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1

Innate sensors for Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than half of invasive bacterial infections are Gram-positive in origin. This class of bacteria has neither endotoxins nor an outer membrane, yet it generates some of the most powerful inflammatory responses known in medicine. Some recent seminal studies go a long way toward settling the controversies that surround the process by which Gram-positive bacterial surfaces trigger the human immune

Joerg R Weber; Philippe Moreillon; Elaine I Tuomanen

2003-01-01

2

Hyaluronidases of Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial hyaluronidases, enzymes capable of breaking down hyaluronate, are produced by a number of pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria that initiate infections at the skin or mucosal surfaces. Since reports of the hyaluronidases first appeared, there have been numerous suggestions as to the role of the enzyme in the disease process. Unlike some of the other more well studied virulence factors, much

Wayne L. Hynes; Sheryl Lynne Walton

2000-01-01

3

Bacteriocins of gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a group of antibacterial proteins produced by gram-positive bacteria have attracted great interest in their potential use as food preservatives and as antibacterial agents to combat certain infections due to gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. They are ribosomally synthesized peptides of 30 to less than 60 amino acids, with a narrow to wide antibacterial spectrum against gram-positive bacteria; the antibacterial property is heat stable, and a producer strain displays a degree of specific self-protection against its own antibacterial peptide. In many respects, these proteins are quite different from the colicins and other bacteriocins produced by gram-negative bacteria, yet customarily they also are grouped as bacteriocins. Although a large number of these bacteriocins (or bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances) have been reported, only a few have been studied in detail for their mode of action, amino acid sequence, genetic characteristics, and biosynthesis mechanisms. Nevertheless, in general, they appear to be translated as inactive prepeptides containing an N-terminal leader sequence and a C-terminal propeptide component. During posttranslational modifications, the leader peptide is removed. In addition, depending on the particular type, some amino acids in the propeptide components may undergo either dehydration and thioether ring formation to produce lanthionine and beta-methyl lanthionine (as in lantibiotics) or thio ester ring formation to form cystine (as in thiolbiotics). Some of these steps, as well as the translocation of the molecules through the cytoplasmic membrane and producer self-protection against the homologous bacteriocin, are mediated through specific proteins (enzymes). Limited genetic studies have shown that the structural gene for such a bacteriocin and the genes encoding proteins associated with immunity, translocation, and processing are present in a cluster in either a plasmid, the chromosome, or a transposon. Following posttranslational modification and depending on the pH, the molecules may either be released into the environment or remain bound to the cell wall. The antibacterial action against a sensitive cell of a gram-positive strain is produced principally by destabilization of membrane functions. Under certain conditions, gram-negative bacterial cells can also be sensitive to some of these molecules. By application of site-specific mutagenesis, bacteriocin variants which may differ in their antimicrobial spectrum and physicochemical characteristics can be produced. Research activity in this field has grown remarkably but sometimes with an undisciplined regard for conformity in the definition, naming, and categorization of these molecules and their genetic effectors. Some suggestions for improved standardization of nomenclature are offered.

Jack, R W; Tagg, J R; Ray, B

1995-01-01

4

Bacteriocins of gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

In recent years, a group of antibacterial proteins produced by gram-positive bacteria have attracted great interest in their potential use as food preservatives and as antibacterial agents to combat certain infections due to gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. They are ribosomally synthesized peptides of 30 to less than 60 amino acids, with a narrow to wide antibacterial spectrum against gram-positive bacteria; the antibacterial property is heat stable, and a producer strain displays a degree of specific self-protection against its own antibacterial peptide. In many respects, these proteins are quite different from the colicins and other bacteriocins produced by gram-negative bacteria, yet customarily they also are grouped as bacteriocins. Although a large number of these bacteriocins (or bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances) have been reported, only a few have been studied in detail for their mode of action, amino acid sequence, genetic characteristics, and biosynthesis mechanisms. Nevertheless, in general, they appear to be translated as inactive prepeptides containing an N-terminal leader sequence and a C-terminal propeptide component. During posttranslational modifications, the leader peptide is removed. In addition, depending on the particular type, some amino acids in the propeptide components may undergo either dehydration and thioether ring formation to produce lanthionine and beta-methyl lanthionine (as in lantibiotics) or thio ester ring formation to form cystine (as in thiolbiotics). Some of these steps, as well as the translocation of the molecules through the cytoplasmic membrane and producer self-protection against the homologous bacteriocin, are mediated through specific proteins (enzymes). Limited genetic studies have shown that the structural gene for such a bacteriocin and the genes encoding proteins associated with immunity, translocation, and processing are present in a cluster in either a plasmid, the chromosome, or a transposon. Following posttranslational modification and depending on the pH, the molecules may either be released into the environment or remain bound to the cell wall. The antibacterial action against a sensitive cell of a gram-positive strain is produced principally by destabilization of membrane functions. Under certain conditions, gram-negative bacterial cells can also be sensitive to some of these molecules. By application of site-specific mutagenesis, bacteriocin variants which may differ in their antimicrobial spectrum and physicochemical characteristics can be produced. Research activity in this field has grown remarkably but sometimes with an undisciplined regard for conformity in the definition, naming, and categorization of these molecules and their genetic effectors. Some suggestions for improved standardization of nomenclature are offered. PMID:7603408

Jack, R W; Tagg, J R; Ray, B

1995-06-01

5

Sortase enzymes in Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary In Gram-positive bacteria proteins are displayed on the cell surface using sortase enzymes. These cysteine transpeptidases join proteins bearing an appropriate sorting signal to strategically positioned amino groups on the cell surface. Working alone, or in concert with other enzymes, sortases either attach proteins to the cross-bridge peptide of the cell wall or they link proteins together to form pili. Because surface proteins play a fundamental role in microbial physiology and are frequently virulence factors, sortase enzymes have been intensely studied since their discovery a little more than a decade ago. Based on their primary sequences and functions sortases can be partitioned into distinct families called class A to F enzymes. Most bacteria elaborate their surfaces using more than one type of sortase that function non-redundantly by recognizing unique sorting signals within their protein substrates. Here we review what is known about the functions of these enzymes and the molecular basis of catalysis. Particular emphasis is placed on ‘pilin’ specific class C sortases that construct structurally complex pili. Exciting new data have revealed that these enzymes are amazingly promiscuous in the substrates that they can employ and that there is a startling degree of diversity in their mechanism of action. We also review recent data that suggest that sortases are targeted to specific sites on the cell surface where they work with other sortases and accessory factors to properly function.

Spirig, Thomas; Weiner, Ethan M.; Clubb, Robert T.

2013-01-01

6

Assembly of pili in Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of adhesive pili on the surface of Gram-negative bacteria has been studied in detail, whereas the pilus assembly pathways in Gram-positive bacteria remain to be characterized. Gram-positive microbes use the cell wall peptidoglycan as a surface organelle for the covalent attachment of proteins; a strategy that involves sorting signals of surface protein precursors and sortase, a transpeptidase that

Hung Ton-That; Olaf Schneewind

2004-01-01

7

Aerobic Respiration in the Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The group of Gram-positive bacteria is a major phylum of prokaryotes, including several typical saprophytic aerobes. Their\\u000a respiratory chains are apparently similar to those of eukaryotic mitochondria, but in several points are different from them.\\u000a The respiratory chain of Gram-positives, like many bacteria, contains branched electron transfer pathways, usually 1-3 heme-Cu\\u000a oxidases, but SoxB-type cytochrome c oxidases (cytochrome b(a\\/o)3) are

Nobhuito Sone; Cecilia Hagerhall; Junshi Sakamoto

8

A Microdomain for Protein Secretion in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-positive bacteria face unique challenges in generating biologically active conformations for their exported proteins because they lack a dedicated compartment for folding secreted polypeptides. We have discovered that protein secretion by way of the general secretory (Sec) pathway in the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes proceeds through a single microdomain. Unlike other mechanisms for asymmetry involving the Sec pathway, proteins

Jason Rosch; Michael Caparon

2004-01-01

9

Gram-positive bacteria: an overview and summary of session.  

PubMed

The more pathogenic gram-positive bacteria present a complex array of surface structures to the human or animal host. The cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus has a pattern of surface proteins; the predominant one is protein A. Virulent S. aureus strains may also produce polysaccharide capsules in vivo that impede opsonization and phagocytosis in the absence of anticapsular antibody. Coagulase-negative staphylococci commonly elaborate an exopolysaccharide slime that may promote adherence to plastic surfaces and interfere with host responses. Structure-function relationships for some antiphagocytic M proteins of group A streptococci are now well understood, and recombinant techniques offer the prospect of multivalent vaccines. The best known surface protein of group B streptococci is the c (Ibc) protein, which stimulates protective antibody in animals and may be an important virulence factor. Monoclonal antibodies to types Ib, II, and III group B streptococci have also confirmed the presence of multiple immunodeterminants on these antiphagocytic polysaccharides. A protein on the surface of pneumococci has been shown to induce protective antibody and to enhance pneumococcal virulence in mice, suggesting a potential alternative or adjunct to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines. Listeria also possess a variety of cell surface structures important in pathogenesis. Surface components are, therefore, critical determinants of the interaction of gram-positive bacteria with the host. PMID:3055202

Anthony, B F; Hill, H R

10

Purification Techniques of Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The search for new antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid ­bacteria and other Gram-positive microorganisms has become\\u000a an interesting field of research in the past decades. The fact that bacteriocins are active against numerous foodborne and\\u000a human pathogens, are produced by generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms, and are readily degraded by proteolytic\\u000a host systems makes them attractive candidates for

Lucila Saavedra; Fernando Sesma

2011-01-01

11

A Comparative Genome Analysis Identifies Distinct Sorting Pathways in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface proteins in gram-positive bacteria are frequently required for virulence, and many are attached to the cell wall by sortase enzymes. Bacteria frequently encode more than one sortase enzyme and an even larger number of potential sortase substrates that possess an LPXTG-type cell wall sorting signal. In order to elucidate the sorting pathways present in gram-positive bacteria, we performed a

David Comfort; Robert T. Clubb

2004-01-01

12

An Export-Specific Reporter Designed for Gram-Positive Bacteria: Application to Lactococcus lactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of exported proteins by fusion studies, while well developed for gram-negative bacteria, is limited for gram-positive bacteria, in part due to drawbacks of available export reporters. In this work, we demonstrate the export specificity and use of the Staphylococcus aureus secreted nuclease (Nuc) as a reporter for gram-positive bacteria. Nuc devoid of its export signal (called DSPNuc) was

ISABELLE POQUET; S. DUSKO EHRLICH; ALEXANDRA GRUSS

1998-01-01

13

Translocation of proteins across the cell envelope of Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, secretory proteins of Gram-positive bacteria only need to traverse a single membrane to enter the extracellular environment. For this reason, Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. various Bacillus species) are often used in industry for the commercial production of extracellular proteins that can be produced in yields of several grams per liter culture medium. The central components of

Karel H. M. van Wely; Jelto Swaving; Roland Freudl; Arnold J. M. Driessen

2001-01-01

14

Lipoteichoic Acid Is Important in Innate Immune Responses to Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To define the role of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in innate immunity to gram-positive bacteria, we investigated the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) by macrophages stimulated with gram-positive bac- terial culture supernatants (GPCSs) after their LTA was removed or inactivated. GPCSs were obtained from three gram-positive species (pneumococci, staphylococci, and group B streptococci) during the exponential growth phase (designated

Ho Seong Seo; Suzanne M. Michalek; Moon H. Nahm

2008-01-01

15

Protein phosphorylation and regulation of carbon metabolism in Gram-negative versus Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria impose regulatory mechanisms on metabolic processes to ensure that the needs of the cell are met but not exceeded. Here, we discuss the basic features of a mechanism by which carbohydrate catabolism in Gram-positive bacteria is regulated. Although the physiological consequences of this regulation are the same as in Gram-negative bacteria, the mechanism is entirely different. These regulatory processes

Milton H Saier; Sylvie Chauvaux; Josef Deutscher; Jonathan Reizer; Jing-Jing Ye

1995-01-01

16

Isolating "Unknown" Bacteria in the Introductory Microbiology Laboratory: A New Selective Medium for Gram-Positives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development, preparation, and use of a medium that can select against a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria while still allowing growth and differentiation of a wide range of Gram-positives. (WRM)|

McKillip, John L.; Drake, MaryAnne

1999-01-01

17

Interaction of Cationic Peptides with Lipoteichoic Acid and Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compounds with antiendotoxin properties have been extensively studied for their potential as therapeutic agents for sepsis attributable to gram-negative bacteria. However, with the increasing incidence of gram- positive sepsis, there is interest in identifying compounds with a broad spectrum of action against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. A series of synthetic a-helical cationic peptides related to bee melittin and silk

MONISHA G. SCOTT; MICHAEL R. GOLD; ROBERT E. W. HANCOCK

1999-01-01

18

Protein sorting to the cell wall envelope of Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The covalent anchoring of surface proteins to the cell wall envelope of Gram-positive bacteria occurs by a universal mechanism requiring sortases, extracellular transpeptidases that are positioned in the plasma membrane. Surface protein precursors are first initiated into the secretory pathway of Gram-positive bacteria via N-terminal signal peptides. C-terminal sorting signals of surface proteins, bearing an LPXTG motif or other recognition

Hung Ton-That; Luciano A. Marraffini; Olaf Schneewind

2004-01-01

19

Polyhydroxyalkanoates in Gram-positive bacteria: insights from the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-positive bacteria, notably Bacillus and Streptomyces, have been used extensively in industry. However, these microorganisms have not yet been exploited for the production of the biodegradable polymers, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Although PHAs have many potential applications, the cost of production means that medical applications are currently the main area of use. Gram-negative bacteria, currently the only commercial source of PHAs, have

Sabeel P. Valappil; Aldo R. Boccaccini; Christopher Bucke; Ipsita Roy

2007-01-01

20

Poreforming bacteriocins of Gram-positive bacteria and self-protection mechanisms of producer organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteinaceous antimicrobial compounds are produced by a diversity of species ranging from bacteria to humans. This review focuses on the mode of action of pore-forming bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria. The mechanism of action of specific immunity proteins, which protect the producer strains from the lethal action of their own products (producer self-protection), are also discussed.

Tjakko Abee

1995-01-01

21

Expression systems for industrial Gram-positive bacteria with low guanine and cytosine content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen an increase in the development of gene expression systems for industrial Gram-positive bacteria with low guanine and cytosine content that belong to the genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. In particular, considerable advances have been made in the construction of inducible gene expression systems based on the capacity of these bacteria to utilize specific

Willem M. de Vos; Michiel Kleerebezem; Oscar P. Kuipers

1997-01-01

22

Leaving home ain't easy: protein export systems in Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Transport of proteins into or across biological membranes is catalyzed by membrane-bound transport machineries. In Gram-positive bacteria, the vast majority of proteins are exported out of the cytosol by the conserved general secretion (Sec) system or, alternatively, by the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system, that closely resemble their well-studied counterparts in Gram-negative bacteria. Besides these common major export routes, additional unique protein export systems (such as accessory Sec2 systems and/or type VII/WXG100 secretion systems) exist in some Gram-positive bacteria that are specifically involved in the secretion of limited subsets of proteins. PMID:23541477

Freudl, Roland

2013-03-26

23

Multidrug resistance in hydrocarbon-tolerant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

New Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from Poeni oily sludge, using enrichment procedures. The six Gram-positive strains belong to Bacillus, Lysinibacillus and Rhodococcus genera. The eight Gram-negative strains belong to Shewanella, Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella genera. Isolated bacterial strains were tolerant to saturated (i.e., n-hexane, n-heptane, n-decane, n-pentadecane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane), monoaromatic (i.e., benzene, toluene, styrene, xylene isomers, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene) and polyaromatic (i.e., naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, fluorene) hydrocarbons, and also resistant to different antimicrobial agents (i.e., ampicillin, kanamycin, rhodamine 6G, crystal violet, malachite green, sodium dodecyl sulfate). The presence of hydrophilic antibiotics like ampicillin or kanamycin in liquid LB-Mg medium has no effects on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria resistance to toxic compounds. The results indicated that Gram-negative bacteria are less sensitive to toxic compounds than Gram-positive bacteria, except one bacteria belonging to Lysinibacillus genus. There were observed cellular and molecular modifications induced by ampicillin or kanamycin to isolated bacterial strains. Gram-negative bacteria possessed between two and four catabolic genes (alkB, alkM, alkB/alkB1, todC1, xylM, PAH dioxygenase, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase), compared with Gram-positive bacteria (except one bacteria belonging to Bacillus genus) which possessed one catabolic gene (alkB/alkB1). Transporter genes (HAE1, acrAB) were detected only in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:21478643

Stancu, Mihaela Marilena; Grifoll, Magdalena

2011-01-01

24

Vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria isolated from human sources.  

PubMed Central

Recent reports of infections with vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria prompted us to study vancomycin-resistant isolates from human sources to characterize the types of bacteria displaying this phenotype. Thirty-six vancomycin-resistant gram-positive isolates, 14 from clinical specimens and 22 from stool samples, were identified. These isolates were tentatively identified as Lactobacillus spp. (25 strains), Leuconostoc spp. (6 strains), and Pediococcus spp. (3 strains) on the basis of morphology and physiological tests. Two isolates of indeterminate morphology could not be unambiguously assigned to a genus. Four isolates of vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli from normally sterile body sites were considered to be clinically significant. Vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria may represent an emerging class of nosocomial pathogens. Better methods for distinguishing the various genera in the clinical microbiology laboratory are needed.

Ruoff, K L; Kuritzkes, D R; Wolfson, J S; Ferraro, M J

1988-01-01

25

Rose Bengal-decorated silica nanoparticles as photosensitizers for inactivation of gram-positive bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new type of photosensitizer, made from Rose Bengal (RB)-decorated silica (SiO2-NH2-RB) nanoparticles, was developed to inactivate gram-positive bacteria, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with high efficiency through photodynamic action. The nanoparticles were characterized microscopically and spectroscopically to confirm their structures. The characterization of singlet oxygen generated by RB, both free and immobilized on a nanoparticle surface, was performed in the presence of anthracene-9,10-dipropionic acid. The capability of SiO2-NH2-RB nanoparticles to inactivate bacteria was tested in vitro on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results showed that RB-decorated silica nanoparticles can inactivate MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (both gram-positive) very effectively (up to eight-orders-of-magnitude reduction). Photosensitizers of such design should have good potential as antibacterial agents through a photodynamic mechanism.

Guo, Yanyan; Rogelj, Snezna; Zhang, Peng

2010-02-01

26

Small molecule inhibitor of lipoteichoic acid synthesis is an antibiotic for Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

The current epidemic of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria requires the discovery of new drug targets and the development of new therapeutics. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall polymer of Gram-positive bacteria, consists of 1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid. LTA synthase (LtaS) polymerizes polyglycerol-phosphate from phosphatidylglycerol, a reaction that is essential for the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. We screened small molecule libraries for compounds inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus but not of Gram-negative bacteria. Compound 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] blocked phosphatidylglycerol binding to LtaS and inhibited LTA synthesis in S. aureus and in Escherichia coli expressing ltaS. Compound 1771 inhibited the growth of antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria and prolonged the survival of mice with lethal S. aureus challenge, validating LtaS as a target for the development of antibiotics.

Richter, Stefan G.; Elli, Derek; Kim, Hwan Keun; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Sorg, Joseph A.; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

2013-01-01

27

Peptide signaling in Staphylococcus aureus and other Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two basic types of bacterial communication systems—those in which the signal is directed solely at other organisms and those in which the signal is sensed by the producing organism as well. The former are involved primarily in conjugation; the latter in adaptation to the environment. Gram-positive bacteria use small peptides for both types of signaling, whereas Gram-negative bacteria

Gholson J. Lyon; Richard P. Novick

2004-01-01

28

Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial infection activates two distinct intracellular signalling cascades in the immune-responsive fat body of Drosophila. Gram-positive bacteria and fungi predominantly induce the Toll signalling pathway, whereas Gram-negative bacteria activate the Imd pathway. Loss-of-function mutants in either pathway reduce the resistance to corresponding infections. Genetic screens have identified a range of genes involved in these intracellular signalling cascades, but how they

Tatiana Michel; Jean-Marc Reichhart; Jules A. Hoffmann; Julien Royet

2001-01-01

29

Distribution of the antiseptic-resistance gene qacE? 1 in Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of the antiseptic-resistance genes qacE and qacE?1, originally isolated from Gram-negative bacteria, was studied in a large number of Gram-positive bacteria by a method that included the polymerase chain reaction. A total of 151 strains of Staphylococcus and Enterococcus, isolated from clinical sources and obtained from the Japanese Collection of Microorganisms, was used in this analysis. We found

Hitoshi Kazama; Hajime Hamashima; Masanori Sasatsu; Taketoshi Arai

1998-01-01

30

Superantigens of Gram-positive bacteria: structure—function analyses and their implications for biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Just as we thought that we know everything about superantigens, new molecular and structural studies indicate that we have only just begun to unravel the secrets of these fascinating molecules. Recent structure—function analysis of superantigens from Gram-positive bacteria, with emphasis on their interaction with major histocompatibility complex molecules, could help us decipher the role of superantigens in disease, identify host

Malak Kotb

1998-01-01

31

Mode of action of modified and unmodified bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibiotic activity of bacteriocins from Gram-positive bacteria, whether they are modified (class I bacteriocins, lantibiotics) or unmodified (class II), is based on interaction with the bacterial membrane. However, recent work has demonstrated that for many bacteriocins, generalised membrane disruption models as elaborated for amphiphilic peptides (e.g. tyriodal pore or carpet model) cannot adequately describe the bactericidal action. Rather, specific

Yann Héchard; Hans-Georg Sahl

2002-01-01

32

Novel Cassette-Based Shuttle Vector System for Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virulent bacterial strains have developed complex metabolic and regulatory pathways to enable them to thrive in the in vivo environment during infection. Understanding how the regula- tory networks operate requires manipulation of many genes and expressing them temporally and spatially at different levels or under separate regulatory controls. In the case of gram- positive bacteria including staphylococci, the introduction of

Emmanuelle Charpentier; Ana I. Anton; Peter Barry; Berenice Alfonso; Yuan Fang; Richard P. Novick

2004-01-01

33

Anchorless adhesins and invasins of Gram-positive bacteria: a new class of virulence factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial adherence to and invasion of eukaryotic cells are important mechanisms of pathogenicity. Most Gram-positive bacteria interact with the components of the host extracellular matrix (ECM) to adhere to, colonize and invade cells and tissues. The bacterial proteins that bind to components of the ECM harbour signal sequences for their secretion and mechanisms of anchoring to the host cell surface.

Gursharan S Chhatwal

2002-01-01

34

Microarray-Based Detection of 90 Antibiotic Resistance Genes of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A disposable microarray was developed for detection of up to 90 antibiotic resistance genes in gram-positive bacteria by hybridization. Each antibiotic resistance gene is represented by two specific oligonucleotides chosen from consensus sequences of gene families, except for nine genes for which only one specific oligonucleotide could be developed. A total of 137 oligonucleotides (26 to 33 nucleotides in length

Vincent Perreten; Lorianne Vorlet-Fawer; Peter Slickers; Ralf Ehricht; Peter Kuhnert; Joachim Frey

2005-01-01

35

Sorting sortases: a nomenclature proposal for the various sortases of Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial surface proteins constitute a diverse group of molecules with important functions, such as adherence, invasion, signaling and interaction with the host immune system or the environment. In Gram-positive bacteria, many surface proteins are anchored to the cell wall envelope by an enzyme named sortase, which recognizes a conserved carboxylic sorting motif. The sequence of the prototype staphylococcal SrtA has

Shaynoor Dramsi; Patrick Trieu-Cuot; Hélène Bierne

2005-01-01

36

Construction and evaluation of multisite recombinatorial (Gateway) cloning vectors for Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background The Gateway recombinatorial cloning system allows easy and rapid joining of DNA fragments. Here we report the construction and evaluation of three different Gram-positive vectors that can be used with the Multisite Gateway cloning system to rapidly produce new gene arrangements in plasmid constructs for use in a variety of Gram-positive bacteria. Results Comparison of patterns of reporter gene expression with conventionally constructed clones show that the presence of residual recombination (att) sites does not have an effect on patterns of gene expression, although overall levels of gene expression may vary. Rapid construction of these new vectors allowed vector/gene combinations to be optimized following evaluation of plasmid constructs in different bacterial cells and demonstrates the benefits of plasmid construction using Gateway cloning. Conclusion The residual att sites present after Gateway cloning did not affect patterns of promoter induction in Gram-positive bacteria and there was no evidence of differences in mRNA stability of transcripts. However overall levels of gene expression may be reduced, possibly due to some post-transcriptional event. The new vectors described here allow faster, more efficient cloning in range of Gram-positive bacteria.

Perehinec, Tania M; Qazi, Saara NA; Gaddipati, Sanyasi R; Salisbury, Vyvyan; Rees, Catherine ED; Hill, Philip J

2007-01-01

37

Novel Antibiotics Targeting Respiratory ATP Synthesis in Gram-Positive Pathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Emergence of drug-resistant bacteria represents a high, unmet medical need, and discovery of new antibacterials acting on new bacterial targets is strongly needed. ATP synthase has been validated as an antibacterial target in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, where its activity can be specifically blocked by the diarylquinoline TMC207. However, potency of TMC207 is restricted to mycobacteria with little or no effect on the growth of other Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we identify diarylquinolines with activity against key Gram-positive pathogens, significantly extending the antibacterial spectrum of the diarylquinoline class of drugs. These compounds inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus in planktonic state as well as in metabolically resting bacteria grown in a biofilm culture. Furthermore, time-kill experiments showed that the selected hits are rapidly bactericidal. Drug-resistant mutations were mapped to the ATP synthase enzyme, and biochemical analysis as well as drug-target interaction studies reveal ATP synthase as a target for these compounds. Moreover, knockdown of the ATP synthase expression strongly suppressed growth of S. aureus, revealing a crucial role of this target in bacterial growth and metabolism. Our data represent a proof of principle for using the diarylquinoline class of antibacterials in key Gram-positive pathogens. Our results suggest that broadening the antibacterial spectrum for this chemical class is possible without drifting off from the target. Development of the diarylquinolines class may represent a promising strategy for combating Gram-positive pathogens.

Balemans, Wendy; Vranckx, Luc; Lounis, Nacer; Pop, Ovidiu; Guillemont, Jerome; Vergauwen, Karen; Mol, Selena; Gilissen, Ron; Motte, Magali; Lancois, David; De Bolle, Miguel; Bonroy, Kristien; Lill, Holger; Andries, Koen

2012-01-01

38

Multiple Responses of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria to Mixture of Hydrocarbons  

PubMed Central

Most of our knowledge about pollutants and the way they are biodegraded in the environment has previously been shaped by laboratory studies using hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strains isolated from polluted sites. In present study Gram-positive (Mycobacterium sp. IBBPo1, Oerskovia sp. IBBPo2, Corynebacterium sp. IBBPo3) and Gram-negative (Chryseomonas sp. IBBPo7, Pseudomonas sp. IBBPo10, Burkholderia sp. IBBPo12) bacteria, isolated from oily sludge, were found to be able to tolerate pure and mixture of saturated hydrocarbons, as well as pure and mixture of monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were more tolerant to mixture of saturated (n-hexane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane), monoaromatic (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene) and polyaromatic (naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, fluorene) hydrocarbons than Gram-positive bacteria. There were observed cellular and molecular modifications induced by mixture of saturated, monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These modifications differ from one strain to another and even for the same bacterial strain, according to the nature of hydrophobic substrate.

Marilena Lazaroaie, Mihaela

2010-01-01

39

Identification of Surprisingly Diverse Type IV Pili, across a Broad Range of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background In Gram-negative bacteria, type IV pili (TFP) have long been known to play important roles in such diverse biological phenomena as surface adhesion, motility, and DNA transfer, with significant consequences for pathogenicity. More recently it became apparent that Gram-positive bacteria also express type IV pili; however, little is known about the diversity and abundance of these structures in Gram-positives. Computational tools for automated identification of type IV pilins are not currently available. Results To assess TFP diversity in Gram-positive bacteria and facilitate pilin identification, we compiled a comprehensive list of putative Gram-positive pilins encoded by operons containing highly conserved pilus biosynthetic genes (pilB, pilC). A surprisingly large number of species were found to contain multiple TFP operons (pil, com and/or tad). The N-terminal sequences of predicted pilins were exploited to develop PilFind, a rule-based algorithm for genome-wide identification of otherwise poorly conserved type IV pilins in any species, regardless of their association with TFP biosynthetic operons (http://signalfind.org). Using PilFind to scan 53 Gram-positive genomes (encoding >187,000 proteins), we identified 286 candidate pilins, including 214 in operons containing TFP biosynthetic genes (TBG+ operons). Although trained on Gram-positive pilins, PilFind identified 55 of 58 manually curated Gram-negative pilins in TBG+ operons, as well as 53 additional pilin candidates in operons lacking biosynthetic genes in ten species (>38,000 proteins), including 27 of 29 experimentally verified pilins. False positive rates appear to be low, as PilFind predicted only four pilin candidates in eleven bacterial species (>13,000 proteins) lacking TFP biosynthetic genes. Conclusions We have shown that Gram-positive bacteria contain a highly diverse set of type IV pili. PilFind can be an invaluable tool to study bacterial cellular processes known to involve type IV pilus-like structures. Its use in combination with other currently available computational tools should improve the accuracy of predicting the subcellular localization of bacterial proteins.

Roos, David S.; Pohlschroder, Mechthild

2011-01-01

40

Protein transport across the cell wall of monoderm Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary In monoderm (single membrane) Gram-positive bacteria, the majority of secreted proteins are first translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane into the inner wall zone. For a subset of these proteins, final destination is within the cell envelope either as membrane-anchored or cell wall-anchored proteins, whereas another subset of proteins is destined to be transported across the cell wall into the extracellular milieu. Although the cell wall is a porous structure, there is evidence that, for some proteins, transport is a regulated process. This review aims at describing what is known about the mechanisms that regulate the transport of proteins across the cell wall of monoderm Gram-positive bacteria.

Forster, Brian M.; Marquis, Helene

2012-01-01

41

When Ribonucleases Come into Play in Pathogens: A Survey of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

It is widely acknowledged that RNA stability plays critical roles in bacterial adaptation and survival in different environments like those encountered when bacteria infect a host. Bacterial ribonucleases acting alone or in concert with regulatory RNAs or RNA binding proteins are the mediators of the regulatory outcome on RNA stability. We will give a current update of what is known about ribonucleases in the model Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis and will describe their established roles in virulence in several Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria that are imposing major health concerns worldwide. Implications on bacterial evolution through stabilization/transfer of genetic material (phage or plasmid DNA) as a result of ribonucleases' functions will be covered. The role of ribonucleases in emergence of antibiotic resistance and new concepts in drug design will additionally be discussed.

Jester, Brian C.; Romby, Pascale; Lioliou, Efthimia

2012-01-01

42

Similarly Organized Lysogeny Modules in Temperate Siphoviridae from Low GC Content Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperate Siphoviridae from an evolutionarily related branch of low GC content gram-positive bacteria share a common genetic organization of lysogeny-related genes and the predicted proteins are linked by many sequence similarities. Their compact lysogeny modules [integrase\\/1–2 orfs (phage exclusion? and metalloproteinase motif proteins)\\/cI-like repressor\\/cro-like repressor\\/antirepressor (optional)] differ clearly from that of ?-like and L5-like viruses, the two currently established genera

Sacha Lucchini; Frank Desiere; Harald Brüssow

1999-01-01

43

In Vitro Activities of RWJ-54428 (MC02,479) against Multiresistant Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

RWJ-54428 (MC-02,479) is a new cephalosporin with a high level of activity against gram-positive bacteria. In a broth microdilution susceptibility test against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), RWJ- 54428 was as active as vancomycin, with an MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited (MIC90 )o f 2mg\\/ml. For coagulase-negative staphylococci, RWJ-54428 was 32 times more active than imipenem, with an

SUZANNE CHAMBERLAND; JOHANNE BLAIS; MONICA HOANG; CYNTHIA DINH; DYLAN COTTER; EMMETT BOND; CARLA GANNON; CRAIG PARK; FRANCOIS MALOUIN; MICHAEL N. DUDLEY

2001-01-01

44

Comparative in vitro activity of levofloxacin and ofloxacin against Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of levofloxacin against 506 Gram-positive bacteria was compared with those of D(?)-ofloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and sparfloxacin. Levofloxacin was generally twice as active as ofloxacin against these organisms (range, 0–3 twofold dilutions). Sparfloxacin appeared to have the greatest activity overall, but for several groups of organisms minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC90s) of this com pound were within one

George M. Eliopoulos; Christine B. Wennersten; Robert C. Moellering

1996-01-01

45

In Vitro Activities of Two Ketolides, HMR 3647 and HMR 3004, against Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activities of two new ketolides, HMR 3647 and HMR 3004, were tested by the agar dilution method against 280 strains of gram-positive bacteria with different antibiotic susceptibility profiles, including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus spp. (group A streptococci, group B streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and alpha-hemolytic streptococci). Seventeen erythromycin- susceptible (Em s ), methicillin-susceptible S. aureus

KUMTHORN MALATHUM; TERESA M. COQUE; KAVINDRA V. SINGH; BARBARA E. MURRAY

1999-01-01

46

Plasmid vectors for Gram-positive bacteria switching from high to low copy number  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of vectors for Gram-positive bacteria was constructed with a new feature which enables the switching down of their copy number per cell. These vectors carry the replication region of pAM?1, containing a gene essential for replication, repE, and its regulator, copF The latter gene was inactivated by inserting a linker into its unique KpnI site. Since copF downregulates

Pierre Renault; Gerard Corthier; Nathalie Goupil; Christine Delorme; S. Dusko Ehrlich

1996-01-01

47

Ambuic Acid Inhibits the Biosynthesis of Cyclic Peptide Quormones in Gram-Positive Bacteria ?  

PubMed Central

Quorum sensing is a cell-density-dependent regulatory system in gram-positive bacteria and is often regulated by cyclic peptides called “quormones,” which function as extracellular communication signals. With an aim to discover an antipathogenic agent targeting quorum sensing in gram-positive bacteria, we screened 153 samples of fungal butanol extracts with the guidance of the inhibition of quorum-sensing-mediated gelatinase production in Enterococcus faecalis. Following the screenings, we found that ambuic acid, a known secondary fungal metabolite, inhibited the quorum-sensing-mediated gelatinase production without influencing the growth of E. faecalis. We further demonstrated that ambuic acid targeted the biosynthesis of a cyclic peptide quormone called gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone. Furthermore, ambuic acid also inhibited the biosynthesis of the cyclic peptide quormones of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua. These results suggest the potential use of ambuic acid as a lead compound of antipathogenic drugs that target the quorum-sensing-mediated virulence expression of gram-positive bacteria.

Nakayama, Jiro; Uemura, Yumi; Nishiguchi, Kenzo; Yoshimura, Norito; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

2009-01-01

48

CtsR Regulation in mcsAB-Deficient Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

CtsR is an important repressor that modulates the transcription of class III stress genes in Gram-positive bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, a model Gram-positive organism, the DNA binding activity of CtsR is regulated by McsAB-mediated phosphorylation of the protein where phosphorylated CtsR is a substrate for degradation by the ClpCP complex. Surprisingly, the mcsAB genes are absent from many Gram-positive bacteria, including streptococci; therefore, how CtsR activity is modulated in those bacteria remains unknown. Here we show that the posttranslational modulation of CtsR activity is different in Streptococcus mutans, a dental pathogen. We observed that of all of the Clp-related proteins, only ClpL is involved in the degradation of CtsR. Neither ClpP nor ClpC had any effect on the degradation of CtsR. We also found that phosphorylation of CtsR on a conserved arginine residue within the winged helix-turn-helix domain is necessary for modulation of the repressor activity of CtsR, as demonstrated by both in vitro and in vivo assays. We speculate that CtsR is regulated posttranslationally by a different mechanism in S. mutans and possibly in other streptococci.

Tao, Liang; Chattoraj, Partho

2012-01-01

49

Organic solvent adaptation of Gram positive bacteria: applications and biotechnological potentials.  

PubMed

Organic-solvent-tolerant bacteria are considered extremophiles with different tolerance levels that change among species and strains, but also depend on the inherent toxicity of the solvent. Extensive studies to understand the mechanisms of organic solvent tolerance have been done in Gram-negative bacteria. On the contrary, the information on the solvent tolerance mechanisms in Gram-positive bacteria remains scarce. Possible shared mechanisms among Gram-(-) and Gram-(+) microorganisms include: energy-dependent active efflux pumps that export toxic organic solvents to the external medium; cis-to-trans isomerization of unsaturated membrane fatty acids and modifications in the membrane phospholipid headgroups; formation of vesicles loaded with toxic compounds; and changes in the biosynthesis rate of phospholipids to accelerate repair processes. However, additional physiological responses of Gram-(+) bacteria to organic solvents seem to be specific. The aim of the present work is to review the state of the art of responsible mechanisms for organic solvent tolerance in Gram-positive bacteria, and their industrial and environmental biotechnology potential. PMID:21504787

Torres, Sebastian; Pandey, Ashok; Castro, Guillermo R

2011-04-12

50

Rapid analysis of Gram-positive bacteria in water via membrane filtration coupled with nanoprobe-based MALDI-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) is challenging when it is directly applied to identify\\u000a bacteria in water. This study demonstrates a rapid, sensitive, and selective technique for detection of Gram-positive bacteria\\u000a in water. It involves a combination of membrane filtration (MF) and vancomycin-conjugated magnetite nanoparticles (VNPs) to\\u000a selectively separate and concentrate Gram-positive bacteria in tap water and reservoir

Shuping Li; Zhongxian Guo; Hui-Fen Wu; Ying Liu; Zhaoguang Yang; Chee Hoe Woo

2010-01-01

51

Molecular Characterization of the Acute Inflammatory Response to Infections with Gram-Negative versus Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria and that caused by gram-positive bacteria often manifest similar clinical features. We investigated plasma proinflammatory cytokine profiles in patients with sepsis due to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and studied the cytokine production and differential gene regulation of leukocytes stimulated ex vivo with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide or heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha,

Robert J. Feezor; Caroline Oberholzer; Henry V. Baker; Daniela Novick; Menachem Rubinstein; Lyle L. Moldawer; John Pribble; Sonia Souza; Charles A. Dinarello; Wolfgang Ertel; Andreas Oberholzer

2003-01-01

52

Sample preparation of Gram-positive bacteria for identification by matrix assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new sample preparation method was developed for fresh, whole-cell Gram-positive bacteria to be analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI ToF MS). With fresh, whole-cell Gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family, we had previously achieved spectra consisting of >50 peaks and mass ranges of 2–25 kDa. Because similar spectral quantity could not be achieved for Gram-positive bacteria,

Sandra C Smole; Lisa A King; Peter E Leopold; Robert D Arbeit

2002-01-01

53

Synergist effect of sucrose fatty acid esters on nisin inhibition of gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Nisin in combination with the sucrose fatty acid esters, sucrose palmitate (P-1570 and P-1670) or sucrose stearate (S-1570 and S-1670) was tested against a range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Initial liquid culture investigation showed that the sugar ester P-1670 resulted in a synergist enhancement of the bacteriostatic activity of nisin against Gram-positive bacteria and not Gram-negative bacteria. Some enhancement of the bactericidal activity of nisin against Listeria monocytogenes was also observed. This increased nisin inhibitory effect was confirmed on solid media using plates with gradients of pH and NaCl. Synergism was observed with all four sucrose fatty acid esters, which enhanced the antimicrobial activity of nisin against several strains of L. monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus (both cells and spores), Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus aureus. The combination of nisin and the sucrose fatty acid esters showed no inhibition of Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella enteritidis, Salm. typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). PMID:9871322

Thomas, L V; Davies, E A; Delves-Broughton, J; Wimpenny, J W

1998-12-01

54

Critical cell wall hole size for lysis in Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Gram-positive bacteria can transport molecules necessary for their survival through holes in their cell wall. The holes in cell walls need to be large enough to let critical nutrients pass through. However, the cell wall must also function to prevent the bacteria's membrane from protruding through a large hole into the environment and lysing the cell. As such, we hypothesize that there exists a range of cell wall hole sizes that allow for molecule transport but prevent membrane protrusion. Here, we develop and analyse a biophysical theory of the response of a Gram-positive cell's membrane to the formation of a hole in the cell wall. We predict a critical hole size in the range of 15-24 nm beyond which lysis occurs. To test our theory, we measured hole sizes in Streptococcus pyogenes cells undergoing enzymatic lysis via transmission electron microscopy. The measured hole sizes are in strong agreement with our theoretical prediction. Together, the theory and experiments provide a means to quantify the mechanisms of death of Gram-positive cells via enzymatically mediated lysis and provides insights into the range of cell wall hole sizes compatible with bacterial homeostasis. PMID:23303219

Mitchell, Gabriel J; Wiesenfeld, Kurt; Nelson, Daniel C; Weitz, Joshua S

2013-01-09

55

Comparative genomics of the methionine metabolism in Gram-positive bacteria: a variety of regulatory systems.  

PubMed

Regulation of the methionine biosynthesis and transport genes in bacteria is rather diverse and involves two RNA-level regulatory systems and at least three DNA-level systems. In particular, the methionine metabolism in Gram-positive bacteria was known to be controlled by the S-box and T-box mechanisms, both acting on the level of premature termination of transcription. Using comparative analysis of genes, operons and regulatory elements, we described the methionine metabolic pathway and the methionine regulons in available genomes of Gram-positive bacteria. A large number of methionine-specific RNA elements were identified. S-boxes were shown to be widely distributed in Bacillales and Clostridia, whereas methionine-specific T-boxes occurred mostly in Lactobacillales. A candidate binding signal (MET-box) for a hypothetical methionine regulator, possibly MtaR, was identified in Streptococcaceae, the only family in the Bacillus/Clostridium group of Gram-positive bacteria having neither S-boxes, nor methionine-specific T-boxes. Positional analysis of methionine-specific regulatory sites complemented by genome context analysis lead to identification of new members of the methionine regulon, both enzymes and transporters, and reconstruction of the methionine metabolism in various bacterial genomes. In particular, we found candidate transporters for methionine (MetT) and methylthioribose (MtnABC), as well as new enzymes forming the S-adenosylmethionine recycling pathway. Methionine biosynthetic enzymes in various bacterial species are quite variable. In particular, Oceanobacillus iheyensis possibly uses a homolog of the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase bhmT gene from vertebrates to substitute missing bacterial-type methionine synthases. PMID:15215334

Rodionov, Dmitry A; Vitreschak, Alexey G; Mironov, Andrey A; Gelfand, Mikhail S

2004-06-23

56

Comparison of Cd Binding Mechanisms by Gram-Positive, Gram-Negative and Consortia of Bacteria Using XAFS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative comparison of the Cd binding mechanism to Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Shewanella oneidensis) is presented. At pH 6.0, EXAFS data for the Gram-positive bacteria were modeled using carboxyl and phosphoryl sites only. However, additional sulfide sites were required to model the spectrum from the Gram-negative bacteria under similar experimental conditions. Cd binding to a bacterial consortium at the same pH value, sampled from natural river water, was modeled using the models developed for the individual Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.

Mishra, Bhoopesh; Fein, Jeremy B.; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Kelly, Shelly D.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Bunker, Bruce A.

2007-02-01

57

Microarray-Based Detection of 90 Antibiotic Resistance Genes of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A disposable microarray was developed for detection of up to 90 antibiotic resistance genes in gram-positive bacteria by hybridization. Each antibiotic resistance gene is represented by two specific oligonucleotides chosen from consensus sequences of gene families, except for nine genes for which only one specific oligonucleotide could be developed. A total of 137 oligonucleotides (26 to 33 nucleotides in length with similar physicochemical parameters) were spotted onto the microarray. The microarrays (ArrayTubes) were hybridized with 36 strains carrying specific antibiotic resistance genes that allowed testing of the sensitivity and specificity of 125 oligonucleotides. Among these were well-characterized multidrug-resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Lactococcus lactis and an avirulent strain of Bacillus anthracis harboring the broad-host-range resistance plasmid pRE25. Analysis of two multidrug-resistant field strains allowed the detection of 12 different antibiotic resistance genes in a Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain isolated from mastitis milk and 6 resistance genes in a Clostridium perfringens strain isolated from a calf. In both cases, the microarray genotyping corresponded to the phenotype of the strains. The ArrayTube platform presents the advantage of rapidly screening bacteria for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes known in gram-positive bacteria. This technology has a large potential for applications in basic research, food safety, and surveillance programs for antimicrobial resistance.

Perreten, Vincent; Vorlet-Fawer, Lorianne; Slickers, Peter; Ehricht, Ralf; Kuhnert, Peter; Frey, Joachim

2005-01-01

58

Zinc, a structural component of adenylate kinases from gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The recent finding that Bacillus stearothermophilus adenylate kinase contains a zinc atom coordinated to four cysteines prompted us to investigate the metal-binding properties of the enzyme from various bacteria. We conclude that zinc was present only in adenylate kinase from gram-positive species and that this property is correlated with the presence of three or four Cys residues in the sequence Cys-X2-Cys-X16-Cys-X2-Cys/Asp, in which X stands for different amino acid residues.

Gilles, A M; Glaser, P; Perrier, V; Meier, A; Longin, R; Sebald, M; Maignan, L; Pistotnik, E; Barzu, O

1994-01-01

59

Buffering capacity and membrane H+ conductance of neutrophilic and alkalophilic gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Buffering capacity and membrane H+ conductance were examined in three gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus alcalophilus. An acid pulse technique was used to measure both parameters. The buffering capacity and membrane H+ conductance of B. alcalophilus are influenced by the pH of the medium and the culture conditions. Suspensions of B. alcalophilus cells from both H. A. medium and L-malate medium cultures grown at pH 10.5 exhibited higher values for these parameters than cells grown at pH 8.5. B. alcalophilus grown aerobically had a lower buffering capacity and a lower membrane conductance for protons than the neutrophilic bacteria S. aureus and B. subtilis. Fermenting cells exhibited significantly higher values for both variables than respiring cells. PMID:9546171

Rius, N; Lorén, J G

1998-04-01

60

Sonodynamic Excitation of Rose Bengal for Eradication of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy based on photosensitizers activated by illumination is limited by poor penetration of visible light through skin and tissues. In order to overcome this problem, Rose Bengal was excited in the dark by 28?kHz ultrasound and was applied for inactivation of bacteria. It is demonstrated, for the first time, that the sonodynamic technique is effective for eradication of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. The net sonodynamic effect was calculated as a 3-4 log10 reduction in bacteria concentration, depending on the cell and the Rose Bengal concentration and the treatment time. Sonodynamic treatment may become a novel and effective form of antimicrobial therapy and can be used for low-temperature sterilization of medical instruments and surgical accessories.

