle ear fluid collected by tympanocentesis or spontaneous otorrhea swab sampling (causes of bacterial AOM and there was an unexpectedly high burden of Hib in this population unvaccinated by any Hib conjugate vaccine. Conjugate vaccines effective against pneumococcus and H. influenzae could potentially reduce the burden of AOM in this population. PMID:24947736

2014-01-01

253

Bacterial characteristics as predictors of posttherapy recurrent bacteriuria among children with acute uncomplicated cystitis caused by Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Multiple characteristics of pretherapy Escherichia coli urine isolates from 39 children with acute, uncomplicated cystitis (including specific virulence genes and phylogenetic groups) identified an increased risk for recurrent bacteriuria after 3-day (but not 10-day) therapy with amoxicillin-clavulanate. Rapid testing conceivably could facilitate rational selection of treatment duration for pediatric cystitis. Certain traits might represent good targets for preventive interventions. PMID:18043456

Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian; Murray, Andrew; Kuskowski, Michael A; Maslow, Joel N; Johnson, Candice

2007-12-01

254

Acute hemorrhagic and necrotizing pneumonia, splenitis, and dermatitis in a pet rabbit caused by a novel herpesvirus (leporid herpesvirus-4)  

PubMed Central

A 1.5-year-old female rabbit (doe) was presented with a 3-day history of lethargy, anorexia, and mild facial swelling. The animal died shortly after examination and severe, acute hemorrhagic pneumonia was noted grossly. An alphaherpesvirus consistent with leporid herpesvirus-4 was isolated and characterized from this animal. This is the first confirmed report of the disease in Canada. PMID:21358932

Brash, Marina L.; Nagy, Éva; Pei, Yanlong; Carman, Susy; Emery, Susan; Smith, Alec E.; Turner, Patricia V.

2010-01-01

255

Endoscopic treatment of gastric perforation caused by acute necrotizing pancreatitis using over-the-scope clips: a case report.  

PubMed

Gastric perforation is a rare complication after acute necrotizing pancreatitis. We describe endoscopic closure of a gastric perforation that appeared 4 days after surgical necrosectomy including splenectomy due to necrotizing pancreatitis, using the over-the-scope clip (OTSC) system (Ovesco Endoscopy GmbH, Tübingen, Germany). The clips, which are made of nitinol, are loaded onto an application cap which is mounted on the distal tip of the endoscope. The lesion was closed with two clips and the patient recovered well without reinterventions. The lesions showed normal healing on follow-up. PMID:18072063

Kirschniak, A; Traub, F; Kueper, M A; Stüker, D; Königsrainer, A; Kratt, T

2007-12-01

256

Acute Parvovirus B19 Infection Causes Nonspecificity Frequently in Borrelia and Less Often in Salmonella and Campylobacter Serology, Posing a Problem in Diagnosis of Infectious Arthropathy ?  

PubMed Central

Several infectious agents may cause arthritis or arthropathy. For example, infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, may in the late phase manifest as arthropathy. Infections with Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Yersinia may result in a postinfectious reactive arthritis. Acute infection with parvovirus B19 (B19V) may likewise initiate transient or chronic arthropathy. All these conditions may be clinically indistinguishable from rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we present evidence that acute B19V infection may elicit IgM antibodies that are polyspecific or cross-reactive with a variety of bacterial antigens. Their presence may lead to misdiagnosis and improper clinical management, exemplified here by two case descriptions. Further, among 33 subjects with proven recent B19V infection we found IgM enzyme immunoassay (EIA) positivity for Borrelia only; for Borrelia and Salmonella; for Borrelia and Campylobacter; and for Borrelia, Campylobacter, and Salmonella in 26 (78.7%), 1 (3%), 2 (6%), and 1 (3%), respectively; however, when examined by Borrelia LineBlot, all samples were negative. These antibodies persisted over 3 months in 4/13 (38%) patients tested. Likewise, in a retrospective comparison of the results of a diagnostic laboratory, 9/11 (82%) patients with confirmed acute B19V infection showed IgM antibody to Borrelia. However, none of 12 patients with confirmed borreliosis showed any serological evidence of acute B19V infection. Our study demonstrates that recent B19V infection can be misinterpreted as secondary borreliosis or enteropathogen-induced reactive arthritis. To obtain the correct diagnosis, we emphasize caution in interpretation of polyreactive IgM and exclusion of recent B19V infection in patients examined for infectious arthritis or arthropathy. PMID:21106777

Tuuminen, Tamara; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Seppälä, Ilkka

2011-01-01

257

Acupuncture at Houxi (SI 3) acupoint for acute neck pain caused by stiff neck: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction The use of acupuncture has been suggested for the treatment of acute neck pain caused by stiff neck in China. However, current evidence is insufficient to draw any conclusions about its efficacy. Therefore this pilot study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of acupuncture at the Houxi (SI3) acupoint for treatment of acute neck pain. Methods/analysis This pilot study will be a two-parallel-group, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Thirty-six stiff neck participants with acute neck pain will be recruited and randomly divided into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the control group will receive massage on the local neck region (5?min each session, three times a day for 3?days). In addition to massage, patients in the treatment group will receive acupuncture (one session a day for 3?days). Measures will be taken at 0, 3 and 15?days. The primary outcome is the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ). The secondary outcome is the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Ethics/dissemination The protocol for this pilot randomised clinical trial has undergone ethics scrutiny and been approved by the ethics review boards of the First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Permission number: HZYLL201303502). The findings of this study will provide important clinical evidence on the feasibility and efficacy of acupuncture treatment for stiff neck patients with acute neck pain. In addition, it will explore the feasibility of further acupuncture research. Trial registration number ChiCTR-TRC-13003911. PMID:25537784

Sun, Zhong-ren; Yue, Jin-huan; Tian, Hong-zhao; Zhang, Qin-hong

2014-01-01

258

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever as causes of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Bulgaria.  

PubMed

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) are the 2 widespread viral hemorrhagic fevers occurring in Europe. HFRS is distributed throughout Europe, and CCHF has been reported mainly on the Balkan Peninsula and Russia. Both hemorrhagic fevers are endemic in Bulgaria. We investigated to what extent acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Bulgaria could be due to hantaviruses or to CCHF virus. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), we tested serum samples from 527 patients with acute febrile illness for antibodies against hantaviruses and CCHF virus. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against hantaviruses were detected in 15 (2.8%) of the patients. Of the 15 hantavirus-positive patients, 8 (1.5%) were positive for Dobrava virus (DOBV), 5 (0.9%) were positive for Puumala virus (PUUV), and the remaining 2 were positive for both hantaviruses. A plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) confirmed 4 of the 10 DOBV-positive samples. PRNT was negative for all PUUV-positive samples. Serologic evidence of recent CCHF virus infection was found in 13 (2.5%) of the patients. Interestingly, HFRS and CCHF were not only detected in well-known endemic areas of Bulgaria but also in nonendemic regions. Our results suggested that in endemic countries, CCHF and/or HFRS might appear as a nonspecific febrile illness in a certain proportion of patients. Physicians must be aware of possible viral hemorrhagic fever cases, even if hemorrhages or renal impairment are not manifested. PMID:23421884

Christova, Iva; Younan, Rasha; Taseva, Evgenia; Gladnishka, Teodora; Trifonova, Iva; Ivanova, Vladislava; Spik, Kristin; Schmaljohn, Connie; Mohareb, Emad

2013-03-01

259

Guillain-Barré syndrome as a prominent cause of childhood acute flaccid paralysis in post polio eradication era in Egypt.  

PubMed

Guillain-Barré syndrome often follows an antecedent gastrointestinal or respiratory illness but, in rare cases, follows vaccination. This study was conducted to identify preceding events, demographic, clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome after post-poliomyelitis eradication era in Egypt. This is a prospective study of all children with GBS (no = 50) admitted to pediatric Cairo University Hospital between January 2006 and June 2007 (70.42% of all acute flaccid paralysis patients during this period). Upper respiratory infection was the most common preceding event (24%) while only 4 patients (8%) reported antecedent oral polio vaccine. Motor deficit was frequent and severe (quadriparesis in 92% and paraparesis in 8%). Autonomic dysfunction was recorded in 32% of patients. Forty two percent of patients had poor outcome with 16% deaths. Presence of severe disability on admission and on nadir, cranial nerve affection or the need for mechanical ventilator were found to be significant predictors for poor outcome. PMID:21169042

Halawa, Eman F; Ahmed, Dalia; Nada, Mona A F

2011-05-01

260

Bacteria Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Who knew that bacteria had their own virtual museum? Here, visitors will "learn that not all bacteria are harmful, how they are used in industry, that they belong to the oldest living creatures on Earth", and many more interesting facts to discover about the diverse world of bacteria. The "Bacterial Species Files" tab at the top of the page, allows visitors to look up information on 40 different specific bacteria, from Anthrax to Yersinia enterocolitica. The information provided for each bacterium includes photographs, consumer guides, fact sheets, and scientific links. Visitors will find that the "Main Exhibits" tab addresses the basics about bacteria, as well as "Pathogenic Bacteria", "Evolution", "How We Fight Bacteria", and "Food and Water Safety". Visitors will surely enjoy the "Good Bacteria in Food" link found in the Food and Water Safety section, as it explains how some foods benefit from good bacteria, such as Swiss cheese, sausage, sauerkraut, chocolate, and coffee.

261

Implementing hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections caused by influenza and other respiratory pathogens in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Background Recent experience with pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 highlighted the importance of global surveillance for severe respiratory disease to support pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. Improved surveillance in the southern hemisphere is needed to provide critical data on influenza epidemiology, disease burden, circulating strains and effectiveness of influenza prevention and control measures. Hospital-based surveillance for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases was established in New Zealand on 30 April 2012. The aims were to measure incidence, prevalence, risk factors, clinical spectrum and outcomes for SARI and associated influenza and other respiratory pathogen cases as well as to understand influenza contribution to patients not meeting SARI case definition. Methods/Design All inpatients with suspected respiratory infections who were admitted overnight to the study hospitals were screened daily. If a patient met the World Health Organization’s SARI case definition, a respiratory specimen was tested for influenza and other respiratory pathogens. A case report form captured demographics, history of presenting illness, co-morbidities, disease course and outcome and risk factors. These data were supplemented from electronic clinical records and other linked data sources. Discussion Hospital-based SARI surveillance has been implemented and is fully functioning in New Zealand. Active, prospective, continuous, hospital-based SARI surveillance is useful in supporting pandemic preparedness for emerging influenza A(H7N9) virus infections and seasonal influenza prevention and control. PMID:25077034

Baker, Michael; McArthur, Colin; Roberts, Sally; Williamson, Deborah; Grant, Cameron; Trenholme, Adrian; Wong, Conroy; Taylor, Susan; LeComte, Lyndsay; Mackereth, Graham; Bandaranayake, Don; Wood, Tim; Bissielo, Ange; Se, Ruth; Turner, Nikki; Pierse, Nevil; Thomas, Paul; Webby, Richard; Gross, Diane; Duque, Jazmin; Thompson, Mark; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

2014-01-01

262

Comparative effects of disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate against testicular toxicity in rats caused by acute exposure to cadmium  

SciTech Connect

Disulfiram (DSF) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DED) were compared for their protective effects against the testicular toxicity induced by acute exposure to cadmium (Cd) in rats. Rats were injected subcutaneously with CdCl{sub 2} [26.7 {mu}mol (3 mg) Cd/kg], and 30 min later they were injected intraperitoneally with DSF (0.05-0.5 mmol/kg) or DED (0.1-1 mmol/kg). The treatment with DSF at dose levels of 0.1-0.5 mmol/kg prevented the increases in testicular lipid peroxidation and calcium (Ca) concentrations and the decreases in testicular weight that were observed at 7 d after Cd injection. DED at dosage levels of 0.2-1 mmol/kg likewise reduced Cd-induced testicular toxicity. An increase in testicular iron (Fe) concentrations at 7 d and sterility at 59 d after Cd injection were almost completely blocked by treatment with DSF or DED at the highest doses, but lower doses of DSF or DED were ineffective. These results indicated that DSF, which is metabolized to DED, had a protective effect against Cd-induced testicular toxicity nearly equivalent to DED at approximately one-half the dose. 37 refs., 6 tabs.

Ono, Hiroshige [Miyazaki Medical College Hospital (Japan); Funakoshi, Takayuki; Shimada, Hideaki; Kojima, Shoji [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan)

1997-03-01

263

SPRED1, a RAS MAPK pathway inhibitor that causes Legius syndrome, is a tumour suppressor downregulated in paediatric acute myeloblastic leukaemia.  

PubMed

Constitutional dominant loss-of-function mutations in the SPRED1 gene cause a rare phenotype referred as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-like syndrome or Legius syndrome, consisted of multiple café-au-lait macules, axillary freckling, learning disabilities and macrocephaly. SPRED1 is a negative regulator of the RAS MAPK pathway and can interact with neurofibromin, the NF1 gene product. Individuals with NF1 have a higher risk of haematological malignancies. SPRED1 is highly expressed in haematopoietic cells and negatively regulates haematopoiesis. SPRED1 seemed to be a good candidate for leukaemia predisposition or transformation. We performed SPRED1 mutation screening and expression status in 230 paediatric lymphoblastic and acute myeloblastic leukaemias (AMLs). We found a loss-of-function frameshift SPRED1 mutation in a patient with Legius syndrome. In this patient, the leukaemia blasts karyotype showed a SPRED1 loss of heterozygosity, confirming SPRED1 as a tumour suppressor. Our observation confirmed that acute leukaemias are rare complications of the Legius syndrome. Moreover, SPRED1 was significantly decreased at RNA and protein levels in the majority of AMLs at diagnosis compared with normal or paired complete remission bone marrows. SPRED1 decreased expression correlated with genetic features of AML. Our study reveals a new mechanism which contributes to deregulate RAS MAPK pathway in the vast majority of paediatric AMLs. PMID:24469042

Pasmant, E; Gilbert-Dussardier, B; Petit, A; de Laval, B; Luscan, A; Gruber, A; Lapillonne, H; Deswarte, C; Goussard, P; Laurendeau, I; Uzan, B; Pflumio, F; Brizard, F; Vabres, P; Naguibvena, I; Fasola, S; Millot, F; Porteu, F; Vidaud, D; Landman-Parker, J; Ballerini, P

2015-01-29

264

Acute kidney failure  

MedlinePLUS

Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

265

Re-emergent Human Adenovirus Genome Type 7d Caused an Acute Respiratory Disease Outbreak in Southern China After a Twenty-one Year Absence  

PubMed Central

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55?kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed. PMID:25482188

Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

2014-01-01

266

Muscle lengthening surgery causes differential acute mechanical effects in both targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles.  

PubMed

Epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT) is a major determinant of muscle force exerted, as well as length range of force exertion. Therefore, EMFT is of importance in remedial surgery performed, e.g., in spastic paresis. We aimed to test the following hypotheses: (1) muscle lengthening surgery (involving preparatory dissection (PD) and subsequent proximal aponeurotomy (AT)) affects the target muscle force exerted at its distal and proximal tendons differentially, (2) forces of non-operated synergistic muscles are affected as well, (3) PD causes some of these effects. In three conditions (control, post-PD, and post-AT exclusively on m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL)), forces exerted by rat anterior crural muscles were measured simultaneously. Our results confirm hypotheses (1-2), and hypothesis (3) in part: Reduction of EDL maximal force differed by location (i.e. 26.3% when tested distally and 44.5% when tested proximally). EDL length range of active force exertion increased only distally. Force reductions were shown also for non-operated tibialis anterior (by 11.9%), as well as for extensor hallucis longus (by 8.4%) muscles. In tibialis anterior only, part of the force reduction (4.9%) is attributable to PD. Due to EMFT, remedial surgery should be considered to have differential effects for targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles. PMID:23837929

Ate?, Filiz; Özde?lik, Rana N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A

2013-10-01

267

New Antibiotic May Combat Resistant Bacteria  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. New Antibiotic May Combat Resistant Bacteria Teixobactin shows promise in early experiments, researchers say (* ... that could prove valuable in fighting disease-causing bacteria that no longer respond to older, more frequently ...

268

Anaemia only causes a small reduction in the upper critical temperature of sea bass: is oxygen delivery the limiting factor for tolerance of acute warming in fishes?  

PubMed

To address how the capacity for oxygen transport influences tolerance of acute warming in fishes, we investigated whether a reduction in haematocrit, by means of intra-peritoneal injection of the haemolytic agent phenylhydrazine, lowered the upper critical temperature of sea bass. A reduction in haematocrit from 42±2% to 20±3% (mean ± s.e.m.) caused a significant but minor reduction in upper critical temperature, from 35.8±0.1 to 35.1±0.2°C, with no correlation between individual values for haematocrit and upper thermal limit. Anaemia did not influence the rise in oxygen uptake between 25 and 33°C, because the anaemic fish were able to compensate for reduced blood oxygen carrying capacity with a significant increase in cardiac output. Therefore, in sea bass the upper critical temperature, at which they lost equilibrium, was not determined by an inability of the cardio-respiratory system to meet the thermal acceleration of metabolic demands. PMID:25394629

Wang, Tobias; Lefevre, Sjannie; Iversen, Nina K; Findorf, Inge; Buchanan, Rasmus; McKenzie, David J

2014-12-15

269

Molecular epidemiology of a post-influenza pandemic outbreak of acute respiratory infections in Korea caused by human adenovirus type 3.  

