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1

The genome sequence of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae KACC10331, the bacterial blight pathogen of rice  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide sequence was determined for the genome of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (Xoo) KACC10331, a bacterium that causes bacterial blight in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The genome is comprised of a single, 4 941 439 bp, circular chromosome that is G + C rich (63.7%). The genome includes 4637 open reading frames (ORFs) of which 3340 (72.0%) could be assigned putative function. Orthologs for 80% of the predicted Xoo genes were found in the previously reported X.axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) and X.campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) genomes, but 245 genes apparently specific to Xoo were identified. Xoo genes likely to be associated with pathogenesis include eight with similarity to Xanthomonas avirulence (avr) genes, a set of hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity (hrp) genes, genes for exopolysaccharide production, and genes encoding extracellular plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. The presence of these genes provides insights into the interactions of this pathogen with its gramineous host. PMID:15673718

Lee, Byoung-Moo; Park, Young-Jin; Park, Dong-Suk; Kang, Hee-Wan; Kim, Jeong-Gu; Song, Eun-Sung; Park, In-Cheol; Yoon, Ung-Han; Hahn, Jang-Ho; Koo, Bon-Sung; Lee, Gil-Bok; Kim, Hyungtae; Park, Hyun-Seok; Yoon, Kyong-Oh; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Jung, Chol-hee; Koh, Nae-Hyung; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Go, Seung-Joo

2005-01-01

2

Involvement of catalase in bacterial Blight disease development of rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of catalase in determining the virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae isolates and the reaction of different rice cultivars to virulent isolates. Catalase, being an antioxidant enzyme, plays a major role in combating the toxic effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells. Among the 11 isolates studied, a variable level of catalase activity and

M. S. Choodamani; P. Hariprasad; M. K. Sateesh; S. Umesha

2009-01-01

3

Single Cell Culture of Xanthomonas Oryzae (Uyeda et Ishiyama) Dowson, The Casual Organism of Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various culture media were investigated for the purpose of single cell isolation of Xanthomonas oryzae. Colony formation from single cells in the case of a potato ring-rot medium supplemented with a hot water extract of the bacterial cells, rice seedling ...

T. Suwa

1969-01-01

4

In silico model of DSF synthase RpfF protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae: a novel target for bacterial blight of rice disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Rice plant diseases play a major role as biological constraints on production. One of such rice disease is bacterial leaf blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Xoo). The diffusible signal factor (DSF) synthesized by Xoo has a major role in virulence to rice plant. The DSF synthase RpfF protein, which is related to crotonase superfamily is responsible for the maintaining concentration of DSF. DSF-dependent quorum sensing (QS) system adopts protein- protein interaction mechanism to auto regulates the production of DSF. The antibacterial activity of pesticides against Xoo has not yet been completely understood. Three dimensional structure of RpfF protein was predicted using homology modeling method by MODELLER 9V9 software, SWISS MODEL and GENO3D online tools and structures were validated by Ramachandran plot, TM-Score and RMSD. 3D structure of RpfF (accession number AAL06345) was predicted using DSF synthase of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) (PDB ID: 3M6M) as a template. The stereo chemical check reveals the structure developed from the modeller was the best one and the potential ligand binding sites were identified by CASTp Server. The predicted RpfF model provides insight into its structure, active sites and aid in the development of novel inhibitors to control bacterial leaf blight in rice plant. DSF synthase RpfF protein could be used as a novel target to control infection PMID:22829719

Reddy, Vidavaluru Sravani; Kumar, Yellapu Nanda; Raghavendra, Aminedi; Sowjenya, Gopal; Kumar, Suman; Ramyasree, Guggulla; Reddy, Gottiprolu Rajarami

2012-01-01

5

Promoter elements of rice susceptibility genes are bound and activated by specific TAL effectors from the bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

*Plant pathogenic bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas inject transcription activator-like effector (TALe) proteins that bind to and activate host promoters, thereby promoting disease or inducing plant defense. TALes bind to corresponding UPT (up-regulated by TALe) promoter boxes via tandemly arranged 34/35-amino acid repeats. Recent studies uncovered the TALe code in which two amino acid residues of each repeat define specific pairing to UPT boxes. *Here we employed the TALe code to predict potential UPT boxes in TALe-induced host promoters and analyzed these via beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). *We demonstrate that the Xa13, OsTFX1 and Os11N3 promoters from rice are induced directly by the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae TALes PthXo1, PthXo6 and AvrXa7, respectively. We identified and functionally validated a UPT box in the corresponding rice target promoter for each TALe and show that box mutations suppress TALe-mediated promoter activation. Finally, EMSA demonstrate that code-predicted UPT boxes interact specifically with corresponding TALes. *Our findings show that variations in the UPT boxes of different rice accessions correlate with susceptibility or resistance of these accessions to the bacterial blight pathogen. PMID:20345643

Römer, Patrick; Recht, Sabine; Strauss, Tina; Elsaesser, Janett; Schornack, Sebastian; Boch, Jens; Wang, Shiping; Lahaye, Thomas

2010-09-01

6

The broad bacterial blight resistance of rice line CBB23 is triggered by a novel transcription activator-like (TAL) effector of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Bacterial blight (BB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is not only a disease devastating rice production worldwide, but also an ideal model system for the study of the interaction between plants and their bacterial pathogens. The rice near-isogenic line (NIL) CBB23, derived from a cross between a wild rice Oryza rufipogon accession (RBB16) and a susceptible indica rice variety (Jingang 30), is highly resistant to all field Xoo strains tested so far. Although the BB resistance of CBB23 has been widely used in rice breeding programmes, the mechanism of its extremely broad-spectrum resistance remains unknown. Here, we report the molecular cloning of an avirulence gene, designated as avrXa23, from Xoo strain PXO99(A) . We validate that AvrXa23, a novel transcription activator-like effector, specifically triggers the broad-spectrum BB resistance in CBB23. The prevalence of avrXa23 in all 38 Xoo strains surveyed may explain the broad-spectrum feature of BB resistance in CBB23. The results will significantly facilitate the molecular cloning of the corresponding resistance (R) gene in the host, and provide new insights into our understanding of the molecular mechanism for broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants. PMID:24286630

Wang, Chun-Lian; Qin, Teng-Fei; Yu, Hong-Man; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Che, Jin-Ying; Gao, Ying; Zheng, Chong-Ke; Yang, Bing; Zhao, Kai-Jun

2014-05-01

7

Diversity of bacteriophages infecting Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in paddy fields and its potential to control bacterial leaf blight of rice.  

PubMed

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a very serious disease in rice-growing regions of the world. In spite of their economic importance, there are no effective ways of protecting rice plants from this disease. Bacteriophages infecting Xoo affect the population dynamics of the pathogen and consequently the occurrence of the disease. In this study, we investigated the diversity, host range, and infectivity of Xoo phages, and their use as a bicontrol agent on BLB was tested. Among the 34 phages that were isolated from floodwater in paddy fields, 29 belonged to the Myoviridae family, which suggests that the dominant phage in the ecosystem was Myoviridae. The isolated phages were classified into two groups based on plaque size produced on the lawn of Xoo. In general, there was a negative relationship between plaque size and host range, and interestingly the phages having a narrow host range had low efficiency of infectivity. The deduced protein sequence analysis of htf genes indicated that the gene was not a determinant of host specificity. Although the difference in host range and infectivity depending on morphotype needs to be addressed, the results revealed deeper understanding of the interaction between the phages and Xoo strains in floodwater and damp soil environments. The phage mixtures reduced the occurrence of BLB when they were treated with skim milk. The results indicate that the Xoo phages could be used as an alternative control method to increase the control efficacy and reduce the use of agrochemicals. PMID:24651644

Chae, Jong-Chan; Hung, Nguyen Bao; Yu, Sang-Mi; Lee, Ha Kyung; Lee, Yong Hoon

2014-06-28

8

Two type III effector genes of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae control the induction of the host genes OsTFIIAgamma1 and OsTFX1 during bacterial blight of rice.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strain PXO99(A) induces the expression of the host gene Os8N3, which results in increased host susceptibility to bacterial blight of rice. Here, we show that PXO99(A) affects the expression of two additional genes in a type III secretion system-dependent manner, one encoding a bZIP transcription factor (OsTFX1) and the other the small subunit of the transcription factor IIA located on chromosome 1 (OsTFIIAgamma1). Induction of OsTFX1 and OsTFIIAgamma1 depended on the type III effector genes pthXo6 and pthXo7, respectively, both encoding two previously undescribed members of the transcription activator-like (TAL) effector family. pthXo7 is strain-specific and may reflect adaptation to the resistance mediated by xa5, an allele of OsTFIIAgamma5 encoding a second form of the TFIIA small subunit on chromosome 5 of rice. The loss of pthXo6 resulted in reduced pathogen virulence, and ectopic expression of OsTFX1 abrogated the requirement for pthXo6 for full virulence. X. oryzae pv. oryzae therefore modulates the expression of multiple host genes using multiple TAL effectors from a single strain, and evidence supports the hypothesis that expression of the associated host genes contributes to host susceptibility to disease. PMID:17563377

Sugio, Akiko; Yang, Bing; Zhu, Tong; White, Frank F

2007-06-19

9

TPCP: Bacterial Blight of Eucalyptus BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF EUCALYPTUS  

E-print Network

hinders the ability of forestry companies to produce vegetative material for rooting. There are, however planting stock on which forestry in South Africa is based. SYMPTOMS AND OCCURRENCE Typical symptoms surfaces of cuttings and reduces their ability to root by nearly 100%. MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Bacterial

10

Development of an Engineered Bioluminescent Reporter Phage for Detection of Bacterial Blight of Crucifers  

PubMed Central

Bacterial blight, caused by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, is an emerging disease afflicting important members of the Brassicaceae family. The disease is often misdiagnosed as pepper spot, a much less severe disease caused by the related pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. We have developed a phage-based diagnostic that can both identify and detect the causative agent of bacterial blight and differentiate the two pathogens. A recombinant “light”-tagged reporter phage was generated by integrating bacterial luxAB genes encoding luciferase into the genome of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis phage PBSPCA1. The PBSPCA1::luxAB reporter phage is viable and stable and retains properties similar to those of the wild-type phage. PBSPCA1::luxAB rapidly and sensitively detects P. cannabina pv. alisalensis by conferring a bioluminescent signal response to cultured cells. Detection is dependent on cell viability. Other bacterial pathogens of Brassica species such as P. syringae pv. maculicola, Pseudomonas marginalis, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, and X. campestris pv. raphani either do not produce a response or produce significantly attenuated signals with the reporter phage. Importantly, the reporter phage detects P. cannabina pv. alisalensis on diseased plant specimens, indicating its potential for disease diagnosis. PMID:22427491

Bull, Carolee T.; Rubio, Isael; Wechter, W. Patrick; Westwater, Caroline; Molineux, Ian J.

2012-01-01

11

Physiological Studies on Xanthomonas axonopodis Pv Manihotis (Xam) Strains Isolated in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam) is the causal agent of cassava bacterial blight (CBB) worldwide. To develop a well-organized disease management policy in a country, the diversity of pathogens population must be known. The bacterial populations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv manihotis (Xam) obtained as flora cassava leaves and stems, in Nigeria were characterized by their biochemical and the physiological reactions

A. A. Ogunjobi; O. E. Fagade; A. G. O. Dixon

12

Genomic survey of pathogenicity determinants and VNTR markers in the cassava bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis strain CIO151.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is the causal agent of bacterial blight of cassava, which is among the main components of human diet in Africa and South America. Current information about the molecular pathogenicity factors involved in the infection process of this organism is limited. Previous studies in other bacteria in this genus suggest that advanced draft genome sequences are valuable resources for molecular studies on their interaction with plants and could provide valuable tools for diagnostics and detection. Here we have generated the first manually annotated high-quality draft genome sequence of Xam strain CIO151. Its genomic structure is similar to that of other xanthomonads, especially Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and Xanthomonas citri pv. citri species. Several putative pathogenicity factors were identified, including type III effectors, cell wall-degrading enzymes and clusters encoding protein secretion systems. Specific characteristics in this genome include changes in the xanthomonadin cluster that could explain the lack of typical yellow color in all strains of this pathovar and the presence of 50 regions in the genome with atypical nucleotide composition. The genome sequence was used to predict and evaluate 22 variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci that were subsequently demonstrated as polymorphic in representative Xam strains. Our results demonstrate that Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis strain CIO151 possesses ten clusters of pathogenicity factors conserved within the genus Xanthomonas. We report 126 genes that are potentially unique to Xam, as well as potential horizontal transfer events in the history of the genome. The relation of these regions with virulence and pathogenicity could explain several aspects of the biology of this pathogen, including its ability to colonize both vascular and non-vascular tissues of cassava plants. A set of 16 robust, polymorphic VNTR loci will be useful to develop a multi-locus VNTR analysis scheme for epidemiological surveillance of this disease. PMID:24278159

Arrieta-Ortiz, Mario L; Rodríguez-R, Luis M; Pérez-Quintero, Álvaro L; Poulin, Lucie; Díaz, Ana C; Arias Rojas, Nathalia; Trujillo, Cesar; Restrepo Benavides, Mariana; Bart, Rebecca; Boch, Jens; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; David, Perrine; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Fontanilla, Paula; Gagnevin, Lionel; Guérin, Fabien; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Medina, Cesar; Medina, Edgar; Montenegro, Nathaly; Muñoz Bodnar, Alejandra; Noël, Laurent D; Ortiz Quiñones, Juan F; Osorio, Daniela; Pardo, Carolina; Patil, Prabhu B; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Ryan, Robert P; Tabima, Javier; Urrego Morales, Oscar G; Vernière, Christian; Carrere, Sébastien; Verdier, Valérie; Szurek, Boris; Restrepo, Silvia; López, Camilo; Koebnik, Ralf; Bernal, Adriana

2013-01-01

13

Genomic Survey of Pathogenicity Determinants and VNTR Markers in the Cassava Bacterial Pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis Strain CIO151  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam) is the causal agent of bacterial blight of cassava, which is among the main components of human diet in Africa and South America. Current information about the molecular pathogenicity factors involved in the infection process of this organism is limited. Previous studies in other bacteria in this genus suggest that advanced draft genome sequences are valuable resources for molecular studies on their interaction with plants and could provide valuable tools for diagnostics and detection. Here we have generated the first manually annotated high-quality draft genome sequence of Xam strain CIO151. Its genomic structure is similar to that of other xanthomonads, especially Xanthomonas euvesicatoria and Xanthomonas citri pv. citri species. Several putative pathogenicity factors were identified, including type III effectors, cell wall-degrading enzymes and clusters encoding protein secretion systems. Specific characteristics in this genome include changes in the xanthomonadin cluster that could explain the lack of typical yellow color in all strains of this pathovar and the presence of 50 regions in the genome with atypical nucleotide composition. The genome sequence was used to predict and evaluate 22 variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) loci that were subsequently demonstrated as polymorphic in representative Xam strains. Our results demonstrate that Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis strain CIO151 possesses ten clusters of pathogenicity factors conserved within the genus Xanthomonas. We report 126 genes that are potentially unique to Xam, as well as potential horizontal transfer events in the history of the genome. The relation of these regions with virulence and pathogenicity could explain several aspects of the biology of this pathogen, including its ability to colonize both vascular and non-vascular tissues of cassava plants. A set of 16 robust, polymorphic VNTR loci will be useful to develop a multi-locus VNTR analysis scheme for epidemiological surveillance of this disease. PMID:24278159

Arrieta-Ortiz, Mario L.; Rodriguez-R, Luis M.; Perez-Quintero, Alvaro L.; Poulin, Lucie; Diaz, Ana C.; Arias Rojas, Nathalia; Trujillo, Cesar; Restrepo Benavides, Mariana; Bart, Rebecca; Boch, Jens; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; David, Perrine; Duge de Bernonville, Thomas; Fontanilla, Paula; Gagnevin, Lionel; Guerin, Fabien; Jacques, Marie-Agnes; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Medina, Cesar; Medina, Edgar; Montenegro, Nathaly; Munoz Bodnar, Alejandra; Noel, Laurent D.; Ortiz Quinones, Juan F.; Osorio, Daniela; Pardo, Carolina; Patil, Prabhu B.; Poussier, Stephane; Pruvost, Olivier; Robene-Soustrade, Isabelle; Ryan, Robert P.; Tabima, Javier; Urrego Morales, Oscar G.; Verniere, Christian; Carrere, Sebastien; Verdier, Valerie; Szurek, Boris; Restrepo, Silvia; Lopez, Camilo

2013-01-01

14

Pyramiding B genes in cotton achieves broader but not always higher resistance to bacterial blight.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Near-isogenic lines of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) carrying single, race-specific genes B4, BIn, and b7 for resistance to bacterial blight were used to develop a pyramid of lines with all possible combinations of two and three genes to learn whether the pyramid could achieve broad and high resistance approaching that of L. A. Brinkerhoff's exceptional line Im216. Isogenic strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum carrying single avirulence (avr) genes were used to identify plants carrying specific resistance (B) genes. Under field conditions in north-central Oklahoma, pyramid lines exhibited broader resistance to individual races and, consequently, higher resistance to a race mixture. It was predicted that lines carrying two or three B genes would also exhibit higher resistance to race 1, which possesses many avr genes. Although some enhancements were observed, they did not approach the level of resistance of Im216. In a growth chamber, bacterial populations attained by race 1 in and on leaves of the pyramid lines decreased significantly with increasing number of B genes in only one of four experiments. The older lines, Im216 and AcHR, exhibited considerably lower bacterial populations than any of the one-, two-, or three-B-gene lines. A spreading collapse of spray-inoculated AcBIn and AcBInb7 leaves appears to be a defense response (conditioned by BIn) that is out of control. PMID:24655289

Essenberg, Margaret; Bayles, Melanie B; Pierce, Margaret L; Verhalen, Laval M

2014-10-01

15

Characterization of the pigment xanthomonadin in the bacterial genus Xanthomonas using micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used micro- and resonance Raman spectroscopy with 785 nm and 514.5 nm laser excitation, respectively, to characterize a plant pathogenic bacteria, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae D150. The bacterial genus Xathomonas is closely related to bacterial genus Stenotrophomonas that causes an infection in humans. This study has identified for the first time the unique Raman spectra of the carotenoid-like pigment xanthomonadin of the Xanthomonas strain. Xanthomonadin is a brominated aryl-polyene pigment molecule similar to carotenoids. Further studies were conducted using resonance Raman spectroscopy with 514.5 nm laser excitation on several strains of the bacterial genus Xanthomonas isolated from numerous plants from various geographical locations. The current study revealed that the Raman bands representing the vibrations (v1, v2, v3) of the polyene chain of xanthomonadin are 1003-1005 (v3), 1135-1138 (v2), and 1530 (v1). Overtone bands representing xanthomonadin were identified as 2264-2275 (2v2), and combinational bands at 2653-2662 (v1+ v2). The findings from this study validate our previous finding that the Raman fingerprints of xanthomonadin are unique for the genus Xanthomonas. This facilitates rapid identification (~5 minutes) of Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial culture plates. The xanthomonadin marker is different from Raman markers of many other bacterial genus including Agrobacterium, Bacillus, Clavibacter, Enterobacter, Erwinia, Microbacterium, Paenibacillus, and Ralstonia. This study also identified Xanthomonas spp. from bacterial strains isolated from a diseased wheat sample on a culture plate.

Paret, Mathews L.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Acosta, Tayro; deSilva, Asoka S.; Vowell, Tomie; Alvarez, Anne M.

2012-06-01

16

Inheritance of resistance to bacterial blight in 21 cultivars of rice.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Genetic analysis for resistance to bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) of 21 rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars was carried out. These cultivars were divided into two groups based on their reactions to Philippine races of bacterial blight. Cultivars of group 1 were resistant to race 1 and those of group 2 were susceptible to race 1 but resistant to race 2. All the cultivars were crossed with TN1, which is susceptible to all the Philippine races of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. F(1) and F(2) populations of hybrids of group 1 cultivars were evaluated using race 1 and F(1) and F(2) populations of hybrids of group 2 cultivars were evaluated using race 2. All the cultivars showed monogenic inheritance of resistance. Allelic relationships of the genes were investigated by crossing these cultivars with different testers having single genes for resistance. Three cultivars have Xa4, another three have xa5, one has xa8, two have Xa3, eight have Xa10, and one has Xa4 as well as Xa10. Three cultivars have new, as yet undescribed, genes. Nep Bha Bong To has a new recessive gene for moderate resistance to races 1, 2, and 3 and resistance to race 5. This gene is designated xa26(t). Arai Raj has a dominant gene for resistance to race 2 which segregates independently of Xa10. This gene is designated as Xa27(t). Lota Sail has a recessive gene for resistance to race 2 which segregates independently of Xa10. This gene is designated as xa28(t). PMID:18943128

Lee, K S; Rasabandith, S; Angeles, E R; Khush, G S

2003-02-01

17

Epidemiological study of hazelnut bacterial blight in central Italy by using laboratory analysis and geostatistics.  

PubMed

Incidence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. corylina, the causal agent of hazelnut bacterial blight, was analyzed spatially in relation to the pedoclimatic factors. Hazelnut grown in twelve municipalities situated in the province of Viterbo, central Italy was studied. A consistent number of bacterial isolates were obtained from the infected tissues of hazelnut collected in three years (2010-2012). The isolates, characterized by phenotypic tests, did not show any difference among them. Spatial patterns of pedoclimatic data, analyzed by geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation of disease incidence with higher values of rainfall, thermal shock and soil nitrogen; a weak positive correlation with soil aluminium content and a strong negative correlation with the values of Mg/K ratio. No correlation of the disease incidence was found with soil pH. Disease incidence ranged from very low (<1%) to very high (almost 75%) across the orchards. Young plants (4-year old) were the most affected by the disease confirming a weak negative correlation of the disease incidence with plant age. Plant cultivars did not show any difference in susceptibility to the pathogen. Possible role of climate change on the epidemiology of the disease is discussed. Improved management practices are recommended for effective control of the disease. PMID:23424654

Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Fabi, Alfredo; Ridolfi, Roberto; Varvaro, Leonardo

2013-01-01

18

Development of candidate gene markers associated to common bacterial blight resistance in common bean.  

PubMed

Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is a major yield-limiting factor of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production around the world. Two major CBB-resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL), linked to the sequence characterized amplified region markers BC420 and SU91, are located at chromosomes 6 and 8, respectively. Using map-based cloning approach, four bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the BC420-QTL locus and one BAC clone containing SU91 were sequenced by Roche 454 technique and subsequently assembled using merged assemblies from three different programs. Based on the quality of the assembly, only the sequences of BAC 32H6 and 4K7 were used for candidate gene marker (CGM) development and candidate gene (CG) selection. For the BC420-QTL locus, 21 novel genes were predicted in silico by FGENESH using Medicago gene model, whereas 16 genes were identified in the SU91-QTL locus. For each putative gene, one or more primer pairs were designed and tested in the contrasting near isogenic lines. Overall, six and nine polymorphic markers were found in the SU91- and BC420-QTL loci, respectively. Afterwards, association mapping was conducted in a breeding population of 395 dry bean lines to discover marker-trait associations. Two CGMs per each locus showed better association with CBB resistance than the BC420 and SU91 markers, which include BC420-CG10B and BC420-CG14 for BC420_QTL locus, and SU91-CG10 and SU91-CG11 for SU91_QTL locus. The strong associations between CBB resistance and the CGs 10 and 14 from BC420_QTL locus and the CGs 10 and 11 from SU91_QTL locus indicate that the genes 10 and 14 from the BC420 locus are potential CGs underlying the BC420_QTL locus, whereas the genes 10 and 11 from the SU91 locus are potential CGs underlying the SU91_QTL locus. The superiority of SU91-CG11 was further validated in a recombinant inbred line population Sanilac × OAC 09-3. Thus, co-dominant CGMs, BC420-CG14 and SU91-CG11, are recommended to replace BC420 and SU91 for marker-assisted selection of common bean with resistance to CBB. PMID:22798059

Shi, Chun; Yu, Kangfu; Xie, Weilong; Perry, Gregory; Navabi, Alireza; Pauls, K Peter; Miklas, Phillip N; Fourie, Deidré

2012-11-01

19

Association mapping of common bacterial blight resistance QTL in Ontario bean breeding populations  

PubMed Central

Background Common bacterial blight (CBB), incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is a major yield-limiting factor of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production around the world. Host resistance is practically the most effective and environmentally-sound approach to control CBB. Unlike conventional QTL discovery strategies, in which bi-parental populations (F2, RIL, or DH) need to be developed, association mapping-based strategies can use plant breeding populations to synchronize QTL discovery and cultivar development. Results A population of 469 dry bean lines of different market classes representing plant materials routinely developed in a bean breeding program were used. Of them, 395 lines were evaluated for CBB resistance at 14 and 21 DAI (Days After Inoculation) in the summer of 2009 in an artificially inoculated CBB nursery in south-western Ontario. All lines were genotyped using 132 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) evenly distributed across the genome. Of the 132 SNPs, 26 SNPs had more than 20% missing data, 12 SNPs were monomorphic, and 17 SNPs had a MAF (Minor Allelic Frequency) of less than 0.20, therefore only 75 SNPs were used for association study, based on one SNP per locus. The best possible population structure was to assign 36% and 64% of the lines into Andean and Mesoamerican subgroups, respectively. Kinship analysis also revealed complex familial relationships among all lines, which corresponds with the known pedigree history. MLM (Mixed Linear Model) analysis, including population structure and kinship, was used to discover marker-trait associations. Eighteen and 22 markers were significantly associated with CBB rating at 14 and 21 DAI, respectively. Fourteen markers were significant for both dates and the markers UBC420, SU91, g321, g471, and g796 were highly significant (p ? 0.001). Furthermore, 12 significant SNP markers were co-localized with or close to the CBB-QTLs identified previously in bi-parental QTL mapping studies. Conclusions This study demonstrated that association mapping using a reasonable number of markers, distributed across the genome and with application of plant materials that are routinely developed in a plant breeding program can detect significant QTLs for traits of interest. PMID:21435233

2011-01-01

20

Draft Genome Sequence of the Flagellated Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans Strain CFBP 4884.  

PubMed

We report the draft genome sequence of the flagellated strain CFBP 4884 of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans, which was isolated in an outbreak of common bacterial blight of beans along with non-flagellated strains. Comparative genomics will allow one to decipher the genomic diversity of strains cohabiting in epidemics. PMID:25291773

Indiana, A; Briand, M; Arlat, M; Gagnevin, L; Koebnik, R; Noël, L D; Portier, P; Darrasse, A; Jacques, M A

2014-01-01

21

Draft Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii Strain CFBP 6369  

PubMed Central

We report here the draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii strain CFBP 6369, the causal agent of bacterial blight of onion. The draft genome has a size of 5,425,942 bp and a G+C content of 64.4%. PMID:25081256

Bolot, S.; Gordon, J. L.; Pruvost, O.; Verniere, C.; Robene, I.; Arlat, M.; Noel, L. D.; Carrere, S.; Jacques, M.-A.; Koebnik, R.

2014-01-01

22

Draft Genome Sequence of the Flagellated Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans Strain CFBP 4884  

PubMed Central

We report the draft genome sequence of the flagellated strain CFBP 4884 of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans, which was isolated in an outbreak of common bacterial blight of beans along with non-flagellated strains. Comparative genomics will allow one to decipher the genomic diversity of strains cohabiting in epidemics. PMID:25291773

Indiana, A.; Briand, M.; Arlat, M.; Gagnevin, L.; Koebnik, R.; Noel, L. D.; Portier, P.; Darrasse, A.

2014-01-01

23

Genome sequence and rapid evolution of the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO99A  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major disease that constrains production of this staple crop in many parts of the world. We report here on the complete genome sequence of strain PXO99A and its comparison to two previously sequenced strains, KACC10331 and MAFF311018, which are highly similar to one another. RESULTS: The

Steven L Salzberg; Daniel D Sommer; Michael C Schatz; Adam M Phillippy; Pablo D Rabinowicz; Seiji Tsuge; Ayako Furutani; Hirokazu Ochiai; Arthur L Delcher; David Kelley; Ramana Madupu; Daniela Puiu; Diana Radune; Martin Shumway; Cole Trapnell; Gudlur Aparna; Gopaljee Jha; Alok Pandey; Prabhu B Patil; Hiromichi Ishihara; Damien F Meyer; Boris Szurek; Valerie Verdier; Ralf Koebnik; J Maxwell Dow; Robert P Ryan; Hisae Hirata; Shinji Tsuyumu; Sang Won Lee; Pamela C Ronald; Ramesh V Sonti; Marie-Anne Van Sluys; Jan E Leach; Frank F White; Adam J Bogdanove

2008-01-01

24

Rubber-degrading enzyme from a bacterial culture. [Xanthomonas sp  

SciTech Connect

Rubber-degrading activity was found in the extracellular culture medium of Xanthomonas sp. strain 35Y which was grown on natural rubber latex. Natural rubber in the latex state was degraded by the crude enzyme, and two fractions were separately observed by gel permeation chromatography of the reaction products. One fraction was of higher molecular weight (HMW) with a very wide MW distribution from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 5}, and the other fraction was of lower molecular weight (LMW) with a MW of a few hundred. {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of the partially purified fractions were those expected of cis-1,4-polyisoprene mixtures with the structure OHC-CH{sub 2}-(-CH{sub 2}-C(-CH{sub 3})=CH-CH{sub 2}-){sub n}-CH{sub 2}-C(=O)-CH{sub 3}, with average values of n of about 113 and 2 for HMW and LMW fractions, respectively. The LMW fraction consisted mostly of one component in gas-liquid chromatography as well as in gel permeation chromatography, and the main component was identified as 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyl trideca-4,8-diene-1-al (acetonyl diprenyl acetoaldehyde, A{sub L}P{sub 2}A{sub t}) by {sup 13}C-nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectra. Not only the lattices of natural and synthetic isoprene rubber, but also some kinds of low-MW polyisoprene compounds of cis-1,4 type, were degraded by the crude enzyme. The rubber-degrading reaction was found to be at least partly oxygenase catalyzed from the incorporation of {sup 18}O into A{sub L}P{sub 2}A{sub t} under an {sup 18}O{sub 2} atmosphere.

Tsuchii, A.; Takeda, K. (Fermentation Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan))

1990-01-01

25

Bacterial Blight of Soybean: Regulation of a Pathogen Gene Determining Host Cultivar Specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean cultivars resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar glycinea (Psg), the causal agent of bacterial blight, exhibit a hypersensitive (necrosis) reaction (HR) to infection. Psg strains carrying the avrB gene elicit the HR in soybean cultivars carrying the resistance gene Rpg1. Psg expressing avrB at a high level and capable of eliciting the HR in the absence of de novo bacterial

Thanh V. Huynh; Douglas Dahlbeck; Brian J. Staskawicz

1989-01-01

26

Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in artificially inoculated and naturally infected rice seeds and plants by molecular techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was developed for detecting the presence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial leaf blight (BLB) pathogen in rice seed and for studying the transmission of this bacterium from seed to plant. Primers TXT and TXT4R from an insertion sequence (IS1113) of the pathogen were used to amplify a 964-bp DNA fragment. A combined

N. Sakthivel; C. N. Mortensen; S. B. Mathur

2001-01-01

27

Bacterial blight of soybean: Regulation of a pathogen gene determining host cultivar specificity  

SciTech Connect

Soybean cultivars resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar glycinea (Psg), the causal agent of bacterial blight, exhibit a hypersensitive (necrosis) reaction (HR) to infection. Psg strains carrying the avrB gene elicit the HR in soybean cultivars carrying the resistance gene Rpg1. Psg expressing avrB at a high level and capable of eliciting the HR in the absence of de novo bacterial RNA synthesis have been obtained in in vitro culture. Nutritional signals and regions within the Psg hrp gene cluster, an approximately 20-kilobase genomic region also necessary for pathogenicity, control avrB transcription.

Huynh, T.V.; Dahlbeck, D.; Staskawicz, B.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1989-09-22

28

Persistence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vignicola in weeds and crop debris and identification of Sphenostylis stenocarpa as a potential new host  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vignicola, incitant of cowpea bacterial blight and pustule, in residues of infested cowpea leaves was studied in the field in the forest savanna transition zone of South Benin and under variable controlled conditions. The pathogen survived for up to 60 days when placed on the soil surface, and up to 45 days buried at

Rachidatou Sikirou; Kerstin Wydra

2004-01-01

29

Detection of Xanthomonas fragariae and presumptive detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. fragariae, from strawberry leaves, by real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Real-time (TaqMan) PCR assays were developed to detect the strawberry angular leaf spot pathogen Xanthomonas fragariae (Xf) and the strawberry bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. fragariae (Xaf). The Xf PCR (Xf gyrB) was designed within regions of the gyraseB gene, unique to Xf, after generating gyraseB DNA sequence data from Xf and other closely related strains. The Xaf PCR (Xaf pep) was designed within regions of the pep prolyl endopeptidase gene that were unique to Xaf, after generating pep DNA sequence data from Xf and Xaf strains. The Xf gyrB PCR detected only Xf strains amongst a panel of 20 Xanthomonas-related spp. and pathovars. The Xaf pep PCR assay detected all Xaf strains tested plus two other (of three tested) X. arboricola pathovars. An existing genomic DNA extraction protocol was modified to facilitate detection of both pathogens to 10(3) cells per strawberry leaf disc. PMID:17588695

Weller, S A; Beresford-Jones, N J; Hall, J; Thwaites, R; Parkinson, N; Elphinstone, J G

2007-08-01

30

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for bacterial enumeration and allelic discrimination to differentiate xanthomonas strains on citrus.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) was developed for identification and enumeration of bacteria in citrus plant samples infected with Xanthomonas axonopodis pvs. citri and citrumelo, the cause of citrus bacterial canker (CBC) and citrus bacterial spot (CBS), respectively. Three sets of primers based on the pathogenicity gene (pth) in X. axonopodis pv. citri, a ribosomal gene in X. axonopodis pv. citrumelo, and the leucine-responsive regulatory protein (lrp) in both pathovars were combined with TaqMan probes and applied for specific strain detection and quantification. Calibration curves for bacterial abundance in plant samples obtained with the three primer-probe combinations were congruent with colony counts on plates of semiselective medium in most of the cases. However, apparent overestimation of bacterial cells by QRT-PCR indicated the presence of nonculturable or nonviable cells in some samples. In addition to quantification, the lrp primers and probes permitted differentiation by allelic discrimination of Xanthomonas strains infecting citrus tissues. This technique is based on the utilization of two probes that detect a single nucleotide difference in the target sequence between different strains and was validated with a collection of cultured Xanthomonas strains as well as tissue with CBC and CBS lesions. Allelic discrimination is demonstrated to be a more specific and sensitive protocol than previously developed PCR-based methods for strain identification and quantification. PMID:18943365

Cubero, J; Graham, J H

2005-11-01

31

[Polyvalence of bacteriophages isolated from fruit trees, affected by bacterial fire blight].  

PubMed

Phage populations appearing as a result of a pathogenic process caused by Erwinia amylovora have been discovered and described. They accompany bacterial fire blight development in the process of quince, pear and apple trees vegetation in Zakarpattya region of Ukraine. Phage isolates of the affected pear and quince include polyvalent virulent phages able to develop on bacterial strains associated with plants--E. amylovora. E. "horticola" and Pantoea agglomerans. E. amylovora isolated from the plant tissues affected by the fire blight and detected at the same time as phages proved to be resistant to the viral infection. It is hard to explain now this characteristic however it was noticed that resistance to phages can change drastically in case of dissociation, lysogenization and mutagenesis of erwinia in laboratory conditions. Phage population study shows that they are heterogeneous and can obviously include not only polyvalent but also specific viruses. Further studies of biology and molecular genetics of pure lines of isolated phages will help to get closer to understanding the place and role of bacteriophages in the complicated network of relations between bacterial pathogens and plants. PMID:23720968

Tovkach, F I; Moroz, S N; Korol', N A; Fa?diuk, Iu V; Kushkina, A I

2013-01-01

32

Epidemiological effect of gene deployment strategies on bacterial blight of rice.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Experiments were conducted in farmers' fields at two locations of the irrigated lowlands of Laguna province in southern Luzon island, Philippines, during the wet seasons of 1993 and 1994. Nine rice populations were studied including pure stands, two-component mixtures, two-gene combinations of backcrossed lines containing varying combinations of the bacterial blight resistance genes Xa-4, xa-5, and Xa-10, and a non-isogenic cultivar containing Xa-4 and partial resistance to bacterial blight. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) of both gene combinations studied was significantly less than the single most effective gene of each combination deployed singly. A mixture of a susceptible and a resistant line expressed an AUDPC significantly less than the mean of its component pure stands, but two other mixtures did not. The cultivar IR20, which contains both Xa-4 and partial resistance, reduced the AUDPC by about two-thirds as compared with IR-BB4, which contains Xa-4 and little or no partial resistance. PMID:18945155

Ahmed, H U; Finckh, M R; Alfonso, R F; Mundt, C C

1997-01-01

33

Identification of non-TAL effectors in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Chinese strain 13751 and analysis of their role in the bacterial virulence.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial leaf blight, one of the most important rice bacterial diseases in China and many other countries. The upstream portions of 41 candidate genes encoding non-transcription activator-like effectors of Xoo Chinese strain 13751 were fused with the coding sequence of AvrBs159-445 in a broad host-range vector. The constructed plasmids were respectively introduced into Xoo strain 13751 and avrBs1 deletion mutant of X. campestris pv. campestris strain 8004 by tri-parental conjugation. The resultant transconjugants were respectively tested for hypersensitive response (HR) elicitation on pepper ECW-10R. Nine strains were able to elicit HR on pepper, indicating that the nine genes (XOO0037, XOO0103, XOO0110, XOO0315, XOO1488, XOO2875, XOO3150, XOO3222 and XOO4134) encoded effectors. Among them, xopAE 13751 (XOO0110), expressed in Xoo strain 13751 growing in rice leaves, was a new experimentally confirmed effector gene. XopAE13751 contains 11 leucine rich repeats. Furthermore, mutants for the nine effector genes were created in Xoo strain 13751 and subsequently tested for virulence in rice. As a result, only the xopR 13751 (XOO4134) deletion mutant GXMxopR showed a significant reduction in virulence in hybrid rice cv. Teyou63 compared to the wild type. However, the growth of GXMxopR in host plant rice was not affected. These results indicated that xopR 13751 was required for full virulence of Xoo strain 13751 by inducing rice disease tolerance. PMID:23296915

Zhao, Shuai; Mo, Wei-Lan; Wu, Fan; Tang, Wei; Tang, Ji-Liang; Szurek, Boris; Verdier, Valérie; Koebnik, Ralf; Feng, Jia-Xun

2013-04-01

34

Bacterial blight (Pseudomonas pisi Sackett) of peas in South Africa, with special reference to frost as a predisposing factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the beginning of the nineteen fifties bacterial blight caused much damage to pea crops in South Africa, particularly to those grown for seed production. A study has been made of the causal organism and the conditioning factors of the disease, special attention being paid to frost as a predisposing factor.The symptoms of the disease vary according to weather conditions

B. H. Boelema

1972-01-01

35

TaCPK2-A, a calcium-dependent protein kinase gene that is required for wheat powdery mildew resistance enhances bacterial blight resistance in transgenic rice  

PubMed Central

Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are important Ca2+ signalling components involved in complex immune and stress signalling networks; but the knowledge of CPK gene functions in the hexaploid wheat is limited. Previously, TaCPK2 was shown to be inducible by powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis tritici, Bgt) infection in wheat. Here, its functions in disease resistance are characterized further. This study shows the presence of defence-response and cold-response cis-elements on the promoters of the A subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-A) and D subgenome homoeologue (TaCPK2-D), respectively. Their expression patterns were then confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) using genome-specific primers, where TaCPK2-A was induced by Bgt treatment while TaCPK2-D mainly responded to cold treatment. Downregulation of TaCPK2-A by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) causes loss of resistance to Bgt in resistant wheat lines, indicating that TaCPK2-A is required for powdery mildew resistance. Furthermore, overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice enhanced bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, Xoo) resistance. qRT-PCR analysis showed that overexpression of TaCPK2-A in rice promoted the expression of OsWRKY45-1, a transcription factor involved in both fungal and bacterial resistance by regulating jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signalling genes. The opposite effect was found in wheat TaCPK2-A VIGS plants, where the homologue of OsWRKY45-1 was significantly repressed. These data suggest that modulation of WRKY45-1 and associated defence-response genes by CPK2 genes may be the common mechanism for multiple disease resistance in grass species, which may have undergone subfunctionalization in promoters before the formation of hexaploid wheat. PMID:23918959

Geng, Shuaifeng; Li, Aili; Tang, Lichuan; Lan, Xiujin; Mao, Long

2013-01-01

36

Disease-reducing effect of Chromolaena odorata extract on sheath blight and other rice diseases.  