Nakonechny, Faina; Nisnevitch, Michael; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nisnevitch, Marina

2013-01-01

61

Buffering Capacity and Membrane H+ Conductance of Neutrophilic and Alkalophilic Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Buffering capacity and membrane H+ conductance were examined in three gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus alcalophilus. An acid pulse technique was used to measure both parameters. The buffering capacity and membrane H+ conductance of B. alcalophilus are influenced by the pH of the medium and the culture conditions. Suspensions of B. alcalophilus cells from both H. A. medium and l-malate medium cultures grown at pH 10.5 exhibited higher values for these parameters than cells grown at pH 8.5. B. alcalophilus grown aerobically had a lower buffering capacity and a lower membrane conductance for protons than the neutrophilic bacteria S. aureus and B. subtilis. Fermenting cells exhibited significantly higher values for both variables than respiring cells.

Rius, Nuria; Loren, Jose G.

1998-01-01

62

Codon-optimized fluorescent proteins designed for expression in low-GC gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Fluorescent proteins have wide applications in biology. However, not all of these proteins are properly expressed in bacteria, especially if the codon usage and genomic GC content of the host organism are not ideal for high expression. In this study, we analyzed the DNA sequences of multiple fluorescent protein genes with respect to codons and GC content and compared them to a low-GC gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. We found high discrepancies for cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), and the photoactivatable green fluorescent protein (PAGFP), but not GFP, with regard to GC content and codon usage. Concomitantly, when the proteins were expressed in B. anthracis, CFP- and YFP-derived fluorescence was undetectable microscopically, a phenomenon caused not by lack of gene transcription or degradation of the proteins but by lack of protein expression. To improve expression in bacteria with low genomic GC contents, we synthesized a codon-optimized gfp and constructed optimized photoactivatable pagfp, cfp, and yfp, which were in contrast to nonoptimized genes highly expressed in B. anthracis and in another low-GC gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus. Using optimized GFP as a reporter, we were able to monitor the activity of the protective antigen promoter of B. anthracis and confirm its dependence on bicarbonate and regulators present on virulence plasmid pXO1. PMID:19181829

Sastalla, Inka; Chim, Kannie; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Leppla, Stephen H

2009-01-30

63

Introduction and reisolation of selected gram-positive bacteria from fermented edible wastes.  

PubMed

A fermentation process using Lactobacillus acidophilus added to edible food wastes was evaluated for its bactericidal action on selected gram-positive organisms. The Lactobacillus fermentation converts food wastes into an animal feed ingredient. In this study, 5 gram-positive bacteria of zoonotic importance were individually tested. These organisms were: Group E Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Clostridium perfringens, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Listeria monocytogenes. For each experiment, Lactobacillus was first mixed into ground waste; one of the test organisms was then inoculated and mixed. This mixture was divided among eight 5.5-L containers and incubated (duplicates) at 5 C, 10 C, 20 C, and 30 C for 96 hours. Internal waste temperature, reduction-oxidation, and pH were monitored. Waste samples were taken initially and at subsequent 24-hour periods. Qualitative and quantitative recoveries of the test bacteria were attempted for each sample. Group E Streptococcus was reisolated in increasing numbers at all temperatures throughout the fermentation period. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was recovered throughout the 96-hour period at 5 C; at 10 C it was recovered at 24 hours but not at 48 hours. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was killed by 24 hours at 20 C and 30 C fermentation temperatures. Clostridium perfringens survived the entire test period at 5 C, 10 C, and 20 C; it was killed by 72 hours at 30 C. Neither Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis nor Listeria monocytogenes was reisolated at any temperature at any time. PMID:6271028

Talkington, F D; Shotts, E B; Wooley, R E; Whitehead, W K; Dobbins, C N

1981-08-01

64

Gram-positive marine bacteria as a potential resource for the discovery of quorum sensing inhibitors.  

PubMed

Inhibitors of bacterial quorum sensing have been proposed as potentially novel therapeutics for the treatment of certain bacterial diseases. We recently reported a marine Halobacillus salinus isolate that secretes secondary metabolites capable of quenching quorum sensing phenotypes in several Gram-negative reporter strains. To investigate how widespread the production of such compounds may be in the marine bacterial environment, 332 Gram-positive isolates from diverse habitats were tested for their ability to interfere with Vibrio harveyi bioluminescence, a cell signaling-regulated phenotype. Rapid assay methods were employed where environmental isolates were propagated alongside the reporter strain. "Actives" were defined as bacteria that interfered with bioluminescence without visible cell-killing effects (antibiotic activity). A total of 49 bacterial isolates interfered with bioluminescence production in the assays. Metabolite extracts were generated from cultures of the active isolates, and 28 reproduced the bioluminescence inhibition against V. harveyi. Of those 28, five extracts additionally inhibited violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum. Chemical investigations revealed that phenethylamides and a cyclic dipeptide are two types of secondary metabolites responsible for the observed activities. The active bacterial isolates belonged primarily to either the genus Bacillus or Halobacillus. The results suggest that Gram-positive marine bacteria are worthy of further investigation for the discovery of quorum sensing antagonists. PMID:21152942

Teasdale, Margaret E; Donovan, Kellye A; Forschner-Dancause, Stephanie R; Rowley, David C

2010-12-09

65

Activity of glycopeptides against vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin are rare; but they include members of the genera Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus, as well as recently emerging vancomycin-resistant strains of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. Vancomycin, teicoplanin, and several vancomycin derivatives were tested for their activities against vancomycin-resistant gram-positive bacteria. Vancomycin-resistant E. faecium and E. faecalis were generally cross-resistant to other glycopeptides, but some N-substituted vancomycin derivatives were active against the resistant strains, with MICs of 2 to 32 micrograms/ml. These vancomycin derivatives also had significant levels of activity against intrinsically vancomycin-resistant organisms such as Leuconostoc sp. While vancomycin resistance in E. faecium and E. faecalis was inducible, resistance in members of the genera Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus appeared to be expressed constitutively. Antibody to a vancomycin-induced membrane protein found in membranes of resistant enterococci did not detect a cross-reacting protein in other vancomycin-resistant species.

Nicas, T I; Cole, C T; Preston, D A; Schabel, A A; Nagarajan, R

1989-01-01

66

Molecular Characterization of the Acute Inflammatory Response to Infections with Gram-Negative versus Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria and that caused by gram-positive bacteria often manifest similar clinical features. We investigated plasma proinflammatory cytokine profiles in patients with sepsis due to gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and studied the cytokine production and differential gene regulation of leukocytes stimulated ex vivo with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide or heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 binding protein, procalcitonin, and protein C in plasma did not differ between patients with sepsis due to gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. However, plasma IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-18 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with sepsis due to gram-positive bacteria. Ex vivo stimulation of whole blood with heat-killed S. aureus markedly increased IL-1? and IL-18 levels more than E. coli lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Microarray analysis revealed at least 359 cross-validated probe sets (genes) significant at the P < 0.001 level whose expression discriminated among gram-negative-organism-stimulated, gram-positive-organism-stimulated, and unstimulated whole-blood leukocytes. The host inflammatory responses to gram-negative and gram-positive stimuli share some common response elements but also exhibit distinct patterns of cytokine appearance and leukocyte gene expression.

Feezor, Robert J.; Oberholzer, Caroline; Baker, Henry V.; Novick, Daniela; Rubinstein, Menachem; Moldawer, Lyle L.; Pribble, John; Souza, Sonia; Dinarello, Charles A.; Ertel, Wolfgang; Oberholzer, Andreas

2003-01-01

67

The role of ? B in the stress response of Gram-positive bacteria – targets for food preservation and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternative sigma factor ¿B modulates the stress response of several Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis and the food-borne human pathogens Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. In all these bacteria, ¿B is responsible for the transcription of genes that can confer stress resistance to the vegetative cell. Recent findings indicate that ¿B also plays an important role in

Willem van Schaik; Tjakko Abee

2005-01-01

68

Gram Positive Bacteria Induce IL6 and IL8 Production in Human Alveolar Macrophages and Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objective: Inhalation of dust from swine confinement buildings results in an acute inflammatory reaction in the respiratory tract. The dust has a high microbial content, dominated by Gram positive bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the significance of bacteria in the induction of IL-6 and IL-8 release from respiratory epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages.

Britt-Marie Larsson; Kjell Larsson; Per Malmberg; Lena Palmberg

1999-01-01

69

Interfacial charge transfer between CdTe quantum dots and gram negative vs gram positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Oxidative toxicity of semiconductor and metal nanomaterials to cells has been well established. However, it may result from many different mechanisms, some requiring direct cell contact and others resulting from the diffusion of reactive species in solution. Published results are contradictory due to differences in particle preparation, bacterial strain, and experimental conditions. It has been recently found that C(60) nanoparticles can cause direct oxidative damage to bacterial proteins and membranes, including causing a loss of cell membrane potential (depolarization). However, this did not correlate with toxicity. In this study we perform a similar analysis using fluorescent CdTe quantum dots, adapting our tools to make use of the particles' fluorescence. We find that two Gram positive strains show direct electron transfer to CdTe, resulting in changes in CdTe fluorescence lifetimes. These two strains also show changes in membrane potential upon nanoparticle binding. Two Gram negative strains do not show these effects-nevertheless, they are over 10-fold more sensitive to CdTe than the Gram positives. We find subtoxic levels of Cd(2+) release from the particles upon irradiation of the particles, but significant production of hydroxyl radicals, suggesting that the latter is a major source of toxicity. These results help establish mechanisms of toxicity and also provide caveats for use of certain reporter dyes with fluorescent nanoparticles which will be of use to anyone performing these assays. The findings also suggest future avenues of inquiry into electron transfer processes between nanomaterials and bacteria. PMID:20085260

Dumas, Eve; Gao, Cherry; Suffern, Diana; Bradforth, Stephen E; Dimitrijevic, Nada M; Nadeau, Jay L

2010-02-15

70

Interfacial charge transfer between CdTe quantum dots and Gram negative vs. Gram positive bacteria.  

SciTech Connect

Oxidative toxicity of semiconductor and metal nanomaterials to cells has been well established. However, it may result from many different mechanisms, some requiring direct cell contact and others resulting from the diffusion of reactive species in solution. Published results are contradictory due to differences in particle preparation, bacterial strain, and experimental conditions. It has been recently found that C{sub 60} nanoparticles can cause direct oxidative damage to bacterial proteins and membranes, including causing a loss of cell membrane potential (depolarization). However, this did not correlate with toxicity. In this study we perform a similar analysis using fluorescent CdTe quantum dots, adapting our tools to make use of the particles fluorescence. We find that two Gram positive strains show direct electron transfer to CdTe, resulting in changes in CdTe fluorescence lifetimes. These two strains also show changes in membrane potential upon nanoparticle binding. Two Gram negative strains do not show these effects - nevertheless, they are over 10-fold more sensitive to CdTe than the Gram positives. We find subtoxic levels of Cd{sup 2+} release from the particles upon irradiation of the particles, but significant production of hydroxyl radicals, suggesting that the latter is a major source of toxicity. These results help establish mechanisms of toxicity and also provide caveats for use of certain reporter dyes with fluorescent nanoparticles which will be of use to anyone performing these assays. The findings also suggest future avenues of inquiry into electron transfer processes between nanomaterials and bacteria.

Dumas, E.; Gao, C.; Suffern, D.; Bradforth, S. E.; Dimitrejevic, N. M.; Nadeau, J. L.; McGill Univ.; Univ. of Southern California

2010-01-01

71

Studies on the aminopeptidase test for the distinction of gram-negative from gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aminopeptidase test was performed with representatives of gram-negative, gram-positive, and gram-variable bacteria. All gram-negative bacteria tested gave a positive test reaction with L-alanine-4-nitroanilide as test substrate. Representatives of the coryneform bacteria and some streptococci showed aminopeptidase activity after prolonged reaction times. A correlation between aminopeptidase activity and distinct interpeptide bridge composition in the peptidoglycan of many strains was demonstrated.

G. Cerny

1978-01-01

72

Function of the drosophila pattern-recognition receptor PGRP-SD in the detection of Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activation of an immune response requires recognition of microorganisms by host receptors. In drosophila, detection of Gram-positive bacteria is mediated by cooperation between the peptidoglycan-recognition protein-SA (PGRP-SA) and Gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1) proteins. Here we show that some Gram-positive bacterial species activate an immune response in a PGRP-SA- and GNBP1-independent manner, indicating that alternative receptors exist. Consistent with

Vincent Bischoff; Cécile Vignal; Ivo G Boneca; Tatiana Michel; Jules A Hoffmann; Julien Royet

2004-01-01

73

Genetic features of circular bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

This review highlights the main genetic features of circular bacteriocins, which require the co-ordinated expression of several genetic determinants. In general terms, it has been demonstrated that the expression of such structural genes must be combined with the activity of proteins involved in maturation (cleavage/circularization) and secretion outside the cell via different transporter systems, as well as multifaceted immunity mechanisms essential to ensuring the bacteria's self-protection against such strong inhibitors. Several circular antibacterial peptides produced by Gram-positive bacteria have been described to date, including enterocin AS-48, from Enterococcus faecalis S-48 (the first one characterized), gassericin A, from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39, and a similar one, reutericin 6, from Lactobacillus reuteri LA6, butyrivibriocin AR10, from the ruminal anaerobe Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens AR10, uberolysin, from Streptococcus uberis, circularin A, from Clostridium beijerinckii ATCC 25752, and subtilosin A, from Bacillus subtilis. We summarize here the progress made in the understanding of their principal genetic features over the last few years, during which the functional roles of circular proteins with wide biological activity have become clearer. PMID:18034824

Maqueda, Mercedes; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Fernández, Matilde; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Valdivia, Eva; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel

2007-11-20

74

Sortases and the Art of Anchoring Proteins to the Envelopes of Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The cell wall envelopes of gram-positive bacteria represent a surface organelle that not only functions as a cytoskeletal element but also promotes interactions between bacteria and their environment. Cell wall peptidoglycan is covalently and noncovalently decorated with teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. The sum of these molecular decorations provides bacterial envelopes with species- and strain-specific properties that are ultimately responsible for bacterial virulence, interactions with host immune systems, and the development of disease symptoms or successful outcomes of infections. Surface proteins typically carry two topogenic sequences, i.e., N-terminal signal peptides and C-terminal sorting signals. Sortases catalyze a transpeptidation reaction by first cleaving a surface protein substrate at the cell wall sorting signal. The resulting acyl enzyme intermediates between sortases and their substrates are then resolved by the nucleophilic attack of amino groups, typically provided by the cell wall cross bridges of peptidoglycan precursors. The surface protein linked to peptidoglycan is then incorporated into the envelope and displayed on the microbial surface. This review focuses on the mechanisms of surface protein anchoring to the cell wall envelope by sortases and the role that these enzymes play in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis.

Marraffini, Luciano A.; DeDent, Andrea C.; Schneewind, Olaf

2006-01-01

75

Proinflammatory activity of cell-wall constituents from gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Innate immunity reacts to conserved bacterial molecules. The outermost lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative organisms is highly inflammatory. It activates responsive cells via specific CD14 and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) surface receptor and co-receptors. Gram-positive bacteria do not contain LPS, but carry surface teichoic acids, lipoteichoic acids and peptidoglycan instead. Among these, the thick peptidoglycan is the most conserved. It also triggers cytokine release via CD14, but uses the TLR2 co-receptor instead of TLR4 used by LPS. Moreover, whole peptidoglycan is 1000-fold less active than LPS in a weight-to-weight ratio. This suggests either that it is not important for inflammation, or that only part of it is reactive while the rest acts as ballast. Biochemical dissection of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae cell walls indicates that the second assumption is correct. Long, soluble peptidoglycan chains (approximately 125 kDa) are poorly active. Hydrolysing these chains to their minimal unit (2 sugars and a stem peptide) completely abrogates inflammation. Enzymatic dissection of the pneumococcal wall generated a mixture of highly active fragments, constituted of trimeric stem peptides, and poorly active fragments, constituted of simple monomers and dimers or highly polymerized structures. Hence, the optimal constraint for activation might be 3 cross-linked stem peptides. The importance of structural constraint was demonstrated in additional studies. For example, replacing the first L-alanine in the stem peptide with a D-alanine totally abrogated inflammation in experimental meningitis. Likewise, modifying the D-alanine decorations of lipoteichoic acids with L-alanine, or deacylating them from their diacylglycerol lipid anchor also decreased the inflammatory response. Thus, although considered as a broad-spectrum pattern-recognizing system, innate immunity can detect very subtle differences in Gram-positive walls. This high specificity underlines the importance of using well-characterized microbial material in investigating the system. PMID:14620147

Moreillon, P; Majcherczyk, P A

2003-01-01

76

Raman Spectroscopy of Xylitol Uptake and Metabolism in Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

Visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the uptake and metabolism of the five-carbon sugar alcohol xylitol by Gram-positive viridans group streptococcus and the two extensively used strains of Gram-negative Escherichia coli, E. coli C and E. coli K-12. E. coli C, but not E. coli K-12, contains a complete xylitol operon, and the viridans group streptococcus contains an incomplete xylitol operon used to metabolize the xylitol. Raman spectra from xylitol-exposed viridans group streptococcus exhibited significant changes that persisted even in progeny grown from the xylitol-exposed mother cells in a xylitol-free medium for 24 h. This behavior was not observed in the E. coli K-12. In both viridans group streptococcus and the E. coli C derivative HF4714, the metabolic intermediates are stably formed to create an anomaly in bacterial normal survival. The uptake of xylitol by Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens occurs even in the presence of other high-calorie sugars, and its stable integration within the bacterial cell wall may discontinue bacterial multiplication. This could be a contributing factor for the known efficacy of xylitol when taken as a prophylactic measure to prevent or reduce occurrences of persistent infection. Specifically, these bacteria are causative agents for several important diseases of children such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, and dental caries. If properly explored, such an inexpensive and harmless sugar-alcohol, alone or used in conjunction with fluoride, would pave the way to an alternative preventive therapy for these childhood diseases when the causative pathogens have become resistant to modern medicines such as antibiotics and vaccine immunotherapy.

Palchaudhuri, Sunil; Rehse, Steven J.; Hamasha, Khozima; Syed, Talha; Kurtovic, Eldar; Kurtovic, Emir; Stenger, James

2011-01-01

77

In Silico Evidence for the Horizontal Transfer of gsiB, a ??-Regulated Gene in Gram-Positive Bacteria, to Lactic Acid Bacteria ?  

PubMed Central

gsiB, coding for glucose starvation-inducible protein B, is a characteristic member of the ?? stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis and several other Gram-positive bacteria. Here we provide in silico evidence for the horizontal transfer of gsiB in lactic acid bacteria that are devoid of the ?? factor.

Asteri, Ioanna-Areti; Boutou, Effrossyni; Anastasiou, Rania; Pot, Bruno; Vorgias, Constantinos E.; Tsakalidou, Effie; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos

2011-01-01

78

In vitro assessment of Ag2O nanoparticles toxicity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

In view of antibiotic resistance among pathogens, the present study is to address the toxicity of Ag2O nanoparticles against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria through in vitro assays. The preliminary screening by agar diffusion assay confirms the antibacterial activity of Ag2O nanoparticles against all the test bacteria. Comparative antibacterial activity of Ag2O nanoparticles and respective antibiotics reveals their broad range of activity and lower inhibitory dose against the used bacterial strains. Further, they can inhibit E. coli with an effective dose of 0.036 mg/ml within 1 h of exposure time as determined by luciferin based ATP assay. Moreover, the Ag2O nanoparticles exhibit higher antibacterial efficacy against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria, as revealed by their MIC & MBC values. Therefore, Ag2O nanoparticles pave the way for a new generation of antibacterial agents against the emerging multidrug resistant pathogens. PMID:23518522

Negi, Harshita; Rathinavelu Saravanan, Palaniyandi; Agarwal, Tithi; Ghulam Haider Zaidi, Mohd; Goel, Reeta

2013-01-01

79

Revised mechanism of d-alanine incorporation into cell wall polymers in Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Teichoic acids (TAs) are important for growth, biofilm formation, adhesion and virulence of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. The chemical structures of the TAs vary between bacteria, though they typically consist of zwitterionic polymers that are anchored to either the peptidoglycan layer as in the case of wall teichoic acid (WTA) or the cell membrane and named lipoteichoic acid (LTA). The polymers are modified with d-alanines and a lack of this decoration leads to increased susceptibility to cationic antimicrobial peptides. Four proteins, DltA–D, are essential for the incorporation of d-alanines into cell wall polymers and it has been established that DltA transfers d-alanines in the cytoplasm of the cell onto the carrier protein DltC. However, two conflicting models have been proposed for the remainder of the mechanism. Using a cellular protein localization and membrane topology analysis, we show here that DltC does not traverse the membrane and that DltD is anchored to the outside of the cell. These data are in agreement with the originally proposed model for d-alanine incorporation through a process that has been proposed to proceed via a d-alanine undecaprenyl phosphate membrane intermediate. Furthermore, we found that WTA isolated from a Staphylococcus aureus strain lacking LTA contains only a small amount of d-alanine, indicating that LTA has a role, either direct or indirect, in the efficient d-alanine incorporation into WTA in living cells.

Reichmann, Nathalie T.; Cassona, Carolina Picarra

2013-01-01

80

Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria induce a common early response in human monocytes  

PubMed Central

Background We infected freshly isolated human peripheral monocytes with live bacteria of three clinically important gram-positive bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes and studied the ensuing early transcriptional response using expression microarrays. Thus the observed response was unbiased by signals originating from other helper and effector cells of the host and was not limited to induction by solitary bacterial constituents. Results Activation of monocytes was demonstrated by the upregulation of chemokine rather than interleukin genes except for the prominent expression of interleukin 23, marking it as the early lead cytokine. This activation was accompanied by cytoskeleton rearrangement signals and a general anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic reaction. Remarkably, the expression profiles also provide evidence that monocytes participate in the regulation of angiogenesis and endothelial function in response to these pathogens. Conclusion Regardless of the invasion properties and survival mechanisms of the pathogens used, we found that the early response comprised of a consistent and common response. The common response was hallmarked by the upregulation of interleukin 23, a rather unexpected finding regarding Listeria infection, as this cytokine has been linked primarily to the control of extracellular bacterial dissemination.

2010-01-01

81

Meso-substituted cationic porphyrins as efficient photosensitizers of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies on the photosensitization of bacterial cells with different neutral or negatively charged porphyrins and phthalocyanines have demonstrated that, although Gram-positive bacteria are efficiently photoinactivated, Gram-negatrive bacteria become photosensitive only after modification of the permeability of their outer membrane.The results described in this paper show that two meso-substituted cationic porphyrins, namely tetra(4N-methyl-pyridyl) porphine tetraiodide and the tetra(4N,N,N,-trimethyl-anilinium) porphine, efficiently

Michèle Merchat; Giulio Bertolini; Paolo Giacomini; Angeles Villaneuva; Giulio Jori

1996-01-01

82

Coexistence of CD14Dependent and Independent Pathways for Stimulation of Human Monocytes by Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell wall is a key inflammatory agent of gram-positive bacteria. Possible receptors mediating cell wall-induced inflammation include CD14 and platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor. To delineate the conditions under which these various receptors might be used, human monocytic THP-1 cells and heparinized whole human blood were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), intact Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria, or purified pneumococcal cell wall. THP-1

ANJE CAUWELS; ELAINE WAN; MICHAELA LEISMANN; ELAINE TUOMANEN

1997-01-01

83

Testing of different antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from plant tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus xylosus, S. aureus, S. cohnii, Bacillus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Pseudomonas vesicularis) were isolated from homogenized shoot tips of Drosera rotundifolia, Spatiphyllum sp., Syngonium cv. White butterfly, Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Teddy Junior. Growth inhibition of selected bacterial strains was examined using 28 different single antibiotics and 7 antibiotic mixtures. It was found that with the

W. Kneifel; W. Leonhardt

1992-01-01

84

Photoinactivation of bacteria. Use of a cationic water-soluble zinc phthalocyanine to photoinactivate both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photosensitization of microorganisms is potentially useful for sterilization and for the treatment of certain bacterial diseases. Unit now, any broad spectrum approach has been inhibited because, although Gram-positive bacteria can be photoinactivated by a range of photosensitizer, Gram-negative bacteria have not usually been susceptible to photosensitized destruction.In the present work, it has been shown that the Gram-negative bacteria Escheria

Andrew Minnock; David I. Vernon; Jack Schofield; John Griffiths; J. Howard Parish; Stanley B. Brown

1996-01-01

85

Recognition of Gram-positive Intestinal Bacteria by Hybridoma- and Colostrum-derived Secretory Immunoglobulin A Is Mediated by Carbohydrates*  

PubMed Central

Humans live in symbiosis with 1014 commensal bacteria among which >99% resides in their gastrointestinal tract. The molecular bases pertaining to the interaction between mucosal secretory IgA (SIgA) and bacteria residing in the intestine are not known. Previous studies have demonstrated that commensals are naturally coated by SIgA in the gut lumen. Thus, understanding how natural SIgA interacts with commensal bacteria can provide new clues on its multiple functions at mucosal surfaces. Using fluorescently labeled, nonspecific SIgA or secretory component (SC), we visualized by confocal microscopy the interaction with various commensal bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides strains. These experiments revealed that the interaction between SIgA and commensal bacteria involves Fab- and Fc-independent structural motifs, featuring SC as a crucial partner. Removal of glycans present on free SC or bound in SIgA resulted in a drastic drop in the interaction with Gram-positive bacteria, indicating the essential role of carbohydrates in the process. In contrast, poor binding of Gram-positive bacteria by control IgG was observed. The interaction with Gram-negative bacteria was preserved whatever the molecular form of protein partner used, suggesting the involvement of different binding motifs. Purified SIgA and SC from either mouse hybridoma cells or human colostrum exhibited identical patterns of recognition for Gram-positive bacteria, emphasizing conserved plasticity between species. Thus, sugar-mediated binding of commensals by SIgA highlights the currently underappreciated role of glycans in mediating the interaction between a highly diverse microbiota and the mucosal immune system.

Mathias, Amandine; Corthesy, Blaise

2011-01-01

86

[Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of aerobic gram-positive cocci and anaerobic bacteria in 2008].  

PubMed

The activity of antibacterial agents against aerobic Gram-positive cocci (25 genus or species, 1029 strains) and anaerobic bacteria (21 genus or species, 187 strains) isolated from clinical specimens in 2008 at 16 clinical facilities in Japan were studied using either broth microdilution or agar dilution method. The ratio of methicillin-resistant strains among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 59.6% and 81.2%, suggesting that resistant strains were isolated at high frequency. Vancomycin (VCM), linezolid (LZD) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (QPR/DPR) had good antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, with MIC90s of < or = 2 microg/mL. The ratio of penicillin (PC) intermediate and resistant strains classified by mutations of PC-binding proteins among Streptococcus pneumoniae was 92.0% that was highest among our previous reports. Cefpirome, carbapenems, VCM, teicoplanin (TEIC), LZD and QPR/DPR had MIC90s of < or = 1 microg/mL against PC-intermediate and resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Against all strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, the MICs of VCM and TEIC were under 2 microg/mL, and no resistant strain was detected, suggesting that these agents had excellent activities against these species. 15.9% of E. faecalis strains and 1.2% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate to LZD. 17.1% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to QPR/DPR. Against all strains of Clostridium difficile, the MIC of VCM was under 1 microg/mL, suggesting that VCM had excellent activity. Carbapenems showed good activity against Clostridiales, Bacteroides spp., and Prevotella spp., but one strain of Bacteroides fragilis showed resistant to carbapenems. And so, the susceptibility of this species should be well-focused in the future at detecting continuously. PMID:22808693

Yoshida, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kudo, Reiko; Fuji, Rieko; Takahashi, Choichiro; Oota, Reiko; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Okada, Masahiko; Horikawa, Yoshinori; Shiotani, Joji; Kino, Hiroyoshi; Ono, Yuka; Fujita, Shinichi; Matsuo, Shuji; Kono, Hisashi; Asari, Seishi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Kusano, Nobuchika; Nose, Motoko; Horii, Toshinobu; Tanimoto, Ayako; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kohno, Shigeru; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isamu; Maki, Hideki; Yamano, Yoshinori

2012-02-01

87

[Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of aerobic Gram-positive cocci and anaerobic bacteria in 2006].  

PubMed

The activity of antibacterial agents against aerobic Gram-positive cocci (26 species, 1022 strains) and anaerobic bacteria (23 species, 184 strains) isolated from clinical specimens in 2006 at 16 clinical facilities in Japan were studied using either broth microdilution or agar dilution method. The ratio of methicillin-resistant strains among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 53.0% and 65.8%, suggesting that resistant strains were isolated at high frequency. Vancomycin (VCM) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (QPR/DPR) had good antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, with MIC90s of < or = 2 micrcog/mL. The ratio of penicillin (PC) intermediate and resistant strains classified by mutations of PC-binding proteins among Streptococcus pneumoniae was 87.6%. Ceftriaxone, cefpirome, cefepime, carbapenem antibiotics, VCM, teicoplanin, linezolid(LZD) and QPR/DPR had MIC90s of < or = 1 microg/mL against PC-intermediate and resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Against all strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, the MICs of VCM and TEIC were under 2 microg/mL, and no resistant strain was detected, suggesting that these agents had excellent activities against these species. 10.9% of E. faecalis strains or 3.5% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to LZD. 24.4% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to QPR/DPR. Against all strains of Clostridium difficile, the MIC of VCM were under 1 microg/mL, suggesting that VCM had excellent activity against C. difficile. Carbapenems showed good activity against Peptococcaceae, Bacteroides spp., and Prevotella spp. However since several strains of Bacteroides fragilis showed resistant to carbapenems and the susceptibility of this species should be well-focused in the future. PMID:21425596

Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yoshida, Isamu; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Tachibana, Mineji; Takahashi, Choichiro; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kanemitsu, Keiji; Okada, Masahiko; Horikawa, Yoshinori; Shiotani, Joji; Kino, Hiroyoshi; Ono, Yuka; Baba, Hisashi; Matsuo, Shuji; Asari, Seishi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Matsuoka, Kimiko; Kusano, Nobuchika; Nose, Motoko; Murase, Mitsuharu; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kohno, Shigeru; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isamu; Maki, Hideki; Yamano, Yoshinori

2010-12-01

88

Relevance of GC content to the conservation of DNA polymerase III/mismatch repair system in Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

The mechanism of DNA replication is one of the driving forces of genome evolution. Bacterial DNA polymerase III, the primary complex of DNA replication, consists of PolC and DnaE. PolC is conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in the Firmicutes with low GC content, whereas DnaE is widely conserved in most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. PolC contains two domains, the 3?-5?exonuclease domain and the polymerase domain, while DnaE only possesses the polymerase domain. Accordingly, DnaE does not have the proofreading function; in Escherichia coli, another enzyme DnaQ performs this function. In most bacteria, the fidelity of DNA replication is maintained by 3?-5? exonuclease and a mismatch repair (MMR) system. However, we found that most Actinobacteria (a group of Gram-positive bacteria with high GC content) appear to have lost the MMR system and chromosomes may be replicated by DnaE-type DNA polymerase III with DnaQ-like 3?-5? exonuclease. We tested the mutation bias of Bacillus subtilis, which belongs to the Firmicutes and found that the wild type strain is AT-biased while the mutS-deletant strain is remarkably GC-biased. If we presume that DnaE tends to make mistakes that increase GC content, these results can be explained by the mutS deletion (i.e., deletion of the MMR system). Thus, we propose that GC content is regulated by DNA polymerase and MMR system, and the absence of polC genes, which participate in the MMR system, may be the reason for the increase of GC content in Gram-positive bacteria such as Actinobacteria.

Akashi, Motohiro; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

2013-01-01

89

Relevance of GC content to the conservation of DNA polymerase III/mismatch repair system in Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

The mechanism of DNA replication is one of the driving forces of genome evolution. Bacterial DNA polymerase III, the primary complex of DNA replication, consists of PolC and DnaE. PolC is conserved in Gram-positive bacteria, especially in the Firmicutes with low GC content, whereas DnaE is widely conserved in most Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. PolC contains two domains, the 3'-5'exonuclease domain and the polymerase domain, while DnaE only possesses the polymerase domain. Accordingly, DnaE does not have the proofreading function; in Escherichia coli, another enzyme DnaQ performs this function. In most bacteria, the fidelity of DNA replication is maintained by 3'-5' exonuclease and a mismatch repair (MMR) system. However, we found that most Actinobacteria (a group of Gram-positive bacteria with high GC content) appear to have lost the MMR system and chromosomes may be replicated by DnaE-type DNA polymerase III with DnaQ-like 3'-5' exonuclease. We tested the mutation bias of Bacillus subtilis, which belongs to the Firmicutes and found that the wild type strain is AT-biased while the mutS-deletant strain is remarkably GC-biased. If we presume that DnaE tends to make mistakes that increase GC content, these results can be explained by the mutS deletion (i.e., deletion of the MMR system). Thus, we propose that GC content is regulated by DNA polymerase and MMR system, and the absence of polC genes, which participate in the MMR system, may be the reason for the increase of GC content in Gram-positive bacteria such as Actinobacteria. PMID:24062730

Akashi, Motohiro; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi

2013-09-17

90

Palmitoleic Acid Isomer (C16:1?6) in Human Skin Sebum Is Effective against Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The percent lipid composition of pooled human sebum analyzed by thin-layer chromatography was: ceramides (13%), fatty acid (47%), cholesterol (7%), cholesterol esters (2%), squalene (11%), triglycerides (3%), and wax esters (17%). Total sebum lipids (2– 4 mg\\/ml), sonicated into bacterial culture medium, caused 4- to 5-fold log reduction in growth of gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus salivarius and the anaerobe

J. J. Wille; A. Kydonieus

2003-01-01

91

Photoinactivation effects of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether on Gram-positive and -negative bacteria detected by atomic force microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy as a promising approach for efficiently killing pathogenic microbes is attracting\\u000a increasing interest. In this study, the cytotoxic and phototoxic effects of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on the\\u000a Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were investigated. The cell viability was assessed by colony-forming unit method,\\u000a and the results indicated that there was no significant cytotoxicity but high phototoxicity

Hua Jin; Xun Huang; Yong Chen; Hongxia Zhao; Hongyan Ye; Feicheng Huang; Xiaobo Xing; Jiye Cai

2010-01-01

92

Secretory Phospholipase A2 Is the Principal Bactericide for Staphylococci and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria in Human Tears  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined human tears for molecules that killed gram-positive bacteria. The principal mediator of bactericidal activity against staphylococci proved to be a calcium-dependent enzyme, secretory phospholipase A2. Whereas the concentration of secretory phospholipase A2 in the normal tear film exceeded 30 mg\\/ml, only 1.1 ng (<0.1 nM) of the enzyme per ml sufficed to kill Listeria monocytogenes and 15 to

XIAO-DAN QU; ROBERT I. LEHRER

1998-01-01

93

Evaluation of Susceptibility of Gram-Positive and Negative Bacteria to Human Defensins by Using Radial Diffusion Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defensinsaresmallcationicbactericidalpeptidespresentabundantlyinthegranulesofpolymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Human PMNs contain four defensins termed HNP-1 to HNP-4. We used a new assay system in agar plates, the radial diffusion assay, to evaluate the effects of human defensins against gram- positive and -negative bacteria. A crude mixture of HNP-1, -2, and -3 (crude HNPs) was purified from human PMN extracts by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC).

HIROMU TAKEMURA; MITSUO KAKU; SHIGERU KOHNO; YOICHI HIRAKATA; HIRONORI TANAKA; RYOJI YOSHIDA; KAZUNORI TOMONO; HIRONOBU KOGA; AKIHIRO WADA; TOSHIYA HIRAYAMA; ANDSHIMERU KAMIHIRA

1996-01-01

94

Soluble bacterial constituents down-regulate secretion of IL12 in response to intact Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intact Gram-positive bacteria induce production of large amounts of IL-12 from freshly isolated human monocytes. Here the bacterial structures and signalling pathways involved were studied and compared with those leading to IL-6 production, and to IL-12 production in response to LPS after IFN-? pre-treatment. Intact bifidobacteria induced massive production of IL-12 (1ng\\/ml) and IL-6 (>30ng\\/ml) from human PBMC, whereas fragmented

Cecilia Barkman; Anna Martner; Christina Hessle; Agnes E. Wold

2008-01-01

95

On the target of a novel class of antibiotics, oxazolidinones, active against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxazolidinones are a promising new class of synthetic antibiotics active against multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. To elucidate their mode of action, the effect of DuP 721 on individual steps of protein translation was studied. The drug does not interfere with translation initiation at the stage of mRNA binding or formation of 30S pre-initiation complexes. However, it inhibits the puromycin-mediated release of

Helena Burghardt; Karl-Ludwig Schimz; Matthias Müller

1998-01-01

96

Improved Pattern for Genome-Based Screening Identifies Novel Cell Wall-Attached Proteins in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a large number of sequenced microbial genomes available, tools for identifying groups or classes of proteins have become increasingly important. Here we present an improved pattern for the identification of cell wall-attached proteins (CWPs), a group of proteins with diverse and important functions in gram-positive bacteria. This tripartite pattern is based on analysis of 65 previously described cell wall-attached

ROBERT JANULCZYK; MAGNUS RASMUSSEN

2001-01-01

97

Secretory phospholipase A2 in dromedary tears: a host defense against staphylococci and other gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

The best known physiologic function of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) group IIA (sPLA2-IIA) is defense against bacterial infection through hydrolytic degradation of bacterial membrane phospholipids. In fact, sPLA2-IIA effectively kills Gram-positive bacteria and to a lesser extent Gram-negative bacteria and is considered a major component of the eye's innate immune defense system. The antibacterial properties of sPLA2 have been demonstrated in rabbit and human tears. In this report, we have analyzed the bactericidal activity of dromedary tears and the subsequently purified sPLA2 on several Gram-positive bacteria. Our results showed that the sPLA2 displays a potent bactericidal activity against all the tested bacteria particularly against the Staphylococcus strains when tested in the ionic environment of tears. There is a synergic action of the sPLA2 with lysozyme when added to the bacteria culture prior to sPLA2. Interestingly, lysozyme purified from dromedary tears showed a significant bactericidal activity against Listeria monocytogene and Staphylococcus epidermidis, whereas the one purified from human tears displayed no activity against these two strains. We have also demonstrated that Ca(2+) is crucial for the activity of dromedary tear sPLA2 and to a less extent Mg(2+) ions. Given the presence of sPLA2 in tears and intestinal secretions, this enzyme may play a substantial role in innate mucosal and systemic bactericidal defenses against Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23344945

Ben Bacha, Abir; Abid, Islem

2013-01-24

98

The Mechanism of Action of the Extracellular Bacteriolytic Enzymes of Lysobacter sp. on Gram-Positive Bacteria: The Role of the Cell Wall Anionic Polymers of Target Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the extracellular bacteriolytic enzymes of Lysobacter sp. showed that they can efficiently hydrolyze the peptidoglycan of gram-positive bacteria provided that there is an electrostatic interaction of these enzymes with the cell wall anionic polymers, teichoic and teichuronic acids in particular. The hydrolytic action of bacteriolytic enzymes on the cell wall largely depends on the negative charge of

O. A. Stepnaya; E. A. Begunova; I. M. Tsfasman; E. M. Tul'skaya; G. M. Streshinskaya; I. B. Naumova; I. S. Kulaev

2004-01-01

99

Signaling networks controlling mucin production in response to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human lung cells exposed to pathogenic bacteria upregulate the production of mucin, the major macromolecular component of mucus. Generally this upregulation is beneficial for the host, however, in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients, overproduction of mucin can lead to the plugging of pulmonary airways. Mucus plugging impedes airflow and creates an environment that is highly compartmentalized: those bacteria within

Nancy McNamara; Carol Basbaum

2001-01-01

100

Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background Nanomaterials have unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. For this reason, nanotechnology has attracted a great deal of attention from the scientific community. Metal oxide nanomaterials like ZnO and CuO have been used industrially for several purposes, including cosmetics, paints, plastics, and textiles. A common feature that these nanoparticles exhibit is their antimicrobial behavior against pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods and results Nanosized particles of three metal oxides (ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3) were synthesized by a sol–gel combustion route and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the single-phase formation of all three nanomaterials. The particle sizes were observed to be 18, 22, and 28 nm for ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3, respectively. We used these nanomaterials to evaluate their antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. Conclusion Among the three metal oxide nanomaterials, ZnO showed greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used in this study. It was observed that ZnO nanoparticles have excellent bactericidal potential, while Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibited the least bactericidal activity. The order of antibacterial activity was demonstrated to be the following: ZnO > CuO > Fe2O3.

Azam, Ameer; Ahmed, Arham S; Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad S; Habib, Sami S; Memic, Adnan

2012-01-01

101

Distribution of mef(A) in Gram-Positive Bacteria from Healthy Portuguese Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We screened 615 gram-positive isolates from 150 healthy children for the presence of the erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(F), and mef(A) genes. The mef(A) genes were found in 20 (9%) of the macrolide-resistant isolates, including Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. Sixteen of the 19 gram-positive isolates tested carried the other seven open reading frames (ORFs) described in Tn1207.1, a

Vicki A. Luna; Marc Heiken; Kathleen Judge; Catherine Ulep; Nicole Van Kirk; Henrique Luis; Mario Bernardo; Jose Leitao; Marilyn C. Roberts

2002-01-01

102

In vitro activity of the tribactam GV104326 against gram-positive, gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed Central

GV104326 is the first member of a new class of antibiotics (tribactams) selected for development. It combines a particularly broad spectrum (including gram-negative and gram-positive aerobes and anaerobes) with high potency, resistance to beta-lactamases, and complete stability to dehydropeptidases. Comparative MICs were determined for GV104326 against 415 recent clinical isolates (including beta-lactamase producers), using representative antibacterial agents (imipenem, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cefpirome, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and erythromycin). GV104326 was particularly active against gram-positive bacteria; in general, its in vitro activity was equivalent to that of imipenem, equivalent to or better than that of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and superior to that of cefpirome, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin. Against gram-negative bacteria, GV104326 possessed activity similar to that of imipenem and cefpirome against enterobacteria and Haemophilus spp. but its activity was superior to that of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. GV104326 showed excellent antianaerobe activity. GV104326 was stable to all clinically relevant beta-lactamases and was rapidly lethal to susceptible bacteria. In Escherichia coli, GV104326 bound predominantly to PBPs 1a and 2 and at low concentrations osmotically stable round forms were observed. GV104326 showed an affinity for PBPs 2 and 4 of Staphylococcus aureus.

Di Modugno, E; Erbetti, I; Ferrari, L; Galassi, G; Hammond, S M; Xerri, L

1994-01-01

103

Classification of gram-positive and gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria with hyperspectral microscope imaging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Optical method with hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) has potential for identification of foodborne pathogenic bacteria from microcolonies rapidly with a cell level. A HMI system that provides both spatial and spectral information could be an effective tool for analyzing spectral characteristic...

104

Identification of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by fluorescence studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several type strains of bacteria including Vibrio fischeri, Azotobacter vinelandii, Enterobacter cloacae, and Corynebacterium xerosis, were cultured in the laboratory following standard diagnostic protocol based on their individual metabolic strategies. The bacterial cultures were not further treated and they were studied in their pristine state (pure culture - axenic). The fluorescent studies were applied using a continuous wave and a

Jonathan Demchak; Joseph Calabrese; Marian Tzolov

2011-01-01

105

Antibiotic resistance among clinically important Gram-positive bacteria in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, particularly those used for first-line therapy, is an increasing cause for concern. In the UK, the prevalence of resistance to methicillin and mupirocin in Staphylococcus aureus, and to penicillin and macrolides in Streptococcus pneumoniae, appear to be increasing. There has also been an increase in the number of hospitals where glycopeptide-resistant enterococci are known

A. P. Johnson

1998-01-01

106

Cibacron blue 3GA inhibits cell separation of gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A triazine dye, Cibacron blue 3G-A (CB), is an inhibitor of cell separation of staphylococcal spp. therefore, we examined the effect of CB on growth of grampositive bacteria other than Staphylococcus. CB added to the medium of growing cultures of strains of genus Micrococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Bacillus caused inhibition of cell separation. Moreover, in case of Bacillus and Lactobacillus,

Motoyuki Sugai; Tomoko Akiyama; Hitoshi Komatsuzawa; Yoichiro Miyake; Hidekazu Suginaka

1991-01-01

107

Discovery of RWJ-54428 (MC-02,479), a new cephalosporin active against resistant gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

The discovery of RWJ-54428 (MC-02,479), a new cephalosporin displaying promising activity against sensitive and resistant Gram-positive bacteria, is described. Progressive structural modification from the previously reported 3-phenylthiocephem MC-02,331 afforded an overall increase in potency against MRSA while retaining other key properties such as acceptable solubility and serum binding. Evaluation of the in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy of a series of closely related compounds resulted in selection of RWJ-54428 (MC-02,479) for further studies. PMID:11213288

Hecker, S J; Glinka, T W; Cho, A; Zhang, Z J; Price, M E; Chamberland, S; Griffith, D; Lee, V J

2000-11-01

108

Comparison of the d-Glutamate-Adding Enzymes from Selected Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The biochemical properties of the d-glutamate-adding enzymes (MurD) from Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated to detect any differences in the activity of this enzyme between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The genes (murD) that encode these enzymes were cloned into pMAL-c2 fusion vector and overexpressed as maltose-binding protein–MurD fusion proteins. Each fusion protein was purified to homogeneity by affinity to amylose resin. Proteolytic treatments of the fusion proteins with factor Xa regenerated the individual MurD proteins. It was found that these fusion proteins retain d-glutamate-adding activity and have Km and Vmax values similar to those of the regenerated MurDs, except for the H. influenzae enzyme. Substrate inhibition by UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine, the acceptor substrate, was observed at concentrations greater than 15 and 30 ?M for E. coli and H. influenzae MurD, respectively. Such substrate inhibition was not observed with the E. faecalis and S. aureus enzymes, up to a substrate concentration of 1 to 2 mM. In addition, the two MurDs of gram-negative origin were shown to require monocations such as NH4+ and/or K+, but not Na+, for optimal activity, while anions such as Cl? and SO42? had no effect on the enzyme activities. The activities of the two MurDs of gram-positive origin, on the other hand, were not affected by any of the ions tested. All four enzymes required Mg2+ for the ligase activity and exhibited optimal activities around pH 8. These differences observed between the gram-positive and gram-negative MurDs indicated that the two gram-negative bacteria may apply a more stringent regulation of cell wall biosynthesis at the early stage of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway than do the two gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, the MurD-catalyzed reaction may constitute a fine-tuning step necessary for the gram-negative bacteria to optimally maintain its relatively thin yet essential cell wall structure during all stages of growth.

