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1

The genome sequence of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae KACC10331, the bacterial blight pathogen of rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequence was determined for the genome of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (Xoo) KACC10331, a bacterium that causes bacterial blight in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The genome is com- prised of a single, 4 941 439 bp, circular chromosome that is G 1 C rich (63.7%). The genome includes 4637 open reading frames (ORFs) of which 3340 (72.0%) could

Byoung-Moo Lee; Young-Jin Park; Dong-Suk Park; Hee-Wan Kang; Jeong-Gu Kim; Eun-Sung Song; In-Cheol Park; Ung-Han Yoon; Jang-Ho Hahn; Bon-Sung Koo; Gil-Bok Lee; Hyungtae Kim; Hyun-Seok Park; Kyong-Oh Yoon; Jeong-Hyun Kim; Chol-hee Jung; Nae-Hyung Koh; Jeong-Sun Seo; Seung-Joo Go

2005-01-01

2

First report of bacterial blight of carrot in Indiana caused by Xanthomonas hortorum pv. carotae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In summer 2012, bacterial blight symptoms were observed on leaves of carrot plants in 7 out of 70 plots of carrot breeding lines at the Purdue University Meig Horticulture Research Farm, Lafayette, IN. Symptoms included small to large, variably shaped, water soaked to dry, necrotic lesions, with or ...

3

AN UPDATE ON XANTHOMONAS LEAF BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas leaf blight, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is a common foliar disease of onion. Environmental, host, and cultural factors affect the severity of the disease, but reductions in yield of 20% or greater are common. This article presents a review of disease symp...

4

Metabolomic and transcriptomic analysis of the rice response to the bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

PubMed Central

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), gives rise to devastating crop losses in rice. Disease resistant rice cultivars are the most economical way to combat the disease. The TP309 cultivar is susceptible to infection by Xoo strain PXO99. A transgenic variety, TP309_Xa21, expresses the pattern recognition receptor Xa21, and is resistant. PXO99?raxST, a strain lacking the raxST gene, is able to overcome Xa21-mediated immunity. We used a single extraction solvent to demonstrate comprehensive metabolomics and transcriptomics profiling under sample limited conditions, and analyze the molecular responses of two rice lines challenged with either PXO99 or PXO99?raxST. LC–TOF raw data file filtering resulted in better within group reproducibility of replicate samples for statistical analyses. Accurate mass match compound identification with molecular formula generation (MFG) ranking of 355 masses was achieved with the METLIN database. GC–TOF analysis yielded an additional 441 compounds after BinBase database processing, of which 154 were structurally identified by retention index/MS library matching. Multivariate statistics revealed that the susceptible and resistant genotypes possess distinct profiles. Although few mRNA and metabolite differences were detected in PXO99 challenged TP309 compared to mock, many differential changes occurred in the Xa21-mediated response to PXO99 and PXO99?raxST. Acetophenone, xanthophylls, fatty acids, alkaloids, glutathione, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthetic pathways were affected. Significant transcriptional induction of several pathogenesis related genes in Xa21 challenged strains, as well as differential changes to GAD, PAL, ICL1 and Glutathione-S-transferase transcripts indicated limited correlation with metabolite changes under single time point global profiling conditions. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-010-0218-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20676379

Fischer, Steve; Wohlgemuth, Gert; Katrekar, Anjali; Jung, Ki-hong; Ronald, Pam C.

2010-01-01

5

Rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae produces multiple DSF-family signals in regulation of virulence factor production  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight disease. Xoo produces a range of virulence factors, including EPS, extracellular enzyme, iron-chelating siderophores, and type III-secretion dependent effectors, which are collectively essential for virulence. Genetic and genomics evidence suggest that Xoo might use the diffusible signal factor (DSF) type quorum sensing (QS) system to regulate the virulence factor production. However, little is known about the chemical structure of the DSF-like signal(s) produced by Xoo and the factors influencing the signal production. Results Xoo genome harbours an rpf cluster comprising rpfB, rpfF, rpfC and rpfG. The proteins encoded by these genes are highly homologous to their counterparts in X. campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), suggesting that Xcc and Xoo might use similar mechanisms for DSF biosynthesis and autoregulation. Consistent with in silico analysis, the rpfF mutant was DSF-deficient and the rpfC mutant produced about 25 times higher DSF-like activity than the wild type Xoo strain KACC10331. From the supernatants of rpfC mutant, we purified three compounds showing strong DSF-like activity. Mass spectrometry and NMR analysis revealed that two of them were the previously characterized DSF and BDSF; the third one was a novel unsaturated fatty acid with 2 double bonds and was designated as CDSF in this study. Further analysis showed that all the three DSF-family signals were synthesized via the enzyme RpfF encoded by Xoo2868. DSF and BDSF at a final concentration of 3 ?M to the rpfF mutant could fully restore its extracellular xylanase activity and EPS production to the wild type level, but CDSF was less active than DSF and BDSF in induction of EPS and xylanase. DSF and CDSF shared a similar cell density-dependent production time course with the maximum production being detected at 42 h after inoculation, whereas the maximum production of BDSF was observed at 36 h after inoculation. When grown in a rich medium such as YEB, LB, PSA, and NYG, Xoo produced all the three signals with the majority being DSF. Whereas in nutritionally poor XOLN medium Xoo only produced BDSF and DSF but the majority was BDSF. Conclusions This study demonstrates that Xoo and Xcc share the conserved mechanisms for DSF biosynthesis and autoregulation. Xoo produces DSF, BDSF and CDSF signals in rich media and CDSF is a novel signal in DSF-family with two double bonds. All the three DSF-family signals promote EPS production and xylanase activity in Xoo, but CDSF is less active than its analogues DSF and BDSF. The composition and ratio of the three DSF-family signals produced by Xoo are influenced by the composition of culture media. PMID:20615263

2010-01-01

6

SCREENING OF TRANSGENIC ANTHURIUMS FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT AND NEMATODE RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anthuriums exhibit limited resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae and to the nematodes Radopholus simile and Meloidogyne javanica. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of embryogenic calli with strains LBA4404, EHA105, and AGLO resulted in transgenic p...

7

Genome sequencing and comparative analysis of the carrot bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas hortorum pv. carotae M081, for insights into pathogenicity and applications in molecular diagnostics.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas hortorum pv. carotae (Xhc) is an economically important pathogen of carrots. Its ability to epiphytically colonize foliar surfaces and infect seeds can result in bacterial blight of carrots when grown in warm and humid regions. We used high-throughput sequencing to determine the genome sequence of isolate M081 of Xhc. The short reads were de novo assembled and the resulting contigs were ordered using a syntenic reference genome sequence from X. campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913. The improved, high-quality draft genome sequence of Xhc M081 is the first for its species. Despite its distance from other sequenced xanthomonads, Xhc M081 still shared a large inventory of orthologous genes, including many clusters of virulence genes common to other foliar pathogenic species of Xanthomonas. We also mined the genome sequence and identified at least 21 candidate type III effector genes. Two were members of the avrBs2 and xopQ families that demonstrably elicit effector-triggered immunity. We showed that expression in planta of these two type III effectors from Xhc M081 was sufficient to elicit resistance gene-mediated hypersensitive responses in heterologous plants, indicating a possibility for resistance gene-mediated control of Xhc. Finally, we identified regions unique to the Xhc M081 genome sequence, and demonstrated their potential in the design of molecular diagnostics for this pathogen. PMID:21722296

Kimbrel, Jeffrey A; Givan, Scott A; Temple, Todd N; Johnson, Kenneth B; Chang, Jeff H

2011-08-01

8

The broad bacterial blight resistance of rice line CBB23 is triggered by a novel transcription activator-like (TAL) effector of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is not only a disease devastating rice production worldwide, but also an ideal model system for the study of the interaction between plants and their bacterial pathogens. The rice near-isogenic line (NIL) CBB23, derived from a cross between a wild rice Oryza rufipogon accession (RBB16) and a susceptible indica rice variety (Jingang 30), is highly resistant to all field Xoo strains tested so far. Although the BB resistance of CBB23 has been widely used in rice breeding programmes, the mechanism of its extremely broad-spectrum resistance remains unknown. Here, we report the molecular cloning of an avirulence gene, designated as avrXa23, from Xoo strain PXO99(A) . We validate that AvrXa23, a novel transcription activator-like effector, specifically triggers the broad-spectrum BB resistance in CBB23. The prevalence of avrXa23 in all 38 Xoo strains surveyed may explain the broad-spectrum feature of BB resistance in CBB23. The results will significantly facilitate the molecular cloning of the corresponding resistance (R) gene in the host, and provide new insights into our understanding of the molecular mechanism for broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants. PMID:24286630

Wang, Chun-Lian; Qin, Teng-Fei; Yu, Hong-Man; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Che, Jin-Ying; Gao, Ying; Zheng, Chong-Ke; Yang, Bing; Zhao, Kai-Jun

2014-05-01

9

New Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis Tool for Surveillance and Local Epidemiology of Bacterial Leaf Blight and Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice Caused by Xanthomonas oryzae.  

PubMed

Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) is efficient for routine typing and for investigating the genetic structures of natural microbial populations. Two distinct pathovars of Xanthomonas oryzae can cause significant crop losses in tropical and temperate rice-growing countries. Bacterial leaf streak is caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, and bacterial leaf blight is caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzae. For the latter, two genetic lineages have been described in the literature. We developed a universal MLVA typing tool both for the identification of the three X. oryzae genetic lineages and for epidemiological analyses. Sixteen candidate variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci were selected according to their presence and polymorphism in 10 draft or complete genome sequences of the three X. oryzae lineages and by VNTR sequencing of a subset of loci of interest in 20 strains per lineage. The MLVA-16 scheme was then applied to 338 strains of X. oryzae representing different pathovars and geographical locations. Linkage disequilibrium between MLVA loci was calculated by index association on different scales, and the 16 loci showed linear Mantel correlation with MLSA data on 56 X. oryzae strains, suggesting that they provide a good phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, analyses of sets of strains for different lineages indicated the possibility of using the scheme for deeper epidemiological investigation on small spatial scales. PMID:25398857

Poulin, L; Grygiel, P; Magne, M; Gagnevin, L; Rodriguez-R, L M; Forero Serna, N; Zhao, S; El Rafii, M; Dao, S; Tekete, C; Wonni, I; Koita, O; Pruvost, O; Verdier, V; Vernière, C; Koebnik, R

2015-01-15

10

Pyramiding transgenes for multiple resistance in rice against bacterial blight, yellow stem borer and sheath blight.  

PubMed

Here we describe the development of transgene-pyramided stable elite rice lines resistant to disease and insect pests by conventional crossing of two transgenic parental lines transformed independently with different genes. The Xa21 gene (resistance to bacterial blight), the Bt fusion gene (for insect resistance) and the chitinase gene (for tolerance of sheath blight) were combined in a single rice line by reciprocal crossing of two transgenic homozygous IR72 lines. F4 plant lines carrying all the genes of interest stably were identified using molecular methods. The identified lines, when exposed to infection caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae, showed resistance to bacterial blight. Neonate larval mortality rates of yellow stem borer ( Scirpophaga incertulas) in an insect bioassay of the same identified lines were 100%. The identified line pyramided with different genes to protect against yield loss showed high tolerance of sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani. PMID:12582865

Datta, K; Baisakh, N; Thet, K Maung; Tu, J; Datta, S K

2002-12-01

11

[Bacterial leaf blight affecting Syngonium podophyllum in Argentina].  

PubMed

Bacterial leaf blight of Syngonium podophyllum caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. syngonii is recorded for the first time in Argentina. The first symptom of the disease was an interveinal watersoaking of leaves, the tissues became chlorotic and finally necrotic over areas of about 4 cm. The identification of the causal microorganism was based on disease symptoms, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and pathogenicity test. PMID:7838977

Alippi, A M; Ronco, L; Alippi, H E

1994-01-01

12

Pyramiding of bacterial blight resistance genes in rice: marker-assisted selection using RFLP and PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA marker-assisted selection was used to pyramid four bacterial blight resistance genes, Xa-4, xa-5, xa-13 and Xa-21. Breeding lines with two, three and four resistance genes were developed and tested for resistance to the bacterial blight\\u000a pathogen (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae). The pyramid lines showed a wider spectrum and a higher level of resistance than lines with only a single

N. Huang; E. R. Angeles; J. Domingo; G. Magpantay; S. Singh; G. Zhang; N. Kumaravadivel; J. Bennett; G. S. Khush

1997-01-01

13

Microarray analysis of the semi-compatible pathogenic response and recovery of leafy spurge inoculated with the Cassava bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam)of the model perennial range land weed leafy spurge was tested to see if Xam might serve a potential biological control agent for this invasive weed. Although leafy spurge was susceptible to Xam infection, it recovered with 21 days after inocula...

14

Registration of Common Bacterial Blight Resistant Dark Red Kidney Bean Germplasm Line USDK-CBB-15  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dark red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm line USDK-CBB-15 was developed by USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2005. This line was bred specifically for a high level of resistance to common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. ...

15

EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND SEED CONTAMINATION ON EPIPHYTIC POPULATIONS OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. ALLII AND DEVELOPMENT OF XANTHOMONAS LEAF BLIGHT OF ONION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas leaf blight of onion, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is a yield-limiting disease in Colorado, for which few effective management strategies are available. The effects of rates of nitrogen fertilization and levels of seed contamination by X. axonopodis pv. allii on epiphytic...

16

RELEASE OF COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT RESISTANT PINTO BEAN GERMPLASM LINES USPT-CBB-5 AND USPT-CBB-6  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station announce the release of USPT-CBB-5 and USPT-CBB-6 pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm lines with high levels of resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonop...

17

Association mapping of common bacterial blight resistance QTL in Ontario bean breeding populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Common bacterial blight (CBB), incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is a major yield-limiting factor of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production around the world. Host resistance is practically the most effective and environmentally-sound approach to\\u000a control CBB. Unlike conventional QTL discovery strategies, in which bi-parental populations (F2, RIL, or DH) need to be developed, association mapping-based strategies can

Chun Shi; Alireza Navabi; Kangfu Yu

2011-01-01

18

EPIPHYTIC SURVIVAL OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. ALLII AND X. AXONOPODIS PV. PHASEOLI ON LEGUMINOUS HOSTS AND ONION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas leaf blight of onion (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii) and common bacterial blight of dry bean (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli) are perennial problems in the Central High Plains of the U.S. Onion and dry bean are commonly grown in rotation in Colorado, but it i...

19

Suppression of Bacterial Blight by a Bacterial Community Isolated from the Guttation Fluids of Anthuriums†  

PubMed Central

Growth and survival of Xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae in guttation fluids (xylem sap exuded from leaf margins) of anthuriums were suppressed by several bacterial strains indigenous to leaves of various anthurium cultivars. Inhibition of growth was not observed in filter-sterilized guttation fluids and was restored to original levels only by reintroducing specific mixtures of bacteria into filter-sterilized guttation fluids. The inhibitory effect was related to the species in the bacterial community rather than to the total numbers of bacteria in the guttation fluids. One very effective bacterial community consisted of five species isolated from inhibitory guttation fluids of two susceptible anthurium cultivars. The individual strains in this community had no effect on the pathogen, but the mixture was inhibitory to X. campestris pv. dieffenbachiae in guttation fluids. The populations of the individual strains remained near the initial inoculum levels for at least 14 days. The effect of the five inhibitory strains on reducing disease in susceptible anthurium plants was tested by using a bioluminescent strain of X. campestris pv. dieffenbachiae to monitor the progression of disease in leaves nondestructively. Invasion of the pathogen through hydathodes at leaf margins was reduced by applying the strain mixture to the leaves. When the strain mixture was applied directly to wounds created on the leaf margins, the pathogen failed to invade through the wounds. This bacterial community has potential for biological control of anthurium blight. PMID:10049858

Fukui, R.; Fukui, H.; Alvarez, A. M.

1999-01-01

20

Antibacterial activities against rice bacterial leaf blight and tomato bacterial wilt of 2-mercapto-5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole derivatives.  

PubMed

In this study, a series of 2-mercapto-5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activities against rice bacterial leaf blight and tomato bacterial wilt caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Ralstonia solanacearum (R. solanacearum) via the turbidimeter test in vitro. Antibacterial bioassays indicated that most compounds demonstrated appreciable antibacterial bioactivities against Xoo and R. solanacearum. Among the title compounds, compound 4i demonstrated the best inhibitory effect against Xoo and R. solanacearum with half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of 14.69 and 15.14?g/mL, respectively, which were even better than those of commercial agents Bismerthiazol and Thiodiazole Copper. In vivo antibacterial activities tests under greenhouse conditions revealed that the control efficiency of compound 4i against rice bacterial leaf blight and tobacco bacterial wilt were better than those of Bismerthiazol and Thiodiazole Copper. Meanwhile, field trials also indicated that compound 4i demonstrated appreciable control efficiency against rice bacterial leaf blight and tomato bacterial wilt. PMID:25563889

Li, Pei; Shi, Li; Gao, Man-Ni; Yang, Xia; Xue, Wei; Jin, Lin-Hong; Hu, De-Yu; Song, Bao-An

2015-02-01

21

Quantitative and molecular epidemiology of bacterial blight of onion in seed production fields.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Onion, a biennial plant species, is threatened by the emerging, seed-borne, and seed-transmitted Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii. Bacterial blight epidemics were monitored in seed production fields over two seasons. Temporal disease progress was different between the two seasons, with final incidence ranging from 0.04 to 0.06 in 2003 and from 0.44 to 0.61 in 2004. The number of hours with temperatures above 24 degrees C was the best descriptor for predicting the number of days after inoculation for bacterial blight development on inoculated plants. Fitting the beta-binomial distribution and binary power law analysis indicated aggregated patterns of disease incidence data. The beta-binomial distribution was superior to the binomial distribution for 97% of the examined data sets. Spatial dependency ranged from 5.9 to 15.2 m, as determined by semivariance analysis. Based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, it was concluded that plots predominantly were infected by the inoculated haplotype. A single other haplotype was identified by AFLP in all plots over the 2 years, and its detection in the field always followed wind-driven rains. X. axonopodis pv. allii-contaminated seed were detected by semiselective isolation and a nested polymerase chain reaction assay at levels up to 0.05% when final disease incidence was 0.61. Contaminated seed originated from both diseased and asymptomatic plants. PMID:18943667

Humeau, L; Roumagnac, P; Picard, Y; Robène-Soustrade, I; Chiroleu, F; Gagnevin, L; Pruvost, O

2006-12-01

22

A SNP Haplotype Associated with a gene resistant to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum in Upland Cotton (Gossyium hirsutum L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An F5 population of 285 families with each tracing back to a different F2 plant , derived from a cotton bacterial blight resistant line ‘DeltaOpal’ and a susceptible line ‘DP388’, was artificially inoculated with bacterial blight race 18 (Xanthomonas campestris pv. Malvacearum) to assay their resist...

23

Pyramiding B genes in cotton achieves broader but not always higher resistance to bacterial blight.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Near-isogenic lines of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) carrying single, race-specific genes B4, BIn, and b7 for resistance to bacterial blight were used to develop a pyramid of lines with all possible combinations of two and three genes to learn whether the pyramid could achieve broad and high resistance approaching that of L. A. Brinkerhoff's exceptional line Im216. Isogenic strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum carrying single avirulence (avr) genes were used to identify plants carrying specific resistance (B) genes. Under field conditions in north-central Oklahoma, pyramid lines exhibited broader resistance to individual races and, consequently, higher resistance to a race mixture. It was predicted that lines carrying two or three B genes would also exhibit higher resistance to race 1, which possesses many avr genes. Although some enhancements were observed, they did not approach the level of resistance of Im216. In a growth chamber, bacterial populations attained by race 1 in and on leaves of the pyramid lines decreased significantly with increasing number of B genes in only one of four experiments. The older lines, Im216 and AcHR, exhibited considerably lower bacterial populations than any of the one-, two-, or three-B-gene lines. A spreading collapse of spray-inoculated AcBIn and AcBInb7 leaves appears to be a defense response (conditioned by BIn) that is out of control. PMID:24655289

Essenberg, Margaret; Bayles, Melanie B; Pierce, Margaret L; Verhalen, Laval M

2014-10-01

24

Characterization of the pigment xanthomonadin in the bacterial genus Xanthomonas using micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm and 514.5 nm laser excitation, respectively, to characterize a plant pathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae D150. The bacterial genus Xathomonas is closely related to bacterial genus Stenotrophomonas that causes an infection in humans. This study has identified for the first time the unique Raman spectra of the carotenoid-like pigment xanthomonadin of the Xanthomonas strain. Xanthomonadin is a brominated aryl-polyene pigment molecule similar to carotenoids. Further studies were conducted using resonance Raman spectroscopy with 514.5 nm laser excitation on several strains of the bacterial genus Xanthomonas isolated from numerous plants from various geographical locations. The current study revealed that the Raman bands representing the vibrations (v1, v2, v3) of the polyene chain of xanthomonadin are 1003-1005 (v3), 1135-1138 (v2), and 1530 (v1). Overtone bands representing xanthomonadin were identified as 2264-2275 (2v2), and combinational bands at 2653-2662 (v1+ v2). The findings from this study validate our previous finding that the Raman fingerprints of xanthomonadin are unique for the genus Xanthomonas. This facilitates rapid identification (~5 minutes) of Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial culture plates. The xanthomonadin marker is different from Raman markers of many other bacterial genus including Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Clavibacter, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Ralstonia. This study also identified Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial strains isolated from a diseased wheat sample on a culture plate.

Paret, Mathews L.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Acosta, Tayro; deSilva, Asoka S.; Vowell, Tomie; Alvarez, Anne M.

2012-06-01

25

Bacterial leaf and stem blight of safflower in M. Afazal AKHTAR M. Siddique MIRZA M. ASLAM  

E-print Network

NOTE Bacterial leaf and stem blight of safflower in Pakistan M. Afazal AKHTAR M. Siddique MIRZA M SUMMARY Bacterial leaf and stem blight disease on safflower (Carthamus tinctorus L.) was detected in 1985 to be the first identification of this bacterium on safflower from Pakistan. Additional key words : Pseudomonas

Boyer, Edmond

26

High-resolution genetic mapping of rice bacterial blight resistance gene Xa23.  

PubMed

Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the most devastating bacterial disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple food crop that feeds half of the world's population. In management of this disease, the most economical and effective approach is cultivating resistant varieties. Due to rapid change of pathogenicity in the pathogen, it is necessary to identify and characterize more host resistance genes for breeding new resistant varieties. We have previously identified the BB resistance (R) gene Xa23 that confers the broadest resistance to Xoo strains isolated from different rice-growing regions and preliminarily mapped the gene within a 1.7 cm region on the long arm of rice chromosome 11. Here, we report fine genetic mapping and in silico analysis of putative candidate genes of Xa23. Based on F2 mapping populations derived from crosses between Xa23-containing rice line CBB23 and susceptible varieties JG30 or IR24, six new STS markers Lj36, Lj46, Lj138, Lj74, A83B4, and Lj13 were developed. Linkage analysis revealed that the new markers were co-segregated with or closely linked to the Xa23 locus. Consequently, the Xa23 gene was mapped within a 0.4 cm region between markers Lj138 and A83B4, in which the co-segregating marker Lj74 was identified. The corresponding physical distance between Lj138 and A83B4 on Nipponbare genome is 49.8 kb. Six Xa23 candidate genes have been annotated, including four candidate genes encoding hypothetical proteins and the other two encoding a putative ADP-ribosylation factor protein and a putative PPR protein. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Xa23 in rice breeding and molecular cloning of this valuable R gene. PMID:24715026

Wang, Chunlian; Fan, Yinglun; Zheng, Chongke; Qin, Tengfei; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Kaijun

2014-10-01

27

Interaction of common bacterial blight bacteria with disease resistance quantitative trait loci in common bean.  

PubMed

Common bacterial blight (CBB) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans, and is the most important bacterial disease of this crop in many regions of the world. In 2005 and 2006, dark red kidney bean fields in a major bean-growing region in central Wisconsin were surveyed for CBB incidence and representative symptomatic leaves collected. Xanthomonad-like bacteria were isolated from these leaves and characterized based upon phenotypic (colony) characteristics, pathogenicity on common bean, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with X. campestris pv. phaseoli- and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans-specific primers, and repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) and 16S-28S ribosomal RNA spacer region sequence analyses. Of 348 isolates that were characterized, 293 were identified as common blight bacteria (i.e., pathogenic on common bean and positive in PCR tests with the X. campestris pv. phaseoli- and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans-specific primers), whereas the other isolates were nonpathogenic xanthomonads. Most (98%) of the pathogenic xanthomonads were X. campestris pv. phaseoli, consistent with the association of this bacterium with CBB in large-seeded bean cultivars of the Andean gene pool. Two types of X. campestris pv. phaseoli were involved with CBB in this region: typical X. campestris pv. phaseoli (P) isolates with yellow mucoid colonies, no brown pigment production, and a typical X. campestris pv. phaseoli rep-PCR fingerprint (60% of strains); and a new phenotype and genotype (Px) with an X. campestris pv. phaseoli-type fingerprint and less mucoid colonies that produced brown pigment (40% of strains). In addition, a small number of X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains, representing a new genotype (FH), were isolated from two fields in 2005. Representative P and Px X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains, an FH X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strain, plus five previously characterized X. campestris pv. phaseoli and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans genotypes were inoculated onto 28 common bean genotypes having various combinations of known CBB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated sequence-characterized amplified region markers. Different levels of virulence were observed for X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains, whereas X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains were similar in virulence. The typical X. campestris pv. phaseoli strain from Wisconsin was most virulent, whereas X. campestris pv. phaseoli genotypes from East Africa were the least virulent. Host genotypes having the SU91 marker-associated resistance and one or more other QTL (i.e., pyramided resistance), such as the VAX lines, were highly resistant to all genotypes of common blight bacteria tested. This information will help in the development of CBB resistance-breeding strategies for different common bean market classes in different geographical regions, as well as the identification of appropriate pathogen genotypes for screening for resistance. PMID:21391823

Duncan, Robert W; Singh, Shree P; Gilbertson, Robert L

2011-04-01

28

Optimization of late blight and bacterial wilt management in potato production systems in the highland tropics of Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Late blight and bacterial wilt are two formidable disease constraints on potato and account for significant losses in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).In this chapter, various management techniques for late blight and bacterial wilt diseases are highlighted and discussed with examples drawn from diverse res...

29

Genetic Diversity and Pathogenic Variation of Common Blight Bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans) Suggests Pathogen Coevolution with the Common Bean.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans, is one of the most important diseases of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in East Africa and other bean-growing regions. Xanthomonad-like bacteria associated with CBB in Malawi and Tanzania, East Africa, and in Wisconsin, U.S., were characterized based on brown pigment production, pathogenicity on common bean, detection with an X. campestris pv. phaseoli- or X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans-specific PCR primer pair, and repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses. The common bean gene pool (Andean or Middle American) from which each strain was isolated also was determined. In Malawi, X. campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans were isolated predominantly from Andean or Middle American beans, respectively. In Tanzania, X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans was most commonly isolated, irrespective of gene pool; whereas, in Wisconsin, only X. campestris pv. phaseoli was isolated from Andean red kidney beans. Three rep-PCR fingerprints were obtained for X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains; two were unique to East African strains, whereas the other was associated with strains collected from all other (mostly New World) locations. RFLP analyses with repetitive DNA probes revealed the same genetic diversity among X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains as did rep-PCR. These probes hybridized with only one or two fragments in the East African strains, but with multiple fragments in the other X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains. East African X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains were highly pathogenic on Andean beans, but were significantly less pathogenic on Middle American beans. In contrast, X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains from New World locations were highly pathogenic on beans of both gene pools. Together, these results indicate the existence of genetically and geographically distinct X. campestris pv. phaseoli genotypes. The rep-PCR fingerprints of X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strains from East African and New World locations were indistinguishable, and were readily distinguished from those of X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains. Genetic diversity among X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strains was revealed by RFLP analyses. East African and New World X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strains were highly pathogenic on Andean and Middle American beans. Breeding for CBB resistance in East African beans should utilize X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans and New World X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains in order to identify germ plasm with the highest levels of resistance. PMID:18943484

Mkandawire, Alexander B C; Mabagala, Robert B; Guzmán, Pablo; Gepts, Paul; Gilbertson, Robert L

2004-06-01

30

Jasmonate induction of the monoterpene linalool confers resistance to rice bacterial blight and its biosynthesis is regulated by JAZ protein in rice.  

PubMed

Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Recently, we demonstrated that JA signalling has an important role in resistance to rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in rice. Here, we report that many volatile compounds accumulate in response to exogenous application of JA, including the monoterpene linalool. Expression of linalool synthase was up-regulated by JA. Vapour treatment with linalool induced resistance to Xoo, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing linalool synthase were more resistance to Xoo, presumably due to the up-regulation of defence-related genes in the absence of any treatment. JA-induced accumulation of linalool was regulated by OsJAZ8, a rice jasmonate ZIM-domain protein involving the JA signalling pathway at the transcriptional level, suggesting that linalool plays an important role in JA-induced resistance to Xoo in rice. PMID:23889289

Taniguchi, Shiduku; Hosokawa-Shinonaga, Yumi; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Yamada, Shoko; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

2014-02-01

31

Draft Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii Strain CFBP 6369  

PubMed Central

We report here the draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii strain CFBP 6369, the causal agent of bacterial blight of onion. The draft genome has a size of 5,425,942 bp and a G+C content of 64.4%. PMID:25081256

Bolot, S.; Gordon, J. L.; Pruvost, O.; Vernière, C.; Robène, I.; Arlat, M.; Noël, L. D.; Carrère, S.; Jacques, M.-A.; Koebnik, R.

2014-01-01

32

Application of image analysis in studies of quantitative disease resistance, exemplified using common bacterial blight-common bean pathosystem.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of image analysis (IA) compared with an ordinal visual scale, for quantitative measurement of disease severity, its application in quantitative genetic studies, and its effect on the estimates of genetic parameters were investigated. Studies were performed using eight backcross-derived families of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) (n = 172) segregating for the molecular marker SU91, known to be associated with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance to common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans. Even though both IA and visual assessments were highly repeatable, IA was more sensitive in detecting quantitative differences between bean genotypes. The CBB phenotypic difference between the two SU91 genotypic groups was consistently more than fivefold for IA assessments but generally only two- to threefold for visual assessments. Results suggest that the visual assessment results in overestimation of the effect of QTL in genetic studies. This may have been caused by lack of additivity and uneven intervals of the visual scale. Although visual assessment of disease severity is a useful tool for general selection in breeding programs, assessments using IA may be more suitable for phenotypic evaluations in quantitative genetic studies involving CBB resistance as well as other foliar diseases. PMID:22204655

Xie, Weilong; Yu, Kangfu; Pauls, K Peter; Navabi, Alireza

2012-04-01

33

Association mapping of common bacterial blight resistance QTL in Ontario bean breeding populations  

PubMed Central

Background Common bacterial blight (CBB), incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is a major yield-limiting factor of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production around the world. Host resistance is practically the most effective and environmentally-sound approach to control CBB. Unlike conventional QTL discovery strategies, in which bi-parental populations (F2, RIL, or DH) need to be developed, association mapping-based strategies can use plant breeding populations to synchronize QTL discovery and cultivar development. Results A population of 469 dry bean lines of different market classes representing plant materials routinely developed in a bean breeding program were used. Of them, 395 lines were evaluated for CBB resistance at 14 and 21 DAI (Days After Inoculation) in the summer of 2009 in an artificially inoculated CBB nursery in south-western Ontario. All lines were genotyped using 132 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) evenly distributed across the genome. Of the 132 SNPs, 26 SNPs had more than 20% missing data, 12 SNPs were monomorphic, and 17 SNPs had a MAF (Minor Allelic Frequency) of less than 0.20, therefore only 75 SNPs were used for association study, based on one SNP per locus. The best possible population structure was to assign 36% and 64% of the lines into Andean and Mesoamerican subgroups, respectively. Kinship analysis also revealed complex familial relationships among all lines, which corresponds with the known pedigree history. MLM (Mixed Linear Model) analysis, including population structure and kinship, was used to discover marker-trait associations. Eighteen and 22 markers were significantly associated with CBB rating at 14 and 21 DAI, respectively. Fourteen markers were significant for both dates and the markers UBC420, SU91, g321, g471, and g796 were highly significant (p ? 0.001). Furthermore, 12 significant SNP markers were co-localized with or close to the CBB-QTLs identified previously in bi-parental QTL mapping studies. Conclusions This study demonstrated that association mapping using a reasonable number of markers, distributed across the genome and with application of plant materials that are routinely developed in a plant breeding program can detect significant QTLs for traits of interest. PMID:21435233

2011-01-01

34

A benefit of high temperature: increased effectiveness of a rice bacterial blight disease resistance gene  

E-print Network

challenges for plant disease management (Coakley et al., 1999; Garrett et al., 2006). While the specificA benefit of high temperature: increased effectiveness of a rice bacterial blight disease single disease resistance (R) genes imposes a strong selection for virulence in pathogen populations

Garrett, Karen A.

35

EPISTATIC INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO MAJOR QTL CONDITIONING RESISTANCE TO COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT IN COMMON BEAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. Combining QTL is the current strategy for improving resistance, but interactions among different QTL are unknown. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL present in dry bean bre...

36

Characterization of the bacterial stem blight pathogen of alfalfa, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae ALF3  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial stem blight of alfalfa occurs sporadically in the central and western U.S. Yield losses of up to 50% of the first harvest can occur with some cultivars. Developing resistant cultivars is hampered by lack of information on the pathogen and a standard test for evaluating plant germplasm. Bac...

37

Epidermal anthocyanin production as an indicator of bacterial blight resistance in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among near-isogenic upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines, remarkable variation exists in the ability of the leaves to produce a red accessory pigment anthocyanin when challenged by selected isogenic races of the bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Smith) Dye. Inoculated areas that developed visible water-soaking that progressed beyond pinpoint-sized dots, a sign of susceptibility, very rarely produced anthocyanin, and

N. Kangatharalingam; Margaret L. Pierce; Melanie B. Bayles; Margaret Essenberg

2002-01-01

38

Draft Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni Strain Xap33, Causal Agent of Bacterial Spot Disease on Almond  

PubMed Central

We report the annotated genome sequence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni strain Xap33, isolated from almond leaves showing bacterial spot disease symptoms in Spain. The availability of this genome sequence will aid our understanding of the infection mechanism of this bacterium as well as its relationship to other species of the same genus. PMID:24903863

Garita-Cambronero, J.; Sena-Vélez, M.; Palacio-Bielsa, A.

2014-01-01

39

Role of rpfF in Virulence and Exoenzyme Production of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar glycines, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Pustule of Soybean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ten strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, the causal agent of bacterial pustule of soybean, obtained from various soybean growing regions of Thailand produced an extracellular diffusible factor (DSF) related to a well-characterized quorum sensing molecule produced by other Xanthomonas spp....

40

Code-assisted discovery of TAL effector targets in bacterial leaf streak of rice reveals contrast with bacterial blight and a novel susceptibility gene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors found in Xanthomonas spp. promote bacterial growth and plant susceptibility by binding specific DNA sequences or, effector-binding elements (EBEs), and inducing host gene expression. In this study, we have found substantially different transcriptional pro...

41

Analysis of nucleotide diversity among alleles of the major bacterial blight resistance gene Xa27 in cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) and its wild relatives.  

PubMed

Xa27 is one of the important R-genes, effective against bacterial blight disease of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Using natural population of Oryza, we analyzed the sequence variation in the functionally important domains of Xa27 across the Oryza species. DNA sequences of Xa27 alleles from 27 rice accessions revealed higher nucleotide diversity among the reported R-genes of rice. Sequence polymorphism analysis revealed synonymous and non-synonymous mutations in addition to a number of InDels in non-coding regions of the gene. High sequence variation was observed in the promoter region including the 5'UTR with '?' value 0.00916 and '? w ' = 0.01785. Comparative analysis of the identified Xa27 alleles with that of IRBB27 and IR24 indicated the operation of both positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1) and neutral selection (Ka/Ks ? 0). The genetic distances of alleles of the gene from Oryza nivara were nearer to IRBB27 as compared to IR24. We also found the presence of conserved and null UPT (upregulated by transcriptional activator) box in the isolated alleles. Considerable amino acid polymorphism was localized in the trans-membrane domain for which the functional significance is yet to be elucidated. However, the absence of functional UPT box in all the alleles except IRBB27 suggests the maintenance of single resistant allele throughout the natural population. PMID:23652799

Bimolata, Waikhom; Kumar, Anirudh; Sundaram, Raman Meenakshi; Laha, Gouri Shankar; Qureshi, Insaf Ahmed; Reddy, Gajjala Ashok; Ghazi, Irfan Ahmad

2013-08-01

42

Draft Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas arboricola Strain 3004, a Causal Agent of Bacterial Disease on Barley  

PubMed Central

We report here the annotated genome sequence of Xanthomonas arboricola strain 3004, isolated from barley leaves with symptoms of streak and capable of infecting other plant species. We sequenced the genome of X. arboricola strain 3004 to improve the understanding of molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis and evolution of the genus Xanthomonas.

Kyrova, Elena I.; Vinogradova, Svetlana V.; Kamionskaya, Anastasia M.; Schaad, Norman W.; Luster, Douglas G.

2015-01-01

43

Quantitative Measurements of Xanthomonas Oryzae pv. Oryzae Distribution in Rice Using Fluorescent-Labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice host sensor, XA21, confers robust resistance to most strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the casual agent of bacterial blight disease. Using in planta fluorescence imaging of Xoo strain PXO99Az expressing a green fluorescent protein (Xoo-gfp) we show that XA21 restricts Xoo spread at the point of infection. This noninvasive and quantitative method to measure spatial distribution

Kazunari Nozue; Chang-Jin Park; Pamela C. Ronald

2011-01-01

44

FIRST REPORT OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF RUTABAGA (BRASSICA NAPUS VAR. NAPOBRASSICA) CAUSED BY PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. ALISALENSIS IN CALIFORNIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel bacterial blight on commercial organically grown rutabaga (Brassica napus var. napobrassica) was seen for the first time in coastal California in 2005. Koch’s postulates were completed and the etiology of the pathogen was elucidated. Characterization showed that pathogen was Pseudomonas syri...

45

FIRST REPORT OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF CAULIFLOWER (BRASSICA OLERACEA VAR. BOTRYTIS) CAUSED BY PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. ALISALENSIS IN CALIFORNIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel bacterial blight commercial romanesca (green) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) was seen for the first time in coastal California in 2005. Koch’s postulates were completed and the etiology of the pathogen was determined. Characterization showed that pathogen was Pseudomonas syrin...

46

A MAJOR QTL FOR COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT RESISTANCE DERIVES FROM THE COMMON BEAN GREAT NORTHERN LANDRACE CULTIVAR MONTANA NO. 5  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of the evolutionary origin and sources of pest resistance genes will facilitate gene deployment and development of crop cultivars with durable resistance. Our objective was to determine the source of common bacterial blight (CBB) resistance in great northern dry bean cultivars. Several cul...

47

Effervescent fast-disintegrating bacterial formulation for biological control of rice sheath blight.  

PubMed

A lack of effective, easily applied and stable formulation has been a major obstacle to widespread use of biocontrol agents for control of rice sheath blight. In this study, effervescent fast-disintegrating granules containing endospores of Bacillus megaterium were developed for use either by broadcast or spray application. The formulation composed of lactose, polyvinyl pyrrolidone K-30 (PVP, K-30) and effervescent base (citric acid, tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate). The number of living bacteria in effervescent granules that performed mycelial growth inhibition was in the range of 10(9) CFU/g after 12 months storage at room temperature. The number of viable bacteria after applying into the water and spraying on the rice seedling for 7 days in the greenhouse tests were also satisfactory high (10(9) CFU/g of granules and 10(6) CFU/g of plant, respectively). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe bacterial antagonist on the surface of leaf sheath and leaf blade after spraying with formulation. Effervescent formulation applied either broadcasting or spraying reduced incidence of sheath blight disease in the greenhouse experiments. PMID:17428569

Wiwattanapatapee, R; Chumthong, A; Pengnoo, A; Kanjanamaneesathian, M

2007-06-01

48

Phenotypic and Genetic Diversity in Strains of Common Blight Bacteria (Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans) in a Secondary Center of Diversity of the Common Bean Host Suggests Multiple Introduction Events.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Common bacterial blight (CBB) disease of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and the brown-pigmented variant X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans. CBB first was described in Castilla y León County, Spain, in 1940, and is now a major constraint on common bean production. In this secondary center of diversity of the common bean, large-seeded Andean cultivars predominate, although medium-seeded Middle American cultivars also are grown. Xanthomonad-like bacteria associated with CBB in Castilla y León were characterized on the basis of carbohydrate metabolism, brown pigment production, genetic analyses (repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction [rep-PCR] and random amplified polymorphic DNA [RAPD]) and pathogenicity on cultivars representing the two common bean gene pools (Andean and Middle American). X. campestris pv. phaseoli was more prevalent (80%) than X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans (20%). Patterns of carbohydrate metabolism of Spanish CBB bacteria were similar to those of known strains; and only X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strains utilized mannitol as a sole carbon source. rep-PCR and RAPD analyses revealed relatively little genetic diversity among Spanish X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains, and these strains were placed together with New World strains into a large cluster. Similar to other New World strains, representative Spanish X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains were highly pathogenic on bean cultivars of both gene pools, showing no gene pool specialization such as that found in certain East African strains. Genetic analyses and pathogenicity tests confirmed and extended previous results, indicating that these East African strains represent distinct xanthomonads that independently evolved to be pathogenic on common bean. X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strains were more closely related and genetically distinct from X. campestris pv. phaseoli strains. However, two distinct clusters of X. campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strains were identified, one having the most New World strains and the other having the most African strains. Spanish strains were placed in both clusters, but all strains tested were highly pathogenic on bean cultivars of both gene pools. Together, our results are consistent with multiple introductions of CBB bacteria into Spain. These findings are discussed in terms of breeding for CBB resistance and the overall understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of CBB bacteria. PMID:18943957

López, Ruth; Asensio, Carmen; Gilbertson, Robert L

2006-11-01

49

Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.  

PubMed

Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%). PMID:20839964

Khoa, Nguyen ?ac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

2011-02-01

50

A CCCH-Type Zinc Finger Nucleic Acid-Binding Protein Quantitatively Confers Resistance against Rice Bacterial Blight Disease1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Bacterial blight is a devastating disease of rice (Oryza sativa) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo). Zinc finger proteins harboring the motif with three conserved cysteine residues and one histidine residue (CCCH) belong to a large family. Although at least 67 CCCH-type zinc finger protein genes have been identified in the rice genome, their functions are poorly understood. Here, we report that one of the rice CCCH-type zinc finger proteins, C3H12, containing five typical CX8-CX5-CX3-H zinc finger motifs, is involved in the rice-Xoo interaction. Activation of C3H12 partially enhanced resistance to Xoo, accompanied by the accumulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and induced expression of JA signaling genes in rice. In contrast, knockout or suppression of C3H12 resulted in partially increased susceptibility to Xoo, accompanied by decreased levels of JA and expression of JA signaling genes in rice. C3H12 colocalized with a minor disease resistance quantitative trait locus to Xoo, and the enhanced resistance of randomly chosen plants in the quantitative trait locus mapping population correlated with an increased expression level of C3H12. The C3H12 protein localized in the nucleus and possessed nucleic acid-binding activity in vitro. These results suggest that C3H12, as a nucleic acid-binding protein, positively and quantitatively regulates rice resistance to Xoo and that its function is likely associated with the JA-dependent pathway. PMID:22158700

Deng, Hanqing; Liu, Hongbo; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Wang, Shiping

2012-01-01

51

A comparison of the molecular organization of genomic regions associated with resistance to common bacterial blight in two Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes  

PubMed Central

Resistance to common bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, in Phaseolus vulgaris is conditioned by several loci on different chromosomes. Previous studies with OAC-Rex, a CBB-resistant, white bean variety of Mesoamerican origin, identified two resistance loci associated with the molecular markers Pv-CTT001 and SU91, on chromosome 4 and 8, respectively. Resistance to CBB is assumed to be derived from an interspecific cross with Phaseolus acutifolius in the pedigree of OAC-Rex. Our current whole genome sequencing effort with OAC-Rex provided the opportunity to compare its genome in the regions associated with CBB resistance with the v1.0 release of the P. vulgaris line G19833, which is a large seeded bean of Andean origin, and (assumed to be) CBB susceptible. In addition, the genomic regions containing SAP6, a marker associated with P. vulgaris-derived CBB-resistance on chromosome 10, were compared. These analyses indicated that gene content was highly conserved between G19833 and OAC-Rex across the regions examined (>80%). However, fifty-nine genes unique to OAC Rex were identified, with resistance gene homologues making up the largest category (10 genes identified). Two unique genes in OAC-Rex located within the SU91 resistance QTL have homology to P. acutifolius ESTs and may be potential sources of CBB resistance. As the genomic sequence assembly of OAC-Rex is completed, we expect that further comparisons between it and the G19833 genome will lead to a greater understanding of CBB resistance in bean. PMID:24009615

Perry, Gregory; DiNatale, Claudia; Xie, Weilong; Navabi, Alireza; Reinprecht, Yarmilla; Crosby, William; Yu, Kangfu; Shi, Chun; Pauls, K. Peter

2013-01-01

52

Southern leaf blight disease severity is correlated with decreased maize leaf epiphytic bacterial species richness and the phyllosphere bacterial diversity decline is enhanced by nitrogen fertilization.  

PubMed

Plant leaves are inhabited by a diverse group of microorganisms that are important contributors to optimal growth. Biotic and abiotic effects on plant growth are usually studied in controlled settings examining response to variation in single factors and in field settings with large numbers of variables. Multi-factor experiments with combinations of stresses bridge this gap, increasing our understanding of the genotype-environment-phenotype functional map for the host plant and the affiliated epiphytic community. The maize inbred B73 was exposed to single and combination abiotic and the biotic stress treatments: low nitrogen fertilizer and high levels of infection with southern leaf blight (causal agent Cochliobolus heterostrophus). Microbial epiphyte samples were collected at the vegetative early-season phase and species composition was determined using 16S ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Plant traits and level of southern leaf blight disease were measured late-season. Bacterial diversity was different among stress treatment groups (P < 0.001). Lower species richness-alpha diversity-was correlated with increased severity of southern leaf blight disease when disease pressure was high. Nitrogen fertilization intensified the decline in bacterial alpha diversity. While no single bacterial ribotype was consistently associated with disease severity, small sets of ribotypes were good predictors of disease levels. Difference in leaf bacterial-epiphyte diversity early in the season were correlated with plant disease severity, supporting further tests of microbial epiphyte-disease correlations for use in predicting disease progression. PMID:25177328

Manching, Heather C; Balint-Kurti, Peter J; Stapleton, Ann E

2014-01-01

53

Genotyping with Real-time PCR Reveals Recessive Epistasis Between Independent QTL Conferring Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Dry Bean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. Combining QTL is the current strategy for improving resistance in, but interactions among different QTL are unknown. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL present in dry bean ...

54

Interactions Between QTL SAP6 and SU91 on Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Red Kidney Bean and Pinto Bean Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL, SAP6 and SU91, which condition resistance to CBB.The QTL were studied in a pinto bean F2 population a cross between Othello (sap6 sap6 //...

55

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo F1, Which Causes Citrus Bacterial Spot Disease, and Related Strains Provides Insights into Virulence and Host Specificity ? #  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citrumelo is a citrus pathogen causing citrus bacterial spot disease that is geographically restricted within the state of Florida. Illumina, 454 sequencing, and optical mapping were used to obtain a complete genome sequence of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo strain F1, 4.9 Mb in size. The strain lacks plasmids, in contrast to other citrus Xanthomonas pathogens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this pathogen is very close to the tomato bacterial spot pathogen X. campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10, with a completely different host range. We also compared X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo to the genome of citrus canker pathogen X. axonopodis pv. citri 306. Comparative genomic analysis showed differences in several gene clusters, like those for type III effectors, the type IV secretion system, lipopolysaccharide synthesis, and others. In addition to pthA, effectors such as xopE3, xopAI, and hrpW were absent from X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo while present in X. axonopodis pv. citri. These effectors might be responsible for survival and the low virulence of this pathogen on citrus compared to that of X. axonopodis pv. citri. We also identified unique effectors in X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo that may be related to the different host range as compared to that of X. axonopodis pv. citri. X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo also lacks various genes, such as syrE1, syrE2, and RTX toxin family genes, which were present in X. axonopodis pv. citri. These may be associated with the distinct virulences of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo and X. axonopodis pv. citri. Comparison of the complete genome sequence of X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo to those of X. axonopodis pv. citri and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria provides valuable insights into the mechanism of bacterial virulence and host specificity. PMID:21908674

Jalan, Neha; Aritua, Valente; Kumar, Dibyendu; Yu, Fahong; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Graham, James H.; Setubal, João C.; Wang, Nian

2011-01-01

56

Management of Bacterial Blight of Lilac Caused by Pseudomonas syringae by Growing Plants under Plastic Shelters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes some of the most economically-important bacterial diseases affecting woody perennials grown by the nursery industry in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In this study, we evaluated a cultural control practice, placement of plants in plastic shelter...