PubMed

An outbreak of upper respiratory tract infections associated with human adenovirus (HAdV) occurred on a national scale in Korea from September to December 2010, following a major H1N1 influenza pandemic. Data from the Korea Influenza and Respiratory Surveillance System (KINRESS) showed an unusually high positive rate accounting for up to 20% of all diagnosed cases. To determine the principal cause of the outbreak, direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by sequence analysis targeting parts of the hexon gene of HAdV was performed. Serotypes of 1,007 PCR-diagnosed HAdV-positive samples from patients with an acute upper respiratory tract illness were determined and epidemiological characteristics including major aged group and clinical symptoms were analyzed. The principal symptom of HAdV infections was fever and the vulnerable aged group was 1-5 years old. Based on sequence analysis, HAdV-3 was the predominant serotype in the outbreak, with an incidence of 74.3%. From the beginning of 2010 until May, the major serotypes were HAdV-1, 2, and 5 (70-100%) in any given period. However, an outbreak dominated by HAdV-3 started between July and August and peaked in September. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that there was no genetic variation in HAdV-3. The results demonstrated that an outbreak of upper respiratory illness followed by H1N1 influenza pandemic in Korea was caused mainly by emerged HAdV-3. J. Med. Virol. 87: 10-17, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24889391

Lee, Wan-Ji; Jung, Hee-Dong; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Kim, Kisoon

2015-01-01

270

Acute spontaneous cervical disc herniation causing rapidly progressive myelopathy in a patient with comorbid ossified posterior longitudinal ligament: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and cervical disc herniation are commonly encountered neurosurgical conditions. Here we present an unusual case of nontraumatic rapidly progressive myelopathy due to cervical disc herniation with comorbid OPLL and conduct a literature review focusing on the frequency and management of disc herniations with OPLL. Case Description: A 52-year-old healthy female presented with a 72-h history of rapid progression of dense quadriparesis with sensory deficits, with a precedent 4-week history of nontraumatic midline neck pain. Clinical examination revealed profound motor deficits below the C5 myotome. Spinal neuroimaging revealed OPLL (computed tomography [CT]) and a cervical disc herniation spanning from C4/5 to C5/6 with significant retrovertebral disease (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). Operative management involved an anterior cervical corpectomy and instrumented fusion, with removal of both the sequestered disc material and the locally compressive OPLL. The patient recovered full motor function and independent ambulation with no residual signs or symptoms of myelopathy at the time of discharge. Conclusion: This unique case of a spontaneous cervical disc herniation in the context of OPLL causing rapidly progressive myelopathy illustrates the complementarity of CT and MRI in diagnosing the underlying cause of a rapidly progressive neurologic deficit in the absence of antecedent trauma. Though the optimal surgical management of such pathology remains uncertain; in this case, the anterior approach was motivated by the significant retrovertebral ventrally compressive sequestrum, and provided for excellent neurologic outcome. This article also reviews the occurrence/management of such acute cervical discs with OPLL. PMID:25289163

Westwick, Harrison J.; Goldstein, Christina L.; Shamji, Mohammed F.

2014-01-01

271

Guillain-Barré syndrome as a cause of acute flaccid paralysis in Iraqi children: a result of 15 years of nation-wide study  

PubMed Central

Background Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in the post-poliomyelitis eradication era. This is the first study done to identify the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome of GBS in Iraqi children over 15 years. Methods The surveillance database about AFP cases?cause of AFP, especially in those between the age of 1 to 4 years living in rural areas. PMID:24325332

2013-01-01

272

Bacteria Transformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students construct paper recombinant plasmids to simulate the methods genetic engineers use to create modified bacteria. They learn what role enzymes, DNA and genes play in the modification of organisms. For the particular model they work on, they isolate a mammal insulin gene and combine it with a bacteria's gene sequence (plasmid DNA) for production of the protein insulin.

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs,

273

update: acute KIDNEY INJURY  

E-print Network

Guidelines update: acute KIDNEY INJURY August 2012, Issue 8 Tlaleletso is a monthly publication that have acute kidney injury. We review the common presentations and causes, especially in patients living it to cover, please send us your feedback­ either on content or format. Respectfully, Mike Reid Acute kidney

Bushman, Frederic

274

Seasonal Behavior of Xylella fastidiosa Causing Almond Leaf Scorch Disease Under Field Conditions and Improved Detection of the Bacteria by Means of Array-PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Almond leaf scorch disease (ALSD) caused by Xylella fastidiosa is potentially a serious threat to the almond industry in San Joaquin Valley of California. Knowledge of X. fastidiosa behavior in the plant host under field conditions is important for disease control and this issue is being addressed i...

275

Seasonal Behavior of Xylella fastidiosa Causing Almond Leaf Scorch Under Field Conditions and Detection of the Bacteria by Means of Array-PCR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa have re-emerged as a serious threat to several economically important crops, such as grape and almond, in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Knowledge of bacterial behavior in plant hosts under field condition is important for disease control. This research c...

276

Characterization of Damage to Bacteria and Bio-macromolecules Caused by (V)UV Radiation and Particles Generated by a Microscale Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure plasma jets effectively inactivate bacteria on ­surfaces including infected tissues. This is due to the combined effects of (V)UV radiation, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ions, and high electric fields. A well-characterized microscale atmospheric pressure plasma jet (?-APPJ) operated with He/O2 gas mixture has been modified so that (V)UV radiation and heavy reactive particles (mainly O3 molecules and O atoms) emitted from the plasma source can be separated effectively. The separation is achieved by an additional lateral He flow, which diverts the heavy particles from the jet axis. The new jet geometry is called X-Jet. Separation of different plasma components allows studying their effects on living cells and bio-macromolecules separately. First, the effectiveness of the separation of different plasma components was demonstrated by treatment of monolayers of vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells. To characterize effects on nucleic acids, dried plasmid DNA and total cellular RNA were treated with the separated plasma components. Dried bovine serum albumin was used to study etching effects of (V)UV radiation and heavy particles on proteins. We found that heavy particles emitted from the X-Jet kill vegetative cells more effectively than the (V)UV radiation from this type of plasma source. All bio-macromolecules investigated, DNA, RNA, and proteins, are affected by plasma treatment. DNA exposed to the (V)UV-channel of the jet seems to be prone to thymine dimer formation not only in vitro but also in vivo as indicated by induction of the photolyase in Escherichia coli, while DNA strand breaks occur under both jet channels. Heavy particles seem more effective in degrading RNA and in etching protein in vitro.

Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Schneider, Simon; Narberhaus, Franz; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E.

277

Aquatic Bacteria Samples  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the BP Deepwater Horizon drilling platform collapsed and sank in the Gulf of Mexico, causing one of the largest oil spills in history. One of the big dilemmas in responding to the oil spil is how to clean up the oil itself. One way currently under research is to use bacteria that ...

2010-06-14

278

Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

Rôças, Isabela N.

2013-01-01

279

Two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence for label-free in vivo imaging ingestion of disease-causing bacteria by human leukocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real time and in vivo monitoring leukocyte behavior provides unique information to understand the physiological and pathological process of infection. In this study, we demonstrate that two-photon excited reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence provides imaging contrast to distinguish granulocyte and agranulocyte. By using spectral and time-resolved NADH fluorescence, we study the immune response of human neutrophils against bacterial infection (Escherichia coli). The two-photon excited NADH fluorescence images clearly review the morphological changes from resting neutrophils (round shape) to activated neutrophils (ruffle shape) during phagocytosis. The free-tobound NADH ratio of neutrophils decreases after ingesting disease-causing pathogen: Escherichia coli. This finding may provide a new optical tool to investigate inflammatory processes by using NADH fluorescence in vivo.

Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.

2013-02-01

280

Methanotrophic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, whereas type II methanotrophs, which employ the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, form a coherent cluster within the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Methanotrophic bacteria are ubiquitous. The growth of type II bacteria appears to be favored in environments that contain relatively high levels of methane, low levels of dissolved oxygen, and limiting concentrations of combined nitrogen and/or copper. Type I methanotrophs appear to be dominant in environments in which methane is limiting and combined nitrogen and copper levels are relatively high. These bacteria serve as biofilters for the oxidation of methane produced in anaerobic environments, and when oxygen is present in soils, atmospheric methane is oxidized. Their activities in nature are greatly influenced by agricultural practices and other human activities. Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring, uncultured methanotrophs represent new genera. Methanotrophs that are capable of oxidizing methane at atmospheric levels exhibit methane oxidation kinetics different from those of methanotrophs available in pure cultures. A limited number of methanotrophs have the genetic capacity to synthesize a soluble methane monooxygenase which catalyzes the rapid oxidation of environmental pollutants including trichloroethylene. PMID:8801441

Hanson, R S; Hanson, T E

1996-01-01

281

Acute liver failure caused by herpes simplex virus in a pregnant patient: is there a potential role for therapeutic plasma exchange?  

PubMed

A young woman presented with a febrile illness in the third trimester of pregnancy. Laboratory investigation revealed severe acute hepatitis with thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Liver injury progressed despite emergent caesarian section and delivery of a healthy infant. Therefore, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) was performed on three consecutive days post-partum for a presumed diagnosis of acute liver failure (ALF) associated with pregnancy due to hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) or acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP). Treatment with TPE was followed by biochemical and clinical improvement but during her recovery herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was diagnosed serologically and confirmed histologically. Changes in the immune system during pregnancy make pregnant patients more susceptible to acute HSV hepatitis, HSV-related ALF, and death. The disease is characterized by massive hepatic inflammation with hepatocyte necrosis, mediated by both direct viral cytotoxicity and the innate humoral immune response. TPE may have a therapeutic role in acute inflammatory disorders such as HSV hepatitis by reducing viral load and attenuating systemic inflammation and liver cell injury. Further investigation is needed to clarify this potential effect. The roles of vigilance, clinical suspicion, and currently accepted therapies are emphasized. PMID:23857723

Holt, Edward W; Guy, Jennifer; Gordon, Shelley M; Hofmann, Jan C; Garcia-Kennedy, Richard; Steady, Stephen L; Bzowej, Natalie H; Frederick, R Todd

2013-12-01

282

Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production  

DOEpatents

The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

2014-05-06

283

Magnetotactic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria with motility directed by the local geomagnetic field have been observed in marine sediments. These magnetotactic microorganisms possess flagella and contain novel structured particles, rich in iron, within intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles. Conceivably these particles impart to cells a magnetic moment. This could explain the observed migration of these organisms in fields as weak as 0.5 gauss.

Richard Blakemore

1975-01-01

284

Herpes simplex virus type 1 strain KOS63 does not cause acute or recurrent ocular disease and does not reactivate ganglionic latency in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virological, clinical, and histopathological manifestations of acute and experimentally reactivated infections of eyes and trigeminal ganglia have been studied following intranasal infection of rabbits with herpes simplex virus type 1 (strain KOS-63). All animals shed virus in nasal secretions, but only three shed virus in tear film during the first 12 days of infection. No animal developed clinical or

William G. Stroop; M. Careene Banks

1994-01-01

285

Ear infection - acute  

MedlinePLUS

... there is no improvement or symptoms get worse, schedule an appointment with your health care provider to determine whether antibiotics are needed. ANTIBIOTICS A virus or bacteria can cause ear ... Removing tonsils does not seem to help with ear infections.

286

Bacteria are like Popeye the sailor man  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Popeye the sailor man and infection-causing bacteria have something in common -- they need to consume iron to perform their best. In cartoons, Popeye gets his iron from spinach. New research shows exactly where the bacteria that often cause pneumonia get their iron.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

2004-09-10

287

Acute stress causes rapid synaptic insertion of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors to facilitate long-term potentiation in the hippocampus  

PubMed Central

The neuroendocrine response to episodes of acute stress is crucial for survival whereas the prolonged response to chronic stress can be detrimental. Learning and memory are particularly susceptible to stress with cognitive deficits being well characterized consequences of chronic stress. Although there is good evidence that acute stress can enhance cognitive performance, the mechanism(s) for this are unclear. We find that hippocampal slices, either prepared from rats following 30 min restraint stress or directly exposed to glucocorticoids, exhibit an N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor-independent form of long-term potentiation. We demonstrate that the mechanism involves an NMDA receptor and PKA-dependent insertion of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors into synapses. These then trigger the additional NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP during high frequency stimulation. PMID:24271563

Jo, Jihoon; Hogg, Ellen L.; Piers, Thomas; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Seaton, Gillian; Seok, Heon; Bru-Mercier, Gilles; Son, Gi Hoon; Regan, Philip; Hildebrandt, Lars; Waite, Eleanor; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Kerrigan, Talitha L.; Kim, Kyungjin; Whitcomb, Daniel J.; Lightman, Stafford L.

2013-01-01

288

Detection of human leptospirosis as a cause of acute fever by capture ELISA using a Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni (M20) derived antigen  

PubMed Central

Background Leptospirosis is a potentially lethal zoonosis mainly affecting low-resource tropical countries, including Peru and its neighbouring countries. Timely diagnosis of leptospirosis is critical but may be challenging in the regions where it is most prevalent. The serodiagnostic gold standard microagglutination test (MAT) may be technically prohibitive. Our objective in this study was to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of an IgM antibody capture enzyme-linked immunoassay (MAC-ELISA) derived from the M20 strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni (M20) by comparison to MAT, which was used as the gold standard method of diagnosis. Methods Acute and convalescent sera from participants participating in a passive febrile surveillance study in multiple regions of Peru were tested by both IgM MAC-ELISA and MAT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) of the MAC-ELISA assay for acute, convalescent and paired sera by comparison to MAT were calculated. Results The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the MAC-ELISA assay for acute sera were 92.3%, 56.0%, 35.3% and 96.6% respectively. For convalescent sera, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the MAC-ELISA assay were 93.3%, 51.5%, 63.6% and 89.5% respectively. For paired sera, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the MAC-ELISA assay were 93.6%, 37.5%, 59.2%, 85.7% respectively. Conclusions The M20 MAC-ELISA assay performed with a high sensitivity and low specificity in the acute phase of illness. Sensitivity was similar as compared with MAT in the convalescent phase and specificity remained low. Paired sera were the most sensitive but least specific by comparison to MAT serodiagnosis. NPV for acute, convalescent and paired sera was high. The limited specificity and high sensitivity of the MAC-ELISA IgM suggests that it would be most valuable to exclude leptospirosis in low-resource regions that lack immediate access to definitive reference laboratory techniques such as MAT. PMID:24053555

2013-01-01

289

Joint bleeding in factor VIII deficient mice causes an acute loss of trabecular bone and calcification of joint soft tissues which is prevented with aggressive factor replacement.  

PubMed

While chronic degenerative arthropathy is the main morbidity of haemophilia, a very high prevalence of low bone density is also seen in men and boys with haemophilia. This study investigates bone degradation in the knee joint of haemophilic mice resulting from haemarthrosis and the efficacy of aggressive treatment with factor VIII in the period surrounding injury to prevent bone pathology. Skeletally mature factor VIII knock-out mice were subjected to knee joint haemorrhage induced by puncture of the left knee joint capsule. Mice received either intravenous factor VIII treatment or placebo immediately prior to injury and at hours 4, 24, 48, 72 and 96 after haemorrhage. Mice were killed 2-weeks after injury and the joint morphology and loss of bone in the proximal tibia was assessed using microCT imaging. Quantitative microCT imaging of the knee joint found acute bone loss at the proximal tibia following injury including loss of trabecular bone volumetric density and bone mineral density, as well as trabecular connectivity density, number and thickness. Unexpectedly, joint injury also resulted in calcification of the joint soft tissues including the tendons, ligaments, menisci and cartilage. Treatment with factor VIII prevented this bone and soft tissue degeneration. Knee joint haemorrhage resulted in acute changes in adjacent bone including loss of bone density and mineralization of joint soft tissues. The rapid calcification and loss of bone has implications for the initiation and progression of osteoarthritic degradation following joint bleeding. PMID:24712867

Lau, A G; Sun, J; Hannah, W B; Livingston, E W; Heymann, D; Bateman, T A; Monahan, P E

2014-09-01

290

Noncontrast multidetector-row computed tomography scanning for detection of radiolucent calculi in acute renal insufficiency caused by bilateral ureteral obstruction of ceftriaxone crystals.  

