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1

Dominant gene for common bean resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The common bacterial blight pathogen [Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap)] is a limiting factor for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide and resistance to the pathogen in most commercial cultivars is inadequate. Variability in virulence of the bacterial pathogen has been ob...

2

Dominant gene for common bean resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common bacterial blight pathogen [Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap)] is a limiting factor for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide and resistance to the pathogen in most commercial cultivars is inadequate. Variability in virulence\\u000a of the bacterial pathogen has been observed in strains isolated from Puerto Rico and Central America. A few common bean lines\\u000a show a differential

Mildred Zapata; James S. Beaver; Timothy G. Porch

2011-01-01

3

Spatial and Temporal Analyses of Bacterial Blight of Onion Caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Bacterial blight of onion is a severe disease, which emerged over the past decade in several onion-producing areas. This disease currently is observed in both the Old and New Worlds. Although the causative agent, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is potentially seedborne, seed transmission and significance of seedborne initial inoculum for the development of bacterial blight of onion previously has not been assessed. This article describes experimental work designed to evaluate the biological importance of seedborne X. axonopodis pv. allii as an initial inoculum source, and examine the temporal and spatial dynamics of the disease. Over 3 years, outbreaks of bacterial blight of onion always were induced in experimental plots sown with naturally contaminated seed lots, with a contamination rate determined as 0.04%. Analyses of disease patterns indicated a likely seedborne origin for the inoculum associated with the early stages of epidemics. Spatial analyses performed with several statistical methods indicated aggregated patterns of disease incidence data. Primary foci enlarged over time, and a few distinct secondary foci sometimes were established after occurrence of wind-driven rains (with gusts up to 15 m s(-1)). Distances between primary and secondary foci ranged from less than 1 m (satellite foci) to 25 m. It remains possible that longdistance dispersal of inoculum was at least partly involved in the later stages of epidemics. PMID:18943536

Roumagnac, P; Pruvost, O; Chiroleu, F; Hughes, G

2004-02-01

4

Resistance to common bacterial blight in Phaseolus vulgaris L. recombinant inbred lines under natural infection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the main causes of poor yield in common beans are fungal, viral and bacterial diseases. Common bacterial blight, caused\\u000a by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is one of the major bacterial diseases leading to significant losses in Brazil. Chemical control is ineffective, therefore,\\u000a the use of resistant varieties becomes an interesting alternative. The objective of the present work was

Claudia Fortes Ferreira; Messias Gonzaga Pereira; Amaury da Silva dos Santos; Rosana Rodrigues; Ricardo Enrique Bressan-Smith; Alexandre PioViana; R. Figueiredo Daher

2003-01-01

5

Metabolomic and transcriptomic analysis of the rice response to the bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), gives rise to devastating crop losses in rice. Disease resistant rice cultivars are the most economical way to combat the\\u000a disease. The TP309 cultivar is susceptible to infection by Xoo strain PXO99. A transgenic variety, TP309_Xa21, expresses the pattern recognition receptor Xa21, and is resistant. PXO99?raxST, a strain lacking

Theodore R. Sana; Steve Fischer; Gert Wohlgemuth; Anjali Katrekar; Ki-hong Jung; Pam C. Ronald; Oliver Fiehn

2010-01-01

6

XANTHOMONAS LEAF BLIGHT OF ONION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas leaf blight, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is a common foliar disease of onion. This extension bulletin presents a review of disease symptomology, etiology, epidemiology, and management. The association of environment, host, and cultural and disease severity ...

7

Inheritance of high levels of resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas Axonopodis pv. Phaseoli in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common bacterial blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap) is an important biotic factor limiting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. A few interspecific bean breeding lines such as VAX 6 exhibit a high level of resistance to a wide range of Xap strains repr...

8

Breeding Rice Cultivars Resistant to Bacterial Leaf Blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. oryzae) in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) represents one of the most destructive rice diseases in Vietnam. Yield losses in severely infested\\u000a fields range from 20 to 65%. Various kinds of chemicals have been tested to control BLB but no effective chemical control\\u000a can yet be recommended for practical use. Varietal resistance, however, is found effective. Much effort has been devoted to\\u000a the

Ta Minh Son

9

AN UPDATE ON XANTHOMONAS LEAF BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas leaf blight, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is a common foliar disease of onion. Environmental, host, and cultural factors affect the severity of the disease, but reductions in yield of 20% or greater are common. This article presents a review of disease symp...

10

Metabolomic and transcriptomic analysis of the rice response to the bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

PubMed Central

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), gives rise to devastating crop losses in rice. Disease resistant rice cultivars are the most economical way to combat the disease. The TP309 cultivar is susceptible to infection by Xoo strain PXO99. A transgenic variety, TP309_Xa21, expresses the pattern recognition receptor Xa21, and is resistant. PXO99?raxST, a strain lacking the raxST gene, is able to overcome Xa21-mediated immunity. We used a single extraction solvent to demonstrate comprehensive metabolomics and transcriptomics profiling under sample limited conditions, and analyze the molecular responses of two rice lines challenged with either PXO99 or PXO99?raxST. LC–TOF raw data file filtering resulted in better within group reproducibility of replicate samples for statistical analyses. Accurate mass match compound identification with molecular formula generation (MFG) ranking of 355 masses was achieved with the METLIN database. GC–TOF analysis yielded an additional 441 compounds after BinBase database processing, of which 154 were structurally identified by retention index/MS library matching. Multivariate statistics revealed that the susceptible and resistant genotypes possess distinct profiles. Although few mRNA and metabolite differences were detected in PXO99 challenged TP309 compared to mock, many differential changes occurred in the Xa21-mediated response to PXO99 and PXO99?raxST. Acetophenone, xanthophylls, fatty acids, alkaloids, glutathione, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthetic pathways were affected. Significant transcriptional induction of several pathogenesis related genes in Xa21 challenged strains, as well as differential changes to GAD, PAL, ICL1 and Glutathione-S-transferase transcripts indicated limited correlation with metabolite changes under single time point global profiling conditions. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11306-010-0218-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20676379

Fischer, Steve; Wohlgemuth, Gert; Katrekar, Anjali; Jung, Ki-hong; Ronald, Pam C.

2010-01-01

11

Testing the model for a dominant resistance gene expresed on leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris F2 (0313-58 X Rosada Nativa) to the common bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Phaseoli  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The common bean bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, is a limiting factor for bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, production worldwide and resistance to the pathogen in commercial varieties is inadequate. To test the hypothesis of the presence of strain specific genes for resistance...

12

Rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae produces multiple DSF-family signals in regulation of virulence factor production  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight disease. Xoo produces a range of virulence factors, including EPS, extracellular enzyme, iron-chelating siderophores, and type III-secretion dependent effectors, which are collectively essential for virulence. Genetic and genomics evidence suggest that Xoo might use the diffusible signal factor (DSF) type quorum sensing (QS) system to regulate the virulence factor production. However, little is known about the chemical structure of the DSF-like signal(s) produced by Xoo and the factors influencing the signal production. Results Xoo genome harbours an rpf cluster comprising rpfB, rpfF, rpfC and rpfG. The proteins encoded by these genes are highly homologous to their counterparts in X. campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), suggesting that Xcc and Xoo might use similar mechanisms for DSF biosynthesis and autoregulation. Consistent with in silico analysis, the rpfF mutant was DSF-deficient and the rpfC mutant produced about 25 times higher DSF-like activity than the wild type Xoo strain KACC10331. From the supernatants of rpfC mutant, we purified three compounds showing strong DSF-like activity. Mass spectrometry and NMR analysis revealed that two of them were the previously characterized DSF and BDSF; the third one was a novel unsaturated fatty acid with 2 double bonds and was designated as CDSF in this study. Further analysis showed that all the three DSF-family signals were synthesized via the enzyme RpfF encoded by Xoo2868. DSF and BDSF at a final concentration of 3 ?M to the rpfF mutant could fully restore its extracellular xylanase activity and EPS production to the wild type level, but CDSF was less active than DSF and BDSF in induction of EPS and xylanase. DSF and CDSF shared a similar cell density-dependent production time course with the maximum production being detected at 42 h after inoculation, whereas the maximum production of BDSF was observed at 36 h after inoculation. When grown in a rich medium such as YEB, LB, PSA, and NYG, Xoo produced all the three signals with the majority being DSF. Whereas in nutritionally poor XOLN medium Xoo only produced BDSF and DSF but the majority was BDSF. Conclusions This study demonstrates that Xoo and Xcc share the conserved mechanisms for DSF biosynthesis and autoregulation. Xoo produces DSF, BDSF and CDSF signals in rich media and CDSF is a novel signal in DSF-family with two double bonds. All the three DSF-family signals promote EPS production and xylanase activity in Xoo, but CDSF is less active than its analogues DSF and BDSF. The composition and ratio of the three DSF-family signals produced by Xoo are influenced by the composition of culture media. PMID:20615263

2010-01-01

13

SCREENING OF TRANSGENIC ANTHURIUMS FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT AND NEMATODE RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anthuriums exhibit limited resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae and to the nematodes Radopholus simile and Meloidogyne javanica. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of embryogenic calli with strains LBA4404, EHA105, and AGLO resulted in transgenic p...

14

The broad bacterial blight resistance of rice line CBB23 is triggered by a novel transcription activator-like (TAL) effector of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is not only a disease devastating rice production worldwide, but also an ideal model system for the study of the interaction between plants and their bacterial pathogens. The rice near-isogenic line (NIL) CBB23, derived from a cross between a wild rice Oryza rufipogon accession (RBB16) and a susceptible indica rice variety (Jingang 30), is highly resistant to all field Xoo strains tested so far. Although the BB resistance of CBB23 has been widely used in rice breeding programmes, the mechanism of its extremely broad-spectrum resistance remains unknown. Here, we report the molecular cloning of an avirulence gene, designated as avrXa23, from Xoo strain PXO99(A) . We validate that AvrXa23, a novel transcription activator-like effector, specifically triggers the broad-spectrum BB resistance in CBB23. The prevalence of avrXa23 in all 38 Xoo strains surveyed may explain the broad-spectrum feature of BB resistance in CBB23. The results will significantly facilitate the molecular cloning of the corresponding resistance (R) gene in the host, and provide new insights into our understanding of the molecular mechanism for broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants. PMID:24286630

Wang, Chun-Lian; Qin, Teng-Fei; Yu, Hong-Man; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Che, Jin-Ying; Gao, Ying; Zheng, Chong-Ke; Yang, Bing; Zhao, Kai-Jun

2014-05-01

15

Diversity of bacteriophages infecting Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in paddy fields and its potential to control bacterial leaf blight of rice.  

PubMed

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a very serious disease in rice-growing regions of the world. In spite of their economic importance, there are no effective ways of protecting rice plants from this disease. Bacteriophages infecting Xoo affect the population dynamics of the pathogen and consequently the occurrence of the disease. In this study, we investigated the diversity, host range, and infectivity of Xoo phages, and their use as a bicontrol agent on BLB was tested. Among the 34 phages that were isolated from floodwater in paddy fields, 29 belonged to the Myoviridae family, which suggests that the dominant phage in the ecosystem was Myoviridae. The isolated phages were classified into two groups based on plaque size produced on the lawn of Xoo. In general, there was a negative relationship between plaque size and host range, and interestingly the phages having a narrow host range had low efficiency of infectivity. The deduced protein sequence analysis of htf genes indicated that the gene was not a determinant of host specificity. Although the difference in host range and infectivity depending on morphotype needs to be addressed, the results revealed deeper understanding of the interaction between the phages and Xoo strains in floodwater and damp soil environments. The phage mixtures reduced the occurrence of BLB when they were treated with skim milk. The results indicate that the Xoo phages could be used as an alternative control method to increase the control efficacy and reduce the use of agrochemicals. PMID:24651644

Chae, Jong-Chan; Hung, Nguyen Bao; Yu, Sang-Mi; Lee, Ha Kyung; Lee, Yong Hoon

2014-06-28

16

Development of bioformulation and delivery system of Pseudomonas fluorescens against bacterial leaf blight of rice (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae).  

PubMed

Antagonistic potential of Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate RRb-11 has been evaluated against bacterial leaf blight (BLB) pathogen of rice in vitro, in vivo, microplot and field tests. RRb-11 isolate mass multiplied in substrates like talc and kaolinite powder and bran of barley, soybean and wheat to prepare suitable bioformulation. The maximum shelf life of P. fluorescens was recorded in talc based bioformulation up to 150 days after storage. In rhizosphere competence study, the root rhizosphere of talc, kaolinite and barley based bioformulation treated plants showed good survivability and competence even up to 90 days after treatment. In field study, the talc based bioformulation was applied and the best results were obtained when talc based bioformulation of P. fluorescens RRb-11 was applied as seed treatment, seedling root dip and soil application in combination which reduced the disease by 92.3 and 88.5% over control in the year 2009 and 2010, respectively. This treatment also produced maximum yield of 3.88 t ha(-1) i.e., 61% greater than control. PMID:25204057

Jambhulkar, P P; Sharma, P

2014-09-01

17

Xanthomonas manihotis (Arthaud-Berthet) Starr, Causal Agent of Bacterial Wilt, Blight and Leaf Spots of Cassava in Zaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt of cassava has been causing a severe reduction of tuber yield in the savanna of the southern part of Zaire since 1970. Infection of young shoots often takes place through insect punctures made mainly by Pseudotheraptus devastans Distant. Systemic colonisation of the stem leads to vascular browning, formation of bacterial pockets in the bark which extrude a yellow-white

H. Maraite; J. A. Meyer

1975-01-01

18

TRANSFORMATION OF ANTHURIUM WITH TRANSGENES FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT AND NEMATODE RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anthurium transformation was undertaken to engineer plants for resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae and to the nematodes Radopholus simile and Meloidogyne javanica. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of embryogenic calli of ‘Marian Seefurth’ was sh...

19

New multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis tool for surveillance and local epidemiology of bacterial leaf blight and bacterial leaf streak of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae.  

PubMed

Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) is efficient for routine typing and for investigating the genetic structures of natural microbial populations. Two distinct pathovars of Xanthomonas oryzae can cause significant crop losses in tropical and temperate rice-growing countries. Bacterial leaf streak is caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, and bacterial leaf blight is caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzae. For the latter, two genetic lineages have been described in the literature. We developed a universal MLVA typing tool both for the identification of the three X. oryzae genetic lineages and for epidemiological analyses. Sixteen candidate variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci were selected according to their presence and polymorphism in 10 draft or complete genome sequences of the three X. oryzae lineages and by VNTR sequencing of a subset of loci of interest in 20 strains per lineage. The MLVA-16 scheme was then applied to 338 strains of X. oryzae representing different pathovars and geographical locations. Linkage disequilibrium between MLVA loci was calculated by index association on different scales, and the 16 loci showed linear Mantel correlation with MLSA data on 56 X. oryzae strains, suggesting that they provide a good phylogenetic signal. Furthermore, analyses of sets of strains for different lineages indicated the possibility of using the scheme for deeper epidemiological investigation on small spatial scales. PMID:25398857

Poulin, L; Grygiel, P; Magne, M; Gagnevin, L; Rodriguez-R, L M; Forero Serna, N; Zhao, S; El Rafii, M; Dao, S; Tekete, C; Wonni, I; Koita, O; Pruvost, O; Verdier, V; Vernière, C; Koebnik, R

2015-01-01

20

Targeting xa13 , a recessive gene for bacterial blight resistance in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the most serious diseases of rice worldwide. Thirty bacterial blight resistance (R) genes (21 dominant genes and 9 recessive genes) in rice have been identified. They are the main sources for the genetic\\u000a improvement of rice for resistance to Xoo. However, little is known about the recessive R

Zhaohui Chu; Binying Fu; Hong Yang; Caiguo Xu; Zhikang Li; A. Sanchez; Y. J. Park; J. L. Bennetzen; Qifa Zhang; Shiping Wang

2006-01-01

21

In vitro antibacterial activity of sphaeropsidins and chemical derivatives toward Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of rice bacterial blight.  

PubMed

Sphaeropsidin A, the main phytotoxin produced by Diplodia cupressi, as well as the two natural analogues sphaeropsidins B and C and 14 derivatives obtained by chemical modifications were assayed for antibacterial activity against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, and Burkholderia glumae, the causal agents of severe bacterial rice diseases. The results showed a strong and specific activity of sphaeropsidin A against X. oryzae pv. oryzae, while no activity was observed against the other two pathogens. The results of structure-activity relationship studies showed that structural features important to impart this antibacterial activity are the presence of the C-7 carbonyl group and the hemiketalic lactone functionality. The C-13 vinyl group, the double bond of ring C, and/or the tertiary C-9 hydroxy group, as well as the pimarane arrangement of the tricylic carbon skeleton, were also important for the antibacterial activity. These findings may be useful in designing novel compounds for practical applications in agriculture. PMID:22124378

Evidente, Antonio; Venturi, Vittorio; Masi, Marco; Degrassi, Giuliano; Cimmino, Alessio; Maddau, Lucia; Andolfi, Anna

2011-12-27

22

Pyramiding of bacterial blight resistance genes in rice: marker-assisted selection using RFLP and PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA marker-assisted selection was used to pyramid four bacterial blight resistance genes, Xa-4, xa-5, xa-13 and Xa-21. Breeding lines with two, three and four resistance genes were developed and tested for resistance to the bacterial blight\\u000a pathogen (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae). The pyramid lines showed a wider spectrum and a higher level of resistance than lines with only a single

N. Huang; E. R. Angeles; J. Domingo; G. Magpantay; S. Singh; G. Zhang; N. Kumaravadivel; J. Bennett; G. S. Khush

1997-01-01

23

Draft genome sequence of XANTHOMONAS ARBORICOLA strain 3004, causal agent of bacterial disease on barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report here the annotated genome sequence of XANTHOMONAS ARBORICOLA str. 3004, a Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria that includes several pathovars characterized by virulence specificity. Strain 3004 was isolated from barley leaves with symptoms of streak (bacterial blight) and also can infec...

24

Registration of Common Bacterial Blight Resistant White Kidney Bean Germplasm Line USWK-CBB-17  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White kidney bean germplasm line USWK-CBB-17 was developed by USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2006. This line was bred with a high level of resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap). Common bacteri...

25

Microarray analysis of the semi-compatible pathogenic response and recovery of leafy spurge inoculated with the Cassava bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infection by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam)of the model perennial range land weed leafy spurge was tested to see if Xam might serve a potential biological control agent for this invasive weed. Although leafy spurge was susceptible to Xam infection, it recovered with 21 days after inocula...

26

RELEASE OF COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT RESISTANT WHITE KIDNEY BEAN GERMPLASM LINE USWK-CBB-17  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station announce the release of USWK-CBB-17 white kidney (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm line with a high level of resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. ph...

27

H-mutant Bacteriophages as a Potential Biocontrol of Bacterial Blight of Geranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriophages specific to Xanthomonas compestris pv. pelargonii (Xcp), the causal agent of bacterial blight of geranium, Pelargonium ×hortorum L.H. Bailey, were isolated from soil and sludge samples from Florida, California, Minnesota, and Utah. Sixteen phages were evaluated for their potential to lyse 21 Xcp strains collected from around the world. The Xcp strains varied in their susceptibility to the phage

J. E. Flaherty; B. K. Harbaugh; J. B. Jones; G. C. Somodi; L. E. Jackson

28

Controlling rice bacterial blight in Africa: needs and prospects.  

PubMed

Rice cultivation has drastically increased in Africa over the last decade. During this time, the region has also seen a rise in the incidence of rice bacterial blight caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The disease is expanding to new rice production areas and threatens food security in the region. Yield losses caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzae range from 20 to 30% and can be as high as 50% in some areas. Employing resistant cultivars is the most economical and effective way to control this disease. To facilitate development and strategic deployment of rice cultivars with resistance to bacterial blight, biotechnology tools and approaches, including marker-assisted breeding, gene combinations for disease control, and multiplex-PCR for pathogen diagnosis, have been developed. Although these technologies are routinely used elsewhere, their application in Africa remains limited, usually due to high cost and advanced technical skills required. To combat this problem, developers of the technologies at research institutions need to work with farmers from an early stage to create and promote the integration of successful, low cost applications of research biotech products. Here, we review the current knowledge and biotechnologies available to improve bacterial blight control. We will also discuss how to facilitate their application in Africa and delivery to the field. PMID:21963588

Verdier, Valérie; Vera Cruz, Casiana; Leach, Jan E

2012-06-30

29

EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND SEED CONTAMINATION ON EPIPHYTIC POPULATIONS OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. ALLII AND DEVELOPMENT OF XANTHOMONAS LEAF BLIGHT OF ONION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas leaf blight of onion, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is a yield-limiting disease in Colorado, for which few effective management strategies are available. The effects of rates of nitrogen fertilization and levels of seed contamination by X. axonopodis pv. allii on epiphytic...

30

MOLECULAR GENETIC ANALYSIS AND MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION FOR RESTORER LINE AND BACTERIAL BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN HYBRID RICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The yield potential of hybrid rice has not been fully exploited because of disease and insect problems. Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is one of the most serious diseases of hybrid rice in Vietnam. Breeding for BB resistance could be an effective approach to realize the full potential of hybrid rice technology in the country.

NGUYEN THI LANG; BUI CHI BUU

31

Two independent QTL in dry bean conditioning resistance to common bacterial blight express recessive epistasis when combined  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common bacterial blight (CBB) caused by (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli) is a major seed-borne disease limiting commercial yield and disease-free seed production of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) worldwide. Genetic resistance is the most effective control method but is difficult to incorporate b...

32

EPIPHYTIC SURVIVAL OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. ALLII AND X. AXONOPODIS PV. PHASEOLI ON LEGUMINOUS HOSTS AND ONION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas leaf blight of onion (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii) and common bacterial blight of dry bean (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli) are perennial problems in the Central High Plains of the U.S. Onion and dry bean are commonly grown in rotation in Colorado, but it i...

33

Biological control of Xanthomonas Oryzae pv. Oryzae causing rice bacterial blight disease by Streptomyces toxytricini VN08-A-12, isolated from soil and leaf-litter samples in Vietnam.  

PubMed

A total of 2690 actinomycete strains were screened as potential biological control agents in controlling rice bacterial blight (BB) in Vietnam. From these microorganisms, seventeen actinomycete strains were found to be capable of inhibiting all 10 major Xoo races isolated from Xoo-infected rice leaves. One strain, namely VN08-A-12, contained effective characteristics in selectively inhibiting all 10 races in vitro, but did not inhibit most of the other tested microorganisms. Therefore, VN08-A-12 was subsequently selected for rice field trials for two seasons on two rice cultivars SS1 and KD18. Results showed VN08-A-12 was not only able to reduce Xoo lesion lengths in the two rice cultivars (lesion length reduction of up to 38.3%), but it also significantly reduced Xoo-related yield loss in infected rice cultivars from the field (yield loss reduction of up to 43.2%). Interestingly, the culture of this strain also increased the rice yield in healthy rice cultivars (from 2.66% to 16.98% for SS1 and from 3.11% to 5.94% for KD18 cultivar). The strain VN08-A-12 was shown to be identical to Streptomyces toxytricini. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting S. toxytricini as a beneficial biological agent for the control of BB in rice. PMID:25252641

Van Hop, Duong; Phuong Hoa, Phan Thi; Quang, Nguyen Duc; Ton, Phan Huu; Ha, Trinh Hoang; Van Hung, Nguyen; Van, Nguyen Thi; Van Hai, Tong; Kim Quy, Nguyen Thi; Anh Dao, Nguyen Thi; Thi Thom, Vu

2014-01-01

34

Antibacterial activities against rice bacterial leaf blight and tomato bacterial wilt of 2-mercapto-5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole derivatives.  

PubMed

In this study, a series of 2-mercapto-5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole/thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activities against rice bacterial leaf blight and tomato bacterial wilt caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Ralstonia solanacearum (R. solanacearum) via the turbidimeter test in vitro. Antibacterial bioassays indicated that most compounds demonstrated appreciable antibacterial bioactivities against Xoo and R. solanacearum. Among the title compounds, compound 4i demonstrated the best inhibitory effect against Xoo and R. solanacearum with half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values of 14.69 and 15.14?g/mL, respectively, which were even better than those of commercial agents Bismerthiazol and Thiodiazole Copper. In vivo antibacterial activities tests under greenhouse conditions revealed that the control efficiency of compound 4i against rice bacterial leaf blight and tobacco bacterial wilt were better than those of Bismerthiazol and Thiodiazole Copper. Meanwhile, field trials also indicated that compound 4i demonstrated appreciable control efficiency against rice bacterial leaf blight and tomato bacterial wilt. PMID:25563889

Li, Pei; Shi, Li; Gao, Man-Ni; Yang, Xia; Xue, Wei; Jin, Lin-Hong; Hu, De-Yu; Song, Bao-An

2015-02-01

35

Genomic Survey of Pathogenicity Determinants and VNTR Markers in the Cassava Bacterial Pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis Strain CIO151  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is the causal agent of bacterial blight of cassava, which is among the main components of human diet in Africa and South America. Current information about the molecular pathogenicity factors involved in the infection process of this organism is limited. Previous studies in other bacteria in this genus suggest that advanced draft genome sequences are valuable resources for molecular studies on their interaction with plants and could provide valuable tools for diagnostics and detection. Here we have generated the first manually annotated high-quality draft genome sequence of Xam strain CIO151. Its genomic structure is similar to that of other xanthomonads, especially Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and Xanthomonas citri pv. citri species. Several putative pathogenicity factors were identified, including type III effectors, cell wall-degrading enzymes and clusters encoding protein secretion systems. Specific characteristics in this genome include changes in the xanthomonadin cluster that could explain the lack of typical yellow color in all strains of this pathovar and the presence of 50 regions in the genome with atypical nucleotide composition. The genome sequence was used to predict and evaluate 22 variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci that were subsequently demonstrated as polymorphic in representative Xam strains. Our results demonstrate that Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis strain CIO151 possesses ten clusters of pathogenicity factors conserved within the genus Xanthomonas. We report 126 genes that are potentially unique to Xam, as well as potential horizontal transfer events in the history of the genome. The relation of these regions with virulence and pathogenicity could explain several aspects of the biology of this pathogen, including its ability to colonize both vascular and non-vascular tissues of cassava plants. A set of 16 robust, polymorphic VNTR loci will be useful to develop a multi-locus VNTR analysis scheme for epidemiological surveillance of this disease. PMID:24278159

Arrieta-Ortiz, Mario L.; Rodríguez-R, Luis M.; Pérez-Quintero, Álvaro L.; Poulin, Lucie; Díaz, Ana C.; Arias Rojas, Nathalia; Trujillo, Cesar; Restrepo Benavides, Mariana; Bart, Rebecca; Boch, Jens; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; David, Perrine; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Fontanilla, Paula; Gagnevin, Lionel; Guérin, Fabien; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Medina, Cesar; Medina, Edgar; Montenegro, Nathaly; Muñoz Bodnar, Alejandra; Noël, Laurent D.; Ortiz Quiñones, Juan F.; Osorio, Daniela; Pardo, Carolina; Patil, Prabhu B.; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Ryan, Robert P.; Tabima, Javier; Urrego Morales, Oscar G.; Vernière, Christian; Carrere, Sébastien; Verdier, Valérie; Szurek, Boris; Restrepo, Silvia; López, Camilo

2013-01-01

36

A SNP Haplotype Associated with a gene resistant to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum in Upland Cotton (Gossyium hirsutum L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An F5 population of 285 families with each tracing back to a different F2 plant , derived from a cotton bacterial blight resistant line ‘DeltaOpal’ and a susceptible line ‘DP388’, was artificially inoculated with bacterial blight race 18 (Xanthomonas campestris pv. Malvacearum) to assay their resist...

37

Characterization of the pigment xanthomonadin in the bacterial genus Xanthomonas using micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm and 514.5 nm laser excitation, respectively, to characterize a plant pathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae D150. The bacterial genus Xathomonas is closely related to bacterial genus Stenotrophomonas that causes an infection in humans. This study has identified for the first time the unique Raman spectra of the carotenoid-like pigment xanthomonadin of the Xanthomonas strain. Xanthomonadin is a brominated aryl-polyene pigment molecule similar to carotenoids. Further studies were conducted using resonance Raman spectroscopy with 514.5 nm laser excitation on several strains of the bacterial genus Xanthomonas isolated from numerous plants from various geographical locations. The current study revealed that the Raman bands representing the vibrations (v1, v2, v3) of the polyene chain of xanthomonadin are 1003-1005 (v3), 1135-1138 (v2), and 1530 (v1). Overtone bands representing xanthomonadin were identified as 2264-2275 (2v2), and combinational bands at 2653-2662 (v1+ v2). The findings from this study validate our previous finding that the Raman fingerprints of xanthomonadin are unique for the genus Xanthomonas. This facilitates rapid identification (~5 minutes) of Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial culture plates. The xanthomonadin marker is different from Raman markers of many other bacterial genus including Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Clavibacter, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Ralstonia. This study also identified Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial strains isolated from a diseased wheat sample on a culture plate.

Paret, Mathews L.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Acosta, Tayro; deSilva, Asoka S.; Vowell, Tomie; Alvarez, Anne M.

2012-06-01

38

Pyramiding B genes in cotton achieves broader but not always higher resistance to bacterial blight.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Near-isogenic lines of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) carrying single, race-specific genes B4, BIn, and b7 for resistance to bacterial blight were used to develop a pyramid of lines with all possible combinations of two and three genes to learn whether the pyramid could achieve broad and high resistance approaching that of L. A. Brinkerhoff's exceptional line Im216. Isogenic strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum carrying single avirulence (avr) genes were used to identify plants carrying specific resistance (B) genes. Under field conditions in north-central Oklahoma, pyramid lines exhibited broader resistance to individual races and, consequently, higher resistance to a race mixture. It was predicted that lines carrying two or three B genes would also exhibit higher resistance to race 1, which possesses many avr genes. Although some enhancements were observed, they did not approach the level of resistance of Im216. In a growth chamber, bacterial populations attained by race 1 in and on leaves of the pyramid lines decreased significantly with increasing number of B genes in only one of four experiments. The older lines, Im216 and AcHR, exhibited considerably lower bacterial populations than any of the one-, two-, or three-B-gene lines. A spreading collapse of spray-inoculated AcBIn and AcBInb7 leaves appears to be a defense response (conditioned by BIn) that is out of control. PMID:24655289

Essenberg, Margaret; Bayles, Melanie B; Pierce, Margaret L; Verhalen, Laval M

2014-10-01

39

Epidemiological study of hazelnut bacterial blight in central Italy by using laboratory analysis and geostatistics.  

PubMed

Incidence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina, the causal agent of hazelnut bacterial blight, was analyzed spatially in relation to the pedoclimatic factors. Hazelnut grown in twelve municipalities situated in the province of Viterbo, central Italy was studied. A consistent number of bacterial isolates were obtained from the infected tissues of hazelnut collected in three years (2010-2012). The isolates, characterized by phenotypic tests, did not show any difference among them. Spatial patterns of pedoclimatic data, analyzed by geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation of disease incidence with higher values of rainfall, thermal shock and soil nitrogen; a weak positive correlation with soil aluminium content and a strong negative correlation with the values of Mg/K ratio. No correlation of the disease incidence was found with soil pH. Disease incidence ranged from very low (<1%) to very high (almost 75%) across the orchards. Young plants (4-year old) were the most affected by the disease confirming a weak negative correlation of the disease incidence with plant age. Plant cultivars did not show any difference in susceptibility to the pathogen. Possible role of climate change on the epidemiology of the disease is discussed. Improved management practices are recommended for effective control of the disease. PMID:23424654

Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Fabi, Alfredo; Ridolfi, Roberto; Varvaro, Leonardo

2013-01-01

40

Epidemiological Study of Hazelnut Bacterial Blight in Central Italy by Using Laboratory Analysis and Geostatistics  

PubMed Central

Incidence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina, the causal agent of hazelnut bacterial blight, was analyzed spatially in relation to the pedoclimatic factors. Hazelnut grown in twelve municipalities situated in the province of Viterbo, central Italy was studied. A consistent number of bacterial isolates were obtained from the infected tissues of hazelnut collected in three years (2010–2012). The isolates, characterized by phenotypic tests, did not show any difference among them. Spatial patterns of pedoclimatic data, analyzed by geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation of disease incidence with higher values of rainfall, thermal shock and soil nitrogen; a weak positive correlation with soil aluminium content and a strong negative correlation with the values of Mg/K ratio. No correlation of the disease incidence was found with soil pH. Disease incidence ranged from very low (<1%) to very high (almost 75%) across the orchards. Young plants (4-year old) were the most affected by the disease confirming a weak negative correlation of the disease incidence with plant age. Plant cultivars did not show any difference in susceptibility to the pathogen. Possible role of climate change on the epidemiology of the disease is discussed. Improved management practices are recommended for effective control of the disease. PMID:23424654

Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Fabi, Alfredo; Ridolfi, Roberto; Varvaro, Leonardo

2013-01-01

41

Purdue extensionGoss's BacterialWilt and Leaf Blight Identifying the Disease  

E-print Network

1 Purdue extensionGoss's BacterialWilt and Leaf Blight Identifying the Disease This disease can of the disease includes both phases, it is com- monly referred to simply as Goss's wilt. BP-81-W Purdue extension D I s e a s e s o f c o r n Goss's Bacterial Wilt and Leaf Blight Authors: Kiersten Wise Gail Ruhl

42

Code-Assisted Discovery of TAL Effector Targets in Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice Reveals Contrast with Bacterial Blight and a Novel Susceptibility Gene  

PubMed Central

Bacterial leaf streak of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) is an increasingly important yield constraint in this staple crop. A mesophyll colonizer, Xoc differs from X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which invades xylem to cause bacterial blight of rice. Both produce multiple distinct TAL effectors, type III-delivered proteins that transactivate effector-specific host genes. A TAL effector finds its target(s) via a partially degenerate code whereby the modular effector amino acid sequence identifies nucleotide sequences to which the protein binds. Virulence contributions of some Xoo TAL effectors have been shown, and their relevant targets, susceptibility (S) genes, identified, but the role of TAL effectors in leaf streak is uncharacterized. We used host transcript profiling to compare leaf streak to blight and to probe functions of Xoc TAL effectors. We found that Xoc and Xoo induce almost completely different host transcriptional changes. Roughly one in three genes upregulated by the pathogens is preceded by a candidate TAL effector binding element. Experimental analysis of the 44 such genes predicted to be Xoc TAL effector targets verified nearly half, and identified most others as false predictions. None of the Xoc targets is a known bacterial blight S gene. Mutational analysis revealed that Tal2g, which activates two genes, contributes to lesion expansion and bacterial exudation. Use of designer TAL effectors discriminated a sulfate transporter gene as the S gene. Across all targets, basal expression tended to be higher than genome-average, and induction moderate. Finally, machine learning applied to real vs. falsely predicted targets yielded a classifier that recalled 92% of the real targets with 88% precision, providing a tool for better target prediction in the future. Our study expands the number of known TAL effector targets, identifies a new class of S gene, and improves our ability to predict functional targeting. PMID:24586171

Cernadas, Raul A.; Doyle, Erin L.; Niño-Liu, David O.; Wilkins, Katherine E.; Bancroft, Timothy; Wang, Li; Schmidt, Clarice L.; Caldo, Rico; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F.; Nettleton, Dan; Wise, Roger P.; Bogdanove, Adam J.

2014-01-01

43

Bacterial Blight and Dieback of Eucalyptus Species, Hybrids, and Clones in South Africa  

E-print Network

blorch (6). Thus far. only two bacterial diseases have been reported on this host, namely bacterial wilt Phytopathological Society 20 Plant Disease I Vol. 86 NO.1 :;olwwcearll/1l (7) and bacterial dieb.lck causedBacterial Blight and Dieback of Eucalyptus Species, Hybrids, and Clones in South Africa T. A

44

[Characterization of Xanthomonas campestris pv. cucurbitae, causal agent of the bacterial spot of squash].  

PubMed

Bacterial leaf spot of squash was characterized for the first time in Argentina. Cultural, physiological, morphological and cross-infection tests on Cucurbitaceae showed that the pathogen was Xanthomonas campestris pv. cucurbitae (Bryan) Dye. The bacterium isolated from winter squash proved pathogenic for pumpkin, winter squash, cucumber and watermelon but no for muskmelon. PMID:2748850

Alippi, A M

1989-01-01

45

A novel Xanthomonas sp. causes bacterial spot of rose (Rosa spp.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A severe bacterial spot of rose (Rosa spp.) caused by a xanthomonad was observed in Florida and Texas. A total of 11 strains were collected from the two states. Multilocus sequence typing and analysis (MLST/MLSA) and pathogenicity tests were conducted to characterize the Xanthomonas strains. The MLS...

46

Molecular characterization of Xanthomonas strains responsible for bacterial leaf spot of tomato in Ethiopia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis, a diverse group of Xanthomonas...

47

Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae Strain LMG 859  

PubMed Central

We report the 4.94-Mb genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. punicae strain LMG 859, the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight disease in pomegranate. The draft genome will aid in comparative genomics, epidemiological studies, and quarantine of this devastating phytopathogen. PMID:22493202

Sharma, Vikas; Midha, Samriti; Ranjan, Manish; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar

2012-01-01

48

USE OF ANTIBACTERIAL PROTEINS AGAINST XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV DIEFFENBACHIEAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria cause high losses of crop yields worldwide. The ornamental flowering plant anthurium is prone to a number of diseases of which bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv dieffenbachiae, is the most devastating. Although anthuriums have been e...

49

High-resolution genetic mapping of rice bacterial blight resistance gene Xa23.  

PubMed

Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the most devastating bacterial disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple food crop that feeds half of the world's population. In management of this disease, the most economical and effective approach is cultivating resistant varieties. Due to rapid change of pathogenicity in the pathogen, it is necessary to identify and characterize more host resistance genes for breeding new resistant varieties. We have previously identified the BB resistance (R) gene Xa23 that confers the broadest resistance to Xoo strains isolated from different rice-growing regions and preliminarily mapped the gene within a 1.7 cm region on the long arm of rice chromosome 11. Here, we report fine genetic mapping and in silico analysis of putative candidate genes of Xa23. Based on F2 mapping populations derived from crosses between Xa23-containing rice line CBB23 and susceptible varieties JG30 or IR24, six new STS markers Lj36, Lj46, Lj138, Lj74, A83B4, and Lj13 were developed. Linkage analysis revealed that the new markers were co-segregated with or closely linked to the Xa23 locus. Consequently, the Xa23 gene was mapped within a 0.4 cm region between markers Lj138 and A83B4, in which the co-segregating marker Lj74 was identified. The corresponding physical distance between Lj138 and A83B4 on Nipponbare genome is 49.8 kb. Six Xa23 candidate genes have been annotated, including four candidate genes encoding hypothetical proteins and the other two encoding a putative ADP-ribosylation factor protein and a putative PPR protein. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Xa23 in rice breeding and molecular cloning of this valuable R gene. PMID:24715026

Wang, Chunlian; Fan, Yinglun; Zheng, Chongke; Qin, Tengfei; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Kaijun

2014-10-01

50

Optimization of late blight and bacterial wilt management in potato production systems in the highland tropics of Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Late blight and bacterial wilt are two formidable disease constraints on potato and account for significant losses in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).In this chapter, various management techniques for late blight and bacterial wilt diseases are highlighted and discussed with examples drawn from diverse res...

51

Draft Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii Strain CFBP 6369.  

PubMed

We report here the draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii strain CFBP 6369, the causal agent of bacterial blight of onion. The draft genome has a size of 5,425,942 bp and a G+C content of 64.4%. PMID:25081256

Gagnevin, L; Bolot, S; Gordon, J L; Pruvost, O; Vernière, C; Robène, I; Arlat, M; Noël, L D; Carrère, S; Jacques, M-A; Koebnik, R

2014-01-01

52

Association mapping of common bacterial blight resistance QTL in Ontario bean breeding populations  

PubMed Central

Background Common bacterial blight (CBB), incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is a major yield-limiting factor of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production around the world. Host resistance is practically the most effective and environmentally-sound approach to control CBB. Unlike conventional QTL discovery strategies, in which bi-parental populations (F2, RIL, or DH) need to be developed, association mapping-based strategies can use plant breeding populations to synchronize QTL discovery and cultivar development. Results A population of 469 dry bean lines of different market classes representing plant materials routinely developed in a bean breeding program were used. Of them, 395 lines were evaluated for CBB resistance at 14 and 21 DAI (Days After Inoculation) in the summer of 2009 in an artificially inoculated CBB nursery in south-western Ontario. All lines were genotyped using 132 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) evenly distributed across the genome. Of the 132 SNPs, 26 SNPs had more than 20% missing data, 12 SNPs were monomorphic, and 17 SNPs had a MAF (Minor Allelic Frequency) of less than 0.20, therefore only 75 SNPs were used for association study, based on one SNP per locus. The best possible population structure was to assign 36% and 64% of the lines into Andean and Mesoamerican subgroups, respectively. Kinship analysis also revealed complex familial relationships among all lines, which corresponds with the known pedigree history. MLM (Mixed Linear Model) analysis, including population structure and kinship, was used to discover marker-trait associations. Eighteen and 22 markers were significantly associated with CBB rating at 14 and 21 DAI, respectively. Fourteen markers were significant for both dates and the markers UBC420, SU91, g321, g471, and g796 were highly significant (p ? 0.001). Furthermore, 12 significant SNP markers were co-localized with or close to the CBB-QTLs identified previously in bi-parental QTL mapping studies. Conclusions This study demonstrated that association mapping using a reasonable number of markers, distributed across the genome and with application of plant materials that are routinely developed in a plant breeding program can detect significant QTLs for traits of interest. PMID:21435233

2011-01-01

53

Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Bacterial Antagonists and Oxytetracycline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora were prevalent. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory acti...

54

Factors influencing efficacy of plastic shelters for control of bacterial blight of lilac  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plastic shelters are thought to manage bacterial blight by protecting plants from rain and/or frost. In February to April 2008 and 2009, we studied the contribution of frost protection to efficacy of this cultural control practice. Lilacs in 1-gallon pots were exposed to four treatments: 1) plants...

55

EMERGENCE OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF CRUCIFERS IN CALIFORNIA AND THE U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since its initial appearance in 1995 on broccoli raab (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) in the Salinas Valley of California, Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis has been shown to cause bacterial blights on a variety of crucifers in California and other states. In addition to published reports of outbreak...

56

Development of an engineered ‘bioluminescent’ reporter phage for the detection of bacterial blight of crucifers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial blight, caused by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, is an emerging disease afflicting important members of the Brassica family. The disease is often misdiagnosed as peppery leaf spot, a much less severe disease caused by the closely related pathogen Pseudomonas syrin...

57

Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to bacterial spot (Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni)in peach  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap), is a serious disease that can affect peach fruit quality and production worldwide. This disease causes severe defoliation and blemishing of fruit, particularly in areas with high rainfall, strong winds, high humidity, and sandy soil. ...

58

Role of rpfF in Virulence and Exoenzyme Production of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar glycines, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Pustule of Soybean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ten strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines, the causal agent of bacterial pustule of soybean, obtained from various soybean growing regions of Thailand produced an extracellular diffusible factor (DSF) related to a well-characterized quorum sensing molecule produced by other Xanthomonas spp....

59

Transcriptional responses of Italian ryegrass during interaction with Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis reveal novel candidate genes for bacterial wilt resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) causes bacterial wilt, a severe disease of forage grasses such as Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). In order to gain a more detailed understanding of the genetic control of resistance mechanisms and to provide prerequisites\\u000a for marker assisted selection, the partial transcriptomes of two Italian ryegrass genotypes, one resistant and one susceptible\\u000a to bacterial wilt

Fabienne Wichmann; Torben Asp; Franco Widmer; Roland Kölliker

2011-01-01

60

Breeding Strains of Cotton Resistant to Bacterial Blight.  

E-print Network

of breaking down the resistance of Stoneville 20. Methods developed for artifically inoculating cotton plants with the blight causal organism have proved effective to the extent - that selections for resistance can be made with a high degree of certainty... were obtained by growing the causal organism in petri ,tes and diluting the growth of one plate with 2y2 gallons of ter. Their inoculation was most effective when the spray was ected toward the lower surface of the leaves and when the loculation...

Blank, Lester M. (Lester Marion); Bird, L. S. (Luther Smith)

1951-01-01

61

Chemical and cultural control of bacterial blossom blight of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease incidence of bacterial blossom blight (Pseudomonas syringae van Hall) ranged from 13.0 to 36.2% in naturally infected kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev) C. F. Liang et A. R. Ferguson) orchards of the major kiwi fruit?growing areas in Korea from 1997 to 1999. A significant correlation occurred between disease incidence and rainfall at flowering. Several control practices were compared with

Young Jin Koh; Dong Hyun Lee; Jong Sup Shin

2001-01-01

62

Foliage, pod and internal seed infection of selected common bean lines when inoculated with two strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Common bacterial blight (CBB) is an important foliar and seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in tropical, subtropical and temperate areas caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap). In this study, the resistance to CBB was evaluated in advanced breeding lines us...

63

Persistence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vignicola in weeds and crop debris and identification of Sphenostylis stenocarpa as a potential new host  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vignicola, incitant of cowpea bacterial blight and pustule, in residues of infested cowpea leaves was studied in the field in the forest savanna transition zone of South Benin and under variable controlled conditions. The pathogen survived for up to 60 days when placed on the soil surface, and up to 45 days buried at

Rachidatou Sikirou; Kerstin Wydra

2004-01-01

64

Draft Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas arboricola Strain 3004, a Causal Agent of Bacterial Disease on Barley.  

PubMed

We report here the annotated genome sequence of Xanthomonas arboricola strain 3004, isolated from barley leaves with symptoms of streak and capable of infecting other plant species. We sequenced the genome of X. arboricola strain 3004 to improve the understanding of molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis and evolution of the genus Xanthomonas. PMID:25700410

Ignatov, Alexander N; Kyrova, Elena I; Vinogradova, Svetlana V; Kamionskaya, Anastasia M; Schaad, Norman W; Luster, Douglas G

2015-01-01

65

[Polyvalence of bacteriophages isolated from fruit trees, affected by bacterial fire blight].  