Walsh, Ann W.; Falk, Paul J.; Thanassi, Jane; Discotto, Linda; Pucci, Michael J.; Ho, Hsu-Tso

1999-01-01

109

Comparison of the D-glutamate-adding enzymes from selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

The biochemical properties of the D-glutamate-adding enzymes (MurD) from Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated to detect any differences in the activity of this enzyme between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The genes (murD) that encode these enzymes were cloned into pMAL-c2 fusion vector and overexpressed as maltose-binding protein-MurD fusion proteins. Each fusion protein was purified to homogeneity by affinity to amylose resin. Proteolytic treatments of the fusion proteins with factor Xa regenerated the individual MurD proteins. It was found that these fusion proteins retain D-glutamate-adding activity and have Km and Vmax values similar to those of the regenerated MurDs, except for the H. influenzae enzyme. Substrate inhibition by UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine, the acceptor substrate, was observed at concentrations greater than 15 and 30 microM for E. coli and H. influenzae MurD, respectively. Such substrate inhibition was not observed with the E. faecalis and S. aureus enzymes, up to a substrate concentration of 1 to 2 mM. In addition, the two MurDs of gram-negative origin were shown to require monocations such as NH4+ and/or K+, but not Na+, for optimal activity, while anions such as Cl- and SO4(2-) had no effect on the enzyme activities. The activities of the two MurDs of gram-positive origin, on the other hand, were not affected by any of the ions tested. All four enzymes required Mg2+ for the ligase activity and exhibited optimal activities around pH 8. These differences observed between the gram-positive and gram-negative MurDs indicated that the two gram-negative bacteria may apply a more stringent regulation of cell wall biosynthesis at the early stage of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway than do the two gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, the MurD-catalyzed reaction may constitute a fine-tuning step necessary for the gram-negative bacteria to optimally maintain its relatively thin yet essential cell wall structure during all stages of growth. PMID:10464212

Walsh, A W; Falk, P J; Thanassi, J; Discotto, L; Pucci, M J; Ho, H T

1999-09-01

110

Production of a bacteriocin by a poultry derived Campylobacter jejuni isolate with antimicrobial activity against Clostridium perfringens and other Gram positive bacteria.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We have purified a bacteriocin peptide (termed CUV-3), produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni (strain CUV-3) with inhibitory activity against Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Listeria mon...

111

Acyl-sulfamates Target the Essential Glycerol-Phosphate Acyltransferase (PlsY) in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

PlsY is the essential first step in membrane phospholipid synthesis of Gram-positive pathogens. PlsY catalyzes the transfer of the fatty acid from acyl-phosphate to the 1-position of glycerol-3-phosphate to form the first intermediate in membrane biogenesis. A series of non-metabolizable, acyl-sulfamate analogs of the acyl-phosphate PlsY substrate were prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus PlsY and for their Gram-positive antibacterial activities. From this series phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate had the best overall profile, selectively inhibiting S. aureus phospholipid biosynthesis and causing the accumulation of both long-chain fatty acids and acyl-acyl carrier protein intermediates demonstrating that PlsY was the primary cellular target. Bacillus anthracis was unique in being more potently inhibited by long chain acyl-sulfamates than other bacterial species. However, it is shown that Bacillus anthracis PlsY is not more sensitive to the acyl-sulfamates than S. aureus PlsY. Metabolic profiling showed that B. anthracis growth inhibition by the acyl-sulfamates was not specific for lipid synthesis illustrating that the amphipathic acyl-sulfamates can also have off-target effects in Gram-positive bacteria. Nonetheless, this study further advances PlsY as a druggable target for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutics, through the discovery and validation of the probe compound phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate as a S. aureus PlsY inhibitor.

Cherian, Philip; Yao, Jiangwei; Leonardi, Roberta; Maddox, Marcus M.; Luna, Vicki A.; Rock, Charles O.; Lee, Richard E.

2012-01-01

112

Acyl-sulfamates target the essential glycerol-phosphate acyltransferase (PlsY) in Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

PlsY is the essential first step in membrane phospholipid synthesis of Gram-positive pathogens. PlsY catalyzes the transfer of the fatty acid from acyl-phosphate to the 1-position of glycerol-3-phosphate to form the first intermediate in membrane biogenesis. A series of non-metabolizable, acyl-sulfamate analogs of the acyl-phosphate PlsY substrate were prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus PlsY and for their Gram-positive antibacterial activities. From this series phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate had the best overall profile, selectively inhibiting S. aureus phospholipid biosynthesis and causing the accumulation of both long-chain fatty acids and acyl-acyl carrier protein intermediates demonstrating that PlsY was the primary cellular target. Bacillus anthracis was unique in being more potently inhibited by long chain acyl-sulfamates than other bacterial species. However, it is shown that Bacillus anthracis PlsY is not more sensitive to the acyl-sulfamates than S. aureus PlsY. Metabolic profiling showed that B. anthracis growth inhibition by the acyl-sulfamates was not specific for lipid synthesis illustrating that the amphipathic acyl-sulfamates can also have off-target effects in Gram-positive bacteria. Nonetheless, this study further advances PlsY as a druggable target for the development of novel antibacterial therapeutics, through the discovery and validation of the probe compound phenyl (8-phenyloctanoyl) sulfamate as a S. aureus PlsY inhibitor. PMID:22795901

Cherian, Philip T; Yao, Jiangwei; Leonardi, Roberta; Maddox, Marcus M; Luna, Vicki A; Rock, Charles O; Lee, Richard E

2012-06-23

113

Assessment of the in vitro Efficacy of the Novel Antimicrobial Peptide CECT7121 against Human Gram-Positive Bacteria from Serious Infections Refractory to Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Resistant Gram-positive bacteria are causing increasing concern in clinical practice. This work investigated theefficacy of AP-CECT7121 (an antimicrobial peptide isolated from an environmental strain of Enterococcus faecalis CECT7121) against various pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. Methods: Strains were isolated from intensive care unit patients unresponsive to standard antibiotic treatments. Inhibitory activity of AP-CECT7121 was assessed using the agar-well diffusion method. The

M. D. Sparo; D. G. Jones; S. F. Sánchez Bruni

2009-01-01

114

Effect of Histological Decalcifying Agents on Number and Stainability of Gram-positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tests of the effects of restorative materials on dental pulp, it is important that one evaluate bacterial contamination, and this is usually done histologically. Preceding the usual paraffin-embedding of hard-tissue specimens for microscopical investigations, decalcification is performed. To study the influence of decalcifying agents (nitric acid, formic acid, and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) on the number and Gram-stainability of bacteria,

M. Wijnbergen; P. J. Van Mullem

1987-01-01

115

REPORT ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF OREGANO (ORIGANUM VULGARE LINN.) AGAINST GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of infusion, decoction and essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) against 111 Gram-positive bacterial isolates belonging to 23 different species related to 3 genera. Infusion and essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, Micrococcus roseus, M. kristinae, M. nishinomiyaensis, M. lylae, M. luteus, M. sedentarius, M. varians, Bacillus megaterium,

SABAHAT SAEED; PERWEEN TARIQ

116

Determination of the total charge in the cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The charge in the bacterial wall originates from the dissociation of acidic groups such as carboxyl, phosphate and amino groups. The degree of dissociation of these chargeable groups is a function of the pH and the activity of the surrounding electrolyte solution. In this study the cell wall charge density of Gram-positive bacterial strains, including four coryneforms and a Bacillus

Albert van der Wal; Willem Norde; Alexander J. B. Zehnder; Johannes Lyklema

1997-01-01

117

Genome-Wide Gene Order Distances Support a United Gram-Positive Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have attempted to use a Monte Carlo approach to look for small genome-wide instances of gene order conservation. Our trees show the actinobacteria as a sister group to the bulk of the firmicutes. The results are supportive of a single origin for the gram-positive cell.

House, C. H.; Fitz-Gibbon, S. T.

2010-04-01

118

Efflux-Mediated Resistance to Fluoroquinolones in Gram-Positive Bacteria and the Mycobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluoroquinolone (FQ) group of antimicrobial agents is increasingly popular in the treatment of a variety of gram- negative infections, against which they are often highly effec- tive. FQs are traditionally less active against gram-positive pathogens, although they are clinically useful against Myco- plasma pneumonia and have been employed in the treatment of drug-resistant mycobacterial infections (5), as well as

KEITH POOLE

2000-01-01

119

In Vitro Activity of RU 64004, a New Ketolide Antibiotic, against Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative in vitro activity of RU 64004 (also known as HMR 3004), a new ketolide antibiotic, was tested by agar dilution against approximately 500 gram-positive organisms, including multiply resistant enterococci, streptococci, and staphylococci. All streptococci were inhibited by <1 mg of RU 64004 per ml. The ketolide was more potent than other macrolides against erythromycin A-susceptible staphylococci and was

T. SCHULIN; C. B. WENNERSTEN; R. C. MOELLERING; G. M. ELIOPOULOS

1997-01-01

120

Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of tick defensin against Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defensins are a major group of antimicrobial peptides and are found widely in vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. Invertebrate defensins have been identified from insects, scorpions, mussels and ticks. In this study, chemically synthesized tick defensin was used to further investigate the activity spectrum and mode of action of natural tick defensin. Synthetic tick defensin showed antibacterial activity against many Gram-positive

Yoshiro Nakajima; Jun Ishibashi; Fumiko Yukuhiro; Ai Asaoka; DeMar Taylor; Minoru Yamakawa

2003-01-01

121

Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of respiratory diseases. 1. Screening of 68 plants against gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Respiratory ailments are important causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews conducted in Guatemala during 1986-88 showed that 234 plants from 75 families, most of them of American origin, have been used for the treatment of respiratory ailments. Three Gram-positive bacteria causing respiratory infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes) were used to screen 68 of the most commonly used plants for activity. Twenty-eight of these (41.2%) inhibited the growth of one or more of the bacteria tested. Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by 18 of the plant extracts, while 7 extracts were effective against Streptococcus pyogenes. Plants of American origin which exhibited antibacterial activity were: Gnaphalium viscosum, Lippia alba, Lippia dulcis, Physalis philadelphica, Satureja brownei, Solanum nigrescens and Tagetes lucida. These preliminary in vitro results provide scientific basis for the use of these plants against bacterial respiratory infections. PMID:2023428

Caceres, A; Alvarez, A V; Ovando, A E; Samayoa, B E

1991-02-01

122

Performances of VITEK 2 Colorimetric Cards for Identification of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Thepurpose of this study was to evaluate the new VITEK 2 identification cards that use colorimetric reading to identify gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (GP and GN cards, respectively) in comparison to fluorimetric cards (ID-GPC and ID-GNB, respectively). A total of 580 clinical isolates and stock collection strains belonging to 116 taxa were included in the study. Of the 249 gram-positive strains tested with both the ID-GPC and GP cards, 218 (87.5%) and 235 (94.4%) strains were correctly identified (to the genus and species level), respectively. Of the 331 gram-negative strains tested with the ID-GNB and GN cards, 295 (89.1%) and 321 (97%) strains were correctly identified, respectively. Another focus of the study was to apply the percentages of correct identifications obtained in this study to the list of bacteria isolated in our laboratory (32,739 isolates) in the year 2004. We obtained 97.9% correct identifications with the colorimetric cards and 93.9% with fluorescent cards.

Wallet, Frederic; Loiez, Caroline; Renaux, Emilie; Lemaitre, Nadine; Courcol, Rene J.

2005-01-01

123

A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Iñigo; Novick, Richard P; Christie, Gail E; Penadés, José R

2013-06-14

124

A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria.

Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Mas, Maria Angeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Inigo; Novick, Richard P.; Christie, Gail E.; Penades, Jose R.

2013-01-01

125

Two Cases of Endogenous Endophthalmitis Caused by Gram-Positive Bacteria with Good Visual Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare disease and its visual prognosis is poor. Case Reports: We present two patients, a 60-year-old man and a 53-year-old man, who developed endogenous endophthalmitis caused byGram-positive organismsbut recovered good vision after antibiotics and vitrectomy. Results: The first patient complained of ocular pain and visual decrease in his right eye. Ophthalmoscopy showed inflammation in the

Machiko Itoh; Junko Ikewaki; Kenichi Kimoto; Yuji Itoh; Kei Shinoda; Kazuo Nakatsuka

2010-01-01

126

Pharmacodynamics of Telavancin (TD6424), a Novel Bactericidal Agent, against Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telavancin (TD-6424) is a novel lipoglycopeptide that produces rapid and concentration-dependent killing of clinically relevant gram-positive organisms in vitro. The present studies evaluated the in vivo pharmaco- dynamics of telavancin in the mouse neutropenic thigh (MNT) and mouse subcutaneous infection (MSI) animal models. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies in the MNT model demonstrated that the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)\\/MIC ratio

Sharath S. Hegde; Noe Reyes; Tania Wiens; Nicole Vanasse; Robert Skinner; Julia McCullough; K. Kaniga; J. Pace; R. Thomas; J.-P. Shaw; G. Obedencio; J. K. Judice

2004-01-01

127

Synergy of fosfomycin with other antibiotics for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The alarming increase in drug resistance and decreased production of new antibiotics necessitate the evaluation of combinations\\u000a of existing antibiotics. Fosfomycin shows no cross-resistance to other antibiotic classes. Thus, its combination with other\\u000a antibiotics may potentially show synergy against resistant bacteria.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To evaluate the available published evidence regarding the in vitro synergistic activity of fosfomycin with other antibiotic\\u000a agents against

Antonia C. Kastoris; Petros I. Rafailidis; Evridiki K. Vouloumanou; Ioannis D. Gkegkes; Matthew E. Falagas

2010-01-01

128

InVitro Activities ofTwoGlycylcyclines against Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

derivatives of minocycline and6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline, respectively. Invitro activities of these twoantimicrobial agents werecompared withthose oftetracycline, minocycline, andseven other antimicrobial agents against 412 gram-positive organisms. Bothnewdrugs weresignificantly moreactive thanminocycline against methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MICsfor90%o ofisolates tested, 0.25and0.5,ug\\/ml versus 4pg\\/ml). CL 329,998 inhibited allstreptococci, lactobacilli, andLeuconostoc spp. atconcentrations of<0.5,ug\\/ml, withCL 331,002 slightly lessactive against somespecies. Allenterococci, including minocycline-resistant and multidrug-resistant isolates, wereinhibited

G. M. ELIOPOULOS; C. B. WENNERSTEN; G. COLE; C. MOELLERING

1994-01-01

129

Invariant natural killer T cells recognize glycolipids from pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Natural killer T cells (NKT cells) recognize glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d. These cells express an evolutionarily conserved, invariant T cell antigen receptor (TCR), but the forces that drive TCR conservation have remained uncertain. Here we show that NKT cells recognized diacylglycerol-containing glycolipids from Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia, and group B Streptococcus, which causes neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Furthermore, CD1d-dependent responses by NKT cells were required for activation and host protection. The glycolipid response was dependent on vaccenic acid, which is present in low concentrations in mammalian cells. Our results show how microbial lipids position the sugar for recognition by the invariant TCR and, most notably, extend the range of microbes recognized by this conserved TCR to several clinically important bacteria. PMID:21892173

Kinjo, Yuki; Illarionov, Petr; Vela, José Luis; Pei, Bo; Girardi, Enrico; Li, Xiangming; Li, Yali; Imamura, Masakazu; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Okawara, Akiko; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Gómez-Velasco, Anaximandro; Rogers, Paul; Dahesh, Samira; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Khurana, Archana; Kawahara, Kazuyoshi; Yesilkaya, Hasan; Andrew, Peter W; Wong, Chi-Huey; Kawakami, Kazuyoshi; Nizet, Victor; Besra, Gurdyal S; Tsuji, Moriya; Zajonc, Dirk M; Kronenberg, Mitchell

2011-09-04

130

Functioning of the TA cassette of streptococcal plasmid pSM19035 in various Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are common in microorganisms and are frequently found in the chromosomes and low-copy number plasmids of bacterial pathogens. One such system is carried by the low copy number plasmid pSM19035 of the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. This plasmid encodes an omega-epsilon-zeta cassette that ensures its stable maintenance by post-segregational killing of plasmid-free cells. In this study, the activity of the ?-?-? cassette was examined in various Gram-positive bacteria with a low G/C content in their DNA. The broad host range of pSM19035 was confirmed and the copy number of a truncated derivative in transformed strains was determined by real-time qPCR. PMID:22309878

Brzozowska, Iwona; Brzozowska, Kinga; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula

2012-01-31

131

Synergistic effect of clinically used antibiotics and peptide antibiotics against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria  

PubMed Central

Ribosomally synthesized (natural) peptides demonstrate antimicrobial potency and may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between polycationic peptides and clinically used antimicrobial agents in the treatment of clinical isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic bacteria in vitro, using the microbroth dilution method. The combination studies demonstrated synergies between ranalexin and polymyxin E, doxycycline and clarithromycin. Similarly, magainin II was demonstrated to be synergistic with ceftriaxone, amoxicillin clavulanate, ceftazidime, meropenem, piperacillin and ?-lactam antibiotics. Buforin II, cecropin P1 and indolicidin were not observed to be synergistic with the clinically used antibiotics, but demonstrated additive effects with them. Notably, no antagonistic effects were identified in all the combinations examined.

ZHOU, YULING; PENG, YAN

2013-01-01

132

Amplifiable DNA from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria by a low strength pulsed electric field method  

PubMed Central

An efficient electric field-based procedure for cell disruption and DNA isolation is described. Isoosmotic suspensions of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were treated with pulsed electric fields of <60 V/cm. Pulses had an exponential decay waveform with a time constant of 3.4 µs. DNA yield was linearly dependent on time or pulse number, with several thousand pulses needed. Electrochemical side-effects and electrophoresis were minimal. The lysates contained non-fragmented DNA which was readily amplifiable by PCR. As the method was not limited to samples of high specific resistance, it should be applicable to physiological fluids and be useful for genomic and DNA diagnostic applications.

Vitzthum, Frank; Geiger, Georg; Bisswanger, Hans; Elkine, Bentsian; Brunner, Herwig; Bernhagen, Jurgen

2000-01-01

133

Antimicrobial Growth Promoters Used in Animal Feed: Effects of Less Well Known Antibiotics on Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

There are not many data available on antibiotics used solely in animals and almost exclusively for growth promotion. These products include bambermycin, avilamycin, efrotomycin, and the ionophore antibiotics (monensin, salinomycin, narasin, and lasalocid). Information is also scarce for bacitracin used only marginally in human and veterinary medicine and for streptogramin antibiotics. The mechanisms of action of and resistance mechanisms against these antibiotics are described. Special emphasis is given to the prevalence of resistance among gram-positive bacteria isolated from animals and humans. Since no susceptibility breakpoints are available for most of the antibiotics discussed, an alternative approach to the interpretation of MICs is presented. Also, some pharmacokinetic data and information on the influence of these products on the intestinal flora are presented.

Butaye, Patrick; Devriese, Luc A.; Haesebrouck, Freddy

2003-01-01

134

Modes of phagocytosis of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by Spodoptera littoralis granular haemocytes.  

PubMed

Haemocytes are the main immunocompetent cells in insect cellular immune reactions. Here, we show that in Spodoptera littoralis, granular haemocytes are the primary phagocyte haemocytes, both in vivo and in vitro. The "trigger" and "zipper" modes of engulfment known in mammal macrophages are active, in vivo, in S. littoralis granular haemocytes, together with macropinocytosis. Lipopolysaccharide as well as lipoteichoic acid inhibit the binding of both Gram-positive (Corynebacterium xerosis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria on granular haemocytes. In addition, different ligands can inhibit the binding of E. coli. Most of these inhibitors are known as ligands of scavenger receptors in mammal macrophages and we hypothesise that one of the receptors present on S. littoralis granular haemocytes could be a scavenger-like receptor. PMID:15686644

Costa, Sónia C P; Ribeiro, Carlos; Girard, Pierre-Alain; Zumbihl, Robert; Brehélin, Michel

2005-01-01

135

Activities of the semisynthetic glycopeptide LY191145 against vancomycin-resistant enterococci and other gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed Central

LY191145 is the prototype of a series of compounds with activities against vancomycin-resistant enterococci derived by modification of the glycopeptide antibiotic LY264826. LY191145 had MICs for vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant enterococci of < or = 4 micrograms/ml for 50% of isolates and < or = 16 micrograms/ml for 90% of isolates. Its MICs for vancomycin-resistant, teicoplanin-susceptible enterococci were 1 to 8 micrograms/ml. LY191145 retains the potent activities of its parent compound against staphylococci and streptococci. In vivo studies in a mouse infection model confirmed these activities. This compound indicates the potential of semisynthetic glycopeptides as agents against antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria.

Nicas, T I; Mullen, D L; Flokowitsch, J E; Preston, D A; Snyder, N J; Stratford, R E; Cooper, R D

1995-01-01

136

Production of acylated homoserine lactone by gram-positive bacteria isolated from marine water.  

PubMed

Acylated homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) has been reported to be present only in Gram-negative microorganisms. Isolation of a novel Gram-positive microorganism from sea water, capable of producing AHL, is reported here. The isolate (GenBank: JF915892, designated as MPO) belonging to the Exiguobacterium genera is capable of inducing the AHL bioreporters, namely Chromobacterium violaceum CV026, Agrobacterium tumefaceins A136, and E. coli JM 109(psb1075). This inducer is characterized as C3-oxo-octanoyl homoserine lactone (OOHL), and its production reaches a maximum of 15.6 ?g L(-1), during the stationary growth phase of the organism. MPO extract when exogenously added inhibits the formation of biofilm for the same organism and lowers the extracellular polymeric substances, indicating an AHL-associated phenotypic trait. The isolated sequence of a probable LuxR homolog from MPO (designated as ExgR) shows similar functional domains and contains conserved residues in LuxR from other known bacterial QS LuxR regulators. Also present immediately downstream to ExgR was found a sequence showing homology to known LuxI synthase of Pseudomonas putida. qPCR analysis suggests an increment in exgR mRNA on addition of AHL, further proving the role of ExgR as a QS regulator. PMID:23489290

Biswa, Pramal; Doble, Mukesh

2013-04-02

137

Antibacterial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare Linn.) against gram positive bacteria.  

PubMed

The present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of infusion, decoction and essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) against 111 Gram-positive bacterial isolates belonging to 23 different species related to 3 genera. Infusion and essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, Micrococcus roseus, M. kristinae, M. nishinomiyaensis, M. lylae, M. luteus, M. sedentarius, M. varians, Bacillus megaterium, B. thuringiensis, B. alvei, B. circulans, B. brevis, B. coagulans, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus, B. polymyxa, B. macerans, B. subtilis, B. firmus, B. cereus and B. lichiniformis. The infusion exhibited maximum activity against B. laterosporus (17.5 mm mean zone of inhibition+/-1.5 Standard deviation) followed by B. polymyxa (17.0 mm+/-2.0 SD) and essential oil of oregano exhibited maximum activity against S. saprophyticus (16.8 mm+/-1.8 SD) followed by B. circulans (14.5 mm+/-0.5 SD). While all these tested isolates were found resistant to decoction of oregano. PMID:19783523

Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

2009-10-01

138

Two Cases of Endogenous Endophthalmitis Caused by Gram-Positive Bacteria with Good Visual Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare disease and its visual prognosis is poor. Case Reports We present two patients, a 60-year-old man and a 53-year-old man, who developed endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Gram-positive organisms but recovered good vision after antibiotics and vitrectomy. Results The first patient complained of ocular pain and visual decrease in his right eye. Ophthalmoscopy showed inflammation in the anterior chamber and vitreous opacities. Antibiotic was administrated systemically, and blood culture detected Streptococcus anginosus. He underwent successful heart surgery for endocarditis and total dental extraction for severe gingivitis. Vitrectomy was performed 36 days after the onset and vision improved from 0.02 to 0.7. The second patient was referred for acute visual decrease in his left eye. Severe iritis and vitreous opacities were observed, and systemic examination showed acute pyelitis and prostatic abscesses. Blood cultures detected Staphylococcus sp., and systemic antibiotics were given. Vitrectomy was performed 12 days after the onset, and vision improved from 0.06 to 1.2. Conclusions We conclude that the rapid treatment with systemic antibiotics for the organisms at the primary site, and the vitrectomy, even though delayed, can lead to a good recovery of vision.

Itoh, Machiko; Ikewaki, Junko; Kimoto, Kenichi; Itoh, Yuji; Shinoda, Kei; Nakatsuka, Kazuo

2010-01-01

139

Two Cases of Endogenous Endophthalmitis Caused by Gram-Positive Bacteria with Good Visual Outcome.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare disease and its visual prognosis is poor. CASE REPORTS: We present two patients, a 60-year-old man and a 53-year-old man, who developed endogenous endophthalmitis caused by Gram-positive organisms but recovered good vision after antibiotics and vitrectomy. RESULTS: The first patient complained of ocular pain and visual decrease in his right eye. Ophthalmoscopy showed inflammation in the anterior chamber and vitreous opacities. Antibiotic was administrated systemically, and blood culture detected Streptococcus anginosus. He underwent successful heart surgery for endocarditis and total dental extraction for severe gingivitis. Vitrectomy was performed 36 days after the onset and vision improved from 0.02 to 0.7. The second patient was referred for acute visual decrease in his left eye. Severe iritis and vitreous opacities were observed, and systemic examination showed acute pyelitis and prostatic abscesses. Blood cultures detected Staphylococcus sp., and systemic antibiotics were given. Vitrectomy was performed 12 days after the onset, and vision improved from 0.06 to 1.2. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the rapid treatment with systemic antibiotics for the organisms at the primary site, and the vitrectomy, even though delayed, can lead to a good recovery of vision. PMID:21103197

Itoh, Machiko; Ikewaki, Junko; Kimoto, Kenichi; Itoh, Yuji; Shinoda, Kei; Nakatsuka, Kazuo

2010-09-21

140

Surface display of a single-domain antibody library on Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Combinatorial protein engineering for selection of proteins with novel functions, such as enzymes and affinity reagents, is an important tool in biotechnology, drug discovery, and other biochemical fields. Bacterial display is an emerging technology for isolation of new affinity proteins from such combinatorial libraries. Cells have certain properties that are attractive for directed evolution purposes, in particular the option to use quantitative flow-cytometric cell sorting for selection of binders. Here, an immune library of around 10(7) camelid single-domain antibody fragments (Nanobodies) was displayed on both the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus and on phage. As demonstrated for the first time, the antibody repertoire was found to be well expressed on the bacterial surface and flow-cytometric sorting yielded a number of Nanobodies with subnanomolar affinity for the target protein, green fluorescent protein (GFP). Interestingly, the staphylococcal output repertoire and the binders from the phage display selection contained two slightly different sets of clones, containing both unique as well as several similar variants. All of the Nanobodies from the staphylococcal selection were also shown to enhance the fluorescence of GFP upon binding, potentially due to the fluorescence-based sorting principle. Our study highlights the impact of the chosen display technology on the variety of selected binders and thus the value of having alternative methods available, and demonstrates in addition that the staphylococcal system is suitable for generation of high-affinity antibody fragments. PMID:23064703

Fleetwood, Filippa; Devoogdt, Nick; Pellis, Mireille; Wernery, Ulrich; Muyldermans, Serge; Ståhl, Stefan; Löfblom, John

2012-10-13

141

Green fluorescent protein-labeled monitoring tool to quantify conjugative plasmid transfer between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

On the basis of pIP501, a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged monitoring tool was constructed for quantifying plasmid mobilization among Gram-positive bacteria and between Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Furthermore, retromobilization of the GFP-tagged monitoring tool was shown from E. faecalis OG1X into the clinical isolate E. faecalis T9. PMID:22138997

Arends, Karsten; Schiwon, Katarzyna; Sakinc, Türkan; Hübner, Johannes; Grohmann, Elisabeth

2011-12-02

142

Green Fluorescent Protein-Labeled Monitoring Tool To Quantify Conjugative Plasmid Transfer between Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

On the basis of pIP501, a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged monitoring tool was constructed for quantifying plasmid mobilization among Gram-positive bacteria and between Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Furthermore, retromobilization of the GFP-tagged monitoring tool was shown from E. faecalis OG1X into the clinical isolate E. faecalis T9.

Arends, Karsten; Schiwon, Katarzyna; Sakinc, Turkan; Hubner, Johannes

2012-01-01

143

A Comparison of the Staining Reactions of the Cell Walls of Azotobacter chroococcum and those of Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The effects of various reagents in the mordanting and staining of bacterial cell wab are described, The cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria were found to be much more readily stainable than those of Gram-negative organisms. In this and other respects, apart from the Gram reaction Azotobacter chroococcum resembled a Gram-positive species; some of the methods described provided an excellent

C. M. F. HALE; K. A. BISSET

1956-01-01

144

Two different primary oxidation mechanisms during biotransformation of thymol by gram-positive bacteria of the genera Nocardia and Mycobacterium.  

PubMed

Thymol has antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal, and antioxidative properties which are the basis for the wide use of this compound in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Although thymol is a ubiquitously occurring substance in the environment, data about its degradation and detoxification by bacteria are sparse. Here, we show the existence of two different pathways for the biotransformation of thymol by Nocardia cyriacigeorgica and Mycobacterium neoaurum which were described for the first time for gram-positive bacteria. The first pathway starts with hydroxylation of thymol to thymohydroquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methylbenzene-1,4-diol) with subsequent oxidation to thymobenzoquinone (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone). The second pathway involves hydroxylation of the methyl group followed by oxidation to 3-hydroxy-4-isopropylbenzoic acid, possibly via the aldehyde 3-hydroxy-4-isopropylbenzaldehyde. It is noteworthy that the branched side chain of thymol was not oxidized. Similarities and differences of these oxidation processes with those of the gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas putida, fungi, and plants are discussed and, in addition, the toxicity of thymol towards N. cyriacigeorgica and M. neoaurum was tested. The experiments showed a temporary growth inhibition with 0.025 % thymol. This was explained by degradation of thymol and the formation of products which are less toxic than thymol itself. PMID:22828982

Hahn, Veronika; Sünwoldt, Katharina; Mikolasch, Annett; Schauer, Frieder

2012-07-25

145

Type I and Type II mechanisms of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: An in vitro study on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) employs a nontoxic photosensitizer (PS) and visible light, which in the presence of oxygen produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen (1O2, produced via Type II mechanism) and hydroxyl radical (HO•, produced via Type I mechanism). This study examined the relative contributions of 1O2 and HO• to APDT killing of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Study Design/Materials and Methods Fluorescence probes, 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-fluorescein (HPF) and singlet oxygen sensor green reagent (SOSG) were used to determine HO• and 1O2 produced by illumination of two PS: tris-cationic-buckminsterfullerene (BB6) and a conjugate between polyethylenimine and chlorin(e6) (PEI–ce6). Dimethylthiourea is a HO• scavenger, while sodium azide (NaN3) is a quencher of 1O2. Both APDT and killing by Fenton reaction (chemical generation of HO•) were carried out on Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enteroccoccus fecalis) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results Conjugate PEI-ce6 mainly produced 1O2 (quenched by NaN3), while BB6 produced HO• in addition to 1O2 when NaN3 potentiated probe activation. NaN3 also potentiated HPF activation by Fenton reagent. All bacteria were killed by Fenton reagent but Gram-positive bacteria needed a higher concentration than Gram-negatives. NaN3 potentiated Fenton-mediated killing of all bacteria. The ratio of APDT killing between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was 2 or 4:1 for BB6 and 25:1 for conjugate PEI-ce6. There was a NaN3 dose dependent inhibition of APDT killing using both PEI-ce6 and BB6 against Gram-negative bacteria while NaN3 almost failed to inhibit killing of Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusion Azidyl radicals may be formed from NaN3 and HO•. It may be that Gram-negative bacteria are more susceptible to HO• while Gram-positive bacteria are more susceptible to 1O2. The differences in NaN3 inhibition may reflect differences in the extent of PS binding to bacteria (microenvironment) or differences in penetration of NaN3 into cell walls of bacteria.

Huang, Liyi; Xuan, Yi; Koide, Yuichiro; Zhiyentayev, Timur; Tanaka, Masamitsu; Hamblin, Michael R.

2012-01-01

146

A broad-host-range mobilizable shuttle vector for the construction of transcriptional fusions to ?-galactosidase in Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-copy-number vector designated pTCV-lac has been constructed to provide a convenient system to analyze regulatory elements in Gram-positive bacteria. The main components of this vector are: (i) the origins of replication of pACYC184 and of the broad-host-range enterococcal plasmid pAM?1, (ii) erythromycin- and kanamycin-resistance-encoding genes for selection in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, (iii) the transfer origin of the IncP

Claire Poyart; Patrick Trieu-Cuot

1997-01-01

147

Saponin promotes rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in blood cultures with the Vitek 2 system.  

PubMed

The rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of bacteria in clinical blood cultures is crucial to optimise antimicrobial therapy. A previous study involving small sample numbers revealed that the addition of saponin to blood cultures, further referred to as the new method, shortened considerably the turn-around time for the identification and AST of Gram-positive cocci as compared to the current method involving an overnight subculture. Here, we extend previous results and compare the identification and AST of blood cultures containing Gram-negative bacilli by the new and current methods. The identification and AST of 121 Gram-positive and 109 Gram-negative bacteria in clinical monomicrobial blood cultures by the new and current methods and, in the case of Gram-negative bacilli, by direct (no additions) inoculation into an automated system (rapid method) was assessed using the Vitek 2 system. Discrepancies between the results obtained with the different methods were solved by manual methods. The new method correctly identified 88 % of Gram-positive and 98 % of Gram-negative bacteria, and the rapid method correctly identified 94 % of Gram-negative bacteria. The AST for all antimicrobials by the new method were concordant with the current method for 55 % and correct for an additional 9 % of Gram-positive bacteria, and concordant with the current method for 62 % and correct for an additional 21 % of Gram-negative bacilli. The AST by the rapid method was concordant with the current method for 62 % and correct for an additional 12 % of Gram-negative bacilli. Together, saponin-treated monomicrobial blood cultures allow rapid and reliable identification and AST of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23114724

Lupetti, A; Barnini, S; Morici, P; Ghelardi, E; Nibbering, P H; Campa, M

2012-11-02

148

Identification and characterization of a new xylanase from Gram-positive bacteria isolated from termite gut (Reticulitermes santonensis).  

PubMed

Termites are world champions at digesting lignocellulosic compounds, thanks to cooperation between their own enzymes and exogenous enzymes from microorganisms. Prokaryotic cells are responsible for a large part of this lignocellulolytic activity. Bacterial enzyme activities have been demonstrated in the higher and the lower termite gut. From five clones of Gram-positive bacteria isolated and identified in a previous work, we constructed a genomic DNA library and performed functional screening for alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase activities. One candidate, Xyl8B8, showed xylanase activity. Sequence analysis of the genomic insert revealed five complete ORFs on the cloned DNA (5746bp). Among the encoded proteins were a putative endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (XylB8) belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11). On the basis of sequence analyses, genomic DNA organization, and phylogenetic analysis, the insert was shown to come from an actinobacterium. The mature xylanase (mXylB8) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and detected by zymogram analysis after renaturing. It showed maximal xylanase activity in sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0 at 55 °C. Its activity was increased by reducing agents and decreased by Cu(2+), some detergents, and chelating agents. Its substrate specificity appeared limited to xylan. PMID:22487213

Mattéotti, Christel; Bauwens, Julien; Brasseur, Catherine; Tarayre, Cédric; Thonart, Philippe; Destain, Jacqueline; Francis, Frédéric; Haubruge, Eric; De Pauw, Edwin; Portetelle, Daniel; Vandenbol, Micheline

2012-04-02

149

Protochlorophyllide: a new photosensitizer for the photodynamic inactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

The growing resistance against antibiotics demands the search for alternative treatment strategies. Photodynamic therapy is a promising candidate. The natural intermediate of chlorophyll biosynthesis, protochlorophyllide, was produced, purified and tested as a novel photosensitizer for the inactivation of five model organisms including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, all responsible for serious clinical infections. When microorganisms were exposed to white light from a tungsten filament lamp (0.1 mW cm(-2)), Gram-positive S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Bacillus subtilis were photochemically inactivated at concentrations of 0.5 mg L(-1) protochlorophyllide. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a disordered septum formation during cell division and the partial loss of the cytoplasmic cell contents. Gram-negative Y. pseudotuberculosis and Escherichia coli were found to be insensitive to protochlorophyllide treatment due to the permeability barrier of the outer membrane. However, the two bacteria were rendered susceptible to eradication by protochlorophyllide (10 mg L(-1)) upon addition of polymyxin B nonapeptide at 50 and 20 mg L(-1), respectively. The release of DNA and a detrimental rearrangement of the cytoplasm were observed. PMID:19025572

Walther, Johannes; Bröcker, Markus J; Wätzlich, Denise; Nimtz, Manfred; Rohde, Manfred; Jahn, Dieter; Moser, Jürgen

2008-11-14

150

Metabolome analysis of gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus by GC-MS and LC-MS.  

PubMed

The field of metabolomics has become increasingly important in the context of functional genomics. Together with other "omics" data, the investigation of the metabolome is an essential part of systems biology. Beside the analysis of human and animal biofluids, the investigation of the microbial physiology by methods of metabolomics has gained increased attention. For example, the analysis of metabolic processes during growth or virulence factor expression is crucially important to understand pathogenesis of bacteria. Common bioanalytical techniques for metabolome analysis include liquid and gas chromatographic methods coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) and spectroscopic approaches such as NMR. In order to achieve metabolome data representing the physiological status of a microorganism, well-verified protocols for sampling and analysis are necessary. This chapter presents a detailed protocol for metabolome analysis of the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. A detailed manual for cell sampling and metabolite extraction is given, followed by the description of the analytical procedures GC-MS and LC-MS. The advantages and limitations of each experimental setup are discussed. Here, a guideline specified for S. aureus metabolomics and information for important protocol steps are presented, to avoid common pitfalls in microbial metabolome analysis. PMID:22131006

Liebeke, Manuel; Dörries, Kirsten; Meyer, Hanna; Lalk, Michael

2012-01-01

151

Potentiation of antibiotic activity by EDTA-tromethamine against three clinically isolated Gram-positive resistant bacteria. An in vitro investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thein vitro synergistic effects of combinations of EDTA-tromethamine and five antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, cephalexin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin and sulphadimethoxine) on three clinically isolated Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus hominis andStreptococcus faecium) were investigated. The bacteria had been isolated from three cases of canine otitis resistant to ß-lactam antibiotic therapy. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the minimal inhibitory concentration for

A. M. Farca; P. Nebbia; G. Re

1994-01-01

152

Obtaining and characterization of DNA-containing micromummies of yeasts and gram-positive bacteria with enhanced cell wall permeability: Application in PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedure of obtaining DNA-containing cell envelopes (“micromummies”) of bacteria, yeasts, and fungi using chaotropic\\u000a salts has been developed previously and the possibility of their direct application in PCR has been demonstrated. The fine\\u000a structure of micromummies has been studied by electron microscopic methods. This work has demonstrated that additional treatment\\u000a of micromummies of yeasts and gram-positive bacteria with proteinase

V. N. Danilevich; V. I. Duda; N. E. Suzina; E. V. Grishin

2007-01-01

153

Phagocytic and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Response of Human Mast Cells following Exposure to Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have implicated rodent mast cells in the innate immune response to infectious bacteria. We report that cord blood-derived human mast cells (CBHMC) obtained from culture of cord blood progenitors phagocytozed and killed various gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and simultaneously released con- siderable amounts of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Overall, the extent of the endocytic and exocytic response of

MICHEL AROCK; ELAINE ROSS; GENEVIEVE AVERLANT; ZHIMIN GAO; SOMAN N. ABRAHAM

1998-01-01

154

Novel bacterial lipoprotein structures conserved in low-GC content gram-positive bacteria are recognized by Toll-like receptor 2.  

PubMed

Bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides inducing host innate immune responses are sensed by mammalian Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). These bacterial lipoproteins are structurally divided into two groups, diacylated or triacylated lipoproteins, by the absence or presence of an amide-linked fatty acid. The presence of diacylated lipoproteins has been predicted in low-GC content gram-positive bacteria and mycoplasmas based on the absence of one modification enzyme in their genomes; however, we recently determined triacylated structures in low-GC gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, raising questions about the actual lipoprotein structure in other low-GC content gram-positive bacteria. Here, through intensive MS analyses, we identified a novel and unique bacterial lipoprotein structure containing an N-acyl-S-monoacyl-glyceryl-cysteine (named the lyso structure) from low-GC gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Two of the purified native lyso-form lipoproteins induced proinflammatory cytokine production from mice macrophages in a TLR2-dependent and TLR1-independent manner but with a different dependence on TLR6. Additionally, two other new lipoprotein structures were identified. One is the "N-acetyl" lipoprotein structure containing N-acetyl-S-diacyl-glyceryl-cysteine, which was found in five gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis. The N-acetyl lipoproteins induced the proinflammatory cytokines through the TLR2/6 heterodimer. The other was identified in a mycoplasma strain and is an unusual diacyl lipoprotein structure containing two amino acids before the lipid-modified cysteine residue. Taken together, our results suggest the existence of novel TLR2-stimulating lyso and N-acetyl forms of lipoproteins that are conserved in low-GC content gram-positive bacteria and provide clear evidence for the presence of yet to be identified key enzymes involved in the bacterial lipoprotein biosynthesis. PMID:22303020

Kurokawa, Kenji; Ryu, Kyoung-Hwa; Ichikawa, Rie; Masuda, Akiko; Kim, Min-Su; Lee, Hanna; Chae, Jun-Ho; Shimizu, Takashi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Kuwano, Koichi; Akira, Shizuo; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Lee, Bok Luel

2012-02-02

155

Novel Bacterial Lipoprotein Structures Conserved in Low-GC Content Gram-positive Bacteria Are Recognized by Toll-like Receptor 2*  

PubMed Central

Bacterial lipoproteins/lipopeptides inducing host innate immune responses are sensed by mammalian Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). These bacterial lipoproteins are structurally divided into two groups, diacylated or triacylated lipoproteins, by the absence or presence of an amide-linked fatty acid. The presence of diacylated lipoproteins has been predicted in low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria and mycoplasmas based on the absence of one modification enzyme in their genomes; however, we recently determined triacylated structures in low-GC Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, raising questions about the actual lipoprotein structure in other low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria. Here, through intensive MS analyses, we identified a novel and unique bacterial lipoprotein structure containing an N-acyl-S-monoacyl-glyceryl-cysteine (named the lyso structure) from low-GC Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Two of the purified native lyso-form lipoproteins induced proinflammatory cytokine production from mice macrophages in a TLR2-dependent and TLR1-independent manner but with a different dependence on TLR6. Additionally, two other new lipoprotein structures were identified. One is the “N-acetyl” lipoprotein structure containing N-acetyl-S-diacyl-glyceryl-cysteine, which was found in five Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis. The N-acetyl lipoproteins induced the proinflammatory cytokines through the TLR2/6 heterodimer. The other was identified in a mycoplasma strain and is an unusual diacyl lipoprotein structure containing two amino acids before the lipid-modified cysteine residue. Taken together, our results suggest the existence of novel TLR2-stimulating lyso and N-acetyl forms of lipoproteins that are conserved in low-GC content Gram-positive bacteria and provide clear evidence for the presence of yet to be identified key enzymes involved in the bacterial lipoprotein biosynthesis.

Kurokawa, Kenji; Ryu, Kyoung-Hwa; Ichikawa, Rie; Masuda, Akiko; Kim, Min-Su; Lee, Hanna; Chae, Jun-Ho; Shimizu, Takashi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Kuwano, Koichi; Akira, Shizuo; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Lee, Bok Luel

2012-01-01

156

New polyenic antibiotics active against gram-positive and -negative bacteria. I. Isolation and purification of antibiotics produced by Gluconobacter sp. W-315.  

PubMed

A new antibiotic, tentatively named as AB-315, was isolated from the fermentation broth of Gluconobacter sp. W-315. The antibiotic consists of a mixture of chemically related compounds. These compounds showed similar profiles in UV absorbancy. The antibiotics were active against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, slightly active against fungi but not against yeasts. PMID:6216233

Watanabe, T; Izaki, K; Takahashi, H

1982-09-01

157

From the Cover: The molecular switch that activates the cell wall anchoring step of pilus assembly in gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell surface pili in Gram-positive bacteria orchestrate the colonization of host tissues, evasion of immunity, and the development of biofilms. Recent work revealed that pilus assembly is a biphasic process wherein pilus polymerization is catalyzed by a pilus-specific sortase followed by cell wall anchoring of the pilus that is promoted by the housekeeping sortase. Here, we present molecular genetic and

Anjali Mandlik; Asis Das; Hung Ton-That

2008-01-01

158

Specific Inhibitors of Bacterial Adhesion: Observations From the Study of Gram-Positive Bacteria that Initiate Biofilm Formation on the Tooth Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral surfaces are bathed in secretory antibodies and other salivary macromolecules that are potential inhibitors of specific microbial adhesion. Indigenous Gram-positive bacteria that colonize teeth, including viridans streptococci and actinomyces, may avoid inhibition of adhesion by host secretory molecules through various strategies that involve the structural design and binding properties of bacterial adhesins and receptors. Further studies to define the

J. O. Cisar; Y. Takahashi; S. Ruhl; J. A. Donkersloot; A. L. Sandberg

1997-01-01

159

In vitro and in vivo activities of a new quinolone, WIN 57273, possessing potent activity against gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The antibacterial activity of a new 7-dimethylpyridinyl quinolone, WIN 57273, was assessed by using in vitro and in vivo models. Agar inclusion and broth dilution in vitro tests revealed broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and selected gram-negative organisms, with the greatest potency observed against the staphylococci. The MIC for 90% of coagulase-positive strains tested (MIC90) was less than or equal to 0.002 micrograms/ml; for the coagulase-negative strains the MIC90 was 0.008 micrograms/ml. Against enterococci the MIC90 was 0.06 micrograms/ml, with comparable activity observed against group A and group B streptococci as well as against the pneumococci. In general, the MIC90s for the gram-negative bacteria were less than or equal to 1 micrograms/ml. Exceptions were Serratia marcescens (MIC90, 16 micrograms/ml), Citrobacter freundii (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 8 micrograms/ml). The greatest potency was observed against Haemophilus spp. and Neisseria spp., with MIC90s of 0.06 and 0.016 micrograms/ml, respectively. Broad-spectrum activity was also observed against anaerobes, with MIC90s ranging from 0.125 to 0.5 micrograms/ml among the species tested. The in vivo efficacy was determined by using a murine model by calculating the 50% protective doses against a lethal bacterial infection caused by strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The staphylocci were most susceptible, with 50% protective doses for all strains ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mg/kg. With the exception of the Pseudomonas infection, which was refractory to treatment, animals that were part of the other infection models responded to less than 10 mg/kg. Equivalent activity was seen with the subcutaneous or the oral route of drug administration. WIN 57273 was significantly more potent than ciprofloxacin in treating gram-positive bacterial infections (2- to 20-fold) but was significantly less effective at treating gram-negative bacterial infections (30- to 300-fold).