PubMed

Sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a major cause of crop loss in intensive rice production systems. No economically viable control methods have been developed. We screened aqueous extracts of common herbal plants that could reduce sheath blight lesions and found that foliar spraying and seed soaking application of extracts of either fresh or dried leaves of Chromolaena odorata gave up to 68% reduction in sheath blight lesion lengths under controlled and semi-field conditions. The observed reductions were not dependent on growth conditions of C. odorata and rice cultivar. The effect was observed until 21 days after inoculation and was not dependent on microbial activity. Under semi-field conditions, extracts also reduced severity of other important rice diseases, i.e., blast (Pyricularia oryzae) using foliar spray (up to 45%), brown spot (Bipolaris oryzae) using seed treatment (up to 57%), and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) using both application methods (up to 50%). PMID:20839964

Khoa, Nguyen ?ac; Thuy, Phan Thi Hong; Thuy, Tran Thi Thu; Collinge, David B; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs

2011-02-01

37

Genomic Variability of the Xanthomonas Pathovar mangiferaeindicae, Agent of Mango Bacterial Black Spot  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity of 138 strains of the Xanthomonas pathovar mangiferaeindicae, which were isolated from three different hosts (mango, ambarella, and pepper tree) in 14 different countries, was assessed with restriction fragment length polymorphism markers. An analysis of patterns obtained by hybridization with an hrp cluster probe from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae separated 11 of the strains from all of the other strains, which suggested that these 11 strains may not be Xanthomonas pv. mangiferaeindicae strains. Hybridization with an avirulence gene from X. oryzae pv. oryzae and a repetitive DNA fragment from Xanthomonas pv. mangiferaeindicae separated the remaining 127 strains into four groups that were consistent with both geographic and host origins. The group with the greatest diversity consisted of strains from Southeast Asia, where mango originated. Other groups and subgroups contained strains that were either from widely separated countries, which suggested that wide dissemination from a single site occurred, or from localized areas, which suggested that evolution of separate lineages of strains occurred. One group of strains contained only strains isolated from pepper trees in Reunion, indicating that pepper tree may not be an alternate host for Xanthomonas pv. mangiferaeindicae strains. PMID:16535490

Gagnevin, L.; Leach, J. E.; Pruvost, O.

1997-01-01

38

Gene silencing using the recessive rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa13 as a new paradigm in plant breeding.  

PubMed

Resistant germplasm resources are valuable for developing resistant varieties in agricultural production. However, recessive resistance genes are usually overlooked in hybrid breeding. Compared with dominant traits, however, they may confer resistance to different pathogenic races or pest biotypes with different mechanisms of action. The recessive rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa13, also involved in pollen development, has been cloned and its resistance mechanism has been recently characterized. This report describes the conversion of bacterial blight resistance mediated by the recessive xa13 gene into a dominant trait to facilitate its use in a breeding program. This was achieved by knockdown of the corresponding dominant allele Xa13 in transgenic rice using recently developed artificial microRNA technology. Tissue-specific promoters were used to exclude most of the expression of artificial microRNA in the anther to ensure that Xa13 functioned normally during pollen development. A battery of highly bacterial blight resistant transgenic plants with normal seed setting rates were acquired, indicating that highly specific gene silencing had been achieved. Our success with xa13 provides a paradigm that can be adapted to other recessive resistance genes. PMID:22218673

Li, Changyan; Wei, Jing; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao

2012-05-01

39

A comparison of the molecular organization of genomic regions associated with resistance to common bacterial blight in two Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes  

PubMed Central

Resistance to common bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, in Phaseolus vulgaris is conditioned by several loci on different chromosomes. Previous studies with OAC-Rex, a CBB-resistant, white bean variety of Mesoamerican origin, identified two resistance loci associated with the molecular markers Pv-CTT001 and SU91, on chromosome 4 and 8, respectively. Resistance to CBB is assumed to be derived from an interspecific cross with Phaseolus acutifolius in the pedigree of OAC-Rex. Our current whole genome sequencing effort with OAC-Rex provided the opportunity to compare its genome in the regions associated with CBB resistance with the v1.0 release of the P. vulgaris line G19833, which is a large seeded bean of Andean origin, and (assumed to be) CBB susceptible. In addition, the genomic regions containing SAP6, a marker associated with P. vulgaris-derived CBB-resistance on chromosome 10, were compared. These analyses indicated that gene content was highly conserved between G19833 and OAC-Rex across the regions examined (>80%). However, fifty-nine genes unique to OAC Rex were identified, with resistance gene homologues making up the largest category (10 genes identified). Two unique genes in OAC-Rex located within the SU91 resistance QTL have homology to P. acutifolius ESTs and may be potential sources of CBB resistance. As the genomic sequence assembly of OAC-Rex is completed, we expect that further comparisons between it and the G19833 genome will lead to a greater understanding of CBB resistance in bean. PMID:24009615

Perry, Gregory; DiNatale, Claudia; Xie, Weilong; Navabi, Alireza; Reinprecht, Yarmilla; Crosby, William; Yu, Kangfu; Shi, Chun; Pauls, K. Peter

2013-01-01

40

Quantitative trait Loci mapping for bacterial blight resistance in rice using bulked segregant analysis.  

PubMed

Oryza meyeriana is highly resistant to rice bacterial blight (BB) and this resistance trait has been transferred to cultivated rice (O. sativa) using asymmetric somatic hybridization. However, no resistance genes have yet been cloned. In the present study, a progeny of the somatic hybridization with high BB resistance was crossed with a rice cultivar with high BB susceptibility to develop an F2 population. Using bulked segregant analysis (BSA), 17 polymorphic markers that were linked to rice BB resistance were obtained through scanning a total of 186 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and sequence-tagged site (STS) markers, evenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. A genetic linkage map was then constructed based on the 17 linkage markers and the F2 segregating population, which was followed by mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for BB resistance. Three QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1, 3 and 5, respectively, and the alleles of the resistant parent at any of the QTLs increased BB resistance. All of the three QTLs had a strong effect on resistance, explaining about 21.5%, 12.3% and 39.2% of the resistance variance, respectively. These QTLs were different from the loci of the BB resistance genes that have been identified in previous studies. The QTLs mapped in this work will facilitate the isolation of novel BB resistance genes and their utilization in rice resistance breeding. PMID:24995697

Han, Xueying; Yang, Yong; Wang, Xuming; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Wenhao; Yu, Chulang; Cheng, Chen; Cheng, Ye; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

2014-01-01

41

Metabolite profiles of rice cultivars containing bacterial blight-resistant genes are distinctive from susceptible rice.  

PubMed

The metabolic changes of bacterial blight-resistant line C418/Xa23 generated by molecular marker-assisted selection (n= 12), transgenic variety C418-Xa21 generated by using the Agrobacterium-mediated system (n= 12), and progenitor cultivar C418 (n= 12) were monitored using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The validation, discrimination, and establishment of correlative relationships between metabolite signals were performed by cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Significant and unintended changes were observed in 154 components in C418/Xa23 and 48 components in C418-Xa21 compared with C418 (P< 0.05, Fold change > 2.0). The most significant decreases detected (P< 0.001) in both C418/Xa23 and C418-Xa21 were in three amino acids: glycine, tyrosine, and alanine, and four identified metabolites: malic acid, ferulic acid, succinic acid, and glycerol. Linoleic acid was increased specifically in C418/Xa23 which was derived from traditional breeding. This line, possessing a distinctive metabolite profile as a positive control, shows more differences vs. the parental than the transgenic line. Only succinic acid that falls outside the boundaries of natural variability between the two non-transgenic varieties C418 and C418/Xa23 should be further investigated with respect to safety or nutritional impact. PMID:22687573

Wu, Jiao; Yu, Haichuan; Dai, Haofu; Mei, Wenli; Huang, Xin; Zhu, Shuifang; Peng, Ming

2012-08-01

42

Development of a Model to Predict the Primary Infection Date of Bacterial Spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria) on Hot Pepper  

PubMed Central

A population model of bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria on hot pepper was developed to predict the primary disease infection date. The model estimated the pathogen population on the surface and within the leaf of the host based on the wetness period and temperature. For successful infection, at least 5,000 cells/ml of the bacterial population were required. Also, wind and rain were necessary according to regression analyses of the monitored data. Bacterial spot on the model is initiated when the pathogen population exceeds 1015 cells/g within the leaf. The developed model was validated using 94 assessed samples from 2000 to 2007 obtained from monitored fields. Based on the validation study, the predicted initial infection dates varied based on the year rather than the location. Differences in initial infection dates between the model predictions and the monitored data in the field were minimal. For example, predicted infection dates for 7 locations were within the same month as the actual infection dates, 11 locations were within 1 month of the actual infection, and only 3 locations were more than 2 months apart from the actual infection. The predicted infection dates were mapped from 2009 to 2012; 2011 was the most severe year. Although the model was not sensitive enough to predict disease severity of less than 0.1% in the field, our model predicted bacterial spot severity of 1% or more. Therefore, this model can be applied in the field to determine when bacterial spot control is required.

Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kang, Wee-Soo; Yun, Sung-Chul

2014-01-01

43

Characterization of hypersensitive resistance to bacterial spot race T3 (Xanthomonas perforans) from tomato accession PI 128216.  

PubMed

Bacterial spot of tomato is caused by four species of Xanthomonas. The accession PI 128216 (Solanum pimpinellifolium) displays a hypersensitive reaction (HR) to race T3 strains (predominantely Xanthomonas perforans). We developed an inbred backcross (IBC) population (BC(2)S(5), 178 families) derived from PI 128216 and OH88119 (S. lycopersicum) as the susceptible recurrent parent for simultaneous introgression and genetic analysis of the HR response. These IBC families were evaluated in the greenhouse for HR to race T3 strain Xcv761. The IBC population was genotyped with molecular markers distributed throughout the genome in order to identify candidate loci conferring resistance. We treated the IBC population as a hypothesis forming generation to guide validation in subsequent crosses. Nonparametric analysis identified an association between HR and markers clustered on chromosome 11 (P < 0.05 to 0.0001) and chromosome 6 (0.04 > P > 0.002). Further analysis of the IBC population suggested that markers on chromosome 6 and 11 failed to assort independently, a phenomenon known as gametic phase disequilibrium. Therefore, to validate marker-trait linkages, resistant IBC plants were crossed with OH88119 and BC(3)F(2) progeny were evaluated for HR in the greenhouse. In these subsequent populations, the HR response was associated with the chromosome 11 markers (P < 0.0002) but not with the markers on chromosome 6 (P > 0.25). Independent F(2) families were developed by crossing resistant IBC lines to OH8245, OH88119, and OH7530. These populations were genotyped, organized into classes based on chromosome 11 markers, and evaluated for resistance in the field. The PI 128216 locus on chromosome 11 provided resistance that was dependent on gene dosage and genetic background. These results define a single locus, Rx-4, from PI 128216, which provides resistance to bacterial spot race T3, has additive gene action, and is located on chromosome 11. PMID:19671005

Robbins, Matthew D; Darrigues, Audrey; Sim, Sung-Chur; Masud, Mohammed Abu Taher; Francis, David M

2009-09-01

44

Transcriptional responses of Italian ryegrass during interaction with Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis reveal novel candidate genes for bacterial wilt resistance.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) causes bacterial wilt, a severe disease of forage grasses such as Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). In order to gain a more detailed understanding of the genetic control of resistance mechanisms and to provide prerequisites for marker assisted selection, the partial transcriptomes of two Italian ryegrass genotypes, one resistant and one susceptible to bacterial wilt were compared at four time points after Xtg infection. A cDNA microarray developed from a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) expressed sequence tag set consisting of 9,990 unique genes was used for transcriptome analysis in Italian ryegrass. An average of 4,487 (45%) of the perennial ryegrass sequences spotted on the cDNA microarray were detected by cross-hybridisation to Italian ryegrass. Transcriptome analyses of the resistant versus the susceptible genotype revealed substantial gene expression differences (>1,200) indicating that great gene expression differences between different Italian ryegrass genotypes exist which potentially contribute to the observed phenotypic divergence in Xtg resistance between the two genotypes. In the resistant genotype, several genes differentially expressed after Xtg inoculation were identified which revealed similarities to transcriptional changes triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns in other plant-pathogen interactions. These genes represent candidate genes of particular interest for the development of tools for marker assisted resistance breeding. PMID:20976589

Wichmann, Fabienne; Asp, Torben; Widmer, Franco; Kölliker, Roland

2011-02-01

45

Isolation and characterization of a porin-like outer membrane protein from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a plant-associated pathogenic bacterium, is the causal agent of foliar spots and blights in crucifers. The major outer membrane protein, Omp37, of 37 kDa, has been identified, purified to homogeneity, and its characterization has also been carried out. Native Omp37 behaved as a trimer, as revealed by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. FTIR measurements revealed a high beta-structure content. The pore-forming ability of the purified Omp37 was studied by the liposome swelling assay. Omp37, to our knowledge, is the first porin that has been isolated from Xanthomonas. This study clearly demonstrates that Omp37 is related to the family of trimeric bacterial porins. PMID:12387570

Wang, Lingyun; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Xujia

2002-07-01

46

Differentiation of Xanthomonas spp. Causing Bacterial Spot in Bulgaria Based on Biolog System.  

PubMed

During the last 20 years, the causative agents of bacterial spot of tomato and pepper have been subjected to many studies and reclassifications. According to the current data, the species are four (X. euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. gardneri, and X. perforans) and cause similar symptoms in plants but possess different phenotypic properties. This work provides the full metabolic characteristics obtained by Biolog system of bacterial spot's xanthomonads based on a large selection of strains from different vegetable-producing regions of Bulgaria with accent on their major differentiating properties which could be used for species differentiation by metabolic profiles. The results are compared to the data available in the literature in order to clarify the strong features of each species and distinguish the variable ones. Simple characteristics like amylase activity and utilization of cis-aconitate cannot serve alone for differentiation. PMID:25197281

Stoyanova, Mariya; Vancheva, Taca; Moncheva, Penka; Bogatzevska, Nevena

2014-01-01

47

Differentiation of Xanthomonas spp. Causing Bacterial Spot in Bulgaria Based on Biolog System  

PubMed Central

During the last 20 years, the causative agents of bacterial spot of tomato and pepper have been subjected to many studies and reclassifications. According to the current data, the species are four (X. euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. gardneri, and X. perforans) and cause similar symptoms in plants but possess different phenotypic properties. This work provides the full metabolic characteristics obtained by Biolog system of bacterial spot's xanthomonads based on a large selection of strains from different vegetable-producing regions of Bulgaria with accent on their major differentiating properties which could be used for species differentiation by metabolic profiles. The results are compared to the data available in the literature in order to clarify the strong features of each species and distinguish the variable ones. Simple characteristics like amylase activity and utilization of cis-aconitate cannot serve alone for differentiation. PMID:25197281

Stoyanova, Mariya; Vancheva, Taca; Moncheva, Penka; Bogatzevska, Nevena

2014-01-01

48

Antisense Suppression of a (+)-?-Cadinene Synthase Gene in Cotton Prevents the Induction of This Defense Response Gene during Bacterial Blight Infection But Not Its Constitutive Expression1[w  

PubMed Central

In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) the enzyme (+)-?-cadinene synthase (CDNS) catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of cadinane-type sesquiterpenes, such as gossypol, that provide constitutive and inducible protection against pests and diseases. A cotton cDNA clone encoding CDNS (cdn1-C4) was isolated from developing embryos and functionally characterized. Southern analysis showed that CDNS genes belong to a large multigene family, of which five genomic clones were studied, including three pseudogenes and one gene that may represent another subfamily of CDNS. CDNS expression was shown to be induced in cotton infected with either the bacterial blight or verticillium wilt pathogens. Constructs for the constitutive or seed-specific antisense suppression of cdn1-C4 were introduced into cotton by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gossypol levels were not reduced in the seeds of transformants with either construct, nor was the induction of CDNS expression affected in stems of the constitutive antisense plants infected with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. However, the induction of CDNS mRNA and protein in response to bacterial blight infection of cotyledons was completely blocked in the constitutive antisense plants. These results suggest that cdn1-C4 may be involved specifically in the bacterial blight response and that the CDNS multigene family comprises a complex set of genes differing in their temporal and spatial regulation and responsible for different branches of the cotton sesquiterpene pathway. PMID:15849309

Townsend, Belinda J.; Poole, Andrew; Blake, Christopher J.; Llewellyn, Danny J.

2005-01-01

49

Genetic enhancement of host plant-resistance of the Lalat cultivar of rice against bacterial blight employing marker-assisted selection.  

PubMed

To incorporate durable resistance against bacterial blight, a major disease rice, three resistance genes, xa 5, xa13 and Xa21, from IRBB 60 were transferred through marker-assisted backcrossing using RG 556, RG 136 and pTA248 markers linked to the three genes to supplement the Xa4 gene present in Lalat, a popular rice cultivar. Effective selection enabled the transfer in three back-crosses and a generation of selfing and background selection employing morphological and grain quality traits and molecular markers, led to >90 % recovery of the recurrent parental genome. The gene pyramids exhibited high levels of resistance against the pathogen in multi-location evaluation trials conducted over several locations of bacterial blight in India. IL-2 (CRMAS2621-7-1), a gene pyramid, was identified as being promising for several endemic regions of bacterial blight and was released as Improved Lalat in one of the identified regions. The success of the study demonstrates the vast potential of marker-assisted selection for gene stacking and recovery of the parental genome with high precision. PMID:23690028

Dokku, Prasad; Das, K M; Rao, G J N

2013-08-01

50

Mutagenesis of 18 type III effectors reveals virulence function of XopZ(PXO99) in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae depends on a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate effectors into host cells for its ability to cause bacterial blight of rice. All type III (T3) effectors with known function in X. oryzae pv. oryzae belong to a family of transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors. However, other, non-TAL-related effector genes are present in the genome, although their role in virulence and their mode of action have yet to be elucidated. Here, we report the generation of mutants for 18 non-TAL T3 effector genes and the identification of one that contributes to the virulence of strain PXO99(A). XopZ(PXO99) encodes a predicted 1,414-amino-acid protein of unknown function. PXO99(A) contains two identical copies of the gene due to a duplication of 212 kb in the genome. Strains with knockout mutations of one copy of XopZ(PXO99) did not exhibit any visible virulence defect. However, strains with mutations in both copies of XopZ(PXO99) displayed reduced virulence in terms of lesion length and bacterial multiplication compared with PXO99(A). The introduction of one genomic copy of XopZ(PXO99) restores the mutant to full virulence. Transient expression of XopZ(PXO99) in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves suppresses host basal defense, which is otherwise induced by a T3SS mutant of PXO99(A), suggesting a role for XopZ(PXO99) in interfering with host innate immunity during X. oryzae pv. oryzae infection. XopZ(PXO99)-related genes are found in all Xanthomonas spp. whose genomic sequences have been determined, suggesting a conserved role for this type of effector gene in pathogenesis of Xanthomonas spp. Our results indicate that XopZ(PXO99) encodes a novel T3 effector and contributes virulence to X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains for bacterial blight of rice. PMID:20521952

Song, Congfeng; Yang, Bing

2010-07-01

51

Role of the FeoB Protein and Siderophore in Promoting Virulence of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae on Rice?  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight, a serious disease of rice. Our analysis revealed that the X. oryzae pv. oryzae genome encodes genes responsible for iron uptake through FeoB (homolog of the major bacterial ferrous iron transporter) and a siderophore. A mutation in the X. oryzae pv. oryzae feoB gene causes severe virulence deficiency, growth deficiency in iron-limiting medium, and constitutive production of a siderophore. We identified an iron regulated xss gene cluster, in which xssABCDE (Xanthomonas siderophore synthesis) and xsuA (Xanthomonas siderophore utilization) genes encode proteins involved in biosynthesis and utilization of X. oryzae pv. oryzae siderophore. Mutations in the xssA, xssB, and xssE genes cause siderophore deficiency and growth restriction under iron-limiting conditions but are virulence proficient. An xsuA mutant displayed impairment in utilization of native siderophore, suggesting that XsuA acts as a specific receptor for a ferric-siderophore complex. Histochemical and fluorimetric assays with gusA fusions indicate that, during in planta growth, the feoB gene is expressed and that the xss operon is not expressed. This study represents the first report describing a role for feoB in virulence of any plant-pathogenic bacterium and the first functional characterization of a siderophore-biosynthetic gene cluster in any xanthomonad. PMID:20382771

Pandey, Alok; Sonti, Ramesh V.

2010-01-01

52

Photocatalysis: effect of light-activated nanoscale formulations of TiO(2) on Xanthomonas perforans and control of bacterial spot of tomato.  

PubMed

Protection of crops from bacterial diseases presents a continuing challenge, mandating the development of novel agents and approaches. Photocatalysis is a process where chemically reactive oxygen species are catalytically generated by certain minerals in the presence of light. These reactive oxygen species have the capacity to destroy organic molecular structures critical to pathogen viability. In this study, the antibacterial potential of photocatalytic nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), nanoscale TiO(2) doped (incorporation of other materials into the structure of TiO(2)) with silver (TiO(2)/Ag), and nanoscale TiO(2) doped with zinc (TiO(2)/Zn; AgriTitan) was evaluated against Xanthomonas perforans, the causal agent for bacterial spot disease of tomato. In vitro experiments on photocatalytic activity and dose dependency were conducted on glass cover slips coated with the nanoscale formulations by adding a known population of X. perforans strain Xp-F7 and illuminating the cover slips under a visible light source. TiO(2)/Ag and TiO(2)/Zn had high photocatalytic activity against X. perforans within 10 min of exposure to 3 × 10(4) lux. Greenhouse studies on naturally and artificially infected transplants treated with TiO(2)/Zn at ?500 to 800 ppm significantly reduced bacterial spot severity compared with untreated and copper control. Protection was similar to the grower standard, copper + mancozeb. The use of TiO(2)/Zn at ?500 to 800 ppm significantly reduced disease incidence in three of the four trials compared with untreated and copper control, and was comparable to or better than the grower standard. The treatments did not cause any adverse effects on tomato yield in any of the field trials. PMID:23190116

Paret, Mathews L; Vallad, Gary E; Averett, Devron R; Jones, Jeffrey B; Olson, Stephen M

2013-03-01

53

Highly polymorphic markers reveal the establishment of an invasive lineage of the citrus bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri pv. citri in its area of origin.  

PubMed

Investigating the population biology of plant pathogens in their native areas is essential to understand the factors that shape their population structure and favour their spread. Monomorphic pathogens dispatch extremely low genetic diversity in invaded areas, and native areas constitute a major reservoir for future emerging strains. One of these, the gammaproteobacterium Xanthomonas citri pv. citri, causes Asiatic canker and is a considerable threat to citrus worldwide. We studied its population genetic structure by genotyping 555 strains from 12 Vietnam provinces at 14 tandem repeat loci and insertion sequences. Discriminant analysis of principal components identified six clusters. Five of them were composed of endemic strains distributed heterogeneously across sampled provinces. A sixth cluster, VN6, displayed a much lower diversity and a clonal expansion structure, suggesting recent epidemic spread. No differences in aggressiveness on citrus or resistance to bactericides were detected between VN6 and other strains. VN6 likely represents a case of bioinvasion following introduction in a native area likely through contaminated plant propagative material. Highly polymorphic markers are useful for revealing migration patterns of recently introduced populations of a monomorphic bacterial plant pathogen. PMID:24373118

Vernière, Christian; Bui Thi Ngoc, Lan; Jarne, Philippe; Ravigné, Virginie; Guérin, Fabien; Gagnevin, Lionel; Le Mai, Nhat; Chau, Nguyen M; Pruvost, Olivier

2014-07-01

54

Further Characterization of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mang feraeindicae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification of the causal organism of bacterial black spot of mango has long been an issue. A total of 15 strains, including the type strain, were subjected to 156 tests used for species identification of members of Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas. The current classification of this organism as Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae (ISPP list, 1980) is confirmed, and the description

B. Q. MANICOM; F. M. WALLIS

1984-01-01

55

Genome sequence of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans strain 4834-R reveals that flagellar motility is not a general feature of xanthomonads  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonads are plant-associated bacteria responsible for diseases on economically important crops. Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans (Xff) is one of the causal agents of common bacterial blight of bean. In this study, the complete genome sequence of strain Xff 4834-R was determined and compared to other Xanthomonas genome sequences. Results Comparative genomics analyses revealed core characteristics shared between Xff 4834-R and other xanthomonads including chemotaxis elements, two-component systems, TonB-dependent transporters, secretion systems (from T1SS to T6SS) and multiple effectors. For instance a repertoire of 29 Type 3 Effectors (T3Es) with two Transcription Activator-Like Effectors was predicted. Mobile elements were associated with major modifications in the genome structure and gene content in comparison to other Xanthomonas genomes. Notably, a deletion of 33 kbp affects flagellum biosynthesis in Xff 4834-R. The presence of a complete flagellar cluster was assessed in a collection of more than 300 strains representing different species and pathovars of Xanthomonas. Five percent of the tested strains presented a deletion in the flagellar cluster and were non-motile. Moreover, half of the Xff strains isolated from the same epidemic than 4834-R was non-motile and this ratio was conserved in the strains colonizing the next bean seed generations. Conclusions This work describes the first genome of a Xanthomonas strain pathogenic on bean and reports the existence of non-motile xanthomonads belonging to different species and pathovars. Isolation of such Xff variants from a natural epidemic may suggest that flagellar motility is not a key function for in planta fitness. PMID:24195767

2013-01-01

56

Variation suggestive of horizontal gene transfer at a lipopolysaccharide (lps) biosynthetic locus in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the bacterial leaf blight pathogen of rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In animal pathogenic bacteria, horizontal gene transfer events (HGT) have been frequently observed in genomic regions that encode functions involved in biosynthesis of the outer membrane located lipopolysaccharide (LPS). As a result, different strains of the same pathogen can have substantially different lps biosynthetic gene clusters. Since LPS is highly antigenic, the variation at lps loci is attributed to

Prabhu B Patil; Ramesh V Sonti

2004-01-01

57

Population typing of the causal agent of cassava bacterial blight in the Eastern Plains of Colombia using two types of molecular markers  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular typing of pathogen populations is an important tool for the development of effective strategies for disease control. Diverse molecular markers have been used to characterize populations of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), the main bacterial pathogen of cassava. Recently, diversity and population dynamics of Xam in the Colombian Caribbean coast were estimated using AFLPs, where populations were found to be dynamic, diverse and with haplotypes unstable across time. Aiming to examine the current state of pathogen populations located in the Colombian Eastern Plains, we also used AFLP markers and we evaluated the usefulness of Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) as new molecular markers for the study of Xam populations. Results The population analyses showed that AFLP and VNTR provide a detailed and congruent description of Xam populations from the Colombian Eastern Plains. These two typing strategies clearly separated strains from the Colombian Eastern Plains into distinct populations probably because of geographical distance. Although the majority of analyses were congruent between typing markers, fewer VNTRs were needed to detect a higher number of genetic populations of the pathogen as well as a higher genetic flow among sampled locations than those detected by AFLPs. Conclusions This study shows the advantages of VNTRs over AFLPs in the surveillance of pathogen populations and suggests the implementation of VNTRs in studies that involve large numbers of Xam isolates in order to obtain a more detailed overview of the pathogen to improve the strategies for disease control. PMID:24946775

2014-01-01

58

Comparative transcriptome profiling reveals different expression patterns in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains with putative virulence-relevant genes.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight, which is a major rice disease in tropical Asian countries. An attempt has been made to investigate gene expression patterns of three Xoo strains on the minimal medium XOM2, PXO99 (P6) and PXO86 (P2) from the Philippines, and GD1358 (C5) from China, which exhibited different virulence in 30 rice varieties, with putative virulence factors using deep sequencing. In total, 4,781 transcripts were identified in this study, and 1,151 and 3,076 genes were differentially expressed when P6 was compared with P2 and with C5, respectively. Our results indicated that Xoo strains from different regions exhibited distinctly different expression patterns of putative virulence-relevant genes. Interestingly, 40 and 44 genes involved in chemotaxis and motility exhibited higher transcript alterations in C5 compared with P6 and P2, respectively. Most other genes associated with virulence, including exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, Hrp genes and type III effectors, including Xanthomonas outer protein (Xop) effectors and transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors, were down-regulated in C5 compared with P6 and P2. The data were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, tests of bacterial motility, and enzyme activity analysis of EPS and xylanase. These results highlight the complexity of Xoo and offer new avenues for improving our understanding of Xoo-rice interactions and the evolution of Xoo virulence. PMID:23734193

Zhang, Fan; Du, Zhenglin; Huang, Liyu; Vera Cruz, Casiana; Zhou, Yongli; Li, Zhikang

2013-01-01

59

Genome sequence and rapid evolution of the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PXO99A  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major disease that constrains production of this staple crop in many parts of the world. We report here on the complete genome sequence of strain PXO99A and its comparison to two previously sequenced strains, KACC10331 and MAFF311018, which are highly similar to one another. Results The PXO99A genome is a single circular chromosome of 5,240,075 bp, considerably longer than the genomes of the other strains (4,941,439 bp and 4,940,217 bp, respectively), and it contains 5083 protein-coding genes, including 87 not found in KACC10331 or MAFF311018. PXO99A contains a greater number of virulence-associated transcription activator-like effector genes and has at least ten major chromosomal rearrangements relative to KACC10331 and MAFF311018. PXO99A contains numerous copies of diverse insertion sequence elements, members of which are associated with 7 out of 10 of the major rearrangements. A rapidly-evolving CRISPR (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats) region contains evidence of dozens of phage infections unique to the PXO99A lineage. PXO99A also contains a unique, near-perfect tandem repeat of 212 kilobases close to the replication terminus. Conclusion Our results provide striking evidence of genome plasticity and rapid evolution within Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The comparisons point to sources of genomic variation and candidates for strain-specific adaptations of this pathogen that help to explain the extraordinary diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae genotypes and races that have been isolated from around the world. PMID:18452608

Salzberg, Steven L; Sommer, Daniel D; Schatz, Michael C; Phillippy, Adam M; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Tsuge, Seiji; Furutani, Ayako; Ochiai, Hirokazu; Delcher, Arthur L; Kelley, David; Madupu, Ramana; Puiu, Daniela; Radune, Diana; Shumway, Martin; Trapnell, Cole; Aparna, Gudlur; Jha, Gopaljee; Pandey, Alok; Patil, Prabhu B; Ishihara, Hiromichi; Meyer, Damien F; Szurek, Boris; Verdier, Valerie; Koebnik, Ralf; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P; Hirata, Hisae; Tsuyumu, Shinji; Won Lee, Sang; Ronald, Pamela C; Sonti, Ramesh V; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Leach, Jan E; White, Frank F; Bogdanove, Adam J

2008-01-01

60

Comparative genomic and transcriptome analyses of pathotypes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri provide insights into mechanisms of bacterial virulence and host range  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus bacterial canker is a disease that has severe economic impact on citrus industries worldwide and is caused by a few species and pathotypes of Xanthomonas. X. citri subsp. citri strain 306 (XccA306) is a type A (Asiatic) strain with a wide host range, whereas its variant X. citri subsp. citri strain Aw12879 (Xcaw12879, Wellington strain) is restricted to Mexican lime. Results To characterize the mechanism for the differences in host range of XccA and Xcaw, the genome of Xcaw12879 that was completed recently was compared with XccA306 genome. Effectors xopAF and avrGf1 are present in Xcaw12879, but were absent in XccA306. AvrGf1 was shown previously for Xcaw to cause hypersensitive response in Duncan grapefruit. Mutation analysis of xopAF indicates that the gene contributes to Xcaw growth in Mexican lime but does not contribute to the limited host range of Xcaw. RNA-Seq analysis was conducted to compare the expression profiles of Xcaw12879 and XccA306 in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium and XVM2 medium, which induces hrp gene expression. Two hundred ninety two and 281 genes showed differential expression in XVM2 compared to in NB for XccA306 and Xcaw12879, respectively. Twenty-five type 3 secretion system genes were up-regulated in XVM2 for both XccA and Xcaw. Among the 4,370 common genes of Xcaw12879 compared to XccA306, 603 genes in NB and 450 genes in XVM2 conditions were differentially regulated. Xcaw12879 showed higher protease activity than XccA306 whereas Xcaw12879 showed lower pectate lyase activity in comparison to XccA306. Conclusions Comparative genomic analysis of XccA306 and Xcaw12879 identified strain specific genes. Our study indicated that AvrGf1 contributes to the host range limitation of Xcaw12879 whereas XopAF contributes to virulence. Transcriptome analyses of XccA306 and Xcaw12879 presented insights into the expression of the two closely related strains of X. citri subsp. citri. Virulence genes including genes encoding T3SS components and effectors are induced in XVM2 medium. Numerous genes with differential expression in Xcaw12879 and XccA306 were identified. This study provided the foundation to further characterize the mechanisms for virulence and host range of pathotypes of X. citri subsp. citri. PMID:23941402

2013-01-01

61

Measurement of haplotypic variation in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae within a single field by rep-PCR and RFLP analyses  

SciTech Connect

The haplotypic variation of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in a farmer;s field that had endemic bacterial blight in the Philippines was evaluated at a single time. The genomic structure of the field population was analyzed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers corresponding to interspersed repeated sequences in prokaryotic genomes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the insertion sequence IS1113. The techniques and specific probes and primers were selected because they grouped consistently into the same lineages a set of 30 selected X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains that represented the four distinct RFLP lineages found in the Philippines did. Strains (155) were systematically collected from a field planted to rice cv. Sinandomeng, which is susceptible to the indigenous pathogen population. Two of the four Philippine lineages, B and C, which included race 2 and races 3 and 9, respectively, were detected in the field. Lineage C was the predominant population (74.8%). The haplotypic diversities of 10 of the 25 blocks were significantly greater than the total haplotypic diversity of the collection in the entire field; however, between individual blocks the haplotypic diversities were not significantly different. Haplo-types from both lineages were distributed randomly across the field. Analysis of genetic diversity at the microgeographic scale provided insights into the finer scale of variation of X. oryzae pv. oryzae, which are useful in designing experiments to study effects of host resistance on the population structure of the bacterial blight pathogen. 46 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Vera Cruz, C.M.; Leach, J.E. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States); Ardales, E.Y.; Talag, J. [International Rice Research Institute, Manila (Philippines)] [and others

1996-12-01

62

Do transgenesis and marker-assisted backcross breeding produce substantially equivalent plants? - A comparative study of transgenic and backcross rice carrying bacterial blight resistant gene Xa21  

PubMed Central

Background The potential impact of genetically modified (GM) plants on human health has attracted much attention worldwide, and the issue remains controversial. This is in sharp contrast to the broad acceptance of plants produced by breeding through Marker Assisted Backcrossing (MAB). Results Focusing on transcriptome variation and perturbation to signaling pathways, we assessed the molecular and biological aspects of substantial equivalence, a general principle for food safety endorsed by the Food and Agricultural Organization and the World Health Organization, between a transgenic crop and a plant from MAB breeding. We compared a transgenic rice line (DXT) and a MAB rice line (DXB), both of which contain the gene Xa21 providing resistance to bacterial leaf blight. By using Next-Generation sequencing data of DXT, DXB and their parental line (D62B), we compared the transcriptome variation of DXT and DXB. Remarkably, DXT had 43% fewer differentially expressed genes (DEGs) than DXB. The genes exclusively expressed in DXT and in DXB have pathogen and stress defense functions. Functional categories of DEGs in DXT were comparable to that in DXB, and seven of the eleven pathways significantly affected by transgenesis were also perturbed by MAB breeding. Conclusions These results indicated that the transgenic rice and rice from MAB breeding are substantial equivalent at the transcriptome level, and paved a way for further study of transgenic rice, e.g., understanding the chemical and nutritional properties of the DEGs identified in the current study. PMID:24165682

2013-01-01

63

Transgenic expression of cecropin B, an antibacterial peptide from Bombyx mori, confers enhanced resistance to bacterial leaf blight in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short persistence of cecropin B peptide in plants, due to post-translational degradation, is a serious impediment in its effective utilization for developing bacterial resistance transgenic plants. Two DNA constructs encoding the full-length precursor of cecropin B peptide and the mature sequence of cecropin B peptide preceded by a signal peptide derived from rice chitinase gene were transformed in rice.