57

Role of the FeoB Protein and Siderophore in Promoting Virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae on Rice?  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight, a serious disease of rice. Our analysis revealed that the X. oryzae pv. oryzae genome encodes genes responsible for iron uptake through FeoB (homolog of the major bacterial ferrous iron transporter) and a siderophore. A mutation in the X. oryzae pv. oryzae feoB gene causes severe virulence deficiency, growth deficiency in iron-limiting medium, and constitutive production of a siderophore. We identified an iron regulated xss gene cluster, in which xssABCDE (Xanthomonas siderophore synthesis) and xsuA (Xanthomonas siderophore utilization) genes encode proteins involved in biosynthesis and utilization of X. oryzae pv. oryzae siderophore. Mutations in the xssA, xssB, and xssE genes cause siderophore deficiency and growth restriction under iron-limiting conditions but are virulence proficient. An xsuA mutant displayed impairment in utilization of native siderophore, suggesting that XsuA acts as a specific receptor for a ferric-siderophore complex. Histochemical and fluorimetric assays with gusA fusions indicate that, during in planta growth, the feoB gene is expressed and that the xss operon is not expressed. This study represents the first report describing a role for feoB in virulence of any plant-pathogenic bacterium and the first functional characterization of a siderophore-biosynthetic gene cluster in any xanthomonad. PMID:20382771

Pandey, Alok; Sonti, Ramesh V.

2010-01-01

58

Excess copper in soil as a factor affecting bacterial spots caused by Xanthomonas vesicatoria in tomato plants; bio-interaction between two stress factors and their influence on plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigations presented in this paper focus on studying the influence of excess soil copper levels in young tomato plants\\u000a and their relationship to bacterial spot severity caused by Xanthomonas vesicatoria race T3. The plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots containing soil artificially contaminated with copper\\u000a in concentrations of 250 and 400 mg kg?1. Both stress factors were applied individually

Svetla Maneva; Nevena Bogatzevska; Ekaterina Miteva

2009-01-01

59

Exposure of phytopathogenic Xanthomonas spp. to lethal concentrations of multiple oxidants affects bacterial survival in a complex manner.  

PubMed

During plant-microbe interactions and in the environment, Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli is likely to be exposed to high concentrations of multiple oxidants. Here, we show that simultaneous exposures of the bacteria to multiple oxidants affects cell survival in a complex manner. A superoxide generator (menadione) enhanced the lethal effect of an organic peroxide (tert-butyl hydroperoxide) by 1, 000-fold; conversely, treatment of cells with menadione plus H(2)O(2) resulted in 100-fold protection compared to that for cells treated with the individual oxidants. Treatment of X. campestris with a combination of H(2)O(2) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide elicited no additive or protective effect. High levels of catalase alone are sufficient to protect cells against the lethal effect of menadione plus H(2)O(2) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide plus H(2)O(2). These data suggest that H(2)O(2) is the lethal agent responsible for killing the bacteria as a result of these treatments. However, increased expression of individual genes for peroxide (alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, catalase)- and superoxide (superoxide dismutase)-scavenging enzymes or concerted induction of oxidative stress-protective genes by menadione gave no protection against killing by a combination of menadione plus tert-butyl hydroperoxide. However, X. campestris cells in the stationary phase and a spontaneous H(2)O(2)-resistant mutant (X. campestris pv. phaseoli HR) were more resistant to killing by menadione plus tert-butyl hydroperoxide. These findings give new insight into oxidant killing of Xanthomonas spp. that could be generally applied to other bacteria. PMID:10966423

Sriprang, R; Vattanaviboon, P; Mongkolsuk, S

2000-09-01

60

First Report of Bacterial Leaf Blight on Broccoli and Cabbage Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis in South Carolina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In May 2009, leaf spot and leaf blight symptoms were observed on broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) on several farms in Lexington County, the major brassica-growing region of South Carolina. Affected areas ranged from scattered disease foci within fiel...

61

Comparison of the genomes of two Xanthomonas pathogens with differing host specificities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Xanthomonas is a diverse and economically important group of bacterial phytopathogens, belonging to the gamma-subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) causes citrus canker, which affects most commercial citrus cultivars, resulting in significant losses worldwide. Symptoms include canker lesions, leading to abscission of fruit and leaves and general tree decline. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) causes

A. C. R. da Silva; J. A. Ferro; F. C. Reinach; C. S. Farah; L. R. Furlan; R. B. Quaggio; C. B. Monteiro-Vitorello; M. A. Van Sluys; N. F. Almeida; L. M. C. Alves; A. M. do Amaral; M. C. Bertolini; L. E. A. Camargo; G. Camarotte; F. Cannavan; J. Cardozo; F. Chambergo; L. P. Ciapina; R. M. B. Cicarelli; L. L. Coutinho; J. R. Cursino-Santos; H. El-Dorry; J. B. Faria; A. J. S. Ferreira; R. C. C. Ferreira; M. I. T. Ferro; E. F. Formighieri; M. C. Franco; C. C. Greggio; A. Gruber; A. M. Katsuyama; L. T. Kishi; R. P. Leite; E. G. M. Lemos; M. V. F. Lemos; E. C. Locali; A. M. B. N. Madeira; N. M. Martinez-Rossi; E. C. Martins; J. Meidanis; C. F. M. Menck; C. Y. Miyaki; D. H. Moon; L. M. Moreira; M. T. M. Novo; V. K. Okura; M. C. Oliveira; V. R. Oliveira; H. A. Pereira; A. Rossi; J. A. D. Sena; C. Silva; R. F. de Souza; L. A. F. Spinola; M. A. Takita; E. C. Teixeira; R. I. D. Tezza; M. Trindade dos Santos; D. Truffi; S. M. Tsai; F. F. White; J. C. Setubal; J. P. Kitajima

2002-01-01

62

Highly polymorphic markers reveal the establishment of an invasive lineage of the citrus bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri pv. citri in its area of origin.  

PubMed

Investigating the population biology of plant pathogens in their native areas is essential to understand the factors that shape their population structure and favour their spread. Monomorphic pathogens dispatch extremely low genetic diversity in invaded areas, and native areas constitute a major reservoir for future emerging strains. One of these, the gammaproteobacterium Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, causes Asiatic canker and is a considerable threat to citrus worldwide. We studied its population genetic structure by genotyping 555 strains from 12 Vietnam provinces at 14 tandem repeat loci and insertion sequences. Discriminant analysis of principal components identified six clusters. Five of them were composed of endemic strains distributed heterogeneously across sampled provinces. A sixth cluster, VN6, displayed a much lower diversity and a clonal expansion structure, suggesting recent epidemic spread. No differences in aggressiveness on citrus or resistance to bactericides were detected between VN6 and other strains. VN6 likely represents a case of bioinvasion following introduction in a native area likely through contaminated plant propagative material. Highly polymorphic markers are useful for revealing migration patterns of recently introduced populations of a monomorphic bacterial plant pathogen. PMID:24373118

Vernière, Christian; Bui Thi Ngoc, Lan; Jarne, Philippe; Ravigné, Virginie; Guérin, Fabien; Gagnevin, Lionel; Le Mai, Nhat; Chau, Nguyen M; Pruvost, Olivier

2014-07-01

63

Comparative transcriptome profiling reveals different expression patterns in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains with putative virulence-relevant genes.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight, which is a major rice disease in tropical Asian countries. An attempt has been made to investigate gene expression patterns of three Xoo strains on the minimal medium XOM2, PXO99 (P6) and PXO86 (P2) from the Philippines, and GD1358 (C5) from China, which exhibited different virulence in 30 rice varieties, with putative virulence factors using deep sequencing. In total, 4,781 transcripts were identified in this study, and 1,151 and 3,076 genes were differentially expressed when P6 was compared with P2 and with C5, respectively. Our results indicated that Xoo strains from different regions exhibited distinctly different expression patterns of putative virulence-relevant genes. Interestingly, 40 and 44 genes involved in chemotaxis and motility exhibited higher transcript alterations in C5 compared with P6 and P2, respectively. Most other genes associated with virulence, including exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, Hrp genes and type III effectors, including Xanthomonas outer protein (Xop) effectors and transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors, were down-regulated in C5 compared with P6 and P2. The data were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, tests of bacterial motility, and enzyme activity analysis of EPS and xylanase. These results highlight the complexity of Xoo and offer new avenues for improving our understanding of Xoo-rice interactions and the evolution of Xoo virulence. PMID:23734193

Zhang, Fan; Du, Zhenglin; Huang, Liyu; Vera Cruz, Casiana; Zhou, Yongli; Li, Zhikang

2013-01-01

64

Comparative Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Different Expression Patterns in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strains with Putative Virulence-Relevant Genes  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight, which is a major rice disease in tropical Asian countries. An attempt has been made to investigate gene expression patterns of three Xoo strains on the minimal medium XOM2, PXO99 (P6) and PXO86 (P2) from the Philippines, and GD1358 (C5) from China, which exhibited different virulence in 30 rice varieties, with putative virulence factors using deep sequencing. In total, 4,781 transcripts were identified in this study, and 1,151 and 3,076 genes were differentially expressed when P6 was compared with P2 and with C5, respectively. Our results indicated that Xoo strains from different regions exhibited distinctly different expression patterns of putative virulence-relevant genes. Interestingly, 40 and 44 genes involved in chemotaxis and motility exhibited higher transcript alterations in C5 compared with P6 and P2, respectively. Most other genes associated with virulence, including exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, Hrp genes and type III effectors, including Xanthomonas outer protein (Xop) effectors and transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors, were down-regulated in C5 compared with P6 and P2. The data were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, tests of bacterial motility, and enzyme activity analysis of EPS and xylanase. These results highlight the complexity of Xoo and offer new avenues for improving our understanding of Xoo-rice interactions and the evolution of Xoo virulence. PMID:23734193

Zhang, Fan; Du, Zhenglin; Huang, Liyu; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Zhou, Yongli; Li, Zhikang

2013-01-01

65

Population typing of the causal agent of cassava bacterial blight in the Eastern Plains of Colombia using two types of molecular markers  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular typing of pathogen populations is an important tool for the development of effective strategies for disease control. Diverse molecular markers have been used to characterize populations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), the main bacterial pathogen of cassava. Recently, diversity and population dynamics of Xam in the Colombian Caribbean coast were estimated using AFLPs, where populations were found to be dynamic, diverse and with haplotypes unstable across time. Aiming to examine the current state of pathogen populations located in the Colombian Eastern Plains, we also used AFLP markers and we evaluated the usefulness of Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) as new molecular markers for the study of Xam populations. Results The population analyses showed that AFLP and VNTR provide a detailed and congruent description of Xam populations from the Colombian Eastern Plains. These two typing strategies clearly separated strains from the Colombian Eastern Plains into distinct populations probably because of geographical distance. Although the majority of analyses were congruent between typing markers, fewer VNTRs were needed to detect a higher number of genetic populations of the pathogen as well as a higher genetic flow among sampled locations than those detected by AFLPs. Conclusions This study shows the advantages of VNTRs over AFLPs in the surveillance of pathogen populations and suggests the implementation of VNTRs in studies that involve large numbers of Xam isolates in order to obtain a more detailed overview of the pathogen to improve the strategies for disease control. PMID:24946775

2014-01-01

66

New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all

Marcelo L Laia; Leandro M Moreira; Juliana Dezajacomo; Joice B Brigati; Cristiano B Ferreira; Ana CR Silva; Jesus A Ferro; Julio CF Oliveira

2009-01-01

67

Genomic comparison between Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, using suppression-subtractive hybridization.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (Xoo) and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) cause bacterial diseases in rice: leaf blight and leaf streak, respectively. Although both the Asian and the African strains of Xoo induce similar symptoms, they are genetically different, with the African Xoo strains being more closely related to the Asian Xoc. To identify the sequences responsible for differences between African and Asian Xoo strains and their relatedness to Xoc strains, a suppression-subtractive hybridization (SSH) procedure was performed, using the African Xoo MAI1 strain as a tester and the Philippine Xoo PXO86 strain and Xoc BLS256 strain as drivers. A nonredundant set of 134 sequences from MAI1 was generated. Several DNA fragments isolated by SSH were similar to genes of unknown function, hypothetical proteins, genes related to the type III secretion system, and other pathogenicity-related genes. The specificity of various fragments was validated by Southern blot analysis. SSH sequences were compared with several xanthomonad genomes. In silico analysis revealed SSH sequences as specific to strain MAI1, revealing their potential as specific markers for further epidemiological and diagnostic studies. SSH proved to be a useful method for rapidly identifying specific genes among closely related X. oryzae strains. PMID:20487016

Soto-Suárez, Mauricio; González, Carolina; Piégu, Benoît; Tohme, Joe; Verdier, Valérie

2010-07-01

68

Alternaria blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternaria blight of chickpea is caused by the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. The pathogen has wide host range, and affects all above ground parts of the plant. The disease occurs sporadically and occasionally could be economically important and causes significant damage. The pathogen can ...

69

FIRE BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pears and woody ornamentals of the rose family. The disease is indigenous to North America and has been studied for more than one century. E. amylovora can infect blossoms, stems, immature fruits, woody branch...

70

Comparative genomic and transcriptome analyses of pathotypes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri provide insights into mechanisms of bacterial virulence and host range  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus bacterial canker is a disease that has severe economic impact on citrus industries worldwide and is caused by a few species and pathotypes of Xanthomonas. X. citri subsp. citri strain 306 (XccA306) is a type A (Asiatic) strain with a wide host range, whereas its variant X. citri subsp. citri strain Aw12879 (Xcaw12879, Wellington strain) is restricted to Mexican lime. Results To characterize the mechanism for the differences in host range of XccA and Xcaw, the genome of Xcaw12879 that was completed recently was compared with XccA306 genome. Effectors xopAF and avrGf1 are present in Xcaw12879, but were absent in XccA306. AvrGf1 was shown previously for Xcaw to cause hypersensitive response in Duncan grapefruit. Mutation analysis of xopAF indicates that the gene contributes to Xcaw growth in Mexican lime but does not contribute to the limited host range of Xcaw. RNA-Seq analysis was conducted to compare the expression profiles of Xcaw12879 and XccA306 in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium and XVM2 medium, which induces hrp gene expression. Two hundred ninety two and 281 genes showed differential expression in XVM2 compared to in NB for XccA306 and Xcaw12879, respectively. Twenty-five type 3 secretion system genes were up-regulated in XVM2 for both XccA and Xcaw. Among the 4,370 common genes of Xcaw12879 compared to XccA306, 603 genes in NB and 450 genes in XVM2 conditions were differentially regulated. Xcaw12879 showed higher protease activity than XccA306 whereas Xcaw12879 showed lower pectate lyase activity in comparison to XccA306. Conclusions Comparative genomic analysis of XccA306 and Xcaw12879 identified strain specific genes. Our study indicated that AvrGf1 contributes to the host range limitation of Xcaw12879 whereas XopAF contributes to virulence. Transcriptome analyses of XccA306 and Xcaw12879 presented insights into the expression of the two closely related strains of X. citri subsp. citri. Virulence genes including genes encoding T3SS components and effectors are induced in XVM2 medium. Numerous genes with differential expression in Xcaw12879 and XccA306 were identified. This study provided the foundation to further characterize the mechanisms for virulence and host range of pathotypes of X. citri subsp. citri. PMID:23941402

2013-01-01

71

Do transgenesis and marker-assisted backcross breeding produce substantially equivalent plants? - A comparative study of transgenic and backcross rice carrying bacterial blight resistant gene Xa21  

PubMed Central

Background The potential impact of genetically modified (GM) plants on human health has attracted much attention worldwide, and the issue remains controversial. This is in sharp contrast to the broad acceptance of plants produced by breeding through Marker Assisted Backcrossing (MAB). Results Focusing on transcriptome variation and perturbation to signaling pathways, we assessed the molecular and biological aspects of substantial equivalence, a general principle for food safety endorsed by the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization, between a transgenic crop and a plant from MAB breeding. We compared a transgenic rice line (DXT) and a MAB rice line (DXB), both of which contain the gene Xa21 providing resistance to bacterial leaf blight. By using Next-Generation sequencing data of DXT, DXB and their parental line (D62B), we compared the transcriptome variation of DXT and DXB. Remarkably, DXT had 43% fewer differentially expressed genes (DEGs) than DXB. The genes exclusively expressed in DXT and in DXB have pathogen and stress defense functions. Functional categories of DEGs in DXT were comparable to that in DXB, and seven of the eleven pathways significantly affected by transgenesis were also perturbed by MAB breeding. Conclusions These results indicated that the transgenic rice and rice from MAB breeding are substantial equivalent at the transcriptome level, and paved a way for further study of transgenic rice, e.g., understanding the chemical and nutritional properties of the DEGs identified in the current study. PMID:24165682

2013-01-01

72

Sensitive Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae Pathovars oryzae and oryzicola by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  

PubMed Central

Molecular diagnostics for crop diseases can enhance food security by enabling the rapid identification of threatening pathogens and providing critical information for the deployment of disease management strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a PCR-based tool that allows the rapid, highly specific amplification of target DNA sequences at a single temperature and is thus ideal for field-level diagnosis of plant diseases. We developed primers highly specific for two globally important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight (BB) disease, and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak disease (BLS), for use in reliable, sensitive LAMP assays. In addition to pathovar distinction, two assays that differentiate X. oryzae pv. oryzae by African or Asian lineage were developed. Using these LAMP primer sets, the presence of each pathogen was detected from DNA and bacterial cells, as well as leaf and seed samples. Thresholds of detection for all assays were consistently 104 to 105 CFU ml?1, while genomic DNA thresholds were between 1 pg and 10 fg. Use of the unique sequences combined with the LAMP assay provides a sensitive, accurate, rapid, simple, and inexpensive protocol to detect both BB and BLS pathogens. PMID:24837384

Lang, Jillian M.; Langlois, Paul; Nguyen, Marian Hanna R.; Triplett, Lindsay R.; Purdie, Laura; Holton, Timothy A.; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.; Verdier, Valérie

2014-01-01

73

Novel Roles of SoxR, a Transcriptional Regulator from Xanthomonas campestris, in Sensing Redox-Cycling Drugs and Regulating a Protective Gene That Have Overall Implications for Bacterial Stress Physiology and Virulence on a Host Plant  

PubMed Central

In Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, SoxR likely functions as a sensor of redox-cycling drugs and as a transcriptional regulator. Oxidized SoxR binds directly to its target site and activates the expression of xcc0300, a gene that has protective roles against the toxicity of redox-cycling compounds. In addition, SoxR acts as a noninducible repressor of its own expression. X. campestris pv. campestris requires SoxR both for protection against redox-cycling drugs and for full virulence on a host plant. The X. campestris model of the gene regulation and physiological roles of SoxR represents a novel variant of existing bacterial SoxR models. PMID:22056938

Mahavihakanont, Aekkapol; Charoenlap, Nisanart; Namchaiw, Poommaree; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Chattrakarn, Sorayut

2012-01-01

74

Ketoglutarate Transport Protein KgtP Is Secreted through the Type III Secretion System and Contributes to Virulence in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

PubMed Central

The phytopathogenic prokaryote Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight (BB) of rice and utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver T3SS effectors into rice cells. In this report, we show that the ketoglutarate transport protein (KgtP) is secreted in an HpaB-independent manner through the T3SS of X. oryzae pv. oryzae PXO99A and localizes to the host cell membrane for ?-ketoglutaric acid export. kgtP contained an imperfect PIP box (plant-inducible promoter) in the promoter region and was positively regulated by HrpX and HrpG. A kgtP deletion mutant was impaired in bacterial virulence and growth in planta; furthermore, the mutant showed reduced growth in minimal media containing ?-ketoglutaric acid or sodium succinate as the sole carbon source. The reduced virulence and the deficiency in ?-ketoglutaric acid utilization by the kgtP mutant were restored to wild-type levels by the presence of kgtP in trans. The expression of OsIDH, which is responsible for the synthesis of ?-ketoglutaric acid in rice, was enhanced when KgtP was present in the pathogen. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that KgtP, which is regulated by HrpG and HrpX and secreted by the T3SS in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, transports ?-ketoglutaric acid when the pathogen infects rice. PMID:22685129

Guo, Wei; Cai, Lu-Lu; Zou, Hua-Song; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Liu, Xi-Ling; Zou, Li-Fang; Li, Yu-Rong

2012-01-01

75

Genetic Structure and Population Dynamics of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis in Colombia from 1995 to 1999  

PubMed Central

Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) were used to study the population genetics and temporal dynamics of the cassava bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis. The population dynamics were addressed by comparing samples collected from 1995 to 1999 from six locations, spanning four different edaphoclimatic zones (ECZs). Forty-five different X. axonopodis pv. manihotis RFLP types or haplotypes were identified between 1995 and 1999. High genetic diversity of the X. axonopodis pv. manihotis strains was evident within most of the fields sampled. In all but one site, diversity decreased over time within fields. Haplotype frequencies significantly differed over the years in all but one location. Studies of the rate of change of X. axonopodis pv. manihotis populations during the cropping cycle in two sites showed significant changes in the haplotype frequencies but not composition. However, variations in pathotype composition were observed from one year to the next at a single site in ECZs 1 and 2 and new pathotypes were described after 1997 in these ECZs, thus revealing the dramatic change in the pathogen population structure of X. axonopodis pv. manihotis. Disease incidence was used to show the progress of cassava bacterial blight in Colombia during the 5-year period in different ecosystems. Low disease incidence values were correlated with low rainfall in 1997 in ECZ 1. PMID:14711649

Restrepo, Silvia; Velez, Claudia M.; Duque, Myriam C.; Verdier, Valérie

2004-01-01

76

A New Bacterial Agglutinin from Soybean  

PubMed Central

The activity of a bacterial agglutinin from soybean seed [Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Clark] against two bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas glycinea (causal agent of bacterial blight) and Xanthomonas phaseoli var. sojensis (causal agent of bacterial pustule) was determined. The agglutinin was active against several strains of X. phaseoli var. sojensis grown on nutrient agar, but there was no correlation between pathogenicity and agglutination. Agglutination was affected by the age of the bacterial cells and the growth medium used. None of seven strains of P. glycinea was agglutinated. Bacterial agglutination was inhibited by both purified lipopolysaccharide and extracellular polysaccharide from five strains of X. phaseoli var. sojensis. The lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides from other species of bacteria were ineffective. Ultrastructural studies showed that an avirulent strain of X. phaseoli var. sojensis was attached to leaf mesophyll cell walls of the susceptible cultivar Clark by 34 hours after vacuum infiltration. Cells of this avirulent strain were enveloped by fibrillar and granular material at the mesophyll cell wall. In contrast, cells of a virulent strain were not attached or enveloped, and they remained free to multiply in the intercellular spaces. Images PMID:16661541

Fett, William F.; Sequeira, Luis

1980-01-01

77

Small, stable shuttle vectors for use in Xanthomonas.  

PubMed

Plasmids from three broad-host-range (bhr) incompatibility groups (Inc) were evaluated for use as cloning vectors in Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Xcm), the causal agent of bacterial blight of cotton. The IncP vectors pLAFR3 and pVK102 could not be introduced into Xcm at a significant frequency (less than 1 x 10(-10] and IncQ vectors such as pKT210 were unstable in their maintenance and tended to delete cloned inserts. IncW vectors such as pSa747 also were lost readily from Xcm in the absence of selection pressure. We constructed two plasmids, pUFR027 and a cosmid derivative, pUFR034, which have proven useful as cloning vectors in Xcm and other xanthomonads. They contain the pSa origin of DNA replication, the partition locus parA from the Agrobacterium plasmid pTAR, a neomycin-resistance selection marker, and alacZ alpha cassette with cloning sites. pUFR027 is 9.3 kb, and pUFR034 is 8.7 kb in size. They can be mobilized by conjugation into Xcm at a frequency of approx. 1 x 10(-6) per recipient and are maintained stably (greater than 95% retention over 36 generations without selection pressure) in both broth culture and in planta. The plasmids were introduced and maintained stably in X. citri, and in X. campestris pathovars campestris, citrumelo, vesicatoria and translucens, and were moderately stable in X. phaseoli. No effects of the plasmids on pathogenicity have been observed. PMID:2341039

DeFeyter, R; Kado, C I; Gabriel, D W

1990-03-30

78

MultiLocus Sequence Analysis- and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism-based characterization of xanthomonads associated with bacterial spot of tomato and pepper and their relatedness to Xanthomonas species.  

PubMed

MultiLocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) were used to measure the genetic relatedness of a comprehensive collection of xanthomonads pathogenic to solaneous hosts to Xanthomonas species. The MLSA scheme was based on partial sequences of four housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, efp and gyrB). Globally, MLSA data unambiguously identified strains causing bacterial spot of tomato and pepper at the species level and was consistent with AFLP data. Genetic distances derived from both techniques showed a close relatedness of (i) X. euvesicatoria, X. perforans and X. alfalfae and (ii) X. gardneri and X. cynarae. Maximum likelihood tree topologies derived from each gene portion and the concatenated data set for species in the X. campestris 16S rRNA core (i.e. the species cluster comprising all strains causing bacterial spot of tomato and pepper) were not congruent, consistent with the detection of several putative recombination events in our data sets by several recombination search algorithms. One recombinant region in atpD was identified in most strains of X. euvesicatoria including the type strain. PMID:22336775

Hamza, A A; Robene-Soustrade, I; Jouen, E; Lefeuvre, P; Chiroleu, F; Fisher-Le Saux, M; Gagnevin, L; Pruvost, O

2012-05-01

79

A Cell Wall–Degrading Esterase of Xanthomonas oryzae Requires a Unique Substrate Recognition Module for Pathogenesis on Rice[W  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight, a serious disease of rice (Oryza sativa). LipA is a secretory virulence factor of Xoo, implicated in degradation of rice cell walls and the concomitant elicitation of innate immune responses, such as callose deposition and programmed cell death. Here, we present the high-resolution structural characterization of LipA that reveals an all-helical ligand binding module as a distinct functional attachment to the canonical hydrolase catalytic domain. We demonstrate that the enzyme binds to a glycoside ligand through a rigid pocket comprising distinct carbohydrate-specific and acyl chain recognition sites where the catalytic triad is situated 15 Å from the anchored carbohydrate. Point mutations disrupting the carbohydrate anchor site or blocking the pocket, even at a considerable distance from the enzyme active site, can abrogate in planta LipA function, exemplified by loss of both virulence and the ability to elicit host defense responses. A high conservation of the module across genus Xanthomonas emphasizes the significance of this unique plant cell wall–degrading function for this important group of plant pathogenic bacteria. A comparison with the related structural families illustrates how a typical lipase is recruited to act on plant cell walls to promote virulence, thus providing a remarkable example of the emergence of novel functions around existing scaffolds for increased proficiency of pathogenesis during pathogen-plant coevolution. PMID:19525415

Aparna, Gudlur; Chatterjee, Avradip; Sonti, Ramesh V.; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan

2009-01-01

80

A Filamentous Hemagglutinin-Like Protein of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the Phytopathogen Responsible for Citrus Canker, Is Involved in Bacterial Virulence  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the phytopathogen responsible for citrus canker has a number of protein secretion systems and among them, at least one type V protein secretion system belonging to the two-partner secretion pathway. This system is mainly associated to the translocation of large proteins such as adhesins to the outer membrane of several pathogens. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri possess a filamentous hemagglutinin-like protein in close vicinity to its putative transporter protein, XacFhaB and XacFhaC, respectively. Expression analysis indicated that XacFhaB was induced in planta during plant-pathogen interaction. By mutation analysis of XacFhaB and XacFhaC genes we determined that XacFhaB is involved in virulence both in epiphytic and wound inoculations, displaying more dispersed and fewer canker lesions. Unexpectedly, the XacFhaC mutant in the transporter protein produced an intermediate virulence phenotype resembling wild type infection, suggesting that XacFhaB could be secreted by another partner different from XacFhaC. Moreover, XacFhaB mutants showed a general lack of adhesion and were affected in leaf surface attachment and biofilm formation. In agreement with the in planta phenotype, adhesin lacking cells moved faster in swarming plates. Since no hyperflagellation phenotype was observed in this bacteria, the faster movement may be attributed to the lack of cell-to-cell aggregation. Moreover, XacFhaB mutants secreted more exopolysaccharide that in turn may facilitate its motility. Our results suggest that this hemagglutinin-like protein is required for tissue colonization being mainly involved in surface attachment and biofilm formation, and that plant tissue attachment and cell-to-cell aggregation are dependent on the coordinated action of adhesin molecules and exopolysaccharides. PMID:19194503

Gottig, Natalia; Garavaglia, Betiana S.; Garofalo, Cecilia G.; Orellano, Elena G.; Ottado, Jorgelina

2009-01-01

81

Development and validation of a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri DNA microarray platform (XACarray) generated from the shotgun libraries previously used in the sequencing of this bacterial genome  

PubMed Central

Background From shotgun libraries used for the genomic sequencing of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (XAC), clones that were representative of the largest possible number of coding sequences (CDSs) were selected to create a DNA microarray platform on glass slides (XACarray). The creation of the XACarray allowed for the establishment of a tool that is capable of providing data for the analysis of global genome expression in this organism. Findings The inserts from the selected clones were amplified by PCR with the universal oligonucleotide primers M13R and M13F. The obtained products were purified and fixed in duplicate on glass slides specific for use in DNA microarrays. The number of spots on the microarray totaled 6,144 and included 768 positive controls and 624 negative controls per slide. Validation of the platform was performed through hybridization of total DNA probes from XAC labeled with different fluorophores, Cy3 and Cy5. In this validation assay, 86% of all PCR products fixed on the glass slides were confirmed to present a hybridization signal greater than twice the standard deviation of the deviation of the global median signal-to-noise ration. Conclusions Our validation of the XACArray platform using DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that it can be used to evaluate the expression of 2,365 individual CDSs from all major functional categories, which corresponds to 52.7% of the annotated CDSs of the XAC genome. As a proof of concept, we used this platform in a previously work to verify the absence of genomic regions that could not be detected by sequencing in related strains of Xanthomonas. PMID:20507617

2010-01-01

82

Specific Detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae in Anthurium (Anthurium andreanum) Tissues by Nested PCR†  

PubMed Central

Efficient control of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae, the causal agent of anthurium bacterial blight, requires a sensitive and reliable diagnostic tool. A nested PCR test was developed from a sequence-characterized amplified region marker identified by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR for the detection of X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae. Serological and pathogenicity tests were performed concurrently with the nested PCR test with a large collection of X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae strains that were isolated worldwide and are pathogenic to anthurium and/or other aroids. The internal primer pair directed amplification of the expected product (785 bp) for all 70 X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae strains pathogenic to anthurium tested and for isolates originating from syngonium and not pathogenic to anthurium. This finding is consistent with previous studies which indicated that there is a high level of relatedness between strains from anthurium and strains from syngonium. Strains originating from the two host genera can be distinguished by restriction analysis of the amplification product. No amplification product was obtained with 98 strains of unrelated phytopathogenic bacteria or saprophytic bacteria from the anthurium phyllosphere, except for a weak signal obtained for one X. axonopodis pv. allii strain. Nevertheless, restriction enzyme analysis permitted the two pathovars to be distinguished. The detection threshold obtained with pure cultures or plant extracts (103 CFU ml?1) allowed detection of the pathogen from symptomless contaminated plants. This test could be a useful diagnostic tool for screening propagation stock plant material and for monitoring international movement of X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae. PMID:16461651

Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Laurent, Philippe; Gagnevin, Lionel; Jouen, Emmanuel; Pruvost, Olivier

2006-01-01

83

Xanthomonas axonopodis Virulence Is Promoted by a Transcription Activator-Like Effector-Mediated Induction of a SWEET Sugar Transporter in Cassava.  

PubMed

The gene-for-gene concept has historically been applied to describe a specific resistance interaction wherein single genes from the host and the pathogen dictate the outcome. These interactions have been observed across the plant kingdom and all known plant microbial pathogens. In recent years, this concept has been extended to susceptibility phenotypes in the context of transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors that target SWEET sugar transporters. However, because this interaction has only been observed in rice, it was not clear whether the gene-for-gene susceptibility was unique to that system. Here, we show, through a combined systematic analysis of the TAL effector complement of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis and RNA sequencing to identify targets in cassava, that TAL20Xam668 specifically induces the sugar transporter MeSWEET10a to promote virulence. Designer TAL effectors (dTALE) complement TAL20Xam668 mutant phenotypes, demonstrating that MeSWEET10a is a susceptibility gene in cassava. Sucrose uptake-deficient X. axonopodis pv. manihotis bacteria do not lose virulence, indicating that sucrose may be cleaved extracellularly and taken up as hexoses into X. axonopodis pv. manihotis. Together, our data suggest that pathogen hijacking of plant nutrients is not unique to rice blight but also plays a role in bacterial blight of the dicot cassava. PMID:25083909

Cohn, Megan; Bart, Rebecca S; Shybut, Mikel; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Gomez, Michael; Morbitzer, Robert; Hou, Bi-Huei; Frommer, Wolf B; Lahaye, Thomas; Staskawicz, Brian J

2014-11-01

84

SCREENING CITRUS GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO XANTHOMONAS ANONOPODIS PV. CITRI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus bacterial canker (causal agent Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac)) is a serious threat to the citrus industry. Currently there are no effective means to control citrus canker. Our objective was to determine the resistance of selected Citrus species, citrus hybrids, and citrus relatives to...

85

The Type III Secretion System of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans Is Involved in the Phyllosphere Colonization Process and in Transmission to Seeds of Susceptible Beans?  

PubMed Central

Understanding the survival, multiplication, and transmission to seeds of plant pathogenic bacteria is central to study their pathogenesis. We hypothesized that the type III secretion system (T3SS), encoded by hrp genes, could have a role in host colonization by plant pathogenic bacteria. The seed-borne pathogen Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans causes common bacterial blight of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Directed mutagenesis in strain CFBP4834-R of X. fuscans subsp. fuscans and bacterial population density monitoring on bean leaves showed that strains with mutations in the hrp regulatory genes, hrpG and hrpX, were impaired in their phyllospheric growth, as in the null interaction with Escherichia coli C600 and bean. In the compatible interaction, CFBP4834-R reached high phyllospheric population densities and was transmitted to seeds at high frequencies with high densities. Strains with mutations in structural hrp genes maintained the same constant epiphytic population densities (1 × 105 CFU g?1 of fresh weight) as in the incompatible interaction with Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913 and the bean. Low frequencies of transmission to seeds and low bacterial concentrations were recorded for CFBP4834-R hrp mutants and for ATCC 33913, whereas E. coli C600 was not transmitted. Moreover, unlike the wild-type strain, strains with mutations in hrp genes were not transmitted to seeds by vascular pathway. Transmission to seeds by floral structures remained possible for both. This study revealed the involvement of the X. fuscans subsp. fuscans T3SS in phyllospheric multiplication and systemic colonization of bean, leading to transmission to seeds. Our findings suggest a major contribution of hrp regulatory genes in host colonization processes. PMID:18326683

Darsonval, A.; Darrasse, A.; Meyer, D.; Demarty, M.; Durand, K.; Bureau, C.; Manceau, C.; Jacques, M.-A.

2008-01-01

86

Involvement of bacterial TonB-dependent signaling in the generation of an oligogalacturonide damage-associated molecular pattern from plant cell walls exposed to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris pectate lyases  

PubMed Central

Background Efficient perception of attacking pathogens is essential for plants. Plant defense is evoked by molecules termed elicitors. Endogenous elicitors or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) originate from plant materials upon injury or pathogen activity. While there are comparably well-characterized examples for DAMPs, often oligogalacturonides (OGAs), generated by the activity of fungal pathogens, endogenous elicitors evoked by bacterial pathogens have been rarely described. In particular, the signal perception and transduction processes involved in DAMP generation are poorly characterized. Results A mutant strain of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris deficient in exbD2, which encodes a component of its unusual elaborate TonB system, had impaired pectate lyase activity and caused no visible symptoms for defense on the non-host plant pepper (Capsicum annuum). A co-incubation of X. campestris pv. campestris with isolated cell wall material from C. annuum led to the release of compounds which induced an oxidative burst in cell suspension cultures of the non-host plant. Lipopolysaccharides and proteins were ruled out as elicitors by polymyxin B and heat treatment, respectively. After hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid and subsequent HPAE chromatography, the elicitor preparation contained galacturonic acid, the monosaccharide constituent of pectate. OGAs were isolated from this crude elicitor preparation by HPAEC and tested for their biological activity. While small OGAs were unable to induce an oxidative burst, the elicitor activity in cell suspension cultures of the non-host plants tobacco and pepper increased with the degree of polymerization (DP). Maximal elicitor activity was observed for DPs exceeding 8. In contrast to the X. campestris pv. campestris wild type B100, the exbD2 mutant was unable to generate elicitor activity from plant cell wall material or from pectin. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the second report on a DAMP generated by bacterial features. The generation of the OGA elicitor is embedded in a complex exchange of signals within the framework of the plant-microbe interaction of C. annuum and X. campestris pv. campestris. The bacterial TonB-system is essential for the substrate-induced generation of extracellular pectate lyase activity. This is the first demonstration that a TonB-system is involved in bacterial trans-envelope signaling in the context of a pathogenic interaction with a plant. PMID:23082751

2012-01-01

87

Rhizoctonia web blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by several Rhizoctonia spp., is an important disease of evergreen azaleas and other ornamental plants in nurseries. The primary pathogens causing web blight are binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AG) (= Ceratobasidium D.P. Rogers, teleomorph). In southern AL an...

88

Dispersal of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri bacteria downwind from harvested, infected fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri , Xac) is a bacterial disease that severely damages citrus crops. Its recent introduction to Florida has created difficulties with international and domestic trade and movement of citrus material. This study examined the potential dispersal of bacteri...

89

Alternative sigma factor RpoN2 is required for flagellar motility and full virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the bacterial blight pathogen of rice, harbors a single polar flagellum for motility. How the flagellar system is regulated and how it is related to bacterial pathogenesis are not well understood. The genomic sequence of Xoo strain PXO99(A) revealed a flagellar regulon containing over 60 contiguous genes. A gene encoding alternative sigma factor 54 (?(54)), named as rpoN2, is located in the central region of the regulon. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated rpoN2 was transcribed in an operon with flgRR, and fleQ. Single gene deletion mutants of the rpoN2 operon were generated. The rpoN2 and fleQ mutant lost swimming motility, whereas the flgRR mutant remained motile. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis further demonstrated that expression of regulatory genes fliA and flgM, and structural genes flgG, flhB, and fliC were significantly down-regulated in the rpoN2 and fleQ mutants. These results indicated that RpoN2 and FleQ synergistically controlled flagellar motility by regulating gene expression. Interestingly, the rpoN2 mutant, but not the fleQ mutant was impaired in its virulence on rice. In addition, we showed that the flagellin gene fliC mutant, which was non-motile, was not defective in virulence. Thus, we concluded that flagellar motility might not be essential for Xoo virulence in rice, and RpoN2 probably regulated bacterial virulence through a manner independent of its role in controlling flagellar gene expression. PMID:25126992

Tian, Fang; Yu, Chao; Li, Haiyun; Wu, Xiaoli; Li, Bo; Chen, Huamin; Wu, Maosen; He, Chenyang

2015-01-01

90

Specific detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae in anthurium (Anthurium andreanum) tissues by nested PCR.  

PubMed

Efficient control of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae, the causal agent of anthurium bacterial blight, requires a sensitive and reliable diagnostic tool. A nested PCR test was developed from a sequence-characterized amplified region marker identified by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR for the detection of X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae. Serological and pathogenicity tests were performed concurrently with the nested PCR test with a large collection of X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae strains that were isolated worldwide and are pathogenic to anthurium and/or other aroids. The internal primer pair directed amplification of the expected product (785 bp) for all 70 X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae strains pathogenic to anthurium tested and for isolates originating from syngonium and not pathogenic to anthurium. This finding is consistent with previous studies which indicated that there is a high level of relatedness between strains from anthurium and strains from syngonium. Strains originating from the two host genera can be distinguished by restriction analysis of the amplification product. No amplification product was obtained with 98 strains of unrelated phytopathogenic bacteria or saprophytic bacteria from the anthurium phyllosphere, except for a weak signal obtained for one X. axonopodis pv. allii strain. Nevertheless, restriction enzyme analysis permitted the two pathovars to be distinguished. The detection threshold obtained with pure cultures or plant extracts (10(3) CFU ml(-1)) allowed detection of the pathogen from symptomless contaminated plants. This test could be a useful diagnostic tool for screening propagation stock plant material and for monitoring international movement of X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae. PMID:16461651

Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Laurent, Philippe; Gagnevin, Lionel; Jouen, Emmanuel; Pruvost, Olivier

2006-02-01

91

Potential for Control of Seedling Blight of Wheat Caused by Fusarium graminearum and Related Species Using the Bacterial Endophyte Bacillus mojavensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium infected-wheat seed decreases germination, seedling emergence, and causes post emergence seedling death, and can contribute to wheat scab and ear rot of maize, with consequent production of mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. A patented endophytic bacterial strain, Bacillus ...

92

The degenerate EAL-GGDEF domain protein Filp functions as a cyclic di-GMP receptor and specifically interacts with the PilZ-domain protein PXO_02715 to regulate virulence in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Degenerate GGDEF and EAL domain proteins represent major types of cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) receptors in pathogenic bacteria. Here, we characterized a FimX-like protein (Filp) which possesses both GGDEF and EAL domains in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight of rice. Both in silico analysis and enzyme assays indicated that the GGDEF and EAL domains of Filp were degenerate and enzymatically inactive. However, Filp bound to c-di-GMP efficiently within the EAL domain, where Q(477), E(653), and F(654) residues were crucial for the binding. Deletion of the filp gene in X. oryzae pv. oryzae resulted in attenuated virulence in rice and reduced type III secretion system (T3SS) gene expression. Complementation analysis with different truncated proteins indicated that REC, PAS, and EAL domains but not the GGDEF domain were required for the full activity of Filp in vivo. In addition, a PilZ-domain protein (PXO_02715) was identified as a Filp interactor by yeast two-hybrid and glutathione-S-transferase pull-down assays. Deletion of the PXO_02715 gene demonstrated changes in bacterial virulence and T3SS gene expression similar to ?filp. Moreover, both mutants were impaired in their ability to induce hypersensitive response in nonhost plants. Thus, we concluded that Filp was a novel c-di-GMP receptor of X. oryzae pv. oryzae, and its function to regulate bacterial virulence expression might be via the interaction with PXO_02715. PMID:24548063

Yang, Fenghuan; Tian, Fang; Li, Xiaotong; Fan, Susu; Chen, Huamin; Wu, Maosen; Yang, Ching-Hong; He, Chenyang

2014-06-01

93

Antibacterial activity of metabolite produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa strain HKA-15 against Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli.  

PubMed

An antibacterial metabolite extracted from Paenibacillus polymyxa HKA-15 showed strong inhibition against Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli strains CP-1-1 and M-5. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of crude extract against strains CP-1-1 and M-5 was found to be 1.7 mg/ml and 1.52 mg/ml, respectively. In UV-Vis range, the absorption peak of crude extract was maximum at 240 nm. The compound is resilience to wide range of temperature, pH, surfactants and organic solvents. The complete loss of activity was observed when crude metabolite was treated with pepsin (400 unit/ml). Characterization of crude metabolite suggested its hydrophobic and peptide nature. Inhibition of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli by peptide like metabolite produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa strain HKA-15 under in vitro conditions showed ecological and biotechnological potential of strain HKA-15 to control common blight disease in beans. PMID:21452603

Mageshwaran, V; Walia, Suresh; Govindasamy, V; Annapurna, K

2011-03-01

94

Towards an Improved Taxonomy of Xanthomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of the taxonomy of the genus Xanthomonas and especially of Xanthomonas campestris, which is subdivided into more than 125 pathovars, is discussed. Recent contributions to the taxonomy of Xanthomonas are reviewed, and on the basis of these data and unpublished data from several laboratories, the usefulness of different phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and genotypic techniques is discussed. The heterogeneity of several

L. VAUTERIN; J. SWINGS; K. KERSTERS; M. GILLIS; T. W. MEW; M. N. SCHROTH; N. J. PALLERONI; D. C. HILDEBRAND; D. E. STEAD; E. L. CIVEROL; A. C. HAYWARD; H. MARAITE; R. E. STALL

1990-01-01

95

A Novel Manganese Efflux System, YebN, Is Required for Virulence by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

PubMed Central

Manganese ions (Mn2+) play a crucial role in virulence and protection against oxidative stress in bacterial pathogens. Such pathogens appear to have evolved complex mechanisms for regulating Mn2+ uptake and efflux. Despite numerous studies on Mn2+ uptake, however, only one efflux system has been identified to date. Here, we report on a novel Mn2+ export system, YebN, in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causative agent of bacterial leaf blight. Compared with wild-type PXO99, the yebN mutant was highly sensitive to Mn2+ and accumulated high concentrations of intracellular manganese. In addition, we found that expression of yebN was positively regulated by Mn2+ and the Mn2+-dependent transcription regulator, MntR. Interestingly, the yebN mutant was more tolerant to methyl viologen and H2O2 in low Mn2+ medium than PXO99, but more sensitive in high Mn2+ medium, implying that YebN plays an important role in Mn2+ homoeostasis and detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Notably, deletion of yebN rendered Xoo sensitive to hypo-osmotic shock, suggesting that YebN may protect against such stress. That mutation of yebN substantially reduced the Xoo growth rate and lesion formation in rice implies that YebN could be involved in Xoo fitness in host. Although YebN has two DUF204 domains, it lacks homology to any known metal transporter. Hence, this is the first report of a novel metal export system that plays essential roles in hypo-osmotic and oxidative stress, and virulence. Our results lay the foundations for elucidating the complex and fascinating relationship between metal homeostasis and host-pathogen interactions. PMID:21789199

Li, Chunxia; Tao, Jun; Mao, Daqing; He, Chaozu

2011-01-01

96

In planta gene expression analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae, African strain MAI1  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial leaf blight causes significant yield losses in rice crops throughout Asia and Africa. Although both the Asian and African strains of the pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), induce similar symptoms, they are nevertheless genetically different, with the African strains being more closely related to the Asian X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc). Results Changes in gene expression of the African Xoo strain MAI1 in the susceptible rice cultivar Nipponbare were profiled, using an SSH Xoo DNA microarray. Microarray hybridization was performed comparing bacteria recovered from plant tissues at 1, 3, and 6 days after inoculation (dai) with bacteria grown in vitro. A total of 710 bacterial genes were found to be differentially expressed, with 407 up-regulated and 303 down-regulated. Expression profiling indicated that less than 20% of the 710 bacterial transcripts were induced in the first 24 h after inoculation, whereas 63% were differentially expressed at 6 dai. The 710 differentially expressed genes were one-end sequenced. 535 sequences were obtained from which 147 non-redundant sequences were identified. Differentially expressed genes were related to metabolism, secretion and transport, pathogen adherence to plant tissues, plant cell-wall degradation, IS elements, and virulence. In addition, various other genes encoding proteins with unknown function or showing no similarity to other proteins were also induced. The Xoo MAI1 non-redundant set of sequences was compared against several X. oryzae genomes, revealing a specific group of genes that was present only in MAI1. Numerous IS elements were also found to be differentially expressed. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed 86% of the identified profile on a set of 14 genes selected according to the microarray analysis. Conclusions This is the first report to compare the expression of Xoo genes in planta across different time points during infection. This work shows that as-yet-unidentified and potentially new virulence factors are appearing in an emerging African pathogen. It also confirms that African Xoo strains do differ from their Asian counterparts, even at the transcriptional level. PMID:20540733

2010-01-01

97

Distribution and biological role of the oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA) in Xanthomonas species  

PubMed Central

In this study we investigated the prevalence of the oppA gene, encoding the oligopeptide binding protein (OppA) of the major bacterial oligopeptide uptake system (Opp), in different species of the genus Xanthomonas. The oppA gene was detected in two Xanthomonas axonopodis strains among eight tested Xanthomonas species. The generation of an isogenic oppA-knockout derivative of the Xac 306 strain, showed that the OppA protein neither plays a relevant role in oligopeptide uptake nor contributes to the infectivity and multiplication of the bacterial strain in leaves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia). Taken together these results suggest that the oppA gene has a recent evolutionary history in the genus and does not contribute in the physiology or pathogenesis of X. axonopodis. PMID:21637492

2010-01-01

98

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Xanthomonas vesicatoria Strains from the Balkan Peninsula  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas vesicatoria causes bacterial spot disease of pepper and tomato plants. We report here the first genome sequences of X. vesicatoria strains that have been isolated from pepper plants. These data will be used for comparative genomics and will allow the development of new detection and typing tools for epidemiological surveillance. PMID:25676765

Vancheva, Taca; Bogatzevska, Nevena; Moncheva, Penka; Lefeuvre, Pierre

2015-01-01

99

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Xanthomonas vesicatoria Strains from the Balkan Peninsula.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas vesicatoria causes bacterial spot disease of pepper and tomato plants. We report here the first genome sequences of X. vesicatoria strains that have been isolated from pepper plants. These data will be used for comparative genomics and will allow the development of new detection and typing tools for epidemiological surveillance. PMID:25676765

Vancheva, Taca; Bogatzevska, Nevena; Moncheva, Penka; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Koebnik, Ralf

2015-01-01

100

[REP-PCR analysis of rapa's bacterial diseases agents].  