Sedlock, D M; Dobson, R A; Deuel, D M; Lesher, G Y; Rake, J B

1990-01-01

160

In vitro and in vivo activities of a new quinolone, WIN 57273, possessing potent activity against gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

The antibacterial activity of a new 7-dimethylpyridinyl quinolone, WIN 57273, was assessed by using in vitro and in vivo models. Agar inclusion and broth dilution in vitro tests revealed broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and selected gram-negative organisms, with the greatest potency observed against the staphylococci. The MIC for 90% of coagulase-positive strains tested (MIC90) was less than or equal to 0.002 micrograms/ml; for the coagulase-negative strains the MIC90 was 0.008 micrograms/ml. Against enterococci the MIC90 was 0.06 micrograms/ml, with comparable activity observed against group A and group B streptococci as well as against the pneumococci. In general, the MIC90s for the gram-negative bacteria were less than or equal to 1 micrograms/ml. Exceptions were Serratia marcescens (MIC90, 16 micrograms/ml), Citrobacter freundii (MIC90, 4 micrograms/ml), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC90, 8 micrograms/ml). The greatest potency was observed against Haemophilus spp. and Neisseria spp., with MIC90s of 0.06 and 0.016 micrograms/ml, respectively. Broad-spectrum activity was also observed against anaerobes, with MIC90s ranging from 0.125 to 0.5 micrograms/ml among the species tested. The in vivo efficacy was determined by using a murine model by calculating the 50% protective doses against a lethal bacterial infection caused by strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The staphylocci were most susceptible, with 50% protective doses for all strains ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 mg/kg. With the exception of the Pseudomonas infection, which was refractory to treatment, animals that were part of the other infection models responded to less than 10 mg/kg. Equivalent activity was seen with the subcutaneous or the oral route of drug administration. WIN 57273 was significantly more potent than ciprofloxacin in treating gram-positive bacterial infections (2- to 20-fold) but was significantly less effective at treating gram-negative bacterial infections (30- to 300-fold). PMID:2344163

Sedlock, D M; Dobson, R A; Deuel, D M; Lesher, G Y; Rake, J B

1990-04-01

161

The ESAT-6 gene cluster of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other high G+C Gram-positive bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv has five copies of a cluster of genes known as the ESAT-6 loci. These clusters contain members of the CFP-10 (lhp) and ESAT-6 (esat-6) gene families (encoding secreted T-cell antigens that lack detectable secretion signals) as well as genes encoding secreted, cell-wall-associated subtilisin-like serine proteases, putative ABC transporters, ATP-binding proteins and other membrane-associated proteins. These membrane-associated and energy-providing proteins may function to secrete members of the ESAT-6 and CFP-10 protein families, and the proteases may be involved in processing the secreted peptide. Results Finished and unfinished genome sequencing data of 98 publicly available microbial genomes has been analyzed for the presence of orthologs of the ESAT-6 loci. The multiple duplicates of the ESAT-6 gene cluster found in the genome of M. tuberculosis H37Rv are also conserved in the genomes of other mycobacteria, for example M. tuberculosis CDC1551, M. tuberculosis 210, M. bovis, M. leprae, M. avium, and the avirulent strain M. smegmatis. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting sequences have established the duplication order of the gene clusters and demonstrated that the gene cluster known as region 4 (Rv3444c-3450c) is ancestral. Region 4 is also the only region for which an ortholog could be found in the genomes of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Streptomyces coelicolor. Conclusions Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the presence of the ESAT-6 gene cluster is a feature of some high-G+C Gram-positive bacteria. Multiple duplications of this cluster have occurred and are maintained only within the genomes of members of the genus Mycobacterium.

Gey van Pittius, Nico C; Gamieldien, Junaid; Hide, Winston; Brown, Gordon D; Siezen, Roland J; Beyers, Albert D

2001-01-01

162

Structure-function relationships of the non-lanthionine-containing peptide (class II) bacteriocins produced by gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the structure and mode-of-action of non-lanthionine-containing peptide bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria. These bacteriocins may be divided into four groups: (i) the anti-listerial one-peptide pediocin-like bacteriocins that have very similar amino acid sequences, (ii) the two-peptide bacteriocins that consist of two different peptides, (iii) the cyclic bacteriocins, and (iv) the linear non-pediocin-like one-peptide bacteriocins. These bacteriocins are largely cationic, contain 20 to 70 residues, and kill cells through membrane-permeabilization. The pediocin-like bacteriocins are the ones that are best characterized. Upon contact with target membranes, their cationic N-terminal half forms a beta-sheet-like structure that binds to the target cell surface, while their more hydrophobic helical-containing C-terminal half penetrates into the hydrophobic core of target-cell membranes and apparently binds to the mannose phosphotransferase permease in a manner that results in membrane leakage. Immunity proteins that protect cells from being killed by pediocin-like bacteriocins bind to the bacteriocin-permease complex and prevent bacteriocin-induced membrane-leakage. Recent structural analyses of two-peptide bacteriocins indicate that they form a helix-helix structure that penetrates into cell membranes. Also these bacteriocins may act by binding to integrated membrane proteins. It is proposed that many membrane-active peptide bacteriocins kill target-cells through basically the same mechanism; the common theme being that a membrane-penetrating part of bacteriocins bind to a membrane embedded region of an integrated membrane protein, thereby causing conformational alterations in the protein that in turn lead to membrane-leakage and cell death. PMID:19149588

Nissen-Meyer, J; Rogne, P; Oppegård, C; Haugen, H S; Kristiansen, P E

2009-01-01

163

Expanding the Use of a Fluorogenic Method to Determine Activity and Mode of Action of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriocins Against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Previously we described a rapid fluorogenic method to measure the activity of five bacteriocins produced by Mexican strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against B. cereus 183. Here we standardize this method to efficiently determine the activity of bacteriocins against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It was determined that the crucial parameter required to obtain reproducible results was the number of cells used in the assay, that is, ~4?×?108?cell/mL and ~7?×?108?cell/mL, respectively, for target Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Comparative analyses of the fluorogenic and traditional well-diffusion assays showed correlation coefficients of 0.88 to 0.99 and 0.83 to 0.99, respectively, for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The fluorogenic method demonstrated that the five bacteriocins of B. thuringiensis have bacteriolytic and bacteriostatic activities against all microorganisms tested, including clinically significant bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Shigella flexneri reported previously to be resistant to the antimicrobials as determined using the well-diffusion protocol. These results demonstrate that the fluorogenic assay is a more sensitive, reliable, and rapid method when compared with the well-diffusion method and can easily be adapted in screening protocols for bacteriocin production by other microorganisms.

de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M.; Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Espino Monzon, A. N.; Pacheco Cano, R. D.; Balagurusamy, N.; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Salcedo-Hernandez, Ruben

2012-01-01

164

Computational identification of the Spo0A-phosphate regulon that is essential for the cellular differentiation and development in Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spo0A-phosphate is essential for the initiation of cellular differentiation and developmental pro- cesses in Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria. Here we combined comparative genomics with analyses of microarray expression profiles to iden- tify the Spo0A-phosphate regulon in Bacillus subti- lis. The consensus Spo0A-phosphate DNA-binding motif identified from the training set based on differ- ent computational algorithms is an 8 bp sequence, TTGTCGAA.

Jiajian Liu; Kai Tan; Gary D. Stormo

2003-01-01

165

Lactobacillus plantarum gene clusters encoding putative cell-surface protein complexes for carbohydrate utilization are conserved in specific gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genomes of gram-positive bacteria encode many putative cell-surface proteins, of which the majority has no known function. From the rapidly increasing number of available genome sequences it has become apparent that many cell-surface proteins are conserved, and frequently encoded in gene clusters or operons, suggesting common functions, and interactions of multiple components. RESULTS: A novel gene cluster encoding exclusively

Roland Siezen; Jos Boekhorst; Lidia Muscariello; Douwe Molenaar; Bernadet Renckens; Michiel Kleerebezem

2006-01-01

166

Isolation and Mode of Action of a Staphylococcin-like Substance Active Against Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening of non-phage group I1 Staphylococcus aureus strains for antagonistic substances revealed one particular strain, S. aureus D91, to excrete a substance with a wide spectrum of activity; both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were susceptible. The staphylococ- cin-like substance D91 produced by this strain was partially purified by column chromato- graphy on Sephadex G-50, DEAE-cellulose, Phenyl Sepharose CL-4B and Sephadex

O. A. KADER; H.-G. SAHL; H. BRANDIS

1984-01-01

167

Phylogenetic Placement of Dialister pneumosintes (formerly Bacteroides pneumosintes) within the Sporomusa Subbranch of the Clostridium Subphylum of the Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequence of the 16s rRNA gene of the type strain of Dialisfer pneumosinfes was determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this species belongs to the Sporomusa branch of the Clostridum subphylum of the gram-positive bacteria and should therefore be excluded from the family Bacferoidaceae. Within this branch, which encompasses several other gram-negative taxa, such as Acidarninococcus, Pectinatus, Phascolar- cobacferium,

ANNE WILLEMS; MATTHEW D. COLLINS

1995-01-01

168

A new hybrid bacteriocin, Ent35-MccV, displays antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacteriocins and microcins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that are usually active against phylogenetically related bacteria. Thus, bacteriocins are active against Gram-positive while microcins are active against Gram-negative bacteria. The narrow spectrum of action generally displayed by bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria represents an important limitation for the application of these peptides as clinical drugs or as food biopreservatives. The present study describes the design and expression of a novel recombinant hybrid peptide combining enterocin CRL35 and microcin V named Ent35-MccV. The chimerical bacteriocin displayed antimicrobial activity against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes clinical isolates, among other pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, Ent35-MccV may find important applications in food or pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23650575

Acuña, Leonardo; Picariello, Gianluca; Sesma, Fernando; Morero, Roberto D; Bellomio, Augusto

2012-01-31

169

Alternating electric fields combined with activated carbon for disinfection of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in fluidized bed electrode system.  

PubMed

Strong electric fields for disinfection of wastewaters have been employed already for several decades. An innovative approach combining low strength (7 V/cm) alternating electric fields with a granular activated carbon fluidized bed electrode (FBE) for disinfection was presented recently. For disinfection performance of FBE several pure microbial cultures were tested: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis as representatives from Gram positive bacteria and Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas luteola, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Escherichia coli YMc10 as representatives from Gram negative bacteria. The alternating electric field amplitude and shape were kept constant. Only the effect of alternating electric field frequency on disinfection performance was investigated. From the bacteria tested, the Gram negative strains were more susceptible and the Gram positive microorganisms were more resistant to FBE disinfection. The collected data indicate that the efficiency of disinfection is frequency and strain dependent. During 6 h of disinfection, the decrease above 2 Log units was achieved with P. luteola and E. coli at 10 kHz and at dual frequency shift keying (FSK) modulated signal with frequencies of 10 kHz and 140 kHz. FBE technology appears to offer a new way for selective bacterial disinfection, however further optimizations are needed on treatment duration, and energy input, to improve effectiveness. PMID:24012021

Racyte, Justina; Bernard, Séverine; Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid H; Yntema, Doekle R; Bruning, Harry; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

2013-08-20

170

Role of protonated and neutral forms of macrolides in binding to ribosomes from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Erythromycin binds to a single site on the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit and perturbs protein synthesis. However, erythromycin contains desosamine and thus exists in both protonated (greater than 96%) and neutral (less than 4%) forms at physiological pH because of the pKa of the dimethylamino group. We therefore examined the relative roles of both forms in binding to ribosomes isolated from two species each of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. We developed a system to directly measure the forward (association) rate constant of formation of the macrolide-ribosome complex, and we have measured both the forward and reverse (dissociation) rate constants as a function of pH. Forward rate constants and binding affinity did not correlate with pH when the interaction of erythromycin with ribosomes from both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was examined, demonstrating that the protonated form of this macrolide binds to ribosomes. Conversely, the neutral form of macrolide cannot be the sole binding species and appears to bind with the same kinetics as the protonated form. Forward rate constants were 3- to 4-fold greater at physiological pH, and binding affinity calculated from rate constants was 5- to 10-fold greater than previously estimated. Similar results were obtained with azithromycin, a novel 15-membered macrolide that contains an additional tertiary amine in the macrolide ring. Ribosome- and macrolide-specific kinetic parameters were demonstrated at neutral pH and may be related to the potency of the two macrolides against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Goldman, R C; Fesik, S W; Doran, C C

1990-01-01

171

Antimicrobial and Efflux Pump Inhibitory Activity of Caffeoylquinic Acids from Artemisia absinthium against Gram-Positive Pathogenic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Traditional antibiotics are increasingly suffering from the emergence of multidrug resistance amongst pathogenic bacteria leading to a range of novel approaches to control microbial infections being investigated as potential alternative treatments. One plausible antimicrobial alternative could be the combination of conventional antimicrobial agents\\/antibiotics with small molecules which block multidrug efflux systems known as efflux pump inhibitors. Bioassay- driven purification

Yiannis C. Fiamegos; Panagiotis L. Kastritis; Vassiliki Exarchou; Haley Han; Alexandre M. J. J. Bonvin; Jacques Vervoort; Kim Lewis; Michael R. Hamblin; George P. Tegos

2011-01-01

172

Charge effect on the photoinactivation of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria by cationic meso-substituted porphyrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In recent times photodynamic antimicrobial therapy has been used to efficiently destroy Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria using cationic porphyrins as photosensitizers. There is an increasing interest in this approach, namely in the search of photosensitizers with adequate structural features for an efficient photoinactivation process. In this study we propose to compare the efficiency of seven cationic porphyrins

Eliana Alves; Liliana Costa; Carla MB Carvalho; João PC Tomé; Maria A Faustino; Maria GPMS Neves; Augusto C Tomé; José AS Cavaleiro; Ângela Cunha; Adelaide Almeida

2009-01-01

173

Gram-positive bacteria are a major reservoir of Class 1 antibiotic resistance integrons in poultry litter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reversing the spread of antibiotic multiresistant bacteria is hampered by ignorance of the natural history of resistance genes, the mobile elements carrying them, and the bacterial hosts harboring them. Using traditional cultivation and cultivation-independent molecular techniques, we quantified antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements called integrons in poultry house litter from commercial poultry farms. Unexpectedly, the major reservoir for Class

Sobhan Nandi; John J. Maurer; Charles Hofacre; Anne O. Summers

2004-01-01

174

Amino acid addition to Vibrio cholerae LPS establishes a link between surface remodeling in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria  

PubMed Central

Historically, the O1 El Tor and classical biotypes of Vibrio cholerae have been differentiated by their resistance to the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with this phenotypic distinction have remained a mystery for 50 y. Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria modify their cell wall components with amine-containing substituents to reduce the net negative charge of the bacterial surface, thereby promoting cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance. In the present study, we demonstrate that V. cholerae modify the lipid A anchor of LPS with glycine and diglycine residues. This previously uncharacterized lipid A modification confers polymyxin resistance in V. cholerae El Tor, requiring three V. cholerae proteins: Vc1577 (AlmG), Vc1578 (AlmF), and Vc1579 (AlmE). Interestingly, the protein machinery required for glycine addition is reminiscent of the Gram-positive system responsible for d-alanylation of teichoic acids. Such machinery was not thought to be used by Gram-negative organisms. V. cholerae O1 El Tor mutants lacking genes involved in transferring glycine to LPS showed a 100-fold increase in sensitivity to polymyxin B. This work reveals a unique lipid A modification and demonstrates a charge-based remodeling strategy shared between Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

Hankins, Jessica V.; Madsen, James A.; Giles, David K.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Trent, M. Stephen

2012-01-01

175

An antimicrobial modified silicone peritoneal catheter with activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Peritonitis, exit site and tunnel infections are serious complications of peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), which may lead to catheter loss, despite measures taken to reduce the infection rate. Catheters coated with antimicrobials have shown only short-term activity. We have developed a process for conferring broad-spectrum, long-duration antimicrobial activity on CAPD catheters while reducing the risk of resistance. Catheters were processed using an impregnation method. Three agents were used: rifampicin, triclosan and trimethoprim. Tests included establishing the duration of activity before test bacteria became resistant, the ability to kill 100% of attached bacteria in a predetermined time (tK100), and ability to withstand multiple high-count challenges until failure in a flow model. Antimicrobial activity continued until it was stopped at 280 days and the agents prevented the emergence of resistant strains. tK100 results showed a >99.9% reduction of attached bacteria. The flow model showed no colonization when repeatedly challenged with high loads of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli for approximately 90 days. The antimicrobial catheter material showed prolonged activity against common CAPD pathogens and promises to reduce clinical CAPD infection. PMID:19289248

Bayston, Roger; Fisher, Leanne E; Weber, Klaus

2009-03-16

176

Identification of an amphioxus intelectin homolog that preferably agglutinates gram-positive over gram-negative bacteria likely due to different binding capacity to LPS and PGN.  

PubMed

Intelectin is a recently described galactofuranose-binding lectin that plays a role in innate immunity in vertebrates. Little is known about intelectin in invertebrates, including amphioxus, the transitional form between vertebrates and invertebrates. We cloned an amphioxus intelectin homolog, AmphiITLN-like, coding 302 amino acids with a conserved fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) in the N-terminus and an Intelectin domain in the C-terminus. In situ hybridization in adult amphioxus showed that AmphiITLN-like transcripts were highly expressed in the digestive tract and the skin. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that AmphiITLN-like is significantly up-regulated in response to Staphylococcus aureus challenge, but only modestly to Escherichia coli. In addition, recombinant AmphiITLN-like expressed in E. coli agglutinates Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria to different degrees in a calcium dependent manner. Recombinant AmphiITLN-like could bind lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN), the major cell wall components of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively, with a higher affinity to PGN. Our work identified and characterized for the first time an amphioxus intelectin homolog, and provided insight into the evolution and function of the intelectin family. PMID:22475783

Yan, Jie; Wang, Jianfeng; Zhao, Yaqi; Zhang, Jingye; Bai, Changcun; Zhang, Changqing; Zhang, Chao; Li, Kailin; Zhang, Haiqing; Du, Xiumin; Feng, Lijun

2012-03-24

177

The RepA_N replicons of Gram-positive bacteria: a family of broadly distributed but narrow host range plasmids.  

PubMed

The pheromone-responsive conjugative plasmids of Enterococcus faecalis and the multiresistance plasmids pSK1 and pSK41 of Staphylococcus aureus are among the best studied plasmids native to Gram-positive bacteria. Although these plasmids seem largely restricted to their native hosts, protein sequence comparison of their replication initiator proteins indicates that they are clearly related. Homology searches indicate that these replicons are representatives of a large family of plasmids and a few phage that are widespread among the low G+C Gram-positive bacteria. We propose to name this family the RepA_N family of replicons after the annotated conserved domain that the initiator protein contains. Detailed sequence comparisons indicate that the initiator protein phylogeny is largely congruent with that of the host, suggesting that the replicons have evolved along with their current hosts and that intergeneric transfer has been rare. However, related proteins were identified on chromosomal regions bearing characteristics indicative of ICE elements, and the phylogeny of these proteins displayed evidence of more frequent intergeneric transfer. Comparison of stability determinants associated with the RepA_N replicons suggests that they have a modular evolution as has been observed in other plasmid families. PMID:19100285

Weaver, Keith E; Kwong, Stephen M; Firth, Neville; Francia, Maria Victoria

2009-01-06

178

Comparison of killing of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria by pure singlet oxygen. [Salmonella typhimurium; Escherichia coli; Sarcina lutea; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus lactis; Streptococcus faecalis  

SciTech Connect

Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were found to display different sensitivities to pure singlet oxygen generated outside of cells. Killing curves for Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli strains were indicative of multihit killing, whereas curves for Sarcina lutea, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus lactis, and Streptococcus faecalis exhibited single-hit kinetics. The S. typhimurium deep rough strain TA1975, which lacks nearly all of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide coat and manifests concomitant enhancement of penetration by some exogenous substances, responded to singlet oxygen with initially faster inactivation than did the S. typhimurium wild-type strain, although the maximum rates of killing appeared to be quite similar. The structure of the cell wall thus plays an important role in susceptibility to singlet oxygen. The outer membrane-lipopolysaccharide portion of the gram-negative cell wall initially protects the bacteria from extracellular singlet oxygen, although it may also serve as a source for secondary reaction products which accentuate the rates of cell killing. S. typhimurium and E. coli strains lacking the cellular antioxidant, glutathione, showed no difference from strains containing glutathione in response to the toxic effects of singlet oxygen. Strains of Sarcina lutea and Staphylococcus aureus that contained carotenoids, however, were far more resistant to singlet oxygen lethality than were both carotenoidless mutants of the same species and other gram-positive species lacking high levels of protective carotenoids.

Dahl, T.A.; Midden, W.R. (Bowling Green State Univ., OH (USA)); Hartman, P.E. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA))

1989-04-01

179

The potent antimicrobial properties of cell penetrating peptide-conjugated silver nanoparticles with excellent selectivity for Gram-positive bacteria over erythrocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silver nanoparticles are of great interest for use as antimicrobial agents. Studies aimed at producing potent nano-silver biocides have focused on manipulation of particle size, shape, composition and surface charge. Here, we report the cell penetrating peptide catalyzed formation of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles in N,N-dimethylformamide. The novel nano-composite demonstrated a distinctly enhanced biocidal effect toward bacteria (Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli) and pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans), as compared to triangular and extremely small silver nanoparticles. In addition, a satisfactory biocompatibility was verified by a haemolysis test. Our results provide a paradigm in developing strategies that can maximize the silver nanoparticle application potentials while minimizing the toxic effects.Silver nanoparticles are of great interest for use as antimicrobial agents. Studies aimed at producing potent nano-silver biocides have focused on manipulation of particle size, shape, composition and surface charge. Here, we report the cell penetrating peptide catalyzed formation of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles in N,N-dimethylformamide. The novel nano-composite demonstrated a distinctly enhanced biocidal effect toward bacteria (Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Gram-negative Escherichia coli) and pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans), as compared to triangular and extremely small silver nanoparticles. In addition, a satisfactory biocompatibility was verified by a haemolysis test. Our results provide a paradigm in developing strategies that can maximize the silver nanoparticle application potentials while minimizing the toxic effects. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34254a

Liu, Lihong; Yang, Jun; Xie, Jianping; Luo, Zhentao; Jiang, Jiang; Yang, Yi Yan; Liu, Shaomin

2013-04-01

180

Effects of cell structure of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria based on their dielectric properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current procedures for the identification and characterization of microorganisms are based on complex and time-consuming protocols. Here, we hypothesize that the distinct cellular composition of microorganisms could be identified by dielectric spectroscopy. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strain permittivity measurement was performed using a network analyzer and a coaxial probe in the frequency range from 50 MHz to 300 MHz. All

Katja Dahlke; Christiane Geyer; Stephan Dees; Marko Helbig; Jurgen Sachs; Francesco Scotto di Clemente; Matthias Hein; Werner Alois Kaiser; Ingrid Hilger

2012-01-01

181

Studies on the O3-initiated disinfection from Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis in aquatic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of inactivation of Gram-positive strain, Bacillus subtilis in aquatic systems was investigated as function ozone aeration duration under varied conditions. Oxygen flow was in situ enriched with ozone using ozoniser, with [O3] ranging from (0.3 – 9.8) × 10 moles per liter of oxygen. The inactivation kinetics of B. subtilis followed pseudo–first-order kinetics with respect to microbe, under

Favourite N. Zuma; S. B. Jonnalagadda

2010-01-01

182

Activity of linezolid against multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria from diverse hospitals in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro activity of linezolid, an oxazolidinone, was assessed against 374 Gram-positive cocci, with an emphasis on testing multi-resistant, epidemiologically unrelated isolates. MICs of linezolid for staphylococci, pneumococci and streptococci had a narrow range, from 0.5 to 2 mg\\/L, whereas MICs for enterococci were uniformly 4 mg\\/L. For all the species tested, the MICs of linezolid were unrelated to

Alan P. Johnson; Marina Warner; David M. Livermore

2000-01-01

183

Charge effect on the photoinactivation of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria by cationic meso-substituted porphyrins  

PubMed Central

Background In recent times photodynamic antimicrobial therapy has been used to efficiently destroy Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria using cationic porphyrins as photosensitizers. There is an increasing interest in this approach, namely in the search of photosensitizers with adequate structural features for an efficient photoinactivation process. In this study we propose to compare the efficiency of seven cationic porphyrins differing in meso-substituent groups, charge number and charge distribution, on the photodynamic inactivation of a Gram (+) bacterium (Enterococcus faecalis) and of a Gram (-) bacterium (Escherichia coli). The present study complements our previous work on the search for photosensitizers that might be considered good candidates for the photoinactivation of a large spectrum of environmental microorganisms. Results Bacterial suspension (107 CFU mL-1) treated with different photosensitizers concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 ?M) were exposed to white light (40 W m-2) for a total light dose of 64.8 J cm-2. The most effective photosensitizers against both bacterial strains were the Tri-Py+-Me-PF and Tri-Py+-Me-CO2Me at 5.0 ?M with a light fluence of 64.8 J cm-2, leading to > 7.0 log (> 99,999%) of photoinactivation. The tetracationic porphyrin also proved to be a good photosensitizer against both bacterial strains. Both di-cationic and the monocationic porphyrins were the least effective ones. Conclusion The number of positive charges, the charge distribution in the porphyrins' structure and the meso-substituent groups seem to have different effects on the photoinactivation of both bacteria. As the Tri-Py+-Me-PF porphyrin provides the highest log reduction using lower light doses, this photosensitizer can efficiently photoinactivate a large spectrum of environmental bacteria. The complete inactivation of both bacterial strains with low light fluence (40 W m-2) means that the photodynamic approach can be applied to wastewater treatment under natural light conditions which makes this technology cheap and feasible in terms of the light source.

2009-01-01

184

Structural basis for recognizing phosphoarginine and evolving residue-specific protein phosphatases in gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Many cellular pathways are regulated by the competing activity of protein kinases and phosphatases. The recent identification of arginine phosphorylation as a protein modification in bacteria prompted us to analyze the molecular basis of targeting phospho-arginine. In this work, we characterize an annotated tyrosine phosphatase, YwlE, that counteracts the protein arginine kinase McsB. Strikingly, structural studies of YwlE reaction intermediates provide a direct view on a captured arginine residue. Together with biochemical data, the crystal structures depict the evolution of a highly specific phospho-arginine phosphatase, with the use of a size-and-polarity filter for distinguishing phosphorylated arginine from other phosphorylated side chains. To confirm the proposed mechanism, we performed bioinformatic searches for phosphatases, employing a similar selectivity filter, and identified a protein in Drosophila melanogaster exhibiting robust arginine phosphatase activity. In sum, our findings uncover the molecular framework for specific targeting of phospho-arginine and suggest that protein arginine (de)phosphorylation may be relevant in eukaryotes. PMID:23770242

Fuhrmann, Jakob; Mierzwa, Beata; Trentini, Débora B; Spiess, Silvia; Lehner, Anita; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Clausen, Tim

2013-06-13

185

RinA controls phage-mediated packaging and transfer of virulence genes in Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Phage-mediated transfer of microbial genetic elements plays a crucial role in bacterial life style and evolution. In this study, we identify the RinA family of phage-encoded proteins as activators required for transcription of the late operon in a large group of temperate staphylococcal phages. RinA binds to a tightly regulated promoter region, situated upstream of the terS gene, that controls expression of the morphogenetic and lysis modules of the phage, activating their transcription. As expected, rinA deletion eliminated formation of functional phage particles and significantly decreased the transfer of phage and pathogenicity island encoded virulence factors. A genetic analysis of the late promoter region showed that a fragment of 272 bp contains both the promoter and the region necessary for activation by RinA. In addition, we demonstrated that RinA is the only phage-encoded protein required for the activation of this promoter region. This region was shown to be divergent among different phages. Consequently, phages with divergent promoter regions carried allelic variants of the RinA protein, which specifically recognize its own promoter sequence. Finally, most Gram-postive bacteria carry bacteriophages encoding RinA homologue proteins. Characterization of several of these proteins demonstrated that control by RinA of the phage-mediated packaging and transfer of virulence factor is a conserved mechanism regulating horizontal gene transfer. PMID:21450808

Ferrer, María Desamparados; Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Harwich, Michael D; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Barbé, Jordi; Lasa, Iñigo; Novick, Richard P; Christie, Gail E; Penadés, José R

2011-03-30

186

LiF Reduces MICs of Antibiotics against Clinical Isolates of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem yet the development of new antibiotics has slowed to a trickle, giving rise to the use of combination therapy to eradicate infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined inhibitory effect of lithium fluoride (LiF) and commonly used antimicrobials on the growth of the following bacteria: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccoccus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The in vitro activities of ceftazidime, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, streptomycin, erythromycin, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, alone or combined with LiF were performed by microdilution method. MICs were determined visually following 18–20?h of incubation at 37°C. We observed reduced MICs of antibiotics associated with LiF ranging from two-fold to sixteen-fold. The strongest decreases of MICs observed were for streptomycin and erythromycin associated with LiF against Acinetobacter baumannii and Streptococcus pneumoniae. An eight-fold reduction was recorded for streptomycin against S. pneumoniae whereas an eight-fold and a sixteen-fold reduction were obtained for erythromycin against A. baumannii and S. pneumoniae. This suggests that LiF exhibits a synergistic effect with a wide range of antibiotics and is indicative of its potential as an adjuvant in antibiotic therapy.

Syed, H. C.; Ravaoarinoro, M.

2012-01-01

187

The potent antimicrobial properties of cell penetrating peptide-conjugated silver nanoparticles with excellent selectivity for gram-positive bacteria over erythrocytes.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles are of great interest for use as antimicrobial agents. Studies aimed at producing potent nano-silver biocides have focused on manipulation of particle size, shape, composition and surface charge. Here, we report the cell penetrating peptide catalyzed formation of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles in N,N-dimethylformamide. The novel nano-composite demonstrated a distinctly enhanced biocidal effect toward bacteria (gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, gram-negative Escherichia coli) and pathogenic yeast (Candida albicans), as compared to triangular and extremely small silver nanoparticles. In addition, a satisfactory biocompatibility was verified by a haemolysis test. Our results provide a paradigm in developing strategies that can maximize the silver nanoparticle application potentials while minimizing the toxic effects. PMID:23525222

Liu, Lihong; Yang, Jun; Xie, Jianping; Luo, Zhentao; Jiang, Jiang; Yang, Yi Yan; Liu, Shaomin

2013-03-22

188

New Method for Evaluation of Genotoxicity, Based on the Use of Real-Time PCR and Lysogenic Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

A method for the detection of the SOS response as measured by the liberation of resident prophages from the genomes of their hosts is described. It is based on the use of two converging oligonucleotides that flank the attP attachment site of the phage as primers for real-time PCR. Amplification was observed only after the phage DNA became excised. The system responds to both chemicals and physical conditions. Quantitative data on the concentration and/or potency of the genotoxic condition were obtained. Results can be achieved within 1 day and are less susceptible to possible toxic effects than phage generation or other methods that require DNA synthesis. The use of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria widens the range of compounds that can be tested because it eliminates impermeability problems derived from the particular composition of each cell wall type.

Soberon, Nora; Martin, Rebeca; Suarez, Juan E.

2007-01-01

189

Multicenter evaluation of the Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry system for identification of Gram-positive aerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) is gaining momentum as a tool for bacterial identification in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Compared with conventional methods, this technology can more readily and conveniently identify a wide range of organisms. Here, we report the findings from a multicenter study to evaluate the Vitek MS v2.0 system (bioMérieux, Inc.) for the identification of aerobic Gram-positive bacteria. A total of 1,146 unique isolates, representing 13 genera and 42 species, were analyzed, and results were compared to those obtained by nucleic acid sequence-based identification as the reference method. For 1,063 of 1,146 isolates (92.8%), the Vitek MS provided a single identification that was accurate to the species level. For an additional 31 isolates (2.7%), multiple possible identifications were provided, all correct at the genus level. Mixed-genus or single-choice incorrect identifications were provided for 18 isolates (1.6%). Although no identification was obtained for 33 isolates (2.9%), there was no specific bacterial species for which the Vitek MS consistently failed to provide identification. In a subset of 463 isolates representing commonly encountered important pathogens, 95% were accurately identified to the species level and there were no misidentifications. Also, in all but one instance, the Vitek MS correctly differentiated Streptococcus pneumoniae from other viridans group streptococci. The findings demonstrate that the Vitek MS system is highly accurate for the identification of Gram-positive aerobic bacteria in the clinical laboratory setting. PMID:23658261

Rychert, Jenna; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Bythrow, Maureen; Garner, Omai B; Ginocchio, Christine C; Jennemann, Rebecca; Lewinski, Michael A; Manji, Ryhana; Mochon, A Brian; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S; Sercia, Linda; Westblade, Lars F; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Branda, John A

2013-05-08

190

The terminally redundant, nonpermuted genome of Listeria bacteriophage A511: a model for the SPO1-like myoviruses of gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Only little information on a particular class of myoviruses, the SPO1-like bacteriophages infecting low-G+C-content, gram-positive host bacteria (Firmicutes), is available. We present the genome analysis and molecular characterization of the large, virulent, broad-host-range Listeria phage A511. A511 contains a unit (informational) genome of 134,494 bp, encompassing 190 putative open reading frames (ORFs) and 16 tRNA genes, organized in a modular fashion common among the Caudovirales. Electron microscopy, enzymatic fragmentation analyses, and sequencing revealed that the A511 DNA molecule contains linear terminal repeats of a total of 3,125 bp, encompassing nine small putative ORFs. This particular genome structure explains why A511 is unable to perform general transduction. A511 features significant sequence homologies to Listeria phage P100 and other morphologically related phages infecting Firmicutes such as Staphylococcus phage K and Lactobacillus phage LP65. Equivalent but more-extensive terminal repeats also exist in phages P100 (approximately 6 kb) and K (approximately 20 kb). High-resolution electron microscopy revealed, for the first time, the presence of long tail fibers organized in a sixfold symmetry in these viruses. Mass spectrometry-based peptide fingerprinting permitted assignment of individual proteins to A511 structural components. On the basis of the data available for A511 and relatives, we propose that SPO1-like myoviruses are characterized by (i) their infection of gram-positive, low-G+C-content bacteria; (ii) a wide host range within the host bacterial genus and a strictly virulent lifestyle; (iii) similar morphology, sequence relatedness, and collinearity of the phage genome organization; and (iv) large double-stranded DNA genomes featuring nonpermuted terminal repeats of various sizes. PMID:18567664

Klumpp, Jochen; Dorscht, Julia; Lurz, Rudi; Bielmann, Regula; Wieland, Matthias; Zimmer, Markus; Calendar, Richard; Loessner, Martin J

2008-06-20

191

A type IV-secretion-like system is required for conjugative DNA transport of broad-host-range plasmid pIP501 in gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Plasmid pIP501 has a very broad host range for conjugative transfer among a wide variety of gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative Escherichia coli. Functionality of the pIP501 transfer (tra) genes in E. coli was proven by pIP501 retrotransfer to Enterococcus faecalis (B. Kurenbach, C. Bohn, J. Prabhu, M. Abudukerim, U. Szewzyk, and E. Grohmann, Plasmid 50:86-93, 2003). The 15 pIP501 tra genes are organized in a single operon (B. Kurenbach, J. Kope?, M. Mägdefrau, K. Andreas, W. Keller, C. Bohn, M. Y. Abajy, and E. Grohmann, Microbiology 152:637-645, 2006). The pIP501 tra operon is negatively autoregulated at the transcriptional level by the conjugative DNA relaxase TraA. Three of the 15 pIP501-encoded Tra proteins show significant sequence similarity to the Agrobacterium type IV secretion system proteins VirB1, VirB4, and VirD4. Here we report a comprehensive protein-protein interaction map of all of the pIP501-encoded Tra proteins determined by the yeast two-hybrid assay. Most of the interactions were verified in vitro by isolation of the protein complexes with pull-down assays. In conjunction with known or postulated functions of the pIP501-encoded Tra proteins and computer-assisted prediction of their cellular location, we propose a model for the first type IV-secretion-like system encoded by a conjugative plasmid from gram-positive bacteria. PMID:17209024

Abajy, Mohammad Y; Kope?, Jolanta; Schiwon, Katarzyna; Burzynski, Michal; Döring, Mike; Bohn, Christine; Grohmann, Elisabeth

2007-01-05

192

A Type IV-Secretion-Like System Is Required for Conjugative DNA Transport of Broad-Host-Range Plasmid pIP501 in Gram-Positive Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

Plasmid pIP501 has a very broad host range for conjugative transfer among a wide variety of gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative Escherichia coli. Functionality of the pIP501 transfer (tra) genes in E. coli was proven by pIP501 retrotransfer to Enterococcus faecalis (B. Kurenbach, C. Bohn, J. Prabhu, M. Abudukerim, U. Szewzyk, and E. Grohmann, Plasmid 50:86-93, 2003). The 15 pIP501 tra genes are organized in a single operon (B. Kurenbach, J. Kope?, M. Mägdefrau, K. Andreas, W. Keller, C. Bohn, M. Y. Abajy, and E. Grohmann, Microbiology 152:637-645, 2006). The pIP501 tra operon is negatively autoregulated at the transcriptional level by the conjugative DNA relaxase TraA. Three of the 15 pIP501-encoded Tra proteins show significant sequence similarity to the Agrobacterium type IV secretion system proteins VirB1, VirB4, and VirD4. Here we report a comprehensive protein-protein interaction map of all of the pIP501-encoded Tra proteins determined by the yeast two-hybrid assay. Most of the interactions were verified in vitro by isolation of the protein complexes with pull-down assays. In conjunction with known or postulated functions of the pIP501-encoded Tra proteins and computer-assisted prediction of their cellular location, we propose a model for the first type IV-secretion-like system encoded by a conjugative plasmid from gram-positive bacteria.

Abajy, Mohammad Y.; Kopec, Jolanta; Schiwon, Katarzyna; Burzynski, Michal; Doring, Mike; Bohn, Christine; Grohmann, Elisabeth

2007-01-01

193

Microbacterium oleivorans sp. nov. and Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans sp. nov., novel crude-oil-degrading Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

A taxonomic study of two crude-oil-degrading, Gram-positive bacterial strains, designated BAS69(T) and BNP48(T), revealed that they represent two novel Microbacterium species. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to their closest phylogenetic neighbours was 98.5 % for BAS69(T) (Microbacterium paraoxydans DSM 15019(T) and Microbacterium saperdae DSM 20169(T)) and 99 % for BNP48(T) (Microbacterium luteolum DSM 20143(T)). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness to the closest phylogenetic neighbours of both strains were between 11 and 38 %. According to phylogenetic analysis, the two strains are distinguishable from all recognized species of Microbacterium. Morphological and physiological characteristics of strains BAS69(T) and BNP48(T) were different from those of phylogenetically closely related Microbacterium species. The diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan of BAS69(T) is lysine and of BNP48(T) is ornithine. The major menaquinones are MK-11 and MK-12 for both strains. Based on their ability to degrade crude oil, the name Microbacterium oleivorans sp. nov. is proposed for strain BAS69(T) (=DSM 16091(T)=NCIMB 14003(T)) and Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans is proposed for strain BNP48(T) (=DSM 16089(T)=NCIMB 14002(T)). PMID:15774639

Schippers, Axel; Bosecker, Klaus; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter

2005-03-01

194

Silver nanocrystallites: biofabrication using Shewanella oneidensis, and an evaluation of their comparative toxicity on gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Microorganisms have long been known to develop resistance to metal ions either by sequestering metals inside the cell or by effluxing them into the extracellular media. Here we report the biosynthesis of extracellular silver-based single nanocrystallites of well-defined composition and homogeneous morphology utilizing the gamma-proteobacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, upon incubation with aqueous silver nitrate solution. Further characterization of these particles revealed that the crystals consist of small, reasonably monodispersed spheres in the 2-11 nm size range (average of 4 +/- 1.5 nm). The bactericidal effect of these nanoparticles (biogenic-Ag) is compared to chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (colloidal-Ag and oleate capped silver nanoparticles, oleate-Ag) and assessed using Gram-negative (E. coli and S. oneidensis) and Gram-positive (B. subtilis) bacteria. Relative toxicity was based on the diameter of inhibition zone in disk diffusion tests, minimum inhibitory concentrations, live/dead assays, and atomic force microscopy. From a toxicity perspective, strain-dependent inhibition depended on the synthesis procedure and the surface coat. Biogenic-Ag was found to be of higher toxicity compared to colloidal-Ag for all three strains tested, whereas E. coli and S. oneidensis were found to be more resistant to either of these nanoparticles than B. subtilis. In contrast, oleate-Ag was not toxic to any of the bacteria. These findings have implications for the potential uses of Ag nanomaterials and for their fate in biological and environmental systems. PMID:20509652

Suresh, Anil K; Pelletier, Dale A; Wang, Wei; Moon, Ji-Won; Gu, Baohua; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P; Joy, David C; Phelps, Tommy J; Doktycz, Mitchel J

2010-07-01

195

Enhancement of antibacterial activity of capped silver nanoparticles in combination with antibiotics, on model gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

The nanoparticles used in this study were prepared from AgNO3 using NaBH4 in the presence of capping agents such as citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The formed nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM, and XRD. The generation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of yellow colour and an absorption maximum between 399 and 404?nm. The produced nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape and polydisperse. For citrate, SDS, and PVP capped nanoparticles, the average particle sizes were 38.3 ± 13.5, 19.3 ± 6.0, and 16.0 ± 4.8?nm, respectively. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles in FCC structure is confirmed from the SAED and XRD patterns. Also, the combined antibacterial activity of these differently capped nanoparticles with selected antibiotics (streptomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) was evaluated on model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, employing disc diffusion assay. The activity of the tested antibiotics was enhanced in combination with all the stabilized nanoparticles, against both the Gram classes of bacteria. The combined effects of silver nanoparticles and antibiotics were more prominent with PVP capped nanoparticles as compared to citrate and SDS capped ones. The results of this study demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles in combination with antibiotics. PMID:23970844

Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Rastogi, Lori

2013-07-18

196

The crystal structure and biochemical properties of DHBPS from Streptococcus pneumoniae, a potential anti-infective target for Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

The enzymes involved in riboflavin biosynthesis are considered to be potential anti-bacterial drug targets because these proteins are essential in bacterial pathogens but are absent in humans. 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase (DHBPS) is one of the key enzymes in the biosynthesis of riboflavin. DHBPS catalyzes the conversion of ribulose-5-phosphate (Ru5P) to 3,4-Dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate (DHBP) and formate. The purified SpDHBPS enzyme, in the presence of Mg(2+) ion, catalyzed the conversion of Ru5P to DHBP at a rate of 109nmolmin(-1)mg(-1) with an apparent Km value of 181?M at 37°C. Surprisingly, our experiments first revealed that DHBPS showed activity in the presence of the trivalent metal ion, Fe(3+). Furthermore, we determined the crystal structure of DHBPS from Gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae, with 2.0Å resolution. The overall architecture of SpDHBPS was similar to its homologs, which comprise one ?-sheet (five-stranded) and eight ?-helices, adopting a three-layered ?-?-? sandwich fold. Similar to the homologs, gel-filtration experiments verified that the enzyme was arranged as a dimer. Although the overall fold of DHBPS was similar, the significant structural differences between the species at the active site region may be utilized to develop antibacterial agents that are species-specific. PMID:23954596

Li, Jin; Hua, Zhou; Miao, Luo; Jian, Tang; Wei, Yang; Shasha, Zhao; Shaocheng, Zhang; Zhen, Guo; Hongpeng, Zhang; Ailong, Huang; Deqiang, Wang

2013-08-15

197

Phoenix 100 versus Vitek 2 in the Identification of Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria: a Comprehensive Meta-Analysis?†  

PubMed Central

Phoenix 100 and Vitek 2 (operating with the current colorimetric cards) are commonly used in hospital laboratories for rapid identification of microorganisms. The present meta-analysis aims to evaluate and compare their performance on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The MEDLINE database was searched up to October 2010 for the retrieval of relevant articles. Pooled correct identification rates were derived from random-effects models, using the arcsine transformation. Separate analyses were conducted at the genus and species levels; subanalyses and meta-regression were undertaken to reveal meaningful system- and study-related modifiers. A total of 29 (6,635 isolates) and 19 (4,363 isolates) articles were eligible for Phoenix and colorimetric Vitek 2, respectively. No significant differences were observed between Phoenix and Vitek 2 either at the genus (97.70% versus 97.59%, P = 0.919) or the species (92.51% versus 88.77%, P = 0.149) level. Studies conducted with conventional comparator methods tended to report significantly better results compared to those using molecular reference techniques. Speciation of Staphylococcus aureus was significantly more accurate in comparison to coagulase-negative staphylococci by both Phoenix (99.78% versus 88.42%, P < 0.00001) and Vitek 2 (98.22% versus 91.89%, P = 0.043). Vitek 2 also reached higher correct identification rates for Gram-negative fermenters versus nonfermenters at the genus (99.60% versus 95.90%, P = 0.004) and the species (97.42% versus 84.85%, P = 0.003) level. In conclusion, the accuracy of both systems seems modified by underlying sample- and comparator method-related parameters. Future simultaneous assessment of the instruments against molecular comparator procedures may facilitate interpretation of the current observations.

Chatzigeorgiou, Kalliopi-Stavroula; Sergentanis, Theodoros N.; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.; Bagos, Pantelis G.

2011-01-01

198

Role of Intestinal Epithelial Cells in Immune Effects Mediated by Gram-Positive Probiotic Bacteria: Involvement of Toll-Like Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria exert their effects on the immune system are not completely understood, but the epithelium may be a crucial player in the orchestration of the effects induced. In a previous work, we observed that some orally administered strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) increased the number of immunoglobulin A (IgA)-producing cells in the small intestine

Gabriel Vinderola; Chantal Matar; Gabriela Perdigon

2005-01-01

199

Short-term inactivation rates of selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria attached to metal oxide mineral surfaces: role of solution and surface chemistry.  