Arun Sharma; Rashmi Sharma; Morikazu Imamura; Minoru Yamakawa; Hiroaki Machii

2000-01-01

64

Sensitive detection of Xanthomonas oryzae Pathovars oryzae and oryzicola by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Molecular diagnostics for crop diseases can enhance food security by enabling the rapid identification of threatening pathogens and providing critical information for the deployment of disease management strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a PCR-based tool that allows the rapid, highly specific amplification of target DNA sequences at a single temperature and is thus ideal for field-level diagnosis of plant diseases. We developed primers highly specific for two globally important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight (BB) disease, and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak disease (BLS), for use in reliable, sensitive LAMP assays. In addition to pathovar distinction, two assays that differentiate X. oryzae pv. oryzae by African or Asian lineage were developed. Using these LAMP primer sets, the presence of each pathogen was detected from DNA and bacterial cells, as well as leaf and seed samples. Thresholds of detection for all assays were consistently 10(4) to 10(5) CFU ml(-1), while genomic DNA thresholds were between 1 pg and 10 fg. Use of the unique sequences combined with the LAMP assay provides a sensitive, accurate, rapid, simple, and inexpensive protocol to detect both BB and BLS pathogens. PMID:24837384

Lang, Jillian M; Langlois, Paul; Nguyen, Marian Hanna R; Triplett, Lindsay R; Purdie, Laura; Holton, Timothy A; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Vera Cruz, Casiana M; Verdier, Valérie; Leach, Jan E

2014-08-01

65

PCR-based assay for rapid and specific detection of the new Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae K3a race using an AFLP-derived marker.  

PubMed

We describe the development of a polymerase chain reaction method for the rapid, precise, and specific detection of the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) K3a race, the bacterial blight pathogen of rice. The specific primer set was designed to amplify a genomic locus derived from an amplified fragment length polymorphism specific for the K3a race. The 1,024 bp amplicon was generated from the DNA of 13 isolates of Xoo K3a races out of 119 isolates of other races, pathovars, and Xanthomonas species. The assay does not require isolated bacterial cells or DNA extraction. Moreover, the pathogen was quickly detected in rice leaf 2 days after inoculation with bacteria and at a distance of 8 cm from the rice leaf 5 days later. The results suggest that this PCR-based assay will be a useful and powerful tool for the detection and identification of the Xoo K3a race in rice plants as well as for early diagnosis of infection in paddy fields. PMID:24572275

Song, Eun-Sung; Kim, Song-Yi; Noh, Tae-Hwan; Cho, Heejung; Chae, Soo-Cheon; Lee, Byoung-Moo

2014-06-28

66

Ketoglutarate Transport Protein KgtP Is Secreted through the Type III Secretion System and Contributes to Virulence in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae  

PubMed Central

The phytopathogenic prokaryote Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is the causal agent of bacterial leaf blight (BB) of rice and utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver T3SS effectors into rice cells. In this report, we show that the ketoglutarate transport protein (KgtP) is secreted in an HpaB-independent manner through the T3SS of X. oryzae pv. oryzae PXO99A and localizes to the host cell membrane for ?-ketoglutaric acid export. kgtP contained an imperfect PIP box (plant-inducible promoter) in the promoter region and was positively regulated by HrpX and HrpG. A kgtP deletion mutant was impaired in bacterial virulence and growth in planta; furthermore, the mutant showed reduced growth in minimal media containing ?-ketoglutaric acid or sodium succinate as the sole carbon source. The reduced virulence and the deficiency in ?-ketoglutaric acid utilization by the kgtP mutant were restored to wild-type levels by the presence of kgtP in trans. The expression of OsIDH, which is responsible for the synthesis of ?-ketoglutaric acid in rice, was enhanced when KgtP was present in the pathogen. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that KgtP, which is regulated by HrpG and HrpX and secreted by the T3SS in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, transports ?-ketoglutaric acid when the pathogen infects rice. PMID:22685129

Guo, Wei; Cai, Lu-Lu; Zou, Hua-Song; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Liu, Xi-Ling; Zou, Li-Fang; Li, Yu-Rong

2012-01-01

67

Small, stable shuttle vectors for use in Xanthomonas.  

PubMed

Plasmids from three broad-host-range (bhr) incompatibility groups (Inc) were evaluated for use as cloning vectors in Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Xcm), the causal agent of bacterial blight of cotton. The IncP vectors pLAFR3 and pVK102 could not be introduced into Xcm at a significant frequency (less than 1 x 10(-10] and IncQ vectors such as pKT210 were unstable in their maintenance and tended to delete cloned inserts. IncW vectors such as pSa747 also were lost readily from Xcm in the absence of selection pressure. We constructed two plasmids, pUFR027 and a cosmid derivative, pUFR034, which have proven useful as cloning vectors in Xcm and other xanthomonads. They contain the pSa origin of DNA replication, the partition locus parA from the Agrobacterium plasmid pTAR, a neomycin-resistance selection marker, and alacZ alpha cassette with cloning sites. pUFR027 is 9.3 kb, and pUFR034 is 8.7 kb in size. They can be mobilized by conjugation into Xcm at a frequency of approx. 1 x 10(-6) per recipient and are maintained stably (greater than 95% retention over 36 generations without selection pressure) in both broth culture and in planta. The plasmids were introduced and maintained stably in X. citri, and in X. campestris pathovars campestris, citrumelo, vesicatoria and translucens, and were moderately stable in X. phaseoli. No effects of the plasmids on pathogenicity have been observed. PMID:2341039

DeFeyter, R; Kado, C I; Gabriel, D W

1990-03-30

68

Multiplex nested PCR for detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii from onion seeds.  

PubMed

Bacterial blight of onion (BBO) is an emerging disease that is present in many onion-producing areas. The causal agent, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii, is seed transmitted. A reliable and sensitive diagnostic tool for testing seed health is needed. Detection of X. axonopodis pv. allii was achieved using a multiplex nested PCR assay developed using two randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) sequences corresponding to pilus assembly genes (pilW and pilX) and the avrRxv gene, respectively. The multiplex nested PCR was used with a large collection of X. axonopodis pv. allii strains pathogenic to onion and/or other Allium species isolated in different regions of the world. The internal primers used in the multiplex PCR assay directed amplification for all 86 X. axonopodis pv. allii strains tested, resulting in a 401-bp amplicon, a 444- to 447-bp amplicon, or both amplicons, depending on the strain. No amplification was obtained for 41 unrelated phytopathogenic bacteria and for 14 saprophytic bacteria commonly isolated from onion leaves and seeds. Most Xanthomonas strains also did not produce amplicons, except for nine strains classified in X. axonopodis genetic subgroup 9.1 or 9.2 and not pathogenic to onion. Nevertheless, sequence signatures distinguished most of these strains from X. axonopodis pv. allii. The assay detected X. axonopodis pv. allii in seed lots with contamination levels of 5 x 10(2) CFU g(-1) or higher. The sensitivity threshold of the multiplex nested PCR assay was found to be 1 infected seed in 27,340 seeds. This PCR-based assay should be useful for certifying that commercial seed lots are free of this important seed-borne pathogen. PMID:20208024

Robène-Soustrade, Isabelle; Legrand, Delphine; Gagnevin, Lionel; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Laurent, Annie; Pruvost, Olivier

2010-05-01

69

A Cell Wall-Degrading Esterase of Xanthomonas oryzae Requires a Unique Substrate Recognition Module for Pathogenesis on Rice[W  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight, a serious disease of rice (Oryza sativa). LipA is a secretory virulence factor of Xoo, implicated in degradation of rice cell walls and the concomitant elicitation of innate immune responses, such as callose deposition and programmed cell death. Here, we present the high-resolution structural characterization of LipA that reveals an all-helical ligand binding module as a distinct functional attachment to the canonical hydrolase catalytic domain. We demonstrate that the enzyme binds to a glycoside ligand through a rigid pocket comprising distinct carbohydrate-specific and acyl chain recognition sites where the catalytic triad is situated 15 Å from the anchored carbohydrate. Point mutations disrupting the carbohydrate anchor site or blocking the pocket, even at a considerable distance from the enzyme active site, can abrogate in planta LipA function, exemplified by loss of both virulence and the ability to elicit host defense responses. A high conservation of the module across genus Xanthomonas emphasizes the significance of this unique plant cell wall–degrading function for this important group of plant pathogenic bacteria. A comparison with the related structural families illustrates how a typical lipase is recruited to act on plant cell walls to promote virulence, thus providing a remarkable example of the emergence of novel functions around existing scaffolds for increased proficiency of pathogenesis during pathogen-plant coevolution. PMID:19525415

Aparna, Gudlur; Chatterjee, Avradip; Sonti, Ramesh V.; Sankaranarayanan, Rajan

2009-01-01

70

gltB/D mutants of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae are virulence deficient.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight, a serious disease of rice. Upon clip inoculation of rice leaves, Xoo causes typical V-shaped lesions whose leading edge moves through the mid-veinal region. We have isolated a virulence deficient mutant of Xoo, referred to as BXO808 that causes limited lesions which primarily extend through the side-veinal regions of rice leaves. Functional complementation studies identified a clone, pSR19, from a cosmid genomic library that restored wild-type virulence and lesion phenotype to BXO808. Transposon mutagenesis of the pSR19 clone, marker exchange experiments, and targeted mutagenesis, revealed that the BXO808 phenotype is due to mutation in the gltB/D genes of Xoo, which encode glutamate synthase subunits ? and ?, respectively. The gltB/D mutants that were generated in this study also exhibited virulence deficiency, an altered lesion phenotype and growth deficiency on minimal medium with low levels of ammonium as a sole nitrogen source. This is the first report that mutations in the gltB/D genes of Xoo cause virulence deficiency. PMID:23995777

Pandey, Alok; Ray, Suvendra Kumar; Sonti, Ramesh V; Rajeshwari, R

2014-01-01

71

Xanthomonas axonopodis Virulence Is Promoted by a Transcription Activator-Like Effector-Mediated Induction of a SWEET Sugar Transporter in Cassava.  

PubMed

The gene-for-gene concept has historically been applied to describe a specific resistance interaction wherein single genes from the host and the pathogen dictate the outcome. These interactions have been observed across the plant kingdom and all known plant microbial pathogens. In recent years, this concept has been extended to susceptibility phenotypes in the context of transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors that target SWEET sugar transporters. However, because this interaction has only been observed in rice, it was not clear whether the gene-for-gene susceptibility was unique to that system. Here, we show, through a combined systematic analysis of the TAL effector complement of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis and RNA sequencing to identify targets in cassava, that TAL20Xam668 specifically induces the sugar transporter MeSWEET10a to promote virulence. Designer TAL effectors (dTALE) complement TAL20Xam668 mutant phenotypes, demonstrating that MeSWEET10a is a susceptibility gene in cassava. Sucrose uptake-deficient X. axonopodis pv. manihotis bacteria do not lose virulence, indicating that sucrose may be cleaved extracellularly and taken up as hexoses into X. axonopodis pv. manihotis. Together, our data suggest that pathogen hijacking of plant nutrients is not unique to rice blight but also plays a role in bacterial blight of the dicot cassava. PMID:25083909

Cohn, Megan; Bart, Rebecca S; Shybut, Mikel; Dahlbeck, Douglas; Gomez, Michael; Morbitzer, Robert; Hou, Bi-Huei; Frommer, Wolf B; Lahaye, Thomas; Staskawicz, Brian J

2014-11-01

72

A complex population structure of the cassava pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis in recent years in the Caribbean Region of Colombia.  

PubMed

Cassava bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam), is the most important bacterial disease affecting this crop. A continuous surveillance of the pathogen population dynamics is required to develop an efficient disease management program. During the 1990s, Xam populations showed high levels of genetic variation and relevant migratory processes that were important determinants of the distribution of the pathogen diversity in Colombia. Aiming to characterize the current population structure of the pathogen and the evolutionary forces that shape these populations, sampling collections were carried out from September 2008 until November 2010 in the Colombian Caribbean Region. One hundred and sixty bacterial isolates were characterized using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Additionally, a subset of effector genes were sequenced in some isolates to determine their usefulness in Xam population studies and to provide additional information to that obtained with AFLPs. Virulence patterns of ten isolates were determined in nine cassava accessions. Our results show a complex architecture of population and confirm migratory process previously reported in the Caribbean Region. Chinú, one of the locations sampled, presented remarkable features in population dynamics such as longer genetic distances, higher diversity indices, and a genetically differentiated population when it was compared with other locations. Virulence tests showed that MCOL2215, one of the most cultivated cassava varieties in the Caribbean coast, was susceptible to the majority of Xam isolates tested. This study shows the current condition of populations of Xam in the Caribbean Region of Colombia, and it contributes to improve the existing bacterial blight control practices. PMID:24760168

Trujillo, César A; Ochoa, Juan C; Mideros, María Fernanda; Restrepo, Silvia; López, Camilo; Bernal, Adriana

2014-07-01

73

Novel insights into rice innate immunity against bacterial and fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Rice feeds more than half of the world's population. Rice blast, caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, and bacterial blight, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, are major constraints to rice production worldwide. Genome sequencing and extensive molecular analysis has led to the identification of many new pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and avirulence and virulence effectors in both pathogens, as well as effector targets and receptors in the rice host. Characterization of these effectors, host targets, and resistance genes has provided new insight into innate immunity in plants. Some of the new findings, such as the binding activity of X. oryzae transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors to specific rice genomic sequences, are being used for the development of effective disease control methods and genome modification tools. This review summarizes the recent progress toward understanding the recognition and signaling events that govern rice innate immunity. PMID:24906128

Liu, Wende; Liu, Jinling; Triplett, Lindsay; Leach, Jan E; Wang, Guo-Liang

2014-01-01

74

Plant Disease Lesson: Bacterial spot of pepper and tomato  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Bacterial spot of pepper and tomato (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis (syn. campestris) pathovar vesicatoria, Xanthomonas vesicatoria, Xanthomonas gardneri) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David F. Ritchie (North Carolina State University;)

2000-10-27

75

Crystal structures of d-alanine-d-alanine ligase from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae alone and in complex with nucleotides.  

PubMed

D-Alanine-D-alanine ligase (DDL) catalyzes the biosynthesis of d-alanyl-d-alanine, an essential bacterial peptidoglycan precursor, and is an important drug target for the development of antibacterials. We determined four different crystal structures of DDL from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causing Bacteria Blight (BB), which include apo, ADP-bound, ATP-bound, and AMPPNP-bound structures at the resolution between 2.3 and 2.0 Å. Similarly with other DDLs, the active site of XoDDL is formed by three loops from three domains at the center of enzyme. Compared with d-alanyl-d-alanine and ATP-bound TtDDL structure, the ?-phosphate of ATP in XoDDL structure was shifted outside toward solution. We swapped the ?-loop (loop3) of XoDDL with those of Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori DDLs, and measured the enzymatic kinetics of wild-type XoDDL and two mutant XoDDLs with the swapped ?-loops. Results showed that the direct interactions between ?-loop and other two loops are essential for the active ATP conformation for D-ala-phosphate formation. PMID:24440607

Doan, Thanh Thi Ngoc; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Ngo, Ho-Phuong-Thuy; Tran, Huyen-Thi; Cha, Sun-Shin; Min Chung, Kyung; Huynh, Kim-Hung; Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Kang, Lin-Woo

2014-03-01

76

A multilocus sequence analysis of Xanthomonas campestris reveals a complex structure within crucifer-attacking pathovars of this species.  

PubMed

Previous classification of Xanthomonas campestris has defined six pathovars (aberrans, armoraciae, barbareae, campestris, incanae, and raphani) that cause diseases on cruciferous plants. However, pathogenicity assays with a range of strains and different hosts identifies only three types of symptom: black rot, leaf spot and bacterial blight. These findings raise the question of the genetic relatedness between strains assigned to different pathovars or symptom phenotypes. Here we have addressed this issue by multilocus sequence analysis of 42 strains. The X. campestris species was polymorphic at the 8 loci analysed and had a high genetic diversity; 23 sequence types were identified of which 16 were unique. All strains that induce black rot (pathovars aberrans and campestris) were genetically close but split in two groups. Only three clonal complexes were found, all within pathovar campestris. The assignment of the genome-sequenced strain 756C to pathovar raphani suggested from disease symptoms was confirmed, although this group of strains was particularly polymorphic. Strains belonging to pathovars barbareae and incanae were closely related, but distinct from pathovar campestris. There is evidence of genetic exchanges of housekeeping genes within this species as deduced from a clear incongruence between individual gene phylogenies and from network structures from SplitsTree analysis. Overall this study showed that the high genetic diversity derived equally from recombination and point mutation accumulation. However, X. campestris remains a species with a clonal evolution driven by a differential adaptation to cruciferous hosts. PMID:21193279

Fargier, E; Fischer-Le Saux, M; Manceau, C

2011-04-01

77

Identification of ta-siRNAs and cis-nat-siRNAs in cassava and their roles in response to cassava bacterial blight.  

PubMed

Trans-acting small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs) and natural cis-antisense siRNAs (cis-nat-siRNAs) are recently discovered small RNAs (sRNAs) involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing. ta-siRNAs are transcribed from genomic loci and require processing by microRNAs (miRNAs). cis-nat-siRNAs are derived from antisense RNAs produced by the simultaneous transcription of overlapping antisense genes. Their roles in many plant processes, including pathogen response, are mostly unknown. In this work, we employed a bioinformatic approach to identify ta-siRNAs and cis-nat-siRNAs in cassava from two sRNA libraries, one constructed from healthy cassava plants and one from plants inoculated with the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. manihotis (Xam). A total of 54 possible ta-siRNA loci were identified in cassava, including a homolog of TAS3, the best studied plant ta-siRNA. Fifteen of these loci were induced, while 39 were repressed in response to Xam infection. In addition, 15 possible cis-natural antisense transcript (cis-NAT) loci producing siRNAs were identified from overlapping antisense regions in the genome, and were found to be differentially expressed upon Xam infection. Roles of sRNAs were predicted by sequence complementarity and our results showed that many sRNAs identified in this work might be directed against various transcription factors. This work represents a significant step toward understanding the roles of sRNAs in the immune response of cassava. PMID:23665476

Quintero, Andrés; Pérez-Quintero, Alvaro L; López, Camilo

2013-06-01

78

Identification of soybean strains resistant to Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean germplasm was screened for resistance to bacterial pustule disease. The etiological agent, Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines, was isolated from the leaves of field grown soybean in Maharashtra, India. The screening of soybean stocks was carried out by excised leaf inoculation method. A differential susceptibility to the pathogen was observed in the tested stocks. Two stocks P-4-2 and P-169-3 were

Arun Sharma; P. M. Nair; S. E. Pawar

1993-01-01

79

Biocontrol of Bean Ashy Stem Blight by Improved Rhizobium Biotechnology. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

USAID's Science Advisor recently completed a research project in the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico to develop bacterial-based methods to control fungal diseases, primarily Ashy Stem Blight (Macrophomina phaseolina) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)...

E. C. Schroeder, R. Echavez-Badel, Y. A. Velazquez

1993-01-01

80

[SERS spectra of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Xoo) on nano silver film prepared by electrolysis method].  

PubMed

The nano silver film was prepared by electrolysis method using silver nitrate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in deionized water as the electrolyte, with four glass slides put in the electrolyte and two silver rods dipped into the electrolyte as the anode and cathode. A direct current was applied to the rods, then the four glass slides stayed in the silver colloids. Thus the authors got the nano silver film. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to detect the silver particles in the silver colloids and on the nano silver film. From the SEM we can see that the silver particles on the film formed different layers. In one layer, the distance between two particles was about 100 nm. The samples of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Xoo) were 7 different kinds of bacterial blight, namely 1-YN1, 2-YN7, 3-YN11, 4-GD414, 5-SCYC6, 6-HEN11 and 7-FWJ. Because the silver particles in the colloids were aggregated on the film, there was large electromagnetic potentiation. So the SERS spectra of Xoo were perfect. The authors used the area analytical method to distinguish the different kinds of Xoo. The silver film prepared by electrolysis was cheap and active, the preparation time of the samples was short, and any normal chemistry lab can make it, which can find excellent application to detecting the Xoo in agriculture. On the other hand, this film is active on biomolecules and bioorganism, which may be a new kind of SERS fundus to explain the creation of the SERS. Further study was under way. PMID:20384127

Kang, Yi-Pu; Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yu; Huang, Qiong; Liu, Ren-Ming

2010-02-01

81

Pythium blight of turfgrass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Pythium blight of turfgrass (caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and Pythium ultimum) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Tom W. Allen (University of Georgia, Griffen Campus;); Alfredo Martinez (University of Georgia, Griffen Campus;); Lee L. Burpee (University of Georgia, Griffen Campus;)

2005-01-01

82

A fragment of the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola harpin HpaG Xooc reduces disease and increases yield of rice in extensive grower plantings.  

PubMed

Harpins of phytopathogenic bacteria stimulate defense and plant growth in many types of plants, conferring disease resistance and enhanced yield. In a previous study, we characterized nine fragments of the harpin protein HpaG(Xooc) from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola for plant defense elicitation and plant growth stimulation activity relative to the intact protein. In plants grown under controlled conditions, the fragment HpaG10-42 was more active in both regards than HpaG(Xooc). Here, we demonstrate that the activity of HpaG10-42 in rice under field conditions significantly exceeds that of HpaG(Xooc), stimulating resistance to three important diseases and increasing grain yield. We carried out tests in 672 experimental plots with nine cultivars of rice planted at three locations. Application protocols were optimized by testing variations in application rate, frequency, and timing with respect to rice growth stage. Of the concentrations (24, 24, 12, and 6 microg/ml), and number and timing of applications (at one to four different stages of growth) tested, HpaG10-42 at 6 microg/ml applied to plants once at nursery seedling stage and three times in the field was most effective. Bacterial blight, rice blast, and sheath blight were reduced 61.6 and 56.4, 93.6 and 76.0, and 93.2 and 55.0% in indica and japonica cultivars, respectively, relative to controls. Grain yields were 22 to 27% greater. These results are similar to results obtained with typical local management practices, including use of chemicals, to decrease disease severities and increase yield in rice. Our results demonstrate that the HpaG10-42 protein fragment can be used effectively to control diseases and increase yield of this staple food crop. PMID:18943255

Chen, Lei; Zhang, Shu-Jian; Zhang, Shao-Song; Qu, Shuping; Ren, Xiuyan; Long, Juying; Yin, Qian; Qian, Jun; Sun, Feng; Zhang, Chunling; Wang, Lingxian; Wu, Xiaojing; Wu, Tingquan; Zhang, Zhongkai; Cheng, Zaiquan; Hayes, Marshall; Beer, Steven V; Dong, Hansong

2008-07-01

83

The bacterial effector DspA/E is toxic in Arabidopsis thaliana and is required for multiplication and survival of fire blight pathogen.  

PubMed

The type III effector DspA/E is an essential pathogenicity factor of the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. We showed that DspA/E was required for transient bacterial growth in nonhost Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, as an E.?amylovora dspA/E mutant was unable to grow. We expressed DspA/E in A.?thaliana transgenic plants under the control of an oestradiol-inducible promoter, and found that DspA/E expressed in?planta restored the growth of a dspA/E mutant. DspA/E expression in these transgenic plants led to the modulation by at least two-fold of the expression of 384 genes, mostly induced (324 genes). Both induced and repressed genes contained high proportions of defence genes. DspA/E expression ultimately resulted in plant cell death without requiring a functional salicylic acid signalling pathway. Analysis of A.?thaliana transgenic seedlings expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP):DspA/E fusion indicated that the fusion protein could only be detected in a few cells per seedling, suggesting the degradation or absence of accumulation of DspA/E in plant cells. Consistently, we found that DspA/E repressed plant protein synthesis when injected by E.?amylovora or when expressed in transgenic plants. Thus, we conclude that DspA/E is toxic to A.?thaliana: it promotes modifications, among which the repression of protein synthesis could be determinant in the facilitation of necrosis and bacterial growth. PMID:23634775

Degrave, Alexandre; Moreau, Manon; Launay, Alban; Barny, Marie-Anne; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle; Patrit, Oriane; Taconnat, Ludivine; Vedel, Regine; Fagard, Mathilde

2013-06-01

84

Plant Disease Lesson: Southern blight, Southern stem blight, White mold  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on southern blight, Southern stem blight, white mold (caused by the fungus Sclerotium rolfsii (teleomorph: Athelia rolfsii)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Jackie Mullen (Auburn University;)

2001-01-04

85

TOMATO AND POTATO LATE BLIGHT  

E-print Network

TOMATO AND POTATO LATE BLIGHT ALERT WHAT EVERY GROWER NEEDS TO KNOW ABOUT TOMATO AND POTATO LATE.potatodiseases.org #12;This year the disease known as late blight has affected many tomato and potato crops throughout the northern states. The disease is thought to have started in tomato transplants. Once the disease has taken

Douches, David S.

86

Antibacterial activity of Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. against plant pathogenic Xanthomonas pathovars: an eco- friendly approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powdered leaf and pod material of Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. was extracted with water and successively with different solvents viz., petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and ethanol. Anti-bacterial activity assays of all the extracts against the important phytopathogenic Xanthomonas pathovars, known to cause diseases in tomato, french bean and cotton, were carried out by cup diffusion method. Aqueous pod extract

D. C. Mohan; K. A. Raveesha

87

[REP-PCR analysis of rapa's bacterial diseases agents].  

PubMed

BOX, ERIC and REP--genomic fingerprints of 12 isolated and 10 typical pathogenic for rape bacterial strains Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas and Pectobacterium genera have been analyzed. The affinity of isolated strains with representatives of P. marginalis pv. marginalis, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris species has been determined. PMID:25199341

Dankevych, L A; Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Votselko, S K; Patyka, V P

2014-01-01

88

Genome mining reveals the genus Xanthomonas to be a promising reservoir for new bioactive non-ribosomally synthesized peptides  

PubMed Central

Background Various bacteria can use non-ribosomal peptide synthesis (NRPS) to produce peptides or other small molecules. Conserved features within the NRPS machinery allow the type, and sometimes even the structure, of the synthesized polypeptide to be predicted. Thus, bacterial genome mining via in silico analyses of NRPS genes offers an attractive opportunity to uncover new bioactive non-ribosomally synthesized peptides. Xanthomonas is a large genus of Gram-negative bacteria that cause disease in hundreds of plant species. To date, the only known small molecule synthesized by NRPS in this genus is albicidin produced by Xanthomonas albilineans. This study aims to estimate the biosynthetic potential of Xanthomonas spp. by in silico analyses of NRPS genes with unknown function recently identified in the sequenced genomes of X. albilineans and related species of Xanthomonas. Results We performed in silico analyses of NRPS genes present in all published genome sequences of Xanthomonas spp., as well as in unpublished draft genome sequences of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strain BAI3 and Xanthomonas spp. strain XaS3. These two latter strains, together with X. albilineans strain GPE PC73 and X. oryzae pv. oryzae strains X8-1A and X11-5A, possess novel NRPS gene clusters and share related NRPS-associated genes such as those required for the biosynthesis of non-proteinogenic amino acids or the secretion of peptides. In silico prediction of peptide structures according to NRPS architecture suggests eight different peptides, each specific to its producing strain. Interestingly, these eight peptides cannot be assigned to any known gene cluster or related to known compounds from natural product databases. PCR screening of a collection of 94 plant pathogenic bacteria indicates that these novel NRPS gene clusters are specific to the genus Xanthomonas and are also present in Xanthomonas translucens and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. Further genome mining revealed other novel NRPS genes specific to X. oryzae pv. oryzicola or Xanthomonas sacchari. Conclusions This study revealed the significant potential of the genus Xanthomonas to produce new non-ribosomally synthesized peptides. Interestingly, this biosynthetic potential seems to be specific to strains of Xanthomonas associated with monocotyledonous plants, suggesting a putative involvement of non-ribosomally synthesized peptides in plant-bacteria interactions. PMID:24069909

2013-01-01

89

Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE  

E-print Network

Red Band Needle Blight TERMS OF REFERENCE Purpose 1. The Programme Board has been formed to have an overview of the administration and science of Red Band Needle Blight (RBNB), to underpin decisions made

90

Restoration of pathogenicity of avirulent Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. campestris pathovars by reciprocal complementation with the hrpXo and hrpXc genes and identification of HrpX function by sequence analyses.  

PubMed Central

The molecular basis of pathogenesis by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae has been partly elucidated by the identification of a gene, hrpXo, required for bacterial blight on rice. A mutation in hrpXo results in the loss of pathogenicity on rice and the loss of hypersensitivity on nonhosts such as Datura stramonium and radishes. Pathogenicity and its ability to cause the hypersensitive reaction is restored by complementing the mutant with the heterologous hrpXc gene derived from X. campestris pv. campestris. Conversely, hrpXo complements nonpathogenic mutants of X. campestris pv. campestris and X. campetstris pv, armoraciae. Mutants bearing the heterologous hrpX gene are restored in their abilities to cause diseases typical of their chromosomal background and not the hypersensitive reaction on their respective hosts. The hrpXo and hrpXc genes are therefore functionally equivalent, and this functional equivalence extends into X. campestris pv. armoraciae and possibly into other X. campestris pathovars, since this gene is highly conserved among eight other pathovars tested. Sequence analyses of hrpXo revealed an open reading frame of 1,452 bp with a coding capacity for a protein of 52.3 kDa. The protein contains a consensus domain for possible protein myristoylation whose consequence may result in a loss of recognition by host defense and surveillance systems. Images PMID:8458844

Kamdar, H V; Kamoun, S; Kado, C I

1993-01-01

91

Restoration of pathogenicity of avirulent Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. campestris pathovars by reciprocal complementation with the hrpXo and hrpXc genes and identification of HrpX function by sequence analyses.  

PubMed

The molecular basis of pathogenesis by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae has been partly elucidated by the identification of a gene, hrpXo, required for bacterial blight on rice. A mutation in hrpXo results in the loss of pathogenicity on rice and the loss of hypersensitivity on nonhosts such as Datura stramonium and radishes. Pathogenicity and its ability to cause the hypersensitive reaction is restored by complementing the mutant with the heterologous hrpXc gene derived from X. campestris pv. campestris. Conversely, hrpXo complements nonpathogenic mutants of X. campestris pv. campestris and X. campetstris pv, armoraciae. Mutants bearing the heterologous hrpX gene are restored in their abilities to cause diseases typical of their chromosomal background and not the hypersensitive reaction on their respective hosts. The hrpXo and hrpXc genes are therefore functionally equivalent, and this functional equivalence extends into X. campestris pv. armoraciae and possibly into other X. campestris pathovars, since this gene is highly conserved among eight other pathovars tested. Sequence analyses of hrpXo revealed an open reading frame of 1,452 bp with a coding capacity for a protein of 52.3 kDa. The protein contains a consensus domain for possible protein myristoylation whose consequence may result in a loss of recognition by host defense and surveillance systems. PMID:8458844

Kamdar, H V; Kamoun, S; Kado, C I

1993-04-01

92

Transcription activator-like type III effector AvrXa27 depends on OsTFIIAgamma5 for the activation of Xa27 transcription in rice that triggers disease resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

The transcription activator-like (TAL) type III effector AvrXa27 from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) strain PXO99(A) activates the transcription of the host resistance gene Xa27, which results in disease resistance to bacterial blight (BB) in rice. In this study, we show that AvrXa27-activated Xa27 transcription requires host general transcription factor OsTFIIAgamma5. The V39E substitution in OsTFIIAgamma5, encoded by the recessive resistance gene xa5 in rice, greatly attenuates this activation in xa5 and Xa27 double homozygotes on inoculation with Xa27-incompatible strains. The xa5 gene also causes attenuation in the induction of Xa27 by AvrXa27 expressed in rice. The xa5-mediated attenuation of Xa27-mediated resistance to PXO99(A) is recessive. Intriguingly, xa5-mediated resistance to xa5-incompatible strains is also down-regulated in the xa5 and Xa27 double homozygotes. In addition, AvrXa27 expressed in planta shows weak virulence activity in the xa5 genetic background and causes enhanced susceptibility of the plants to BB inoculation. The results suggest that TAL effectors target host general transcription factors to directly manipulate the host transcriptional machinery for virulence and/or avirulence. The identification of xa5-mediated attenuation of Xa27-mediated resistance to Xoo provides a guideline for breeding resistance to BB when pyramiding xa5 with other resistance genes. PMID:19849788

Gu, Keyu; Tian, Dongsheng; Qiu, Chengxiang; Yin, Zhongchao

2009-11-01

93

Plasmid-DNA Based Probes and Procedure for Rapid and Specific Detection of Xanthomonas Campestris pv. Citri.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Citrus bacterial canker disease (CBCD) is a serious disease of citrus, and the causal pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri (X.c. citri) is the subject of international quarantine. Although eradicated from the United States at great cost in the first...

J. S. Hartung, O. P. Pruvost

1992-01-01

94

Xanthomonas AvrBs3 family-type III effectors: discovery and function.  

PubMed

Xanthomonads are bacterial plant pathogens that cause diseases on many plant species, including important crops. Key to pathogenicity of most Xanthomonas pathovars is a Hrp-type III secretion (T3S) system that translocates effector proteins into plant cells. Within the eukaryotic cell, the effectors are thought to perform a variety of tasks to support bacterial virulence, proliferation, and dissemination. We are only beginning to understand the host targets of different effectors. The largest effector family found in Xanthomonas spp. is the AvrBs3/PthA or TAL (transcription activator-like) family. TAL effectors act as transcriptional activators in the plant cell nucleus. Specificity of TAL effectors is determined by a novel modular DNA-binding domain. Here, we describe the discovery of TAL effectors and their structure, activity, and host targets. PMID:19400638

Boch, Jens; Bonas, Ulla

2010-01-01

95

Plant Disease Lesson: Early blight  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on early blight (caused by the fungus Alternaria solani) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Greg Kemmitt (Dow AgroSciences;)

2002-08-09

96

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri type IV Pilus is required for twitching motility, biofilm development, and adherence.  

PubMed

Bacterial type IV pili (T4P) are long, flexible surface filaments that consist of helical polymers of mostly pilin subunits. Cycles of polymerization, attachment, and depolymerization mediate several pilus-dependent bacterial behaviors, including twitching motility, surface adhesion, pathogenicity, natural transformation, escape from immune system defense mechanisms, and biofilm formation. The Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain 306 genome codes for a large set of genes involved in T4P biogenesis and regulation and includes several pilin homologs. We show that X. citri subsp. citri can exhibit twitching motility in a manner similar to that observed in other bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xylella fastidiosa and that this motility is abolished in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri knockout strains in the genes coding for the major pilin subunit PilAXAC3241, the ATPases PilBXAC3239 and PilTXAC2924, and the T4P biogenesis regulators PilZXAC1133 and FimXXAC2398. Microscopy analyses were performed to compare patterns of bacterial migration in the wild-type and knockout strains and we observed that the formation of mushroom-like structures in X. citri subsp. citri biofilm requires a functional T4P. Finally, infection of X. citri subsp. citri cells by the bacteriophage (?Xacm4-11 is T4P dependent. The results of this study improve our understanding of how T4P influence Xanthomonas motility, biofilm formation, and susceptibility to phage infection. PMID:25180689

Dunger, German; Guzzo, Cristiane R; Andrade, Maxuel O; Jones, Jeffrey B; Farah, Chuck S

2014-10-01

97

Complete Genome Sequence for the Fusarium Head Blight Antagonist Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain TrigoCor 1448.  

PubMed

We present the complete genome sequence for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TrigoCor 1448 (ATCC 202152), a bacterial biological control agent for Fusarium head blight in wheat. We compare it to its closest relative, B. amyloliquefaciens strain AS43.3. PMID:24675861

Nelson, Beth A; Ramaiya, Preethi; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Kumar, Ravi; Crinklaw, Austin; Jolkovsky, Eliana; Crane, Julia M; Bergstrom, Gary C; Rey, Michael W

2014-01-01

98

Complete Genome Sequence for the Fusarium Head Blight Antagonist Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain TrigoCor 1448  

PubMed Central

We present the complete genome sequence for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TrigoCor 1448 (ATCC 202152), a bacterial biological control agent for Fusarium head blight in wheat. We compare it to its closest relative, B. amyloliquefaciens strain AS43.3. PMID:24675861

Nelson, Beth A.; Ramaiya, Preethi; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Kumar, Ravi; Crinklaw, Austin; Jolkovsky, Eliana; Crane, Julia M.; Bergstrom, Gary C.