PubMed

Phage populations appearing as a result of a pathogenic process caused by Erwinia amylovora have been discovered and described. They accompany bacterial fire blight development in the process of quince, pear and apple trees vegetation in Zakarpattya region of Ukraine. Phage isolates of the affected pear and quince include polyvalent virulent phages able to develop on bacterial strains associated with plants--E. amylovora. E. "horticola" and Pantoea agglomerans. E. amylovora isolated from the plant tissues affected by the fire blight and detected at the same time as phages proved to be resistant to the viral infection. It is hard to explain now this characteristic however it was noticed that resistance to phages can change drastically in case of dissociation, lysogenization and mutagenesis of erwinia in laboratory conditions. Phage population study shows that they are heterogeneous and can obviously include not only polyvalent but also specific viruses. Further studies of biology and molecular genetics of pure lines of isolated phages will help to get closer to understanding the place and role of bacteriophages in the complicated network of relations between bacterial pathogens and plants. PMID:23720968

Tovkach, F I; Moroz, S N; Korol', N A; Fa?diuk, Iu V; Kushkina, A I

2013-01-01

66

Code-assisted discovery of TAL effector targets in bacterial leaf streak of rice reveals contrast with bacterial blight and a novel susceptibility gene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors found in Xanthomonas spp. promote bacterial growth and plant susceptibility by binding specific DNA sequences or, effector-binding elements (EBEs), and inducing host gene expression. In this study, we have found substantially different transcriptional pro...

67

Abscisic Acid Promotes Susceptibility to the Rice Leaf Blight Pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae by Suppressing Salicylic Acid-Mediated Defenses  

PubMed Central

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in a wide variety of plant processes, including the initiation of stress-adaptive responses to various environmental cues. Recently, ABA also emerged as a central factor in the regulation and integration of plant immune responses, although little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Aiming to advance our understanding of ABA-modulated disease resistance, we have analyzed the impact, dynamics and interrelationship of ABA and the classic defense hormone salicylic acid (SA) during progression of rice infection by the leaf blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Consistent with ABA negatively regulating resistance to Xoo, we found that exogenously administered ABA renders rice hypersusceptible to infection, whereas chemical and genetic disruption of ABA biosynthesis and signaling, respectively, led to enhanced Xoo resistance. In addition, we found successful Xoo infection to be associated with extensive reprogramming of ABA biosynthesis and response genes, suggesting that ABA functions as a virulence factor for Xoo. Interestingly, several lines of evidence indicate that this immune-suppressive effect of ABA is due at least in part to suppression of SA-mediated defenses that normally serve to limit pathogen growth. Resistance induced by the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridone, however, appears to operate in a SA-independent manner and is likely due to induction of non-specific physiological stress. Collectively, our findings favor a scenario whereby virulent Xoo hijacks the rice ABA machinery to cause disease and highlight the importance of ABA and its crosstalk with SA in shaping the outcome of rice-Xoo interactions. PMID:23826294

Xu, Jing; Audenaert, Kris

2013-01-01

68

Quantitative Measurements of Xanthomonas Oryzae pv. Oryzae Distribution in Rice Using Fluorescent-Labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice host sensor, XA21, confers robust resistance to most strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the casual agent of bacterial blight disease. Using in planta fluorescence imaging of Xoo strain PXO99Az expressing a green fluorescent protein (Xoo-gfp) we show that XA21 restricts Xoo spread at the point of infection. This noninvasive and quantitative method to measure spatial distribution

Kazunari Nozue; Chang-Jin Park; Pamela C. Ronald

2011-01-01

69

Genetic diversity of the conserved motifs of six bacterial leaf blight resistance genes in a set of rice landraces  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by the vascular pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious diseases leading to crop failure in rice growing countries. A total of 37 resistance genes against Xoo has been identified in rice. Of these, ten BLB resistance genes have been mapped on rice chromosomes, while 6 have been cloned, sequenced and characterized. Diversity analysis at the resistance gene level of this disease is scanty, and the landraces from West Bengal and North Eastern states of India have received little attention so far. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity at conserved domains of 6 BLB resistance genes in a set of 22 rice accessions including landraces and check genotypes collected from the states of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram and West Bengal. Results In this study 34 pairs of primers were designed from conserved domains of 6 BLB resistance genes; Xa1, xa5, Xa21, Xa21(A1), Xa26 and Xa27. The designed primer pairs were used to generate PCR based polymorphic DNA profiles to detect and elucidate the genetic diversity of the six genes in the 22 diverse rice accessions of known disease phenotype. A total of 140 alleles were identified including 41 rare and 26 null alleles. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) value was 0.56/primer pair. The DNA profiles identified each of the rice landraces unequivocally. The amplified polymorphic DNA bands were used to calculate genetic similarity of the rice landraces in all possible pair combinations. The similarity among the rice accessions ranged from 18% to 89% and the dendrogram produced from the similarity values was divided into 2 major clusters. The conserved domains identified within the sequenced rare alleles include Leucine-Rich Repeat, BED-type zinc finger domain, sugar transferase domain and the domain of the carbohydrate esterase 4 superfamily. Conclusions This study revealed high genetic diversity at conserved domains of six BLB resistance genes in a set of 22 rice accessions. The inclusion of more genotypes from remote ecological niches and hotspots holds promise for identification of further genetic diversity at the BLB resistance genes. PMID:25016378

2014-01-01

70

A MAJOR QTL FOR COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT RESISTANCE DERIVES FROM THE COMMON BEAN GREAT NORTHERN LANDRACE CULTIVAR MONTANA NO. 5  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of the evolutionary origin and sources of pest resistance genes will facilitate gene deployment and development of crop cultivars with durable resistance. Our objective was to determine the source of common bacterial blight (CBB) resistance in great northern dry bean cultivars. Several cul...

71

First report of bacterial blight of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel bacterial leaf blight was seen in field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) in Monterey County, California in 2006. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was Pseudomon...

72

FIRST REPORT OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF RUTABAGA (BRASSICA NAPUS VAR. NAPOBRASSICA) CAUSED BY PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. ALISALENSIS IN CALIFORNIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel bacterial blight on commercial organically grown rutabaga (Brassica napus var. napobrassica) was seen for the first time in coastal California in 2005. Koch’s postulates were completed and the etiology of the pathogen was elucidated. Characterization showed that pathogen was Pseudomonas syri...

73

FIRST REPORT OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF CAULIFLOWER (BRASSICA OLERACEA VAR. BOTRYTIS) CAUSED BY PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. ALISALENSIS IN CALIFORNIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel bacterial blight commercial romanesca (green) cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) was seen for the first time in coastal California in 2005. Koch’s postulates were completed and the etiology of the pathogen was determined. Characterization showed that pathogen was Pseudomonas syrin...

74

Genomic Variability of the Xanthomonas Pathovar mangiferaeindicae, Agent of Mango Bacterial Black Spot  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity of 138 strains of the Xanthomonas pathovar mangiferaeindicae, which were isolated from three different hosts (mango, ambarella, and pepper tree) in 14 different countries, was assessed with restriction fragment length polymorphism markers. An analysis of patterns obtained by hybridization with an hrp cluster probe from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae separated 11 of the strains from all of the other strains, which suggested that these 11 strains may not be Xanthomonas pv. mangiferaeindicae strains. Hybridization with an avirulence gene from X. oryzae pv. oryzae and a repetitive DNA fragment from Xanthomonas pv. mangiferaeindicae separated the remaining 127 strains into four groups that were consistent with both geographic and host origins. The group with the greatest diversity consisted of strains from Southeast Asia, where mango originated. Other groups and subgroups contained strains that were either from widely separated countries, which suggested that wide dissemination from a single site occurred, or from localized areas, which suggested that evolution of separate lineages of strains occurred. One group of strains contained only strains isolated from pepper trees in Reunion, indicating that pepper tree may not be an alternate host for Xanthomonas pv. mangiferaeindicae strains. PMID:16535490

Gagnevin, L.; Leach, J. E.; Pruvost, O.

1997-01-01

75

Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.  

PubMed

Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%). PMID:20839964

Khoa, Nguyen ?ac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

2011-02-01

76

Reduction in bacterial ooze formation on immature fruitlets after preventive treatments of Fosethyl-Al against fire blight Erwinia amylovora.  

PubMed

Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burill Winslow et al.), is a very important bacterial disease on apple and pear orchards with devastating effects in some production area and in some years. Fire blight control consists in a whole strategy of measures that should start with control measures in and around the fruit tree nurseries. Only the use of Vacciplant (Laminarin), an inducer of the self-defence mechanism, is registered in Belgium since 2009. In other European countries Fosethyl-Al has been registered for fire blight control. Recently, research trials have been done at Pcfruit research station for several years on the activity of ALiette (fosethyl-Al) against fire blight. Fosethyl-Al, also a plant defence enhancing molecule, applied preventively 3 times at a dose of 3.75 kg/ha standard orchard (3 x 3000 g a.i./ha standard orchard), showed a reduction in the host susceptibility and decreased the disease development on artificial inoculated flower clusters and shoots. Also a clear reduction in the ooze droplet formation on artificially inoculated immature fruitlets has been observed with this molecule. This reduction in the bacterial ooze formation is considered as a very important factor in the spread of the disease in the orchard. PMID:21534464

Deckers, T; Schoofs, H; Verjans, W; De Maeyer, L

2010-01-01

77

D-Psicose induces upregulation of defense-related genes and resistance in rice against bacterial blight.  

PubMed

We examined rice responses to a rare sugar, d-psicose. Rice growth was inhibited by d-psicose but not by common sugars. Microarray analysis revealed that d-psicose treatment caused an upregulation of many defense-related genes in rice, and dose-dependent upregulation of these genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The level of upregulation of defense-related genes by d-psicose was low compared with that by d-allose, which is another rare sugar known to confer induction of resistance to rice bacterial blight in rice. Treatment with d-psicose conferred resistance to bacterial blight in rice in a dose-dependent manner, and the results indicate that d-psicose might be a candidate plant activator for reducing disease development in rice. PMID:21601944

Kano, Akihito; Hosotani, Kouji; Gomi, Kenji; Yamasaki-Kokudo, Yumiko; Shirakawa, Chikage; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Ohtani, Kouhei; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Izumori, Ken; Tanaka, Keiji; Ishida, Yutaka; Nishizawa, Yoko; Ichimura, Kazuya; Tada, Yasuomi; Akimitsu, Kazuya

2011-10-15

78

A major QTL for common bacterial blight resistance derives from the common bean great northern landrace cultivar Montana No.5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the evolutionary origin and sources of pest resistance genes will facilitate gene deployment and development\\u000a of crop cultivars with durable resistance. Our objective was to determine the source of common bacterial blight (CBB) resistance\\u000a in the common bean Great Northern Nebraska #1 (GN#1) and GN#1 Selection 27 (GN#1 Sel 27). Several great northern cultivars\\u000a including GN#1, GN#1 Sel

Phillip N. Miklas; Dermot P. Coyne; Kenneth F. Grafton; Nedim Mutlu; Jim Reiser; Dale T. Lindgren; Shree P. Singh

2003-01-01

79

A comparison of the molecular organization of genomic regions associated with resistance to common bacterial blight in two Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes  

PubMed Central

Resistance to common bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, in Phaseolus vulgaris is conditioned by several loci on different chromosomes. Previous studies with OAC-Rex, a CBB-resistant, white bean variety of Mesoamerican origin, identified two resistance loci associated with the molecular markers Pv-CTT001 and SU91, on chromosome 4 and 8, respectively. Resistance to CBB is assumed to be derived from an interspecific cross with Phaseolus acutifolius in the pedigree of OAC-Rex. Our current whole genome sequencing effort with OAC-Rex provided the opportunity to compare its genome in the regions associated with CBB resistance with the v1.0 release of the P. vulgaris line G19833, which is a large seeded bean of Andean origin, and (assumed to be) CBB susceptible. In addition, the genomic regions containing SAP6, a marker associated with P. vulgaris-derived CBB-resistance on chromosome 10, were compared. These analyses indicated that gene content was highly conserved between G19833 and OAC-Rex across the regions examined (>80%). However, fifty-nine genes unique to OAC Rex were identified, with resistance gene homologues making up the largest category (10 genes identified). Two unique genes in OAC-Rex located within the SU91 resistance QTL have homology to P. acutifolius ESTs and may be potential sources of CBB resistance. As the genomic sequence assembly of OAC-Rex is completed, we expect that further comparisons between it and the G19833 genome will lead to a greater understanding of CBB resistance in bean. PMID:24009615

Perry, Gregory; DiNatale, Claudia; Xie, Weilong; Navabi, Alireza; Reinprecht, Yarmilla; Crosby, William; Yu, Kangfu; Shi, Chun; Pauls, K. Peter

2013-01-01

80

Southern leaf blight disease severity is correlated with decreased maize leaf epiphytic bacterial species richness and the phyllosphere bacterial diversity decline is enhanced by nitrogen fertilization  

PubMed Central

Plant leaves are inhabited by a diverse group of microorganisms that are important contributors to optimal growth. Biotic and abiotic effects on plant growth are usually studied in controlled settings examining response to variation in single factors and in field settings with large numbers of variables. Multi-factor experiments with combinations of stresses bridge this gap, increasing our understanding of the genotype-environment-phenotype functional map for the host plant and the affiliated epiphytic community. The maize inbred B73 was exposed to single and combination abiotic and the biotic stress treatments: low nitrogen fertilizer and high levels of infection with southern leaf blight (causal agent Cochliobolus heterostrophus). Microbial epiphyte samples were collected at the vegetative early-season phase and species composition was determined using 16S ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Plant traits and level of southern leaf blight disease were measured late-season. Bacterial diversity was different among stress treatment groups (P < 0.001). Lower species richness—alpha diversity—was correlated with increased severity of southern leaf blight disease when disease pressure was high. Nitrogen fertilization intensified the decline in bacterial alpha diversity. While no single bacterial ribotype was consistently associated with disease severity, small sets of ribotypes were good predictors of disease levels. Difference in leaf bacterial-epiphyte diversity early in the season were correlated with plant disease severity, supporting further tests of microbial epiphyte-disease correlations for use in predicting disease progression. PMID:25177328

Manching, Heather C.; Balint-Kurti, Peter J.; Stapleton, Ann E.

2014-01-01

81

Metabolite profiles of rice cultivars containing bacterial blight-resistant genes are distinctive from susceptible rice.  

PubMed

The metabolic changes of bacterial blight-resistant line C418/Xa23 generated by molecular marker-assisted selection (n= 12), transgenic variety C418-Xa21 generated by using the Agrobacterium-mediated system (n= 12), and progenitor cultivar C418 (n= 12) were monitored using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The validation, discrimination, and establishment of correlative relationships between metabolite signals were performed by cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Significant and unintended changes were observed in 154 components in C418/Xa23 and 48 components in C418-Xa21 compared with C418 (P< 0.05, Fold change > 2.0). The most significant decreases detected (P< 0.001) in both C418/Xa23 and C418-Xa21 were in three amino acids: glycine, tyrosine, and alanine, and four identified metabolites: malic acid, ferulic acid, succinic acid, and glycerol. Linoleic acid was increased specifically in C418/Xa23 which was derived from traditional breeding. This line, possessing a distinctive metabolite profile as a positive control, shows more differences vs. the parental than the transgenic line. Only succinic acid that falls outside the boundaries of natural variability between the two non-transgenic varieties C418 and C418/Xa23 should be further investigated with respect to safety or nutritional impact. PMID:22687573

Wu, Jiao; Yu, Haichuan; Dai, Haofu; Mei, Wenli; Huang, Xin; Zhu, Shuifang; Peng, Ming

2012-08-01

82

Nucleotide Diversity Analysis of Three Major Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes in Rice  

PubMed Central

Nucleotide sequence polymorphisms among R gene alleles influence the process of co-evolutionary interaction between host and pathogen by shaping the response of host plants towards invading pathogens. Here, we present the DNA sequence polymorphisms and diversities present among natural alleles of three rice bacterial blight resistance genes, Xa21, Xa26 and xa5. The diversity was examined across different wild relatives and cultivars of Oryza species. Functional significance of selected alleles was evaluated through semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and real time PCR. The greatest nucleotide diversity and singleton variable sites (SVS) were present in Xa26 (? = 0.01958; SVS = 182) followed by xa5 and Xa21 alleles. The highest frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed in Xa21 alleles and least in xa5. Transition bias was observed in all the genes and ‘G’ to ‘A’ transitions were more favored than other form of transitions. Neutrality tests failed to show the presence of selection at these loci, though negative Tajima’s D values indicate the presence of a rare form of polymorphisms. At the interspecies level, O. nivara exhibited more diversity than O. sativa. We have also identified two nearly identical resistant alleles of xa5 and two sequentially identical alleles of Xa21. The alleles of xa5 showed basal levels of expression while Xa21 alleles were functionally not expressed. PMID:25807168

Bimolata, Waikhom; Kumar, Anirudh; M, Sai Kiran Reddy; Sundaram, Raman Meenakshi; Laha, Gouri Sankar; Qureshi, Insaf Ahmed; Ghazi, Irfan Ahmad

2015-01-01

83

Quantitative trait Loci mapping for bacterial blight resistance in rice using bulked segregant analysis.  

PubMed

Oryza meyeriana is highly resistant to rice bacterial blight (BB) and this resistance trait has been transferred to cultivated rice (O. sativa) using asymmetric somatic hybridization. However, no resistance genes have yet been cloned. In the present study, a progeny of the somatic hybridization with high BB resistance was crossed with a rice cultivar with high BB susceptibility to develop an F2 population. Using bulked segregant analysis (BSA), 17 polymorphic markers that were linked to rice BB resistance were obtained through scanning a total of 186 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and sequence-tagged site (STS) markers, evenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. A genetic linkage map was then constructed based on the 17 linkage markers and the F2 segregating population, which was followed by mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for BB resistance. Three QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1, 3 and 5, respectively, and the alleles of the resistant parent at any of the QTLs increased BB resistance. All of the three QTLs had a strong effect on resistance, explaining about 21.5%, 12.3% and 39.2% of the resistance variance, respectively. These QTLs were different from the loci of the BB resistance genes that have been identified in previous studies. The QTLs mapped in this work will facilitate the isolation of novel BB resistance genes and their utilization in rice resistance breeding. PMID:24995697

Han, Xueying; Yang, Yong; Wang, Xuming; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Wenhao; Yu, Chulang; Cheng, Chen; Cheng, Ye; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

2014-01-01

84

Development of a Model to Predict the Primary Infection Date of Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria) on Hot Pepper  

PubMed Central

A population model of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria on hot pepper was developed to predict the primary disease infection date. The model estimated the pathogen population on the surface and within the leaf of the host based on the wetness period and temperature. For successful infection, at least 5,000 cells/ml of the bacterial population were required. Also, wind and rain were necessary according to regression analyses of the monitored data. Bacterial spot on the model is initiated when the pathogen population exceeds 1015 cells/g within the leaf. The developed model was validated using 94 assessed samples from 2000 to 2007 obtained from monitored fields. Based on the validation study, the predicted initial infection dates varied based on the year rather than the location. Differences in initial infection dates between the model predictions and the monitored data in the field were minimal. For example, predicted infection dates for 7 locations were within the same month as the actual infection dates, 11 locations were within 1 month of the actual infection, and only 3 locations were more than 2 months apart from the actual infection. The predicted infection dates were mapped from 2009 to 2012; 2011 was the most severe year. Although the model was not sensitive enough to predict disease severity of less than 0.1% in the field, our model predicted bacterial spot severity of 1% or more. Therefore, this model can be applied in the field to determine when bacterial spot control is required. PMID:25288995

Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kang, Wee-Soo; Yun, Sung-Chul

2014-01-01

85

Development of a Model to Predict the Primary Infection Date of Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria) on Hot Pepper.  

PubMed

A population model of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria on hot pepper was developed to predict the primary disease infection date. The model estimated the pathogen population on the surface and within the leaf of the host based on the wetness period and temperature. For successful infection, at least 5,000 cells/ml of the bacterial population were required. Also, wind and rain were necessary according to regression analyses of the monitored data. Bacterial spot on the model is initiated when the pathogen population exceeds 10(15) cells/g within the leaf. The developed model was validated using 94 assessed samples from 2000 to 2007 obtained from monitored fields. Based on the validation study, the predicted initial infection dates varied based on the year rather than the location. Differences in initial infection dates between the model predictions and the monitored data in the field were minimal. For example, predicted infection dates for 7 locations were within the same month as the actual infection dates, 11 locations were within 1 month of the actual infection, and only 3 locations were more than 2 months apart from the actual infection. The predicted infection dates were mapped from 2009 to 2012; 2011 was the most severe year. Although the model was not sensitive enough to predict disease severity of less than 0.1% in the field, our model predicted bacterial spot severity of 1% or more. Therefore, this model can be applied in the field to determine when bacterial spot control is required. PMID:25288995

Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kang, Wee-Soo; Yun, Sung-Chul

2014-06-01

86

PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE PV. ALISALENSIS PV. NOV., A NEW PATHOVAR PROPOSED FOR THE CAUSAL AGENT OF BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF BROCCOLI AND BROCCOLI RAAB  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The etiology of three foliar bacterial diseases of crucifers and the relationships between their causal agents were evaluated. Data from LOPAT and carbon utilization tests, and fatty acid analysis indicated that bacterial blights of broccoli and broccoli raab, and leaf spot of broccolini, were cause...

87

Transcriptional responses of Italian ryegrass during interaction with Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis reveal novel candidate genes for bacterial wilt resistance.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) causes bacterial wilt, a severe disease of forage grasses such as Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). In order to gain a more detailed understanding of the genetic control of resistance mechanisms and to provide prerequisites for marker assisted selection, the partial transcriptomes of two Italian ryegrass genotypes, one resistant and one susceptible to bacterial wilt were compared at four time points after Xtg infection. A cDNA microarray developed from a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) expressed sequence tag set consisting of 9,990 unique genes was used for transcriptome analysis in Italian ryegrass. An average of 4,487 (45%) of the perennial ryegrass sequences spotted on the cDNA microarray were detected by cross-hybridisation to Italian ryegrass. Transcriptome analyses of the resistant versus the susceptible genotype revealed substantial gene expression differences (>1,200) indicating that great gene expression differences between different Italian ryegrass genotypes exist which potentially contribute to the observed phenotypic divergence in Xtg resistance between the two genotypes. In the resistant genotype, several genes differentially expressed after Xtg inoculation were identified which revealed similarities to transcriptional changes triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns in other plant-pathogen interactions. These genes represent candidate genes of particular interest for the development of tools for marker assisted resistance breeding. PMID:20976589

Wichmann, Fabienne; Asp, Torben; Widmer, Franco; Kölliker, Roland

2011-02-01

88

An efficient method for visualization and growth of fluorescent Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in planta  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight disease, is a serious pathogen of rice. Here we describe a fluorescent marker system to study virulence and pathogenicity of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Results A fluorescent X. oryzae pv. oryzae Philippine race 6 strain expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) (PXO99GFP) was generated using the gfp gene under the control of the neomycin promoter in the vector, pPneo-gfp. The PXO99GFPstrain displayed identical virulence and avirulence properties as the wild type control strain, PXO99. Using fluorescent microscopy, bacterial multiplication and colonization were directly observed in rice xylem vessels. Accurate and rapid determination of bacterial growth was assessed using fluoremetry and an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay (ELISA). Conclusion Our results indicate that the fluorescent marker system is useful for assessing bacterial infection and monitoring bacterial multiplication in planta. PMID:18826644

Han, Sang-Wook; Park, Chang-Jin; Lee, Sang-Won; Ronald, Pamela C

2008-01-01

89

The Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae raxP and raxQ genes encode an ATP sulphurylase and adenosine-5¢- phosphosulphate kinase that are required for AvrXa21 avirulence activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) Philippine race 6 (PR6) is unable to cause bacterial blight disease on rice lines containing the rice resistance gene Xa21 but is virulent on non-Xa21 rice lines, indicating that PR6 carries avirulence (avrXa21) determinants required for recognition by XA21. Here we show that two Xoo genes, raxP and raxQ, are required for AvrXa21 activity.

Yuwei Shen; Parveen Sharma; Francisco G. da Silva; Pamela Ronald

2002-01-01

90

Improvement of Bacterial Blight Resistance of `Minghui 63', an Elite Restorer Line of Hybrid Rice, by Molecular Marker-Assisted Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

during the period of extensive cultivation as a result of evolution of the pathogen population. 'Minghui 63' is a restorer line widely used in hybrid rice production A large number of genes for BB resistance have been in China. However, this line has become increasingly susceptible to identified that are available for cultivar improvement bacterial blight (BB), resulting in a

Sheng Chen; X. H. Lin; C. G. Xu; Qifa Zhang

2000-01-01

91

Interactions Between QTL SAP6 and SU91 on Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Red Kidney Bean and Pinto Bean Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL, SAP6 and SU91, which condition resistance to CBB.The QTL were studied in a pinto bean F2 population a cross between Othello (sap6 sap6 //...

92

Genotyping with Real-time PCR Reveals Recessive Epistasis Between Independent QTL Conferring Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Dry Bean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. Combining QTL is the current strategy for improving resistance in, but interactions among different QTL are unknown. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL present in dry bean ...

93

First report of bacterial blight of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea L. var. gemmifera) caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel bacterial leaf blight was seen in commercial Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea L. var. gemmifera) transplant production in 2006. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was Pseudomona...

94

First report of bacterial blight of crucifers caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Minnesota on arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2011, bacterial blight of arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa; cv. Roquette) was observed in organically grown plants under overhead irrigation near Delano, MN. Approximately 80 to 100% of each planting was affected. Blue-green fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated consistently on King’s Medi...

95

Transcriptome Alterations Resulting From Infection And Recovery Of Leafy Spurge To Cassava Bacterial Blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leafy spurge is a perennial rangeland weed that has been developed as a model weed system. An extensive EST database and cDNA microarrays containing more than 23,000 unigenes have been developed and used to characterize a variety of physiological processes from bud dormancy to drought stress and rec...

96

Metabolomic and transcriptomic analysis of the rice response to the bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

E-print Network

of frozen rice leaf samples for metabolomics and genemetabolomics and transcriptomics analyses yielded novel insights into the ricemetabolomics analyses to survey ozone responses in the leaves of rice

2010-01-01

97

Metabolomic and transcriptomic analysis of the rice response to the bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

E-print Network

of frozen rice leaf samples for metabolomics and genemetabolomics and transcriptomics analyses yielded novel insights into the ricemetabolomics analyses to survey ozone responses in the leaves of rice

2010-01-01

98

Differentiation of Xanthomonas spp. Causing Bacterial Spot in Bulgaria Based on Biolog System.  

PubMed

During the last 20 years, the causative agents of bacterial spot of tomato and pepper have been subjected to many studies and reclassifications. According to the current data, the species are four (X. euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. gardneri, and X. perforans) and cause similar symptoms in plants but possess different phenotypic properties. This work provides the full metabolic characteristics obtained by Biolog system of bacterial spot's xanthomonads based on a large selection of strains from different vegetable-producing regions of Bulgaria with accent on their major differentiating properties which could be used for species differentiation by metabolic profiles. The results are compared to the data available in the literature in order to clarify the strong features of each species and distinguish the variable ones. Simple characteristics like amylase activity and utilization of cis-aconitate cannot serve alone for differentiation. PMID:25197281

Stoyanova, Mariya; Vancheva, Taca; Moncheva, Penka; Bogatzevska, Nevena

2014-01-01

99

Differentiation of Xanthomonas spp. Causing Bacterial Spot in Bulgaria Based on Biolog System  

PubMed Central

During the last 20 years, the causative agents of bacterial spot of tomato and pepper have been subjected to many studies and reclassifications. According to the current data, the species are four (X. euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. gardneri, and X. perforans) and cause similar symptoms in plants but possess different phenotypic properties. This work provides the full metabolic characteristics obtained by Biolog system of bacterial spot's xanthomonads based on a large selection of strains from different vegetable-producing regions of Bulgaria with accent on their major differentiating properties which could be used for species differentiation by metabolic profiles. The results are compared to the data available in the literature in order to clarify the strong features of each species and distinguish the variable ones. Simple characteristics like amylase activity and utilization of cis-aconitate cannot serve alone for differentiation. PMID:25197281

Stoyanova, Mariya; Vancheva, Taca; Moncheva, Penka; Bogatzevska, Nevena

2014-01-01

100

Expression of a bacterial effector, harpin N, causes increased resistance to fire blight in Pyrus communis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid and effective activation of disease resistance responses is essential for plant defense against pathogen attack.\\u000a These responses are initiated when pathogen-derived molecules (elicitors) are recognized by the host. In order to create novel\\u000a mechanisms for fire blight resistance in pear, we have generated transgenic pears expressing the elicitor harpin Nea from Erwinia amylovora under the control of the

M. Malnoy; J. S. Venisse; E. Chevreau

2005-01-01

101

Interactions between QTL SAP6 and SU91 on resistance to common bacterial blight in red kidney bean and pinto bean populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding efforts to improve resistance in dry bean to common bacterial blight (CBB) have focused on applying marker assisted\\u000a selection strategies. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL (quantitative trait loci), SAP6 and SU91, on\\u000a the expression of resistance to CBB in a pinto bean F2 population and dark red kidney bean F2 population. The disease reaction for each

G. J. Vandemark; D. Fourie; R. C. Larsen; P. N. Miklas

2009-01-01

102

Genome-wide analysis of defense-responsive genes in bacterial blight resistance of rice mediated by the recessive R gene xa13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defense responses triggered by dominant and recessive disease resistance ( R) genes are presumed to be regulated by different molecular mechanisms. In order to characterize the genes activated in defense responses against bacterial blight mediated by the recessive R gene xa13, two pathogen-induced subtraction cDNA libraries were constructed using the resistant rice line IRBB13—which carries xa13 —and its susceptible, near-isogenic,

Z. Chu; Y. Ouyang; J. Zhang; H. Yang; S. Wang

2004-01-01

103

Antisense Suppression of a (+)-?-Cadinene Synthase Gene in Cotton Prevents the Induction of This Defense Response Gene during Bacterial Blight Infection But Not Its Constitutive Expression1[w  

PubMed Central

In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) the enzyme (+)-?-cadinene synthase (CDNS) catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of cadinane-type sesquiterpenes, such as gossypol, that provide constitutive and inducible protection against pests and diseases. A cotton cDNA clone encoding CDNS (cdn1-C4) was isolated from developing embryos and functionally characterized. Southern analysis showed that CDNS genes belong to a large multigene family, of which five genomic clones were studied, including three pseudogenes and one gene that may represent another subfamily of CDNS. CDNS expression was shown to be induced in cotton infected with either the bacterial blight or verticillium wilt pathogens. Constructs for the constitutive or seed-specific antisense suppression of cdn1-C4 were introduced into cotton by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gossypol levels were not reduced in the seeds of transformants with either construct, nor was the induction of CDNS expression affected in stems of the constitutive antisense plants infected with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. However, the induction of CDNS mRNA and protein in response to bacterial blight infection of cotyledons was completely blocked in the constitutive antisense plants. These results suggest that cdn1-C4 may be involved specifically in the bacterial blight response and that the CDNS multigene family comprises a complex set of genes differing in their temporal and spatial regulation and responsible for different branches of the cotton sesquiterpene pathway. PMID:15849309

Townsend, Belinda J.; Poole, Andrew; Blake, Christopher J.; Llewellyn, Danny J.

2005-01-01

104

Overexpressing CYP71Z2 Enhances Resistance to Bacterial Blight by Suppressing Auxin Biosynthesis in Rice  

PubMed Central

Background The hormone auxin plays an important role not only in the growth and development of rice, but also in its defense responses. We’ve previously shown that the P450 gene CYP71Z2 enhances disease resistance to pathogens through regulation of phytoalexin biosynthesis in rice, though it remains unclear if auxin is involved in this process or not. Methodology and Principal Findings The expression of CYP71Z2 was induced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) inoculation was analyzed by qRT-PCR, with GUS histochemical staining showing that CYP71Z2 expression was limited to roots, blades and nodes. Overexpression of CYP71Z2 in rice durably and stably increased resistance to Xoo, though no significant difference in disease resistance was detected between CYP71Z2-RNA interference (RNAi) rice and wild-type. Moreover, IAA concentration was determined using the HPLC/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry system. The accumulation of IAA was significantly reduced in CYP71Z2-overexpressing rice regardless of whether plants were inoculated or not, whereas it was unaffected in CYP71Z2-RNAi rice. Furthermore, the expression of genes related to IAA, expansin and SA/JA signaling pathways was suppressed in CYP71Z2-overexpressing rice with or without inoculation. Conclusions and Significance These results suggest that CYP71Z2-mediated resistance to Xoo may be via suppression of IAA signaling in rice. Our studies also provide comprehensive insight into molecular mechanism of resistance to Xoo mediated by IAA in rice. Moreover, an available approach for understanding the P450 gene functions in interaction between rice and pathogens has been provided. PMID:25786239

Li, Wenqi; Wang, Fangquan; Wang, Jun; Fan, Fangjun; Zhu, Jinyan; Yang, Jie; Liu, Fengquan; Zhong, Weigong

2015-01-01

105

First report of bacterial leaf blight on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) caused by pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Mississippi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2010, a brassica leafy greens grower in Sunflower County, Mississippi, observed scattered outbreaks of a leaf blight disease on mustard greens (Brassica juncea) in a 180-hectare field. A severe outbreak of leaf blight occurred on mustard greens and turnip greens (Brassica rapa) in the same field...

106

Low temperature and anhydrous electron microscopy techniques to observe the infection process of the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas fragariae on strawberry leaves.  

PubMed

Preserving the structural arrangement of the components of a bacterial infection process within a plant for microscopy study is a technical challenge because of the different requirements of each component for optimal preservation and visualization. We used low temperature scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), anhydrous fixation at ambient temperature and freeze-substitution for transmission electron microscopy to examine fractured and sectioned strawberry leaves infected with Xanthomonas fragariae. Cryo-SEM images of fractured samples showed the bacterial colonization of mesophyll air spaces in the leaf, limited by the vascular bundles and the orientation and packing of bacteria in extracellular polysaccharide. Transmission electron microscopy of samples fixed using osmium tetroxide dissolved in FC-72 solvent at ambient temperature showed that the entire plant/bacteria/extracellular polysaccharide system was preserved in situ, and showed plasmolysis of mesophyll cells and disruption of organelles. In freeze-substitution samples, osmium tetroxide in FC-72 solvent gave superior preservation of the extracellular polysaccharide as compared to a conventional cocktail. In addition, strands believed to be xanthan were preferentially contrasted to show their density and orientation around the bacterial cells. We conclude that anhydrous fixation using osmium tetroxide in FC-72 at ambient temperature gave the best preservation of the entire system, and freeze-substitution using this same fixative enhanced the visualization of strands in the biofilm. PMID:20701664

Allan-Wojtas, P; Hildebrand, P D; Braun, P G; Smith-King, H L; Carbyn, S; Renderos, W E

2010-09-01

107

Management of Bacterial Blight of Lilac Caused by Pseudomonas syringae by Growing Plants under Plastic Shelters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae causes some of the most economically-important bacterial diseases affecting woody perennials grown by the nursery industry in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. In this study, we evaluated a cultural control practice, placement of plants in plastic shelter...

108

Photocatalysis: effect of light-activated nanoscale formulations of TiO(2) on Xanthomonas perforans and control of bacterial spot of tomato.  

PubMed

Protection of crops from bacterial diseases presents a continuing challenge, mandating the development of novel agents and approaches. Photocatalysis is a process where chemically reactive oxygen species are catalytically generated by certain minerals in the presence of light. These reactive oxygen species have the capacity to destroy organic molecular structures critical to pathogen viability. In this study, the antibacterial potential of photocatalytic nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), nanoscale TiO(2) doped (incorporation of other materials into the structure of TiO(2)) with silver (TiO(2)/Ag), and nanoscale TiO(2) doped with zinc (TiO(2)/Zn; AgriTitan) was evaluated against Xanthomonas perforans, the causal agent for bacterial spot disease of tomato. In vitro experiments on photocatalytic activity and dose dependency were conducted on glass cover slips coated with the nanoscale formulations by adding a known population of X. perforans strain Xp-F7 and illuminating the cover slips under a visible light source. TiO(2)/Ag and TiO(2)/Zn had high photocatalytic activity against X. perforans within 10 min of exposure to 3 × 10(4) lux. Greenhouse studies on naturally and artificially infected transplants treated with TiO(2)/Zn at ?500 to 800 ppm significantly reduced bacterial spot severity compared with untreated and copper control. Protection was similar to the grower standard, copper + mancozeb. The use of TiO(2)/Zn at ?500 to 800 ppm significantly reduced disease incidence in three of the four trials compared with untreated and copper control, and was comparable to or better than the grower standard. The treatments did not cause any adverse effects on tomato yield in any of the field trials. PMID:23190116

Paret, Mathews L; Vallad, Gary E; Averett, Devron R; Jones, Jeffrey B; Olson, Stephen M

2013-03-01

109

Comparison of the genomes of two Xanthomonas pathogens with differing host specificities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Xanthomonas is a diverse and economically important group of bacterial phytopathogens, belonging to the gamma-subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) causes citrus canker, which affects most commercial citrus cultivars, resulting in significant losses worldwide. Symptoms include canker lesions, leading to abscission of fruit and leaves and general tree decline. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) causes

A. C. R. da Silva; J. A. Ferro; F. C. Reinach; C. S. Farah; L. R. Furlan; R. B. Quaggio; C. B. Monteiro-Vitorello; M. A. Van Sluys; N. F. Almeida; L. M. C. Alves; A. M. do Amaral; M. C. Bertolini; L. E. A. Camargo; G. Camarotte; F. Cannavan; J. Cardozo; F. Chambergo; L. P. Ciapina; R. M. B. Cicarelli; L. L. Coutinho; J. R. Cursino-Santos; H. El-Dorry; J. B. Faria; A. J. S. Ferreira; R. C. C. Ferreira; M. I. T. Ferro; E. F. Formighieri; M. C. Franco; C. C. Greggio; A. Gruber; A. M. Katsuyama; L. T. Kishi; R. P. Leite; E. G. M. Lemos; M. V. F. Lemos; E. C. Locali; A. M. B. N. Madeira; N. M. Martinez-Rossi; E. C. Martins; J. Meidanis; C. F. M. Menck; C. Y. Miyaki; D. H. Moon; L. M. Moreira; M. T. M. Novo; V. K. Okura; M. C. Oliveira; V. R. Oliveira; H. A. Pereira; A. Rossi; J. A. D. Sena; C. Silva; R. F. de Souza; L. A. F. Spinola; M. A. Takita; E. C. Teixeira; R. I. D. Tezza; M. Trindade dos Santos; D. Truffi; S. M. Tsai; F. F. White; J. C. Setubal; J. P. Kitajima

2002-01-01

110

Genetic Diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Asia  

PubMed Central

Restriction fragment length polymorphism and virulence analyses were used to evaluate the population structure of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the rice bacterial blight pathogen, from several rice-growing countries in Asia. Two DNA sequences from X. oryzae pv. oryzae, IS1112, an insertion sequence, and avrXa10, a member of a family of avirulence genes, were used as probes to analyze the genomes of 308 strains of X. oryzae pv. oryzae collected from China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, and the Philippines. On the basis of the consensus of three clustering statistics, the collection formed five clusters. Genetic distances within the five clusters ranged from 0.16 to 0.51, and distances between clusters ranged from 0.48 to 0.64. Three of the five clusters consisted of strains from a single country. Strains within two clusters, however, were found in more than one country, suggesting patterns of movement of the pathogen. The pathotype of X. oryzae pv. oryzae was determined for 226 strains by inoculating five rice differential cultivars. More than one pathotype was associated with each cluster; however, some pathotypes were associated with only one cluster. Most strains from South Asia (Nepal and India) were virulent to cultivars containing the bacterial blight resistance gene xa-5, while most strains from other countries were avirulent to xa-5. The regional differentiation of clusters of X. oryzae pv. oryzae in Asia and the association of some pathotypes of X. oryzae pv. oryzae with single clusters suggested that strategies that target regional resistance breeding and gene deployment are feasible. PMID:16534980

Adhikari, T. B.; Cruz, C.; Zhang, Q.; Nelson, R. J.; Skinner, D. Z.; Mew, T. W.; Leach, J. E.

1995-01-01

111

First Report of Bacterial Leaf Blight on Broccoli and Cabbage Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis in South Carolina  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In May 2009, leaf spot and leaf blight symptoms were observed on broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) on several farms in Lexington County, the major brassica-growing region of South Carolina. Affected areas ranged from scattered disease foci within fiel...

112

Productivity and biochemical properties of green tea in response to full-length and functional fragments of HpaG Xooc , a harpin protein from the bacterial rice leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harpin proteins from plant pathogenic bacteria can stimulate hypersensitive cell death (HCD), drought tolerance, defence responses\\u000a against pathogens and insects in plants, as well as enhance plant growth. Recently, we identified nine functional fragments\\u000a of HpaGXooc, a harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the pathogen that causes bacterial leaf streak in rice. Fragments HpaG1–94, HpaG10–42, and HpaG62–138, which contain

Xiaojing Wu; Tingquan Wu; Juying Long; Qian Yin; Yong Zhang; Lei Chen; Ruoxue Liu; Tongchun Gao; Hansong Dong

2007-01-01

113

In silico insight into two rice chromosomal regions associated with submergence tolerance and resistance to bacterial leaf blight and gall midge.  