PubMed

Metal oxides such as ferric or aluminum oxides can play an important role in the retention of bacteria in granular aquatic environments; however, their role in bacterial inactivation is not well understood. Herein, we examined the role of water chemistry and surface chemistry on the short-term inactivation rates of three bacteria when adhered to surfaces. To evaluate the role of water chemistry on the inactivation of attached bacteria, the loss in membrane integrity of bacteria attached to an iron oxide (Fe2O3) surface was measured over a range of water ionic strengths of either monovalent or divalent salts in the absence of a growth substrate. The influence of surface chemistry on the inactivation of attached bacteria was examined by measuring the loss in membrane integrity of cells attached to three surfaces (SiO2, Fe2O3, and Al2O3) at a specific water chemistry (10 mM KCl). Bacteria were allowed to attach onto the SiO2 or metal oxide coated slides mounted in a parallel-plate flow cell, and their inactivation rate (loss in membrane integrity) was measured directly without removing the cells from the surface and without disturbing the system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed a high correlation between the amounts of C-metal or O-metal bonds and the corresponding bacterial inactivation rates for each surface. Finally, for all three surfaces, a consistent increase in inactivation rate was observed with the type of bacterium in the order: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Escherichia coli D21f2. PMID:23679056

Asadishad, Bahareh; Ghoshal, Subhasis; Tufenkji, Nathalie

2013-05-17

200

Telavancin: A lipoglycopeptide antimicrobial for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by gram-positive bacteria in adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Telavancin, a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic, is a semisynthetic derivative of vancomycin. It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by grampositive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.Objective: This article summarizes the pharmacology, in vitro and in vivo activity, pharmacokinetic properties, and clinical efficacy and

Mei H. Chang; Troy D. Kish; Horatio B. Fung

2010-01-01

201

Susceptibilities of 428 gram-positive and -negative anaerobic bacteria to Bay y3118 compared with their susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, metronidazole, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and cefoxitin.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibilities of 428 gram-negative and gram-positive anaerobes (including selected cefoxitin-resistant strains) to Bay y3118 (a new fluoroquinolone), ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin, piperacillin, and piperacillin-tazobactam were tested. Organisms comprised 115 Bacteroides fragilis group, 116 non-B. fragilis Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp., 40 fusobacteria, 58 peptostreptococci, 48 gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, and 51 clostridia. beta-Lactamase production was demonstrated in 87% of the gram-negative rods but in none of the gram-positive organisms. Overall, Bay y3118 was the most active agent, with all organisms inhibited at an MIC of < or = 2.0 micrograms/ml (MICs for 50% [MIC50] and 90% [MIC90] of strains tested, 0.125 and 0.5 microgram/ml, respectively). By contrast, ciprofloxacin was much less active, with only 42% of strains susceptible at a breakpoint of 2.0 micrograms/ml (MIC50, 4.0 micrograms/ml; MIC90, 16.0 micrograms/ml). Metronidazole was active against all gram-negative rods, but 7% of peptostreptococci, 83% of gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, and 4% of non-Clostridium perfringens, non-Clostridium difficile clostridia were resistant to this agent (MICs, > 16.0 micrograms/ml). Clindamycin was active against 94% of Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp., 91% of peptostreptococci, and 100% of gram-positive non-spore-forming rods, but was active against only 70% of fusobacteria and 53% of clostridia. Cefoxitin was active against > or = 90% of all groups except the B. fragilis group and non-Propionibacterium acnes gram-positive non-spore-forming rods (both 85%) and C. difficile (20%). Significant enhancement of piperacillin by tazobactam was seen in all beta-lactamase-positive strains (99% susceptible; MIC90, 8.0 micrograms/ml), and all beta-lactamase-negative strains were susceptible to piperacillin (MIC90, 8.0 micrograms/ml). Clinical studies are required to delineate the role of Bay y3118 in the treatment of anaerobic infections.

Pankuch, G A; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

1993-01-01

202

Epidemiologic trends in nosocomial and community-acquired infections due to antibiotic-resistant gram-positive bacteria: the role of streptogramins and other newer compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gram-positive cocci have clearly re-emerged as important pathogens world-wide in the past two decades. Staphylococci, including the coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus, and the enterococci account for approximately one-third of all blood stream infections and as much as 50% of nosocomial blood stream infections. Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is often considered a community-acquired pathogen, it is also an important cause

RonaldN Jones; DonaldE Low; MichaelA Pfaller

1999-01-01

203

Chemical analysis of isolated cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria and determination of the cell wall to cell mass ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell walls of five Gram-positive bacterial strains, including four coryneforms and a Bacillus brevis strain were isolated and subsequently chemically analysed. The wall contribution to the total cell mass is calculated from a comparison of d-Lactate concentrations in hydrolysates of whole cells and isolated walls. d-Lactate concentrations are measured enzymatically after purification of the samples with active carbon. The optimum

Albert van der Wal; Willem Norde; Bernd Bendinger; Alexander J. B Zehnder; Johannes Lyklema

1997-01-01

204

Use of the lactococcal nisA promotor to regulate gene expression in gram-positive bacteria: comparison of induction level and promotor strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized the regulated activity of the lactococcal nisA promoter in strains of the gram-positive species Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. nisA promoter activity was dependent on the proteins NisR and NisK, which constitute a two-component signal transduction system that responds to the extracellular inducer nisin. The nisin sensitivity and inducer concentration required for

Zehava Eichenbaum; Michael J. Federle; Diana Marra; Willem M. de Vos; Oscar P. Kuipers; Michiel Kleerebezem; June R. Scott

1998-01-01

205

Telavancin versus Standard Therapy for Treatment of Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Bacteria: FAST 2 Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telavancin is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide with a multifunctional mechanism of action. We conducted a randomized, double blind, active-control phase II trial. Patients >18 years of age with complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by suspected or confirmed gram-positive organisms were randomized to receive either telavancin at 10 mg\\/kg intravenously every 24 h (q24h) or standard therapy (antistaphylococcal penicillin at

Martin E. Stryjewski; Vivian H. Chu; William D. O'Riordan; Brian L. Warren; Lala M. Dunbar; David M. Young; Marc Vallee; Vance G. Fowler; J. Morganroth; S. L. Barriere; M. M. Kitt; G. R. Corey

2006-01-01

206

TetZ, a New Tetracycline Resistance Determinant Discovered in Gram-Positive Bacteria, Shows High Homology to Gram-Negative Regulated Efflux Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of the tetracycline resistance plasmid pAG1 from the gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum 22243 (formerly Corynebacterium melassecola 22243) was determined. The R-plasmid has a size of 19,751 bp and contains at least 18 complete open reading frames. The resistance determinant of pAG1 revealed homology to gram-negative tetracycline efflux and repressor systems of Tet classes A through

Andreas Tauch; Alfred Pühler; Jörn Kalinowski; Georg Thierbach

2000-01-01

207

Isolation and characterization of four novel Gram-positive bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of two endemorelict plants capable of degrading a broad range of aromatic substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new Gram-positive, phenol-degrading strains were isolated from the rhizospheres of endemorelict plants Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae known to exude high amounts of phenolics in the soil. Isolates were designated Bacillus sp. PS1, Bacillus sp. PS11, Streptomyces sp. PS12, and Streptomyces sp. PN1 based on 16S rDNA sequence and biochemical analysis. In addition to their ability to tolerate and

Lidija Djokic; Tanja Narancic; Jasmina Nikodinovic-Runic; Miloje Savic; Branka Vasiljevic

2011-01-01

208

MiniUIB, a Novel Minitransposon-Based System for Stable Insertion of Foreign DNA into the Genomes of Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Transposition of the insertion sequence (IS) ISPpu12 is actively induced after conjugative interaction. The transposase of this IS can act in trans on structures flanked by inverted repeats similar to those of the transposon. Based on that fact, an ISPpu12-based minitransposon, miniUIB, has been constructed in order to biotechnologically exploit the self-regulation of ISPpu12 and its increased activity after conjugative interaction. Mobilization of the miniUIB structure into the genome of Pseudomonas stutzeri AN10 after conjugative interaction was demonstrated. A single gene, i.e., the kanamycin resistance determinant, or large genetic structures of >12 kb, i.e., alkBFGHJKL and alkST operons of Pseudomonas putida TF4-1L (GPo1), have been easily integrated in P. stutzeri AN10 by an RP4-based delivery system. Therefore, the integration of the alk determinants by use of the miniUIB system has extended the biodegradation capabilities of this strain. Plasmid pJOC100, containing the transposase and regulator genes of ISPpu12 adjacent to the miniUIB structure, was constructed in order to extend the host range of this biotechnologically useful genetic tool to other model and real-world bacteria. The effectiveness of the system for random mutagenesis in a phylogenetic wide range of bacteria and for the insertion of novel functions has been demonstrated, even in successive steps.

Christie-Oleza, Joseph Alexander; Brunet-Galmes, Isabel; Lalucat, Jorge; Nogales, Balbina

2013-01-01

209

Biogenic amine production by Gram-positive bacteria isolated from Spanish dry-cured "chorizo" sausage treated with high pressure and kept in chilled storage.  

PubMed

We studied the production of biogenic amines by 200 strains of lactic acid bacteria and staphylococci isolated during chilled storage from samples of Spanish dry-cured "chorizo" sausage treated with high-pressure. The presence of biogenic amines in a decarboxylase synthetic broth was confirmed by ion-exchange chromatography. ?-phenylethylamine was the biogenic amine more frequently produced (22.5%), followed by tyramine (7.5%). In tyramine producer-strains the presence of a tyrosine decarboxylase gene was confirmed by PCR. Among lactic acid bacteria, the production of tyramine was mainly related to the species Lactobacillus curvatus. Most of the L. curvatus strains were also ?-phenylethylamine-producers. In relation to staphylococci, tyramine-production was mainly associated to Staphylococcus carnosus strains. The S. carnosus strains analysed in this study produced ?-phenylethylamine or ?-phenylethylamine and tyramine simultaneously. RAPD-PCR results indicated that the biogenic amine-producer S. carnosus population changes along storage independently of the high-pressure treatment. PMID:22063331

de Las Rivas, B; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Carrascosa, A V; Curiel, J A; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Muñoz, R

2007-12-08

210

Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus strains isolated from honey marketed in Malaysia against selected multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) Gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

A total of 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 13 honey samples commercially marketed in Malaysia, 6 strains identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus by API CHL50. The isolates had antibacterial activities against multiple antibiotic resistant's Staphylococcus aureus (25 to 32 mm), Staphylococcus epidermis (14 to 22 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (12 to 19 mm) in the agar overlay method after 24 h incubation at 30 °C. The crude supernatant was heat stable at 90 °C and 121 °C for 1 h. Treatment with proteinase K and RNase II maintained the antimicrobial activity of all the supernatants except sample H006-A and H010-G. All the supernatants showed antimicrobial activities against target bacteria at pH 3 and pH 5 but not at pH 6 within 72 h incubation at 30 °C. S. aureus was not inhibited by sample H006-A isolated from Libyan honey and sample H008-D isolated from Malaysian honey at pH 5, compared to supernatants from other L. acidophilus isolates. The presence of different strains of L. acidophilus in honey obtained from different sources may contribute to the differences in the antimicrobial properties of honey. PMID:22757710

Aween, Mohamed Mustafa; Hassan, Zaiton; Muhialdin, Belal J; Eljamel, Yossra A; Al-Mabrok, Asma Saleh W; Lani, Mohd Nizam

2012-07-01

211

Granular Layer in the Periplasmic Space of Gram-Positive Bacteria and Fine Structures of Enterococcus gallinarum and Streptococcus gordonii Septa Revealed by Cryo-Electron Microscopy of Vitreous Sections  

PubMed Central

High-resolution structural information on optimally preserved bacterial cells can be obtained with cryo-electron microscopy of vitreous sections. With the help of this technique, the existence of a periplasmic space between the plasma membrane and the thick peptidoglycan layer of the gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus was recently shown. This raises questions about the mode of polymerization of peptidoglycan. In the present study, we report the structure of the cell envelope of three gram-positive bacteria (B. subtilis, Streptococcus gordonii, and Enterococcus gallinarum). In the three cases, a previously undescribed granular layer adjacent to the plasma membrane is found in the periplasmic space. In order to better understand how nascent peptidoglycan is incorporated into the mature peptidoglycan, we investigated cellular regions known to represent the sites of cell wall production. Each of these sites possesses a specific structure. We propose a hypothetic model of peptidoglycan polymerization that accommodates these differences: peptidoglycan precursors could be exported from the cytoplasm to the periplasmic space, where they could diffuse until they would interact with the interface between the granular layer and the thick peptidoglycan layer. They could then polymerize with mature peptidoglycan. We report cytoplasmic structures at the E. gallinarum septum that could be interpreted as cytoskeletal elements driving cell division (FtsZ ring). Although immunoelectron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy studies have demonstrated the septal and cytoplasmic localization of FtsZ, direct visualization of in situ FtsZ filaments has not been obtained in any electron microscopy study of fixed and dehydrated bacteria.

Zuber, Benoit; Haenni, Marisa; Ribeiro, Tania; Minnig, Kathrin; Lopes, Fatima; Moreillon, Philippe; Dubochet, Jacques

2006-01-01

212

Bacillus subtilis YhaM, a Member of a New Family of 3?-to-5? Exonucleases in Gram-Positive Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A strain of Bacillus subtilis lacking two 3?-to-5? exoribonucleases, polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) and RNase R, was used to purify another 3?-to-5? exoribonuclease, which is encoded by the yhaM gene. YhaM was active in the presence of Mn2+ (or Co2+), was inactive in the presence of Mg2+, and could also degrade single-stranded DNA. The half-life of bulk mRNA in a mutant lacking PNPase, RNase R, and YhaM was not significantly different from that of the wild type, suggesting the existence of additional activities that can participate in mRNA turnover. Sequence homologues of YhaM were found only in gram-positive organisms. The Staphylococcus aureus homologue, CBF1, which had been characterized as a double-stranded DNA binding protein involved in plasmid replication, was also shown to be an Mn2+-dependent exoribonuclease. YhaM protein has a C-terminal “HD domain,” found in metal-dependent phosphohydrolases. By structure modeling, it was shown that YhaM also contains an N-terminal “OB-fold,” present in many oligosaccharide- and oligonucleotide-binding proteins. The combination of these two domains is unique. Thus, YhaM and 10 related proteins from gram-positive organisms constitute a new exonuclease family.

Oussenko, Irina A.; Sanchez, Roberto; Bechhofer, David H.

2002-01-01

213

Development of a novel direct bioautography-thin-layer chromatography test: optimization of growth conditions for gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

A TLC-direct bioautography (DB) assay using Bacillus subtilis as test bacteria was developed. Various factors affecting the microorganism's viability on the TLC plates were studied and verified for the flumequine standards. The Dhenasar's method called "direct sample determination" was used for TLC; the antibiotic samples were spotted on the TLC plates and subjected to bioautography without developing with a mobile phase. The best preincubation and incubation times of bacterial broth were found to be 1 h at 37 degrees C and 6 h at 37 degrees C. The optimal viscosity of broth was obtained by the addition of agarose to obtain a 0.05% solution in the Mueller-Hinton broth. The best incubation time of seeded TLC plates was 17 h at 37 degrees C. The plates were visualized by spraying with 0.2% aqueous 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide solution and incubated again for 0.5 h at 37 degrees C. The method was validated by determination of linearity, interday and intraday precision, LOD, and LOQ. The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range 0.005-0.5 microg (0.5-50.0 microg/mL). The regression coefficients were 0.9970 and 0.9955 for intraday and interday plots, respectively. The LOD of flumequine equalled 0.5 microg/mL, i.e., 5 ng of the antibiotic in the spot. The sensitivity of the developed TLC-DB test was compared with that of the two most commonly used standard antimicrobial susceptibility assays: agar disc diffusion and agar cylinder diffusion. The obtained minimum inhibitory concentration values clearly indicate much higher sensitivity of the TLC-DB method compared to the standard antimicrobial susceptibility assays. PMID:23767364

Grzelak, Edyta M; Majer-Dziedzic, Barbara; Choma, Irena M; Pilorz, Karol M

214

Isolation and characterization of four novel Gram-positive bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of two endemorelict plants capable of degrading a broad range of aromatic substrates.  

PubMed

Four new Gram-positive, phenol-degrading strains were isolated from the rhizospheres of endemorelict plants Ramonda serbica and Ramonda nathaliae known to exude high amounts of phenolics in the soil. Isolates were designated Bacillus sp. PS1, Bacillus sp. PS11, Streptomyces sp. PS12, and Streptomyces sp. PN1 based on 16S rDNA sequence and biochemical analysis. In addition to their ability to tolerate and utilize high amounts of phenol of either up to 800 or up to 1,400 mg l(-1) without apparent inhibition in growth, all four strains were also able to degrade a broad range of aromatic substrates including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, halogenated benzenes, and naphthalene. Isolates were able to grow in pure culture and in defined mixed culture on phenol and on the mixture of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) compounds as a sole source of carbon and energy. Pure culture of Bacillus sp. PS11 yielded 1.5-fold higher biomass amounts in comparison to mixed culture, under all conditions. Strains successfully degraded phenol in the soil model system (2 g kg(-1)) within 6 days. Activities of phenol hydroxylase, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase were detected and analyzed from the crude cell extract of the isolates. While all four strains use ortho degradation pathway, enzyme indicative of meta degradation pathway (catechol 2,3-dioxygenase) was also detected in Bacillus sp. PS11 and Streptomyces sp. PN1. Phenol degradation activities were induced 2 h after supplementation by phenol, but not by catechol. Catechol slightly inhibited activity of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase in strains PS11 and PN1. PMID:21706169

Djokic, Lidija; Narancic, Tanja; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Savic, Miloje; Vasiljevic, Branka

2011-06-25

215

Noncovalent association of protein and capsular polysaccharide on bacteria-sized latex beads as a model for polysaccharide-specific humoral immunity to intact gram-positive extracellular bacteria.  

PubMed

Intact Streptococcus pneumoniae expressing type 14 capsular polysaccharide (PPS14) and type III S. agalactiae containing a PPS14 core capsule identical to PPS14 exhibit noncovalent associations of PPS14 and bacterial protein, in contrast to soluble covalent conjugates of these respective Ags. Both bacteria and conjugates induce murine PPS14-specific IgG responses dependent on CD4(+) T cells. Further, secondary immunization with conjugate and S. agalactiae, although not S. pneumoniae, results in a boosted response. However, in contrast to conjugate, PPS14-specific IgG responses to bacteria lack affinity maturation use the 44.1-idiotype and are dependent on marginal zone B cells. To better understand the mechanism underlying this dichotomy, we developed a minimal model of intact bacteria in which PPS14 and pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) were stably attached to 1 ?m (bacteria-sized) latex beads, but not directly linked to each other, in contrast to PPS14-PspA conjugate. Beads coated simultaneously with PPS14+[PspA], similar to conjugate, induced in mice boosted PPS14-specific IgG secondary responses, dependent on T cells and ICOS-dependent costimulation, and in which priming could be achieved with PspA alone. In contrast to conjugate, but similar to intact bacteria, the primary PPS14-specific IgG response to beads coated simultaneously with PPS14+[PspA] peaked rapidly, with the secondary response highly enriched for the 44.1-idiotype and lacking affinity maturation. These results demonstrate that noncovalent association in a particle, of polysaccharide and protein, recapitulates essential immunologic characteristics of intact bacteria that are distinct from soluble covalent conjugates of these respective Ags. PMID:23926322

Colino, Jesus; Duke, Leah; Snapper, Clifford M

2013-08-07

216

Rolling-circle plasmids from Bacillus subtilis: complete nucleotide sequences and analyses of genes of pTA1015, pTA1040, pTA1050 and pTA1060, and comparisons with related plasmids from Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most small plasmids of Gram-positive bacteria use the rolling-circle mechanism of replication and several of these have been studied in considerable detail at the DNA level and for the function of their genes. Although most of the common laboratory Bacillus subtilis 168 strains do not contain plasmids, several industrial strains and natural soil isolates do contain rolling-circle replicating (RCR) plasmids.

Wilfried J. J. Meijer; G. Bea A. Wisman; Peter Terpstra; Peter B. Thorsted; Chris M. Thomas; S. Holsappel; Gerard Venema; Sierd Bron

1998-01-01

217

Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

218

Antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria collected from countries in Eastern Europe: results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) 2004-2010.  

PubMed

The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) commenced in 2004 to longitudinally monitor global changes in bacterial susceptibility to a suite of antimicrobial agents. The current study examined the activity of tigecycline and comparators against isolates collected across Eastern Europe between 2004 and 2010. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methodologies. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using CLSI interpretive criteria, and tigecycline susceptibility was established using European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints. This study included 10 295 Gram-negative and 4611 Gram-positive isolates from 42 centres. Extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) were reported among 15.3% of Escherichia coli and 39.3% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates; the highest rates were observed in Turkey (30.9%) and Bulgaria (53.8%), respectively. Imipenem-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae were identified only in Turkey. ESBL-positive E. coli were highly susceptible to imipenem (95.1%), meropenem (98.0%) and tigecycline (98.5%). Most antimicrobials showed poor activity against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Vancomycin resistance was noted among 0.9% of Enterococcus faecalis and 11.7% of Enterococcus faecium isolates. High rates of susceptibility were reported for linezolid (99.7%) and tigecycline (100%) against E. faecium. One-quarter of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), with the highest rate in Romania (51.5%); all MRSA were susceptible to linezolid, tigecycline and vancomycin. Antimicrobial resistance is high in much of Eastern Europe, with considerable variation seen among countries. Tigecycline and the carbapenems retain excellent activity against many pathogens from Eastern Europe; linezolid and vancomycin are active against most Gram-positive pathogens. PMID:23590898

Balode, Arta; Punda-Poli?, Volga; Dowzicky, Michael J

2013-04-13

219

Ligand-exchangeability of 2-coordinate phosphinegold(I) complexes with AuSP and AuNP cores showing selective antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria. Crystal structures of [Au(2-Hmpa)(PPh 3)] and [Au(6-Hmna)(PPh 3)] (2-H 2mpa=2-mercaptopropionic acid, 6-H 2mna=6-mercaptonicotinic acid)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective and effective antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (B. subtilis and\\/or S. aureus) were found in 2-coordinate gold(I)–PPh3 complexes with AuSP and AuNP cores, i.e. [Au(L)(PPh3)] (HL=2-H2mna [H2mna=mercaptonicotinic acid] 3, d-H2pen [H2pen=penicillamine] 4, d,l-H2pen 5, 4-H2mba [H2mba=mercaptobenzoic acid] 8, Hpz [Hpz=pyrazole] 9, Him [Him=imidazole] 10, 1,2,3-Htriz [Htriz=triazole] 11, 1,2,4-Htriz 12, Htetz [Htetz=tetrazole] 13), whereas no activity was observed in 2-coordinate

Kenji Nomiya; Satoshi Yamamoto; Ryusuke Noguchi; Hironari Yokoyama; Noriko Chikaraishi Kasuga; Kei Ohyama; Chieko Kato

2003-01-01

220

Evaluation of the Staphylococcus aureus class C nonspecific acid phosphatase (SapS) as a reporter for gene expression and protein secretion in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

A phosphatase secreted by Staphylococcus aureus strain 154 has previously been characterized and classified as a new member of the bacterial class C family of nonspecific acid phosphatases. As the acid phosphatase activity can be easily detected with a cost-effective plate screen assay, quantitatively measured by a simple enzyme assay, and detected by zymography, its potential use as a reporter system was investigated. The S. aureus acid phosphatase (sapS) gene has been cloned and expressed from its own regulatory sequences in Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus halodurans. Transcriptional and translational fusions of the sapS gene with selected heterologous promoters and signal sequences were constructed and expressed in all three of the host strains. From the range of promoters evaluated, the strongest promoter for heterologous protein production in each of the host strains was identified, i.e., the E. coli lacZ promoter in E. coli, the B. halodurans alkaline protease promoter in B. subtilis, and the B. halodurans sigma(D) promoter in B. halodurans. This is the first report on the development of a class C acid phosphatase gene as a reporter gene with the advantage of being able to function in both gram-positive and gram-negative host strains. PMID:17905879

du Plessis, Erika; Theron, Jacques; Berger, Eldie; Louw, Maureen

2007-09-28

221

Transcriptional Cross-Regulation between Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria, Demonstrated Using ArgP-argO of Escherichia coli and LysG-lysE of Corynebacterium glutamicum  

PubMed Central

The protein-gene pairs ArgP-argO of Escherichia coli and LysG-lysE of Corynebacterium glutamicum are orthologous, with the first member of each pair being a LysR-type transcriptional regulator and the second its target gene encoding a basic amino acid exporter. Whereas LysE is an exporter of arginine (Arg) and lysine (Lys) whose expression is induced by Arg, Lys, or histidine (His), ArgO exports Arg alone, and its expression is activated by Arg but not Lys or His. We have now reconstituted in E. coli the activation of lysE by LysG in the presence of its coeffectors and have shown that neither ArgP nor LysG can regulate expression of the noncognate orthologous target. Of several ArgP-dominant (ArgPd) variants that confer elevated Arg-independent argO expression, some (ArgPd-P274S, -S94L, and, to a lesser extent, -P108S) activated lysE expression in E. coli. However, the individual activating effects of LysG and ArgPd on lysE were mutually extinguished when both proteins were coexpressed in Arg- or His-supplemented cultures. In comparison with native ArgP, the active ArgPd variants exhibited higher affinity of binding to the lysE regulatory region and less DNA bending at both argO and lysE. We conclude that the transcription factor LysG from a Gram-positive bacterium, C. glutamicum, is able to engage appropriately with the RNA polymerase from a Gram-negative bacterium, E. coli, for activation of its cognate target lysE in vivo and that single-amino-acid-substitution variants of ArgP can also activate the distantly orthologous target lysE, but by a subtly different mechanism that renders them noninterchangeable with LysG.

Marbaniang, Carmelita N.

2012-01-01

222

Extracellular Communication in Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of bacterial cells often coordinate their responses to changes in their local environmental conditions through quorum sensing, a cell-to-cell communication system employing small diffusible signal molecules. While there is considerable diversity in the chemistry of such signal molecules, in different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria they control pathogenicity, secondary metabolite production, biofilm differentiation, DNA transfer and bioluminescence. The development of

Siri Ram Chhabra; Bodo Philipp; Leo Eberl; Michael Givskov; Paul Williams; Miguel Cámara

223

Pili in Gram-positive pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most bacterial pathogens have long filamentous structures known as pili or fimbriae extending from their surface. These structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of the bacteria to host tissues during colonization. In Gram-negative bacteria, pili are typically formed by non-covalent interactions between pilin subunits. By contrast, the recently discovered pili in Gram-positive pathogens are formed by covalent polymerization

Michèle A. Barocchi; Immaculada Margarit; Rino Rappuoli; John L. Telford; Guido Grandi

2006-01-01

224

Moderately halophilic gram-positive bacterial diversity in hypersaline environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderately halophilic bacteria are microorganisms that grow optimally in media containing 3%–15% (w\\/v) salt. They are represented\\u000a by a heterogeneous group of microorganisms included in many different genera. Gram-negative moderately halophilic bacteria\\u000a have been studied in more detail, but studies on gram-positive species are more scarce. Recent studies carried out by our\\u000a research group on gram-positive moderate halophiles have permitted

Antonio Ventosa; M. Carmen Márquez; María J. Garabito; David R. Arahal

1998-01-01

225

Viable but Not Cultivable Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A well-studied, long-term survival mechanism employed by Gram-positive bacteria is formation of endospores. For Gram-negative\\u000a bacteria, the assumption has been that a survival state does not exist. However, a dormancy state has been described for Gram-negative\\u000a bacteria and designated as the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) strategy of nonspore-forming cells. A variety of environmental\\u000a factors are involved in induction of the

Rita Colwell

226

MOTILE MARINE BACTERIA I.  

PubMed Central

Leifson, Einar (Loyola University, Chicago, Ill.), B. J. Cosenza, R. Murchelano, and R. C. Cleverdon. Motile marine bacteria. I. Techniques, ecology, and general characteristics. J. Bacteriol. 87:652–666. 1964.—Aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the waters of the Long Island Sound, Narragansett Bay, Atlantic Ocean, and from the intestine of a variety of marine animals found along the shore of the Long Island Sound. A total of about 600 cultures of motile bacteria were studied morphologically and physiologically, with special emphasis on flagellar characteristics. The great majority of the bacteria isolated from the water were polar flagellate, nonfermentative, nonpigmented, and gramnegative. Most of these were straight, capsulated rods, but a considerable number were curved like vibrios. Yellow-pigmented isolates were often nonmotile, and the motile forms were most frequently subpolar flagellate. Several rosette-forming bacteria, including Caulobacter species, were isolated. Two typical spirilla and one flagellated coccus were found. Peritrichous flagellate bacteria, both gram-positive and gram-negative, were rare except in bottom mud. The normal intestinal flora of marine animals, such as fish and shellfish, consisted of polar flagellate, fermentative, non-pigmented, gram-negative, straight rods. Curved forms, like vibrios, were less common. Polar multitrichous flagellate forms were not uncommon and included all the luminescent types isolated. A considerable proportion of the polar monotrichous flagellate rods swarmed over the surface of agar media. When grown on solid media, all of these showed mixed polar and lateral flagellation; in liquid media, mainly polar flagellation was found. The ecology and general taxonomy of marine bacteria are discussed. Images

Leifson, Einar; Cosenza, B. J.; Murchelano, R.; Cleverdon, R. C.

1964-01-01

227

Thymidine Kinase Diversity in Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes

M. P. B. Sandrini; A. R. Clausen; B. Munch-Petersen; J. Piškur

2006-01-01

228

Extremely Rapid Extraction of DNA from Bacteria and Yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very simple and rapid method for extracting genomic DNA from Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts is presented. In this method, bacteria or yeasts are lysed directly by phenol and the supernatant is extracted with chloroform to remove traces of phenol. The supernatant contains DNA that is suitable for molecular analyses, such as PCR, restriction enzyme digestion and genomic

Hai-Rong Cheng; Ning Jiang

2006-01-01

229

Assimilation of berberine and chelidoxanthine by bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Several species of bacteria are able to assimilate the alkaloid berberine while growing in extracts ofBerberis vulgaris, Chelidonium majus, andMahonia aquifolium. They can also assimilate the alkaloid in nutrient media containing berberine hydrochloride in concentrations up to and including 2.0 per cent, but only if provided with suitable sources of carbon and nitrogen. Some bacteria, especially Gram-positive species, were

P. H. H. Gray; R. A. Lachance

1957-01-01

230

Chloride dependence of growth in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride is an abundant anion on earth but studies analyzing a possible function of chloride in prokaryotes are scarce. To address the question, we have tested 44 different Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria for a chloride dependence or chloride stimulation of growth. None required chloride for growth at their optimal growth (salt) conditions. However, in hyperosmotic media containing high concentrations of

Markus Roeßler; Xaver Sewald; Volker Müller

2003-01-01

231

Global control of sugar metabolism: a Gram-positive solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria utilise carbon sources in a strictly controlled hierarchical manner for which they have developed global control mechanisms that govern and coordinate carbon source-specific regulation. This is achieved via carbon catabolite repression (CCR), which is the result of global transcriptional control and inducer exclusion. A common mechanism for transcriptional control has evolved within the group of low-GC Gram-positive bacteria, including

Fritz Titgemeyer; Wolfgang Hillen

2002-01-01

232

Management of Gram-Positive Bacterial Disease: Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcal, Pneumococcal and Enterococcal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gram-positive bacteria are a diverse group of organisms that are a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with\\u000a cancer. The increasing use of long-term indwelling central catheters and cytotoxic chemotherapies has contributed to the emergence\\u000a of Gram-positive bacteria as the leading cause of bacteremia in cancer patients. These organisms are also among the foremost\\u000a causes of pneumonia, skin

Samuel Shelburne; Daniel M. Musher

233

Production of Value-added Products by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of facultative anaerobic, catalase negative, nonmotile and nonsporeforming–Gram positive bacteria. Most LAB utilize high energy C sources including monomer sugars to produce energy to maintain cellular structure and function. This anaerobic fermentation proce...

234

Isolation, Characterization and Identification of Bacteria associated with Mucus of Acropora cervicornis Coral from Bidong Island, Terengganu, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine bacteria associated with mucus of Acropora cervicornis coral of Bidong Island were successfully isolated and cultured on sucrose sea water agar (SSW). The bacteria were characterized by using selective culture media and biochemical assays. Four major groups of bacteria were obtained, ?- proteobacteria, ?-proteobacteria, high G+C gram positive bacteria, CFB group and unknowns. The coral mucus-associated bacteria strains were

Murugan Kalimutho; Aziz Ahmad; Zaleha Kassim

2007-01-01

235

A Flow-Cytometric Gram-Staining Technique for Milk-Associated Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Gram-staining technique combining staining with two fluorescent stains, Oregon Green-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and hexidium iodide (HI) followed by flow-cytometric detection is described. WGA stains gram-positive bacteria while HI binds to the DNA of all bacteria after permeabilization by EDTA and incubation at 50°C for 15 min. For WGA to bind to gram-positive bacteria ,a3M potassium chloride solution

Claus Holm; Lene Jespersen

2003-01-01

236

Evaluation of a fluorescent lectin-based staining technique for some acidophilic mining bacteria  

SciTech Connect

A fluorescence-labeled wheat germ agglutinin staining technique was modified and found to be effective for staining gram-positive, acidophilic mining bacteria. Bacteria identified by others as being gram positive through 16S rRNA sequence analyses, yet clustering near the divergence of that group, stained weakly. Gram-negative bacteria did not stain. Background staining of environmental samples was negligible, and pyrite and soil particles in the samples did not interfere with the staining procedure.

Fife, D.J.; Bruhn, D.F.; Miller, K.S.; Stoner, D.L.

2000-05-01

237

Back To Bacteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores new research about bacteria. Discusses bacterial genomes, archaea, unusual environments, evolution, pathogens, bacterial movement, biofilms, bacteria in the body, and a bacterial obsession. Contains 29 references. (JRH)|

Flannery, Maura C.

1997-01-01

238

Special features of gram-positive bacterial eradication by photosensitizers.  

PubMed

Antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria is a major concern and presents a special challenge for development of alternative antibacterial modalities. One of these alternative approaches is based on using the photodynamic therapy (PDT) for eradicating bacteria. Photosensitizer-induced PDT exhibits unique properties and demonstrates efficient microbe-killing effects. The efficient and irreversible antimicrobial effects of PDT are not dependent on the antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics. Gram-positive bacteria exhibit efficient binding of the photosensitizer to the bacterial barriers, leading to immediate photoinactivation of the bacteria. Photoinactivation of Gram-positive bacteria by various photosensitizers has become a high priority, since these bacteria are responsible for life-threatening infections in humans, especially in the elderly and in compromised hosts in whom they cause hospital-acquired infections. The present review concentrates on the photoinactivation of Staphylococi, Streptococci, Propionibacterium acnes, Deinococcus radiodurans, aerobic spore-forming Bacilli by various photosensitizers and by various methods described in numerous works and patents. PMID:23550546

Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nisnevitch, Marina

2013-08-01

239

Restriction and modification systems of ruminal bacteria.  

PubMed

A high frequency of type II restriction endonuclease activities was detected in Selenomonas ruminantium but not in other rumen bacteria tested. Eight different restriction endonucleases were characterized in 17 strains coming from genetically homogeneous local population. Chromosomal DNA isolated from S. ruminantium strains was found to be refractory to cleavage by various restriction enzymes, implying the presence of methylase activities additional to those required for protection against the cellular endonucleases. The presence of Dam methylation was detected in S. ruminantium strains as well as in several other species belonging to the Sporomusa subbranch of low G + C Gram-positive bacteria (Megasphaera elsdenii, Mitsuokella multiacidus). PMID:11501482

Pristas, P; Molnárová, V; Javorský, P

2001-01-01

240

Biosynthesis of Auxin by the Gram-Positive Phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians Is Controlled by Compounds Specific to Infected Plant Tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role and metabolism of indole-3-acetic acid in gram-negative bacteria is well documented, but little is known about indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis and regulation in gram-positive bacteria. The phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians, a gram-positive organism, incites diverse developmental alterations, such as leafy galls, on a wide range of plants. Phenotypic analysis of a leafy gall suggests that auxin may play an important

Olivier Vandeputte; Sevgi Oden; Adeline Mol; Danny Vereecke; Koen Goethals; Mondher El Jaziri; Els Prinsen

2005-01-01

241

?Hall chip for sensitive detection of bacteria.  

PubMed

Sensitive, rapid and phenotype-specific enumeration of pathogens is essential for the diagnosis of infectious disease, monitoring of food chains, and for defense against bioterrorism. Microbiological culture and genotyping, techniques that sensitively and selectively detect bacteria in laboratory settings, have limited application in clinical environments due to high cost, slow response times, and the need for specially trained staff and laboratory infrastructure. To address these challenges, we developed a microfluidic chip-based micro-Hall (?Hall) platform capable of measuring single, magnetically tagged bacteria directly in clinical specimens with minimal sample processing. We demonstrated the clinical utility of the ?Hall chip by enumerating Gram-positive bacteria. The overall detection limit of the system was similar to that of culture tests (~10 bacteria), but the assay time was 50-times faster. This low-cost, single-cell analytical technique is especially well-suited to diagnose infectious diseases in resource-limited clinical settings. PMID:23495188

Issadore, David; Chung, Hyun Jung; Chung, Jaehoon; Budin, Ghyslain; Weissleder, Ralph; Lee, Hakho

2013-03-12

242

Staining of Bacteria in Tissue Sections: A Reliable Gram Stain Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A consistently reliable Gram stain procedure which differentially stains both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in tissue sections is presented. A comparison of this new method with well known Gram stain methods demonstrates its superiority in diff...

H. C. Hopps R. C. Brown

1972-01-01

243

Bacteria Inactivation During Lithotripsy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of extracorporeal and intracorporeal lithotripsy on the viability of bacteria contained inside artificial kidney stones was investigated in vitro. Two different bacteria were exposed to the action of one extracorporeal shock wave generator and four intracorporeal lithotripters.

Del Sol Quintero, María; Mora, Ulises; Gutiérrez, Jorge; Mues, Enrique; Castaño, Eduardo; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M.

2006-09-01

244

Horizontal spread of mer operons among Gram-positive bacteria in natural environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal dissemination of the genes responsible for resistance to toxic pollutants may play a key role in the adaptation of bacterial populations to environmental contaminants. However, the frequency and extent of gene dissemination in natural environments is not known. A natural horizontal spread of two distinct mercury resistance (mer) operon variants, which occurred amongst diverse Bacillus and related species over

E. S. Bogdanova; I. A. Bass; L. S. Minakhin; M. A. Petrova; S. Z. Mindlin; A. A. Volodin; E. S. Kalyaeva; J. M. Tiedje; J. L. Hobman; N. L. Brown; V. G. Nikiforov

1998-01-01

245

A Case Report : Atypical Blepharitis Caused by Gram Positive Rod Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eye lid margin. The presenting symptoms including chronic irritation, a burning sensation, mild red- ness, and occasionally itching of the lid margins. We reported a case of a 36-year-old woman who had sustained discomfort on the right eyelid for one week. When the patient was first seen, the examination revealed multiple meibomian cysts. After

Narakorn Leeprechanon; Suntaree Thitiwichienlert; Rattana Tiengtip

246

Comparative Activities of Clinafloxacin against Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Activities of clinafloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, trovafloxacin, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime, and imipenem against 354 ciprofloxacin-susceptible and -intermediate-resistant organisms were tested by agar dilution. Clinafloxacin yielded the lowest quinolone MICs (?0.5 ?g/ml against ciprofloxacin-susceptible organisms and ?16.0 ?g/ml against ciprofloxacin-intermediate-resistant organisms) compared to those of levofloxacin, trovafloxacin, and sparfloxacin. Ceftazidime, piperacillin alone or combined with tazobactam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and imipenem usually yielded higher MICs against ciprofloxacin-resistant strains.

Ednie, Lois M.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

1998-01-01

247

Pharmacodynamic interaction between RP 59500 and gram-positive bacteria infecting fibrin clots.  

PubMed Central

The fibrin clot penetration and in vivo bactericidal activity of RP 59500, a new semisynthetic streptogramin, for two Staphylococcus aureus strains (one methicillin resistant and the other methicillin susceptible), two Staphylococcus epidermidis strains (one methicillin resistant and the other methicillin susceptible), and one Enterococcus faecalis strain were evaluated. The clots, inserted subcutaneously, were infected with a mean of 10(8) CFU of the pathogen per g. For each strain, groups of four rabbits received a single intravenous injection of 50 mg of RP 59500 per kg of body weight over 30 min. The mean peak level of RP 59500 in serum in the infected rabbits was 61.9 +/- 6.3 micrograms/ml. The drug was detectable in serum at a level of 0.8 micrograms/ml up to 4 h after administration. The mean peak fibrin clot drug level at 1 h was 3.3 +/- 0.1 micrograms/g. At 6 h, the level in clots was 1.2 +/- 0.1 micrograms/g. The mean half-life in serum in infected rabbits was 0.34 +/- 0.01 h, while in clots the drug exhibited a longer half-life of 3.8 +/- 0.4 h. In vivo, this new streptogramin sterilized the clots infected with the two S. aureus strains studied in less than 1 h and induced a marked reduction in colony counts of the two S. epidermidis strains studied for up to 24 h. The activity of the streptogramin against E. faecalis was limited. These results suggest that RP 59500 should be further evaluated for the treatment of infection with methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

Turcotte, A; Bergeron, M G

1992-01-01

248

Siderophore Genes in Gram Positive and Gram Negative Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although iron is one of the most abundant elements, its assimilation depends on the development of effective iron-sequestration\\u000a and uptake strategies by microorganisms. Its most common states, ionic forms, especially iron(III), are insoluble under physiological\\u000a conditions (Neilands, 1995). To solubilize iron, many microbes synthesize and utilize siderophores, which are relatively low\\u000a molecular weight, ferric ion-specific chelating agents. When grown under

A. Giongo; A. Beneduzi; A. Ambrosini; R. Farina; P. B. Costa; S. B. Campos; M. H. Bodanese-Zanettini; L. M. P. Passaglia

249

Structural Insights into Serine-rich Fimbriae from Gram-positive Bacteria*  

PubMed Central

The serine-rich repeat family of fimbriae play important roles in the pathogenesis of streptococci and staphylococci. Despite recent attention, their finer structural details and precise adhesion mechanisms have yet to be determined. Fap1 (Fimbriae-associated protein 1) is the major structural subunit of serine-rich repeat fimbriae from Streptococcus parasanguinis and plays an essential role in fimbrial biogenesis, adhesion, and the early stages of dental plaque formation. Combining multidisciplinary, high resolution structural studies with biological assays, we provide new structural insight into adhesion by Fap1. We propose a model in which the serine-rich repeats of Fap1 subunits form an extended structure that projects the N-terminal globular domains away from the bacterial surface for adhesion to the salivary pellicle. We also uncover a novel pH-dependent conformational change that modulates adhesion and likely plays a role in survival in acidic environments.

Ramboarina, Stephanie; Garnett, James A.; Zhou, Meixian; Li, Yuebin; Peng, Zhixiang; Taylor, Jonathan D.; Lee, Wei-chao; Bodey, Andrew; Murray, James W.; Alguel, Yilmaz; Bergeron, Julien; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Sawyer, Elizabeth; Isaacson, Rivka; Tagliaferri, Camille; Cota, Ernesto; Nilges, Michael; Simpson, Peter; Ruiz, Teresa; Wu, Hui; Matthews, Stephen

2010-01-01

250

Quinupristin-Dalfopristin Resistance among Gram-Positive Bacteria in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

susceptible enterococci (85%), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis (100%), vancomycin-resistant Entero- coccus faecium (66%), Leuconostoc spp. (100%), Lactobacillus spp. (50%), and Pediococcus spp. (87%). All isolates of MSSA, MRSA, S. pneumoniae, and viridans group streptococci were susceptible to vancomycin and teico- planin. The rates of nonsusceptibility to vancomycin and teicoplanin were 5 and 7%, respectively, for CoNS, ranging from 12 and 18%

KWEN-TAY LUH; PO-REN HSUEH; LEE-JENE TENG; HUI-JU PAN; YU-CHI CHEN; JANG-JIH LU; JIUNN-JONG WU; SHEN-WU HO

2000-01-01

251

[Infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp.)].  

PubMed

Methicillin -resistant Staphylocccus aureus (MRSA) and multirresistant entorococci are still problematic in nosocomial infections and new challenges have emerged for their containment. MRSA has increased the multiresistant profile; it has been described vancomycin and linezolid resistant isolates and isolates with decreased daptomycin susceptibility. Moreover, new clones (ST398) have emerged, initially associated with piggeries, and new mec variants (mecC) with livestock origin that escape to the detection with current molecular methods based on mecA gene have been detected. In enterococci, linzeolid resistant isolates and isolates with deceased susceptibility to daptomycin have been described. Moreover, ampicillin resistant Enterococcus faecium due to ?-lactamase production has been recently found in Europe. Control of MRSA isolates and multiresistant enteroccocci should combined antibiotic stewardship strategies and epidemiological measures, including detection of colonized patients in order to reduce colonization pressure and their transmission. PMID:24041416

Cantón, Rafael; Ruiz-Garbajosa, Patricia

2013-09-14

252

An antimicrobial modified silicone peritoneal catheter with activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peritonitis, exit site and tunnel infections are serious complications of peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), which may lead to catheter loss, despite measures taken to reduce the infection rate. Catheters coated with antimicrobials have shown only short-term activity. We have developed a process for conferring broad-spectrum, long-duration antimicrobial activity on CAPD catheters while reducing the risk of resistance. Catheters were processed using

Roger Bayston; Leanne E. Fisher; Klaus Weber

2009-01-01

253

The RNPP family of quorum-sensing proteins in Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing is one of several mechanisms that bacterial cells use to interact with each other and coordinate certain physiological\\u000a processes in response to cell density. This mechanism is mediated by extracellular signaling molecules; once a critical threshold\\u000a concentration has been reached, a target sensor kinase or response regulator is activated (or repressed), facilitating the\\u000a expression of quorum sensing-dependent genes.

Jorge Rocha-Estrada; Angel E. Aceves-Diez; Gabriel Guarneros; Mayra de la Torre

2010-01-01

254

Rational design of peptides active against the gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

In an attempt to increase the antimicrobial activity of the insect defensin from Anopheles gambiae, which is active against Staphylococcus aureus at low concentration, hybrid defensins were designed by combining conserved sequence regions and variable regions of insect defensins. Their activity against S. aureus strains sensitive and resistant to conventional antibiotics was evaluated, and the toxicity of the most active molecules was tested. The three-dimensional structure of Anopheles gambiae defensin and five hybrids were determined by NMR and molecular modelling. This strategy led to the design of two chimeric defensins with increased activity compared with the native molecule, but one of them appears to be toxic to mice at a rather low concentration. The structure of the CS alphabeta motif, which is a characteristic of insect defensin, is sensitive to sequence modifications, in particular in the N-terminal loop. The existence of the CS alphabeta is most probably a prerequisite for the stability and the activity of the molecule, but is not sufficient by itself since the hybrid displaying the best defined structure is not active against the tested strains. The analysis of the structure, in relation with the activity and the toxicity data, underlines the importance of turns and of the N-terminal loop. Residues located in the turns contributing to the preservation of positive electrostatic areas at the surface of the molecules seem particularly important for the activity of the molecule, while residues involved in the N-terminal loop are both involved in the modulation of the activity and the toxicity of the molecule. PMID:18214975

Landon, Céline; Barbault, Florent; Legrain, Michèle; Guenneugues, Marc; Vovelle, Françoise

2008-07-01

255

Gram-Negative versus Gram-Positive (Actinomycete) Nonobligate Bacterial Predators of Bacteria in Soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The existence of nonobligate bacterial predators in soil has been previously reported. Several additional predators were isolated from soil and tested for predation in situ in soil by use of the indirect bacteriophage analysis technique. The trials were c...