PubMed

BOX, ERIC and REP--genomic fingerprints of 12 isolated and 10 typical pathogenic for rape bacterial strains Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and Pectobacterium genera have been analyzed. The affinity of isolated strains with representatives of P. marginalis pv. marginalis, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris species has been determined. PMID:25199341

Dankevych, L A; Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Votselko, S K; Patyka, V P

2014-01-01

101

Evidence for HrpXo-Dependent Expression of Type II Secretory Proteins in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is a causal agent of bacterial leaf blight of rice. Recently, an efficient hrp-inducing medium, XOM2, was established for this bacterium. In this medium, more than 10 proteins were secreted from the wild-type strain of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Many of these proteins disappeared or decreased in amount in culture on XOM2 when incubated with the strain that has a mutation in the hrp regulatory gene. Interestingly, the secretory protein profile of a mutant lacking a type III secretion system (TTSS), components of which are encoded by hrp genes, was similar to that of the wild-type strain except that a few proteins had disappeared. This finding suggests that many HrpXo-dependent secretory proteins are secreted via systems other than the TTSS. By isolating mutant strains lacking a type II secretion system, we examined this hypothesis. As expected, many of the HrpXo-dependent secretory proteins disappeared or decreased when the mutant was cultured in XOM2. By determining the N-terminal amino acid sequence, we identified one of the type II secretory proteins as a cysteine protease homolog, CysP2. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that cysP2 has an imperfect plant-inducible-promoter box, a consensus sequence which HrpXo regulons possess in the promoter region, and a deduced signal peptide sequence at the N terminus. By reverse transcription-PCR analysis and examination of the expression of CysP2 by using a plasmid harboring a cysP2::gus fusion gene, HrpXo-dependent expression of CysP2 was confirmed. Here, we reveal that the hrp regulatory gene hrpXo is also involved in the expression of not only hrp genes and type III secretory proteins but also some type II secretory proteins. PMID:14973015

Furutani, Ayako; Tsuge, Seiji; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Oku, Takashi; Tsuno, Kazunori; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Ochiai, Hirokazu; Kaku, Hisatoshi; Kubo, Yasuyuki

2004-01-01

102

Genome mining reveals the genus Xanthomonas to be a promising reservoir for new bioactive non-ribosomally synthesized peptides  

PubMed Central

Background Various bacteria can use non-ribosomal peptide synthesis (NRPS) to produce peptides or other small molecules. Conserved features within the NRPS machinery allow the type, and sometimes even the structure, of the synthesized polypeptide to be predicted. Thus, bacterial genome mining via in silico analyses of NRPS genes offers an attractive opportunity to uncover new bioactive non-ribosomally synthesized peptides. Xanthomonas is a large genus of Gram-negative bacteria that cause disease in hundreds of plant species. To date, the only known small molecule synthesized by NRPS in this genus is albicidin produced by Xanthomonas albilineans. This study aims to estimate the biosynthetic potential of Xanthomonas spp. by in silico analyses of NRPS genes with unknown function recently identified in the sequenced genomes of X. albilineans and related species of Xanthomonas. Results We performed in silico analyses of NRPS genes present in all published genome sequences of Xanthomonas spp., as well as in unpublished draft genome sequences of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strain BAI3 and Xanthomonas spp. strain XaS3. These two latter strains, together with X. albilineans strain GPE PC73 and X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains X8-1A and X11-5A, possess novel NRPS gene clusters and share related NRPS-associated genes such as those required for the biosynthesis of non-proteinogenic amino acids or the secretion of peptides. In silico prediction of peptide structures according to NRPS architecture suggests eight different peptides, each specific to its producing strain. Interestingly, these eight peptides cannot be assigned to any known gene cluster or related to known compounds from natural product databases. PCR screening of a collection of 94 plant pathogenic bacteria indicates that these novel NRPS gene clusters are specific to the genus Xanthomonas and are also present in Xanthomonas translucens and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Further genome mining revealed other novel NRPS genes specific to X. oryzae pv. oryzicola or Xanthomonas sacchari. Conclusions This study revealed the significant potential of the genus Xanthomonas to produce new non-ribosomally synthesized peptides. Interestingly, this biosynthetic potential seems to be specific to strains of Xanthomonas associated with monocotyledonous plants, suggesting a putative involvement of non-ribosomally synthesized peptides in plant-bacteria interactions. PMID:24069909

2013-01-01

103

Bacterial Leaf Blight of Fishtail Palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

welve species of single- and cluster-stemmed fishtail palms in the genus Caryota are found from India and Sri Lanka to Southeast Asia, northern Australia, and the Solomon Islands. In Hawai'i, Caryota mitis (the Burmese fishtail palm) is widely grown in landscapes and is sometimes exported for use in interiorscapes or as houseplants. The Burmese fishtail palm is prone to damage

Scot Nelson

104

Characterization of a new pathovar of Agrobacterium vitis causing banana leaf blight in China.  

PubMed

A new banana leaf blight was found in Nanning city, China, during a 7-year survey (2003-2009) of the bacterial diseases on banana plants. Eight bacterial strains were isolated from affected banana leaves, and identified as an intraspecific taxon of Agrobacterium vitis based on their 16S rDNA sequence similarities with those of 37 randomly selected bacterial strains registered in GenBank database. The representative strain Ag-1 was virulent on banana leaves and shared similar growth and biochemical reactions with the reference strain IAM14140 of A. vitis. The strains causing banana leaf blight were denominated as A. vitis pv. musae. The traditional A. vitis strains virulent to grapevines were proposed to be revised as A. vitis pv. vitis. This is the first record of a new type of A. vitis causing banana leaf blight in China. PMID:23828501

Huang, Siliang; Long, Mengling; Fu, Gang; Lin, Shanhai; Qin, Liping; Hu, Chunjin; Cen, Zhenlu; Lu, Jie; Li, Qiqin

2015-01-01

105

Development of late blight resistant potatoes by cisgene stacking  

PubMed Central

Background Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight in potato, remains one of the most devastating pathogens in potato production and late blight resistance is a top priority in potato breeding. The introduction of multiple resistance (R) genes with different spectra from crossable species into potato varieties is required. Cisgenesis is a promising approach that introduces native genes from the crops own gene pool using GM technology, thereby retaining favourable characteristics of established varieties. Results We pursued a cisgenesis approach to introduce two broad spectrum potato late blight R genes, Rpi-sto1 and Rpi-vnt1.1 from the crossable species Solanum stoloniferum and Solanum venturii, respectively, into three different potato varieties. First, single R gene-containing transgenic plants were produced for all varieties to be used as references for the resistance levels and spectra to be expected in the respective genetic backgrounds. Next, a construct containing both cisgenic late blight R genes (Rpi-vnt1.1 and Rpi-sto1), but lacking the bacterial kanamycin resistance selection marker (NPTII) was transformed to the three selected potato varieties using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene transfer events were selected by PCR among regenerated shoots. Through further analyses involving morphological evaluations in the greenhouse, responsiveness to Avr genes and late blight resistance in detached leaf assays, the selection was narrowed down to eight independent events. These cisgenic events were selected because they showed broad spectrum late blight resistance due to the activity of both introduced R genes. The marker-free transformation was compared to kanamycin resistance assisted transformation in terms of T-DNA and vector backbone integration frequency. Also, differences in regeneration time and genotype dependency were evaluated. Conclusions We developed a marker-free transformation pipeline to select potato plants functionally expressing a stack of late blight R genes. Marker-free transformation is less genotype dependent and less prone to vector backbone integration as compared to marker-assisted transformation. Thereby, this study provides an important tool for the successful deployment of R genes in agriculture and contributes to the production of potentially durable late blight resistant potatoes. PMID:24885731

2014-01-01

106

Construction of a genetic linkage map for identification of molecular markers associated with resistance to Xanthomonas arboriciola pv. pruni in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni, is a serious disease that can affect peach fruit quality and production. The molecular basis of its tolerance and susceptibility is yet to be understood. To study the genetics of the peach in response to bacterial spot, an F2 population of ...

107

Influence of epidemiological factors on the bioherbicidal efficacy of a Xanthomonas capestris isolate on common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Greenhouse and controlled-environment studies were conducted to determine the effects of incubation temperature, dew period temperature and duration, plant growth stage, and cell concentration on the bioherbicidal efficacy of a highly virulent isolate (LVA987) of the bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas ...

108

Differentially-expressed genes in rice infected by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae relative to a flagellin-deficient mutant reveal potential functions of flagellin in host–pathogen interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Plants have evolved a sensitive defense response system that detects and recognizes various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (e.g. flagellin) and induces immune responses to protect against invasion. Transcriptional responses in rice to PAMPs produced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the bacterial blight pathogen, have not yet been defined. Results We characterized transcriptomic responses in rice inoculated with the wildtype (WT) Xoo and flagellin-deficient mutant ?fliC through RNA-seq analysis. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis based on Solexa/Illumina sequencing was used to investigate transcriptomic responses in 30 day-old seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare). 1,680 genes were differentially-expressed (DEGs) in rice inoculated with WT relative to ?fliC; among which 1,159 genes were up-regulated and 521 were down-regulated. Expression patterns of 12 randomly-selected DEGs assayed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) were similar to those detected by DGE analyses, confirming reliability of the DGE data. Functional annotations revealed the up-regulated DEGs are involved in the cell wall, lipid and secondary metabolism, defense response and hormone signaling, whereas the down-regulated ones are associated with photosynthesis. Moreover, 57 and 21 specifically expressed genes were found after WT and ?fliC treatments, respectively. Conclusions DEGs were identified in rice inoculated with WT Xoo relative to ?fliC. These genes were predicted to function in multiple biological processes, including the defense response and photosynthesis in rice. This study provided additional insights into molecular basis of rice response to bacterial infection and revealed potential functions of bacterial flagellin in the rice-Xoo interactions. PMID:25187853

2014-01-01

109

Ectopic Expression of Hrf1 Enhances Bacterial Resistance via Regulation of Diterpene Phytoalexins, Silicon and Reactive Oxygen Species Burst in Rice  

PubMed Central

Harpin proteins as elicitor derived from plant gram negative bacteria such as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), Erwinia amylovora induce disease resistance in plants by activating multiple defense responses. However, it is unclear whether phytoalexin production and ROS burst are involved in the disease resistance conferred by the expression of the harpinXoo protein in rice. In this article, ectopic expression of hrf1 in rice enhanced resistance to bacterial blight. Accompanying with the activation of genes related to the phytoalexin biosynthesis pathway in hrf1-transformed rice, phytoalexins quickly and consistently accumulated concurrent with the limitation of bacterial growth rate. Moreover, the hrf1-transformed rice showed an increased ability for ROS scavenging and decreased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration. Furthermore, the localization and relative quantification of silicon deposition in rice leaves was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Finally, the transcript levels of defense response genes increased in transformed rice. These results show a correlation between Xoo resistance and phytoalexin production, H2O2, silicon deposition and defense gene expression in hrf1-transformed rice. These data are significant because they provide evidence for a better understanding the role of defense responses in the incompatible interaction between bacterial disease and hrf1-transformed plants. These data also supply an opportunity for generating nonspecific resistance to pathogens. PMID:22970151

Zhong, Weigong; Yang, Jie; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Guang; Wang, Dong; Xiao, Shanshan; Chang, Shanshan; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

2012-01-01

110

Complete Genome Sequence for the Fusarium Head Blight Antagonist Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain TrigoCor 1448.  

PubMed

We present the complete genome sequence for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TrigoCor 1448 (ATCC 202152), a bacterial biological control agent for Fusarium head blight in wheat. We compare it to its closest relative, B. amyloliquefaciens strain AS43.3. PMID:24675861

Nelson, Beth A; Ramaiya, Preethi; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Kumar, Ravi; Crinklaw, Austin; Jolkovsky, Eliana; Crane, Julia M; Bergstrom, Gary C; Rey, Michael W

2014-01-01

111

Rhizoctonia web blight on azalea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Currently, fungicides are the only useful control for azalea web blight, but fungicides do not eliminate the pathogen. We have discovered that Rhizoctonia colonizes the entire azalea plant 12 months of the year in the Gulf Coast climate. This results in healthy appearing stems collected for propagat...

112

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri uses a plant natriuretic peptide-like protein to modify host homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) are a class of extracellular, systemically mobile molecules that elicit a number of plant responses important in homeostasis and growth. The bacterial citrus pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, also contains a gene encoding a PNP-like protein, XacPNP, that shares significant sequence similarity and identical domain organization with plant PNPs but has no homologues in other bacteria. We have expressed and purified XacPNP and demonstrated that the bacterial protein alters physiological responses including stomatal opening in plants. Although XacPNP is not expressed under standard nutrient rich culture conditions, it is strongly induced under conditions that mimic the nutrient poor intercellular apoplastic environment of leaves, as well as in infected tissue, suggesting that XacPNP transcription can respond to the host environment. To characterize the role of XacPNP during bacterial infection, we constructed a XacPNP deletion mutant. The lesions caused by this mutant were more necrotic than those observed with the wild-type, and bacterial cell death occurred earlier in the mutant. Moreover, when we expressed XacPNP in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, the transgenic bacteria caused less necrotic lesions in the host than the wild-type. In conclusion, we present evidence that a plant-like bacterial PNP can enable a plant pathogen to modify host responses to create conditions favorable to its own survival. PMID:19015524

Gottig, Natalia; Garavaglia, Betiana S.; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Valentine, Alex; Gehring, Chris; Orellano, Elena G.; Ottado, Jorgelina

2008-01-01

113

Controlling Potato Blight: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potato late blight, Phytophthora infestans, has an infamous past, yet it continues to present a challenge to modern day farmers. Historical scenarios in the LateBlight simulation help us define the impact of this disease before the interactions between this microbe and the potato were understood. Modern scenarios enable us to investigate current strategies to control this pathogen from the management of cull piles to the use of genetically engineered potatoes. A life cycle model, Potato Late Blight, provides an additional method for exploring microbial interactions. * make a profit or lose the farm as you investigate the economic consequences of using chemical control approaches to managing late blight in potatoes

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)

2006-05-20

114

Virulence of Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae Isolated from Poa annua.  

PubMed

Bacterial wilt is a vascular wilt disease caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae that infects Poa annua, a grass that is commonly found on golf course greens throughout the world. Bacterial wilt causes symptoms of etiolation, wilting, and foliar necrosis. The damage is most prevalent during the summer and the pathogen can kill turf under conditions optimal for disease development. Fifteen isolates of X. translucens pv. poae were collected from northern regions in the United States and tested for virulence against P. annua. All 15 isolates were pathogenic on P. annua, but demonstrated variable levels of virulence when inoculated onto P. annua under greenhouse conditions. The isolates were divided into two virulence groups. The first group containing four isolates generally resulted in less than 40% mortality following inoculation. The second group, containing the other eleven isolates, produced between 90 and 100% mortality following inoculation. These results suggest that differences in the virulence of bacterial populations present on a golf course may result in more or less severe amounts of observed disease. PMID:25288933

Chaves, Arielle; Mitkowski, Nathaniel

2013-03-01

115

Insights into Genome Plasticity and Pathogenicity of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Revealed by the Complete Genome Sequence  

PubMed Central

The gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria is the causative agent of bacterial spot disease in pepper and tomato plants, which leads to economically important yield losses. This pathosystem has become a well-established model for studying bacterial infection strategies. Here, we present the whole-genome sequence of the pepper-pathogenic Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria strain 85-10, which comprises a 5.17-Mb circular chromosome and four plasmids. The genome has a high G+C content (64.75%) and signatures of extensive genome plasticity. Whole-genome comparisons revealed a gene order similar to both Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and a structure completely different from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. A total of 548 coding sequences (12.2%) are unique to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. In addition to a type III secretion system, which is essential for pathogenicity, the genome of strain 85-10 encodes all other types of protein secretion systems described so far in gram-negative bacteria. Remarkably, one of the putative type IV secretion systems encoded on the largest plasmid is similar to the Icm/Dot systems of the human pathogens Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii. Comparisons with other completely sequenced plant pathogens predicted six novel type III effector proteins and several other virulence factors, including adhesins, cell wall-degrading enzymes, and extracellular polysaccharides. PMID:16237009

Thieme, Frank; Koebnik, Ralf; Bekel, Thomas; Berger, Carolin; Boch, Jens; Büttner, Daniela; Caldana, Camila; Gaigalat, Lars; Goesmann, Alexander; Kay, Sabine; Kirchner, Oliver; Lanz, Christa; Linke, Burkhard; McHardy, Alice C.; Meyer, Folker; Mittenhuber, Gerhard; Nies, Dietrich H.; Niesbach-Klösgen, Ulla; Patschkowski, Thomas; Rückert, Christian; Rupp, Oliver; Schneiker, Susanne; Schuster, Stephan C.; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Weber, Ernst; Pühler, Alfred; Bonas, Ulla; Bartels, Daniela; Kaiser, Olaf

2005-01-01

116

Light filtering by epidermal flavonoids during the resistant response of cotton to Xanthomonas protects leaf tissue from light-dependent phytoalexin toxicity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

2,7-Dihydroxycadalene and lacinilene C, sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins that accumulate at infection sites during the hypersensitive resistant response of cotton foliage to Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum, have light-dependent toxicity toward host cells, as well as toward the bacterial pathogen....

117

Use of carnauba based carrier for copper sprays reduces infection by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Diaporthe citri in Florida commercial grapefruit groves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), a bacterial disease of citrus, was first documented on Florida citrus in the early 1900’s. At that time the disease was managed, only to return in the 1980’s and 90’s and to finally remain uncontrolled in 2004. Xcc is most active ...

118

Xanthomonas campestris Overcomes Arabidopsis Stomatal Innate Immunity through a DSF Cell-to-Cell Signal-Regulated Virulence Factor1(OA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogen-induced stomatal closure is part of the plant innate immune response. Phytopathogens using stomata as a way of entry into the leaf must avoid the stomatal response of the host. In this article, we describe a factor secreted by the bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc) capable of interfering with stomatal closure induced by bacteria or abscisic acid (ABA).

Gustavo E. Gudesblat; Pablo S. Torres; Adrian A. Vojnov

119

Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters. PMID:22443110

2012-01-01

120

HISTOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat and barley in the 1990s in the midwestern U.S. Research efforts to control the disease have been hampered by limited knowledge of how the fungal head blight pathogens infect and damage head tissue and what natural defenses the plant h...

121

Draft Genome Sequences of Xanthomonas sacchari and Two Banana-Associated Xanthomonads Reveal Insights into the Xanthomonas Group 1 Clade  

PubMed Central

We present draft genome sequences for three strains of Xanthomonas species, each of which was associated with banana plants (Musa species) but is not closely related to the previously sequenced banana-pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum. Strain NCPPB4393 had been deposited as Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum but in fact falls within the species Xanthomonas sacchari. Strain NCPPB1132 is more distantly related to Xanthomonas sacchari whilst strain NCPPB 1131 grouped in a distinct species-level clade related to X. sacchari, along with strains from ginger, rice, cotton and sugarcane. These three newly sequenced strains share many genomic features with the previously sequenced Xanthomonas albilineans, for example possessing an unsual metE allele and lacking the Hrp type III secretion system. However, they are distinct from Xanthomonas albilineans in many respects, for example showing little evidence of genome reduction. They also lack the SPI-1 type III secretion system found in Xanthomonas albilineans. Unlike X. albilineans, all three strains possess a gum gene cluster. The data reported here provide the first genome-wide survey of non-Hrp Xanthomonas species other than Xanthomonas albilineans, which is an atypical member of this group. We hope that the availability of complete sequence data for this group of organisms is the first step towards understanding their interactions with plants and identifying potential virulence factors. PMID:24710305

Studholme, David J.; Wasukira, Arthur; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Aritua, Valente; Thwaites, Richard; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray

2011-01-01

122

Schematic Models for Potato Tuber Blight Infection Based on Foliar Blight Severity, Cultivar Resistance, Soil and Atmospheric Variables  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato tuber blight caused by Phytophthora infestans accounts for significant losses in storage tubers. Despite research on infection and management of tuber blight, there is limited published data on models predicting tuber blight infection or development. We modeled the dynamics of tuber blight in...

123

Isolation and identification of antagonistic bacteria from phylloplane of rice as biocontrol agents for sheath blight.  

PubMed

A total of 325 bacteria were isolated from both healthy and sheath blight infected leaf samples of rice plants, collected from different places of Malaysia, following dilution technique. Sheath blight pathogen was isolated from infected samples by tissue plating method. Out of 325, 14 isolates were found to be antagonist against the pathogen in pre evaluation test. All the 14 isolates were morphologically characterized. Antagonistic activity of these isolates was further confirmed by adopting the standard dual culture and extracellular metabolite tests. The best isolates were selected, based on the results. In dual culture test, the selected bacterial isolates KMB25, TMB33, PMB38, UMB20 and BMB42 showed 68.44%, 60.89%, 60.22%, 50.00% and 48.22% fungal growth inhibition, respectively and in extracellular metabolite test these bacterial isolates exhibited 93.33%, 84.26%, 69.82%, 67.96% and 39.26% of the same, respectively. Biochemical tests of selected isolates were performed following standard procedure. These bacterial isolates were tentatively identified as fluorescent pseudomonas by morphological and biochemical characterization. The identities were further confirmed by Biolog microstation system as P. fluorescens (UMB20), P. aeruginosa (KMB25, TMB33 and PMB38) and P. asplenii (BMB42) with similarity index ranging from 0.517 to 0.697. The effective bacterial isolates obtained from the present study can be used in the management of soil borne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, causing sheath blight of rice. PMID:25522511

Akter, Shamima; Kadir, Jugah; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Saud, Halimi Mohd; Elmahdi, Salha

2014-11-01

124

Tagging and mapping Pse-1 gene for resistance to halo blight in common bean differential cultivar UI-3  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Halo blight [caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psp)] is a serious seed-borne bacterial disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A few R genes and QTL provide control to one or more races of the pathogen. To better understand monogenic resistance and improve breeding efficienc...

125

The type III effectors of Xanthomonas.  

PubMed

A review of type III effectors (T3 effectors) from strains of Xanthomonas reveals a growing list of candidate and known effectors based on functional assays and sequence and structural similarity searches of genomic data. We propose that the effectors and suspected effectors should be distributed into 39 so-called Xop groups reflecting sequence similarity. Some groups have structural motifs for putative enzymatic functions, and recent studies have provided considerable insight into the interaction with host factors in their function as mediators of virulence and elicitors of resistance for a few specific T3 effectors. Many groups are related to T3 effectors of plant and animal pathogenic bacteria, and several groups appear to have been exploited primarily by Xanthomonas species based on available data. At the same time, a relatively large number of candidate effectors remain to be examined in more detail with regard to their function within host cells. PMID:19849782

White, Frank F; Potnis, Neha; Jones, Jeffrey B; Koebnik, Ralf

2009-11-01

126

Identification of Xanthomonas fragariae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans with Novel Markers and Using a Dot Blot Platform Coupled with Automatic Data Analysis ? †  

PubMed Central

Phytosanitary regulations and the provision of plant health certificates still rely mainly on long and laborious culture-based methods of diagnosis, which are frequently inconclusive. DNA-based methods of detection can circumvent many of the limitations of currently used screening methods, allowing a fast and accurate monitoring of samples. The genus Xanthomonas includes 13 phytopathogenic quarantine organisms for which improved methods of diagnosis are needed. In this work, we propose 21 new Xanthomonas-specific molecular markers, within loci coding for Xanthomonas-specific protein domains, useful for DNA-based methods of identification of xanthomonads. The specificity of these markers was assessed by a dot blot hybridization array using 23 non-Xanthomonas species, mostly soil dwelling and/or phytopathogens for the same host plants. In addition, the validation of these markers on 15 Xanthomonas spp. suggested species-specific hybridization patterns, which allowed discrimination among the different Xanthomonas species. Having in mind that DNA-based methods of diagnosis are particularly hampered for unsequenced species, namely, Xanthomonas fragariae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans, for which comparative genomics tools to search for DNA signatures are not yet applicable, emphasis was given to the selection of informative markers able to identify X. fragariae, X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli, and X. fuscans subsp. fuscans strains. In order to avoid inconsistencies due to operator-dependent interpretation of dot blot data, an image-processing algorithm was developed to analyze automatically the dot blot patterns. Ultimately, the proposed markers and the dot blot platform, coupled with automatic data analyses, have the potential to foster a thorough monitoring of phytopathogenic xanthomonads. PMID:21705524

Albuquerque, Pedro; Caridade, Cristina M. R.; Marcal, Andre R. S.; Cruz, Joana; Cruz, Leonor; Santos, Catarina L.; Mendes, Marta V.; Tavares, Fernando

2011-01-01

127

AN OVERVIEW OF THE XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV CITRI GENOME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) is responsible for citrus canker disease, one of the most serious of diseases of citrus. As a member of the genus Xanthomonas, it shares basic mechanisms of pathogenicity as well as underlying genomic sequence organization with other members of the genus. The ...

128

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae type III effector XopN targets OsVOZ2 and a putative thiamine synthase as a virulence factor in rice.  

PubMed

Xanthomonasoryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is spread systemically through the xylem tissue and causes bacterial blight in rice. We evaluated the roles of Xanthomonas outer proteins (Xop) in the Xoo strain KXO85 in a Japonica-type rice cultivar, Dongjin. Five xop gene knockout mutants (xopQ KXO85 , xopX KXO85 , xopP1 KXO85 , xopP2 KXO85 , and xopN KXO85 ) were generated by EZ-Tn5 mutagenesis, and their virulence was assessed in 3-month-old rice leaves. Among these mutants, the xopN KXO85 mutant appeared to be less virulent than the wild-type KXO85; however, the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, the xopN KXO85 mutant exhibited significantly less virulence in flag leaves after flowering than the wild-type KXO85. These observations indicate that the roles of Xop in Xoo virulence are dependent on leaf stage. We chose the xopN gene for further characterization because the xopN KXO85 mutant showed the greatest influence on virulence. We confirmed that XopNKXO85 is translocated into rice cells, and its gene expression is positively regulated by HrpX. Two rice proteins, OsVOZ2 and a putative thiamine synthase (OsXNP), were identified as targets of XopNKXO85 by yeast two-hybrid screening. Interactions between XopNKXO85 and OsVOZ2 and OsXNP were further confirmed in planta by bimolecular fluorescence complementation and in vivo pull-down assays. To investigate the roles of OsVOZ2 in interactions between rice and Xoo, we evaluated the virulence of the wild-type KXO85 and xopN KXO85 mutant in the OsVOZ2 mutant line PFG_3A-07565 of Dongjin. The wild-type KXO85 and xopN KXO85 mutant were significantly less virulent in the mutant rice line. These results indicate that XopNKXO85 and OsVOZ2 play important roles both individually and together for Xoo virulence in rice. PMID:24019919

Cheong, Hoon; Kim, Chi-Yeol; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Sun Moon, Jae; Hwang, Ingyu

2013-01-01

129

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Type III Effector XopN Targets OsVOZ2 and a Putative Thiamine Synthase as a Virulence Factor in Rice  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonasoryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is spread systemically through the xylem tissue and causes bacterial blight in rice. We evaluated the roles of Xanthomonas outer proteins (Xop) in the Xoo strain KXO85 in a Japonica-type rice cultivar, Dongjin. Five xop gene knockout mutants (xopQKXO85, xopXKXO85, xopP1KXO85, xopP2KXO85, and xopNKXO85) were generated by EZ-Tn5 mutagenesis, and their virulence was assessed in 3-month-old rice leaves. Among these mutants, the xopNKXO85 mutant appeared to be less virulent than the wild-type KXO85; however, the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, the xopNKXO85 mutant exhibited significantly less virulence in flag leaves after flowering than the wild-type KXO85. These observations indicate that the roles of Xop in Xoo virulence are dependent on leaf stage. We chose the xopN gene for further characterization because the xopNKXO85 mutant showed the greatest influence on virulence. We confirmed that XopNKXO85 is translocated into rice cells, and its gene expression is positively regulated by HrpX. Two rice proteins, OsVOZ2 and a putative thiamine synthase (OsXNP), were identified as targets of XopNKXO85 by yeast two-hybrid screening. Interactions between XopNKXO85 and OsVOZ2 and OsXNP were further confirmed in planta by bimolecular fluorescence complementation and in vivo pull-down assays. To investigate the roles of OsVOZ2 in interactions between rice and Xoo, we evaluated the virulence of the wild-type KXO85 and xopNKXO85 mutant in the OsVOZ2 mutant line PFG_3A-07565 of Dongjin. The wild-type KXO85 and xopNKXO85 mutant were significantly less virulent in the mutant rice line. These results indicate that XopNKXO85 and OsVOZ2 play important roles both individually and together for Xoo virulence in rice. PMID:24019919

Cheong, Hoon; Kim, Chi-Yeol; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Lee, Byoung-Moo; Sun Moon, Jae; Hwang, Ingyu

2013-01-01

130

Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Late Blight and Early Blight Resistance in Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late blight (LB), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, and early blight (EB), caused by the fungi Alternaria solani and A. tomatophila, are two common and destructive foliar diseases of the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) in the United States and elsewhere in the world. While LB can infect and devastate tomato plants at any developmental stages,

Majid R. Foolad; Heather L. Merk; Hamid Ashrafi

2008-01-01

131

Genetic improvement of cotton in Turkey  

E-print Network

), (3) cotyledon resistance to a mixture of four races of the bacterial blight pathogen (Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum), and (4) absence of disease lesions at the base of hypocotyl (caused by Pythi um ulti mum and or Rhfzoctonia solani...

Eksi, Ismail

1990-01-01

132

Challenging Xanthomonas campestris with low levels of arsenic mediates cross-protection against oxidant killing.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas encounters highly toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) from many sources, such as those generated by plants against invading bacteria, other soil bacteria and from aerobic respiration. Thus, conditions that alter intracellular ROS levels such as exposure to toxic metalloids would have profound effects on bacterial physiology. Here, we report that exposure of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xp) to low levels of arsenic induces physiological cross-protection against killing by H(2)O(2) and organic hydroperoxide but not a superoxide generator. Cross-protection against H(2)O(2) and organic hydroperoxide toxicity was due to increased expression of genes encoding major peroxide-metabolizing enzymes such as alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC), catalase (KatA) and organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (Ohr). Arsenic-induced protection against H(2)O(2) and organic hydroperoxide requires the peroxide stress response regulators, OxyR and OhrR, respectively. Moreover, analyses of double mutants of the major H(2)O(2) and organic hyproperoxide-scavenging enzymes, Xp ahpC katA and Xp ahpC ohr, respectively, suggested the existence of unidentified OxyR- and OhrR-regulated genes that are involved in arsenic-induced resistance to H(2)O(2) and organic hyproperoxide killing in Xp. These arsenic-induced physiological alterations could play an important role in bacterial survival both in the soil environment and during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:16907748

Hrimpeng, Karnjana; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Banjerdkij, Peerakan; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Dubbs, James M; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

2006-09-01

133

The image has the power : fighting blight in Philadelphia  

E-print Network

Blight has plagued Philadelphia for the better part of a century, though the understanding of blight has changed dramatically over time. Originally used to describe neighborhood overcrowding, the term retained its currency ...

Stern, Jonah Daniel

2012-01-01

134

Colonization of Dormant Walnut Buds by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis Is Predictive of Subsequent Disease.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The potential role of walnut buds as a driver of walnut blight disease, caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis, was addressed by quantifying its temporal dynamics in a large number of orchards in California. The abundance of X. arboricola pv. juglandis on individual dormant and developing buds and shoots of walnut trees varied by >10(6)-fold at any sample time and within a given tree. X. arboricola pv. juglandis population size in shoots was often no larger than that in the buds from which the shoots were derived but was strongly correlated with prior pathogen population sizes in buds. X. arboricola pv. juglandis populations on developing nuts were strongly related to that on the shoots on which they were borne. The incidence of disease of nuts in June was strongly correlated with the logarithm of the population size of X. arboricola pv. juglandis in dormant buds in March. Inoculum efficiency, the slope of this linear relationship, varied between years but was strongly related to the number of rain events following bud break in each year. Thus, inoculum of X. arboricola pv. juglandis present on dormant buds is the primary determinant of nut infections and the risk of disease can be predicted from both the numbers of X. arboricola pv. juglandis in buds and the incidence of early spring rain. PMID:25338268

Lindow, Steven; Olson, William; Buchner, Richard

2014-11-01

135

A genetic screen to isolate type III effectors translocated into pepper cells during Xanthomonas infection.  

PubMed

The bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) uses a type III secretion system (TTSS) to translocate effector proteins into host plant cells. The TTSS is required for Xcv colonization, yet the identity of many proteins translocated through this apparatus is not known. We used a genetic screen to functionally identify Xcv TTSS effectors. A transposon 5 (Tn5)-based transposon construct including the coding sequence for the Xcv AvrBs2 effector devoid of its TTSS signal was randomly inserted into the Xcv genome. Insertion of the avrBs2 reporter gene into Xcv genes coding for proteins containing a functional TTSS signal peptide resulted in the creation of chimeric TTSS effector::AvrBs2 fusion proteins. Xcv strains containing these fusions translocated the AvrBs2 reporter in a TTSS-dependent manner into resistant BS2 pepper cells during infection, activating the avrBs2-dependent hypersensitive response (HR). We isolated seven chimeric fusion proteins and designated the identified TTSS effectors as Xanthomonas outer proteins (Xops). Translocation of each Xop was confirmed by using the calmodulin-dependent adenylate cydase reporter assay. Three xop genes are Xanthomonas spp.-specific, whereas homologs for the rest are found in other phytopathogenic bacteria. XopF1 and XopF2 define an effector gene family in Xcv. XopN contains a eukaryotic protein fold repeat and is required for full Xcv pathogenicity in pepper and tomato. The translocated effectors identified in this work expand our knowledge of the diversity of proteins that Xcv uses to manipulate its hosts. PMID:15545602

Roden, Julie Anne; Belt, Brandis; Ross, Jason Barzel; Tachibana, Thomas; Vargas, Joe; Mudgett, Mary Beth

2004-11-23

136

Cell-cell signaling in Xanthomonas campestris involves an HD-GYP domain protein that functions in cyclic di-GMP turnover  

Microsoft Academic Search

HD-GYP is a protein domain of unknown biochemical function implicated in bacterial signaling and regulation. In the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the synthesis of virulence factors and dispersal of biofilms are positively controlled by a two-component signal transduction system comprising the HD-GYP domain regulatory protein RpfG and cognate sensor RpfC and by cell-cell signaling mediated by the diffusible

Robert P. Ryan; Yvonne Fouhy; Jean F. Lucey; Lisa C. Crossman; Stephen Spiro; Ya-Wen He; Lian-Hui Zhang; Stephan Heeb; Miguel Cámara; Paul Williams; J. Maxwell Dow

2006-01-01

137

Method for improving specific xanthan productivity during continuous fermentation. [Xanthomonas sp. , Xanthomonas campestris  

SciTech Connect

The heteropolysaccharides produced by the action of Xanthomonas bacteria on carbohydrate media have a potential application as film forming agents and as thickeners for oil field drilling fluids, fracturing liquids, and emulsifying, stabilizing, and sizing agents. Heteropolysaccharides, particularly xanthan gum, have significant potential as mobility control agents in micellar polymer flooding. Xanthan gum has excellent viscosifying properties at low concentration; it is resistant to shear degradation and exhibits only minimal losses in viscosity as a function of temperature, pH, and ionic strength. During continuous culture, the concentration of biomass is set by the concentration of the limiting nutrient being fed with the medium and biomass concentration is varied by raising or lowering the limiting nutrient concentration. By growing a species of the genus Xanthomonas such as Xanthomonas campestris, in continuous culture in a medium containing glucose, mineral salts, and NH/sub 4/Cl and either glutamate or glutamate plus yeast extract, the specific productivity is improved by first operating and then raising the cell concentration. 16 claims.

Weisrock, W.P.

1982-01-19

138

Method for improving specific Xanthan productivity during continuous fermentation. [Xanthomonas sp. , Xanthomonas campestris  

SciTech Connect

The heteropolysaccharides produced by the action of Xanthomonas bacteria on carbohydrate media have a potential application as film forming agents and as thickeners for oil field drilling fluids, fracturing liquids, and emulsifying, stabilizing, and sizing agents. Heteropolysaccharides, particularly xanthan gum, have significant potential as mobility control agents in micellar polymer flooding. Xanthan gum has excellent viscosifying properties at low concentration; it is resistant to shear degradation and exhibits only minimal losses in viscosity as a function of temperature, pH, and ionic strength. During continuous culture, the concentration of biomass is set by the concentration of the limiting nutrient being fed with the medium and biomass concentration is varied by raising or lowering the limiting nutrient concentration. By growing a species of the genus Xanthomonas such as Xanthomonas campestris, in continuous culture in a medium containing glucose, mineral salts, and NH/sub 4/Cl and either glutamate or glutamate plus yeast extract, the specific productivity is improved by first operating and then raising the cell concentration. 16 claims.

Weisrock, W.P.

1982-01-19

139

Genome Sequencing of Xanthomonas vasicola Pathovar vasculorum Reveals Variation in Plasmids and Genes Encoding Lipopolysaccharide Synthesis, Type-IV Pilus and Type-III Secretion Effectors  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas vasicola pathovar vasculorum (Xvv) is the bacterial agent causing gumming disease in sugarcane. Here, we compare complete genome sequences for five isolates of Xvv originating from sugarcane and one from maize. This identified two distinct types of lipopolysaccharide synthesis gene clusters among Xvv isolates: one is similar to that of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar citri (Xac) and is probably the ancestral type, while the other is similar to those of the sugarcane-inhabiting species, Xanthomonas sacchari. Four of six Xvv isolates harboured sequences similar to the Xac plasmid, pXAC47, and showed a distinct Type-IV pilus (T4P) sequence type, whereas the T4P locus of the other two isolates resembled that of the closely related banana pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm). The Xvv isolate from maize has lost a gene encoding a homologue of the virulence effector, xopAF, which was present in all five of the sugarcane isolates, while xopL contained a premature stop codon in four out of six isolates. These findings shed new light on evolutionary events since the divergence of Xvv and Xcm, as well as further elucidating the relationships between the two closely related pathogens. PMID:25437615

Wasukira, Arthur; Coulter, Max; Al-Sowayeh, Noorah; Thwaites, Richard; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Kubiriba, Jerome; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray; Studholme, David J.

2014-01-01

140

Evolutionary and Experimental Assessment of Novel Markers for Detection of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria in Plant Samples  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (BSX) are quarantine phytopathogenic bacteria responsible for heavy losses in tomato and pepper production. Despite the research on improved plant spraying methods and resistant cultivars, the use of healthy plant material is still considered as the most effective bacterial spot control measure. Therefore, rapid and efficient detection methods are crucial for an early detection of these phytopathogens. Methodology In this work, we selected and validated novel DNA markers for reliable detection of the BSX Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xeu). Xeu-specific DNA regions were selected using two online applications, CUPID and Insignia. Furthermore, to facilitate the selection of putative DNA markers, a customized C program was designed to retrieve the regions outputted by both databases. The in silico validation was further extended in order to provide an insight on the origin of these Xeu-specific regions by assessing chromosomal location, GC content, codon usage and synteny analyses. Primer-pairs were designed for amplification of those regions and the PCR validation assays showed that most primers allowed for positive amplification with different Xeu strains. The obtained amplicons were labeled and used as probes in dot blot assays, which allowed testing the probes against a collection of 12 non-BSX Xanthomonas and 23 other phytopathogenic bacteria. These assays confirmed the specificity of the selected DNA markers. Finally, we designed and tested a duplex PCR assay and an inverted dot blot platform for culture-independent detection of Xeu in infected plants. Significance This study details a selection strategy able to provide a large number of Xeu-specific DNA markers. As demonstrated, the selected markers can detect Xeu in infected plants both by PCR and by hybridization-based assays coupled with automatic data analysis. Furthermore, this work is a contribution to implement more efficient DNA-based methods of bacterial diagnostics. PMID:22655073

Albuquerque, Pedro; Caridade, Cristina M. R.; Rodrigues, Arlete S.; Marcal, Andre R. S.; Cruz, Joana; Cruz, Leonor; Santos, Catarina L.; Mendes, Marta V.; Tavares, Fernando

2012-01-01

141

Genomic insights into the evolutionary origin of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and its ecological relatives.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker (CBC) and is a serious problem worldwide. Like CBC, several important diseases in other fruits, such as mango, pomegranate, and grape, are also caused by Xanthomonas pathovars that display remarkable specificity toward their hosts. While citrus and mango diseases were documented more than 100 years ago, the pomegranate and grape diseases have been known only since the 1950s and 1970s, respectively. Interestingly, diseases caused by all these pathovars were noted first in India. Our genome-based phylogenetic studies suggest that these diverse pathogens belong to a single species and these pathovars may be just a group of rapidly evolving strains. Furthermore, the recently reported pathovars, such as those infecting grape and pomegranate, form independent clonal lineages, while the citrus and mango pathovars that have been known for a long time form one clonal lineage. Such an understanding of their phylogenomic relationship has further allowed us to understand major and unique variations in the lineages that give rise to these pathovars. Whole-genome sequencing studies including ecological relatives from their putative country of origin has allowed us to understand the evolutionary history of Xac and other pathovars that infect fruits. PMID:25085494

Midha, Samriti; Patil, Prabhu B

2014-10-01

142

Volatile organic compounds produced by the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10  

PubMed Central

Summary Xanthomonas campestris is a phytopathogenic bacterium and causes many diseases of agricultural relevance. Volatiles were shown to be important in inter- and intraorganismic attraction and defense reactions. Recently it became apparent that also bacteria emit a plethora of volatiles, which influence other organisms such as invertebrates, plants and fungi. As a first step to study volatile-based bacterial–plant interactions, the emission profile of Xanthomonas c. pv. vesicatoria 85-10 was determined by using GC/MS and PTR–MS techniques. More than 50 compounds were emitted by this species, the majority comprising ketones and methylketones. The structure of the dominant compound, 10-methylundecan-2-one, was assigned on the basis of its analytical data, obtained by GC/MS and verified by comparison of these data with those of a synthetic reference sample. Application of commercially available decan-2-one, undecan-2-one, dodecan-2-one, and the newly synthesized 10-methylundecan-2-one in bi-partite Petri dish bioassays revealed growth promotions in low quantities (0.01 to 10 ?mol), whereas decan-2-one at 100 ?mol caused growth inhibitions of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Volatile emission profiles of the bacteria were different for growth on media (nutrient broth) with or without glucose. PMID:22563356

Weise, Teresa; Kai, Marco; Gummesson, Anja; Troeger, Armin; von Reuß, Stephan; Piepenborn, Silvia; Kosterka, Francine; Sklorz, Martin; Zimmermann, Ralf; Francke, Wittko

2012-01-01

143

Developing Fusarium head blight resistant wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem in wheat and barley around the world. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins that act as virulence factors and cause a reduction in grain quality. Therefore, developing approaches to detoxi...

144

Research on Rhizoctonia Web Blight on Azalea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia web blight is a reoccurring problem in compact varieties of container-grown azalea (Rhododendron sp.) in the Gulf Coast States. During the summers of 2002 and 2003, disease severity was measured weekly in the inoculated center plant of plots consisting of 49 ‘Gumpo’ azalea plants. Plant ...

145

SHEATH BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN SOUTHERN RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheath blight is a serious fungal disease problem in southern US rice production, making it necessary for rice farmers to diligently use fungicides for its control. There are no long grain rice varieties adapted to commercial production in the southern US that have adequate resistance to sheath bli...

146

Draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra possessing transcription activator-like effectors used for genetic engineering.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra is a causal agent of bacterial pustule disease in soybean. This bacterium possesses transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors which are useful for genetic/protein engineering applications in higher organisms including plants and humans. Here, we report that the draft genome sequence consists of 5,337,885-bp double-stranded DNA encoding 4674 open reading frames (ORFs) in 13 different contigs. This genome sequence would be useful in applications of TAL effectors in genetic engineering and in elucidating virulence factors against plants. PMID:24657734

Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Park, Hye-Jee; Ryu, Sangryeol; Han, Sang-Wook

2014-06-10

147

The Xanthomonas campestris effector protein XopDXcc8004 triggers plant disease tolerance by targeting DELLA proteins.  

PubMed

Plants protect themselves from the harmful effects of pathogens by resistance and tolerance. Disease resistance, which eliminates pathogens, can be modulated by bacterial type III effectors. Little is known about whether disease tolerance, which sustains host fitness with a given pathogen burden, is regulated by effectors. Here, we examined the effects of the Xanthomonas effector protein XopDXcc8004 on plant disease defenses by constructing knockout and complemented Xanthomonas strains, and performing inoculation studies in radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radiculus XiaoJinZhong) and Arabidopsis plants. XopDXcc8004 suppresses disease symptoms without changing bacterial titers in infected leaves. In Arabidopsis, XopDXcc8004 delays the hormone gibberellin (GA)-mediated degradation of RGA (repressor of ga1-3), one of five DELLA proteins that repress GA signaling and promote plant tolerance under biotic and abiotic stresses. The ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif-containing region of XopDXcc8004 interacts with the DELLA domain of RGA and might interfere with the GA-induced binding of GID1, a GA receptor, to RGA. The EAR motif was found to be present in a number of plant transcriptional regulators. Thus, our data suggest that bacterial pathogens might have evolved effectors, which probably mimic host components, to initiate disease tolerance and enhance their survival. PMID:25040905

Tan, Leitao; Rong, Wei; Luo, Hongli; Chen, Yinhua; He, Chaozu

2014-11-01

148

Evolutionary History of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis  

PubMed Central

Deciphering mechanisms shaping bacterial diversity should help to build tools to predict the emergence of infectious diseases. Xanthomonads are plant pathogenic bacteria found worldwide. Xanthomonas axonopodis is a genetically heterogeneous species clustering, into six groups, strains that are collectively pathogenic on a large number of plants. However, each strain displays a narrow host range. We address the question of the nature of the evolutionary processes – geographical and ecological speciation – that shaped this diversity. We assembled a large collection of X. axonopodis strains that were isolated over a long period, over continents, and from various hosts. Based on the sequence analysis of seven housekeeping genes, we found that recombination occurred as frequently as point mutation in the evolutionary history of X. axonopodis. However, the impact of recombination was about three times greater than the impact of mutation on the diversity observed in the whole dataset. We then reconstructed the clonal genealogy of the strains using coalescent and genealogy approaches and we studied the diversification of the pathogen using a model of divergence with migration. The suggested scenario involves a first step of generalist diversification that spanned over the last 25 000 years. A second step of ecology-driven specialization occurred during the past two centuries. Eventually, secondary contacts between host-specialized strains probably occurred as a result of agricultural development and intensification, allowing genetic exchanges of virulence-associated genes. These transfers may have favored the emergence of novel pathotypes. Finally, we argue that the largest ecological entity within X. axonopodis is the pathovar. PMID:23505513

Mhedbi-Hajri, Nadia; Hajri, Ahmed; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; Durand, Karine; Brin, Chrystelle; Saux, Marion Fischer-Le; Manceau, Charles; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier

2013-01-01

149

Breeding Strains of Cotton Resistant to Bacterial Blight.  

E-print Network

that susceptibility was dominant and resistance was recessive. The nature of the genetic data, along with the results of indi- vidual plant selections, indicated that minor genes greatly in- fluence the degree of resistance given by the major genes. CONTENTS... was attributed to a complex of minor and modifying genes in G. arboreum. Another factor, B,, was found by Knight (11) in G. barbadense, variety Grenadines White Pollen. B, appeared to be partially dominant and additive in conjunction with B,, B,, B, and B...

Blank, Lester M. (Lester Marion); Bird, L. S. (Luther Smith)

1951-01-01

150

Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus ‘Robusta 5’ accessions  

PubMed Central

Background Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus ‘Robusta 5’. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. Results When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with ‘Robusta 5’ as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand ‘Malling 9’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein ( MxdRLP1) and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German ‘Idared’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6?cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene ( HSP90). In the US ‘Otawa3’ X ‘Robusta5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY transcription factor previously associated with fire blight resistance. However, this QTL was not observed in the New Zealand or German populations. Conclusions The results suggest that the upper region of ‘Robusta 5’ linkage group 3 contains multiple genes contributing to fire blight resistance and that their contributions to resistance can vary depending upon pathogen virulence and other factors. Mapping markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes has proved a useful aid in defining these QTLs and developing markers for marker-assisted breeding of fire blight resistance. PMID:22471693

2012-01-01

151

Fortunella margarita Transcriptional Reprogramming Triggered by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) has become endemic in areas where high temperature, rain, humidity, and windy conditions provide a favourable environment for the dissemination of the bacterium. Xcc is pathogenic on many commercial citrus varieties but appears to elicit an incompatible reaction on the citrus relative Fortunella margarita Swing (kumquat), in the form of a very distinct delayed necrotic response. We have developed subtractive libraries enriched in sequences expressed in kumquat leaves during both early and late stages of the disease. The isolated differentially expressed transcripts were subsequently sequenced. Our results demonstrate how the use of microarray expression profiling can help assign roles to previously uncharacterized genes and elucidate plant pathogenesis-response related mechanisms. This can be considered to be a case study in a citrus relative where high throughput technologies were utilized to understand defence mechanisms in Fortunella and citrus at the molecular level. Results cDNAs from sequenced kumquat libraries (ESTs) made from subtracted RNA populations, healthy vs. infected, were used to make this microarray. Of 2054 selected genes on a customized array, 317 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) in Xcc challenged kumquat plants compared to mock-inoculated ones. This study identified components of the incompatible interaction such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and programmed cell death (PCD). Common defence mechanisms and a number of resistance genes were also identified. In addition, there were a considerable number of differentially regulated genes that had no homologues in the databases. This could be an indication of either a specialized set of genes employed by kumquat in response to canker disease or new defence mechanisms in citrus. Conclusion Functional categorization of kumquat Xcc-responsive genes revealed an enhanced defence-related metabolism as well as a number of resistant response-specific genes in the kumquat transcriptome in response to Xcc inoculation. Gene expression profile(s) were analyzed to assemble a comprehensive and inclusive image of the molecular interaction in the kumquat/Xcc system. This was done in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms associated with the development of the hypersensitive response phenotype in kumquat leaves. These data will be used to perform comparisons among citrus species to evaluate means to enhance the host immune responses against bacterial diseases. PMID:22078099

2011-01-01

152

New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all areas where citrus canker has been detected. Like most phytobacterioses, there is no efficient way to control citrus canker. Considering the importance of the disease worldwide, investigation is needed to accurately detect which genes are related to the pathogen-host adaptation process and which are associated with pathogenesis. Results Through transposon insertion mutagenesis, 10,000 mutants of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 (Xcc) were obtained, and 3,300 were inoculated in Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) leaves. Their ability to cause citrus canker was analyzed every 3 days until 21 days after inoculation; a set of 44 mutants showed altered virulence, with 8 presenting a complete loss of causing citrus canker symptoms. Sequencing of the insertion site in all 44 mutants revealed that 35 different ORFs were hit, since some ORFs were hit in more than one mutant, with mutants for the same ORF presenting the same phenotype. An analysis of these ORFs showed that some encoded genes were previously known as related to pathogenicity in phytobacteria and, more interestingly, revealed new genes never implicated with Xanthomonas pathogenicity before, including hypothetical ORFs. Among the 8 mutants with no canker symptoms are the hrpB4 and hrpX genes, two genes that belong to type III secretion system (TTSS), two hypothetical ORFS and, surprisingly, the htrA gene, a gene reported as involved with the virulence process in animal-pathogenic bacteria but not described as involved in phytobacteria virulence. Nucleic acid hybridization using labeled cDNA probes showed that some of the mutated genes are differentially expressed when the bacterium is grown in citrus leaves. Finally, comparative genomic analysis revealed that 5 mutated ORFs are in new putative pathogenicity islands. Conclusion The identification of these new genes related with Xcc infection and virulence is a great step towards the understanding of plant-pathogen interactions and could allow the development of strategies to control citrus canker. PMID:19149882

2009-01-01

153

Characterization of a variant of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri that triggers a host-specific defense response.  