PubMed

Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) has great advantage with higher sensitivity and more clear modalities in detecting urinary tract radiolucent calculi in patients with acute renal insufficiency (ARI) compared to other image diagnosis approaches. We report two cases (female, 28 years old; male, 39 years old) with persistent flank pain and acute anuria after the administration of ceftriaxone (4.0 g daily) for 2 days intravenously. No abnormality was found in the kidney-ureter- bladder (KUB) areas with plain abdomen X-rays. A diagnosis of bilateral hydronephrosis was made by ultrasound examination in both cases. Serum creatinine levels reached up to 257 and 810 ? mol/L (normal serum creatinine level is 40-130 ? mol/L), respectively. Vague density spots were noticed in the pelvis with noncontrast multidetector-row CT (MDCT) scanning. However, distinguishable clusters of high-density shadows were seen in pelvic areas with maximum intensity projections (MIP, CT values in 30-128 HU). Ceftriaxone crystal calculi were found on both sides of distal ureters under endoscopy. Renal function recovered in both patients after double-J ureteral stents were installed. Out results demonstrated that noncontrast MDCT scanning and MIP reconstruction as an effective diagnostic tool could provide clear images in detection of radiolucent calculi in urinary tract when conventional X-rays image are not suitable in the patients with obstructive anuria and ARI of unknown origin. PMID:22398584

Lu, Xiongbing; Wu, Rongpei; Huang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Yuanyuan

2012-01-01

291

An unusual cause of ankle pain: fracture of a talocalcaneal coalition as a differential diagnosis in an acute ankle sprain: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background The acute ankle sprain is one of the most common injuries seen in trauma departments. Ankle sprains have an incidence of about one injury per 10 000 people a day. In contrast tarsal coalition is a rare condition occurring in not more than one percent of the population. Case presentation We present the case of a 23 year old male patient with pain and local swelling after an acute ankle sprain. Initial clinical and radiological examination showed no pathologies. Due to prolonged pain, swelling and the inability of the patient to weight bear one week after trauma further diagnostics was performed. Imaging studies (MRI and CT) revealed a fracture of a talocalcaneal coalition. To the knowledge of the authors no fracture of a coalition was reported so far. Conclusion This report highlights the presentation of symptomatic coalitions following trauma and furthermore, it points out the difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of a rare entity after a common injury. A diagnostic algorithm has been developed to ensure not to miss a severe injury. PMID:23530869

2013-01-01

292

Changes in Pain, Dysfunction, and Grip Strength of Patients with Acute Lateral Epicondylitis Caused by Frequency of Physical Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in pain, dysfunction, and grip strength of patients with acute lateral epicondylitis and to suggest the appropriate treatment frequency and period. [Subjects] The subjects were divided into three: 2 days per week group (n=12), 3 days per week group (n=15), and 6 days per week group (n=13). [Methods] All groups received conventional physical therapy for 40 minutes and therapeutic exercises for 20 minutes per session during 6 weeks. The outcome measurements were the visual analogue scale (VAS), Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and grip strength. [Results] The results of this study were as follows: at 3 weeks, there were no significant differences in VAS and PRTEE in the 3 groups, but at 6 weeks, 6 days per week group significantly decreased these two outcomes. Grip strength was significantly increased in 3 and 6 days per week groups at 6 weeks. [Conclusion] In conclusion, physical therapy is needed 3 days per week for 3 weeks in patients with acute lateral epicondylitis. After 3 weeks, 6 days per week is the most effective treatment frequency. PMID:25140091

Lee, Soyoung; Ko, Youngjun; Lee, Wanhee

2014-01-01

293

Acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis is most commonly caused by gallstones or chronic alcohol use, and accounts for more than 200,000 hospital admissions annually. Using the Atlanta criteria, acute pancreatitis is diagnosed when a patient presents with two of three findings, including abdominal pain suggestive of pancreatitis, serum amylase and/or lipase levels at least three times the normal level, and characteristic findings on imaging. It is important to distinguish mild from severe disease because severe pancreatitis has a mortality rate of up to 30%. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is considered the diagnostic standard for radiologic evaluation of acute pancreatitis because of its success in predicting disease severity and prognosis. The BALI and computed tomography severity index scores also can aid in determining disease severity and predicting the likelihood of complications. Treatment begins with pain control, hydration, and bowel rest. In the first 48 to 72 hours of treatment, monitoring is required to prevent morbidity and mortality associated with worsening pancreatitis. When prolonged bowel rest is indicated, enteral nutrition is associated with lower rates of complications, including death, multiorgan failure, local complications, and systemic infections, than parenteral nutrition. In severe cases involving greater than 30% necrosis, antibiotic prophylaxis with imipenem/cilastatin decreases the risk of pancreatic infection. In gallstone-associated pancreatitis, early cholecystectomy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with sphincterotomy can decrease length of hospital stay and complication rates. A multidisciplinary approach to care is essential in cases involving pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25368923

Quinlan, Jeff D

2014-11-01

294

Bronchitis (acute)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute bronchitis affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens. The role of smoking or of environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear. One third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute bronchitis in people without chronic respiratory disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 21 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: analgesics, antibiotics (macrolides, tetracyclines, cephalosporins, penicillins, or trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole [co-trimoxazole]), antihistamines, antitussives, beta2 agonists (inhaled or oral), and expectorants/mucolytics. PMID:21711957

2011-01-01

295

Antimicrobial Resistance in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-positive bacteria are common causes of bloodstream and other infections in hospitalized patients in the United States, and the percentage of nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria is increasing. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are of particular concern. In the United States, approximately 60% of staphylococcal infections in the intensive care unit are now caused

Louis B. Rice

2006-01-01

296

BCR-ABL1 Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Clonal Selection of a BCR-ABL1 (-) Subclone as a Cause of Refractory Disease with Nilotinib Treatment.  

PubMed

The presence of a Philadelphia chromosome with a corresponding BCR-ABL1 rearrangement is the hallmark of chronic myeloid leukemia, but is considered a very rare event in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we report the first case in which a dominant Philadelphia chromosome-positive subclone was detected upon relapse in a formerly Philadelphia chromosome-negative MLL-AF6(+) AML. Due to refractory disease under salvage chemotherapy, the patient was started on nilotinib treatment. As a result, the Philadelphia chromosome-positive subclone was eradicated within 1 month; however, disease progressed and was again dominated by the Philadelphia chromosome-negative founding clone, demonstrating rapid clonal expansion under nilotinib-induced selection pressure. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25401297

Neuendorff, Nina Rosa; Schwarz, Michaela; Hemmati, Philipp; Türkmen, Seval; Bommer, Christiane; Burmeister, Thomas; Dörken, Bernd; le Coutre, Philipp; Arnold, Renate; Westermann, Jörg

2014-11-12

297

Cystitis - acute  

MedlinePLUS

Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... The symptoms of a bladder infection include: Cloudy or bloody urine, which may have a foul or strong odor Low fever (not everyone will have a ...

298

[The role of intracellular bacteria in etiology of lower airways infection--therapeutic implications].  

PubMed

Intracellular, non capsulated atypical bacteria (Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila) colonise lower airways very often. Atypical bacteria cause acute infection and exacerbation of chronic inflammation of bronchial tree, mainly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They may trigger bronchial asthma and induce asthma exacerbation. These pathogens are often isolated in sputum of patients suffering from asthma and COPD in stable clinical stage, but opinion about eradication of bacteria in this situation is controversial. Lately, much attention has been paid to immunogenic possibilities of atypical bacteria, especially Chlamydia penumoniae in pathomechanisms of asthma and COPD. Macrolides from near a half century have been a therapeutic option against intracellular pathogens. These highly lipophylic compounds very easily penetrate cellular membrane, act on subunit 50S of ribosome decreasing reproduction of bacteria in infected epithelial cells. Universal anti-inflammatory action of macrolides is due to their influence on pro-inflammatory cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes CD8) and in consequence decrease of releasing inflammatory mediators (myeloperoxidase, elastase, leukotrien B4, interleukin 8). PMID:16498794

Panaszek, Bernard

2005-11-01

299

A Nonpancreatic Source of the Proteolytic-enzyme Amidase and Bacteriology in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

In previous studies of human and experimental acute pancreatitis, three main assumptions have been made. First, that the disease is due to activation of pancreatic proteolytic enzymes in the pancreas with resulting “autodigestion” of the gland. Second, that interstitial pancreatitis is a mild form of hemorrhagic pancreatitis into which it may progress, and third, that bacteria play little part, if any, in the initiation of the disease. These assumptions are now questioned. In the present study in dogs, levels of proteolytic enzymes in blood, thoracicduct lymph and peritoneal fluid were measured using benzoylarginine amide. Raised levels of amidase were found in hemorrhagic, but not with interstitial, pancreatitis, and biochemical examination of amidase suggested it was not a pancreatic protease, but with its broad specificity and stability derived from bacteria. Addition of antibiotic to the blind duodenal loop in hemorrhagic pancreatitis reduced the level of blood amidase, but Trasylol given intravenously did not, nor did it inhibit amidase in vitro. In all animals, histological examination was made of the pancreas at time of death. On bacteriology, it is concluded that experimental interstitial pancreatitis results from damage to the pancreatic duct system without infection, and haemorrhagic pancreatitis mainly from reflux of bacteria into the pancreatic ducts from the duodenum. Only bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Clostridium welchii that produce proteolytic enzymes and cytotoxins appear to be able to cause haemorrhagic pancreatitis, and these bacteria may explain the release of vasoactive polypeptides and the vascular effects. In hemorrhagic pancreatitis such bacteria were found in the pancreas, but none in interstitial pancreatitis. Evidence is given to suggest that pancreatic proteolytic enzymes are unlikely to cause the cell necrosis which is a pathological feature of hemorrhagic pancreatitis, and that “autodigestion” is likewise unlikely to be a cause of this condition. An extrapancreatic source of proteolytic enzymes from bacteria is now suggested in haemorrhagic pancreatitis, and more attention to bacteriology in human acute pancreatitis is urgently needed. Amidase levels were highest in peritoneal fluid, suggesting a rationale for peritoneal lavage in the treatment of acute pancreatitis, and it is unlikely that Trasylol can give any benefit. The assessment of treatment of acute pancreatitis will be unsatisfactory as long as the proportion of haemorrhagic to interstitial pancreatitis in any series is not known accurately. PMID:6987958

Keynes, W. Milo

1980-01-01

300

The Impact of Different Antibiotic Regimens on the Emergence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria  

E-print Network

The Impact of Different Antibiotic Regimens on the Emergence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacteria-resistant bacteria is a major public health threat. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria by antimicrobial-susceptible bacteria. The emergence and spread of these bacteria is complex and requires

Ruan, Shigui

301

Sampling bacteria with a laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We also compared these data to samples of usual collection and filtering. The results of these laser measurements are very promising.

Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter

2014-05-01

302

Back To Bacteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores new research about bacteria. Discusses bacterial genomes, archaea, unusual environments, evolution, pathogens, bacterial movement, biofilms, bacteria in the body, and a bacterial obsession. Contains 29 references. (JRH)

Flannery, Maura C.

1997-01-01

303

Acute toxoplasmosis mimicking melanoma metastases: review of conditions causing false-positive results on (18)F-FDG PET/CT.  

PubMed

Invasive malignant melanoma is the most common fatal form of skin cancer. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography demonstrates a very high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of melanoma metastases. Here, we report an unusual case of toxoplasma lymphadenitis in a male adult patient mimicking a malignant cervical lymphadenopathy. Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which is usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent hosts. PMID:23406996

Ivanova, K; Glatz, K; Zippelius, A; Nicolas, G; Itin, P

2012-01-01

304

Biochemical responses of Mytilus galloprovincialis as biomarkers of acute environmental pollution caused by the Don Pedro oil spill (Eivissa Island, Spain).  

PubMed

In the present work, the potential use of several antioxidant and detoxification biomarkers in the digestive gland of wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for biomonitoring the marine pollution induced by the Don Pedro oil spill has been investigated. Two locations from the East to South-East of Eivissa (Ibiza) and Formentera islands were selected, one extensively affected by the oil spill and the other one not affected and considered as the control area. Mussels were sampled one, two and six months after the Don Pedro accident. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels were significantly increased in the soft tissues of mussels in the affected area one month after the disaster, returning to normal values after six months. Markers of oxidative damage in lipids--malondialdehyde, and in proteins--carbonyl derivates, and antioxidant enzyme--catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, activities significantly increased as result of the spill oil after one month, returning to basal values at two month sampling time. Glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio (GSH/GSSG), as a marker of the redox status, was reduced after one and two months indicating a more oxidized situation. Markers of detoxification--glutathione-S-transferase and cytochrome P4501A activities and metallothionein gene expression--were significantly increased by the oil spill one month after the accident, returning to the basal values at two month sampling time. In conclusion, the Don Pedro accident induced a transient situation of PAHs pollution resulting in enhanced antioxidant and detoxification defense systems in the wild mussel M. galloprovincialis returning to normal levels six months from the spill. The selected biomarkers are a useful tool for biomonitoring the response to acute exposure to pollutants in marine mussels. PMID:21276480

Sureda, Antoni; Box, Antonio; Tejada, Silvia; Blanco, Andreu; Caixach, Josep; Deudero, Salud

2011-02-01

305

Acute bacterial suppurative parotitis: microbiology and management.  

PubMed

The parotid gland is the salivary gland most commonly affected by inflammation. The most common pathogens associated with acute bacterial parotitis are Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic bacteria. The predominant anaerobes include gram-negative bacilli (including pigmented Prevotella and Porphyromonas spp.), Fusobacterium spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. Streptococcus spp. (including S. pneumoniae) and gram-negative bacilli (including Escherichia coli) have also been reported. Gram-negative organisms are often seen in hospitalized patients. Organisms less frequently found are Arachnia, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Treponema pallidum, cat-scratch bacillus, and Eikenella corrodens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical mycobacteria are rare causes of parotitis. Therapy includes maintenance of hydration and administration of parenteral antimicrobial therapy. Once an abscess has formed surgical drainage is required. The choice of antimicrobial depends on the etiologic agent. Maintenance of good oral hygiene, adequate hydration, and early and proper therapy of bacterial infection of the oropharynx may reduce the occurrence of suppurative parotitis. PMID:12544218

Brook, Itzhak

2003-01-01

306

Compositional characterisation of soluble apple polysaccharides, and their antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects on acute CCl4-caused liver damage in mice.  

PubMed

Water-soluble apple peel polysaccharides (APP) and apple flesh polysaccharides (AFP) were isolated from Pink Lady fruits, and their in vitro antioxidant capacities were characterised by DPPH(), HO(), and O(2)(-) systems, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay. Oral administration of APP at 250 and 500 mg/kg bw in mice was shown to be as effective as AFP in lowering the CCl(4)-caused increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactic dehydrogenase activities, and hepatic malondialdehyde level, and antagonising the decreases in antioxidant superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities caused by CCl(4) (p<0.05). Histopathological examinations further confirmed that both APP and AFP could protect the liver from CCl(4)-induced histological alteration. HPLC analysis also showed similar profiles of monosaccharide composition for APP and AFP with arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid being main component monosaccharides. All of these findings demonstrate that the extracts of both APP and AFP possess antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential. PMID:23411241

Yang, Xingbin; Yang, Su; Guo, Yurong; Jiao, Yadong; Zhao, Yan

2013-06-01

307

Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of “chyle” occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

2012-01-01

308

The identification and biogeochemical interpretation of fossil magnetotactic bacteria  

E-print Network

The identification and biogeochemical interpretation of fossil magnetotactic bacteria Robert E. Available online 14 August 2007. Abstract Magnetotactic bacteria, which most commonly live within the oxic, specifically magnetite or greigite. The crystals cause the bacteria to orient themselves passively with respect

309

Las Bacterias: Más que Patógenos  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article reveals that there are more bacteria on Earth than there are humans. Bacteria: inhabit every environment on the planet, playing a key ecological role, can be good for our health -- for example, by helping us digest food, and can cause disease even though the human body is not the natural host for many bacteria.

Trudy Wassenaar (consultant;)

2002-07-01

310

Adrenergic neurone blockade and other acute effects caused by n-benzyl-n'n”-dimethylguanidine and its ortho-chloro derivative*  

PubMed Central

N-Benzyl-N'N”-dimethylguanidine sulphate (BW 467C60) and its ortho-chloro derivative (BW 392C60) had adrenergic neurone blocking and sympathomimetic effects resembling those of bretylium and guanethidine in cats, dogs and monkeys, but they were more potent in blocking adrenergic mechanisms in the cat. BW 467C60 was more active than its chloro derivative. Each compound inhibited release of noradrenaline during stimulation of the splenic nerve of cats, and increased smooth muscle responses to adrenaline and noradrenaline. Pressor responses to standard doses of tyramine were also increased except when large doses of BW 467C60 or BW 392C60 were given. The adrenergic neurone block by BW 467C60 was inhibited by dopamine, cocaine and amphetamine in situations in which these amines inhibit the effects of bretylium and guanethidine. In contrast to guanethidine, BW 467C60 and BW 392C60 did not lower the pressor amine content of the iris of cats 24 hr after administration of single doses of the compounds. BW 467C60 depressed the slope of curves relating the frequency of stimuli applied to the cervical sympathetic nerves and the resulting contraction of the nictitating membrane, but the effects of the lower rates of stimulation were preferentially inhibited. Large intravenous doses of BW 467C60 and BW 392C60 blocked autonomic cholinergic mechanisms and caused neuromuscular paralysis of voluntary muscle. These effects were brief, in contrast to the adrenergic neurone blockade. Both BW 467C60 and BW 392C60 were well absorbed from the alimentary tract. In contrast to guanethidine, BW 467C60 did not cause diarrhoea in guinea-pigs. PMID:14014418

Boura, A. L. A.; Green, A. F.