L. R. Zeph L. E. Casida

1986-01-01

256

Phylogenetic analysis on the soil bacteria distributed in karst forest  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic composition of bacterial community in soil of a karst forest was analyzed by culture-independent molecular approach. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified directly from soil DNA and cloned to generate a library. After screening the clone library by RFLP, 16S rRNA genes of representative clones were sequenced and the bacterial community was analyzed phylogenetically. The 16S rRNA gene inserts of 190 clones randomly selected were analyzed by RFLP and generated 126 different RFLP types. After sequencing, 126 non-chimeric sequences were obtained, generating 113 phylotypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacteria distributed in soil of the karst forest included the members assigning into Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi (Green nonsulfur bacteria), Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, Actinobacteria (High G+C Gram-positive bacteria), Firmicutes (Low G+C Gram-positive bacteria) and candidate divisions (including the SPAM and GN08).

Zhou, JunPei; Huang, Ying; Mo, MingHe

2009-01-01

257

Triclosan-resistant bacteria isolated from feedlot and residential soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent that is currently incorporated into hundreds of consumer and medical products. It can be either a bacteriostatic or bactericidal agent, depending on its formulation. It has activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as some viruses and protists. The purpose of this study was to determine whether triclosan-resistant bacteria could be isolated from the

Tanner T. Welsch; Eric T. Gillock

2011-01-01

258

AEROBIC SALIVARY BACTERIA IN WILD AND CAPTIVE KOMODO DRAGONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive spe- cies of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were

Joel M. Montgomery; Don Gillespie; Putra Sastrawan; Terry M. Fredeking; George L. Stewart

2002-01-01

259

The Drosophila immune system detects bacteria through specific peptidoglycan recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drosophila immune system discriminates between different classes of infectious microbes and responds with pathogen-specific defense reactions through selective activation of the Toll and the immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathways. The Toll pathway mediates most defenses against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, whereas the Imd pathway is required to resist infection by Gram-negative bacteria. The bacterial components recognized by these pathways

François Leulier; Claudine Parquet; Sebastien Pili-Floury; Ji-Hwan Ryu; Martine Caroff; Won-Jae Lee; Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx; Bruno Lemaitre

2003-01-01

260

Electric field effects on bacteria and yeast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Comparative studies were carried out describing the lethal effects of electric pulses on GRAM-negative bacteria, GRAM-positive bacteria, and yeast cells. Microorganisms are killed by the pulse treatment without visible morphological destruction. The observed survival rates are figured as functions of the field strengthE and the treatment timet (pulse number × time constant) revealing three explicit parameters as sufficient to

H. Htilsheger; J. Potel; E.-G. Niemann

1983-01-01

261

The global distribution and evolution of deoxyribonucleoside kinases in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) are important to DNA metabolism, especially in environments where nucleosides are freely available to be absorbed and used for the salvage pathway. Little has previously been known about the complement of dNKs in different bacterial genomes. However, it was believed that Gram-negative bacteria had a single dNK, while Gram-positive bacteria possessed several. An analysis of 992 fully

Anke Konrad; Ekaterina Yarunova; Tinkara Tinta; Jure Piškur; David A. Liberles

262

Cell Structure and the Enzymic Lysis of Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Untreated cells of three Gram-negative and four Gram-positive bacteria were resistant to lysis by crude and crystallbe trypsin. The resistance of the Gram- negative organisms to lysis by trypsin was abolished by heating suspensions for 5 min. at 100' ; the rates and extent of lysis of the three organisms by crude trypsin were comparable. After maximal lysis of

M. R. J. SALTON

1958-01-01

263

Luminescent Bacteria Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The luminescent bacteria test has become a basic test for ecotoxicological testing of chemicals, waste water and eluates from\\u000a soil and sediment. It has been selected for the basic test set as a representative method to assess the ecotoxicological hazard\\u000a potential of waste eluates to terrestrial invertebrates. The luminescent bacteria test can be carried out by using freshly\\u000a prepared bacteria,

M. Pattard; H. Moser

264

Species Numbers in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A modified biological species definition (BSD), i.e., that bacteria exchange genes within a species, but not usually between species, is shown to apply to bacteria. The formal definition of bacterial species, which is more conservative than the modified BSD, is framed in terms of DNA hybridization. From this I estimate there are a million species of bacteria in 30 grams of rich forest topsoil and propose that there will be at least a billion species worldwide.

Dykhuizen, Daniel

2010-01-01

265

Bacteria and lignin degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material. It is degraded and\\u000a modified by bacteria in the natural world, and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.\\u000a Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling, erosion, and cavitation. With the advantages\\u000a of immense environmental

Jing Li; Hongli Yuan; Jinshui Yang

2009-01-01

266

High efficiency recombineering in lactic acid bacteria  

PubMed Central

The ability to efficiently generate targeted point mutations in the chromosome without the need for antibiotics, or other means of selection, is a powerful strategy for genome engineering. Although oligonucleotide-mediated recombineering (ssDNA recombineering) has been utilized in Escherichia coli for over a decade, the successful adaptation of ssDNA recombineering to Gram-positive bacteria has not been reported. Here we describe the development and application of ssDNA recombineering in lactic acid bacteria. Mutations were incorporated in the chromosome of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactococcus lactis without selection at frequencies ranging between 0.4% and 19%. Whole genome sequence analysis showed that ssDNA recombineering is specific and not hypermutagenic. To highlight the utility of ssDNA recombineering we reduced the intrinsic vancomymycin resistance of L. reuteri >100-fold. By creating a single amino acid change in the d-Ala-d-Ala ligase enzyme we reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration for vancomycin from >256 to 1.5?µg/ml, well below the clinically relevant minimum inhibitory concentration. Recombineering thus allows high efficiency mutagenesis in lactobacilli and lactococci, and may be used to further enhance beneficial properties and safety of strains used in medicine and industry. We expect that this work will serve as a blueprint for the adaptation of ssDNA recombineering to other Gram-positive bacteria.

van Pijkeren, Jan-Peter; Britton, Robert A.

2012-01-01

267

BACTERIA DETENTION BY NANOTEXTILES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes experiments concerning filtra tion by nanotextiles of microbiologically contaminated water. The aim of the project is to ve rify the filtering abilities of the chosen nanotext ile materials. A high nanotextile porosity with the por es size of tens of nanometres, is a presumption for the use of nanotextiles for bacteria filtration. The si ze of bacteria

268

Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today,

J. A. Muller; R. P. Ross; G. F. Fitzgerald; C. Stanton

2009-01-01

269

Survival of Oral Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global distribution of individual species of oral bacteria demonstrates their ability to survive among their human hosts. Such an ubiquitous existence is the result of efficient transmission of strains and their persistence in the oral environment. Genetic analysis has identified specific clones of pathogenic bacteria causing infection. Presumably, these express virulence-associated characteristics enhancing colonization and survival in their hosts.

G. H. W. Bowden; I. R. Hamilton

1998-01-01

270

Studies on the mechanism of bacteria photosensitization by meso-substituted cationic porphyrins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cationic porphyrins have been shown to photoinduce the direct inactivation of Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G?) bacteria, thereby differing from anionic or neutral porphyrins which can photosensitize the G? bacteria only after permeabilization of their outer membrane. The present data show that the differences between these positively and negatively charged porphyrins are not related by a difference in the intrinsic

M. Merchat; J. D. Spikes; G. Bertoloni; G. Jori

1996-01-01

271

Isolation and Identification of ATP-Secreting Bacteria from Mice and Humans?  

PubMed Central

In a recent report, ATP, which was possibly secreted by some intestinal bacteria, was shown to cause colitis in mice via Th17 cell differentiation. However, the ATP-secreting bacteria have not been isolated and identified. In the present study, we report that Enterococcus gallinarum, which is a vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive coccus isolated from mice and humans, secretes ATP.

Iwase, Tadayuki; Shinji, Hitomi; Tajima, Akiko; Sato, Fumiya; Tamura, Taku; Iwamoto, Takeo; Yoneda, Minoru; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

2010-01-01

272

Gram Type-Specific Broad-Range PCR Amplification for Rapid Detection of 62 Pathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Broad-range PCR has proven to be useful for the detection of bacteria. A set of broad-range PCR primers directed against conserved regions in the 16S rRNA gene was designed to specifically amplify either gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria. The gram type-specific broad-range PCR correctly classified all 62 pathogenic species tested.

Klausegger, Alfred; Hell, Markus; Berger, Alexandra; Zinober, Kerstin; Baier, Sabine; Jones, Neil; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

1999-01-01

273

Functional polypyrrole-silica composites as photothermal agents for targeted killing of bacteria.  

PubMed

We demonstrate for the first time that PPy-SiO2-GTA composites can be used as efficient photothermal agents for killing pathogenic bacteria under NIR irradiation. The cell growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria targeted by PPy-SiO2-GTA composites could be inhibited effectively after photothermal treatment. PMID:23985567

Ju, Enguo; Li, Zhenhua; Li, Meng; Dong, Kai; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

2013-10-11

274

Differential detection of key enzymes of polyaromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria using PCR and gene probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria with ability to degrade polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), isolated from wastewater and soil samples, were investigated for their taxonomic, physiological and genetic diversity. Eighteen isolates able to metabolize naphthalene or phenanthrene as sole carbon source were taxonomically affiliated to different subclasses of the Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas spp., Acidovorax spp., Comamonas spp. and Pseudomonas spp.) and to phyla of Gram-positive bacteria with

Svenja Meyer; Ralf Moser; Alexander Neef; U. Stahl; Peter Kampfer

1999-01-01

275

Peritonitis due to uncommon gram-positive pathogens in children undergoing peritoneal dialysis  

PubMed Central

Peritonitis is still the main complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in children. Staphylococcus, especially Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, are the predominant species isolated, followed by Streptococcus spp. and by far by gram-negative bacteria and fungi. We describe three cases of PD-related peritonitis in pediatric patients due to uncommon gram-positive pathogens, which were treated with intraperitoneal antibiotic agents.

Dotis, J; Printza, N; Papachristou, F

2012-01-01

276

Gram-positive three-component antimicrobial peptide-sensing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

To survive during colonization or infection of the human body, microorganisms must circumvent mechanisms of innate host defense. Antimicrobial peptides represent a key component of innate host defense, especially in phagocytes and on epithelial surfaces. However, it is not known how the clinically important group of Gram-positive bacteria sense antimicrobial peptides to coordinate a directed defensive response. By determining the

Min Li; Yuping Lai; A. E. Villaruz; D. J. Cha; D. E. Sturdevant; Michael Otto

2007-01-01

277

Evaluation of a Fluorescent Lectin-Based Staining Technique for Some Acidophilic Mining Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A fluorescence-labeled wheat germ agglutinin staining technique (R. K. Sizemore et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:2245–2247, 1990) was modified and found to be effective for staining gram-positive, acidophilic mining bacteria. Bacteria identified by others as being gram positive through 16S rRNA sequence analyses, yet clustering near the divergence of that group, stained weakly. Gram-negative bacteria did not stain. Background staining of environmental samples was negligible, and pyrite and soil particles in the samples did not interfere with the staining procedure.

Fife, Dee Jay; Bruhn, Debby F.; Miller, Karen S.; Stoner, Daphne L.

2000-01-01

278

Inactivation of biofilm bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The current project was developed to examine inactivation of biofilm bacteria and to characterize the interaction of biocides with pipe surfaces. Unattached bacteria were quite susceptible to the variety of disinfectants tested. Viable bacterial counts were reduced 99% by exposure to 0.08 mg of hypochlorous acid (pH 7.0) per liter (1 to 2 degrees C) for 1 min. For monochloramine, 94 mg/liter was required to kill 99% of the bacteria within 1 min. These results were consistent with those found by other investigators. Biofilm bacteria grown on the surfaces of granular activated carbon particles, metal coupons, or glass microscope slides were 150 to more than 3,000 times more resistant to hypochlorous acid (free chlorine, pH 7.0) than were unattached cells. In contrast, resistance of biofilm bacteria to monochloramine disinfection ranged from 2- to 100-fold more than that of unattached cells. The results suggested that, relative to inactivation of unattached bacteria, monochloramine was better able to penetrate and kill biofilm bacteria than free chlorine. For free chlorine, the data indicated that transport of the disinfectant into the biofilm was a major rate-limiting factor. Because of this phenomenon, increasing the level of free chlorine did not increase disinfection efficiency. Experiments where equal weights of disinfectants were used suggested that the greater penetrating power of monochloramine compensated for its limited disinfection activity. These studies showed that monochloramine was as effective as free chlorine for inactivation of biofilm bacteria. The research provides important insights into strategies for control of biofilm bacteria. Images

LeChevallier, M W; Cawthon, C D; Lee, R G

1988-01-01

279

Multidrug Resistance in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Large amounts of antibiotics used for human therapy, as well as for farm animals and even for fish in aquaculture, resulted in the selection of pathogenic bacteria resistant to multiple drugs. Multidrug resistance in bacteria may be generated by one of two mechanisms. First, these bacteria may accumulate multiple genes, each coding for resistance to a single drug, within a single cell. This accumulation occurs typically on resistance (R) plasmids. Second, multidrug resistance may also occur by the increased expression of genes that code for multidrug efflux pumps, extruding a wide range of drugs. This review discusses our current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in both types of resistance.

Nikaido, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

280

[Darwin and bacteria].  

PubMed

As in 2009 the scientific world celebrates two hundreds years from the birthday of Charles Darwin and one hundred and fifty from the publication of The Origin of Species, an analysis of his complete work is performed, looking for any mention of bacteria. But it seems that the great naturahst never took knowledge about its existence, something rather improbable in a time when the discovery of bacteria shook the medical world, or he deliberately ignored them, not finding a place for such microscopic beings into his theory of evolution. But the bacteria badly affected his familiar life, killing scarlet fever one of his children and worsening to death the evolution of tuberculosis of his favourite Annie. Darwin himself could suffer the sickness of Chagas, whose etiological agent has a similar level to bacteria in the scale of evolution. PMID:19350162

Ledermann D, Walter

2009-03-23

281

Anaerobic Bacteria Growth Promotion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Sterile membrane preparations from certain bacteria rapidly remove oxygen from aqueous solutions. The addition of such membranes to a variety of bacteriological medi...

1982-01-01

282

Cultivation Media for Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Common bacteriological culture media (tryptic soy agar, chocolate agar, Thayer-Martin agar, MacConkey agar, eosin-methylene blue agar, hektoen agar, mannitol salt agar, and sheep blood agar) are shown uninoculated and inoculated with bacteria.

American Society For Microbiology;

2009-12-08

283

Ecophysiology of Magnetotactic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetotactic bacteria are a physiologically diverse group of prokaryotes whose main common features\\u000a are the biomineralization of magnetosomes and magnetotaxis, the passive alignment and active motility along\\u000a geomagnetic field lines. Magnetotactic bacteria exist in their highest numbers at or near the oxic–anoxic\\u000a interfaces (OAI) of chemically stratified aquatic habitats that contain inverse concentration gradients\\u000a of oxidants and reductants. Few species are

Dennis A. Bazylinski; Timothy Williams

284

Secretion of microbicidal ?-defensins by intestinal Paneth cells in response to bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paneth cells in mouse small intestinal crypts secrete granules rich in microbicidal peptides when exposed to bacteria or bacterial antigens. The dose-dependent secretion occurs within minutes and ?-defensins, or cryptdins, account for 70% of the released bactericidal peptide activity. Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, lipid A and muramyl dipeptide elicit cryptdin secretion. Live fungi and protozoa, however, do

Tokiyoshi Ayabe; Donald P. Satchell; Carole L. Wilson; William C. Parks; Michael E. Selsted; Andre J. Ouellette

2000-01-01

285

Nonpathogenic bacteria associated with potato stems cross-react with Corynebacterium sepedonicum antisera in immunofluorescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-three and 16% of stem smears from ostensibly healthy potato plants tested in 1980 and 1981, respectively, by immunofluorescence\\u000a usingCorynebacterium sepedonicum antisera, had fluorescing bacterial cells. Eight different bacteria that cross-reacted withC. sepedonicum antisera in immunofluorescence were isolated from stems. Four of these bacteria were Gram negative, three were Gram positive,\\u000a and one was Gram variable. All bacteria differed fromC.

C. F. Crowley; S. H. De Boer

1982-01-01

286

Opsonic activity assessment of human intravenous immunoglobulin preparations against drug-resistant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used the ability of opsonized bacteria to stimulate luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to examine the opsonic capabilities of commercially available human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) preparations. The method was tested against 14 strains of drug-resistant gram-positive bacteria (including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, hetero-vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae), and 23 strains of gram-negative bacteria

Yasuo Ono; Tadashi Ito; Takeshi Watanabe; Osamu Koshio; Shigeru Tansho; Tatsuo Ikeda; Sayoko Kawakami; Yukihisa Miyazawa

2004-01-01

287

Metabolic engineering of bacteria for ethanol production  

SciTech Connect

Technologies are available which will allow the conversion of lignocellulose into fuel ethanol using genetically engineered bacteria. Assembling these into a cost-effective process remains a challenge. The authors` work has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of enteric bacteria using a portable ethanol production pathway. Genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase have been integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B to produce strain KO11 for the fermentation of hemicellulose-derived syrups. This organism can efficiently ferment all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 has been genetically engineered in a similar manner to produce strain P2 for ethanol production from cellulose. This organism has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes. The optimal pH for cellulose fermentation with this organism is near that of fungal cellulases. The general approach for the genetic engineering of new biocatalysts has been most successful with enteric bacteria thus far. However, this approach may also prove useful with gram-positive bacteria which have other important traits for lignocellulose conversion. Many opportunities remain for further improvements in the biomass to ethanol processes.

Ingram, L.O.; Gomez, P.F.; Lai, X.; Moniruzzaman, M.; Wood, B.E.; Yomano, L.P.; York, S.W. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Cell Science

1998-04-20

288

Endocarditis Due to Rare and Fastidious Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The etiologic diagnosis of infective endocarditis is easily made in the presence of continuous bacteremia with gram-positive cocci. However, the blood culture may contain a bacterium rarely associated with endocarditis, such as Lactobacillus spp., Klebsiella spp., or nontoxigenic Corynebacterium, Salmonella, Gemella, Campylobacter, Aeromonas, Yersinia, Nocardia, Pasteurella, Listeria, or Erysipelothrix spp., that requires further investigation to establish the relationship with endocarditis, or the blood culture may be uninformative despite a supportive clinical evaluation. In the latter case, the etiologic agents are either fastidious extracellular or intracellular bacteria. Fastidious extracellular bacteria such as Abiotrophia, HACEK group bacteria, Clostridium, Brucella, Legionella, Mycobacterium, and Bartonella spp. need supplemented media, prolonged incubation time, and special culture conditions. Intracellular bacteria such as Coxiella burnetii cannot be isolated routinely. The two most prevalent etiologic agents of culture-negative endocarditis are C. burnetti and Bartonella spp. Their diagnosis is usually carried out serologically. A systemic pathologic examination of excised heart valves including periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and molecular methods has allowed the identification of Whipple's bacillus endocarditis. Pathologic examination of the valve using special staining, such as Warthin-Starry, Gimenez, and PAS, and broad-spectrum PCR should be performed systematically when no etiologic diagnosis is evident through routine laboratory evaluation.

Brouqui, P.; Raoult, D.

2001-01-01

289

Effect of short HV pulses on bacteria and fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of three kinds of microorganisms under strong-pulse electric field conditions was investigated with a possible application of the electric pulse method for sterilization of consumable liquids. The results of the investigations of survival ratio of Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes) bacteria and yeastlike fungi (Candida albicans) are presented. The HV pulses with

Boleslaw Mazurek; Piotr Lubicki; Zdzislaw Staroniewicz

1995-01-01

290

The riboswitch-mediated control of sulfur metabolism in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many operons in Gram-positive bacteria that are involved in methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) biosynthesis possess an evolutionarily conserved regulatory leader sequence (S-box) that positively controls these genes in response to methionine starvation. Here, we demonstrate that a feed-back regulation mechanism utilizes S-adenosyl-methionine as an effector. S-adenosyl-methionine directly and specifically binds to the nascent S-box RNA, causing an intrinsic terminator

Vitaly Epshtein; Alexander S. Mironov; Evgeny Nudler

2003-01-01

291

Aerobic, Endospore-Forming Bacteria from Antarctic Geothermal Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ‘aerobic endospore-forming bacteria’ is used to embrace Bacillus species and related genera, for which the production of resistant endospores in the presence of oxygen remains the defining\\u000a feature. They are also expected to possess Gram-positive cell wall structures (but staining reactions, even in young cultures,\\u000a may be Gram-variable or frankly Gram-negative), and may be aerobic or facultatively anaerobic.

Niall A. Logan A. Logan; Raymond N. Allan N. Allan

292

Characterization of psychrotolerant heterotrophic bacteria from Finnish Lapland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 331 aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated from various ecosystems of Finnish Lapland (68–69°N) including forest soil, arctic alpine-tundra soil, stream water, lake and mire sediments, lichen and snow algae. Whole cell fatty acid and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and microscopy indicated that the isolates were dominated by Gram-negative bacteria, while only 20 Gram-positive strains were

Minna K. Männistö; Max M. Häggblom

2006-01-01

293

Hierarchical control versus autoregulation of carbohydrate utilization in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The involvement of phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase (PTS) proteins, like HPr and IIAGlc, in the regulation of carbohydrate utilization has been well established in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The majority of the studies of PTS-mediated regulation have been concerned with the hierarchical control of carbohydrate utilization, which results in the preferential utilization of a particular carbohydrate from a mixture of substrates. The

M. G. W. Gunnewijk; L. M. Veenhoff; E. H. Heuberger; W. M. de Vos; M. Kleerebezem; O. P. Kuipers; B. Poolman

2001-01-01

294

Photothermolysis of immobilized bacteria on gold nanograil arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photothermolysis technique via array of gold nanograils had been developed by illuminating near infrared laser light onto captured bacteria in metal nanostructure. The strong electromagnetic field enhancement at the sharp edges of the gold nanograils produced local heating that was sufficient to break the thick cell walls of the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus cells within a short time. Individual cells in the nanograil array can be selectively lysed by adjusting the laser scanning area to the micrometer scale.

Kim, Soo Kyung; Heo, Chul-Joon; Choi, Jong Young; Lee, Su Yeon; Jang, Se Gyu; Won Shim, Jae; Seo, Tae Seok; Yang, Seung-Man

2011-06-01

295

Ice-Nucleating Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the discovery of ice-nucleating bacteria in 1974 by Maki et al., a large number of studies on the biological characteristics, ice-nucleating substance, ice nucleation gene and frost damage etc. of the bacteria have been carried out. Ice-nucleating bacteria can cause the freezing of water at relatively warm temperature (-2.3°C). Tween 20 was good substrates for ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens KUIN-1. Major fatty acids of Isolate (Pseudomonas fluorescens) W-11 grown at 30°C were palmitic, cis-9-hexadecenoic and cis-11-octadecenoic which amounted to 90% of the total fatty acids. Sequence analysis shows that an ice nucleation gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens is related to the gene of Pseudomonas syringae.

Obata, Hitoshi

296

Lactic Acid Bacteria Inducing a Weak Interleukin12 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Response in Human Dendritic Cells Inhibit Strongly Stimulating Lactic Acid Bacteria but Act Synergistically with Gram-Negative Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and maintenance of immune homeostasis indispensably depend on signals from the gut flora. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are gram-positive (G) organisms, are plausible significant players and have received much attention. Gram-negative (G) commensals, such as members of the family Entero- bacteriaceae, may, however, be immunomodulators that are as important as G organisms but tend to be overlooked.

Louise Hjerrild Zeuthen; Hanne Risager Christensen; H. Frokiaer

2006-01-01

297

Characterization of bacteria from a swine manure digester  

SciTech Connect

One-hundred thirty bacteria isolated from a swine manure digester were predominately gram-positive anaerobes which were tentatively classified into the following genera: Peptostreptococcus, Eubacterium, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Peptococcus, Clostridiu, and Streptococcus plus two unidentified groups. The major fermentation products formed by these organisms included acetate, propionate, succinate, lactate, and ethanol, singly or in various combinations. Acetate was the sole end product of several groups. Few of the isolates (14%) reduced the pH below 6.0. The predominate bacteria appear to differ from the predominate organisms isolated from other anaerobic ecosystems.

Iannotti, E.L. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia); Fischer, J.R.; Sievers, D.M.

1982-01-01

298

Oritavancin: a new promising agent in the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive pathogens.  

PubMed

Nosocomial and community-acquired infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens continue to be a challenge, mainly due to the increasing rates of resistance among Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Oritavancin, a new parenteral semisynthetic glycopeptide, possessing rapid bactericidal action and an antimicrobial spectrum containing all Gram-positive pathogens (streptococci, staphylococci, enterococci--vancomycin-resistant enterococci included--and Clostridia spp.) irrespective of their resistance status to the precursor molecule of vancomycin, is expected to file a new drug application by the first trimester of 2008. Once-daily dosing, good penetration into macrophages, in vitro activity against bacteria embedded in biofilms and low adverse reaction potential are further considered as oritavancin's advantages over existing drugs. While waiting for the results of supplementary Phase III studies to be announced, preliminary reports suggest the new drug will be a welcome addition to the existing antimicrobial armamentarium against Gram-positive cocci. PMID:18230056

Poulakou, Garyphallia; Giamarellou, Helen

2008-02-01

299

In Vitro Activity of TD-1792, a Multivalent Glycopeptide-Cephalosporin Antibiotic, against 377 Strains of Anaerobic Bacteria and 34 Strains of Corynebacterium Species  

PubMed Central

TD-1792 is a multivalent glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer antibiotic with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. We tested TD-1792 against 377 anaerobes and 34 strains of Corynebacterium species. Against nearly all Gram-positive strains, TD-1792 had an MIC90 of 0.25 ?g/ml and was typically 3 to 7 dilutions more active than vancomycin and daptomycin.

Citron, Diane M.; Warren, Yumi A.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

2012-01-01

300

Biofilm bacteria: formation and comparative susceptibility to antibiotics  

PubMed Central

The Calgary Biofilm Device (CBD) was used to form bacterial biofilms of selected veterinary gram-negative and gram-positive pathogenic bacteria from cattle, sheep, pigs, chicken, and turkeys. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) of ampicillin, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, streptomycin, tetracycline, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tilmicosin, and trimethoprim-sulfadoxine for gram-positive and -negative bacteria were determined. Bacterial biofilms were readily formed on the CBD under selected conditions. The biofilms consisted of microcolonies encased in extracellular polysaccharide material. Biofilms composed of Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus hyicus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Corynebacterium renale, or Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis were not killed by the antibiotics tested but as planktonic bacteria they were sensitive at low concentrations. Biofilm and planktonic Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus suis were sensitive to penicillin, ceftiofur, cloxacillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline. Planktonic Escherichia coli were sensitive to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim/ sulfadoxine. Enrofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective antibiotics against E. coli growing as a biofilm. Salmonella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates growing as planktonic populations were sensitive to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, ampicillin, oxytetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfadoxine, but as a biofilm, these bacteria were only sensitive to enrofloxacin. Planktonic and biofilm Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica had similar antibiotic sensitivity profiles and were sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested. The CBD provides a valuable new technology that can be used to select antibiotics that are able to kill bacteria growing as biofilms.

Olson, Merle E.; Ceri, Howard; Morck, Douglas W.; Buret, Andre G.; Read, Ronald R.

2002-01-01

301

Gram-Negative Bacteria Produce Membrane Vesicles Which Are Capable of Killing Other Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Naturally produced membrane vesicles (MVs), isolated from 15 strains of gram-negative bacteria (Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Morganella, Proteus, Salmonella, and Shigella strains), lysed many gram-positive (including Mycobacterium) and gram-negative cultures. Peptidoglycan zymograms suggested that MVs contained peptidoglycan hydrolases, and electron microscopy revealed that the murein sacculi were digested, confirming a previous modus operandi (J. L. Kadurugamuwa and T. J. Beveridge, J. Bacteriol. 174:2767–2774, 1996). MV-sensitive bacteria possessed A1?, A4?, A1?, A2?, and A4? peptidoglycan chemotypes, whereas A3?, A3?, A3?, A4?, B1?, and B1? chemotypes were not affected. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 vesicles possessed the most lytic activity.

Li, Zusheng; Clarke, Anthony J.; Beveridge, Terry J.

1998-01-01

302

Beneficial plant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognition of plant growth?promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), a group of beneficial plant bacteria, as potentially useful for stimulating plant growth and increasing crop yields has evolved over the past several years to where today researchers are able to repeatedly use them successfully in field experiments. Increased growth and yields of potato, sugar beet, and radish have been reported. The most

Thomas J. Burr; Anthony Caesar; M. N. Schrolh

1984-01-01

303

Polyribosomes of Growing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of extracting polyribosomes has been developed which uses lysozyme on bacteria in the exponential phase of growth. This procedure recovers more than 80 percent of the total ribonucleic acid and nearly all of the soluble protein. Analysis of the lysate on sucrose gradients shows that 80 to 90 percent of the ribosomes sediment with the polysome fractions, indicating

C. Peter Flessel; Peter Ralph; Alexander Rich

1967-01-01

304

Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)

Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan

1982-01-01

305

Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)|

Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan

1982-01-01

306

Vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive bacterial endophthalmitis: epidemiology, treatment options, and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the microbiological profile and treatment outcomes of vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive bacterial endophthalmitis. Medical records of all patients with Gram-positive bacterial endophthalmitis resistant to vancomycin presenting between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2010 were reviewed in this noncomparative, consecutive, retrospective case series. Favorable outcome was defined as a best-corrected visual acuity of ?20/200. Results Out of 682 culture-positive endophthalmitis isolates, 448/682 (65.6%) were associated with Gram-positive bacteria. In vitro resistance to vancomycin was noted in 7/448 (1.56%). Three cases were posttraumatic, three were postoperative, and one was endogenous in origin. Four Bacillus isolates, two Staphylococcus isolates, and an Enterococcus isolate were resistant. Isolates resistant to vancomycin were sensitive in vitro to ciprofloxacin in 6/7 (86%) patients. Presenting visual acuity was light perception in all seven cases. Favorable outcome was achieved in only 1/7 (14.3%) cases. Conclusions Vancomycin-resistant endophthalmitis is uncommon and usually associated with poor visual outcome. Bacillus sp. is the most frequent Gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin. Fluoroquinolones like ciprofloxacin may be considered as a useful alternative in vancomycin-resistant endophthalmitis.

2013-01-01

307

Invasion of dentinal tubules by oral bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules commonly occurs when dentin is exposed following a breach in the integrity of the overlying enamel or cementum. Bacterial products diffuse through the dentinal tubule toward the pulp and evoke inflammatory changes in the pulpo-dentin complex. These may eliminate the bacterial insult and block the route of infection. Unchecked, invasion results in pulpitis and pulp necrosis, infection of the root canal system, and periapical disease. While several hundred bacterial species are known to inhabit the oral cavity, a relatively small and select group of bacteria is involved in the invasion of dentinal tubules and subsequent infection of the root canal space. Gram-positive organisms dominate the tubule microflora in both carious and non-carious dentin. The relatively high numbers of obligate anaerobes present-such as Eubacterium spp., Propionibacterium spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Peptostreptococcus micros, and Veillonella spp.-suggest that the environment favors growth of these bacteria. Gram-negative obligate anaerobic rods, e.g., Porphyromonas spp., are less frequently recovered. Streptococci are among the most commonly identified bacteria that invade dentin. Recent evidence suggests that streptococci may recognize components present within dentinal tubules, such as collagen type I, which stimulate bacterial adhesion and intra-tubular growth. Specific interactions of other oral bacteria with invading streptococci may then facilitate the invasion of dentin by select bacterial groupings. An understanding the mechanisms involved in dentinal tubule invasion by bacteria should allow for the development of new control strategies, such as inhibitory compounds incorporated into oral health care products or dental materials, which would assist in the practice of endodontics. PMID:12097359

Love, R M; Jenkinson, H F

2002-01-01

308

Interactions Between Bacteria and Nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, we have described some examples of symbiotic and pathogenic interactions that occur between bacteria and soil-dwelling nematodes. Recent genetic analysis of these bacteria-nematode interactions has led to a significant increase in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling how bacteria infect their hosts and, more importantly, the role of the host in determining the output of the

David J. Clarke; Leo Eberl

309

Lipoprotein sorting in bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes the localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Some lipoproteins play vital roles in the sorting of other lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and ?-barrel proteins to the outer membrane. On the basis of results from biochemical, genetic, and structural studies, we discuss the biogenesis of lipoproteins in bacteria, their importance in cellular functions, and the molecular mechanisms underlying efficient sorting of hydrophobic lipoproteins to the outer membrane through the hydrophilic periplasm. PMID:21663440

Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

2011-01-01

310

Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

Vreeland, Russell H. (West Chester University)

2002-01-09

311

Bacteria, food, and cancer  

PubMed Central

Gut microbes are essential components of the human organism—helping us metabolize food into energy, produce micronutrients, and shape our immune systems. Having a particular pattern of gut microbes is also increasingly being linked to medical conditions including obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and diabetes. Recent studies now indicate that our resident intestinal bacteria may also play a critical role in determining one's risk of developing cancer, ranging from protection against cancer to promoting its initiation and progression. Gut bacteria are greatly influenced by diet and in this review we explore evidence that they may be the missing piece that explains how dietary intake influences cancer risk, and discuss possible prevention and treatment strategies.

Rooks, Michelle G.

2011-01-01

312

Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

313

Novel antibacterial agents for the treatment of serious Gram-positive infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the continuing development of clinical drug resistance among bacteria and the advent of resistance to the recently released agents quinupristin- dalfopristin and linezolid, the need for new, effective agents to treat multi- drug-resistant Gram-positive infections remains important. This review focuses on agents presently in clinical development for the treatment of serious multidrug-resistant staphylococcal, enterococcal and pneumococcal infections, including methicillin-resistant

Darren Abbanat; Mark Macielag; Karen Bush

2003-01-01

314

The complete genome sequence of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large

F. Kunst; N. Ogasawara; I. Moszer; A. M. Albertini; G. Alloni; V. Azevedo; M. G. Bertero; P. Bessières; A. Bolotin; S. Borchert; R. Borriss; L. Boursier; A. Brans; M. Braun; S. C. Brignell; S. Bron; S. Brouillet; C. V. Bruschi; B. Caldwell; V. Capuano; N. M. Carter; S.-K. Choi; J.-J. Codani; I. F. Connerton; N. J. Cummings; R. A. Daniel; F. Denizot; K. M. Devine; A. Düsterhöft; S. D. Ehrlich; P. T. Emmerson; K. D. Entian; J. Errington; C. Fabret; E. Ferrari; D. Foulger; C. Fritz; M. Fujita; Y. Fujita; S. Fuma; A. Galizzi; N. Galleron; S.-Y. Ghim; P. Glaser; A. Goffeau; E. J. Golightly; G. Grandi; G. Guiseppi; B. J. Guy; K. Haga; J. Haiech; C. R. Harwood; A. Hénaut; H. Hilbert; S. Holsappel; S. Hosono; M.-F. Hullo; M. Itaya; L. Jones; B. Joris; D. Karamata; Y. Kasahara; M. Klaerr-Blanchard; C. Klein; Y. Kobayashi; P. Koetter; G. Koningstein; S. Krogh; M. Kumano; K. Kurita; A. Lapidus; S. Lardinois; J. Lauber; V. Lazarevic; S.-M. Lee; A. Levine; H. Liu; S. Masuda; C. Mauël; C. Médigue; N. Medina; R. P. Mellado; M. Mizuno; D. Moestl; S. Nakai; M. Noback; D. Noone; M. O'Reilly; K. Ogawa; A. Ogiwara; B. Oudega; S.-H. Park; V. Parro; T. M. Pohl; D. Portetelle; S. Porwollik; A. M. Prescott; E. Presecan; P. Pujic; B. Purnelle; G. Rapoport; M. Rieger; S. Reynolds; C. Rivolta; E. Rocha; B. Roche; M. Rose; Y. Sadaie; T. Sato; E. Scanlan; S. Schleich; R. Schroeter; F. Scoffone; J. Sekiguchi; A. Sekowska; S. J. Seror; P. Serror; B.-S. Shin; B. Soldo; A. Sorokin; E. Tacconi; T. Takagi; H. Takahashi; K. Takemaru; M. Takeuchi; A. Tamakoshi; T. Tanaka; P. Terpstra; A. Tognoni; V. Tosato; S. Uchiyama; M. Vandenbol; F. Vannier; A. Vassarotti; A. Viari; R. Wambutt; E. Wedler; H. Wedler; T. Weitzenegger; P. Winters; A. Wipat; H. Yamamoto; K. Yamane; K. Yasumoto; K. Yata; K. Yoshida; H.-F. Yoshikawa; E. Zumstein; H. Yoshikawa; A. Danchin

1997-01-01

315

Gram-positive infections: pharmacy issues and strategy for quinupristin\\/dalfopristin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the first streptogramin antibiotic, quinupristin\\/dalfopristin represents an attempt to bring new antimicrobial strategies on line to combat the menacing problem of Gram-positive–resistant bacteria. With introduction to the medical center formulary, the pharmacy will need to be aware of several practical issues surrounding the use of quinupristin\\/dalfopristin. Cost and unit size will be important issues. Initially, this drug

John C Rotschafer; David H Wright; Gigi H Brown

1999-01-01

316

The complete genome sequence of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family containing 77 putative ATP-binding transport proteins. In addition, a large

F. Kunst; N. Ogasawara; I. Moszer; A. M. Albertini; G. Alloni; V. Azevedo; M. G. Bertero; P. Bessières; A. Bolotin; S. Borchert; R. Borriss; L. Boursier; A. Brans; M. Braun; S. C. Brignell; S. Bron; S. Brouillet; C. V. Bruschi; B. Caldwell; V. Capuano; N. M. Carter; S.-K. Choi; J.-J. Codani; I. F. Connerton; A. Danchin

1997-01-01

317

Molecular evolution in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in microbiology and molecular biology have a unifying influence on our understanding of genetic diversity\\/similarity and evolutionary relationships in microorganisms. This article attempts to unify information from diverse areas such as microbiology, molecular biology, microbial physiology, clay crystal genes, metals-microbe-clay interactions and bacterial DNA restriction-modification systems (R-M) as they may apply to molecular evolution of bacteria. The possibility

J. T. Trevors

1995-01-01

318

Cheek Cells and Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Brett Finlay enlists a student volunteer to show the surprisingly high amount of bacteria found in his own mouth. This resource is also featured on the DVD 2000 and Beyond: Confronting the Microbe Menace, available free from HHMI. This video is one minute and 27 seconds in length, and available in MOV (8 MB) and WMV (12 MB). All Infectious Disease videos are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/disease/video.html.

Dr. Brett Finlay (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2007-03-27

319

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's Topic In Depth is about antibiotic resistant bacteria.The first site is a recent news report from BBC news (1) that describes some recent research on resistant strains of two "of the world's most dangerous bacteria. Next is a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) page (2) with a brief background on antibiotic resistance and how to prevent it. A much more in-depth report is provided by the Select Committee on Science and Technology of the British House of Lords (3). There has been some public concern over the use of antibiotic resistant bacteria strains as markers in genetically modified food crops. The next two resources present information specific to this topic. The first is from the European Federation of Biotechnology (4), and the second is a shorter report from the Council for Biotechnology Information (5). The Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics (6) has a consumer and patient information section that explains what individuals can do to help prevent the problem from increasing. Readers who need a brief primer on antibiotics may appreciate this Web site from the University of Edinburgh (7). The last site is a "bugs in the news" feature from the University of Kansas (8), which is an easy-to-read explanation of "what the heck" antibiotic resistance is.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

320

Growing Unculturable Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not grow on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in growing these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the field.

2012-01-01

321

Phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of ruminal tannin-tolerant bacteria.  

PubMed

The 16S rRNA sequences and selected phenotypic characteristics were determined for six recently isolated bacteria that can tolerate high levels of hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Bacteria were isolated from the ruminal contents of animals in different geographic locations, including Sardinian sheep (Ovis aries), Honduran and Colombian goats (Capra hircus), white-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from upstate New York, and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from Oregon. Nearly complete sequences of the small-subunit rRNA genes, which were obtained by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing, were used for phylogenetic characterization. Comparisons of the 16S rRNA of the six isolates showed that four of the isolates were members of the genus Streptococcus and were most closely related to ruminal strains of Streptococcus bovis and the recently described organism Streptococcus gallolyticus. One of the other isolates, a gram-positive rod, clustered with the clostridia in the low-G+C-content group of gram-positive bacteria. The sixth isolate, a gram-negative rod, was a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. None of the 16S rRNA sequences of the tannin-tolerant bacteria examined was identical to the sequence of any previously described microorganism or to the sequence of any of the other organisms examined in this study. Three phylogenetically distinct groups of ruminal bacteria were isolated from four species of ruminants in Europe, North America, and South America. The presence of tannin-tolerant bacteria is not restricted by climate, geography, or host animal, although attempts to isolate tannin-tolerant bacteria from cows on low-tannin diets failed. PMID:9758806

Nelson, K E; Thonney, M L; Woolston, T K; Zinder, S H; Pell, A N

1998-10-01

322

Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ruminal Tannin-Tolerant Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The 16S rRNA sequences and selected phenotypic characteristics were determined for six recently isolated bacteria that can tolerate high levels of hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Bacteria were isolated from the ruminal contents of animals in different geographic locations, including Sardinian sheep (Ovis aries), Honduran and Colombian goats (Capra hircus), white-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from upstate New York, and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) from Oregon. Nearly complete sequences of the small-subunit rRNA genes, which were obtained by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing, were used for phylogenetic characterization. Comparisons of the 16S rRNA of the six isolates showed that four of the isolates were members of the genus Streptococcus and were most closely related to ruminal strains of Streptococcus bovis and the recently described organism Streptococcus gallolyticus. One of the other isolates, a gram-positive rod, clustered with the clostridia in the low-G+C-content group of gram-positive bacteria. The sixth isolate, a gram-negative rod, was a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the gamma subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. None of the 16S rRNA sequences of the tannin-tolerant bacteria examined was identical to the sequence of any previously described microorganism or to the sequence of any of the other organisms examined in this study. Three phylogenetically distinct groups of ruminal bacteria were isolated from four species of ruminants in Europe, North America, and South America. The presence of tannin-tolerant bacteria is not restricted by climate, geography, or host animal, although attempts to isolate tannin-tolerant bacteria from cows on low-tannin diets failed.

Nelson, Karen E.; Thonney, Michael L.; Woolston, Tina K.; Zinder, Stephen H.; Pell, Alice N.

1998-01-01

323

In vitro antimicrobial activity of GAR936 tested against antibiotic-resistant gram-positive blood stream infection isolates and strains producing extended-spectrum ?-lactamases  

Microsoft Academic Search

GAR-936, a new, semisynthetic glycylcycline, has shown good antibacterial activity against a wide range of clinically important Gram-positive and –negative aerobic bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae,Hemophilus influenzae,Moraxella catarrhalis,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, most Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of GAR-936 against a range of Gram-positive and –negative bloodstream isolates including many strains producing

Douglas J Biedenbach; Mondell L Beach; Ronald N Jones

2001-01-01

324

Comparison of the immunostimulatory and proinflammatory activities of candidate Gram-positive endotoxins, lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan, and lipopeptides, in murine and human cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative septic shock is well established. The corresponding proinflammatory and immunostimulatory molecule(s) on the Gram-positive bacteria is less well understood, and its identification and characterization would be a key prerequisite in designing specific sequestrants of the Gram-positive endotoxin(s). We report in this paper the comparison of NF-?B-, cytokine- and chemokine-inducing activities

Matthew R. Kimbrell; Hemamali Warshakoon; Jens R. Cromer; Subbalakshmi Malladi; Jennifer D. Hood; Rajalakshmi Balakrishna; Tandace A. Scholdberg; Sunil A. David

2008-01-01

325

Pepsin homologues in bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Peptidase family A1, to which pepsin belongs, had been assumed to be restricted to eukaryotes. The tertiary structure of pepsin shows two lobes with similar folds and it has been suggested that the gene has arisen from an ancient duplication and fusion event. The only sequence similarity between the lobes is restricted to the motif around the active site aspartate and a hydrophobic-hydrophobic-Gly motif. Together, these contribute to an essential structural feature known as a psi-loop. There is one such psi-loop in each lobe, and so each lobe presents an active Asp. The human immunodeficiency virus peptidase, retropepsin, from peptidase family A2 also has a similar fold but consists of one lobe only and has to dimerize to be active. All known members of family A1 show the bilobed structure, but it is unclear if the ancestor of family A1 was similar to an A2 peptidase, or if the ancestral retropepsin was derived from a half-pepsin gene. The presence of a pepsin homologue in a prokaryote might give insights into the evolution of the pepsin family. Results Homologues of the aspartic peptidase pepsin have been found in the completed genomic sequences from seven species of bacteria. The bacterial homologues, unlike those from eukaryotes, do not possess signal peptides, and would therefore be intracellular acting at neutral pH. The bacterial homologues have Thr218 replaced by Asp, a change which in renin has been shown to confer activity at neutral pH. No pepsin homologues could be detected in any archaean genome. Conclusion The peptidase family A1 is found in some species of bacteria as well as eukaryotes. The bacterial homologues fall into two groups, one from oceanic bacteria and one from plant symbionts. The bacterial homologues are all predicted to be intracellular proteins, unlike the eukaryotic enzymes. The bacterial homologues are bilobed like pepsin, implying that if no horizontal gene transfer has occurred the duplication and fusion event might be very ancient indeed, preceding the divergence of bacteria and eukaryotes. It is unclear whether all the bacterial homologues are derived from horizontal gene transfer, but those from the plant symbionts probably are. The homologues from oceanic bacteria are most closely related to memapsins (or BACE-1 and BACE-2), but are so divergent that they are close to the root of the phylogenetic tree and to the division of the A1 family into two subfamilies.