PubMed

Plants respond to both biotic and abiotic stresses through a common signaling system to provide defense and protection against many adverse environments. Many genes/QTLs governing resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses have been studied and mapped in rice. Sub1, a major QTL for submergence tolerance is collocated with a gene Gm1 for gall midge resistance on chromosome 9 (Region 1). Likewise a bigger region on chromosome 5 (Region 2) has a minor QTL for submergence tolerance collocated with genes for bacterial blight resistance. Utilizing the rice sequence and annotation data (TIGR) and rice genome annotation project database (RAP-DB), we wanted to know the kinds of genes underlying these two chromosomal regions where genes/QTL governing tolerance to both biotic and abiotic stresses are collocated. We also analyzed the pattern of distribution of these genes across the BAC/PAC clones spanning the region so that candidate genes can be short listed for a functional analysis. Genes known to have a role in submergence tolerance were present in both the regions. Region 1, had a unique transcription factor like trithorax protein, which is a positional candidate gene for submergence tolerance. Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) gene for alcohol fermentation and cation transporting ATPase c-terminal domain are likely candidates for submergence QTL in Region 2. Genes such as SKP1 and elicitor induced cytochrome p450 associated with tissue necrosis and insect resistance were found in region 1. Multiple copies of ORFs for signal transduction proteins, transcription factors, genes for systemic acquired resistance, Ubiquitin proteins and pathogen elicitor identification and degrading proteins were located as a cluster in Region 2, where bacterial blight resistance genes mapped. Validation of the data obtained from TIGR with other databases (RAP and KOME) confirmed our findings. The functional role of some of the significant candidate genes needs to be established. Allele/gene specific markers can then be designed for use in MAS thus enhancing durable tolerance/resistance faster. PMID:16887318

Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Sarla, N; Kikuchi, Shoshi

2006-01-01

114

Genome sequence of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans strain 4834-R reveals that flagellar motility is not a general feature of xanthomonads  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonads are plant-associated bacteria responsible for diseases on economically important crops. Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans (Xff) is one of the causal agents of common bacterial blight of bean. In this study, the complete genome sequence of strain Xff 4834-R was determined and compared to other Xanthomonas genome sequences. Results Comparative genomics analyses revealed core characteristics shared between Xff 4834-R and other xanthomonads including chemotaxis elements, two-component systems, TonB-dependent transporters, secretion systems (from T1SS to T6SS) and multiple effectors. For instance a repertoire of 29 Type 3 Effectors (T3Es) with two Transcription Activator-Like Effectors was predicted. Mobile elements were associated with major modifications in the genome structure and gene content in comparison to other Xanthomonas genomes. Notably, a deletion of 33 kbp affects flagellum biosynthesis in Xff 4834-R. The presence of a complete flagellar cluster was assessed in a collection of more than 300 strains representing different species and pathovars of Xanthomonas. Five percent of the tested strains presented a deletion in the flagellar cluster and were non-motile. Moreover, half of the Xff strains isolated from the same epidemic than 4834-R was non-motile and this ratio was conserved in the strains colonizing the next bean seed generations. Conclusions This work describes the first genome of a Xanthomonas strain pathogenic on bean and reports the existence of non-motile xanthomonads belonging to different species and pathovars. Isolation of such Xff variants from a natural epidemic may suggest that flagellar motility is not a key function for in planta fitness. PMID:24195767

2013-01-01

115

Comparative Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Different Expression Patterns in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Strains with Putative Virulence-Relevant Genes  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight, which is a major rice disease in tropical Asian countries. An attempt has been made to investigate gene expression patterns of three Xoo strains on the minimal medium XOM2, PXO99 (P6) and PXO86 (P2) from the Philippines, and GD1358 (C5) from China, which exhibited different virulence in 30 rice varieties, with putative virulence factors using deep sequencing. In total, 4,781 transcripts were identified in this study, and 1,151 and 3,076 genes were differentially expressed when P6 was compared with P2 and with C5, respectively. Our results indicated that Xoo strains from different regions exhibited distinctly different expression patterns of putative virulence-relevant genes. Interestingly, 40 and 44 genes involved in chemotaxis and motility exhibited higher transcript alterations in C5 compared with P6 and P2, respectively. Most other genes associated with virulence, including exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, Hrp genes and type III effectors, including Xanthomonas outer protein (Xop) effectors and transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors, were down-regulated in C5 compared with P6 and P2. The data were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, tests of bacterial motility, and enzyme activity analysis of EPS and xylanase. These results highlight the complexity of Xoo and offer new avenues for improving our understanding of Xoo-rice interactions and the evolution of Xoo virulence. PMID:23734193

Zhang, Fan; Du, Zhenglin; Huang, Liyu; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Zhou, Yongli; Li, Zhikang

2013-01-01

116

A mutation in the aroE gene affects pigment production, virulence, and chemotaxis in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight (BB) in rice. To study its function, a random insertion mutation library of Xoo was constructed using the Tn5 transposon. A mutant strain with decreased virulence against the susceptible rice cultivar IR24 was isolated from the library (aroE mutant), which also had extremely low pigment production. Thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction (TAIL-PCR) and sequence analysis of the mutant revealed that the transposon was inserted into the aroE gene (encoding shikimate dehydrogenase). To investigate gene expression changes in the pigment- and virulence-deficient mutant, DNA microarray analysis was performed, which showed downregulation of 20 genes involved in the chemotaxis of Xoo. Our findings reveal that mutation of the aroE gene affects virulence and pigment production, as well as expression of genes involved in Xoo chemotaxis. PMID:25213405

Kim, Hong-Il; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Lee, Chang-Soo; Park, Young-Jin

2015-01-01

117

Genome sequence and rapid evolution of the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO99A  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major disease that constrains production of this staple crop in many parts of the world. We report here on the complete genome sequence of strain PXO99A and its comparison to two previously sequenced strains, KACC10331 and MAFF311018, which are highly similar to one another. Results The PXO99A genome is a single circular chromosome of 5,240,075 bp, considerably longer than the genomes of the other strains (4,941,439 bp and 4,940,217 bp, respectively), and it contains 5083 protein-coding genes, including 87 not found in KACC10331 or MAFF311018. PXO99A contains a greater number of virulence-associated transcription activator-like effector genes and has at least ten major chromosomal rearrangements relative to KACC10331 and MAFF311018. PXO99A contains numerous copies of diverse insertion sequence elements, members of which are associated with 7 out of 10 of the major rearrangements. A rapidly-evolving CRISPR (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats) region contains evidence of dozens of phage infections unique to the PXO99A lineage. PXO99A also contains a unique, near-perfect tandem repeat of 212 kilobases close to the replication terminus. Conclusion Our results provide striking evidence of genome plasticity and rapid evolution within Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The comparisons point to sources of genomic variation and candidates for strain-specific adaptations of this pathogen that help to explain the extraordinary diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae genotypes and races that have been isolated from around the world. PMID:18452608

Salzberg, Steven L; Sommer, Daniel D; Schatz, Michael C; Phillippy, Adam M; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Tsuge, Seiji; Furutani, Ayako; Ochiai, Hirokazu; Delcher, Arthur L; Kelley, David; Madupu, Ramana; Puiu, Daniela; Radune, Diana; Shumway, Martin; Trapnell, Cole; Aparna, Gudlur; Jha, Gopaljee; Pandey, Alok; Patil, Prabhu B; Ishihara, Hiromichi; Meyer, Damien F; Szurek, Boris; Verdier, Valerie; Koebnik, Ralf; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P; Hirata, Hisae; Tsuyumu, Shinji; Won Lee, Sang; Ronald, Pamela C; Sonti, Ramesh V; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Leach, Jan E; White, Frank F; Bogdanove, Adam J

2008-01-01

118

Population typing of the causal agent of cassava bacterial blight in the Eastern Plains of Colombia using two types of molecular markers  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular typing of pathogen populations is an important tool for the development of effective strategies for disease control. Diverse molecular markers have been used to characterize populations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), the main bacterial pathogen of cassava. Recently, diversity and population dynamics of Xam in the Colombian Caribbean coast were estimated using AFLPs, where populations were found to be dynamic, diverse and with haplotypes unstable across time. Aiming to examine the current state of pathogen populations located in the Colombian Eastern Plains, we also used AFLP markers and we evaluated the usefulness of Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) as new molecular markers for the study of Xam populations. Results The population analyses showed that AFLP and VNTR provide a detailed and congruent description of Xam populations from the Colombian Eastern Plains. These two typing strategies clearly separated strains from the Colombian Eastern Plains into distinct populations probably because of geographical distance. Although the majority of analyses were congruent between typing markers, fewer VNTRs were needed to detect a higher number of genetic populations of the pathogen as well as a higher genetic flow among sampled locations than those detected by AFLPs. Conclusions This study shows the advantages of VNTRs over AFLPs in the surveillance of pathogen populations and suggests the implementation of VNTRs in studies that involve large numbers of Xam isolates in order to obtain a more detailed overview of the pathogen to improve the strategies for disease control. PMID:24946775

2014-01-01

119

Comparative genomic and transcriptome analyses of pathotypes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri provide insights into mechanisms of bacterial virulence and host range  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus bacterial canker is a disease that has severe economic impact on citrus industries worldwide and is caused by a few species and pathotypes of Xanthomonas. X. citri subsp. citri strain 306 (XccA306) is a type A (Asiatic) strain with a wide host range, whereas its variant X. citri subsp. citri strain Aw12879 (Xcaw12879, Wellington strain) is restricted to Mexican lime. Results To characterize the mechanism for the differences in host range of XccA and Xcaw, the genome of Xcaw12879 that was completed recently was compared with XccA306 genome. Effectors xopAF and avrGf1 are present in Xcaw12879, but were absent in XccA306. AvrGf1 was shown previously for Xcaw to cause hypersensitive response in Duncan grapefruit. Mutation analysis of xopAF indicates that the gene contributes to Xcaw growth in Mexican lime but does not contribute to the limited host range of Xcaw. RNA-Seq analysis was conducted to compare the expression profiles of Xcaw12879 and XccA306 in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium and XVM2 medium, which induces hrp gene expression. Two hundred ninety two and 281 genes showed differential expression in XVM2 compared to in NB for XccA306 and Xcaw12879, respectively. Twenty-five type 3 secretion system genes were up-regulated in XVM2 for both XccA and Xcaw. Among the 4,370 common genes of Xcaw12879 compared to XccA306, 603 genes in NB and 450 genes in XVM2 conditions were differentially regulated. Xcaw12879 showed higher protease activity than XccA306 whereas Xcaw12879 showed lower pectate lyase activity in comparison to XccA306. Conclusions Comparative genomic analysis of XccA306 and Xcaw12879 identified strain specific genes. Our study indicated that AvrGf1 contributes to the host range limitation of Xcaw12879 whereas XopAF contributes to virulence. Transcriptome analyses of XccA306 and Xcaw12879 presented insights into the expression of the two closely related strains of X. citri subsp. citri. Virulence genes including genes encoding T3SS components and effectors are induced in XVM2 medium. Numerous genes with differential expression in Xcaw12879 and XccA306 were identified. This study provided the foundation to further characterize the mechanisms for virulence and host range of pathotypes of X. citri subsp. citri. PMID:23941402

2013-01-01

120

Measurement of haplotypic variation in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae within a single field by rep-PCR and RFLP analyses  

SciTech Connect

The haplotypic variation of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in a farmer;s field that had endemic bacterial blight in the Philippines was evaluated at a single time. The genomic structure of the field population was analyzed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers corresponding to interspersed repeated sequences in prokaryotic genomes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the insertion sequence IS1113. The techniques and specific probes and primers were selected because they grouped consistently into the same lineages a set of 30 selected X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that represented the four distinct RFLP lineages found in the Philippines did. Strains (155) were systematically collected from a field planted to rice cv. Sinandomeng, which is susceptible to the indigenous pathogen population. Two of the four Philippine lineages, B and C, which included race 2 and races 3 and 9, respectively, were detected in the field. Lineage C was the predominant population (74.8%). The haplotypic diversities of 10 of the 25 blocks were significantly greater than the total haplotypic diversity of the collection in the entire field; however, between individual blocks the haplotypic diversities were not significantly different. Haplo-types from both lineages were distributed randomly across the field. Analysis of genetic diversity at the microgeographic scale provided insights into the finer scale of variation of X. oryzae pv. oryzae, which are useful in designing experiments to study effects of host resistance on the population structure of the bacterial blight pathogen. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Vera Cruz, C.M.; Leach, J.E. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Ardales, E.Y.; Talag, J. [International Rice Research Institute, Manila (Philippines)] [and others

1996-12-01

121

Alternaria blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternaria blight of chickpea is caused by the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. The pathogen has wide host range, and affects all above ground parts of the plant. The disease occurs sporadically and occasionally could be economically important and causes significant damage. The pathogen can ...

122

FIRE BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pears and woody ornamentals of the rose family. The disease is indigenous to North America and has been studied for more than one century. E. amylovora can infect blossoms, stems, immature fruits, woody branch...

123

Sensitive Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae Pathovars oryzae and oryzicola by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  

PubMed Central

Molecular diagnostics for crop diseases can enhance food security by enabling the rapid identification of threatening pathogens and providing critical information for the deployment of disease management strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a PCR-based tool that allows the rapid, highly specific amplification of target DNA sequences at a single temperature and is thus ideal for field-level diagnosis of plant diseases. We developed primers highly specific for two globally important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight (BB) disease, and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak disease (BLS), for use in reliable, sensitive LAMP assays. In addition to pathovar distinction, two assays that differentiate X. oryzae pv. oryzae by African or Asian lineage were developed. Using these LAMP primer sets, the presence of each pathogen was detected from DNA and bacterial cells, as well as leaf and seed samples. Thresholds of detection for all assays were consistently 104 to 105 CFU ml?1, while genomic DNA thresholds were between 1 pg and 10 fg. Use of the unique sequences combined with the LAMP assay provides a sensitive, accurate, rapid, simple, and inexpensive protocol to detect both BB and BLS pathogens. PMID:24837384

Lang, Jillian M.; Langlois, Paul; Nguyen, Marian Hanna R.; Triplett, Lindsay R.; Purdie, Laura; Holton, Timothy A.; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.; Verdier, Valérie

2014-01-01

124

The bacterial blight disease of cotton. III. A statistical study of the inheritance of Stoneville 20 resistance. IV. The physiological nature of Stoneville 20 resistance  

E-print Network

............... .............................. 35 17 Estimated number of effective factors calculated by several formulas for the three crosses Pi x P2* Pi x P3 and ?i x ................................... 38 18 Carbohydrate fractions of leaf blades in Xanthomonas malvacearum resistant... .......................... 19 3 The frequency distributions of F3 family means which were grown in 1952 for the crosses P^ x ^1 x p3 Pl X PJ,............................................... 36 Figure Page P Growth of Xanthomonas malvacearum on agar media with various...

Bird, L. S.

1955-01-01

125

Do transgenesis and marker-assisted backcross breeding produce substantially equivalent plants? - A comparative study of transgenic and backcross rice carrying bacterial blight resistant gene Xa21  

PubMed Central

Background The potential impact of genetically modified (GM) plants on human health has attracted much attention worldwide, and the issue remains controversial. This is in sharp contrast to the broad acceptance of plants produced by breeding through Marker Assisted Backcrossing (MAB). Results Focusing on transcriptome variation and perturbation to signaling pathways, we assessed the molecular and biological aspects of substantial equivalence, a general principle for food safety endorsed by the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization, between a transgenic crop and a plant from MAB breeding. We compared a transgenic rice line (DXT) and a MAB rice line (DXB), both of which contain the gene Xa21 providing resistance to bacterial leaf blight. By using Next-Generation sequencing data of DXT, DXB and their parental line (D62B), we compared the transcriptome variation of DXT and DXB. Remarkably, DXT had 43% fewer differentially expressed genes (DEGs) than DXB. The genes exclusively expressed in DXT and in DXB have pathogen and stress defense functions. Functional categories of DEGs in DXT were comparable to that in DXB, and seven of the eleven pathways significantly affected by transgenesis were also perturbed by MAB breeding. Conclusions These results indicated that the transgenic rice and rice from MAB breeding are substantial equivalent at the transcriptome level, and paved a way for further study of transgenic rice, e.g., understanding the chemical and nutritional properties of the DEGs identified in the current study. PMID:24165682

2013-01-01

126

First report of bacterial blight of sugar beet caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. aptata in Georgia, USA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarbeet [Beta vulgaris L.] is not currently a commercial crop in Georgia, but experimental plantings as a winter rotational crop are promising in terms of yield and industrial sugar production. A disease outbreak of suspected bacterial origin occurred in some plots of sugarbeet [experimental lin...

127

First Report of Bacterial Blight on Conventionally and Organically Grown Arugula in Nevada Caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A novel bacterial leaf spot was detected in commercial organic and conventional plantings of the arugula (Eruca vesicaria spp. sativa) cv. My Way in 2007. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathog...

128

Ketoglutarate Transport Protein KgtP Is Secreted through the Type III Secretion System and Contributes to Virulence in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

PubMed Central

The phytopathogenic prokaryote Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight (BB) of rice and utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver T3SS effectors into rice cells. In this report, we show that the ketoglutarate transport protein (KgtP) is secreted in an HpaB-independent manner through the T3SS of X. oryzae pv. oryzae PXO99A and localizes to the host cell membrane for ?-ketoglutaric acid export. kgtP contained an imperfect PIP box (plant-inducible promoter) in the promoter region and was positively regulated by HrpX and HrpG. A kgtP deletion mutant was impaired in bacterial virulence and growth in planta; furthermore, the mutant showed reduced growth in minimal media containing ?-ketoglutaric acid or sodium succinate as the sole carbon source. The reduced virulence and the deficiency in ?-ketoglutaric acid utilization by the kgtP mutant were restored to wild-type levels by the presence of kgtP in trans. The expression of OsIDH, which is responsible for the synthesis of ?-ketoglutaric acid in rice, was enhanced when KgtP was present in the pathogen. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that KgtP, which is regulated by HrpG and HrpX and secreted by the T3SS in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, transports ?-ketoglutaric acid when the pathogen infects rice. PMID:22685129

Guo, Wei; Cai, Lu-Lu; Zou, Hua-Song; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Liu, Xi-Ling; Zou, Li-Fang; Li, Yu-Rong

2012-01-01

129

Multiplex nested PCR for detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii from onion seeds.  

PubMed

Bacterial blight of onion (BBO) is an emerging disease that is present in many onion-producing areas. The causal agent, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is seed transmitted. A reliable and sensitive diagnostic tool for testing seed health is needed. Detection of X. axonopodis pv. allii was achieved using a multiplex nested PCR assay developed using two randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) sequences corresponding to pilus assembly genes (pilW and pilX) and the avrRxv gene, respectively. The multiplex nested PCR was used with a large collection of X. axonopodis pv. allii strains pathogenic to onion and/or other Allium species isolated in different regions of the world. The internal primers used in the multiplex PCR assay directed amplification for all 86 X. axonopodis pv. allii strains tested, resulting in a 401-bp amplicon, a 444- to 447-bp amplicon, or both amplicons, depending on the strain. No amplification was obtained for 41 unrelated phytopathogenic bacteria and for 14 saprophytic bacteria commonly isolated from onion leaves and seeds. Most Xanthomonas strains also did not produce amplicons, except for nine strains classified in X. axonopodis genetic subgroup 9.1 or 9.2 and not pathogenic to onion. Nevertheless, sequence signatures distinguished most of these strains from X. axonopodis pv. allii. The assay detected X. axonopodis pv. allii in seed lots with contamination levels of 5 x 10(2) CFU g(-1) or higher. The sensitivity threshold of the multiplex nested PCR assay was found to be 1 infected seed in 27,340 seeds. This PCR-based assay should be useful for certifying that commercial seed lots are free of this important seed-borne pathogen. PMID:20208024

Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Legrand, Delphine; Gagnevin, Lionel; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Laurent, Annie; Pruvost, Olivier

2010-05-01

130

Development and validation of a Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri DNA microarray platform (XACarray) generated from the shotgun libraries previously used in the sequencing of this bacterial genome  

PubMed Central

Background From shotgun libraries used for the genomic sequencing of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (XAC), clones that were representative of the largest possible number of coding sequences (CDSs) were selected to create a DNA microarray platform on glass slides (XACarray). The creation of the XACarray allowed for the establishment of a tool that is capable of providing data for the analysis of global genome expression in this organism. Findings The inserts from the selected clones were amplified by PCR with the universal oligonucleotide primers M13R and M13F. The obtained products were purified and fixed in duplicate on glass slides specific for use in DNA microarrays. The number of spots on the microarray totaled 6,144 and included 768 positive controls and 624 negative controls per slide. Validation of the platform was performed through hybridization of total DNA probes from XAC labeled with different fluorophores, Cy3 and Cy5. In this validation assay, 86% of all PCR products fixed on the glass slides were confirmed to present a hybridization signal greater than twice the standard deviation of the deviation of the global median signal-to-noise ration. Conclusions Our validation of the XACArray platform using DNA-DNA hybridization revealed that it can be used to evaluate the expression of 2,365 individual CDSs from all major functional categories, which corresponds to 52.7% of the annotated CDSs of the XAC genome. As a proof of concept, we used this platform in a previously work to verify the absence of genomic regions that could not be detected by sequencing in related strains of Xanthomonas. PMID:20507617

2010-01-01

131

The xrvA gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, encoding an H-NS-like protein, regulates virulence in rice.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight disease in rice, one of the most serious rice diseases. The xrvA gene from Xoo strain 1,3751 encodes a protein containing a histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein (H-NS) domain. The expression of xrvA in strain 1,3751 was enhanced in XOM2 minimal medium. Mutation of the xrvA gene of strain 1,3751 led to a significant reduction in virulence in the host plant rice, a delayed hypersensitive response in the nonhost castor-oil plant, a decrease in extracellular polysaccharide and diffusible signal factor production, and an increase in intracellular glycogen accumulation. Northern hybridization analyses revealed that the virulence-associated genes hrpG, hrpX, rpfC, rpfF, rpfG and gumB were downregulated in the xrvA mutant compared to the wild-type and complemented strains. Interestingly, increase of copy number of xrvA in the wild-type strain 1,3751 resulted in a strain showing similar phenotypes as the xrvA mutant and a reduction of the expression of gumB, hrpX, rpfC, rpfF and rpfG. These findings indicate that the xrvA gene, which is highly conserved in the sequenced strains of Xanthomonas, encodes an important regulatory factor for the virulence of Xoo. PMID:19423625

Feng, Jia-Xun; Song, Zhi-Zhong; Duan, Cheng-Jie; Zhao, Shuai; Wu, Ying-Qiao; Wang, Chao; Dow, J Maxwell; Tang, Ji-Liang

2009-09-01

132

Corn blight watch experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

1974-01-01

133

Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae Strain LMG 941  

PubMed Central

We report the 5.1-Mb genome sequence of Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae strain LMG 941, the causal agent of bacterial black spot in mango. Apart from evolutionary studies, the draft genome will be a valuable resource for the epidemiological studies and quarantine of this phytopathogen. PMID:22582385

Midha, Samriti; Ranjan, Manish; Sharma, Vikas; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar

2012-01-01

134

SCREENING CITRUS GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO XANTHOMONAS ANONOPODIS PV. CITRI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus bacterial canker (causal agent Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac)) is a serious threat to the citrus industry. Currently there are no effective means to control citrus canker. Our objective was to determine the resistance of selected Citrus species, citrus hybrids, and citrus relatives to...

135

A complex population structure of the cassava pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis in recent years in the Caribbean Region of Colombia.  

PubMed

Cassava bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), is the most important bacterial disease affecting this crop. A continuous surveillance of the pathogen population dynamics is required to develop an efficient disease management program. During the 1990s, Xam populations showed high levels of genetic variation and relevant migratory processes that were important determinants of the distribution of the pathogen diversity in Colombia. Aiming to characterize the current population structure of the pathogen and the evolutionary forces that shape these populations, sampling collections were carried out from September 2008 until November 2010 in the Colombian Caribbean Region. One hundred and sixty bacterial isolates were characterized using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Additionally, a subset of effector genes were sequenced in some isolates to determine their usefulness in Xam population studies and to provide additional information to that obtained with AFLPs. Virulence patterns of ten isolates were determined in nine cassava accessions. Our results show a complex architecture of population and confirm migratory process previously reported in the Caribbean Region. Chinú, one of the locations sampled, presented remarkable features in population dynamics such as longer genetic distances, higher diversity indices, and a genetically differentiated population when it was compared with other locations. Virulence tests showed that MCOL2215, one of the most cultivated cassava varieties in the Caribbean coast, was susceptible to the majority of Xam isolates tested. This study shows the current condition of populations of Xam in the Caribbean Region of Colombia, and it contributes to improve the existing bacterial blight control practices. PMID:24760168

Trujillo, César A; Ochoa, Juan C; Mideros, María Fernanda; Restrepo, Silvia; López, Camilo; Bernal, Adriana

2014-07-01

136

Reducing Xanthomonas from surfaces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Removal of the citrus canker organism, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri , from the surfaces of packinglines is just as important an issue facing the citrus fresh fruit packers as removing the bacteria from the fruit surfaces. Current allowable washes and rinses do not adequately clean the lines and ...

137

Plant Disease Lesson: Bacterial spot of pepper and tomato  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Bacterial spot of pepper and tomato (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis (syn. campestris) pathovar vesicatoria, Xanthomonas vesicatoria, Xanthomonas gardneri) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David F. Ritchie (North Carolina State University; )

2000-10-27

138

Novel insights into rice innate immunity against bacterial and fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Rice feeds more than half of the world's population. Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, and bacterial blight, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, are major constraints to rice production worldwide. Genome sequencing and extensive molecular analysis has led to the identification of many new pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and avirulence and virulence effectors in both pathogens, as well as effector targets and receptors in the rice host. Characterization of these effectors, host targets, and resistance genes has provided new insight into innate immunity in plants. Some of the new findings, such as the binding activity of X. oryzae transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors to specific rice genomic sequences, are being used for the development of effective disease control methods and genome modification tools. This review summarizes the recent progress toward understanding the recognition and signaling events that govern rice innate immunity. PMID:24906128

Liu, Wende; Liu, Jinling; Triplett, Lindsay; Leach, Jan E; Wang, Guo-Liang

2014-01-01

139

Involvement of bacterial TonB-dependent signaling in the generation of an oligogalacturonide damage-associated molecular pattern from plant cell walls exposed to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris pectate lyases  

PubMed Central

Background Efficient perception of attacking pathogens is essential for plants. Plant defense is evoked by molecules termed elicitors. Endogenous elicitors or damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) originate from plant materials upon injury or pathogen activity. While there are comparably well-characterized examples for DAMPs, often oligogalacturonides (OGAs), generated by the activity of fungal pathogens, endogenous elicitors evoked by bacterial pathogens have been rarely described. In particular, the signal perception and transduction processes involved in DAMP generation are poorly characterized. Results A mutant strain of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris deficient in exbD2, which encodes a component of its unusual elaborate TonB system, had impaired pectate lyase activity and caused no visible symptoms for defense on the non-host plant pepper (Capsicum annuum). A co-incubation of X. campestris pv. campestris with isolated cell wall material from C. annuum led to the release of compounds which induced an oxidative burst in cell suspension cultures of the non-host plant. Lipopolysaccharides and proteins were ruled out as elicitors by polymyxin B and heat treatment, respectively. After hydrolysis with trifluoroacetic acid and subsequent HPAE chromatography, the elicitor preparation contained galacturonic acid, the monosaccharide constituent of pectate. OGAs were isolated from this crude elicitor preparation by HPAEC and tested for their biological activity. While small OGAs were unable to induce an oxidative burst, the elicitor activity in cell suspension cultures of the non-host plants tobacco and pepper increased with the degree of polymerization (DP). Maximal elicitor activity was observed for DPs exceeding 8. In contrast to the X. campestris pv. campestris wild type B100, the exbD2 mutant was unable to generate elicitor activity from plant cell wall material or from pectin. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the second report on a DAMP generated by bacterial features. The generation of the OGA elicitor is embedded in a complex exchange of signals within the framework of the plant-microbe interaction of C. annuum and X. campestris pv. campestris. The bacterial TonB-system is essential for the substrate-induced generation of extracellular pectate lyase activity. This is the first demonstration that a TonB-system is involved in bacterial trans-envelope signaling in the context of a pathogenic interaction with a plant. PMID:23082751

2012-01-01

140

Plant pathology Firestop: a chemical against bacterial diseases  

E-print Network

Erwinia amylovora (fire blight) in pear and apple, and Pseudomonas syringae pv persicae (bacterial dieback) in peach. Firestop (0.3 g ai I-1 for fire blight and 0.1 or 0.15 g ai I-1 for bacterial dieback be recommended in countries where classical antibiotics are not allowed for control of plant disease. fire blight

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

141

Functional interplay between two Xanthomonas oryzae pv,. oryzae secretion systems in modulating virulence on rice.  

PubMed

The type II (T2S) and type III (T3S) secretion systems are important for virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, causal agent of bacterial leaf blight of rice. The T3S of gram-negative bacterial plant pathogens has been shown to suppress host defense responses, including programmed cell death reactions, whereas the T2S is involved in secreting cell-wall-degrading enzymes. Here, we show that a T3S-deficient (T3S-) mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae can induce a basal plant defense response seen as callose deposition, immunize rice against subsequent X. oryzae pv. oryzae infection, and cause cell-death-associated nuclear fragmentation. A T2S- T3S- double mutant exhibited a substantial reduction in the ability to evoke these responses. We purified two major effectors of the X. oryzae pv. oryzae T2S and characterized them to be a cellulase (ClsA) and a putative cellobiosidase (CbsA). The purified ClsA, CbsA, and lipase/esterase (LipA; a previously identified T2S effector) proteins induced rice defense responses that were suppressible by X. oryzae pv. oryzae in a T3S-dependent manner. These defense responses also were inducible by the products of the action of these purified proteins on rice cell walls. We further show that a CbsA- mutant or a ClsA- LipA- double mutant are severely virulence deficient. These results indicate that the X. oryzae pv. oryzae T2S secretes important virulence factors, which induce innate rice defense responses that are suppressed by T3S effectors to enable successful infection. PMID:17249420

Jha, Gopaljee; Rajeshwari, Ramanan; Sonti, Ramesh V

2007-01-01

142

A rare sugar, d-allose, confers resistance to rice bacterial blight with upregulation of defense-related genes in Oryza sativa.  

PubMed

We investigated responses of rice plant to three rare sugars, d-altrose, d-sorbose, and d-allose, due to establishment of mass production methods for these rare sugars. Root growth and shoot growth were significantly inhibited by d-allose but not by the other rare sugars. A large-scale gene expression analysis using a rice microarray revealed that d-allose treatment causes a high upregulation of many defense-related, pathogenesis-related (PR) protein genes in rice. The PR protein genes were not upregulated by other rare sugars. Furthermore, d-allose treatment of rice plants conferred limited resistance of the rice against the pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae but the other tested sugars did not. These results indicate that d-allose has a growth inhibitory effect but might prove to be a candidate elicitor for reducing disease development in rice. PMID:19968553

Kano, Akihito; Gomi, Kenji; Yamasaki-Kokudo, Yumiko; Satoh, Masaru; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Ohtani, Kouhei; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Izumori, Ken; Tanaka, Keiji; Ishida, Yutaka; Tada, Yasuomi; Nishizawa, Yoko; Akimitsu, Kazuya

2010-01-01

143

Rhizoctonia web blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by several Rhizoctonia spp., is an important disease of evergreen azaleas and other ornamental plants in nurseries. The primary pathogens causing web blight are binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AG) (= Ceratobasidium D.P. Rogers, teleomorph). In southern AL an...

144

Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectria parasitica)  

E-print Network

Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) www.forestry.gov.uk/planthealth plant but they may be easier to see during the winter when the trees have lost their leaves. Orange sporulation.wsfl.ch. #12;Chestnut Blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) www.forestry.gov.uk/planthealth plant

145

Dispersal of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri bacteria downwind from harvested, infected fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri , Xac) is a bacterial disease that severely damages citrus crops. Its recent introduction to Florida has created difficulties with international and domestic trade and movement of citrus material. This study examined the potential dispersal of bacteri...

146

AMPLIFICATION OF DNA OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV CITRI FROM HISTORIC CITRUS CANKER HERBARIUM SPECIMENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Herbaria are important resources for the study of the origins and dispersal of plant pathogens, particularly bacterial plant pathogens that incite local lesions in which large numbers of pathogen genomes are concentrated. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the causal agent of citrus bacterial c...

147

XA27 depends on an amino-terminal signal-anchor-like sequence to localize to the apoplast for resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae.  

PubMed

The rice (Oryza sativa) gene Xa27 confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight disease in rice. Sequence analysis of the deduced XA27 protein provides little or no clue to its mode of action, except that a signal-anchor-like sequence is predicted at the amino (N)-terminal region of XA27. As part of an effort to characterize the biochemical function of XA27, we decided to determine its subcellular localization. Initial studies showed that a functional XA27-green fluorescent protein fusion protein accumulated in vascular elements, the host sites where the bacterial blight pathogens multiply. The localization of XA27-green fluorescent protein to the apoplast was verified by detection of the protein on cell walls of leaf sheath and root cells after plasmolysis. Similarly, XA27-FLAG localizes to xylem vessels and cell walls of xylem parenchyma cells, revealed by immunogold electron microscopy. XA27-FLAG could be secreted from electron-dense vesicles in cytoplasm to the apoplast via exocytosis. The signal-anchor-like sequence has an N-terminal positively charged region including a triple arginine motif followed by a hydrophobic region. Deletion of the hydrophobic region or substitution of the triple arginine motif with glycine or lysine residues abolished the localization of the mutated proteins to the cell wall and impaired the plant's resistance to X. oryzae pv oryzae. These results indicate that XA27 depends on the N-terminal signal-anchor-like sequence to localize to the apoplast and that this localization is important for resistance to X. oryzae pv oryzae. PMID:18784285

Wu, Lifang; Goh, Mei Ling; Sreekala, Chellamma; Yin, Zhongchao

2008-11-01

148

XopR, a type III effector secreted by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, suppresses microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial blight of rice. The XopR protein, secreted into plant cells through the type III secretion apparatus, is widely conserved in xanthomonads and is predicted to play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity. Here, we examined the function of XopR by constructing transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing it under control of the dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible promoter. In the transgenic plants treated with DEX, slightly delayed growth and variegation on leaves were observed. Induction of four microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-specific early-defense genes by a nonpathogenic X. campestris pv. campestris hrcC deletion mutant were strongly suppressed in the XopR-expressing plants. XopR expression also reduced the deposition of callose, an immune response induced by flg22. When transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, a XopR::Citrine fusion gene product localized to the plasma membrane. The deletion of XopR in X. oryzae pv. oryzae resulted in reduced pathogenicity on host rice plants. Collectively, these results suggest that XopR inhibits basal defense responses in plants rapidly after MAMP recognition. PMID:22204644

Akimoto-Tomiyama, Chiharu; Furutani, Ayako; Tsuge, Seiji; Washington, Erica J; Nishizawa, Yoko; Minami, Eiichi; Ochiai, Hirokazu

2012-04-01

149

Computational and Biochemical Analysis of the Xanthomonas Effector AvrBs2 and Its Role in the Modulation of Xanthomonas Type Three Effector Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effectors of the bacterial type III secretion system provide invaluable molecular probes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of plant immunity and pathogen virulence. In this report, we focus on the AvrBs2 effector protein from the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xe), the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of tomato and pepper. Employing homology-based structural analysis, we generate a three-dimensional structural

Bingyu Zhao; Douglas Dahlbeck; Ksenia V. Krasileva; Richard W. Fong; Brian J. Staskawicz

2011-01-01

150

The complete genome sequence of Xanthomonas albilineans provides new insights into the reductive genome evolution of the xylem-limited Xanthomonadaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Xanthomonadaceae family contains two xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterial species, Xanthomonas albilineans and Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa was the first completely sequenced plant pathogen. It is insect-vectored, has a reduced genome and does not possess hrp genes which encode a Type III secretion system found in most plant pathogenic bacteria. X. fastidiosa was excluded from the Xanthomonas group based

Isabelle Pieretti; Monique Royer; Valérie Barbe; Sébastien Carrere; Ralf Koebnik; Stéphane Cociancich; Arnaud Couloux; Armelle Darrasse; Jérôme Gouzy; Marie-Agnès Jacques; Emmanuelle Lauber; Charles Manceau; Sophie Mangenot; Stéphane Poussier; Béatrice Segurens; Boris Szurek; Valérie Verdier; Matthieu Arlat; Philippe Rott

2009-01-01

151

Molecular genetics of Erwinia amylovora involved in the development of fire blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterial plant pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, causes the devastating disease known as fire blight in some Rosaceous plants like apple, pear, quince, raspberry and several ornamentals. Knowledge of the factors affecting the development of fire blight has mushroomed in the last quarter century. On the molecular level, genes encoding a Hrp type III secretion system, genes encoding enzymes involved in

Chang-Sik Oh; Steven V. Beer

2005-01-01

152

HALO BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN HOST DIFFERENTIAL CULTIVAR ZAA 12 IS CONDITIONED BY THREE MAJOR GENE LOCI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Halo bacterial blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (Psp) is a serious seed-borne disease limiting common bean production worldwide. Genetic resistance provides the most effective means for combating this disease. Our objective was to study the inheritance of halo blight resistance i...

153

Ascochyta blight of peas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Identification, taxonomy & nomenclature, epidemiology, symptoms, host ranges, and management are described for three fungal pathogens which collectively and individually cause Ascochyta blight of field pea (Pisum sativum): Ascochyta pisi, Ascochyta pinodes, and Ascochyta pinodella. The first two are...

154

Studies on fire blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part 1<\\/strong><\\/strong>Effects of water potential and temperature on multiplication of and pressure by Erwinia amylovora in host plantsAnalysis of field data from Eve Billing, England, on the duration of the incubation period of fire blight revealed that temperature and rainfall were positively and interactively correlated with the development rate of fire blight. Values of standard regression coefficients suggest that temperature

H. J. Schouten

1991-01-01

155

Characterization of a novel clade of Xanthomonas isolated from rice leaves in Mali and proposal of Xanthomonas maliensis sp. nov.  

PubMed

Four bacterial strains, designated M89, M92, M97(T), and M106, were isolated in a previous study from surface-sterilized leaves of rice (Oryza sativa) or murainagrass (Ischaemum rugosum) at three sites in Mali, Africa. Here they were examined by a polyphasic taxonomic approach and analysis of a whole-genome sequence. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA sequence and multilocus sequence analysis of seven genes showed that these four strains formed a distinct lineage representing a novel species within the genus Xanthomonas. This was supported by whole-genome average nucleotide identity values calculated from comparisons of strain M97(T) with established Xanthomonas species. The strains can be differentiated from the known Xanthomonas species on the basis of their fatty acid and carbohydrate utilization profiles. Population growth studies on rice confirmed that these bacteria multiply in rice leaves without causing symptoms. Identification of this novel species can be accomplished by using diagnostic primer sets or by gyrB gene sequence analysis. We propose to classify these rice- and grass-associated bacteria as Xanthomonas maliensis sp. nov. with strain M97(T) = CFBP7942(T) = LMG27592(T) as the type strain. PMID:25588569

Triplett, Lindsay R; Verdier, Valérie; Campillo, Tony; Van Malderghem, Cinzia; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Maes, Martine; Deblais, Loïc; Corral, Rene; Koita, Ousmane; Cottyn, Bart; Leach, Jan E

2015-04-01

156

Potential for Control of Seedling Blight of Wheat Caused by Fusarium graminearum and Related Species Using the Bacterial Endophyte Bacillus mojavensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium infected-wheat seed decreases germination, seedling emergence, and causes post emergence seedling death, and can contribute to wheat scab and ear rot of maize, with consequent production of mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. A patented endophytic bacterial strain, Bacillus ...

157

Comparative analyses of Xanthomonas and Xylella complete genomes.  

PubMed

Computational analyses of four bacterial genomes of the Xanthomonadaceae family reveal new unique genes that may be involved in adaptation, pathogenicity, and host specificity. The Xanthomonas genus presents 3636 unique genes distributed in 1470 families, while Xylella genus presents 1026 unique genes distributed in 375 families. Among Xanthomonas-specific genes, we highlight a large number of cell wall degrading enzymes, proteases, and iron receptors, a set of energy metabolism genes, second copy of the type II secretion system, type III secretion system, flagella and chemotactic machinery, and the xanthomonadin synthesis gene cluster. Important genes unique to the Xylella genus are an additional copy of a type IV pili gene cluster and the complete machinery of colicin V synthesis and secretion. Intersections of gene sets from both genera reveal a cluster of genes homologous to Salmonella's SPI-7 island in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri and Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c, which might be involved in host specificity. Each genome also presents important unique genes, such as an HMS cluster, the kdgT gene, and O-antigen in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri; a number of avrBS genes and a distinct O-antigen in Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris, a type I restriction-modification system and a nickase gene in Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c, and a type II restriction-modification system and two genes related to peptidoglycan biosynthesis in Xylella fastidiosa temecula 1. All these differences imply a considerable number of gene gains and losses during the divergence of the four lineages, and are associated with structural genome modifications that may have a direct relation with the mode of transmission, adaptation to specific environments and pathogenicity of each organism. PMID:15805778

Moreira, Leandro M; De Souza, Robson F; Digiampietri, Luciano A; Da Silva, Ana C R; Setubal, João C

2005-01-01

158

Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

159

A fragment of the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola harpin HpaG Xooc reduces disease and increases yield of rice in extensive grower plantings.  

PubMed

Harpins of phytopathogenic bacteria stimulate defense and plant growth in many types of plants, conferring disease resistance and enhanced yield. In a previous study, we characterized nine fragments of the harpin protein HpaG(Xooc) from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola for plant defense elicitation and plant growth stimulation activity relative to the intact protein. In plants grown under controlled conditions, the fragment HpaG10-42 was more active in both regards than HpaG(Xooc). Here, we demonstrate that the activity of HpaG10-42 in rice under field conditions significantly exceeds that of HpaG(Xooc), stimulating resistance to three important diseases and increasing grain yield. We carried out tests in 672 experimental plots with nine cultivars of rice planted at three locations. Application protocols were optimized by testing variations in application rate, frequency, and timing with respect to rice growth stage. Of the concentrations (24, 24, 12, and 6 microg/ml), and number and timing of applications (at one to four different stages of growth) tested, HpaG10-42 at 6 microg/ml applied to plants once at nursery seedling stage and three times in the field was most effective. Bacterial blight, rice blast, and sheath blight were reduced 61.6 and 56.4, 93.6 and 76.0, and 93.2 and 55.0% in indica and japonica cultivars, respectively, relative to controls. Grain yields were 22 to 27% greater. These results are similar to results obtained with typical local management practices, including use of chemicals, to decrease disease severities and increase yield in rice. Our results demonstrate that the HpaG10-42 protein fragment can be used effectively to control diseases and increase yield of this staple food crop. PMID:18943255

Chen, Lei; Zhang, Shu-Jian; Zhang, Shao-Song; Qu, Shuping; Ren, Xiuyan; Long, Juying; Yin, Qian; Qian, Jun; Sun, Feng; Zhang, Chunling; Wang, Lingxian; Wu, Xiaojing; Wu, Tingquan; Zhang, Zhongkai; Cheng, Zaiquan; Hayes, Marshall; Beer, Steven V; Dong, Hansong

2008-07-01

160

Distribution and biological role of the oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA) in Xanthomonas species  

PubMed Central

In this study we investigated the prevalence of the oppA gene, encoding the oligopeptide binding protein (OppA) of the major bacterial oligopeptide uptake system (Opp), in different species of the genus Xanthomonas. The oppA gene was detected in two Xanthomonas axonopodis strains among eight tested Xanthomonas species. The generation of an isogenic oppA-knockout derivative of the Xac 306 strain, showed that the OppA protein neither plays a relevant role in oligopeptide uptake nor contributes to the infectivity and multiplication of the bacterial strain in leaves of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia). Taken together these results suggest that the oppA gene has a recent evolutionary history in the genus and does not contribute in the physiology or pathogenesis of X. axonopodis. PMID:21637492

2010-01-01

161

Biological control of post-harvest late blight of potatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction of US-8 genotypes of Phytophthora infestans has coincided with an increase in severity of potato late blight in North America. As alternatives to chemical fungicides, 18 bacterial strains patented as biological control agents (BCA) of both sprouting and Fusarium dry rot were cultivated...

162

Effect of ozone on infection of wild strawberry by Xanthomonas fragariae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction studies were conducted to determine the response of wild strawberry to ozone and the effects of ozone on the infection of wild strawberry by Xanthomonas fragariae. Data from the interaction studies showed that bacterial infection of wild strawberry was inhibited by ozone exposure at concentrations that caused visible injury to the plants. Since wild strawberry was sensitive to ozone

J. A. Laurence; F. A. Wood

1978-01-01

163

High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of the Xanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis Pathotype Strain CFBP 2541  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas translucens pv. cerealis is the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak on true grasses. The genome of the pathotype strain CFBP 2541 was sequenced in order to decipher mechanisms that provoke disease and to elucidate the role of transcription activator-like (TAL) type III effectors in pathogenicity. PMID:25676771

Pesce, Céline; Bolot, Stéphanie; Cunnac, Sébastien; Portier, Perrine; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Arlat, Matthieu; Noël, Laurent D.; Carrère, Sébastien; Bragard, Claude

2015-01-01

164

The bacterial effector DspA/E is toxic in Arabidopsis thaliana and is required for multiplication and survival of fire blight pathogen.  

PubMed

The type III effector DspA/E is an essential pathogenicity factor of the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. We showed that DspA/E was required for transient bacterial growth in nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, as an E.?amylovora dspA/E mutant was unable to grow. We expressed DspA/E in A.?thaliana transgenic plants under the control of an oestradiol-inducible promoter, and found that DspA/E expressed in?planta restored the growth of a dspA/E mutant. DspA/E expression in these transgenic plants led to the modulation by at least two-fold of the expression of 384 genes, mostly induced (324 genes). Both induced and repressed genes contained high proportions of defence genes. DspA/E expression ultimately resulted in plant cell death without requiring a functional salicylic acid signalling pathway. Analysis of A.?thaliana transgenic seedlings expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP):DspA/E fusion indicated that the fusion protein could only be detected in a few cells per seedling, suggesting the degradation or absence of accumulation of DspA/E in plant cells. Consistently, we found that DspA/E repressed plant protein synthesis when injected by E.?amylovora or when expressed in transgenic plants. Thus, we conclude that DspA/E is toxic to A.?thaliana: it promotes modifications, among which the repression of protein synthesis could be determinant in the facilitation of necrosis and bacterial growth. PMID:23634775

Degrave, Alexandre; Moreau, Manon; Launay, Alban; Barny, Marie-Anne; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle; Patrit, Oriane; Taconnat, Ludivine; Vedel, Regine; Fagard, Mathilde

2013-06-01

165

Botryosphaeria Stem Blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stem blight, commonly referred to as dieback, is a destructive disease of highbush and rabbiteye blueberry primarily in the southeastern United States extending north into New Jersey. Losses are most severe in young fields where plants often become infected and die in the first two years. In older...

166

Ascochyta blight of chickpea  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascochyta blight of chickpea is caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Ascochyta rabiei. The disease is a serious yield constraint of chickpea worldwide. The pathogen causes necrotic lesions on leaves, stems, flowers, pod and seeds under cool and humid conditions. The pathogen survives in crop debri...

167

Pythium blight of turfgrass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Pythium blight of turfgrass (caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and Pythium ultimum) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Tom W. Allen (University of Georgia, Griffen Campus; )

2005-01-01

168

Ascochyta blight of chickpeas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chickpea is becoming increasingly important as a rotational crop in cereal production systems. Ascochyta blight is the most devastating disease of chickpea and must be appropriately managed to minimize its damage to crops and increase chickpea yield. The disease is caused by the fungus Ascochyta r...

169

Disease Alert: Stemphylium Blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lentil leaves showing symptoms of Stemphylium blight were collected from a lentil field northeast of Garfield (near Idaho border) on July 8, 2013, and incubation of the diseased leaves showed typical spores of the pathogen Stemphylium botryosum or other Stemphylium sp. The field was planted with ‘Mo...

170

Southern Sclerotium blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotium rolfsii attacks a wide range of plants throughout the world. It is most severe in tropical and subtropical areas. Southern Sclerotium blight is of major concern in the eastern, southeastern, and southwestern United States and in Mexico. Although severe losses are reported annually in pe...

171

Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus 'Robusta 5' accessions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large effect QTL for fire blight resistance has been pre...

172

[REP-PCR analysis of rapa's bacterial diseases agents].  

PubMed

BOX, ERIC and REP--genomic fingerprints of 12 isolated and 10 typical pathogenic for rape bacterial strains Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and Pectobacterium genera have been analyzed. The affinity of isolated strains with representatives of P. marginalis pv. marginalis, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris species has been determined. PMID:25199341

Dankevych, L A; Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Votselko, S K; Patyka, V P

2014-01-01

173

Plant Disease Lesson: Southern blight, Southern stem blight, White mold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on southern blight, Southern stem blight, white mold (caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (teleomorph: Athelia rolfsii)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Jackie Mullen (Auburn University; )

2001-01-04

174

The Canon of Potato Science: 10. Late Blight and Early Blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is it? Late blight and early blight are the two most important diseases of potato foliage. The names are misleading because, while late blight can develop late in the season, it can also develop early or mid season. In contrast, early blight almost never occurs early in the season, but is almost always late. Late blight is caused by

William E. Fry

2007-01-01

175

TOMATO AND POTATO LATE BLIGHT  

E-print Network

TOMATO AND POTATO LATE BLIGHT ALERT WHAT EVERY GROWER NEEDS TO KNOW ABOUT TOMATO AND POTATO LATE.potatodiseases.org #12;This year the disease known as late blight has affected many tomato and potato crops throughout the northern states. The disease is thought to have started in tomato transplants. Once the disease has taken

Douches, David S.

176

Molecular Characterization of Copper Resistance Genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis?  

PubMed Central

Copper sprays have been widely used for control of endemic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in citrus-growing areas for more than 2 decades. Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis populations were also exposed to frequent sprays of copper for several years as a protective measure against citrus bacterial spot (CBS) in Florida citrus nurseries. Long-term use of these bactericides has led to the development of copper-resistant (Cur) strains in both X. citri subsp. citri and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis, resulting in a reduction of disease control. The objectives of this study were to characterize for the first time the genetics of copper resistance in X. citri subsp. citri and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis and to compare these organisms to other Cur bacteria. Copper resistance determinants from X. citri subsp. citri strain A44(pXccCu2) from Argentina and X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis strain 1381(pXacCu2) from Florida were cloned and sequenced. Open reading frames (ORFs) related to the genes copL, copA, copB, copM, copG, copC, copD, and copF were identified in X. citri subsp. citri A44. The same ORFs, except copC and copD, were also present in X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis 1381. Transposon mutagenesis of the cloned copper resistance determinants in pXccCu2 revealed that copper resistance in X. citri subsp. citri strain A44 is mostly due to copL, copA, and copB, which are the genes in the cloned cluster with the highest nucleotide homology (?92%) among different Cur bacteria. PMID:21515725

Behlau, Franklin; Canteros, Blanca I.; Minsavage, Gerald V.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Graham, James H.