2014-01-01

99

Induction of systemic resistance in rice against sheath blight disease by Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two Pseudomonas fluorescens strains viz., PF1 and FP7 which inhibited the mycelial growth of sheath blight fungus Rhizoctonia solani and increased the seedling vigour of rice plants in vitro were selected for assessing induced systemic resistance (ISR) against R. solani in rice. The Pseudomonas application as a bacterial suspension or a talc-based formulation through seed, root, soil and foliar application

R Nandakumar; S Babu; R Viswanathan; T Raguchander; R Samiyappan

2001-01-01

100

Red Band Needle Blight Programme Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group  

E-print Network

Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group Red Band Needle Blight of Pine Programme Group Minutes Support Welcome and introduction 1. Jim thanked everyone for attending the first meeting of the Red Band and that the private 1 | Paper 1 - Minutes | Debbie Erskine | 23/01/2009 #12;Red Band Needle Blight Programme Group

101

Virulence of Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae Isolated from Poa annua  

PubMed Central

Bacterial wilt is a vascular wilt disease caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. poae that infects Poa annua, a grass that is commonly found on golf course greens throughout the world. Bacterial wilt causes symptoms of etiolation, wilting, and foliar necrosis. The damage is most prevalent during the summer and the pathogen can kill turf under conditions optimal for disease development. Fifteen isolates of X. translucens pv. poae were collected from northern regions in the United States and tested for virulence against P. annua. All 15 isolates were pathogenic on P. annua, but demonstrated variable levels of virulence when inoculated onto P. annua under greenhouse conditions. The isolates were divided into two virulence groups. The first group containing four isolates generally resulted in less than 40% mortality following inoculation. The second group, containing the other eleven isolates, produced between 90 and 100% mortality following inoculation. These results suggest that differences in the virulence of bacterial populations present on a golf course may result in more or less severe amounts of observed disease. PMID:25288933

Chaves, Arielle; Mitkowski, Nathaniel

2013-01-01

102

Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters. PMID:22443110

2012-01-01

103

Interactions Between Xanthomonas Species and Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Arabidopsis has been well studied as a model plant for plant pathogen interactions. While a large portion of the literature has been devoted to interactions between Arabidopsis and Pseudomonas and Peronospora species, a small cadre of researchers have been making inroads on the response of Arabidopsis to Xanthomonas. Differential responses of Arabidopsis accessions to isolates of Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris include tolerance, a hypersensitive response, resistance without a hypersensitive response and disease which is characterized by chlorosis and necrosis. Loci that govern the recognition of X. c. campestris have been identified and are the focus of on-going positional cloning efforts. Signaling and other downstream molecules involved in manifestation of resistance to Xanthomonas have been investigated resulting in the identification of many components of the resistance response. Parallel to the characterization of the host response, molecular and genomic efforts focused on the pathogen have the potential to reveal the mechanisms by which this bacterium can invade and colonize host tissues. Abbreviations: colony forming units (CFU), Columbia (Col-0), days post inoculation (dpi), hypersensitive response (HR), Landsberg erecta (Ler), pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR-1), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc) PMID:22303203

Buell, C. Robin

2002-01-01

104

Xylella and Xanthomonas Mobil'omics  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The gamma-proteobacterium Xanthomonadales groups two closely related genera of plant pathogens, Xanthomonas and Xylella. Whole genome sequencing and comparative analyses disclosed a high degree of identity and co-linearity of the chromosome backbone between species and strains. Differences observed are usually clustered into genomic islands, most of which are delimited by genetic mobile elements. Focus is given in this paper

Claudia B. Monteiro-Vitorello; Mariana C. De Oliveira; Marcelo M. Zerillo; Alessandro M. Varani; Edwin Civerolo; Marie-Anne Van Sluys

2005-01-01

105

Identification of specific fragments of HpaG Xooc, a harpin from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, that induce disease resistance and enhance growth in plants.  

PubMed

Harpin proteins from gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria can stimulate hypersensitive cell death (HCD) and pathogen defense as well as enhance growth in plants. Two of these diverse activities clearly are beneficial and may depend on particular functional regions of the proteins. Identification of beneficial and deleterious regions might facilitate the beneficial use of harpin-related proteins on crops without causing negative effects like cell death. Here, we report the identification and testing of nine functional fragments of HpaG(Xooc), a 137-amino-acid harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the pathogen that causes bacterial leaf streak of rice. Polymerase chain reaction-based mutagenesis generated nine proteinaceous fragments of HpaG(Xooc); these caused different responses following their application to Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Oryza sativa (rice). Fragment HpaG62-137, which spans the indicated amino acid residues of the HpaG, induced more intense HCD; in contrast, HpaG10-42 did not cause evident cell death in tobacco. However, both fragments stimulated stronger defense responses and enhanced more growth in rice than the full-length parent protein, HpaG(Xooc). Of the nine fragments, the parent protein and one deletion mutant of HpaG(Xooc) tested, HpaG10-42, stimulated higher levels of rice growth and resulted in greater levels of resistance to X. oryzae pv. oryzae and Magnaporthe grisea. These pathogens cause bacterial leaf blight and rice blast, respectively, the two most important diseases of rice world-wide. HpaG10-42 was more active than HpaG(Xooc) in inducing expression of several genes that regulate rice defense and growth processes and activating certain signaling pathways, which may explain the greater beneficial effects observed from treatment with that fragment. Overall, our results suggest that HpaG10-42 holds promise for practical agricultural use to induce disease resistance and enhance growth of rice. PMID:18943254

Chen, Lei; Qian, Jun; Qu, Shuping; Long, Juying; Yin, Qian; Zhang, Chunling; Wu, Xiaojing; Sun, Feng; Wu, Tingquan; Hayes, Marshall; Beer, Steven V; Dong, Hansong

2008-07-01

106

Sensitive and specific detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria by PCR using pathovar-specific primers based on rhs family gene sequences.  

PubMed

The present study describes PCR assay to detect bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper and tomato. One set of PCR primer was developed to amplify gene required for an rhs family gene homologous to rhsA, cell envelope biogenesis, outer membrane. Only a PCR product of a 517bp was produced in PCR reaction with the Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (XCVF/XCVR) primer set. A specific, and highly sensitive and rapid PCR assay for the detection of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria was achieved. The protocol can be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for specific detection of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper or tomato. PMID:17317128

Park, Dong Suk; Shim, Jae Kyung; Kim, Jung Sun; Lim, Chun Keun; Shrestha, Rosemary; Hahn, Jang Ho; Kim, Hong Gi

2009-01-01

107

Specific genomic fingerprints of phytopathogenic Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas pathovars and strains generated with repetitive sequences and PCR.  

PubMed Central

DNA primers corresponding to conserved motifs in bacterial repetitive (REP, ERIC, and BOX) elements and PCR were used to show that REP-, ERIC-, and BOX-like DNA sequences are widely distributed in phytopathogenic Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas strains. REP-, ERIC, and BOX-PCR (collectively known as rep-PCR) were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas isolates and to identify pathovars and strains that were previously not distinguishable by other classification methods. Analogous rep-PCR-derived genomic fingerprints were generated from purified genomic DNA, colonies on agar plates, liquid cultures, and directly from lesions on infected plants. REP, ERIC, and BOX-PCR-generated fingerprints of specific Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas strains were found to yield similar conclusions wtih regard to the identity of and relationship between these strains. This suggests that the distribution of REP-, ERIC, and BOX-like sequences in these strains is a reflection of their genomic structure. Thus, the rep-PCR technique appears to be a rapid, simple, and reproducible method to identify and classify Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas strains, and it may be a useful diagnostic tool for these important plant pathogens. Images PMID:8074510

Louws, F J; Fulbright, D W; Stephens, C T; de Bruijn, F J

1994-01-01

108

Specific genomic fingerprints of phytopathogenic Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas pathovars and strains generated with repetitive sequences and PCR  

SciTech Connect

DNA primers corresponding to conserved motifs in bacterial repetitive (REP, ERIC, and BOX) elements and PCR were used to show that REP-, ERIC-, and BOX-like DNA sequences are widely distributed in phytopathogenic Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas strains. REP-, ERIC-, and BOX-PCR (collectively known as rep-PCR) were used to generate genomic fingerprints of a variety of Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas isolates and to to identify pathovars and strains that were previously not distinguishable by other classification methods. Analogous rep-PCR-derived genomic fingerprints were generated from purified genomic DNA, colonies on agar plates, liquid cultures, and directly from lesions on infected plants. REP-, ERIC-, and BOX-PCR-generated fingerprints of specific Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas strains were found to yield similar conclusions with regard to the identity of and relationship between these strains. This suggests that the distribution of REP-, ERIC-, and BOX-like sequences in these strains is a reflection of their genomic structure. Thus, the rep-PCR technique appears to be a rapid, simple, and reproducible method to identify and classify Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas strains, and it may be a useful diagnostic tool for these important plant pathogens. 70 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Louws, F.J.; Stephens, C.T.; Fulbright, D.W. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

1994-07-01

109

Two Novel Type III-Secreted Proteins of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Are Encoded within the hrp Pathogenicity Island  

PubMed Central

The Hrp type III protein secretion system (TTSS) is essential for pathogenicity of gram-negative plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism and reverse transcription-PCR analyses identified new genes, regulated by key hrp regulator HrpG, in the regions flanking the hrp gene cluster. Sequence analysis revealed genes encoding HpaG, a predicted leucine-rich repeat-containing protein, the lysozyme-like HpaH protein, and XopA and XopD, which are similar in sequence to Hpa1 from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and PsvA from Pseudomonas syringae, respectively. XopA and XopD (Xanthomonas outer proteins) are secreted by the Xanthomonas Hrp TTSS and thus represent putative effector proteins. Mutations in xopA, but not in xopD, resulted in reduced bacterial growth in planta and delayed plant reactions in susceptible and resistant host plants. Since the xopD promoter contains a putative hrp box, which is characteristic of hrpL-regulated genes in P. syringae and Erwinia spp., the gene was probably acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Interestingly, the regions flanking the hrp gene cluster also contain insertion sequences and genes for a putative transposase and a tRNAArg. These features suggest that the hrp gene cluster of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria is part of a pathogenicity island. PMID:11844763

Noel, Laurent; Thieme, Frank; Nennstiel, Dirk; Bonas, Ulla

2002-01-01

110

The type III effectors of Xanthomonas.  

PubMed

A review of type III effectors (T3 effectors) from strains of Xanthomonas reveals a growing list of candidate and known effectors based on functional assays and sequence and structural similarity searches of genomic data. We propose that the effectors and suspected effectors should be distributed into 39 so-called Xop groups reflecting sequence similarity. Some groups have structural motifs for putative enzymatic functions, and recent studies have provided considerable insight into the interaction with host factors in their function as mediators of virulence and elicitors of resistance for a few specific T3 effectors. Many groups are related to T3 effectors of plant and animal pathogenic bacteria, and several groups appear to have been exploited primarily by Xanthomonas species based on available data. At the same time, a relatively large number of candidate effectors remain to be examined in more detail with regard to their function within host cells. PMID:19849782

White, Frank F; Potnis, Neha; Jones, Jeffrey B; Koebnik, Ralf

2009-11-01

111

Detached leaf inoculation of germplasm for rapid screening of resistance to citrus canker and citrus bacterial spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detached leaf protocol for rapid screening of germplasm for resistance to citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) and citrus bacterial spot (Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis, Xac) was developed to evaluate limited quantities of leaf material. Bacterial inocula of Xcc or Xac at 104, 105, or 108 cfu ml?1 were injection-infiltrated into the abaxial surface of disinfested, immature leaves of susceptible

Marta I. Francis; Alma Peña; James H. Graham

2010-01-01

112

Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple  

PubMed Central

Background Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple. The purpose of the present study was to quantify rootstock-mediated differences in scion fire blight susceptibility and to identify transcripts in the scion whose expression levels correlated with this response. Results Rootstock influence on scion fire blight resistance was quantified by inoculating three-year old, orchard-grown apple trees, consisting of 'Gala' scions grafted to a range of rootstocks, with E. amylovora. Disease severity was measured by the extent of shoot necrosis over time. 'Gala' scions grafted to G.30 or MM.111 rootstocks showed the lowest rates of necrosis, while 'Gala' on M.27 and B.9 showed the highest rates of necrosis. 'Gala' scions on M.7, S.4 or M.9F56 had intermediate necrosis rates. Using an apple DNA microarray representing 55,230 unique transcripts, gene expression patterns were compared in healthy, un-inoculated, greenhouse-grown 'Gala' scions on the same series of rootstocks. We identified 690 transcripts whose steady-state expression levels correlated with the degree of fire blight susceptibility of the scion/rootstock combinations. Transcripts known to be differentially expressed during E. amylovora infection were disproportionately represented among these transcripts. A second-generation apple microarray representing 26,000 transcripts was developed and was used to test these correlations in an orchard-grown population of trees segregating for fire blight resistance. Of the 690 transcripts originally identified using the first-generation array, 39 had expression levels that correlated with fire blight resistance in the breeding population. Conclusions Rootstocks had significant effects on the fire blight susceptibility of 'Gala' scions, and rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns could be correlated with differences in susceptibility. The results suggest a relationship between rootstock-regulated fire blight susceptibility and sorbitol dehydrogenase, phenylpropanoid metabolism, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, and endocytosis, among others. This study illustrates the utility of our rootstock-regulated gene expression data sets for candidate trait-associated gene data mining. PMID:22229964

2012-01-01

113

The image has the power : fighting blight in Philadelphia  

E-print Network

Blight has plagued Philadelphia for the better part of a century, though the understanding of blight has changed dramatically over time. Originally used to describe neighborhood overcrowding, the term retained its currency ...

Stern, Jonah Daniel

2012-01-01

114

Results of the 1971 Corn Blight Watch experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced remote sensing techniques are used to: (1)Detect development and spread of corn leaf blight during the growing season; (2) assess the extent and severity of blight infection; (3) assess the impact of blight on corn production; and (4) estimate the applicability of these techniques to similar situations occurring in the future.

Macdonald, R. B.; Allen, R. D.; Bauer, M. E.; Clifton, J. W.; Frickson, J. D.; Landgrebe, D. A.

1972-01-01

115

Heterogeneity of Xanthomonas campestris pv. hederae Strains from Araliaceous Hosts.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Xanthomonas campestris pv. hederae (synonym X. hortorum pv. hederae) strains (59 total) were collected from plants in the araliaceae family. Strains were isolated from Hedera helix, Schefflera arboricola, Brassaia actinophylla, and Polyscias spp. from Florida, California, Hawaii, and New Zealand. All strains produced yellow mucoid growth; hydrolyzed esculin, starch, casein and gelatin; were pectolytic; produced urease; and grew on minimal media containing asparagine. All bacterial strains were pathogenic on H. helix (English ivy), B. actinophylla (dwarf schefflera), and Polyscias fruticosa (ming aralia). No differences in symptomatology were detected among strains; however, severity of symptoms usually was greatest on the host of origin. In planta growth rates of representative strains isolated from H. helix, B. actinophylla, and Polyscias spp. also were compared among these three hosts. In all cases, populations grew more rapidly when strains were inoculated to their original host species. All 59 bacterial strains were compared by 95-carbon source GN microplate, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), and restriction fragment-length polymorphisms (RFLP), with the pulse-field gel electrophoresis method, analyses. All three analyses grouped strains into two distinct groups that correlated with the host of origin. Using metabolic profiles, 75% of the H. helix strains were separated from strains isolated from Brassaia and Schefflera and 95% of the Polyscias strains. FAME analysis separated strains into two distinct groups, with 96% of the H. helix strains placed in one group. RFLP analysis placed all of the H. helix and Schefflera strains in one group, as well as 33% of the Brassaia strains, whereas the other group contained all of the Polyscias strains and the remainder of the Brassaia strains. It is apparent that the pathovar hederae is made up of heterogeneous populations that can be separated by biochemical, pathological, genetic, and physiological analyses into two groups that are closely associated with the host of origin. PMID:18944676

Norman, D J; Chase, A R; Stall, R E; Jones, J B

1999-08-01

116

Xanthomonas perforans Colonization Influences Salmonella enterica in the Tomato Phyllosphere  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica rarely grows on healthy, undamaged plants, but its persistence is influenced by bacterial plant pathogens. The interactions between S. enterica, Xanthomonas perforans (a tomato bacterial spot pathogen), and tomato were characterized. We observed that virulent X. perforans, which establishes disease by suppressing pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity that leads to effector-triggered susceptibility, created a conducive environment for persistence of S. enterica in the tomato phyllosphere, while activation of effector-triggered immunity by avirulent X. perforans resulted in a dramatic reduction in S. enterica populations. S. enterica populations persisted at ?10 times higher levels in leaves coinoculated with virulent X. perforans than in those where S. enterica was applied alone. In contrast, S. enterica populations were ?5 times smaller in leaves coinoculated with avirulent X. perforans than in leaves inoculated with S. enterica alone. Coinoculation with virulent X. perforans increased S. enterica aggregate formation; however, S. enterica was not found in mixed aggregates with X. perforans. Increased aggregate formation by S. enterica may serve as the mechanism of persistence on leaves cocolonized by virulent X. perforans. S. enterica association with stomata was altered by X. perforans; however, it did not result in appreciable populations of S. enterica in the apoplast even in the presence of large virulent X. perforans populations. Gene-for-gene resistance against X. perforans successively restricted S. enterica populations. Given the effect of this interaction, breeding for disease-resistant cultivars may be an effective strategy to limit both plant disease and S. enterica populations and, consequently, human illness. PMID:24632252

Potnis, Neha; Soto-Arias, Jose Pablo; Cowles, Kimberly N.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.; Jones, Jeffrey B.

2014-01-01

117

Xanthomonas perforans colonization influences Salmonella enterica in the tomato phyllosphere.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica rarely grows on healthy, undamaged plants, but its persistence is influenced by bacterial plant pathogens. The interactions between S. enterica, Xanthomonas perforans (a tomato bacterial spot pathogen), and tomato were characterized. We observed that virulent X. perforans, which establishes disease by suppressing pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity that leads to effector-triggered susceptibility, created a conducive environment for persistence of S. enterica in the tomato phyllosphere, while activation of effector-triggered immunity by avirulent X. perforans resulted in a dramatic reduction in S. enterica populations. S. enterica populations persisted at ~10 times higher levels in leaves coinoculated with virulent X. perforans than in those where S. enterica was applied alone. In contrast, S. enterica populations were ~5 times smaller in leaves coinoculated with avirulent X. perforans than in leaves inoculated with S. enterica alone. Coinoculation with virulent X. perforans increased S. enterica aggregate formation; however, S. enterica was not found in mixed aggregates with X. perforans. Increased aggregate formation by S. enterica may serve as the mechanism of persistence on leaves cocolonized by virulent X. perforans. S. enterica association with stomata was altered by X. perforans; however, it did not result in appreciable populations of S. enterica in the apoplast even in the presence of large virulent X. perforans populations. Gene-for-gene resistance against X. perforans successively restricted S. enterica populations. Given the effect of this interaction, breeding for disease-resistant cultivars may be an effective strategy to limit both plant disease and S. enterica populations and, consequently, human illness. PMID:24632252

Potnis, Neha; Soto-Arias, José Pablo; Cowles, Kimberly N; van Bruggen, Ariena H C; Jones, Jeffrey B; Barak, Jeri D

2014-05-01

118

Infection and Immune Response in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Elicited by the Phytopathogen Xanthomonas.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) strains are plant pathogenic bacteria that can cause serious blight of rice, and their virulence towards plant host is complex, making it difficult to be elucidated. Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as a powerful model organism to simplify the host and pathogen system. However, whether the C. elegans is feasible for studying plant pathogens such as Xoo has not been explored. In the present work, we report that Xoo strains PXO99 and JXOIII reduce the lifespan of worms not through acute toxicity, but in an infectious manner; pathogens proliferate and persist in the intestinal lumen to cause marked anterior intestine distension. In addition, Xoo triggers (i) the p38 MAPK signal pathway to upregulate its downstream C17H12.8 expression, and (ii) the DAF-2/DAF-16 pathway to upregulate its downstream gene expressions of mtl-1 and sod-3 under the condition of daf-2 mutation. Our findings suggest that C. elegans can be used as a model to evaluate the virulence of Xoo phytopathogens to host. PMID:24836185

Bai, Yanli; Zhi, Dejuan; Li, Chanhe; Liu, Dongling; Zhang, Juan; Tian, Jing; Wang, Xin; Ren, Hui; Li, Hongyu

2014-09-28

119

AvrXa7-Xa7 mediated defense in rice can be suppressed by transcriptional activator-like effectors TAL6 and TAL11a from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.  

PubMed

The closely related plant pathogens Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and X. oryzae pv. oryzae cause bacterial leaf streak (BLS) and bacterial leaf blight (BLB), respectively, in rice. Unlike X. oryzae pv. oryzae, endogenous avirulence-resistance (avr-R) gene interactions have not been identified in the X. oryzae pv. oryzicola-rice pathosystem, though both X. oryzae pv. oryzicola and X. oryzae pv. oryzae possess transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALE), which are known to modulate R or S genes in rice. In this report, avrXa7, avrXa10, and avrXa27 from X. oryzae pv. oryzae were transferred into YNB0-17 and RS105, hypovirulent and hypervirulent strains, respectively, of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. When YNB0-17 containing avrXa7, avrXa10, or avrXa27 was inoculated to rice, hypersensitive responses (HR) were elicited in rice cultivars containing the R genes Xa7, Xa10, and Xa27, respectively. By contrast, RS105 expressing avrXa27 elicited an HR in a rice cultivar containing Xa27 but the expression of avrXa7 and avrXa10 in RS105 did not result in HR in rice cultivars containing Xa7 and Xa10, correspondingly. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that YNB0-17 possesses only approximately nine putative tale genes, whereas the hypervirulent RS105 contains at least 20. Although YNB0-17 contains an intact type III secretion system (T3SS), its genome is lacking the T3SS effector genes avrRxo1 and xopO, which are present in RS105. The introduction of avrRxo1 and xopO into YNB0-17 did not suppress avrXa7- or avrXa10-triggered immunity in rice. However, the transference of individual tale genes from RS105 into YNB0-17 led to the identification of tal6 and tal11a that suppressed avrXa7-Xa7-mediated defense. Thus, YNB0-17 may be a useful recipient for discovering such suppressors. This is the first report that co-evolutionally generated tale genes in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola suppress gene-for-gene defense against BLB, which may explain the lack of BLS-resistant cultivars. PMID:25105804

Ji, Zhi-Yuan; Xiong, Li; Zou, Li-Fang; Li, Yu-Rong; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Liu, Liang; Zakria, Muhammad; Ji, Guang-Hai; Chen, Gong-You

2014-09-01

120

Within-Species Flagellin Polymorphism in Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris and Its Impact on Elicitation of Arabidopsis FLAGELLIN SENSING2Dependent Defenses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial flagellins have been portrayed as a relatively invariant pathogen-associated molecular pattern. We have found within-species, within-pathovar variation for defense-eliciting activity of flagellins among Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris (Xcc) strains. Arabidopsis thaliana FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2), a transmembrane leucine-rich repeat kinase, confers flagellin responsiveness. The flg22 region was the only Xcc flagellin region responsible for detectable elicitation of Arabidopsis defense responses.

Wenxian Sun; F. Mark Dunning; Christine Pfund; Rebecca Weingarten; Andrew F. Bent

2006-01-01

121

The Twin-Arginine Translocation (Tat) Pathway Is Essential for Virulence, Flagellation, and Chemotaxis in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola Strain RsGD42  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial leaf streak, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, is an important disease of rice (Oryza sativa). Genetic determinants (tatABC genes) of the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway from X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strain RsGD42 were cloned and characterized, meanwhile, a tatC disruption mutant was generated. The tatC mutant lacked detectable flagella and was highly impaired in motility and chemotaxis. Furthermore,

Guo-liang QIAN; Bing HAN; Lei CHEN; Bai-shi HU; Wan-feng YANG; Chen WANG; Zhi-cheng HAN; Feng-quan LIU

2009-01-01

122

Breeding Strains of Cotton Resistant to Bacterial Blight.  

E-print Network

collected at the first picking. RESULTS The analysis of variance for the 1949 and 1950 tests pertain- ing to the variability in pathogenicity of isolates of X. malva- cearum showed that differences between the mean disease grades for the isolates were... collected at the first picking. RESULTS The analysis of variance for the 1949 and 1950 tests pertain- ing to the variability in pathogenicity of isolates of X. malva- cearum showed that differences between the mean disease grades for the isolates were...

Blank, Lester M. (Lester Marion); Bird, L. S. (Luther Smith)

1951-01-01

123

Systemic Acquired Tolerance to Virulent Bacterial Pathogens in Tomato1  

E-print Network

Systemic Acquired Tolerance to Virulent Bacterial Pathogens in Tomato1 Anna Block, Eric Schmelz in the interaction between tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and virulent Xanthomonas campestris pv vesicatoria (Xcv a systemic defense response. We therefore assessed the systemic responses of tomato to Xcv. SA- and ethylene

Klee, Harry J.

124

Genome Sequencing of Xanthomonas vasicola Pathovar vasculorum Reveals Variation in Plasmids and Genes Encoding Lipopolysaccharide Synthesis, Type-IV Pilus and Type-III Secretion Effectors  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas vasicola pathovar vasculorum (Xvv) is the bacterial agent causing gumming disease in sugarcane. Here, we compare complete genome sequences for five isolates of Xvv originating from sugarcane and one from maize. This identified two distinct types of lipopolysaccharide synthesis gene clusters among Xvv isolates: one is similar to that of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovar citri (Xac) and is probably the ancestral type, while the other is similar to those of the sugarcane-inhabiting species, Xanthomonas sacchari. Four of six Xvv isolates harboured sequences similar to the Xac plasmid, pXAC47, and showed a distinct Type-IV pilus (T4P) sequence type, whereas the T4P locus of the other two isolates resembled that of the closely related banana pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm). The Xvv isolate from maize has lost a gene encoding a homologue of the virulence effector, xopAF, which was present in all five of the sugarcane isolates, while xopL contained a premature stop codon in four out of six isolates. These findings shed new light on evolutionary events since the divergence of Xvv and Xcm, as well as further elucidating the relationships between the two closely related pathogens.

Wasukira, Arthur; Coulter, Max; Al-Sowayeh, Noorah; Thwaites, Richard; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Kubiriba, Jerome; Smith, Julian; Grant, Murray; Studholme, David J.

2014-01-01

125

[Bacterial diseases of rape].  

PubMed

Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium. PMID:23293826

Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P

2012-01-01

126

Constitutive expression of a chromosomal class A (BJM group 2) beta-lactamase in Xanthomonas campestris.  

PubMed

Sequencing of the upstream region of the beta-lactamase gene from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 11 (bla(XCC-1)) revealed the cognate ampR1 gene (289 amino acids, 31 kDa). It runs divergently from bla(XCC-1) with a 100-bp intergenic region (IG) containing partially overlapped promoters with structural features typical of the bla-ampR IG. The deduced AmpR1 protein shows significant identity in amino acid sequence and conserved motifs with AmpR proteins of other species, e.g., of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (58.2% amino acid identity). Results of insertional mutation, complementation tests, and beta-lactamase assays suggested that expression of bla(XCC-1) was constitutive and dependent on AmpR1. Four bla genes and two ampR genes are present in the fully sequenced X. campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913 genome, with XCC3039 and XCC3040 considered the analogues of bla(XCC-1) and ampR1, respectively. An ampR1 homologue was detected by Southern hybridization in the ampicillin-resistant Xanthomonas strains, which appear to express beta-lactamase constitutively. Although the significance remains to be studied, constitutive expression of beta-lactamase by a widespread bacterial genus raises environmental concerns regarding the dissemination of resistance genes. PMID:14693541

Weng, Shu-Fen; Lin, Juey-Wen; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chen, Yih-Yuan; Tseng, Yi-Hsuan; Tseng, Yi-Hsiung

2004-01-01

127

Genomic Insights into the Evolutionary Origin of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and Its Ecological Relatives.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker (CBC) and is a serious problem worldwide. Like CBC, several important diseases in other fruits, such as mango, pomegranate, and grape, are also caused by Xanthomonas pathovars that display remarkable specificity toward their hosts. While citrus and mango diseases were documented more than 100 years ago, the pomegranate and grape diseases have been known only since the 1950s and 1970s, respectively. Interestingly, diseases caused by all these pathovars were noted first in India. Our genome-based phylogenetic studies suggest that these diverse pathogens belong to a single species and these pathovars may be just a group of rapidly evolving strains. Furthermore, the recently reported pathovars, such as those infecting grape and pomegranate, form independent clonal lineages, while the citrus and mango pathovars that have been known for a long time form one clonal lineage. Such an understanding of their phylogenomic relationship has further allowed us to understand major and unique variations in the lineages that give rise to these pathovars. Whole-genome sequencing studies including ecological relatives from their putative country of origin has allowed us to understand the evolutionary history of Xac and other pathovars that infect fruits. PMID:25085494

Midha, Samriti; Patil, Prabhu B

2014-10-15

128

Draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra possessing transcription activator-like effectors used for genetic engineering.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines 8ra is a causal agent of bacterial pustule disease in soybean. This bacterium possesses transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors which are useful for genetic/protein engineering applications in higher organisms including plants and humans. Here, we report that the draft genome sequence consists of 5,337,885-bp double-stranded DNA encoding 4674 open reading frames (ORFs) in 13 different contigs. This genome sequence would be useful in applications of TAL effectors in genetic engineering and in elucidating virulence factors against plants. PMID:24657734

Lee, Ju-Hoon; Shin, Hakdong; Park, Hye-Jee; Ryu, Sangryeol; Han, Sang-Wook

2014-06-10

129

Real Time Live Imaging of Phytopathogenic Bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris MAFF106712 in 'Plant Sweet Home'  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas is one of the most widespread phytobacteria, causing diseases on a variety of agricultural plants. To develop novel control techniques, knowledge of bacterial behavior inside plant cells is essential. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a vascular pathogen, is the causal agent of black rot on leaves of Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Among the X. campestris pv. campestris stocks in the MAFF collection, we selected XccMAFF106712 as a model compatible pathogen for the A. thaliana reference ecotype Columbia (Col-0). Using modified green fluorescent protein (AcGFP) as a reporter, we observed real time XccMAFF106712 colonization in planta with confocal microscopy. AcGFP-expressing bacteria colonized the inside of epidermal cells and the apoplast, as well as the xylem vessels of the vasculature. In the case of the type III mutant, bacteria colonization was never detected in the xylem vessel or apoplast, though they freely enter the xylem vessel through the wound. After 9 days post inoculation with XccMAFF106712, the xylem vessel became filled with bacterial aggregates. This suggests that Xcc colonization can be divided into main four steps, (1) movement in the xylem vessel, (2) movement to the next cell, (3) adhesion to the host plant cells, and (4) formation of bacterial aggregates. The type III mutant abolished at least steps (1) and (2). Better understanding of Xcc colonization is essential for development of novel control techniques for black rot. PMID:24736478

Akimoto-Tomiyama, Chiharu; Furutani, Ayako; Ochiai, Hirokazu

2014-01-01

130

Putative resistance gene markers associated with quantitative trait loci for fire blight resistance in Malus 'Robusta 5' accessions  

PubMed Central

Background Breeding of fire blight resistant scions and rootstocks is a goal of several international apple breeding programs, as options are limited for management of this destructive disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. A broad, large-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fire blight resistance has been reported on linkage group 3 of Malus ‘Robusta 5’. In this study we identified markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes associated with the QTL by integrating further genetic mapping studies with bioinformatics analysis of transcript profiling data and genome sequence databases. Results When several defined E.amylovora strains were used to inoculate three progenies from international breeding programs, all with ‘Robusta 5’ as a common parent, two distinct QTLs were detected on linkage group 3, where only one had previously been mapped. In the New Zealand ‘Malling 9’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora ICMP11176, the proximal QTL co-located with SNP markers derived from a leucine-rich repeat, receptor-like protein ( MxdRLP1) and a closely linked class 3 peroxidase gene. While the QTL detected in the German ‘Idared’ X ‘Robusta 5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea222_JKI or ICMP11176 was approximately 6?cM distal to this, directly below a SNP marker derived from a heat shock 90 family protein gene ( HSP90). In the US ‘Otawa3’ X ‘Robusta5’ population inoculated with E. amylovora strains Ea273 or E2002a, the position of the LOD score peak on linkage group 3 was dependent upon the pathogen strains used for inoculation. One of the five MxdRLP1 alleles identified in fire blight resistant and susceptible cultivars was genetically associated with resistance and used to develop a high resolution melting PCR marker. A resistance QTL detected on linkage group 7 of the US population co-located with another HSP90 gene-family member and a WRKY transcription factor previously associated with fire blight resistance. However, this QTL was not observed in the New Zealand or German populations. Conclusions The results suggest that the upper region of ‘Robusta 5’ linkage group 3 contains multiple genes contributing to fire blight resistance and that their contributions to resistance can vary depending upon pathogen virulence and other factors. Mapping markers derived from putative fire blight resistance genes has proved a useful aid in defining these QTLs and developing markers for marker-assisted breeding of fire blight resistance. PMID:22471693

2012-01-01

131

Xylella Genomics and Bacterial Pathogenicity to Plants  

PubMed Central

Xylella fastidiosa, a pathogen of citrus, is the first plant pathogenic bacterium for which the complete genome sequence has been published. Inspection of the sequence reveals high relatedness to many genes of other pathogens, notably Xanthomonas campestris. Based on this, we suggest that Xylella possesses certain easily testable properties that contribute to pathogenicity. We also present some general considerations for deriving information on pathogenicity from bacterial genomics. PMID:11119303

Dow, J. M.

2000-01-01

132

Influence of Molecular Size and Ligninase Pretreatment on Degradation of Lignins by Xanthomonas sp. Strain 99  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the molecular size of lignin in several preparations and extent of degradation (mineralization) by Xanthomonas sp. strain 99. The influence of ligninase pretreatment was also examined. Five synthetic lignins and one 14C-methylated spruce lignin were used. The extent of mineralization to 14CO2 was greatest for the samples containing the most low-molecular-weight material, and the low-molecular-weight portions were preferentially (or perhaps solely) degraded. Pretreatment of the five synthetic lignins with crude ligninase increased their molecular size and decreased their degradability by the xanthomonad. Pretreatment of the methylated spruce lignin with crude ligninase caused both polymerization and depolymerization but resulted in a net decrease in bacterial degradability. Our results suggest that the xanthomonad can degrade lignins only up to a molecular weight of 600 to 1,000. PMID:16347444

Kern, Hartmut W.; Kirk, T. Kent

1987-01-01

133

Molecular mapping of hypersensitive resistance from tomato 'Hawaii 7981' to Xanthomonas perforans race T3.  

PubMed

Bacterial spot of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is caused by four species of Xanthomonas. The disease causes significant yield losses and a reduction in fruit quality. Physiological races have been described with tomato race 3 (T3) corresponding to strains of Xanthomonas perforans. The breeding line Hawaii 7981 (hereafter H7981) shows a hypersensitive reaction (HR) to race T3 strains conditioned by the interaction of the host resistance locus Xv3 and the bacterial effector avrXv3. The Xv3 gene is required for H7981-derived resistance to be effective under field conditions, though its expression is subject to genetic background. The segregation of HR in F(2) populations derived from H7981 crossed to processing tomato parents OH88119 and OH7870 was studied in 331 progeny, with the two independent crosses providing validation. We screened 453 simple-sequence repeat, insertion/deletion, and single-nucleotide polymorphism markers and identified 44 polymorphic markers each for the OH88119 and OH7870 populations covering 84.6 and 73.3% of the genome, respectively, within 20 centimorgans (cM). Marker-trait analysis using all polymorphic markers demonstrated that Xv3-mediated resistance maps to chromosome 11 in the two independent crosses. Allelism tests were conducted in crosses between lines carrying Xv3 derived from H7981, Rx-4 derived from plant introduction (PI) 128216, and resistance derived from PI 126932. These allelism tests suggested that the loci conditioning HR to race T3 strains are linked within 0.1 cM, are allelic, or are the same gene. PMID:21916626

Wang, Hui; Hutton, Samuel F; Robbins, Matthew D; Sim, Sung-Chur; Scott, Jay W; Yang, Wencai; Jones, Jeffrey B; Francis, David M

2011-10-01

134

XopC and XopJ, Two Novel Type III Effector Proteins from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria  

PubMed Central

Pathogenicity of the gram-negative plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria depends on a type III secretion (TTS) system which translocates bacterial effector proteins into the plant cell. Previous transcriptome analysis identified a genome-wide regulon of putative virulence genes that are coexpressed with the TTS system. In this study, we characterized two of these genes, xopC and xopJ. Both genes encode Xanthomonas outer proteins (Xops) that were shown to be secreted by the TTS system. In addition, type III-dependent translocation of both proteins into the plant cell was demonstrated using the AvrBs3 effector domain as a reporter. XopJ belongs to the AvrRxv/YopJ family of effector proteins from plant and animal pathogenic bacteria. By contrast, XopC does not share significant homology to proteins in the database. Sequence analysis revealed that the xopC locus contains several features that are reminiscent of pathogenicity islands. Interestingly, the xopC region is flanked by 62-bp inverted repeats that are also associated with members of the Xanthomonas avrBs3 effector family. Besides xopC, a second gene of the locus, designated hpaJ, was shown to be coexpressed with the TTS system. hpaJ encodes a protein with similarity to transglycosylases and to the Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola protein HopPmaG. HpaJ secretion and translocation by the X. campestris pv. vesicatoria TTS system was not detectable, which is consistent with its predicted Sec signal and a putative function as transglycosylase in the bacterial periplasm. PMID:14645268

Noel, Laurent; Thieme, Frank; Gabler, Jana; Buttner, Daniela; Bonas, Ulla

2003-01-01

135

Purdue extensionFusarium Head Blight (Head Scab) Purdue extension  

E-print Network

affected by seedling blight when planted. Infected seeds will have poor germination and the resulting.btny.purdue.edu In Indiana, Fusarium head blight of wheat (FHB), also called head scab, is caused mainly by the fungus and infect spikelets above or below the infection point. figure 2. A bleached wheat head symptomatic

136

Control Strategies for Late Blight in the Alaska Potato Crop  

E-print Network

://portage.uwex.edu/files/2010/05/LateB- lightOccurrenceandMGT2009McGrath.pdf and other links for further information. TomatoControl Strategies for Late Blight in the Alaska Potato Crop PMC-00339 Late blight is a devastating disease of both tomatoes and potatoes that is occasionally found in Alaska. There is no "cure

Wagner, Diane

137

Ascochyta blight of chickpea: Production of phytotoxins and disease management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascochyta blight caused by Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., is the most devastating disease of chickpea and can occur anywhere the crop is grown. Several epidemics of blight causing complete yield losses have been reported. Despite extensive pathological and molecular studies, the nature and extent of pathogenic variability in A. rabiei have not been clearly established. Several isolates of A. rabiei

Ahmad Ali Shahid; Tayyab Husnain; Sheikh Riazuddin

2008-01-01

138

Statistical separability of spectral classes of blighted corn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to determine the statistical separability of multispectral measurements from corn having varying levels of southern corn leaf blight severity. Multispectral scanner data in twelve spectral channels in the wavelength range 0.4 to 11.7 microns were analyzed for ten selected flightlines of the 1971 Corn Blight Watch Experiment. A total of 168 corn fields having 18,804 sample points were analyzed. The blight rating information for these fields was available from ground observations. Maximum average transformed divergence between spectral classes of all possible pairs of blight levels, maximized over a subset of channels, was computed in each of one, two, three, and four spectral channels for each of ten flightlines. From the statistical analysis of the values of average transformed divergence, it was concluded that the greater the difference between the blight levels, the more statistically separable they are.

Kumar, R.; Silva, L.