Rawlings, Neil D; Bateman, Alex

2009-01-01

326

Characterization of anti-listerial lactic acid bacteria isolated from Thai fermented fish products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thai fermented fish products were screened for lactic acid bacteria capable of inhibitingListeriasp. (Listeria innocua). Of 4150 assumed lactic acid bacteria colonies from MRS agar plates that were screened by an agar-overlay method 58 (1.4%) were positive. Forty four of these strains were further characterized and 43 strains were inhibitory againstListeria monocytogenes. The strains were inhibitory to other Gram-positive (lactic

A. Østergaard; P. K. B. Embarek; C. Wedell-Neergaard; H. H. Huss; L. Gram

1998-01-01

327

Insulator-based dielectrophoresis for the selective concentration and separation of live bacteria in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulator-based dielectrophoresis (iDEP) was utilized to separate and concentrate selectively mixtures of two species of live bacteria simultaneously. Four species of bacteria were studied: the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, and B. megaterium. Under an applied direct current (DC) electric field all the bacterial species exhibited negative dielectrophoretic behavior. The dielectrophoretic separations were carried out

Blanca H. Lapizco-Encinas; Blake A. Simmons; Eric B. Cummings; Yolanda Fintschenko

2004-01-01

328

Comparative Genomics of DNA Fragments from Six Antarctic Marine Planktonic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six environmental fosmid clones from Antarctic coastal water bacterioplankton were completely sequenced. The genome fragments harbored small-subunit rRNA genes that were between 85 and 91% similar to those of their nearest cultivated relatives. The six fragments span four phyla, including the Gemmatimonadetes, Proteo- bacteria ( and ), Bacteroidetes, and high-GC gram-positive bacteria. Gene-finding and annotation analyses identified 244 total open

Joseph J. Grzymski; Brandon J. Carter; Edward F. DeLong; Robert A. Feldman; Amir Ghadiri; Alison E. Murray

2006-01-01

329

Genetic diversity of culturable bacteria in oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collection of 50 indigenous meta-toluate tolerating bacteria isolated from oil-contaminated rhizosphere of Galega orientalis on selective medium was characterized and identified by classical and molecular methods. 16S rDNA partial sequencing showed the presence of five major lineages of the Bacteria domain. Gram-positive Rhodococcus, Bacillus and Arthrobacter and gram-negative Pseudomonas were the most abundant genera. Only one-fifth of the strains

Minna M. Jussila; German Jurgens; Kristina Lindström; Leena Suominen

2006-01-01

330

An atomic force microscopy study of Galleria mellonella apolipophorin III effect on bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is an abundant hemolymph protein involved in lipid transport and immune response in insects. As revealed by LIVE\\/DEAD staining, incubation of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in the presence of Galleria mellonella apoLp-III led to growth inhibition of selected bacteria. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of bacterial cells after apoLp-III treatment showed considerable alterations in the cell

Agnieszka Zdybicka-Barabas; Barbara Januszanis; Pawel Mak; Ma?gorzata Cytry?ska

2011-01-01

331

A General Structure for Cell Walls of Gram-Negative Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE cell walls of a number of Gram-negative bacteria have been shown to contain a mucopeptide component similar in, composition to that which forms a major fraction of the cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria1. We have recently analysed the cell walls of an Escherichia coli mutant 26-26 requiring lysine for growth. A mucopeptide was isolated from cell walls by the

Patricia H. Clarke; M. D. Lilly

1962-01-01

332

Bacteria-induced histamine release. Examination of the bacterial cell wall components peptidoglycan, teichoic acid and protein A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histamine-releasing capability of whole bacteria was examined in leukocyte suspensions from normal individuals. Both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria caused basophil histamine release. It is probably the bacterial cell wall which interacts with the basophil cell surface leading to release of histamine, since cell walls showed higher histamine releasing capability than the whole bacteria. The releasing effect of the bacterial

S. Norn; P. Stahl Skov; C. Jensen; F. Espersen; J. O. Jarløv

1985-01-01

333

Metabolic engineering of bacteria for ethanol production  

PubMed

Technologies are available which will allow the conversion of lignocellulose into fuel ethanol using genetically engineered bacteria. Assembling these into a cost-effective process remains a challenge. Our work has focused primarily on the genetic engineering of enteric bacteria using a portable ethanol production pathway. Genes encoding Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase have been integrated into the chromosome of Escherichia coli B to produce strain KO11 for the fermentation of hemicellulose-derived syrups. This organism can efficiently ferment all hexose and pentose sugars present in the polymers of hemicellulose. Klebsiella oxytoca M5A1 has been genetically engineered in a similar manner to produce strain P2 for ethanol production from cellulose. This organism has the native ability to ferment cellobiose and cellotriose, eliminating the need for one class of cellulase enzymes. The optimal pH for cellulose fermentation with this organism (pH 5.0-5.5) is near that of fungal cellulases. The general approach for the genetic engineering of new biocatalysts has been most successful with enteric bacteria thus far. However, this approach may also prove useful with Gram-positive bacteria which have other important traits for lignocellulose conversion. Many opportunities remain for further improvements in the biomass to ethanol processes. These include the development of enzyme-based systems which eliminate the need for dilute acid hydrolysis or other pretreatments, improvements in existing pretreatments for enzymatic hydrolysis, process improvements to increase the effective use of cellulase and hemicellulase enzymes, improvements in rates of ethanol production, decreased nutrient costs, increases in ethanol concentrations achieved in biomass beers, increased resistance of the biocatalysts to lignocellulosic-derived toxins, etc. To be useful, each of these improvements must result in a decrease in the cost for ethanol production. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10191391

Ingram; Gomez; Lai; Moniruzzaman; Wood; Yomano; York

1998-04-01

334

Interactions between Staphylococcus aureus and lactic acid bacteria: An old story with new perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram positive opportunistic pathogen and a major concern for both animal and human health worldwide. In some contexts where Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) are the normal dominant microbiota, such as in fermented food or in the vaginal ecosystem, S. aureus sometimes colonises, persists, expresses virulence factors and produces food poisoning or urogenital infections, respectively. Studies on

C. Charlier; M. Cretenet; S. Even; Y. Le Loir

2009-01-01

335

Simultaneous Fluorescent Gram Staining and Activity Assessment of Activated Sludge Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater treatment is one of the most important commercial biotechnological processes, and yet the component bacterial populations and their associated metabolic activities are poorly understood. The novel fluorescent dye hexidium iodide allows assessment of Gram status by differential absorption through bacterial cell walls. Differentiation between gram-positive and gram-negative wastewater bacteria was achieved after flow cytometric analysis. This study shows that

Scott Forster; Jason R. Snape; Hilary M. Lappin-Scott; Jonathan Porter

2002-01-01

336

The Bacteriocins of Ruminal Bacteria and Their Potential as an Alternative to Antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beef cattle have been fed ionophores and other antibiotics for more than 20 years to decrease ruminal fermentation losses (e.g methane and ammonia) and increase feed efficiency, and these improvements have been explained by an inhibition of Gram-positive ruminal bacteria. Ionophores are not used to treat human disease, but there has been an increased perception that antibiotics should not be

James B. Russell; Hilario C. Mantovani

2002-01-01

337

How bacteria talk to each other: regulation of gene expression by quorum sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing, or the control of gene expression in response to cell density, is used by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria to regulate a variety of physiological functions. In all cases, quorum sensing involves the production and detection of extracellular signalling molecules called autoinducers. While universal signalling themes exist, variations in the design of the extracellular signals, the signal detection

Bonnie L Bassler

1999-01-01

338

Isolation and Characterization of Endophytic Colonizing Bacteria from Agronomic Crops and Prairie Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. In this study, 853 endophytic strains were isolated from aerial tissues of four agronomic crop species and 27 prairie plant species. We determined several phenotypic properties and found approximately equal numbers of gram-negative and gram-positive isolates. In a greenhouse study, 28 of 86 prairie plant endophytes were found to colonize

Denise K. Zinniel; Patricia A. Lambrecht; N. Beth Harris; Zhengyu Feng; Daniel Kuczmarski; Phyllis Higley; Carol A. Ishimaru; Alahari Arunakumari; Raul G. Barletta; Anne M. Vidaver

2002-01-01

339

Correlation between Major Constituents and Antibacterial Activities of Some Plant Essential Oils against Some Pathogenic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five different plant essential oils (Satureja hortensis, Thymus sipyleus ssp. rosulans, Thymus haussknechtii, Origanum rotundifolium (cultured form) and Origanum acutidens (wild and cultured form)) and their two major constituents carvacarol and thymol were evaluated for antibacterial activity against food-borne Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis) and Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus

Neslihan Dikbas; Recep Kotan; Fatih Dadasoglu; Kenan Karagöz; Ramazan Çakmakci

340

Culturable Whitefly Associated Bacteria and Their Potential as Biological Control Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bio-pesticides play an important role in reducing the deleterious effects associated with using conventional insecticides. For this reason, the potential of eleven whitefly-associated bacterial isolates as biological control agents was studied under lab conditions. These bacteria were three gram negatives; Erwinia persicinus, Pseudomonas plecoglossicida and Pseudomonas putida, and 8 gram positives; Brevibacterium casei, Staphylococcus gallinarum, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus

Mazen A. Ateyyat; Mohammad Shatnawi; Mohammad S. Al-Mazra

341

Evaluation of the Sceptor system for identification of bacteria of veterinary origin.  

PubMed Central

The Sceptor system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Towson Md.) was assessed for its ability to identify veterinary clinical isolates. A total of 605 bacteria, including 315 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 191 gram-negative nonenteric bacteria, and 99 gram-positive bacteria, were tested. Overall, 534 (88.3%) were correctly identified, 28 (4.6%) were not identified, 12 (2.0%) were incorrectly identified at the genus levels, and 32 (5.3%) were incorrectly identified at the species level. The Sceptor system correctly identified 292 (92.7%) isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, 165 (86.4%) gram-negative nonenteric bacteria, and 77 (77.8%) gram-positive bacteria. One hundred thirty organisms not contained in the data base were tested with the Sceptor system to assess the possibility of expanding the data base. The Sceptor system was an acceptable method for the identification of isolates of Enterobacteriaceae but not gram-negative nonenteric and gram-positive bacteria of animal origin. Development of a veterinary isolate-specific data base would improve the utility of the Sceptor system in veterinary diagnostic bacteriology.

Papp, J R; Muckle, C A

1991-01-01

342

Expanding the bactericidal action of the food color additive phloxine B to gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Phloxine B (D&C red no. 28) is a color additive for food, drugs, and cosmetics. It has been previously shown to have anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities. In this work, the effect of Phloxine B on various gram-negative bacteria and other gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus aureus, Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Shigella was studied, along with the mechanism of anti-microbial activity. In the presence of fluorescent light, the viable count for gram-positive bacteria, (Bacillus spp. and S. aureus) decreased in a dose and time dependent manner when incubated with Phloxine B. The viability of gram-positive bacteria was reduced by 99.99% in 40 min, while there was no effect on gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella choleraesuis, E. coli and Shigella flexneri). However, the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) expands the spectrum of activity for Phloxine B to include gram-negative bacteria. EDTA increased membrane-permeability by releasing lipopolysaccharide. Overall, in an Agar diffusion test the light-dependent bactericidal activity of 1 microg of Phloxine B had a potency of 0.64 units of chloramphenicol and 0.5 units of tetracycline when tested on B. cereus, and had a potency of 0.7 units of chloramphenicol and 0.2 units of tetracycline when tested on S. aureus. The data suggest that the dye may have some potential anti-microbial applications. PMID:15949926

Rasooly, Reuven

2005-08-01

343

2-Arylbenzothiazole, benzoxazole and benzimidazole derivatives as fluorogenic substrates for the detection of nitroreductase and aminopeptidase activity in clinically important bacteria.  

PubMed

A series of 2-(2-nitrophenyl)benzothiazole 7, 2-(2-nitrophenyl)benzoxazole 10 and 2-(2-nitrophenyl)benzimidazole 13 derivatives have been synthesised and assessed as indicators of nitroreductase activity across a range of clinically important Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The majority of Gram negative bacteria produced strongly fluorescent colonies with substrates 7 and 10 whereas fluorescence production in Gram positive bacteria was less widespread. The l-alanine 16 and 19 and ?-alanine 21 and 23 derivatives have been prepared from 2-(2-aminophenyl)benzothiazole 14 and 2-(2-aminophenyl)benzoxazole 17. These four compounds have been evaluated as indicators of aminopeptidase activity. The growth of Gram positive bacteria was generally inhibited by these substrates but fluorescent colonies were produced with the majority of Gram negative bacteria tested. PMID:21481591

Cellier, Marie; Fabrega, Olivier J; Fazackerley, Elizabeth; James, Arthur L; Orenga, Sylvain; Perry, John D; Salwatura, Vindhya L; Stanforth, Stephen P

2011-04-08

344

Rapid, specific and sensitive electrochemical detection of foodborne bacteria.  

PubMed

Electrochemical biochips are an emerging tool for point-of-care diagnostic systems in medicine, food and environmental monitoring. In the current study, a thermostable reporter enzyme, esterase 2 (EST2) from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, is used for specific and sensitive detection of bacteria by one-step rRNA/DNA hybridization between a bacterium-specific capture oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), bacterial 16S rRNA and an uniform EST2-ODN reporter conjugate. The detection limit corresponds to approximately 500 colony forming units (cfu) Escherichia coli. Beside high sensitivity, the application of electrochemical biochips allows discrimination of two gram-negative and two gram-positive bacteria demonstrating the specificity and the potential for parallel detection of microorganisms. The feasibility of identification of foodborne bacteria was studied with meat juice contaminated with E. coli. This detection system has the capability to be applied for monitoring of bacterial food contamination. PMID:19278848

Pöhlmann, Christopher; Wang, Yiran; Humenik, Martin; Heidenreich, Bernd; Gareis, Manfred; Sprinzl, Mathias

2009-02-06

345

Triclosan-resistant bacteria isolated from feedlot and residential soils.  

PubMed

Triclosan is an antimicrobial agent that is currently incorporated into hundreds of consumer and medical products. It can be either a bacteriostatic or bactericidal agent, depending on its formulation. It has activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as some viruses and protists. The purpose of this study was to determine whether triclosan-resistant bacteria could be isolated from the soil. Soils from cattle feedlots and residential lawns were collected and assayed for the presence of these organisms by plating samples on growth media containing triclosan. Organisms were subsequently identified by partial 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. All the organisms isolated in this study were Gram-negative rods, with members of genus Pseudomonas being particularly well represented. This result may not be surprising because Gram-negative organisms are generally more resistant to triclosan, and since Pseudomonas bacteria are known to have numerous efflux mechanisms for dealing with harmful substances. PMID:21391038

Welsch, Tanner T; Gillock, Eric T

2011-01-01

346

Mercury Transport in Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercuric ions (Hg2+) and methylmercury are major, human-generated, toxic contaminants present in fish and our waterways. Bacteria provide a means\\u000a of bioremediation by taking up these compounds and reducing them to volatile, non-toxic, elemental mercury (Hg°). Three types\\u000a of mercury\\/methylmercury transporters have previously been identified: MerC, MerF and MerT. Each of these sets of homologues\\u000a has distinct topologies. MerF proteins

Ai Yamaguchi; Dorjee G. Tamang; Milton H. Saier Jr

2007-01-01

347

Bacteria in the Cafeteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity from the American Museum of Natural History's family magazine series challenges kids to go on a microbe quest to solve a riddle. The online activity begins with a page of directions for how to find the missing letters of the riddle. As kids click their way around a virtual lunchroom, they are given 11 Yes/No questions asking whether the featured bacteria helps people. Along with the answer to the riddle, kids get a round of applause when they correctly answer all 11 questions.

348

Surface layers of bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Since bacteria are so small, microscopy has traditionally been used to study them as individual cells. To this end, electron microscopy has been a most powerful tool for studying bacterial surfaces; the viewing of macromolecular arrangements of some surfaces is now possible. This review compares older conventional electron-microscopic methods with new cryotechniques currently available and the results each has produced. Emphasis is not placed on the methodology but, rather, on the importance of the results in terms of our perception of the makeup and function of bacterial surfaces and their interaction with the surrounding environment. Images

Beveridge, T J; Graham, L L

1991-01-01

349

Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons.  

PubMed

During the months of November 1996, August 1997, and March 1998, saliva and plasma samples were collected for isolation of aerobic bacteria from 26 wild and 13 captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Twenty-eight Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive species of bacteria were isolated from the saliva of the 39 Komodo dragons. A greater number of wild than captive dragons were positive for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The average number of bacterial species within the saliva of wild dragons was 46% greater than for captive dragons. While Escherichia coli was the most common bacterium isolated from the saliva of wild dragons, this species was not present in captive dragons. The most common bacteria isolated from the saliva of captive dragons were Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus caseolyticus, neither of which were found in wild dragons. High mortality was seen among mice injected with saliva from wild dragons and the only bacterium isolated from the blood of dying mice was Pasteurella multocida. A competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed the presence of anti-Pasteurella antibody in the plasma of Komodo dragons. Four species of bacteria isolated from dragon saliva showed resistance to one or more of 16 antimicrobics tested. The wide variety of bacteria demonstrated in the saliva of the Komodo dragon in this study, at least one species of which was highly lethal in mice and 54 species of which are known pathogens, support the observation that wounds inflicted by this animal are often associated with sepsis and subsequent bacteremia in prey animals. PMID:12238371

Montgomery, Joel M; Gillespie, Don; Sastrawan, Putra; Fredeking, Terry M; Stewart, George L

2002-07-01

350

Bacteria as modular organisms.  

PubMed

The body plan of modular organisms is based on an indeterminate structure composed of iterated units or modules arrayed at various levels of complexity (such as leaves, twigs, and branches). Examples of modular organisms include plants and many sessile benthic invertebrates. In contrast, the body of unitary organisms is a determinate structure consisting usually of a strictly defined number of parts (such as legs or wings) established only during embryogenesis. Mobile animals are examples. Unlike that of unitary creatures, the form of a modular organism derives from a characteristic pattern of branching or budding of modules, which may remain attached or become separated to live physiologically independent lives as parts of a clone. Modular organisms tend to be sessile or passively mobile and, as genetic individuals, have the capacity for exponential increase in size. They do not necessarily undergo systemic senescence, and do not segregate somatic from germ line cells. It is argued here that bacteria are essentially modular organisms where the bacterial cell, microcolony, and macrocolony are modules of different levels of complexity analogous to modules of macroorganisms. This interpretation provides a broad conceptual basis for understanding the natural history of bacteria, and may illuminate the evolutionary origins and developmental biology of modular creatures. PMID:9891795

Andrews, J H

1998-01-01

351

Performance of bacteria filters.  

PubMed

Several kinds and brands of bacteria filters are commercially available for use in anesthesia and respiratory therapy applications. Clinical experience of high airflow resistance, ruptured media, failure to retain visible dust particles, and lack of consistent performance statements or warranties by manufacturers about their bacteria filters prompted a study of the performance of 13 different filters. The filters were challenged by mineral oil droplets, Serratia marcescens and Excherichia coli bacteriophages T4 and T7, tobacco smoke, nebulized india ink, dioctylphthalate smoke (DOP), and water. Results showed that viable bacterial passed through some filters, many filters were unable to retain visible ink or tobacco smoke particles, and resistance to airflow was increased two-fold or more in many filters when the filters were laden with 10 ml of water. Conflicting data resulted from two different types of DOP testing machines. There was a wide variation in performance among the different brands of filters; variable results also were seen within a given brand. Five brands of filters met the federal DOP standards for HEPA filters, but the wide variation in DOP testing results with two different kinds of DOP machines indicates a need for better standards. The DOP 0.3-micron bubble test is the most readily available nontoxic test to rate filtration efficiency; however, the DOP efficiency rating cannot be used to equate equivalent performance against infectious organisms. PMID:10315105

Dryden, G E; Dryden, S R; Brown, D G; Schatzle, K C; Godzeski, C

1980-11-01

352

Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(4-vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium bromide) was covalently attached to glass slides to create a surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact. The antibacterial properties were assessed by spraying aqueous suspensions of bacterial cells on the surface, followed by air drying and counting the number of cells remaining viable (i.e., capable of growing colonies). Amino glass slides were acylated with acryloyl chloride, copolymerized with 4-vinylpyridine, and N-alkylated with different alkyl bromides (from propyl to hexadecyl). The resultant surfaces, depending on the alkyl group, were able to kill up to 94 ± 4% of Staphylococcus aureus cells sprayed on them. A surface alternatively created by attaching poly(4-vinylpyridine) to a glass slide and alkylating it with hexyl bromide killed 94 ± 3% of the deposited S. aureus cells. On surfaces modified with N-hexylated poly(4-vinylpyridine), the numbers of viable cells of another Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, dropped more than 100-fold compared with the original amino glass. In contrast, the number of viable bacterial cells did not decline significantly after spraying on such common materials as ceramics, plastics, metals, and wood.

Tiller, Joerg C.; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M.

2001-05-01

353

Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact  

PubMed Central

Poly(4-vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium bromide) was covalently attached to glass slides to create a surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact. The antibacterial properties were assessed by spraying aqueous suspensions of bacterial cells on the surface, followed by air drying and counting the number of cells remaining viable (i.e., capable of growing colonies). Amino glass slides were acylated with acryloyl chloride, copolymerized with 4-vinylpyridine, and N-alkylated with different alkyl bromides (from propyl to hexadecyl). The resultant surfaces, depending on the alkyl group, were able to kill up to 94 ± 4% of Staphylococcus aureus cells sprayed on them. A surface alternatively created by attaching poly(4-vinylpyridine) to a glass slide and alkylating it with hexyl bromide killed 94 ± 3% of the deposited S. aureus cells. On surfaces modified with N-hexylated poly(4-vinylpyridine), the numbers of viable cells of another Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, dropped more than 100-fold compared with the original amino glass. In contrast, the number of viable bacterial cells did not decline significantly after spraying on such common materials as ceramics, plastics, metals, and wood.

Tiller, Joerg C.; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M.

2001-01-01

354

Characterisation and in vitro activities of surface attached dihydropyrrol-2-ones against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial infection of biomedical devices is still a major barrier to their use. This is compounded by increasing antibiotic resistance. Here, the specific covalent attachment of a series of dihydropyrrol-2-one (DHP), analogues of bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors, to surfaces via a Michael-type addition reaction is described. Differences in efficiency of attachment related to the substituent groups were found by X-ray

Kitty K. K. Ho; Nerida Cole; Renxun Chen; Mark D. P. Willcox; Scott A. Rice; Naresh Kumar

2010-01-01

355

Molecular insights into the initiation of sporulation in Gram-positive bacteria: new technologies for an old phenomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has witnessed extensive, and widespread, changes in scientific technologies that have impacted significantly upon the study of the life sciences. Arguably, the biggest advances in our comprehension of simple and complex biological processes have come as a consequence of obtaining the complete DNA sequence of organisms. It is likely that we will become accustomed to hearing of

Keith Stephenson; Richard J. Lewis

2005-01-01

356

High osmolarity improves the electro-transformation efficiency of the gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high osmolarity electroporation method has been developed for the efficient transformation of Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis. The presence of high concentrations of the osmoticums, sorbitol and mannitol, in the electroporation, growth and recovery media resulted in an approximately 5000-fold increase in the transformation efficiency of B. subtilis, with a maximum value of 1.4×106 transformants per ?g DNA. The

Gang-Ping Xue; Jennifer S Johnson; Brian P Dalrymple

1999-01-01

357

Monitoring for antibiotic resistance in enterococci consequent upon feeding growth promoters active against gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed

Commercial chicken and pig farms, using different growth promoters, were monitored for enterococci resistant to a range of antibacterial agents. Due to inconsistent findings attributed to uncontrollable factors, chickens kept under experimental conditions were also studied. A total of 4216 isolates from all the surveys were examined. Resistant isolates were often encountered, even in control groups, suggesting complex population changes not necessarily solely connected with the influence of the growth promoters. It was concluded that comprehensive methods for differentiating strains are necessary to unravel this problem. PMID:3921723

Linton, A H; Hinton, M H; Al-Chalaby, Z A

1985-03-01

358

Minimum inhibitory concentrations of herbal essential oils and monolaurin for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

New, safe antimicrobial agents are needed to prevent and overcome severe bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Based on our previous experience and that of others, we postulated that herbal essential oils, such as those of origanum, and monolaurin offer such possibilities. We examined in vitro the cidal and\\/or static effects of oil of origanum, several other essential oils, and monolaurin

Harry G. Preuss; Bobby Echard; Mary Enig; Itzhak Brook; Thomas B. Elliott

2005-01-01

359

Isolation and Purification of Enterocin E-760 with Broad Antimicrobial Activity against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria?  

PubMed Central

Strain NRRL B-30745, isolated from chicken ceca and identified as Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus faecium, or Enterococcus hirae, was initially identified as antagonistic to Campylobacter jejuni. The isolate produced a 5,362-Da bacteriocin (enterocin) that inhibits the growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Choleraesuis, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Gallinarum, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, and 20 other Campylobacter species isolates. The enterocin, E-760, was isolated and purified by cation-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatographies. The proteinaceous nature of purified enterocin E-760 was demonstrated upon treatment with various proteolytic enzymes. Specifically, the antimicrobial peptide was found to be sensitive to beta-chymotrypsin, proteinase K, and papain, while it was resistant to lysozyme and lipase. The enterocin demonstrated thermostability by retaining activity after 5 min at 100°C and was stable at pH values between 5.0 and 8.7. However, activity was lost below pH 3.0 and above pH 9.5. Administration of enterocin E-760-treated feed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonization of young broiler chicks experimentally challenged and colonized with two strains of C. jejuni by more than 8 log10 CFU. Enterocin E-760 also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonization of naturally acquired Campylobacter species in market age broiler chickens when administered in treated feed 4 days prior to analysis.

Line, J. E.; Svetoch, E. A.; Eruslanov, B. V.; Perelygin, V. V.; Mitsevich, E. V.; Mitsevich, I. P.; Levchuk, V. P.; Svetoch, O. E.; Seal, B. S.; Siragusa, G. R.; Stern, N. J.

2008-01-01

360

Modes of phagocytosis of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by Spodoptera littoralis granular haemocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haemocytes are the main immunocompetent cells in insect cellular immune reactions. Here, we show that in Spodoptera littoralis, granular haemocytes are the primary phagocyte haemocytes, both in vivo and in vitro. The “trigger” and “zipper” modes of engulfment known in mammal macrophages are active, in vivo, in S. littoralis granular haemocytes, together with macropinocytosis. Lipopolysaccharide as well as lipoteichoic acid

Sónia C. P. Costa; Carlos Ribeiro; Pierre-Alain Girard; Robert Zumbihl; Michel Brehélin

2005-01-01

361

Antibacterial activity of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ag-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) (Ca10- x Ag x (PO4)6(OH)2, x Ag = 0.05, 0.2, and 0.3) with antibacterial properties are of great interest in the development of new products. Coprecipitation method is a promising route for obtaining nanocrystalline Ag:HAp with antibacterial properties. X-ray diffraction identified HAp as an unique crystalline phase in each sample. The calculated lattice constants of a = b = 9.435 Å, c = 6.876 Å for x Ag = 0.05, a = b = 9.443 Å, c = 6.875 Å for x Ag = 0.2, and a = b = 9.445 Å, c = 6.877 Å for x Ag = 0.3 are in good agreement with the standard of a = b = 9.418 Å, c = 6.884 Å (space group P63/m). The Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the sintered HAp show the absorption bands characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The Ag:HAp nanoparticles are evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of these materials, regardless of the sample types, was greatest against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. stuartii, and C. freundii. The results of qualitative antibacterial tests revealed that the tested Ag:HAp-NPs had an important inhibitory activity on P. stuartii and C. freundii. The absorbance values measured at 490 nm of the P. stuartii and C. freundii in the presence of Ag:HAp-NPs decreased compared with those of organic solvent used (DMSO) for all the samples ( x Ag = 0.05, 0.2, and 0.3). Antibacterial activity increased with the increase of x Ag in the samples. The Ag:HAp-NP concentration had little influence on the bacterial growth ( P. stuartii).

Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Le Coustumer, Phillippe; Constantin, Liliana Violeta; Predoi, Daniela

2012-06-01

362

Peptide pheromone-dependent regulation of antimicrobial peptide production in Gram-positive bacteria: a case of multicellular behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing enables unicellular organisms to behave in a multicellular way by allowing population-wide synchronized adaptive responses that involve modulation of a wide range of physiological responses in a cell density-, cell proximity- or growth phase-dependent manner. Examples of processes modulated by quorum sensing are the development of genetic competence, conjugative plasmid transfer, sporulation and cell differentiation, biofilm formation, virulence

Michiel Kleerebezem; Luis E. Quadri

2001-01-01

363

The ESAT-6 gene cluster of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other high G+C Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv has five copies of a cluster of genes known as the ESAT-6 loci. These clusters contain members of the CFP-10 (lhp) and ESAT-6 (esat-6) gene families (encoding secreted T-cell antigens that lack detectable secretion signals) as well as genes encoding secreted, cell-wall-associated subtilisin-like serine proteases, putative ABC transporters, ATP-binding proteins and other membrane-associated

Nico C Gey van Pittius; Junaid Gamieldien; Winston Hide; Gordon D Brown; Roland J Siezen; Albert D Beyers

2001-01-01

364

Activities of the Semisynthetic Glycopeptide LY191145 against Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

LY191145 is the prototype of a series of compounds with activities against vancomycin-resistant enterococci derived by modification of the glycopeptide antibiotic LY264826. LY191145 had MICs for vancomycin- and teicoplanin-resistant enterococci of <4 mg\\/ml for 50% of isolates and <16 mg\\/ml for 90% of isolates. Its MICs for vancomycin-resistant, teicoplanin-susceptible enterococci were 1 to 8 mg\\/ml. LY191145 retains the potent activities

THALIA I. NICAS; DEBORAH L. MULLEN; JANE E. FLOKOWITSCH; DAVID A. PRESTON; NANCY J. SNYDER; ROBERT E. STRATFORD; ANDROBIN D. G. COOPER

1995-01-01

365

Pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimers: novel sequence-selective, DNA-interactive, cross-linking agents with activity against Gram-positive bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: MICs were determined against 38 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 20 vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), 12 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes ,1 2 ofStreptococcus agalactiae, 12 of Listeria monocytogenes and 24 Gram-negative clinical isolates. Binding to double- stranded DNA was assessed by determination of the DNA melting temperature (Tm). Results: MIC90 values for SJG-136 were 0.5 mg\\/L against MRSA, VRE and L.

Tsveta Hadjivassileva; David E. Thurston; Peter W. Taylor

2005-01-01

366

Isolation and characterisation of new Gram-negative and Gram-positive atrazine degrading bacteria from different French soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of 12 soils to degrade atrazine was studied in laboratory incubations using radiolabelled atrazine. Eight soils showed enhanced degradation of this compound. Twenty-five bacterial strains able to degrade atrazine were isolated by an enrichment method from 10 of these soils. These soils were chosen for their wide range of physico-chemical characteristics. Their history of treatment with atrazine was

Sandrine Rousseaux; Alain Hartmann; Guy Soulas

2001-01-01

367

Staphylococcin 1580 is identical to the lantibiotic epidermin: implications for the nature of bacteriocins from gram-positive bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcin 1580 was purified to homogeneity from culture supernatants of Staphylococcus epidermidis 1580 by means of adsorption to XAD 2, cation exchange chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography on reversed-phase C18. The purified active substance migrated in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an apparent M(r) of approximately 2,000. Amino acid analysis, mass determination (2,165 Da) and N-terminal sequencing (Ile-Ala-Xaa-Lys-Phe-Ile-Xaa-Xaa-Pro-Gly-Xaa-Ala-Lys-block) demonstrated that staphylococcin 1580 is identical to epidermin, a lanthionine-containing antibiotic peptide (lantibiotic). Images

Sahl, H G

1994-01-01

368

Antibacterial activity of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria  

PubMed Central

Ag-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) (Ca10-xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2, xAg?=?0.05, 0.2, and 0.3) with antibacterial properties are of great interest in the development of new products. Coprecipitation method is a promising route for obtaining nanocrystalline Ag:HAp with antibacterial properties. X-ray diffraction identified HAp as an unique crystalline phase in each sample. The calculated lattice constants of a?=?b?=?9.435 Å, c?=?6.876 Å for xAg?=?0.05, a?=?b?=?9.443 Å, c?=?6.875 Å for xAg?=?0.2, and a?=?b?=?9.445 Å, c?=?6.877 Å for xAg?=?0.3 are in good agreement with the standard of a?=?b?=?9.418 Å, c?=?6.884 Å (space group P63/m). The Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the sintered HAp show the absorption bands characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The Ag:HAp nanoparticles are evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of these materials, regardless of the sample types, was greatest against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. stuartii, and C. freundii. The results of qualitative antibacterial tests revealed that the tested Ag:HAp-NPs had an important inhibitory activity on P. stuartii and C. freundii. The absorbance values measured at 490 nm of the P. stuartii and C. freundii in the presence of Ag:HAp-NPs decreased compared with those of organic solvent used (DMSO) for all the samples (xAg?=?0.05, 0.2, and 0.3). Antibacterial activity increased with the increase of xAg in the samples. The Ag:HAp-NP concentration had little influence on the bacterial growth (P. stuartii).

2012-01-01

369

Presence of erm gene classes in Gram-positive bacteria of animal and human origin in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

A classification of the different erm gene classes based on published sequences was performed, and specific primers to detect some of these classes designed. The presence of ermA (Tn554), ermB (class IV) and ermC (class VI) was determined by PCR in a total of 113 enterococcal, 77 streptococcal and 68 staphylococcal erythromycin resistant isolates of animal and human origin. At

Lars Bogø Jensen; Niels Frimodt-Møller; Frank M Aarestrup

1999-01-01

370

Antibacterial activity of silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Ag-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs) (Ca10-xAgx(PO4)6(OH)2, xAg?=?0.05, 0.2, and 0.3) with antibacterial properties are of great interest in the development of new products. Coprecipitation method is a promising route for obtaining nanocrystalline Ag:HAp with antibacterial properties. X-ray diffraction identified HAp as an unique crystalline phase in each sample. The calculated lattice constants of a?=?b?=?9.435 Å, c?=?6.876 Å for xAg?=?0.05, a?=?b?=?9.443 Å, c?=?6.875 Å for xAg?=?0.2, and a?=?b?=?9.445 Å, c?=?6.877 Å for xAg?=?0.3 are in good agreement with the standard of a?=?b?=?9.418 Å, c?=?6.884 Å (space group P63/m). The Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectra of the sintered HAp show the absorption bands characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The Ag:HAp nanoparticles are evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Providencia stuartii, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens. The results showed that the antibacterial activity of these materials, regardless of the sample types, was greatest against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. stuartii, and C. freundii. The results of qualitative antibacterial tests revealed that the tested Ag:HAp-NPs had an important inhibitory activity on P. stuartii and C. freundii. The absorbance values measured at 490 nm of the P. stuartii and C. freundii in the presence of Ag:HAp-NPs decreased compared with those of organic solvent used (DMSO) for all the samples (xAg?=?0.05, 0.2, and 0.3). Antibacterial activity increased with the increase of xAg in the samples. The Ag:HAp-NP concentration had little influence on the bacterial growth (P. stuartii). PMID:22721352

Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Le Coustumer, Phillippe; Constantin, Liliana Violeta; Predoi, Daniela

2012-06-21

371

Acquisition of Iron by Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria have evolved multiple mechanisms to cope with the extreme iron limitations in their natural\\u000a environments. Fe3+ forms insoluble hydroxy aquo complexes. The free Fe3+\\u000a concentration lies orders of magnitude below the concentration required for microbial growth (0.1 ?M).\\u000a Bacteria synthesize and secrete low-molecular-weight compounds, called siderophores, which bind Fe3+\\u000a with very high affinity and specificity, and host organisms of bacteria

Volkmar Braun; Klaus Hantke

372

Phenotypic switching in bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial genetic networks that would implement a more general theoretical model of phenotypic switching. We will use a new cloning strategy in order to systematically assemble a large number of genetic features, such as site-specific recombination components from the R64 plasmid, which invert several coexisting DNA segments. The inversion of these segments would lead to discrete phenotypic transitions inside a living cell. These artificial phenotypic switches can be controlled precisely in experiments and may serve as a benchmark for their natural counterparts.

Merrin, Jack

373

Programmed Death in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) in bacteria plays an important role in developmental processes, such as lysis of the mother cell during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis and lysis of vegetative cells in fruiting body formation of Myxococcus xanthus. The signal transduction pathway leading to autolysis of the mother cell includes the terminal sporulation sigma factor E?K, which induces the synthesis of autolysins CwlC and CwlH. An activator of autolysin in this and other PCD processes is yet to be identified. Autolysis plays a role in genetic exchange in Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the gene for the major autolysin, lytA, is located in the same operon with recA. DNA from lysed cells is picked up by their neighbors and recombined into the chromosome by RecA. LytA requires an unknown activator controlled by a sensory kinase, VncS. Deletion of vncS inhibits autolysis and also decreases killing by unrelated antibiotics. This observation suggests that PCD in bacteria serves to eliminate damaged cells, similar to apoptosis of defective cells in metazoa. The presence of genes affecting survival without changing growth sensitivity to antibiotics (vncS, lytA, hipAB, sulA, and mar) indicates that bacteria are able to control their fate. Elimination of defective cells could limit the spread of a viral infection and donate nutrients to healthy kin cells. An altruistic suicide would be challenged by the appearance of asocial mutants without PCD and by the possibility of maladaptive total suicide in response to a uniformly present lethal factor or nutrient depletion. It is proposed that a low rate of mutation serves to decrease the probability that asocial mutants without PCD will take over the population. It is suggested that PCD is disabled in persistors, rare cells that are resistant to killing, to ensure population survival. It is suggested that lack of nutrients leads to the stringent response that suppresses PCD, producing a state of tolerance to antibiotics, allowing cells to discriminate between nutrient deprivation and unrepairable damage. High levels of persistors are apparently responsible for the extraordinary survival properties of bacterial biofilms, and genes affecting persistence appear to be promising targets for development of drugs aimed at eradicating recalcitrant infections. PCD in unicellular eukaryotes is also considered, including aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Apoptosis-like elimination of defective cells in S. cerevisiae and protozoa suggests that all unicellular life forms evolved altruistic programmed death that serves a variety of useful functions.

Lewis, Kim

2000-01-01

374

Influence of bentonite particles on representative gram negative and gram positive bacterial deposition in porous media.  

PubMed

The significance of clay particles on the transport and deposition kinetics of bacteria in irregular quartz sand was examined by direct comparison of both breakthrough curves and retained profiles with clay particles in bacteria suspension versus those without clay particles. Two representative cell types, Gram-negative strain E. coli DH5? and Gram-positive strain Bacillus subtilis were utilized to systematically determine the influence of clay particles (bentonite) on cell transport behavior. Packed column experiments for both cell types were conducted in both NaCl (5 and 25 mM ionic strengths) and CaCl(2) (5 mM ionic strength) solutions at pH 6.0. The breakthrough plateaus with bentonite in solutions (30 mg L(-1) and 50 mg L(-1)) were lower than those without bentonite for both cell types under all examined conditions, indicating that bentonite in solutions decreased cell transport in porous media regardless of cell types (Gram-negative or Gram-positive) and solution chemistry (ionic strength and ion valence). The enhanced cell deposition with bentonite particles was mainly observed at segments near to column inlet, retained profiles for both cell types with bentonite particles were therefore steeper relative to those without bentonite. The increased cell deposition with bentonite observed in NaCl solutions was attributed to the codeposition of bacteria with bentonite particles whereas, in addition to codeposition of bacteria with bentonite, the bacteria-bentonite-bacteria cluster formed in suspensions also contributed to the increased deposition of bacteria with bentonite in CaCl(2) solution. PMID:22970735

Yang, Haiyan; Tong, Meiping; Kim, Hyunjung

2012-10-09

375

Bacteria, Phages and Septicemia  

PubMed Central

The use of phages is an attractive option to battle antibiotic resistant bacteria in certain bacterial infections, but the role of phage ecology in bacterial infections is obscure. Here we surveyed the phage ecology in septicemia, the most severe type of bacterial infection. We observed that the majority of the bacterial isolates from septicemia patients spontaneously secreted phages active against other isolates of the same bacterial strain, but not to the strain causing the disease. Such phages were also detected in the initial blood cultures, indicating that phages are circulating in the blood at the onset of sepsis. The fact that most of the septicemic bacterial isolates carry functional prophages suggests an active role of phages in bacterial infections. Apparently, prophages present in sepsis-causing bacterial clones play a role in clonal selection during bacterial invasion.

Gaidelyte, Ausra; Vaara, Martti; Bamford, Dennis H.

2007-01-01

376

Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci  

PubMed Central

Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of organisms defined by their morphological appearance and their inability to grow in the presence of oxygen; most clinical isolates are identified to species in the genus Peptostreptococcus. GPAC are part of the normal flora of all mucocutaneous surfaces and are often isolated from infections such as deep organ abscesses, obstetric and gynecological sepsis, and intraoral infections. They have been little studied for several reasons, which include an inadequate classification, difficulties with laboratory identification, and the mixed nature of the infections from which they are usually isolated. Nucleic acid studies indicate that the classification is in need of radical revision at the genus level. Several species of Peptostreptococcus have recently been described, but others still await formal recognition. Identification has been based on carbohydrate fermentation tests, but most GPAC are asaccharolytic and use the products of protein degradation for their metabolism; the introduction of commercially available preformed enzyme kits affords a physiologically more appropriate method of identification, which is simple and relatively rapid and can be used in routine diagnostic laboratories. Recent reports have documented the isolation in pure culture of several species, notably Peptostreptococcus magnus, from serious infections. Studies of P. magnus have elucidated several virulence factors which correlate with the site of infection, and reveal some similarities to Staphylococcus aureus. P. micros is a strongly proteolytic species; it is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen in intraoral infections, particularly periodontitis, and mixed anaerobic deep-organ abscesses. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility patterns reveals major differences between species. Penicillins are the antibiotics of choice, although some strains of P. anaerobius show broad-spectrum ?-lactam resistance.

Murdoch, D. A.

1998-01-01

377

Bacteria tracking by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Background Different non-invasive real-time imaging techniques have been developed over the last decades to study bacterial pathogenic mechanisms in mouse models by following infections over a time course. In vivo investigations of bacterial infections previously relied mostly on bioluminescence imaging (BLI), which is able to localize metabolically active bacteria, but provides no data on the status of the involved organs in the infected host organism. In this study we established an in vivo imaging platform by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for tracking bacteria in mouse models of infection to study infection biology of clinically relevant bacteria. Results We have developed a method to label Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with iron oxide nano particles and detected and pursued these with MRI. The key step for successful labeling was to manipulate the bacterial surface charge by producing electro-competent cells enabling charge interactions between the iron particles and the cell wall. Different particle sizes and coatings were tested for their ability to attach to the cell wall and possible labeling mechanisms were elaborated by comparing Gram-positive and -negative bacterial characteristics. With 5-nm citrate-coated particles an iron load of 0.015 ± 0.002 pg Fe/bacterial cell was achieved for Staphylococcus aureus. In both a subcutaneous and a systemic infection model induced by iron-labeled S. aureus bacteria, high resolution MR images allowed for bacterial tracking and provided information on the morphology of organs and the inflammatory response. Conclusion Labeled with iron oxide particles, in vivo detection of small S. aureus colonies in infection models is feasible by MRI and provides a versatile tool to follow bacterial infections in vivo. The established cell labeling strategy can easily be transferred to other bacterial species and thus provides a conceptual advance in the field of molecular MRI.

2013-01-01

378

Periodontitis, periodontopathic bacteria and lactoferrin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactoferrin (LF) is a component of saliva and is suspected to be a defense factor against oral pathogens including Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Periodontitis is a very common oral disease caused by periodontopathic bacteria. Antimicrobial activities and other biological\\u000a effects of LF against representative periodontopathic bacteria, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia, have been widely studied. Association of

Hiroyuki Wakabayashi; Ichiro Kondo; Tetsuo Kobayashi; Koji Yamauchi; Tomohiro Toida; Keiji Iwatsuki; Hiromasa Yoshie

2010-01-01

379

Evolutionary relationships among photosynthetic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the evolution of photosynthetic bacteria it is necessary to understand how the main groups within Bacteria have evolved from a common ancestor, a critical issue that has not been resolved in the past. Recent analysis of shared conserved inserts or deletions (indels) in protein sequences has provided a powerful means to resolve this long-standing problem in microbiology. Based

Radhey S. Gupta

2003-01-01

380

Control of Specific Plaque Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Specific Plaque Hypothesis posits that particular bacteria are of unique importance in the etiology of dental caries and periodontal diseases, and a logical conclusion is that these bacteria should be the targets for our 'magic bullets' in devising plaque-control methods. This paper considers the development of preventive measures based on understanding of the significance of particular bacterial species and

R. R. B. Russell

1994-01-01

381

Antimicrobial Activity of the Carnivorous Plant Dionaea muscipula Against Food-Related Pathogenic and Putrefactive Bacteria.  

PubMed

Solvent extracts from the carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula ?Venus flytrap? were prepared using eight different organic solvents, and examined for antibacterial activity against food-related pathogenic and putrefactive bacteria. All solvent extracts showed higher antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria than against gram negative bacteria. The TLC-bioautography analysis of the extracts revealed that a yellow spot was detected at Rf value of 0.85, which showed strong antibacterial activity. The UV, MS, and NMR analyses revealed that the antibacterial compound was plumbagin. PMID:24077538

Ogihara, Hirokazu; Endou, Fumiko; Furukawa, Soichi; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kouichi; Anzai, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

382

The Genus Corynebacterium and Other Medically Relevant Coryneform-Like Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Catalase-positive Gram-positive bacilli, commonly called “diphtheroids” or “coryneform” bacteria were historically nearly always dismissed as contaminants when recovered from patients, but increasingly have been implicated as the cause of significant infections. These taxa have been underreported, and the taxa were taxonomically confusing. The mechanisms of pathogenesis, especially for newly described taxa, were rarely studied. Antibiotic susceptibility data were relatively scant. In this minireview, clinical relevance, phenotypic and genetic identification methods, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) evaluations, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing involving species in the genus Corynebacterium and other medically relevant Gram-positive rods, collectively called coryneforms, are described.

2012-01-01

383

Innate inflammatory responses to the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis.  

PubMed

Lactococcus lactis is a non-pathogenic and non-colonizing Gram-positive bacterium commonly used in the dairy industry. To support the potential applications of this bacterium, such as use as an oral live vaccine, it is of interest to investigate the adjuvant properties of L. lactis. We compared the proinflammatory effects of L. lactis with two non-pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi, a widely studied live vaccine. The gene expression profiles of chemokines induced by the three bacteria were examined in macrophages in vitro and in cells recruited into murine air-pouches in vivo. In addition, we studied the effect of co-incubating bacteria with dendritic cells (DCs) generated from mice bone marrow. We demonstrate that L. lactis exhibits proinflammatory effects, which indicates a capacity for adjuvanticity by this bacterium. PMID:18436352

Yam, Karen K; Pouliot, Philippe; N'diaye, Marie M; Fournier, Sylvie; Olivier, Martin; Cousineau, Benoit

2008-04-03

384

Electrophysiology of bacteria.  