PubMed

Citrus is an economically important fruit crop that is severely afflicted by Asiatic citrus bacterial canker (CBC), a disease caused by the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri). To gain insight into the molecular epidemiology of CBC, 42 Xanthomonas isolates were collected from a range of Citrus spp. across 17 different orchards in Tucumán, Argentina and subjected to molecular, biochemical, and pathogenicity tests. Analysis of genome-specific X. citri markers and DNA polymorphisms based on repetitive elements-based polymerase chain reaction showed that all 42 isolates belonged to X. citri. Interestingly, pathogenicity tests showed that one isolate, which shares >90% genetic similarity to the reference strain X. citri T, has host range specificity. This new variant of X. citri subsp. citri, named X. citri A(T), which is deficient in xanthan production, induces an atypical, noncankerous chlorotic phenotype in Citrus limon and C. paradisi and weak cankerous lesions in C. aurantifolia and C. clementina leaves. In C. limon, suppression of canker development is concomitant with an oxidative burst; xanthan is not implicated in the phenotype induced by this interaction, suggesting that other bacterial factors would be involved in triggering the defense response. PMID:23268580

Chiesa, María A; Siciliano, María F; Ornella, Leonardo; Roeschlin, Roxana A; Favaro, María A; Delgado, Natalia Pino; Sendín, Lorena N; Orce, Ingrid G; Ploper, L Daniel; Vojnov, Adrian A; Vacas, José Gadea; Filippone, María P; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Marano, María R

2013-06-01

154

Breeding lines and host QTL interaction with bacterial strains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to common bacterial blight (CBB) is controlled by more than 20 QTL (Miklas and Singh, 2007). A QTL on Pv10 linked to SAP6 SCAR markers is derived from common bean. Higher levels of resistance associated with BC420 QTL on Pv06 (Yu et al., 2000) and SU91-CG11 QTL on Pv08 (Pedraza et al., 20...

155

Changes in the Plasma Membrane Distribution of Rice Phospholipase D during Resistant Interactions with Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae.  

PubMed Central

Phospholipase D (PLD; EC 3.1.4.4), which hydrolyzes phospholipids to generate phosphatidic acid, was examined in rice leaves undergoing susceptible or resistant interactions with Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae. RNA analysis of leaves undergoing resistant interactions revealed different expression patterns for PLD over 5 days relative to control plants or those undergoing susceptible interactions. By using an activity assay and immunoblot analysis, we identified three forms of PLD (1, 2, and 3). PLD 1 was observed only at 1 day after tissue infiltration. PLDs 2 and 3 were detected up to 3 days in all interactions. Immunoelectron microscopy studies revealed PLD to be associated predominantly with the plasma membrane. In cells undergoing a susceptible response, PLD was uniformly distributed along the plasma membrane at 3, 6, 12, and 24 hr after inoculation. However, within 12 hr after bacterial challenge in resistant interactions, PLD was clustered preferentially in membranes adjacent to bacterial cells. PMID:12239412

Young, S. A.; Wang, X.; Leach, J. E.

1996-01-01

156

Examination of Early Blight Resistance Derived From S. Raphanifolium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic losses in many potato growing regions. Growers and breeders are interested in the development of potato cultivars with resistance to early blight as a means to decrease usage of fungicide applica...

157

Fungicide timing rules to prevent azalea web blight damage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article provides directions for timing fungicide applications to control Rhizoctonia web blight. Research has shown that many azalea cultivars are infested with the web blight pathogen (binucleate Rhizoctonia). The fungus lives 12 months of the year on azaleas, yet does not harm the plant most...

158

Timing of fungicide sprays to prevent azalea web blight symptoms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Azalea web blight is an annual problem on evergreen azalea cultivars grown in containerized nursery production in the southern and eastern United States. Fungicides are the only approach currently used to control Rhizoctonia web blight; however, control is poor in some years because the specifics of...

159

The 2009 late blight pandemic in eastern USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The tomato late blight pandemic of 2009 made late blight into a household term in much of the eastern United States. Many home gardeners and organic producers lost most, if not all, of their tomato crop, and their experiences were reported in the mainstream press. This article, which is written for ...

160

Analysis of fire blight shott infection epidemics on apple  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight incidence and spread of the shoot blight phase of the disease was studied in four apple cultivars in replicated blocks over four years (1994 - 1997). The cultivar ‘York’ was highly susceptible, followed by ‘Fuji’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ which were moderately susceptible, and ‘Liberty’ wh...

161

Potato Late blight Update and Late Season Recommendations Willie Kirk. PLP  

E-print Network

Potato Late blight Update and Late Season Recommendations Willie Kirk. PLP Potato late blight has confirmations in potatoes have been the US-23 genotype. This was confirmed by GPI allozyme analysis. Conditions remain conducive for late blight in potato crops and the risk of tuber blight is high especially

Douches, David S.

162

Biocontrol of Phytophthora Blight and Anthracnose in Pepper by Sequentially Selected Antagonistic Rhizobacteria against Phytophthora capsici  

PubMed Central

We previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. In this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against P. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on Phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. We selected four potential biocontrol strains (Pseudomonas otitidis YJR27, P. putida YJR92, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens YJR102, and Novosphingobium capsulatum YJR107) among 239 bacterial strains. In the 3-year field tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Phytophthora blight without influencing rhizosphere microbial populations; they showed similar or better levels of disease suppressions than in metalaxyl treatment in the 2007 and 2009 tests, but not in the 2008 test. In the 2-year plastic house tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose incidence in at least one of the test years, but their biocontrol activities were variable. In addition, strains YJR27, YJR92, and YJR102, in certain harvests, increased pepper fruit numbers in field tests and red fruit weights in plastic house tests. Taken together, these results indicate that the screening procedure is rapid and reliable for the selection of potential biocontrol strains against P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these selected strains exhibited biocontrol activities against anthracnose, and some of the strains showed plant growth-promotion activities on pepper fruit. PMID:25288942

Sang, Mee Kyung; Shrestha, Anupama; Kim, Du-Yeon; Park, Kyungseok; Pak, Chun Ho; Kim, Ki Deok

2013-01-01

163

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND WORLDWIDE PROLIFERATION OF CITRUS BACTERIAL CANKER PATHOGENS IDENTIFIED IN HIRTORIC SPECIMENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) may have originated in Southeast Asia based on symptoms present on early herbarium specimens. The disease was first introduced into the United States in 1911 and has spread to most citrus producing areas in the world. Thi...

164

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND WORLDWIDE PROLIFERATION OF CITRUS BACTERIAL CANKER PATHOGENS IDENTIFIED IN HISTORIC SPECIMENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) may have originated in Southeast Asia, based on symptoms present on early herbarium specimens. The disease was first introduced into the United States in 1911 and has spread to most citrus producing areas in the world. Th...

165

Antagonistic activity of Bacillus subtilis SB1 and its biocontrol effect on tomato bacterial wilt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A potential biocontrol agent of bacterial wilt, Bacillus subtilis SB1, isolated from tomato roots, showed a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity in in vitro experiments. It inhibited the growth of many plant pathogens, including Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Fusarium ox...

166

Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector

Y. Hu; J. Zhang; H. Jia; D. Sosso; T. Li; W. B. Frommer; B. Yang; F. F. White; N. Wang; J. B. Jones

2014-01-01

167

Genetic diversity of citrus bacterial canker pathogens preserved in herbarium specimens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) was first documented in India and Java in the mid 19th century. Since that time the known distribution of the disease has steadily increased. Concurrent with the dispersion of the pathogen, the diversity of described str...

168

Effects of Mulch and Potato Hilling on Development of Foliar Blight (Phytophthora infestans) and Control of Tuber Blight Infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Foliar and tuber blight caused by Phytophthora infestans accounts for significant losses in potatoes in field and storage, however; limited research has documented the effect of cultural practices on late blight control. Field experiments were conducted for two years on Howard gravely loam soil in N...

169

Factors affecting infection of citrus with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) causes citrus canker and is now considered endemic in Florida. Factors affecting dispersal and infection of the bacteria need to be understood to help optimize disease management strategies. Wind (0-18 m/sec) was simulated outdoors using a fan to study infection...

170

Regulation of the oxidative stress protective enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase in Xanthomonas--a review.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas showed atypical regulation of catalase (Kat) and superoxide dismutase with respect to growth phase and response to various inducers. The highest levels of both enzymes were detected during early log phase of growth and declined as growth continued. This was in contrast to resistance levels to superoxides, H2O2 and organic peroxides, which reached maximum levels during stationary phase. Xanthomonas catalase was induced over six fold by superoxide generators and methyl methane sulfonate but weakly by H2O2. The regulation pattern of these enzymes could be important during plant/microbe interactions. To facilitate elucidation of Xanthomonas kat gene regulation, highly conserved regions of monofuctional Kat amino acid sequences were used to synthesize oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers for use in PCR reactions with Xanthomonas genomic DNA as templates. The Xanthomonas-specific PCR kat probe was used to isolate a functional kat from Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. PMID:8955626

Loprasert, S; Vattanaviboon, P; Praituan, W; Chamnongpol, S; Mongkolsuk, S

1996-11-01

171

Isolation and analysis of the Xanthomonas alkyl hydroperoxide reductase gene and the peroxide sensor regulator genes ahpC and ahpF-oxyR-orfX.  

PubMed Central

From Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli, we have isolated by two independent methods genes involved in peroxide detoxification (ahpC and ahpF), a gene involved in peroxide sensing and transcription regulation (oxyR), and a gene of unknown function (orfX). Amino acid sequence analysis of AhpC, AhpF, and OxyR showed high identity with bacterial homologs. OrfX was a small cysteine-rich protein with no significant homology to known proteins. The genes ahpC, ahpF, oxyR, and orfX were arranged in a head-to-tail fashion. This unique arrangement was conserved in all of the Xanthomonas strains tested. The functionalities of both the ahpC and oxyR genes were demonstrated. In X. campestris pv. phaseoli, increased expression of ahpC alone conferred partial protection against growth retardation and killing by organic hydroperoxides but not by H2O2 or superoxide generators. These genes are likely to have important physiological roles in protection against peroxide toxicity in Xanthomonas. PMID:9190810

Loprasert, S; Atichartpongkun, S; Whangsuk, W; Mongkolsuk, S

1997-01-01

172

Isolation and analysis of the Xanthomonas alkyl hydroperoxide reductase gene and the peroxide sensor regulator genes ahpC and ahpF-oxyR-orfX.  

PubMed

From Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli, we have isolated by two independent methods genes involved in peroxide detoxification (ahpC and ahpF), a gene involved in peroxide sensing and transcription regulation (oxyR), and a gene of unknown function (orfX). Amino acid sequence analysis of AhpC, AhpF, and OxyR showed high identity with bacterial homologs. OrfX was a small cysteine-rich protein with no significant homology to known proteins. The genes ahpC, ahpF, oxyR, and orfX were arranged in a head-to-tail fashion. This unique arrangement was conserved in all of the Xanthomonas strains tested. The functionalities of both the ahpC and oxyR genes were demonstrated. In X. campestris pv. phaseoli, increased expression of ahpC alone conferred partial protection against growth retardation and killing by organic hydroperoxides but not by H2O2 or superoxide generators. These genes are likely to have important physiological roles in protection against peroxide toxicity in Xanthomonas. PMID:9190810

Loprasert, S; Atichartpongkun, S; Whangsuk, W; Mongkolsuk, S

1997-06-01

173

Host genotype and hypersensitive reaction influence population levels of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians in lettuce.  

PubMed

Dynamics population sizes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians inoculated onto or into lettuce leaves were monitored on susceptible and resistant cultivars. In general, population growth was greater for susceptible (Clemente, Salinas 88, Vista Verde) than resistant (Batavia Reine des Glaces, Iceberg, Little Gem) cultivars. When spray inoculated or infiltrated, population levels of X. campestris pv. vitians were consistently significantly lower on Little Gem than on susceptible cultivars, while differences in the other resistant cultivars were not consistently statistically significant. Populations increased at an intermediate rate on cultivars Iceberg and Batavia Reine des Glaces. There were significant positive correlations between bacterial concentration applied and disease severity for all cultivars but bacterial titer had a significantly greater influence on disease severity in the susceptible cultivars than in Little Gem and an intermediate influence in Iceberg and Batavia Reine des Glaces. Infiltration of X. campestris pv. vitians strains into leaves of Little Gem resulted in an incompatible reaction, whereas compatible reactions were observed in all other cultivars. It appears that the differences in the relationship between population dynamics for Little Gem and the other cultivars tested were due to the hypersensitive response (HR) in cultivar Little Gem. These findings have implications for disease management and lettuce breeding because X. campestris pv. vitians interacts differently with cultivars that differ for resistance mechanisms. PMID:25302523

Bull, Carolee T; Gebben, Samantha J; Goldman, Polly H; Trent, Mark T; Hayes, Ryan J

2014-10-10

174

Survival and Epiphytic Fitness of a Nonpathogenic Mutant of Xanthomonas campestris pv. Glycines  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines is the causal agent of bacterial pustule disease of soybeans. The objective of this work was to construct a nonpathogenic mutant derived from the pathogenic wild-type strain YR32 and to evaluate its effectiveness in preventing growth of its parent on the soybean phyllosphere. A mini-Tn5-derived transposon was used to generate nonpathogenic mutants. Southern hybridization and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed the presence of a single transposon in each of the nonpathogenic mutants. One of the nonpathogenic mutants, M715, failed to induce a hypersensitive response in tomato leaves. An ice nucleation gene (inaZ) carried in pJL1703 was introduced into strain YR32 as a reporter gene to demonstrate that the presence of M715 could reduce colonization of the soybean phyllosphere by YR32. de Wit serial replacement analysis showed that M715 competed equally with its wild-type parental strain, YR32. Epiphytic fitness analysis of YR32 in the greenhouse indicated that the population dynamics of strains YR32, YR32(pJL1703), and M715 were similar, although the density of the mutant was slightly less than that of its parent. The M715 mutant was able to survive for 16 days after inoculation on soybean leaves and maintained population densities of approximately 104 to 105 cells g (fresh weight) of leaf?1. Therefore, M715 shows promise as an effective biocontrol agent for bacterial pustule disease in soybeans. PMID:10698789

Rukayadi, Yaya; Suwanto, Antonius; Tjahjono, Budi; Harling, Rob

2000-01-01

175

Transaldolase exhibits a protective role against menadione toxicity in Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli.  

PubMed

A talA gene encoded transaldolase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the non-oxidative branch of the pentose-phosphate pathway, was cloned from Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. talA located in a region of the bacterial genome rich in genes involved in oxidative stress protection and regulation. TalA from X. campestris pv. phaseoli showed a high degree of homology to many previously reported transaldolases from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic sources. The expression of X. campestris pv. phaseoli talA was high at log-phase of growth, then declined at stationary phase, and could not be induced by oxidants. A talA mutant constructed by insertional inactivation did not possess any detectable transaldolase activity. Lack of a functional talA gene did not affect bacterial growth in a rich medium containing glucose or sucrose as a carbon source. However, the talA knockout mutant showed increased sensitivity to the superoxide generator menadione, but not to other oxidants. This increased menadione sensitivity phenotype could be complemented by expression of talA in a plasmid vector. The data demonstrated a novel and essential role of transaldolase in protection against menadione toxicity in X. campestris. PMID:12359249

Vatanaviboon, Paiboon; Varaluksit, Tanutra; Seeanukun, Chotirote; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

2002-10-01

176

Insertion sequence- and tandem repeat-based genotyping techniques for Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae.  

PubMed

Molecular fingerprinting techniques that have the potential to identify or subtype bacteria at the strain level are needed for improving diagnosis and understanding of the epidemiology of pathogens such as Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae, which causes mango bacterial canker disease. We developed a ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction targeting the IS1595 insertion sequence as a means to differentiate pv. mangiferaeindicae from the closely related pv. anacardii (responsible for cashew bacterial spot), which has the potential to infect mango but not to cause significant disease. This technique produced weakly polymorphic fingerprints composed of ?70 amplified fragments per strain for a worldwide collection of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae but produced no or very weak amplification for pv. anacardii strains. Together, 12 tandem repeat markers were able to subtype X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae at the strain level, distinguishing 231 haplotypes from a worldwide collection of 299 strains. Multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA), IS1595-ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction, and amplified fragment length polymorphism showed differences in discriminatory power and were congruent in describing the diversity of this strain collection, suggesting low levels of recombination. The potential of the MLVA scheme for molecular epidemiology studies of X. citri pv. mangiferaeindicae is discussed. PMID:21323466

Pruvost, O; Vernière, C; Vital, K; Guérin, F; Jouen, E; Chiroleu, F; Ah-You, N; Gagnevin, L

2011-07-01

177

Community Analysis of Biofilters Using Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Including a New Probe for the Xanthomonas Branch of the Class Proteobacteria  

PubMed Central

Domain-, class-, and subclass-specific rRNA-targeted probes were applied to investigate the microbial communities of three industrial and three laboratory-scale biofilters. The set of probes also included a new probe (named XAN818) specific for the Xanthomonas branch of the class Proteobacteria; this probe is described in this study. The members of the Xanthomonas branch do not hybridize with previously developed rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for the ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria. Bacteria of the Xanthomonas branch accounted for up to 4.5% of total direct counts obtained with 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. In biofilter samples, the relative abundance of these bacteria was similar to that of the ?-Proteobacteria. Actinobacteria (gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C DNA content) and ?-Proteobacteria were the most dominant groups. Detection rates obtained with probe EUB338 varied between about 40 and 70%. For samples with high contents of gram-positive bacteria, these percentages were substantially improved when the calculations were corrected for the reduced permeability of gram-positive bacteria when formaldehyde was used as a fixative. The set of applied bacterial class- and subclass-specific probes yielded, on average, 58.5% (± a standard deviation of 23.0%) of the corrected eubacterial detection rates, thus indicating the necessity of additional probes for studies of biofilter communities. The Xanthomonas-specific probe presented here may serve as an efficient tool for identifying potential phytopathogens. In situ hybridization proved to be a practical tool for microbiological studies of biofiltration systems. PMID:10427047

Friedrich, Udo; Naismith, Michèle M.; Altendorf, Karlheinz; Lipski, André

1999-01-01

178

Hypersensitive response and acyl?homoserine lactone production of the fire blight antagonists Erwinia tasmaniensis and Erwinia billingiae  

PubMed Central

Summary Fire blight caused by the Gram?negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora can be controlled by antagonistic microorganisms. We characterized epiphytic bacteria isolated from healthy apple and pear trees in Australia, named Erwinia tasmaniensis, and the epiphytic bacterium Erwinia billingiae from England for physiological properties, interaction with plants and interference with growth of E. amylovora. They reduced symptom formation by the fire blight pathogen on immature pears and the colonization of apple flowers. In contrast to E. billingiae, E. tasmaniensis strains induced a hypersensitive response in tobacco leaves and synthesized levan in the presence of sucrose. With consensus primers deduced from lsc as well as hrpL, hrcC and hrcR of the hrp region of E. amylovora and of related bacteria, these genes were successfully amplified from E. tasmaniensis DNA and alignment of the encoded proteins to other Erwinia species supported a role for environmental fitness of the epiphytic bacterium. Unlike E. tasmaniensis, the epiphytic bacterium E. billingiae produced an acyl?homoserine lactone for bacterial cell?to?cell communication. Their competition with the growth of E. amylovora may be involved in controlling fire blight. PMID:21261861

Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Jock, Susanne; Du, Zhiqiang; Geider, Klaus

2008-01-01

179

Copper chloride induces antioxidant gene expression but reduces ability to mediate H2O2 toxicity in Xanthomonas campestris.  

PubMed

Copper (Cu)-based biocides are currently used as control measures for both fungal and bacterial diseases in agricultural fields. In this communication, we show that exposure of the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris to nonlethal concentrations of Cu(2+) ions (75 µM) enhanced expression of genes in OxyR, OhrR and IscR regulons. High levels of catalase, Ohr peroxidase and superoxide dismutase diminished Cu(2+)-induced gene expression, suggesting that the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic hydroperoxides is responsible for Cu(2+)-induced gene expression. Despite high expression of antioxidant genes, the CuCl2-treated cells were more susceptible to H2O2 killing treatment than the uninduced cells. This phenotype arose from lowered catalase activity in the CuCl2-pretreated cells. Thus, exposure to a nonlethal dose of Cu(2+) renders X. campestris vulnerable to H2O2, even when various genes for peroxide-metabolizing enzymes are highly expressed. Moreover, CuCl2-pretreated cells are sensitive to treatment with the redox cycling drug, menadione. No physiological cross-protection response was observed in CuCl2-treated cells in a subsequent challenge with killing concentrations of an organic hydroperoxide. As H2O2 production is an important initial plant immune response, defects in H2O2 protection are likely to reduce bacterial survival in plant hosts and enhance the usefulness of copper biocides in controlling bacterial pathogens. PMID:24385479

Sornchuer, Phornphan; Namchaiw, Poommaree; Kerdwong, Jarunee; Charoenlap, Nisanart; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon

2014-02-01

180

Transgenic potatoes expressing a novel cationic peptide are resistant to late blight and pink rot.  

PubMed

Potato is the world's largest non-cereal crop. Potato late blight is a pandemic, foliar wasting potato disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, which has become highly virulent, fungicide resistant, and widely disseminated. Similarly, fungicide resistant isolates of Phytophthora erythroseptica, which causes pink rot, have also become an economic scourge of potato tubers. Thus, an alternate, cost effective strategy for disease control has become an international imperative. Here we describe a strategy for engineering potato plants exhibiting strong protection against these exceptionally virulent pathogens without deleterious effects on plant yield or vigor. The small, naturally occurring antimicrobial cationic peptide, temporin A, was N-terminally modified (MsrA3) and expressed in potato plants. MsrA3 conveyed strong resistance to late blight and pink rot phytopathogens in addition to the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora. Transgenic tubers remained disease-free during storage for more than 2 years. These results provide a timely, sustainable, effective, and environmentally friendly means of control of potato diseases while simultaneously preventing storage losses. PMID:15198205

Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Hancock, Robert E; Kay, William W; Misra, Santosh

2004-04-01

181

Xanthan gum production by altered pathogenicity variants of Xanthomonas campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several morphologically different isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris were obtained by treatment with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. These variants were used to infect Brassica plants where several degrees of virulence were found. The strains were cultured in order to produce polysaccharide, which was recovered by precipitation and subjected to physical and chemical characterization. A relationship was noted between virulence and parameters such

Maria Eugenia Ramírez; Leopoldo Fucikovsky; Federico García-Jiménez; Rodolfo Quintero; Enrique Galindo

1988-01-01

182

Mapping of quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in the apple cultivars 'Florina' and 'Nova Easygro'.  

PubMed

Fire blight is a devastating bacterial disease of rosaceous plants. Its damage to apple production is a major concern, since no existing control option has proven to be completely effective. Some commercial apple varieties, such as 'Florina' and 'Nova Easygro', exhibit a consistent level of resistance to fire blight. In this study, we used an F1 progeny of 'Florina' × 'Nova Easygro' to build parental genetic maps and identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to fire blight resistance. Linkage maps were constructed using a set of microsatellites and enriched with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. In parallel, progeny plants were artificially inoculated with Erwinia amylovora strain CFBP 1430 in a quarantine glasshouse. Shoot length measured 7 days after inoculation (DAI) and lesion length measured 7 and 14 DAI were used to calculate the lesion length as a percentage of the shoot length (PLL1 and PLL2, respectively). Percent lesion length data were log10-transformed (log10(PLL)) and used to perform the Kruskal-Wallis test, interval mapping (IM), and multiple QTL mapping (MQM). Two significant fire blight resistance QTLs were detected in 'Florina'. One QTL was mapped on linkage group 10 by IM and MQM; it explained 17.9% and 15.3% of the phenotypic variation by MQM with log10(PLL1) and log10(PLL2) data, respectively. A second QTL was identified on linkage group 5 by MQM with log10(PLL2) data; it explained 10.1% of the phenotypic variation. Genotyping the plants of 'Florina' pedigree with the microsatellites flanking the QTLs showed that the QTLs on linkage groups 5 and 10 were inherited from 'Jonathan' and 'Starking' (a 'Red Delicious' sport mutation), respectively. Other putative QTLs (defined as QTLs with LOD scores above the chromosomal threshold and below the genome-wide threshold) were detected by IM on linkage groups 5 and 9 of 'Nova Easygro'. PMID:20924420

Le Roux, P-M F; Khan, M A; Broggini, G A L; Duffy, B; Gessler, C; Patocchi, A

2010-09-01

183

Amplification of DNA of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri from historic citrus canker herbarium specimens.  

PubMed

Herbaria are important resources for the study of the origins and dispersal of plant pathogens, particularly bacterial plant pathogens that incite local lesions in which large numbers of pathogen genomes are concentrated. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker disease, is a notable example of such a pathogen. The appearance of novel strains of the pathogen in Florida and elsewhere make it increasingly important to understand the relationships among strains of this pathogen. USDA-ARS at Beltsville, Maryland maintains approximately 700 herbarium specimens with citrus canker disease lesions up to 90 years old, originally collected from all over the world, and so is an important resource for phytogeographic studies of this bacterium. Unfortunately, DNA in herbarium specimens is degraded and may contain high levels of inhibitors of PCR. In this study, we compared a total of 23 DNA isolation techniques in combination with 31 novel primer pairs in order to develop an efficient protocol for the analysis of Xac DNA in herbarium specimens. We identified the most reliable extraction method, identified in terms of successful amplification by our panel of 31 primer pairs. We also identified the most robust primer pairs, identified as successful in the largest number of extracts prepared by different methods. We amplified Xac genomic sequences up to 542 bp long from herbarium samples up to 89 years old. Primers varied in effectiveness, with some primer pairs amplifying Xac DNA from a 1/10,000 dilution of extract from a single lesion from a citrus canker herbarium specimen. Our methodology will be useful to identify pathogens and perform molecular analyses of bacterial and possibly fungal genomes from herbarium specimens. PMID:16099061

Li, Wenbin; Brlansky, Ronald H; Hartung, John S

2006-05-01

184

A LOV Protein Modulates the Physiological Attributes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Relevant for Host Plant Colonization  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that an appropriate light environment is required for the establishment of efficient vegetal resistance responses in several plant-pathogen interactions. The photoreceptors implicated in such responses are mainly those belonging to the phytochrome family. Data obtained from bacterial genome sequences revealed the presence of photosensory proteins of the BLUF (Blue Light sensing Using FAD), LOV (Light, Oxygen, Voltage) and phytochrome families with no known functions. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for citrus canker. The in silico analysis of the X. axonopodis pv. citri genome sequence revealed the presence of a gene encoding a putative LOV photoreceptor, in addition to two genes encoding BLUF proteins. This suggests that blue light sensing could play a role in X. axonopodis pv. citri physiology. We obtained the recombinant Xac-LOV protein by expression in Escherichia coli and performed a spectroscopic analysis of the purified protein, which demonstrated that it has a canonical LOV photochemistry. We also constructed a mutant strain of X. axonopodis pv. citri lacking the LOV protein and found that the loss of this protein altered bacterial motility, exopolysaccharide production and biofilm formation. Moreover, we observed that the adhesion of the mutant strain to abiotic and biotic surfaces was significantly diminished compared to the wild-type. Finally, inoculation of orange (Citrus sinensis) leaves with the mutant strain of X. axonopodis pv. citri resulted in marked differences in the development of symptoms in plant tissues relative to the wild-type, suggesting a role for the Xac-LOV protein in the pathogenic process. Altogether, these results suggest the novel involvement of a photosensory system in the regulation of physiological attributes of a phytopathogenic bacterium. A functional blue light receptor in Xanthomonas spp. has been described for the first time, showing an important role in virulence during citrus canker disease. PMID:22675525

Kraiselburd, Ivana; Alet, Analía I.; Tondo, María Laura; Petrocelli, Silvana; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Monzón, Jesica; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Losi, Aba; Orellano, Elena G.

2012-01-01

185

A Highly-Conserved Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Protein in Xanthomonas Functions as a Harpin-Like Protein to Trigger Plant Immunity  

PubMed Central

Harpins are produced by Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria and typically elicit hypersensitive response (HR) in non-host plants. The characterization of harpins in Xanthomonas species is largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that Xanthomonas produce a highly conserved single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSBX) that elicits HR in tobacco as by harpin Hpa1. SSBX, like Hpa1, is an acidic, glycine-rich, heat-stable protein that lacks cysteine residues. SSBX-triggered HR in tobacco, as by Hpa1, is characterized by the oxidative burst, the expression of HR markers (HIN1, HSR203J), pathogenesis-related genes, and callose deposition. Both SSBX- and Hpa1-induced HRs can be inhibited by general metabolism inhibitors actinomycin D, cycloheximide, and lanthanum chloride. Furthermore, those HRs activate the expression of BAK1 and BIK1 genes that are essential for induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and salicylic acid pathways. Once applied to plants, SSBX induces resistance to the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata and enhances plant growth. When ssbX was deleted in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak in rice, the resulting ssbXoc mutant was reduced in virulence and bacterial growth in planta, but retained its ability to trigger HR in tobacco. Interestingly, ssbXoc contains an imperfect PIP-box (plant-inducible promoter) and the expression of ssbXoc is regulated by HrpX, which belongs to the AraC family of transcriptional activators. Immunoblotting evidence showed that SSBx secretion requires a functional type-III secretion system as Hpa1 does. This is the first report demonstrating that Xanthomonas produce a highly-conserved SSBX that functions as a harpin-like protein for plant immunity. PMID:23418541

Che, Yi-Zhou; Zou, Li-Fang; Zakria, Muhammad; Zou, Hua-Song; Chen, Gong-You

2013-01-01

186

A Novel Periplasmic Protein, VrpA, Contributes to Efficient Protein Secretion by the Type III Secretion System in Xanthomonas spp.  

PubMed

Efficient secretion of type III effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to host cell cytosol via a type III secretion system (T3SS) is crucial for virulence of plant-pathogenic bacterium. Our previous study revealed a conserved hypothetical protein, virulence-related periplasm protein A (VrpA), which was identified as a critical virulence factor for Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. In this study, we demonstrate that mutation of vrpA compromises X. citri subsp. citri virulence and hypersensitive response induction. This deficiency is also observed in the X. campestris pv. campestris strain, suggesting a functional conservation of VrpA in Xanthomonas spp. Our study indicates that VrpA is required for efficient protein secretion via T3SS, which is supported by multiple lines of evidence. A CyaA reporter assay shows that VrpA is involved in type III effector secretion; quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis suggests that the vrpA mutant fails to activate citrus-canker-susceptible gene CsLOB1, which is transcriptionally activated by transcription activator-like effector PthA4; in vitro secretion study reveals that VrpA plays an important role in secretion of T3SS pilus, translocon, and effector proteins. Our data also indicate that VrpA in X. citri subsp. citri localizes to bacterial periplasmic space and the periplasmic localization is required for full function of VrpA and X. citri subsp. citri virulence. Protein-protein interaction studies show that VrpA physically interacts with periplasmic T3SS components HrcJ and HrcC. However, the mutation of VrpA does not affect T3SS gene expression. Additionally, VrpA is involved in X. citri subsp. citri tolerance of oxidative stress. Our data contribute to the mechanical understanding of an important periplasmic protein VrpA in Xanthomonas spp. PMID:25338144

Zhou, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xiufang; Li, Jinyun; Wang, Nian

2015-02-01

187

Identification of Genes in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Induced during Its Interaction with Tomato?  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria is the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of tomato and pepper. The disease process is interactive and very intricate and involves a plethora of genes in the pathogen and in the host. In the pathogen, different genes are activated in response to the changing environment to enable it to survive, adapt, evade host defenses, propagate, and damage the host. To understand the disease process, it is imperative to broaden our understanding of the gene machinery that participates in it, and the most reliable way is to identify these genes in vivo. Here, we have adapted a recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (RIVET) to study the genes activated in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria during its interaction with one of its hosts, tomato. This is the first study that demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for identifying in vivo induced genes in a plant pathogen. RIVET revealed 61 unique X. campestris pv. vesicatoria genes or operons that delineate a picture of the different processes involved in the pathogen-host interaction. To further explore the role of some of these genes, we generated knockout mutants for 13 genes and characterized their ability to grow in planta and to cause disease symptoms. This analysis revealed several genes that may be important for the interaction of the pathogen with its host, including a citH homologue gene, encoding a citrate transporter, which was shown to be required for wild-type levels of virulence. PMID:17573477

Tamir-Ariel, Dafna; Navon, Naama; Burdman, Saul

2007-01-01

188

Molecular and Functional Characterization of a Unique Sucrose Hydrolase from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines  

PubMed Central

A novel sucrose hydrolase (SUH) from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, a causative agent of bacterial pustule disease on soybeans, was studied at the functional and molecular levels. SUH was shown to act rather specifically on sucrose (Km = 2.5 mM) but not on sucrose-6-phosphate. Protein analysis of purified SUH revealed that, in this monomeric enzyme with an estimated molecular mass of 70,223 ± 12 Da, amino acid sequences determined for several segments have corresponding nucleotide sequences in XAC3490, a protein-coding gene found in the genome of X. axonopodis pv. citri. Based on this information, the SUH gene, consisting of an open reading frame of 1,935 bp, was cloned by screening a genomic library of X. axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra. Database searches and sequence comparison revealed that SUH has significant homology to some family 13 enzymes, with all of the crucial invariant residues involved in the catalytic mechanism conserved, but it shows no similarity to known invertases belonging to family 32. suh expression in X. axonopodis pv. glycines requires sucrose induction, and insertional mutagenesis resulted in an absence of sucrose-inducible sucrose hydrolase activity in crude protein extracts and a sucrose-negative phenotype. Recombinant SUH, overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified, was shown to have the same enzymatic characteristics in terms of kinetic parameters. PMID:14702310

Kim, Hong-Suk; Park, Hyoung-Joon; Heu, Sunggi; Jung, Jin

2004-01-01

189

Isolation and partial characterization of antibacterial lipopeptide produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa HKA-15 against phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli M-5.  

PubMed

An antibacterial metabolite was isolated from Paenibacillus polymyxa HKA-15, a soybean bacterial endophyte. The purification of the crude metabolite from Paenibacillus polymyxa HKA-15 was done by column chromatography. In TLC, a spot with an R ( f ) value of 0.86 (±0.02) from the purified fraction showed bioactivity against Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli M-5. In SDS-PAGE, the purified antibiotic was separated in the molecular weight range of 3.5 kDa. The exact molecular weight of the active compound was identified as 1,347.7 Da using MS-MS analysis. Infra red spectrum and (1)H NMR analysis showed the presence of amino acids and fatty acids in the active compound. The characterization of the antibacterial compound revealed its lipopeptide nature. In an agar diffusion assay, the crude metabolite showed a broad spectrum of activity, being able to inhibit the growth of the fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia bataticola, Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium udum. A stronger inhibition was observed against bacterial pathogens viz., X. campestris pv.phaseoli M-5, X. campestris pv. phaseoli CP-1-1, Xanthomonas oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum and Micrococcus luteus. PMID:22805811

Mageshwaran, Vellaichamy; Walia, Suresh; Annapurna, Kannepalli

2012-03-01

190

Cougarblight EZ, a substantial update of the Cougarblight fire blight infection risk model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of practical, but reasonably accurate fire blight infection risk models is considered a critical factor in the management of fire blight. Cougarblight, an empirically designed fire blight infection risk assessment model, was originally developed prior to significant recent advances ...

191

The American Chestnut Blight: An Agent of Biological and Cultural Catastrophe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history and habits of the fungus commonly referred to as the "chestnut blight." Considers the impact of the blight and efforts to control it, offers personal and cultural reflections on the blight, and gives tips for incorporating the information into cross-disciplinary lessons. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

Lunsford, Eddie

1999-01-01

192

Mini-Tn7 vectors as genetic tools for gene cloning at a single copy number in an industrially important and phytopathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas spp  

PubMed Central

Transposon mini-Tn7 vectors insert into the chromosome of several Gram-negative bacteria in a site-specific manner. Here, we demonstrated the application of mini-Tn7 as single copy site-specific integration vector system for Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. The transposition of the mini-Tn7 into the bacterial genome was detected at a Tn7 attachment (attTn7) site located downstream of glmS1. Furthermore, using a newly constructed vector pBBR1FLP2 containing the FLP recombinase for site-specific excision of the sequence between the FLP recognition target (FRT) sites, and a sacB counter selection marker, an unmarked mini-Tn7 insertion mutant was created. Mini-Tn7 insertion did not affect bacterial virulence on the tested plant. The mini-Tn7 and FLP-FRT systems also work well in X. oryzae pv. oryzae. PMID:19659730

Jittawuttipoka, Thichakorn; Buranajitpakorn, Sarinya; Fuangthong, Mayuree; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

2009-01-01

193

Pathogenomics of Xanthomonas: understanding bacterium-plant interactions.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas is a large genus of Gram-negative bacteria that cause disease in hundreds of plant hosts, including many economically important crops. Pathogenic species and pathovars within species show a high degree of host plant specificity and many exhibit tissue specificity, invading either the vascular system or the mesophyll tissue of the host. In this Review, we discuss the insights that functional and comparative genomic studies are providing into the adaptation of this group of bacteria to exploit the extraordinary diversity of plant hosts and different host tissues. PMID:21478901

Ryan, Robert P; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Potnis, Neha; Jones, Jeffrey B; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Bogdanove, Adam J; Dow, J Maxwell

2011-05-01

194

A «Repertoire for Repertoire» Hypothesis: Repertoires of Type Three Effectors are Candidate Determinants of Host Specificity in Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic basis of host specificity for animal and plant pathogenic bacteria remains poorly understood. For plant pathogenic bacteria, host range is restricted to one or a few host plant species reflecting a tight adaptation to specific hosts. Methodology/Principal Findings Two hypotheses can be formulated to explain host specificity: either it can be explained by the phylogenetic position of the strains, or by the association of virulence genes enabling a pathological convergence of phylogenically distant strains. In this latter hypothesis, host specificity would result from the interaction between repertoires of bacterial virulence genes and repertoires of genes involved in host defences. To challenge these two hypotheses, we selected 132 Xanthomonas axonopodis strains representative of 18 different pathovars which display different host range. First, the phylogenetic position of each strain was determined by sequencing the housekeeping gene rpoD. This study showed that many pathovars of Xanthomonas axonopodis are polyphyletic. Second, we investigated the distribution of 35 type III effector genes (T3Es) in these strains by both PCR and hybridization methods. Indeed, for pathogenic bacteria T3Es were shown to trigger and to subvert host defences. Our study revealed that T3E repertoires comprise core and variable gene suites that likely have distinct roles in pathogenicity and different evolutionary histories. Our results showed a correspondence between composition of T3E repertoires and pathovars of Xanthomonas axonopodis. For polyphyletic pathovars, this suggests that T3E genes might explain a pathological convergence of phylogenetically distant strains. We also identified several DNA rearrangements within T3E genes, some of which correlate with host specificity of strains. Conclusions/Significance These data provide insight into the potential role played by T3E genes for pathogenic bacteria and support a “repertoire for repertoire” hypothesis that may explain host specificity. Our work provides resources for functional and evolutionary studies aiming at understanding host specificity of pathogenic bacteria, functional redundancy between T3Es and the driving forces shaping T3E repertoires. PMID:19680562

Hajri, Ahmed; Brin, Chrystelle; Hunault, Gilles; Lardeux, Frédéric; Lemaire, Christophe; Manceau, Charles

2009-01-01

195

Structural and Physiological Analyses of the Alkanesulphonate-Binding Protein (SsuA) of the Citrus Pathogen Xanthomonas citri  

PubMed Central

Background The uptake of sulphur-containing compounds plays a pivotal role in the physiology of bacteria that live in aerobic soils where organosulfur compounds such as sulphonates and sulphate esters represent more than 95% of the available sulphur. Until now, no information has been available on the uptake of sulphonates by bacterial plant pathogens, particularly those of the Xanthomonas genus, which encompasses several pathogenic species. In the present study, we characterised the alkanesulphonate uptake system (Ssu) of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri 306 strain (X. citri), the etiological agent of citrus canker. Methodology/Principal Findings A single operon-like gene cluster (ssuEDACB) that encodes both the sulphur uptake system and enzymes involved in desulphurisation was detected in the genomes of X. citri and of the closely related species. We characterised X. citri SsuA protein, a periplasmic alkanesulphonate-binding protein that, together with SsuC and SsuB, defines the alkanesulphonate uptake system. The crystal structure of SsuA bound to MOPS, MES and HEPES, which is herein described for the first time, provides evidence for the importance of a conserved dipole in sulphate group coordination, identifies specific amino acids interacting with the sulphate group and shows the presence of a rather large binding pocket that explains the rather wide range of molecules recognised by the protein. Isolation of an isogenic ssuA-knockout derivative of the X. citri 306 strain showed that disruption of alkanesulphonate uptake affects both xanthan gum production and generation of canker lesions in sweet orange leaves. Conclusions/Significance The present study unravels unique structural and functional features of the X. citri SsuA protein and provides the first experimental evidence that an ABC uptake system affects the virulence of this phytopathogen. PMID:24282519

Tófoli de Araújo, Fabiano; Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M.; Pereira, Cristiane T.; Sanches, Mario; Oshiro, Elisa E.; Ferreira, Rita C. C.; Chigardze, Dimitri Y.; Barbosa, João Alexandre Gonçalves; de Souza Ferreira, Luís Carlos; Benedetti, Celso E.; Blundell, Tom L.; Balan, Andrea

2013-01-01

196

A MLVA genotyping scheme for global surveillance of the citrus pathogen Xanthomonas citri pv. citri suggests a worldwide geographical expansion of a single genetic lineage.  

PubMed

MultiLocus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) has been extensively used to examine epidemiological and evolutionary issues on monomorphic human pathogenic bacteria, but not on bacterial plant pathogens of agricultural importance albeit such tools would improve our understanding of their epidemiology, as well as of the history of epidemics on a global scale. Xanthomonas citri pv. citri is a quarantine organism in several countries and a major threat for the citrus industry worldwide. We screened the genomes of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri strain IAPAR 306 and of phylogenetically related xanthomonads for tandem repeats. From these in silico data, an optimized MLVA scheme was developed to assess the global diversity of this monomorphic bacterium. Thirty-one minisatellite loci (MLVA-31) were selected to assess the genetic structure of 129 strains representative of the worldwide pathological and genetic diversity of X. citri pv. citri. Based on Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC), four pathotype-specific clusters were defined. DAPC cluster 1 comprised strains that were implicated in the major geographical expansion of X. citri pv. citri during the 20th century. A subset of 12 loci (MLVA-12) resolved 89% of the total diversity and matched the genetic structure revealed by MLVA-31. MLVA-12 is proposed for routine epidemiological identification of X. citri pv. citri, whereas MLVA-31 is proposed for phylogenetic and population genetics studies. MLVA-31 represents an opportunity for international X. citri pv. citri genotyping and data sharing. The MLVA-31 data generated in this study was deposited in the Xanthomonas citri genotyping database (http://www.biopred.net/MLVA/). PMID:24897119

Pruvost, Olivier; Magne, Maxime; Boyer, Karine; Leduc, Alice; Tourterel, Christophe; Drevet, Christine; Ravigné, Virginie; Gagnevin, Lionel; Guérin, Fabien; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Koebnik, Ralf; Verdier, Valérie; Vernière, Christian

2014-01-01

197

A MLVA Genotyping Scheme for Global Surveillance of the Citrus Pathogen Xanthomonas citri pv. citri Suggests a Worldwide Geographical Expansion of a Single Genetic Lineage  

PubMed Central

MultiLocus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) has been extensively used to examine epidemiological and evolutionary issues on monomorphic human pathogenic bacteria, but not on bacterial plant pathogens of agricultural importance albeit such tools would improve our understanding of their epidemiology, as well as of the history of epidemics on a global scale. Xanthomonas citri pv. citri is a quarantine organism in several countries and a major threat for the citrus industry worldwide. We screened the genomes of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri strain IAPAR 306 and of phylogenetically related xanthomonads for tandem repeats. From these in silico data, an optimized MLVA scheme was developed to assess the global diversity of this monomorphic bacterium. Thirty-one minisatellite loci (MLVA-31) were selected to assess the genetic structure of 129 strains representative of the worldwide pathological and genetic diversity of X. citri pv. citri. Based on Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC), four pathotype-specific clusters were defined. DAPC cluster 1 comprised strains that were implicated in the major geographical expansion of X. citri pv. citri during the 20th century. A subset of 12 loci (MLVA-12) resolved 89% of the total diversity and matched the genetic structure revealed by MLVA-31. MLVA-12 is proposed for routine epidemiological identification of X. citri pv. citri, whereas MLVA-31 is proposed for phylogenetic and population genetics studies. MLVA-31 represents an opportunity for international X. citri pv. citri genotyping and data sharing. The MLVA-31 data generated in this study was deposited in the Xanthomonas citri genotyping database (http://www.biopred.net/MLVA/). PMID:24897119

Boyer, Karine; Leduc, Alice; Tourterel, Christophe; Drevet, Christine; Ravigné, Virginie; Gagnevin, Lionel; Guérin, Fabien; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Koebnik, Ralf; Verdier, Valérie; Vernière, Christian

2014-01-01

198

40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato. [74 FR 26536, June 3,...

2011-07-01

199

40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato. [74 FR 26536, June 3,...

2013-07-01

200

40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato. [74 FR 26536, June 3,...

2012-07-01

201

XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. CITRI: FACTORS AFFECTING SUCCESSFUL ERADICATION OF CITRUS CANKER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Taxonomic status: Bacteria, Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision, Xanthomodales, Xanthomonas group, axonopodis DNA homology group, X. axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al. Microbiological properties: Gram negative, slender, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile by a single polar flagellum, produces slo...

202

Expression of the Bs2 Pepper Gene Confers Resistance to Bacterial Spot Disease in Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bs2 resistance gene of pepper specifically recognizes and confers resistance to strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria that contain the corresponding bacterial avirulence gene, avrBs2. The involvement of avrBs2 in pathogen fitness and its prevalence in many X. campestris pathovars suggests that the Bs2 gene may be durable in the field and provide resistance when introduced into other plant

Thomas H. Tai; Douglas Dahlbeck; Eszter T. Clark; Paresh Gajiwala; Romela Pasion; Maureen C. Whalen; Robert E. Stall; Brian J. Staskawicz

1999-01-01

203

A ROLE FOR ASCOSPORES IN WHEAT HEAD BLIGHT EPIDEMICS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Ascomycete Gibberella zeae (asexual state Fusarium graminearum) causes serious epidemics of wheat head blight worldwide and contaminates grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that are harmful to human and animal health. Anecdotal evidence dating back to the 19th century indicates that G. zeae asc...

204

'Sunrise': A new early maturing fire blight resistant pear cultivar  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Sunrise' is a new pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. It combines a high degree of resistance to fire blight with excellent fruit quality. The sources of resistance in the pedigree are the old American cultivar, 'Seckel'...

205

Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Phytophthora Blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora blight and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). The disease mainly occurs in low lying areas of the fields where water logged conditions may be present. In recent years, the practice of grafting seed...

206

Managing Apple Summer Diseases Ugly Stubs & Fire Blight  

E-print Network

1 Managing Apple Summer Diseases Ugly Stubs & Fire Blight Lorsban Strawberry Renovation Shoot Conditions: Warm conditions have been favorable for fruit growth of apples, peaches, grapes and berries. Tree. The crop is a bit light in some plantings, but the estimate is for a normal crop this year statewide (about

Ginzel, Matthew

207

Flower biology and biologically-based integrated fire blight management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight infection is generally initiated in flowers, and thus, research has been directed to the biology and microbial ecology of flowers as related to this disease. In addition to investigations involving apple and pear flowers, Manchurian crab apple (Malus manchurica), closely related to appl...

208

Late Blight Resistance of RB Transgenic Potato Lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Late blight of potato, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease effecting tuber yield and storage. Recent work has isolated a resistance gene, RB, from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanum. Field evaluations with a RB containing somatic hybrid have reported significant levels of ...