1963-01-01

311

Sarcocystis nesbitti Causes Acute, Relapsing Febrile Myositis with a High Attack Rate: Description of a Large Outbreak of Muscular Sarcocystosis in Pangkor Island, Malaysia, 2012  

PubMed Central

Background From the 17th to 19th January 2012, a group of 92 college students and teachers attended a retreat in a hotel located on Pangkor Island, off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Following the onset of symptoms in many participants who presented to our institute, an investigation was undertaken which ultimately identified Sarcocystis nesbitti as the cause of this outbreak. Methodology/Principal Findings All retreat participants were identified, and clinical and epidemiological information was obtained via clinical review and self-reported answers to a structured questionnaire. Laboratory, imaging and muscle biopsy results were evaluated and possible sources of exposure, in particular water supply, were investigated. At an average of 9–11 days upon return from the retreat, 89 (97%) of the participants became ill. A vast majority of 94% had fever with 57% of these persons experiencing relapsing fever. Myalgia was present in 91% of patients. Facial swelling from myositis of jaw muscles occurred in 9 (10%) patients. The median duration of symptoms was 17 days (IQR 7 to 30 days; range 3 to 112). Out of 4 muscle biopsies, sarcocysts were identified in 3. S. nesbitti was identified by PCR in 3 of the 4 biopsies including one biopsy without observed sarcocyst. Non-Malaysians had a median duration of symptoms longer than that of Malaysians (27.5 days vs. 14 days, p?=?0.001) and were more likely to experience moderate or severe myalgia compared to mild myalgia (83.3% vs. 40.0%, p?=?0.002). Conclusions/Significance The similarity of the symptoms and clustered time of onset suggests that all affected persons had muscular sarcocystosis. This is the largest human outbreak of sarcocystosis ever reported, with the specific Sarcocystis species identified. The largely non-specific clinical features of this illness suggest that S. nesbitti may be an under diagnosed infection in the tropics. PMID:24854350

Italiano, Claire M.; Wong, Kum Thong; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Lau, Yee Ling; Ramli, Norlisah; Syed Omar, Sharifah Faridah; Kahar Bador, Maria; Tan, Chong Tin

2014-01-01

312

Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium  

DOEpatents

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1995-01-01

313

Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium  

DOEpatents

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, R.L.

1995-05-30

314

Bacteria Inactivation During Lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of extracorporeal and intracorporeal lithotripsy on the viability of bacteria contained inside artificial kidney stones was investigated in vitro. Two different bacteria were exposed to the action of one extracorporeal shock wave generator and four intracorporeal lithotripters.

del Sol Quintero, María; Mora, Ulises; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Mues, Enrique; Castaño, Eduardo; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.

2006-09-01

315

Bleach vs. Bacteria  

MedlinePLUS

... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

316

Mechanism of acute pancreatitis complicated with injury of intestinal mucosa barrier*  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen in clinic with a rapid onset and dangerous pathogenetic condition. AP can cause an injury of intestinal mucosa barrier, leading to translocation of bacteria or endotoxin through multiple routes, bacterial translocation (BT), gutorigin endotoxaemia, and secondary infection of pancreatic tissue, and then cause systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which are important factors influencing AP’s severity and mortality. Meanwhile, the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier plays a key role in AP’s process. Therefore, it is clinically important to study the relationship between the injury of intestinal mucosa barrier and AP. In addition, many factors such as microcirculation disturbance, ischemical reperfusion injury, excessive release of inflammatory mediators and apoptosis may also play important roles in the damage of intestinal mucosa barrier. In this review, we summarize studies on mechanisms of AP. PMID:18257123

Zhang, Xi-ping; Zhang, Jie; Song, Qiao-ling; Chen, Han-qin

2007-01-01

317

Acute hand infections.  

PubMed

The continued emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the development of only a few new classes of antibiotics over the past 50 years have made the treatment of acute hand infections problematic. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important, because hand stiffness, contractures, and even amputation can result from missed diagnoses or delayed treatment. The most common site of hand infections is subcutaneous tissue and the most common mechanism is trauma. An immunocompromised state, intravenous drug abuse, diabetes mellitus, and steroid use all predispose to infections. PMID:25070032

Osterman, Meredith; Draeger, Reid; Stern, Peter

2014-08-01

318

Communication in Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria communicate with one another using chemical signal molecules. As in higher organisms, the information supplied by these molecules is critical for synchronizing the activities of large groups of cells. In bacteria, chemical communication involves producing, re- leasing, detecting, and responding to small hormone-like molecules termed autoinducers. This process, termed quorum sensing, allows bacteria to monitor the environment for other

Christopher M. Waters; Bonnie L. Bassler

319

CHAPTER IV-2 BACTERIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Entomopathogenic bacteria provide an alternative to chemical pesticides used in insect control programs. Today, the principal microbial insecticides utilize spore forming bacteria or toxins produced by these bacteria as their active ingredients, either in formulations or by incorporation of toxin g...

320

Prevalence of Gene Rearrangements in Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Population Study—Report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the Identification of the Causes of Childhood Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010–2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children.

Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Pompa-Mera, Ericka Nelly; Ocaña-Mondragón, Alicia; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

2014-01-01

321

Sonography of acute appendicitis and its mimics in children  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of acute right lower quadrant pain in a pediatric population is challenging. Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of an acute surgical abdomen. The common mimics of acute appendicitis are acute gastrointestinal and gynecologic diseases. This article reviews the sonographic findings of the spectrum of common acute abdominal emergencies in children with a focus on imaging clues to a specific diagnosis. This awareness can impact on diagnostic accuracy and impact patient management. PMID:25024527

Sargar, Kiran M; Siegel, Marilyn J

2014-01-01

322

Bacteria Are Everywhere!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the concept of engineering biological organisms and studying their growth to be able to identify periods of fast and slow growth. They learn that bacteria are found everywhere, including on the surfaces of our hands. Student groups study three different conditions under which bacteria are found and compare the growth of the individual bacteria from each source. In addition to monitoring the quantity of bacteria from differ conditions, they record the growth of bacteria over time, which is an excellent tool to study binary fission and the reproduction of unicellular organisms.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

323

Engineering commensal bacteria for prophylaxis against infection  

PubMed Central

Infectious diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide. The development of efficient and low cost prophylactics to prevent pathogenic infection is given high priority in the twenty-first century. Commensal bacteria are largely seen as harmless and can survive symbiotically (in many cases) in niches throughout the human body. Advances in genetic engineering and understanding of pathogenesis have revealed many potential strategies to develop engineered bacteria for prophylaxis purposes: including live vaccines and anti-infective agents. In this review we discuss recent advances and potentialities of prophylaxis with engineered bacteria. PMID:22459613

Goh, Yih-Lin; He, HongFei; March, John C.

2012-01-01

324

Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis after wasp stings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 61-year-old Caucasian man presented with acute renal failure after multiple wasp stings. The patient required dialysis support temporarily. Work-up failed to show rhabdomyolysis or hemolysis and a kidney biopsy revealed acute allergic interstitial nephritis. The patient's renal function recovered completely after a short course of steroid therapy. Acute renal failure after wasp stings is typically caused by acute tubular

Rubin Zhang; Suzanne Meleg-Smith; Vecihi Batuman

2001-01-01

325

Bacteria TMDL Projects  

E-print Network

of the projects are listed below. ? Peach CreekWater Quality Improvement Project ? Monitoring and Educational Programs Focused on Bacteria and Nutrient Runoff on Dairy Operations in the LeonWatershed ? Development of the Plum CreekWPP ? Impact of Proper... Star Healthy Streams * ? Environmental Management of Grazing Lands * *TWRI-managed projects More information on the initiative is available at www.tsswcb.state.tx.us/managementprogram/ initiatives/bacteria. Bacteria Projects Across the State...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01

326

Introduction to Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This science site has students research how bacteria move, where they live, and how they reproduce; learn how bacteria can be helpful or harmful; and create a design illustrating what they have learned about bacteria. Included in the lesson plan are the objectives, needed materials and Web sites, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation, extensions, suggested reading, and vocabulary. Teachers can link to Teaching Tools to create custom worksheets, puzzles, and quizzes. A printable version of the lesson plan can be downloaded. The video Bacteria, Viruses and Allergies can be purchased and comprehension questions and answers can be downloaded.

Discoveryschool.com; Fenichel, Marilyn

2007-12-12

327

Role of heat shock protein hsp90 in formation of protective reactions in acute toxic stress.  

PubMed

The involvement of heat shock protein Hsp90 in pro-inflammatory response in male NMRI mice under conditions of acute toxic stress, caused by lipopolysaccharide from Gram negative bacteria, was studied using geldanamycin, a specific blocker of the activity of this protein. It is shown that the introduction of geldanamycin lowers total intoxication of the organism upon acute toxic stress caused by endotoxin. Thus, a decrease in cytokine TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-1, and IL-10 concentrations in blood serum of the geldanamycin-treated animals with acute toxic stress was found along with normalization of functional activity of nitric oxide producing peritoneal macrophages. Studying expression of receptor protein Tlr-4 as well of proteins of two signal cascades, NF-kappaB and SAPK/JNK, has shown that mechanisms of the geldanamycin protective effect are realized at the level of inhibition of Tlr-4 receptor expression, which provides for endotoxin-to-cell binding, and due to lowering the endotoxin-stimulated activation of signal cascades NF-kappaB and SAPK/JNK. The results suggest Hsp90 might be a therapeutic target in diseases accompanied by acute toxic stress. PMID:20636261

Glushkova, O V; Novoselova, T V; Khrenov, M O; Parfenyuk, S B; Lunin, S M; Fesenko, E E; Novoselova, E G

2010-06-01

328

Evaluating spatial and temporal variability of fecal coliform bacteria loads at Pelahatchie Watershed in Mississippi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial contaminations of surface waters are an increasing concern for scientists because pathogenic bacteria can cause adverse effects on human health. This research was performed to investigate spatial and seasonal variability of fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) concentrations from the Pelahatchie ...

329

The Association of Virulent Vibrio Spp. Bacteria on Gafftopsail and Hardhead Catfish in Galveston Bay  

E-print Network

Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and V. parahaemolyticus (Vp) are gram negative, halophilic bacteria that occur naturally in estuarine waters of Galveston Bay. Both bacteria have the potential to cause infections in humans either via consumption or direct...

Gilbert, Leslie Deanne

2011-10-21

330

[Acute hepatic vascular complications].  

PubMed

Acute hepatic vascular complications are rare. Acute portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and the Budd-Chiari syndrome (BSC) are the leading causes. Coagulopathy and local factors are present in up to 80% of cases. Diagnosis is established by colour-coded Doppler sonography, contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with acute PVT present with abdominal pain and disturbed intestinal motility. In the absence of cirrhosis anticoagulation with heparin is established followed by oral anticoagulation. In severe cases, surgical thrombectomy or transjugular thrombolysis with stent shunt may be necessary. Acute or fulminant BCS may require emergency liver transplantation or a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt, if patients present with acute liver failure. Milder cases receive anticoagulation for thrombolysis of occluded hepatic veins. Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is diagnosed after total body irradiation or chemotherapy, the term SOS replacing the former veno-occlusive disease. The treatment of congenital vascular malformations, complications in the setting of OLTX as well as patients with hepatic involvement of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia requires significant expertise in a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:21667100

Ochs, A

2011-07-01

331

Rotation and Restricted Use of Antibiotics in a Medical Intensive Care Unit Impact on the Incidence of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Caused by Antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypothesis that a new program of antibiotic strategy control can minimize the incidence of ventilator-associated pneu- monia (VAP) caused by potentially antibiotic-resistant microor- ganisms, we performed a prospective before-after study in 3,455 patients admitted to a single intensive care unit over a 4-yr period. Regarding the bacterial ecology and the increasing antimicrobial resistance in our medical intensive

DIDIER GRUSON; GILLES HILBERT; FREDERIC VARGAS; RUDDY VALENTINO; CECILE BEBEAR; ANNIE ALLERY; CHRISTIANE BEBEAR; GEORGES GBIKPI-BENISSAN; JEAN-PIERRE CARDINAUD

332

BdlA, DipA and induced dispersion contribute to acute virulence and chronic persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of causing both acute and chronic infections. Differences in virulence are attributable to the mode of growth: bacteria growing planktonically cause acute infections, while bacteria growing in matrix-enclosed aggregates known as biofilms are associated with chronic, persistent infections. While the contribution of the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth to virulence is now widely accepted, little is known about the role of dispersion in virulence, the active process by which biofilm bacteria switch back to the planktonic mode of growth. Here, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa dispersed cells display a virulence phenotype distinct from those of planktonic and biofilm cells. While the highest activity of cytotoxic and degradative enzymes capable of breaking down polymeric matrix components was detected in supernatants of planktonic cells, the enzymatic activity of dispersed cell supernatants was similar to that of biofilm supernatants. Supernatants of non-dispersing ?bdlA biofilms were characterized by a lack of many of the degradative activities. Expression of genes contributing to the virulence of P. aeruginosa was nearly 30-fold reduced in biofilm cells relative to planktonic cells. Gene expression analysis indicated dispersed cells, while dispersing from a biofilm and returning to the single cell lifestyle, to be distinct from both biofilm and planktonic cells, with virulence transcript levels being reduced up to 150-fold compared to planktonic cells. In contrast, virulence gene transcript levels were significantly increased in non-dispersing ?bdlA and ?dipA biofilms compared to wild-type planktonic cells. Despite this, bdlA and dipA inactivation, resulting in an inability to disperse in vitro, correlated with reduced pathogenicity and competitiveness in cross-phylum acute virulence models. In contrast, bdlA inactivation rendered P. aeruginosa more persistent upon chronic colonization of the murine lung, overall indicating that dispersion may contribute to both acute and chronic infections. PMID:24901523

Li, Yi; Petrova, Olga E; Su, Shengchang; Lau, Gee W; Panmanee, Warunya; Na, Renuka; Hassett, Daniel J; Davies, David G; Sauer, Karin

2014-06-01

333

BdlA, DipA and Induced Dispersion Contribute to Acute Virulence and Chronic Persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

The human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is capable of causing both acute and chronic infections. Differences in virulence are attributable to the mode of growth: bacteria growing planktonically cause acute infections, while bacteria growing in matrix-enclosed aggregates known as biofilms are associated with chronic, persistent infections. While the contribution of the planktonic and biofilm modes of growth to virulence is now widely accepted, little is known about the role of dispersion in virulence, the active process by which biofilm bacteria switch back to the planktonic mode of growth. Here, we demonstrate that P. aeruginosa dispersed cells display a virulence phenotype distinct from those of planktonic and biofilm cells. While the highest activity of cytotoxic and degradative enzymes capable of breaking down polymeric matrix components was detected in supernatants of planktonic cells, the enzymatic activity of dispersed cell supernatants was similar to that of biofilm supernatants. Supernatants of non-dispersing ?bdlA biofilms were characterized by a lack of many of the degradative activities. Expression of genes contributing to the virulence of P. aeruginosa was nearly 30-fold reduced in biofilm cells relative to planktonic cells. Gene expression analysis indicated dispersed cells, while dispersing from a biofilm and returning to the single cell lifestyle, to be distinct from both biofilm and planktonic cells, with virulence transcript levels being reduced up to 150-fold compared to planktonic cells. In contrast, virulence gene transcript levels were significantly increased in non-dispersing ?bdlA and ?dipA biofilms compared to wild-type planktonic cells. Despite this, bdlA and dipA inactivation, resulting in an inability to disperse in vitro, correlated with reduced pathogenicity and competitiveness in cross-phylum acute virulence models. In contrast, bdlA inactivation rendered P. aeruginosa more persistent upon chronic colonization of the murine lung, overall indicating that dispersion may contribute to both acute and chronic infections. PMID:24901523

Li, Yi; Petrova, Olga E.; Su, Shengchang; Lau, Gee W.; Panmanee, Warunya; Na, Renuka; Hassett, Daniel J.; Davies, David G.; Sauer, Karin

2014-01-01

334

Bacteria turn tiny gears  

SciTech Connect

Swarms of bacteria turn two 380-micron long gears, opening the possibility of building hybrid biological machines at the microscopic scale. Read more at Wired: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/12/bacterial-micro-machine/#more-15684 or Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=brownian-motion-bacteria

None

2009-01-01

335

Acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm and mimicking acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

A 24-year-old healthy man consulted to our center because of typical on-and-off chest-pain and an electrocardiogram showing ST-segment elevation in inferior leads. An urgent coronary angiography showed angiographically normal coronary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging confirmed acute myocarditis. Although acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm is an uncommon association, it is important to recognize it, particularly for the management for those patients presenting with ST-segment elevation and suspect myocardial infarction and angiographically normal coronary arteries. The present report highlights the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to identify acute myocarditis as the underlying cause. PMID:25276306

Kumar, Andreas; Bagur, Rodrigo; Béliveau, Patrick; Potvin, Jean-Michel; Levesque, Pierre; Fillion, Nancy; Tremblay, Benoit; Larose, Éric; Gaudreault, Valérie

2014-01-01

336

Acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm and mimicking acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

A 24-year-old healthy man consulted to our center because of typical on-and-off chest-pain and an electrocardiogram showing ST-segment elevation in inferior leads. An urgent coronary angiography showed angiographically normal coronary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging confirmed acute myocarditis. Although acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm is an uncommon association, it is important to recognize it, particularly for the management for those patients presenting with ST-segment elevation and suspect myocardial infarction and angiographically normal coronary arteries. The present report highlights the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to identify acute myocarditis as the underlying cause. PMID:25276306

Kumar, Andreas; Bagur, Rodrigo; Béliveau, Patrick; Potvin, Jean-Michel; Levesque, Pierre; Fillion, Nancy; Tremblay, Benoit; Larose, Eric; Gaudreault, Valérie

2014-09-26

337

Poorly Regulated Blood Glucose in Diabetic Patients–predictor of Acute Infections  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus, the most frequent endocrinology disease is a predisposing factor for infections. Diabetic patients have 4,4 times greater risk of systemic infection than non diabetics. Aim: a) To determine the prevalence and characteristics of acute infectious diseases in hospitalized diabetics; b) To correlate values of blood glucose levels and HbA1c with acute infections in hospitalized diabetics; c) To identify the etiology of infectious diseases. Material and methods: The study included 450 diabetic patients hospitalized in the 24-month period in the Intensive care unit of the Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders CCUS. In 204 patients (45,3%) there was an acute infectious condition and the following data was registered: a) gender and age; b) basic illness; c) laboratory parameters of inflammation (Le, CRP); d) blood glucose upon admission, parameters of glucoregulation (HbA1c, fructosamine); e) type of infection; f) verification of etiological agent; g) late complications of diabetes; and h) outcome. Results: Out of 204 diabetic patients with infection, there was 35,3% men and 64,7% women. More than half of patients (61%) were in the age group 61-80 years. The most common primary disease was Diabetes mellitus type 2. HbA1c and fructosamine were significantly increased in diabetic patients with acute infection compared to diabetics without acute infection. There is a positive correlation between HbA1c levels and CRP, and blood glucose and CRP in diabetic patients with acute infection. Most frequent infections: urinary tract infection (70,0%), followed by respiratory infections (11,8%), soft tissue infections (10,3%), generalized–bacteremia / sepsis (6,9%). The most common cause of urinary infection and generalized infection was Escherichia colli. The most common bacteria causing soft tissue infections was Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: Almost half (45,3%) of hospitalized diabetic patients had acute infectious condition. They present most frequently in women, aged 61-80 years, with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus. HbA1c and fructosamine were significantly increased in diabetic patients with acute infection. There is a positive correlation between the parameters of inflammation and glucoregulation in diabetics with acute infection. Most frequent was a urinary tract infection and the most common causative agent was Escherichia coli. The most common cause of soft tissue infections was Staphylococcus aureus. Out of 21 patients with verified soft tissue infections, 18 of them (85,7%) had confirmed diagnosis of diabetic microangiopathy diabetica. A total of 96,1% of patients fully recovered.