PubMed

Bacteria secrete and harbor in their membranes a number of pore-forming proteins. Some of these are bona fide ion channels that may respond to changes in membrane tension, voltage, or pH. Others may be large translocons used for the secretion of folded or unfolded polypeptide substrates. Additionally, many secreted toxins insert into target cell membranes and form pores that either collapse membrane electrochemical gradients or provide conduits for the delivery of virulence factors. In all cases, electrophysiological approaches have yielded much progress in past decades in understanding the functional mechanisms of these pores. By monitoring the changes in current due to ion flow through the pores, these techniques are used as high-resolution tools to gather detailed information on the kinetic and permeation properties of these proteins, including those whose physiological role is not ion flux. This review highlights some of the electrophysiological studies that have advanced the field of transport by pore-forming proteins of bacterial origin. PMID:24024633

Delcour, Anne H

2013-09-01

385

Regulatory RNAs in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

RNA regulators in bacteria are a heterogenous group of molecules that act by various mechanisms to modulate a wide range of physiological responses. One class comprises riboswitches, which are parts of the mRNAs they regulate. These leader sequences fold into structures amenable to conformational changes upon the binding of small molecules. Riboswitches thus sense and respond to the availability of various nutrients in the cell. Other small transcripts bind to proteins, among them global regulators, and antagonize their functions. The largest and most extensively studied set of small RNA regulators act through base pairing with RNAs, usually modulating the translation and stability of mRNAs. The majority of these small RNAs regulate responses to changes in environmental conditions. Finally, a recently discovered group of RNA regulators, known as the CRISPR RNAs, contain short regions of homology to bacteriophage and plasmid sequences. CRISPR RNAs interfere with bacteriophage infection and plasmid conjugation by targeting the homologous foreign DNA through an unknown mechanism. Here we discuss what is known about these RNA regulators, as well as the many intriguing questions that remain to be addressed.

Waters, Lauren S.; Storz, Gisela

2011-01-01

386

The Cell Wall of Marine Autotrophic Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study has been made of the ultrastructure and composition of the cell envelope of different autotrophic bacteria. While emphasis was placed on the marine nitrifying bacteria, numerous strains of photosynthetic and methane-oxidizing bacteria were also ex...

C. C. Remsen

1971-01-01

387

Interactions between Diatoms and Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Summary: Diatoms and bacteria have cooccurred in common habitats for hundreds of millions of years, thus fostering specific associations and interactions with global biogeochemical consequences. Diatoms are responsible for one-fifth of the photosynthesis on Earth, while bacteria remineralize a large portion of this fixed carbon in the oceans. Through their coexistence, diatoms and bacteria cycle nutrients between oxidized and reduced states, impacting bioavailability and ultimately feeding higher trophic levels. Here we present an overview of how diatoms and bacteria interact and the implications of these interactions. We emphasize that heterotrophic bacteria in the oceans that are consistently associated with diatoms are confined to two phyla. These consistent bacterial associations result from encounter mechanisms that occur within a microscale environment surrounding a diatom cell. We review signaling mechanisms that occur in this microenvironment to pave the way for specific interactions. Finally, we discuss known interactions between diatoms and bacteria and exciting new directions and research opportunities in this field. Throughout the review, we emphasize new technological advances that will help in the discovery of new interactions. Deciphering the languages of diatoms and bacteria and how they interact will inform our understanding of the role these organisms have in shaping the ocean and how these interactions may change in future oceans.

Amin, Shady A.; Parker, Micaela S.

2012-01-01

388

Inactivation ofBiofilm Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thecurrent project was developed toexamine inactivation ofbiofilm bacteria andtocharacterize the interaction ofbiocides withpipesurfaces. Unattached bacteria were quite susceptible tothevariety of disinfectants tested. Viable bacterial counts were reduced 99%byexposureto0.08 mg ofhypochlorous acid (pH7.0) perliter (1to2°C) for1min.Formonochloramine, 94mg\\/liter wasrequired tokill 99%ofthebacteria within 1min.Theseresults wereconsistent withthose found byother investigators. Biofilm bacteria grown on thesurfaces ofgranular activated carbon particles, metal coupons,orglass microscope slides were

MARK W. LECHEVALLIER; CHERYL D. CAWTHON; RAMON G. LEE

1988-01-01

389

Development of Mucosal Vaccines Based on Lactic Acid Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, sufficient data are available to support the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), notably lactococci and lactobacilli, as delivery vehicles for the development of new mucosal vaccines. These non-pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria have been safely consumed by humans for centuries in fermented foods. They thus constitute an attractive alternative to the attenuated pathogens (most popular live vectors actually studied) which could recover their pathogenic potential and are thus not totally safe for use in humans. This chapter reviews the current research and advances in the use of LAB as live delivery vectors of proteins of interest for the development of new safe mucosal vaccines. The use of LAB as DNA vaccine vehicles to deliver DNA directly to antigen-presenting cells of the immune system is also discussed.

Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.; Innocentin, Silvia; Lefèvre, Francois; Chatel, Jean-Marc; Langella, Philippe

390

Role of commensal gut bacteria in inflammatory bowel diseases  

PubMed Central

Aberrant immune responses toward commensal gut bacteria can result in the onset and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Reduced microbiota diversity in conjunction with lower proportion of Gram positive and higher proportion of Gram negative bacteria than in healthy subjects is frequently reported in IBD patients. In a subset of IBD patients, E. coli strains with specific features trigger disease. Important molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have been identified. However, in the majority of patients the exact nature of host-microbe interactions that contribute to IBD development has so far not been defined. The application of metagenomic techniques may help to identify bacterial functions that are involved in the aggravation or alleviation of IBD. Subsequently, the relevance for disease development of bacterial candidate genes may be tested taking advantage of reductionist animal models of chronic gut inflammation. This approach may help to identify bacterial functions that can be targeted in future concepts of IBD therapy.

Loh, Gunnar; Blaut, Michael

2012-01-01

391

Influence of nutrient conditions on the transport of bacteria in saturated porous media.  

PubMed

The influence of nutrient conditions on the transport of bacteria in packed porous media was examined in both NaCl and CaCl(2)-NaCl mixed solutions at pH 6.0. Two representative cell types, Bacillus subtilis (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli DH5? (Gram-negative), were used to determine the influence of nutrient conditions on cell transport behavior. Under all examined solution conditions, the breakthrough plateaus in the presence of background nutrients in solutions for both examined bacteria types were higher than those without nutrients, indicating that the presence of nutrients in solution enhanced the bacteria transport regardless of the examined cell type (Gram-positive or Gram-negative) and solution chemistry (ionic strength and ion valence). The increased bacteria transport induced by the presence of nutrient in solutions was probably not driven by the changes in the sizes of bacteria, cell surface properties (i.e., zeta potentials), or the contents of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) since these properties were not obviously changed by the presence of nutrients in solutions. Nutrient pre-equilibration experiments demonstrated that the deposition site competition by nutrients contributed to the increased bacteria transport observed with the presence of nutrients in bacterial suspension. Additional nutrient effects on cell transport were examined from the column experiments conducted in the absence of nutrients for the cells under 2-day starvation. Starvation of bacteria also increased the bacteria transport in porous media. The sizes of bacteria, zeta potentials of bacteria, and the EPS composition were changed by the starvation process, which might be responsible for the increased transport of starved bacteria observed for both cell types examined under all solution conditions. PMID:23104036

Han, Peng; Shen, Xiufang; Yang, Haiyan; Kim, Hyunjung; Tong, Meiping

2012-09-28

392

Cytokinesis in bacteria.  

PubMed

Work on two diverse rod-shaped bacteria, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, has defined a set of about 10 conserved proteins that are important for cell division in a wide range of eubacteria. These proteins are directed to the division site by the combination of two negative regulatory systems. Nucleoid occlusion is a poorly understood mechanism whereby the nucleoid prevents division in the cylindrical part of the cell, until chromosome segregation has occurred near midcell. The Min proteins prevent division in the nucleoid-free spaces near the cell poles in a manner that is beginning to be understood in cytological and biochemical terms. The hierarchy whereby the essential division proteins assemble at the midcell division site has been worked out for both E. coli and B. subtilis. They can be divided into essentially three classes depending on their position in the hierarchy and, to a certain extent, their subcellular localization. FtsZ is a cytosolic tubulin-like protein that polymerizes into an oligomeric structure that forms the initial ring at midcell. FtsA is another cytosolic protein that is related to actin, but its precise function is unclear. The cytoplasmic proteins are linked to the membrane by putative membrane anchor proteins, such as ZipA of E. coli and possibly EzrA of B. subtilis, which have a single membrane span but a cytoplasmic C-terminal domain. The remaining proteins are either integral membrane proteins or transmembrane proteins with their major domains outside the cell. The functions of most of these proteins are unclear with the exception of at least one penicillin-binding protein, which catalyzes a key step in cell wall synthesis in the division septum. PMID:12626683

Errington, Jeffery; Daniel, Richard A; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

2003-03-01

393

Cytokinesis in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Work on two diverse rod-shaped bacteria, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, has defined a set of about 10 conserved proteins that are important for cell division in a wide range of eubacteria. These proteins are directed to the division site by the combination of two negative regulatory systems. Nucleoid occlusion is a poorly understood mechanism whereby the nucleoid prevents division in the cylindrical part of the cell, until chromosome segregation has occurred near midcell. The Min proteins prevent division in the nucleoid-free spaces near the cell poles in a manner that is beginning to be understood in cytological and biochemical terms. The hierarchy whereby the essential division proteins assemble at the midcell division site has been worked out for both E. coli and B. subtilis. They can be divided into essentially three classes depending on their position in the hierarchy and, to a certain extent, their subcellular localization. FtsZ is a cytosolic tubulin-like protein that polymerizes into an oligomeric structure that forms the initial ring at midcell. FtsA is another cytosolic protein that is related to actin, but its precise function is unclear. The cytoplasmic proteins are linked to the membrane by putative membrane anchor proteins, such as ZipA of E. coli and possibly EzrA of B. subtilis, which have a single membrane span but a cytoplasmic C-terminal domain. The remaining proteins are either integral membrane proteins or transmembrane proteins with their major domains outside the cell. The functions of most of these proteins are unclear with the exception of at least one penicillin-binding protein, which catalyzes a key step in cell wall synthesis in the division septum.

Errington, Jeffery; Daniel, Richard A.; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan

2003-01-01

394

A CYTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF REDUCTIVE SITES IN A GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIUM  

PubMed Central

In bacteria the exact location of a respiratory enzyme system comparable to that of the mitochondria of other cells has remained uncertain. On the one hand, the existence of particulate "bacterial mitochondria" has been advocated (Mudd); on the other hand, important enzymes of the respiratory chain were recovered in the cytoplasmic membranes associated with some granular material (Weibull). In order to gain insight into this question, sites of reducing activity were localized in thin sections of bacteria using the reduction of potassium tellurite as an indicator. When this salt was added to the culture medium of Bacillus subtilis, it turned out that in this Gram-positive organism the reduced product is strictly bound at two sites, and that the plasma membrane does not materially gain in electron opacity through deposition of the reduced product. The reduction product is found on or in the membranes of particular organelles, which may possibly be regarded as the mitochondrial equivalents in Gram-positive bacteria, and which are sometimes seen connected to the plasma membrane. The second location is in thin rod-like elements at the cell periphery, possibly the sites from which the flagella emerge.

van Iterson, Woutera; Leene, W.

1964-01-01

395

Vancomycin-resistant gram-positive cocci isolated from the saliva of wild songbirds.  

PubMed

We analyzed highly vancomycin-resistant Gram-positive bacteria isolated from the saliva of migratory songbirds captured, sampled, and released from a bird-banding station in western Kansas. Individual bacterial isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA sequencing. Most of the bacteria in this study were shown to be Staphylococcus succinus with the majority being isolated from the American Robin. Some of these bacteria were shown to carry vanA, vanB, and vanC vancomycin-resistance genes and have the ability to form biofilms. One of the van gene-carrying isolates is also coagulase positive, which is normally considered a virulence factor. Other organisms isolated included Staphylococcus saprophyticus as well as Enterococcus gallinarum. Given the wide range of the American Robin and ease of horizontal gene transfer between Gram-positive cocci, we postulate that these organisms could serve as a reservoir of vancomycin-resistance genes capable of transferring to human pathogens. PMID:23224296

Ishihara, Shingo; Bitner, Jessica J; Farley, Greg H; Gillock, Eric T

2012-12-06

396

A Green Nonsulfur Bacterium, Dehalococcoides ethenogenes, with the LexA-binding sequence found in Gram-positive organisms  

SciTech Connect

Dehalococcoides ethenogenes is a member of the physiologically diverse division of green nonsulfur bacteria. Using a TBLASTN search, the D. ethenogenes lexA gene has been identified, cloned, and expressed and its protein has been purified. Mobility shift assays revealed that the D. ethenogenes LexA protein specifically binds to both its own promoter and that of the uvrA gene, but not to the recA promoter. Our results demonstrate that the D. ethenogenes LexA binding site is GAACNNNNGTTC, which is identical to that found in gram-positive bacteria. In agreement with this fact, the Bacillus subtilis DinR protein binds specifically to the D. ethenogenes LexA operator. This constitutes the first non-gram-positive bacterium exhibiting a LexA binding site identical to that of B. subtilis.

de Henestrosa, Antonio R. (Barcelona, University of); Cune, Jordi (Barcelona, University of); Erill, Ivan (Barcelona, University of); Magnuson, Jon K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Barbe, Jordi (Barcelona, University of)

2002-12-01

397

Symbiosis in Marine Luminous Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work indicates that the distribution and abundance of a class of marine microorganisms, the symbiotic luminous bacteria, are controlled by the dynamics of their relationship with their host. Such a conclusion constitutes the first time that the ecolo...

E. G. Ruby

1993-01-01

398

Bioreporter bacteria for landmine detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Landmines (and other UXO) gradually leak explosive chemicals into the soil at significant concentrations. Bacteria, which have adapted to scavenge low concentrations of nutrients, can detect these explosive chemicals. Uptake of these chemicals results in ...

R. S. Burlage T. Youngblood D. Lamothe

1998-01-01

399

Splitting Aluminosilicates with Silicate Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experiment was conducted to demonstrate the ability of silicate bacteria to break down the aluminosilicate nucleus in soils and the subsequent liberation of potassium. The equipment and procedures used in the experiment are described along with the res...

M. I. Ternovskaya R. N. Blagodyr V. G. Aleksandrov

1973-01-01

400

Endogenous Metabolism of Anaerobic Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Further investigations of the endogenous metabolism and survival of non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria Zymomonas anaerobia and Peptococcus prevotii under conditions of starvation are reported. To permit studies with cells whose growth has been halted by...

E. A. Dawes P. J. Large

1968-01-01

401

Age and evolution of bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Age and evolution of bacteria can be estimated, including facts and hypotheses belonging to morphology, biochemistry, paleontology, ecology and pathogenicity. The corresponding dates are summarized in the following.

H. E. Müller

1977-01-01

402

Genetic Manipulation of Acidophilic Bacteria.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is important in leaching of metals from mineral ores and in the removal of pyritic sulfur from coal. It is also intimately involved in production of acid mine drainage. Other acidophilic bacteria, including members of the genus A...

A. W. Glenn C. S. Watkins D. F. Bruhn M. L. Rowland T. E. Ward

1989-01-01

403

Type IV Pili and the CcpA Protein Are Needed for Maximal Biofilm Formation by the Gram-Positive Anaerobic Pathogen Clostridium perfringens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predominant organizational state of bacteria in nature is biofilms. Biofilms have been shown to increase bacterial resistance to a variety of stresses. We demonstrate for the first time that the anaerobic gram-positive pathogen Clostridium perfringens forms biofilms. At the same concentration of glucose in the medium, optimal biofilm formation depended on a functional CcpA protein. While the ratio of

John J. Varga; Blair Therit; Stephen B. Melville

2008-01-01

404

MICROBIOLOGY: How Bacteria Respire Minerals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required: Some bacteria respire minerals; that is, they harvest energy from minerals through using them as electron acceptors. Many details of this respiration process have remained obscure. In her Perspective, Newman highlights the study by Lower et al., who have used a customized atomic force microscope to observe bacteria during mineral respiration.

Dianne K. Newman (California Institute of Technology;Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences)

2001-05-18

405

Genetic resources of nodule bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) form highly specific symbiosis with leguminous plants. The efficiency of accumulation of biological\\u000a nitrogen depends on molecular-genetic interaction between the host plant and rhizobia. Genetic characteristics of microsymbiotic\\u000a strains are crucial in developing highly productive and stress-resistant symbiotic pairs: rhizobium strain-host plant cultivar\\u000a (species). The present review considers the issue of studying genetic resources of nodule bacteria

M. L. Roumiantseva

2009-01-01

406

Deoxyribonucleoside kinases in two aquatic bacteria with high specificity for thymidine and deoxyadenosine.  

PubMed

Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) are essential in the mammalian cell but their 'importance' in bacteria, especially aquatic ones, is less clear. We studied two aquatic bacteria, Gram-negative Flavobacterium psychrophilum JIP02/86 and Polaribacter sp. MED152, for their ability to salvage deoxyribonucleosides (dNs). Both had a Gram-positive-type thymidine kinase (TK1), which could phosphorylate thymidine, and one non-TK1 dNK, which could efficiently phosphorylate deoxyadenosine and slightly also deoxycytosine. Surprisingly, the four tested dNKs could not phosphorylate deoxyguanosine, and apparently, these two bacteria are missing this activity. When tens of available aquatic bacteria genomes were examined for the presence of dNKs, a majority had at least a TK1-like gene, but several lacked any dNKs. Apparently, among aquatic bacteria, the role of the dN salvage varies. PMID:22462611

Tinta, Tinkara; Christiansen, Louise Slot; Konrad, Anke; Liberles, David A; Turk, Valentina; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Piškur, Jure; Clausen, Anders R

2012-04-25

407

Mechanical consequences of cell-wall turnover in the elongation of a Gram-positive bacterium.  

PubMed

A common feature of walled organisms is their exposure to osmotic forces that challenge the mechanical integrity of cells while driving elongation. Most bacteria rely on their cell wall to bear osmotic stress and determine cell shape. Wall thickness can vary greatly among species, with Gram-positive bacteria having a thicker wall than Gram-negative bacteria. How wall dimensions and mechanical properties are regulated and how they affect growth have not yet been elucidated. To investigate the regulation of wall thickness in the rod-shaped Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, we analyzed exponentially growing cells in different media. Using transmission electron and epifluorescence microscopy, we found that wall thickness and strain were maintained even between media that yielded a threefold change in growth rate. To probe mechanisms of elongation, we developed a biophysical model of the Gram-positive wall that balances the mechanical effects of synthesis of new material and removal of old material through hydrolysis. Our results suggest that cells can vary their growth rate without changing wall thickness or strain by maintaining a constant ratio of synthesis and hydrolysis rates. Our model also indicates that steady growth requires wall turnover on the same timescale as elongation, which can be driven primarily by hydrolysis rather than insertion. This perspective of turnover-driven elongation provides mechanistic insight into previous experiments involving mutants whose growth rate was accelerated by the addition of lysozyme or autolysin. Our approach provides a general framework for deconstructing shape maintenance in cells with thick walls by integrating wall mechanics with the kinetics and regulation of synthesis and turnover. PMID:23746506

Misra, Gaurav; Rojas, Enrique R; Gopinathan, Ajay; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

2013-06-01

408

Removal and recovery of heavy metals by bacteria isolated from activated sludge treating industrial effluents and municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of nineteen metal-resistant and non-resistant bacteria from activated sludge treating both metal-contaminated industrial effluents and municipal wastewater were isolated and identified. These included both Gram-positive (e.g. Micrococcus) and Gram-negative (e.g. Pseudomonas) bacteria. The biosorption capacity of these strains for five different heavy metals (copper, nickel, zinc, lead and chromium) was determined at pH 5 and initial metal concentration

W. C. Leung; M. F. Wong; H. Chua; W. Lo; P. H. F. Yu; C. K. Leung

409

Isolation and Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria Associated with the Rhizosphere of Salt Marsh Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria were isolated from contaminated estuarine sediment and salt marsh rhizosphere by enrichment using either naphthalene, phenanthrene, or biphenyl as the sole source of carbon and energy. Pasteurization of samples prior to enrichment resulted in isolation of gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria. The isolates were characterized using a variety of phenotypic, morpho- logic, and molecular properties. Identification of

L. L. Daane; I. Harjono; G. J. Zylstra; M. M. Haggblom

2001-01-01

410

Characterizing the Catalytic Potential of Deinococcus, Arthrobacter and other Robust Bacteria in Contaminated Subsurface Environments of the Hanford Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionizing Radiation (IR) Resistance in Bacteria. Until recently, there have been no clear physiologic predictors of a cell's ability to recover from ionizing radiation (IR) and other DOE-relevant oxidative stress conditions. In general, the most resistant bacteria have been Gram-positive (e.g., Deinococcus, Arthrobacter, Lactobacillus & Enterococcus spp.) and the most sensitive have been Gram-negative (e.g., Pseudomonas, Shewanella & Neisseria spp.).

Daly; Michael J

2006-01-01

411

Diversity of Antibiotic-Active Bacteria Associated with the Brown Alga Laminaria saccharina from the Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria associated with the marine macroalga Laminaria saccharina, collected from the Kiel Fjord (Baltic Sea, Germany), were isolated and tested for antimicrobial activity. From a total of\\u000a 210 isolates, 103 strains inhibited the growth of at least one microorganism from the test panel including Gram-negative and\\u000a Gram-positive bacteria as well as a yeast. Most common profiles were the inhibition of

Jutta Wiese; Vera Thiel; Kerstin Nagel; Tim Staufenberger; Johannes F. Imhoff

2009-01-01

412

Potential for luxS related signalling in marine bacteria and production of autoinducer-2 in the genus Shewanella  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The autoinducer-2 (AI-2) group of signalling molecules are produced by both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria as the by-product of a metabolic transformation carried out by the LuxS enzyme. They are the only non species-specific quorum sensing compounds presently known in bacteria. The luxS gene coding for the AI-2 synthase enzyme was found in many important pathogens. Here,

Agnes Bodor; Bettina Elxnat; Verena Thiel; Stefan Schulz; Irene Wagner-Döbler

2008-01-01

413

Natural and acquired resistance of bacteria associated with food processing environments to disinfectant containing an extract from grapefruit seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to a new disinfectant amongst typical food spoilage organisms and factors influencing its activity have been studied. The results obtained reveal that a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria exhibit resistance to the disinfectant which is produced from grapefruit seed extract. Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive. The minimum inhibitory concentration for nine out of 10 Gram-negative strains tested exceeded the

Gunhild Sundheim; Solveig Langsrud

1995-01-01

414

Heterogeneity within Human-Derived Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Coryneform Group ANF1Like Bacteria and Description of Corynebacterium auris sp. nov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention coryneform group ANF-1 bacteria were described as Corynebacterium afermentans, and group ANF-1-like bacteria were described as Turicella otitidis. Over a 1.5-year period 10 strains of a previously undescribed, gram-positive, rod-shaped organism that was not partially acid fast and resembled ANF-1-like bacteria were isolated from different pediatric patients with ear infections. These previously undescribed

GUIDO FUNKE; PAUL A. LAWSON; MATTHEW D. COLLINS

1995-01-01

415

Investigation of the Efficiencies of Bioaerosol Samplers for Collecting Aerosolized Bacteria Using a Fluorescent Tracer. II: Sampling Efficiency and Half-Life Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using uranine as a physical tracer, this study assessed the sampling efficiencies of four bioaerosol samplers (Andersen 6-stage impactor, all glass impinger “AGI-30,” OMNI-3000, and Airport MD8 with gelatin filter) for collecting Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni), and bacteria without cell wall (Mycoplasma synoviae) which were aerosolized in a HEPA isolator. In addition, the

Yang Zhao; Andre J. A. Aarnink; Piet Doornenbal; Thuy T. T. Huynh; Peter W. G. Groot Koerkamp; Wil J. M. Landman; Mart C. M. de Jong

2011-01-01

416

SPECTROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC ELEMENTS IN BACTERIA.  

PubMed

Rouf, M. A. (Washington State University, Pullman). Spectrochemical analysis of inorganic elements in bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 88:1545-1549. 1964.-Quantitative spectrochemical analyses of inorganic elements in the vegetative cells of Escherichia coli, Sphaerotilus natans, Micrococcus roseus, Bacillus cereus, and the spores of B. cereus were made. The following elements were found to be present in the ash samples: B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, S, Ag, Sn, Ba, Pb, V, and Mo. These could be divided into major, minor, and trace elements, depending on the relative amounts in the cells. Mg, P, K, and S were considered as the major elements; Ca, Fe, Zn, and, perhaps, Cu and Mn as the minor elements, and the rest as trace elements. Mg concentrations were higher in the cells of the gram-positive M. roseus and B. cereus than in the gram-negative E. coli and S. natans. The latter organism contained 2.6% Fe(2)O(3) (dry weight basis). The vegetative cells of B. cereus were higher in Mg, P, K, Na, Ag, and lower in Si, Ca, Zn, Mn, and Cu than were its spores. PMID:14240935

ROUF, M A

1964-12-01

417

In Vitro Activities of Linezolid against Important Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogens Including Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of resistance in gram-positive bacteria has necessitated a search for new antimicrobial agents. Linezolid is an oxazolidinone, a new class of antibacterial agents with enhanced activity against pathogens. We compared the activity of linezolid to those of other antimicrobial agents against 3,945 clinical isolates. Linezolid demonstrated potent activity against all isolates tested. For all vancomycin-susceptible enterococci, staphylococci, and

GARY A. NOSKIN; FARIDA SIDDIQUI; VALENTINA STOSOR; DONNA HACEK; LANCE R. PETERSON

1999-01-01

418

Characterization of predominant bacteria isolates from clean rooms in a pharmaceutical production unit*  

PubMed Central

Aims: To screen for the predominant bacteria strains distributed in clean rooms and to analyze their phylogenetic relationships. Methods and Results: The bacteria distributed in air, surfaces and personnel in clean rooms were routinely monitored using agar plates. Five isolates frequently isolated from the clean rooms of an aseptic pharmaceutical production workshop were selected based on their colony and cell morphology characteristics. Their physiological and biochemical properties, as well as partial 16S rDNA sequences, were analyzed. Results showed that all the five isolates belong to Gram positive bacteria, of which three were Staphylococcus, one Microbacterium and one Bacillus species. Sensitivity tests for these bacteria isolates to 3 disinfectants showed that isolate F03 was obtuse, and had low susceptivity to UV irradiation, while isolates F02, F01 and F04 were not sensitive to phenol treatment. Isolates F04, F01 and F05 were resistant to chlorhexidine gluconate. Conclusion: Bacteria widely distributed in clean rooms are mainly a group of Gram positive strains, showing high resistance to selected disinfectants. Significance and impact of the study: Clean rooms are essential in aseptic pharmaceutical and food production. Screening bacteria isolates and identifying them is part of good manufacturing practices, and will aid in finding a more effective disinfection method.

Wu, Gen-fu; Liu, Xiao-hua

2007-01-01

419

Contribution of Structural Domains to the Activity of Ribonuclease 7 against Uropathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Ribonuclease 7 (RNase 7) is a 14.5-kDa peptide that possesses potent antimicrobial properties against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and is expressed in a variety of epithelial tissues. Little is known about its mechanisms of action and the determinants of its antimicrobial properties. The objective of this study was to identify the intrinsic functional domains of RNase 7 that influence its activity against uropathogenic bacteria. A series of RNase 7 fragments were generated that contained different components of its secondary motifs starting from both the N terminus and the C terminus of RNase 7. We determined the antimicrobial properties of each fragment against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. RNase 7 fragments displayed significant differences in their antimicrobial activity profiles. Compared to N-terminal fragments, C-terminal fragments showed uniformly decreased activity against Gram-negative E. coli and P. mirabilis and Gram-positive S. saprophyticus. Fragments that lack ?-sheets 1, 3, and 4 also demonstrated significantly decreased activities. We have also identified one fragment with at least 4-fold increased potency against both E. coli and Staphylococcus compared to full-length peptide. We identified distinct regions of the peptide that are independently responsible for Gram-negative and Gram-positive activity. Our results suggest that distinct mechanisms are responsible for RNase 7's antimicrobial activity against various uropathogens.

Wang, Huanyu; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Kline, Jennifer; Spencer, John David; Kline, David

2013-01-01

420

Measuring Antimicrobial Activity Against Biofilm Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standardization of methodology and interpretation has proved essential to scientific progress in studies of the activity of antimicrobial agents against planktonic bacteria. Current studies of antimicrobial activity against biofilm bacteria lack standardization of methodology. The principles applied to standardization of methods for planktonic bacteria can serve as a template in developing standards for studying biofilm bacteria. Such standards are essential

J. Curtin; M. Cormican

2003-01-01

421

Carotenoids and Carotenogenesis in Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 50 genera including about 130 species of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria have been described. These bacteria produce around 100 different carotenoids. In this chapter, the carotenoid compositions of all the photosynthetic bacteria so far described are summarized. All of the carotenogenesis genes from Rhodobacter, and some of them from other bacteria have been cloned, and the characteristics of their

Shinichi Takaichi

422

The acetylproteome of Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

N(?) -lysine acetylation, a reversible and highly regulated PTM, has been shown to occur in the model Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Here, we extend this acetylproteome analysis to Bacillus subtilis, a model Gram-positive bacterium. Through anti-acetyllysine antibody-based immunoseparation of acetylpeptides followed by nano-HPLC/MS/MS analysis, we identified 332 unique lysine-acetylated sites on 185 proteins. These proteins are mainly involved in cellular housekeeping functions such as central metabolism and protein synthesis. Fifity-nine of the lysine-acetylated proteins showed homology with lysine-acetylated proteins previously identified in E. coli, suggesting that acetylated proteins are more conserved. Notably, acetylation was found at or near the active sites predicted by Prosite signature, including SdhA, RocA, Kbl, YwjH, and YfmT, indicating that lysine acetylation may affect their activities. In 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate CoA ligase Kbl, a class II aminotransferase, a lysine residue involved in pyridoxal phosphate attachment was found to be acetylated. This data set provides evidence for the generality of lysine acetylation in eubacteria and opens opportunities to explore the consequences of acetylation modification on the molecular physiology of B. subtilis. PMID:23468065

Kim, Dooil; Yu, Byung Jo; Kim, Jung Ae; Lee, Yong-Jik; Choi, Soo-Geun; Kang, Sunghyun; Pan, Jae-Gu

2013-05-01

423

Silver Enhances Antibiotic Activity Against Gram-negative Bacteria  

PubMed Central

A declining pipeline of clinically useful antibiotics has made it imperative to develop more effective antimicrobial therapies, particularly against difficult-to-treat Gram-negative pathogens. Silver has been used as an antimicrobial since antiquity, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we show that silver disrupts multiple bacterial cellular processes, including disulfide bond formation, metabolism and iron homeostasis. These changes lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased membrane permeability of Gram-negative bacteria, that can potentiate the activity of a broad range of antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria in different metabolic states, as well as restore antibiotic susceptibility to a resistant bacterial strain. We show both in vitro and in a mouse model of urinary tract infection that the ability of silver to induce oxidative stress can be harnessed to potentiate antibiotic activity. Additionally, we demonstrate in vitro and in two different mouse models of peritonitis that silver sensitizes Gram-negative bacteria to the Gram-positive specific antibiotic, vancomycin, thereby expanding the antibacterial spectrum of this drug. Finally, we used silver and antibiotic combinations in vitro to eradicate bacterial persister cells, and show both in vitro and in a mouse biofilm infection model, that silver can enhance antibacterial action against biofilms. This work shows that silver can be used to enhance the action of existing antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria thus strengthening the antibiotic arsenal for fighting bacterial infections.

Spina, Catherine S.; Collins, James J.

2013-01-01

424

Host-Bacteria Crosstalk at the Dentogingival Junction  

PubMed Central

The dentogingival junction is of crucial importance in periodontal host defense both structurally and functionally. Oral bacteria exert a constant challenge to the host cells and tissues at the dentogingival junction. The host response is set up to eliminate the pathogens by the innate and adaptive defense mechanisms. In health, the commensal bacteria and the host defense mechanisms are in a dynamic steady state. During periodontal disease progression, the dental bacterial plaque, junctional epithelium (JE), inflammatory cells, connective tissue, and bone all go through a series of changes. The tissue homeostasis is turned into tissue destruction and progression of periodontitis. The classical study of Slots showed that in the bacterial plaque, the most remarkable change is the shift from gram-positive aerobic and facultatively anaerobic flora to a predominantly gram-negative and anaerobic flora. This has been later confirmed by several other studies. Furthermore, not only the shift of the bacterial flora to a more pathogenic one, but also bacterial growth as a biofilm on the tooth surface, allows the bacteria to communicate with each other and exert their virulence aimed at favoring their growth. This paper focuses on host-bacteria crosstalk at the dentogingival junction and the models studying it in vitro.

Pollanen, M. T.; Laine, M. A.; Ihalin, R.; Uitto, V.-J.

2012-01-01

425

Pathways for degradation of lignin in bacteria and fungi.  

PubMed

Lignin is a heterogeneous aromatic polymer found as 10-35% of lignocellulose, found in plant cell walls. The bio-conversion of plant lignocellulose to glucose is an important part of second generation biofuel production, but the resistance of lignin to breakdown is a major obstacle in this process, hence there is considerable interest in the microbial breakdown of lignin. White-rot fungi are known to break down lignin with the aid of extracellular peroxidase and laccase enzymes. There are also reports of bacteria that can degrade lignin, and recent work indicates that bacterial lignin breakdown may be more significant than previously thought. The review will discuss the enzymes for lignin breakdown in fungi and bacteria, and the catabolic pathways for breakdown of the ?-aryl ether, biphenyl and other components of lignin in bacteria and fungi. The review will also discuss small molecule phenolic breakdown products from lignin that have been identified from lignin-degrading microbes, and includes a bioinformatic analysis of the occurrence of known lignin-degradation pathways in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:21918777

Bugg, Timothy D H; Ahmad, Mark; Hardiman, Elizabeth M; Rahmanpour, Rahman

2011-09-15

426

Microgravity effects on magnetotactic bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unusual group of iron bacteria has recently been discovered which form inclusion bodies containing a form of iron oxide known as magnetite (ferrosoferric oxide, Fe3O4.) The inclusions are of a nano-particle size, are encased within a protein envelope, and are called magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are arranged adjacent to one another and parallel to the long axis of the cell such that cells appear to contain an electron-dense string of beads. The bacteria containing magnetosomes exhibit metal reductase activity, an activity critical to element recycling in nature, and the inclusions are a means for the organism to sequester reduced iron atoms and thereby keep iron reduction stoichiometry favorable. The magnetosomes also allow the bacteria to display magnetotaxis, which is movement in response to a magnetic field, such as the north or south magnetic poles. It is presumed that the bacteria use the alignment to the earth's magnetic field to orient themselves downward towards sediments where the habitat is favorable to their growth and metabolism. The comparatively few species of these bacteria isolated in the northern and southern hemispheres respond to magnetic north and south respectively, or alternatively respond only to the magnetic pole of the hemisphere from which they were isolated. This apparent dichotomy in response to magnetism could mean that the organisms are not responding to magnetism, per se, but instead are using the magnetosomes to respond to gravity. To resolve if magnetosomes respond to gravity in addition to magnetism we have used Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum, a well-studied magnetotactic bacterium isolated in the northern hemisphere, to examine magnetotactic behavior in the absence of gravity. Experiments to compare the orientation of Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum to north- or south-pole magnets were conducted in normal gravity and in the microgravity environments aboard the Space Shuttle and Space Station MIR. In each of the microgravity situations studied, bacteria were impaired in their ability to orient to magnets, suggesting that on earth the bacteria use magnetosomes to respond to gravity. These experiments could have significant commercial utility and could lead to the use of magnetosomes to direct biodegrading bacteria to contaminated aquifers or soils and likewise could be used to direct and localize bacteria used in element leaching and microbial mining.

Urban, James E.

1998-01-01

427

Bacteria foraging in turbulent waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine bacteria are the Ocean's recyclers, contributing to as much as 50% of the productivity of the marine food web. Bacteria forage on patches of dissolved nutrients using chemotaxis, the ability to swim up chemical gradients. As turbulence is ubiquitous in the Ocean, it is important to understand how turbulent flow conditions affect bacterial foraging. We used three-dimensional, isotropic direct numerical simulations coupled with a bacterial transport equation to address this problem. After the flow is continuously forced until it reaches a steady state, microscale nutrient patches are injected into the turbulent flow, and stirring produces thin nutrient filaments. Two populations of bacteria compete against each other: one population is motile and chemotactic (`active'), the other is non-motile (`passive'). The distribution of both populations is initially uniform. Chemotaxis allows active bacteria to cluster near the center of the nutrient filaments, increasing their nutrient uptake relative to passive bacteria. Increasing the turbulence intensity increases the short-term chemotactic advantage by quickly producing large gradients in the nutrient concentration, but also leads to rapid mixing of the nutrient field, which makes the chemotactic advantage short-lived. The results suggest that the evolutionary advantage of chemotaxis, based on the increase in nutrient uptake relative to the energetic cost of swimming, strongly depends on the turbulence level.

Taylor, John; Tang, Wenbo; Stocker, Roman

2009-11-01

428

Determining the viability of faecal bacteria present in germ-free mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Gram-positive bacilli, originating from the diet, are present in the faeces of germ-free mice in this Unit. Although these organisms have never grown on culture and are assumed to be dead it was considered desirable to test this by non-cultural methods because some gut bacteria are difficult or impossible to grow in vitro by present techniques. Germ-free mice were

D. M. Taylor; Lesley Read; D. L. Neal

1986-01-01

429

Possible role of coryneform bacteria in age gelation of ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk.  

PubMed

Two strains of psychrotrophic, gram-positive, proteolytic bacteria isolated from raw milk were identified as Arthrobacter or closely related coryneform species. We inoculated raw-milk samples with the strains (one strain per sample) and compared rates of gelation after ultrahigh-temperature processing with that of ultrahigh-temperature-processed controls. The trial indicated that either organism could play a role in age gelation of ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk. PMID:16346043

Keogh, B P; Pettingill, G

1982-06-01

430

Possible Role of Coryneform Bacteria in Age Gelation of Ultrahigh-Temperature-Processed Milk  

PubMed Central

Two strains of psychrotrophic, gram-positive, proteolytic bacteria isolated from raw milk were identified as Arthrobacter or closely related coryneform species. We inoculated raw-milk samples with the strains (one strain per sample) and compared rates of gelation after ultrahigh-temperature processing with that of ultrahigh-temperature-processed controls. The trial indicated that either organism could play a role in age gelation of ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk.

Keogh, Barbara P.; Pettingill, G.

1982-01-01

431

Peptidoglycan recognition proteins kill bacteria by activating protein-sensing two-component systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), similar to antimicrobial lectins, bind the bacterial cell wall and kill bacteria through an unknown mechanism. We show that PGRPs enter the Gram-positive cell wall at the site of daughter cell separation during cell division. In Bacillus subtilis, PGRPs activate the CssR-CssS two-component system that detects and disposes of misfolded proteins that are usually exported

Des Raj Kashyap; Minhui Wang; Li-Hui Liu; Geert-Jan Boons; Dipika Gupta; Roman Dziarski

2011-01-01

432

Bacillus methanolicus sp. nov., a New Species of Thermotolerant, Methanol-Utilizing, Endospore-Forming Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generic position of 14 strains of gram-positive bacteria able to use methanol as a growth substrate was determined. All are obligately aerobic, thermotolerant organisms that are able to grow at temperatures of 35 to 60°C. Nine of the strains produce oval spores at a subterminal-to-central position in slightly swollen rod-shaped cells. DNA-DNA hybridization studies, 5S rRNA sequence analysis, and

Nico Arfman; Lubbert Dijkhuizen; Gudrun Kirchhof; Wolfgang Ludwig; Karl-Heinz Schleifer; Eugenia S. Bulygina; Konstantin M. Chumakov; Natalya I. Govorukhina; Yuri A. Trotsenko; Duncan White; Richard J. Sharp

1992-01-01

433

Lactic acid bacteria from chicken carcasses with inhibitory activity against Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to isolate psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from chicken carcasses with inhibitory activity against strains of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. A total of 100 broiler samples were examined for the presence of LAB. Ninety-two LAB isolates that showed antimicrobial effects against Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were further analysed to examine their LAB (Gram-positive, catalase negative,

I. Sakaridis; N. Soultos; C. I. Dovas; E. Papavergou; I. Ambrosiadis; P. Koidis

434

Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacteria from wild and traditionally cultivated rice varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized stems, seeds, and leaf sheaths of wild and traditionally cultivated rice varieties. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rDNA revealed a wide divergence among the isolates. However, the most frequently isolated groups were Methylobacterium sp. in the ?-subdivision of Proteobacteria, and Curtobacterium sp. in the high G+ C Gram-positive group. Various phenotypic traits that are

Adel Elbeltagy; Kiyo Nishioka; Hisa Suzuki; Tadashi Sato; Yo-Ichiro Sato; Hisao Morisaki; Hisayuki Mitsui; Kiwamu Minamisawa

2000-01-01

435

Effects of Alternative Dietary Substrates on Competition between Human Colonic Bacteria in an Anaerobic Fermentor System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duplicate anaerobic fermentor systems were used to examine changes in a community of human fecal bacteria supplied with different carbohydrate energy sources. A panel of group-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization probes targeting 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the fermentors supported growth of a greater proportion of Bacteroides and a lower proportion of gram-positive anaerobes related to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Ruminococcus flavefaciens-Ruminococcus

Sylvia H. Duncan; Karen P. Scott; Alan G. Ramsay; Hermie J. M. Harmsen; Gjalt W. Welling; Colin S. Stewart; Harry J. Flint

2003-01-01

436

Correlation of TCE cometabolism with growth characteristics on aromatic substrates in toluene-degrading bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a bacterial library consisting of 97 strains of toluene-degrading bacteria from soil and activated sludge samples for examining their physiological properties in terms of cometabolism of TCE. Large variation of TCE degradation ability was observed in Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, as well as diverse patterns of availability of aromatics as a growth substrate. No clear correlation was

Yuki Morono; Hajime Unno; Katsutoshi Hori

2006-01-01

437

Tandem screening of toxic compounds on GFP-labeled bacteria and cancer cells in microtiter plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 96-well fluorescence-based assay has been developed for the rapid screening of potential cytotoxic and bacteriocidal compounds. The assay is based on detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in HeLa human carcinoma cells as well as gram negative (Escherichia coli) and gram positive bacteria (Mycobacterium avium). Addition of a toxic compound to the GFP marked cells resulted in the loss

Jessica Montoya; Armando Varela-Ramirez; Muthian Shanmugasundram; Luis E. Martinez; Todd P. Primm; Renato J. Aguilera

2005-01-01

438

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to kill Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a new promising strategy to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The search for new approaches that can kill bacteria but do not induce the appearance of undesired drug-resistant strains suggests that PDT may have advantages over traditional antibiotic therapy. PDT is a non-thermal photochemical reaction that involves the simultaneous presence of visible light, oxygen and a dye or photosensitizer (PS). Several PS have been studied for their ability to bind to bacteria and efficiently generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photo-stimulation. ROS are formed through type I or II mechanisms and may inactivate several classes of microbial cells including Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are typically characterized by an impermeable outer cell membrane that contains endotoxins and blocks antibiotics, dyes, and detergents, protecting the sensitive inner membrane and cell wall. This review covers significant peer-reviewed articles together with US and World patents that were filed within the past few years and that relate to the eradication of Gram-negative bacteria via PDI or PDT. It is organized mainly according to the nature of the PS involved and includes natural or synthetic food dyes; cationic dyes such as methylene blue and toluidine blue; tetrapyrrole derivatives such as phthalocyanines, chlorins, porphyrins, chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll derivatives; functionalized fullerenes; nanoparticles combined with different PS; other formulations designed to target PS to bacteria; photoactive materials and surfaces; conjugates between PS and polycationic polymers or antibodies; and permeabilizing agents such as EDTA, PMNP and CaCl?. The present review also covers the different laboratory animal models normally used to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections with antimicrobial PDT. PMID:23550545

Sperandio, Felipe F; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

2013-08-01

439

Radioresistant Bacteria Came From Mars?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose that the radioresistant bacteria (i.e. Deinococcus radiodurans) has been originated on Mars. This bacteria possesses an ability which should have been ab- solutely "unnecessary" in the Earth environment. It can survive very high doses of the ionizing radiation. Our experiments demonstrate that different kinds of non- radioresistant bacteria are able to develop very high radioresistance ability also. To develop radioresistance we exposed different bacterial cultures to several dozens of cycles of high irradiation. Therefore, radioresistance is not a result of some early spontaneous bacterial mutation but rather a consequence of the very specific plane- tary environment. Polar regions of Mars are the most probable (if not the only) place in the Solar System for such a periodical high-dosage irradiation process. We pro- pose a plausible scenario of where and when such an adaptation process could have taken place and also discuss indirect arguments of the Martian origin of Deinococcus Radiodurans based on their specific genetic structure.

Pavlov, A.; Kalinin, V.; Konstantinov, A.; Shelegedin, V.

440

Genetic transfer in acidophilic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing interest in the use of microorganisms to recover metals from ores, as well as to remove sulfur from coal. These so-called bioleaching processes are mediated by a number of bacteria. The best-studied of these organisms are acidophiles including Thiobacillus and Acidiphilium species. Our laboratory has focused on developing genetic strategies to allow the manipulation of acidophilic bacteria to improve and augment their utility in large scale operations. We have recently been successful in employing conjugation for interbacterial transfer of genetic information, as well as in directly transforming Acidiphilium by use of electroporation. We are now testing the properties of IncPl, IncW and IncQ plasmid vectors in Acidiphilium to determine their relative usefulness in routine manipulation of acidophiles and transfer between organisms. This study also allows us to determine the natural ability of these bacteria to transfer genetic material amongst themselves in their particular environment. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Roberto, F.F.; Glenn, A.W.; Bulmer, D.; Ward, T.E.

1990-01-01

441

Bacteriophage endolysins: A novel anti-infective to control Gram-positive pathogens  

PubMed Central

Endolysins (or lysins) are highly evolved enzymes produced by bacteriophage (phage for short) to digest the bacterial cell wall for phage progeny release. In Gram-positive bacteria, small quantities of purified recombinant lysin added externally results in immediate lysis causing log-fold death of the target bacterium. Lysins have been used successfully in a variety of animal models to control pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria found on mucosal surfaces and infected tissues. Their specificity for the pathogen without disturbing the normal flora, the low chance of bacterial resistance, and their