1974-01-01

139

Five phylogenetically close rice SWEET genes confer TAL effector-mediated susceptibility to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Bacterial plant-pathogenic Xanthomonas strains translocate transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors into plant cells to function as specific transcription factors. Only a few plant target genes of TAL effectors have been identified, so far. Three plant SWEET genes encoding putative sugar transporters are known to be induced by TAL effectors from rice-pathogenic Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We predict and validate that expression of OsSWEET14 is induced by a novel TAL effector, Tal5, from an African Xoo strain. Artificial TAL effectors (ArtTALs) were constructed to individually target 20 SWEET orthologs in rice. They were used as designer virulence factors to study which rice SWEET genes can support Xoo virulence. The Tal5 target box differs from those of the already known TAL effectors TalC, AvrXa7 and PthXo3, which also induce expression of OsSWEET14, suggesting evolutionary convergence on key targets. ArtTALs efficiently complemented an Xoo talC mutant, demonstrating that specific induction of OsSWEET14 is the key target of TalC. ArtTALs that specifically target individual members of the rice SWEET family revealed three known and two novel SWEET genes to support bacterial virulence. Our results demonstrate that five phylogenetically close SWEET proteins, which presumably act as sucrose transporters, can support Xoo virulence. PMID:23879865

Streubel, Jana; Pesce, Céline; Hutin, Mathilde; Koebnik, Ralf; Boch, Jens; Szurek, Boris

2013-11-01

140

Biocontrol of Phytophthora Blight and Anthracnose in Pepper by Sequentially Selected Antagonistic Rhizobacteria against Phytophthora capsici  

PubMed Central

We previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. In this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against P. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on Phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. We selected four potential biocontrol strains (Pseudomonas otitidis YJR27, P. putida YJR92, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens YJR102, and Novosphingobium capsulatum YJR107) among 239 bacterial strains. In the 3-year field tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced Phytophthora blight without influencing rhizosphere microbial populations; they showed similar or better levels of disease suppressions than in metalaxyl treatment in the 2007 and 2009 tests, but not in the 2008 test. In the 2-year plastic house tests, all the selected strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose incidence in at least one of the test years, but their biocontrol activities were variable. In addition, strains YJR27, YJR92, and YJR102, in certain harvests, increased pepper fruit numbers in field tests and red fruit weights in plastic house tests. Taken together, these results indicate that the screening procedure is rapid and reliable for the selection of potential biocontrol strains against P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these selected strains exhibited biocontrol activities against anthracnose, and some of the strains showed plant growth-promotion activities on pepper fruit.

Sang, Mee Kyung; Shrestha, Anupama; Kim, Du-Yeon; Park, Kyungseok; Pak, Chun Ho; Kim, Ki Deok

2013-01-01

141

Enhanced Biological Control of Phytophthora Blight of Pepper by Biosurfactant-Producing Pseudomonas  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas isolates from different crop plants were screened for in vitro growth inhibition of Phytophthora capsici and production of biosurfactant. Two in vivo experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of selected Pseudomonas strains against Phytophthora blight of pepper by comparing two fungicide treatments [acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and ASM + mefenoxam]. Bacterial isolates were applied by soil drenching (1 × 109 cells/ml), ASM (0.1 ?g a.i./ml) and ASM + mefenoxam (0.2 mg product/ml) were applied by foliar spraying, and P. capsici inoculum was incorporated into the pot soil three days after treatments. In the first experiment, four Pseudomonas strains resulted in significant reduction from 48.4 to 61.3% in Phytophthora blight severity. In the second experiment, bacterial treatments combining with olive oil (5 mL per plant) significantly enhanced biological control activity, resulting in a reduction of disease level ranging from 56.8 to 81.1%. ASM + mefenoxam was the most effective treatment while ASM alone was less effective in both bioassays. These results indicate that our Pseudomonas fluorescens strains (6L10, 6ba6 and 3ss9) that have biosurfactant-producing abilities are effective against P. capsici on pepper, and enhanced disease suppression could be achieved when they were used in combination with olive oil. PMID:25288970

Ozyilmaz, Umit; Benlioglu, Kemal

2013-01-01

142

Potent and specific bactericidal effect of juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) on the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.  

PubMed

A screening of plant quinones for inhibiting effects on the bacterial fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora was performed. The most active compound, juglone from walnuts, has a potent and specific bactericidal effect on E. amylovora and minimal inhibitory concentrations of only 2.5-10 ?M, with stronger effects at lower, but still physiological, pH values. In vitro tests with juglone and inoculated flowers of apple (Malus domestica) showed an efficacy of 67% in preventing infection. In two years of field tests juglone had variable degrees of efficacy ranging from 40 to 82%, seemingly due to environmental conditions. A phytotoxic reaction to juglone, which is known for its allelopathic effect on plants, was restricted to browning of petals; later fruit russeting was not observed. Juglone is a promising candidate for the development of a new environmentally friendly plant protectant to replace the antibiotic streptomycin currently used in fire blight control. PMID:23163769

Fischer, Thilo Christopher; Gosch, Christian; Mirbeth, Beate; Gselmann, Markus; Thallmair, Veronika; Stich, Karl

2012-12-12

143

Designer TAL effectors induce disease susceptibility and resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in rice.  

PubMed

TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors from Xanthomonas bacteria activate the cognate host genes, leading to disease susceptibility or resistance dependent on the genetic context of host target genes. The modular nature and DNA recognition code of TAL effectors enable custom-engineering of designer TAL effectors (dTALE) for gene activation. However, the feasibility of dTALEs as transcription activators for gene functional analysis has not been demonstrated. Here, we report the use of dTALEs, as expressed and delivered by the pathogenic Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), in revealing the new function of two previously identified disease-related genes and the potential of one developmental gene for disease susceptibility in rice/Xoo interactions. The dTALE gene dTALE-xa27, designed to target the susceptible allele of the resistance gene Xa27, elicited a resistant reaction in the otherwise susceptible rice cultivar IR24. Four dTALE genes were made to induce the four annotated Xa27 homologous genes in rice cultivar Nipponbare, but none of the four induced Xa27-like genes conferred resistance to the dTALE-containing Xoo strains. A dTALE gene was also generated to activate the recessive resistance gene xa13, an allele of the disease-susceptibility gene Os8N3 (also named Xa13 or OsSWEET11, a member of sucrose efflux transporter SWEET gene family). The induction of xa13 by the dTALE rendered the resistant rice IRBB13 (xa13/xa13) susceptible to Xoo. Finally, OsSWEET12, an as-yet uncharacterized SWEET gene with no corresponding naturally occurring TAL effector identified, conferred susceptibility to the Xoo strains expressing the corresponding dTALE genes. Our results demonstrate that dTALEs can be delivered through the bacterial secretion system to activate genes of interest for functional analysis in plants. PMID:23430045

Li, Ting; Huang, Sheng; Zhou, Junhui; Yang, Bing

2013-05-01

144

Development of an efficient real-time quantitative PCR protocol for detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus species.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruit, is considered a quarantine organism by the European Union and the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). The bacterium can undergo an epiphytic phase and/or be latent and can be transmitted by plant material, but currently, only visual inspections are used to certify plants as being X. arboricola pv. pruni free. A novel and highly sensitive real-time TaqMan PCR detection protocol was designed based on a sequence of a gene for a putative protein related to an ABC transporter ATP-binding system in X. arboricola pv. pruni. Pathogen detection can be completed within a few hours with a sensitivity of 10(2) CFU ml(-1), thus surpassing the sensitivity of the existing conventional PCR. Specificity was assessed for X. arboricola pv. pruni strains from different origins as well as for closely related Xanthomonas species, non-Xanthomonas species, saprophytic bacteria, and healthy Prunus samples. The efficiency of the developed protocol was evaluated with field samples of 14 Prunus species and rootstocks. For symptomatic leaf samples, the protocol was very efficient even when washed tissues of the leaves were directly amplified without any previous DNA extraction. For samples of 117 asymptomatic leaves and 285 buds, the protocol was more efficient after a simple DNA extraction, and X. arboricola pv. pruni was detected in 9.4% and 9.1% of the 402 samples analyzed, respectively, demonstrating its frequent epiphytic or endophytic phase. This newly developed real-time PCR protocol can be used as a quantitative assay, offers a reliable and sensitive test for X. arboricola pv. pruni, and is suitable as a screening test for symptomatic as well as asymptomatic plant material. PMID:21037298

Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; Cubero, Jaime; Cambra, Miguel A; Collados, Raquel; Berruete, Isabel M; López, María M

2011-01-01

145

Development of an Efficient Real-Time Quantitative PCR Protocol for Detection of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus Species ? †  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni, the causal agent of bacterial spot disease of stone fruit, is considered a quarantine organism by the European Union and the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). The bacterium can undergo an epiphytic phase and/or be latent and can be transmitted by plant material, but currently, only visual inspections are used to certify plants as being X. arboricola pv. pruni free. A novel and highly sensitive real-time TaqMan PCR detection protocol was designed based on a sequence of a gene for a putative protein related to an ABC transporter ATP-binding system in X. arboricola pv. pruni. Pathogen detection can be completed within a few hours with a sensitivity of 102 CFU ml?1, thus surpassing the sensitivity of the existing conventional PCR. Specificity was assessed for X. arboricola pv. pruni strains from different origins as well as for closely related Xanthomonas species, non-Xanthomonas species, saprophytic bacteria, and healthy Prunus samples. The efficiency of the developed protocol was evaluated with field samples of 14 Prunus species and rootstocks. For symptomatic leaf samples, the protocol was very efficient even when washed tissues of the leaves were directly amplified without any previous DNA extraction. For samples of 117 asymptomatic leaves and 285 buds, the protocol was more efficient after a simple DNA extraction, and X. arboricola pv. pruni was detected in 9.4% and 9.1% of the 402 samples analyzed, respectively, demonstrating its frequent epiphytic or endophytic phase. This newly developed real-time PCR protocol can be used as a quantitative assay, offers a reliable and sensitive test for X. arboricola pv. pruni, and is suitable as a screening test for symptomatic as well as asymptomatic plant material. PMID:21037298

Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; Cubero, Jaime; Cambra, Miguel A.; Collados, Raquel; Berruete, Isabel M.; Lopez, Maria M.

2011-01-01

146

Role of Solanum dulcamara L. in Potato Late Blight Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four sites with naturally growing Solanum dulcamara were surveyed during 2006 and 2007 for the presence of late blight. Despite 2 years of observations, no late blight was detected\\u000a among natural populations of bittersweet. Nevertheless, repeated infections occurred on few S. dulcamara plants from a collection growing in a botanical garden in the same years. These plants were used to investigate

Tomek M. Golas; Gerard M. van der Weerden; Ronald G. van den Berg; Celestina Mariani; J. J. H. M. Allefs

2010-01-01

147

Genomic analysis of Xanthomonas translucens pathogenic on wheat and barley reveals cross-kingdom gene transfer events and diverse protein delivery systems.  

PubMed

In comparison to dicot-infecting bacteria, only limited numbers of genome sequences are available for monocot-infecting and in particular cereal-infecting bacteria. Herein we report the characterisation and genome sequence of Xanthomonas translucens isolate DAR61454 pathogenic on wheat and barley. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the ATP synthase beta subunit (atpD) gene, DAR61454 is most closely related to other X. translucens strains and the sugarcane- and banana- infecting Xanthomonas strains, but shares a type III secretion system (T3SS) with X. translucens pv. graminis and more distantly related xanthomonads. Assays with an adenylate cyclase reporter protein demonstrate that DAR61454's T3SS is functional in delivering proteins to wheat cells. X. translucens DAR61454 also encodes two type VI secretion systems with one most closely related to those found in some strains of the rice infecting strain X. oryzae pv. oryzae but not other xanthomonads. Comparative analysis of 18 different Xanthomonas isolates revealed 84 proteins unique to cereal (i.e. rice) infecting isolates and the wheat/barley infecting DAR61454. Genes encoding 60 of these proteins are found in gene clusters in the X. translucens DAR61454 genome, suggesting cereal-specific pathogenicity islands. However, none of the cereal pathogen specific proteins were homologous to known Xanthomonas spp. effectors. Comparative analysis outside of the bacterial kingdom revealed a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase encoding gene in DAR61454 also present in other bacteria as well as a number of pathogenic Fusarium species, suggesting that this gene may have been transmitted horizontally from bacteria to the Fusarium lineage of pathogenic fungi. This example further highlights the importance of horizontal gene acquisition from bacteria in the evolution of fungi. PMID:24416331

Gardiner, Donald M; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Stiller, Jiri; Ellis, Jeff G; Dodds, Peter N; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M

2014-01-01

148

Genomic Analysis of Xanthomonas translucens Pathogenic on Wheat and Barley Reveals Cross-Kingdom Gene Transfer Events and Diverse Protein Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

In comparison to dicot-infecting bacteria, only limited numbers of genome sequences are available for monocot-infecting and in particular cereal-infecting bacteria. Herein we report the characterisation and genome sequence of Xanthomonas translucens isolate DAR61454 pathogenic on wheat and barley. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the ATP synthase beta subunit (atpD) gene, DAR61454 is most closely related to other X. translucens strains and the sugarcane- and banana- infecting Xanthomonas strains, but shares a type III secretion system (T3SS) with X. translucens pv. graminis and more distantly related xanthomonads. Assays with an adenylate cyclase reporter protein demonstrate that DAR61454's T3SS is functional in delivering proteins to wheat cells. X. translucens DAR61454 also encodes two type VI secretion systems with one most closely related to those found in some strains of the rice infecting strain X. oryzae pv. oryzae but not other xanthomonads. Comparative analysis of 18 different Xanthomonas isolates revealed 84 proteins unique to cereal (i.e. rice) infecting isolates and the wheat/barley infecting DAR61454. Genes encoding 60 of these proteins are found in gene clusters in the X. translucens DAR61454 genome, suggesting cereal-specific pathogenicity islands. However, none of the cereal pathogen specific proteins were homologous to known Xanthomonas spp. effectors. Comparative analysis outside of the bacterial kingdom revealed a nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase encoding gene in DAR61454 also present in other bacteria as well as a number of pathogenic Fusarium species, suggesting that this gene may have been transmitted horizontally from bacteria to the Fusarium lineage of pathogenic fungi. This example further highlights the importance of horizontal gene acquisition from bacteria in the evolution of fungi. PMID:24416331

Gardiner, Donald M.; Upadhyaya, Narayana M.; Stiller, Jiri; Ellis, Jeff G.; Dodds, Peter N.; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M.

2014-01-01

149

pigB determines a diffusible factor needed for extracellular polysaccharide slime and xanthomonadin production in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.  

PubMed Central

Seven xanthomonadin transcriptional units (pigA through pigG) were identified by transposon saturation mutagenesis within an 18.6-kbp portion of the previously identified 25.4-kbp pig region from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (strain B-24). Since marker exchange mutant strains with insertions in one 3.7-kbp portion of pig could not be obtained, mutations in this region may be lethal to the bacterium. Complementation analyses with different insertion mutations further defined and confirmed the seven transcriptional units. Insertional inactivation of one of the transcriptional units, pigB, resulted in greatly reduced levels of both xanthomonadins and extracellular polysaccharide slime, and a pigB-encoding plasmid restored both traits to these strains. pigB mutant strains could also be restored extracellularly by growth adjacent to strains with insertion mutations in any of the other six xanthomonadin transcriptional units, the parent strain (B-24), or strains of five different species of Xanthomonas. Strain B-24 produced a nontransforming diffusible factor (DF), which could be restored to pigB mutants by the pigB-encoding plasmid. Several lines of evidence indicate that DF is a novel bacterial pheromone, different from the known signal molecules of Vibrio, Agrobacterium, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, and Burkholderia spp. PMID:8990296

Poplawsky, A R; Chun, W

1997-01-01

150

Preliminary results on the ability of pentatomidae to transfer fire blight Erwinia amylovora under controlled conditions.  

PubMed

With their piercing-sucking mouthparts stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a major pest in especially organic orchards, create wounds in fruit of pear trees. As Erwinia amylovora (Burrill, Winslow et al.), a wide spread bacterial disease affecting many rosaceous plants including pome fruit trees and hawthorn, enters through openings in flowers, leaves, shoots and fruit, feeding punctures caused by these bugs might be inoculated with Erwinia bacteria. In order to investigate the ability of the bugs Pentotoma rufipes L. and Polomena prasina L. to transmit fire blight, insects were caught in an organically managed orchard without fire blight, brought into contact with artificially inoculated immature pear fruit/slices and transferred to healthy, mechanically wounded pear fruit/slices. After an incubation period potential transmission of bacteria was examined by evaluation of symptom expression (necrosis, ooze production). To assess the presence of bacteria on the exoskeleton of the tested bugs, all bugs were forced to walk on a semiselective nutrient agar medium. In another experiment the viability of Ea on the exoskeleton was tested -after previous contact with ooze- through washing and plating of the wash water. All experiments were conducted under optimal climatological conditions and according to quarantine standards. Results demonstrated the ability of stink bugs to transfer E. amylovora to fruit and the viability of bacteria on stink bugs externally - both under lab conditions. PMID:25145257

Peusens, G; Schoofs, H; Deckers, T; Belien, T

2013-01-01

151

STUDIES IN MYCOLOGY 50: 471479. 2004. Passalora perplexa, an important pleoanamorphic leaf blight pathogen of  

E-print Network

.beilharz@dpi.vic.gov.au Abstract: Passalora perplexa is described from lesions on blighted phyllodes of Acacia crassicarpa growing, Passalora, phyllode blight, synanamorph, systematics. INTRODUCTION Acacia crassicarpa Benth. (Leguminosae

152

The American Chestnut Blight: An Agent of Biological and Cultural Catastrophe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history and habits of the fungus commonly referred to as the "chestnut blight." Considers the impact of the blight and efforts to control it, offers personal and cultural reflections on the blight, and gives tips for incorporating the information into cross-disciplinary lessons. Contains 17 references. (WRM)

Lunsford, Eddie

1999-01-01

153

Host range and phytotoxicity of Stemphylium solani, causing leaf blight of garlic (Allium sativum) in China  

E-print Network

Host range and phytotoxicity of Stemphylium solani, causing leaf blight of garlic (Allium sativum / Published online: 21 October 2008 # KNPV 2008 Abstract Since 2004, a new leaf blight disease on garlic blight of garlic was identified as Stemphylium solani from cultural and morphological characteristics

Hsiang, Tom

154

Isolation and Identification of Endophytic Bacteria Antagonistic to Camellia Oleifera Leaf Blight Base on Informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf blight is a common Camellia oleifera disease caused by Pestalotiopsis microspora. The damaged young leaves show blight symptom, resulting in yield reduction. This study was to isolate antagonistic bacteria from Camellia oleifera tissue for control of the leaf blight. Antagonistic bacteria was screened from 175 endophytic bacterias by confront culture method. The results of the study showed that the

He Li; Guoying Zhou; Junang Liu

2009-01-01

155

Genetic mapping reveals a single major QTL for bacterial wilt resistance in Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial wilt caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) is a major disease of economically important forage crops such as ryegrasses and fescues. Targeted breeding based on seedling inoculation has resulted in cultivars with considerable levels of resistance. However, the mechanisms of inheritance of resistance are poorly understood and further breeding progress is difficult to obtain. This study aimed to

Bruno Studer; Beat Boller; Doris Herrmann; Eva Bauer; Ulrich K. Posselt; Franco Widmer; Roland Kölliker

2006-01-01

156

Pathogenomics of Xanthomonas: understanding bacterium-plant interactions.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas is a large genus of Gram-negative bacteria that cause disease in hundreds of plant hosts, including many economically important crops. Pathogenic species and pathovars within species show a high degree of host plant specificity and many exhibit tissue specificity, invading either the vascular system or the mesophyll tissue of the host. In this Review, we discuss the insights that functional and comparative genomic studies are providing into the adaptation of this group of bacteria to exploit the extraordinary diversity of plant hosts and different host tissues. PMID:21478901

Ryan, Robert P; Vorhölter, Frank-Jörg; Potnis, Neha; Jones, Jeffrey B; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Bogdanove, Adam J; Dow, J Maxwell

2011-05-01

157

Evaluation of the Biolog Substrate Utilization System To Identify and Assess Metabolic Variation among Strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. Citri  

PubMed Central

Metabolic fingerprints of 148 strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri originating from 24 countries and associated with various forms of citrus bacterial canker disease (CBCD) were obtained by using the Biolog substrate utilization system. Metabolic profiles were used to attempt strain identification. Only 6.8% of the studied strains were correctly identified when the commercial Microlog 2N data base was used alone. When the data base was supplemented with data from 54 strains of X. campestris pv. citri (40 CBCD-A strains, 8 CBCD-B strains, and 6 CBCD-C strains) and data from 43 strains of X. campestris associated with citrus bacterial spot disease, the percentage of correct identifications was 70%. Thus, it is recommended that users supplement the commercial data base with additional data prior to using the program for identification purposes. The utilization of Tween 40 in conjunction with other tests can help to differentiate strains associated with CBCD and citrus bacterial spot disease. These results confirmed the separation of X. campestris pv. citri into different subgroups (strains associated with Asiatic citrus canker [CBCD-A], cancrosis B [CBCD-B], and Mexican lime canker [CBCD-C]). The utilization of l-fucose, d-galactose, and alaninamide can be used as markers to differentiate strains associated with these groups. A single strain associated with bacteriosis of Mexican lime in Mexico (CBCD-D) was closely similar to CBCD-B strains. PMID:16348849

Verniere, C.; Pruvost, O.; Civerolo, E. L.; Gambin, O.; Jacquemoud-Collet, J. P.; Luisetti, J.

1993-01-01

158

HrcQ Provides a Docking Site for Early and Late Type III Secretion Substrates from Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

Pathogenicity of many Gram-negative bacteria depends on a type III secretion (T3S) system which translocates bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. The membrane-spanning secretion apparatus is associated with a cytoplasmic ATPase complex and a predicted cytoplasmic (C) ring structure which is proposed to provide a substrate docking platform for secreted proteins. In this study, we show that the putative C ring component HrcQ from the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria is essential for bacterial pathogenicity and T3S. Fractionation studies revealed that HrcQ localizes to the cytoplasm and associates with the bacterial membranes under T3S-permissive conditions. HrcQ binds to the cytoplasmic T3S-ATPase HrcN, its predicted regulator HrcL and the cytoplasmic domains of the inner membrane proteins HrcV and HrcU. Furthermore, we observed an interaction between HrcQ and secreted proteins including early and late T3S substrates. HrcQ might therefore act as a general substrate acceptor site of the T3S system and is presumably part of a larger protein complex. Interestingly, the N-terminal export signal of the T3S substrate AvrBs3 is dispensable for the interaction with HrcQ, suggesting that binding of AvrBs3 to HrcQ occurs after its initial targeting to the T3S system. PMID:23226460

Lorenz, Christian; Hausner, Jens; Buttner, Daniela

2012-01-01

159

Identification of Genes Required for Nonhost Resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Reveals Novel Signaling Components  

PubMed Central

Background Nonhost resistance is a generalized, durable, broad-spectrum resistance exhibited by plant species to a wide variety of microbial pathogens. Although nonhost resistance is an attractive breeding strategy, the molecular basis of this form of resistance remains unclear for many plant-microbe pathosystems, including interactions with the bacterial pathogen of rice, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Methods and Findings Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and an assay to detect the hypersensitive response (HR) were used to screen for genes required for nonhost resistance to Xoo in N. benthamiana. When infiltrated with Xoo strain YN-1, N. benthamiana plants exhibited a strong necrosis within 24 h and produced a large amount of H2O2 in the infiltrated area. Expression of HR- and defense-related genes was induced, whereas bacterial numbers dramatically decreased during necrosis. VIGS of 45 ACE (Avr/Cf-elicited) genes revealed identified seven genes required for nonhost resistance to Xoo in N. benthamiana. The seven genes encoded a calreticulin protein (ACE35), an ERF transcriptional factor (ACE43), a novel Solanaceous protein (ACE80), a hydrolase (ACE117), a peroxidase (ACE175) and two proteins with unknown function (ACE95 and ACE112). The results indicate that oxidative burst and calcium-dependent signaling pathways play an important role in nonhost resistance to Xoo. VIGS analysis further revealed that ACE35, ACE80, ACE95 and ACE175, but not the other three ACE genes, interfered with the Cf-4/Avr4-dependent HR. Conclusions/Significance N. benthamiana plants inoculated with Xoo respond by rapidly eliciting an HR and nonhost resistance. The oxidative burst and other signaling pathways are pivotal in Xoo-N. benthamiana nonhost resistance, and genes involved in this response partially overlap with those involved in Cf/Avr4-dependent HR. The seven genes required for N. benthamiana-mediated resistance to Xoo provide a basis for further dissecting the molecular mechanism of nonhost resistance. PMID:22912739

Li, Wen; Xu, You-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Xin; Cao, Wen-Yuan; Li, Fei; Zhou, Xueping; Chen, Gong-You; Cai, Xin-Zhong

2012-01-01

160

The Arabidopsis flagellin receptor FLS2 mediates the perception of Xanthomonas Ax21 secreted peptides  

PubMed Central

Detection of microbes by plants relies in part on an array of pattern-recognition receptors that recognize conserved microbial signatures, so-called “microbe-associated molecular patterns.” The Arabidopsis thaliana receptor-like kinase FLS2 is the pattern-recognition receptor for bacterial flagellin. Similarly to FLS2, the rice transmembrane protein XA21 is the receptor for the sulfated form of the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae secreted protein Ax21. Here we show that Ax21-derived peptides activate Arabidopsis immunity, triggering responses similar to those elicited by flagellin, including an oxidative burst, induction of defense-response genes, and enhanced resistance to bacterial pathogens. To identify Arabidopsis Xa21 functional homologs, we used a reverse genetics approach to screen T-DNA insertion mutants corresponding to all 47 of the Arabidopsis genes encoding non-RD kinases belonging to the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family. Surprisingly, among all of these mutant lines, only fls2 mutants exhibited a significant loss of response to Ax21-derived peptides. Ax21 peptides also failed to activate defense-related responses in an fls2-24 mutant that does not bind Flg22. Moreover, a Flg22?2 variant of Flg22 that binds to FLS2 but does not activate FLS2-mediated signaling suppressed Ax21-derived peptide signaling, indicating mutually exclusive perception of Flg22 or Ax21 peptides by FLS2. The data indicate that FLS2 functions beyond flagellin perception to detect other microbe-associated molecular patterns. PMID:21576467

Danna, Cristian H.; Millet, Yves A.; Koller, Teresa; Han, Sang-Wook; Bent, Andrew F.; Ronald, Pamela C.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

2011-01-01

161

Identification of seven Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola genes potentially involved in pathogenesis in rice.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) causes bacterial leaf streak (BLS) in rice, an emerging and destructive disease worldwide. Identification of key virulence factors is a prerequisite for understanding the pathogenesis of Xoc. In this study, a Tn5-tagged mutant library of Xoc strain RS105 was screened on rice, and 27 Tn5 mutants were identified that were either non-pathogenic or showed reduced virulence in rice. Fourteen of the non-pathogenic mutants were also unable to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco and were designated Pth(-)/HR(-) mutants; 13 mutants showed attenuated virulence and were able to induce an HR (Vir(-)/HR(+)). Sequence analysis of the Tn5-tagged genes indicated that the 14 Pth(-)/HR(-) mutants included mutations in hrcC, hrcT, hrcV, hpaP, hrcQ, hrpF, hrpG and hrpX. The 13 Vir(-)/HR(+) mutants included tal-C10c-like (a transcriptional activator-like TAL effector), rpfC (regulator of pathogenicity factors), oxyR (oxidative stress transcriptional regulator), dsbC (disulfide isomerase), opgH (glucan biosynthesis glucosyltransferase H), rfbA (glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase), amtR (aminotransferase), purF (amidophosphoribosyltransferase), thrC (threonine synthase), trpA (tryptophan synthase alpha subunit) and three genes encoding hypothetical proteins (Xoryp_02235, Xoryp_00885 and Xoryp_22910). Collectively, the 27 Tn5 insertions are located in 21 different open reading frames. Bacterial growth and in planta virulence assays demonstrated that opgH, purF, thrC, trpA, Xoryp_02235, Xoryp_00885 and Xoryp_22910 are candidate virulence genes involved in Xoc pathogenesis. Reduced virulence in 13 mutants was restored to wild-type levels when the cognate gene was introduced in trans. Expression profiles demonstrated that the seven candidate virulence genes were significantly induced in planta, although their roles in Xoc pathogenesis remain unclear. PMID:22075022

Guo, Wei; Cui, Yi-Ping; Li, Yu-Rong; Che, Yi-Zhou; Yuan, Liang; Zou, Li-Fang; Zou, Hua-Song; Chen, Gong-You

2012-02-01

162

Evaluation of kasugamycin for fire blight management, effect on nontarget bacteria, and assessment of kasugamycin resistance potential in Erwinia amylovora.  

PubMed

The emergence and spread of streptomycin-resistant strains of Erwinia amylovora in Michigan has necessitated the evaluation of new compounds effective for fire blight control. The aminoglycoside antibiotic kasugamycin (Ks) targets the bacterial ribosome and is particularly active against E. amylovora. The efficacy of Ks formulated as Kasumin 2L for control of fire blight was evaluated in six experiments conducted over four field seasons in our experimental orchards in East Lansing, MI. Blossom blight control was statistically equivalent to the industry standard streptomycin in all experiments. E. amylovora populations remained constant on apple flower stigmas pretreated with Kasumin and were ?100-fold lower than on stigmas treated with water. Kasumin applied to apple trees in the field also resulted in a 100-fold reduced total culturable bacterial population compared with trees treated with water. We performed a prospective analysis of the potential for kasugamycin resistance (Ks(R)) development in E. amylovora which focused on spontaneous resistance development and acquisition of a transferrable Ks(R) gene. In replicated lab experiments, the development of spontaneous resistance in E. amylovora to Ks at 250 or 500 ppm was not observed when cells were directly plated on medium containing high concentrations of the antibiotic. However, exposure to increasing concentrations of Ks in media (initial concentration 25 ?g ml(-1)) resulted in the selection of Ks resistance (at 150 ?g ml(-1)) in the E. amylovora strains Ea110, Ea273, and Ea1189. Analysis of mutants indicated that they harbored mutations in the kasugamycin target ksgA gene and that all mutants were impacted in relative fitness observable through a reduced growth rate in vitro and decreased virulence in immature pear fruit. The possible occurrence of a reservoir of Ks(R) genes in orchard environments was also examined. Culturable gram-negative bacteria were surveyed from six experimental apple orchards that had received at least one Kasumin application. In total, 401 Ks(R) isolates (42 different species) were recovered from apple flowers and leaves and orchard soil samples. Although we have not established the presence of a transferrable Ks(R) gene in orchard bacteria, the frequency, number of species, and presence of Ks(R) enterobacterial species in orchard samples suggests the possible role of nontarget bacteria in the future transfer of a Ks(R) gene to E. amylovora. Our data confirm the importance of kasugamycin as an alternate antibiotic for fire blight management and lay the groundwork for the development and incorporation of resistance management strategies. PMID:20923369

McGhee, Gayle C; Sundin, George W

2011-02-01

163

Ramorum blight Phytophthora ramorum Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets  

E-print Network

Ramorum blight Phytophthora ramorum Michigan State University's invasive species factsheets Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. This plant pathogen can

164

Plant Disease Lesson: Fire blight of apple and pear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Fire blight of apple and pear (caused by Erwinia amylovora) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Kenneth B. Johnson, (Oregon State University;)

2000-07-26

165

Haplotype diversity at fusarium head blight resistance QTLs in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) reduces grain yield and quality in common and durum wheat. Host FHB resistance is an effective control measure that is achieved by stacking multiple resistance genes into a wheat line. Therefore, breeders would benefit from knowing which resistance sources carry different resistance genes. A diverse collection of FHB-resistant and -susceptible wheat lines was characterized with microsatellite

C. A. McCartney; D. J. Somers; G. Fedak; W. Cao

2004-01-01

166

Managing Apple Summer Diseases Ugly Stubs & Fire Blight  

E-print Network

1 Managing Apple Summer Diseases Ugly Stubs & Fire Blight Lorsban Strawberry Renovation Shoot Conditions: Warm conditions have been favorable for fruit growth of apples, peaches, grapes and berries. Tree didn't affect fruitfulness of buds. Managing Apple Summer Diseases: Apple summer fruit rot and blemish

Ginzel, Matthew

167

Plant Disease Lesson: Late blight of potato and tomato  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Late blight of potato and tomato (caused by Phytophthora infestans) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Gail L. Schumann (University of Massachusetts;); Cleora J. D'Arcy (University of Illinois;)

2000-07-24

168

Plant Disease Lesson: Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab (caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum (anamorph) Gibberella zeae (teleomorph)) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

David G. Schmale III (Cornell University;); Gary C. Bergstrom (Cornell University;)

2003-06-12

169

Resistance in cotyledons, leaves, stems and bolls conferred by several B genes in Gossypium hirsutum L. as measured by races of Xanthomonas Malvacearum (E.F.Sm) Dows  

E-print Network

producing areas of the world and causes serious losses in both yield and fiber quality. Crowing resistant varieties is the only practical means of controlling this disease. Knight's B genes besides the residual genetic resistance present in most Upland... plant parts as measured by races of the pathogen. C HA P TE R I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE The identification of the B series of genes for bacterial blight resistance in cotton started in 1939, when Knight and Clouston (20) found B and B . The B gene...