209

TEMPORAL RESPONSE OF APPLE (MALUS) TO FIRE BLIGHT DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear, and other plants in the subfamily Maloideae of the Rosaceae. The goal of this study was to use a global analysis of gene expression to characterize the temporal response of apple to infection by E. amyl...

210

Resistance to ascochyta blights of cool season food legumes.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascochyta blight is the most important disease problem of the cool season food legumes (peas, lentils, chickpeas, and faba beans) and is found in nearly all production regions around the world. Despite of the same common disease name, the pathogen species differ for each of the crops. These disease...

211

MANAGEMENT OF SCLEROTINIA BLIGHT AND VERTICILLIUM WILT IN PEANUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some of the objectives of this research are to study the biology of economically important peanut pathogens including Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV), and to determine the role of disease resistance in managing soil-borne peanut pathogens, particularly Sclerotinia blight, Verticillium wilt, and Sou...

212

Quince (Cydonia oblonga) emerges from the ashes of fire blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The two-decade history of fire blight in Bulgaria revealed quince as one of the most frequently attacked hosts and its production on a large scale has almost been entirely eliminated. Nevertheless, this species will play an important epidemiological role as a permanent source of inoculum for other p...

213

Field Susceptibility of Quince Hybrids to Fire Blight in Bulgaria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spread of fire blight in Bulgaria during the last 20 years has nearly eliminated commercial production of pear and quince. Damage has increased in both nurseries and orchards, yet susceptible cultivars continue to be planted. Quince is the host most frequently attacked by Erwinia amylovora in Bulgar...

214

Sheath-blight resistance QTLs and in japonica rice germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheath blight (SB), caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and genetic resistance is in demand by rice breeders. With the goal of resistance-QTL discovery in U. S. japonica breeding material, a set of 197 F1 doubled-haploid lines (DHLs)...

215

Nanotechnology in Plant Disease Management: DNA-Directed Silver Nanoparticles on Graphene Oxide as an Antibacterial Against Xanthomonas Perforans  

PubMed Central

Bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas perforans is a major disease of tomatoes, leading to reduction in production by 10–50%. While copper (Cu)-based bactericides have been used for disease management, most of the X. perforans strains isolated from tomatoes in Florida and other locations worldwide are Cu-resistant. We have developed DNA-directed silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) grown on graphene oxide (GO). These Ag@dsDNA@GO composites effectively decrease X. perforans cell viability in culture and on plants. At the very low concentration of 16 ppm of Ag@dsDNA@GO, composites show excellent antibacterial capability in culture with significant advantages in improved stability, enhanced antibacterial activity and stronger adsorption properties. Application of Ag@dsDNA@GO at 100 ppm on tomato transplants in a greenhouse experiment significantly reduced the severity of bacterial spot disease compared to untreated plants, giving results similar to those of the current grower standard treatment, with no phytotoxicity. PMID:24016217

Ocsoy, Ismail; Paret, Mathews L.; Ocsoy, Muserref Arslan; Kunwar, Sanju; Chen, Tao; You, Mingxu; Tan, Weihong

2013-01-01

216

Sugarcane glycoproteins may act as signals for the production of xanthan in the plant-associated bacterium Xanthomonas albilineans  

PubMed Central

Visual symptoms of leaf scald necrosis in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) leaves develop in parallel to the accumulation of a fibrous material invading exocellular spaces and both xylem and phloem. These fibers are produced and secreted by the plant-associated bacterium Xanthomonas albilineans. Electron microscopy and specific staining methods for polysaccharides reveal the polysaccharidic nature of this material. These polysaccharides are not present in healthy leaves or in those from diseased plants without visual symptoms of leaf scald. Bacteria in several leaf tissues have been detected by immunogold labeling. The bacterial polysaccharide is not produced in axenic culture but it is actively synthesized when the microbes invade the host plant. This finding may be due to the production of plant glycoproteins, after bacteria infection which inhibit microbial proteases. In summary, our data are consistent with the existence of a positive feedback loop in which plant-produced glycoproteins act as a cell-to-bacteria signal that promotes xanthan production, by protecting some enzymes of xanthan biosynthesis against from bacterial proteolytic degradation. PMID:21791980

Legaz, María-Estrella; Blanch, María; Piñón, Dolores; Santiago, Rocío; Fontaniella, Blanca; Blanco, Yolanda; Solas, María-Teresa

2011-01-01

217

Identification and characterization of a novel gene, hshB, in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola co-regulated by quorum sensing and clp.  

PubMed

Virulence factors of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak in rice, are regulated by a diffusible signal factor (DSF)-dependent quorum-sensing (QS) system. In this study, a novel pathogenicity-related gene, Xoryp_010100018570 (named hshB), of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola was characterized. hshB encodes a hydrolase with a putative signal peptide, which is a homolog of imidazolonepropionase. Bioinformatic analysis showed that hshB is relatively conserved in the genus Xanthomonas but the homologous gene of hshB was not found in X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that hshB and its upstream gene, Xoryp_010100018565 (named hshA), are co-transcribed in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Subsequent experimental results indicated that mutation of hshB remarkably impaired the virulence, extracellular protease activity, extracellular polysaccharide production, growth in minimal medium, and resistance to oxidative stress and bismerthiazol of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Mutation of clp, encoding a global regulator, resulted in similar phenotypes. Real-time PCR assays showed that hshB transcription is positively regulated by clp and DSF, and induced by poor nutrition. Our study not only found a novel gene hshB regulated by DSF-dependent QS system and clp but also showed that hshB was required for virulence of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. PMID:22106829

Zhao, Yancun; Qian, Guoliang; Fan, Jiaqin; Yin, Fangqun; Zhou, Yijin; Liu, Chunhui; Shen, Qin; Hu, Baishi; Liu, Fengquan

2012-03-01

218

Cloning and characterization of katA, encoding the major monofunctional catalase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and characterization of the encoded catalase KatA.  

PubMed

The first cloning and characterization of the gene katA, encoding the major catalase (KatA), from Xanthomonas is reported. A reverse genetic approach using a synthesized katA-specific DNA probe to screen a X. campestris pv. phaseoli genomic library was employed. A positively hybridizing clone designated pKat29 that contained a full-length katA was isolated. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed an open reading frame of 1,521 bp encoding a 507-amino acid protein with a theoretical molecular mass of 56 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of KatA revealed 84% and 78% identity to CatF of Pseudomonas syringae and KatB of P. aeruginosa, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis places Xanthomonas katA in the clade I group of bacterial catalases. Unexpectedly, expression of katA in a heterologous Escherichia coli host resulted in a temperature-sensitive expression. The KatA enzyme was purified from an overproducing mutant of X. campestris and was characterized. It has apparent K(m) and V(max) values of 75 m M [H(2)O(2)] and 2.55 x 10(5) micromol H(2)O(2) micromol heme(-1) s(-1), respectively. The enzyme is highly sensitive to 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole and NaN(3), has a narrower optimal pH range than other catalases, and is more sensitive to heat inactivation. PMID:12520360

Chauvatcharin, Nopmanee; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Switala, Jack; Loewen, Peter C; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

2003-02-01

219

Analysis of the Type IV Fimbrial-Subunit Gene fimA of Xanthomonas hyacinthi: Application in PCR-Mediated Detection of Yellow Disease in Hyacinths  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and specific detection method was developed for Xanthomonas hyacinthi; this method was based on amplification of a subsequence of the type IV fimbrial-subunit gene fimA from strain S148. The fimA gene was amplified by PCR with degenerate DNA primers designed by using the N-terminal and C-terminal amino acid sequences of trypsin fragments of FimA. The nucleotide sequence of fimA was determined and compared with the nucleotide sequences coding for the fimbrial subunits in other type IV fimbria-producing bacteria, such as Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Moraxella bovis. In a PCR internal primers JAAN and JARA, designed by using the nucleotide sequences of the variable central and C-terminal region of fimA, amplified a 226-bp DNA fragment in all X. hyacinthi isolates. This PCR was shown to be pathovar specific, as assessed by testing 71 Xanthomonas pathovars and bacterial isolates belonging to other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas. Southern hybridization experiments performed with the labelled 226-bp DNA amplicon as a probe suggested that there is only one structural type IV fimbrial-gene cluster in X. hyacinthi. Only two Xanthomonas translucens pathovars cross-reacted weakly in PCR. Primers amplifying a subsequence of the fimA gene of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria (T. Ojanen-Reuhs, N. Kalkkinen, B. Westerlund-Wikström, J. van Doorn, K. Haahtela, E.-L. Nurmiaho-Lassila, K. Wengelink, U. Bonas, and T. K. Korhonen, J. Bacteriol. 179: 1280–1290, 1997) were shown to be pathovar specific, indicating that the fimbrial-subunit sequences are more generally applicable in xanthomonads for detection purposes. Under laboratory conditions, approximately 1,000 CFU of X. hyacinthi per ml could be detected. In inoculated leaves of hyacinths the threshold was 5,000 CFU/ml. The results indicated that infected hyacinths with early symptoms could be successfully screened for X. hyacinthi with PCR. PMID:11157222

van Doorn, J.; Hollinger, T. C.; Oudega, B.

2001-01-01

220

Xanthomonas campestris lipooligosaccharides trigger innate immunity and oxidative burst in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Plants lack the adaptive immunity mechanisms of jawed vertebrates, so they rely on innate immune responses to defense themselves from pathogens. The plant immune system perceives the presence of pathogens by recognition of molecules known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PAMPs have several common characteristics, including highly conserved structures, essential for the microorganism but absent in host organisms. Plants can specifically recognize PAMPs using a large set of receptors and can respond with appropriate defenses by activating a multicomponent and multilayered response. Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) are major components of the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria with diverse roles in bacterial pathogenesis of animals and plants that include elicitation of host defenses. Little is known on the mechanisms of perception of these molecules by plants and the associated signal transduction pathways that trigger plant immunity. Here we addressed the question whether the defense signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana was triggered by LOS from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), using proteomic and transcriptomic approaches. By using affinity capture strategies with immobilized LOS and LC-MS/MS analyses, we identified 8 putative LOS protein ligands. Further investigation of these interactors led to the definition that LOS challenge is able to activate a signal transduction pathway that uses nodal regulators in common with salicylic acid-mediated pathway. Moreover, we proved evidence that Xcc LOS are responsible for oxidative burst in Arabidopsis either in infiltrated or systemic leaves. In addition, gene expression studies highlighted the presence of gene network involved in reactive oxygen species transduction pathway. PMID:25394800

Proietti, S; Giangrande, C; Amoresano, A; Pucci, P; Molinaro, A; Bertini, L; Caporale, C; Caruso, C

2014-10-22

221

Proteome of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri: a global expression profile  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker is a disease caused by Xantomonas citri subsp.citri (Xac), and has emerged as one of the major threats to the worldwide citrus crop because it affects all commercial citrus varieties, decreases the production and quality of the fruits and can spread rapidly in citrus growing areas. In this work, the first proteome of Xac was analyzed using two methodologies, two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D LC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results In order to gain insight into the metabolism of Xac, cells were grown on two different media (NB - Nutrient Broth and TSE - Tryptone Sucrose broth enriched with glutamic acid), and proteins were proteolyzed with trypsin and examined by 2D LC-MS/MS. Approximately 39% of all predicted proteins by annotation of Xac were identified with their component peptides unambiguously assigned to tandem mass spectra. The proteins, about 1,100, were distributed in all annotated functional categories. Conclusions This is the first proteomic reference map for the most aggressive strain of Xanthomonas pathogen of all orange varieties. The compilation of metabolic pathways involved with bacterial growth showed that Xac expresses a complete central and intermediary metabolism, replication, transcription and translation machineries and regulation factors, distinct membrane transporters (ABC, MFS and pumps) and receptors (MCP, TonB dependent and metabolites acquisition), two-component systems (sensor and regulatory components) and response regulators. These data corroborate the growth curve in vitro and are the first reports indicating that many of these genome annotated genes are translated into operative in Xac. This proteomic analysis also provided information regarding the influence of culture medium on growth and protein expression of Xac. PMID:21062441

2010-01-01

222

Phosphate regulated proteins of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri: a proteomic approach.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) is the causative agent of the citrus canker, a disease that affects several citrus plants in Brazil and across the world. Although many studies have demonstrated the importance of genes for infection and pathogenesis in this bacterium, there are no data related to phosphate uptake and assimilation pathways. To identify the proteins that are involved in the phosphate response, we performed a proteomic analysis of X. citri extracts after growth in three culture media with different phosphate concentrations. Using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis, we showed that X. citri conserved orthologous genes from Pho regulon in Escherichia coli, including the two-component system PhoR/PhoB, ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter) Pst for phosphate uptake, and the alkaline phosphatase PhoA. Analysis performed under phosphate starvation provided evidence of the relevance of the Pst system for phosphate uptake, as well as both periplasmic binding proteins, PhoX and PstS, which were formed in high abundance. The results from this study are the first evidence of the Pho regulon activation in X. citri and bring new insights for studies related to the bacterial metabolism and physiology. Biological significance Using proteomics and bioinformatics analysis we showed for the first time that the phytopathogenic bacterium X. citri conserves a set of proteins that belong to the Pho regulon, which are induced during phosphate starvation. The most relevant in terms of conservation and up-regulation were the periplasmic-binding proteins PstS and PhoX from the ABC transporter PstSBAC for phosphate, the two-component system composed by PhoR/PhoB and the alkaline phosphatase PhoA. PMID:24846853

Pegos, Vanessa Rodrigues; Nascimento, Jéssica Faria; Sobreira, Tiago José Paschoal; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Paes-Leme, Adriana; Balan, Andrea

2014-08-28

223

Prostatitis - bacterial  

MedlinePLUS

Prostatitis is most often caused by a bacterial infection of the prostate gland. Any bacteria that can cause a urinary tract infection can cause acute bacterial prostatitis. Some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) ...

224

Modifications of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Lipopolysaccharide Affect the Basal Response and the Virulence Process during Citrus Canker  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the phytopathogen responsible for citrus canker, one of the most devastating citrus diseases in the world. A broad range of pathogens is recognized by plants through so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are highly conserved fragments of pathogenic molecules. In plant pathogenic bacteria, lipopolisaccharyde (LPS) is considered a virulence factor and it is being recognized as a PAMP. The study of the participation of Xac LPS in citrus canker establishment could help to understand the molecular bases of this disease. In the present work we investigated the role of Xac LPS in bacterial virulence and in basal defense during the interaction with host and non host plants. We analyzed physiological features of Xac mutants in LPS biosynthesis genes (wzt and rfb303) and the effect of these mutations on the interaction with orange and tobacco plants. Xac mutants showed an increased sensitivity to external stresses and differences in bacterial motilities, in vivo and in vitro adhesion and biofilm formation. Changes in the expression levels of the LPS biosynthesis genes were observed in a medium that mimics the plant environment. Xacwzt exhibited reduced virulence in host plants compared to Xac wild-type and Xacrfb303. However, both mutant strains produced a lower increase in the expression levels of host plant defense-related genes respect to the parental strain. In addition, Xac LPS mutants were not able to generate HR during the incompatible interaction with tobacco plants. Our findings indicate that the structural modifications of Xac LPS impinge on other physiological attributes and lead to a reduction in bacterial virulence. On the other hand, Xac LPS has a role in the activation of basal defense in host and non host plants. PMID:22792211

Petrocelli, Silvana; Tondo, María Laura; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Orellano, Elena G.

2012-01-01

225

Identification of the protein sequence of the type III effector XopD from the B100 strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris  

PubMed Central

During evolution, pathogens have developed sophisticated strategies to suppress plant defense responses and promote successful colonization of their hosts. In their attempt to quell host resistance, Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria inject type III effectors (T3Es) into plant cells, where they typically target plant components essential for the establishment of defense responses. We have recently shown that the XopD T3E from the strain B100 of Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (XopDXccB100) is able to target AtMYB30, a positive regulator of Arabidopsis defense responses. This protein interaction leads to inhibition of AtMYB30 transcriptional activity and promotion of bacterial virulence. Here, we describe the identification of the complete protein sequence of XopDXccB100, which presents an N-terminal extension of 40 amino acids with respect to the protein annotated in public databases. The implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:22353870

Canonne, Joanne; Pichereaux, Carole; Marino, Daniel; Roby, Dominique; Rossignol, Michel; Rivas, Susana

2012-01-01

226

Bacterial Sialidase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

2004-01-01

227

Inheritance of resistance to late blight ( Phytophthora infestans ) in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under epiphytotic conditions for late blight in spring seasons, data were recorded on its intensity four times at 4 days intervals\\u000a from the start of the disease in the field, in 114 (19 females × 6 males) progenies and their parents planted in randomized\\u000a complete block design in the years 2005 and 2006. Regression and stepwise regression analysis showed that observations during\\u000a the

Raj Kumar; G. S. Kang; S. K. Pandey

2007-01-01

228

Simulation Models for Potato Late Blight Management and Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late blight of potato has been one of the most widely studied diseases and particular attention has been given to the mathematical\\u000a description of disease development. Several process based simulation models have been developed and this paper focuses primarily\\u000a on several versions developed at Cornell University, and later through collaboration between that University, the International\\u000a Potato Center and the Volcani

G. A. Forbes; W. E. Fry; J. L. Andrade-Piedra; D. Shtienberg

229

Inheritance of resistance to Sclerotinia blight in spanish peanut crosses  

E-print Network

INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE TO SCLEROTINIA BLIGHT IN SPANISH PEANUT CROSSES by LISA GALE WILDMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fu?llment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1990 Major Subject: Plant Breeding INHERITANCE OF RESISTANCE OF SCLEROTINIA SLIGHT IN SPANISH PEANUT CROSSES A Thesis LISA GALE WILDMAN Approved as to style and content by: O. . Smith (Chair of Committee) R. A. Taber (Member) C. E. Si...

Wildman, Lisa Gale

2012-06-07

230

Pressate from peat dewatering as a substrate for bacterial growth. [Rhizopus arrhizus; Xanthomonas campestris; Aureobasidium  

SciTech Connect

This study considered the possibility of using water expressed during the drying of fuel-grade peat as a substrate for microbial growth. Highly humified peat pressed for 2.5 min at 1.96 MPa produced water with a chemical oxygen demand of 690 mg/liter. Several biological compounds could be produced by using the organic matter inexpressed peat water as a substrate. These included polymers such as chitosan, contained in the cell wall of Rhizopus arrhizus, and two extracellular polysaccharides, xanthan gum and pullulan, produced by Bacillus subtilis grown in the expressed water. Small additions of nutrients to the peat pressate were necessary to obtain substantial yields of products. The addition of peptone, yeast extract, and glucose improved production of the various compounds. Biological treatment improved the quality of the expressed water to the extent that in an industrial process it could be returned to the environment.

Mulligan, C.N.; Cooper, D.G.

1985-07-01

231

In planta detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. commiphorae using fyuA and rpoD genes.  

PubMed

Guggal is tapped for extraction of medicinally important oleo-gum-resin (guggul) by inoculating the stem bark with natural gum suspension containing pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. commiphorae (Xac). The tree dies in the process. In absence of any specific medium for isolation of Xac, it is difficult to assess spread of the pathogen within the plant. A PCR based molecular detection technique usingfyuA and rpoD gene specific primers is described here. The primers amplified products only from Xac and not from host tissues or common saprophytes. The method was sensitive enough to produce positive signals for up to 4.4 bacterial cells or 2 pg target DNA per reaction mixture. However, PCR inhibitors present in plant tissues drastically reduced the limit of detection. A simple overnight incubation of surface sterilised plant tissues in nutrient medium was introduced to increase pathogen titre and to overcome this problem. This technique was successfully used to measure spread of Xac in plant tissues away from the site of inoculation. The pathogen showed preference for acropetal movement and did not spread to 7-8 cm below the site of inoculation till 15 days after inoculation. This suggests possibility to manage the disease through plant surgery. PMID:23926696

Samanta, Jatindra Nath; Mandal, Kunal

2013-06-01

232

Azalea Web Blight Control: Fungicide Timing in the Nursery and Hot Water Treatment of Stem Cuttings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Azalea web blight is an annual problem on some evergreen azalea cultivars grown in containerized nursery production in the southern and eastern United States. Multiple control strategies are being investigated to control the binucleate Rhizoctonia species that cause web blight. The disease will deve...

233

Leaf Petiole and Stem Blight Disease of Sweet Potato Caused by Alternaria Bataticola in Uganda  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight is an important disease of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus (L.) Lam.) in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In surveys conducted in Uganda from 2001 to 2003, disease incidence ranged from 0-49%. Symptoms of Alternaria leaf and stem blight disease consisted of sm...

234

The 2009 late blight pandemic in eastern USA – causes and results  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The tomato late blight pandemic of 2009 made late blight into a household term in much of the Eastern United States. Many home gardeners and organic producers lost most if not all of their tomato crop, and their experiences were reported in the mainstream press. Some CSAs (Community Supported Agricu...

235

Plant Defense Genes Associated with Quantitative Resistance to Potato Late Blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify genes potentially contributing to quantitative resistance to late blight, markers corresponding to plant defense genes were tested for linkage disequilibrium with quantitative resistance to potato late blight in a diploid mapping population and in a tetraploid population derived from a resistance- breeding program. The 39 genes tested included R-genes, pathogenesis- related genes, genes involved in signal transduction, and

P. Manosalva; S. Torres; F. Trognitz; R. Gysin; D. Niño-Liu; R. Simon; M. Herrera; W. Perez; J. Landeo; B. Trognitz; M. Ghislain; R. Nelson

236

Occurrence of Late Blight caused by Phytophthora infestans on Potato and Tomato in Alaska  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato late blight, a disease caused by the plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is a recent, sporadic problem for commercial growers in Alaska. Since the 1930’s potato has been the main vegetable crop produced in Alaska, however late blight outbreaks have occurred only recently. The 1995 outbreak...

237

INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON INCIDENCE OF POTATO LATE BLIGHT IN TOLUCA, MEXICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen fertilization and incidence of potato late blight are two important agronomic factors in Mexican potato production. Potato late blight is a severe potato disease speculated to be influenced by the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied to the plant. The relationship between nitrogen fertiliz...

238

MOLECULAR AND PATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RICE SHEATH BLIGHT PATHOGEN RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI IN ARKANSAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice sheath blight, caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani (AG1-IA), is an economically important disease in Arkansas. To identify the sheath blight resistance gene(s) an extensive molecular and pathological characterization of R., solani was initiated. A wide range of pathogen isolates ...

239

Candidate fire blight resistance genes in Malus identified with the use of genomic tools and approaches  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of this research is to utilize current advances in Rosaceae genomics to identify DNA markers for use in marker-assisted selection of durable resistance to fire blight. Candidate fire blight resistance genes were selected and ranked based upon differential expression after inoculation with ...

240

Using functional genomics to identify molecular markers for fire blight resistance (Erwinia amylovora) in apple (Malus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and some woody ornamentals in the rose family (Rosaceae). The goal of this project is to use a functional genomics approach to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples. Six hundred fifty...

241

Development of early and late blight under different cropping systems and irrigation management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop and soil management may influence development and control of early and late blight; however, their effects are not well documented. From 2006-2008, we evaluated the effects of cropping system and irrigation on incidence and severity of early and late blight of potato, and on microclimatic param...

242

IDENTIFICATION OF RB-ORTHOLOGOUS GENES FROM LATE BLIGHT RESISTANCE DIPLOID POTATO.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease of potatoes and tomatoes. A wild potato species indigenous to Mexico, Solanum demissum has provided the primary germplasm for breeding late blight resistance in cultivated potato. However, new virulent r...

243

Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed. PMID:25288928

Jung, Boknam; Park, Sook-Young; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jungkwan

2013-01-01

244

Effects of early and late harvest on agronomic performance and stability of late blight resistant (R-gene free) potato genotypes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To assess the effectiveness of genotype resistance to potato late blight, foliar blight development, area under disease progress curves (AUDPC) and tuber blight were quantified. Late blight resistant potato genotypes (R-gene free) were assessed for yield performance and stability at early (90 days) ...

245

Outer Membrane Proteins and Lipopolysaccharides in Pathovars of Xanthomonas campestris  

PubMed Central

Variations in the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of 54 isolates belonging to 16 different pathovars of Xanthomonas campestris were characterized. OMP samples prepared by sarcosyl extraction of cell walls and LPS samples prepared by proteinase K treatment of sonicated cells were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of 4 M urea. In general, the OMP and LPS profiles within each pathovar were very similar but different from the profiles of other pathovars. Heterogeneity in OMP and LPS profiles was observed within X. campestris pv. campestris, X. campestris pv. translucens, and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. LPSs were isolated from six X. campestris pathovars, which fell into two major groups on the basis of O antigenicity. The O antigens of X. campestris pv. begoniae, X. campestris pv. graminis, and X. campestris pv. translucens cross-reacted with each other; the other group consisted of X. campestris pv. campestris, X. campestris pv. pelargonii, and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. A chemical analysis revealed a significant difference between the compositions of the neutral sugars of the LPSs of those two groups; the LPSs of the first group contained xylose and a 6-deoxy-3-O-methyl hexose, whereas the LPSs of the other group lacked both sugars. Images PMID:16349114

Ojanen, Tuula; Helander, Ilkka M.; Haahtela, Kielo; Korhonen, Timo K.; Laakso, Tuula

1993-01-01

246

Asymmetric chromosome segregation in Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri  

PubMed Central

This study was intended to characterize the chromosome segregation process of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xac) by investigating the functionality of the ParB factor encoded on its chromosome, and its requirement for cell viability and virulence. Using TAP tagging we show that ParB is expressed in Xac. Disruption of parB increased the cell doubling time and precluded the ability of Xac to colonize the host citrus. Moreover, Xac mutant cells expressing only truncated forms of ParB exhibited the classical phenotype of aberrant chromosome organization, and seemed affected in cell division judged by their reduced growth rate and the propensity to form filaments. The ParB-GFP localization pattern in Xac was suggestive of an asymmetric mode of replicon partitioning, which together with the filamentation phenotype support the idea that Xac may control septum placement using mechanisms probably analogous to Caulobacter crescentus, and perhaps Vibrio cholerae, and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Xac exhibits asymmetric chromosome segregation, and the perturbation of this process leads to an inability to colonize the host plant. PMID:24339434

Ucci, Amanda P; Martins, Paula M M; Lau, Ivy F; Bacci, Maurício; Belasque, José; Ferreira, Henrique

2014-01-01

247

Antibacterial activity of alkyl gallates against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.  

PubMed

The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a serious disease that affects all the cultivars of citrus in subtropical citrus-producing areas worldwide. There is no curative treatment for citrus canker; thus, the eradication of infected plants constitutes the only effective control of the spread of X. citri subsp. citri. Since the eradication program in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is under threat, there is a clear risk of X. citri subsp. citri becoming endemic in the main orange-producing area in the world. Here we evaluated the potential use of alkyl gallates to prevent X. citri subsp. citri growth. These esters displayed a potent anti-X. citri subsp. citri activity similar to that of kanamycin (positive control), as evaluated by the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA). The treatment of X. citri subsp. citri cells with these compounds induced altered cell morphology, and investigations of the possible intracellular targets using X. citri subsp. citri strains labeled for the septum and centromere pointed to a common target involved in chromosome segregation and cell division. Finally, the artificial inoculation of citrus with X. citri subsp. citri cells pretreated with alkyl gallates showed that the bacterium loses the ability to colonize its host, which indicates the potential of these esters to protect citrus plants against X. citri subsp. citri infection. PMID:23104804

Silva, I C; Regasini, L O; Petrônio, M S; Silva, D H S; Bolzani, V S; Belasque, J; Sacramento, L V S; Ferreira, H

2013-01-01

248

Antibacterial Activity of Alkyl Gallates against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a serious disease that affects all the cultivars of citrus in subtropical citrus-producing areas worldwide. There is no curative treatment for citrus canker; thus, the eradication of infected plants constitutes the only effective control of the spread of X. citri subsp. citri. Since the eradication program in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is under threat, there is a clear risk of X. citri subsp. citri becoming endemic in the main orange-producing area in the world. Here we evaluated the potential use of alkyl gallates to prevent X. citri subsp. citri growth. These esters displayed a potent anti-X. citri subsp. citri activity similar to that of kanamycin (positive control), as evaluated by the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA). The treatment of X. citri subsp. citri cells with these compounds induced altered cell morphology, and investigations of the possible intracellular targets using X. citri subsp. citri strains labeled for the septum and centromere pointed to a common target involved in chromosome segregation and cell division. Finally, the artificial inoculation of citrus with X. citri subsp. citri cells pretreated with alkyl gallates showed that the bacterium loses the ability to colonize its host, which indicates the potential of these esters to protect citrus plants against X. citri subsp. citri infection. PMID:23104804

Silva, I. C.; Regasini, L. O.; Petrônio, M. S.; Silva, D. H. S.; Bolzani, V. S.; Belasque, J.; Sacramento, L. V. S.

2013-01-01

249

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is required for extracellular polysaccharide production, cell motility and the full virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.  

PubMed

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf) catalyzes conversion of glucose 6-phosphate into gluconate 6-phosphate for Entner-Doudoroff (ED) and pentose phosphate pathways in living organisms. However, it is unclear whether the Zwf-coding gene is involved in pathogenesis of phytopathogenic bacterium. In this report, we found that deletion mutation in zwf of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), led the pathogen unable to effectively utilize glucose, sucrose, fructose, mannose and galactose for growth. The transcript level of zwf was strongly induced by glucose, sucrose, fructose, mannose and galactose than that by the NY medium (non sugar). The deletion mutagenesis in zwf also altered the transcript level of key genes, such as rpfF, rpfG and clp, in diffusible signal factor (DSF)-signaling network. In addition, the deletion mutation in zwf impaired bacterial virulence and growth capability in rice leaves, reduced bacterial cell motility and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production. The lost properties mentioned above in the zwf deletion mutant were completely restored to the wild-type level by the presence of zwf in trans. All these results suggest that zwf is required for the full virulence of Xoc in rice leaves by involving carbohydrate metabolisms that impact bacterial DSF-signaling network. PMID:25450881

Guo, Wei; Zou, Li-Fang; Cai, Lu-Lu; Chen, Gong-You

2015-01-01

250

The Monofunctional Catalase KatE of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Is Required for Full Virulence in Citrus Plants  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is an obligate aerobic phytopathogen constantly exposed to hydrogen peroxide produced by normal aerobic respiration and by the plant defense response during plant-pathogen interactions. Four putative catalase genes have been identified in silico in the Xac genome, designated as katE, catB, srpA (monofunctional catalases) and katG (bifunctional catalase). Methodology/Principal Findings Xac catalase activity was analyzed using native gel electrophoresis and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. We demonstrated that the catalase activity pattern was regulated in different growth stages displaying the highest levels during the stationary phase. KatE was the most active catalase in this phase of growth. At this stage cells were more resistant to hydrogen peroxide as was determined by the analysis of CFU after the exposition to different H2O2 concentrations. In addition, Xac exhibited an adaptive response to hydrogen peroxide, displaying higher levels of catalase activity and H2O2 resistance after treatment with sub-lethal concentrations of the oxidant. In the plant-like medium XVM2 the expression of KatE was strongly induced and in this medium Xac was more resistant to H2O2. A XackatE mutant strain was constructed by insertional mutagenesis. We observed that catalase induction in stationary phase was lost meanwhile the adaptive response to peroxide was maintained in this mutant. Finally, the XackatE strain was assayed in planta during host plant interaction rendering a less aggressive phenotype with a minor canker formation. Conclusions Our results confirmed that in contrast to other Xanthomonas species, Xac catalase-specific activity is induced during the stationary phase of growth in parallel with the bacterial resistance to peroxide challenge. Moreover, Xac catalases expression pattern is modified in response to any stimuli associated with the plant or the microenvironment it provides. The catalase KatE has been shown to have an important function for the colonization and survival of the bacterium in the citrus plant during the pathogenic process. Our work provides the first genetic evidence to support a monofunctional catalase as a virulence factor in Xac. PMID:20520822

Tondo, María Laura; Petrocelli, Silvana; Ottado, Jorgelina; Orellano, Elena G.

2010-01-01

251

Comparative RNA-seq analysis of early-infected peach leaves by the invasive phytopathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is a quarantine bacterial pathogen that threatens peach production by causing necrotic spots on leaves and fruits, thus with the potential of severely reducing yields. The current understanding of the host plant defense responses to the pathogen is very limited. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, differential gene expression was analyzed at two time points, 2 h and 12 h post inoculation (hpi), by comparing the inoculated samples to their respective controls. On the total of 19,781 known peach genes that were expressed in all time points and conditions, 34 and 263 were differentially expressed at 2 and 12 hpi, respectively. Of those, 82% and 40% were up-regulated, respectively; and 18% and 60% were down-regulated, respectively. The functional annotation based on gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes involved in metabolic process and response to stress were particularly represented at 2 hpi whereas at 12 hpi cellular and metabolic processes were the categories with the highest number of genes differentially expressed. Of particular interest among the differentially expressed genes identified were several pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) receptors, disease resistance genes including several RPM1-like and pathogenesis related thaumatin encoding genes. Other genes involved in photosynthesis, in cell wall reorganization, in hormone signaling pathways or encoding cytochrome were also differentially expressed. In addition, novel transcripts were identified, providing another basis for further characterization of plant defense-related genes. Overall, this study gives a first insight of the peach defense mechanisms during the very early stages of infection with a bacterial disease in the case of a compatible interaction. PMID:23342103

Socquet-Juglard, Didier; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F; Christen, Danilo; Gessler, Cesare; Duffy, Brion; Patocchi, Andrea

2013-01-01

252

Involvement of Phaseolotoxin in Halo Blight of Beans  

PubMed Central

Phaseolotoxin ([N?-phosphosulfamyl]ornithylalanylhomoarginine) is produced by Pseudomonas phaseolicola (Burkh.) Dows. in liquid culture. When phaseolotoxin was applied to leaves of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) at 0.1 to 1 nmoles/g fresh weight of leaf by a prick-assay procedure, the characteristic “halo” symptom of bean halo blight disease developed after 24 to 48 hours. At higher concentrations (10-100 nmoles/g fresh weight) the systemic symptoms, which are commonly a feature of diseased plants, also developed after 24 to 48 hours. When applied to bean leaves, phaseolotoxin was rapidly broken down by the sequential removal of homoarginine and alanine. N?-Phosphosulfamylornithine was the major product formed, although phosphosulfamate and unreacted phaseolotoxin were also present. When P. phaseolicola infected bean plants, very little phaseolotoxin was detected within the plant, but the amount of N?-phosphosulfamylornithine formed was sufficient to account for the observed chlorosis, the ornithine accumulation, and the systemic symptoms. N?-Phosphosulfamylornithine therefore seemed to be the main functional phytotoxin of bean halo blight disease. When 35S-phaseolotoxin was applied to primary leaves, 35S (assumed to be a mixture of phaseolotoxin, N?-phosphosulfamylornithine, and phosphosulfamate) was actively loaded into the fine veins of the leaf and moved through the plant in the vascular system at a speed greater than 3 cm/hour, particularly toward the apical and lateral buds and the root tips. Certain factors which affect pholem transport (arsenate, cold) affected toxin movement and the expression of systemic symptoms. Autoradiography suggested that the 35S was transported in the phloem. A model for the involvement of phaseolotoxin in halo blight disease is presented. Images PMID:16660172

Mitchell, Robin E.; Bieleski, Roderick L.

1977-01-01

253

Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae triggers immediate transcriptomic modulations in rice  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae is a devastating pathogen of rice and has been extensively studied as a model pathogen of monocotyledons. Expressional studies in both the contenders have been undertaken in past to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the compatible and incompatible interactions in the pathosystem. Continuous update on database and gene annotations necessitates constant updating on the roles of the new entities as well as reinterpretation of regulations of the previous ones. Moreover the past endeavors have addressed the middle or late defense responses of the rice plant whereas in the present study an attempt has been made to investigate the early defense responses taking place immediately after inoculation. Results Microarray was used to study the transcriptional modulations in eighteen days old rice seedling leaves of both susceptible and resistant genotypes one hour after inoculation. In resistant plants as compared to susceptible ones 274 genes were found to be differentially expressed. Annotations could be assigned to 112 up- and 73 down-regulated transcripts and gene interaction maps were generated for 86 transcripts. Expressional data and interaction maps were used to develop a hypothetical scheme of the molecular events taking place during early defense response. Network analysis with the differential transcripts showed up-regulation of major clusters of cell signaling proteins and transcription factors while growth and basal metabolic components were largely found to be down-regulated. Conclusions This study provides an understanding of the early defense signaling in rice cells. Components of the calcium and lipid signaling as well as MAPK cascade were modulated, by signals from surface receptors and cytosolic R-proteins, to arouse jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling and suppress auxin signaling through various transcription factors. Abscisic acid modulation was also evident through the expression regulation of transcription factors involved with its functions. Moreover adjustments in expression levels of components of primary as well as secondary metabolism, protein trafficking and turnout were apparent, highlighting the complexity of defense response. PMID:22289642

2012-01-01

254

Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas campestris JX, an Industrially Productive Strain for Xanthan Gum  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas campestris JX, a soil bacterium, is an industrially productive strain for xanthan gum. Here we present a 5.0-Mb assembly of its genome sequence. We have annotated 12 coding sequences (CDSs) responsible for xanthan gum biosynthesis, 346 CDSs encoding carbohydrate metabolism, and 69 CDSs related to virulence, defense, and plant disease. PMID:22887662

Tao, Fei; Wang, Xia; Ma, Cuiqing; Yang, Chunyu; Tang, Hongzhi; Gai, Zhonghui

2012-01-01

255

First report of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri in Somalia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas citri, causal agent of citrus canker, has been reported in several countries in Africa, but not Somalia. During 2006 and 2007, hyperplasia-type lesions, often surrounded by a water-soaked margin and yellow halo, typical of citrus canker caused by X. citri, were found on 8-10 year-old gr...

256

Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: L-Fuconate Dehydratase from Xanthomonas campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many members of the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily have unknown functions. In this report the authors use both genome (operon) context and screening of a library of acid sugars to assign the L-fuconate dehydratase (FucD) function to a member of the mandelate racemase (MR) subgroup of the superfamily encoded by the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris str. ATCC 33913 genome (GI:

W. Yew; A. Fedorov; E. Fedorov; J. Rakus; R. Pierce; S. Almo; J. Gerlt

2006-01-01

257

A homolog of an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae gene with sequence similarity to an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene (phoS) produces a periplasmic protein of apparent M(r) 35,000 when expressed in E. coli. Amino terminal sequencing revealed that a signal peptide is removed during transport to the periplasm in E. coli.

Hopkins, C. M.; White, F. F.; Heaton, L. A.; Guikema, J. A.; Leach, J. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

258

USING PCR FOR DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV CITRI IN WIND DRIVEN SPLASH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An eradication program has been developed to remove citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, Xac) from Florida (1,4). The eradication program is based on knowledge of the disease epidemiology. Additional information on the spread of Xac bacteria in wind blown splash will provide fur...

259

Physiological effect of the toxin from Xanthomonas retroflexus on redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new toxin from Xanthomonas retroflexus could cause a series of physiological responses on seedlings of redroot pigweed. The experimental results revealed that respiratory ratio first increased 106% after treatment with the CFS (concentrated centrifugal fermentation supernatants) of X. retroflexus for 2 h, and decreased after treatment for 3 h; peroxidase (POD) activity increased 30% and 50% after treatment with

Zi-Ling Sun; Ming-Zhi Li; Jie Chen; Yong-Quan Li

2006-01-01

260

DISEASE DEVELOPMENT AND SYMPTOM EXPRESSION OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. CITRI IN VARIOUS CITRUS PLANT TISSUES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experimental inoculations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) in different tissues of Tahiti lime and Pineapple sweet orange were conducted monthly under natural conditions in Réunion Island. The interactions between a set of environmental and epidemic variables associated with disease express...

261

Predisposition of citrus foliage to infection with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is a serious disease of susceptible citrus in Florida and other citrus-growing areas of the world. The effect of leaf preconditioning as a route for entry of the bacteria is poorly characterized. A series of experiments were designed to i...

262

DETECTING AND QUANTIFYING XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV CITRI IN WIND DRIVEN SPLASH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri causes citrus canker and is presently under eradication in Florida. Identifying and quantifying bacteria is useful when investigating the epidemiology of the pathogen and can have application in monitoring dispersal of live bacteria. In a s...

263

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Strains from the Balkan Peninsula.  

PubMed

We report the draft genome sequences of two Xanthomonas euvesicatoria strains from the Balkan Peninsula, which were isolated from symptomatic pepper plants. The availability of these genome sequences will facilitate the development of modern genotyping assays for X. euvesicatoria strains and to define targets for resistance breeding. PMID:25657284

Vancheva, Taca; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Bogatzevska, Nevena; Moncheva, Penka; Koebnik, Ralf

2015-01-01

264

Hyperspectral recognition of processing tomato early blight based on GA and SVM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processing tomato early blight seriously affect the yield and quality of its.Determine the leaves spectrum of different disease severity level of processing tomato early blight.We take the sensitive bands of processing tomato early blight as support vector machine input vector.Through the genetic algorithm(GA) to optimize the parameters of SVM, We could recognize different disease severity level of processing tomato early blight.The result show:the sensitive bands of different disease severity levels of processing tomato early blight is 628-643nm and 689-692nm.The sensitive bands are as the GA and SVM input vector.We get the best penalty parameters is 0.129 and kernel function parameters is 3.479.We make classification training and testing by polynomial nuclear,radial basis function nuclear,Sigmoid nuclear.The best classification model is the radial basis function nuclear of SVM. Training accuracy is 84.615%,Testing accuracy is 80.681%.It is combined GA and SVM to achieve multi-classification of processing tomato early blight.It is provided the technical support of prediction processing tomato early blight occurrence, development and diffusion rule in large areas.

Yin, Xiaojun; Zhao, SiFeng

2013-03-01

265

Development and Application of Pathovar-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies That Recognize the Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen and the Type IV Fimbriae of Xanthomonas hyacinthi  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop a specific immunological diagnostic assay for yellow disease in hyacinths, using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Mice were immunized with a crude cell wall preparation (shear fraction) from Xanthomonas hyacinthi and with purified type IV fimbriae. Hybridomas were screened for a positive reaction with X. hyacinthi cells or fimbriae and for a negative reaction with X. translucens pv. graminis or Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Nine MAbs recognized fimbrial epitopes, as shown by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoelectron microscopy; however, three of these MAbs had weak cross-reactions with two X. translucens pathovars in immunoblotting experiments. Seven MAbs reacted with lipopolysaccharides and yielded a low-mobility ladder pattern on immunoblots. Subsequent analysis of MAb 2E5 showed that it specifically recognized an epitope on the O antigen, which was found to consist of rhamnose and fucose in a 2:1 molar ratio. The cross-reaction of MAb 2E5 with all X. hyacinthi strains tested showed that this O antigen is highly conserved within this species. MAb 1B10 also reacted with lipopolysaccharides. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were further tested in ELISA and immunoblotting experiments with cells and extracts from other pathogens. No cross-reaction was found with 27 other Xanthomonas pathovars tested or with 14 other bacterial species from other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas, indicating the high specificity of these antibodies. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were shown to be useful in ELISA for the detection of X. hyacinthi in infected hyacinths. PMID:10473431

van Doorn, J.; Ojanen-Reuhs, T.; Hollinger, T. C.; Reuhs, B. L.; Schots, A.; Boonekamp, P. M.; Oudega, B.

1999-01-01

266

Development and application of pathovar-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize the lipopolysaccharide O antigen and the type IV fimbriae of Xanthomonas hyacinthi  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to develop a specific immunological diagnostic assay for yellow disease in hyacinths, using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Mice were immunized with a crude cell wall preparation (shear fraction) from Xanthomonas hyacinthi and with purified type IV fimbriae. Hybridomas were screened for a positive reaction with X. hyacinthi cells or fimbriae and for a negative reaction with X. translucens pv. graminis or Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Nine MAbs recognized fimbrial epitopes, as shown by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoelectron microscopy; however, three of these MAbs had weak cross-reactions with two X. translucens pathovars in immunoblotting experiments. Seven MAbs reacted with lipopolysaccharides and yielded a low-mobility ladder pattern on immunoblots. Subsequent analysis of MAb 2E5 showed that it specifically recognized an epitope on the O antigen, which was found to consist of rhamnose and fucose in a 2:1 molar ratio. The cross-reaction of MAb 2E5 with all X. hyacinthi strains tested showed that this O antigen is highly conserved within this species. MAb 1B10 also reacted with lipopolysaccharides. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were further tested in ELISA and immunoblotting experiments with cells and extracts from other pathogens. No cross-reaction was found with 27 other Xanthomonas pathovars tested or with 14 other bacterial species from other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas, indicating the high specificity of these antibodies. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were shown to be useful in ELISA for the detection of X. hyacinthi in infected hyacinths.

Doorn, J. van; Ojanen-Reuhs, T.; Hollinger, T.C.; Reuhs, B.L.; Schots, A.; Boonekamp, P.M.; Oudega, B.

1999-09-01

267

Fusarium head blight: distribution in wheat in Latvia.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat has, in recent years, been a very important worldwide disease in intensive growing of cereal. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of FHB in wheat in Latvia and to identify the Fusarium species involved. This paper describes the distribution of Fusarium species that were isolated from samples representing winter and spring wheat varieties in Latvia, identified both by the classical morphological analyses of J. Leslie and B. Summerell (2006) and by PCR. The FHB incidence range in winter wheat was 1-20%, in spring wheat was 1-42%. The most significant factor affecting the incidence of fusarial head blight in wheat in Latvia was heightened temperature at the time of an thesis of wheat. In winter wheat 9 Fusarium species caused FHB: F. culmorum, F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. poae, F. oxysporum, F. cerealis, F. sporotrichoides and F. verticillioides were identified by morphological characterization, and 5 were confirmed by PCR-analysis. After experience of 5 years, it can be concluded that the most frequent in winter wheat were F. poae and F. culmorum. In spring wheat from F. culmorum was dominant among 8 Fusarium species. Among 13 varieties of spring wheat, three were sensitive ('Chamsin', 'W 166', 'Azurite') and one was resistant ('Granny') to FHB in conditions of high natural infection in 2009. The monitoring surveys demonstrate a significant presence of FHB in spring wheat in conditions of heightened temperature at the time of flowering in Latvia. PMID:21534469

Treikale, O; Priekule, I; Javoisha, B; Lazareva, L

2010-01-01

268

Biocontrol of Late Blight (Phytophthora capsici) Disease and Growth Promotion of Pepper by Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7.  

PubMed

A chitinolytic bacterial strain having strong antifungal activity was isolated and identified as Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7 based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. MPC-7 solubilized insoluble phosphorous in hydroxyapatite agar media. It produced gluconic acid and 2-ketogluconic acid related to the decrease in pH of broth culture. The antagonist produced benzoic acid (BA) and phenylacetic acid (PA). The authentic compounds, BA and PA, showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against yeast, several bacterial and fungal pathogens in vitro. To demonstrate the biocontrol efficiency of MPC-7 on late blight disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, pepper plants in pot trials were treated with modified medium only (M), M plus zoospore inoculation (MP), MPC-7 cultured broth (B) and B plus zoospore inoculation (BP). With the sudden increase in root mortality, plants in MP wilted as early as five days after pathogen inoculation. However, plant in BP did not show any symptom of wilting until five days. Root mortality in BP was markedly reduced for as much as 50%. Plants in B had higher dry weight, P concentration in root, and larger leaf area compared to those in M and MP. These results suggested that B. cepacia MPC-7 should be considered as a candidate for the biological fertilizer as well as antimicrobial agent for pepper plants. PMID:25288930

Sopheareth, Mao; Chan, Sarun; Naing, Kyaw Wai; Lee, Yong Seong; Hyun, Hae Nam; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Kil Yong

2013-03-01

269

Biocontrol of Late Blight (Phytophthora capsici) Disease and Growth Promotion of Pepper by Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7  

PubMed Central

A chitinolytic bacterial strain having strong antifungal activity was isolated and identified as Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7 based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. MPC-7 solubilized insoluble phosphorous in hydroxyapatite agar media. It produced gluconic acid and 2-ketogluconic acid related to the decrease in pH of broth culture. The antagonist produced benzoic acid (BA) and phenylacetic acid (PA). The authentic compounds, BA and PA, showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against yeast, several bacterial and fungal pathogens in vitro. To demonstrate the biocontrol efficiency of MPC-7 on late blight disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, pepper plants in pot trials were treated with modified medium only (M), M plus zoospore inoculation (MP), MPC-7 cultured broth (B) and B plus zoospore inoculation (BP). With the sudden increase in root mortality, plants in MP wilted as early as five days after pathogen inoculation. However, plant in BP did not show any symptom of wilting until five days. Root mortality in BP was markedly reduced for as much as 50%. Plants in B had higher dry weight, P concentration in root, and larger leaf area compared to those in M and MP. These results suggested that B. cepacia MPC-7 should be considered as a candidate for the biological fertilizer as well as antimicrobial agent for pepper plants. PMID:25288930

Sopheareth, Mao; Chan, Sarun; Naing, Kyaw Wai; Lee, Yong Seong; Hyun, Hae Nam; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Kil Yong

2013-01-01

270

Comparison of two culture media for determination of the copper resistance of Xanthomonas strains and their usefulness for prediction of control with copper bactericides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bacteriological culture media were compared for determination of copper resistance among strains of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and Xanthomonas perforans from pepper and tomato and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians from lettuce. Of 94 strains tested, 73 grew on glucose-nutrient agar (GNA) amended with 200?gml?1 of copper sulfate. None of the 94 strains grew on modified casitone-yeast extract (CYE) agar amended with

Ken Pernezny; Russell Nagata; Nikol Havranek; Jairo Sanchez

2008-01-01

271

Influence of temperature regimes on resistance gene-mediated response to rice bacterial blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing temperatures could reduce yield growth rate of rice by 10% in several rice production areas. Similarly, higher temperatures are predicted to accelerate the breakdown of plant disease resistance through higher disease pressure or altered resistance (R) gene effectiveness in many host-path...