2011-01-01

177

Construction of a genetic linkage map for identification of molecular markers associated with resistance to Xanthomonas arboriciola pv. pruni in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni, is a serious disease that can affect peach fruit quality and production. The molecular basis of its tolerance and susceptibility is yet to be understood. To study the genetics of the peach in response to bacterial spot, an F2 population of ...

178

Influence of epidemiological factors on the bioherbicidal efficacy of a Xanthomonas capestris isolate on common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Greenhouse and controlled-environment studies were conducted to determine the effects of incubation temperature, dew period temperature and duration, plant growth stage, and cell concentration on the bioherbicidal efficacy of a highly virulent isolate (LVA987) of the bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas ...

179

Characterization of a new pathovar of Agrobacterium vitis causing banana leaf blight in China.  

PubMed

A new banana leaf blight was found in Nanning city, China, during a 7-year survey (2003-2009) of the bacterial diseases on banana plants. Eight bacterial strains were isolated from affected banana leaves, and identified as an intraspecific taxon of Agrobacterium vitis based on their 16S rDNA sequence similarities with those of 37 randomly selected bacterial strains registered in GenBank database. The representative strain Ag-1 was virulent on banana leaves and shared similar growth and biochemical reactions with the reference strain IAM14140 of A. vitis. The strains causing banana leaf blight were denominated as A. vitis pv. musae. The traditional A. vitis strains virulent to grapevines were proposed to be revised as A. vitis pv. vitis. This is the first record of a new type of A. vitis causing banana leaf blight in China. PMID:23828501

Huang, Siliang; Long, Mengling; Fu, Gang; Lin, Shanhai; Qin, Liping; Hu, Chunjin; Cen, Zhenlu; Lu, Jie; Li, Qiqin

2015-01-01

180

Differentially-expressed genes in rice infected by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae relative to a flagellin-deficient mutant reveal potential functions of flagellin in host–pathogen interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Plants have evolved a sensitive defense response system that detects and recognizes various pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (e.g. flagellin) and induces immune responses to protect against invasion. Transcriptional responses in rice to PAMPs produced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the bacterial blight pathogen, have not yet been defined. Results We characterized transcriptomic responses in rice inoculated with the wildtype (WT) Xoo and flagellin-deficient mutant ?fliC through RNA-seq analysis. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis based on Solexa/Illumina sequencing was used to investigate transcriptomic responses in 30 day-old seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare). 1,680 genes were differentially-expressed (DEGs) in rice inoculated with WT relative to ?fliC; among which 1,159 genes were up-regulated and 521 were down-regulated. Expression patterns of 12 randomly-selected DEGs assayed by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) were similar to those detected by DGE analyses, confirming reliability of the DGE data. Functional annotations revealed the up-regulated DEGs are involved in the cell wall, lipid and secondary metabolism, defense response and hormone signaling, whereas the down-regulated ones are associated with photosynthesis. Moreover, 57 and 21 specifically expressed genes were found after WT and ?fliC treatments, respectively. Conclusions DEGs were identified in rice inoculated with WT Xoo relative to ?fliC. These genes were predicted to function in multiple biological processes, including the defense response and photosynthesis in rice. This study provided additional insights into molecular basis of rice response to bacterial infection and revealed potential functions of bacterial flagellin in the rice-Xoo interactions. PMID:25187853

2014-01-01

181

Development of late blight resistant potatoes by cisgene stacking  

PubMed Central

Background Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight in potato, remains one of the most devastating pathogens in potato production and late blight resistance is a top priority in potato breeding. The introduction of multiple resistance (R) genes with different spectra from crossable species into potato varieties is required. Cisgenesis is a promising approach that introduces native genes from the crops own gene pool using GM technology, thereby retaining favourable characteristics of established varieties. Results We pursued a cisgenesis approach to introduce two broad spectrum potato late blight R genes, Rpi-sto1 and Rpi-vnt1.1 from the crossable species Solanum stoloniferum and Solanum venturii, respectively, into three different potato varieties. First, single R gene-containing transgenic plants were produced for all varieties to be used as references for the resistance levels and spectra to be expected in the respective genetic backgrounds. Next, a construct containing both cisgenic late blight R genes (Rpi-vnt1.1 and Rpi-sto1), but lacking the bacterial kanamycin resistance selection marker (NPTII) was transformed to the three selected potato varieties using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gene transfer events were selected by PCR among regenerated shoots. Through further analyses involving morphological evaluations in the greenhouse, responsiveness to Avr genes and late blight resistance in detached leaf assays, the selection was narrowed down to eight independent events. These cisgenic events were selected because they showed broad spectrum late blight resistance due to the activity of both introduced R genes. The marker-free transformation was compared to kanamycin resistance assisted transformation in terms of T-DNA and vector backbone integration frequency. Also, differences in regeneration time and genotype dependency were evaluated. Conclusions We developed a marker-free transformation pipeline to select potato plants functionally expressing a stack of late blight R genes. Marker-free transformation is less genotype dependent and less prone to vector backbone integration as compared to marker-assisted transformation. Thereby, this study provides an important tool for the successful deployment of R genes in agriculture and contributes to the production of potentially durable late blight resistant potatoes. PMID:24885731

2014-01-01

182

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri type IV Pilus is required for twitching motility, biofilm development, and adherence.  

PubMed

Bacterial type IV pili (T4P) are long, flexible surface filaments that consist of helical polymers of mostly pilin subunits. Cycles of polymerization, attachment, and depolymerization mediate several pilus-dependent bacterial behaviors, including twitching motility, surface adhesion, pathogenicity, natural transformation, escape from immune system defense mechanisms, and biofilm formation. The Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 genome codes for a large set of genes involved in T4P biogenesis and regulation and includes several pilin homologs. We show that X. citri subsp. citri can exhibit twitching motility in a manner similar to that observed in other bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xylella fastidiosa and that this motility is abolished in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri knockout strains in the genes coding for the major pilin subunit PilAXAC3241, the ATPases PilBXAC3239 and PilTXAC2924, and the T4P biogenesis regulators PilZXAC1133 and FimXXAC2398. Microscopy analyses were performed to compare patterns of bacterial migration in the wild-type and knockout strains and we observed that the formation of mushroom-like structures in X. citri subsp. citri biofilm requires a functional T4P. Finally, infection of X. citri subsp. citri cells by the bacteriophage (?Xacm4-11 is T4P dependent. The results of this study improve our understanding of how T4P influence Xanthomonas motility, biofilm formation, and susceptibility to phage infection. PMID:25180689

Dunger, German; Guzzo, Cristiane R; Andrade, Maxuel O; Jones, Jeffrey B; Farah, Chuck S

2014-10-01

183

Stopping Spread of Apple Scab Fire Blight  

E-print Network

1 Stopping Spread of Apple Scab Fire Blight Stawberry Diseases European Red Mites Rosy Apple Aphid stage of susceptibility from pink until about 3-4 weeks after petal fall. -Pecknold Fire Blight: Even

Ginzel, Matthew

184

HALO BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN HOST DIFFERENTIAL CULTIVAR ZAA 12 IS CONDITIONED BY THREE GENES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Halo bacterial blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (Psp) is a serious seed-borne disease limiting common bean production worldwide. Genetic resistance provides the most effective means for combating this disease. ZAA 12 (A43) is the most resistant host differential cultivar conditio...

185

Induction of systemic resistance in rice against sheath blight disease by Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains viz., PF1 and FP7 which inhibited the mycelial growth of sheath blight fungus Rhizoctonia solani and increased the seedling vigour of rice plants in vitro were selected for assessing induced systemic resistance (ISR) against R. solani in rice. The Pseudomonas application as a bacterial suspension or a talc-based formulation through seed, root, soil and foliar application

R Nandakumar; S Babu; R Viswanathan; T Raguchander; R Samiyappan

2001-01-01

186

Computational Identification of Candidate Genes Involved in Response to Fire Blight in Apples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) is a destructive bacterial disease affecting plants in the Rosaceae including apple, pear, and quince. The disease is common in North America, and kills blossoms, shoots, limbs, and, sometimes, entire trees. Bioinformatics tools were used in collaboration with a NRI-f...

187

Genetic characterization and molecular mapping pse-2 gene for resistance to halo blight in common bean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psp) causes ‘Halo Blight’, which is a serious bacterial disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Several R genes have been discovered in host differential cultivar ZAA 12. Our objectives were to further characterize and enable marker-assisted selection ...

188

Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microencapsulation and controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), which is an antagonist to bacterial pathogen (Erwinia amylovora) of fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 µm in diamet...

189

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri uses a plant natriuretic peptide-like protein to modify host homeostasis.  

PubMed

Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) are a class of extracellular, systemically mobile molecules that elicit a number of plant responses important in homeostasis and growth. The bacterial citrus pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, also contains a gene encoding a PNP-like protein, XacPNP, that shares significant sequence similarity and identical domain organization with plant PNPs but has no homologues in other bacteria. We have expressed and purified XacPNP and demonstrated that the bacterial protein alters physiological responses including stomatal opening in plants. Although XacPNP is not expressed under standard nutrient rich culture conditions, it is strongly induced under conditions that mimic the nutrient poor intercellular apoplastic environment of leaves, as well as in infected tissue, suggesting that XacPNP transcription can respond to the host environment. To characterize the role of XacPNP during bacterial infection, we constructed a XacPNP deletion mutant. The lesions caused by this mutant were more necrotic than those observed with the wild-type, and bacterial cell death occurred earlier in the mutant. Moreover, when we expressed XacPNP in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, the transgenic bacteria caused less necrotic lesions in the host than the wild-type. In conclusion, we present evidence that a plant-like bacterial PNP can enable a plant pathogen to modify host responses to create conditions favorable to its own survival. PMID:19015524

Gottig, Natalia; Garavaglia, Betiana S; Daurelio, Lucas D; Valentine, Alex; Gehring, Chris; Orellano, Elena G; Ottado, Jorgelina

2008-11-25

190

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri uses a plant natriuretic peptide-like protein to modify host homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) are a class of extracellular, systemically mobile molecules that elicit a number of plant responses important in homeostasis and growth. The bacterial citrus pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, also contains a gene encoding a PNP-like protein, XacPNP, that shares significant sequence similarity and identical domain organization with plant PNPs but has no homologues in other bacteria. We have expressed and purified XacPNP and demonstrated that the bacterial protein alters physiological responses including stomatal opening in plants. Although XacPNP is not expressed under standard nutrient rich culture conditions, it is strongly induced under conditions that mimic the nutrient poor intercellular apoplastic environment of leaves, as well as in infected tissue, suggesting that XacPNP transcription can respond to the host environment. To characterize the role of XacPNP during bacterial infection, we constructed a XacPNP deletion mutant. The lesions caused by this mutant were more necrotic than those observed with the wild-type, and bacterial cell death occurred earlier in the mutant. Moreover, when we expressed XacPNP in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, the transgenic bacteria caused less necrotic lesions in the host than the wild-type. In conclusion, we present evidence that a plant-like bacterial PNP can enable a plant pathogen to modify host responses to create conditions favorable to its own survival. PMID:19015524

Gottig, Natalia; Garavaglia, Betiana S.; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Valentine, Alex; Gehring, Chris; Orellano, Elena G.; Ottado, Jorgelina

2008-01-01

191

Development of a New Semiselective Medium for Isolating Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis from Plant Material and Soil.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT An effective control for bacterial blight of cassava (Manihot esculenta), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. manihotis, requires the use of non-contaminated cuttings and seeds. Using classical agar plating techniques for screening planting material for contamination has not been very successful because of the lack of a reliable semiselective agar medium. The pathogen grows slowly on general plating media and is easily overgrown by saprophytic bacteria during isolation from diseased plants. In an effort to develop a semiselective medium, the utilization of several carbon and nitrogen sources was studied. Results of these tests provided information used to design a basal medium allowing good growth of the target organism while suppressing growth of several common saprophytes. Additional selectivity was achieved by incorporating three antibiotics into the basal medium. The new semiselective agar medium, designated cefazolin trehalose agar (CTA) medium, contained (per liter) 3.0 g of K(2)HPO(4), 1.0 g of NaH(2)PO(4), 0.3 g of MgSO(4).7H(2)O, 1.0 g of NH(4)Cl, 9.0 g of D(+)-trehalose, 1.0 D(+)-glucose, 1.0 g of yeast extract, 0.025 g of cefazolin, 0.0012 g of lincomycin, 0.0025 g of phosphomycin, 0.25 g of cycloheximide, and 14.0 g of agar. In comparison to a starch-based semiselective medium (SXM), plating efficiencies using pure cultures of 10 strains of X. campestris pv. manihotis were significantly higher on CTA, with an average of 85 and 50%, respectively. Likewise, isolation and recovery of X. campestris pv. manihotis from infected cassava leaves and contaminated soil were much higher on CTA than on SXM agar. When X. campestris pv. manihotis occurs in high concentrations in diseased tissue, the standard yeast trehalose glucose agar medium supplemented with 250 mug of cycloheximide per ml appears to be satisfactory. The newly developed CTA medium should prove useful for control strategies to identify and remove infected planting material of cassava, as well as for basic ecological studies of the pathogen. PMID:18944695

Fessehaie, A; Wydra, K; Rudolph, K

1999-07-01

192

Virulence of Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae Isolated from Poa annua.  

PubMed

Bacterial wilt is a vascular wilt disease caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae that infects Poa annua, a grass that is commonly found on golf course greens throughout the world. Bacterial wilt causes symptoms of etiolation, wilting, and foliar necrosis. The damage is most prevalent during the summer and the pathogen can kill turf under conditions optimal for disease development. Fifteen isolates of X. translucens pv. poae were collected from northern regions in the United States and tested for virulence against P. annua. All 15 isolates were pathogenic on P. annua, but demonstrated variable levels of virulence when inoculated onto P. annua under greenhouse conditions. The isolates were divided into two virulence groups. The first group containing four isolates generally resulted in less than 40% mortality following inoculation. The second group, containing the other eleven isolates, produced between 90 and 100% mortality following inoculation. These results suggest that differences in the virulence of bacterial populations present on a golf course may result in more or less severe amounts of observed disease. PMID:25288933

Chaves, Arielle; Mitkowski, Nathaniel

2013-03-01

193

Integrated Control of Fire Blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the Northwest United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of the pathogen arose. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic, but it is considerably less effective than streptomycin when the latter was...

194

Plant Disease Lesson: Early blight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on early blight (caused by the fungus Alternaria solani) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Greg Kemmitt (Dow AgroSciences; )

2002-08-09

195

Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters. PMID:22443110

2012-01-01

196

OsWRKY62 is a negative regulator of basal and Xa21-mediated defense against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The rice Xa21 gene, which confers resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), encodes a receptor-like kinase. Few components involved in transducing the Xa21-mediated defense response have yet been identified. It is reported that XA21 binds to a WRKY transcription fac...

197

Use of carnauba based carrier for copper sprays reduces infection by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Diaporthe citri in Florida commercial grapefruit groves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), a bacterial disease of citrus, was first documented on Florida citrus in the early 1900’s. At that time the disease was managed, only to return in the 1980’s and 90’s and to finally remain uncontrolled in 2004. Xcc is most active ...

198

Light filtering by epidermal flavonoids during the resistant response of cotton to Xanthomonas protects leaf tissue from light-dependent phytoalexin toxicity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

2,7-Dihydroxycadalene and lacinilene C, sesquiterpenoid phytoalexins that accumulate at infection sites during the hypersensitive resistant response of cotton foliage to Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum, have light-dependent toxicity toward host cells, as well as toward the bacterial pathogen....

199

Elucidation of the hrp Clusters of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola That Control the Hypersensitive Response in Nonhost Tobacco and Pathogenicity in Susceptible Host Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the cause of bacterial leaf streak in rice, possesses clusters of hrp genes that determine its ability to elicit a hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost tobacco and pathogenicity in host rice. A 27-kb region of the genome of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (RS105) was identified and sequenced, revealing 10 hrp ,9 hrc (hrp conserved), and 8

Li-fang Zou; Xing-ping Wang; Yong Xiang; Bing Zhang; Yu-Rong Li; You-lun Xiao; Jin-sheng Wang; Adrian R. Walmsley; Gong-you Chen

2006-01-01

200

Suppression of important pea diseases by bacterial antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for widespreadand severe infection makes ascochyta blight,seedling blight, and root rots major hindrancesto pea production in Alberta, Canada. Over 300bacterial strains were isolated from pea seedand soil samples taken from pea fields. Thesestrains were investigated for their biologicalcontrol potential against four fungal pathogens(Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctoniasolani, Fusarium avenaceum and Ascochyta pisi) of field pea in vitro. Selected bacterial strains

H. Wang; S. F. Hwang; K. F. Chang; G. D. Turnbull; R. J. Howard

2003-01-01

201

Controlling Potato Blight: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Potato late blight, Phytophthora infestans, has an infamous past, yet it continues to present a challenge to modern day farmers. Historical scenarios in the LateBlight simulation help us define the impact of this disease before the interactions between this microbe and the potato were understood. Modern scenarios enable us to investigate current strategies to control this pathogen from the management of cull piles to the use of genetically engineered potatoes. A life cycle model, Potato Late Blight, provides an additional method for exploring microbial interactions. * make a profit or lose the farm as you investigate the economic consequences of using chemical control approaches to managing late blight in potatoes

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

2006-05-20

202

A review of Ascochyta blight of chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important grain legume crop in Asia, Africa and Central and South America. Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab. is one of the most serious diseases of the crop and severe epidemics have been reported. The available literature on Ascochyta blight is reviewed in order to ascertain the present status of knowledge of

Y. L. Nene

1982-01-01

203

HISTOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat and barley in the 1990s in the midwestern U.S. Research efforts to control the disease have been hampered by limited knowledge of how the fungal head blight pathogens infect and damage head tissue and what natural defenses the plant h...

204

Genetics of leaf blight resistance in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the genetics of leaf blight caused byAlternaria triticina using generation mean analysis revealed that additive components played a major role, but that dominance components also contributed significantly in controlling the variability for leaf blight resistance in wheat crosses. Furthermore, the additive x additive type of epistasis was predominant in the first three crosses, whereas in the fourth cross

B. Sinha; R. M. Singh; U. P. Singh

1991-01-01

205

Specific detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola in infected rice plant by use of PCR assay targeting a membrane fusion protein gene.  

PubMed

Successful control of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak, requires a specific and reliable diagnostic tool. A pathovar-specific PCR assay was developed for the rapid and accurate detection of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola in diseased plant. Based on differences in a membrane fusion protein gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and other microorganisms, which was generated from NCBI (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) and CMR (http://cmr.tigr.org/) BLAST searches, one pair of pathovar-specific primers, XOCMF/XOCMR, was synthesized. Primers XOCMF and XOCMR from a membrane fusion protein gene were used to amplify a 488-bp DNA fragment. The PCR product was only produced from 4 isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola among 37 isolates of other pathovars and species of Xanthomonas, Pectobacterium, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Escherichia coli, and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi. The results suggested that the assay detected the pathogen more rapidly and accurately than standard isolation methods. PMID:18852502

Kang, Man Jung; Shim, Jae Kyung; Cho, Min Seok; Seol, Young Joo; Hahn, Jang Ho; Hwang, Duk Ju; Park, Dong Suk

2008-09-01

206

QTL mapping of fire blight resistance in apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire blight caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora is a severe threat to apple and pear orchards worldwide. Apple varieties exhibit a wide range of relative susceptibility\\/tolerance to fire blight. Although, no monogenic resistance against fire blight has been identified yet, recent evidence indicates the existence of quantitative resistance. Potential sources of fire blight resistance include several wild Malus species

Muhammad A. Khan; Brion Duffy; Cesare Gessler; Andrea Patocchi

2006-01-01

207

Tagging and mapping Pse-1 gene for resistance to halo blight in common bean differential cultivar UI-3  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Halo blight [caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola (Psp)] is a serious seed-borne bacterial disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A few R genes and QTL provide control to one or more races of the pathogen. To better understand monogenic resistance and improve breeding efficienc...

208

First evidence for improved resistance to fire blight in transgenic pear expressing the attacin E gene from Hyalophora cecropia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is the most important bacterial disease of pear (Pyrus communis L.). Attacin E, a lytic protein originating from Hyalophora cecropia, has been previously reported to be active against E. amylovora in transgenic apple. Integration of the attacin E gene under control of a derivative of the constitutive promoter CaMV35S was accomplished using a transformation

J. P Reynoird; F Mourgues; J Norelli; H. S Aldwinckle; M. N Brisset; E Chevreau

1999-01-01

209

Characterization of Serracin P, a Phage-Tail-Like Bacteriocin, and Its Activity against Erwinia amylovora, the Fire Blight Pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serratia plymithicum J7 culture supernatant displayed activity against many pathogenic strains of Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of the most serious bacterial disease of apple and pear trees, fire blight, and against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. This activity increased significantly upon induction with mitomycin C. A phage-tail-like bacteriocin, named serracin P, was purified from an

Abdelhamid Jabrane; Ahmed Sabri; Philippe Compere; Philippe Jacques; Isabel Vandenberghe; Jozef Van Beeumen; Philippe Thonart

2002-01-01

210

Field Performance of Antagonistic Bacteria Identified in a Novel Laboratory Assay for Biological Control of Fire Blight of Pear  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory assay to identify antagonists of Erwinia amylovora on flowers was tested for its accuracy in predicting the performance of antagonists in controlling fire blight disease of pear trees. Bacterial strains isolated from pear flowers were evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to suppress growth of E. amylovora on flowers on cut branches. The growth of E. amylovora

Julien Mercier; S. E Lindow

2001-01-01

211

The Phytoalexin-Inducible Multidrug Efflux Pump AcrAB Contributes to Virulence in the Fire Blight Pathogen, Erwinia amylovora  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight on members of the family Rosaceae, with economic impor- tance on apple and pear. During pathogenesis, the bacte- rium is exposed to a variety of plant-borne antimicrobial compounds. In plants of Rosaceae, many constitutively syn- thesized isoflavonoids affecting microorganisms were iden- tified. Bacterial multidrug efflux transporters which medi- ate resistance toward structurally unrelated

Antje Burse; Helge Weingart; Matthias S. Ullrich

2004-01-01

212

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF POST HARVEST LATE BLIGHT OF POTATOES IN STORAGE BY BACTERIA SUPPRESSIVE TO FUNGAL DRY ROT AND SPROUTING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Introduction of US-8 genotypes of Phytophthora infestans has coincided with an increase in severity of potato late blight in North America. As alternatives to chemical fungicides, 18 bacterial strains patented as biological control agents (BCA) of both sprouting and Fusarium dry rot were cultivated...

213

Genomic analysis of Bacillus subtilis OH 131.1 and coculturing with Cryptococcus flavescens for control of fusarium head blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacillus subtilis OH131.1 is a bacterial antagonist of Fusarium graminearum, a plant pathogen which causes Fusarium head blight in wheat. The genome of B. subtilis OH131.1 was sequenced, annotated and analyzed to understand its potential to produce bioactive metabolites. The analysis identified 6 sy...

214

Improved Transformation of Anthurium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methods to increase transformation efficiency and yields of transgenic Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex. André hybrids were sought while effecting gene transfer for resistance to the two most important pests, bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae) and nematodes (Radopholus simili...

215

Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple  

PubMed Central

Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight susceptibility of 'Gala' scions, and rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns could be correlated with differences in susceptibility. The results suggest a relationship between rootstock-regulated fire blight susceptibility and sorbitol dehydrogenase, phenylpropanoid metabolism, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, and endocytosis, among others. This study illustrates the utility of our rootstock-regulated gene expression data sets for candidate trait-associated gene data mining. PMID:22229964

2012-01-01

216

Molecular genetics of Erwinia amylovora involved in the development of fire blight.  

PubMed

The bacterial plant pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, causes the devastating disease known as fire blight in some Rosaceous plants like apple, pear, quince, raspberry and several ornamentals. Knowledge of the factors affecting the development of fire blight has mushroomed in the last quarter century. On the molecular level, genes encoding a Hrp type III secretion system, genes encoding enzymes involved in synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides and genes facilitating the growth of E. amylovora in its host plants have been characterized. The Hrp pathogenicity island, delimited by genes suggesting horizontal gene transfer, is composed of four distinct regions, the hrp/hrc region, the HEE (Hrp effectors and elicitors) region, the HAE (Hrp-associated enzymes) region, and the IT (Island transfer) region. The Hrp pathogenicity island encodes a Hrp type III secretion system (TTSS), which delivers several proteins from bacteria to plant apoplasts or cytoplasm. E. amylovora produces two exopolysaccharides, amylovoran and levan, which cause the characteristic fire blight wilting symptom in host plants. In addition, other genes, and their encoded proteins, have been characterized as virulence factors of E. amylovora that encode enzymes facilitating sorbitol metabolism, proteolytic activity and iron harvesting. This review summarizes our understanding of the genes and gene products of E. amylovora that are involved in the development of the fire blight disease. PMID:16253442

Oh, Chang-Sik; Beer, Steven V

2005-12-15

217

Genetics, Genomics and Breeding of Late Blight and Early Blight Resistance in Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late blight (LB), caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, and early blight (EB), caused by the fungi Alternaria solani and A. tomatophila, are two common and destructive foliar diseases of the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) in the United States and elsewhere in the world. While LB can infect and devastate tomato plants at any developmental stages,

Majid R. Foolad; Heather L. Merk; Hamid Ashrafi

2008-01-01

218

[Bacterial diseases of rape].  

PubMed

Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium. PMID:23293826

Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P

2012-01-01

219

Systemic Acquired Tolerance to Virulent Bacterial Pathogens in Tomato1  

E-print Network

Systemic Acquired Tolerance to Virulent Bacterial Pathogens in Tomato1 Anna Block, Eric Schmelz in the interaction between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and virulent Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv a systemic defense response. We therefore assessed the systemic responses of tomato to Xcv. SA- and ethylene

Klee, Harry J.

220

Physical and functional repetition in a bacterial ice nucleation gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleation of a physical process is distinct from catalysis, and as the function of a protein it is highly unusual. The ability to nucleate ice formation in supercooled water is a property of some members of the bacterial genera Erwinia, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas1-3. This property is implicated in the ability of bacteria to cause frost injury to plants. Orser et

Robert L. Green; Gareth J. Warren

1985-01-01

221

The image has the power : fighting blight in Philadelphia  

E-print Network

Blight has plagued Philadelphia for the better part of a century, though the understanding of blight has changed dramatically over time. Originally used to describe neighborhood overcrowding, the term retained its currency ...

Stern, Jonah Daniel

2012-01-01

222

Late Blight in Alaska (Fact Sheet For The Home Gardener)  

E-print Network

and Anchor- age. Causal Agent and Host Range Late blight is caused by the fungus-like organism Phytophthora Development of late blight is favored at tempera- tures between 50 to 80°F and relative humidity levels above

Wagner, Diane

223

Disease Alert: Chickpea Ascochyta blight has shown up early  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The manuscript describes the early appearance of Ascochyta blight in north Idaho, provides pictorial guide for identification of the disease, discusses the disease cycle, and advises chickpea growers options in managing Ascochyta blight....

224

Genome Sequencing of Xanthomonas vasicola Pathovar vasculorum Reveals Variation in Plasmids and Genes Encoding Lipopolysaccharide Synthesis, Type-IV Pilus and Type-III Secretion Effectors  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas vasicola pathovar vasculorum (Xvv) is the bacterial agent causing gumming disease in sugarcane. Here, we compare complete genome sequences for five isolates of Xvv originating from sugarcane and one from maize. This identified two distinct types of lipopolysaccharide synthesis gene clusters among Xvv isolates: one is similar to that of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar citri (Xac) and is probably the ancestral type, while the other is similar to those of the sugarcane-inhabiting species, Xanthomonas sacchari. Four of six Xvv isolates harboured sequences similar to the Xac plasmid, pXAC47, and showed a distinct Type-IV pilus (T4P) sequence type, whereas the T4P locus of the other two isolates resembled that of the closely related banana pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm). The Xvv isolate from maize has lost a gene encoding a homologue of the virulence effector, xopAF, which was present in all five of the sugarcane isolates, while xopL contained a premature stop codon in four out of six isolates. These findings shed new light on evolutionary events since the divergence of Xvv and Xcm, as well as further elucidating the relationships between the two closely related pathogens. PMID:25437615

Wasukira, Arthur; Coulter, Max; Al-Sowayeh, Noorah; Thwaites, Richard; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Kubiriba, Jerome; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray; Studholme, David J.

2014-01-01

225

Fusarium head blight and mycotoxin contamination of wheat, a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An infection of bread wheat by fusarium head blight contaminates the crop with mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). The toxicity and natural occurrence of these mycotoxins in wheat are reviewed. Based on 8 years data of fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat in the Netherlands, DON contamination of the grain was estimated. Fusarium head blight ratings averaged

C. H. A. Snijders

1990-01-01

226

Results of the 1971 Corn Blight Watch experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced remote sensing techniques are used to: (1)Detect development and spread of corn leaf blight during the growing season; (2) assess the extent and severity of blight infection; (3) assess the impact of blight on corn production; and (4) estimate the applicability of these techniques to similar situations occurring in the future.

Macdonald, R. B.; Allen, R. D.; Bauer, M. E.; Clifton, J. W.; Frickson, J. D.; Landgrebe, D. A.

1972-01-01

227

Managing Apple Summer Diseases Ugly Stubs & Fire Blight  

E-print Network

1 Managing Apple Summer Diseases Ugly Stubs & Fire Blight Lorsban Strawberry Renovation Shoot if good sanitation measures are not strictly followed. -Pecknold Ugly Stubs & Fire Blight: Growers should be especially alert for fire blight symptoms in late May to early June.... this is generally the time fire

Ginzel, Matthew

228

Plant pathology A computarized warning system for fire blight control  

E-print Network

Plant pathology A computarized warning system for fire blight control C Jacquart-Romon JP Paulin 1 1991) Summary — A warning system for the control of fire blight in pear and apple has been is the lack of regularity of in- fections over the years. This is particularly true in the case of fire blight

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

PATHOLOGIE VGTALE Feasibility of rating fire blight susceptibility of  

E-print Network

PATHOLOGIE VÉGÉTALE Feasibility of rating fire blight susceptibility of pear cultivars (Pyrus ornementales, F49000 Angers SUMMARY Typical symptoms of fire blight (ooze production and necrosis) can easily was to determine whether the susceptibility of pear cultivars to fire blight can be evaluated in vitro. In a work

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

230

Bacteriocin Serratine-P as a biological tool in the control of fire blight Erwinia amylovora.  

PubMed

Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Burill Winslow et al.), is the most important bacterial disease in European pear growing. It can cause a lot of damage in some countries on apple and on pear trees in orchards and also in the fruit tree nurseries. In Belgium, the disease is present since 1972. Control of fire blight in Belgian fruit orchards is made on a broad basis of measurements in and around the fruit trees. The use of an antibiotic is allowed for application only during the primary blossom period under strict controlled regulations. The use of antobiotics in agriculture is strongly discussed on the European level today and will probably disappear in the near future. Therefore, the research on fire blight control concentrates on the possibilities of biological control with antagonistic bacteria such as Pantoea agglomerans (Erwinia herbicola), Bacillus subtilis or Pseudomonas syringae strain A 506. The use of Serratine-P, a phage tail-like bacteriocin, produced by Serratia plymiticum, shows an interesting antibacterial activity against Erwinia amylovora. Its mode of action consists in the perforation of the cytoplasmic membrane of the target cell, inducing perturbations in cellular exchanges and a final lysis of the bacterial cell. In this paper some trials are discussed on the use of Serratine-P at different doses and on different infection types on pear trees. The results indicate interesting protection possibilities on blossom- and fruit infections. PMID:12701444

Schoofs, H; Vandebroek, K; Pierrard, A; Thonart, P; Lepoivre, P; Beaudry, T; Deckers, T

2002-01-01

231

Evolutionary History of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis  

PubMed Central

Deciphering mechanisms shaping bacterial diversity should help to build tools to predict the emergence of infectious diseases. Xanthomonads are plant pathogenic bacteria found worldwide. Xanthomonas axonopodis is a genetically heterogeneous species clustering, into six groups, strains that are collectively pathogenic on a large number of plants. However, each strain displays a narrow host range. We address the question of the nature of the evolutionary processes – geographical and ecological speciation – that shaped this diversity. We assembled a large collection of X. axonopodis strains that were isolated over a long period, over continents, and from various hosts. Based on the sequence analysis of seven housekeeping genes, we found that recombination occurred as frequently as point mutation in the evolutionary history of X. axonopodis. However, the impact of recombination was about three times greater than the impact of mutation on the diversity observed in the whole dataset. We then reconstructed the clonal genealogy of the strains using coalescent and genealogy approaches and we studied the diversification of the pathogen using a model of divergence with migration. The suggested scenario involves a first step of generalist diversification that spanned over the last 25 000 years. A second step of ecology-driven specialization occurred during the past two centuries. Eventually, secondary contacts between host-specialized strains probably occurred as a result of agricultural development and intensification, allowing genetic exchanges of virulence-associated genes. These transfers may have favored the emergence of novel pathotypes. Finally, we argue that the largest ecological entity within X. axonopodis is the pathovar. PMID:23505513

Mhedbi-Hajri, Nadia; Hajri, Ahmed; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; Durand, Karine; Brin, Chrystelle; Saux, Marion Fischer-Le; Manceau, Charles; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier

2013-01-01

232

Preventing Late Blight Late blight is caused by a fungus (Phytophthora intestans); in Latin the name means "plant  

E-print Network

Preventing Late Blight Late blight is caused by a fungus (Phytophthora intestans); in Latin the name means "plant destroyer" which is certainly what this fungus does to tomato and potato plants fungal growth during humid weather. Remove infected plant material immediately. Late blight is extremely

New Hampshire, University of

233

Real Time Live Imaging of Phytopathogenic Bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris MAFF106712 in ‘Plant Sweet Home’  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas is one of the most widespread phytobacteria, causing diseases on a variety of agricultural plants. To develop novel control techniques, knowledge of bacterial behavior inside plant cells is essential. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a vascular pathogen, is the causal agent of black rot on leaves of Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Among the X. campestris pv. campestris stocks in the MAFF collection, we selected XccMAFF106712 as a model compatible pathogen for the A. thaliana reference ecotype Columbia (Col-0). Using modified green fluorescent protein (AcGFP) as a reporter, we observed real time XccMAFF106712 colonization in planta with confocal microscopy. AcGFP-expressing bacteria colonized the inside of epidermal cells and the apoplast, as well as the xylem vessels of the vasculature. In the case of the type III mutant, bacteria colonization was never detected in the xylem vessel or apoplast, though they freely enter the xylem vessel through the wound. After 9 days post inoculation with XccMAFF106712, the xylem vessel became filled with bacterial aggregates. This suggests that Xcc colonization can be divided into main four steps, (1) movement in the xylem vessel, (2) movement to the next cell, (3) adhesion to the host plant cells, and (4) formation of bacterial aggregates. The type III mutant abolished at least steps (1) and (2). Better understanding of Xcc colonization is essential for development of novel control techniques for black rot. PMID:24736478

Akimoto-Tomiyama, Chiharu; Furutani, Ayako; Ochiai, Hirokazu

2014-01-01

234

Real time live imaging of phytopathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris MAFF106712 in 'plant sweet home'.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas is one of the most widespread phytobacteria, causing diseases on a variety of agricultural plants. To develop novel control techniques, knowledge of bacterial behavior inside plant cells is essential. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a vascular pathogen, is the causal agent of black rot on leaves of Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Among the X. campestris pv. campestris stocks in the MAFF collection, we selected XccMAFF106712 as a model compatible pathogen for the A. thaliana reference ecotype Columbia (Col-0). Using modified green fluorescent protein (AcGFP) as a reporter, we observed real time XccMAFF106712 colonization in planta with confocal microscopy. AcGFP-expressing bacteria colonized the inside of epidermal cells and the apoplast, as well as the xylem vessels of the vasculature. In the case of the type III mutant, bacteria colonization was never detected in the xylem vessel or apoplast, though they freely enter the xylem vessel through the wound. After 9 days post inoculation with XccMAFF106712, the xylem vessel became filled with bacterial aggregates. This suggests that Xcc colonization can be divided into main four steps, (1) movement in the xylem vessel, (2) movement to the next cell, (3) adhesion to the host plant cells, and (4) formation of bacterial aggregates. The type III mutant abolished at least steps (1) and (2). Better understanding of Xcc colonization is essential for development of novel control techniques for black rot. PMID:24736478

Akimoto-Tomiyama, Chiharu; Furutani, Ayako; Ochiai, Hirokazu

2014-01-01

235

Cloning of the Xanthomonas campestris pv glycines 8ra gene for glycinecin A secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glycinecin A is a narrow-spectrum bacteriocin that is produced by Xanthomonas campestris pv glycines 8ra, and which has potential as a control agent for Xanthomonas phytopathogens. Most of the glycinecin A produced by Xanthomonas campestris pv glycines 8ra was found in the culture medium, whereas the recombinant glycinecin A expressed in E. coli was located intracellularly (S. Heu, J. Oh,

Young Mee Kim; Hee Kyoung Lim; Somi K. Cho; Yun Woo Kim; Jinwoon Hyun; Bong Hee Lee; Bum-Joon Kim; Key Zoung Riu; Young Jae Lee; Moonjae Cho

2004-01-01

236

Cloning and Characterization of a Late Blight Resistance Gene (Rpi-bt1) and other Resistance Gene Analogs from Solanum bulbocastanum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of late blight is the most devastating pathogen of potatoes. Utilizing map based chromosome walking a genomic region containing a cluster of six nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat resistance gene analogs was isolated from a bacterial artificial chro...

237

Fortunella margarita Transcriptional Reprogramming Triggered by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) has become endemic in areas where high temperature, rain, humidity, and windy conditions provide a favourable environment for the dissemination of the bacterium. Xcc is pathogenic on many commercial citrus varieties but appears to elicit an incompatible reaction on the citrus relative Fortunella margarita Swing (kumquat), in the form of a very distinct delayed necrotic response. We have developed subtractive libraries enriched in sequences expressed in kumquat leaves during both early and late stages of the disease. The isolated differentially expressed transcripts were subsequently sequenced. Our results demonstrate how the use of microarray expression profiling can help assign roles to previously uncharacterized genes and elucidate plant pathogenesis-response related mechanisms. This can be considered to be a case study in a citrus relative where high throughput technologies were utilized to understand defence mechanisms in Fortunella and citrus at the molecular level. Results cDNAs from sequenced kumquat libraries (ESTs) made from subtracted RNA populations, healthy vs. infected, were used to make this microarray. Of 2054 selected genes on a customized array, 317 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) in Xcc challenged kumquat plants compared to mock-inoculated ones. This study identified components of the incompatible interaction such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and programmed cell death (PCD). Common defence mechanisms and a number of resistance genes were also identified. In addition, there were a considerable number of differentially regulated genes that had no homologues in the databases. This could be an indication of either a specialized set of genes employed by kumquat in response to canker disease or new defence mechanisms in citrus. Conclusion Functional categorization of kumquat Xcc-responsive genes revealed an enhanced defence-related metabolism as well as a number of resistant response-specific genes in the kumquat transcriptome in response to Xcc inoculation. Gene expression profile(s) were analyzed to assemble a comprehensive and inclusive image of the molecular interaction in the kumquat/Xcc system. This was done in order to elucidate molecular mechanisms associated with the development of the hypersensitive response phenotype in kumquat leaves. These data will be used to perform comparisons among citrus species to evaluate means to enhance the host immune responses against bacterial diseases. PMID:22078099

2011-01-01

238

SHEATH BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN SOUTHERN RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheath blight is a serious fungal disease problem in southern US rice production, making it necessary for rice farmers to diligently use fungicides for its control. There are no long grain rice varieties adapted to commercial production in the southern US that have adequate resistance to sheath bli...

239

FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT OF WHEAT AND BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight re-emerged in the 1990s as a devastating disease of wheat and barley in the mid-western United States. Few diseases of modern times have been so severe. This book contains a comprehensive compilation of scientific knowledge of the disease. Included are 18 chapters by world autho...

240

MAPPING SHEATH BLIGHT RESISTANCE QTLS IN RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheath blight (SB), caused by fungus Rhizoctonia solani, is a destructive disease of rice (Oryza sativa) causing severe loss in grain yield and quality each year throughout the world. Resistance has been reported to be horizontal and quantitative, and does not follow the gene-for-gene model. To fa...

241

Alternaria Blight on Wheat in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternaria blight (Alternaria triticina Prasada and Prabhu) of wheat was first recorded in India in 1924 and has recently achieved prominence due to the susceptibility of Mexican wheats to the fungus. The symptoms of the disease and the conditions under which the plants are most susceptible are described. The disease may be controlled by hot water seed treatment, the use

S. S. Sokhi

1974-01-01

242

Developing Fusarium head blight resistant wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem in wheat and barley around the world. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins that act as virulence factors and cause a reduction in grain quality. Therefore, developing approaches to detoxi...

243

Proteomic analysis reveals novel extracellular virulence-associated proteins and functions regulated by the diffusible signal factor (DSF) in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak, is mediated by the diffusible signal factor (DSF). DSF-mediating QS has been shown to control virulence and a set of virulence-related functions; however, the expression profiles and functions of extracellular proteins controlled by DSF signal remain largely unclear. In the present study, 33 DSF-regulated extracellular proteins, whose functions include small-protein mediating QS, oxidative adaptation, macromolecule metabolism, cell structure, biosynthesis of small molecules, intermediary metabolism, cellular process, protein catabolism, and hypothetical function, were identified by proteomics in Xoc. Of these, 15 protein encoding genes were in-frame deleted, and 4 of them, including three genes encoding type II secretion system (T2SS)-dependent proteins and one gene encoding an Ax21 (activator of XA21-mediated immunity)-like protein (a novel small-protein type QS signal) were determined to be required for full virulence in Xoc. The contributions of these four genes to important virulence-associated functions, including bacterial colonization, extracellular polysaccharide, cell motility, biofilm formation, and antioxidative ability, are presented. To our knowledge, our analysis is the first complete list of DSF-regulated extracellular proteins and functions in a Xanthomonas species. Our results show that DSF-type QS played critical roles in regulation of T2SS and Ax21-mediating QS, which sheds light on the role of DSF signaling in Xanthomonas. PMID:23688240

Qian, Guoliang; Zhou, Yijing; Zhao, Yancun; Song, Zhiwei; Wang, Suyan; Fan, Jiaqin; Hu, Baishi; Venturi, Vittorio; Liu, Fengquan

2013-07-01

244

Determination of responses of different bean cultivars against races of Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola , causal agent of halo blight of bean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of resistant plant varieties combined with other disease management practices is regarded as the most practical approach\\u000a to control of seed-borne bacterial disease agents. In this study, responses of different bean cultivars to nine different\\u000a races of Pseudomonas syringae pv phaseolicola, the causal agent of bacterial halo blight of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), were determined. During compatible interaction

?mam Adem Bozkurt; Soner Soylu

2011-01-01

245

Autoinduction in Erwinia amylovora: Evidence of an AcylHomoserine Lactone Signal in the Fire Blight Pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight disease of apple, pear, and other members of the Rosaceae. Here we present the first evidence for autoinduction in E. amylovora and a role for an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-type signal. Two major plant virulence traits, production of extracellular polysaccharides (amylovoran and levan) and tolerance to free oxygen radicals, were controlled in a bacterial-cell-density-dependent manner. Two

Lazaro Molina; Fabio Rezzonico; Genevieve Defago; Brion Duffy

2005-01-01

246

New genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in pathogenesis and adaptation revealed by a transposon-based mutant library  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker is a disease caused by the phytopathogens Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolli and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis. The first of the three species, which causes citrus bacterial canker type A, is the most widely spread and severe, attacking all citrus species. In Brazil, this species is the most important, being found in practically all areas where citrus canker has been detected. Like most phytobacterioses, there is no efficient way to control citrus canker. Considering the importance of the disease worldwide, investigation is needed to accurately detect which genes are related to the pathogen-host adaptation process and which are associated with pathogenesis. Results Through transposon insertion mutagenesis, 10,000 mutants of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 (Xcc) were obtained, and 3,300 were inoculated in Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia) leaves. Their ability to cause citrus canker was analyzed every 3 days until 21 days after inoculation; a set of 44 mutants showed altered virulence, with 8 presenting a complete loss of causing citrus canker symptoms. Sequencing of the insertion site in all 44 mutants revealed that 35 different ORFs were hit, since some ORFs were hit in more than one mutant, with mutants for the same ORF presenting the same phenotype. An analysis of these ORFs showed that some encoded genes were previously known as related to pathogenicity in phytobacteria and, more interestingly, revealed new genes never implicated with Xanthomonas pathogenicity before, including hypothetical ORFs. Among the 8 mutants with no canker symptoms are the hrpB4 and hrpX genes, two genes that belong to type III secretion system (TTSS), two hypothetical ORFS and, surprisingly, the htrA gene, a gene reported as involved with the virulence process in animal-pathogenic bacteria but not described as involved in phytobacteria virulence. Nucleic acid hybridization using labeled cDNA probes showed that some of the mutated genes are differentially expressed when the bacterium is grown in citrus leaves. Finally, comparative genomic analysis revealed that 5 mutated ORFs are in new putative pathogenicity islands. Conclusion The identification of these new genes related with Xcc infection and virulence is a great step towards the understanding of plant-pathogen interactions and could allow the development of strategies to control citrus canker. PMID:19149882

2009-01-01

247

Xanthan Gum Removal for 1H-NMR Analysis of the Intracellular Metabolome of the Bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri 306  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas is a genus of phytopathogenic bacteria, which produces a slimy, polysaccharide matrix known as xanthan gum, which involves, protects and helps the bacteria during host colonization. Although broadly used as a stabilizer and thickener in the cosmetic and food industries, xanthan gum can be a troubling artifact in molecular investigations due to its rheological properties. In particular, a cross-reaction between reference compounds and the xanthan gum could compromise metabolic quantification by NMR spectroscopy. Aiming at an efficient gum extraction protocol, for a 1H-NMR-based metabolic profiling study of Xanthomonas, we tested four different interventions on the broadly used methanol-chloroform extraction protocol for the intracellular metabolic contents observation. Lower limits for bacterial pellet volumes for extraction were also probed, and a strategy is illustrated with an initial analysis of X. citri’s metabolism by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:24957023

Pegos, Vanessa R.; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Sampaio, Aline P.; Balan, Andrea; Zeri, Ana C. M.