Tayel, Mohamed Aly Fathalla

2012-06-07

170

Reduced Genetic Variation Occurs among Genes of the Highly Clonal Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, Including the Effector Gene avrBs2  

PubMed Central

The bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, also known as Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria group A, is the causal agent of bacterial spot in pepper and tomato. In order to test different models that may explain the coevolution of avrBs2 with its host plants, we sequenced avrBs2 and six chromosomal loci (total of 5.5 kb per strain) from a global sample of 55 X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria strains collected from diseased peppers. We found an extreme lack of genetic variation among all X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria genomic loci (average nucleotide diversity, ? = 9.1 × 10?5), including avrBs2. This lack of diversity is consistent with X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria having undergone a recent population bottleneck and/or selective sweep followed by population expansion. Coalescent analysis determined that approximately 1.4 × 104 to 7.16 × 104 bacterial generations have passed since the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the current X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria population. Assuming a range of 50 to 500 bacterial generations per year, only 28 to 1,432 years have passed since the MRCA. This time frame coincides with human intervention with the pathogen's host plants, from domestication to modern agricultural practices. Examination of 19 mutated (loss-of-function) avrBs2 alleles detected nine classes of mutations. All mutations affected protein coding, while no synonymous changes were found. The nature of at least one of the avrBs2 mutations suggests that it may be possible to observe one stage of an evolutionary arms race as X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria responds to selection pressure to alter avrBs2 to escape host plant resistance. PMID:15870329

Wichmann, Gale; Ritchie, David; Kousik, C. S.; Bergelson, Joy

2005-01-01

171

RNA-seq pinpoints a Xanthomonas TAL-effector activated resistance gene in a large-crop genome  

PubMed Central

Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins of the plant pathogenic bacterial genus Xanthomonas bind to and transcriptionally activate host susceptibility genes, promoting disease. Plant immune systems have taken advantage of this mechanism by evolving TALE binding sites upstream of resistance (R) genes. For example, the pepper Bs3 and rice Xa27 genes are hypersensitive reaction plant R genes that are transcriptionally activated by corresponding TALEs. Both R genes have a hallmark expression pattern in which their transcripts are detectable only in the presence and not the absence of the corresponding TALE. By transcriptome profiling using next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq), we tested whether we could avoid laborious positional cloning for the isolation of TALE-induced R genes. In a proof-of-principle experiment, RNA-seq was used to identify a candidate for Bs4C, an R gene from pepper that mediates recognition of the Xanthomonas TALE protein AvrBs4. We identified one major Bs4C candidate transcript by RNA-seq that was expressed exclusively in the presence of AvrBs4. Complementation studies confirmed that the candidate corresponds to the Bs4C gene and that an AvrBs4 binding site in the Bs4C promoter directs its transcriptional activation. Comparison of Bs4C with a nonfunctional allele that is unable to recognize AvrBs4 revealed a 2-bp polymorphism within the TALE binding site of the Bs4C promoter. Bs4C encodes a structurally unique R protein and Bs4C-like genes that are present in many solanaceous genomes seem to be as tightly regulated as pepper Bs4C. These findings demonstrate that TALE-specific R genes can be cloned from large-genome crops with a highly efficient RNA-seq approach. PMID:23132937

Strauß, Tina; van Poecke, Remco M. P.; Strauß, Annett; Römer, Patrick; Minsavage, Gerald V.; Singh, Sylvia; Wolf, Christina; Strauß, Axel; Kim, Seungill; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Yeom, Seon-In; Parniske, Martin; Stall, Robert E.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Choi, Doil; Prins, Marcel; Lahaye, Thomas

2012-01-01

172

RNA-seq pinpoints a Xanthomonas TAL-effector activated resistance gene in a large-crop genome.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins of the plant pathogenic bacterial genus Xanthomonas bind to and transcriptionally activate host susceptibility genes, promoting disease. Plant immune systems have taken advantage of this mechanism by evolving TALE binding sites upstream of resistance (R) genes. For example, the pepper Bs3 and rice Xa27 genes are hypersensitive reaction plant R genes that are transcriptionally activated by corresponding TALEs. Both R genes have a hallmark expression pattern in which their transcripts are detectable only in the presence and not the absence of the corresponding TALE. By transcriptome profiling using next-generation sequencing (RNA-seq), we tested whether we could avoid laborious positional cloning for the isolation of TALE-induced R genes. In a proof-of-principle experiment, RNA-seq was used to identify a candidate for Bs4C, an R gene from pepper that mediates recognition of the Xanthomonas TALE protein AvrBs4. We identified one major Bs4C candidate transcript by RNA-seq that was expressed exclusively in the presence of AvrBs4. Complementation studies confirmed that the candidate corresponds to the Bs4C gene and that an AvrBs4 binding site in the Bs4C promoter directs its transcriptional activation. Comparison of Bs4C with a nonfunctional allele that is unable to recognize AvrBs4 revealed a 2-bp polymorphism within the TALE binding site of the Bs4C promoter. Bs4C encodes a structurally unique R protein and Bs4C-like genes that are present in many solanaceous genomes seem to be as tightly regulated as pepper Bs4C. These findings demonstrate that TALE-specific R genes can be cloned from large-genome crops with a highly efficient RNA-seq approach. PMID:23132937

Strauss, Tina; van Poecke, Remco M P; Strauss, Annett; Römer, Patrick; Minsavage, Gerald V; Singh, Sylvia; Wolf, Christina; Strauss, Axel; Kim, Seungill; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Yeom, Seon-In; Parniske, Martin; Stall, Robert E; Jones, Jeffrey B; Choi, Doil; Prins, Marcel; Lahaye, Thomas

2012-11-20

173

A MLVA Genotyping Scheme for Global Surveillance of the Citrus Pathogen Xanthomonas citri pv. citri Suggests a Worldwide Geographical Expansion of a Single Genetic Lineage  

PubMed Central

MultiLocus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) has been extensively used to examine epidemiological and evolutionary issues on monomorphic human pathogenic bacteria, but not on bacterial plant pathogens of agricultural importance albeit such tools would improve our understanding of their epidemiology, as well as of the history of epidemics on a global scale. Xanthomonas citri pv. citri is a quarantine organism in several countries and a major threat for the citrus industry worldwide. We screened the genomes of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri strain IAPAR 306 and of phylogenetically related xanthomonads for tandem repeats. From these in silico data, an optimized MLVA scheme was developed to assess the global diversity of this monomorphic bacterium. Thirty-one minisatellite loci (MLVA-31) were selected to assess the genetic structure of 129 strains representative of the worldwide pathological and genetic diversity of X. citri pv. citri. Based on Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC), four pathotype-specific clusters were defined. DAPC cluster 1 comprised strains that were implicated in the major geographical expansion of X. citri pv. citri during the 20th century. A subset of 12 loci (MLVA-12) resolved 89% of the total diversity and matched the genetic structure revealed by MLVA-31. MLVA-12 is proposed for routine epidemiological identification of X. citri pv. citri, whereas MLVA-31 is proposed for phylogenetic and population genetics studies. MLVA-31 represents an opportunity for international X. citri pv. citri genotyping and data sharing. The MLVA-31 data generated in this study was deposited in the Xanthomonas citri genotyping database (http://www.biopred.net/MLVA/). PMID:24897119

Boyer, Karine; Leduc, Alice; Tourterel, Christophe; Drevet, Christine; Ravigne, Virginie; Gagnevin, Lionel; Guerin, Fabien; Chiroleu, Frederic; Koebnik, Ralf; Verdier, Valerie; Verniere, Christian

2014-01-01

174

Intra- and Intergeneric Similarities of Pseudomonas and Xanthomonas Ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid Cistrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hybridized 23s 2- 14C-labeled ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNAs) from type strains Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, Pseudomonas acidovorans ATCC 15668, Pseudomonas solanacearum NCPPB 325, and Xanthomonas campestris NCPPB 528 with deoxyribonucleic acids (DNAs) from 65 Pseudomo- nus strains, 23 Xanthomonas strains, and 148 mostly gram-negative strains belonging to 43 genera and 93 species and subspecies including more than 60 type

P. DE VOS; J. DE LEY

1983-01-01

175

Identification of a Novel ?-Lactamase Produced by Xanthomonas campestris, a Phytopathogenic Bacterium  

PubMed Central

The Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris 11 chromosome encodes a periplasmic ?-lactamase of 30 kDa. Gene replacement and complementation confirmed the presence of this enzyme. Its deduced amino acid sequence shows identity and conserved domains between it and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia L2 and other Ambler class A/Bush group 2 ?-lactamases. Southern hybridization detected a single homologous fragment in each of 12 other Xanthomonas strains, indicating that the presence of a ?-lactamase gene is common among xanthomonads. PMID:10390247

Weng, Shu-Fen; Chen, Chun-Yi; Lee, Yeong-Sheng; Lin, Juey-Wen; Tseng, Yi-Hsiung

1999-01-01

176

A New Bacterial Agglutinin from Soybean  

PubMed Central

A new bacterial agglutinin was isolated from seeds of the soybean cultivar Clark. Purification was carried out by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. The agglutinin is a heat-labile glycoprotein most active at pH 4.0. Addition of Ca2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+ did not enhance the agglutinating activity of this glycoprotein. Gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate showed that the agglutinin is composed of two subunits of approximately 50,000 daltons each. In the undissociated state, it agglutinates Xanthomonas phaseoli var. sojensis, the causal agent of bacterial pustule disease of soybean, at concentrations as low as 10 micrograms protein per milliliter but has no hemagglutinating activity. The agglutinin could be distinguished from previously reported soybean lectins on the basis of solubility in ammonium sulfate, lack of hemagglutinating activity, molecular weight, hapten specificity, and immunological determinants. Images PMID:16661540

Fett, William Frederick; Sequeira, Luis

1980-01-01

177

Assessment of the Genetic Diversity among Strains of Xanthomonas cynarae by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis and Development of Specific Characterized Amplified Regions for the Rapid Identification of X. cynarae  

PubMed Central

The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was used to investigate the genetic diversity in Xanthomonas cynarae, which causes bacterial bract spot disease of artichoke. This RAPD analysis was also intended to identify molecular markers characteristic of this species, in order to develop PCR-based markers which can be used to detect this pathogenic bacterium in artichoke fields. Among the 340 RAPD primers tested, 40 were selected on their ability to produce reproducible and reliable fingerprints in our genetic background. These 40 primers produced almost similar patterns for the 37 X. cynarae strains studied, different from the fingerprints obtained for other Xanthomonas species and other xanthomonad-like bacteria isolated from artichoke leaves. Therefore, X. cynarae strains form a homogeneous genetic group. However, a little DNA polymorphism within this species was observed and the collection of X. cynarae isolates was divided into two groups (one containing three strains, the second one including all other strains). Out of seven RAPD markers characteristic of X. cynarae that were cloned, four did not hybridize to the genomic DNA of strains belonging to other Xanthomonas species. These four RAPD markers were converted into PCR markers (specific characterized amplified regions [SCARs]); they were sequenced, and a PCR primer pair was designed for each of them. Three derived SCARs are good candidates to develop PCR-based tests to detect X. cynarae in artichoke fields. PMID:11472907

Trebaol, Gaelle; Manceau, Charles; Tirilly, Yves; Boury, Stephane

2001-01-01

178

Sugarcane glycoproteins may act as signals for the production of xanthan in the plant-associated bacterium Xanthomonas albilineans  

PubMed Central

Visual symptoms of leaf scald necrosis in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) leaves develop in parallel to the accumulation of a fibrous material invading exocellular spaces and both xylem and phloem. These fibers are produced and secreted by the plant-associated bacterium Xanthomonas albilineans. Electron microscopy and specific staining methods for polysaccharides reveal the polysaccharidic nature of this material. These polysaccharides are not present in healthy leaves or in those from diseased plants without visual symptoms of leaf scald. Bacteria in several leaf tissues have been detected by immunogold labeling. The bacterial polysaccharide is not produced in axenic culture but it is actively synthesized when the microbes invade the host plant. This finding may be due to the production of plant glycoproteins, after bacteria infection which inhibit microbial proteases. In summary, our data are consistent with the existence of a positive feedback loop in which plant-produced glycoproteins act as a cell-to-bacteria signal that promotes xanthan production, by protecting some enzymes of xanthan biosynthesis against from bacterial proteolytic degradation. PMID:21791980

Legaz, Maria-Estrella; Blanch, Maria; Pinon, Dolores; Santiago, Rocio; Fontaniella, Blanca; Blanco, Yolanda; Solas, Maria-Teresa

2011-01-01

179

An Adenosine Kinase Exists in Xanthomonas campestris Pathovar campestris and Is Involved in Extracellular Polysaccharide Production, Cell Motility, and Virulence?  

PubMed Central

Adenosine kinase (ADK) is a purine salvage enzyme and a typical housekeeping enzyme in eukaryotes which catalyzes the phosphorylation of adenosine to form AMP. Since prokaryotes synthesize purines de novo and no endogenous ADK activity is detectable in Escherichia coli, ADK has long been considered to be rare in bacteria. To date, only two prokaryotes, both of which are gram-positive bacteria, have been reported to contain ADK. Here we report that the gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris, the causal agent of black rot of crucifers, possesses a gene (designated adkXcc) encoding an ADK (named ADKXcc), and we demonstrate genetically that the ADKXcc is involved in extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, cell motility, and pathogenicity of X. campestris pv. campestris. adkXcc was overexpressed as a His6-tagged protein in E. coli, and the purified His6-tagged protein exhibited ADK activity. Mutation of adkXcc did not affect bacterial growth in rich and minimal media but led to an accumulation of intracellular adenosine and diminutions of intracellular ADK activity and ATP level, as well as EPS. The adkXcc mutant displayed significant reductions in bacterial growth and virulence in the host plant. PMID:19329636

Lu, Guang-Tao; Tang, Yong-Qin; Li, Cai-Yue; Li, Rui-Fang; An, Shi-Qi; Feng, Jia-Xun; He, Yong-Qiang; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Dong-Jie; Tang, Ji-Liang

2009-01-01

180

Nanotechnology in plant disease management: DNA-directed silver nanoparticles on graphene oxide as an antibacterial against Xanthomonas perforans.  

PubMed

Bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas perforans is a major disease of tomatoes, leading to reduction in production by 10-50%. While copper (Cu)-based bactericides have been used for disease management, most of the X. perforans strains isolated from tomatoes in Florida and other locations worldwide are Cu-resistant. We have developed DNA-directed silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) grown on graphene oxide (GO). These Ag@dsDNA@GO composites effectively decrease X. perforans cell viability in culture and on plants. At the very low concentration of 16 ppm of Ag@dsDNA@GO, composites show excellent antibacterial capability in culture with significant advantages in improved stability, enhanced antibacterial activity, and stronger adsorption properties. Application of Ag@dsDNA@GO at 100 ppm on tomato transplants in a greenhouse experiment significantly reduced the severity of bacterial spot disease compared to untreated plants, giving results similar to those of the current grower standard treatment, with no phytotoxicity. PMID:24016217

Ocsoy, Ismail; Paret, Mathews L; Ocsoy, Muserref Arslan; Kunwar, Sanju; Chen, Tao; You, Mingxu; Tan, Weihong

2013-10-22

181

Nanotechnology in Plant Disease Management: DNA-Directed Silver Nanoparticles on Graphene Oxide as an Antibacterial Against Xanthomonas Perforans  

PubMed Central

Bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas perforans is a major disease of tomatoes, leading to reduction in production by 10–50%. While copper (Cu)-based bactericides have been used for disease management, most of the X. perforans strains isolated from tomatoes in Florida and other locations worldwide are Cu-resistant. We have developed DNA-directed silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) grown on graphene oxide (GO). These Ag@dsDNA@GO composites effectively decrease X. perforans cell viability in culture and on plants. At the very low concentration of 16 ppm of Ag@dsDNA@GO, composites show excellent antibacterial capability in culture with significant advantages in improved stability, enhanced antibacterial activity and stronger adsorption properties. Application of Ag@dsDNA@GO at 100 ppm on tomato transplants in a greenhouse experiment significantly reduced the severity of bacterial spot disease compared to untreated plants, giving results similar to those of the current grower standard treatment, with no phytotoxicity. PMID:24016217

Ocsoy, Ismail; Paret, Mathews L.; Ocsoy, Muserref Arslan; Kunwar, Sanju; Chen, Tao; You, Mingxu; Tan, Weihong

2013-01-01

182

Hpa2 required by HrpF to translocate Xanthomonas oryzae transcriptional activator-like effectors into rice for pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causative agent of bacterial leaf streak, injects a plethora of effectors through the type III secretion system (T3SS) into rice cells to cause disease. The T3SS, encoded by the hrp genes, is essential for the pathogen to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in nonhost tobacco and for pathogenicity in host rice. Whether or not a putative lytic transglycosylase, Hpa2, interacts with a translocon protein, HrpF, to facilitate bacterial pathogenicity remains unknown. Here we demonstrated that both the hpa2 and hrpF genes are required for the pathogenicity of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strain RS105 in rice but not for HR induction in tobacco. The expression of hpa2 was positively regulated by HrpG and HrpD6 but not by HrpX. In vivo secretion and subcellular localization analyses confirmed that Hpa2 secretion is dependent on HpaB (a T3SS exit protein) and that Hpa2 binds to the host cell membrane. Protein-protein assays demonstrated that Hpa2 interacts with HrpF. In planta translocation of AvrXa10 indicated that the mutation in hpa2 and hrpF inhibits the injection of the HpaB-dependent transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effector into rice. These findings suggest that Hpa2 and HrpF form a complex to translocate T3S effectors into plant cells for pathogenesis in host rice. PMID:21478322

Li, Yu-Rong; Che, Yi-Zhou; Zou, Hua-Song; Cui, Yi-Ping; Guo, Wei; Zou, Li-Fang; Biddle, Eulandria M; Yang, Ching-Hong; Chen, Gong-You

2011-06-01

183

The Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris Exploits N-Acetylglucosamine during Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), the main component of chitin and a major constituent of bacterial peptidoglycan, is present only in trace amounts in plants, in contrast to the huge amount of various sugars that compose the polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. Thus, GlcNAc has not previously been considered a substrate exploited by phytopathogenic bacteria during plant infection. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot disease of Brassica plants, expresses a carbohydrate utilization system devoted to GlcNAc exploitation. In addition to genes involved in GlcNAc catabolism, this system codes for four TonB-dependent outer membrane transporters (TBDTs) and eight glycoside hydrolases. Expression of all these genes is under the control of GlcNAc. In vitro experiments showed that X. campestris pv. campestris exploits chitooligosaccharides, and there is indirect evidence that during the early stationary phase, X. campestris pv. campestris recycles bacterium-derived peptidoglycan/muropeptides. Results obtained also suggest that during plant infection and during growth in cabbage xylem sap, X. campestris pv. campestris encounters and metabolizes plant-derived GlcNAc-containing molecules. Specific TBDTs seem to be preferentially involved in the consumption of all these plant-, fungus- and bacterium-derived GlcNAc-containing molecules. This is the first evidence of GlcNAc consumption during infection by a phytopathogenic bacterium. Interestingly, N-glycans from plant N-glycosylated proteins are proposed to be substrates for glycoside hydrolases belonging to the X. campestris pv. campestris GlcNAc exploitation system. This observation extends the range of sources of GlcNAc metabolized by phytopathogenic bacteria during their life cycle. PMID:25205095

Boulanger, Alice; Zischek, Claudine; Lautier, Martine; Jamet, Stevie; Rival, Pauline; Carrere, Sebastien; Arlat, Matthieu

2014-01-01

184

Mapping and validation of QTLs for rice sheath blight resistance  

PubMed Central

Sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the most serious diseases of rice. Among 33 rice accessions, mainly from National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (NIAS) Core Collection, we found three landraces from the Himalayas—Jarjan, Nepal 555 and Nepal 8—with resistance to sheath blight in 3 years’ field testing. Backcrossed inbred lines (BILs) derived from a cross between Jarjan and the leading Japanese cultivar Koshihikari were used in QTL analyses. Since later-heading lines show fewer lesions, we used only earlier-heading BILs to avoid association with heading date. We detected eight QTLs; the Jarjan allele of three of these increased resistance. Only one QTL, on chromosome 9 (between markers Nag08KK18184 and Nag08KK18871), was detected in all 3 years. Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) carrying it showed resistance in field tests. Thirty F2 lines derived from a cross between Koshihikari and one CSSL supported the QTL. PMID:24273425

Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Ozaki, Hidenobu; Sato, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Hiroaki; Kojima, Yoichiro; Ebitani, Takeshi; Yano, Masahiro

2013-01-01

185

Epidemiology of Northern leaf blight on sweet corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epidemiology of northern leaf blight of corn, caused byExserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs, is reviewed. The minimal dew period required for infection is temperature-dependent. At 25°C,\\u000a 1 h of dew is sufficient to cause infection and at this temperature the minimal dew period for sporulation is 14 h. Under\\u000a natural conditions when one dew night is not long

Y. Levy; J. K. Pataky

1992-01-01

186

Atrazine biodegradation by a bacterial community immobilized in two types of packed-bed biofilm reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through selective enrichment of atrazine-metabolizing microorganisms, a microbial community was selected from agricultural\\u000a soil. Bacterial isolates, identified by their closest similarity with 16S rDNA sequences stored in NCBI GeneBank, belonged\\u000a to the genera: Massilia, Stenotrophomonas, Klebsiella, Sphingomonas, Ochrobactrum, Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, Xanthomonas and Ornithinimicrobium. From these strains, only the first six used atrazine as nitrogen and carbon source. The microbial community

Alberto Macías-Flores; Angélica Tafoya-Garnica; Nora Ruiz-Ordaz; Angélica Salmerón-Alcocer; Cleotilde Juárez-Ramírez; Deifilia Ahuatzi-Chacón; María Elena Mondragón-Parada; Juvencio Galíndez-Mayer

2009-01-01

187

Numerical analysis of 295 phenotypic features of 266 Xanthomonas strains and related strains and an improved taxonomy of the genus.  

PubMed

An extensive phenotypic description and an improved classification and nomenclature of the genus Xanthomonas are presented. A total of 266 strains obtained from different geographical areas, including representative strains of all species of the genus Xanthomonas and most pathovars of Xanthomonas campestris, as well as strains which might be genetically related to the genus Xanthomonas, were examined for 295 morphological, biochemical, and physiological features. Similarities among the strains were expressed numerically by using the coefficient of Sokal and Michener. Clustering was performed by using the unweighted average pair group method. The conclusions described below were reached. (i) The genus Xanthomonas comprises at least the following eight phena: X. campestris, Xanthomonas albilineans, Xanthomonas axonopodis, Xanthomonas fragariae, Xanthomonas populi, Xanthomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas oryzae Swings et al. 1990, and X. campestris pv. graminis Egli and Schmidt 1982 [not X. campestris pv. graminis (Egli et al. 1975) ISPP List 1980]. (ii) X. populi (Ridé 1958) Ridé and Ridé 1978 is a separate species. (iii) X. maltophilia Swings et al. 1983 forms a separate species. (iv) X. campestris pv. oryzae ISPP List 1980 can no longer be regarded as pathovar of X. campestris, and its recent reclassification as a new species, X. oryzae (Swings et al., Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40:309-311, 1990), is supported. (v) X. campestris pv. graminis Egli and Schmidt 1982 [not X. campestris pv. graminis (Egli et al. 1975) ISPP List 1980] seems to form a separate complex of highly related pathovars obtained from members of the Poaceae; the taxonomic implications of this are discussed. (vi) Strains of nearly all X. campestris pathovars cluster together in the X. campestris phenon. Within this species we were able to differentiate some entities on phenotypic grounds; these groups sometimes corresponded to named pathovars (e.g., X. campestris pv. manihotis, X. campestris pv. cassavae, X. campestris pv. phlei). In several other cases, pathovars were found to be heterogeneous. (vii) A number of dubious Pseudomonas species were identified as members of or as being close to Xanthomonas species. Both Pseudomonas betle and Pseudomonas hibiscicola are synonyms of X. maltophilia. We also confirmed that Pseudomonas mangiferaeindicae, Pseudomonas vitiswoodrowii, and Pseudomonas gardneri belong to X. campestris. (viii) Forty phenotypic features allow the differentiation of the eight Xanthomonas phena. (ix) A number of additional features of the genera Xanthomonas and Xylophilus are described. PMID:2275852

Van den Mooter, M; Swings, J

1990-10-01

188

ForPeerReview A new leaf blight of rice caused by Pantoea ananatis in  

E-print Network

a blighted appearance. The disease was severe during the post-flowering stage. Yellow pigmented bacteria wereForPeerReview A new leaf blight of rice caused by Pantoea ananatis in India Journal: Plant Disease Manuscript ID: PDIS-06-11-0533-PDN.R1 Manuscript Type: Plant Disease Note Date Submitted by the Author: 03

Mudgettt, Mary Beth

189

Reduction of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol in wheat with early fungicide applications of prothioconazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have identified the benefit of fungicides applied at flowering (Zadoks Growth Stage (GS) 59–69) in the reduction of Fusarium head blight and the reduction of deoxynivalenol (DON) in harvested wheat grain. Two experiments were performed to identify the ability of prothioconazole (Proline®) at three timings to reduce Fusarium head blight and resulting DON in harvested grain of wheat.

S. G. Edwards; N. P. Godley

2010-01-01

190

CROP SCIENCE, VOL. 51, NOVEMBERDECEMBER 2011 2439 Halo blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola  

E-print Network

inbred line; S, susceptible; SCAR, sequence characterized amplified region; Z12C, ZAA 12 � Canadian Mapping Pse-2 Gene for Resistance to Halo Blight in Common Bean Phillip N. Miklas,* Deidré Fourie. A recombinant inbred population, ZAA 12 � `Canadian Wonder', was challenged by the halo blight pathogen

Gepts, Paul

191

Fire blight of apple blossoms Fireblight of apples and pears, caused by the  

E-print Network

Fire blight of apple blossoms Fireblight of apples and pears, caused by the bacterium Erwinia. W. Lightner. 1990. Predicting apple blossom infections by Erwinia amylovora using the Maryblyt model for forecasting fire blight disease in apples and pears. University of Maryland, College Park, MD. #12;

192

PennState LIVE Blight-resistant American chestnut trees nearing reality  

E-print Network

being grown don't produce satisfactory blight- resistant seed, Fitzsimmons is confident that blight American chestnut form and traits, seems to be close to bearing fruit. "We have a six-generation breeding in southwestern Virginia. We collected seed from those trees last year and we actually have sixth

Boyer, Elizabeth W.

193

Virulence characteristics accounting for fire blight disease severity in apple trees and seedlings.  

PubMed

The gram-negative bacterium Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of fire blight, the most destructive bacterial disease of rosaceous plants, including apple and pear. Here, we compared the virulence levels of six E. amylovora strains (Ea273, CFBP1367, Ea581a, E2002a, E4001a, and HKN06P1) on apple trees and seedlings. The strains produced a range of disease severity, with HKN06P1 producing the greatest disease severity in every assay. We then compared virulence characteristic expression among the six strains, including growth rates in immature apple fruit, amylovoran production, levansucrase activity, biofilm formation, carbohydrate utilization, hypersensitive cell death elicitation in tobacco leaves, and protein secretion profiles. Multiple regression analysis indicated that three of the virulence characteristics (amylovoran production, biofilm formation, and growth in immature apple fruit) accounted for >70% of the variation in disease severity on apple seedlings. Furthermore, in greenhouse-grown 'Gala' trees, >75% of the variation in disease severity was accounted for by five of the virulence characteristics: amylovoran production, biofilm formation, growth in immature apple fruit, hypersensitive cell death elicitation, and sorbitol utilization. This study demonstrates that virulence factor expression levels account for differences in disease severity caused by wild isolates of E. amylovora on apple trees. PMID:20465409

Lee, Steven A; Ngugi, Henry K; Halbrendt, Noemi O; O'Keefe, Grace; Lehman, Brian; Travis, James W; Sinn, Judith P; McNellis, Timothy W

2010-06-01

194

Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight disease of apple.  

PubMed

Microencapsulation and controlled release of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), an antagonist to the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora that causes fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 ?m in diameter, were fabricated to encapsulate E325 within the core, along with nutrients, to preserve viability and promote proliferation. Controlled release of E325 was achieved by separately adjusting alginate concentrations in the shell and core solutions, and by modifying the AMC size. Viability of E325 was monitored via fluorescent staining, revealing either lack of or minimal stress during or after encapsulation. Proliferation of E325 within AMCs, followed by their subsequent release, and colonization activities within confines of apple flowers were studied under different encapsulation conditions using rfp-labeled E325 to obtain highly promising results. This study provided a 'proof of concept' of the successful use of a microencapsulated biocontrol agent, E325, against E. amylovora, and could serve as a model for further studies on the development of effective plant disease management strategies. PMID:22516094

Kim, In-Yong; Pusey, Paul Lawrence; Zhao, Youfu; Korban, Schuyler S; Choi, Hyungsoo; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin

2012-07-10

195

Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed. PMID:25288928

Jung, Boknam; Park, Sook-Young; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jungkwan

2013-01-01

196

Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed. PMID:25288928

Jung, Boknam; Park, Sook-Young; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jungkwan

2013-03-01

197

Genetic Diversity among Xanthomonas campestris Strains Pathogenic for Small Grains  

PubMed Central

A collection of 51 Xanthomonas campestris strains from throughout the world was studied to detect and assess genetic diversity among pathogens of small grains. Isolates from barley, bread wheat, bromegrass, canary grass, cassava, maize, orchard grass, rice, rough-stalked meadow grass, rye, timothy, and triticale were analyzed by pathogenicity tests on bread wheat cv. Alondra and barley cv. Corona, indirect immunofluorescence, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Three probes were used for the RFLP analysis. They were an acetylaminofluorene-labelled 16S+23S rRNA probe from Escherichia coli and two (sup32)P-labelled restriction fragments from either plasmidic (pBSF2) or chromosomal (pBS8) DNA of X. campestris pv. manihotis. Strains clustered in 9 and 20 groups with the rRNA probe and the pBSF2 DNA probe, respectively. Strains of X. campestris pv. graminis, X. campestris pv. phleipratensis, and X. campestris pv. poae are shown to be related but are also distinguishable by RFLP patterns, serology, and pathogenicity on bread wheat. Strains pathogenic only for barley and not for wheat grouped together. Another group is temporarily designated deviant X. campestris pv. undulosa. These South American isolates from bread wheat did not react by indirect immunofluorescence and produced atypical lesions in pathogenicity tests. The results stress the need to perform pathogenicity tests before strains are named at the pathovar level. The importance of the different probes used for epidemiological studies or phylogenetic studies of closely related strains is underlined. PMID:16534952

Bragard, C.; Verdier, V.; Maraite, H.

1995-01-01

198

Asymmetric chromosome segregation in Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri  

PubMed Central

This study was intended to characterize the chromosome segregation process of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xac) by investigating the functionality of the ParB factor encoded on its chromosome, and its requirement for cell viability and virulence. Using TAP tagging we show that ParB is expressed in Xac. Disruption of parB increased the cell doubling time and precluded the ability of Xac to colonize the host citrus. Moreover, Xac mutant cells expressing only truncated forms of ParB exhibited the classical phenotype of aberrant chromosome organization, and seemed affected in cell division judged by their reduced growth rate and the propensity to form filaments. The ParB-GFP localization pattern in Xac was suggestive of an asymmetric mode of replicon partitioning, which together with the filamentation phenotype support the idea that Xac may control septum placement using mechanisms probably analogous to Caulobacter crescentus, and perhaps Vibrio cholerae, and Corynebacterium glutamicum. Xac exhibits asymmetric chromosome segregation, and the perturbation of this process leads to an inability to colonize the host plant. PMID:24339434

Ucci, Amanda P; Martins, Paula M M; Lau, Ivy F; Bacci, Mauricio; Belasque, Jose; Ferreira, Henrique

2014-01-01

199

Outer Membrane Proteins and Lipopolysaccharides in Pathovars of Xanthomonas campestris  

PubMed Central

Variations in the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) of 54 isolates belonging to 16 different pathovars of Xanthomonas campestris were characterized. OMP samples prepared by sarcosyl extraction of cell walls and LPS samples prepared by proteinase K treatment of sonicated cells were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of 4 M urea. In general, the OMP and LPS profiles within each pathovar were very similar but different from the profiles of other pathovars. Heterogeneity in OMP and LPS profiles was observed within X. campestris pv. campestris, X. campestris pv. translucens, and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. LPSs were isolated from six X. campestris pathovars, which fell into two major groups on the basis of O antigenicity. The O antigens of X. campestris pv. begoniae, X. campestris pv. graminis, and X. campestris pv. translucens cross-reacted with each other; the other group consisted of X. campestris pv. campestris, X. campestris pv. pelargonii, and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. A chemical analysis revealed a significant difference between the compositions of the neutral sugars of the LPSs of those two groups; the LPSs of the first group contained xylose and a 6-deoxy-3-O-methyl hexose, whereas the LPSs of the other group lacked both sugars. Images PMID:16349114

Ojanen, Tuula; Helander, Ilkka M.; Haahtela, Kielo; Korhonen, Timo K.; Laakso, Tuula

1993-01-01

200

Bacterial Vaginosis  

MedlinePLUS

... vaginosis can increase your chance of getting an STD. What is bacterial vaginosis? Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is ... contributes to BV. BV is not considered an STD, but having BV can increase your chances of ...

201

KdgR, an IClR Family Transcriptional Regulator, Inhibits Virulence Mainly by Repression of hrp Genes in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae?  

PubMed Central

KdgR has been reported to negatively regulate the genes involved in degradation and metabolization of pectic acid and other extracellular enzymes in soft-rotting Erwinia spp. through direct binding to their promoters. The possible involvement of a KdgR orthologue in virulence by affecting the expression of extracellular enzymes in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of rice blight disease, was examined by comparing virulence and regulation of extracellular enzymes between the wild type (WT) and a strain carrying a mutation in putative kdgR (?Xoo0310 mutant). This putative kdgR mutant of X. oryzae pv. oryzae showed increased pathogenicity on rice without affecting the regulation of extracellular enzymes, such as amylase, cellulase, xylanase, and protease. However, the mutant carrying a mutation in an ortholog of xpsL, which encodes the functional secretion machinery for the extracellular enzymes, showed a dramatic decrease in pathogenicity on rice. Both mutants of kdgR and of xpsL orthologs showed higher expression of two major hrp regulatory genes, hrpG and hrpX, and the genes in the hrp operons when grown in hrp-inducing medium. Thus, both genes were shown to be involved in repression of hrp genes. The kdgR ortholog was thought to suppress virulence mainly by repressing the expression of hrp genes without affecting the expression of extracellular enzymes, unlike findings for the kdgR gene in soft-rotting Erwinia spp. On the other hand, xpsL was confirmed to be involved in virulence by promoting the secretion of extracellular enzymes in spite of repressing the expression of the hrp genes. PMID:21984784

Lu, Yao; Rashidul, Islam M.; Hirata, Hisae; Tsuyumu, Shinji

2011-01-01

202

Bacterial conjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

Clinical question What is the best treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis? Results Topical antibiotics expedite recovery from bacterial conjunctivitis. The choice of antibiotic usually does not affect outcome. Implementation Recognition of key distinguishing features of bacterial conjunctivitis Pitfalls that can be recognized in the history and physical examinationChoice of antibioticWhen to refer for specialist treatment. PMID:21188158

Hutnik, Cindy; Mohammad-Shahi, Mohammad H

2010-01-01

203

In planta detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. commiphorae using fyuA and rpoD genes.  

PubMed

Guggal is tapped for extraction of medicinally important oleo-gum-resin (guggul) by inoculating the stem bark with natural gum suspension containing pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. commiphorae (Xac). The tree dies in the process. In absence of any specific medium for isolation of Xac, it is difficult to assess spread of the pathogen within the plant. A PCR based molecular detection technique usingfyuA and rpoD gene specific primers is described here. The primers amplified products only from Xac and not from host tissues or common saprophytes. The method was sensitive enough to produce positive signals for up to 4.4 bacterial cells or 2 pg target DNA per reaction mixture. However, PCR inhibitors present in plant tissues drastically reduced the limit of detection. A simple overnight incubation of surface sterilised plant tissues in nutrient medium was introduced to increase pathogen titre and to overcome this problem. This technique was successfully used to measure spread of Xac in plant tissues away from the site of inoculation. The pathogen showed preference for acropetal movement and did not spread to 7-8 cm below the site of inoculation till 15 days after inoculation. This suggests possibility to manage the disease through plant surgery. PMID:23926696

Samanta, Jatindra Nath; Mandal, Kunal

2013-06-01

204

The folate precursor para-aminobenzoic acid elicits induced resistance against Cucumber mosaic virus and Xanthomonas axonopodis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The use of vitamins including vitamin B1, B2 and K3 for the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) to protect crops against plant pathogens has been evaluated previously. The use of vitamins is beneficial because it is cost effective and safe for the environment. The use of folate precursors, including ortho-aminobenzoic acid, to induce SAR against a soft-rot pathogen in tobacco has been reported previously. Methods In the present study, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, also referred to as vitamin Bx) was selected owing to its effect on the induction of SAR against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper plants through greenhouse screening. Key Results Dipping of pepper seedlings in a 1 mm PABA solution in field trials induced SAR against artificially infiltrated X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and naturally occurring cucumber mosaic virus. Expression of the Capsicum annuum pathogenesis-related 4 gene was primed in response to pathogen infection as assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. The accumulation of cucumber mosaic virus RNA was reduced in PABA-treated pepper plants at 40 and 105 d post-treatment. Unexpectedly, fruit yield was increased in PABA-treated plants, indicating that PABA-mediated SAR successfully protected pepper plants from infection by bacterial and viral pathogens without significant fitness allocation costs. Conclusions The present study is the first to demonstrate the effective elicitation of SAR by a folate precursor under field conditions. PMID:23471007

Song, Geun Cheol; Choi, Hye Kyung; Ryu, Choong-Min

2013-01-01

205

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is required for extracellular polysaccharide production and full virulence.  

PubMed

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) plays an important role in glucose catabolism, converting glyceraldehyde 3-phosphates to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerates. Open reading frame (ORF) XC_0972 in the genome of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) strain 8004 is the only ORF in this strain annotated to encode a GAPDH. In this work, we have demonstrated genetically that this ORF encodes a unique GAPDH in Xcc strain 8004, which seems to be constitutively expressed. A GAPDH-deficient mutant could still grow in medium with glucose or other sugars as the sole carbon source, and no phosphofructokinase activity was detectable in strain 8004. These facts suggest that Xcc may employ the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, but not glycolysis, to utilize glucose. The mutant could not utilize pyruvate as sole carbon source, whereas the wild-type could, implying that the GAPDH of Xcc is involved in gluconeogenesis. Furthermore, inactivation of the Xcc GAPDH resulted in impairment of bacterial growth and virulence in the host plant, and reduction of intracellular ATP and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS). This reveals that GAPDH is required for EPS production and full pathogenicity of Xcc. PMID:19372163

Lu, Guang-Tao; Xie, Jia-Ri; Chen, Lei; Hu, Jiang-Ru; An, Shi-Qi; Su, Hui-Zhao; Feng, Jia-Xun; He, Yong-Qiang; Jiang, Bo-Le; Tang, Dong-Jie; Tang, Ji-Liang

2009-05-01

206

Natural genetic variation of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris pathogenicity on arabidopsis revealed by association and reverse genetics.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot of Brassicaceae, manipulates the physiology and the innate immunity of its hosts. Association genetic and reverse-genetic analyses of a world panel of 45 X. campestris pv. campestris strains were used to gain understanding of the genetic basis of the bacterium's pathogenicity to Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that the compositions of the minimal predicted type III secretome varied extensively, with 18 to 28 proteins per strain. There were clear differences in aggressiveness of those X. campestris pv. campestris strains on two Arabidopsis natural accessions. We identified 3 effector genes (xopAC, xopJ5, and xopAL2) and 67 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers that were associated with variations in disease symptoms. The nature and distribution of the AFLP markers remain to be determined, but we observed a low linkage disequilibrium level between predicted effectors and other significant markers, suggesting that additional genetic factors make a meaningful contribution to pathogenicity. Mutagenesis of type III effectors in X. campestris pv. campestris confirmed that xopAC functions as both a virulence and an avirulence gene in Arabidopsis and that xopAM functions as a second avirulence gene on plants of the Col-0 ecotype. However, we did not detect the effect of any other effector in the X. campestris pv. campestris 8004 strain, likely due to other genetic background effects. These results highlight the complex genetic basis of pathogenicity at the pathovar level and encourage us to challenge the agronomical relevance of some virulence determinants identified solely in model strains. IMPORTANCE The identification and understanding of the genetic determinants of bacterial virulence are essential to be able to design efficient protection strategies for infected plants. The recent availability of genomic resources for a limited number of pathogen isolates and host genotypes has strongly biased our research toward genotype-specific approaches. Indeed, these do not consider the natural variation in both pathogens and hosts, so their applied relevance should be challenged. In our study, we exploited the genetic diversity of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot on Brassicaceae (e.g., cabbage), to mine for pathogenicity determinants. This work evidenced the contribution of known and unknown loci to pathogenicity relevant at the pathovar level and identified these virulence determinants as prime targets for breeding resistance to X. campestris pv. campestris in Brassicaceae. PMID:23736288

Guy, Endrick; Genissel, Anne; Hajri, Ahmed; Chabannes, Matthieu; David, Perrine; Carrere, Sébastien; Lautier, Martine; Roux, Brice; Boureau, Tristan; Arlat, Matthieu; Poussier, Stéphane; Noël, Laurent D

2013-01-01

207

A bacteriophage transcription regulator inhibits bacterial transcription initiation by ?-factor displacement.  

PubMed

Bacteriophages (phages) appropriate essential processes of bacterial hosts to benefit their own development. The multisubunit bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAp) enzyme, which catalyses DNA transcription, is targeted by phage-encoded transcription regulators that selectively modulate its activity. Here, we describe the structural and mechanistic basis for the inhibition of bacterial RNAp by the transcription regulator P7 encoded by Xanthomonas oryzae phage Xp10. We reveal that P7 uses a two-step mechanism to simultaneously interact with the catalytic ? and ?' subunits of the bacterial RNAp and inhibits transcription initiation by inducing the displacement of the ?(70)-factor on initial engagement of RNAp with promoter DNA. The new mode of interaction with and inhibition mechanism of bacterial RNAp by P7 underscore the remarkable variety of mechanisms evolved by phages to interfere with host transcription. PMID:24482445

Liu, Bing; Shadrin, Andrey; Sheppard, Carol; Mekler, Vladimir; Xu, Yingqi; Severinov, Konstantin; Matthews, Steve; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh

2014-04-01

208

A bacteriophage transcription regulator inhibits bacterial transcription initiation by ?-factor displacement  

PubMed Central

Bacteriophages (phages) appropriate essential processes of bacterial hosts to benefit their own development. The multisubunit bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAp) enzyme, which catalyses DNA transcription, is targeted by phage-encoded transcription regulators that selectively modulate its activity. Here, we describe the structural and mechanistic basis for the inhibition of bacterial RNAp by the transcription regulator P7 encoded by Xanthomonas oryzae phage Xp10. We reveal that P7 uses a two-step mechanism to simultaneously interact with the catalytic ? and ?’ subunits of the bacterial RNAp and inhibits transcription initiation by inducing the displacement of the ?70-factor on initial engagement of RNAp with promoter DNA. The new mode of interaction with and inhibition mechanism of bacterial RNAp by P7 underscore the remarkable variety of mechanisms evolved by phages to interfere with host transcription. PMID:24482445

Liu, Bing; Shadrin, Andrey; Sheppard, Carol; Mekler, Vladimir; Xu, Yingqi; Severinov, Konstantin; Matthews, Steve; Wigneshweraraj, Sivaramesh

2014-01-01

209

Hyperspectral recognition of processing tomato early blight based on GA and SVM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processing tomato early blight seriously affect the yield and quality of its.Determine the leaves spectrum of different disease severity level of processing tomato early blight.We take the sensitive bands of processing tomato early blight as support vector machine input vector.Through the genetic algorithm(GA) to optimize the parameters of SVM, We could recognize different disease severity level of processing tomato early blight.The result show:the sensitive bands of different disease severity levels of processing tomato early blight is 628-643nm and 689-692nm.The sensitive bands are as the GA and SVM input vector.We get the best penalty parameters is 0.129 and kernel function parameters is 3.479.We make classification training and testing by polynomial nuclear,radial basis function nuclear,Sigmoid nuclear.The best classification model is the radial basis function nuclear of SVM. Training accuracy is 84.615%,Testing accuracy is 80.681%.It is combined GA and SVM to achieve multi-classification of processing tomato early blight.It is provided the technical support of prediction processing tomato early blight occurrence, development and diffusion rule in large areas.