272

Mechanistically compatible mixtures of bacterial antagonists improve biological control of fire blight of pear  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mixtures of biological control agents can be superior to individual agents in suppressing plant disease, providing enhanced efficacy and reliability from field to field relative to single biocontrol strains. Nonetheless, the efficacy of combinations of Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, a commercial bio...

273

Influence of Rice Development on the Function of Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Disease resistance genes most commonly used in breeding programs are single, dominant, resistance (R) genes with relative effectiveness influenced by plant developmental stage. Knowing the developmental stages at which an R gene is functional is important for disease management. In rice, resistanc...

274

A Benefit of High Temperature: Increased Effectiveness of a Rice Bacterial Blight Disease Resistance Gene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High temperatures promote development of many plant diseases and reduce effectiveness of disease resistance (R) genes. In many rice producing countries, two crops of rice are produced, with more disease occurring in the season with higher day/night temperatures. While studying the factors that influ...

275

The Periplasmic HrpB1 Protein from Xanthomonas spp. Binds to Peptidoglycan and to Components of the Type III Secretion System  

PubMed Central

The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria employs a type III secretion (T3S) system to translocate bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The membrane-spanning secretion apparatus consists of 11 core components and several associated proteins with yet unknown functions. In this study, we analyzed the role of HrpB1, which was previously shown to be essential for T3S and the formation of the extracellular T3S pilus. We provide experimental evidence that HrpB1 localizes to the bacterial periplasm and binds to peptidoglycan, which is in agreement with its predicted structural similarity to the putative peptidoglycan-binding domain of the lytic transglycosylase Slt70 from Escherichia coli. Interaction studies revealed that HrpB1 forms protein complexes and binds to T3S system components, including the inner membrane protein HrcD, the secretin HrcC, the pilus protein HrpE, and the putative inner rod protein HrpB2. The analysis of deletion and point mutant derivatives of HrpB1 led to the identification of amino acid residues that contribute to the interaction of HrpB1 with itself and HrcD and/or to protein function. The finding that HrpB1 and HrpB2 colocalize to the periplasm and both interact with HrcD suggests that they are part of a periplasmic substructure of the T3S system. PMID:23934485

Hausner, Jens; Hartmann, Nadine; Lorenz, Christian

2013-01-01

276

A plant natriuretic peptide-like molecule of the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes rapid changes in the proteome of its citrus host  

PubMed Central

Background Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) belong to a novel class of peptidic signaling molecules that share some structural similarity to the N-terminal domain of expansins and affect physiological processes such as water and ion homeostasis at nano-molar concentrations. The citrus pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri possesses a PNP-like peptide (XacPNP) uniquely present in this bacteria. Previously we observed that the expression of XacPNP is induced upon infection and that lesions produced in leaves infected with a XacPNP deletion mutant were more necrotic and lead to earlier bacterial cell death, suggesting that the plant-like bacterial PNP enables the plant pathogen to modify host responses in order to create conditions favorable to its own survival. Results Here we measured chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and water potential of citrus leaves infiltrated with recombinant purified XacPNP and demonstrate that the peptide improves the physiological conditions of the tissue. Importantly, the proteomic analysis revealed that these responses are mirrored by rapid changes in the host proteome that include the up-regulation of Rubisco activase, ATP synthase CF1 ? subunit, maturase K, and ?- and ?-tubulin. Conclusions We demonstrate that XacPNP induces changes in host photosynthesis at the level of protein expression and in photosynthetic efficiency in particular. Our findings suggest that the biotrophic pathogen can use the plant-like hormone to modulate the host cellular environment and in particular host metabolism and that such modulations weaken host defence. PMID:20302677

2010-01-01

277

Morphological, Pathogenic, and Molecular Characterization of Alternaria Isolates Associated with Alternaria Late Blight of Pistachio  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Pryor, B. M., and Michailides, T. J. 2002. Morphological, pathogenic, and molecular characterization of ,Alternaria isolates associated with Alternaria late blight of pistachio. Phytopathology 92:406-416. Alternaria isolates ,were ,obtained from ,various pistachio tissues

Barry M. Pryor; Themis J. Michailides

2002-01-01

278

An analysis of progress in breeding Sclerotinia blight resistant runner-type peanut  

E-print Network

Evaluating segregating (runner x spanish) peanut populations for physiological resistance to Sclerotinia blight is complicated by the situation that the disease reaction can be affected by canopy density and vine form. Three field screening tests...

Goldman, Jason James

2012-06-07

279

Characterization of the spatiotemporal attributes of Sclerotinia flower blight epidemics in a perennial pyrethrum pathosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia flower blight, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes substantial direct crop losses from reductions in the numbers of harvestable flowers in Australian pyrethrum fields. The pathogen can also cause plant death from crown rot through myceliogenic germination. The spatiotemporal char...

280

Bacterial conjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most cases of conjunctivitis in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than they are viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults and children, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. Contact lens wearers may be more likely to develop gram-negative infections. Bacterial keratitis occurs in up to 30 per 100,000 contact lens wearers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical treatment in adults and children with suspected bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with bacteriologically confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with clinically confirmed gonococcal conjunctivitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ocular decongestants; oral antibiotics; parenteral antibiotics; saline; topical antibiotics; and warm compresses. PMID:21718563

2010-01-01

281

Bacterial conjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most cases of conjunctivitis in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than they are viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults and children, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. Contact lens wearers may be more likely to develop gram-negative infections. Bacterial keratitis occurs in up to 30 per 100,000 contact lens wearers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical treatment in adults and children with suspected bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with bacteriologically confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with clinically confirmed gonococcal conjunctivitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 44 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ocular decongestants, oral antibiotics, parenteral antibiotics, saline, topical antibiotics, and warm compresses. PMID:22348418

2012-01-01

282

Occurrence of Soybean Sleeping Blight Caused by Septogloeum sojae in Korea.  

PubMed

Sleeping blight was observed on soybean plants grown in Yanggu, Suwon and Geumsan from 2005 to 2011. Symptoms developed on stems and pods of affected soybean plants. Five fungal isolates were obtained from the diseased plants and identified as Septogloeum sojae based on their morphological, cultural and molecular characteristics. Pathogenicity of the fungus was confirmed on soybean plants by artificial inoculation. This is the first report of S. sojae causing sleeping blight in soybean plants in Korea. PMID:23323054

Hong, Sung Kee; Choi, Hyo Won; Lee, Young Kee; Lee, Sang Yeob; Shim, Hong Sik

2012-12-01

283

Antioxidative enzymes and isozymes analysis of taro genotypes and their implications in Phytophthora blight disease resistance.  

PubMed

Assessment of the differential expression of antioxidative enzymes and their isozymes, was done in 30 day-old ex vitro raised plants of three highly resistant (DP-25, Jhankri and Duradim) and one highly susceptible (N-118) genotypes of taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott]. Antioxidative enzymes were assayed in the ex vitro plants, 7 days after inoculation with the spores (15,000 spores ml(-1) water) of Phytophthora colocasiae Raciborski to induce taro leaf blight disease. Uninoculated ex vitro plants in each genotype were used as control. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) increased under induced blight condition when compared with control. Increase in antioxidative enzymes was more (67-92%) in the resistant genotypes than that (21-29%) of the susceptible genotype. The zymograms of SOD and GPX in the resistant genotypes, with pathogenic infection, showed increased activity for anodal isoform of SOD and increased expression and/or induction of either POX 1 or POX 2 isoforms of GPX. In susceptible genotype, expression of the above isoforms was faint for SOD and nearly absent for GPX under both blight free and induced blight conditions. Induction and/or increased activity of particular isoform of SOD and GPX against infection of Phytophthora colocasiae in the resistant genotypes studied led to the apparent conclusion of linkage of isozyme expression with blight resistance in taro. This might be an important criterion in breeding of taro for Phytophthora leaf blight resistance. PMID:17404895

Sahoo, Manas Ranjan; DasGupta, Madhumita; Kole, Paresh C; Bhat, Jayant S; Mukherjee, Archana

2007-04-01

284

A Novel Two-Component Response Regulator Links rpf with Biofilm Formation and Virulence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri  

PubMed Central

Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a serious disease that impacts citrus production worldwide, and X. axonopodis pv. citri is listed as a quarantine pest in certain countries. Biofilm formation is important for the successful development of a pathogenic relationship between various bacteria and their host(s). To understand the mechanisms of biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri strain XW19, the strain was subjected to transposon mutagenesis. One mutant with a mutation in a two-component response regulator gene that was deficient in biofilm formation on a polystyrene microplate was selected for further study. The protein was designated as BfdR for biofilm formation defective regulator. BfdR from strain XW19 shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with XAC1284 of X. axonopodis pv. citri strain 306 and 30–100% identity with two-component response regulators in various pathogens and environmental microorganisms. The bfdR mutant strain exhibited significantly decreased biofilm formation on the leaf surfaces of Mexican lime compared with the wild type strain. The bfdR mutant was also compromised in its ability to cause canker lesions. The wild-type phenotype was restored by providing pbfdR in trans in the bfdR mutant. Our data indicated that BfdR did not regulate the production of virulence-related extracellular enzymes including amylase, lipase, protease, and lecithinase or the expression of hrpG, rfbC, and katE; however, BfdR controlled the expression of rpfF in XVM2 medium, which mimics cytoplasmic fluids in planta. In conclusion, biofilm formation on leaf surfaces of citrus is important for canker development in X. axonopodis pv. citri XW19. The process is controlled by the two-component response regulator BfdR via regulation of rpfF, which is required for the biosynthesis of a diffusible signal factor. PMID:23626857

Huang, Tzu-Pi; Lu, Kuan-Min; Chen, Yu-Hsuan

2013-01-01

285

Amplified fragment length polymorphism and multilocus sequence analysis-based genotypic relatedness among pathogenic variants of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri and Xanthomonas campestris pv. bilvae.  

PubMed

Three pathogenic variants (i.e. pathotypes) have been described within Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker. Pathotype A strains naturally infect a wide range of Citrus species and members of some related genera. In contrast, pathotypes A* and A(w) have narrow host ranges within the genus Citrus and have been isolated from Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.) and from Mexican lime and alemow (Citrus macrophylla L.), respectively. We used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on four partial housekeeping gene sequences (atpD, dnaK, efp and gyrB ) for the genotypic classification of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri and the poorly characterized citrus pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. bilvae. A Mantel test showed that genetic distances derived from AFLP and MLSA were highly correlated. X. campestris pv. bilvae showed a close relatedness to the type strain of X. citri, indicating that this pathovar should be reclassified as X. citri pv. bilvae. All pathotype A* and A(w) strains were most closely related to X. citri pv. citri strains with a wide host range (pathotype A), confirming previous DNA-DNA hybridization data. Pathotype A(w) should be considered a junior synonym of pathotype A* on the basis of pathogenicity tests, AFLP, MLSA and PCR using pathovar-specific primers. Evolutionary genome divergences computed from AFLP data suggested that pathotype A* (including A(w) strains) is a group of strains that shows a wider genetic diversity than pathotype A. PMID:19654364

Bui Thi Ngoc, Lan; Vernière, Christian; Jouen, Emmanuel; Ah-You, Nathalie; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Gagnevin, Lionel; Pruvost, Olivier

2010-03-01

286

Bacterial pathogenomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomes from all of the crucial bacterial pathogens of humans, plants and animals have now been sequenced, as have genomes from many of the important commensal, symbiotic and environmental microorganisms. Analysis of these sequences has revealed the forces that shape pathogen evolution and has brought to light unexpected aspects of pathogen biology. The finding that horizontal gene transfer and genome

Mark J. Pallen; Brendan W. Wren

2007-01-01

287

Bacterial Biofertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many bacteria and fungi can enhance plant growth. The present review is limited to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). However, it includes endophytic bacteria that show plant growth enhancing activity as well. Also the best studied bacterial mechanisms of plant growth promotion are discussed, with a special emphasis on biological nitrogen fixation and synthesis of phytohormones, including less understood mechanisms

LUIS E. FUENTES-RAMIREZ; Jesus Caballero-Mellado

288

Bacterial concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracks in concrete are inevitable and are one of the inherent weaknesses of concrete. Water and other salts seep through these cracks, corrosion initiates, and thus reduces the life of concrete. So there was a need to develop an inherent biomaterial, a self-repairing material which can remediate the cracks and fissures in concrete. Bacterial concrete is a material, which can

Venkataswamy Ramakrishnan; K. P. Ramesh; S. S. Bang

2001-01-01

289

Genetic polymorphism in Xanthomonas albilineans strains originating from 11 geographical locations, revealed by two DNA probes.  

PubMed

Two DNA fragments from Xanthomonas albilineans were used as probes to study the molecular diversity among strains of this pathogen. Two serologically distinct groups, serovars I and II, could be differentiated by hybridization to the probes. These probes, designated 830 and 838, were cloned after subtractive DNA hybridization of common sequences of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vasculorum from a serovar I strain of X. albilineans. They did not hybridize to the DNA of several other xanthomonads or to sugarcane DNA under the conditions of hybridization used. Faint bands were observed upon hybridization of probe 830 with one strain of X. campestris pv. phaseoli. The same banding patterns were obtained with a strain of X. albilineans from Burkina Faso and the serovar II strains of Mauritius. The serovar I strains from Mauritius and two other strains each from Reunion and South Africa had similar pattern. PMID:10792648

Jaufeerally-Fakim, Y; Autrey, J C; Daniels, M J; Dookun, A

2000-04-01

290

Genetic analyses of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae strains reveal distinct phylogenetic groups.  

PubMed

A comprehensive analysis of 175 Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae strains isolated from 10 Araceae hosts was done to identify pathogen variation. The strains were subjected to repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence polymerase chain reaction and four major phylogenetic clusters were generated. A subset of 40 strains isolated from Anthurium, Dieffenbachia, and Syngonium was further defined by amplified fragment length polymorphism and fatty acid methyl ester analysis and the same four phylogenetic clusters were observed. Comparison of representative strains in the first three clusters using DNA-DNA hybridization and multilocus sequence analysis supports the previous reclassification of strains in cluster I, including the X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae pathovar reference strain (LMG695), to X. citri. Our research findings indicate that strains in cluster I, isolated primarily from anthurium, probably represent an undescribed pathovar. Other phylogenetic subclusters consisting primarily of strains isolated from xanthosoma and philodendron in clusters III and IV, respectively, may yet represent other undescribed species or pathovars of Xanthomonas. PMID:23134337

Donahoo, R S; Jones, J B; Lacy, G H; Stromberg, V K; Norman, D J

2013-03-01

291

Functional analysis of genes for benzoate metabolism in the albicidin biosynthetic region of Xanthomonas albilineans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albicidins are potent DNA-gyrase-inhibiting antibiotics and phytotoxins synthesised by Xanthomonas albilineans. Functions have been deduced for some clustered biosynthetic genes, including a PKS-NRPS megasynthase, methyltransferases\\u000a and regulatory genes, and resistance genes including a transporter and a gyrase-binding protein. More puzzling is the presence\\u000a in this cluster of apparent aromatic metabolism genes. Here, we describe functional analysis of several such genes

Saeed M. Hashimi; Robert G. Birch

2010-01-01

292

The Adsorption Protein Genes of Xanthomonas campestris Filamentous Phages Determining Host Specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene III (gIII )o ffLf, a filamentous phage specifically infecting Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, was previously shown to encode a virion-associated protein (pIII) required for phage adsorption. In this study, the transcription start site for the gene and the N-terminal sequence of the protein were determined, resulting in the revision of the translation initiation site from the one previously predicted

NIEN-TSUNG LIN; TZU-JUN LIU; TZE-CHING LEE; BIH-YUH YOU; MING-HAW YANG; FU-SHYAN WEN; YI-HSIUNG TSENG

1999-01-01

293

Important role for methionine sulfoxide reductase in the oxidative stress response of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli.  

PubMed

A methionine sulfoxide reductase gene (msrA) from Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli has unique expression patterns and physiological function. msrA expression is growth dependent and is highly induced by exposure to oxidants and N-ethylmaleimide in an OxyR- and OhrR-independent manner. An msrA mutant showed increased sensitivity to oxidants but only during stationary phase. PMID:16077131

Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Seeanukun, Chotirote; Whangsuk, Wirongrong; Utamapongchai, Supa; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

2005-08-01

294

Cell–cell signaling, cyclic di-GMP turnover and regulation of virulence in Xanthomonas campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of virulence factors in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris is regulated by cell–cell signaling mediated by a diffusible signal factor (DSF), and by the RpfC\\/RpfG two-component regulatory system. Recent findings have indicated that the perception of the DSF signal requires the RpfC sensor and is linked to the degradation of the intracellular second messenger cyclic di-GMP

Yvonne Fouhy; Jean F. Lucey; Robert P. Ryan; J. Maxwell Dow

2006-01-01

295

Degradation of hydrogen sulfide by Xanthomonas sp. strain DY44 isolated from peat.  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas sp. strain DY44, capable of degrading H2S, was isolated from dimethyl disulfide-acclimated peat. This bacterium removed H2S either as a single gas or in the presence of the sulfur-containing compounds methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide. The maximum specific H2S removal rate, obtained in the late stationary phase, was 3.92 mmol g of dry cells-1 h-1 (6.7 x 10(-16) mol cell-1 h-1) at pH 7 and 30 degrees C through a batch experiment in a basal mineral medium. Since Xanthomonas sp. strain DY44 exhibited no autotrophic growth with H2S, the H2S removal was judged not to be a consequence of chemolithotrophic activity. By using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the metabolic product of H2S oxidation was determined to be polysulfide, which has properties very similar to those of elemental sulfur. Autoclaved cells (120 degrees C, 20 min) did not show H2S degradation, but cells killed by gamma-irradiation and cell extracts both oxidized H2S, suggesting the existence of a heat-labile intracellular enzymatic system for H2S oxidation. When Xanthomonas sp. strain DY44 was inoculated into fibrous peat, this strain degraded H2S without lag time, suggesting that it will be a good candidate for maintaining high H2S removability in the treatment of exhaust gases. PMID:1599238

Cho, K S; Hirai, M; Shoda, M

1992-01-01

296

Phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis in Xanthomonas campestris via a yeast-like acylation pathway.  

PubMed

Two principal phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis pathways are known in bacteria. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent phospholipid N-methyltransferases (Pmt) catalyse the threefold N-methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) to PC. In an alternative pathway, the PC synthase (Pcs) condenses CDP-diacylglycerol and choline to produce PC. In this study, we investigated phospholipid biosynthesis in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris that was found to contain significant amounts of monomethylated PE (MMPE) and small amounts of PC. We identified a Pmt enzyme that produces MMPE without methylating it further to PC. Surprisingly, PC production was independent of [(14) C]-SAM and [(14) C]-choline excluding canonical Pmt or Pcs pathways. Feeding experiments with various choline derivatives revealed a novel, yeast-like PC synthesis route in Xanthomonas, in which two acyl side-chains are added to a glycerophosphocholine (GPC) backbone. Two out of 12 tested acyltransferases from Xanthomonas were able to catalyse the second acylation step from lyso-PC to PC. This first description of GPC-dependent PC production in bacteria illustrates an unexpected diversity of PC biosynthesis pathways. PMID:24329598

Moser, Roman; Aktas, Meriyem; Narberhaus, Franz

2014-02-01

297

Degradation of hydrogen sulfide by Xanthomonas sp. strain DY44 isolated from peat.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas sp. strain DY44, capable of degrading H2S, was isolated from dimethyl disulfide-acclimated peat. This bacterium removed H2S either as a single gas or in the presence of the sulfur-containing compounds methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide. The maximum specific H2S removal rate, obtained in the late stationary phase, was 3.92 mmol g of dry cells-1 h-1 (6.7 x 10(-16) mol cell-1 h-1) at pH 7 and 30 degrees C through a batch experiment in a basal mineral medium. Since Xanthomonas sp. strain DY44 exhibited no autotrophic growth with H2S, the H2S removal was judged not to be a consequence of chemolithotrophic activity. By using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the metabolic product of H2S oxidation was determined to be polysulfide, which has properties very similar to those of elemental sulfur. Autoclaved cells (120 degrees C, 20 min) did not show H2S degradation, but cells killed by gamma-irradiation and cell extracts both oxidized H2S, suggesting the existence of a heat-labile intracellular enzymatic system for H2S oxidation. When Xanthomonas sp. strain DY44 was inoculated into fibrous peat, this strain degraded H2S without lag time, suggesting that it will be a good candidate for maintaining high H2S removability in the treatment of exhaust gases. PMID:1599238

Cho, K S; Hirai, M; Shoda, M

1992-04-01

298

The unique glutathione reductase from Xanthomonas campestris: gene expression and enzyme characterization.  

PubMed

The glutathione reductase gene, gor, was cloned from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. Its gene expression and enzyme characteristics were found to be different from those of previously studied homologues. Northern blot hybridization, promoter-lacZ fusion, and enzyme assay experiments revealed that its expression, unlike in Escherichia coli, is OxyR-independent and constitutive upon oxidative stress conditions. The deduced amino acid sequence shows a unique NADPH binding motif where the most highly conserved arginine residue, which is critical for NADPH binding, is replaced by glutamine. Interestingly, a search of the available Gor amino acid sequences from various sources, including other Xanthomonas species, revealed that this replacement is specific to the genus Xanthomonas. Recombinant Gor enzyme was purified and characterized, and was found to have a novel ability to use both, NADPH and NADH, as electron donor. A gor knockout mutant was constructed and shown to have increased expression of the organic peroxide-inducible regulator gene, ohrR. PMID:15883020

Loprasert, Suvit; Whangsuk, Wirongrong; Sallabhan, Ratiboot; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

2005-06-17

299

Fructose-bisphophate aldolase exhibits functional roles between carbon metabolism and the hrp system in rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.  

PubMed

Fructose-bisphophate aldolase (FbaB), is an enzyme in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in living organisms. The mutagenesis in a unique fbaB gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of rice bacterial leaf streak, led the pathogen not only unable to use pyruvate and malate for growth and delayed its growth when fructose was used as the sole carbon source, but also reduced extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and impaired bacterial virulence and growth in rice. Intriguingly, the fbaB promoter contains an imperfect PIP-box (plant-inducible promoter) (TTCGT-N(9)-TTCGT). The expression of fbaB was negatively regulated by a key hrp regulatory HrpG and HrpX cascade. Base substitution in the PIP-box altered the regulation of fbaB with the cascade. Furthermore, the expression of fbaB in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola RS105 strain was inducible in planta rather than in a nutrient-rich medium. Except other hrp-hrc-hpa genes, the expression of hrpG and hrpX was repressed and the transcripts of hrcC, hrpE and hpa3 were enhanced when fbaB was deleted. The mutation in hrcC, hrpE or hpa3 reduced the ability of the pathogen to acquire pyruvate and malate. In addition, bacterial virulence and growth in planta and EPS production in R?fbaB mutant were completely restored to the wild-type level by the presence of fbaB in trans. This is the first report to demonstrate that carbohydrates, assimilated by X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, play critical roles in coordinating hrp gene expression through a yet unknown regulator. PMID:22384086

Guo, Wei; Zou, Li-fang; Li, Yu-rong; Cui, Yi-ping; Ji, Zhi-yuan; Cai, Lu-lu; Zou, Hua-song; Hutchins, William C; Yang, Ching-hong; Chen, Gong-you

2012-01-01

300

Fructose-Bisphophate Aldolase Exhibits Functional Roles between Carbon Metabolism and the hrp System in Rice Pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola  

PubMed Central

Fructose-bisphophate aldolase (FbaB), is an enzyme in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in living organisms. The mutagenesis in a unique fbaB gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of rice bacterial leaf streak, led the pathogen not only unable to use pyruvate and malate for growth and delayed its growth when fructose was used as the sole carbon source, but also reduced extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and impaired bacterial virulence and growth in rice. Intriguingly, the fbaB promoter contains an imperfect PIP-box (plant-inducible promoter) (TTCGT-N9-TTCGT). The expression of fbaB was negatively regulated by a key hrp regulatory HrpG and HrpX cascade. Base substitution in the PIP-box altered the regulation of fbaB with the cascade. Furthermore, the expression of fbaB in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola RS105 strain was inducible in planta rather than in a nutrient-rich medium. Except other hrp-hrc-hpa genes, the expression of hrpG and hrpX was repressed and the transcripts of hrcC, hrpE and hpa3 were enhanced when fbaB was deleted. The mutation in hrcC, hrpE or hpa3 reduced the ability of the pathogen to acquire pyruvate and malate. In addition, bacterial virulence and growth in planta and EPS production in R?fbaB mutant were completely restored to the wild-type level by the presence of fbaB in trans. This is the first report to demonstrate that carbohydrates, assimilated by X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, play critical roles in coordinating hrp gene expression through a yet unknown regulator. PMID:22384086

Li, Yu-rong; Cui, Yi-ping; Ji, Zhi-yuan; Cai, Lu-lu; Zou, Hua-song; Hutchins, William C.; Yang, Ching-hong; Chen, Gong-you

2012-01-01

301

Detection and identification of phytopathogenic Xanthomonas strains by amplification of DNA sequences related to the hrp genes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.  

PubMed Central

Three pairs of oligonucleotide primers specific for different regions of the hrp gene (hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity) cluster of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria were designed and tested for amplification of DNA isolated from a large number of different bacteria. DNA sequences related to the hrp genes were successfully amplified from X. fragariae and from 28 pathovars of X. campestris. No DNA amplification occurred with genomic DNA from phytopathogenic strains of X. campestris pv. secalis, X. campestris pv. translucens, and X. albilineans or from nonpathogenic opportunistic xanthomonads and phytopathogenic strains of the genera Acidovorax, Agrobacterium, Clavibacter, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, and Xylella. The DNA from those bacteria also failed to hybridize to hrp-specific fragments in Southern blot analysis. DNA fragments amplified with a particular primer pair were of identical size from each of the different phytopathogenic xanthomonads. However, restriction analysis of these fragments by using frequently cutting endonucleases revealed variation in the pattern for these hrp-related fragments amplified from the different Xanthomonas strains. The restriction patterns generated for the different fragments allowed distinction of the strains representing a pathovar or species of phytopathogenic xanthomonads. We believe that DNA amplification with hrp-specific oligonucleotide primers is a highly sensitive and specific method that can be applied for detection and identification of phytopathogenic xanthomonads. Images PMID:8017904

Leite, R P; Minsavage, G V; Bonas, U; Stall, R E

1994-01-01

302

A statistical comparison of the reliability of the blossom blight forecasts of MARYBLYT and cougarblight with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blossom blight forecasting is an important aspect of fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, management for both apple and pear. A comparison of the forecast accuracy of two common fire blight forecasters, MARYBLYT and Cougarblight, was performed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve...

303

Sgt1, but not Rar1, is essential for the RB-mediated broad-spectrum resistance to potato late blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Late blight is the most serious potato disease world-wide. The most effective and environmentally sound way for controlling late blight is to incorporate natural resistance into potato cultivars. Several late blight resistance genes have been cloned recently. However, there is almost no information available about the resistance pathways mediated by any of those genes. RESULTS: We previously cloned a

Pudota B Bhaskar; John A Raasch; Lara C Kramer; Pavel Neumann; Susan M Wielgus; Sandra Austin-Phillips; Jiming Jiang

2008-01-01

304

Differential Control of Head Blight Pathogens of Wheat by Fungicides and Consequences for Mycotoxin Contamination of Grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight of wheat is caused by a disease complex comprised of toxigenic pathogens, predominantly Fusarium spp., and a non-toxigenic pathogen Microdochium nivale, which causes symptoms visually indistinguishable from Fusarium and is often included as a causal agent of Fusarium head blight. Four field trials are reported here, including both naturally and artificially inoculated trials in which the effect

Duncan R. Simpson; Gillian E. Weston; Judith A. Turner; Philip Jennings; Paul Nicholson

2001-01-01

305

POTATO LATE BLIGHT MANAGEMENT IN THE TOLUCA VALLEY: FIELD VALIDATION OF SIMCAST MODIFIED FOR CULTIVARS WITH HIGH FIELD RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management of potato late blight in the highland tropics is very costly and remains difficult. Reducing the impact of late blight through the use of resistant cultivars in combination with a fungicide forecasting system could lower the number of costly fungicide applications. Previously, we evaluate...

306

USING FUNCTIONAL AND APPLIED GENOMICS TO IDENTIFY GENES THAT CONFER EITHER RESISTANCE OR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO FIRE BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear and other plants of the Rosaceae. The goal of this project is to use functional genomics to characterize the response of apple to fire blight disease and, thereby, identify new opportunities for improvin...

307

Evaluation of Streptomyces spp. for biocontrol of gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae) and growth promotion of Cucumis melo L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gummy stem blight of Cucumis melo L. (melon) caused by Didymella bryoniae is a serious disease in the major production area of northwest China. Two Streptomyces isolates (Streptomyces pactum A12 and S. globisporus subsp. globisporus C28) previously isolated from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were investigated regarding their biocontrol of gummy stem blight and growth promotion of melon under controlled conditions. Streptomyces

Juan Zhao; Quan-Hong Xue; Guang-Hui Shen; Lei Xue; Jia-Li Duan; Dong-Sheng Wang

2011-01-01

308

Evaluation of Streptomyces spp. for biocontrol of gummy stem blight (Didymella bryoniae) and growth promotion of Cucumis melo L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gummy stem blight of Cucumis melo L. (melon) caused by Didymella bryoniae is a serious disease in the major production area of northwest China. Two Streptomyces isolates (Streptomyces pactum A12 and S. globisporus subsp. globisporus C28) previously isolated from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau were investigated regarding their biocontrol of gummy stem blight and growth promotion of melon under controlled conditions. Streptomyces

Juan Zhao; Quan-Hong Xue; Guang-Hui Shen; Lei Xue; Jia-Li Duan; Dong-Sheng Wang

2012-01-01

309

Competitive Interaction Between Phytophthora Infestans Effectors Leads to Increased Aggressiveness on Plants Containing Broad-Spectrum Late Blight Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato late blight is a particularly destructive plant disease caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Late blight has remained particularly problematic despite intensive breeding efforts to integrate resistance into cultivated potato. This is due to the pathogen’s ab...

310

Dynamics of Cryphonectria hypovirus infection in chestnut blight cankers.  

PubMed

Virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica cause lethal bark cankers on chestnut trees. Infection of C. parasitica with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe biologically controls this disease, leading to nonlethal and inactive cankers. Unexpectedly, virus-free C. parasitica strains have been isolated from inactive cankers. In this study, we compared the virulence of virus-infected and virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from either inactive or active cankers on chestnut seedlings and sprouts. In the seedling experiment, we assessed canker growth and seedling mortality. In the sprout experiment, we also assessed canker growth and made fungal reisolations to determine virus infection and immigration of foreign vegetative compatibility (vc) types over a period of 13 years in a coppice forest. Overall, the virulence of virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from inactive versus active cankers did not differ. Significant differences were only attributed to virus infection. Virus infection and fungal strain composition in cankers changed over time. Foreign vc types immigrated into cankers and virus-free cankers became virus-infected within a few years. Most of the cankers were callused over time and became inactive. However, we observed that the virus did not always persist in these cankers. This study demonstrates that virus spread occurs effectively in European chestnut forests and that this biocontrol system is highly dynamic. PMID:24601984

Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel

2014-09-01

311

Assessment of the Genetic Diversity of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans as a Basis To Identify Putative Pathogenicity Genes and a Type III Secretion System of the SPI-1 Family by Multiple Suppression Subtractive Hybridizations?  

PubMed Central

Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism revealed that strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans are genetically distinct and can be grouped into four genetic lineages. Four suppression subtractive hybridizations were then performed to isolate DNA fragments present in these bean pathogens and absent from closely related xanthomonads. Virulence gene candidates were identified such as homologs of hemagglutinins, TonB-dependent receptors, zinc-dependent metalloproteases, type III effectors, and type IV secretion system components. Unexpectedly, homologs of the type III secretion apparatus components (SPI-1 family), usually reported in animal pathogens and insect symbionts, were also detected. PMID:18359831

Alavi, Seyed Mehdi; Sanjari, Saeideh; Durand, Fabien; Brin, Chrystelle; Manceau, Charles; Poussier, Stéphane

2008-01-01

312

Xanthomonas Type III Effector XopD Desumoylates Tomato Transcription Factor SlERF4 to Suppress Ethylene Responses and Promote Pathogen Growth  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY XopD, a type III secretion effector from Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv), the causal agent of bacterial spot of tomato is required for pathogen growth and delay of host symptom development. XopD carries a C-terminal SUMO protease domain, a host range determining non-specific DNA-binding domain and two EAR motifs typically found in repressors of stress-induced transcription. The precise target(s) and mechanism(s) of XopD are obscure. We report that XopD directly targets the tomato ethylene responsive transcription factor SlERF4 to suppress ethylene production, which is required for anti-Xcv immunity and symptom development. SlERF4 expression was required for Xcv ?xopD-induced ethylene production and ethylene -stimulated immunity. XopD colocalized with SlERF4 in subnuclear foci and catalyzed SUMO1 hydrolysis from lysine 53 of SlERF4 causing SlERF4 destabilization. Mutation of lysine 53 prevented SlERF4 sumoylation, decreased SlERF4 levels, and reduced SlERF4 transcription. These data suggest that XopD desumoylates SlERF4 to repress ethylene induced-transcription required for anti-Xcv immunity. PMID:23414755

Kim, Jung-Gun; Stork, William; Mudgett, Mary Beth

2013-01-01

313

The omlA gene is involved in multidrug resistance and its expression is inhibited by coumarins in Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli.  

PubMed

A gene encoding the outer membrane lipoprotein, OmlA, from the bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli was isolated and characterized. An omlA insertion mutant showed an increased susceptibility to novobiocin and coumermycin, antibiotics with gyrase inhibitor activity. The omlA mutant accumulated novobiocin. Additionally, the omlA mutant was more sensitive than the wild type to chloramphenicol, a protein synthesis inhibitor; SDS, a detergent; and menadione, a superoxide generator. The susceptibility of the mutant to unrelated chemicals indicated a general role for OmlA in maintaining membrane integrity. Transcription of omlA was downregulated in the presence of both gyrase inhibitors, suggesting that DNA supercoiling might regulate the synthesis of OmlA. The omlA gene was divergently transcribed from the gene encoding the ferric uptake regulator Fur. Although the promoters of omlA and fur overlapped, Fur did not play any regulatory role in the expression of omlA due to the fact that inactivation of Fur did not affect the expression of omlA either in the presence or absence of iron. PMID:17957353

Fuangthong, Mayuree; Sallabhan, Ratiboot; Atichartpongkul, Sopapan; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Sriprang, Ruchadaporn; Satayavivad, Jutamaad; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

2008-03-01

314

Rice Snl6, a Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase-Like Gene Family Member, Is Required for NH1-Mediated Immunity to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

PubMed Central

Rice NH1 (NPR1 homolog 1) is a key mediator of innate immunity. In both plants and animals, the innate immune response is often accompanied by rapid cell death at the site of pathogen infection. Over-expression of NH1 in rice results in resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), constitutive expression of defense related genes and enhanced benzothiadiazole (BTH)- mediated cell death. Here we describe a forward genetic screen that identified a suppressor of NH1-mediated lesion formation and resistance, snl6. Comparative genome hybridization and fine mapping rapidly identified the genomic location of the Snl6 gene. Snl6 is a member of the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR)-like gene family. We show that Snl6 is required for NH1-mediated resistance to Xoo. Further, we show that Snl6 is required for pathogenesis-related gene expression. In contrast to previously described CCR family members, disruption of Snl6 does not result in an obvious morphologic phenotype. Snl6 mutants have reduced lignin content and increased sugar extractability, an important trait for the production of cellulosic biofuels. These results suggest the existence of a conserved group of CCR-like genes involved in the defense response, and with the potential to alter lignin content without affecting development. PMID:20862311

Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E.; Canlas, Patrick; Ronald, Pamela C.

2010-01-01

315

An Improved Method for TAL Effectors DNA-Binding Sites Prediction Reveals Functional Convergence in TAL Repertoires of Xanthomonas oryzae Strains  

PubMed Central

Transcription Activators-Like Effectors (TALEs) belong to a family of virulence proteins from the Xanthomonas genus of bacterial plant pathogens that are translocated into the plant cell. In the nucleus, TALEs act as transcription factors inducing the expression of susceptibility genes. A code for TALE-DNA binding specificity and high-resolution three-dimensional structures of TALE-DNA complexes were recently reported. Accurate prediction of TAL Effector Binding Elements (EBEs) is essential to elucidate the biological functions of the many sequenced TALEs as well as for robust design of artificial TALE DNA-binding domains in biotechnological applications. In this work a program with improved EBE prediction performances was developed using an updated specificity matrix and a position weight correction function to account for the matching pattern observed in a validation set of TALE-DNA interactions. To gain a systems perspective on the large TALE repertoires from X. oryzae strains, this program was used to predict rice gene targets for 99 sequenced family members. Integrating predictions and available expression data in a TALE-gene network revealed multiple candidate transcriptional targets for many TALEs as well as several possible instances of functional convergence among TALEs. PMID:23869221

Pérez-Quintero, Alvaro L.; Rodriguez-R, Luis M.; Dereeper, Alexis; López, Camilo; Koebnik, Ralf; Szurek, Boris; Cunnac, Sebastien

2013-01-01

316

Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed between Resistant and Susceptible Tomato Lines during Time-Course Interactions with Xanthomonas perforans Race T3  

PubMed Central

Bacterial spot caused by several Xanthomonas sp. is one of the most devastating diseases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The genetics of hypersensitive resistance to X. perforans race T3 has been intensively investigated and regulatory genes during the infection of race T3 have been identified through transcriptional profiling. However, no work on isolating regulatory genes for field resistance has been reported. In this study, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was used to identify differentially expressed transcripts between resistant tomato accession PI 114490 and susceptible variety OH 88119 at 3, 4 and 5 days post-inoculation of the pathogen. Using 256 selective primer combinations, a total of 79 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) representing 71 genes were obtained. Of which, 60 were up-regulated and 4 were down-regulated in both tomato lines, 4 were uniquely up-regulated and 2 were uniquely down-regulated in PI 114490, and 1 was specifically up-regulated in OH 88119. The expression patterns of 19 representative TDFs were further confirmed by semi-quantitative and/or quantitative real time RT-PCR. These results suggested that the two tomato lines activated partly similar defensive mechanism in response to race T3 infection. The data obtained here will provide some fundamental information for elucidating the molecular mechanism of response to race T3 infection in tomato plants with field resistance. PMID:24686403

Wang, Yuqing; Yang, Wencai

2014-01-01

317

Multiplexed lateral flow microarray assay for detection of citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri  

DOEpatents

The invention provides highly sensitive and specific assays for the major citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis, including a field deployable multiplexed assay capable of rapidly assaying for both pathogens simultaneously. The assays are directed at particular gene targets derived from pathogenic strains that specifically cause the major citrus diseases of citrus variegated chlorosis (Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c) and citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri). The citrus pathogen assays of the invention offer femtomole sensitivity, excellent linear dynamic range, and rapid and specific detection.

Cary; R. Bruce (Santa Fe, NM); Stubben, Christopher J. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-03-22

318

The HD-GYP Domain Protein RpfG of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola Regulates Synthesis of Extracellular Polysaccharides that Contribute to Biofilm Formation and Virulence on Rice  

PubMed Central

Bacterial leaf streak caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) is one of the most important diseases in rice. However, little is known about the pathogenicity mechanisms of Xoc. Here we have investigated the function of three HD-GYP domain regulatory proteins in biofilm formation, the synthesis of virulence factors and virulence of Xoc. Deletion of rpfG resulted in altered production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), abolished virulence on rice and enhanced biofilm formation, but had little effect on the secretion of proteases and motility. In contrast, mutational analysis showed that the other two HD-GYP domain proteins had no effect on virulence factor synthesis and tested phenotypes. Mutation of rpfG led to up-regulation of the type III secretion system and altered expression of three putative glycosyltransferase genes gumD, pgaC and xagB, which are part of operons directing the synthesis of different extracellular polysaccharides. The pgaABCD and xagABCD operons were greatly up-regulated in the Xoc ?rpfG mutant, whereas the expression of the gum genes was unaltered or slightly enhanced. The elevated biofilm formation of the Xoc ?rpfG mutant was dramatically reduced upon deletion of gumD, xagA and xagB, but not when pgaA and pgaC were deleted. Interestingly, only the ?gumD mutant, among these single gene mutants, exhibits multiple phenotype alterations including reduced biofilm and EPS production and attenuated virulence on rice. These data indicate that RpfG is a global regulator that controls biofilm formation, EPS production and bacterial virulence in Xoc and that both gumD- and xagB-dependent EPS contribute to biofilm formation under different conditions. PMID:23544067

Zhang, Yuanbao; Wei, Chao; Jiang, Wendi; Wang, Lei; Li, Churui; Wang, Yunyue; Dow, John Maxwell; Sun, Wenxian

2013-01-01

319

The HD-GYP domain protein RpfG of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola regulates synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides that contribute to biofilm formation and virulence on rice.  

PubMed

Bacterial leaf streak caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) is one of the most important diseases in rice. However, little is known about the pathogenicity mechanisms of Xoc. Here we have investigated the function of three HD-GYP domain regulatory proteins in biofilm formation, the synthesis of virulence factors and virulence of Xoc. Deletion of rpfG resulted in altered production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), abolished virulence on rice and enhanced biofilm formation, but had little effect on the secretion of proteases and motility. In contrast, mutational analysis showed that the other two HD-GYP domain proteins had no effect on virulence factor synthesis and tested phenotypes. Mutation of rpfG led to up-regulation of the type III secretion system and altered expression of three putative glycosyltransferase genes gumD, pgaC and xagB, which are part of operons directing the synthesis of different extracellular polysaccharides. The pgaABCD and xagABCD operons were greatly up-regulated in the Xoc ?rpfG mutant, whereas the expression of the gum genes was unaltered or slightly enhanced. The elevated biofilm formation of the Xoc ?rpfG mutant was dramatically reduced upon deletion of gumD, xagA and xagB, but not when pgaA and pgaC were deleted. Interestingly, only the ?gumD mutant, among these single gene mutants, exhibits multiple phenotype alterations including reduced biofilm and EPS production and attenuated virulence on rice. These data indicate that RpfG is a global regulator that controls biofilm formation, EPS production and bacterial virulence in Xoc and that both gumD- and xagB-dependent EPS contribute to biofilm formation under different conditions. PMID:23544067

Zhang, Yuanbao; Wei, Chao; Jiang, Wendi; Wang, Lei; Li, Churui; Wang, Yunyue; Dow, John Maxwell; Sun, Wenxian

2013-01-01

320

Xanthomonas campestris Overcomes Arabidopsis Stomatal Innate Immunity through a DSF Cell-to-Cell Signal-Regulated Virulence Factor1[OA  

PubMed Central

Pathogen-induced stomatal closure is part of the plant innate immune response. Phytopathogens using stomata as a way of entry into the leaf must avoid the stomatal response of the host. In this article, we describe a factor secreted by the bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc) capable of interfering with stomatal closure induced by bacteria or abscisic acid (ABA). We found that living Xcc, as well as ethyl acetate extracts from Xcc culture supernatants, are capable of reverting stomatal closure induced by bacteria, lipopolysaccharide, or ABA. Xcc ethyl acetate extracts also complemented the infectivity of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) mutants deficient in the production of the coronatine toxin, which is required to overcome stomatal defense. By contrast, the rpfF and rpfC mutant strains of Xcc, which are unable to respectively synthesize or perceive a diffusible molecule involved in bacterial cell-to-cell signaling, were incapable of reverting stomatal closure, indicating that suppression of stomatal response by Xcc requires an intact rpf/diffusible signal factor system. In addition, we found that guard cell-specific Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase3 (MPK3) antisense mutants were unresponsive to bacteria or lipopolysaccharide in promotion of stomatal closure, and also more sensitive to Pst coronatine-deficient mutants, showing that MPK3 is required for stomatal immune response. Additionally, we found that, unlike in wild-type Arabidopsis, ABA-induced stomatal closure in MPK3 antisense mutants is not affected by Xcc or by extracts from Xcc culture supernatants, suggesting that the Xcc factor might target some signaling component in the same pathway as MPK3. PMID:19091877

Gudesblat, Gustavo E.; Torres, Pablo S.; Vojnov, Adrián A.

2009-01-01

321

Characterization of Novel Virulent Broad-Host-Range Phages of Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of several plant diseases, most notably Pierce's disease of grape and citrus variegated chlorosis. We report the isolation and characterization of the first virulent phages for X. fastidiosa, siphophages Sano and Salvo and podophages Prado and Paz, with a host range that includes Xanthomonas spp. Phages propagated on homologous hosts had observed adsorption rate constants of ?4 × 10?12 ml cell?1 min?1 for X. fastidiosa strain Temecula 1 and ?5 × 10?10 to 7 × 10?10 ml cell?1 min?1 for Xanthomonas strain EC-12. Sano and Salvo exhibit >80% nucleotide identity to each other in aligned regions and are syntenic to phage BcepNazgul. We propose that phage BcepNazgul is the founding member of a novel phage type, to which Sano and Salvo belong. The lysis genes of the Nazgul-like phage type include a gene that encodes an outer membrane lipoprotein endolysin and also spanin gene families that provide insight into the evolution of the lysis pathway for phages of Gram-negative hosts. Prado and Paz, although exhibiting no significant DNA homology to each other, are new members of the phiKMV-like phage type, based on the position of the single-subunit RNA polymerase gene. The four phages are type IV pilus dependent for infection of both X. fastidiosa and Xanthomonas. The phages may be useful as agents for an effective and environmentally responsible strategy for the control of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. PMID:24214944

Ahern, Stephen J.; Das, Mayukh; Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Young, Ry

2014-01-01

322

Catalase has a novel protective role against electrophile killing of Xanthomonas.  

PubMed

The ability of XANTHOMONAS: campestris pv. phaseoli to protect itself against lethal concentrations of man-made (N:-ethylmaleimide, NEM) and endogenously produced (methylglyoxal, MG) electrophiles was investigated. Pretreatment of X. c. pv. phaseoli with a low concentration of NEM induced protection against lethal concentrations of NEM and MG. MG pretreatment weakly induced protection against NEM but not against MG itself. NEM-induced protection against electrophile killing required new protein synthesis and was abolished by the addition of a protein synthesis inhibitor. By contrast, MG-induced protection against NEM killing was independent of de novo protein synthesis. X. c. pv. phaseoli harbouring an expression vector carrying a catalase gene was over 100-fold more resistant to MG and NEM killing. High expression levels of genes for other peroxide-protective enzymes, such as those for alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (ahpC and ahpF) and ohr, failed to protect against electrophile killing. Thus, catalase appears to have a novel protective role(s) against electrophile toxicity. This finding suggests that in X. c. pv. phaseoli NEM and MG toxicity might involve accumulation and/or increased production of H(2)O(2). This idea was supported by the observation that addition of 10 mM sodium pyruvate, a compound that can react chemically with peroxide or hydroxyl radical scavengers (DMSO and glycerol), was found to protect XANTHOMONAS: from electrophile killing. The protective role of catalase and the role of H(2)O(2) in electrophile toxicity are novel observations and could be generally important in other bacteria. In addition, unlike other bacteria, XANTHOMONAS: in stationary phase was more susceptible to electrophile killing compared to cells in exponential phase. PMID:11158366

Vattanaviboon, P; Sriprang, R; Mongkolsuk, S

2001-02-01

323

Selective medium for isolation of Xanthomonas maltophilia from soil and rhizosphere environments.  

PubMed Central

A selective medium (XMSM) was developed for isolation of Xanthomonas maltophilia from bulk soil and plant rhizosphere environments. The XMSM basal medium contained maltose, tryptone, bromthymol blue, and agar. Antibiotics added to select for X. maltophilia were cycloheximide, nystatin, cephalexin, bacitracin, penicillin G, novobiocin, neomycin sulfate, and tobramycin. A comparison was made between XMSM and 1/10-strength tryptic soy broth agar for recovery of X. maltophilia from sterile and nonsterile soil infested with known X. maltophilia isolates. A recovery rate of 97% or greater for XMSM was demonstrated. XMSM was used to isolate X. maltophilia from a variety of soil and rhizosphere environments. PMID:2930173

Juhnke, M E; des Jardin, E

1989-01-01

324

A physical map of the chromosome of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans BXPF65.  