2014-01-01

248

Biological control of fusarium seedling blight disease of wheat and barley.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium fungi, including F. culmorum, cause seedling blight, foot rot, and head blight diseases of cereals, resulting in yield loss. In a screen for potential disease control organisms and agents, Pseudomonas fluorescens strains MKB 100 and MKB 249, P. frederiksbergensis strain 202, Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158, and chitosan all significantly reduced the extent of both wheat coleoptile growth retardation and wheat and barley seedling blight caused by F. culmorum (by 53 to 91%). Trichodiene synthase is a Fusarium enzyme necessary for trichothecene mycotoxin biosynthesis; expression of the gene encoding this enzyme in wheat was 33% lower in stem base tissue coinoculated with Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158 and F. culmorum than in wheat treated with bacterial culture medium and F. culmorum. When wheat and barley were grown in soil amended with either chitosan, P. fluorescens strain MKB 249, Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158, or culture filtrates of these bacteria, the level of disease symptoms on F. culmorum-inoculated stem base tissue (at 12 days post- F. culmorum inoculation) was >/=31% less than the level on F. culmorum-inoculated plants grown in culture medium-amended soil. It seems likely that at least part of the biocontrol activity of these bacteria and chitosan may be due to the induction of systemic disease resistance in host plants. Also, in coinoculation studies, Pseudomonas sp. strain MKB 158 induced the expression of a wheat class III plant peroxidase gene (a pathogenesis-related gene). PMID:18943420

Khan, Mojibur R; Fischer, Sven; Egan, Damian; Doohan, Fiona M

2006-04-01

249

Insights into xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri biofilm through proteomics  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (X. a. pv. citri) causes citrus canker that can result in defoliation and premature fruit drop with significant production losses worldwide. Biofilm formation is an important process in bacterial pathogens and several lines of evidence suggest that in X. a. pv. citri this process is a requirement to achieve maximal virulence since it has a major role in host interactions. In this study, proteomics was used to gain further insights into the functions of biofilms. Results In order to identify differentially expressed proteins, a comparative proteomic study using 2D difference gel electrophoresis was carried out on X. a. pv. citri mature biofilm and planktonic cells. The biofilm proteome showed major variations in the composition of outer membrane proteins and receptor or transport proteins. Among them, several porins and TonB-dependent receptor were differentially regulated in the biofilm compared to the planktonic cells, indicating that these proteins may serve in maintaining specific membrane-associated functions including signaling and cellular homeostasis. In biofilms, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase with a major role in exopolysaccharide production and the non-fimbrial adhesin YapH involved in adherence were over-expressed, while a polynucleotide phosphorylase that was demonstrated to negatively control biofilm formation in E. coli was down-regulated. In addition, several proteins involved in protein synthesis, folding and stabilization were up-regulated in biofilms. Interestingly, some proteins related to energy production, such as ATP-synthase were down-regulated in biofilms. Moreover, a number of enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle were differentially expressed. In addition, X. a. pv. citri biofilms also showed down-regulation of several antioxidant enzymes. The respective gene expression patterns of several identified proteins in both X. a. pv. citri mature biofilm and planktonic cells were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR and shown to consistently correlate with those deduced from the proteomic study. Conclusions Differentially expressed proteins are enriched in functional categories. Firstly, proteins that are down-regulated in X. a. pv. citri biofilms are enriched for the gene ontology (GO) terms ‘generation of precursor metabolites and energy’ and secondly, the biofilm proteome mainly changes in ‘outer membrane and receptor or transport’. We argue that the differentially expressed proteins have a critical role in maintaining a functional external structure as well as enabling appropriate flow of nutrients and signals specific to the biofilm lifestyle. PMID:23924281

2013-01-01

250

Registration of PR0401-259 and PR0650-31 Dry Bean Germplasm Lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Web blight, caused by Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk (anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani Kühn), is a serious disease in the humid tropics that reduces both yield and seed quality. Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Smith) Vauterin et al., and Bean common m...

251

Draft Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas sacchari Strain LMG 476  

PubMed Central

We report the high-quality draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas sacchari strain LMG 476, isolated from sugarcane. The genome comparison of this strain with a previously sequenced X. sacchari strain isolated from a distinct environmental source should provide further insights into the adaptation of this species to different habitats and its evolution. PMID:25792064

Pieretti, Isabelle; Bolot, Stéphanie; Carrère, Sébastien; Barbe, Valérie; Cociancich, Stéphane; Rott, Philippe

2015-01-01

252

SCREENING CITRUS GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. CITRI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Numerous studies have been conducted to identify sources of resistance to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) among citrus and citrus relatives (Gottwald et al., 2002 and references therein). Kumquats (Fortunella sp.) and Calamondins (Citrus mitis) have shown to be highly resistant and mandarins...

253

Factors affecting infection of citrus with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) causes citrus canker and is now considered endemic in Florida. Factors affecting dispersal and infection of the bacteria need to be understood to help optimize disease management strategies. Wind (0-18 m/sec) was simulated outdoors using a fan to study infection...

254

Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector

Y. Hu; J. Zhang; H. Jia; D. Sosso; T. Li; W. B. Frommer; B. Yang; F. F. White; N. Wang; J. B. Jones

2014-01-01

255

IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF RESISTENCE TO BACTERIAL ANGULAR LEAFSPOT DISEASE OF STRAWBERRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial angular leafspot disease (BALD) of cultivated strawberry, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas fragariae, has become an increasingly serious disease problem. It is of particular concern because it is readily transmitted through asymptomatic nursery plants. Until now, there have been no s...

256

Identification of bacterial leaf streak of cereals by their phenotypic characteristics and host range in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-four bacterial isolates were obtained from infected wheat, barley and various grasses from different regions of Iran. All isolates were bacteriologically similar toXanthomonas campestris and some of their physiological and biochemical features can be useful for a primary differentiation between them. Depending on their pathogenicity, the isolates were split into two groups; the wheat group isolated from wheat, barley and

A. Alizadeh; G. Barrault; A. Sarrafi; H. Rahimian; L. Albertini

1995-01-01

257

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND WORLDWIDE PROLIFERATION OF CITRUS BACTERIAL CANKER PATHOGENS IDENTIFIED IN HIRTORIC SPECIMENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) may have originated in Southeast Asia based on symptoms present on early herbarium specimens. The disease was first introduced into the United States in 1911 and has spread to most citrus producing areas in the world. Thi...

258

GENETIC DIVERSITY AND WORLDWIDE PROLIFERATION OF CITRUS BACTERIAL CANKER PATHOGENS IDENTIFIED IN HISTORIC SPECIMENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) may have originated in Southeast Asia, based on symptoms present on early herbarium specimens. The disease was first introduced into the United States in 1911 and has spread to most citrus producing areas in the world. Th...

259

Investigating alternative strategies for managing bacterial angular leaf spot in strawberry nursery production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The focus of this article is to discuss some of the approaches we have tested for managing the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas fragariae in infected strawberry nursery stock. X. fragariae causes angular leaf spot (ALS) in strawberry. The pathogen is transmitted to production fields almost exclusively...

260

Genetic diversity of citrus bacterial canker pathogens preserved in herbarium specimens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) was first documented in India and Java in the mid 19th century. Since that time the known distribution of the disease has steadily increased. Concurrent with the dispersion of the pathogen, the diversity of described str...

261

Timing of fungicide sprays to prevent azalea web blight symptoms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Azalea web blight is an annual problem on evergreen azalea cultivars grown in containerized nursery production in the southern and eastern United States. Fungicides are the only approach currently used to control Rhizoctonia web blight; however, control is poor in some years because the specifics of...

262

Functional genomic response of apple to fire blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of this project is to use a functional genomic analysis to characterize the response of apple (Malus x domestica) to fire blight disease and in doing so, identify new opportunities for improving fire blight resistance. cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA-AFLP analysis were ...

263

Analysis of fire blight shott infection epidemics on apple  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight incidence and spread of the shoot blight phase of the disease was studied in four apple cultivars in replicated blocks over four years (1994 - 1997). The cultivar ‘York’ was highly susceptible, followed by ‘Fuji’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ which were moderately susceptible, and ‘Liberty’ wh...

264

Anencephaly and potato blight in the Republic of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

National potato tuber blight scores in the Republic of Ireland for the years 1961-70 were ascertained and evaluated in relation to incidence of anencephalic births in the following years. No significant relationship between annual tuber blight scores and incidence of anencephaly one year later could be demonstrated. Examination of the records of a maternity hospital for the years before, during,

J. G. Masterson; Carmel Frost; G. J. Bourke; Nessa M. Joyce; Bernadette Herity; K. Wilson-Davis

1974-01-01

265

PSEUDOMONAS AND RELATED GENERA (XANTHOMONAS, SHEWANELLA, ETC)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The bacterial genus Pseudomonas comprises a very large and important group of bacteria. They can be found abundantly as free-living organisms in soils, fresh water and marine environments, and in many other natural habitats. They can also be found in association with plants and animals as normal flo...

266

Enhanced Biological Control of Phytophthora Blight of Pepper by Biosurfactant-Producing Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas isolates from different crop plants were screened for in vitro growth inhibition of Phytophthora capsici and production of biosurfactant. Two in vivo experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains against Phytophthora blight of pepper by comparing two fungicide treatments [acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ASM + mefenoxam]. Bacterial isolates were applied by soil drenching (1 × 109 cells/ml), ASM (0.1 ?g a.i./ml) and ASM + mefenoxam (0.2 mg product/ml) were applied by foliar spraying, and P. capsici inoculum was incorporated into the pot soil three days after treatments. In the first experiment, four Pseudomonas strains resulted in significant reduction from 48.4 to 61.3% in Phytophthora blight severity. In the second experiment, bacterial treatments combining with olive oil (5 mL per plant) significantly enhanced biological control activity, resulting in a reduction of disease level ranging from 56.8 to 81.1%. ASM + mefenoxam was the most effective treatment while ASM alone was less effective in both bioassays. These results indicate that our Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (6L10, 6ba6 and 3ss9) that have biosurfactant-producing abilities are effective against P. capsici on pepper, and enhanced disease suppression could be achieved when they were used in combination with olive oil. PMID:25288970

Özyilmaz, Ümit; Benlioglu, Kemal

2013-01-01

267

Biocontrol of Phytophthora Blight and Anthracnose in Pepper by Sequentially Selected Antagonistic Rhizobacteria against Phytophthora capsici  

PubMed Central

We previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. In this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against P. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on Phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. We selected four potential biocontrol strains (Pseudomonas otitidis YJR27, P. putida YJR92, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens YJR102, and Novosphingobium capsulatum YJR107) among 239 bacterial strains. In the 3-year field tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Phytophthora blight without influencing rhizosphere microbial populations; they showed similar or better levels of disease suppressions than in metalaxyl treatment in the 2007 and 2009 tests, but not in the 2008 test. In the 2-year plastic house tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose incidence in at least one of the test years, but their biocontrol activities were variable. In addition, strains YJR27, YJR92, and YJR102, in certain harvests, increased pepper fruit numbers in field tests and red fruit weights in plastic house tests. Taken together, these results indicate that the screening procedure is rapid and reliable for the selection of potential biocontrol strains against P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these selected strains exhibited biocontrol activities against anthracnose, and some of the strains showed plant growth-promotion activities on pepper fruit. PMID:25288942

Sang, Mee Kyung; Shrestha, Anupama; Kim, Du-Yeon; Park, Kyungseok; Pak, Chun Ho; Kim, Ki Deok

2013-01-01

268

Fire blight of apple blossoms Fireblight of apples and pears, caused by the  

E-print Network

Fire blight of apple blossoms Fireblight of apples and pears, caused by the bacterium Erwinia appearance of branches, leaves, fruit, and blossoms following a fire blight infection. The pathogen, wet conditions. Are conditions right for fire blight? Forecast models for fire blight available

269

Potent and specific bactericidal effect of juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) on the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.  

PubMed

A screening of plant quinones for inhibiting effects on the bacterial fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora was performed. The most active compound, juglone from walnuts, has a potent and specific bactericidal effect on E. amylovora and minimal inhibitory concentrations of only 2.5-10 ?M, with stronger effects at lower, but still physiological, pH values. In vitro tests with juglone and inoculated flowers of apple (Malus domestica) showed an efficacy of 67% in preventing infection. In two years of field tests juglone had variable degrees of efficacy ranging from 40 to 82%, seemingly due to environmental conditions. A phytotoxic reaction to juglone, which is known for its allelopathic effect on plants, was restricted to browning of petals; later fruit russeting was not observed. Juglone is a promising candidate for the development of a new environmentally friendly plant protectant to replace the antibiotic streptomycin currently used in fire blight control. PMID:23163769

Fischer, Thilo Christopher; Gosch, Christian; Mirbeth, Beate; Gselmann, Markus; Thallmair, Veronika; Stich, Karl

2012-12-12

270

Genomic Analysis of Xanthomonas translucens Pathogenic on Wheat and Barley Reveals Cross-Kingdom Gene Transfer Events and Diverse Protein Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

In comparison to dicot-infecting bacteria, only limited numbers of genome sequences are available for monocot-infecting and in particular cereal-infecting bacteria. Herein we report the characterisation and genome sequence of Xanthomonas translucens isolate DAR61454 pathogenic on wheat and barley. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the ATP synthase beta subunit (atpD) gene, DAR61454 is most closely related to other X. translucens strains and the sugarcane- and banana- infecting Xanthomonas strains, but shares a type III secretion system (T3SS) with X. translucens pv. graminis and more distantly related xanthomonads. Assays with an adenylate cyclase reporter protein demonstrate that DAR61454's T3SS is functional in delivering proteins to wheat cells. X. translucens DAR61454 also encodes two type VI secretion systems with one most closely related to those found in some strains of the rice infecting strain X. oryzae pv. oryzae but not other xanthomonads. Comparative analysis of 18 different Xanthomonas isolates revealed 84 proteins unique to cereal (i.e. rice) infecting isolates and the wheat/barley infecting DAR61454. Genes encoding 60 of these proteins are found in gene clusters in the X. translucens DAR61454 genome, suggesting cereal-specific pathogenicity islands. However, none of the cereal pathogen specific proteins were homologous to known Xanthomonas spp. effectors. Comparative analysis outside of the bacterial kingdom revealed a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase encoding gene in DAR61454 also present in other bacteria as well as a number of pathogenic Fusarium species, suggesting that this gene may have been transmitted horizontally from bacteria to the Fusarium lineage of pathogenic fungi. This example further highlights the importance of horizontal gene acquisition from bacteria in the evolution of fungi. PMID:24416331

Gardiner, Donald M.; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Stiller, Jiri; Ellis, Jeff G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M.

2014-01-01

271

High Variation in Pathogenicity of Genetically Closely Related Strains of Xanthomonas albilineans, the Sugarcane Leaf Scald Pathogen, in Guadeloupe.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Pathogenicity of 75 strains of Xanthomonas albilineans from Guadeloupe was assessed by inoculation of sugarcane cv. B69566, which is susceptible to leaf scald, and 19 of the strains were selected as representative of the variation in pathogenicity observed based on stalk colonization. In vitro production of albicidin varied among these 19 strains, but the restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern of their albicidin biosynthesis genes was identical. Similarly, no genomic variation was found among strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Some variation among strains was found by amplified fragment length polymorphism, but no relationship between this genetic variation and variation in pathogenicity was found. Only 3 (pilB, rpfA, and xpsE) of 40 genes involved in pathogenicity of bacterial species closely related to X. albilineans could be amplified by polymerase chain reaction from total genomic DNA of all nine strains tested of X. albilineans differing in pathogenicity in Guadeloupe. Nucleotide sequences of these genes were 100% identical among strains, and a phylogenetic study with these genes and housekeeping genes efp and ihfA suggested that X. albilineans is on an evolutionary road between the X. campestris group and Xylella fastidiosa, another vascular plant pathogen. Sequencing of the complete genome of Xanthomonas albilineans could be the next step in deciphering molecular mechanisms involved in pathogenicity of X. albilineans. PMID:18943496

Champoiseau, P; Daugrois, J-H; Pieretti, I; Cociancich, S; Royer, M; Rott, P

2006-10-01

272

Structural-Functional Characterization and Physiological Significance of Ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a phytopathogen bacterium that causes severe citrus canker disease. Similar to other phytopathogens, after infection by this bacterium, plants trigger a defense mechanism that produces reactive oxygen species. Ferredoxin-NADP+ reductases (FNRs) are redox flavoenzymes that participate in several metabolic functions, including the response to reactive oxygen species. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri has a gene (fpr) that encodes for a FNR (Xac-FNR) that belongs to the subclass I bacterial FNRs. The aim of this work was to search for the physiological role of this enzyme and to characterize its structural and functional properties. The functionality of Xac-FNR was tested by cross-complementation of a FNR knockout Escherichia coli strain, which exhibit high susceptibility to agents that produce an abnormal accumulation of •O2-. Xac-FNR was able to substitute for the FNR in E. coli in its antioxidant role. The expression of fpr in X. axonopodis pv. citri was assessed using semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. A 2.2-fold induction was observed in the presence of the superoxide-generating agents methyl viologen and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone. Structural and functional studies showed that Xac-FNR displayed different functional features from other subclass I bacterial FNRs. Our analyses suggest that these differences may be due to the unusual carboxy-terminal region. We propose a further classification of subclass I bacterial FNRs, which is useful to determine the nature of their ferredoxin redox partners. Using sequence analysis, we identified a ferredoxin (XAC1762) as a potential substrate of Xac-FNR. The purified ferredoxin protein displayed the typical broad UV-visible spectrum of [4Fe-4S] clusters and was able to function as substrate of Xac-FNR in the cytochrome c reductase activity. Our results suggest that Xac-FNR is involved in the oxidative stress response of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and performs its biological function most likely through the interaction with ferredoxin XAC1762. PMID:22096528

Delprato, María Laura; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.; Orellano, Elena G.

2011-01-01

273

The chemically inducible expression of Erwinia amylovora bacterial effectors EopB1 and HopCEa in apple  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease, utilizes a type three secretion system to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. To investigate the role of individual bacterial effector proteins, we have engineered an apple host that transgenically expresses the bacterial effe...

274

Copper chloride induces antioxidant gene expression but reduces ability to mediate H2O2 toxicity in Xanthomonas campestris.  

PubMed

Copper (Cu)-based biocides are currently used as control measures for both fungal and bacterial diseases in agricultural fields. In this communication, we show that exposure of the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris to nonlethal concentrations of Cu(2+) ions (75 µM) enhanced expression of genes in OxyR, OhrR and IscR regulons. High levels of catalase, Ohr peroxidase and superoxide dismutase diminished Cu(2+)-induced gene expression, suggesting that the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and organic hydroperoxides is responsible for Cu(2+)-induced gene expression. Despite high expression of antioxidant genes, the CuCl2-treated cells were more susceptible to H2O2 killing treatment than the uninduced cells. This phenotype arose from lowered catalase activity in the CuCl2-pretreated cells. Thus, exposure to a nonlethal dose of Cu(2+) renders X. campestris vulnerable to H2O2, even when various genes for peroxide-metabolizing enzymes are highly expressed. Moreover, CuCl2-pretreated cells are sensitive to treatment with the redox cycling drug, menadione. No physiological cross-protection response was observed in CuCl2-treated cells in a subsequent challenge with killing concentrations of an organic hydroperoxide. As H2O2 production is an important initial plant immune response, defects in H2O2 protection are likely to reduce bacterial survival in plant hosts and enhance the usefulness of copper biocides in controlling bacterial pathogens. PMID:24385479

Sornchuer, Phornphan; Namchaiw, Poommaree; Kerdwong, Jarunee; Charoenlap, Nisanart; Mongkolsuk, Skorn; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon

2014-02-01

275

Expression Profiling of Virulence and Pathogenicity Genes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis Starr & Garces emend. Vauterin et al. pv. citri (Hasse) Dye (syn. Xan- thomonas campestris pv. citri (Hasse)), is one of the most dev- astating citrus diseases in the world (44). Within the genus Xanthomonas, several genes have been found associated with pathogenicity and virulence. Of these genes, the avr (avirulence), rpf (named for

Gustavo Astua-Monge; Juliana Freitas-Astua; Gisele Bacocina; Juliana Roncoletta; Sergio A. Carvalho; Marcos A. Machado

2005-01-01

276

Genetic mapping reveals a single major QTL for bacterial wilt resistance in Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) is a major disease of economically important forage crops such as ryegrasses and fescues. Targeted breeding based on seedling inoculation has resulted in cultivars with considerable levels of resistance. However, the mechanisms of inheritance of resistance are poorly understood and further breeding progress is difficult to obtain. This study aimed to

Bruno Studer; Beat Boller; Doris Herrmann; Eva Bauer; Ulrich K. Posselt; Franco Widmer; Roland Kölliker

2006-01-01

277

A highly-conserved single-stranded DNA-binding protein in Xanthomonas functions as a harpin-like protein to trigger plant immunity.  

PubMed

Harpins are produced by gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria and typically elicit hypersensitive response (HR) in non-host plants. The characterization of harpins in Xanthomonas species is largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that Xanthomonas produce a highly conserved single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB(X)) that elicits HR in tobacco as by harpin Hpa1. SSB(X), like Hpa1, is an acidic, glycine-rich, heat-stable protein that lacks cysteine residues. SSB(X)-triggered HR in tobacco, as by Hpa1, is characterized by the oxidative burst, the expression of HR markers (HIN1, HSR203J), pathogenesis-related genes, and callose deposition. Both SSB(X)- and Hpa1-induced HRs can be inhibited by general metabolism inhibitors actinomycin D, cycloheximide, and lanthanum chloride. Furthermore, those HRs activate the expression of BAK1 and BIK1 genes that are essential for induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and salicylic acid pathways. Once applied to plants, SSB(X) induces resistance to the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata and enhances plant growth. When ssb(X)was deleted in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak in rice, the resulting ssb(Xoc)mutant was reduced in virulence and bacterial growth in planta, but retained its ability to trigger HR in tobacco. Interestingly, ssb(Xoc)contains an imperfect PIP-box (plant-inducible promoter) and the expression of ssb(Xoc)is regulated by HrpX, which belongs to the AraC family of transcriptional activators. Immunoblotting evidence showed that SSB(x) secretion requires a functional type-III secretion system as Hpa1 does. This is the first report demonstrating that Xanthomonas produce a highly-conserved SSB(X) that functions as a harpin-like protein for plant immunity. PMID:23418541

Li, Yu-Rong; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Che, Yi-Zhou; Zou, Li-Fang; Zakria, Muhammad; Zou, Hua-Song; Chen, Gong-You

2013-01-01

278

A Highly-Conserved Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Protein in Xanthomonas Functions as a Harpin-Like Protein to Trigger Plant Immunity  

PubMed Central

Harpins are produced by Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacteria and typically elicit hypersensitive response (HR) in non-host plants. The characterization of harpins in Xanthomonas species is largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that Xanthomonas produce a highly conserved single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSBX) that elicits HR in tobacco as by harpin Hpa1. SSBX, like Hpa1, is an acidic, glycine-rich, heat-stable protein that lacks cysteine residues. SSBX-triggered HR in tobacco, as by Hpa1, is characterized by the oxidative burst, the expression of HR markers (HIN1, HSR203J), pathogenesis-related genes, and callose deposition. Both SSBX- and Hpa1-induced HRs can be inhibited by general metabolism inhibitors actinomycin D, cycloheximide, and lanthanum chloride. Furthermore, those HRs activate the expression of BAK1 and BIK1 genes that are essential for induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and salicylic acid pathways. Once applied to plants, SSBX induces resistance to the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata and enhances plant growth. When ssbX was deleted in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak in rice, the resulting ssbXoc mutant was reduced in virulence and bacterial growth in planta, but retained its ability to trigger HR in tobacco. Interestingly, ssbXoc contains an imperfect PIP-box (plant-inducible promoter) and the expression of ssbXoc is regulated by HrpX, which belongs to the AraC family of transcriptional activators. Immunoblotting evidence showed that SSBx secretion requires a functional type-III secretion system as Hpa1 does. This is the first report demonstrating that Xanthomonas produce a highly-conserved SSBX that functions as a harpin-like protein for plant immunity. PMID:23418541

Che, Yi-Zhou; Zou, Li-Fang; Zakria, Muhammad; Zou, Hua-Song; Chen, Gong-You

2013-01-01

279

A Novel Periplasmic Protein, VrpA, Contributes to Efficient Protein Secretion by the Type III Secretion System in Xanthomonas spp.  

PubMed

Efficient secretion of type III effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm to host cell cytosol via a type III secretion system (T3SS) is crucial for virulence of plant-pathogenic bacterium. Our previous study revealed a conserved hypothetical protein, virulence-related periplasm protein A (VrpA), which was identified as a critical virulence factor for Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. In this study, we demonstrate that mutation of vrpA compromises X. citri subsp. citri virulence and hypersensitive response induction. This deficiency is also observed in the X. campestris pv. campestris strain, suggesting a functional conservation of VrpA in Xanthomonas spp. Our study indicates that VrpA is required for efficient protein secretion via T3SS, which is supported by multiple lines of evidence. A CyaA reporter assay shows that VrpA is involved in type III effector secretion; quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis suggests that the vrpA mutant fails to activate citrus-canker-susceptible gene CsLOB1, which is transcriptionally activated by transcription activator-like effector PthA4; in vitro secretion study reveals that VrpA plays an important role in secretion of T3SS pilus, translocon, and effector proteins. Our data also indicate that VrpA in X. citri subsp. citri localizes to bacterial periplasmic space and the periplasmic localization is required for full function of VrpA and X. citri subsp. citri virulence. Protein-protein interaction studies show that VrpA physically interacts with periplasmic T3SS components HrcJ and HrcC. However, the mutation of VrpA does not affect T3SS gene expression. Additionally, VrpA is involved in X. citri subsp. citri tolerance of oxidative stress. Our data contribute to the mechanical understanding of an important periplasmic protein VrpA in Xanthomonas spp. PMID:25338144

Zhou, Xiaofeng; Hu, Xiufang; Li, Jinyun; Wang, Nian

2015-02-01

280

Role of Solanum dulcamara L. in Potato Late Blight Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four sites with naturally growing Solanum dulcamara were surveyed during 2006 and 2007 for the presence of late blight. Despite 2 years of observations, no late blight was detected\\u000a among natural populations of bittersweet. Nevertheless, repeated infections occurred on few S. dulcamara plants from a collection growing in a botanical garden in the same years. These plants were used to investigate

Tomek M. Golas; Gerard M. van der Weerden; Ronald G. van den Berg; Celestina Mariani; J. J. H. M. Allefs

2010-01-01

281

Comparison of the epidemiology of ascochyta blights on grain legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asochyta blights of grain legumes are caused by fungal pathogens in the genus Ascochyta. Different species infect the different legume species, and in pea three species including Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella have been implicated in ascochyta blight. The impact of the diseases varies between crops, countries, seasons and cropping\\u000a systems, and yield loss data collected under well-defined conditions is scarce.

Bernard Tivoli; Sabine Banniza

282

Comparison of the epidemiology of ascochyta blights on grain legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asochyta blights of grain legumes are caused by fungal pathogens in the genus Ascochyta. Different species infect the different legume species, and in pea three species including Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella have been implicated in ascochyta blight. The impact of the diseases varies between crops, countries, seasons and cropping\\u000a systems, and yield loss data collected under well-defined conditions is scarce.

Bernard Tivoli; Sabine Banniza

2007-01-01

283

Transgenic potatoes expressing a novel cationic peptide are resistant to late blight and pink rot.  

PubMed

Potato is the world's largest non-cereal crop. Potato late blight is a pandemic, foliar wasting potato disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, which has become highly virulent, fungicide resistant, and widely disseminated. Similarly, fungicide resistant isolates of Phytophthora erythroseptica, which causes pink rot, have also become an economic scourge of potato tubers. Thus, an alternate, cost effective strategy for disease control has become an international imperative. Here we describe a strategy for engineering potato plants exhibiting strong protection against these exceptionally virulent pathogens without deleterious effects on plant yield or vigor. The small, naturally occurring antimicrobial cationic peptide, temporin A, was N-terminally modified (MsrA3) and expressed in potato plants. MsrA3 conveyed strong resistance to late blight and pink rot phytopathogens in addition to the bacterial pathogen Erwinia carotovora. Transgenic tubers remained disease-free during storage for more than 2 years. These results provide a timely, sustainable, effective, and environmentally friendly means of control of potato diseases while simultaneously preventing storage losses. PMID:15198205

Osusky, Milan; Osuska, Lubica; Hancock, Robert E; Kay, William W; Misra, Santosh

2004-04-01

284

Preliminary results on the ability of pentatomidae to transfer fire blight Erwinia amylovora under controlled conditions.  

PubMed

With their piercing-sucking mouthparts stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a major pest in especially organic orchards, create wounds in fruit of pear trees. As Erwinia amylovora (Burrill, Winslow et al.), a wide spread bacterial disease affecting many rosaceous plants including pome fruit trees and hawthorn, enters through openings in flowers, leaves, shoots and fruit, feeding punctures caused by these bugs might be inoculated with Erwinia bacteria. In order to investigate the ability of the bugs Pentotoma rufipes L. and Polomena prasina L. to transmit fire blight, insects were caught in an organically managed orchard without fire blight, brought into contact with artificially inoculated immature pear fruit/slices and transferred to healthy, mechanically wounded pear fruit/slices. After an incubation period potential transmission of bacteria was examined by evaluation of symptom expression (necrosis, ooze production). To assess the presence of bacteria on the exoskeleton of the tested bugs, all bugs were forced to walk on a semiselective nutrient agar medium. In another experiment the viability of Ea on the exoskeleton was tested -after previous contact with ooze- through washing and plating of the wash water. All experiments were conducted under optimal climatological conditions and according to quarantine standards. Results demonstrated the ability of stink bugs to transfer E. amylovora to fruit and the viability of bacteria on stink bugs externally - both under lab conditions. PMID:25145257

Peusens, G; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Belien, T

2013-01-01

285

Isolation and partial characterization of antibacterial lipopeptide produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa HKA-15 against phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli M-5.  

PubMed

An antibacterial metabolite was isolated from Paenibacillus polymyxa HKA-15, a soybean bacterial endophyte. The purification of the crude metabolite from Paenibacillus polymyxa HKA-15 was done by column chromatography. In TLC, a spot with an R ( f ) value of 0.86 (±0.02) from the purified fraction showed bioactivity against Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli M-5. In SDS-PAGE, the purified antibiotic was separated in the molecular weight range of 3.5 kDa. The exact molecular weight of the active compound was identified as 1,347.7 Da using MS-MS analysis. Infra red spectrum and (1)H NMR analysis showed the presence of amino acids and fatty acids in the active compound. The characterization of the antibacterial compound revealed its lipopeptide nature. In an agar diffusion assay, the crude metabolite showed a broad spectrum of activity, being able to inhibit the growth of the fungal pathogen, Rhizoctonia bataticola, Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium udum. A stronger inhibition was observed against bacterial pathogens viz., X. campestris pv.phaseoli M-5, X. campestris pv. phaseoli CP-1-1, Xanthomonas oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum and Micrococcus luteus. PMID:22805811

Mageshwaran, Vellaichamy; Walia, Suresh; Annapurna, Kannepalli

2012-03-01

286

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of Xanthomonas campestris PNPase in the presence of c-di-GMP.  

PubMed

Bacterial polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) is a 3'-5' processive exoribonuclease that participates in mRNA turnover and quality control of rRNA precursors in many bacterial species. It also associates with the RNase E scaffold and other components to form a multi-enzyme RNA degradasome machinery that performs a wider regulatory role in degradation, quality control and maturation of mRNA and noncoding RNA. Several crystal structures of bacterial PNPases, as well as some biological activity studies, have been published. However, how the enzymatic activity of PNPase is regulated is less well understood. Recently, Escherichia coli PNPase was found to be a direct c-di-GMP binding target, raising the possibility that c-di-GMP may participate in the regulation of RNA processing. Here, the successful cloning, purification and crystallization of S1-domain-truncated Xanthomonas campestris PNPase (XcPNPase?S1) in the presence of c-di-GMP are reported. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 132.76, b = 128.38, c = 133.01?Å, ? = 93.3°, and diffracted to a resolution of 2.00?Å. PMID:23027759

Wang, Yu-Chuan; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Chuah, Mary Lay-Cheng; Liang, Zhao-Xun; Chou, Shan-Ho

2012-10-01

287

Identification of seven Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola genes potentially involved in pathogenesis in rice.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) causes bacterial leaf streak (BLS) in rice, an emerging and destructive disease worldwide. Identification of key virulence factors is a prerequisite for understanding the pathogenesis of Xoc. In this study, a Tn5-tagged mutant library of Xoc strain RS105 was screened on rice, and 27 Tn5 mutants were identified that were either non-pathogenic or showed reduced virulence in rice. Fourteen of the non-pathogenic mutants were also unable to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco and were designated Pth(-)/HR(-) mutants; 13 mutants showed attenuated virulence and were able to induce an HR (Vir(-)/HR(+)). Sequence analysis of the Tn5-tagged genes indicated that the 14 Pth(-)/HR(-) mutants included mutations in hrcC, hrcT, hrcV, hpaP, hrcQ, hrpF, hrpG and hrpX. The 13 Vir(-)/HR(+) mutants included tal-C10c-like (a transcriptional activator-like TAL effector), rpfC (regulator of pathogenicity factors), oxyR (oxidative stress transcriptional regulator), dsbC (disulfide isomerase), opgH (glucan biosynthesis glucosyltransferase H), rfbA (glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase), amtR (aminotransferase), purF (amidophosphoribosyltransferase), thrC (threonine synthase), trpA (tryptophan synthase alpha subunit) and three genes encoding hypothetical proteins (Xoryp_02235, Xoryp_00885 and Xoryp_22910). Collectively, the 27 Tn5 insertions are located in 21 different open reading frames. Bacterial growth and in planta virulence assays demonstrated that opgH, purF, thrC, trpA, Xoryp_02235, Xoryp_00885 and Xoryp_22910 are candidate virulence genes involved in Xoc pathogenesis. Reduced virulence in 13 mutants was restored to wild-type levels when the cognate gene was introduced in trans. Expression profiles demonstrated that the seven candidate virulence genes were significantly induced in planta, although their roles in Xoc pathogenesis remain unclear. PMID:22075022

Guo, Wei; Cui, Yi-Ping; Li, Yu-Rong; Che, Yi-Zhou; Yuan, Liang; Zou, Li-Fang; Zou, Hua-Song; Chen, Gong-You

2012-02-01

288

Identification of Genes Required for Nonhost Resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Reveals Novel Signaling Components  

PubMed Central

Background Nonhost resistance is a generalized, durable, broad-spectrum resistance exhibited by plant species to a wide variety of microbial pathogens. Although nonhost resistance is an attractive breeding strategy, the molecular basis of this form of resistance remains unclear for many plant-microbe pathosystems, including interactions with the bacterial pathogen of rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Methods and Findings Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and an assay to detect the hypersensitive response (HR) were used to screen for genes required for nonhost resistance to Xoo in N. benthamiana. When infiltrated with Xoo strain YN-1, N. benthamiana plants exhibited a strong necrosis within 24 h and produced a large amount of H2O2 in the infiltrated area. Expression of HR- and defense-related genes was induced, whereas bacterial numbers dramatically decreased during necrosis. VIGS of 45 ACE (Avr/Cf-elicited) genes revealed identified seven genes required for nonhost resistance to Xoo in N. benthamiana. The seven genes encoded a calreticulin protein (ACE35), an ERF transcriptional factor (ACE43), a novel Solanaceous protein (ACE80), a hydrolase (ACE117), a peroxidase (ACE175) and two proteins with unknown function (ACE95 and ACE112). The results indicate that oxidative burst and calcium-dependent signaling pathways play an important role in nonhost resistance to Xoo. VIGS analysis further revealed that ACE35, ACE80, ACE95 and ACE175, but not the other three ACE genes, interfered with the Cf-4/Avr4-dependent HR. Conclusions/Significance N. benthamiana plants inoculated with Xoo respond by rapidly eliciting an HR and nonhost resistance. The oxidative burst and other signaling pathways are pivotal in Xoo-N. benthamiana nonhost resistance, and genes involved in this response partially overlap with those involved in Cf/Avr4-dependent HR. The seven genes required for N. benthamiana-mediated resistance to Xoo provide a basis for further dissecting the molecular mechanism of nonhost resistance. PMID:22912739

Li, Wen; Xu, You-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Cao, Wen-Yuan; Li, Fei; Zhou, Xueping; Chen, Gong-You; Cai, Xin-Zhong

2012-01-01

289

Detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri by the polymerase chain reaction method.  

PubMed Central

pFL1 is a pUC9 derivative that contains a 572-bp EcoRI insert cloned from plasmid DNA of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri XC62. The nucleotide sequence of pFL1 was determined, and the sequence information was used to design primers for application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to the detection of X. campestris pv. citri, the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker disease. Seven 18-bp oligonucleotide primers were designed and tested with DNA from X. campestris pv. citri strains and other strains of X. campestris associated with Citrus spp. as templates in the PCR. Four primer pairs directed the amplification of target DNA from X. campestris pv. citri strains but not from strains of X. campestris associated with a different disease, citrus bacterial spot. Primer pair 2-3 directed the specific amplification of target DNA from pathotype A but not other pathotypes of X. campestris pv. citri. A pH 9.0 buffer that contained 1% Triton X-100 and 0.1% gelatin was absolutely required for the successful amplification of the target DNA, which was 61% G+C. Limits of detection after amplification and gel electrophoresis were 25 pg of purified target DNA and about 10 cells when Southern blots were made after gel electrophoresis and probed with biotinylated pFL1. This level of detection represents an increase in sensitivity of about 100-fold over that of dot blotting with the same hybridization probe. PCR products of the expected sizes were amplified from DNA extracted from 7-month-old lesions from which viable bacteria could not be isolated. These products were confirmed to be specific for X. campestris pv. citri by Southern blotting. This PCR-based detection protocol will be a useful addition to current methods of detection of this pathogen, which is currently the target of international quarantine measures. Images PMID:8476288

Hartung, J S; Daniel, J F; Pruvost, O P

1993-01-01

290

Evidence that prohexadione-calcium induces structural resistance to fire blight infection.  

PubMed

Mechanisms of fire blight control by the shoot-growth regulator prohexadione-calcium (ProCa) were investigated by comparing disease development in ProCa-treated potted apple trees (cv. Gala) to paclobutrazol (another shoot-growth regulator)-treated and nontreated trees and in ProCa-treated cv. McIntosh trees in the field. Twenty-eight days after inoculation with Erwinia amylovora Ea110, disease incidence on ProCa- and paclobutrazol-treated shoots was significantly reduced compared with that on nontreated shoots. Disease severity (percent shoot length infected) was also significantly lower on both ProCa- and paclobutrazol-treated shoots than on nontreated shoots. However, bacterial populations within inoculated shoots were high and bacterial growth occurred in all treatments. In addition, the mean cell wall width of the cortical parenchyma midvein tissue of the first and second youngest unfolded leaves of ProCa- and paclobutrazol-treated shoots was significantly wider both 0.5 and 2 cm from the leaf tips compared with the cell walls of the nontreated tissue. Taken together, these results suggest that reduction of fire blight symptoms by ProCa and paclobutrazol is not the result of reduced populations of E. amylovora in shoots. Moreover, because paclobutrazol also reduced disease severity and incidence, changes in flavonoid metabolism induced by ProCa but not paclobutrazol does not appear to be responsible for disease control as suggested in recent literature. Finally, although this study did not directly link disease control to the observed cell wall changes, the possibility that an increase in cell wall width impedes the spread of E. amylovora should be investigated in more depth. PMID:19351255

McGrath, Molly J; Koczan, Jessica M; Kennelly, Megan M; Sundin, George W

2009-05-01

291

Pathotype-specific genetic factors in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) for quantitative resistance to ascochyta blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascochyta blight in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a devastating fungal disease caused by the necrotrophic pathogen, Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab. To elucidate the genetic mechanism of pathotype-dependent blight resistance in chickpea, F7-derived recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the intraspecific cross of PI 359075(1) (blight susceptible) × FLIP84-92C(2) (blight resistant) were inoculated with pathotypes I and II of A. rabiei.

Seungho Cho; Weidong Chen; Fred J. Muehlbauer

2004-01-01

292

A «Repertoire for Repertoire» Hypothesis: Repertoires of Type Three Effectors are Candidate Determinants of Host Specificity in Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic basis of host specificity for animal and plant pathogenic bacteria remains poorly understood. For plant pathogenic bacteria, host range is restricted to one or a few host plant species reflecting a tight adaptation to specific hosts. Methodology/Principal Findings Two hypotheses can be formulated to explain host specificity: either it can be explained by the phylogenetic position of the strains, or by the association of virulence genes enabling a pathological convergence of phylogenically distant strains. In this latter hypothesis, host specificity would result from the interaction between repertoires of bacterial virulence genes and repertoires of genes involved in host defences. To challenge these two hypotheses, we selected 132 Xanthomonas axonopodis strains representative of 18 different pathovars which display different host range. First, the phylogenetic position of each strain was determined by sequencing the housekeeping gene rpoD. This study showed that many pathovars of Xanthomonas axonopodis are polyphyletic. Second, we investigated the distribution of 35 type III effector genes (T3Es) in these strains by both PCR and hybridization methods. Indeed, for pathogenic bacteria T3Es were shown to trigger and to subvert host defences. Our study revealed that T3E repertoires comprise core and variable gene suites that likely have distinct roles in pathogenicity and different evolutionary histories. Our results showed a correspondence between composition of T3E repertoires and pathovars of Xanthomonas axonopodis. For polyphyletic pathovars, this suggests that T3E genes might explain a pathological convergence of phylogenetically distant strains. We also identified several DNA rearrangements within T3E genes, some of which correlate with host specificity of strains. Conclusions/Significance These data provide insight into the potential role played by T3E genes for pathogenic bacteria and support a “repertoire for repertoire” hypothesis that may explain host specificity. Our work provides resources for functional and evolutionary studies aiming at understanding host specificity of pathogenic bacteria, functional redundancy between T3Es and the driving forces shaping T3E repertoires. PMID:19680562

Hajri, Ahmed; Brin, Chrystelle; Hunault, Gilles; Lardeux, Frédéric; Lemaire, Christophe; Manceau, Charles

2009-01-01

293

Analysis of apple (Malus) responses to bacterial pathogens using an oligo microarray  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight is a devastating disease of apple (Malus x domestica) caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora (Ea). When infiltrated into host leaves, Ea induces reactions similar to a hypersensitive response (HR). Type III (T3SS) associated effectors, especially DspA/E, are suspected to ha...

294

BACTERIAL ARTIFICIAL CHROMOSOME-BASED PHYSICAL MAP OF GIBBERELLA ZEAE (FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium graminearum is the primary causal pathogen of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, a major disease problem in the wheat and barley growing regions of the world. To accelerate genomic analysis of F. graminearum, we developed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map and...

295

Cougarblight EZ, a substantial update of the Cougarblight fire blight infection risk model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of practical, but reasonably accurate fire blight infection risk models is considered a critical factor in the management of fire blight. Cougarblight, an empirically designed fire blight infection risk assessment model, was originally developed prior to significant recent advances ...

296

A Long Look at Fire Blight Nikki Rothwell, District Fruit IPM Educator  

E-print Network

1 A Long Look at Fire Blight Nikki Rothwell, District Fruit IPM Educator 2006 As we are entering bloom in apples, growers need to be concerned about fire blight. This disease is particularly hard to control because of a variety of reasons: 1) unlike apple scab, the fire blight bacteria are dispersed

297

The American Chestnut Blight: An Agent of Biological and Cultural Catastrophe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history and habits of the fungus commonly referred to as the "chestnut blight." Considers the impact of the blight and efforts to control it, offers personal and cultural reflections on the blight, and gives tips for incorporating the information into cross-disciplinary lessons. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

Lunsford, Eddie

1999-01-01

298

Chemical and Cultural Approaches to Enhance Host Resistance to Fire Blight: Growth Regulators  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora [(Burrill) Winslow et al.] is one of the most destructive diseases in apple. Infection is initiated in the spring on flowers and with a second stage in late spring and summer termed shoot blight. Vigorous succulent growth favors fire blight inf...

299

Novel demonstration of RNAi in citrus reveals importance of citrus callose synthase in defence against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.  