Burekovic, Azra; Dizdarevic–Bostandzic, Amela; Godinjak, Amina

2014-01-01

338

Acute unilateral isolated ptosis.  

PubMed

A 64-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of acute onset painless left ptosis. He had no other symptoms; importantly pupils were equal and reactive and eye movements were full. There was no palpable mass or swelling. He was systemically well with no headache, other focal neurological signs, or symptoms of fatigue. CT imaging showed swelling of the levator palpebrae superioris suggestive of myositis. After showing no improvement over 5?days the patient started oral prednisolone 30?mg reducing over 12?weeks. The ptosis resolved quickly and the patient remains symptom free at 6?months follow-up. Acute ptosis may indicate serious pathology. Differential diagnoses include a posterior communicating artery aneurysm causing a partial or complete third nerve palsy, Horner's syndrome, and myasthenia gravis. A careful history and examination must be taken. Orbital myositis typically involves the extraocular muscles causing pain and diplopia. Isolated levator myositis is rare. PMID:25564592

Court, Jennifer Helen; Janicek, David

2015-01-01

339

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection.  

PubMed

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, which principally affects the brain and spinal cord. It usually follows a benign infection or vaccination in children. Although a number of infectious agents have been implicated in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Toxoplasma gondii infection has not been described previously in children. Acquired T. gondii infection presents with lymphadenopathy and fever and usually spontaneously resolves in immunocompetent patients. We describe a previously healthy 10-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection, the symptoms of which initially began with nuchal stiffness, difficulty in walking, and urinary and stool incontinence; he later had development of motor and sensory impairment in both lower extremities and classical magnetic resonance imaging lesions suggestive of the disease. The patient recovered completely after the specific therapy for acquired T. gondii infection and pulse prednisolone. Although acute acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection has not been reported previously in association with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, clinicians should keep in mind this uncommon cause of a common disease when evaluating a patient with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. PMID:23419476

Aksoy, Ayse; Tanir, Gonul; Ozkan, Mehpare; Oguz, Melek; Y?ld?z, Yasemin Tasci

2013-03-01

340

Treatment of Acute Renal Colic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute renal colic presents as paroxysmal severe flank pain with or without radiation to the ipsilateral groin. It is caused\\u000a by partial or complete acute renal obstruction. Like other obstructed hollow visceral organs, renal colic is frequently associated\\u000a with nausea and vomiting. Because of the characteristically poor localization of visceral abdominal pain, the pain from renal\\u000a colic can be confused

Albert M. Ong; Thomas W. Jarrett

341

Acute Upper Airway Obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper airway obstruction is defined as blockage of any portion of the airway above the thoracic inlet. Stridor, suprasternal\\u000a retractions, and change of voice are the sentinel signs of upper airway obstruction. Most of the common causes among children\\u000a presenting to emergency department are of acute infectious etiology. Among these, croup is the commonest while diphteria remains\\u000a the most serious

K. Sasidaran; Arun Bansal; Sunit Singhi

342

Management of acute infectious diarrhea for children living in resource-limited settings.  

PubMed

Acute infectious gastroenteritis continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children below 5 years of age, with the majority of deaths concentrated in 35 'low income' countries. In these countries the under five years of age mortality rates reach 100 per 1000 live births, of which a significant proportion are associated with acute diarrhea. Rotavirus, cryptosporidium, Shigella spp and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are the main pathogens causing disease in these settings, although other bacteria and parasites can cause moderate to severe disease in different regions and situations. Treatment of children in these setting should be focused on appropriate rehydration, early hospitalization of severely malnourished children, zinc supplementation, and in specific situations, antimicrobials should be considered. The rationale for antimicrobial use should be based on the potential benefits based on published literature and the opportunity for use. This review provides a pathogen-specific update on the potential benefits of antimicrobials and suggests an empirical management approach for children suffering an acute watery or bloody diarrhea in a resource-limited region. PMID:24661314

O'Ryan G, Miguel; Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Liat; O'Ryan-Soriano, Miguel A; Ashkenazi, Shai

2014-05-01

343

Inactivation of biofilm bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The current project was developed to examine inactivation of biofilm bacteria and to characterize the interaction of biocides with pipe surfaces. Unattached bacteria were quite susceptible to the variety of disinfectants tested. Viable bacterial counts were reduced 99% by exposure to 0.08 mg of hypochlorous acid (pH 7.0) per liter (1 to 2 degrees C) for 1 min. For monochloramine, 94 mg/liter was required to kill 99% of the bacteria within 1 min. These results were consistent with those found by other investigators. Biofilm bacteria grown on the surfaces of granular activated carbon particles, metal coupons, or glass microscope slides were 150 to more than 3,000 times more resistant to hypochlorous acid (free chlorine, pH 7.0) than were unattached cells. In contrast, resistance of biofilm bacteria to monochloramine disinfection ranged from 2- to 100-fold more than that of unattached cells. The results suggested that, relative to inactivation of unattached bacteria, monochloramine was better able to penetrate and kill biofilm bacteria than free chlorine. For free chlorine, the data indicated that transport of the disinfectant into the biofilm was a major rate-limiting factor. Because of this phenomenon, increasing the level of free chlorine did not increase disinfection efficiency. Experiments where equal weights of disinfectants were used suggested that the greater penetrating power of monochloramine compensated for its limited disinfection activity. These studies showed that monochloramine was as effective as free chlorine for inactivation of biofilm bacteria. The research provides important insights into strategies for control of biofilm bacteria. Images PMID:2849380

LeChevallier, M W; Cawthon, C D; Lee, R G

1988-01-01

344

Sulfate-reducing bacteria in human periodontitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periodontitis is the major cause of the loss of teeth among adults. A mixture of bacteria then settles under the gingiva, and is implicated in the degradation of tooth-supporting tissue. In the deepening lesion, or pocket, the adjacent bone is degraded too, which will eventually lead to the loss of the tooth. Professor van der Hoeven has shown 6 years

P. S. Langendijk Genevaux

2001-01-01

345

Plague Bacteria Target Immune Cells During Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plague is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague bacteria are thought to inject effector Yop proteins into host cells via the type III pathway. The identity of the host cells targeted for injection during plague infection is unknown. We found, using Yop beta-lactamase hybrids and fluorescent staining of live cells from plague-infected animals, that Y. pestis selected immune

Melanie M. Marketon; R. William DePaolo; Kristin L. DeBord; Bana Jabri; Olaf Schneewind

2005-01-01

346

Multidrug Resistance in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Large amounts of antibiotics used for human therapy, as well as for farm animals and even for fish in aquaculture, resulted in the selection of pathogenic bacteria resistant to multiple drugs. Multidrug resistance in bacteria may be generated by one of two mechanisms. First, these bacteria may accumulate multiple genes, each coding for resistance to a single drug, within a single cell. This accumulation occurs typically on resistance (R) plasmids. Second, multidrug resistance may also occur by the increased expression of genes that code for multidrug efflux pumps, extruding a wide range of drugs. This review discusses our current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in both types of resistance. PMID:19231985

Nikaido, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

347

Bacteria in shear flow  

E-print Network

Bacteria are ubiquitous and play a critical role in many contexts. Their environment is nearly always dynamic due to the prevalence of fluid flow: creeping flow in soil, highly sheared flow in bodily conduits, and turbulent ...

Marcos, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

348

Acute cholecystitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Of people admitted to hospital for biliary tract disease, 20% have acute cholecystitis. Up to the age of 50 years, acute calculous cholecystitis is three times more common in women than in men, and about 1.5 times more common in women than in men thereafter. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones. Optimal therapy for acute cholecystitis, based on timing and severity of presentation, remains controversial. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute cholecystitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 17 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: early cholecystectomy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, minilaparoscopic cholecystectomy, observation alone, open cholecystectomy, and percutaneous cholecystostomy. PMID:22186260

2011-01-01

349

Acute cholecystitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Of people admitted to hospital for biliary tract disease, 20% have acute cholecystitis. Up to the age of 50 years, acute calculous cholecystitis is three times more common in women than in men, and about 1.5 times more common in women than in men thereafter. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones. Optimal therapy for acute cholecystitis, based on timing and severity of presentation, remains controversial. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute cholecystitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: early cholecystectomy, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, minilaparoscopic cholecystectomy, observation alone, and open cholecystectomy. PMID:19445789

2008-01-01

350

Genetically engineered acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria by bacteriophage transduction  

SciTech Connect

A bacteriophage capable of infecting acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria and processes for genetically engineering acidophilic bacteria for biomining or sulfur removal from coal are disclosed. The bacteriophage is capable of growth in cells existing at pH at or below 3.0. Lytic forms of the phage introduced into areas experiencing acid drainage kill the bacteria causing such drainage. Lysogenic forms of the phage having genes for selective removal of metallic or nonmetallic elements can be introduced into acidophilic bacteria to effect removal of the desired element from ore or coal. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Ward, T.E.; Bruhn, D.F.; Bulmer, D.F.

1989-05-10

351

Bacteria: More Than Pathogens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This ActionBioscience lesson plan has students explore the many roles of bacteria, harmful and beneficial. A detailed article written for ActionBioscience by a microbiologist provides background information, which is followed by discussion questions and educational activities designed for middle school to undergraduate biology courses. The Web site also provides carefully selected links for further exploring the topic, including useful sites for student research projects and a lesson: "Bacteria: Friend or Foe?"

Wassenaar, Trudy M.

2008-04-01

352

The Use of Bacteria for Remediation of Mercury Contaminated Groundwater  

EPA Science Inventory

Many processes of mercury transformation in the environment are bacteria mediated. Mercury properties cause some difficulties of remediation of mercury contaminated environment. Despite the significance of the problem of mercury pollution, methods of large scale bioremediation ...

353

Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are a relatively recently discovered bacterial group. Although taxonomically and phylogenetically heterogeneous, these bacteria share the following distinguishing features: the presence of bacteriochlorophyll a incorporated into reaction center and light-harvesting complexes, low levels of the photosynthetic unit in cells, an abundance of carotenoids, a strong inhibition by light of bacteriochlorophyll synthesis, and the inability to grow photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions. Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria are classified in two marine (Erythrobacter and Roseobacter) and six freshwater (Acidiphilium, Erythromicrobium, Erythromonas, Porphyrobacter, Roseococcus, and Sandaracinobacter) genera, which phylogenetically belong to the ?-1, ?-3, and ?-4 subclasses of the class Proteobacteria. Despite this phylogenetic information, the evolution and ancestry of their photosynthetic properties are unclear. We discuss several current proposals for the evolutionary origin of aerobic phototrophic bacteria. The closest phylogenetic relatives of aerobic phototrophic bacteria include facultatively anaerobic purple nonsulfur phototrophic bacteria. Since these two bacterial groups share many properties, yet have significant differences, we compare and contrast their physiology, with an emphasis on morphology and photosynthetic and other metabolic processes. PMID:9729607

Yurkov, Vladimir V.; Beatty, J. Thomas

1998-01-01

354

Lipopolysaccharides in diazotrophic bacteria.  

PubMed

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a process in which the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is transformed into ammonia (NH3) by a select group of nitrogen-fixing organisms, or diazotrophic bacteria. In order to furnish the biologically useful nitrogen to plants, these bacteria must be in constant molecular communication with their host plants. Some of these molecular plant-microbe interactions are very specific, resulting in a symbiotic relationship between the diazotroph and the host. Others are found between associative diazotrophs and plants, resulting in plant infection and colonization of internal tissues. Independent of the type of ecological interaction, glycans, and glycoconjugates produced by these bacteria play an important role in the molecular communication prior and during colonization. Even though exopolysaccharides (EPS) and lipochitooligosaccharides (LCO) produced by diazotrophic bacteria and released onto the environment have their importance in the microbe-plant interaction, it is the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), anchored on the external membrane of these bacteria, that mediates the direct contact of the diazotroph with the host cells. These molecules are extremely variable among the several species of nitrogen fixing-bacteria, and there are evidences of the mechanisms of infection being closely related to their structure. PMID:25232535

Serrato, Rodrigo V

2014-01-01

355

Acute mercurial pneumonitis  

PubMed Central

Milne, J., Christophers, A., and de Silva, Pamela (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 334-338. Acute mercurial pneumonitis. Mercury vapour has been shown to cause acute effects on the lung when inhaled in high concentrations. Four men, exposed to mercury inside a tank, developed, hours later, signs and symptoms of an acute febrile illness with severe pulmonary irritation, characterized by fever, rigors, cough, dyspnoea, and tightness in the chest. A review of the literature revealed that this syndrome had been described and investigated previously in fewer than 20 cases during the past 40 years, and is apparently little known. Fatalities have been described, particularly in children, and necropsy evidence has consistently revealed the pattern of an acute diffuse interstitial pneumonitis, accompanied by profuse fibrinous exudation and erosion of the bronchial and bronchiolar lining. The two common features in all reports are the heating of mercury or the entering into a confined space, or both. Adequate respiratory protection by an efficient air-supplied respirator is mandatory in industrial circumstances of the kind described in this report. PMID:5488692

Milne, James; Christophers, Allen; Silva, Pamela De

1970-01-01

356

Scrub Typhus Presenting as an Acute Abdomen  

PubMed Central

Scrub typhus is a mite-borne infectious disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, which presents as an acute febrile illness with headache, myalgia, breathlessness, and an eschar, a pathognomonic sign, in a varying proportion of patients. However, this illness can present unusually with fever and severe abdominal pain mimicking acute abdomen. A careful search for an eschar in all patients with an acute febrile illness would provide a valuable diagnostic clue and avoid unnecessary investigations and surgical exploration. PMID:24741225

Kundavaram, Abhilash PP; Das, Sohini; George, Varghese M

2014-01-01

357

Stenting in Acute Lower Limb Arterial Occlusions  

SciTech Connect

Management of critical limb ischemia of acute onset includes surgical embolectomy, bypass grafting, aspiration thrombectomy, thrombolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy followed by treatment of the underlying cause. We present our experience with the use of stents to treat acute embolic/thrombotic occlusions in one iliac and three femoropopliteal arteries. Although this is a small case series, excellent immediate and midterm results suggest that stenting of acute occlusions of the iliac, superficial femoral, and popliteal arteries is a safe and effective treatment option.

Raja, Jowad; Munneke, Graham; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria, E-mail: anna.belli@stgeorges.nhs.u [St George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2008-07-15

358

Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666

Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.

2012-01-01

359

Chapter A7. Section 7.1. Fecal Indicator Bacteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fecal indicator bacteria are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the presence of several waterborne disease-causing organisms. The concentration of indicator bacteria is a measure of water safety for body-contact recreation or for consumption. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and identification, enumeration, and calculation procedures that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on fecal indicator bacteria.

Myers, Donna N.; Sylvester, Marc A.