PubMed

A physical map of the Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli var. fuscans BXPF65 chromosome was constructed by PFGE and Southern hybridization. The chromosome was 3938 kb and was composed of 39 XbaI restriction fragments. The size is close to that estimated for X. campestris pv. campestris based on DNA renaturation kinetics. Macrorestriction fragments containing genes for a 16S rRNA, pectate lyase, two-component regulatory system and hrp cluster were located on the physical map. Each of these probes hybridized to single macrorestriction fragments except the 16S rRNA probe, which hybridized to five fragments located in different areas on the chromosome map. PMID:10547448

Chan, J W; Goodwin, P H

1999-11-01

325

Identification and Regulation of the N-Acetylglucosamine Utilization Pathway of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ? †  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot disease of brassicas, is known for its ability to catabolize a wide range of plant compounds. This ability is correlated with the presence of specific carbohydrate utilization loci containing TonB-dependent transporters (CUT loci) devoted to scavenging specific carbohydrates. In this study, we demonstrate that there is an X. campestris pv. campestris CUT system involved in the import and catabolism of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Expression of genes belonging to this GlcNAc CUT system is under the control of GlcNAc via the LacI family NagR and GntR family NagQ regulators. Analysis of the NagR and NagQ regulons confirmed that GlcNAc utilization involves NagA and NagB-II enzymes responsible for the conversion of GlcNAc-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate. Mutants with mutations in the corresponding genes are sensitive to GlcNAc, as previously reported for Escherichia coli. This GlcNAc sensitivity and analysis of the NagQ and NagR regulons were used to dissect the X. campestris pv. campestris GlcNAc utilization pathway. This analysis revealed specific features, including the fact that uptake of GlcNAc through the inner membrane occurs via a major facilitator superfamily transporter and the fact that this amino sugar is phosphorylated by two proteins belonging to the glucokinase family, NagK-IIA and NagK-IIB. However, NagK-IIA seems to play a more important role in GlcNAc utilization than NagK-IIB under our experimental conditions. The X. campestris pv. campestris GlcNAc NagR regulon includes four genes encoding TonB-dependent active transporters (TBDTs). However, the results of transport experiments suggest that GlcNAc passively diffuses through the bacterial envelope, an observation that calls into question whether GlcNAc is a natural substrate for these TBDTs and consequently is the source of GlcNAc for this nonchitinolytic plant-associated bacterium. PMID:20081036

Boulanger, Alice; Déjean, Guillaume; Lautier, Martine; Glories, Marie; Zischek, Claudine; Arlat, Matthieu; Lauber, Emmanuelle

2010-01-01

326

Spectroscopic properties of rubber oxygenase RoxA from Xanthomonas sp., a new type of dihaem dioxygenase.  

PubMed

Natural rubber [poly-(cis-1,4-isoprene)] is cleaved to 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyltrideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD) by rubber oxygenase A (RoxA) isolated from Xanthomonas sp. RoxA has two c-type haem centres that show two distinct alpha-bands at 549 and 553 nm in the dithionite-reduced state. A well-resolved midpoint potential (E(0)') of -65 mV was determined for one haem by spectrophotometric titrations in the absence of dioxygen with dithionite and ferricyanide as reductant and oxidant, respectively. The midpoint potential of the second haem was not resolvable (E(0)' about -130 to -160 mV). One of the two haems was reduced by NADH (549 nm alpha-band), similar to bacterial dihaem peroxidases. Evidence for an electron transfer between the two haems was provided by slow reduction of the second haem (553 nm alpha-band) upon incubation of the partially reduced enzyme at room temperature. Addition of imidazole or related compounds to RoxA led to UV/vis spectral features similar to those observed for partially reduced RoxA. Notably, reduction of RoxA with dithionite or NADH, or binding of compounds such as imidazole, resulted in a reversible inactivation of the enzyme, unlike dihaem peroxidases. In line with this result, RoxA did not show any peroxidase activity. EPR spectra of RoxA as isolated showed two low-spin Fe(III) haem centres, with apparent g-values of 3.39, 3.09, 2.23, 1.92 and 1.50. A weak signal in the g=6 region resulting from a high-spin Fe(III) haem was also observed with a preparation-dependent intensity that disappeared in the presence of imidazole. Attempts to provide spectroscopic evidence for binding of the natural substrate (polyisoprene latex) to RoxA failed. However, experimental data are presented that RoxA is able to subtract redox equivalents from its substrate or from model compounds. In conclusion, RoxA is a novel type of dihaem dioxygenase with features clearly different from classical cytochrome c peroxidases. PMID:20413555

Schmitt, Georg; Seiffert, Grazyna; Kroneck, Peter M H; Braaz, Reinhard; Jendrossek, Dieter

2010-08-01

327

Chemotaxonomic significance of the xanthomonadins, novel brominated aryl-polyene pigments produced by bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell pigments produced by strains of Xanthomonas spp. (including representatives of all five presently recognized taxospecies of these phytopathogenic bacteria) have been isolated as isobutyl esters, purified, and characterized in terms of electronic absorption, chromatographic and co-chromatographic, and mass spectrometric properties. This comparative examination reveals that these bacteria produce brominated aryl-polyene pigments which are given the trivial name “xanthomonadins”.

Mortimer P. Starr; Christie L. Jenkins; Lee B. Bussey; Arthur G. Andrewes

1977-01-01

328

Biofilm dispersal in Xanthomonas campestris is controlled by cell-cell signaling and is required for full virulence to plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rpf gene cluster of Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (Xcc) is required for the pathogenesis of this bacterium to plants. Several rpf genes are involved in the coordinate positive regulation of the production of virulence factors mediated by the small diffusible molecule DSF (for diffusible signal factor). RpfF directs the synthesis of DSF, and a two-component sensory transduction system comprising

J. Maxwell Dow; Lisa Crossman; Kim Findlay; Yong-Qiang He; Jia-Xun Feng; Ji-Liang Tang

2003-01-01

329

PHENYLACETALDEHYDE O-METHYLOXIME: A VOLATILE COMPOUND FROM PLANTS INFECTED WITH CITRUS CANKER PATHOGENIC BACTERIUM, XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. CITRI.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An aldehyde oxime o-methyl ether, phenylacetaldehyde o-methyloxime (PAAMO), was detected using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the headspace above grapefruit leaves infected with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the causal agent of citrus bacte...

330

Spread and development of quambalaria shoot blight in spotted gum plantations  

E-print Network

Spread and development of quambalaria shoot blight in spotted gum plantations G. S. Peggab* , H-grown spotted gum (Corymbia citriodora subsp. citriodora, C. citriodora subsp. variegata, C. henryi and C. maculata) in south-east Queensland, Australia. The results showed that native spotted gums are a primary

331

Rhizoctonia in Container Grown Azalea, and Camellia Twig Blight: Incubation and Latency Periods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia web blight is a reoccurring problem in compact varieties of container-grown azalea (Rhododendron sp.) in the Gulf Coast States. Disease severity was measured weekly in ‘Gumpo’ azalea plants spaced at distances of 0, 6, 12, 18, or 24 cm. Evaporative potential (EP), leaf wetness (LW), rela...

332

Rhizoctonia web blight development on container-grown azalea in relation to time and environmental factors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia spp., is an annual problem in the southern United States on container-grown azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) that receive daily irrigation. Disease progress was assessed weekly from mid-May to mid-September in blocks of nursery-grown plants at thre...

333

Genetic and Physical Characterization of Binucleate Rhizoctonia Species Causing Web Blight on Azalea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Web blight caused by species of Rhizoctonia is an annual problem on container-grown azalea (Rhododendron spp.) during nursery production in the southern U.S. While damage is not usually lethal, infected plants are not saleable during the current year and growth is reduced. The objective of this rese...

334

EFFECTS OF INDUCED SYSTEMIC RESISTANCE-ACTIVATING AGENTS ON FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine whether some of the known biocontrol agents for Fusarium head blight (FHB) can activate induced systemic resistance (ISR) in wheat against FHB. To determine the potential of using ISR-inducing strains of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to control FHB. To evaluate PGPR stra...

335

A new attractive, precocious, productive, fire blight resistant pear selection. What more could you ask for?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

US 71655-014 is a fire blight resistant pear scion selection developed by the USDA, Agricultural Research Service. Preliminary trials indicated several positive attributes including precocity, high annual production, attractive fruit, long storage life, and good consumer acceptance. In 2005, a rep...

336

Potential and optimization of genomic selection for fusarium head blight resistance in six-row barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of barley, causing reductions in yield and quality. Marker-based selection for resistance to FHB and lowered deoxynivalenol (DON) grain concentration would save considerable costs and time associated with phenotyping. A comprehensive marker-based s...

337

Fusarium head blight symptoms and mycotoxin levels in single kernels of infected wheat spikes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The study of how the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease spreads and manifests disease symptoms and mycotoxins in infected grains in spikelets along the spikes among wheat varieties is important to understand the FHB resistance of different wheat varieties. Two wheat varieties with different FHB resi...

338

Fusarium spp. associated with head blight of wheat in South Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields in the Northern...

339

Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

340

Does infection by southern root-knot nematode influence development of Phytophthora blight in pepper?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and Phytophthora capsici, the causal agent of Phytophthora blight, are both important pathogens of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in the U.S. and worldwide. Although there is significant information in the literature about the responses of pepper...

341

EVALUATION OF RANMAN 400SC FOR MANAGEMENT OF PHYTOPHTHORA BLIGHT OF BELL PEPPER, 2004-05.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this experiment were to determine if a banded application of Ranman 400SC at transplanting followed by subsequent sprays would aid in management of root and foliar phase of Phytophthora blight. The experiments were conducted in a commercial pepper field at Boynton Beach, Fl, where...

342

Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations - Selangor, Perak, and Johor states - in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15) containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis. PMID:25288924

Nyaka Ngobisa, A I C; Zainal Abidin, M A; Wong, M Y; Wan Noordin, M W D

2013-03-01

343

Assessment of compost for suppression of Fusarium Patch (Microdochium nivale) and Typhula Blight  

E-print Network

Assessment of compost for suppression of Fusarium Patch (Microdochium nivale) and Typhula Blight 2001; accepted 21 May 2002 Abstract Two composts were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium Patch of compost applied at either 48.7 or 97:4kg=100m2 reduced snow mold severity to levels not significantly

Boland, Greg J.

344

Development of Durum Wwheat Germplasm with Enhanced Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight Derived from Emmer Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) is a unique class of commercial wheat specifically for making pasta products. Durum production has been seriously challenged by the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in the United States in the past decade. Although utilization of resistant cultivar...

345

Control strategies with reduced fungicide input for Botrytis leaf blight in lily—a simulation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf blight, caused by the pathogen Botrytis elliptica (Berk.) Cooke, is the most important foliar disease in ornamental lily cultivation. The conventional control strategy of Dutch bulb growers is to apply protective fungicides at weekly intervals from crop emergence until harvest. We applied simulation models to complement experimental studies in the search for control strategies with less fungicide input at

J. de Kraker; J. E. van den Ende; W. A. H. Rossing

2005-01-01

346

Greenhouse and Field Demonstration of Microbial Supression of Fusarium Head Blight in Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of wheat and barley responsible for extensive losses in quality and yield. The primary causative agent for FHB is Gibberella zeae (anamorph = Fusarium graminearum) which initially infects spikes to produce dark brown water-soaked spots on glumes of florets an...

347

Blight et al.: Egg neglect during El Nio 11 Marine Ornithology 38: 1115 (2010)  

E-print Network

. Thus, egg temperatures may drop to ambient levels for periods of a day or more (Wheelwright & BoersmaBlight et al.: Egg neglect during El Niño 11 Marine Ornithology 38: 11­15 (2010) 11 INTRODUCTION is as low as 0°C (Roberts 1940, Pefaur 1974). Repeated occurrences of this behaviour ("egg neglect") do

348

Characterization of Fusarium strains recovered from wheat with symptoms of head blight in Kentucky  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) members cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and small grains in the United States. The U.S. population is diverse, and includes several genetically distinct local emergent subpopulations, some more aggressive and toxigenic than...

349

Return of an Old Problem: Fusarium Head Blight of Small Grains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the ongoing problems associated with Fusarium Head Blight of Small Grains. Specifically, issues with F. graminearum (FG), which has caused most of the recent outbreaks of FHB in the USA and Canada, as well as other countries. Suggested disease control mechanisms are also presented.

Robert W. Stack (North Dakota State Univ; )

2000-06-22

350

POTATO CULTIVARS FROM THE MEXICAN NATIONAL PROGRAM: SOURCES AND DURABILITY OF RESISTANCE AGAINST LATE BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Mexican national potato program has produced several varieties with high levels of field resistance. We evaluated durability of resistance to potato late blight of a selection of 12 such varieties using data from 1960 to the present. Data were extracted from the field notebooks located in the ar...

351

Effect of Plant Spacing on Microclimate and Rhizoctonia Web Blight Development in Container Grown Azalea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia web blight is a reoccurring problem in compact varieties of container-grown azalea (Rhododendron sp.) in the Gulf Coast States. During the summers of 2002 and 2003, disease severity was measured weekly in the inoculated center plant of plots consisting of 49 ‘Gumpo’ azalea plants. Plant ...

352

Comparison of barley seed proteomic profiles associated with fusarium head blight reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) incited primarily by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a destructive disease that affects the quality and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain. At present, there is a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in barley resistance against infection by and the spread of F. graminearum. The objective of the current study was to identify proteins

J. Zantinge; K. Kumar; K. Xi; M. Johns; A. Murray; T. Jones; J. H. Helm; P. Juskiw

2010-01-01

353

Risk of Rhizoctonia Web Blight Development on Container-Grown Azalea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia spp., is an annual problem in the southern United States on container-grown azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) that receive daily irrigation. Disease progress was assessed weekly from mid-May to early October in blocks of nursery-grown plants at four...

354

ASSESSMENT OF SOLANUM HOUGASII IN WASHINGTON AND MEXICO AS A NEW SOURCE OF LATE BLIGHT RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Solanum hougasii is a rare wild relative of potato that that grows in the highlands of central Mexico. Late blight water mold, a pathogen of worldwide importance, is present in its zone of distribution. S. hougasii and a segregating population derived from it were evaluated in field exposures to t...

355

Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Phytophthora Blight and Watermelon Vine Decline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora blight and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), are two important and emerging diseases of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). Recently, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto roo...

356

Systematics, phylogeny and trichothecene mycotoxin potential of fusarium head blight cereal pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight(FHB)or scab of cereals is one of the most economically devastating plant diseases in the world today. Prior to 2000, the primary etiological agent of FHB was thought to comprise a single panmictic species,Fusarium graminearum. However, a series of studies we conducted over the p...

357

Potato agriculture, late blight science, and the molecularization of plant pathology.  

PubMed

By the mid-1980s nucleic-acid based methods were penetrating the farthest reaches of biological science, triggering rivalries among practitioners, altering relationships among subfields, and transforming the research front. This article delivers a "bottom up" analysis of that transformation at work in one important area of biological science, plant pathology, by tracing the "molecularization" of efforts to understand and control one notorious plant disease -- the late blight of potatoes. It mobilizes the research literature of late blight science as a tool through which to trace the changing typography of the research front from 1983 to 2003. During these years molecularization intensified the traditional fragmentation of the late blight research community, even as it dramatically integrated study of the causal organism into broader areas of biology. In these decades the pathogen responsible for late blight, the oomycete "Phytophthora infestans," was discovered to be undergoing massive, frightening, and still largely unexplained genetic diversification -- a circumstance that lends the episode examined here an urgency that reinforces its historiographical significance as a case-study in the molecularization of the biological sciences. PMID:20073121

Turner, R Steven

2008-01-01

358

Molecular dynamics of interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In an effort to develop the molecular strategies to control rice (Oryzae sativa) diseases, molecular interactions of rice with rice blast [Magnaporthe oryzae, formerly (Magnaporthe grisea] and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were analyzed. The interaction of rice with M. oryzae follows a b...

359

Analysis Of Proteins Differentially Accumulated During Potato Late Blight Resistance Mediated by the RB Resistance Gene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The RB gene cloned from the wild diploid potato species Solanum bulbocastanum confers resistance against the late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry was used to examine for the first time the changes of the proteome pattern of ...

360

SELECTED GENES FROM THE FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT RESISTANT CULTIVAR FUNDULEA 201R  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of wheat varieties with resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) is slowly occurring through breeding techniques. The varieties so far developed provide improved resistance to the spread of infection within the spike (Type II resistance). Immunity to FHB (Type I) has not yet been reported, how- ever, the correlation between the known components of resistance and toxin decontamination

Nancy J. Alexander; Mariana Ittu

2003-01-01

361

Using functional genomics to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) using cDNA from pathogen and mock-inoculated samples, and cDNA-AFLP analysis were used to ident...

362

Minimizing crop damage through understanding relationships between pyrethrum phenology and ray blight disease severity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The most damaging foliar disease of pyrethrum in Australia is ray blight caused by Stagonosporopsis tanaceti. The probability of growers incurring economic losses caused by this disease has been substantially reduced by the implementation of a prophylactically-applied spring fungicide program. Th...

363

Construction of the first phage library of chickpea blight pathogen Ascochyta rabiei.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

During studies on pathogenic determinants of Ascochyta rabiei, the causal agent of chickpea blight, we developed a library of insertional mutants of A. rabiei using Agrobacterium - mediated transformation. Non-pathogenic mutants were identified after screening more than 1000 transformants using path...

364

Antifungal activity of several medicinal plants extracts against the early blight pathogen (Alternaria solani)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity for several medicinal plants against the early blight fungus (Alternaria solani) has been investigated. These plants were Syrian marjoram (Majorana syriaca), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Greek sage (Salvia fruticosa), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus). The inhibitory effect of these extracts on the radial mycelial growth as well as on spore germination was measured in vitro

Saba J. Goussous; Firas M. Abu el-Samen; Ragheb A. Tahhan

2010-01-01

365

Assessment of Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pinus radiata Using Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Dothistroma needle blight is a serious foliar disease in Australian Pinus radiata plantations causing defoliation, decreased productivity and, in extreme cases, tree death. Conventional methods of monitoring forest health such as aerial survey and ground assessments are labor intensive, time consuming, and subjective. Remote sensing provides a synoptic view of the canopy and can indicate areas affected by damaging agents such as pests and pathogens. Hyperspectral airborne remote sensing imagery (CASI-2) was acquired over pine stands in southern New South Wales, Australia which had been ground assessed and ranked on an individual tree basis, according to the extent of Dothistroma needle blight. A series of spectral indices were tested using two different approaches for extracting crown-scale reflectance measurements and relating these to ground-based estimates of severity. Dothistroma needle blight is most severe in the lower crown and statistically significant relationships were found between crown reflectance values and ground estimates using a 'halo' approach (which ignored each tree crown's brightest central pixels). Independent accuracy assessment of the method indicated that the technique could successfully detect three levels of Dothistroma needle blight infection with an accuracy of over 70%. PMID:18943616

Coops, N; Stanford, M; Old, K; Dudzinski, M; Culvenor, D; Stone, C

2003-12-01

366

Introgression and genetic characterization of alien Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alien species are an important source of genetic variability in wheat (Triticum spp.) and carry genes for resistance to numerous pathogens, including Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). The goal of this project was to develop breeder-friendly, FHB-resistant ...

367

Haplotype Structure and Genetic Diversity at Fusarium Head Blight Resistance QTLs in Soft Winter Wheat Germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) have been mapped in wheat. Haplotyping strategies make use of previous QTL mapping and molecular marker information. In our study we selected markers reported to be near FHB resistance QTL mapped in Sumai 3, Wuhan 1 ...

368

Chestnut bark tannin assays and growth of chestnut blight fungus on extracted tannin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannins extracted from the green bark of each of two Chinese, Japanese, and American chestnut trees were assayed in a protein-binding test. Four levels of tannins were added to a buffered, minimal growth medium, and a standard, virulent strain of the chestnut blight fungus was grown. There were only slight differences in protein binding between the extracts from different species.

Sandra L. Anagnostakis

1992-01-01

369

Pantoea applied genomics to understand and improve biocontrol activity against fire blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pantoea agglomerans and P. vagans (ex. Erwinia herbicola) are common epiphytes of pome fruit flowers and three strains (E325, P10c, C9-1) have been commercially developed as effective biocontrol products for managing fire blight (Erwinia amylovora). Antibiotics as a standard, reliable chemical optio...

370

Current progress on genetic interactions of rice with rice blast and sheath blight fungi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analysis of genetic interactions between rice and its pathogenic fungi Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani should lead to a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of host resistance, and the improvement of strategies to manage rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Presently dozens of ri...

371

Development of co-cultivated mixtures of antagonists active against Fusarium head blight of wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multistrain mixtures of biocontrol agents can foster greater and more consistent reductions of plant disease. Several different mixtures of Agricultural Research Service/Ohio State University-discovered antagonists reduced Fusarium head blight (FHB) in field studies. Microbial mixtures commonly ar...

372

Fire blight incidence on Malus sieversii grown in New York and Minnesota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malus sieversii, a wild apple species native to Central Asia, has been recognized as the major progenitor of the domestic apple. This investigation summarizes the natural infection by Erwinia amylovora (fire blight) on 2590 M. sieversii seedlings grown as own-rooted trees. At a USDA orchard in Gen...

373

The TRI101 Story: Engineering Wheat and Barley to Resist Fusarium Head Blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease of wheat and barley in the United States and Canada. The disease process depends on high humidity and the presence of inoculum (fungal spores), and therefore, the amount of disease can vary from year to year wi...

374

Cyclic lipopeptide profile of three Bacillus subtilus strains; antagonists of Fusarium head blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cyclic lipopeptide profile of three Bacillus subtilis strains (AS 43.3, AS 43.4, and OH 131.1) was determined using mass spectroscopy. The strains are antagonists of Gibberella zeae and have been shown to be effective in reducing Fusarium head blight in wheat. Strains AS 43.3 and AS 43.4 produ...

375

NEW FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT RESISTANCE SPRING WHEAT GERMPLASM IDENTIFIED IN THE USDA NATIONAL SMALL GRAIN COLLECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most destructive wheat diseases worldwide. Sources of FHB resistance are limited. The objectives of this study were to screen selected spring wheat accessions in the USDA National Small Grains Collection for FHB reactions using FHB index, visual scabby kernel...

376

The Fusarium graminearum species complex comprises at least 16 phylogenetically distinct head blight pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab of cereals is one of the most economically devastating plant diseases in the world today. FHB outbreaks and epidemics of wheat and barley cause significant reduction in yields; these pathogens also frequently contaminate grain with deoxynivalenol or nivalenol trich...

377

EVALUATION OF WILD HELIANTHUS ANNUUS FOR RESISTANCE TO SEPTORIA LEAF BLIGHT.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate wild Helianthus annuus germplasm for Septoria leaf blight resistance, and to compare the frequency of resistance by geographic region of accession origin in the United States. One hundred twenty-eight wild H. annuus accessions were evaluated in field tr...

378

Mapping quantitative trait loci responsible for resistance to rice sheath blight disease using greenhouse assays  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice sheath blight (RSB) caused by the soil-borne pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most destructive diseases of rice, causing severe losses in yield and quality annually. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for RSB resistance were analyzed using field phenotypic data in literature re...

379

Fine mapping of the Ph-3 gene conferring resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in tomato.  

PubMed

Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is a devastating disease for tomato and potato crops. In the past decades, many late blight resistance (R) genes have been characterized in potato. In contrast, less work has been conducted on tomato. The Ph-3 gene from Solanum pimpinellifolium was introgressed into cultivated tomatoes and conferred broad-spectrum resistance to P. infestans. It was previously assigned to the long arm of chromosome 9. In this study, a high-resolution genetic map covering the Ph-3 locus was constructed using an F2 population of a cross between Solanum lycopersicum CLN2037B (containing Ph-3) and S. lycopersicum LA4084. Ph-3 was mapped in a 0.5 cM interval between two markers, Indel_3 and P55. Eight putative genes were found in the corresponding 74 kb region of the tomato Heinz1706 reference genome. Four of these genes are resistance gene analogs (RGAs) with a typical nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by APAF-1, R proteins, and CED-4 domain. Each RGA showed high homology to the late blight R gene Rpi-vnt1.1 from Solanum venturii. Transient gene silencing indicated that a member of this RGA family is required for Ph-3-mediated resistance to late blight in tomato. Furthermore, this RGA family was also found in the potato genome, but the number of the RGAs was higher than in tomato. PMID:23921955

Zhang, Chunzhi; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Zheng; Sun, Yuyan; Zhou, Longxi; Yang, Yuhong; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Wang, Xiaowu; Huang, Sanwen; Xie, Bingyan; Du, Yongchen; Bai, Yuling; Li, Junming

2013-10-01

380

Prevention of Stem-Break, Browning and Seedling Blight in the Flax Crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

FURTHER to the reference1 made to the prevention of seed-borne diseases of flax by seed treatment, the completion of experimental work for 1940 has given the following results. Although the season was unsuitable for the spread of Colletotrichum Lini in the crop, seedling blight occurred quite commonly in brairds grown from infected seed. It was almost completely eliminated by seed

A. E. Muskett; J. Colhoun

1941-01-01

381

Crystal structure of the effector protein XOO4466 from Xanthomonas oryzae.  

PubMed

Many Gram-negative bacteria deliver their virulence factors into host cells through a secretion system. Those factors, called effector proteins, are involved in the pathogenicity in host cells by interfering with various cellular events. The phytopathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae uses a type III secretion system to inject its effectors, but the functional roles of these proteins remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we determined a crystal structure of XOO4466, an effector from X. oryzae pv. oryzae, and performed a functional analysis. We determined that XOO4466 is similar in sequence to Xanthomonas outer protein Q, a putative nucleoside hydrolase (NH). The overall structure of XOO4466 is homologous to that of NHs, including a metal-binding site, but differs in its oligomeric state and active site topology. Further analysis indicated that antiparallel ?-strands commonly found in NHs adjacent to the active site loop are replaced in XOO4466 with a short loop, causing the active site loop to adopt a conformation distinct from that of NHs. Thus, the catalytic residues emanating from the respective active site loop of NHs are absent in the putative active site of XOO4466. Consistent with these structural features, a functional assay indicated that XOO4466 does not exhibit NH activity and possibly catalyzes yet unknown reactions. PMID:24007778

Yu, Sangheon; Hwang, Ingyu; Rhee, Sangkee

2013-11-01

382

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Xaa-Pro dipeptidase from Xanthomonas campestris.  

PubMed

Xaa-Pro dipeptidase (XPD; prolidase; EC 3.4.13.9) specifically hydrolyzes dipeptides with a prolyl residue at the carboxy-terminus. Xanthomonas spp. possess two different isoforms of XPD (48 and 43?kDa) which share ?24% sequence identity. The XPD of 43?kDa in size (XPD43) from Xanthomonas spp. is unusual as it lacks the strictly conserved tyrosine residue (equivalent to Tyr387 in Escherichia coli aminopeptidase P) that is suggested to be important in the proton-shuttle transfer required for catalysis in the M24B (MEROPS) family. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of XPD43 from X. campestris (GenBank accession No. NP_637763) are reported. Recombinant XPD43 was crystallized using the microbatch-under-oil technique. Diffraction data were collected on the recently commissioned protein crystallography beamline (PX-BL21) at the Indian synchrotron (Indus-2, 2.5?GeV) to 1.83?Å resolution with 100% completeness. The crystal belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.32, b = 105.51, c = 111.35?Å. Two monomers are expected to be present in the asymmetric unit of the crystal, corresponding to a solvent content of 58%. Structural analysis of XPD43 will provide new insights into the role of the conserved residues in catalysis in the M24B family. PMID:25195907

Kumar, Ashwani; Are, Venkata Narayana; Ghosh, Biplab; Agrawal, Utsavi; Jamdar, Sahayog N; Makde, Ravindra D; Sharma, Surinder M

2014-09-01

383

Bacterial Diseases of Minor Importance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several bacteria are reported to attack hop infrequently, including a Corynebacterium spp. and Xanthomonas campestris pv. cannabis. Reports of Pseudomonas cannabina as a pathogen of hop can be found in the popular press, although the limited information on this organism in the scientific literature...

384

Bacterial concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cracks in concrete are inevitable and are one of the inherent weaknesses of concrete. Water and other salts seep through these cracks, corrosion initiates, and thus reduces the life of concrete. So there was a need to develop an inherent biomaterial, a self-repairing material which can remediate the cracks and fissures in concrete. Bacterial concrete is a material, which can successfully remediate cracks in concrete. This technique is highly desirable because the mineral precipitation induced as a result of microbial activities is pollution free and natural. As the cell wall of bacteria is anionic, metal accumulation (calcite) on the surface of the wall is substantial, thus the entire cell becomes crystalline and they eventually plug the pores and cracks in concrete. This paper discusses the plugging of artificially cracked cement mortar using Bacillus Pasteurii and Sporosarcina bacteria combined with sand as a filling material in artificially made cuts in cement mortar which was cured in urea and CaCl2 medium. The effect on the compressive strength and stiffness of the cement mortar cubes due to the mixing of bacteria is also discussed in this paper. It was found that use of bacteria improves the stiffness and compressive strength of concrete. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to document the role of bacteria in microbiologically induced mineral precipitation. Rod like impressions were found on the face of calcite crystals indicating the presence of bacteria in those places. Energy- dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the microbial precipitation on the surface of the crack indicated the abundance of calcium and the precipitation was inferred to be calcite (CaCO3).

Ramakrishnan, Venkataswamy; Ramesh, K. P.; Bang, S. S.

2001-04-01

385

Efficiacy of bumble bee disseminated biological control agents for control of Botrytis Blossom blight of Rabbiteye Blueberry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Botrytis blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea may cause severe crop loss in rabbiteye blueberry, necessitating applications of expensive fungicides. Commercial bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, were tested as vectors of the fungicidal biological control agents (BCAs), Prestop® Gliocladium catenula...

386

Quantifying Genetic Variance for Horizontal Resistance to Late Blight in Potato Breeding Population B3C1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring the genetic variation for horizontal resistance to late blight in the most advanced sources of horizontal resistance to late blight—population B group three cycle one (B3C1)—has been carried out at CIP by assessing the amount of genetic variance for resistance and tuber yield. A random sample of resistant clones from B3C1 were used to obtain progenies according to mating

J. A. Landeo; M. Gastelo; G. Beltran; L. Diaz

2000-01-01

387

Genomic insights into strategies used by Xanthomonas albilineans with its reduced artillery to spread within sugarcane xylem vessels  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonas albilineans causes leaf scald, a lethal disease of sugarcane. X. albilineans exhibits distinctive pathogenic mechanisms, ecology and taxonomy compared to other species of Xanthomonas. For example, this species produces a potent DNA gyrase inhibitor called albicidin that is largely responsible for inducing disease symptoms; its habitat is limited to xylem; and the species exhibits large variability. A first manuscript on the complete genome sequence of the highly pathogenic X. albilineans strain GPE PC73 focused exclusively on distinctive genomic features shared with Xylella fastidiosa—another xylem-limited Xanthomonadaceae. The present manuscript on the same genome sequence aims to describe all other pathogenicity-related genomic features of X. albilineans, and to compare, using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), genomic features of two strains differing in pathogenicity. Results Comparative genomic analyses showed that most of the known pathogenicity factors from other Xanthomonas species are conserved in X. albilineans, with the notable absence of two major determinants of the “artillery” of other plant pathogenic species of Xanthomonas: the xanthan gum biosynthesis gene cluster, and the type III secretion system Hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity). Genomic features specific to X. albilineans that may contribute to specific adaptation of this pathogen to sugarcane xylem vessels were also revealed. SSH experiments led to the identification of 20 genes common to three highly pathogenic strains but missing in a less pathogenic strain. These 20 genes, which include four ABC transporter genes, a methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein gene and an oxidoreductase gene, could play a key role in pathogenicity. With the exception of hypothetical proteins revealed by our comparative genomic analyses and SSH experiments, no genes potentially involved in any offensive or counter-defensive mechanism specific to X. albilineans were identified, supposing that X. albilineans has a reduced artillery compared to other pathogenic Xanthomonas species. Particular attention has therefore been given to genomic features specific to X. albilineans making it more capable of evading sugarcane surveillance systems or resisting sugarcane defense systems. Conclusions This study confirms that X. albilineans is a highly distinctive species within the genus Xanthomonas, and opens new perpectives towards a greater understanding of the pathogenicity of this destructive sugarcane pathogen. PMID:23171051

2012-01-01

388

Structure-Function Analysis of the HrpB2-HrcU Interaction in the Xanthomonas citri Type III Secretion System  

PubMed Central

Bacterial type III secretion systems deliver protein virulence factors to host cells. Here we characterize the interaction between HrpB2, a small protein secreted by the Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri type III secretion system, and the cytosolic domain of the inner membrane protein HrcU, a paralog of the flagellar protein FlhB. We show that a recombinant fragment corresponding to the C-terminal cytosolic domain of HrcU produced in E. coli suffers cleavage within a conserved Asn264-Pro265-Thr266-His267 (NPTH) sequence. A recombinant HrcU cytosolic domain with N264A, P265A, T266A mutations at the cleavage site (HrcUAAAH) was not cleaved and interacted with HrpB2. Furthermore, a polypeptide corresponding to the sequence following the NPTH cleavage site also interacted with HrpB2 indicating that the site for interaction is located after the NPTH site. Non-polar deletion mutants of the hrcU and hrpB2 genes resulted in a total loss of pathogenicity in susceptible citrus plants and disease symptoms could be recovered by expression of HrpB2 and HrcU from extrachromossomal plasmids. Complementation of the ?hrcU mutant with HrcUAAAH produced canker lesions similar to those observed when complemented with wild-type HrcU. HrpB2 secretion however, was significantly reduced in the ?hrcU mutant complemented with HrcUAAAH, suggesting that an intact and cleavable NPTH site in HrcU is necessary for total functionally of T3SS in X. citri subsp. citri. Complementation of the ?hrpB2 X. citri subsp. citri strain with a series of hrpB2 gene mutants revealed that the highly conserved HrpB2 C-terminus is essential for T3SS-dependent development of citrus canker symptoms in planta. PMID:21408079

Cappelletti, Paola A.; dos Santos, Rafael Freitas; do Amaral, Alexandre M.; Homem, Rafael Augusto; dos Santos Souza, Thaís; Machado, Marcos A.; Farah, Chuck S.

2011-01-01

389

Immunoelectron microscopic demonstration of an esterase on the outer membrane of Xanthomonas maltophilia.  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas maltophilia (later synonym of Pseudomonas maltophilia), an ubiquitous species, is known to show proteolytic and lipolytic activities. A cell-bound esterase which hydrolyzes beta-naphthyl acetate during growth has been extracted from a strain isolated from soil. Because of its strongly hydrophobic character, the enzyme could be efficiently solubilized only by Triton X-100. This nonionic detergent must be added in polyacrylamide gels to permit migration. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against the Triton-soluble esterase complex were used to localize the enzyme at the ultrastructural level. Electron microscopy of cell sections of this organism and immunogold labeling demonstrated that the enzyme was located on the outer membrane. Such an envelope-bound esterase may produce assimilable substrates for X. maltophilia which can grow in various environments. Images PMID:2495761

Debette, J; Prensier, G

1989-01-01

390

Similarity between Copper Resistance Genes from Xanthomonas campestris and Pseudomonas syringae  

PubMed Central

Plasmid-borne copper resistance genes from copper-resistant strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria from California, Florida, and Oklahoma shared structural similarities. A strain of X. campestris pv. campestris also contained plasmid-borne copper resistance genes similar to the resistance genes from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. Furthermore, a region of the copper resistance genes from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria 07882 hybridized with copA, the first gene of the copper resistance operon (cop) of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. A copper-inducible protein of similar size to CopA was detected by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis from the wild-type strain 07882 and from the cloned copper resistance genes of 07882 introduced into a copper-sensitive strain of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. A low level of hybridization was observed with chromosomal DNA from other xanthomonads when the copper resistance genes from strain 07882 were used as probes. Images PMID:16348942

Voloudakis, Andreas E.; Bender, Carol L.; Cooksey, Donald A.

1993-01-01

391

Production of monoclonal antibodies to Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli.  

PubMed

The production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (sodium salt) soluble antigens of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola and Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (fuscans strain) is described. MAbs A6-1 and A6-2 produced to Ps. syringae pv. phaseolicola are pathovar specific. Although MAb XP2 produced to X. campestris pv. phaseoli recognized surface antigens of all strains of this pathovar (including fuscans strains) it cross-reacted specifically with X. campestris pv. malvacearum; it did not react with any other known bacteria or unidentified epiphytes from navy bean seed or leaves. The isotype of both MAbs XP2 and A6-1 is IgG3 whereas that of MAb A6-2 is IgG2a. The reactive antigens are thermostable, but their chemical nature has not been determined. PMID:1367453

Wong, W C

1990-06-01

392

Total Synthesis of Albicidin: A Lead Structure from Xanthomonas albilineans for Potent Antibacterial Gyrase Inhibitors.  

PubMed

The peptide antibiotic albicidin, which is synthesized by the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas albilineans, displays remarkable antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. The low amounts of albicidin obtainable from the producing organism or through heterologous expression are limiting factors in providing sufficient material for bioactivity profiling and structure-activity studies. Therefore, we developed a convergent total synthesis route toward albicidin. The unexpectedly difficult formation of amide bonds between the aromatic amino acids was achieved through a triphosgene-mediated coupling strategy. The herein presented synthesis of albicidin confirms the previously determined chemical structure and underlines the extraordinary antibacterial activity of this compound. The synthetic protocol will provide multigram amounts of albicidin for further profiling of its drug properties. PMID:25504839

Kretz, Julian; Kerwat, Dennis; Schubert, Vivien; Grätz, Stefan; Pesic, Alexander; Semsary, Siamak; Cociancich, Stéphane; Royer, Monique; Süssmuth, Roderich D

2015-02-01

393

7alpha-OH epimerisation of bile acids via oxido-reduction with Xanthomonas maltophilia.  

PubMed

The microbial 7alpha-OH epimerisation of cholic, chenodeoxycholic, and 12-ketochenodeoxycholic acids (7alpha-OH bile acids) with Xanthomonas maltophilia CBS 827.97 to corresponding 7beta-OH derivatives with scarcity of oxygen is described. With normal pressure of oxygen the 7-OH oxidation products are obtained. No biotransformations are achieved in anaerobic conditions. The microbial 7alpha-OH epimerisation is achieved by oxidation of 7-OH function and subsequent reduction. Partial purification, in fact, of the enzymatic fraction revealed the presence of two hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDH) alpha- and beta-stereospecific together with a glycocholate hydrolase. On the basis of these results a further application is the microbial reduction of 6alpha-fluoro and 6beta-fluoro-3alpha-hydroxy-7-oxo-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid methyl esters to the corresponding 7alpha-OH and 7beta-OH derivatives. PMID:11728521

Medici, Alessandro; Pedrini, Paola; Bianchini, Ercolina; Fantin, Giancarlo; Guerrini, Alessandra; Natalini, Benedetto; Pellicciari, Roberto

2002-01-01

394

Chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism as adaptive strategies during citrus canker induction by Xanthomonas citri.  

PubMed

The genome of Xanthomonas citri subsp. Citri strain 306 pathotype A (Xac) was completely sequenced more than 10 years; to date, few studies involving functional genomics Xac and its host compatible have been developed, specially related to adaptive events that allow the survival of Xac within the plant. Proteomic analysis of Xac showed that the processes of chemotactic signal transduction and phosphate metabolism are key adaptive strategies during the interaction of a pathogenic bacterium with its plant host. The results also indicate the importance of a group of proteins that may not be directly related to the classical virulence factors, but that are likely fundamental to the success of the initial stages of the infection, such as methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (Mcp) and phosphate specific transport (Pst). Furthermore, the analysis of the mutant of the gene pstB which codifies to an ABC phosphate transporter subunit revealed a complete absence of citrus canker symptoms when inoculated in compatible hosts. We also conducted an in silico analysis which established the possible network of genes regulated by two-component systems PhoPQ and PhoBR (related to phosphate metabolism), and possible transcriptional factor binding site (TFBS) motifs of regulatory proteins PhoB and PhoP, detaching high degree of conservation of PhoB TFBS in 84 genes of Xac genome. This is the first time that chemotaxis signal transduction and phosphate metabolism were therefore indicated to be fundamental to the process of colonization of plant tissue during the induction of disease associated with Xanthomonas genus bacteria. PMID:25403594

Moreira, Leandro Marcio; Facincani, Agda Paula; Ferreira, Cristiano Barbalho; Ferreira, Rafael Marine; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboshi; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Soares, Márcia Regina

2014-11-18

395

Protection of Xanthomonas against arsenic toxicity involves the peroxide-sensing transcription regulator OxyR.  

PubMed

Arsenic has been shown to mediate its toxicity through induced generation of reactive oxygen species. Here, we examined the role of oxidative stress-inducible genes (katA, ahpC and ohr) and their regulators (oxyR and ohrR) in the response to arsenic treatment in a plant pathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xp). Overproduction of peroxide-scavenging enzymes (KatA, AhpCF and Ohr) did not enhance arsenic tolerance in wild-type Xp. Furthermore, inactivation of katA, ahpC, ohr, and ohrR genes had no effect on the level of arsenic resistance. By contrast, an oxyR mutant (Xp oxyR) showed increased sensitivity to both pentavalent arsenate and, to a greater extent, trivalent arsenite. The resistance of cells to arsenite treatment was significantly affected by the level of iron. Cells were 10-fold more sensitive to arsenite killing in the presence of excess iron, while removal of iron by an iron chelator (2,2'-dipyridyl) protected Xanthomonas from arsenite toxicity. The arsenite-sensitive phenotype of Xp oxyR could be complemented by the expression of functional OxyR from a plasmid vector, but not by the expression of other known OxyR-regulated peroxide-scavenging enzymes such as KatA and AhpCF, Ohr and OhrR. The data suggested that as yet unidentified, OxyR-regulated gene(s) are involved in conferring arsenic resistance in Xp. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the peroxide-sensing regulator OxyR is involved in arsenic resistance. PMID:15636745

Sukchawalit, Rojana; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Charoenlap, Nisanart; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

2005-01-01

396

Structural Analysis and Involvement in Plant Innate Immunity of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Lipopolysaccharide*  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) causes citrus canker, provoking defoliation and premature fruit drop with concomitant economical damage. In plant pathogenic bacteria, lipopolysaccharides are important virulence factors, and they are being increasingly recognized as major pathogen-associated molecular patterns for plants. In general, three domains are recognized in a lipopolysaccharide: the hydrophobic lipid A, the hydrophilic O-antigen polysaccharide, and the core oligosaccharide, connecting lipid A and O-antigen. In this work, we have determined the structure of purified lipopolysaccharides obtained from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri wild type and a mutant of the O-antigen ABC transporter encoded by the wzt gene. High pH anion exchange chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrum analysis were performed, enabling determination of the structure not only of the released oligosaccharides and lipid A moieties but also the intact lipopolysaccharides. The results demonstrate that Xac wild type and Xacwzt LPSs are composed mainly of a penta- or tetra-acylated diglucosamine backbone attached to either two pyrophosphorylethanolamine groups or to one pyrophosphorylethanolamine group and one phosphorylethanolamine group. The core region consists of a branched oligosaccharide formed by Kdo2Hex6GalA3Fuc3NAcRha4 and two phosphate groups. As expected, the presence of a rhamnose homo-oligosaccharide as O-antigen was determined only in the Xac wild type lipopolysaccharide. In addition, we have examined how lipopolysaccharides from Xac function in the pathogenesis process. We analyzed the response of the different lipopolysaccharides during the stomata aperture closure cycle, the callose deposition, the expression of defense-related genes, and reactive oxygen species production in citrus leaves, suggesting a functional role of the O-antigen from Xac lipopolysaccharides in the basal response. PMID:21596742

Casabuono, Adriana; Petrocelli, Silvana; Ottado, Jorgelina; Orellano, Elena G.; Couto, Alicia S.

2011-01-01

397

Novel species of Calonectria associated with Eucalyptus leaf blight in Southeast China.  

PubMed

Leaf blight caused by Calonectria spp. is an important disease occurring on Eucalyptus trees grown in plantations of Southeast Asia. Symptoms of leaf blight caused by Calonectria spp. have recently been observed in commercial Eucalyptus plantations in FuJian Province in Southeast China. The aim of this study was to identify these Calonectria spp. employing morphological characteristics, DNA sequence comparisons for the ?-tubulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor-1? gene regions and sexual compatibility. Four Calonectria spp. were identified, including Ca. pauciramosa and three novel taxa described here as Ca. crousiana, Ca. fujianensis and Ca. pseudocolhounii. Inoculation tests showed that all four Calonectria spp. found in this study were pathogenic on two different E. urophylla × E. grandis hybrid clones, commercially utilised in eucalypt plantations in China. PMID:22025800

Chen, S F; Lombard, L; Roux, J; Xie, Y J; Wingfield, M J; Zhou, X D

2011-06-01

398

Bacterial Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Pigment Disorders Blistering Diseases Parasitic Skin Infections Bacterial Skin Infections Fungal Skin Infections Viral Skin Infections Sunlight and Skin Damage Noncancerous Skin Growths Skin Cancers Nail Disorders Topics in Bacterial Skin ...

399

Bacterial Gene Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides detailed instructions for carrying out several laboratory exercises relating to bacterial transformation and conjugation. In this multi-session experiment, students are exposed to various techniques in microbiology, including bacterial transformation and assay and sterile techniques.

Roberta Ellington (Northwestern University; )

1991-01-01

400

Two distinct potato late blight resistance genes from Solanum berthaultii are located on chromosome 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

For breeding potato varieties resistant to late blight, identification of resistance genes to Phytophthora infestans (Rpi genes) is essential. Introduction of Rpi genes from wild Solanum species into cultivated potato is likely to be a good method to achieve durable resistance to P. infestans. In this study, we identified two Rpi genes (Rpi-ber1 and Rpi-ber2) derived from two different accessions of Solanum berthaultii.

Tae-Ho Park; Simon Foster; Gianinna Brigneti; Jonathan D. G. Jones

2009-01-01

401

Accelerating the Transfer of Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat ( Triticum Aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Release of cultivars resistant to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) from our wheat breeding program is hindered more by incidental\\u000a flaws of resistant lines than by a lack of improved resistance. To increase the number of resistant lines to select among,\\u000a we are experimenting with enhancing the fixation of three quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance. This is achieved\\u000a by

J. Thomas; C. Hiebert; D. Somers; R. DePauw; S. Fox; C. McCartney

402

Saturation and comparative mapping of a major Fusarium head blight resistance QTL in tetraploid wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of cultivated wheat worldwide. Partial resistance to FHB has been identified\\u000a in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). However, sources of effective FHB resistance have not been found in durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). A major FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL), Qfhs.ndsu-3AS, was identified on chromosome 3A of T.\\u000a dicoccoides,

Xunfen Chen; Justin D. Faris; Jinguo Hu; Robert W. Stack; Tika Adhikari; Elias M. Elias; Shahryar F. Kianian; Xiwen Cai

2007-01-01

403

Overexpression of defense response genes in transgenic wheat enhances resistance to Fusarium head blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, caused by Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium species, is a major disease problem for wheat production worldwide. To combat this problem, large-scale\\u000a breeding efforts have been established. Although progress has been made through standard breeding approaches, the level of\\u000a resistance attained is insufficient to withstand epidemic conditions. Genetic engineering provides an alternative approach\\u000a to

Caroline A. Mackintosh; Janet Lewis; Lorien E. Radmer; Sanghyun Shin; Shane J. Heinen; Lisa A. Smith; Meagen N. Wyckoff; Ruth Dill-Macky; Conrad K. Evans; Sasha Kravchenko; Gerald D. Baldridge; Richard J. Zeyen; Gary J. Muehlbauer

2007-01-01

404

Toxigenic Fusarium species and Mycotoxins Associated with Head Blight in Small-Grain Cereals in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fusarium species predominantly found associated with Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other small-grain cereals all over Europe are F. graminearum, F. avenaceum and F. culmorum. Among the less frequently encountered species are several others which are less pathogenic or opportunistic, but also toxigenic. These include F. poae, F. cerealisF. equisetiF. sporotrichioidesF. tricinctum and, to a lesser extent,

Antonio Bottalico; Giancarlo Perrone

2002-01-01

405

Resistance in Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium mill. to southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii sacc  

E-print Network

followed by death. Although the heaviest economic losses due to southern blight seem to have been incurred by sugar beet and peanut producers, there have been in? stances in which tomato growers have lost nearly all of a crop. Over a period of years... and Conclusions .............. ............ . ? 73 Bibliography .......................................... 75 TABLES I. Analysis of Three Soil Types in Which Tomato Plants Were Grown to Investigate Influence of Nutrition of the Host Plant on Resistance...

Mohr, Hubert Charles

1955-01-01

406

Data handling and analysis for the 1971 corn blight watch experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall corn blight watch experiment data flow is described and the organization of the LARS/Purdue data center is discussed. Data analysis techniques are discussed in general and the use of statistical multispectral pattern recognition methods for automatic computer analysis of aircraft scanner data is described. Some of the results obtained are discussed and the implications of the experiment on future data communication requirements for earth resource survey systems is discussed.

Anuta, P. E.; Phillips, T. L.

1973-01-01

407

[Erwinia amylovora--the fire blight pathogen of trees in Ukraine].  

PubMed

Niduses of fire blight of fruit and ornamental trees have been found in the Kyiv and Vinnitsa regions of Ukraine. Pathogen Erwinia amylovora was isolated between April and October. The pathogen was often accompanied by bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Artificial infection with a mixture of bacteria E. amylovora and P. syringae pv. syringae accelerates and enhances the disease process in the laboratory. PMID:25199342

Iakovleva, L M; Moroz, S N; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E; Gvozdiak, R I; Patyka, V F

2014-01-01

408

Genome-wide sequencing reveals two major sub-lineages in the genetically monomorphic pathogen xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum.  