PubMed

Citrus is an economically important fruit crop that is severely afflicted by citrus canker, a disease caused by the bacterial phytopathogen, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). GenBank houses a large collection of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) enriched with transcripts generated during the defence response against this pathogen; however, there are currently no strategies in citrus to assess the function of candidate genes. This has greatly limited research as defence signalling genes are often involved in multiple pathways. In this study, we demonstrate the efficacy of RNA interference (RNAi) as a functional genomics tool to assess the function of candidate genes involved in the defence response of Citrus limon against the citrus canker pathogen. Double-stranded RNA expression vectors, encoding hairpin RNAs for citrus host genes, were delivered to lemon leaves by transient infiltration with transformed Agrobacterium. As proof of principle, we have established silencing of citrus phytoene desaturase (PDS) and callose synthase (CalS1) genes. Phenotypic and molecular analyses showed that silencing vectors were functional not only in lemon plants but also in other species of the Rutaceae family. Using silencing of CalS1, we have demonstrated that plant cell wall-associated defence is the principal initial barrier against Xanthomonas infection in citrus plants. Additionally, we present here results that suggest that H?O? accumulation, which is suppressed by xanthan from Xcc during pathogenesis, contributes to inhibition of xanthan-deficient Xcc mutant growth either in wild-type or CalS1-silenced plants. With this work, we have demonstrated that high-throughput reverse genetic analysis is feasible in citrus. PMID:20809929

Enrique, Ramón; Siciliano, Florencia; Favaro, María Alejandra; Gerhardt, Nadia; Roeschlin, Roxana; Rigano, Luciano; Sendin, Lorena; Castagnaro, Atilio; Vojnov, Adrian; Marano, María Rosa

2011-04-01

300

Structural and Physiological Analyses of the Alkanesulphonate-Binding Protein (SsuA) of the Citrus Pathogen Xanthomonas citri  

PubMed Central

Background The uptake of sulphur-containing compounds plays a pivotal role in the physiology of bacteria that live in aerobic soils where organosulfur compounds such as sulphonates and sulphate esters represent more than 95% of the available sulphur. Until now, no information has been available on the uptake of sulphonates by bacterial plant pathogens, particularly those of the Xanthomonas genus, which encompasses several pathogenic species. In the present study, we characterised the alkanesulphonate uptake system (Ssu) of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri 306 strain (X. citri), the etiological agent of citrus canker. Methodology/Principal Findings A single operon-like gene cluster (ssuEDACB) that encodes both the sulphur uptake system and enzymes involved in desulphurisation was detected in the genomes of X. citri and of the closely related species. We characterised X. citri SsuA protein, a periplasmic alkanesulphonate-binding protein that, together with SsuC and SsuB, defines the alkanesulphonate uptake system. The crystal structure of SsuA bound to MOPS, MES and HEPES, which is herein described for the first time, provides evidence for the importance of a conserved dipole in sulphate group coordination, identifies specific amino acids interacting with the sulphate group and shows the presence of a rather large binding pocket that explains the rather wide range of molecules recognised by the protein. Isolation of an isogenic ssuA-knockout derivative of the X. citri 306 strain showed that disruption of alkanesulphonate uptake affects both xanthan gum production and generation of canker lesions in sweet orange leaves. Conclusions/Significance The present study unravels unique structural and functional features of the X. citri SsuA protein and provides the first experimental evidence that an ABC uptake system affects the virulence of this phytopathogen. PMID:24282519

Tófoli de Araújo, Fabiano; Bolanos-Garcia, Victor M.; Pereira, Cristiane T.; Sanches, Mario; Oshiro, Elisa E.; Ferreira, Rita C. C.; Chigardze, Dimitri Y.; Barbosa, João Alexandre Gonçalves; de Souza Ferreira, Luís Carlos; Benedetti, Celso E.; Blundell, Tom L.; Balan, Andrea

2013-01-01

301

A MLVA Genotyping Scheme for Global Surveillance of the Citrus Pathogen Xanthomonas citri pv. citri Suggests a Worldwide Geographical Expansion of a Single Genetic Lineage  

PubMed Central

MultiLocus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) has been extensively used to examine epidemiological and evolutionary issues on monomorphic human pathogenic bacteria, but not on bacterial plant pathogens of agricultural importance albeit such tools would improve our understanding of their epidemiology, as well as of the history of epidemics on a global scale. Xanthomonas citri pv. citri is a quarantine organism in several countries and a major threat for the citrus industry worldwide. We screened the genomes of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri strain IAPAR 306 and of phylogenetically related xanthomonads for tandem repeats. From these in silico data, an optimized MLVA scheme was developed to assess the global diversity of this monomorphic bacterium. Thirty-one minisatellite loci (MLVA-31) were selected to assess the genetic structure of 129 strains representative of the worldwide pathological and genetic diversity of X. citri pv. citri. Based on Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC), four pathotype-specific clusters were defined. DAPC cluster 1 comprised strains that were implicated in the major geographical expansion of X. citri pv. citri during the 20th century. A subset of 12 loci (MLVA-12) resolved 89% of the total diversity and matched the genetic structure revealed by MLVA-31. MLVA-12 is proposed for routine epidemiological identification of X. citri pv. citri, whereas MLVA-31 is proposed for phylogenetic and population genetics studies. MLVA-31 represents an opportunity for international X. citri pv. citri genotyping and data sharing. The MLVA-31 data generated in this study was deposited in the Xanthomonas citri genotyping database (http://www.biopred.net/MLVA/). PMID:24897119

Boyer, Karine; Leduc, Alice; Tourterel, Christophe; Drevet, Christine; Ravigné, Virginie; Gagnevin, Lionel; Guérin, Fabien; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Koebnik, Ralf; Verdier, Valérie; Vernière, Christian

2014-01-01

302

Implications of pathogenesis by Erwinia amylovora on rosaceous stigmas to biological control of fire blight.  

PubMed

As a prerequisite to infection of flowers, Erwinia amylovora grows epiphytically on stigmas, which provide a conducive habitat for bacterial growth. Stigmas also support growth of several other bacterial genera, which allows for biological control of fire blight; although, in practice, it is very difficult to exclude E. amylovora completely from this habitat. We investigated the dynamics of growth suppression of E. amylovora by comparing the ability of virulent and avirulent strains of E. amylovora to compete with each other on stigmas of pear, apple, and blackberry, and to compete with a co-inoculated mixture of effective bacterial antagonists. When strains were inoculated individually, virulent E. amylovora strain Ea153N attained the highest population size on stigmas, with population sizes that were approximately double those of an avirulent hrpL mutant of Ea153 or the bacterial antagonists. In competition experiments, growth of the avirulent derivative was suppressed by the antagonist mixture to a greater extent than the virulent strain. Unexpectedly, the virulent strain enhanced the population size of the antagonist mixture. Similarly, a small dose of virulent Ea153N added to inoculum of an avirulent hrpL mutant of Ea153 significantly increased the population size of the avirulent strain. A pathogenesis-gene reporter strain, Ea153 dspE::gfp, was applied to flowers and a subset of the population expressed the green fluorescent protein while growing epiphytically on stigmas of apple. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that virulent E. amylovora modifies the epiphytic habitat presented by the stigma through a pathogenesis-related process, which increases host resources available to itself and, coincidentally, to nonpathogenic competitors. Over nine orchard trials, avirulent Ea153 hrpL significantly suppressed the incidence of fire blight four times compared with six for the antagonist mixture. The degree of biological control achievable with an avirulent strain of E. amylovora likely is limited by its inability to utilize the stigmatic habitat to the same degree as a virulent strain. PMID:19159304

Johnson, K B; Sawyer, T L; Stockwell, V O; Temple, T N

2009-02-01

303

Intra- and Intergeneric Similarities of Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid Cistrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hybridized 23s 2- 14C-labeled ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNAs) from type strains Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, Pseudomonas acidovorans ATCC 15668, Pseudomonas solanacearum NCPPB 325, and Xanthomonas campestris NCPPB 528 with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) from 65 Pseudomo- nus strains, 23 Xanthomonas strains, and 148 mostly gram-negative strains belonging to 43 genera and 93 species and subspecies including more than 60 type

P. DE VOS; J. DE LEY

1983-01-01

304

Nanotechnology in Plant Disease Management: DNA-Directed Silver Nanoparticles on Graphene Oxide as an Antibacterial Against Xanthomonas Perforans  

PubMed Central

Bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas perforans is a major disease of tomatoes, leading to reduction in production by 10–50%. While copper (Cu)-based bactericides have been used for disease management, most of the X. perforans strains isolated from tomatoes in Florida and other locations worldwide are Cu-resistant. We have developed DNA-directed silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) grown on graphene oxide (GO). These Ag@dsDNA@GO composites effectively decrease X. perforans cell viability in culture and on plants. At the very low concentration of 16 ppm of Ag@dsDNA@GO, composites show excellent antibacterial capability in culture with significant advantages in improved stability, enhanced antibacterial activity and stronger adsorption properties. Application of Ag@dsDNA@GO at 100 ppm on tomato transplants in a greenhouse experiment significantly reduced the severity of bacterial spot disease compared to untreated plants, giving results similar to those of the current grower standard treatment, with no phytotoxicity. PMID:24016217

Ocsoy, Ismail; Paret, Mathews L.; Ocsoy, Muserref Arslan; Kunwar, Sanju; Chen, Tao; You, Mingxu; Tan, Weihong

2013-01-01

305

An adenosine kinase exists in Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris and is involved in extracellular polysaccharide production, cell motility, and virulence.  

PubMed

Adenosine kinase (ADK) is a purine salvage enzyme and a typical housekeeping enzyme in eukaryotes which catalyzes the phosphorylation of adenosine to form AMP. Since prokaryotes synthesize purines de novo and no endogenous ADK activity is detectable in Escherichia coli, ADK has long been considered to be rare in bacteria. To date, only two prokaryotes, both of which are gram-positive bacteria, have been reported to contain ADK. Here we report that the gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris, the causal agent of black rot of crucifers, possesses a gene (designated adk(Xcc)) encoding an ADK (named ADK(Xcc)), and we demonstrate genetically that the ADK(Xcc) is involved in extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, cell motility, and pathogenicity of X. campestris pv. campestris. adk(Xcc) was overexpressed as a His(6)-tagged protein in E. coli, and the purified His(6)-tagged protein exhibited ADK activity. Mutation of adk(Xcc) did not affect bacterial growth in rich and minimal media but led to an accumulation of intracellular adenosine and diminutions of intracellular ADK activity and ATP level, as well as EPS. The adk(Xcc) mutant displayed significant reductions in bacterial growth and virulence in the host plant. PMID:19329636

Lu, Guang-Tao; Tang, Yong-Qin; Li, Cai-Yue; Li, Rui-Fang; An, Shi-Qi; Feng, Jia-Xun; He, Yong-Qiang; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Dong-Jie; Tang, Ji-Liang

2009-06-01

306

Sugarcane glycoproteins may act as signals for the production of xanthan in the plant-associated bacterium Xanthomonas albilineans  

PubMed Central

Visual symptoms of leaf scald necrosis in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) leaves develop in parallel to the accumulation of a fibrous material invading exocellular spaces and both xylem and phloem. These fibers are produced and secreted by the plant-associated bacterium Xanthomonas albilineans. Electron microscopy and specific staining methods for polysaccharides reveal the polysaccharidic nature of this material. These polysaccharides are not present in healthy leaves or in those from diseased plants without visual symptoms of leaf scald. Bacteria in several leaf tissues have been detected by immunogold labeling. The bacterial polysaccharide is not produced in axenic culture but it is actively synthesized when the microbes invade the host plant. This finding may be due to the production of plant glycoproteins, after bacteria infection which inhibit microbial proteases. In summary, our data are consistent with the existence of a positive feedback loop in which plant-produced glycoproteins act as a cell-to-bacteria signal that promotes xanthan production, by protecting some enzymes of xanthan biosynthesis against from bacterial proteolytic degradation. PMID:21791980

Legaz, María-Estrella; Blanch, María; Piñón, Dolores; Santiago, Rocío; Fontaniella, Blanca; Blanco, Yolanda; Solas, María-Teresa

2011-01-01

307

Identification of Genes Induced in Lolium multiflorum by Bacterial Wilt Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis(Xtg) causes bacterial wilt in many forage grasses including Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam), seriously reducing yield and quality. Breeding for resistance is currently the only practicable means of disease control.\\u000a Molecular markers closely linked to resistance genes or QTL could complement and support phenotypic selection. We used comparative\\u000a gene expression analysis of a partially resistant L.

Fabienne Wichmann; Torben Asp; Franco Widmer; Roland Kölliker

308

Genetic mapping of novel symptom in response to soybean bacterial leaf pustule in PI 96188  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean bacterial leaf pustule (BLP) is a serious disease caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines. Typical symptoms of BLP are pustules surrounded by small yellow haloes. Interestingly, PI 96188 only exhibits pustules without\\u000a chlorotic haloes which suggests a resistant response. The objectives of this study are to understand the inheritance mode\\u000a of the novel symptom to BLP in PI 96188

Kil Hyun Kim; Jong-Ho Park; Moon Young Kim; Sunggi Heu; Suk-Ha Lee

2011-01-01

309

The filamentous phage XacF1 causes loss of virulence in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the causative agent of citrus canker disease.  

PubMed

In this study, filamentous phage XacF1, which can infect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) strains, was isolated and characterized. Electron microscopy showed that XacF1 is a member of the family Inoviridae and is about 600 nm long. The genome of XacF1 is 7325 nucleotides in size, containing 13 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), some of which showed significant homology to Ff-like phage proteins such as ORF1 (pII), ORF2 (pV), ORF6 (pIII), and ORF8 (pVI). XacF1 showed a relatively wide host range, infecting seven out of 11 strains tested in this study. Frequently, XacF1 was found to be integrated into the genome of Xac strains. This integration occurred at the host dif site (attB) and was mediated by the host XerC/D recombination system. The attP sequence was identical to that of Xanthomonas phage Cf1c. Interestingly, infection by XacF1 phage caused several physiological changes to the bacterial host cells, including lower levels of extracellular polysaccharide production, reduced motility, slower growth rate, and a dramatic reduction in virulence. In particular, the reduction in virulence suggested possible utilization of XacF1 as a biological control agent against citrus canker disease. PMID:25071734

Ahmad, Abdelmonim Ali; Askora, Ahmed; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

2014-01-01

310

The filamentous phage XacF1 causes loss of virulence in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the causative agent of citrus canker disease  

PubMed Central

In this study, filamentous phage XacF1, which can infect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) strains, was isolated and characterized. Electron microscopy showed that XacF1 is a member of the family Inoviridae and is about 600 nm long. The genome of XacF1 is 7325 nucleotides in size, containing 13 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), some of which showed significant homology to Ff-like phage proteins such as ORF1 (pII), ORF2 (pV), ORF6 (pIII), and ORF8 (pVI). XacF1 showed a relatively wide host range, infecting seven out of 11 strains tested in this study. Frequently, XacF1 was found to be integrated into the genome of Xac strains. This integration occurred at the host dif site (attB) and was mediated by the host XerC/D recombination system. The attP sequence was identical to that of Xanthomonas phage Cf1c. Interestingly, infection by XacF1 phage caused several physiological changes to the bacterial host cells, including lower levels of extracellular polysaccharide production, reduced motility, slower growth rate, and a dramatic reduction in virulence. In particular, the reduction in virulence suggested possible utilization of XacF1 as a biological control agent against citrus canker disease. PMID:25071734

Ahmad, Abdelmonim Ali; Askora, Ahmed; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

2014-01-01

311

Phosphate regulated proteins of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri: a proteomic approach.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) is the causative agent of the citrus canker, a disease that affects several citrus plants in Brazil and across the world. Although many studies have demonstrated the importance of genes for infection and pathogenesis in this bacterium, there are no data related to phosphate uptake and assimilation pathways. To identify the proteins that are involved in the phosphate response, we performed a proteomic analysis of X. citri extracts after growth in three culture media with different phosphate concentrations. Using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis, we showed that X. citri conserved orthologous genes from Pho regulon in Escherichia coli, including the two-component system PhoR/PhoB, ATP binding cassette (ABC transporter) Pst for phosphate uptake, and the alkaline phosphatase PhoA. Analysis performed under phosphate starvation provided evidence of the relevance of the Pst system for phosphate uptake, as well as both periplasmic binding proteins, PhoX and PstS, which were formed in high abundance. The results from this study are the first evidence of the Pho regulon activation in X. citri and bring new insights for studies related to the bacterial metabolism and physiology. Biological significance Using proteomics and bioinformatics analysis we showed for the first time that the phytopathogenic bacterium X. citri conserves a set of proteins that belong to the Pho regulon, which are induced during phosphate starvation. The most relevant in terms of conservation and up-regulation were the periplasmic-binding proteins PstS and PhoX from the ABC transporter PstSBAC for phosphate, the two-component system composed by PhoR/PhoB and the alkaline phosphatase PhoA. PMID:24846853

Pegos, Vanessa Rodrigues; Nascimento, Jéssica Faria; Sobreira, Tiago José Paschoal; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Paes-Leme, Adriana; Balan, Andrea

2014-08-28

312

Aconitase B Is Required for Optimal Growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in Pepper Plants  

PubMed Central

The aerobic plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) colonizes the intercellular spaces of pepper and tomato. One enzyme that might contribute to the successful proliferation of Xcv in the host is the iron-sulfur protein aconitase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and might also sense reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changes in cellular iron levels. Xcv contains three putative aconitases, two of which, acnA and acnB, are encoded by a single chromosomal locus. The focus of this study is aconitase B (AcnB). acnB is co-transcribed with two genes, XCV1925 and XCV1926, encoding putative nucleic acid-binding proteins. In vitro growth of acnB mutants was like wild type, whereas in planta growth and symptom formation in pepper plants were impaired. While acnA, XCV1925 or XCV1926 mutants showed a wild-type phenotype with respect to bacterial growth and in planta symptom formation, proliferation of the acnB mutant in susceptible pepper plants was significantly impaired. Furthermore, the deletion of acnB led to reduced HR induction in resistant pepper plants and an increased susceptibility to the superoxide-generating compound menadione. As AcnB complemented the growth deficiency of an Escherichia coli aconitase mutant, it is likely to be an active aconitase. We therefore propose that optimal growth and survival of Xcv in pepper plants depends on AcnB, which might be required for the utilization of citrate as carbon source and could also help protect the bacterium against oxidative stress. PMID:22493725

Kirchberg, Janine; Büttner, Daniela; Thiemer, Barbara; Sawers, R. Gary

2012-01-01

313

Molecular mechanisms associated with xylan degradation by Xanthomonas plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas pathogens attack a variety of economically relevant plants, and their xylan CUT system (carbohydrate utilization with TonB-dependent outer membrane transporter system) contains two major xylanase-related genes, xynA and xynB, which influence biofilm formation and virulence by molecular mechanisms that are still elusive. Herein, we demonstrated that XynA is a rare reducing end xylose-releasing exo-oligoxylanase and not an endo-?-1,4-xylanase as predicted. Structural analysis revealed that an insertion in the ?7-?7 loop induces dimerization and promotes a physical barrier at the +2 subsite conferring this unique mode of action within the GH10 family. A single mutation that impaired dimerization became XynA active against xylan, and high endolytic activity was achieved when this loop was tailored to match a canonical sequence of endo-?-1,4-xylanases, supporting our mechanistic model. On the other hand, the divergent XynB proved to be a classical endo-?-1,4-xylanase, despite the low sequence similarity to characterized GH10 xylanases. Interestingly, this enzyme contains a calcium ion bound nearby to the glycone-binding region, which is required for catalytic activity and structural stability. These results shed light on the molecular basis for xylan degradation by Xanthomonas and suggest how these enzymes synergistically assist infection and pathogenesis. Our findings indicate that XynB contributes to breach the plant cell wall barrier, providing nutrients and facilitating the translocation of effector molecules, whereas the exo-oligoxylanase XynA possibly participates in the suppression of oligosaccharide-induced immune responses. PMID:25266726

Santos, Camila Ramos; Hoffmam, Zaira Bruna; de Matos Martins, Vanesa Peixoto; Zanphorlin, Leticia Maria; de Paula Assis, Leandro Henrique; Honorato, Rodrigo Vargas; Lopes de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio; Ruller, Roberto; Murakami, Mario Tyago

2014-11-14

314

Identification of bacterial guanylate cyclases.  

PubMed

The ability of bacteria to use cGMP as a second messenger has been controversial for decades. Recently, nucleotide cyclases from Rhodospirillum centenum, GcyA, and Xanthomonas campestris, GuaX, have been shown to possess guanylate cyclase activities. Enzymatic activities of these guanylate cyclases measured in vitro were low, which makes interpretation of the assays ambiguous. Protein sequence analysis at present is insufficient to distinguish between bacterial adenylate and guanylate cyclases, both of which belong to nucleotide cyclases of type III. We developed a simple method for discriminating between guanylate and adenylate cyclase activities in a physiologically relevant bacterial system. The method relies on the use of a mutant cAMP receptor protein, CRPG , constructed here. While wild-type CRP is activated exclusively by cAMP, CRPG can be activated by either cAMP or cGMP. Using CRP- and CRPG -dependent lacZ expression in two E. coli strains, we verified that R. centenum GcyA and X. campestris GuaX have primarily guanylate cyclase activities. Among two other bacterial nucleotide cyclases tested, one, GuaA from Azospillrillum sp. B510, proved to have guanylate cyclase activity, while the other one, Bradyrhizobium japonicum CyaA, turned out to function as an adenylate cyclase. The results obtained with this reporter system were in excellent agreement with direct measurements of cyclic nucleotides secreted by E. coli expressing nucleotide cyclase genes. The simple genetic screen developed here is expected to facilitate identification of bacterial guanylate cyclases and engineering of guanylate cyclases with desired properties. Proteins 2015; 83:799-804. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25645367

Ryu, Min-Hyung; Youn, Hwan; Kang, In-Hye; Gomelsky, Mark

2015-05-01

315

INHERITANCE OF FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT RESISTANCE IN ABURA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abura (PI 385140), a spring wheat line originating from Brazil, was selected for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance from the USDA wheat collection. In experiments of single floret inoculation, infection on Abura was mostly restricted to the inoculated spikelet. To investigate the inheritance of F...

316

A ROLE FOR ASCOSPORES IN WHEAT HEAD BLIGHT EPIDEMICS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Ascomycete Gibberella zeae (asexual state Fusarium graminearum) causes serious epidemics of wheat head blight worldwide and contaminates grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that are harmful to human and animal health. Anecdotal evidence dating back to the 19th century indicates that G. zeae asc...

317

Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Antagonists and Oxytetracycline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora arose. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory activity of o...

318

Resistance to ascochyta blights of cool season food legumes.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ascochyta blight is the most important disease problem of the cool season food legumes (peas, lentils, chickpeas, and faba beans) and is found in nearly all production regions around the world. Despite of the same common disease name, the pathogen species differ for each of the crops. These disease...

319

Late Blight Resistance of RB Transgenic Potato Lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Late blight of potato, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease effecting tuber yield and storage. Recent work has isolated a resistance gene, RB, from the wild species Solanum bulbocastanum. Field evaluations with a RB containing somatic hybrid have reported significant levels of ...

320

Flower biology and biologically-based integrated fire blight management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight infection is generally initiated in flowers, and thus, research has been directed to the biology and microbial ecology of flowers as related to this disease. In addition to investigations involving apple and pear flowers, Manchurian crab apple (Malus manchurica), closely related to appl...

321

Management of gummy stem blight of cantaloupe in south Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas (LRGV), Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) Rehm commonly causes lesions in the crown and foliage of cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) but only occasionally on fruit. In Spring-1997, a severe gummy stem blight (GSB) epidemic occurred resulting in numerous corky-brown les...

322

MICROCLIMATE AND POTENTIAL FOR LATE BLIGHT DEVELOPMENT IN IRRIGATED POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Application of irrigation water can improve potato growth and tuber yield during periods of deficit rainfall. A variety of water application techniques exists; however, little is known of their relative impacts on potato late blight potential. The effects of sprinkler, sub-surface drip, and surface ...

323

Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Antagonists and Oxytetracycline  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the Northwest United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of the pathogen arose. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the durability of inhibitory activity of oxytetracycline is ...

324

FIRST REPORT OF CITRUS BLIGHT IN COSTA RICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Citrus blight (CB), causing a chronic decline of citrus, has been an important disease in Florida for over 100 years. CB was first reported in Brazil in the 1980s and is now responsible for the removal of nearly 10% of the trees from production annually. No causal agent has been identified, but CB h...

325

Fire blight: applied genomic insights of the pathogen and host  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The enterobacterial phytopathogen, Erwinia amylovora, causes fire blight, an invasive disease that threatens a wide range of commercial and ornamental Rosaceae host plants. The response elicited by E. amylovora in its host during disease development is similar to the hypersensitive reaction that ty...

326

Budagovsky 9 rootstock: uncovering a novel resistance to fire blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Budagovsky 9 (B.9) apple rootstock, displayed a high level of susceptibility (similar to M.9 rootstock) to fire blight bacteria (Erwinia amylovora) when leaves of non-grafted B.9 plants were inoculated. However, when older B.9 rootstock tissue was inoculated directly with E. amylovora, rootstock tis...

327

TEMPORAL RESPONSE OF APPLE (MALUS) TO FIRE BLIGHT DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear, and other plants in the subfamily Maloideae of the Rosaceae. The goal of this study was to use a global analysis of gene expression to characterize the temporal response of apple to infection by E. amyl...

328

Fusarium seed stalk blight and rot in sugar beet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium can cause damage to seed stalks that can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. Fusarium oxysporum has been the reported cause of seed stalk blight, which is characterized by vascular discoloration. We sampled diseased seed stalks and examined isolates for their pathogenicity...

329

Transgenic resistance to Fusarium head blight in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) and its mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) have been a major problem in the primary malting barley growing regions in North America since 1993. Resistance to FHB and DON accumulation in barley is quantitative, with no immunity available in the primary or secondary gene pools. ...

330

Field Susceptibility of Quince Hybrids to Fire Blight in Bulgaria  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spread of fire blight in Bulgaria during the last 20 years has nearly eliminated commercial production of pear and quince. Damage has increased in both nurseries and orchards, yet susceptible cultivars continue to be planted. Quince is the host most frequently attacked by Erwinia amylovora in Bulgar...

331

Purdue extensionNorthern Corn Leaf Blight Purdue extension  

E-print Network

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), caused by the fungus Exserohilum turcicum, is an increasingly important fungal spores when humidity is high, which can give the lesions a dark or dirty appearance. The spores. There are several genetic types (or races) of the Exserohilum turcicum fungus. Hybrids with partial resistance

Holland, Jeffrey

332

Purdue extensionFusarium Head Blight (Head Scab) Purdue extension  

E-print Network

, the fungus resumes growth on the corn residue and produces spores. High humidity and frequent rainfall.btny.purdue.edu In Indiana, Fusarium head blight of wheat (FHB), also called head scab, is caused mainly by the fungus disease development 3. Mycotoxins produced by the fungus 4. Proper handling of diseased grain 5. How

333

Sheath-blight resistance QTLs and in japonica rice germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheath blight (SB), caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most serious diseases of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) and genetic resistance is in demand by rice breeders. With the goal of resistance-QTL discovery in U. S. japonica breeding material, a set of 197 F1 doubled-haploid lines (DHLs)...

334

Brassica cover cropping for management of sheath blight of rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is the most important disease limiting rice production in Texas and other rice-producing states. The fungal pathogen survives between crops as soilborne sclerotia and mycelium in infected plant debris. These sclerotia and colonized plant debris float on t...

335

Volume 9, Part 2, May 1995 LATE BLIGHT (PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS)  

E-print Network

in Ireland during the last century caused both the potato famine of 1846-49 and the establishment ofplant decimates potato crops during wet summers, despite significant advances in disease prediction, crop cultivars. Although' late blight has traditionally been associated with potatoes, in tropical climates

Griffith, Gareth

336

Plant Disease Lesson: Fire blight of apple and pear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Fire blight of apple and pear (caused by Erwinia amylovora) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Kenneth B. Johnson, (Oregon State University; )

2000-07-26

337

Plant Disease Lesson: Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab (caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum (anamorph) Gibberella zeae (teleomorph)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David G. Schmale III (Cornell University; )

2003-06-12

338

Previous reports of bacterial diseases on crucifers attributed to Pseuomonas syringae pv. maculicola were caused by P. cannabina pv. alisalensis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis (Pca) causes bacterial blight on crucifers, which can reduce crucifer yields and result in economic losses in the US. Prior to the late 1990s Pca was not distinguished from the pepper spot pathogen of crucifers, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm), althoug...

339

Modifications of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Lipopolysaccharide Affect the Basal Response and the Virulence Process during Citrus Canker  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the phytopathogen responsible for citrus canker, one of the most devastating citrus diseases in the world. A broad range of pathogens is recognized by plants through so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are highly conserved fragments of pathogenic molecules. In plant pathogenic bacteria, lipopolisaccharyde (LPS) is considered a virulence factor and it is being recognized as a PAMP. The study of the participation of Xac LPS in citrus canker establishment could help to understand the molecular bases of this disease. In the present work we investigated the role of Xac LPS in bacterial virulence and in basal defense during the interaction with host and non host plants. We analyzed physiological features of Xac mutants in LPS biosynthesis genes (wzt and rfb303) and the effect of these mutations on the interaction with orange and tobacco plants. Xac mutants showed an increased sensitivity to external stresses and differences in bacterial motilities, in vivo and in vitro adhesion and biofilm formation. Changes in the expression levels of the LPS biosynthesis genes were observed in a medium that mimics the plant environment. Xacwzt exhibited reduced virulence in host plants compared to Xac wild-type and Xacrfb303. However, both mutant strains produced a lower increase in the expression levels of host plant defense-related genes respect to the parental strain. In addition, Xac LPS mutants were not able to generate HR during the incompatible interaction with tobacco plants. Our findings indicate that the structural modifications of Xac LPS impinge on other physiological attributes and lead to a reduction in bacterial virulence. On the other hand, Xac LPS has a role in the activation of basal defense in host and non host plants. PMID:22792211

Petrocelli, Silvana; Tondo, María Laura; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Orellano, Elena G.

2012-01-01

340

Pressate from peat dewatering as a substrate for bacterial growth. [Rhizopus arrhizus; Xanthomonas campestris; Aureobasidium  

SciTech Connect

This study considered the possibility of using water expressed during the drying of fuel-grade peat as a substrate for microbial growth. Highly humified peat pressed for 2.5 min at 1.96 MPa produced water with a chemical oxygen demand of 690 mg/liter. Several biological compounds could be produced by using the organic matter inexpressed peat water as a substrate. These included polymers such as chitosan, contained in the cell wall of Rhizopus arrhizus, and two extracellular polysaccharides, xanthan gum and pullulan, produced by Bacillus subtilis grown in the expressed water. Small additions of nutrients to the peat pressate were necessary to obtain substantial yields of products. The addition of peptone, yeast extract, and glucose improved production of the various compounds. Biological treatment improved the quality of the expressed water to the extent that in an industrial process it could be returned to the environment.

Mulligan, C.N.; Cooper, D.G.

1985-07-01

341

Bacterial Sialidase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

2004-01-01

342

Systematic analysis of xanthomonads (Xanthomonas spp.) associated with pepper and tomato lesions.  

PubMed

The taxonomy and evolutionary relationships among members of the genus Xanthomonas associated with tomato and pepper have been a matter of considerable controversy since their original description in 1921. These bacteria, which are a major affliction of tomato and pepper crops in warm and humid regions, were originally described as a single species, but subsequent research has shown the existence of at least two genetic groups differentiated by physiological, biochemical and pathological characteristics. This work synthesizes the findings from several approaches, including pathogenicity tests, enzymic activity, restriction fragment analysis of the entire genome, DNA-DNA hybridization and RNA sequence comparisons based on a 2097 base sequence comprising the 16S rRNA gene, the intergenic spacer located between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes and a small region of the 23S rRNA gene. Within the group of xanthomonads pathogenic on pepper and tomato four distinct phenotypic groups exist, of which three form distinct genomic species. These include Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (A and C group), Xanthomonas vesicatoria (B group) and Xanthomonas gardneri (D group). On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic differences between A- and C-group strains, the C strains should be considered as a subspecies within Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria. PMID:10843065

Jones, J B; Bouzar, H; Stall, R E; Almira, E C; Roberts, P D; Bowen, B W; Sudberry, J; Strickler, P M; Chun, J

2000-05-01

343

The LOV Protein of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Plays a Significant Role in the Counteraction of Plant Immune Responses during Citrus Canker  

PubMed Central

Pathogens interaction with a host plant starts a set of immune responses that result in complex changes in gene expression and plant physiology. Light is an important modulator of plant defense response and recent studies have evidenced the novel influence of this environmental stimulus in the virulence of several bacterial pathogens. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the bacterium responsible for citrus canker disease, which affects most citrus cultivars. The ability of this bacterium to colonize host plants is influenced by bacterial blue-light sensing through a LOV-domain protein and disease symptoms are considerably altered upon deletion of this protein. In this work we aimed to unravel the role of this photoreceptor during the bacterial counteraction of plant immune responses leading to citrus canker development. We performed a transcriptomic analysis in Citrus sinensis leaves inoculated with the wild type X. citri subsp. citri and with a mutant strain lacking the LOV protein by a cDNA microarray and evaluated the differentially regulated genes corresponding to specific biological processes. A down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes (together with a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis rates) was observed upon bacterial infection, this effect being more pronounced in plants infected with the lov-mutant bacterial strain. Infection with this strain was also accompanied with the up-regulation of several secondary metabolism- and defense response-related genes. Moreover, we found that relevant plant physiological alterations triggered by pathogen attack such as cell wall fortification and tissue disruption were amplified during the lov-mutant strain infection. These results suggest the participation of the LOV-domain protein from X. citri subsp. citri in the bacterial counteraction of host plant defense response, contributing in this way to disease development. PMID:24260514

Kraiselburd, Ivana; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Tondo, María Laura; Merelo, Paz; Cortadi, Adriana A.; Talón, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Orellano, Elena G.

2013-01-01

344

Effector genes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria promote transmission and enhance other fitness traits in the field.  

PubMed Central

Establishing durable disease resistance in agricultural crops, where much of the plant defense is provided through effector-R gene interactions, is complicated by the ability of pathogens to overcome R gene resistance by losing the corresponding effector gene. Many proposed methods to maintain disease resistance in the field depend on the idea that effector gene loss results in a fitness cost to the pathogen. In this article we test for fitness costs of effector gene function loss. We created directed knockouts of up to four effector genes from the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria (Xav) and examined the effect of the loss of a functional gene product on several important fitness parameters in the field. These traits included transmission, lesion development, and epiphytic survival. We found that the products of all four effector genes had significant and often additive effects on fitness traits. Additional greenhouse tests revealed costs of effector gene loss on in planta growth and further showed that the effects on lesion development were separable from the effects on growth. Observable fitness effects of the three plasmid-borne effector genes were dependent upon the loss of functional avrBs2, indicating that complex functional interactions exist among effector genes with Xav. PMID:15020460

Wichmann, Gale; Bergelson, Joy

2004-01-01

345

The folate precursor para-aminobenzoic acid elicits induced resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus and Xanthomonas axonopodis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The use of vitamins including vitamin B1, B2 and K3 for the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to protect crops against plant pathogens has been evaluated previously. The use of vitamins is beneficial because it is cost effective and safe for the environment. The use of folate precursors, including ortho-aminobenzoic acid, to induce SAR against a soft-rot pathogen in tobacco has been reported previously. Methods In the present study, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, also referred to as vitamin Bx) was selected owing to its effect on the induction of SAR against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper plants through greenhouse screening. Key Results Dipping of pepper seedlings in a 1 mm PABA solution in field trials induced SAR against artificially infiltrated X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and naturally occurring cucumber mosaic virus. Expression of the Capsicum annuum pathogenesis-related 4 gene was primed in response to pathogen infection as assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. The accumulation of cucumber mosaic virus RNA was reduced in PABA-treated pepper plants at 40 and 105 d post-treatment. Unexpectedly, fruit yield was increased in PABA-treated plants, indicating that PABA-mediated SAR successfully protected pepper plants from infection by bacterial and viral pathogens without significant fitness allocation costs. Conclusions The present study is the first to demonstrate the effective elicitation of SAR by a folate precursor under field conditions. PMID:23471007

Song, Geun Cheol; Choi, Hye Kyung; Ryu, Choong-Min

2013-01-01

346

Foliar application of biofilm formation-inhibiting compounds enhances control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.  

PubMed

Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is an economically important disease of citrus worldwide. Biofilm formation plays an important role in early infection of X. citri subsp. citri on host leaves. In this study, we assessed the hypothesis that small molecules inhibiting biofilm formation reduce X. citri subsp. citri infection and enhance the control of citrus canker disease. D-leucine and 3-indolylacetonitrile (IAN) were found to prevent biofilm formation by X. citri subsp. citri on different abiotic surfaces and host leaves at a concentration lower than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that IAN repressed expression of chemotaxis/motility-related genes in X. citri subsp. citri. In laboratory experiments, planktonic and biofilm cells of X. citri subsp. citri treated with D-leucine and IAN, either alone or in combination, were more susceptible to copper (CuSO4) than those untreated. In greenhouse assays, D-leucine and IAN applied alone or combined with copper reduced both the number of canker lesions and bacterial populations of X. citri subsp. citri on citrus host leaves. This study provides the basis for the use of foliar-applied biofilm inhibitors for the control of citrus canker alone or combined with copper-based bactericides. PMID:23901828

Li, Jinyun; Wang, Nian

2014-02-01

347

Genetic Diversity among Xanthomonas campestris Strains Pathogenic for Small Grains  

PubMed Central

A collection of 51 Xanthomonas campestris strains from throughout the world was studied to detect and assess genetic diversity among pathogens of small grains. Isolates from barley, bread wheat, bromegrass, canary grass, cassava, maize, orchard grass, rice, rough-stalked meadow grass, rye, timothy, and triticale were analyzed by pathogenicity tests on bread wheat cv. Alondra and barley cv. Corona, indirect immunofluorescence, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Three probes were used for the RFLP analysis. They were an acetylaminofluorene-labelled 16S+23S rRNA probe from Escherichia coli and two (sup32)P-labelled restriction fragments from either plasmidic (pBSF2) or chromosomal (pBS8) DNA of X. campestris pv. manihotis. Strains clustered in 9 and 20 groups with the rRNA probe and the pBSF2 DNA probe, respectively. Strains of X. campestris pv. graminis, X. campestris pv. phleipratensis, and X. campestris pv. poae are shown to be related but are also distinguishable by RFLP patterns, serology, and pathogenicity on bread wheat. Strains pathogenic only for barley and not for wheat grouped together. Another group is temporarily designated deviant X. campestris pv. undulosa. These South American isolates from bread wheat did not react by indirect immunofluorescence and produced atypical lesions in pathogenicity tests. The results stress the need to perform pathogenicity tests before strains are named at the pathovar level. The importance of the different probes used for epidemiological studies or phylogenetic studies of closely related strains is underlined. PMID:16534952

Bragard, C.; Verdier, V.; Maraite, H.

1995-01-01

348

Antibacterial Activity of Alkyl Gallates against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a serious disease that affects all the cultivars of citrus in subtropical citrus-producing areas worldwide. There is no curative treatment for citrus canker; thus, the eradication of infected plants constitutes the only effective control of the spread of X. citri subsp. citri. Since the eradication program in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is under threat, there is a clear risk of X. citri subsp. citri becoming endemic in the main orange-producing area in the world. Here we evaluated the potential use of alkyl gallates to prevent X. citri subsp. citri growth. These esters displayed a potent anti-X. citri subsp. citri activity similar to that of kanamycin (positive control), as evaluated by the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA). The treatment of X. citri subsp. citri cells with these compounds induced altered cell morphology, and investigations of the possible intracellular targets using X. citri subsp. citri strains labeled for the septum and centromere pointed to a common target involved in chromosome segregation and cell division. Finally, the artificial inoculation of citrus with X. citri subsp. citri cells pretreated with alkyl gallates showed that the bacterium loses the ability to colonize its host, which indicates the potential of these esters to protect citrus plants against X. citri subsp. citri infection. PMID:23104804

Silva, I. C.; Regasini, L. O.; Petrônio, M. S.; Silva, D. H. S.; Bolzani, V. S.; Belasque, J.; Sacramento, L. V. S.

2013-01-01

349

Antibacterial activity of alkyl gallates against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.  

PubMed

The plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker, a serious disease that affects all the cultivars of citrus in subtropical citrus-producing areas worldwide. There is no curative treatment for citrus canker; thus, the eradication of infected plants constitutes the only effective control of the spread of X. citri subsp. citri. Since the eradication program in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is under threat, there is a clear risk of X. citri subsp. citri becoming endemic in the main orange-producing area in the world. Here we evaluated the potential use of alkyl gallates to prevent X. citri subsp. citri growth. These esters displayed a potent anti-X. citri subsp. citri activity similar to that of kanamycin (positive control), as evaluated by the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA). The treatment of X. citri subsp. citri cells with these compounds induced altered cell morphology, and investigations of the possible intracellular targets using X. citri subsp. citri strains labeled for the septum and centromere pointed to a common target involved in chromosome segregation and cell division. Finally, the artificial inoculation of citrus with X. citri subsp. citri cells pretreated with alkyl gallates showed that the bacterium loses the ability to colonize its host, which indicates the potential of these esters to protect citrus plants against X. citri subsp. citri infection. PMID:23104804

Silva, I C; Regasini, L O; Petrônio, M S; Silva, D H S; Bolzani, V S; Belasque, J; Sacramento, L V S; Ferreira, H

2013-01-01

350

Asymmetric chromosome segregation in Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri.  

PubMed

This study was intended to characterize the chromosome segregation process of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xac) by investigating the functionality of the ParB factor encoded on its chromosome, and its requirement for cell viability and virulence. Using TAP tagging we show that ParB is expressed in Xac. Disruption of parB increased the cell doubling time and precluded the ability of Xac to colonize the host citrus. Moreover, Xac mutant cells expressing only truncated forms of ParB exhibited the classical phenotype of aberrant chromosome organization, and seemed affected in cell division judged by their reduced growth rate and the propensity to form filaments. The ParB-GFP localization pattern in Xac was suggestive of an asymmetric mode of replicon partitioning, which together with the filamentation phenotype support the idea that Xac may control septum placement using mechanisms probably analogous to Caulobacter crescentus, and perhaps Vibrio cholerae, and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Xac exhibits asymmetric chromosome segregation, and the perturbation of this process leads to an inability to colonize the host plant. PMID:24339434

Ucci, Amanda P; Martins, Paula M M; Lau, Ivy F; Bacci, Maurício; Belasque, José; Ferreira, Henrique

2014-02-01

351

Bacterial vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial vaginosis, the most prevalent cause of vaginal discharge in the United States, is characterized microbiologically\\u000a by a shift in the vagina away from a lactobacillus-predominant flora and toward a predominantly anaerobic milieu. The cause\\u000a of bacterial vaginosis is unknown, but the epidemiology of the syndrome suggests that it is sexually associated. Bacterial\\u000a vaginosis has been associated with various complications,

Jane R. Schwebke

2000-01-01

352

KdgR, an IClR Family Transcriptional Regulator, Inhibits Virulence Mainly by Repression of hrp Genes in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae?  

PubMed Central

KdgR has been reported to negatively regulate the genes involved in degradation and metabolization of pectic acid and other extracellular enzymes in soft-rotting Erwinia spp. through direct binding to their promoters. The possible involvement of a KdgR orthologue in virulence by affecting the expression of extracellular enzymes in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of rice blight disease, was examined by comparing virulence and regulation of extracellular enzymes between the wild type (WT) and a strain carrying a mutation in putative kdgR (?Xoo0310 mutant). This putative kdgR mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae showed increased pathogenicity on rice without affecting the regulation of extracellular enzymes, such as amylase, cellulase, xylanase, and protease. However, the mutant carrying a mutation in an ortholog of xpsL, which encodes the functional secretion machinery for the extracellular enzymes, showed a dramatic decrease in pathogenicity on rice. Both mutants of kdgR and of xpsL orthologs showed higher expression of two major hrp regulatory genes, hrpG and hrpX, and the genes in the hrp operons when grown in hrp-inducing medium. Thus, both genes were shown to be involved in repression of hrp genes. The kdgR ortholog was thought to suppress virulence mainly by repressing the expression of hrp genes without affecting the expression of extracellular enzymes, unlike findings for the kdgR gene in soft-rotting Erwinia spp. On the other hand, xpsL was confirmed to be involved in virulence by promoting the secretion of extracellular enzymes in spite of repressing the expression of the hrp genes. PMID:21984784

Lu, Yao; Rashidul, Islam M.; Hirata, Hisae; Tsuyumu, Shinji

2011-01-01

353

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli var. fuscans is aggregated in stable biofilm population sizes in the phyllosphere of field-grown beans.  

PubMed

The occurrence of "Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli var. fuscans" (proposed name) populations as biofilms on bean leaves was investigated during three field experiments on plots established with naturally contaminated bean seeds. Behavior of aggregated versus solitary populations was determined by quantification of culturable cells in different fractions of the epiphytic population separated by particle size. X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli var. fuscans population dynamic studies confirmed an asymptomatic and epiphytic colonization of the bean phyllosphere. For all years of experiment and cultivars tested, biofilms and solitary components of the populations were always detected. Biofilm population sizes remained stable throughout the growing season (around 10(5) CFU/g of fresh weight) while solitary population sizes were more abundant and varied with climate. According to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus fingerprinting, aggregated bacterial isolates were not different from solitary isolates. In controlled conditions, application of a hydric stress resulted in a decrease of the solitary populations on the leaf surface while the biofilm fraction remained stable. Suppression of the hydric stress allowed solitary bacterial populations to increase again. Aggregation in biofilms on leaf surfaces provides protection to the bacterial cells against hydric stress. PMID:15812033

Jacques, M-A; Josi, K; Darrasse, A; Samson, R

2005-04-01

354

Fire blight: applied genomic insights of the pathogen and host.  

PubMed

The enterobacterial phytopathogen Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight, an invasive disease that threatens a wide range of commercial and ornamental Rosaceae host plants. The response elicited by E. amylovora in its host during disease development is similar to the hypersensitive reaction that typically leads to resistance in an incompatible host-pathogen interaction, yet no gene-for-gene resistance has been described for this host-pathogen system. Comparative genomic analysis has found an unprecedented degree of genetic uniformity among strains of E. amylovora, suggesting that the pathogen has undergone a recent genetic bottleneck. The genome of apple, an important host of E. amylovora, has been sequenced, creating new opportunities for the study of interactions between host and pathogen during fire blight development and for the identification of resistance genes. This review includes recent advances in the genomics of both host and pathogen. PMID:22702352

Malnoy, Mickael; Martens, Stefan; Norelli, John L; Barny, Marie-Anne; Sundin, George W; Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion

2012-01-01

355

Sheath-blight resistance QTLS in japonica rice germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheath blight (SB), caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is a serious disease of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) for which genetic resistance is in demand by breeders. With the goal of resistance (SBR)-QTL discovery in U. S. japonica breeding material, 197 doubled-haploid lines from a cross between MCR10277 (resistant) and Cocodrie (susceptible) were evaluated\\u000a in field and greenhouse assays with U.