Yin, Xiaojun; Zhao, SiFeng

2013-03-01

210

Comparative RNA-seq analysis of early-infected peach leaves by the invasive phytopathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is a quarantine bacterial pathogen that threatens peach production by causing necrotic spots on leaves and fruits, thus with the potential of severely reducing yields. The current understanding of the host plant defense responses to the pathogen is very limited. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, differential gene expression was analyzed at two time points, 2 h and 12 h post inoculation (hpi), by comparing the inoculated samples to their respective controls. On the total of 19,781 known peach genes that were expressed in all time points and conditions, 34 and 263 were differentially expressed at 2 and 12 hpi, respectively. Of those, 82% and 40% were up-regulated, respectively; and 18% and 60% were down-regulated, respectively. The functional annotation based on gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes involved in metabolic process and response to stress were particularly represented at 2 hpi whereas at 12 hpi cellular and metabolic processes were the categories with the highest number of genes differentially expressed. Of particular interest among the differentially expressed genes identified were several pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) receptors, disease resistance genes including several RPM1-like and pathogenesis related thaumatin encoding genes. Other genes involved in photosynthesis, in cell wall reorganization, in hormone signaling pathways or encoding cytochrome were also differentially expressed. In addition, novel transcripts were identified, providing another basis for further characterization of plant defense-related genes. Overall, this study gives a first insight of the peach defense mechanisms during the very early stages of infection with a bacterial disease in the case of a compatible interaction. PMID:23342103

Socquet-Juglard, Didier; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joël F; Christen, Danilo; Gessler, Cesare; Duffy, Brion; Patocchi, Andrea

2013-01-01

211

Type three effector gene distribution and sequence analysis provide new insights into the pathogenicity of plant-pathogenic Xanthomonas arboricola.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas arboricola is a complex bacterial species which mainly attacks fruit trees and is responsible for emerging diseases in Europe. It comprises seven pathovars (X. arboricola pv. pruni, X. arboricola pv. corylina, X. arboricola pv. juglandis, X. arboricola pv. populi, X. arboricola pv. poinsettiicola, X. arboricola pv. celebensis, and X. arboricola pv. fragariae), each exhibiting characteristic disease symptoms and distinct host specificities. To better understand the factors underlying this ecological trait, we first assessed the phylogenetic relationships among a worldwide collection of X. arboricola strains by sequencing the housekeeping gene rpoD. This analysis revealed that strains of X. arboricola pathovar populi are divergent from the main X. arboricola cluster formed by all other strains. Then, we investigated the distribution of 53 type III effector (T3E) genes in a collection of 57 X. arboricola strains that are representative of the main X. arboricola cluster. Our results showed that T3E repertoires vary greatly between X. arboricola pathovars in terms of size. Indeed, X. arboricola pathovars pruni, corylina, and juglandis, which are responsible for economically important stone fruit and nut diseases in Europe, harbored the largest T3E repertoires, whereas pathovars poinsettiicola, celebensis, and fragariae harbored the smallest. We also identified several differences in T3E gene content between X. arboricola pathovars pruni, corylina, and juglandis which may account for their differing host specificities. Further, we examined the allelic diversity of eight T3E genes from X. arboricola pathovars. This analysis revealed very limited allelic variations at the different loci. Altogether, the data presented here provide new insights into the evolution of pathogenicity and host range of X. arboricola and are discussed in terms of emergence of new diseases within this bacterial species. PMID:22101042

Hajri, Ahmed; Pothier, Joël F; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Bonneau, Sophie; Poussier, Stéphane; Boureau, Tristan; Duffy, Brion; Manceau, Charles

2012-01-01

212

Comparative RNA-Seq Analysis of Early-Infected Peach Leaves by the Invasive Phytopathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni is a quarantine bacterial pathogen that threatens peach production by causing necrotic spots on leaves and fruits, thus with the potential of severely reducing yields. The current understanding of the host plant defense responses to the pathogen is very limited. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, differential gene expression was analyzed at two time points, 2 h and 12 h post inoculation (hpi), by comparing the inoculated samples to their respective controls. On the total of 19,781 known peach genes that were expressed in all time points and conditions, 34 and 263 were differentially expressed at 2 and 12 hpi, respectively. Of those, 82% and 40% were up-regulated, respectively; and 18% and 60% were down-regulated, respectively. The functional annotation based on gene ontology (GO) analysis highlighted that genes involved in metabolic process and response to stress were particularly represented at 2 hpi whereas at 12 hpi cellular and metabolic processes were the categories with the highest number of genes differentially expressed. Of particular interest among the differentially expressed genes identified were several pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) receptors, disease resistance genes including several RPM1-like and pathogenesis related thaumatin encoding genes. Other genes involved in photosynthesis, in cell wall reorganization, in hormone signaling pathways or encoding cytochrome were also differentially expressed. In addition, novel transcripts were identified, providing another basis for further characterization of plant defense-related genes. Overall, this study gives a first insight of the peach defense mechanisms during the very early stages of infection with a bacterial disease in the case of a compatible interaction. PMID:23342103

Socquet-Juglard, Didier; Kamber, Tim; Pothier, Joel F.; Christen, Danilo; Gessler, Cesare; Duffy, Brion; Patocchi, Andrea

2013-01-01

213

Molecules Involved in the Modulation of Rapid Cell Death in Xanthomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earlier studies from this laboratory, Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines was found to exhibit a nutrition stress-related postexponential rapid cell death (RCD). The RCD was exhibited in protein-rich media but not in starch or other minimal media. This RCD in X. campestris pv. glycines was found to display features similar to those of the programmed cell death (PCD) of eukaryotes.

K. K. Raju; Satyendra Gautam; Arun Sharma

2006-01-01

214

Bacterial Overgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human gastrointestinal tract typically contains 300–500 bacterial species. Most bacterial species are acquired during\\u000a the birth process and although some changes to the flora may occur during later stages of life, the composition of the intestinal\\u000a microflora remains relatively constant. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) is defined as an excessive increase in the\\u000a number of bacteria in the upper

Rosemary J. Young; Jon A. Vanderhoof

215

[Electron microscopy and restriction analysis of bacteriophages isolated from quince and pear with symptoms of fire blight].  

PubMed

Phage populations of isolates from quince and pear affected with fire blight disease were studied using electron microscopy, restriction analysis and both agarose gel electrophoresis of particles and host range scoping method. The isolate from quince (pMA1) comprises at least three phage populations and two phage variants that can be detected on different bacterial indicators. After titration of this isolate on Erwinia amylovora the bacteriophage KEY of B1 morphotype with the genome size of 82.4 kb was identified. The isolate pMA1 also includes a unique phage population 4*, which can be identified on the test bacteria Pantoea agglomerans (Pag) g150. Two analogous populations being also present in the isolate pMA1 that appeared to be close phage variants with almost identical Hpal-restriction patterns can be identified using Pag g157 and 9/7-1. The situation is similar in the case of phage isolates from pear, pMG. Three phage populations identified in it using three different indicators represent the same phage of C1 morphotype (TT10-27) with a genome size of 71.4 kb. At least two other phage populations were also detected in the same isolate using P. agglomerans 9/7-2 as an indicator. A model system allowing the most efficient analysis of the isolates for the presence of different phage populations and phage variants in plants infected by fire blight disease has been developed. It provides for using three indicator enterobacterial species closely associated with the plants: E. amylovora, Erwinia "horticola" and Pagglomerans and ignoring of the phage cloning procedure. PMID:24479316

Tovkach, F I; Fa?diuk, Iu V; Korol', N A; Kushkina, A I; Moroz, S N; Muchnik, F V

2013-01-01

216

Development and application of pathovar-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize the lipopolysaccharide O antigen and the type IV fimbriae of Xanthomonas hyacinthi  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to develop a specific immunological diagnostic assay for yellow disease in hyacinths, using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Mice were immunized with a crude cell wall preparation (shear fraction) from Xanthomonas hyacinthi and with purified type IV fimbriae. Hybridomas were screened for a positive reaction with X. hyacinthi cells or fimbriae and for a negative reaction with X. translucens pv. graminis or Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Nine MAbs recognized fimbrial epitopes, as shown by immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunoelectron microscopy; however, three of these MAbs had weak cross-reactions with two X. translucens pathovars in immunoblotting experiments. Seven MAbs reacted with lipopolysaccharides and yielded a low-mobility ladder pattern on immunoblots. Subsequent analysis of MAb 2E5 showed that it specifically recognized an epitope on the O antigen, which was found to consist of rhamnose and fucose in a 2:1 molar ratio. The cross-reaction of MAb 2E5 with all X. hyacinthi strains tested showed that this O antigen is highly conserved within this species. MAb 1B10 also reacted with lipopolysaccharides. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were further tested in ELISA and immunoblotting experiments with cells and extracts from other pathogens. No cross-reaction was found with 27 other Xanthomonas pathovars tested or with 14 other bacterial species from other genera, such as Erwinia and Pseudomonas, indicating the high specificity of these antibodies. MAbs 2E5 and 1B10 were shown to be useful in ELISA for the detection of X. hyacinthi in infected hyacinths.

Doorn, J. van; Ojanen-Reuhs, T.; Hollinger, T.C.; Reuhs, B.L.; Schots, A.; Boonekamp, P.M.; Oudega, B.

1999-09-01

217

Purdue extensionGoss's BacterialWilt and Leaf Blight Identifying the Disease  

E-print Network

in northwestern Indiana in 2008 on dent corn and popcorn and was detected again in the same area in 2009, and sweet corn, but popcorn is of particular concern in Indiana due to hybrid susceptibility, the high

218

Biocontrol of Late Blight (Phytophthora capsici) Disease and Growth Promotion of Pepper by Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7  

PubMed Central

A chitinolytic bacterial strain having strong antifungal activity was isolated and identified as Burkholderia cepacia MPC-7 based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. MPC-7 solubilized insoluble phosphorous in hydroxyapatite agar media. It produced gluconic acid and 2-ketogluconic acid related to the decrease in pH of broth culture. The antagonist produced benzoic acid (BA) and phenylacetic acid (PA). The authentic compounds, BA and PA, showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against yeast, several bacterial and fungal pathogens in vitro. To demonstrate the biocontrol efficiency of MPC-7 on late blight disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, pepper plants in pot trials were treated with modified medium only (M), M plus zoospore inoculation (MP), MPC-7 cultured broth (B) and B plus zoospore inoculation (BP). With the sudden increase in root mortality, plants in MP wilted as early as five days after pathogen inoculation. However, plant in BP did not show any symptom of wilting until five days. Root mortality in BP was markedly reduced for as much as 50%. Plants in B had higher dry weight, P concentration in root, and larger leaf area compared to those in M and MP. These results suggested that B. cepacia MPC-7 should be considered as a candidate for the biological fertilizer as well as antimicrobial agent for pepper plants. PMID:25288930

Sopheareth, Mao; Chan, Sarun; Naing, Kyaw Wai; Lee, Yong Seong; Hyun, Hae Nam; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Kil Yong

2013-01-01

219

Bacterial amyloids.  

PubMed

Many bacteria can assemble functional amyloid fibers on their cell surface. The majority of bacterial amyloids contribute to biofilm or other community behaviors where cells interact with a surface or with another cell. Bacterial amyloids, like all functional amyloids, share structural and biochemical properties with disease-associated eukaryotic amyloids. The general ability of amyloids to bind amyloid-specific dyes, such as Congo red, and their resistance to denaturation have provided useful tools for scoring and quantifying bacterial amyloid formation. Here, we present basic approaches to study bacterial amyloids by focusing on the well-studied curli amyloid fibers expressed by Enterobacteriaceae. These methods exploit the specific tinctorial and biophysical properties of amyloids. The methods described here are straightforward and can be easily applied by any modern molecular biology lab for the study of other bacterial amyloids. PMID:22528099

Zhou, Yizhou; Blanco, Luz P; Smith, Daniel R; Chapman, Matthew R

2012-01-01

220

An analysis of progress in breeding Sclerotinia blight resistant runner-type peanut  

E-print Network

? type peanut with good resistance to both pod rot (Pythium myriotylum Drechs) and Sclerotinia blight (Smith et aL, 1991). Canopies of Pronto, Spanco, and Starr are similar to Tamspan 90. However, physiological resistance is present in Tamspan 90... ? type peanut with good resistance to both pod rot (Pythium myriotylum Drechs) and Sclerotinia blight (Smith et aL, 1991). Canopies of Pronto, Spanco, and Starr are similar to Tamspan 90. However, physiological resistance is present in Tamspan 90...

Goldman, Jason James

2012-06-07

221

Reduction of Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol in wheat with early fungicide applications of prothioconazole.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have identified the benefit of fungicides applied at flowering (Zadoks Growth Stage (GS) 59-69) in the reduction of Fusarium head blight and the reduction of deoxynivalenol (DON) in harvested wheat grain. Two experiments were performed to identify the ability of prothioconazole (Proline) at three timings to reduce Fusarium head blight and resulting DON in harvested grain of wheat. Prothioconazole (150 g ha(-1)) was applied to plots of wheat at GS31, GS39, and GS65 in a full-factorial design. Plots were inoculated with Fusarium-infected oat grain at GS30 and mist-irrigated at GS65 to encourage head blight development. Plots were assessed for head blight symptoms at GS77 and harvested grain was analysed for yield, specific weight, thousand grain weight, and DON. Factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) identified prothioconazole applications at each timing that resulted in significant reductions in Fusarium head blight and DON. The control achieved with combinations of spray timings was additive with no significant interactions. The control of Fusarium head blight at GS31, GS39, and GS65 was 50, 58 and 83%, respectively. The reduction in Fusarium head blight achieved by all three timings combined was 97% compared to the fully untreated control plots. The reduction of DON after application of prothioconazole at GS31, GS39, and GS65 was 27%, 49%, and 57%, respectively. The application of prothioconazole at all three timings achieved 83% reduction of DON compared with the fully untreated control plots. These experiments have determined, for the first time, significant additional head blight disease control and mycotoxin reduction with applications of a fungicide before flowering. PMID:20349372

Edwards, S G; Godley, N P

2010-05-01

222

Risk Analysis of Brown Rot Blossom Blight of Prune Caused by Monilinia fructicola.  

PubMed

Experiments under controlled environmental conditions were conducted during bloom of prune (Prunus domestica, L.) in 1999 and 2000 to assess the effects of inoculum concentration (IC), wetness duration (WD), temperature, and bloom stages on development of brown rot blossom blight of prunes. Branches from trees of a prune orchard were inoculated with Monilinia fructicola at different bloom stages and incubated at different temperatures with different periods of WD. The proportion of blighted blossoms (PBB) for each inoculated branch was determined. Bloom stage, IC, temperature, and WD significantly affected blossom blight of prunes. PBB at popcorn and full bloom stages was significantly greater than PBB at later bloom stages (P blight development were 22 to 26 degrees C, and Gaussian functions were used to describe the relationship between PBB and temperature. PBB linearly increased with increased IC. Linear regressions of PBB on WD were obtained for each combination of bloom stage, IC, and temperature. The parameters of these regressions were used in a computer program to produce the possible maximum PBB with 90% probability (PBB(90)) using stochastic simulations. Early bloom stages with a higher IC at temperatures from 20 to 25 degrees C were associated with more severe blossom blight than late stages with a lower IC at nonoptimal temperatures. Blossom blight did not occur at <10 or >30 degrees C and less than 4-h WD. However, longer than 4-h WD linearly increased incidence of blossom blight. A risk assessment table of blossom blight was produced for different environmental conditions to guide the control of prune brown rot. PMID:18944033

Luo, Y; Morgan, D P; Michailides, T J

2001-08-01

223

A locus conferring effective late blight resistance in potato cultivar Sárpo Mira maps to chromosome XI.  

PubMed

Late blight of potato, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most economically important diseases worldwide, resulting in substantial yield losses when not adequately controlled by fungicides. Late blight was a contributory factor in The Great Irish Famine, and breeding for resistance to the disease began soon after. Several disease-resistant cultivars have subsequently been obtained, and amongst them Sárpo Mira is currently one of the most effective. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge about the genetic basis of the late blight resistance in Sárpo Mira and to identify molecular markers linked to the resistance locus which would be useful for marker-assisted selection. A tetraploid mapping population from a Sárpo Mira × Maris Piper cross was phenotyped for foliar late blight resistance using detached leaflet tests. A locus with strong effect on late blight resistance was mapped at the end of chromosome XI in the vicinity of the R3 locus. Sárpo Mira's genetic map of chromosome XI contained 11 markers. Marker 45/XI exhibited the strongest linkage to the resistance locus and accounted for between 55.8 and 67.9% of variance in the mean resistance scores noted in the detached leaflet assays. This marker was used in molecular marker-facilitated gene pyramiding. Ten breeding lines containing a late blight resistance locus from cultivar Sárpo Mira and the Rpi-phu1 gene originating from the late blight resistant accession of Solanum phureja were obtained. These lines have extended the spectrum of late blight resistance compared with Sárpo Mira and it is expected that resistance in plants containing this gene pyramid will have enhanced durability. PMID:24343200

Tomczy?ska, Iga; Stefa?czyk, Emil; Chmielarz, Marcin; Karasiewicz, Beata; Kami?ski, Piotr; Jones, Jonathan D G; Lees, Alison K; Sliwka, Jadwiga

2014-03-01

224

Fingerprinting Closely Related Xanthomonas Pathovars with Random Nonamer Oligonucleotide Microarrays  

SciTech Connect

Current bacterial DNA typing methods are typically based upon gel-based fingerprinting methods. As such, they access a limited complement of genetic information and many independent restriction enzymes or probes is required to achieve statistical rigor and confidence in the resulting pattern of DNA fragments.

Kingsley, Mark T.; Straub, Tim M.; Call, Douglas R.; Daly, Don S.; Wunschel, Sharon C.; Chandler, Darrell P.

2002-12-01

225

A plant natriuretic peptide-like molecule of the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes rapid changes in the proteome of its citrus host  

PubMed Central

Background Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) belong to a novel class of peptidic signaling molecules that share some structural similarity to the N-terminal domain of expansins and affect physiological processes such as water and ion homeostasis at nano-molar concentrations. The citrus pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri possesses a PNP-like peptide (XacPNP) uniquely present in this bacteria. Previously we observed that the expression of XacPNP is induced upon infection and that lesions produced in leaves infected with a XacPNP deletion mutant were more necrotic and lead to earlier bacterial cell death, suggesting that the plant-like bacterial PNP enables the plant pathogen to modify host responses in order to create conditions favorable to its own survival. Results Here we measured chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and water potential of citrus leaves infiltrated with recombinant purified XacPNP and demonstrate that the peptide improves the physiological conditions of the tissue. Importantly, the proteomic analysis revealed that these responses are mirrored by rapid changes in the host proteome that include the up-regulation of Rubisco activase, ATP synthase CF1 ? subunit, maturase K, and ?- and ?-tubulin. Conclusions We demonstrate that XacPNP induces changes in host photosynthesis at the level of protein expression and in photosynthetic efficiency in particular. Our findings suggest that the biotrophic pathogen can use the plant-like hormone to modulate the host cellular environment and in particular host metabolism and that such modulations weaken host defence. PMID:20302677

2010-01-01

226

A novel antimicrobial protein for plant protection consisting of a Xanthomonas oryzae harpin and active domains of cecropin A and melittin  

PubMed Central

Summary Discoveries about antimicrobial peptides and plant defence activators have made possible the de novo and rational design of novel peptides for use in crop protection. Here we report a novel chimeric protein, Hcm1, which was made by linking the active domains of cecropin A and melittin to the hypersensitive response (HR)?elicitor Hpa1 of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of rice bacterial leaf streak. The resulting chimeric protein maintained not only the HR?inducing property of the harpin, but also the antimicrobial activity of the cecropin A?melittin hybrid. Hcm1 was purified from engineered Escherichia coli and evaluated in terms of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the 50% effective dose (ED50) against important plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Importantly, the protein acted as a potential pesticide by inducing disease resistance for viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens. This designed drug can be considered as a lead compound for use in plant protection, either for the development of new broad?spectrum pesticides or for expression in transgenic plants. PMID:21895994

Che, Yi-Zhou; Li, Yu-Rong; Zou, Hua-Song; Zou, Li-Fang; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Gong-You

2011-01-01

227

Functional and proteomic analyses reveal that wxcB is involved in virulence, motility, detergent tolerance, and biofilm formation in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.  

PubMed

The bacterial envelope possesses diverse functions, including protection against environmental stress and virulence factors for host infection. Here, we report the function of wxcB in Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), a causal agent of bacterial leaf spot disease in tomato and pepper. To characterize roles of wxcB, we generated a knockout mutant (Xcv?wxcB) and found that the virulence of the mutant was weaker than that of the wild type in tomato plants. To predict the mechanism affected by wxcB, we compared protein expressions between the wild type and the mutant. Expression of 152 proteins showed a greater than 2-fold difference. Proteins involved in motility and cell wall/membrane were the most abundant. Through phenotypic assays, we further demonstrated that the mutant displayed reduced motility and tolerance to treatment, but it showed increased biofilm formation. Interestingly, the LPS profile was unchanged. These results lead to new insights into the functions of wxcB that is associated with cell wall/membrane functions, which contributes to pathogen virulence. PMID:25159842

Park, Hye-Jee; Jung, Ho Won; Han, Sang-Wook

2014-09-26

228

Avirulence proteins AvrBs7 from Xanthomonas gardneri and AvrBs1.1 from Xanthomonas euvesicatoria contribute to a novel gene-for-gene interaction in pepper.  

PubMed

A novel hypersensitive resistance (HR) in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum against the bacterial spot of pepper pathogen, Xanthomonas gardneri, was introgressed into C. annuum cv. Early Calwonder (ECW) to create the near-isogenic line designated as ECW-70R. A corresponding avirulence gene avrBs7, in X. gardneri elicited a strong HR in ECW-70R. A homolog of avrBs7, avrBs1.1, was found in X. euvesicatoria 85-10, which showed delayed HR on ECW-70R leaves. Genetic analysis confirmed the presence of a single dominant resistance gene, Bs7, corresponding to the two avr genes. Both AvrBs7 and AvrBs1.1 share a consensus protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) active site domain and can dephosphorylate para-nitrophenyl phosphate. Mutation of Cys(265) to Ser in the PTP domain and subsequent loss of enzymatic activity and HR activity indicated the importance of the PTP domain in the recognition of the Avr protein by the Bs7 gene transcripts. Superpositioning of AvrBs7 and AvrBs1.1 homology models indicated variation in the geometry of the loops adjacent to the active sites. These predicted structural differences might be responsible for the differences in HR timing due to differential activation of the resistance gene. Mutating the PTP domain of AvrBs1.1 to match that of AvrBs7 failed to activate HR on ECW-70R, indicating the possibility of differential substrate specificities between AvrBs1.1 and AvrBs7. PMID:22112215

Potnis, Neha; Minsavage, Gerald; Smith, J Kennon; Hurlbert, Jason C; Norman, David; Rodrigues, Rosana; Stall, Robert E; Jones, Jeffrey B

2012-03-01

229

The effects of fungicides and cultivar resistance on associations among Fusarium head blight, deoxynivalenol, and fungal colonization of wheat grain.  

E-print Network

??Fusarium head blight (FHB), or head scab, incited predominantly by Fusarium graminearum, causes premature senescence of wheat spikes, kernel damage, and mycotoxin (especially deoxynivalenol, [DON])… (more)

Li, Cunyu

2009-01-01

230

Bacterial Vaginosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Field Search Button Advanced Search NIAID Home Health & Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Bacterial Vaginosis Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print ...

231

Insights into the extracytoplasmic stress response of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris: role and regulation of {sigma}E-dependent activity.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is an epiphytic bacterium that can become a vascular pathogen responsible for black rot disease of crucifers. To adapt gene expression in response to ever-changing habitats, phytopathogenic bacteria have evolved signal transduction regulatory pathways, such as extracytoplasmic function (ECF) ? factors. The alternative sigma factor ?(E), encoded by rpoE, is crucial for envelope stress response and plays a role in the pathogenicity of many bacterial species. Here, we combine different approaches to investigate the role and mechanism of ?(E)-dependent activation in X. campestris pv. campestris. We show that the rpoE gene is organized as a single transcription unit with the anti-? gene rseA and the protease gene mucD and that rpoE transcription is autoregulated. rseA and mucD transcription is also controlled by a highly conserved ?(E)-dependent promoter within the ?(E) gene sequence. The ?(E)-mediated stress response is required for stationary-phase survival, resistance to cadmium, and adaptation to membrane-perturbing stresses (elevated temperature and ethanol). Using microarray technology, we started to define the ?(E) regulon of X. campestris pv. campestris. These genes encode proteins belonging to different classes, including periplasmic or membrane proteins, biosynthetic enzymes, classical heat shock proteins, and the heat stress ? factor ?(H). The consensus sequence for the predicted ?(E)-regulated promoter elements is GGAACTN(15-17)GTCNNA. Determination of the rpoH transcription start site revealed that rpoH was directly regulated by ?(E) under both normal and heat stress conditions. Finally, ?(E) activity is regulated by the putative regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) proteases RseP and DegS, as previously described in many other bacteria. However, our data suggest that RseP and DegS are not only dedicated to RseA cleavage and that the proteolytic cascade of RseA could involve other proteases. PMID:20971899

Bordes, Patricia; Lavatine, Laure; Phok, Kounthéa; Barriot, Roland; Boulanger, Alice; Castanié-Cornet, Marie-Pierre; Déjean, Guillaume; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Becker, Anke; Arlat, Matthieu; Gutierrez, Claude

2011-01-01

232

A Novel Two-Component Response Regulator Links rpf with Biofilm Formation and Virulence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri  

PubMed Central

Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a serious disease that impacts citrus production worldwide, and X. axonopodis pv. citri is listed as a quarantine pest in certain countries. Biofilm formation is important for the successful development of a pathogenic relationship between various bacteria and their host(s). To understand the mechanisms of biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri strain XW19, the strain was subjected to transposon mutagenesis. One mutant with a mutation in a two-component response regulator gene that was deficient in biofilm formation on a polystyrene microplate was selected for further study. The protein was designated as BfdR for biofilm formation defective regulator. BfdR from strain XW19 shares 100% amino acid sequence identity with XAC1284 of X. axonopodis pv. citri strain 306 and 30–100% identity with two-component response regulators in various pathogens and environmental microorganisms. The bfdR mutant strain exhibited significantly decreased biofilm formation on the leaf surfaces of Mexican lime compared with the wild type strain. The bfdR mutant was also compromised in its ability to cause canker lesions. The wild-type phenotype was restored by providing pbfdR in trans in the bfdR mutant. Our data indicated that BfdR did not regulate the production of virulence-related extracellular enzymes including amylase, lipase, protease, and lecithinase or the expression of hrpG, rfbC, and katE; however, BfdR controlled the expression of rpfF in XVM2 medium, which mimics cytoplasmic fluids in planta. In conclusion, biofilm formation on leaf surfaces of citrus is important for canker development in X. axonopodis pv. citri XW19. The process is controlled by the two-component response regulator BfdR via regulation of rpfF, which is required for the biosynthesis of a diffusible signal factor. PMID:23626857

Huang, Tzu-Pi; Lu, Kuan-Min; Chen, Yu-Hsuan

2013-01-01

233

Novel Organic Hydroperoxide-Sensing and Responding Mechanisms for OhrR, a Major Bacterial Sensor and Regulator of Organic Hydroperoxide Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli OhrR belongs to a major family of multiple-cysteine-containing bacterial organic hydroperoxide sensors and transcription repressors. Site-directed mutagenesis and subsequent in vivo functional analyses revealed that changing any cysteine residue to serine did not alter the ability of OhrR to bind to the P1 ohrR-ohr promoter but drastically affected the organic hydroperoxide-sensing and response mechanisms of the

Warunya Panmanee; Paiboon Vattanaviboon; Leslie B. Poole; Skorn Mongkolsuk

2006-01-01

234

Production of Hesperetin Glycosides by Xanthomonas campestris and Cyclodextrin Glucanotransferase and Their Anti-allergic Activities  

PubMed Central

The production of hesperetin glycosides was investigated using glycosylation with Xanthomonas campestris and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). X. campestris glucosylated hesperetin to its 3'-, 5-, and 7-O-glucosides, and CGTase converted hesperetin glucosides into the corresponding maltosides. The resulting 7-O-glucoside and 7-O-maltoside of hesperetin showed inhibitory effects on IgE antibody production and on O2- generation from rat neutrophils. PMID:22254014

Shimoda, Kei; Hamada, Hiroki

2010-01-01

235

Optimization of xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris grown in molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 1395 using sugar beet molasses as carbon source was studied. The pre-treatment of sugar beet molasses and the supplementation of the medium were investigated in order to improve xanthan gum production. Addition of K2HPO4 to the medium had a significant positive effect on both xanthan gum and biomass production. The medium was subsequently

Stavros Kalogiannis; Gesthimani Iakovidou; Maria Liakopoulou-Kyriakides; Dimitrios A Kyriakidis; George N Skaracis

2003-01-01

236

Specificity of polycllonal and monoclonal antibodies for the identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies (PCAs and MCAs), produced to whole cells and flagellar extracts ofXanthomonas campestris pv.campestris (Xcc), respectively, were tested for specificity. In immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) the three PCAs tested, reacted at low dilutions with all Xcc strains, some other xanthomonads and non-xanthomonads. At higher dilutions most cross-reactivity with non-xanthomonad strains disappeared. However, the cross-reactivity with strains ofX. c.

A. A. J. M. Franken; J. F. Zilverentant; P. M. Boonekamp; A. Schots

1992-01-01

237

Antimicrobial activity of oil-mill waste water polyphenols on the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports a study on the inhibitory activity of the polyphenols present in the oil mill waste water (OMWW) on the crucifer seed-borne phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris. The laboratory tests showed that the minimal inhibitory concentration, on aver- age, was equal to 2.5 mg mL-1 of total polyphenols expressed as caffeic acid. The trials per- formed by placing the polyphenols

G. CIAFARDINI; B. A. ZULLO

238

Production and characteristics of the exocellular polysaccharide in mutant strains of Xanthomonas fuscans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of the exocellular polysaccharide of the phytopathogenic bacteriumXanthomonas fuscans was investigated with respect to its possible use in utilization of industrial wastes containing lactose. Six stablelac\\u000a + mutants were obtained after the treatment withN-methyl-N?-nitroso-N?-nitroguanidine. The mutants were compared with the parent strain. Morphological and cultivation characteristics, as well\\u000a as production of the exooellular polysaccharide were compared. The production was

J. Koní?ek; J. Lasík; M. Wurst

1977-01-01

239

[Cloning, sequencing and fuctional study of gacA gene from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola].  

PubMed

A gacA homologue, designated gacA(Xooc), was cloned from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xooc), a bacterium that causes leaf streak of rice, with degenerated primers by polymerase amplification reaction (PCR). NCBI blast search indicated that GacA(Xooc) had a similar structure to that of other GacA proteins, and had a CheB (Chemotaxis response regulator containing a CheY-like receiver domain)domain. Sequence comparison showed that the gacA(Xooc) was conserved in the Xanthomonas genus. Homology search revealed that the gacA(Xooc) was 99.7% similarities to gacA (AY870457, this lab) of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). A gacA(Xooc), disruption mutant was successfully generated by a single cross-over event, and confirmed by PCR and Southern blot. But the mutant still had strong pathogenicity,and its virulence was not obviously different from that of wild type strain. The gacA did not globally regulate metabolism in Xooc, which was different from DC3000 of P. syringae pv. tomato, CHAO of P. fluorescens and IC1270 of Serratia plymuthica. Chemotaxis to 0.1% tryptone of the mutants was reduced compared to wild type strain. The results suggest that gacA(X00c) is involved chemotaxis of Xooc. Nevertheless, how gacA to regulate chemotaxis of Xooc, transcription and expression of genes involved in regulation still need to be further studied. PMID:17552221

Yang, Wan-feng; Chen, Lei; Liu, Hong-xia; Hu, Bai-shi; Liu, Feng-quan

2007-04-01

240

A novel regulatory role of HrpD6 in regulating hrp-hrc-hpa genes in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak in the model plant rice, possesses a hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp), hrp-conserved (hrc), hrp-associated (hpa) cluster (hrp-hrc-hpa) that encodes a type III secretion system (T3SS) through which T3SS effectors are injected into host cells to cause disease or trigger plant defenses. Mutations in this cluster usually abolish the bacterial ability to cause hypersensitive response in nonhost tobacco and pathogenicity in host rice. In Xanthomonas spp., these genes are generally assumed to be regulated by the key master regulators HrpG and HrpX. However, we present evidence that, apart from HrpG and HrpX, HrpD6 is also involved in regulating the expression of hrp genes. Interestingly, the expression of hpa2, hpa1, hpaB, hrcC, and hrcT is positively controlled by HrpD6. Transcriptional expression assays demonstrated that the expression of the hrcC, hrpD5, hrpE, and hpa3 genes was not completely abolished by hrpG and hrpX mutations. As observed in analysis of their corresponding mutants, HrpG and HrpX exhibit contrasting gene regulation, particularly for hpa2 and hrcT. Other two-component system regulators (Zur, LrpX, ColR/S, and Trh) did not completely inhibit the expression of hrcC, hrpD5, hrpE, and hpa3. Immunoblotting assays showed that the secretion of HrpF, which is an HpaB-independent translocator, is not affected by the mutation in hrpD6. However, the mutation in hrpD6 affects the secretion of an HpaB-dependent TAL effector, AvrXa27. These novel findings suggest that, apart from HrpG and HrpX, HrpD6 plays important roles not only in the regulation of hrp genes but also in the secretion of TAL effectors. PMID:21615204

Li, Yu-Rong; Zou, Hua-Song; Che, Yi-Zhou; Cui, Yi-Ping; Guo, Wei; Zou, Li-Fang; Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Biddle, Eulandria M; Yang, Ching-Hong; Chen, Gong-You

2011-09-01

241

Detection and identification of phytopathogenic Xanthomonas strains by amplification of DNA sequences related to the hrp genes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria.  

PubMed Central

Three pairs of oligonucleotide primers specific for different regions of the hrp gene (hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity) cluster of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria were designed and tested for amplification of DNA isolated from a large number of different bacteria. DNA sequences related to the hrp genes were successfully amplified from X. fragariae and from 28 pathovars of X. campestris. No DNA amplification occurred with genomic DNA from phytopathogenic strains of X. campestris pv. secalis, X. campestris pv. translucens, and X. albilineans or from nonpathogenic opportunistic xanthomonads and phytopathogenic strains of the genera Acidovorax, Agrobacterium, Clavibacter, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, and Xylella. The DNA from those bacteria also failed to hybridize to hrp-specific fragments in Southern blot analysis. DNA fragments amplified with a particular primer pair were of identical size from each of the different phytopathogenic xanthomonads. However, restriction analysis of these fragments by using frequently cutting endonucleases revealed variation in the pattern for these hrp-related fragments amplified from the different Xanthomonas strains. The restriction patterns generated for the different fragments allowed distinction of the strains representing a pathovar or species of phytopathogenic xanthomonads. We believe that DNA amplification with hrp-specific oligonucleotide primers is a highly sensitive and specific method that can be applied for detection and identification of phytopathogenic xanthomonads. Images PMID:8017904

Leite, R P; Minsavage, G V; Bonas, U; Stall, R E

1994-01-01

242

Numerical Survey of Some Bacterial Taxa  

PubMed Central

Focht, D. D. (Iowa State University, Ames), and W. R. Lockhart. Numerical survey of some bacterial taxa. J. Bacteriol. 90:1314–1319. 1965.—A numerical analysis was made of 77 properties of each of 43 bacterial strains, representing 25 genera from 8 families in the orders Eubacteriales and Pseudomonadales. Four major groups were found, related to one another at approximately the same level of similarity: (1) a large cluster containing the subgroups (1a) Athiorhodaceae-Spirillaceae, (1b) Xanthomonas, and (1c) “inactive” Micrococcaceae-Achromobacteraceae; (2) a cluster containing the “active” Micrococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae; (3) the enterobacteria; and (4) Aeromonas. There was a sharp distinction between the branches of groups 1a, 1c, and 2. The composition of groups was essentially the same whether or not fermentation of carbohydrates (28 characters) was included in the analysis. Several individual strains, notably, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Erwinia amylovora, were related to none of the groups, and others (two species of Proteus, Flavobacterium devorans, and Lactobacillus casei) showed only minimal quantitative relationships with their groups. These results suggest that there may be significant variation in levels of similarity within microbial groups presently accorded equivalent taxonomic rank, and that some present distinctions among taxa, particularly at the generic level, cannot be confirmed on the basis of overall similarity. PMID:5848329

Focht, D. D.; Lockhart, W. R.