PubMed

The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm) is the causal agent of banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW). This disease has devastated economies based on banana and plantain crops (Musa species) in East Africa. Here we use genome-wide sequencing to discover a set of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among East African isolates of Xcm. These SNPs have potential as molecular markers for phylogeographic studies of the epidemiology and spread of the pathogen. Our analysis reveals two major sub-lineages of the pathogen, suggesting that the current outbreaks of BXW on Musa species in the region may have more than one introductory event, perhaps from Ethiopia. Also, based on comparisons of genome-wide sequence data from multiple isolates of Xcm and multiple strains of X. vasicola pathovar vasculorum, we identify genes specific to Xcm that could be used to specifically detect Xcm by PCR-based methods. PMID:24704974

Wasukira, Arthur; Tayebwa, Johnbosco; Thwaites, Richard; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Aritua, Valente; Kubiriba, Jerome; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray; Studholme, David J

2012-01-01

409

Interactions of Xanthomonas type-III effector proteins with the plant ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like pathways  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotes, regulated protein turnover is required during many cellular processes, including defense against pathogens. Ubiquitination and degradation of ubiquitinated proteins via the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) is the main pathway for the turnover of intracellular proteins in eukaryotes. The extensive utilization of the UPS in host cells makes it an ideal pivot for the manipulation of cellular processes by pathogens. Like many other Gram-negative bacteria, Xanthomonas species secrete a suite of type-III effector proteins (T3Es) into their host cells to promote virulence. Some of these T3Es exploit the plant UPS to interfere with immunity. This review summarizes T3E examples from the genus Xanthomonas with a proven or suggested interaction with the host UPS or UPS-like systems and also discusses the apparent paradox that arises from the presence of T3Es that inhibit the UPS in general while others rely on its activity for their function.

Üstün, Suayib; Börnke, Frederik

2014-01-01

410

Rewiring Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade by Positive Feedback Confers Potato Blight Resistance1  

PubMed Central

Late blight, caused by the notorious pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and during the 1840s caused the Irish potato famine and over one million fatalities. Currently, grown potato cultivars lack adequate blight tolerance. Earlier cultivars bred for resistance used disease resistance genes that confer immunity only to some strains of the pathogen harboring corresponding avirulence gene. Specific resistance gene-mediated immunity and chemical controls are rapidly overcome in the field when new pathogen races arise through mutation, recombination, or migration from elsewhere. A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays a pivotal role in plant innate immunity. Here we show that the transgenic potato plants that carry a constitutively active form of MAPK kinase driven by a pathogen-inducible promoter of potato showed high resistance to early blight pathogen Alternaria solani as well as P. infestans. The pathogen attack provoked defense-related MAPK activation followed by induction of NADPH oxidase gene expression, which is implicated in reactive oxygen species production, and resulted in hypersensitive response-like phenotype. We propose that enhancing disease resistance through altered regulation of plant defense mechanisms should be more durable and publicly acceptable than engineering overexpression of antimicrobial proteins. PMID:16407438

Yamamizo, Chihiro; Kuchimura, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Akira; Katou, Shinpei; Kawakita, Kazuhito; Jones, Jonathan D.G.; Doke, Noriyuki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

2006-01-01

411

Identification of QTLs associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (Diaporthe toxica) in Lupinus albus.  

PubMed

Phomopsis blight in Lupinus albus is caused by a fungal pathogen, Diaporthe toxica. It can invade all plant parts, leading to plant material becoming toxic to grazing animals, and potentially resulting in lupinosis. Identifying sources of resistance and breeding for resistance remains the best strategy for controlling Phomopsis and reducing lupinosis risks. However, loci associated with resistance to Phomopsis blight have not yet been identified. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified genomic regions associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (PPB) using a linkage map of L. albus constructed previously from an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Kiev-Mutant (susceptible to PPB) and P27174 (resistant to PPB). Phenotyping was undertaken using a detached pod assay. In total, we identified eight QTLs for resistance to PPB on linkage group (LG) 3, LG6, LG10, LG12, LG17 and LG27 from different phenotyping environments. However, at least one QTL, QTL-5 on LG10 was consistently detected in both phenotyping environments and accounted for up to 28.2% of the total phenotypic variance. The results of this study showed that the QTL-2 on LG3 interacts epistatically with QTL-5 and QTL-6, which map on LG10 and LG12, respectively. PMID:24987293

Cowley, Raymond; Luckett, David J; Ash, Gavin J; Harper, John D I; Vipin, Cina A; Raman, Harsh; Ellwood, Simon

2014-05-01

412

Future Prospects for Ascochyta Blight Resistance Breeding in Cool Season Food Legumes  

PubMed Central

Legume cultivation is strongly hampered by the occurrence of ascochyta blights. Strategies of control have been developed but only marginal successes achieved. Breeding for disease resistance is regarded the most cost efficient method of control. Significant genetic variation for disease resistance exists in most legume crops with numerous germplasm lines maintained, providing an excellent resource for plant breeders. Fast and reliable screening methods have been adjusted to fulfill breeding program needs. However, the complex inheritance controlled quantitatively by multiple genes, has been difficult to manipulate. Successful application of biotechnology to ascochyta blight resistance breeding in legume crops will facilitate a good biological knowledge both of the crops–pathogen interaction and of the mechanisms underlying resistance. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow in most legumes. The limited saturation of the genomic regions bearing putative QTLs in legume crops makes difficult to identify the most tightly linked markers and to determine the accurate position of QTLs. The application of next generation sequencing technologies will contribute to the development of new markers and the identification of candidate genes for ascochyta blight resistance. PMID:22645577

Rubiales, D.; Fondevilla, S.

2012-01-01

413

Conditional QTL underlying resistance to late blight in a diploid potato population.  

PubMed

A large number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to late blight of potato have been reported with a "conventional" method in which each phenotypic trait reflects the cumulative genetic effects for the duration of the disease process. However, as genes controlling response to disease may have unique contributions with specific temporal features, it is important to consider the phenotype as dynamic. Here, using the net genetic effects evidenced at consecutive time points during disease development, we report the first conditional mapping of QTL underlying late blight resistance in potato under five environments in Peru. Six conditional QTL were mapped, one each on chromosome 2, 7 and 12 and three on chromosome 9. These QTL represent distinct contributions to the phenotypic variation at different stages of disease development. By comparison, when conventional mapping was conducted, only one QTL was detected on chromosome 9. This QTL was the same as one of the conditional QTL. The results imply that conditional QTL reflect genes that function at particular stages during the host-pathogen interaction. The dynamics revealed by conditional QTL mapping could contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of late blight resistance and these QTL could be used to target genes for marker development or manipulation to improve resistance. PMID:22274766

Li, Jingcai; Lindqvist-Kreuze, Hannele; Tian, Zhendong; Liu, Jun; Song, Botao; Landeo, Juan; Portal, Leticia; Gastelo, Manuel; Frisancho, Julio; Sanchez, Laura; Meijer, Dennis; Xie, Conghua; Bonierbale, Merideth

2012-05-01

414

Isolation of an insertion sequence (IS1051) from Xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae with potential use for strain identification and characterization.  

PubMed Central

A new insertion sequence was isolated from Xanthomonas campestris pv. dieffenbachiae. Sequence analysis showed that this element is 1,158 bp long and has 15-bp inverted repeat ends containing two mismatches. Comparison of this sequence with sequences in data bases revealed significant homology with Escherichia coli IS5. IS1051, which detected multiple restriction fragment length polymorphisms, was used as a probe to characterize strains from the pathovar dieffenbachiae. Images PMID:7906933

Berthier, Y; Thierry, D; Lemattre, M; Guesdon, J L

1994-01-01

415

Endosymbiosis Formation Between a Nitrogen-Fixing Mix of Bacteria ( Xanthomonas sp. + Arthrobacter sp. ) and Wheat Root Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research attempted to produce para-nodules on wheat roots and to study them by SEM and TEM. The auxin-like 2,4-D (at\\u000a 0.1 ?\\/mL) was used as an abiological nodulation agent. A nitrogen-fixing mixed culture (Arthrobacter sp + Xanthomonas sp) was used to inoculate wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Pameiti Fedina) seedlings that were isolated from typical Sierozem in Turkmen. SEM showed

B. Abbas

416

Genetic and structural characterization of the avirulence gene avrBs3 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The avirulence gene avrBs3 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria was cloned and found to be localized on a self-transmissable plasmid. Genetic analysis of an avrBs3 insertion mutation revealed that avrBs3 constitutes a single locus, specifying the resistant phenotype on pepper plants. Southern blot experiments showed that no DNA sequences homologous to avrBs3 were present in other races of X. c.

Ulla Bonas; Robert E. Stall; Brian Staskawicz

1989-01-01

417

Chromosome Map of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 17 with Locations of Genes Involved in Xanthan Gum Synthesis and Yellow Pigmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

No plasmid was detected in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 17, a strain of the causative agent of black rot in cruciferous plants isolated in Taiwan. Its chromosome was cut by PacI, PmeI, and SwaI into five, two, and six fragments, respectively, and a size of 4.8 Mb was estimated by summing the fragment lengths in these digests. Based on the

YI-HSIUNG TSENG; KA-TIM CHOY; CHIH-HSIN HUNG; NIEN-TSUNG LIN; JANE-YU LIU; CHIH-HONG LOU; BIH-YING YANG; FU-SHYAN WEN; SHU-FEN WENG; JUNG-RUNG WU

418

Acquisition and Evolution of Plant Pathogenesis–Associated Gene Clusters and Candidate Determinants of Tissue-Specificity in Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonas is a large genus of plant-associated and plant-pathogenic bacteria. Collectively, members cause diseases on over 392 plant species. Individually, they exhibit marked host- and tissue-specificity. The determinants of this specificity are unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess potential contributions to host- and tissue-specificity, pathogenesis-associated gene clusters were compared across genomes of eight Xanthomonas strains representing vascular or non-vascular pathogens of rice, brassicas, pepper and tomato, and citrus. The gum cluster for extracellular polysaccharide is conserved except for gumN and sequences downstream. The xcs and xps clusters for type II secretion are conserved, except in the rice pathogens, in which xcs is missing. In the otherwise conserved hrp cluster, sequences flanking the core genes for type III secretion vary with respect to insertion sequence element and putative effector gene content. Variation at the rpf (regulation of pathogenicity factors) cluster is more pronounced, though genes with established functional relevance are conserved. A cluster for synthesis of lipopolysaccharide varies highly, suggesting multiple horizontal gene transfers and reassortments, but this variation does not correlate with host- or tissue-specificity. Phylogenetic trees based on amino acid alignments of gum, xps, xcs, hrp, and rpf cluster products generally reflect strain phylogeny. However, amino acid residues at four positions correlate with tissue specificity, revealing hpaA and xpsD as candidate determinants. Examination of genome sequences of xanthomonads Xylella fastidiosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia revealed that the hrp, gum, and xcs clusters are recent acquisitions in the Xanthomonas lineage. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide insight into the ancestral Xanthomonas genome and indicate that differentiation with respect to host- and tissue-specificity involved not major modifications or wholesale exchange of clusters, but subtle changes in a small number of genes or in non-coding sequences, and/or differences outside the clusters, potentially among regulatory targets or secretory substrates. PMID:19043590

Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; White, Frank F.; Ryan, Robert P.; Dow, J. Maxwell; Rabinowicz, Pablo; Salzberg, Steven L.; Leach, Jan E.; Sonti, Ramesh; Brendel, Volker; Bogdanove, Adam J.

2008-01-01

419

Functional analysis of plant defense suppression and activation by the Xanthomonas core type III effector XopX.  

PubMed

Many phytopathogenic type III secretion effectors (T3Es) have been shown to target and suppress plant immune signaling, but perturbation of the plant immune system by T3Es can also elicit a plant response. XopX is a "core" Xanthomonas T3E that contributes to growth and symptom development during Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe) infection of tomato, but its functional role is undefined. We tested the effect of XopX on several aspects of plant immune signaling. XopX promoted ethylene production and plant cell death (PCD) during Xe infection of susceptible tomato and in transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, which is consistent with its requirement for the development of Xe-induced disease symptoms. Additionally, although XopX suppressed flagellin-induced reactive oxygen species, it promoted the accumulation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) gene transcripts. Surprisingly, XopX co-expression with other PCD elicitors resulted in delayed PCD, suggesting antagonism between XopX-dependent PCD and other PCD pathways. However, we found no evidence that XopX contributed to the suppression of effector-triggered immunity during Xe-tomato interactions, suggesting that XopX's primary virulence role is to modulate PTI. These results highlight the dual role of a core Xanthomonas T3E in simultaneously suppressing and activating plant defense responses. PMID:25338145

Stork, William; Kim, Jung-Gun; Mudgett, Mary Beth

2014-10-22

420

Functional analysis of plant defense suppression and activation by the Xanthomonas core type III effector XopX  

PubMed Central

Many phytopathogenic type III secretion effectors (T3Es) have been shown to target and suppress plant immune signaling, but perturbation of the plant immune system by T3Es can also elicit a plant response. XopX is a “core” Xanthomonas T3E that contributes to growth and symptom development during Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe) infection of tomato, but its functional role is undefined. We tested the effect of XopX on several aspects of plant immune signaling. XopX promoted ethylene production and plant cell death (PCD) during Xe infection of susceptible tomato and in transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, which is consistent with its requirement for the development of Xe-induced disease symptoms. Additionally, although XopX suppressed flagellin-induced reactive oxygen species, it promoted the accumulation of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) gene transcripts. Surprisingly, XopX co-expression with other PCD elicitors resulted in delayed PCD, suggesting antagonism between XopX-dependent PCD and other PCD pathways. However, we found no evidence that XopX contributed to the suppression of effector-triggered immunity during Xe-tomato interactions, suggesting that XopX’s primary virulence role is to modulate PTI. These results highlight the dual role of a core Xanthomonas T3E in simultaneously suppressing and activating plant defense responses. PMID:25338145

Stork, William; Kim, Jung-Gun; Mudgett, Mary Beth

2014-01-01

421

Bacterial moonlighting proteins and bacterial virulence.  

PubMed

Implicit in the central dogma is the hypothesis that each protein gene product has but one function. However, over the past decade, it has become clear that many proteins have one or more unique functions, over-and-above the principal biological action of the specific protein. This phenomenon is now known as protein moonlighting and many well-known proteins such as metabolic enzymes and molecular chaperones are now recognised as moonlighting proteins. A growing number of bacterial species are being found to have moonlighting proteins and the moonlighting activities of such proteins can contribute to bacterial virulence behaviour. The glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) and enolase, and the cell stress proteins: chaperonin 60, Hsp70 and peptidyl prolyl isomerase, are among the most common of the bacterial moonlighting proteins which play a role in bacterial virulence. Moonlighting activities include adhesion and modulation of cell signalling processes. It is likely that only the tip of the bacterial moonlighting iceberg has been sighted and the next decade will bring with it many new discoveries of bacterial moonlighting proteins with a role in bacterial virulence. PMID:22143554

Henderson, Brian; Martin, Andrew

2013-01-01

422

Role of temperature and free moisture in onion flower blight. [Botrytis squamosa; Botrytis cinerea; and Botrytis allii  

SciTech Connect

The cardinal temperatures at which onion umbels were blighted (after inoculation when two-thirds of the florets were open) with Botrytis squamosa, B. cinerea, and B. allii (isolated from blighted onion florets) were near 9, 21, and 27 C for B. squamosa, near 12, 21, and 30 C for B. cinerea, and near 9, 24, and 30 C for B. allii. The cardinal temperatures for mycelial growth (potato-dextrose agar) of B. squamosa, B. cinerea, and B. allii were near 5, 22, and 30 C for each fungus. The cardinal temperatures for conidial germination (on purified water agar) were near 6, 15, and 30 C for B. squamosa; 3, 18, and 33 C for B. cinerea; and 6, 24, and 33 C for B. allii. When the duration of free moisture on umbels after inoculation with the three pathogens was increased from 0 to 96 hr. the percentages of unopened florets, open florets, and immature seed capsules blighted at 21 C were increased significantly. Free moisture durations of 12-24, 6-12, and 6-12 hr were necessary for blighting of unopen florets, open florets, and immature seed capsules, respectively, by each pathogen at 21 C. A positive correlation between the amount of July rainfall and the natural incidence of onion flower blight was observed in Orange County, New York, from 1976 to 1981. 10 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Ramsey, G.R.; Lorbeer, J.W.

1986-06-01

423

Assessment of the SocioEconomic Impact of Late Blight and State-of-the-Art Management in European Organic Potato Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease affecting organic (and conventional) potato production. Under suitable environmental conditions the disease can spread rapidly and it can cause complete crop loss. The extent of damage due to late blight depends on several factors: in organic production systems these factors include climate, choice of variety, soil management

L. Tamm; A. B. Smit; M. Hospers; S. R. M. Janssens; J. S. Buurma; J. P. Molgaard; P. E. Laerke; H. H. Hansen; A. Hermans; L. Bodker; C. Bertrand; J. Lambion; M. R. Finckh; C. Schuler; E. T. Lammerts van Bueren; T. Ruissen; B. J. Nielsen; S. Solberg; B. Speiser; M. S. Wolfe; S. Philips; S. J. Wilcoxon; C. Leifert

2004-01-01

424

Early and late blight potential on Russet Burbank potato as affected by microclimate, cropping systems and irrigation management in North-eastern United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil and irrigation management have been used to optimize crop production; however,their effects on microclimate, development, and potato diseases have not been adequately quantified. The effects of soil, crop, and water management on development of potato early blight and late blight were quantifie...

425

Identification of gene-specific markers for resistance to Erwinia amylovora (fire blight) in Malus (apple) by a functional genomics approach  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). 650 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) associated with fire blight were identified from Ea-challenged apple leaf tissue by suppression subtractive hybrid...

426

Effect of acidic electrolyzed water on the viability of bacterial and fungal plant pathogens and on bacterial spot disease of tomato.  

PubMed

Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), known to have germicidal activity, was obtained after electrolysis of 0.045% aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Freshly prepared AEW (pH 2.3-2.6, oxidation-reduction potential 1007-1025 mV, and free active chlorine concentration 27-35 ppm) was tested in vitro and (or) on tomato foliage and seed surfaces for its effects on the viability of plant pathogen propagules that could be potential seed contaminants. Foliar sprays of AEW were tested against bacterial spot disease of tomato under greenhouse and field conditions. The viability of propagules of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (bacterial spot pathogen), Streptomyces scabies (potato scab pathogen), and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (root rot pathogen) was significantly reduced 4-8 log units within 2 min of exposure to AEW. Immersion of tomato seed from infected fruit in AEW for 1 and 3 min significantly reduced the populations of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria from the surface of the seed without affecting seed germination. Foliar sprays of AEW reduced X. campestris pv. vesicatoria populations and leaf spot severity on tomato foliage in the greenhouse. In the field, multiple sprays of AEW consistently reduced bacterial spot severity on tomato foliage. Disease incidence and severity was also reduced on fruit, but only in 2003. Fruit yield was either enhanced or not affected by the AEW sprays. These results indicate a potential use of AEW as a seed surface disinfectant or contact bactericide. PMID:17110959

Abbasi, P A; Lazarovits, G

2006-10-01

427

First report of the crucifer pathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis causing bacterial blight on radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. We compared a strain isolated from diseased radish (Raphanus sativus) in Germany to pathotypes and additional strains of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis and P. syringae pv. maculicola. We demonstrated that the patho...

428

Influence of genetic background, races of the pathogen and plant parts on evaluation of resistance to bacterial blight of cotton  

E-print Network

for resistance. Bird and Hadley (7) using races 1 and 2, reported, as a result of extensive quantitative genetic studies, that the BT gene was additive in its effect, but no dominance could be measured. They found that resistance given by the B7 gene.... The genes were designated Bl, BN, BS. BI Was from an unknown source, while BN was from Northern Star material and BS from Stormproof No. 1. They pointed out, on the basis of F2 and F3 data, that BN and BS may be the same. Bird (7) stated that the minor...

Pool, William Larry

1967-01-01

429

Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease.  

PubMed

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccA(w), induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B

2014-01-28

430

Small RNA sX13: A Multifaceted Regulator of Virulence in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

Small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) are ubiquitous posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. Using the model plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), we investigated the highly expressed and conserved sRNA sX13 in detail. Deletion of sX13 impinged on Xcv virulence and the expression of genes encoding components and substrates of the Hrp type III secretion (T3S) system. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that sX13 promotes mRNA accumulation of HrpX, a key regulator of the T3S system, whereas the mRNA level of the master regulator HrpG was unaffected. Complementation studies suggest that sX13 acts upstream of HrpG. Microarray analyses identified 63 sX13-regulated genes, which are involved in signal transduction, motility, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation and virulence. Structure analyses of in vitro transcribed sX13 revealed a structure with three stable stems and three apical C-rich loops. A computational search for putative regulatory motifs revealed that sX13-repressed mRNAs predominantly harbor G-rich motifs in proximity of translation start sites. Mutation of sX13 loops differentially affected Xcv virulence and the mRNA abundance of putative targets. Using a GFP-based reporter system, we demonstrated that sX13-mediated repression of protein synthesis requires both the C-rich motifs in sX13 and G-rich motifs in potential target mRNAs. Although the RNA-binding protein Hfq was dispensable for sX13 activity, the hfq mRNA and Hfq::GFP abundance were negatively regulated by sX13. In addition, we found that G-rich motifs in sX13-repressed mRNAs can serve as translational enhancers and are located at the ribosome-binding site in 5% of all protein-coding Xcv genes. Our study revealed that sX13 represents a novel class of virulence regulators and provides insights into sRNA-mediated modulation of adaptive processes in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas. PMID:24068933

Schmidtke, Cornelius; Abendroth, Ulrike; Brock, Juliane; Serrania, Javier; Becker, Anke; Bonas, Ulla

2013-01-01

431

An Xanthomonas citri pathogenicity gene, pthA, pleiotropically encodes gratuitous avirulence on nonhosts.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity gene, pthA, of Xanthomonas citri is required to elicit symptoms of Asiatic citrus canker disease; introduction of pthA into Xanthomonas strains that are mildly pathogenic or opportunistic on citrus confers the ability to induce cankers on citrus (S. Swarup, R. De Feyter, R. H. Brlansky, and D. W. Gabriel, Phytopathology 81:802-809, 1991). The structure and the function of pthA in other xanthomonads and in X. citri were further investigated. When pthA was introduced into strains of X. phaseoli and X. campestris pv. malvacearum (neither pathogenic to citrus), the transconjugants remained nonpathogenic to citrus and elicited a hypersensitive response (HR) on their respective hosts, bean and cotton. In X. c. pv. malvacearum, pthA conferred cultivar-specific avirulence. Structurally, pthA is highly similar to avrBs3 and avrBsP from X. c. pv. vesicatoria and to avrB4, avrb6, avrb7, avrBIn, avrB101, and avrB102 from X. c. pv. malvacearum. Surprisingly, marker-exchanged pthA::Tn5-gusA mutant B21.2 of X. citri specifically lost the ability to induce the nonhost HR on bean, but retained the ability to induce the nonhost HR on cotton. The loss of the ability of B21.2 to elicit an HR on bean was restored by introduction of cloned pthA, indicating that the genetics of the nonhost HR may be the same as that found in homologous interactions involving specific avr genes. In contrast with expectations of homologous HR reactions, however, elimination of pthA function (resulting in loss of HR) did not result in water-soaking or even moderate levels of growth in planta of X. citri on bean; the nonhost HR, therefore, may not be responsible for the "resistance" of bean to X. citri and may not limit the host range of X. citri on bean. The pleiotropic avirulence function of pthA and the heterologous HR of bean to X. citri are both evidently gratuitous. PMID:1421509

Swarup, S; Yang, Y; Kingsley, M T; Gabriel, D W

1992-01-01

432

Root treatment with rhizobacteria antagonistic to Phytophthora blight affects anthracnose occurrence, ripening, and yield of pepper fruit in the plastic house and field.  

PubMed

We previously selected rhizobacterial strains CCR04, CCR80, GSE09, ISE13, and ISE14, which were antagonistic to Phytophthora blight of pepper. In this study, we investigated the effects of root treatment of rhizobacteria on anthracnose occurrence, ripening, and yield of pepper fruit in the plastic house and field in 2008 and 2009. We also examined the effects of volatiles produced by the strains on fruit ripening and on mycelial growth and spore development of Colletotrichum acutatum and Phytophthora capsici in the laboratory, identifying the volatile compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the house tests, all strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose incidence on pepper fruit; strains GSE09 and ISE14 consistently produced higher numbers of pepper fruit or increased the fresh weight of red fruit more than the controls in both years. In the field tests, all strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose occurrence on either green or red pepper fruit; strain ISE14 consistently produced higher numbers or increased fresh weights of red fruit more than the controls in both years. In the laboratory tests, volatiles produced by strains GSE09 and ISE13 only stimulated maturation of pepper fruit from green (unripe) to red (ripe) fruit; the volatiles of certain strains inhibited the growth and development of C. acutatum and P. capsici. On the other hand, GC-MS analysis of volatiles of strains GSE09 and ISE13 revealed 17 distinct compounds in both strains, including decane, dodecane, 1,3-di-tert-butylbenzene, tetradecane, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, and hexadecane. Among these compounds, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol only stimulated fruit ripening and inhibited growth and development of the pathogens. Taken together, strains GSE09 and ISE14 effectively reduced anthracnose occurrence and stimulated pepper fruit ripening and yield, possibly via bacterial volatiles. Therefore, these two strains could be potential agents for controlling Phytophthora blight and anthracnose, and for increasing fruit ripening and yield. To our knowledge, this is the first report of volatiles such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol produced by rhizobacteria being related to both fruit ripening and pathogen inhibition. PMID:21405997

Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Jeong Do; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Ki Deok

2011-06-01

433

Characterization of three linalool synthase genes from Citrus unshiu Marc. and analysis of linalool-mediated resistance against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Penicilium italicum in citrus leaves and fruits.  

PubMed

Three cDNA clones from Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) were isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. CuSTS3-1 and CuSTS3-2 encode linalool synthases and CuSTS4 encodes a nerolidol/linalool synthase. Transcripts of CuSTS3-1, CuSTS3-2 and CuSTS4 were abundant in young fruit at 60 days after flowering (DAF), flowers and leaves, respectively. Treatments with Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC), the causal agent of citrus canker and Penicillium italicum (PI), the cause of post-harvest fruit decay, and wounding up-regulated CuSTS3-1 in fruit and mainly CuSTS4 in leaves. Linalool, citral, geraniol and citronellol showed strong antibacterial and antifungal activities against XCC and PI in vitro, while most other mono-and sesquiterpenes, including limonene and gamma-terpinene, did not. Linalool, used at levels similar to those present in resistant Ponkan mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) leaves, was able to inhibit growth of XCC in vitro. Compared to other five citrus types, linalool accumulated at extraordinarily high levels in Ponkan mandarin leaves and was released at high amounts from their leaves, while it was hardly detectable in the most susceptible species, indicating that linalool biosynthesis and accumulation might be involved in plant defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens and be associated with field resistance to citrus canker. PMID:25443842

Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Rodríguez, Ana; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

2014-12-01

434

The cAMP receptor-like protein CLP is a novel c-di-GMP receptor linking cell-cell signaling to virulence gene expression in Xanthomonas campestris.  

PubMed

Cyclic-di-GMP [bis-(3'-5')-cyclic diguanosine monophosphate] controls a wide range of functions in eubacteria, yet little is known about the underlying regulatory mechanisms. In the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris, expression of a subset of virulence genes is regulated by c-di-GMP and also by the CAP (catabolite activation protein)-like protein XcCLP, a global regulator in the CRP/FNR superfamily. Here, we report structural and functional insights into the interplay between XcCLP and c-di-GMP in regulation of gene expression. XcCLP bound target promoter DNA with submicromolar affinity in the absence of any ligand. This DNA-binding capability was abrogated by c-di-GMP, which bound to XcCLP with micromolar affinity. The crystal structure of XcCLP showed that the protein adopted an intrinsically active conformation for DNA binding. Alteration of residues of XcCLP implicated in c-di-GMP binding through modeling studies caused a substantial reduction in binding affinity for the nucleotide and rendered DNA binding by these variant proteins insensitive to inhibition by c-di-GMP. Together, these findings reveal the structural mechanism behind a novel class of c-di-GMP effector proteins in the CRP/FNR superfamily and indicate that XcCLP regulates bacterial virulence gene expression in a manner negatively controlled by the c-di-GMP concentrations. PMID:20004667

Chin, Ko-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Chung; Tu, Zhi-Le; Chen, Chih-Hua; Tseng, Yi-Hsiung; Yang, Jinn-Moon; Ryan, Robert P; McCarthy, Yvonne; Dow, J Maxwell; Wang, Andrew H-J; Chou, Shan-Ho

2010-02-26

435

Characterization of transcription organization and analysis of unique expression patterns of an alkyl hydroperoxide reductase C gene (ahpC) and the peroxide regulator operon ahpF-oxyR-orfX from Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli.  

PubMed

We have analyzed the transcription organization of ahpC, ahpF, oxyR, and orfX from Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. ahpC was transcribed as a monocistronic 0.6-kb mRNA, while ahpF-oxyR-orfX were transcribed as a polycistronic approximately 3.0-kb-long mRNA. The novel transcription organization of these genes has not observed in other bacteria. Western analysis showed that oxidants (peroxides and superoxide anions), a thiol reagent (N-ethylmaleimide), and CdCl2 caused large increases in the steady-state level of AhpC. Growth at alkaline pH also moderately induced AhpC accumulation. Thermal and osmotic stresses did not alter the levels of AhpC. Northern blotting results confirmed that oxidant- and CdCl2-induced AhpC accumulation was due to increased levels of ahpC transcripts. Analysis of oxyR expression revealed a unique pattern. Unlike other bacterial systems, peroxides and a superoxide generator induced accumulation of OxyR. Northern blotting results confirmed that these oxidants induced expression of oxyR operon. This novel regulatory pattern could be generally important. The transcription organization and patterns of chemicals and stress induction of ahpC and oxyR differed from those of other bacteria and are likely to be important for X. campestris pv. phaseoli survival during exposure to oxidants. PMID:9190811

Mongkolsuk, S; Loprasert, S; Whangsuk, W; Fuangthong, M; Atichartpongkun, S

1997-06-01

436

Leaf microbiota in an agroecosystem: spatiotemporal variation in bacterial community composition on field-grown lettuce.  

PubMed

The presence, size and importance of bacterial communities on plant leaf surfaces are widely appreciated. However, information is scarce regarding their composition and how it changes along geographical and seasonal scales. We collected 106 samples of field-grown Romaine lettuce from commercial production regions in California and Arizona during the 2009-2010 crop cycle. Total bacterial populations averaged between 10(5) and 10(6) per gram of tissue, whereas counts of culturable bacteria were on average one (summer season) or two (winter season) orders of magnitude lower. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 88 samples revealed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the most abundantly represented phyla. At the genus level, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Massilia, Arthrobacter and Pantoea were the most consistently found across samples, suggesting that they form the bacterial 'core' phyllosphere microbiota on lettuce. The foliar presence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, which is the causal agent of bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, correlated positively with the relative representation of bacteria from the genus Alkanindiges, but negatively with Bacillus, Erwinia and Pantoea. Summer samples showed an overrepresentation of Enterobacteriaceae sequences and culturable coliforms compared with winter samples. The distance between fields or the timing of a dust storm, but not Romaine cultivar, explained differences in bacterial community composition between several of the fields sampled. As one of the largest surveys of leaf surface microbiology, this study offers new insights into the extent and underlying causes of variability in bacterial community composition on plant leaves as a function of time, space and environment. PMID:22534606

Rastogi, Gurdeep; Sbodio, Adrian; Tech, Jan J; Suslow, Trevor V; Coaker, Gitta L; Leveau, Johan H J

2012-10-01

437

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris gum Mutants: Effects on Xanthan Biosynthesis and Plant Virulence  

PubMed Central

Xanthan is an industrially important exopolysaccharide produced by the phytopathogenic, gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. It is composed of polymerized pentasaccharide repeating units which are assembled by the sequential addition of glucose-1-phosphate, glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid, and mannose on a polyprenol phosphate carrier (L. Ielpi, R. O. Couso, and M. A. Dankert, J. Bacteriol. 175:2490–2500, 1993). A cluster of 12 genes in a region designated xpsI or gum has been suggested to encode proteins involved in the synthesis and polymerization of the lipid intermediate. However, no experimental evidence supporting this suggestion has been published. In this work, from the biochemical analysis of a defined set of X. campestris gum mutants, we report experimental data for assigning functions to the products of the gum genes. We also show that the first step in the assembly of the lipid-linked intermediate is severely affected by the combination of certain gum and non-gum mutations. In addition, we provide evidence that the C-terminal domain of the gumD gene product is sufficient for its glucosyl-1-phosphate transferase activity. Finally, we found that alterations in the later stages of xanthan biosynthesis reduce the aggressiveness of X. campestris against the plant. PMID:9537354

Katzen, Federico; Ferreiro, Diego U.; Oddo, Cristian G.; Ielmini, M. Verónica; Becker, Anke; Pühler, Alfred; Ielpi, Luis

1998-01-01

438

At least two separate gene clusters are involved in albicidin production by Xanthomonas albilineans.  

PubMed Central

Transposon mutagenesis was used to obtain mutations affecting production of the toxin albicidin in Xanthomonas albilineans, which causes leaf scald disease of sugarcane and is also pathogenic to corn. Transposon Tn5-gusA inserted randomly into genomic DNA of X. albilineans Xa23R1 at a frequency of 10(-4) to 10(-5) per recipient after conjugal transfer from Escherichia coli. Fifty prototrophic mutants defective in albicidin production were isolated from 7,100 Tn5-gusA insertional derivatives tested for toxin production by an antibiosis bioassay. EcoRI fragments containing Tn5 flanking sequences from two mutants (AM15 and AM40) were cloned and used to probe a wild-type Xa23R1 DNA library by colony hybridization. Nine cosmids showed homology to the AM15 probe, and six showed homology to the AM40 probe. Four cosmid clones hybridized to both probes. Forty-five of the 50 defective mutants were restored to albicidin production with two overlapping cosmid clones. Restriction mapping showed that these mutants span a genomic region of about 48 kb. At least one other gene cluster is also involved in albicidin production in Xa23R1. DNA fragments from the 48-kb cluster proved to be very specific to X. albilineans. Some mutants affected in albicidin production retain their ability to colonize sugarcane cultivated in vitro. PMID:8755889

Rott, P C; Costet, L; Davis, M J; Frutos, R; Gabriel, D W

1996-01-01

439

Rice cationic peroxidase accumulates in xylem vessels during incompatible interactions with Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae.  

PubMed

A cationic peroxidase, PO-C1 (molecular mass 42 kD, isoelectric point 8.6), which is induced in incompatible interactions between the vascular pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae and rice (Oryza sativa L.), was purified. Amino acid sequences from chemically cleaved fragments of PO-C1 exhibited a high percentage of identity with deduced sequences of peroxidases from rice, barley, and wheat. Polyclonal antibodies were raised to an 11-amino acid oligopeptide (POC1a) that was derived from a domain where the sequence of the cationic peroxidase diverged from other known peroxidases. The anti-POC1a antibodies reacted only with a protein of the same mobility as PO-C1 in extracellular and guttation fluids from plants undergoing incompatible responses collected at 24 h after infection. In the compatible responses, the antibodies did not detect PO-C1 until 48 h after infection. Immunoelectron microscopy was used to demonstrate that PO-C1 accumulated within the apoplast of mesophyll cells and within the cell walls and vessel lumen of xylem elements of plants undergoing incompatible interactions. PMID:7770527

Young, S A; Guo, A; Guikema, J A; White, F F; Leach, J E

1995-04-01

440

Rice cationic peroxidase accumulates in xylem vessels during incompatible interactions with Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae.  

PubMed Central

A cationic peroxidase, PO-C1 (molecular mass 42 kD, isoelectric point 8.6), which is induced in incompatible interactions between the vascular pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae and rice (Oryza sativa L.), was purified. Amino acid sequences from chemically cleaved fragments of PO-C1 exhibited a high percentage of identity with deduced sequences of peroxidases from rice, barley, and wheat. Polyclonal antibodies were raised to an 11-amino acid oligopeptide (POC1a) that was derived from a domain where the sequence of the cationic peroxidase diverged from other known peroxidases. The anti-POC1a antibodies reacted only with a protein of the same mobility as PO-C1 in extracellular and guttation fluids from plants undergoing incompatible responses collected at 24 h after infection. In the compatible responses, the antibodies did not detect PO-C1 until 48 h after infection. Immunoelectron microscopy was used to demonstrate that PO-C1 accumulated within the apoplast of mesophyll cells and within the cell walls and vessel lumen of xylem elements of plants undergoing incompatible interactions. PMID:7770527

Young, S A; Guo, A; Guikema, J A; White, F F; Leach, J E

1995-01-01

441

Inheritance of Race-Specific Resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in Brassica Genomes.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The inheritance of resistance to three Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris races was studied in crosses between resistant and susceptible lines of Brassica oleracea (C genome), B. carinata (BC genome), and B. napus (AC genome). Resistance to race 3 in the B. oleracea doubled haploid line BOH 85c and in PI 436606 was controlled by a single dominant locus (Xca3). Resistance to races 1 and 3 in the B. oleracea line Badger Inbred-16 was quantitative and recessive. Strong resistance to races 1 and 4 was controlled by a single dominant locus (Xca1) in the B. carinata line PI 199947. This resistance probably originates from the B genome. Resistance to race 4 in three B. napus lines, cv. Cobra, the rapid cycling line CrGC5, and the doubled haploid line N-o-1, was controlled by a single dominant locus (Xca4). A set of doubled haploid lines, selected from a population used previously to develop a restriction fragment length polymorphism map, was used to map this locus. Xca4 was positioned on linkage group N5 of the B. napus A genome, indicating that this resistance originated from B. rapa. Xca4 is the first major locus to be mapped that controls race-specific resistance to X. campestris pv. campestris in Brassica spp. PMID:18944224

Vicente, J G; Taylor, J D; Sharpe, A G; Parkin, I A P; Lydiate, D J; King, G J

2002-10-01

442

Location and cloning of the ketal pyruvate transferase gene of Xanthomonas campestris.  

PubMed Central

Genes required for xanthan polysaccharide synthesis (xps) are clustered in a DNA region of 13.5 kb in the chromosome of Xanthomonas campestris. Plasmid pCHC3 containing a 12.4-kb insert of xps genes has been suggested to include a gene involved in the pyruvylation of xanthan gum (N.E. Harding, J.M. Cleary, D.K. Cabañas, I. G. Rosen, and K. S. Kang, J. Bacteriol. 169:2854-2861, 1987). An essential step toward understanding the biosynthesis of xanthan gum and to enable genetic manipulation of xanthan structure is the determination of the biochemical function encoded by the xps genes. On the basis of biochemical characterization of an X. campestris mutant which produces pyruvate-free xanthan gum, complementation studies, and heterologous expression, we have identified the gene coding for the ketal pyruvate transferase (kpt) enzyme. This gene was located on a 1.4-kb BamHI fragment of pCHC3 and cloned in the broad-host-range cloning vector pRK404. An X. campestris kpt mutant was constructed by mini-Mu(Tetr) mutagenesis of the cloned gene and then by recombination of the mutation into the chromosome of the wild-type strain. PMID:1657892

Marzocca, M P; Harding, N E; Petroni, E A; Cleary, J M; Ielpi, L

1991-01-01

443

Cloning and characterization of the glutamate 1-semialdehyde aminomutase gene from Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli.  

PubMed

The gene from Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli for glutamate 1-semialdehyde (GSA) aminomutase, which is involved in the C5 pathway for synthesis of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), was cloned onto a multicopy plasmid, pUC18, by the complementation of an ALA-deficient mutant (hemL) of Escherichia coli. Subcloning of deletion fragments from the initial 3.5-kb chromosomal fragment allowed the isolation of a 1.7-kb fragment which could complement the hemL mutation. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 1.7-kb DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame (ORF) that is located downstream from a potential promoter sequence and a ribosome-binding site. The ORF encodes a polypeptide of 429 amino acid residues, and the deduced molecular mass of this polypeptide is 45,043 Da. The amino acid sequence shows a high degree of homology to the HemL proteins from other organisms, and a putative binding site for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate is conserved. PMID:7763385

Murakami, K; Korbsrisate, S; Asahara, N; Hashimoto, Y; Murooka, Y

1993-01-01

444

Enhanced fructooligosaccharides and inulinase production by a Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli KM 24 mutant.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas campestris pv phaseoli produced an extracellular endoinulinase (9.24 +/- 0.03 U mL(-1)) in an optimized medium comprising of 3% sucrose and 2.5% tryptone. X. campestris pv. phaseoli was further subjected to ethylmethanesulfonate mutagenesis and the resulting mutant, X. campestris pv. phaseoli KM 24 demonstrated inulinase production of 22.09 +/- 0.03 U mL(-1) after 18 h, which was 2.4-fold higher than that of the wild type. Inulinase production by this mutant was scaled up using sucrose as a carbon source in a 5-L fermenter yielding maximum volumetric (21,865 U L(-1) h(-1)) and specific (119,025 U g(-1) h(-1)) productivities of inulinase after 18 h with an inulinase/invertase ratio of 2.6. A maximum FOS production of 11.9 g L(-1) h(-1) and specific productivity of 72 g g(-1) h(-1) FOS from inulin were observed in a fermenter, when the mutant was grown on medium containing 3% inulin and 2.5% tryptone. The detection of mono- and oligosaccharides in inulin hydrolysates by TLC analysis indicated the presence of an endoinulinase. This mutant has potential for large-scale production of inulinase and fructooligosaccharides. PMID:19130092

Naidoo, Kameshnee; Ayyachamy, Manimaran; Permaul, Kugen; Singh, Suren

2009-08-01

445

Phenotypic Switching Affecting Chemotaxis, Xanthan Production, and Virulence in Xanthomonas campestris.  

PubMed

The chemotaxis towards sucrose and yeast extract of nine strains of Xanthomonas campestris representing pathovars campestris, armoraciae, translucens, vesicatoria, and pelargonii was analyzed by using swarm plates. Unexpectedly, each of these strains formed small or reduced swarms typical of nonmotile or nonchemotactic bacteria. With time, however, chemotactic cells appeared on the swarm plates as blebs of bacteria. These cells were strongly chemotactic and were concomitantly deficient in exopolysaccharide production. The switch from the wild type (exopolysaccharide producing and nonchemotactic) to the swarmer type (exopolysaccharide deficient and chemotactic) appeared irreversible ex planta in bacteriological medium. However, in radish leaves swarmer-type strains of X. campestris pv. campestris were able to revert to the wild type. Swarmer-type derivatives of two X. campestris pv. campestris wild-type isolates showed reduced virulence and growth in the host plants cauliflower and radish. However, exocellular complementation of X. campestris pv. campestris Hrp (nonpathogenic) mutant was achieved by coinoculation with a swarmer-type strain. PMID:16348384

Kamoun, S; Kado, C I

1990-12-01

446

A cyclic GMP-dependent signalling pathway regulates bacterial phytopathogenesis.  

PubMed

Cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) is a second messenger whose role in bacterial signalling is poorly understood. A genetic screen in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris (Xcc) identified that XC_0250, which encodes a protein with a class III nucleotidyl cyclase domain, is required for cyclic GMP synthesis. Purified XC_0250 was active in cyclic GMP synthesis in vitro. The linked gene XC_0249 encodes a protein with a cyclic mononucleotide-binding (cNMP) domain and a GGDEF diguanylate cyclase domain. The activity of XC_0249 in cyclic di-GMP synthesis was enhanced by addition of cyclic GMP. The isolated cNMP domain of XC_0249 bound cyclic GMP and a structure-function analysis, directed by determination of the crystal structure of the holo-complex, demonstrated the site of cyclic GMP binding that modulates cyclic di-GMP synthesis. Mutation of either XC_0250 or XC_0249 led to a reduced virulence to plants and reduced biofilm formation in vitro. These findings describe a regulatory pathway in which cyclic GMP regulates virulence and biofilm formation through interaction with a novel effector that directly links cyclic GMP and cyclic di-GMP signalling. PMID:23881098

An, Shi-Qi; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Febrer, Melanie; McCarthy, Yvonne; Yang, Jauo-Guey; Liu, Chung-Liang; Swarbreck, David; Rogers, Jane; Maxwell Dow, J; Chou, Shan-Ho; Ryan, Robert P

2013-09-11

447

Molecular Variability in North Indian Isolates of Cylindrocladium quinquieseptatum Causing Eucalyptus Leaf and Seedling Blight.  

PubMed

Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum has been considered as the most destructive pathogen of Eucalyptus nurseries and plantations in north India. Genetic resistance has not been determined against this disease in Eucalyptus and genetic diversity among the fungal population in northern India is not known. Seventy three isolates from infected leaves and twigs of Eucalyptus were collected from different northern Indian state and analyzed through RAPD-PCR for screening genetic diversity. The UPGMA cluster analysis score of 284 loci permitted identification of 11 population lines and an outlier. This molecular variability prevalent among the north Indian population of the pathogen can used in identifying Cylindrocladium leaf and seedling blight resistant Eucalyptus germplasm. PMID:23729872

Mohanty, Partha Sarathi; Pandey, Amit; Arya, Pooja; Harsh, N S K

2012-06-01

448

Variation among strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vasculorum from Mauritius and other countries based on fatty acid analysis.  

PubMed

Fatty acid profiling was used to study variation amongst strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vasculorum (Xcv). They could be divided into five groups using cellular fatty acid profiles. Group A strains represent a new and little known taxon and all came from plants of broom bamboo (Thysanolaena maxima) from Mauritius. Group B strains included the Xcv pathotype reference strain and were from palms, broom bamboo and sugarcane from Mauritius, Reunion and Australia. Group C contained southern African and Malagasy strains from sugarcane and maize, together with X. campestris pv. holcicola strain. No Mascarene strains fell into this group. Group D strains isolated from sugarcane, maize and royal palm (Roystonea regia) were from Mauritius and Reunion, the earliest known strains coming from Réunion. These groups represented in the Mascarene Islands possibly belong to three different Xanthomonas species. A further Group E comprised one Xcv strain (NCPPB 182) from Puerto Rico, one X. vasicola pv. holcicola strain plus 6 other unclassified Xanthomonas strains causing red stripe disease symptoms in sugarcane. Three of these groups occur on Mauritius and two occur on Réunion. Group B strains originally caused serious problems in noble canes. As resistant interspecific hybrids were introduced, group D strains appeared in Mauritius possibly being introduced from Reunion but having similar host ranges within the Gramineae and Palmae. The findings that 3 of these groups (A, B, D) can cause gumming disease in a grass species (T. maxima) and that 2 of them (B, D) also cause gumming disease in sugar cane (Gramineae) and palms (Palmae) is unusual. PMID:10879989

Dookun, A; Stead, D E; Autrey, L J

2000-04-01

449

Genomic Characterization of the Intron-Containing T7-Like Phage phiL7 of Xanthomonas campestris? †  

PubMed Central

The lytic phage phiL7, which morphologically belongs to the Siphoviridae family, infects Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Nucleotide sequence analysis has revealed that phiL7 contains a linear double-stranded DNA genome (44,080 bp, 56% G+C) with a 3?-protruding cos site (5?-TTACCGGAC-3?) and 59 possible genes. Among the deduced proteins, 32 have homologs with known functions and 18 show no database similarities; moreover, the genes encoding these 18 proteins mostly have varying G+C contents and form clusters dispersed along the genome. Only 39 genes have sequences related (27% to 78%) to those of sequenced genes of X. oryzae pv. oryzae phages, although the genome size and architecture of these Xanthomonas phages are similar. These findings suggest that phiL7 acquired genes by horizontal transfer, followed by evolution via various types of mutations. Major differences were found between phiL7 and the X. oryzae pv. oryzae phages: (i) phiL7 has a group I intron inserted in the DNA polymerase gene, the first such intron observed in Xanthomonas phages; (ii) although infection of phiL7 exerted inhibition to the host RNA polymerase, similar to the situations in X. oryzae pv. oryzae phages Xp10 and Xop411, sequence analysis did not identify a homologue of the Xp10 p7 that controls the shift from host RNA polymerase (RNAP) to viral RNAP during transcription; and (iii) phiL7 lacks the tail fiber protein gene that exhibits domain duplications thought to be important for host range determination in OP1, and sequence analysis suggested that p20 (tail protein III) instead has the potential to play this role. PMID:19854925

Lee, Chia-Ni; Lin, Juey-Wen; Weng, Shu-Fen; Tseng, Yi-Hsiung

2009-01-01

450

7, 787822, 2010 Increased bacterial  

E-print Network

BGD 7, 787­822, 2010 Increased bacterial growth efficiency with environmental variability M if available. Increased bacterial growth efficiency with environmental variability: results from DOC­822, 2010 Increased bacterial growth efficiency with environmental variability M. Eichinger et al. Title

Poggiale, Jean-Christophe

451

Potential effects of diurnal temperature oscillations on potato late blight with special reference to climate change.  

PubMed

Global climate change will have effects on diurnal temperature oscillations besides average temperatures. Studies on potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) development have not considered daily temperature oscillations. We hypothesize that growth and development rates of P. infestans would be less influenced by change in average temperature as the magnitude of fluctuations in daily temperatures increases. We investigated the effects of seven constant (10, 12, 15, 17, 20, 23, 27°C) and diurnally oscillating temperatures (±5°C and ±10°C) around the same means on number of lesions, incubation period, latent period, radial lesion growth rate and sporulation intensity on detached potato leaves inoculated with two P. infestans isolates from clonal lineages US-8 and US-23. A four parameter thermodynamic model was used to describe relationships between temperature and disease development measurements. Incubation and latency progression accelerated with increasing oscillations at low mean temperatures, but slowed down with increasing oscillations at high mean temperatures (P<0.005), as hypothesized. Infection efficiency, lesion growth rate and sporulation increased under small temperature oscillations compared to constant temperatures but decreased when temperature oscillations were large. Thus, diurnal amplitude in temperature should be considered in models of potato late blight, particularly when predicting effects of global climate change on disease development. PMID:25140388

Shakya, Shankar Kaji; Goss, Erica M; Dufault, Nicholas S; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

2014-08-20

452

Non-target effects of transgenic blight-resistant American chestnut (Fagales: Fagaceae) on insect herbivores.  

PubMed

American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen], a canopy dominant species across wide swaths of eastern North America, was reduced to an understory shrub after introduction of the blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr] in the early 1900s. Restoration of American chest