J. C. Nelson; J. H. Oard; D. Groth; H. S. Utomo; Y. Jia; G. Liu; K. A. K. Moldenhauer; F. J. Correa-Victoria; R. G. Fjellstrom; B. Scheffler; G. A. Prado

356

Control of fusarium head blight of wheat with fungicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat using a fungicides was investigated in two field trials. The first trial\\u000a examined the effects of tebuconazole applied at a range of crop growth stages around flowering, whereas the second trial compared\\u000a nil fungicide, tebuconazole, carbendazim, and azoxystrobin, applied at full ear emergence or mid anthesis. Moderate FHB levels\\u000a were recorded

M. G. Cromey; D. R. Lauren; R. A. Parkes; K. I. Sinclair; S. C. Shorter; A. R. Wallace

2001-01-01

357

Management of ascochyta blight in chickpeas in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascochyta blight has constrained chickpea production in Australia. Therefore, control strategies are required to prevent major\\u000a crop losses. Field experiments in 1998 and 1999 showed that all the chickpea varieties grown commercially in Australia at\\u000a that time were very susceptible to the disease. Fortnightly sprays with the fungicide chlorothalonil could effectively control\\u000a epidemics but the additional cost significantly reduced profitability.

T. W. Bretag; W. J. MacLeod; R. B. E. Kimber; K. J. Moore; E. J. C. Knights; J. A. Davidson

2008-01-01

358

Integrated disease management of ascochyta blight in pulse crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascochyta blight causes significant yield loss in pulse crops worldwide. Integrated disease management is essential to take\\u000a advantage of cultivars with partial resistance to this disease. The most effective practices, established by decades of research,\\u000a use a combination of disease-free seed, destruction or avoidance of inoculum sources, manipulation of sowing dates, seed and\\u000a foliar fungicides, and cultivars with improved resistance.

Jennifer Anne Davidson; Rohan B. E. Kimber

2007-01-01

359

QTL Analysis of Ascochyta Blight Resistance in Chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascochyta blight, caused by Ascochyta rabiei(Pass.) Lab. is a devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) worldwide. Resistant germplasm has been identified and the genetics of resistance has been the subject of numerous studies.\\u000a Besides, microsatellites have become markers of choice for molecular mapping and marker assisted selection of key traits such\\u000a as disease resistance in many crop species. The

A. Taleei; H. Kanouni; M. Baum

360

Simulation Models for Potato Late Blight Management and Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late blight of potato has been one of the most widely studied diseases and particular attention has been given to the mathematical\\u000a description of disease development. Several process based simulation models have been developed and this paper focuses primarily\\u000a on several versions developed at Cornell University, and later through collaboration between that University, the International\\u000a Potato Center and the Volcani

G. A. Forbes; W. E. Fry; J. L. Andrade-Piedra; D. Shtienberg

361

Registration of TARS-MST1 and SB-DT1 multiple-stress tolerant black bean germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High-ambient-temperature stress, drought stress, root rot disease, and common bacterial blight [CBB; caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye] cause widespread yield reductions in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. TARS-MST1 (Reg. No. GP-284, PI 661512) and SB-DT1 (Reg. ...

362

Cotton Disease Research in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tanzania is one of the largest producers of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Africa. The crop is raingrown by smallholders over a large ecologically diverse area with a variety of disease problems. The main diseases are Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Atk.) Sny. & Hans.) and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas malvacearum (E. F. Smith) Dowson). Fusarium wilt is

R. J. Hillocks

1981-01-01

363

Update on Fresh Ways Forward Underexplored Niches in Research on Plant  

E-print Network

, such as Xanthomonas wilt of banana (Musa spp.) and bacterial blight of cassava (Manihot esculenta). A more widespread familiar systems remain poorly understood. We know remarkably little about end-stage disease, latent on high-impact diseases of subsistence crops. Understanding the biology under- lying important practical

364

Sample Category (Multiple Items) Date Submitted Sample # Host Diagnosis/ID Genus Species Sample County  

E-print Network

No Pathogen Found (blank) Hillsborough 1/4/2012 5436 Date Palms Fusarium Wilt Fusarium oxysporum Hillsborough No Pathogen Found (blank) Manatee 1/18/2012 5446 Strawberry Phytoplasma Disease Candidatus Phytoplasma Bacterial Spot Xanthomonas campestris pv. Vesicatoria Hillsborough 1/26/2012 5459 Tomato Late Blight

Jawitz, James W.

365

Resistance to Leaf Scald Disease Is Associated with Limited Colonization of Sugarcane and Wild Relatives by Xanthomonas albilineans.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A streptomycin- and rifampicin-resistant mutant of Xanthomonas al-bilineans was used to study symptom expression of leaf scald disease (LSD) and colonization of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and its wild relatives by this bacterial pathogen. A total of 40 sugarcane cultivars and 15 clones from the Saccharum complex that differed in resistance to LSD were inoculated by a decapitation technique in both field and greenhouse experiments. In the plant crop, disease severity varied between 0 for the most resistant genotypes and 100 for the most susceptible ones. Resistance to LSD was characterized by limited colonization of the host plant by X. albilineans. Although almost all genotypes were colonized by the pathogen, the greatest bacterial population densities were found in the susceptible cultivars. There was a high correlation between disease severity and pathogen population in the apex. Several genotypes exhibited no or slight symptoms even though they were highly colonized in the upper and/or basal nodes of stalks. Two mechanisms, therefore, may play an important role in resistance to LSD: resistance to colonization of the apex, which is characterized by absence of symptoms, and resistance to colonization of the upper and lower parts of the stalk. In contrast, disease severity and pathogen population densities in the first ratoon crop in the field were nil or very low in the stalks, except for the highly susceptible cv. CP68-1026. Sugarcane ratoons, therefore, may recover from the disease after plant cane infection. Nevertheless, because low levels of the pathogen were still detected in some stalks, it is possible that LSD could develop from latent infections if favorable environmental conditions occur. PMID:18945019

Rott, P; Mohamed, I S; Klett, P; Soupa, D; de Saint-Albin, A; Feldmann, P; Letourmy, P

1997-12-01

366

Comparative RNA-Seq Analysis of Early-Infected Peach Leaves by the Invasive Phytopathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is a quarantine bacterial pathogen that threatens peach production by causing necrotic spots on leaves and fruits, thus with the potential of severely reducing yields. The current understanding of the host plant defense responses to the pathogen is very limited. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, differential gene expression was analyzed at two time points, 2 h and 12 h post inoculation (hpi), by comparing the inoculated samples to their respective controls. On the total of 19,781 known peach genes that were expressed in all time points and conditions, 34 and 263 were differentially expressed at 2 and 12 hpi, respectively. Of those, 82% and 40% were up-regulated, respectively; and 18% and 60% were down-regulated, respectively. The functional annotation based on gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes involved in metabolic process and response to stress were particularly represented at 2 hpi whereas at 12 hpi cellular and metabolic processes were the categories with the highest number of genes differentially expressed. Of particular interest among the differentially expressed genes identified were several pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) receptors, disease resistance genes including several RPM1-like and pathogenesis related thaumatin encoding genes. Other genes involved in photosynthesis, in cell wall reorganization, in hormone signaling pathways or encoding cytochrome were also differentially expressed. In addition, novel transcripts were identified, providing another basis for further characterization of plant defense-related genes. Overall, this study gives a first insight of the peach defense mechanisms during the very early stages of infection with a bacterial disease in the case of a compatible interaction. PMID:23342103

Socquet-Juglard, Didier; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F.; Christen, Danilo; Gessler, Cesare; Duffy, Brion; Patocchi, Andrea

2013-01-01

367

Bacterial vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginitis, affecting over 3 million women in the United States annually. Depopulation of lactobacilli from the normal vaginal flora and overgrowth of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic species are the presumed etiology. To date, no scientific evidence shows that bacterial vaginosis is a sexually transmitted disease. Malodorous vaginal discharge is the most

Jeff Wang

2000-01-01

368

A Statistical Comparison of the Blossom Blight Forecasts of MARYBLYT and Cougarblight with Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blossom blight forecasting is an important aspect of fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, management for both apple and pear. A comparison of the forecast accuracy of two common fire blight forecasters, MARYBLYT and Cougarblight, was performed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve ...

369

Introduction Fire blight, caused by a bacterium, is found almost every year to some extent in New Hampshire and in  

E-print Network

Introduction Fire blight, caused by a bacterium, is found almost every year to some extent in New of blossoms and fruit along with the destruction of scaffold limbs make fire blight one of the most destructive of all apple and pear diseases. Description Fire blight is most damaging during warm (700 F

New Hampshire, University of

370

Xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris using whey permeate medium.  

PubMed

Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide that is widely used as stabilizer and thickener with many industrial applications in food industry. Our aim was to estimate the ability of Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 for the production of xanthan gum by using whey as a growth medium, a by-product of dairy industry. X. campestris ATCC 13951 has been studied in batch cultures using a complex medium for the determination of the optimal concentration of glucose, galactose and lactose. In addition, whey was used under various treatment procedures (de-proteinated, partially hydrolyzed by ?-lactamase and partially hydrolyzed and de-proteinated) as culture medium, to study the production of xanthan in a 2 l bioreactor with constant stirring and aeration. A production of 28 g/l was obtained when partially hydrolysed ?-lactamase was used, which proved to be one of the highest xanthan gum production reported so far. At the same time, an effort has been made for the control and selection of the most appropriate procedure for the preservation of the strain and its use as inoculant in batch cultures, without loss of its viability and its capability of xanthan gum production. The pre-treatment of whey (whey permeate medium hydrolyzed, WPH) was very important for the production of xanthan by the strain X. campestris ATCC 13951 during batch culture conditions in a 2 l bioreactor. Preservation methods such as lyophilization, cryopreservation at various glycerol solution and temperatures have been examined. The results indicated that the best preservation method for the producing strain X. campestris ATCC 13951 was the lyophilization. Taking into account that whey permeate is a low cost by-product of the dairy industry, the production of xanthan achieved under the studied conditions was considered very promising for industrial application. PMID:22806202

Savvides, A L; Katsifas, E A; Hatzinikolaou, D G; Karagouni, A D

2012-08-01

371

Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight disease of apple.  

PubMed

Microencapsulation and controlled release of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), an antagonist to the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora that causes fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 ?m in diameter, were fabricated to encapsulate E325 within the core, along with nutrients, to preserve viability and promote proliferation. Controlled release of E325 was achieved by separately adjusting alginate concentrations in the shell and core solutions, and by modifying the AMC size. Viability of E325 was monitored via fluorescent staining, revealing either lack of or minimal stress during or after encapsulation. Proliferation of E325 within AMCs, followed by their subsequent release, and colonization activities within confines of apple flowers were studied under different encapsulation conditions using rfp-labeled E325 to obtain highly promising results. This study provided a 'proof of concept' of the successful use of a microencapsulated biocontrol agent, E325, against E. amylovora, and could serve as a model for further studies on the development of effective plant disease management strategies. PMID:22516094

Kim, In-Yong; Pusey, Paul Lawrence; Zhao, Youfu; Korban, Schuyler S; Choi, Hyungsoo; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin

2012-07-10

372

Genetic diversity in populations of Xanthomonas campestris pv. camestris in cruciferous weeds in central coastal California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris infects a large number of cruciferous plants, including weeds. California has one of the largest and most diverse populations of wild cruciferous plants in the world. Although considerable information is available on the genetic diversity of X. campestris pv. ca...

373

A homolog of an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae gene with sequence similarity to an Escherichia coli phosphate-binding protein gene (phoS) produces a periplasmic protein of apparent M(r) 35,000 when expressed in E. coli. Amino terminal sequencing revealed that a signal peptide is removed during transport to the periplasm in E. coli.

Hopkins, C. M.; White, F. F.; Heaton, L. A.; Guikema, J. A.; Leach, J. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

1995-01-01

374

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN POPULATIONS OF XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS PV. CAMPESTRIS IN CRUCIFEROUS WEEDS IN CENTRAL COASTAL CALIFORNIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) infects a large number of cruciferous plants, including weeds. California has one of the largest and most diverse populations of wild cruciferous plants in the world. Although considerable information is available on the genetic diversity of Xcc in commerc...

375

USING PCR FOR DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV CITRI IN WIND DRIVEN SPLASH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An eradication program has been developed to remove citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, Xac) from Florida (1,4). The eradication program is based on knowledge of the disease epidemiology. Additional information on the spread of Xac bacteria in wind blown splash will provide fur...

376

DISEASE DEVELOPMENT AND SYMPTOM EXPRESSION OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. CITRI IN VARIOUS CITRUS PLANT TISSUES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Experimental inoculations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) in different tissues of Tahiti lime and Pineapple sweet orange were conducted monthly under natural conditions in Réunion Island. The interactions between a set of environmental and epidemic variables associated with disease express...

377

Proposal of Xanthomonas translucens pv. pistaciae pv. nov., pathogenic to pistachio ( Pistacia vera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of Xanthomonas translucens have caused dieback in the Australian pistachio industry for the last 15 years. Such pathogenicity to a dicotyledonous woody host contrasts with that of other pathovars of X. translucens, which are characterized by their pathogenicity to monocotyledonous plant families. Further investigations, using DNA-DNA hybridization, gyrB gene sequencing and integron screening, were conducted to confirm the taxonomic

Danièle Giblot-Ducray; Alireza Marefat; Michael R. Gillings; Neil M. Parkinson; John P. Bowman; Kathy Ophel-Keller; Cathy Taylor; Evelina Facelli; Eileen S. Scott

2009-01-01

378

DETECTING AND QUANTIFYING XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV CITRI IN WIND DRIVEN SPLASH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri causes citrus canker and is presently under eradication in Florida. Identifying and quantifying bacteria is useful when investigating the epidemiology of the pathogen and can have application in monitoring dispersal of live bacteria. In a s...

379

IDENTIFICATION OF RB-ORTHOLOGOUS GENES FROM LATE BLIGHT RESISTANCE DIPLOID POTATO.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease of potatoes and tomatoes. A wild potato species indigenous to Mexico, Solanum demissum has provided the primary germplasm for breeding late blight resistance in cultivated potato. However, new virulent r...

380

INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON INCIDENCE OF POTATO LATE BLIGHT IN TOLUCA, MEXICO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrogen fertilization and incidence of potato late blight are two important agronomic factors in Mexican potato production. Potato late blight is a severe potato disease speculated to be influenced by the amount of nitrogen fertilizer applied to the plant. The relationship between nitrogen fertiliz...

381

Allelic analysis of sheath blight resistance with association mapping in rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheath blight is one of the most devastating diseases world-wide in rice. For the first time, we adopted association mapping to identify quantitative trait loci for sheath blight resistance from the USDA rice mini-core collection. The phenotyping was conducted with a newly developed micro-chamber me...

382

PGPR: A novel strategy for the control of rice sheath blight disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani is the most important rice disease in Texas, Arkansas, Mississippi and other southern states. Due to the lack of sheath blight resistance in most commonly planted cultivars, southern rice famers apply more than 1 million pounds of fungicides annually to co...

383

IDENTIFICATION OF RB-ORTHOLOGOUS GENES FROM LATE BLIGHT RESISTANT DIPLOID POTATO  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease of potatoes and tomatoes. A gene RB, cloned from the Mexican diploid potato species Solanum bulbocastanum, confers broad spectrum resistance to potato late blight. To identify RB-like genes and understand ...

384

Inheritance and linkage map positions of genes conferring resistance to stemphylium blight in lentil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stemphylium blight (caused by Stemphylium botryosum Wallr.) is one of the major diseases of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) in South Asia and North America. The objective of the study was to identify linkage map position of the genes conferring resistance to stemphylium blight and the markers linked ...

385

Disease Control / Moyens de lutte Biological control of fusarium head blight of wheat  

E-print Network

Disease Control / Moyens de lutte Biological control of fusarium head blight of wheat: Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Gibberella zeae, is a devastating disease of wheat. A strain. When strain ACM941 was sprayed onto wheat heads 2 days prior to inoculation with G. zeae

Hsiang, Tom

386

Breeding for Early Blight Resistance in Potato Using the Wild Species Solanum Raphanifolium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic losses in many potato growing regions. Growers are interested in the development of potato cultivars with resistance to early blight as a means to decrease usage of fungicide applications. Using w...

387

Development of early and late blight under different cropping systems and irrigation management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crop and soil management may influence development and control of early and late blight; however, their effects are not well documented. From 2006-2008, we evaluated the effects of cropping system and irrigation on incidence and severity of early and late blight of potato, and on microclimatic param...

388

Candidate fire blight resistance genes in Malus identified with the use of genomic tools and approaches  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of this research is to utilize current advances in Rosaceae genomics to identify DNA markers for use in marker-assisted selection of durable resistance to fire blight. Candidate fire blight resistance genes were selected and ranked based upon differential expression after inoculation with ...

389

MOLECULAR AND PATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE RICE SHEATH BLIGHT PATHOGEN RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI IN ARKANSAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice sheath blight, caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani (AG1-IA), is an economically important disease in Arkansas. To identify the sheath blight resistance gene(s) an extensive molecular and pathological characterization of R., solani was initiated. A wide range of pathogen isolates ...

390

Site-specific risk factors for ray blight in Tasmanian pyrethrum fields  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ray blight of pyrethrum, caused by Phoma ligulicola var. inoxydablis can cause significant reductions in crop growth and pyrethrin yield. Weather and site-specific disease risk factors for ray blight have not been identified or quantified in terms of relative risk, which has limited the efficiency ...

391

In vitro identification of cultivar responses to rice sheath blight pathogen Rhizoctonia solani  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of this project is to identify critical genes for the control of sheath blight disease. To this end, an in vitro method to examine interactions of rice with the rice sheath blight pathogen Rhizocotnia solani was developed. The initial analysis of R. solani isolates from the Arkansas rice ...

392

Release of four new breeding lines having resistance to blast and sheath blight diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sheath blight and rice blast diseases are serious threats to rice production worldwide. High-yielding cultural management practices, such as high nitrogen application and high plant populations, encourage development of these diseases. Complete resistance to sheath blight has not been identified, al...

393

Late blight-resistant tuber-bearing Solanum species in field and laboratory trials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is the most disastrous and widespread disease of potato. One of the most effective means of controlling late blight is through the use of resistant cultivars, but newly developed resistant cultivars often lose their resistance after a few years of comm...

394

Azalea Web Blight Control: Fungicide Timing in the Nursery and Hot Water Treatment of Stem Cuttings  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Azalea web blight is an annual problem on some evergreen azalea cultivars grown in containerized nursery production in the southern and eastern United States. Multiple control strategies are being investigated to control the binucleate Rhizoctonia species that cause web blight. The disease will deve...

395

Using functional genomics to identify molecular markers for fire blight resistance (Erwinia amylovora) in apple (Malus)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and some woody ornamentals in the rose family (Rosaceae). The goal of this project is to use a functional genomics approach to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples. Six hundred fifty...

396

INTERRELATIONSHIP OF TEMPERATURE, FLOWER DEVELOPMENT, AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF FIRE BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BlightBan (a.i., Pseudomonas fluorescens strain A506) has been available in recent years and other biological agents (e.g., Pantoea agglomerans strains C9-1 and E325) are being developed for fire blight control. Advances will partly depend on an understanding of interrelationships involving environ...

397

Functional genomic analysis of apple (Malus) EST's associated with fire blight (Erwinia amylovora)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The goal of this project is to use a functional genomic analysis to characterize the response of apple to fire blight disease and thereby, identify new opportunities for improving fire blight resistance. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are derived from the mRNA isolated from a tissue and provide a c...

398

Development and characterization of RiceCAP QTL mapping population for sheath blight resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RiceCAP is a USDA CSREES funded project that has as one of its main objectives developing genetic markers associated with sheath blight resistance. Sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is an important disease of rice in the southern US. Tolerance to the disease is quantitatively inherited an...

399

Rewiring Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade by Positive Feedback Confers Potato Blight Resistance1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late blight, caused by the notorious pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and during the 1840s caused the Irish potato famine and over one million fatalities. Currently, grown potato cultivars lack adequate blight tolerance. Earlier cultivars bred for resistance used disease resistance genes that confer immunity only to some strains of

Chihiro Yamamizo; Kazuo Kuchimura; Akira Kobayashi; Shinpei Katou; Kazuhito Kawakita; Jonathan D. G. Jones; Noriyuki Doke; Hirofumi Yoshioka

400

IDENTIFICATION OF SOLANUM TUBEROSUM GP. ANDIGENA CLONES HAVING BOTH FOLIAR AND TUBER RESISTANCE TO LATE BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Breeding strictly for foliar resistance to late blight without subsequent effort in tuber resistance has the potential to exacerbate tuber infection. Wild potato species can be valuable sources of foliar and tuber blight resistance. However, most species are difficult to sexually hybridize with cu...

401

Segregation of progeny of Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigena for foliar and tuber resistance to late blight.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Breeding solely for foliar resistance to late blight without emphasis on tuber resistance has the potential to exacerbate tuber infection. Wild potato species are valuable sources of foliar and tuber blight resistance. However, most species are difficult to sexually hybridize with cultivated potat...

402

The 2009 late blight pandemic in eastern USA – causes and results  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The tomato late blight pandemic of 2009 made late blight into a household term in much of the Eastern United States. Many home gardeners and organic producers lost most if not all of their tomato crop, and their experiences were reported in the mainstream press. Some CSAs (Community Supported Agricu...

403

Requirement of the Lipopolysaccharide O-Chain Biosynthesis Gene wxocB for Type III Secretion and Virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzicola  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola causes bacterial leaf streak of rice. A mutant disrupted in wxocB, predicted to encode an enzyme for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis, was previously shown to suffer reduced virulence. Here, we confirm a role for wxocB in virulence and demonstrate its requirement for LPS O-chain assembly. Structure analysis indicated that wild-type LPS contains a polyrhamnose O chain with irregular, variant residues and a core oligosaccharide identical to that of other Xanthomonas spp. and that the wxocB mutant lacks the O chain. The mutant also showed moderate impairment in exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, but comparison with an EPS-deficient mutant demonstrated that this impairment could not account entirely for the reduced virulence. The wxocB mutant was not detectably different from the wild type in its induction of pathogenesis-related rice genes, type II secretion competence, flagellar motility, or resistance to two phytoalexins or resveratrol, and it was more, not less, resistant to oxidative stress and a third phytoalexin, indicating that none of these properties is involved. The mutant was more sensitive to SDS and to novobiocin, so increased sensitivity to some host-derived antimicrobials cannot be ruled out. However, the mutant showed a marked decrease in type III secretion into plant cells. This was not associated with any change in expression of genes for type III secretion or the ability to attach to plant cells in suspension. Thus, virulence of the wxocB mutant is likely reduced due primarily to a direct, possibly structural, effect of the loss of the O chain on type III delivery of effector proteins. PMID:23435979

Wang, Li; Vinogradov, Evgeny V.

2013-01-01

404

Development and application of pathovar-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize the lipopolysaccharide O antigen and the type IV fimbriae of Xanthomonas hyacinthi  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to develop a specific immunological diagnostic assay for yellow disease in hyacinths, using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Mice were immunized with a crude cell wall preparation (shear fraction) from Xanthomonas hyacinthi and with purified type IV fimbriae. Hybridomas were screened for a positive reaction with X. hyacinthi cells or fimbriae and for a negative reaction with X. translucens pv. graminis or Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Nine MAbs recognized fimbrial epitopes, as shown by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoelectron microscopy; however, three of these MAbs had weak cross-reactions with two X. translucens pathovars in immunoblotting experiments. Seven MAbs reacted with lipopolysaccharides and yielded a low-mobility ladder pattern on immunoblots. Subsequent analysis of MAb 2E5 showed that it specifically recognized an epitope on the O antigen, which was found to consist of rhamnose and fucose in a 2:1 molar ratio. The cross-reaction of MAb 2E5 with all X. hyacinthi strains tested showed that this O antigen is highly conserved within this species. MAb 1B10 also reacted with lipopolysaccharides. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were further tested in ELISA and immunoblotting experiments with cells and extracts from other pathogens. No cross-reaction was found with 27 other Xanthomonas pathovars tested or with 14 other bacterial species from other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas, indicating the high specificity of these antibodies. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were shown to be useful in ELISA for the detection of X. hyacinthi in infected hyacinths.

Doorn, J. van; Ojanen-Reuhs, T.; Hollinger, T.C.; Reuhs, B.L.; Schots, A.; Boonekamp, P.M.; Oudega, B.

1999-09-01

405

Bacterial Vaginosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

406

Reversing Gene Erosion--Reconstructing Ancestral Bacterial Genomes from Gene-Content and Order Data  

E-print Network

that enables us to reconstruct the genomes #12;2 Xanthomonas campestris Xanthomonas axonopodis Xylella fastidiosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vibrio cholerae Buchnera aphidicola Wigglesworthia brevipalpis Escherichia

Moret, Bernard

407

Reversing Gene Erosion---Reconstructing Ancestral Bacterial Genomes from GeneContent and Order Data  

E-print Network

that enables us to reconstruct the genomes #12; 2 Xanthomonas campestris Xanthomonas axonopodis Xylella fastidiosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vibrio cholerae Buchnera aphidicola Wigglesworthia brevipalpis Escherichia

Moret, Bernard

408

A plant natriuretic peptide-like molecule of the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes rapid changes in the proteome of its citrus host  

PubMed Central

Background Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) belong to a novel class of peptidic signaling molecules that share some structural similarity to the N-terminal domain of expansins and affect physiological processes such as water and ion homeostasis at nano-molar concentrations. The citrus pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri possesses a PNP-like peptide (XacPNP) uniquely present in this bacteria. Previously we observed that the expression of XacPNP is induced upon infection and that lesions produced in leaves infected with a XacPNP deletion mutant were more necrotic and lead to earlier bacterial cell death, suggesting that the plant-like bacterial PNP enables the plant pathogen to modify host responses in order to create conditions favorable to its own survival. Results Here we measured chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and water potential of citrus leaves infiltrated with recombinant purified XacPNP and demonstrate that the peptide improves the physiological conditions of the tissue. Importantly, the proteomic analysis revealed that these responses are mirrored by rapid changes in the host proteome that include the up-regulation of Rubisco activase, ATP synthase CF1 ? subunit, maturase K, and ?- and ?-tubulin. Conclusions We demonstrate that XacPNP induces changes in host photosynthesis at the level of protein expression and in photosynthetic efficiency in particular. Our findings suggest that the biotrophic pathogen can use the plant-like hormone to modulate the host cellular environment and in particular host metabolism and that such modulations weaken host defence. PMID:20302677

2010-01-01

409

A novel antimicrobial protein for plant protection consisting of a Xanthomonas oryzae harpin and active domains of cecropin A and melittin  

PubMed Central

Summary Discoveries about antimicrobial peptides and plant defence activators have made possible the de novo and rational design of novel peptides for use in crop protection. Here we report a novel chimeric protein, Hcm1, which was made by linking the active domains of cecropin A and melittin to the hypersensitive response (HR)?elicitor Hpa1 of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of rice bacterial leaf streak. The resulting chimeric protein maintained not only the HR?inducing property of the harpin, but also the antimicrobial activity of the cecropin A?melittin hybrid. Hcm1 was purified from engineered Escherichia coli and evaluated in terms of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the 50% effective dose (ED50) against important plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Importantly, the protein acted as a potential pesticide by inducing disease resistance for viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens. This designed drug can be considered as a lead compound for use in plant protection, either for the development of new broad?spectrum pesticides or for expression in transgenic plants. PMID:21895994

Che, Yi?Zhou; Li, Yu?Rong; Zou, Hua?Song; Zou, Li?Fang; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Gong?You

2011-01-01

410

Chestnut resistance to the blight disease: insights from transcriptome analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A century ago, Chestnut Blight Disease (CBD) devastated the American chestnut. Backcross breeding has been underway to introgress resistance from Chinese chestnut into surviving American chestnut genotypes. Development of genomic resources for the family Fagaceae, has focused in this project on Castanea mollissima Blume (Chinese chestnut) and Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh (American chestnut) to aid in the backcross breeding effort and in the eventual identification of blight resistance genes through genomic sequencing and map based cloning. A previous study reported partial characterization of the transcriptomes from these two species. Here, further analyses of a larger dataset and assemblies including both 454 and capillary sequences were performed and defense related genes with differential transcript abundance (GDTA) in canker versus healthy stem tissues were identified. Results Over one and a half million cDNA reads were assembled into 34,800 transcript contigs from American chestnut and 48,335 transcript contigs from Chinese chestnut. Chestnut cDNA showed higher coding sequence similarity to genes in other woody plants than in herbaceous species. The number of genes tagged, the length of coding sequences, and the numbers of tagged members within gene families showed that the cDNA dataset provides a good resource for studying the American and Chinese chestnut transcriptomes. In silico analysis of transcript abundance identified hundreds of GDTA in canker versus healthy stem tissues. A significant number of additional DTA genes involved in the defense-response not reported in a previous study were identified here. These DTA genes belong to various pathways involving cell wall biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), salicylic acid (SA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA), abscissic acid (ABA), and hormone signalling. DTA genes were also identified in the hypersensitive response and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. These DTA genes are candidates for host resistance to the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Conclusions Our data allowed the identification of many genes and gene network candidates for host resistance to the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. The similar set of GDTAs in American chestnut and Chinese chestnut suggests that the variation in sensitivity to this pathogen between these species may be the result of different timing and amplitude of the response of the two to the pathogen infection. Resources developed in this study are useful for functional genomics, comparative genomics, resistance breeding and phylogenetics in the Fagaceae. PMID:22429310

2012-01-01

411

Fingerprinting Closely Related Xanthomonas Pathovars with Random Nonamer Oligonucleotide Microarrays  

SciTech Connect

Current bacterial DNA typing methods are typically based upon gel-based fingerprinting methods. As such, they access a limited complement of genetic information and many independent restriction enzymes or probes is required to achieve statistical rigor and confidence in the resulting pattern of DNA fragments.

Kingsley, Mark T.; Straub, Tim M.; Call, Douglas R.; Daly, Don S.; Wunschel, Sharon C.; Chandler, Darrell P.

2002-12-01

412

A Novel Two-Component Response Regulator Links rpf with Biofilm Formation and Virulence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri  

PubMed Central

Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a serious disease that impacts citrus production worldwide, and X. axonopodis pv. citri is listed as a quarantine pest in certain countries. Biofilm formation is important for the successful development of a pathogenic relationship between various bacteria and their host(s). To understand the mechanisms of biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri strain XW19, the strain was subjected to transposon mutagenesis. One mutant with a mutation in a two-component response regulator gene that was deficient in biofilm formation on a polystyrene microplate was selected for further study. The protein was designated as BfdR for biofilm formation defective regulator. BfdR from strain XW19 shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with XAC1284 of X. axonopodis pv. citri strain 306 and 30–100% identity with two-component response regulators in various pathogens and environmental microorganisms. The bfdR mutant strain exhibited significantly decreased biofilm formation on the leaf surfaces of Mexican lime compared with the wild type strain. The bfdR mutant was also compromised in its ability to cause canker lesions. The wild-type phenotype was restored by providing pbfdR in trans in the bfdR mutant. Our data indicated that BfdR did not regulate the production of virulence-related extracellular enzymes including amylase, lipase, protease, and lecithinase or the expression of hrpG, rfbC, and katE; however, BfdR controlled the expression of rpfF in XVM2 medium, which mimics cytoplasmic fluids in planta. In conclusion, biofilm formation on leaf surfaces of citrus is important for canker development in X. axonopodis pv. citri XW19. The process is controlled by the two-component response regulator BfdR via regulation of rpfF, which is required for the biosynthesis of a diffusible signal factor. PMID:23626857

Huang, Tzu-Pi; Lu, Kuan-Min; Chen, Yu-Hsuan

2013-01-01

413

A novel two-component response regulator links rpf with biofilm formation and virulence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri.  

PubMed

Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a serious disease that impacts citrus production worldwide, and X. axonopodis pv. citri is listed as a quarantine pest in certain countries. Biofilm formation is important for the successful development of a pathogenic relationship between various bacteria and their host(s). To understand the mechanisms of biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri strain XW19, the strain was subjected to transposon mutagenesis. One mutant with a mutation in a two-component response regulator gene that was deficient in biofilm formation on a polystyrene microplate was selected for further study. The protein was designated as BfdR for biofilm formation defective regulator. BfdR from strain XW19 shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with XAC1284 of X. axonopodis pv. citri strain 306 and 30-100% identity with two-component response regulators in various pathogens and environmental microorganisms. The bfdR mutant strain exhibited significantly decreased biofilm formation on the leaf surfaces of Mexican lime compared with the wild type strain. The bfdR mutant was also compromised in its ability to cause canker lesions. The wild-type phenotype was restored by providing pbfdR in trans in the bfdR mutant. Our data indicated that BfdR did not regulate the production of virulence-related extracellular enzymes including amylase, lipase, protease, and lecithinase or the expression of hrpG, rfbC, and katE; however, BfdR controlled the expression of rpfF in XVM2 medium, which mimics cytoplasmic fluids in planta. In conclusion, biofilm formation on leaf surfaces of citrus is important for canker development in X. axonopodis pv. citri XW19. The process is controlled by the two-component response regulator BfdR via regulation of rpfF, which is required for the biosynthesis of a diffusible signal factor. PMID:23626857

Huang, Tzu-Pi; Lu, Kuan-Min; Chen, Yu-Hsuan

2013-01-01

414

[Electron microscopy and restriction analysis of bacteriophages isolated from quince and pear with symptoms of fire blight].  

PubMed

Phage populations of isolates from quince and pear affected with fire blight disease were studied using electron microscopy, restriction analysis and both agarose gel electrophoresis of particles and host range scoping method. The isolate from quince (pMA1) comprises at least three phage populations and two phage variants that can be detected on different bacterial indicators. After titration of this isolate on Erwinia amylovora the bacteriophage KEY of B1 morphotype with the genome size of 82.4 kb was identified. The isolate pMA1 also includes a unique phage population 4*, which can be identified on the test bacteria Pantoea agglomerans (Pag) g150. Two analogous populations being also present in the isolate pMA1 that appeared to be close phage variants with almost identical Hpal-restriction patterns can be identified using Pag g157 and 9/7-1. The situation is similar in the case of phage isolates from pear, pMG. Three phage populations identified in it using three different indicators represent the same phage of C1 morphotype (TT10-27) with a genome size of 71.4 kb. At least two other phage populations were also detected in the same isolate using P. agglomerans 9/7-2 as an indicator. A model system allowing the most efficient analysis of the isolates for the presence of different phage populations and phage variants in plants infected by fire blight disease has been developed. It provides for using three indicator enterobacterial species closely associated with the plants: E. amylovora, Erwinia "horticola" and Pagglomerans and ignoring of the phage cloning procedure. PMID:24479316

Tovkach, F I; Fa?diuk, Iu V; Korol', N A; Kushkina, A I; Moroz, S N; Muchnik, F V

2013-01-01

415

Autoinduction in Erwinia amylovora: Evidence of an Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Signal in the Fire Blight Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Erwinia amylovora causes fire blight disease of apple, pear, and other members of the Rosaceae. Here we present the first evidence for autoinduction in E. amylovora and a role for an N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL)-type signal. Two major plant virulence traits, production of extracellular polysaccharides (amylovoran and levan) and tolerance to free oxygen radicals, were controlled in a bacterial-cell-density-dependent manner. Two standard autoinducer biosensors, Agrobacterium tumefaciens NTL4 and Vibrio harveyi BB886, detected AHL in stationary-phase cultures of E. amylovora. A putative AHL synthase gene, eamI, was partially sequenced, which revealed homology with autoinducer genes from other bacterial pathogens (e.g., carI, esaI, expI, hsII, yenI, and luxI). E. amylovora was also found to carry eamR, a convergently transcribed gene with homology to luxR AHL activator genes in pathogens such as Erwinia carotovora. Heterologous expression of the Bacillus sp. strain A24 acyl-homoserine lactonase gene aiiA in E. amylovora abolished induction of AHL biosensors, impaired extracellular polysaccharide production and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide, and reduced virulence on apple leaves. PMID:15838048

Molina, Lázaro; Rezzonico, Fabio; Défago, Geneviève; Duffy, Brion

2005-01-01

416

Field evaluation of brassica lines for resistance to bacterial blight in Charleston, South Carolina, 2010  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twelve leafy green Brassica entries (including turnip, mustard, and collard greens) were evaluated for response to inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. alisalensis (Psa) in an experiment conducted at the Clemson University Coastal Research and Education Center in Charleston, SC. On 21 Septembe...

417

First report of bacterial blight of crucifers caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in Australia.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis is a severe pathogen of crucifers across the U.S. Strains isolated from diseased white mustard (Brassica hirta), Brassica nigra (black mustard) and rape (Brassica napus var. napus) in Australia were reported to be similar to a pathogen recently transferred to P....

418

Influence of temperature regimes on resistance gene-mediated response to rice bacterial blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing temperatures could reduce yield growth rate of rice by 10% in several rice production areas. Similarly, higher temperatures are predicted to accelerate the breakdown of plant disease resistance through higher disease pressure or altered resistance (R) gene effectiveness in many host-path...

419

Influence of Rice Development on the Function of Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Disease resistance genes most commonly used in breeding programs are single, dominant, resistance (R) genes with relative effectiveness influenced by plant developmental stage. Knowing the developmental stages at which an R gene is functional is important for disease management. In rice, resistanc...

420

Mechanistically compatible mixtures of bacterial antagonists improve biological control of fire blight of pear  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mixtures of biological control agents can be superior to individual agents in suppressing plant disease, providing enhanced efficacy and reliability from field to field relative to single biocontrol strains. Nonetheless, the efficacy of combinations of Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, a commercial bio...

421

The draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas species strain Nyagatare, isolated from diseased bean in Rwanda.  

PubMed

We announce the genome sequence for Xanthomonas species strain Nyagatare, isolated from beans showing unusual disease symptoms in Rwanda. This strain represents the first sequenced genome belonging to an as-yet undescribed Xanthomonas species known as species-level clade 1. It has at least 100 kb of genomic sequence that shows little or no sequence similarity to other xanthomonads, including a unique lipopolysaccharide synthesis gene cluster. At least one genomic region appears to have been acquired from relatives of Agrobacterium or Rhizobium species. The genome encodes homologues of only three known type-three secretion system effectors: AvrBs2, XopF1 and AvrXv4. Availability of the genome sequence will facilitate development of molecular tools for detection and diagnostics for this newly discovered pathogen of beans and facilitate epidemiological investigations of a potential causal link between this pathogen and the disease outbreak. PMID:25688063

Aritua, Valente; Musoni, Augustine; Kabeja, Alice; Butare, Louis; Mukamuhirwa, Floride; Gahakwa, Daphrose; Kato, Fred; Abang, Mathew M; Buruchara, Robin; Sapp, Melanie; Harrison, James; Studholme, David J; Smith, Julian

2015-02-01

422

Structure of the O2O antigen of Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas or Pseudomonas) maltophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The O-antigen polymer recovered from the reference strain for Stenotrophomonas (Xanthomonas or Pseudomonas) maltophilia serogroup O2O, by mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharide, was found to contain d-rhamnose and d-mannose. By means of chemical degradations and NMR studies, the repeating-unit of the polymer was deduced to be a linear tetrasaccharide with the structure shown. ?-?-d-Manp-(1?3)-?d-Rhap-(1?2)-?d-Rhap-(1?

Angela M. Winn; Stephen G. Wilkinson

1996-01-01

423

Identification of quantitative trait loci for resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in Brassica rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to six known races of black rot in crucifers caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Pammel) Dowson is absent or very rare in Brassica oleracea (C genome). However, race specific and broad-spectrum resistance (to type strains of all six races) does appear to occur\\u000a frequently in other brassica genomes including B. rapa (A genome). Here, we report the genetics

P. Soengas; P. Hand; J. G. Vicente; J. M. Pole; D. A. C. Pink

2007-01-01

424

Bacterial Wilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt is caused by the bacterium Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens subsp. flaccumfaciens. This pathogen grows throughout the water conducting tissues of the plant and impedes water movement, resulting in a wilt. Symptom development is favored by temperatures greater than 90°F. Infection is often caused by the planting of infected seed, but the pathogen may also survive in infested crop debris. Wilt

Howard F. Schwartz; David H. Gent; Gary D. Franc; Robert M. Harveson

425

Bacterial vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial vaginosis is the commonest cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age, with a prevalence as high as 50% in some communities. The symptoms of discharge and offensive smell can cause considerable distress, although 50% of women are asymptomatic when diagnosed. Microbiologically the usually dominant lactobacillus flora is overwhelmed by an overgrowth of predominantly anaerobic organisms, accompanied

Phillip Hay

2010-01-01

426

Bacterial vaginosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial vaginosis is a common cause of abnormal discharge in women of child-bearing age. It is present in 10–20% women in the UK, and may recur or regress spontaneously. It is not regarded as an STI because it can occur in virgin women, but it is more common in sexually active women. Other associations include smoking, partner change, having a

Phillip Hay

2005-01-01

427

Genome-wide sequencing data reveals virulence factors implicated in banana Xanthomonas wilt.  

PubMed

Banana Xanthomonas wilt is a newly emerging disease that is currently threatening the livelihoods of millions of farmers in East Africa. The causative agent is Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm), but previous work suggests that this pathogen is much more closely related to species Xanthomonas vasicola than to X. campestris. We have generated draft genome sequences for a banana-pathogenic strain of Xcm isolated in Uganda and for a very closely related strain of X. vasicola pathovar vasculorum, originally isolated from sugarcane, that is nonpathogenic on banana. The draft sequences revealed overlapping but distinct repertoires of candidate virulence effectors in the two strains. Both strains encode homologues of the Pseudomonas syringae effectors HopW, HopAF1 and RipT from Ralstonia solanacearum. The banana-pathogenic and non-banana-pathogenic strains also differed with respect to lipopolysaccharide synthesis and type-IV pili, and in at least several thousand single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the core conserved genome. We found evidence of horizontal transfer between X. vasicola and very distantly related bacteria, including members of other divisions of the Proteobacteria. The availability of these draft genomes will be an invaluable tool for further studies aimed at understanding and combating this important disease. PMID:20695894

Studholme, David J; Kemen, Eric; MacLean, Daniel; Schornack, Sebastian; Aritua, Valente; Thwaites, Richard; Grant, Murray; Smith, Julian; Jones, Jonathan D G

2010-09-01

428

First thermostable endo-?-1,4-glucanase from newly isolated Xanthomonas sp. EC102.  

PubMed

A novel gene encoding thermostable endoglucanase was identified in Xanthomonas sp. EC102 from soil. The gene had 1,458 base pairs of open reading frame, which encode a 52-kDa protein of 486 amino acid residues. Sequence of the amino acid residues was similar with the endoglucanase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ATCC33913 (GenBank Accession No. NP_638867.1) (94 % identity). The endoglucanase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and purified. Temperature for the highest enzymatic activity was 70 °C and pH optima was pH 5.5. The specific activity of the endoglucanase toward carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) was approximately 2 ?mol min?¹ mg?¹, V max for CMC was 1.44 ?mol mg?¹ min?¹, and K m values was 25.6 mg mL?¹. The EC102 endoglucanase was stable at temperatures up to 60 °C, and it was activated by 0.1 mM of Mn²? and Co²?. This is the first report about thermostable endoglucanase from Xanthomonas sp. PMID:24399319

Woo, Mi-Hee; Chang, Young-Hyo; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Pak, Pyo June; Kim, Joong-Su; Chung, Namhyun

2014-02-01

429

Bacteriosis en Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum L.) Causada por Xanthomonas campestris (Pammel) Dowson en Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

In coriander (Coriandrum sativum) plants from commercial fields in the area of San Vicente, Aragua state, Venezuela, water-soaked, dark-brown angular spots were observed on leaf surface and distributed along the veins; as symptoms progressed, they caused leaf blight. Isolates obtained from diseased tissue on nutrient agar persistently produced light yellow colonies. Pathogenicity tests were performed by spray inoculation of a

Yolanda Guevara; Anna Maselli

430

A Simulation Tool for the Study of Symmetric Inversions in Bacterial Genomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the tool SIB that simulates genomic inversions in bacterial chromosomes. The tool simulates symmetric inversions but allows the appearance of nonsymmetric inversions by simulating small syntenic blocks frequently observed on bacterial genome comparisons. We evaluate SIB by comparing its results to real genome alignments. We develop measures that allow quantitative comparisons between real pairwise alignments (in terms of dotplots) and simulated ones. These measures allow an evaluation of SIB in terms of dendrograms. We evaluate SIB by comparing its results to whole chromosome alignments and maximum likelihood trees for three bacterial groups (the Pseudomonadaceae family and the Xanthomonas and Shewanella genera). We demonstrate an application of SIB by using it to evaluate the ancestral genome reconstruction tool MGR.

Dias, Ulisses; Dias, Zanoni; Setubal, João C.

431

Antifungal Action of Ginkgo biloba Outer Seedcoat on Rice Sheath blight.  

PubMed

From study of antifungal actions on the rice sheath blight by using the extract of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats, we found that the extracts of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats of all treatment concentrations had inhibited the rice sheath blight. Among them, the most effective concentration was 250 mg/l at which the growth of microbe was 26 mm and even at the packaging test, when sprayed the G. biloba outer seedcoats at the level of 250 mg/l, the damage rate of the rice sheath blight was identified as 13%. As a result investigating the antifungal activity by separating polysaccharides from G. biloba outer seedcoats, it showed that the clear zone of 14 mm or more was formed at the concentration of 250 mg/l or higher. Based on these results, we concluded that the G. biloba outer seedcoat is a natural substance with the antifungal activity on the rice sheath blight. PMID:25774111

Oh, Tae-Seok; Koo, Han-Mo; Yoon, Hei-Ryeo; Jeong, Nam-Su; Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Chang-Ho

2015-03-01

432

Characterization of the spatiotemporal attributes of Sclerotinia flower blight epidemics in a perennial pyrethrum pathosystem  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sclerotinia flower blight, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes substantial direct crop losses from reductions in the numbers of harvestable flowers in Australian pyrethrum fields. The pathogen can also cause plant death from crown rot through myceliogenic germination. The spatiotemporal char...

433

First Report of Foliar Blight on Dendropanax morbifera Caused by Alternaria panax.  