1997-01-01

360

Variations in the optical properties of a particle suspension associated with viral infection of marine bacteria  

E-print Network

of marine bacteria Julia Uitz,a,* Dariusz Stramski,a Anne-Claire Baudoux,b,1 Rick A. Reynolds,a Vanessa M) and associated optical variability caused by viral infection of marine heterotrophic bacteria. The PSD covering, viral abundance increased, and submicron particles were produced as bacteria were disrupted and cell

Stramski, Dariusz

361

DCAP: A Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic That Targets the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Bacteria  

E-print Network

DCAP: A Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic That Targets the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Bacteria Ye-Jin Eun Information ABSTRACT: Persistent infections are frequently caused by dormant and biofilm-associated bacteria-based antimicrobial agents, mem- brane-targeting drugs effectively kill slow-growing bacteria. Herein we introduce 2

Weibel, Douglas B.

362

Isolation of aerobic bacteria from the placenta.  

PubMed

Cultures for aerobic bacteria were prepared from 353 placentas. Specimens were taken from the chorion after removing the amnion. The specimens were immersed into Stuart transport medium. Microscopic examination of the placenta and cultures from the throat and ear of newborns were also done. The rate of positive bacterial cultures was 16%. Chorioamnionitis was found in 15%. The proportion of chorioamnionitis caused by aerobic bacteria was 44%. The rate of positive bacterial cultures from the placenta in the group of newborns with clinical signs of intrauterine infection was 63%. Bacteria can be present on the chorionic plate without any histological evidence of chorioamnionitis. Bacteriological examination of the placenta is therefore mandatory when amniotic fluid infection is suspected. PMID:6817588

Kovalovszki, L; Villányi, Z; Pataki, I; Veszelowvsky, I; Nagy, Z B

1982-01-01

363

Endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium valvarum.  

PubMed

A fastidious, gram-negative bacterium was isolated from the blood of a 51-year-old man who had acute infectious endocarditis (IE). Characterization of the organism through phenotypic and genotypic analyses revealed the causative role of Cardiobacterium valvarum. This is the third reported case of IE caused by C. valvarum. PMID:16455940

Bothelo, Elisabeth; Gouriet, Frédérique; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Roux, Véronique; Habib, Gilbert; Thuny, Franck; Metras, Dominique; Raoult, Didier; Casalta, Jean-Paul

2006-02-01

364

Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Failure due to Rhabdomyolysis  

PubMed Central

Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome caused by skeletal muscle cells destruction which can occur for many reasons, including prolonged immobilization. The main complication of the syndrome is the development of acute renal failure. Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria are responsible for approximately 5% of all causes of acute renal failure in the USA. The cause of rhabdomyolysis is often multifactorial, and approximately 8–20% of such patients develop myoglobinuric acute renal failure. PMID:24826338

Maggi, G.; Quinteros Hinojosa, F.; Villagran, M. J.; Guasch Arévalo, E.; Gilsanz Rodríguez, F.

2012-01-01

365

Acute Treatment Costs of Stroke in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Although stroke is the leading cause of death in Brazil, little information exist on the acute treatment provided for stroke and its associated costs. This study addresses this gap by both clinically and economically characterizing the acute treatment of first-ever intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and ischemic stroke (IS) in Brazil. Methods: Retrospective medical chart review using data from

Michael C. Christensen; Raul Valiente; Gisele Sampaio Silva; Won Chan Lee; Sarah Dutcher; Maria Sheila Guimarães Rocha; Ayrton Massaro

2009-01-01

366

[Schistosomiasis and acute appendicitis].  

PubMed

Acute appendicitis associated to Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection has been found in patients submitted to urgent appendectomy at the Hospital Américo Boavida in Luanda. Due to the high prevalence and morbidity caused by schistosomiasis (or bilharziasis) in the country, we suspect that the involvement of Schistosoma infection on appendicular pathology could be very frequent, in particular for those individuals more exposed to the parasite transmission. We report two clinical cases of acute appendicitis whose surgical specimens of the appendix revealed S. haematobium and S. mansoni eggs in histological samples. The reported patients live in endemic areas and have been exposed to schistosome during childhood, which may explain the infection's chronicity. Information of these clinical cases could be relevant, particularly for surgery specialists and clinical pathologists, due to the possibility of finding more patients with concurrent appendicitis and schistosomiasis. PMID:25017354

Figueiredo, Jacinta; Santos, Ângela; Clemente, Horácio; Lourenço, Augusto; Costa, Sandra; Grácio, Maria Amélia; Belo, Silvana

2014-01-01

367

Resveratrol blocks interleukin-1-induced activation of the nuclear transcription factor NF-B, inhibits proliferation, causes S-phase arrest, and induces apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resveratrol, an edible polyphenolic stil- bene, has been reported to possess sub- stantial antileukemic activities in differ- ent leukemia cell lines. We investigated whether resveratrol is active against fresh acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and itsmechanismofaction.Becauseinterleu- kin 1 (IL-1) plays a key role in prolifera- tion ofAML cells, we first tested the effect of resveratrol on theAMLcell lines OCIM2 and

Zeev Estrov; Shishir Shishodia; Stefan Faderl; David Harris; Quin Van; Hagop M. Kantarjian; Moshe Talpaz; Bharat B. Aggarwal

2003-01-01

368

Initial events in the pathogenesis of acute tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes 1 This paper was presented in part at the XVI World Congress of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Sydney, Australia, March 2–7, 1997. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial and epithelial cell samples were obtained, within 24 h of onset of pharyngeal symptoms, from the palatine tonsils of nine patients (four female and five male; age range 10–40 years, median age 23) with acute tonsillitis, culture-positive for Streptococcus pyogenes. The specimens were examined using fluorescein isothiocyanate- (FITC) and gold-labelled antiserum to S. pyogenes and fluorescence, scanning electron and

Markus Lilja; Simo Räisänen; Lars-Eric Stenfors

1998-01-01

369

Acute toxicity of arsenic to Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox bioassay) as influenced by potential competitive-protective agents.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the effect of some potential alleviative compounds against the acute toxicity of arsenic (As(V), As(III) and DMA(V)) on Aliivibrio fischeri (formerly Vibrio fischeri), a bioluminescent model bacterium, through the Microtox bioassay. The compounds studied differed in their mechanism of action, and they included the following: phosphate and glycerol, as chemical analogues (and potential competitors) of As(V) or As(III), respectively; citrate, a weak natural organic ligand; and the antioxidant ascorbic acid. Special attention was paid to phosphate effects, a widespread pollutant in natural environments. As(V) was found to be more acutely toxic than As(III) to A. fischeri, in accordance with its higher interaction with the bacteria. Both As(V) and As(III) were found to be much more acutely toxic than DMA(V), which was essentially non-acutely toxic even at very high concentrations. Phosphate presence (at equimolar P/As ratios or higher) resulted in the almost total suppression of bioluminescence inhibition, suggesting it exerts an alleviative effect against As(V) acute toxicity on A. fischeri. Interestingly, the uptake and the percentage of extracellular As(V) were not affected by the addition of phosphate, suggesting that such protective effect does not result from the competition for their common transporters. In contrast, the acute toxicity of As(III) was essentially unaffected by phosphate. Glycerol did not decrease the acute toxicity or the uptake of As(III) by A. fischeri, denoting the likely occurrence of an additional mechanism for As(III) uptake in such bacteria. Similarly, citrate and ascorbic acid essentially did not caused alleviation of As(V) or As(III) acute toxicity. As for environmental and operational implications, P could beneficially protect aquatic microorganisms against acute detrimental effects of As(V), whilst its presence could mask the toxicity due to As(V) when assessed using the Microtox bioassay, thus leading to seriously underestimate the actual ecological and health risks. PMID:24705848

Rubinos, David A; Calvo, Valeria; Iglesias, Luz; Barral, María Teresa

2014-07-01

370

Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection. PMID:22490115

2012-01-01

371

Corals diseases are a major cause of coral death  

EPA Science Inventory

Corals, like humans, are susceptible to diseases. Some coral diseases are associated with pathogenic bacteria; however, the causes of most remain unknown. Some diseases trigger rapid and extensive mortality, while others slowly cause localized color changes or injure coral tiss...

372

Shewanella algae in acute gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

Shewanella algae is an emerging bacteria rarely implicated as a human pathogen. Previously reported cases of S. algae have mainly been associated with direct contact with seawater. Here we report the isolation of S. algae as the sole etiological agent from a patient suffering from acute gastroenteritis with bloody diarrhoea. The bacterium was identified by automated identification system and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Our report highlights the importance of looking for the relatively rare aetiological agents in clinical samples that does not yield common pathogens. It also underscores the usefulness of automated systems in identification of rare pathogens. PMID:25560029

Dey, S; Bhattacharya, D; Roy, S; Nadgir, S D; Patil, A; Kholkute, S D

2015-01-01

373

Medicinal smoke reduces airborne bacteria.  

PubMed

This study represents a comprehensive analysis and scientific validation of our ancient knowledge about the effect of ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care on airborne bacterial composition and dynamics, using the Biolog microplate panels and Microlog database. We have observed that 1h treatment of medicinal smoke emanated by burning wood and a mixture of odoriferous and medicinal herbs (havan sámagri=material used in oblation to fire all over India), on aerial bacterial population caused over 94% reduction of bacterial counts by 60 min and the ability of the smoke to purify or disinfect the air and to make the environment cleaner was maintained up to 24h in the closed room. Absence of pathogenic bacteria Corynebacterium urealyticum, Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes (Klebsiella mobilis), Kocuria rosea, Pseudomonas syringae pv. persicae, Staphylococcus lentus, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. tardicrescens in the open room even after 30 days is indicative of the bactericidal potential of the medicinal smoke treatment. We have demonstrated that using medicinal smoke it is possible to completely eliminate diverse plant and human pathogenic bacteria of the air within confined space. PMID:17913417

Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nene, Yeshwant Laxman

2007-12-01

374

Acute appendicitis after laparoscopic treatment of acute epiploic appendagitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epiploic appendagitis (EA) is a rare cause of right lower quadrant (RLQ) abdominal pain. We report an unusual case of acute gangrenous appendicitis that developed after laparoscopic treatment of an EA. A 62-year-old man underwent laparoscopy for RLQ abdominal pain. EA was found and a resection was performed. The appendix, which was macroscopically normal, was left undisturbed. One week later,

E. Chouillard; A. Fingerhut

375

Acute Vestibulopathy  

PubMed Central

The presentation of acute vertigo may represent both a common benign disorder or a life threatening but rare one. Familiarity with the common peripheral vestibular disorders will allow the clinician to rapidly “rule-in” a benign disorder and recognize when further testing is required. Key features of vertigo required to make an accurate diagnosis are duration, chronicity, associated symptoms, and triggers. Bedside tests that are critical to the diagnosis of acute vertigo include the Dix-Hallpike maneuver and canalith repositioning manuever, occlusive ophthalmoscopy, and the head impulse test. The goal of this review is to provide the clinician with the clinical and pathophysiologic background of the most common disorders that present with vertigo to develop a logical differential diagnosis and management plan. PMID:23983835

Cha, Yoon-Hee

2011-01-01

376

[Acute diarrhea].  

PubMed

Diarrhea, defined as three or more loose or watery stools per day, represents a frequent problem in outpatients as well as inpatients. As most of the patients with acute diarrhea show a self-limiting disease course, the main challenge for the physician is to discriminate patients for whom symptomatic therapy is sufficient from those with severe disease course and threatening complications. This review aims to provide a practical guidance for such decisions. PMID:25154688

Burgmann, Konstantin; Schoepfer, Alain

2014-09-01

377

bacteria driven polymerization  

E-print Network

12/20/2007 1 Motion of bacteria driven by actin polymerization forces Michael C. DeSantis Physics.B. Alberts) Examples of other intracellular pathogens propelled by actoclampins (actin filament (+)-end by actin polymerization. Cell signaling and its influence by actin polymerization transitions

Wang, Yan Mei

378

Drug induced acute pancreatitis: Does it exist?  

PubMed

As the incidence of acute pancreatitis continues to rise, establishing the etiology in order to prevent recurrence is important. Although the etiology of acute pancreatitis is not difficult in the majority of patients, almost a quarter of patients are initially labeled as having idiopathic acute pancreatitis. When confronted with a patient with acute pancreatitis and no clear etiology defined as an absence alcoholism, gallstones (ultrasound and/or MRI), a normal triglyceride level, and absence of tumor, it often appears reasonable to consider a drug as the cause of acute pancreatitis. Over 100 drugs have been implicated by case reports as causing acute pancreatitis. While some of these case reports are well written, many case reports represent poorly written experiences of the clinician simply implicating a drug without a careful evaluation. Over-reliance on case reports while ignoring randomized clinical trials and large pharmacoepidemiologic surveys has led to confusion about drug induced acute pancreatitis. This review will explain that drug induced acute pancreatitis does occur, but it is rare, and over diagnosis leads to misconceptions about the disease resulting in inappropriate patient care, increased litigation and a failure to address the true entity: idiopathic acute pancreatitis. PMID:25469020

Tenner, Scott

2014-11-28

379

Acute inhalation toxicity of cotton plant dusts.  

PubMed Central

The number of free lung-cells was studied in guinea-pigs after acute exposure to extracts of various cotton dusts. A good correlation was found between the increase in number of leucocytes in the airways and the number of Gram-negative bacteria in the different dusts. Experiments using the Shwartzmann reaction and the Limulus titration test demonstrated a relationship between the content of different endotoxins in the dusts and the pulmonary reaction. A model for the acute exposure effects after exposure to cotton dust is proposed. PMID:963002

Rylander, R; Snella, M C

1976-01-01

380

Kill the Bacteria … and Also Their Messengers?  

PubMed Central

We consider here a previously neglected aspect of recovery from infectious diseases: how animals dispose of the dead microbes in their tissues. For one of the most important disease-causing microorganisms, Gram-negative bacteria, there is now evidence that the host catabolism of a key microbial molecule is essential for full recovery. As might be expected, it is the same bacterial molecule that animals sense to detect the presence of Gram-negative bacteria in their tissues, the cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we discuss current knowledge about LPS sensing with emphasis on the host enzyme that inactivates this microbial “messenger” molecule. We also consider the possibility that the rate at which stimulatory microbial molecules undergo inactivation may influence the duration and severity of diseases caused by other infectious agents. PMID:19755182

Munford, Robert; Lu, Mingfang; Varley, Alan

2009-01-01

381

Acute Appendicitis following Laparoscopic Live Donor Nephrectomy  

PubMed Central

Acute abdominal pain following laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LLDN) might be a diagnostic dilemma, and prompt diagnosis and management is of paramount importance. Herein, we describe a case of acute appendicitis in a 62-year-old kidney donor who presented with acute abdominal pain 16 days following LLDN with features inconsistent with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. An ultrasound scan suggested strangulated Spigelian hernia unrelated to the operative wound. Exploration of the wound and mini-laparotomy showed no evidence of wound dehiscence or a hernia, but revealed an inflamed appendix wrapped up with omentum. Appendectomy led to complete recovery of the patient. It is imperative to maintain a high index of suspicion for acute appendicitis in this situation to avoid septic complications that might adversely affect the residual renal function and cause negative impact on kidney donation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute appendicitis following LLDN. PMID:25013574

Kumar, A.; Elenin, H.; Clayton, C.; Basarab-Horwath, C.; Man Shrestha, B.

2010-01-01

382

Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.  

PubMed

Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is a frequent cause of acute renal failure, characterised by the presence of inflammatory cell infiltrate in the interstitium of the kidney. Immuno-allergic reaction to certain medications, mainly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics are by far the most important etiology for TIN today, but other situations such as infections, toxins, and vasculitis are known to induce TIN. Incidence of TIN is increasing, probably due to prescription habits and NSAID overuse, representing 3-7% of acute kidney injury in biopsies in children. Avoidance of the causal substance and rapid steroid therapy are hallmarks for patient care, but spontaneous initial recovery is very frequent and the general prognosis seems satisfactory. However, development of chronic TIN, without response to steroid or other immunosuppressive treatment, is possible. As the largest part of TIN is secondary to certain drugs, clear indications in particular for NSAID or antibiotics should be respected to reduce the number of TIN cases. PMID:21638156

Ulinski, Tim; Sellier-Leclerc, Anne-Laure; Tudorache, Elena; Bensman, Albert; Aoun, Bilal

2012-07-01

383

Inhibition of RND-type efflux pumps confers the FtsZ-directed prodrug TXY436 with activity against Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Infections caused by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens are often difficult to treat, with the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains further restricting clinical treatment options. As a result, there is an acute need for the development of new therapeutic agents active against Gram-negative bacteria. The bacterial protein FtsZ has recently been demonstrated to be a viable antibacterial target for treating infections caused by the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus in mouse model systems. Here, we investigate whether an FtsZ-directed prodrug (TXY436) that is effective against S. aureus can also target Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli. We find that the conversion product of TXY436 (PC190723) can bind E. coli FtsZ and inhibit its polymerization/bundling in vitro. However, PC190723 is intrinsically inactive against wild-type E. coli, with this inactivity being derived from the actions of the efflux pump AcrAB. Mutations in E. coli AcrAB render the mutant bacteria susceptible to TXY436. We further show that chemical inhibition of AcrAB in E. coli, as well as its homologs in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, confers all three Gram-negative pathogens with susceptibility to TXY436. We demonstrate that the activity of TXY436 against E. coli and K. pneumoniae is bactericidal in nature. Evidence for FtsZ-targeting and inhibition of cell division in Gram-negative bacteria by TXY436 is provided by the induction of a characteristic filamentous morphology when the efflux pump has been inhibited as well as by the lack of functional Z-rings upon TXY436 treatment. PMID:24637241

Kaul, Malvika; Zhang, Yongzheng; Parhi, Ajit K; Lavoie, Edmond J; Pilch, Daniel S

2014-06-01

384

Genetic polymorphisms associated with acute lung injury  

PubMed Central

Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome are the result of intense inflammation in the lungs leading to respiratory failure. The causes of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome are numerous (e.g., pneumonia, sepsis and trauma) but the reasons why certain individuals develop lung injury in response to these stimuli and others do not are not well understood. There is ample evidence in the literature that gene–host and gene–environment interactions may play a large role in the morbidity and mortality associated with this syndrome. In this review, we initially discuss methods for identification of candidate acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome susceptibility genes using a number of model systems including in vitro cell systems and inbred mice. We then describe examples of polymorphisms in genes that have been associated with the pathogenesis of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome in human case–control studies. Systematic bench to bedside approaches to understand the genetic contribution to acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome have provided important insight to this complex disease and continuation of these investigations could lead to the development of novel prevention or intervention strategies. PMID:19761373

Reddy, Anita J; Kleeberger, Steven R

2009-01-01

385

Survival of contagious equine metritis bacteria in transport media.  