PubMed

Leaf spot and blight disease was observed on two-year-old seedlings of Dendropanax morbifera (Korean name: Hwangchil tree) during July of 2008 in Jindo Island, Korea. Symptoms included yellow-brown to dark brown irregularly enlarged spots frequently located along the veins of leaves. The lesions were often surrounded by chlorotic haloes. Severe leaf blight and subsequent defoliation occurred when conditions favored disease outbreak. The causal organism of the disease was identified as Alternaria panax based on morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. A. panax isolates induced leaf spots and blight symptoms not only on D. morbifera but also on the other members of Araliaceae tested. This is the first report of foliar blight caused by A. panax on D. morbifera. PMID:23956672

Deng, Jian Xin; Kim, Chang Sun; Oh, Eun Sung; Yu, Seung Hun

2010-12-01

434

Antifungal Action of Ginkgo biloba Outer Seedcoat on Rice Sheath blight  

PubMed Central

From study of antifungal actions on the rice sheath blight by using the extract of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats, we found that the extracts of Ginkgo biloba outer seedcoats of all treatment concentrations had inhibited the rice sheath blight. Among them, the most effective concentration was 250 mg/l at which the growth of microbe was 26 mm and even at the packaging test, when sprayed the G. biloba outer seedcoats at the level of 250 mg/l, the damage rate of the rice sheath blight was identified as 13%. As a result investigating the antifungal activity by separating polysaccharides from G. biloba outer seedcoats, it showed that the clear zone of 14 mm or more was formed at the concentration of 250 mg/l or higher. Based on these results, we concluded that the G. biloba outer seedcoat is a natural substance with the antifungal activity on the rice sheath blight.

Oh, Tae-Seok; Koo, Han-Mo; Yoon, Hei-Ryeo; Jeong, Nam-Su; Kim, Yeong-Jin; Kim, Chang-Ho

2015-01-01

435

Detection and identification of phytopathogenic Xanthomonas strains by amplification of DNA sequences related to the hrp genes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.  

PubMed Central

Three pairs of oligonucleotide primers specific for different regions of the hrp gene (hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity) cluster of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria were designed and tested for amplification of DNA isolated from a large number of different bacteria. DNA sequences related to the hrp genes were successfully amplified from X. fragariae and from 28 pathovars of X. campestris. No DNA amplification occurred with genomic DNA from phytopathogenic strains of X. campestris pv. secalis, X. campestris pv. translucens, and X. albilineans or from nonpathogenic opportunistic xanthomonads and phytopathogenic strains of the genera Acidovorax, Agrobacterium, Clavibacter, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, and Xylella. The DNA from those bacteria also failed to hybridize to hrp-specific fragments in Southern blot analysis. DNA fragments amplified with a particular primer pair were of identical size from each of the different phytopathogenic xanthomonads. However, restriction analysis of these fragments by using frequently cutting endonucleases revealed variation in the pattern for these hrp-related fragments amplified from the different Xanthomonas strains. The restriction patterns generated for the different fragments allowed distinction of the strains representing a pathovar or species of phytopathogenic xanthomonads. We believe that DNA amplification with hrp-specific oligonucleotide primers is a highly sensitive and specific method that can be applied for detection and identification of phytopathogenic xanthomonads. Images PMID:8017904

Leite, R P; Minsavage, G V; Bonas, U; Stall, R E

1994-01-01

436

A locus conferring effective late blight resistance in potato cultivar Sárpo Mira maps to chromosome XI.  

PubMed

Late blight of potato, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most economically important diseases worldwide, resulting in substantial yield losses when not adequately controlled by fungicides. Late blight was a contributory factor in The Great Irish Famine, and breeding for resistance to the disease began soon after. Several disease-resistant cultivars have subsequently been obtained, and amongst them Sárpo Mira is currently one of the most effective. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge about the genetic basis of the late blight resistance in Sárpo Mira and to identify molecular markers linked to the resistance locus which would be useful for marker-assisted selection. A tetraploid mapping population from a Sárpo Mira × Maris Piper cross was phenotyped for foliar late blight resistance using detached leaflet tests. A locus with strong effect on late blight resistance was mapped at the end of chromosome XI in the vicinity of the R3 locus. Sárpo Mira's genetic map of chromosome XI contained 11 markers. Marker 45/XI exhibited the strongest linkage to the resistance locus and accounted for between 55.8 and 67.9% of variance in the mean resistance scores noted in the detached leaflet assays. This marker was used in molecular marker-facilitated gene pyramiding. Ten breeding lines containing a late blight resistance locus from cultivar Sárpo Mira and the Rpi-phu1 gene originating from the late blight resistant accession of Solanum phureja were obtained. These lines have extended the spectrum of late blight resistance compared with Sárpo Mira and it is expected that resistance in plants containing this gene pyramid will have enhanced durability. PMID:24343200

Tomczy?ska, Iga; Stefa?czyk, Emil; Chmielarz, Marcin; Karasiewicz, Beata; Kami?ski, Piotr; Jones, Jonathan D G; Lees, Alison K; Sliwka, Jadwiga

2014-03-01

437

Genotyping with RAPD and microsatellite markers resolves pathotype diversity in the ascochyta blight pathogen of chickpea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The poor definition of variation in the ascochyta blight fungus (Ascochyta rabiei) has historically hindered breeding for resistance to the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) blight disease in West Asia and North Africa. We have employed 14 RAPD markers and an oligonucleotide probe complementary\\u000a to the microsatellite sequence (GATA)4 to construct a genotype-specific DNA fragment profile from periodically sampled Syrian field

S. M. Udupa; F. Weigand; M. C. Saxena; G. Kahl

1998-01-01

438

Systemic resistance induced by benzothiadiazole in pear inoculated with the agent of fire blight ( Erwinia amylovora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benzothiadiazole derivative acibenzolar-S-methyl (BTH; Bion, Syngenta), a well known chemical inducer of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), was tested for its ability to protect pear (Pyrus communis cv. Abate Fetel) from fire blight following inoculation with Erwinia amylovora. Two-year-old pear plants sprayed with BTH 10 days before inoculation were partially protected from fire blight, both in terms of incidence (?33%)

Francesca Sparla; Lorenza Rotino; Maria Chiara Valgimigli; Paolo Pupillo; Paolo Trost

2004-01-01

439

A revision of Billing's potential doublings table for fire blight prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In her fire blight prediction systems, E. Billing (1978, in: P.R. Scott & A. Bainbridge (Eds), Plant disease epidemiology, p. 159–166) has used the parameter ‘potential doublings per day’ (PD) of the fire blight causing bacterium,Erwinia amylovora. Reconsideration of her calculations of PD revealed, however, that the PD values in Billing's table were underestimated. This leads to overestimation of the

H. J. Schouten

1987-01-01

440

Effect of Film-forming Polymers on Control of Lily Leaf Blight Caused by Botrytis elliptica  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of film-forming polyelectrolytes for the control of lily leaf blight caused by Botrytis elliptica was evaluated using laboratory a leaf disk assay, greenhouse tests and field trials. Among the six polyelectrolytes, 400?ppm FO4240SH, FO4490SH and FO4550SH reduced the disease severity of lily leaf blight in leaf-disk tests. Both FO4240SH and FO4490SH also suppressed sporulation of the pathogen on

Ting Fang Hsieh; Jenn Wen Huang

1999-01-01

441

Metabolic Versatility and Antibacterial Metabolite Biosynthesis Are Distinguishing Genomic Features of the Fire Blight Antagonist Pantoea vagans C9-1  

PubMed Central

Background Pantoea vagans is a commercialized biological control agent used against the pome fruit bacterial disease fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Compared to other biocontrol agents, relatively little is currently known regarding Pantoea genetics. Better understanding of antagonist mechanisms of action and ecological fitness is critical to improving efficacy. Principal Findings Genome analysis indicated two major factors contribute to biocontrol activity: competition for limiting substrates and antibacterial metabolite production. Pathways for utilization of a broad diversity of sugars and acquisition of iron were identified. Metabolism of sorbitol by P. vagans C9-1 may be a major metabolic feature in biocontrol of fire blight. Biosynthetic genes for the antibacterial peptide pantocin A were found on a chromosomal 28-kb genomic island, and for dapdiamide E on the plasmid pPag2. There was no evidence of potential virulence factors that could enable an animal or phytopathogenic lifestyle and no indication of any genetic-based biosafety risk in the antagonist. Conclusions Identifying key determinants contributing to disease suppression allows the development of procedures to follow their expression in planta and the genome sequence contributes to rationale risk assessment regarding the use of the biocontrol strain in agricultural systems. PMID:21789243

Smits, Theo H. M.; Rezzonico, Fabio; Kamber, Tim; Blom, Jochen; Goesmann, Alexander; Ishimaru, Carol A.; Frey, Jürg E.; Stockwell, Virginia O.; Duffy, Brion

2011-01-01

442

Bacterial killing via a type IV secretion system.  

PubMed

Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are multiprotein complexes that transport effector proteins and protein-DNA complexes through bacterial membranes to the extracellular milieu or directly into the cytoplasm of other cells. Many bacteria of the family Xanthomonadaceae, which occupy diverse environmental niches, carry a T4SS with unknown function but with several characteristics that distinguishes it from other T4SSs. Here we show that the Xanthomonas citri T4SS provides these cells the capacity to kill other Gram-negative bacterial species in a contact-dependent manner. The secretion of one type IV bacterial effector protein is shown to require a conserved C-terminal domain and its bacteriolytic activity is neutralized by a cognate immunity protein whose 3D structure is similar to peptidoglycan hydrolase inhibitors. This is the first demonstration of the involvement of a T4SS in bacterial killing and points to this special class of T4SS as a mediator of both antagonistic and cooperative interbacterial interactions. PMID:25743609

Souza, Diorge P; Oka, Gabriel U; Alvarez-Martinez, Cristina E; Bisson-Filho, Alexandre W; Dunger, German; Hobeika, Lise; Cavalcante, Nayara S; Alegria, Marcos C; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Salinas, Roberto K; Guzzo, Cristiane R; Farah, Chuck S

2015-01-01

443

Functional analysis of OsPGIP1 in rice sheath blight resistance.  

PubMed

As one of the most devastating diseases of rice, sheath blight causes severe rice yield loss. However, little progress has been made in rice breeding for sheath blight resistance. It has been reported that polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins can inhibit the degradation of the plant cell wall by polygalacturonases from pathogens. Here, we prokaryotically expressed and purified OsPGIP1 protein, which was verified by Western blot analysis. Activity assay confirmed the inhibitory activity of OsPGIP1 against the PGase from Rhizoctonia solani. In addition, the location of OsPGIP1 was determined by subcellular localization. Subsequently, we overexpressed OsPGIP1 in Zhonghua 11 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica), and applied PCR and Southern blot analysis to identify the positive T0 transgenic plants with single-copy insertions. Germination assay of the seeds from T1 transgenic plants was carried out to select homozygous OsPGIP1 transgenic lines, and the expression levels of OsPGIP1 in these lines were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Field testing of R. solani inoculation showed that the sheath blight resistance of the transgenic rice was significantly improved. Furthermore, the levels of sheath blight resistance were in accordance with the expression levels of OsPGIP1 in the transgenic lines. Our results reveal the functions of OsPGIP1 and its resistance mechanism to rice sheath blight, which will facilitate rice breeding for sheath blight resistance. PMID:25488398

Wang, Rui; Lu, Liaoxun; Pan, Xuebiao; Hu, Zongliang; Ling, Fei; Yan, Yan; Liu, Yemao; Lin, Yongjun

2015-01-01

444

Effect of Prohexadione-Calcium Dose Level on Shoot Growth and Fire Blight in Young Apple Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Norelli, J. L., and Miller, S. S. 2004. Effect of prohexadione-calcium dose level on shoot growth and fire blight in young apple trees. Plant Dis. 88:1099-1106. Prohexadione-calcium suppresses both shoot growth and fire blight in apple. In young apple orchards, there are conflicting requirements to control fire blight and allow sufficient tree growth for tree establishment. Application of prohexadione-calcium to

J. L. Norelli; Stephen S. Miller

2004-01-01

445

High prevalence of biofilm synergy among bacterial soil isolates in cocultures indicates bacterial interspecific cooperation.  

PubMed

Biofilms that form on roots, litter and soil particles typically contain multiple bacterial species. Currently, little is known about multispecies biofilm interactions and few studies have been based on environmental isolates. Here, the prevalence of synergistic effects in biofilm formation among seven different soil isolates, cocultured in combinations of four species, was investigated. We observed greater biofilm biomass production in 63% of the four-species culture combinations tested than in biofilm formed by single-species cultures, demonstrating a high prevalence of synergism in multispecies biofilm formation. One four-species consortium, composed of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila, Xanthomonas retroflexus, Microbacterium oxydans and Paenibacillus amylolyticus, exhibited strong synergy in biofilm formation and was selected for further study. Of the four strains, X. retroflexus was the only one capable of forming abundant biofilm in isolation, under the in vitro conditions investigated. In accordance, strain-specific quantitative PCR revealed that X. retroflexus was predominant within the four-species consortium (>97% of total biofilm cell number). Despite low relative abundance of all the remaining strains, all were indispensable for the strong synergistic effect to occur within the four-species biofilm. Moreover, absolute individual strain cell numbers were significantly enhanced when compared with those of single-species biofilms, indicating that all the individual strains benefit from inclusion in the multispecies community. Our results show a high prevalence of synergy in biofilm formation in multispecies consortia isolated from a natural bacterial habitat and suggest that interspecific cooperation occurs. PMID:24936766

Ren, Dawei; Madsen, Jonas S; Sørensen, Søren J; Burmølle, Mette

2015-01-01

446

Two New Complete Genome Sequences Offer Insight into Host and Tissue Specificity of Plant Pathogenic Xanthomonas spp.?†  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas is a large genus of bacteria that collectively cause disease on more than 300 plant species. The broad host range of the genus contrasts with stringent host and tissue specificity for individual species and pathovars. Whole-genome sequences of Xanthomonas campestris pv. raphani strain 756C and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strain BLS256, pathogens that infect the mesophyll tissue of the leading models for plant biology, Arabidopsis thaliana and rice, respectively, were determined and provided insight into the genetic determinants of host and tissue specificity. Comparisons were made with genomes of closely related strains that infect the vascular tissue of the same hosts and across a larger collection of complete Xanthomonas genomes. The results suggest a model in which complex sets of adaptations at the level of gene content account for host specificity and subtler adaptations at the level of amino acid or noncoding regulatory nucleotide sequence determine tissue specificity. PMID:21784931

Bogdanove, Adam J.; Koebnik, Ralf; Lu, Hong; Furutani, Ayako; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Patil, Prabhu B.; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Ryan, Robert P.; Meyer, Damien F.; Han, Sang-Wook; Aparna, Gudlur; Rajaram, Misha; Delcher, Arthur L.; Phillippy, Adam M.; Puiu, Daniela; Schatz, Michael C.; Shumway, Martin; Sommer, Daniel D.; Trapnell, Cole; Benahmed, Faiza; Dimitrov, George; Madupu, Ramana; Radune, Diana; Sullivan, Steven; Jha, Gopaljee; Ishihara, Hiromichi; Lee, Sang-Won; Pandey, Alok; Sharma, Vikas; Sriariyanun, Malinee; Szurek, Boris; Vera-Cruz, Casiana M.; Dorman, Karin S.; Ronald, Pamela C.; Verdier, Valérie; Dow, J. Maxwell; Sonti, Ramesh V.; Tsuge, Seiji; Brendel, Volker P.; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.; Leach, Jan E.; White, Frank F.; Salzberg, Steven L.

2011-01-01

447

A three-component signalling system fine-tunes expression kinetics of HPPK responsible for folate synthesis by positive feedback loop during stress response of Xanthomonas campestris.  

PubMed

During adaptation to environments, bacteria employ two-component signal transduction systems, which contain histidine kinases and response regulators, to sense and respond to exogenous and cellular stimuli in an accurate spatio-temporal manner. Although the protein phosphorylation process between histidine kinase and response regulator has been well documented, the molecular mechanism fine-tuning phosphorylation levels of response regulators is comparatively less studied. Here we combined genetic and biochemical approaches to reveal that a hybrid histidine kinase, SreS, is involved in the SreK-SreR phosphotransfer process to control salt stress response in the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. The N-terminal receiver domain of SreS acts as a phosphate sink by competing with the response regulator SreR to accept the phosphoryl group from the latter's cognate histidine kinase SreK. This regulatory process is critical for bacterial survival because the dephosphorylated SreR protein participates in activating one of the tandem promoters (P2) at the 5' end of the sreK-sreR-sreS-hppK operon, and then modulates a transcriptional surge of the stress-responsive gene hppK, which is required for folic acid synthesis. Therefore, our study dissects the biochemical process of a positive feedback loop in which a 'three-component' signalling system fine-tunes expression kinetics of downstream genes. PMID:24119200

Wang, Fang-Fang; Deng, Chao-Ying; Cai, Zhen; Wang, Ting; Wang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Zheng; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Fang, Rong-Xiang; Qian, Wei

2014-07-01

448

Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed between Resistant and Susceptible Tomato Lines during Time-Course Interactions with Xanthomonas perforans Race T3  

PubMed Central

Bacterial spot caused by several Xanthomonas sp. is one of the most devastating diseases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The genetics of hypersensitive resistance to X. perforans race T3 has been intensively investigated and regulatory genes during the infection of race T3 have been identified through transcriptional profiling. However, no work on isolating regulatory genes for field resistance has been reported. In this study, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was used to identify differentially expressed transcripts between resistant tomato accession PI 114490 and susceptible variety OH 88119 at 3, 4 and 5 days post-inoculation of the pathogen. Using 256 selective primer combinations, a total of 79 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) representing 71 genes were obtained. Of which, 60 were up-regulated and 4 were down-regulated in both tomato lines, 4 were uniquely up-regulated and 2 were uniquely down-regulated in PI 114490, and 1 was specifically up-regulated in OH 88119. The expression patterns of 19 representative TDFs were further confirmed by semi-quantitative and/or quantitative real time RT-PCR. These results suggested that the two tomato lines activated partly similar defensive mechanism in response to race T3 infection. The data obtained here will provide some fundamental information for elucidating the molecular mechanism of response to race T3 infection in tomato plants with field resistance. PMID:24686403

Wang, Yuqing; Yang, Wencai

2014-01-01

449

Multiplexed lateral flow microarray assay for detection of citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri  

DOEpatents

The invention provides highly sensitive and specific assays for the major citrus pathogens Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis, including a field deployable multiplexed assay capable of rapidly assaying for both pathogens simultaneously. The assays are directed at particular gene targets derived from pathogenic strains that specifically cause the major citrus diseases of citrus variegated chlorosis (Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c) and citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri). The citrus pathogen assays of the invention offer femtomole sensitivity, excellent linear dynamic range, and rapid and specific detection.

Cary; R. Bruce (Santa Fe, NM); Stubben, Christopher J. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-03-22

450

Identification of a putative cognate sensor kinase for the two-component response regulator HrpG, a key regulator controlling the expression of the hrp genes in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.  

PubMed

The bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) relies on the hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes to cause disease and induce hypersensitive response (HR). The hrp genes of bacterial phytopathogens are divided into two groups. Xcc hrp genes belong to group II. It has long been known that the group II hrp genes are activated by an AraC-type transcriptional regulator whose expression is controlled by a two-component system (TCS) response regulator (named HrpG in Xcc). However, no cognate sensor kinase has yet been identified. Here, we present evidence showing that the Xcc open-reading frame XC_3670 encodes a TCS sensor kinase (named HpaS). Mutation of hpaS almost completely abolished the HR induction and virulence. Bacterial two-hybrid and protein pull-down assays revealed that HpaS physically interacted with HrpG. Phos-tag™ SDS-PAGE analysis showed that mutation in hpaS reduced markedly the phosphorylation of HrpG?in vivo. These data suggest that HpaS and HrpG are most likely to form a TCS. We also showed that XC_3669 (named hpaR2), which is adjacent to hpaS and encodes a putative TCS response regulator, is required for full virulence but not HR induction. HpaR2 also physically interacted with HpaS, suggesting that HpaS may also form another TCS with HpaR2. PMID:23906314

Li, Rui-Fang; Lu, Guang-Tao; Li, Lei; Su, Hui-Zhao; Feng, Guo-fang; Chen, Ya; He, Yong-Qiang; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Dong-Jie; Tang, Ji-Liang

2014-07-01

451

Extracellular matrix-associated proteome changes during non-host resistance in citrus-Xanthomonas interactions.  

PubMed

Non-host resistance (NHR) is a most durable broad-spectrum resistance employed by the plants to restrict majority of pathogens. Plant extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical defense barrier. Understanding ECM responses during interaction with non-host pathogen will provide insights into molecular events of NHR. In this study, the ECM-associated proteome was compared during interaction of citrus with pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) and non-host pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) at 8, 16, 24 and 48 h post inoculation. Comprehensive analysis of ECM-associated proteins was performed by extracting wall-bound and soluble ECM components using both destructive and non-destructive procedures. A total of 53 proteins was differentially expressed in citrus-Xanthomonas host and non-host interaction, out of which 44 were identified by mass spectrometry. The differentially expressed proteins were related to (1) defense-response (5 pathogenesis-related proteins, 3 miraculin-like proteins (MIR, MIR1 and MIR2) and 2 proteases); (2) enzymes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism [Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), Fe-SOD, ascorbate peroxidase and 2-cysteine-peroxiredoxin]; (3) signaling (lectin, curculin-like lectin and concanavalin A-like lectin kinase); and (4) cell-wall modification (?-xylosidase, glucan 1, 3 ?-glucosidase, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase). The decrease in ascorbate peroxidase and cysteine-peroxiredoxin could be involved in maintenance of ROS levels. Increase in defense, cell-wall remodeling and signaling proteins in citrus-Xoo interaction suggests an active involvement of ECM in execution of NHR. Partially compromised NHR in citrus against Xoo, upon Brefeldin A pre-treatment supported the role of non-classical secretory proteins in this phenomenon. PMID:24117905

Swaroopa Rani, Tirupaati; Podile, Appa Rao

2014-04-01

452

Characterization of novel virulent broad-host-range phages of Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas.  

PubMed

The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of several plant diseases, most notably Pierce's disease of grape and citrus variegated chlorosis. We report the isolation and characterization of the first virulent phages for X. fastidiosa, siphophages Sano and Salvo and podophages Prado and Paz, with a host range that includes Xanthomonas spp. Phages propagated on homologous hosts had observed adsorption rate constants of ~4 × 10(-12) ml cell(-1) min(-1) for X. fastidiosa strain Temecula 1 and ~5 × 10(-10) to 7 × 10(-10) ml cell(-1) min(-1) for Xanthomonas strain EC-12. Sano and Salvo exhibit >80% nucleotide identity to each other in aligned regions and are syntenic to phage BcepNazgul. We propose that phage BcepNazgul is the founding member of a novel phage type, to which Sano and Salvo belong. The lysis genes of the Nazgul-like phage type include a gene that encodes an outer membrane lipoprotein endolysin and also spanin gene families that provide insight into the evolution of the lysis pathway for phages of Gram-negative hosts. Prado and Paz, although exhibiting no significant DNA homology to each other, are new members of the phiKMV-like phage type, based on the position of the single-subunit RNA polymerase gene. The four phages are type IV pilus dependent for infection of both X. fastidiosa and Xanthomonas. The phages may be useful as agents for an effective and environmentally responsible strategy for the control of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. PMID:24214944

Ahern, Stephen J; Das, Mayukh; Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Young, Ry; Gonzalez, Carlos F

2014-01-01

453

A statistical comparison of the reliability of the blossom blight forecasts of MARYBLYT and cougarblight with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blossom blight forecasting is an important aspect of fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, management for both apple and pear. A comparison of the forecast accuracy of two common fire blight forecasters, MARYBLYT and Cougarblight, was performed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve...

454

Responsiveness of different citrus genotypes to the Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri-derived pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22 correlates with resistance to citrus canker.  

PubMed

The bacterial agent of citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, Xcc) has caused tremendous economic losses to the citrus industry around the world. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) is important to plant immunity. In this study, we compared the defence responses of citrus canker-resistant and citrus canker-susceptible genotypes to the Xcc-derived PAMP flg22 (Xflg22) by analysing the expression of 20 citrus defence-associated genes. We showed that, in the most resistant genotype, 'Nagami' kumquat, there was significant induction of several defence genes (EDS1, NDR1, PBS1, RAR1, SGT1, PAL1, NPR2 and NPR3) as early as 6?h and up to 72?h after Xflg22 treatment. At the other end of the spectrum, highly susceptible 'Duncan' grapefruit showed no induction of the same defence genes, even 120?h after treatment. Citrus genotypes with partial levels of resistance showed intermediate levels of transcriptional reprogramming that correlated with their resistance level. Xflg22 also triggered a rapid oxidative burst in all genotypes which was higher and accompanied by the induction of PTI marker genes (WRKY22 and GST1) only in the more resistant genotypes. Pretreatment with Xflg22 prior to Xcc inoculation inhibited bacterial growth in kumquat, but not in grapefruit. A flagellin-deficient Xcc strain (Xcc?fliC) showed greater growth increase relative to wild-type Xcc in kumquat than in grapefruit. Taken together, our results indicate that Xflg22 initiates strong PTI in canker-resistant genotypes, but not in susceptible ones, and that a robust induction of PTI is an important component of citrus resistance to canker. PMID:25231217

Shi, Qingchun; Febres, Vicente J; Jones, Jeffrey B; Moore, Gloria A

2014-09-18

455

Identification of 17 HrpX-Regulated Proteins Including Two Novel Type III Effectors, XOC_3956 and XOC_1550, in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola  

PubMed Central

The function of some hypothetical proteins, possibly regulated by key hrp regulators, in the pathogenicity of phytopathogenic bacteria remains largely unknown. In the present study, in silicon microarray data demonstrated that the expression of 17 HrpX-regulated protein (Xrp) genes of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), which causes bacterial leaf streak in rice, were either positively or negatively regulated by HrpX or/and HrpG. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that five Xrps possess a putative type III secretion (T3S) signal in the first 50 N-terminal amino acids, six xrp genes contain a PIP-box-like sequence (TTCGB-NX-TTCGB, 9?X?25) in the promoter regions, and two Xrps have both motifs. Twelve Xrps are widely conserved in Xanthomonas spp., whereas four are specific for X. oryzae (Xrp6) or Xoc (Xrp8, Xrp14 and Xrp17). In addition to the regulation by HrpG/HrpX, some of the 17 genes were also modulated by another hrp regulator HrpD6. Mutagenesis of these 17 genes indicated that five Xrps (Xrp1, Xrp2, Xrp5, Xrp8 and Xrp14) were required for full virulence and bacterial growth in planta. Immunoblotting assays and fusion with N-terminally truncated AvrXa10 indicated that Xrp3 and Xrp5 were secreted and translocated into rice cells through the type-III secretion system (T3S), suggesting they are novel T3S effectors. Our results suggest that Xoc exploits an orchestra of proteins that are regulated by HrpG, HrpX and HrpD6, and these proteins facilitate both infection and metabolism. PMID:24675748

Xue, Xiao-bo; Zou, Li-fang; Ma, Wen-xiu; Liu, Zhi-yang; Chen, Gong-you

2014-01-01

456

Cell wall-bound invertase limits sucrose export and is involved in symptom development and inhibition of photosynthesis during compatible interaction between tomato and Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria.  

PubMed

Cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv) plays an important role in carbohydrate partitioning and regulation of sink-source interaction. There is increasing evidence that pathogens interfere with sink-source interaction, and induction of cw-Inv activity has frequently been shown in response to pathogen infection. To investigate the role of cw-Inv, transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants silenced for the major leaf cw-Inv isoforms were generated and analyzed during normal growth and during the compatible interaction with Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria. Under normal growth conditions, activities of sucrolytic enzymes as well as photosynthesis and respiration were unaltered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. However, starch levels of source leaves were strongly reduced, which was most likely caused by an enhanced sucrose exudation rate. Following X. campestris pv vesicatoria infection, cw-Inv-silenced plants showed an increased sucrose to hexose ratio in the apoplast of leaves. Symptom development, inhibition of photosynthesis, and expression of photosynthetic genes were clearly delayed in transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. In addition, induction of senescence-associated and pathogenesis-related genes observed in infected wild-type plants was abolished in cw-Inv-silenced tomato lines. These changes were not associated with decreased bacterial growth. In conclusion, cw-Inv restricts carbon export from source leaves and regulates the sucrose to hexose ratio in the apoplast. Furthermore, an increased apoplastic hexose to sucrose ratio can be linked to inhibition of photosynthesis and induction of pathogenesis-related gene expression but does not significantly influence bacterial growth. Indirectly, bacteria may benefit from low invertase activity, since the longevity of host cells is raised and basal defense might be dampened. PMID:18784281

Kocal, Nurcan; Sonnewald, Uwe; Sonnewald, Sophia

2008-11-01

457

The HD-GYP Domain Protein RpfG of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola Regulates Synthesis of Extracellular Polysaccharides that Contribute to Biofilm Formation and Virulence on Rice  

PubMed Central

Bacterial leaf streak caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) is one of the most important diseases in rice. However, little is known about the pathogenicity mechanisms of Xoc. Here we have investigated the function of three HD-GYP domain regulatory proteins in biofilm formation, the synthesis of virulence factors and virulence of Xoc. Deletion of rpfG resulted in altered production of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), abolished virulence on rice and enhanced biofilm formation, but had little effect on the secretion of proteases and motility. In contrast, mutational analysis showed that the other two HD-GYP domain proteins had no effect on virulence factor synthesis and tested phenotypes. Mutation of rpfG led to up-regulation of the type III secretion system and altered expression of three putative glycosyltransferase genes gumD, pgaC and xagB, which are part of operons directing the synthesis of different extracellular polysaccharides. The pgaABCD and xagABCD operons were greatly up-regulated in the Xoc ?rpfG mutant, whereas the expression of the gum genes was unaltered or slightly enhanced. The elevated biofilm formation of the Xoc ?rpfG mutant was dramatically reduced upon deletion of gumD, xagA and xagB, but not when pgaA and pgaC were deleted. Interestingly, only the ?gumD mutant, among these single gene mutants, exhibits multiple phenotype alterations including reduced biofilm and EPS production and attenuated virulence on rice. These data indicate that RpfG is a global regulator that controls biofilm formation, EPS production and bacterial virulence in Xoc and that both gumD- and xagB-dependent EPS contribute to biofilm formation under different conditions. PMID:23544067

Zhang, Yuanbao; Wei, Chao; Jiang, Wendi; Wang, Lei; Li, Churui; Wang, Yunyue; Dow, John Maxwell; Sun, Wenxian

2013-01-01

458

Selective medium for isolation of Xanthomonas maltophilia from soil and rhizosphere environments.  

PubMed Central

A selective medium (XMSM) was developed for isolation of Xanthomonas maltophilia from bulk soil and plant rhizosphere environments. The XMSM basal medium contained maltose, tryptone, bromthymol blue, and agar. Antibiotics added to select for X. maltophilia were cycloheximide, nystatin, cephalexin, bacitracin, penicillin G, novobiocin, neomycin sulfate, and tobramycin. A comparison was made between XMSM and 1/10-strength tryptic soy broth agar for recovery of X. maltophilia from sterile and nonsterile soil infested with known X. maltophilia isolates. A recovery rate of 97% or greater for XMSM was demonstrated. XMSM was used to isolate X. maltophilia from a variety of soil and rhizosphere environments. PMID:2930173

Juhnke, M E; des Jardin, E

1989-01-01

459

HrpG regulates type II secretory proteins in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri  

Microsoft Academic Search

HrpG, a two-component response regulator-like protein, is a key regulator of the type III secretion system (T3SS) in Xanthomonas spp. In X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, HrpG with a single amino acid substitution (HrpG*) gains the ability to induce the expression of T3SS-related genes even\\u000a under nutrient-rich conditions. In this study, we investigated the role of HrpG in the synthesis of

Akihiro Yamazaki; Hisae Hirata; Shinji Tsuyumu

2008-01-01

460

GIS-based climatic regionalization of potato late blight in mountain areas of Southwest Sichuan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the geographic insemination test in installments on five phases of potato late blight in four areas of Mianning and Zhaojue with the altitude of 1,600m, 1,800m, 2,100m and 2,500m respectively, this paper researches the meteorological causes, leading factors and climatic indexes for potato late blight in mountain areas of southwest Sichuan in detail. Based on that, short-term section climatic inspection data of mountain areas, observation data from meteorological post and latest data from automatic weather station are extensively collected, organized and processed by extension, based on which the Spatial Distribution Model of climatic indexes for potato late blight in mountain areas of southwest Sichuan is established in association with the routine surface observation data, y=f(h,?,l,?). With the geographic information data of 1:250000 and GIS technology, southwest Sichuan is divided into climatic liable region of potato blight, climatic secondary liable region and climatic non-liable region by factor setting and optimization method. Providing scientific basis for selection, distribution and prevention decision making for late blight resistant species of potato in southwest Sichuan, it has important value for production and application.

Luo, Qing; Peng, Guozhao; Ruan, Jun; Cao, Yanqiu; Fang, Peng; Li, Dazhong; Armuzhong, .; Huang, Doumin; Hu, Qiaojuan; Chen, Yuanzhi

2008-10-01

461

MOLECULAR AND PATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF RICE SHEATH BLIGHT PATHOGEN ISOLATES FROM ARKANSAS USING RDNA-INTERNAL TRANSCRIBED SPACER SEQUENCES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (anastomosis group AG1-IA), is a serious disease worldwide. R. solani has a broad host range and no complete genetic resistance is available among cultivated rices. As first step to identify sheath blight resistance gene(s), molecular character...

462

Competitive Interaction Between Phytophthora Infestans Effectors Leads to Increased Aggressiveness on Plants Containing Broad-Spectrum Late Blight Resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato late blight is a particularly destructive plant disease caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary. Late blight has remained particularly problematic despite intensive breeding efforts to integrate resistance into cultivated potato. This is due to the pathogen’s ab...

463

Characterization and taxonomic re-assessment of the box blight pathogen Calonectria pseudonaviculata, introducing Calonectria henricotiae sp. nov  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calonectria pseudonaviculata, the causal agent of the box blight disease of Buxus spp., was first detected in the mid 1990’s in the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Since then, the geographic range of box blight has rapidly expanded to at least 21 countries throughout temperate regions of the world,...

464

Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate control of the disease has often resulted in potato yield losses. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid and stinging nettle extract combinations for late blight control at two locations in Kenya. Disease severity, relative area under disease progress curves (RAUDPC), pathogen lesions and tuber

R. Nyankanga; M. Njogu; J. Muthomi; M. Olanya

2012-01-01

465

Complete genome sequence of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia pyrifoliae DSM 12163T and comparative genomic insights into plant pathogenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Erwinia pyrifoliae is a newly described necrotrophic pathogen, which causes fire blight on Asian (Nashi) pear and is geographically restricted to Eastern Asia. Relatively little is known about its genetics compared to the closely related main fire blight pathogen E. amylovora. RESULTS: The genome of the type strain of E. pyrifoliae strain DSM 12163T, was sequenced using both 454

Theo HM Smits; Sebastian Jaenicke; Fabio Rezzonico; Tim Kamber; Alexander Goesmann; Jürg E Frey; Brion Duffy

2010-01-01

466

USING FUNCTIONAL AND APPLIED GENOMICS TO IDENTIFY GENES THAT CONFER EITHER RESISTANCE OR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO FIRE BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear and other plants of the Rosaceae. The goal of this project is to use functional genomics to characterize the response of apple to fire blight disease and, thereby, identify new opportunities for improvin...

467

Molecular comparison of pathogenic bacteria from pear trees in Japan and the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several strains of the genus Erwinia, which were isolated in Japan from pear trees with necrotic symptoms that resembled fire blight, and tentatively identified as Erwinia amylovora, were reinvestigated for their relationship to the fire blight pathogen. These isolates produced ooze on slices of immature pears and were mucoid on MM2Cu agar plates, but did not synthesize levan and did

Won-Sik Kim; Maja Hildebrand; Susanne Jock; Klaus Geider

468

POTATO LATE BLIGHT MANAGEMENT IN THE TOLUCA VALLEY: FIELD VALIDATION OF SIMCAST MODIFIED FOR CULTIVARS WITH HIGH FIELD RESISTANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management of potato late blight in the highland tropics is very costly and remains difficult. Reducing the impact of late blight through the use of resistant cultivars in combination with a fungicide forecasting system could lower the number of costly fungicide applications. Previously, we evaluate...

469

Effects of microclimate, cropping systems, and irrigation management on early and late blight potential on Russet Burbank potato  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil and irrigation management have been used to optimize crop production. However,their effects on microclimate, development, and controls of potato diseases have not been adequately quantified. The effects of soil, crop, and water management on development of potato early blight and late blight we...

470

Spectroscopic properties of rubber oxygenase RoxA from Xanthomonas sp., a new type of dihaem dioxygenase.  

PubMed

Natural rubber [poly-(cis-1,4-isoprene)] is cleaved to 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyltrideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD) by rubber oxygenase A (RoxA) isolated from Xanthomonas sp. RoxA has two c-type haem centres that show two distinct alpha-bands at 549 and 553 nm in the dithionite-reduced state. A well-resolved midpoint potential (E(0)') of -65 mV was determined for one haem by spectrophotometric titrations in the absence of dioxygen with dithionite and ferricyanide as reductant and oxidant, respectively. The midpoint potential of the second haem was not resolvable (E(0)' about -130 to -160 mV). One of the two haems was reduced by NADH (549 nm alpha-band), similar to bacterial dihaem peroxidases. Evidence for an electron transfer between the two haems was provided by slow reduction of the second haem (553 nm alpha-band) upon incubation of the partially reduced enzyme at room temperature. Addition of imidazole or related compounds to RoxA led to UV/vis spectral features similar to those observed for partially reduced RoxA. Notably, reduction of RoxA with dithionite or NADH, or binding of compounds such as imidazole, resulted in a reversible inactivation of the enzyme, unlike dihaem peroxidases. In line with this result, RoxA did not show any peroxidase activity. EPR spectra of RoxA as isolated showed two low-spin Fe(III) haem centres, with apparent g-values of 3.39, 3.09, 2.23, 1.92 and 1.50. A weak signal in the g=6 region resulting from a high-spin Fe(III) haem was also observed with a preparation-dependent intensity that disappeared in the presence of imidazole. Attempts to provide spectroscopic evidence for binding of the natural substrate (polyisoprene latex) to RoxA failed. However, experimental data are presented that RoxA is able to subtract redox equivalents from its substrate or from model compounds. In conclusion, RoxA is a novel type of dihaem dioxygenase with features clearly different from classical cytochrome c peroxidases. PMID:20413555

Schmitt, Georg; Seiffert, Grazyna; Kroneck, Peter M H; Braaz, Reinhard; Jendrossek, Dieter

2010-08-01

471

Regulation of Cell Wall-Bound Invertase in Pepper Leaves by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type Three Effectors  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) possess a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into its Solanaceous host plants. These proteins are involved in suppression of plant defense and in reprogramming of plant metabolism to favour bacterial propagation. There is increasing evidence that hexoses contribute to defense responses. They act as substrates for metabolic processes and as metabolic semaphores to regulate gene expression. Especially an increase in the apoplastic hexose-to-sucrose ratio has been suggested to strengthen plant defense. This shift is brought about by the activity of cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv). We examined the possibility that Xcv may employ type 3 effector (T3E) proteins to suppress cw-Inv activity during infection. Indeed, pepper leaves infected with a T3SS-deficient Xcv strain showed a higher level of cw-Inv mRNA and enzyme activity relative to Xcv wild type infected leaves. Higher cw-Inv activity was paralleled by an increase in hexoses and mRNA abundance for the pathogenesis-related gene PRQ. These results suggest that Xcv suppresses cw-Inv activity in a T3SS-dependent manner, most likely to prevent sugar-mediated defense signals. To identify Xcv T3Es that regulate cw-Inv activity, a screen was performed with eighteen Xcv strains, each deficient in an individual T3E. Seven Xcv T3E deletion strains caused a significant change in cw-Inv activity compared to Xcv wild type. Among them, Xcv lacking the xopB gene (Xcv ?xopB) caused the most prominent increase in cw-Inv activity. Deletion of xopB increased the mRNA abundance of PRQ in Xcv ?xopB-infected pepper leaves, but not of Pti5 and Acre31, two PAMP-triggered immunity markers. Inducible expression of XopB in transgenic tobacco inhibited Xcv-mediated induction of cw-Inv activity observed in wild type plants and resulted in severe developmental phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that XopB interferes with cw-Inv activity in planta to suppress sugar-enhanced defense responses during Xcv infection. PMID:23272161

Sonnewald, Sophia; Priller, Johannes P. R.; Schuster, Julia; Glickmann, Eric; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Siebig, Stefan; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Sonnewald, Uwe

2012-01-01

472

Predicting Fusarium head blight epidemics with boosted regression trees.  

PubMed

Predicting major Fusarium head blight (FHB) epidemics allows for the judicious use of fungicides in suppressing disease development. Our objectives were to investigate the utility of boosted regression trees (BRTs) for predictive modeling of FHB epidemics in the United States, and to compare the predictive performances of the BRT models with those of logistic regression models we had developed previously. The data included 527 FHB observations from 15 states over 26 years. BRTs were fit to a training data set of 369 FHB observations, in which FHB epidemics were classified as either major (severity ? 10%) or non-major (severity < 10%), linked to a predictor matrix consisting of 350 weather-based variables and categorical variables for wheat type (spring or winter), presence or absence of corn residue, and cultivar resistance. Predictive performance was estimated on a test (holdout) data set consisting of the remaining 158 observations. BRTs had a misclassification rate of 0.23 on the test data, which was 31% lower than the average misclassification rate over 15 logistic regression models we had presented earlier. The strongest predictors were generally one of mean daily relative humidity, mean daily temperature, and the number of hours in which the temperature was between 9 and 30°C and relative humidity ? 90% simultaneously. Moreover, the predicted risk of major epidemics increased substantially when mean daily relative humidity rose above 70%, which is a lower threshold than previously modeled for most plant pathosystems. BRTs led to novel insights into the weather-epidemic relationship. PMID:24450462

Shah, D A; De Wolf, E D; Paul, P A; Madden, L V

2014-07-01

473

Surface-motility induction, attraction and hitchhiking between bacterial species promote dispersal on solid surfaces.  

PubMed

The ability to move on solid surfaces provides ecological advantages for bacteria, yet many bacterial species lack this trait. We found that Xanthomonas spp. overcome this limitation by making use of proficient motile bacteria in their vicinity. Using X. perforans and Paenibacillus vortex as models, we show that X. perforans induces surface motility, attracts proficient motile bacteria and 'rides' them for dispersal. In addition, X. perforans was able to restore surface motility of strains that lost this mode of motility under multiple growth cycles in the lab. The described interaction occurred both on agar plates and tomato leaves and was observed between several xanthomonads and motile bacterial species. Thus, suggesting that this motility induction and hitchhiking strategy might be widespread and ecologically important. This study provides an example as to how bacteria can rely on the abilities of their neighboring species for their own benefit, signifying the importance of a communal organization for fitness. PMID:24304675

Hagai, Efrat; Dvora, Reut; Havkin-Blank, Tal; Zelinger, Einat; Porat, Ziv; Schulz, Stefan; Helman, Yael

2014-05-01

474

PHENYLACETALDEHYDE O-METHYLOXIME: A VOLATILE COMPOUND FROM PLANTS INFECTED WITH CITRUS CANKER PATHOGENIC BACTERIUM, XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS PV. CITRI.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An aldehyde oxime o-methyl ether, phenylacetaldehyde o-methyloxime (PAAMO), was detected using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the headspace above grapefruit leaves infected with Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the causal agent of citrus bacte...

475

Chemotaxonomic significance of the xanthomonadins, novel brominated aryl-polyene pigments produced by bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell pigments produced by strains of Xanthomonas spp. (including representatives of all five presently recognized taxospecies of these phytopathogenic bacteria) have been isolated as isobutyl esters, purified, and characterized in terms of electronic absorption, chromatographic and co-chromatographic, and mass spectrometric properties. This comparative examination reveals that these bacteria produce brominated aryl-polyene pigments which are given the trivial name “xanthomonadins”.

Mortimer P. Starr; Christie L. Jenkins; Lee B. Bussey; Arthur G. Andrewes

1977-01-01

476

USE OF THE GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) TO STUDY SURVIVAL OF XANTHOMONAS AXONOPODIS ON CITRUS PLANT SURFACES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although much research has been conducted on survival of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) as an epiphyte some important issues remain unresolved. Xac can survive on non-symptomatic leaves for short periods (hours) as an epiphyte depending on the relative humidity conditions the leaves are subj...

477

Identification of novel type III secretion effectors in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Many gram-negative bacteria secrete so-called effector proteins via a type III secretion (T3S) system. Through genome screening for genes encoding potential T3S effectors, 60 candidates were selected from rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae MAFF311018 using these criteria: i) homologs of known T3S effectors in plant-pathogenic bacteria, ii) genes with expression regulated by hrp regulatory protein HrpX, or iii) proteins with N-terminal amino acid patterns associated with T3S substrates of Pseudomonas syringae. Of effector candidates tested with the Bordetella pertussis calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter for translocation into plant cells, 16 proteins were translocated in a T3S system-dependent manner. Of these 16 proteins, nine were homologs of known effectors in other plant-pathogenic bacteria and seven were not. Most of the effectors were widely conserved in Xanthomonas spp.; however, some were specific to X. oryzae. Interestingly, all these effectors were expressed in an HrpX-dependent manner, suggesting coregulation of effectors and the T3S system. In X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, HpaB and HpaC (HpaP in X. oryzae pv. oryzae) have a central role in recruiting T3S substrates to the secretion apparatus. Secretion of all but one effector was reduced in both HpaB() and HpaP() mutant strains, indicating that HpaB and HpaP are widely involved in efficient secretion of the effectors. PMID:19061406

Furutani, Ayako; Takaoka, Minako; Sanada, Harumi; Noguchi, Yukari; Oku, Takashi; Tsuno, Kazunori; Ochiai, Hirokazu; Tsuge, Seiji

2009-01-01