PubMed

Survival of bacteria that cause contagious equine metritis (CEM) was evaluated in Amies modified transport (AMT) medium, in AMT medium with charcoal, and in Stuart transport medium at 37, 22, 4, and -70 C. The CEM bacteria suspended in transport media survived at 22, 4, and -70 C for longer periods in AMT medium with charcoal than they did in AMT and Stuart transport media. In 1 day, the number of bacteria in exudate stored in the absence of any transport medium decreased 15-fold at 22 C and twofold at 4 C. The CEM bacteria were isolated from exudate on cotton-tipped swabs from all three transport media at 4 and -70 C on day 10, the termination of the experiment. However at 4 C, the survival of CEM bacteria was greater in AMT medium with charcoal than it was in AMT and Stuart transport media. PMID:507491

Sahu, S P; Dardiri, A H; Rommel, F A; Pierson, R E

1979-07-01

386

News and Research Good Bacteria  

E-print Network

News and Research Good Bacteria Part 2 Article 13 Click here for Probiotics Basics Cooperation Is A No-brainer For Symbiotic Bacteria 9-4-2003 Humans may learn cooperation in kindergarten, but what about bacteria, whose behavior is preprogrammed by their DNA? Some legume plants, which rely

West, Stuart

387

Quantification and Qualification of Bacteria Trapped in Chewed Gum  

PubMed Central

Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-chewed into gum and chewed gums were molded to standard dimensions, sonicated and plated to determine numbers of colony-forming-units incorporated, yielding calibration curves of colony-forming-units retrieved versus finger-chewed in. In a second method, calibration curves were created by finger-chewing known numbers of bacteria into gum and subsequently dissolving the gum in a mixture of chloroform and tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (TE)-buffer. The TE-buffer was analyzed using quantitative Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qPCR), yielding calibration curves of total numbers of bacteria versus finger-chewed in. Next, five volunteers were requested to chew gum up to 10 min after which numbers of colony-forming-units and total numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum were determined using the above methods. The qPCR method, involving both dead and live bacteria yielded higher numbers of retrieved bacteria than plating, involving only viable bacteria. Numbers of trapped bacteria were maximal during initial chewing after which a slow decrease over time up to 10 min was observed. Around 108 bacteria were detected per gum piece depending on the method and gum considered. The number of species trapped in chewed gum increased with chewing time. Trapped bacteria were clearly visualized in chewed gum using scanning-electron-microscopy. Summarizing, using novel methods to quantify and qualify oral bacteria trapped in chewed gum, the hypothesis is confirmed that chewing of gum can trap and remove bacteria from the oral cavity. PMID:25602256

Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.

2015-01-01

388

Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

Russell Vreeland

2009-01-09

389

Bacteria, food, and cancer  

PubMed Central

Gut microbes are essential components of the human organism—helping us metabolize food into energy, produce micronutrients, and shape our immune systems. Having a particular pattern of gut microbes is also increasingly being linked to medical conditions including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and diabetes. Recent studies now indicate that our resident intestinal bacteria may also play a critical role in determining one's risk of developing cancer, ranging from protection against cancer to promoting its initiation and progression. Gut bacteria are greatly influenced by diet and in this review we explore evidence that they may be the missing piece that explains how dietary intake influences cancer risk, and discuss possible prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:21876723

Rooks, Michelle G.

2011-01-01

390

Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

391

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)  

MedlinePLUS

... this page Print this page Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a fast-growing cancer of a type ... that your body needs. Tweet Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) How transplant can treat ALL Transplant outcomes for ...

392

Ticagrelor for acute coronary syndromes.  

PubMed

Ticagrelor is a potent P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist characterized by a rapid onset, consistent and reversible antiplatelet effect, and an acceptable safety profile compared with existing adenosine diphosphate receptor blockers. In the large Phase III trial, PLATO, ticagrelor significantly reduced the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke as well as cardiovascular and all-cause mortality compared with clopidogrel in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. With its favorable impact on mortality, ticagrelor changes the landscape of anti-thrombotic therapy for patients with acute coronary syndromes. PMID:24147518

Bansilal, Sameer; Bonaca, Marc P; Sabatine, Marc S

2013-11-01

393

Targeted Modulation of Acute Inflammation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Localized inflammation of the lungs was induced with the neutrophil chemoattractant, N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP) in combination with magnetically responsive albumin microspheres, a drug carrier that provides efficient, extremely rapid localization in tissue. Intravenous targeting to rat lungs was accomplished by means of an external thoracic magnet. This caused progressive local accumulation of neutrophils, extravascular cell migration, and acute tissue injury. Microscopic findings favored chemotaxis as the principal mechanism of cell accumulation. This system provides a new experimental model for acute alveolar damage, a rapid in vivo assay for drugs that modulate neutrophil chemotaxis, and a new therapeutic approach to focusing inflammation in patients with chemotactic defects.

Ranney, David F.

1985-01-01

394

Glacial Lake Hides Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article highlights the published work of a geomicrobiology research team led by Eric Gaidos from the University of Hawaii and Brian Lanoil, from the University of California, Riverside. This group reports the identification of bacteria from an Icelandic sub-glacial lake, and how the collection and description of these microorganisms immured within glacial ice and sub-surface water serve as a model in the search for extra-terrestrial life.

Peplow, Mark

2010-03-01

395

QUORUM SENSING IN BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density. Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. The detection of a minimal threshold stimulatory con- centration of an autoinducer leads to an alteration in gene expression. Gram-positive and Gram-negative

Melissa B. Miller; Bonnie L. Bassler

2001-01-01

396

Glacial lake hides bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article highlights the published work of a geomicrobiology research team led by Eric Gaidos from the University of Hawaii and Brian Lanoil, from the University of California, Riverside. This group reports the identification of bacteria from an Icelandic sub-glacial lake, and how the collection and description of these microorganisms immured within glacial ice and sub-surface water serve as a model in the search for extra-terrestrial life.

Peplow, Mark; Online, Bioed

397

Siboglinid-bacteria endosymbiosis  

PubMed Central

Siboglinid worms are a group of gutless marine annelids which are nutritionally dependent upon endosymbiotic bacteria.1,2 Four major groups of siboglinids are known including vestimentiferans, Osedax spp., frenulates and moniliferans.3–5 Very little is known about the diversity of bacterial endosymbionts associated with frenulate or monoliferan siboglinids. This lack of knowledge is surprising considering the global distribution of siboglinids; this system is likely among the most common symbioses in the deep sea. At least three distinct clades of endosymbiotic ?-proteobacteria associate with siboglinid annelids.6 Frenulates harbor a clade of ?-proteobacteria that are divergent from both the thiotrophic bacteria of vestimentiferans and monoliferans as well as the heterotrophic bacteria of Osedax spp.6,7 We also discuss priorities for future siboglinid research and the need to move beyond descriptive studies. A promising new method, laser-capture microdissection (LCM), allows for the precise excision of tissue regions of interest.8 This method, when used in concert with molecular and genomic techniques, such as Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) surveys using pyrosequencing technology, will likely enable investigations into physiological processes and mechanisms in these symbioses. Furthermore, adopting a comparative approach using different siboglinid groups, such as worms harboring thiotrophic versus methanotrophic endosymbionts, may yield considerable insight into the ecology and evolution of the Siboglinidae. PMID:19704881

Fielman, Kevin T; Santos, Scott R; Halanych, Kenneth M

2008-01-01

398

Acute retinal necrosis.  

PubMed

Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rare disease that is usually caused by one of the three neurotropic human herpesviruses - herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1), HSV-2 and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Although much is known about the clinical course of the disease and its treatment and about the viruses that cause it, comparatively little is known about its pathogenesis. This article will review the history of ARN, the typical clinical findings, and methods of diagnosis. Information from studies of the mouse model of ARN including development of anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID) and routes of spread will be reconsidered, and the combined information from human and mouse studies will be discussed to suggest mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of ARN in human patients. Finally, puzzles and questions about the disease will be considered. PMID:17264500

Kezuka, Takeshi; Atherton, Sally S

2007-01-01

399

Acute Inhalation Injury  

PubMed Central

Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs.

Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

2010-01-01

400

Controlled Cortical Impact Traumatic Brain Injury in 3xTg-AD Mice Causes Acute Intra-axonal Amyloid-beta Accumulation and Independently Accelerates the Development of Tau Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by progressive neuronal loss, extracellular plaques containing the amyloid-? (A?) peptides, and neurofibrillary tangles composed of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. A? is thought to act upstream of tau, affecting its phosphorylation and therefore aggregation state. One of the major risk factors for AD is traumatic brain injury (TBI). Acute intra-axonal A? and diffuse extracellular plaques occur in approximately 30% of human subjects following severe TBI. Intra-axonal accumulations of tau but not tangle-like pathologies have also been found in these patients. Whether and how these acute accumulations contribute to subsequent AD development is not known, and the interaction between A? and tau in the setting of TBI has not been investigated. Here, we report that controlled cortical impact TBI in 3xTg-AD mice resulted in intra-axonal A? accumulations and increased phospho-tau immunoreactivity at 24 hours and up to 7 days post TBI. Given these findings, we investigated the relationship between A? and tau pathologies following trauma in this model by systemic treatment of Compound E to inhibit ?-secrectase activity, a proteolytic process required for A? production. Compound E treatment successfully blocked post-traumatic A? accumulation in these injured mice at both time points. However, tau pathology was not affected. Our data support a causal role for TBI in acceleration of AD-related pathologies, and suggest that TBI may independently affect A? and tau abnormalities. Future studies will be required to assess the behavioral and long-term neurodegenerative consequences of these pathologies. PMID:21715616

Tran, Hien T; LaFerla, Frank M.; Holtzman, David M.; Brody, David L.

2011-01-01

401

Molecular diagnosis of respiratory tract infection in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Acute exacerbations are significant events in the course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Modern diagnostic techniques have revealed an infectious cause for the majority of exacerbations. Common respiratory viruses contribute to 25%-50% of exacerbations. Detection of viral nucleic acids in nasopharyngeal swab or sputum samples has become the preferred method to study viral exacerbations instead of viral cultures and serologic examination. Clinical application of such molecular detection requires additional studies to clarify interpretation of a positive result. Bacteria account for 25%-50% of exacerbations. Studies comparing molecular detection of bacteria in sputum with conventional culture techniques have shown that a substantial proportion of bacteria are not detected by the latter method. However, as with molecular viral detection, clinical application of molecular bacterial diagnosis requires additional studies. Although still faced with several challenges and requiring additional development, it is quite likely that molecular methods will become the preferred methods for determining the etiology of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:21460287

Sethi, Sanjay

2011-05-01

402

Imaging of acute pancreatitis and its complications. Part 1: Acute pancreatitis.  

PubMed

Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas that may also involve surrounding tissues or remote organs. The Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was introduced in 1992 and divides patients into mild and severe groups based on clinical and biochemical criteria. Recently, the terminology and classification scheme proposed at the initial Atlanta Symposium have been reviewed and a new consensus statement has been proposed by the Acute Pancreatitis Classification Working Group. Generally, imaging is recommended to confirm the clinical diagnosis, investigate the etiology, and grade the extend and severity of the acute pancreatitis. Ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality in most centers for the confirmation of the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and the ruling out of other causes of acute abdomen, but it has limitations in the acute clinical settting. Computed tomography not only establishes the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, but also enables to stage severity of the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging has earned an ever more important role in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. It is especially useful for imaging of patients with iodine allergies, characterizing collections and assessment of an abnormal or disconnected pancreatic duct. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the acute pancreatitis, clarify confusing terminology, underline the role of ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging according to the proper clinical context and compare the advantages and limitations of each modality. PMID:24512896

Türkvatan, A; Erden, A; Türko?lu, M A; Seçil, M; Yener, Ö

2015-02-01

403

Characterization of CEBPA mutations and promoter hypermethylation in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Dysfunctioning of CCAAT\\/enhancer binding protein ? (C\\/EBP ?) in acute myeloid leukemia can be caused, amongst others, by mutations in the encoding gene (CEBPA) and by promoter hypermethylation. CEBPA-mutated acute myeloid leukemia is associated with a favorable outcome, but this may be restricted to the case of double mutations in CEBPA in adult acute myeloid leukemia. In pediatric acute

I. H. I. M. Hollink; Heuvel-Eibrink van den M. M; S. T. C. J. M. Arentsen-Peters; M. Zimmermann; J. Peeters; P. J. M. Valk; B. V. Balgobind; E. Sonneveld; G. J. Kaspers; Bont de E. S. J. M; J. Trka; A. Baruchel; U. Creutzig; R. A. Pieters; D. Reinhardt; C. M. Zwaan

2011-01-01

404

Antibacterial Activity And Acute Toxicity Effect of Flavonoids Extracted From Mentha longifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Mentha longifolia were tested for their antimicrobial activity against some clinical bacteria. Then, a phytochemical screening was realized for the ethanolic extract and the acute toxicity was measured for the identified flavonoids present in it. The results showed that the ethanolic extract was the most active against the tested bacteria. The phytochemical

Souâd Akroum; Dalila Bendjeddou; Dalila Satta; Korrichi Lalaoui

405

Biodegradation of chlorobenzene by indigenous bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Soil and ground water from four sites chronically contaminated with chlorobenzenes were examined to determine whether indigenous bacteria could degrade the contaminants and whether the addition of specific chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria enhanced the degradation rate. At each site, chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria were readily isolated from chlorobenzene-contaminated wells, whereas similar samples from noncontaminated wells yielded no chlorobenzene-degrading bacteria. Isolates were tested for growth on a variety of substrates. At a site contaminated with several solvents, a bioreactor was inoculated with the chlorobenzene-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain JS150. Contaminated water was pumped through this bioreactor and a control bioreactor that had been colonized by in indigenous microorganisms. The contaminants were removed from both bioreactors; however, JS150 could not be recovered from the inoculated bioreactor after three weeks of operation. A follow-up lab study using ground water from the contaminated site confirmed the field results. The authors conclude that chlorobenzene contamination of soil causes the development of indigenous degradative populations that have a competitive advantage over inoculated strains. The mechanism and time course of this acclimation are poorly understood and require additional study.

Nishino, S.F.; Spain, J.C.; Pettigrew, C.A. (AL/EQOL, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States))

1994-06-01

406

Biotechnological potential of sponge-associated bacteria.  

PubMed

As sessile and filter-feeding metazoans, marine sponges represent an ecologically important and highly diverse component of marine benthic communities throughout the world. It has been suggested that marine sponges are hosts to many microorganisms which can constitute up to 40-60% of its biomass. Recently, sponges have attracted a high interest from scientific community because two important factors. First there is the fact that sponges have a wide range of associated bacteria; and, second, they are a rich source of bioactive substances. Since 1950, a number of bioactive substances with various pharmacological functions have been isolated from marine sponges. However, many of these substances were subsequently shown to be actually synthesized by sponge-associated bacteria. Bacteria associated with marine sponges constitute an interesting source of novel bioactive compounds with biotechnological potential such as antimicrobial substances, enzymes and surfactants. In addition, these bacteria may be biofilm forming and can act as bioindicators in bioremediation processes of environmental pollution caused by oil and heavy metals. This review focuses on the biotechnological applications of these microorganisms. PMID:25022270

Santos-Gandelman, Juliana F; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia; Oelemann, Walter M R; Laport, Marinella S

2014-01-01

407

Selection-Driven Gene Loss in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Gene loss by deletion is a common evolutionary process in bacteria, as exemplified by bacteria with small genomes that have evolved from bacteria with larger genomes by reductive processes. The driving force(s) for genome reduction remains unclear, and here we examined the hypothesis that gene loss is selected because carriage of superfluous genes confers a fitness cost to the bacterium. In the bacterium Salmonella enterica, we measured deletion rates at 11 chromosomal positions and the fitness effects of several spontaneous deletions. Deletion rates varied over 200-fold between different regions with the replication terminus region showing the highest rates. Approximately 25% of the examined deletions caused an increase in fitness under one or several growth conditions, and after serial passage of wild-type bacteria in rich medium for 1,000 generations we observed fixation of deletions that substantially increased bacterial fitness when reconstructed in a non-evolved bacterium. These results suggest that selection could be a significant driver of gene loss and reductive genome evolution. PMID:22761588

Koskiniemi, Sanna; Sun, Song; Berg, Otto G.; Andersson, Dan I.

2012-01-01

408

Phosphorothioate DNA as an antioxidant in bacteria  

PubMed Central

Diverse bacteria contain DNA with sulfur incorporated stereo-specifically into their DNA backbone at specific sequences (phosphorothioation). We found that in vitro oxidation of phosphorothioate (PT) DNA by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or peracetic acid has two possible outcomes: DNA backbone cleavage or sulfur removal resulting in restoration of normal DNA backbone. The physiological relevance of this redox reaction was investigated by challenging PT DNA hosting Salmonella enterica cells using H2O2. DNA phosphorothioation was found to correlate with increasing resistance to the growth inhibition by H2O2. Resistance to H2O2 was abolished when each of the three dnd genes, required for phosphorothioation, was inactivated. In vivo, PT DNA is more resistant to the double-strand break damage caused by H2O2 than PT-free DNA. Furthermore, sulfur on the modified DNA was consumed and the DNA was converted to PT-free state when the bacteria were incubated with H2O2. These findings are consistent with a hypothesis that phosphorothioation modification endows DNA with reducing chemical property, which protects the hosting bacteria against peroxide, explaining why this modification is maintained by diverse bacteria. PMID:22772986

Xie, Xinqiang; Liang, Jingdan; Pu, Tianning; Xu, Fei; Yao, Fen; Yang, Yan; Zhao, Yi-Lei; You, Delin; Zhou, Xiufen; Deng, Zixin; Wang, Zhijun

2012-01-01

409

Living bacteria in silica gels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The encapsulation of enzymes within silica gels has been extensively studied during the past decade for the design of biosensors and bioreactors. Yeast spores and bacteria have also been recently immobilized within silica gels where they retain their enzymatic activity, but the problem of the long-term viability of whole cells in an inorganic matrix has never been fully addressed. It is a real challenge for the development of sol-gel processes. Generic tests have been performed to check the viability of Escherichia coli bacteria in silica gels. Surprisingly, more bacteria remain culturable in the gel than in an aqueous suspension. The metabolic activity of the bacteria towards glycolysis decreases slowly, but half of the bacteria are still viable after one month. When confined within a mineral environment, bacteria do not form colonies. The exchange of chemical signals between isolated bacteria rather than aggregates can then be studied, a point that could be very important for 'quorum sensing'.

Nassif, Nadine; Bouvet, Odile; Noelle Rager, Marie; Roux, Cécile; Coradin, Thibaud; Livage, Jacques

2002-09-01

410

Acute massive haemopneumothorax due to solitary costal exostosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute massive haemopneumothorax is frequently related to open or blunt chest trauma, whereas spontaneous haemopneumothorax is rare and may be due to multiple hereditary exostosis (MHE). We report a case of acute massive spontaneous and relapsed haemopneumothorax occurring during a volleyball match, and caused by solitary costal exostosis. Thoracoscopy failed to disclose and remove the cause of the haemopneumothorax and

Alessandro Bini; Manuele Grazia; Franco Stella; Francesco Petrella

2003-01-01

411

Human Infection Caused by Clostridium hathewayi  

PubMed Central

We describe a 27-year-old man with acute cholecystitis, hepatic abscess, and bacteremia caused by Clostridium hathewayi, a newly described gram-negative, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium. This report is the first of human infection caused by this microorganism. PMID:15550205

Zhang, Kunyan

2004-01-01

412

In Vitro Interactions between Bacteria, Osteoblast-Like Cells and Macrophages in the Pathogenesis of Biomaterial-Associated Infections  

PubMed Central

Biomaterial-associated infections constitute a major clinical problem that is difficult to treat and often necessitates implant replacement. Pathogens can be introduced on an implant surface during surgery and compete with host cells attempting to integrate the implant. The fate of a biomaterial implant depends on the outcome of this race for the surface. Here we studied the competition between different bacterial strains and human U2OS osteoblast-like cells (ATCC HTB-94) for a poly(methylmethacrylate) surface in the absence or presence of macrophages in vitro using a peri-operative contamination model. Bacteria were seeded on the surface at a shear rate of 11 1/s prior to adhesion of U2OS cells and macrophages. Next, bacteria, U2OS cells and macrophages were allowed to grow simultaneously under low shear conditions (0.14 1/s). The outcome of the competition between bacteria and U2OS cells for the surface critically depended on bacterial virulence. In absence of macrophages, highly virulent Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa stimulated U2OS cell death within 18 h of simultaneous growth on a surface. Moreover, these strains also caused cell death despite phagocytosis of adhering bacteria in presence of murine macrophages. Thus U2OS cells are bound to loose the race for a biomaterial surface against S. aureus or P. aeruginosa, even in presence of macrophages. In contrast, low-virulent Staphylococcus epidermidis did not cause U2OS cell death even after 48 h, regardless of the absence or presence of macrophages. Clinically, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa are known to yield acute and severe biomaterial-associated infections in contrast to S. epidermidis, mostly known to cause more low-grade infection. Thus it can be concluded that the model described possesses features concurring with clinical observations and therewith has potential for further studies on the simultaneous competition for an implant surface between tissue cells and pathogenic bacteria in presence of immune system components. PMID:21931858

Subbiahdoss, Guruprakash; Saldarriaga Fernández, Isabel C.; da Silva Domingues, Joana F.; Kuijer, Roel; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

2011-01-01

413

[Pharmacological treatment of acute cough].  

PubMed

Acute cough may cause considerable distress for patients with upper airway infections, and is a symptom commonly presented to doctors. We wanted to assess the evidence basis for pharmacological treatment of this condition. Predefined terms (MeSH and Emtree) and free text were used to search PubMed and Embase for double-blind randomized trials, reviews and guidelines. Little evidence supports the use of guaifenesine, bromhexine and acetylcysteine for acute cough associated with upper airway infections. Likewise, there is insufficient evidence to decide whether noscapine, codeine and ehylmorphine are beneficial for acute cough on this indication. Well-designed randomized controlled trials with valid outcomes are needed to document possible benefits of treatment. Treatment with codeine or ethylmorphine may be at the expense of adverse effects, abuse or dependence. PMID:19448753

Småbrekke, Lars; Melbye, Hasse

2009-05-14

414

Acute Bronchitis  

MedlinePLUS

... infection of the bronchial (say: "brawn-kee-ull") tree. The bronchial tree is made up of the tubes that carry ... usually caused by constant irritation of the bronchial tree, such as from smoking). Symptoms What are the ...

415

Tetanus: Causes and Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... Tetanus bacteria are everywhere in the environment, including soil, dust and manure. Common Ways Tetanus Gets Into Your Body The bacteria can get into the body through broken skin, usually through injuries from contaminated objects. Certain breaks in the skin ...

416

[Nutrition in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Nutritional concepts in acute pancreatitis have changed. Early enteral nutrition widely replaced parenteral nutrition alone in severe acute pancreatitis. First trials suggest early oral refeeding as nutritional treatment of choice in patients with mild acute pancreatitis. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on nutrition in acute pancreatitis and discuss future developments. PMID:20922640

Teich, N; Mössner, J

2010-10-01

417

Caring for patients with acute intermittent porphyria.  

PubMed

The porphyrias are a group of metabolic disorders of heme biosynthesis genetically determined defects. Acute intermittent porphyria is the most common form of porphyria found in the United States. It is caused by a genetic defect in chromosome 11, where one of two genes for porphobilinogen deaminase is defective. Acute intermittent porphyria is characterized by intermittent, acute, occasionally fatal attacks of abdominal, neurologic, psychiatric, and renal symptoms. Attacks are often confused with acute abdomen or bowel obstruction. A variety of drug, hormonal, nutritional, and infectious factors can precipitate clinical symptoms. Managing patients with acute intermittent porphyria involves removing the precipitating factors, increasing carbohydrate intake, controlling pain, and administering medications. A case study is provided. PMID:7767795

Shively, B D; Clochesy, J M; Briones, J P; Spositio, D L; Kloos, J A

1994-02-01

418

Can entropy save bacteria?  

E-print Network

This article presents a physical biology approach to understanding organization and segregation of bacterial chromosomes. The author uses a "piston" analogy for bacterial chromosomes in a cell, which leads to a phase diagram for the organization of two athermal chains confined in a closed geometry characterized by two length scales (length and width). When applied to rod-shaped bacteria such as Escherichia coli, this phase diagram predicts that, despite strong confinement, duplicated chromosomes will demix, i.e., there exists a primordial physical driving force for chromosome segregation. The author discusses segregation of duplicating chromosomes using the concentric-shell model, which predicts that newly synthesized DNA will be found in the periphery of the chromosome during replication. In contrast to chromosomes, these results suggest that most plasmids will be randomly distributed inside the cell because of their small sizes. An active partitioning system is therefore required for accurate segregation of low-copy number plasmids. Implications of these results are also sketched, e.g., on the role of proteins, segregation mechanisms for bacteria of diverse shapes, cell cycle of an artificial cell, and evolution.

Suckjoon Jun

2008-08-29

419

RNA localization in bacteria.  

PubMed

One of the most important discoveries in the field of microbiology in the last two decades is that bacterial cells have intricate subcellular organization. This understanding has emerged mainly from the depiction of spatial and temporal organization of proteins in specific domains within bacterial cells, e.g., midcell, cell poles, membrane and periplasm. Because translation of bacterial RNA molecules was considered to be strictly coupled to their synthesis, they were not thought to specifically localize to regions outside the nucleoid. However, the increasing interest in RNAs, including non-coding RNAs, encouraged researchers to explore the spatial and temporal localization of RNAs in bacteria. The recent technological improvements in the field of fluorescence microscopy allowed subcellular imaging of RNAs even in the tiny bacterial cells. It has been reported by several groups, including ours that transcripts may specifically localize in such cells. Here we review what is known about localization of RNA and of the pathways that determine RNA fate in bacteria, and discuss the possible cues and mechanisms underlying these distribution patterns. PMID:25482897

Buskila, Avi-Ad Avraam; Kannaiah, Shanmugapriya; Amster-Choder, Orna

2014-08-01

420

Development of a molecular-beacon-based multi-allelic real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of human coronavirus causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV): a general methodology for detecting rapidly mutating viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases have caused a global effort for development of fast and accurate detection techniques. The rapidly mutating nature of viruses presents a major difficulty, highlighting the need for specific detection of genetically diverse strains. One such infectious agent is SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV), which emerged in 2003. This study aimed to develop a real-time RT-PCR detection assay specific for

Andreas V. Hadjinicolaou; Gabriella A. Farcas; Victoria L. Demetriou; Tony Mazzulli; Susan M. Poutanen; Barbara M. Willey; Donald E. Low; Jagdish Butany; Sylvia L. Asa; Kevin C. Kain; Leondios G. Kostrikis

2011-01-01

421

Bioinspired magneto-optical bacteria.  

PubMed

"Two-in-one" magneto-optical bacteria have been produced using the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum for the first time. We took advantage of two features of bacteria to synthesize this novel and bifunctional nanostructure: their metal-reducing properties, to produce gold nanoparticles, and their capacity to incorporate iron oxide nanoparticles at their external surface. The magneto-optical bacteria survive the process and behave as a magnet at room temperature. PMID:25068183

Carmona, Fernando; Martín, Miguel; Gálvez, Natividad; Dominguez-Vera, Jose M

2014-08-18

422

TSSWCB Bacteria-Related Projects  

E-print Network

of the projects are listed below. ? Peach CreekWater Quality Improvement Project ? Monitoring and Educational Programs Focused on Bacteria and Nutrient Runoff on Dairy Operations in the LeonWatershed ? Development of the Plum CreekWPP ? Impact of Proper... Star Healthy Streams * ? Environmental Management of Grazing Lands * *TWRI-managed projects More information on the initiative is available at www.tsswcb.state.tx.us/managementprogram/ initiatives/bacteria. Bacteria Projects Across the State...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01

423

Effect of a synbiotic on infantile acute gastroenteritis.  

PubMed

Acute gastroenteritis is still a common disease worldwide. Synbiotics are being used to alleviate the effects of acute gastroenteritis-related diarrhoea. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of a synbiotic in reducing the duration of diarrhoea in children with acute gastroenteritis. The study has been carried out on data gathered from children with acute gastroenteritis between the age of three months and 14 years seen in paediatric polyclinics between August 2009 and April 2010. While synbiotic group patients got a sachet containing Bifidobacterium lactis 2211 with a minimum of 5×10? cfu active bacteria and 900 mg chicory inulin twice daily for five days together with an oral rehydration solution, the control group only received an oral rehydration solution. Therapy with synbiotic plus an oral rehydration solution shortened the duration of acute diarrhoea in children by approximately one day compared to oral rehydration solution only. PMID:23887031

Gundogdu, Z

2013-09-01

424

Acute encephalitis as initial presentation of primary HIV infection  

PubMed Central

Acute encephalitis is a life-threatening condition. A wide variety of infectious agents are implicated and in many patients no cause is found. HIV acute seroconversion illness can rarely present as acute encephalitis. Although most experts agree in starting antiretroviral treatment in severe acute HIV infection, the evidence of the benefits are still lacking. The authors report a case of severe acute encephalitis as a primary presentation of HIV infection in which introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment resulted in clinical recovery. This case highlights the need to consider HIV infection in the differential diagnosis of treatable viral encephalitis. PMID:22761210

Nzwalo, Hipólito; Añón, Rosário Pazos; Águas, Maria João

2012-01-01

425

Acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis due to multiple wasp stings  

PubMed Central

In most patients, wasp stings cause local reactions and rarely anaphylaxis. Acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis are unusual complications of wasp stings. We report a case of acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis secondary to multiple wasp stings. A 55-year-old farmer developed multi organ dysfunction with acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis 3 days after he had sustained multiple wasp stings. The etiology of acute kidney injury is probably both rhabdomyolysis and acute tubular necrosis. He improved completely after hemodialysis and intensive care. PMID:25097363

Radhakrishnan, Hemachandar

2014-01-01

426

Pathogenesis of acute coronary syndromes.  

PubMed

Experimental models of atherogenesis have provided a growing body of information about molecular mechanisms of plaque growth; however, transition from coronary stability to instability is less well understood due to the lack of animal models reflective of human disease. The abrupt clinical presentation of acute coronary syndromes gives a strong signal of discontinuity in the natural history of atherothrombosis. The causes of such discontinuity are complex, probably multiple, and still largely unknown. A better knowledge of the causes of coronary instability might allow identification of new therapeutic targets aimed at the preservation of plaque stability in those subjects in whom primary prevention fails to prevent plaque growth. The goal of this review was to propose a pathogenetic classification of acute coronary syndromes that might help in the search of new diagnostic algorithms and therapeutic targets. PMID:23158526

Crea, Filippo; Liuzzo, Giovanna

2013-01-01

427

A patient with severe acute pancreatitis successfully treated with a new critical care procedure.  

PubMed

It has been accepted widely that excessive humoral mediators play important roles in the pathogenesis of organ failure in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and that infection of the pancreas due to bacterial translocation (BT) is the most frequent cause of death in SAP. On the other hand, it has been reported that continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) removes humoral mediators on hypercytokinemic patients such as those with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Furthermore, several clinical studies have demonstrated that selective digestive decontamination (SDD) effectively eliminates aerobic Gram-negative bacteria from the intestinal tract and reduces the incidence of septic complications in SAP. Herein we report a case of SAP who was treated successfully with intensive care including CHDF and SDD. Thus, this case report suggests that CHDF aimed at removing causative humoral mediators and SDD for the prevention of BT are useful new tools for the management of SAP. PMID:12109947

Moriguchi, Takeshi; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki; Oda, Shigeto; Shiga, Hidetoshi; Nakanishi, Kazuya; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Masataka; Yokohari, Kennji; Hirano, Takeshi; Hirayama, Yoh; Watanabe, Eizo

2002-06-01

428

In vivo imaging of bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an acute murine airway infection model.  

PubMed

Non-invasive bioluminescence imaging allows the analysis of infectious diseases in small animal models. In this study, an acute airway infection of C3H/HeN mice with luxCDABE transformed Pseudomonas aeruginosa TBCF10839 and an isogenic transposon mutant was followed by optical imaging in vivo. Using the disease-causing dose of 2.0 × 10(6) CFU of the cystic fibrosis airway isolate TBCF10839, subtle luminescence of the lungs was inconsistently visible for the first hour after infection. Conversely, using a 100-fold higher dose of the strongly virulence-attenuated transposon mutant, the robust signal of bioluminescent bacteria increased over 24 h. To monitor murine airway infections with P. aeruginosa in vivo by bioluminescence, one should select an attenuated mutant of a virulent strain or a wild type strain that naturally lacks virulence determinants and/or that has acquired a low virulence persister phenotype by patho-adaptive mutations. PMID:24833236

Munder, Antje; Wölbeling, Florian; Klockgether, Jens; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard

2014-10-01

429