1965-01-01

243

GIS-based climatic regionalization of potato late blight in mountain areas of Southwest Sichuan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through the geographic insemination test in installments on five phases of potato late blight in four areas of Mianning and Zhaojue with the altitude of 1,600m, 1,800m, 2,100m and 2,500m respectively, this paper researches the meteorological causes, leading factors and climatic indexes for potato late blight in mountain areas of southwest Sichuan in detail. Based on that, short-term section climatic inspection data of mountain areas, observation data from meteorological post and latest data from automatic weather station are extensively collected, organized and processed by extension, based on which the Spatial Distribution Model of climatic indexes for potato late blight in mountain areas of southwest Sichuan is established in association with the routine surface observation data, y=f(h,?,l,?). With the geographic information data of 1:250000 and GIS technology, southwest Sichuan is divided into climatic liable region of potato blight, climatic secondary liable region and climatic non-liable region by factor setting and optimization method. Providing scientific basis for selection, distribution and prevention decision making for late blight resistant species of potato in southwest Sichuan, it has important value for production and application.

Luo, Qing; Peng, Guozhao; Ruan, Jun; Cao, Yanqiu; Fang, Peng; Li, Dazhong; Armuzhong, .; Huang, Doumin; Hu, Qiaojuan; Chen, Yuanzhi

2008-10-01

244

Dynamics of Cryphonectria hypovirus infection in chestnut blight cankers.  

PubMed

Virulent strains of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica cause lethal bark cankers on chestnut trees. Infection of C. parasitica with Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe biologically controls this disease, leading to nonlethal and inactive cankers. Unexpectedly, virus-free C. parasitica strains have been isolated from inactive cankers. In this study, we compared the virulence of virus-infected and virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from either inactive or active cankers on chestnut seedlings and sprouts. In the seedling experiment, we assessed canker growth and seedling mortality. In the sprout experiment, we also assessed canker growth and made fungal reisolations to determine virus infection and immigration of foreign vegetative compatibility (vc) types over a period of 13 years in a coppice forest. Overall, the virulence of virus-free C. parasitica strains isolated from inactive versus active cankers did not differ. Significant differences were only attributed to virus infection. Virus infection and fungal strain composition in cankers changed over time. Foreign vc types immigrated into cankers and virus-free cankers became virus-infected within a few years. Most of the cankers were callused over time and became inactive. However, we observed that the virus did not always persist in these cankers. This study demonstrates that virus spread occurs effectively in European chestnut forests and that this biocontrol system is highly dynamic. PMID:24601984

Bryner, Sarah Franziska; Prospero, Simone; Rigling, Daniel

2014-09-01

245

Web-Interactive Integration of Regional Weather Networks for Risk Management of Late Blight in Potato Canopies  

E-print Network

1 Web-Interactive Integration of Regional Weather Networks for Risk Management of Late Blight Category: Pest Management Web-Interactive Integration of Regional Weather Networks for Risk Management of Late Blight in Potato Canopies Additional index words. Phytophthora infestans, automated weather

Douches, David S.

246

UVM Scientists Identify Eco-Friendly Tool for Fighting Wheat Blight AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH (01.10.07)  

E-print Network

an unpleasant taste. Moreover, seeds from an infected crop won't germinate the following year. Minimal Sunn pestUVM Scientists Identify Eco-Friendly Tool for Fighting Wheat Blight AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH (01 of threat in those war-torn countries: a destructive wheat blight found in many parts of the Middle East

Vermont, University of

247

Efficacy of Bumble Bee Disseminated Biological Control Agents for Control of Botrytis Blossom Blight of Rabbiteye Blueberry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botrytis blossom blight caused by Botrytis cinerea may cause severe crop loss in rabbiteye blueberry, necessitating applications of expensive fungicides. Commercial bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, were tested as vectors of the fungicidal biological control agents, Prestop® (Gliocladium catenulatum) and Mycostop® (Streptomyces griseoviridis), against blueberry blossom blight. A single bumble bee hive and four flowering blueberry plants were confined within each

Barbara J. Smith; Blair J. Sampson; Monika Walter

2012-01-01

248

Bacterial glycoproteomics.  

PubMed

Glycosylated proteins are ubiquitous components of eukaryote cellular surfaces, where the glycan moieties are implicated in a wide range of cell-cell recognition events. Once thought to be restricted to eukaryotes, glycosylation is now being increasingly reported in prokaryotes. Many of these discoveries have grown from advances in analytical technologies and genome sequencing. This review highlights the capabilities of high-sensitivity mass spectrometry for carbohydrate structure determination of bacterial glycoproteins and the emergence of glycoproteomic strategies that have evolved from proteomics and genomics for the functional analysis of bacterial glycosylation. PMID:16735721

Hitchen, Paul G; Dell, Anne

2006-06-01

249

Fructose-Bisphophate Aldolase Exhibits Functional Roles between Carbon Metabolism and the hrp System in Rice Pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola  

PubMed Central

Fructose-bisphophate aldolase (FbaB), is an enzyme in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis in living organisms. The mutagenesis in a unique fbaB gene of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of rice bacterial leaf streak, led the pathogen not only unable to use pyruvate and malate for growth and delayed its growth when fructose was used as the sole carbon source, but also reduced extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and impaired bacterial virulence and growth in rice. Intriguingly, the fbaB promoter contains an imperfect PIP-box (plant-inducible promoter) (TTCGT-N9-TTCGT). The expression of fbaB was negatively regulated by a key hrp regulatory HrpG and HrpX cascade. Base substitution in the PIP-box altered the regulation of fbaB with the cascade. Furthermore, the expression of fbaB in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola RS105 strain was inducible in planta rather than in a nutrient-rich medium. Except other hrp-hrc-hpa genes, the expression of hrpG and hrpX was repressed and the transcripts of hrcC, hrpE and hpa3 were enhanced when fbaB was deleted. The mutation in hrcC, hrpE or hpa3 reduced the ability of the pathogen to acquire pyruvate and malate. In addition, bacterial virulence and growth in planta and EPS production in R?fbaB mutant were completely restored to the wild-type level by the presence of fbaB in trans. This is the first report to demonstrate that carbohydrates, assimilated by X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, play critical roles in coordinating hrp gene expression through a yet unknown regulator. PMID:22384086

Li, Yu-rong; Cui, Yi-ping; Ji, Zhi-yuan; Cai, Lu-lu; Zou, Hua-song; Hutchins, William C.; Yang, Ching-hong; Chen, Gong-you

2012-01-01

250

Bacterial Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial mining (biomining) represents the use of microorganisms to leach out metals from ores or mine tailings (wastes), followed by the subsequent recovery of metals of interest from the leaching solution. This leaching of metals from ores is a natural process, which can be considerably accelerated by inducing and\\/or supporting the microbial activity of certain species with the ability to

I. G. Petrisor; I. Lazar; T. F. Yen

2007-01-01

251

Two New Complete Genome Sequences Offer Insight into Host and Tissue Specificity of Plant Pathogenic Xanthomonas spp.?†  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas is a large genus of bacteria that collectively cause disease on more than 300 plant species. The broad host range of the genus contrasts with stringent host and tissue specificity for individual species and pathovars. Whole-genome sequences of Xanthomonas campestris pv. raphani strain 756C and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strain BLS256, pathogens that infect the mesophyll tissue of the leading models for plant biology, Arabidopsis thaliana and rice, respectively, were determined and provided insight into the genetic determinants of host and tissue specificity. Comparisons were made with genomes of closely related strains that infect the vascular tissue of the same hosts and across a larger collection of complete Xanthomonas genomes. The results suggest a model in which complex sets of adaptations at the level of gene content account for host specificity and subtler adaptations at the level of amino acid or noncoding regulatory nucleotide sequence determine tissue specificity. PMID:21784931

Bogdanove, Adam J.; Koebnik, Ralf; Lu, Hong; Furutani, Ayako; Angiuoli, Samuel V.; Patil, Prabhu B.; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Ryan, Robert P.; Meyer, Damien F.; Han, Sang-Wook; Aparna, Gudlur; Rajaram, Misha; Delcher, Arthur L.; Phillippy, Adam M.; Puiu, Daniela; Schatz, Michael C.; Shumway, Martin; Sommer, Daniel D.; Trapnell, Cole; Benahmed, Faiza; Dimitrov, George; Madupu, Ramana; Radune, Diana; Sullivan, Steven; Jha, Gopaljee; Ishihara, Hiromichi; Lee, Sang-Won; Pandey, Alok; Sharma, Vikas; Sriariyanun, Malinee; Szurek, Boris; Vera-Cruz, Casiana M.; Dorman, Karin S.; Ronald, Pamela C.; Verdier, Valerie; Dow, J. Maxwell; Sonti, Ramesh V.; Tsuge, Seiji; Brendel, Volker P.; Rabinowicz, Pablo D.; Leach, Jan E.; White, Frank F.; Salzberg, Steven L.

2011-01-01

252

Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of a novel recessive gene xa34(t) for resistance against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

A new bacterial blight recessive resistance gene xa34(t) was identified from the descendant of somatic hybridization between an aus rice cultivar (cv.) BG1222 and susceptible cv. IR24 against Chinese race V (isolate 5226). The isolate was used to test the resistance or susceptibility of F(1) progenies and reciprocal crosses of the parents. The results showed that F(1) progenies appeared susceptibility there were 128R (resistant):378S (susceptible) and 119R:375S plants in F(2) populations derived from two crosses of BG1222/IR24 and IR24/BG1222, respectively, which both calculates into a 1R:3S ratio. 320 pairs of stochastically selected SSR primers were used for genes' initial mapping. The screened results showed that two SSR markers, RM493 and RM446, found on rice chromosome 1 linked to xa34(t). Linkage analysis showed that these two markers were on both sides of xa34(t) with the genetic distances 4.29 and 3.05 cM, respectively. The other 50 SSR markers in this region were used for genes' fine mapping. The further results indicated that xa34(t) was mapped to a 1.42 cM genetic region between RM10927 and RM10591. In order to further narrow down the genomic region of xa34(t), 43 of insertion/deletion (Indel) markers (BGID1-43) were designed according to the sequences comparison between japonica and indica rice. Parents' polymorphic detection and linkage assay showed that the Indel marker BGID25 came closer to the target gene with a 0.4 cM genetic distance. A contig map corresponding to the locus was constructed based on the reference sequences aligned by the xa34(t) linked markers. Consequently, the locus of xa34(t) was defined to a 204 kb interval flanked by markers RM10929 and BGID25. PMID:21274511

Chen, Shen; Liu, Xinqiong; Zeng, Liexian; Ouyang, Dongmei; Yang, Jianyuan; Zhu, Xiaoyuan

2011-05-01

253

Identification of Genes Differentially Expressed between Resistant and Susceptible Tomato Lines during Time-Course Interactions with Xanthomonas perforans Race T3  

PubMed Central

Bacterial spot caused by several Xanthomonas sp. is one of the most devastating diseases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The genetics of hypersensitive resistance to X. perforans race T3 has been intensively investigated and regulatory genes during the infection of race T3 have been identified through transcriptional profiling. However, no work on isolating regulatory genes for field resistance has been reported. In this study, cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was used to identify differentially expressed transcripts between resistant tomato accession PI 114490 and susceptible variety OH 88119 at 3, 4 and 5 days post-inoculation of the pathogen. Using 256 selective primer combinations, a total of 79 differentially expressed transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) representing 71 genes were obtained. Of which, 60 were up-regulated and 4 were down-regulated in both tomato lines, 4 were uniquely up-regulated and 2 were uniquely down-regulated in PI 114490, and 1 was specifically up-regulated in OH 88119. The expression patterns of 19 representative TDFs were further confirmed by semi-quantitative and/or quantitative real time RT-PCR. These results suggested that the two tomato lines activated partly similar defensive mechanism in response to race T3 infection. The data obtained here will provide some fundamental information for elucidating the molecular mechanism of response to race T3 infection in tomato plants with field resistance. PMID:24686403

Wang, Yuqing; Yang, Wencai

2014-01-01

254

The Zur of Xanthomonas campestris functions as a repressor and an activator of putative zinc homeostasis genes via recognizing two distinct sequences within its target promoters  

PubMed Central

It has been long considered that zinc homeostasis in bacteria is maintained by export systems and uptake systems, which are separately controlled by their own regulators and the uptake systems are negatively regulated by Zur which binds to an about 30-bp AT-rich sequence known as Zur-box present in its target promoters to block the entry of RNA polymerase. Here, we demonstrated in vivo and in vitro that in addition to act as a repressor of putative Zn2+-uptake systems, the Zur of the bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (Xcc) acts as an activator of a Zn2+ efflux pump. The Xcc Zur binds to a similar Zur-box with ?30-bp AT-rich sequence in the promoters of the genes encoding putative Zn2+-uptake systems but a 59-bp GC-rich sequence with a 20-bp inverted repeat overlapping the promoter's ?35 to ?10 sequence of the gene encoding a Zn2+-export system. Mutagenesis of the inverted repeat sequence resulted in abolishment of the in vitro binding and the in vivo and in vitro activation of the export gene's promoter by Zur. These results reveal that the Xcc Zur functions as a repressor and an activator of putative zinc homeostasis genes via recognizing two distinct sequences within its target promoters. PMID:18586823

Huang, Dong-Liang; Tang, Dong-Jie; Liao, Qing; Li, Heng-Cong; Chen, Qi; He, Yong-Qiang; Feng, Jia-Xun; Jiang, Bo-Le; Lu, Guang-Tao; Chen, Baoshan; Tang, Ji-Liang

2008-01-01

255

A three-component signalling system fine-tunes expression kinetics of HPPK responsible for folate synthesis by positive feedback loop during stress response of Xanthomonas campestris.  

PubMed

During adaptation to environments, bacteria employ two-component signal transduction systems, which contain histidine kinases and response regulators, to sense and respond to exogenous and cellular stimuli in an accurate spatio-temporal manner. Although the protein phosphorylation process between histidine kinase and response regulator has been well documented, the molecular mechanism fine-tuning phosphorylation levels of response regulators is comparatively less studied. Here we combined genetic and biochemical approaches to reveal that a hybrid histidine kinase, SreS, is involved in the SreK-SreR phosphotransfer process to control salt stress response in the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris. The N-terminal receiver domain of SreS acts as a phosphate sink by competing with the response regulator SreR to accept the phosphoryl group from the latter's cognate histidine kinase SreK. This regulatory process is critical for bacterial survival because the dephosphorylated SreR protein participates in activating one of the tandem promoters (P2) at the 5' end of the sreK-sreR-sreS-hppK operon, and then modulates a transcriptional surge of the stress-responsive gene hppK, which is required for folic acid synthesis. Therefore, our study dissects the biochemical process of a positive feedback loop in which a 'three-component' signalling system fine-tunes expression kinetics of downstream genes. PMID:24119200

Wang, Fang-Fang; Deng, Chao-Ying; Cai, Zhen; Wang, Ting; Wang, Li; Wang, Xiao-Zheng; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Fang, Rong-Xiang; Qian, Wei

2014-07-01

256

High-resolution transcriptional analysis of the regulatory influence of cell-to-cell signalling reveals novel genes that contribute to Xanthomonas phytopathogenesis  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris is an economically important pathogen of many crop species and a model for the study of bacterial phytopathogenesis. In X. campestris, a regulatory system mediated by the signal molecule DSF controls virulence to plants. The synthesis and recognition of the DSF signal depends upon different Rpf proteins. DSF signal generation requires RpfF whereas signal perception and transduction depends upon a system comprising the sensor RpfC and regulator RpfG. Here we have addressed the action and role of Rpf/DSF signalling in phytopathogenesis by high-resolution transcriptional analysis coupled to functional genomics. We detected transcripts for many genes that were unidentified by previous computational analysis of the genome sequence. Novel transcribed regions included intergenic transcripts predicted as coding or non-coding as well as those that were antisense to coding sequences. In total, mutation of rpfF, rpfG and rpfC led to alteration in transcript levels (more than fourfold) of approximately 480 genes. The regulatory influence of RpfF and RpfC demonstrated considerable overlap. Contrary to expectation, the regulatory influence of RpfC and RpfG had limited overlap, indicating complexities of the Rpf signalling system. Importantly, functional analysis revealed over 160 new virulence factors within the group of Rpf-regulated genes. PMID:23617851

An, Shi-Qi; Febrer, Melanie; McCarthy, Yvonne; Tang, Dong-Jie; Clissold, Leah; Kaithakottil, Gemy; Swarbreck, David; Tang, Ji-Liang; Rogers, Jane; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P

2013-01-01

257

An improved method for TAL effectors DNA-binding sites prediction reveals functional convergence in TAL repertoires of Xanthomonas oryzae strains.  

PubMed

Transcription Activators-Like Effectors (TALEs) belong to a family of virulence proteins from the Xanthomonas genus of bacterial plant pathogens that are translocated into the plant cell. In the nucleus, TALEs act as transcription factors inducing the expression of susceptibility genes. A code for TALE-DNA binding specificity and high-resolution three-dimensional structures of TALE-DNA complexes were recently reported. Accurate prediction of TAL Effector Binding Elements (EBEs) is essential to elucidate the biological functions of the many sequenced TALEs as well as for robust design of artificial TALE DNA-binding domains in biotechnological applications. In this work a program with improved EBE prediction performances was developed using an updated specificity matrix and a position weight correction function to account for the matching pattern observed in a validation set of TALE-DNA interactions. To gain a systems perspective on the large TALE repertoires from X. oryzae strains, this program was used to predict rice gene targets for 99 sequenced family members. Integrating predictions and available expression data in a TALE-gene network revealed multiple candidate transcriptional targets for many TALEs as well as several possible instances of functional convergence among TALEs. PMID:23869221

Pérez-Quintero, Alvaro L; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Dereeper, Alexis; López, Camilo; Koebnik, Ralf; Szurek, Boris; Cunnac, Sebastien

2013-01-01

258

Overexpression of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria effector AvrBsT in Arabidopsis triggers plant cell death, disease and defense responses.  

PubMed

Recognition of bacterial effector proteins by plant cells is crucial for plant disease and defense response signaling. The Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector protein, AvrBsT, is secreted into plant cells from Xcv strain Bv5-4a. Here, we demonstrate that dexamethasone (DEX): avrBsT overexpression triggers cell death signaling in healthy transgenic Arabidopsis plants. AvrBsT overexpression in Arabidopsis also reduced susceptibility to infection with the obligate biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Overexpression of avrBsT significantly induced some defense-related genes in Arabidopsis leaves. A high-throughput in planta proteomics screen identified TCP-1 chaperonin, SEC7-like guanine nucleotide exchange protein and calmodulin-like protein, which were differentially expressed in DEX:avrBsT-overexpression (OX) Arabidopsis plants during Hp. arabidopsidis infection. Treatment with purified GST-tagged AvrBsT proteins distinctly inhibited the growth and sporulation of Hp. arabidopsidis on Arabdiopsis cotyledons. In contrast, DEX:avrBsT-OX plants exhibited enhanced susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection. Notably, susceptible cell death and enhanced electrolyte leakage were significantly induced in the Pst-infected leaves of DEX:avrBsT-OX plants. Together, these results suggest that Xcv effector AvrBsT overexpression triggers plant cell death, disease and defense signaling leading to both disease and defense responses to microbial pathogens of different lifestyles. PMID:22678032

Hwang, In Sun; Kim, Nak Hyun; Choi, Du Seok; Hwang, Byung Kook

2012-10-01

259

Characterization of Xanthomonas oryzae-responsive cis-acting element in the promoter of rice race-specific susceptibility gene Xa13.  

PubMed

The rice Xa13 gene, whose promoter harbors a UPT (up-regulated by transcription activator-like [TAL] effector) box, UPT(PthXo1), plays a pivotal role in the race-specific pathogenicity caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) strain PXO99. PXO99 causes rice disease by inducing Xa13. It is unknown, however, whether the UPT(PthXo1) box is the only PXO99-responsive cis-regulating elements in the activation of Xa13 expression. We analyzed the expression of a series of end- and site-truncated and site-mutated Xa13 promoters in rice and the binding of PXO99 protein to the intact, partial, or site-mutated UPT(PthXo1) boxes. In the Xa13 promoter, UPT(PthXo1) box is the only Xoo-responsive cis-acting element that results in PXO99-induced Xa13 expression. The 5'-terminal second, third, and fourth nucleotides of the box are important for bacterial protein binding and gene activation; mutation of any one of these sites abolished PXO99-induced gene expression. Furthermore, the 3'-half of the UPT(PthXo1) box is also required for protein binding and gene activation. These findings will enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism of the interaction of rice and Xoo via UPT boxes and TAL effectors. PMID:21208999

Yuan, Ting; Li, Xianghua; Xiao, Jinghua; Wang, Shiping

2011-03-01

260

Characterization of Novel Virulent Broad-Host-Range Phages of Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is the causal agent of several plant diseases, most notably Pierce's disease of grape and citrus variegated chlorosis. We report the isolation and characterization of the first virulent phages for X. fastidiosa, siphophages Sano and Salvo and podophages Prado and Paz, with a host range that includes Xanthomonas spp. Phages propagated on homologous hosts had observed adsorption rate constants of ?4 × 10?12 ml cell?1 min?1 for X. fastidiosa strain Temecula 1 and ?5 × 10?10 to 7 × 10?10 ml cell?1 min?1 for Xanthomonas strain EC-12. Sano and Salvo exhibit >80% nucleotide identity to each other in aligned regions and are syntenic to phage BcepNazgul. We propose that phage BcepNazgul is the founding member of a novel phage type, to which Sano and Salvo belong. The lysis genes of the Nazgul-like phage type include a gene that encodes an outer membrane lipoprotein endolysin and also spanin gene families that provide insight into the evolution of the lysis pathway for phages of Gram-negative hosts. Prado and Paz, although exhibiting no significant DNA homology to each other, are new members of the phiKMV-like phage type, based on the position of the single-subunit RNA polymerase gene. The four phages are type IV pilus dependent for infection of both X. fastidiosa and Xanthomonas. The phages may be useful as agents for an effective and environmentally responsible strategy for the control of diseases caused by X. fastidiosa. PMID:24214944

Ahern, Stephen J.; Das, Mayukh; Bhowmick, Tushar Suvra; Young, Ry

2014-01-01

261

Involvement of Proline Oxidase (PutA) in Programmed Cell Death of Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas campestris strains have been reported to undergo programmed cell death (PCD) in a protein rich medium. Protein hydrolysates used in media such as nutrient broth comprise of casein digest with abundance of proline and glutamate. In the current study, X. campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) cells displayed PCD when grown in PCD inducing medium (PIM) containing casein tryptic digest. This PCD was also observed in PCD non-inducing carbohydrate rich medium (PNIM) fortified with either proline or proline along with glutamate. Surprisingly, no PCD was noticed in PNIM fortified with glutamate alone. Differential role of proline or glutamate in inducing PCD in Xcc cells growing in PNIM was studied. It was found that an intermediate product of this oxidation was involved in initiation of PCD. Proline oxidase also called as proline utilization A (PutA), catalyzes the two step oxidation of proline to glutamate. Interestingly, higher PutA activity was noticed in cells growing in PIM, and PCD was found to be inhibited by tetrahydro-2-furoic acid, a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme. Further, PCD was abolished in Xcc ?putA strain generated using a pKNOCK suicide plasmid, and restored in Xcc ?putA strain carrying functional PutA in a plasmid vector. Xanthomonas cells growing in PIM also displayed increased generation of ROS, as well as cell filamentation (a probable indication of SOS response). These filamented cells also displayed enhanced caspase-3-like activity during in situ labeling using a fluorescent tagged caspase-3 inhibitor (FITC-DEVD-FMK). The extent of PCD associated markers such as DNA damage, phosphatidylserine externalization and membrane depolarization were found to be significantly enhanced in wild type cells, but drastically reduced in Xcc ?putA cells. These findings thus establish the role of PutA mediated proline oxidation in regulating death in stressed Xanthomonas cells. PMID:24788936

Wadhawan, Surbhi; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

2014-01-01

262

The gpsX gene encoding a glycosyltransferase is important for polysaccharide production and required for full virulence in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri  

PubMed Central

Background The Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac) causes citrus canker, one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. In our previous work, a transposon mutant of Xac strain 306 with an insertion in the XAC3110 locus was isolated in a screening that aimed at identifying genes related to biofilm formation. The XAC3110 locus was named as bdp24 for biofilm-defective phenotype and the mutant was observed to be affected in extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis and cell motility. In this study, we further characterized the bdp24 (XAC3110) gene (designated as gpsX) using genetic complementation assays and expanded the knowledge about the function of the gpsX gene in Xac pathogenesis by investigating the roles of gpsX in EPS and LPS production, cell motility, biofilm formation on host leaves, stress tolerance, growth in planta, and host virulence of the citrus canker bacterium. Results The gpsX gene encodes a putative glycosyltransferase, which is highly conserved in the sequenced strains of Xanthomonas. Mutation of gpsX resulted in a significant reduction of the amount of EPS and loss of two LPS bands visualized on sodium dodecylsulphate- polyacrylamide gels. Biofilm assays revealed that the gpsX mutation affected biofilm formation by Xac on abiotic and biotic surfaces. The gpsX mutant showed delayed bacterial growth and caused reduced development of disease symptoms in susceptible citrus leaves. The gpsX mutant was more sensitive than the wild-type strain to various stresses, including the H2O2 oxidative stress. The mutant also showed attenuated ability in cell motility but not in flagellar formation. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays indicated that mutation of gpsX did not affect the expression of virulence genes such as pthA in Xac strain 306. The affected phenotypes of the gpsX mutant could be complemented to wild-type levels by the intact gpsX gene. Conclusions Taken together, our data confirm that the gpsX gene is involved in EPS and LPS synthesis and biofilm formation in Xac and suggest that the gpsX gene contributes to the adaptation of Xac to the host microenvironments at early stage of infection and thus is required for full virulence on host plants. PMID:22404966

2012-01-01

263

Resistance gene analogs associated with Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most destructive diseases in wheat. Identification of resistance gene analogs (RGAs) may provide candidate genes for cloning of FHB resistance genes and molecular markers for marker-assisted improvement of wheat FHB resistance. To identify potential RGAs associated with FHB resistance in wheat, 18 primer pairs of RGAs were screened between two parents (Ning7840

Pei-Guo Guo; Gui-Hua Bai; Rong-Hua Li; Gregory Shaner; Michael Baum

2006-01-01

264

Bur oak blight, a new disease on Quercus macrocarpa caused by Tubakia iowensis sp. nov.  

E-print Network

Bur oak blight, a new disease on Quercus macrocarpa caused by Tubakia iowensis sp. nov. Thomas C, Ames, Iowa 50011 Abstract: A newly recognized, late-season leaf disease of Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak, Tubakia dryina INTRODUCTION A serious leaf disease of Quercus macrocarpa Michx. (bur oak or mossy

Harrington, Thomas C.

265

Efficacy of different fungicides against Rhizoctonia brown patch and Pythium blight on turfgrass in Italy.  

PubMed

Brown patch, incited by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Pythium blight, caused by Pythium spp. are two of the diseases most frequently observed on turfgrass in high maintenance stands, as on golf courses. In such conditions the control strategies, based on chemicals, are particularly difficult due to the scarcity of fungicides registered for turf in Italy. The results obtained in experimental trials carried out to evaluate the efficacy of chemical and biological products against brown patch and Pythium blight are reported. On mature turfgrass, maintained under fairway conditions, azoxystrobin, and trifoxystrobin, not yet registered on turf, were very effective against brown patch. Tebuconazole, applied in three different formulations, was very effective against R. solani, while Trichoderma spp. and azadiractine did not control the pathogen. In greenhouse conditions on Agrostis stolonifera, in the presence of severe disease incidence, due to artificial inoculation, benalaxyl-M satisfactorily controlled Pythium blight; Trichoderma spp. as well as a commercial formulation of T. harzianum, applied one week before the inoculation, were not effective. Among the fungicides not yet registered for use on turfgrass in Italy, metalaxyl-M + mancozeb was effective against Pythium blight. PMID:15151284

Mocioni, M; Titone, P; Garibaldi, A; Gullino, M L

2003-01-01

266

Cereal Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight and Possibilities of its Improvement through Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review is to summarize recent information on Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals, especially in wheat and barley. Basic information on FHB epidemiology, types of resistance and plant resistance mechanisms is included. Standard methods for the evaluation of the individual types of FHB resistance and the extent of infection are briefly described. Special attention

Klára Kosová

2009-01-01

267

Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations - Selangor, Perak, and Johor states - in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15) containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis. PMID:25288924

Nyaka Ngobisa, A I C; Zainal Abidin, M A; Wong, M Y; Wan Noordin, M W D

2013-03-01

268

Suppression of Monilinia Blight: Strategies for Today and Potential Fungicide Options for Tomorrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungicide efficacy field trials were conducted in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island during the 2009 growing season to address concerns over: (i) the possible tolerance of the fungal pathogen [Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (Reade) Honey] causing Monilinia blight or mummy berry to presently registered fungicides; (ii) increasing scrutiny of specific fungicides by end users; and (iii) the challenge of trying to

David Percival; Eileen Beaton

2012-01-01

269

Combining ability analysis of resistance to Helminthosporium leaf blight in spring wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat breeders in South Asia are attempting to develop wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars resistant to Helminthosporium leaf blight (HLB), which occurs mainly as a complex of spot blotch caused by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito & Kuribayashi) Drechs. ex Dastur, and tan spot caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechs. Information on the combining ability for HLB resistance in wheat cultivars of

R. C. Sharma; S. N. Sah; E. Duveiller

2004-01-01

270

Effect of Trichothecenes Produced by Fusarium graminearum during Fusarium Head Blight Development in Six Cereal Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a complex cereal disease associated with trichothecene production; these mycotoxins are factors of aggressiveness in wheat. Six species (bread and durum wheat, triticale, rye, barley and oats) were submitted to point inoculations with two isogenic strains of Fusarium graminearum; a wild strain (Tri5 +) produced trichothecenes and the mutated strain (Tri5 -) did not. The

François Langevin; François Eudes; André Comeau

2004-01-01

271

Assessment of Dothistroma Needle Blight of Pinus radiata Using Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Dothistroma needle blight is a serious foliar disease in Australian Pinus radiata plantations causing defoliation, decreased productivity and, in extreme cases, tree death. Conventional methods of monitoring forest health such as aerial survey and ground assessments are labor intensive, time consuming, and subjective. Remote sensing provides a synoptic view of the canopy and can indicate areas affected by damaging agents such as pests and pathogens. Hyperspectral airborne remote sensing imagery (CASI-2) was acquired over pine stands in southern New South Wales, Australia which had been ground assessed and ranked on an individual tree basis, according to the extent of Dothistroma needle blight. A series of spectral indices were tested using two different approaches for extracting crown-scale reflectance measurements and relating these to ground-based estimates of severity. Dothistroma needle blight is most severe in the lower crown and statistically significant relationships were found between crown reflectance values and ground estimates using a 'halo' approach (which ignored each tree crown's brightest central pixels). Independent accuracy assessment of the method indicated that the technique could successfully detect three levels of Dothistroma needle blight infection with an accuracy of over 70%. PMID:18943616

Coops, N; Stanford, M; Old, K; Dudzinski, M; Culvenor, D; Stone, C

2003-12-01

272

Antifungal compounds from Melia azedarach leaves for management of Ascochyta rabiei, the cause of chickpea blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity of Melia azedarach L. leaves was investigated against Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., the cause of destructive blight disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Bioassay guided fractionation revealed that the chloroform fraction of the methanolic extract of M. azedarach leaves was highly effective against A. rabiei. Six compounds, namely ?-sitosterol (1), ?-amyrin (2), ursolic acid (3), benzoic acid

Khajista Jabeen; Arshad Javaid; Ejaz Ahmad; Makshoof Athar

2011-01-01

273

Blight et al.: Egg neglect during El Nio 11 Marine Ornithology 38: 1115 (2010)  

E-print Network

so, limited food availability or poor weather can sometimes delay birds in their return to the nest, Sealy 1984, Gaston & Powell 1989, Blight et al. 1999). We used artificial eggs containing miniature artificial eggs containing miniature temperature loggers to quantify nest attendance patterns by breeding

274

Dothistroma (red-band) needle blight of pines and the dothistromin toxin: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Dothistroma (red-band) needle blight has been a problem in plantations of exotic pines in the southern hemisphere for many decades. The prevalence of this disease is currently increasing in the northern hemisphere and is now affecting trees in their native ranges. The fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella pini with its anamorph Dothistroma pini, which is responsible for the disease, produces a

R. E. Bradshaw

2004-01-01

275

Sirococcus shoot blight on Picea spinulosa in Bhutan By T. Kirisits1,4,  

E-print Network

Sirococcus shoot blight on Picea spinulosa in Bhutan By T. Kirisits1,4, *, H. Konrad1, *, E Central Region, Council for RNR Research of Bhutan, Ministry of Agriculture, Royal Government of Bhutan, Bhutan. 4 E-mail: thomas.kirisits@boku.ac.at *These authors contributed equally to this work. Summary

276

Predicting wheat head blight incidence using models based on meteorological factors in Pergamino, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program using the language and statistical procedures available from SAS (Statistical Analysis System) was written in order to identify the most highly correlated meteorological factors with the incidence of wheat head blight (caused byFusarium graminearum Schwabe) at Pergamino, in the humid pampeana region. Applying linear regression techniques, different models from simple up to a maximum of three independent

R. C. Moschini; C. Fortugno

1996-01-01

277

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Tuber Blight Development in Potato Cultivars in Response to  

E-print Network

with different degrees of impact. Since the global re-emergence of late blight in the 1980s (Fry and Goodwin 1997 more severe losses than US-1 (Spielman et al. 1991; Goodwin et al. 1994; Fry and Goodwin 1997a; Fry (Goodwin et al. 1996; Kirk et al. 2001a). US-8 isolates also proved more aggressive on potato tubers

Douches, David S.

278

Control of sheath blight disease in rice by thermostable secondary metabolites of Trichothecium roseum MML003  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study is to investigate the biocontrol mechanisms of Trichothecium roseum MML003 against the rice sheath blight (ShB) pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani as the former exhibited strong antagonistic activity against the latter. It has been found that T. roseum MML003 did not show any hyperparasitic interaction against R. solani. Further, it did not produce siderophores and hydrogen cyanide.

M. Jayaprakashvel; M. Selvakumar; K. Srinivasan; S. Ramesh; N. Mathivanan

2010-01-01

279

Neofusicoccum ribis Associated with Leaf Blight on Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) in Peninsular Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Hevea brasiliensis is a natural source of rubber and an important plantation tree species in Malaysia. Leaf blight disease caused by Fusicoccum substantially reduces the growth and performance of H. brasiliensis. The aim of this study was to use a combination of both morphological characteristics and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic position of the fungus associated with leaf blight disease. Fusicoccum species were isolated from infected leaves collected from plantations at 3 widely separated locations – Selangor, Perak, and Johor states – in Peninsular Malaysia in 2010. All the isolates were identified according to their conidial patterns and DNA sequences generated from internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), the 5.8S rRNA, and an unknown locus (BotF15) containing microsatellite repeats. Based on taxonomic and sequence data, Neofusicoccum ribis was identified as the main cause of leaf blight disease in H. brasiliensis in commercial plantations in Malaysia. A pathogenicity trial on detached leaves further confirmed that N. ribis causes leaf blight disease. N. ribis is an important leaf pathogen, and its detection in Malaysia has important implications for future planting of H. brasiliensis.

Nyaka Ngobisa, A. I. C.; Zainal Abidin, M. A.; Wong, M. Y.; Wan Noordin, M. W. D.

2013-01-01

280

The first research plantings of blight-resistant American chestnut (Castanea  

E-print Network

) in the southeastern United States Stacy L. Clark, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station Scott E. Schlarbaum National Forest Chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) Oriental Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus) Lack and Restoration Occupied up to 50% of basal area in eastern hardwood forest; used for wood, food, tannin, cattle

Gray, Matthew

281

Return of an Old Problem: Fusarium Head Blight of Small Grains  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the ongoing problems associated with Fusarium Head Blight of Small Grains. Specifically, issues with F. graminearum (FG), which has caused most of the recent outbreaks of FHB in the USA and Canada, as well as other countries. Suggested disease control mechanisms are also presented.

Robert W. Stack (North Dakota State Univ;)

2000-06-22

282

Biological Control of Fusarium Head Blight C.A. Stockwell1  

E-print Network

of nutrient agar inoculated with the fungus alone served as the control. When the edges of the fungal colony in the control treatment plates had expanded to the edge of the plate at 6 days after fungal inoculation, measureBiological Control of Fusarium Head Blight C.A. Stockwell1 , G.C. Bergstrom1 , and W.C. da Luz2 1

Rossiter, D G "David"

283

Identification of 17 HrpX-Regulated Proteins Including Two Novel Type III Effectors, XOC_3956 and XOC_1550, in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola  

PubMed Central

The function of some hypothetical proteins, possibly regulated by key hrp regulators, in the pathogenicity of phytopathogenic bacteria remains largely unknown. In the present study, in silicon microarray data demonstrated that the expression of 17 HrpX-regulated protein (Xrp) genes of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), which causes bacterial leaf streak in rice, were either positively or negatively regulated by HrpX or/and HrpG. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that five Xrps possess a putative type III secretion (T3S) signal in the first 50 N-terminal amino acids, six xrp genes contain a PIP-box-like sequence (TTCGB-NX-TTCGB, 9?X?25) in the promoter regions, and two Xrps have both motifs. Twelve Xrps are widely conserved in Xanthomonas spp., whereas four are specific for X. oryzae (Xrp6) or Xoc (Xrp8, Xrp14 and Xrp17). In addition to the regulation by HrpG/HrpX, some of the 17 genes were also modulated by another hrp regulator HrpD6. Mutagenesis of these 17 genes indicated that five Xrps (Xrp1, Xrp2, Xrp5, Xrp8 and Xrp14) were required for full virulence and bacterial growth in planta. Immunoblotting assays and fusion with N-terminally truncated AvrXa10 indicated that Xrp3 and Xrp5 were secreted and translocated into rice cells through the type-III secretion system (T3S), suggesting they are novel T3S effectors. Our results suggest that Xoc exploits an orchestra of proteins that are regulated by HrpG, HrpX and HrpD6, and these proteins facilitate both infection and metabolism. PMID:24675748

Xue, Xiao-bo; Zou, Li-fang; Ma, Wen-xiu; Liu, Zhi-yang; Chen, Gong-you

2014-01-01

284

Regulation of Cell Wall-Bound Invertase in Pepper Leaves by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria Type Three Effectors  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) possess a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into its Solanaceous host plants. These proteins are involved in suppression of plant defense and in reprogramming of plant metabolism to favour bacterial propagation. There is increasing evidence that hexoses contribute to defense responses. They act as substrates for metabolic processes and as metabolic semaphores to regulate gene expression. Especially an increase in the apoplastic hexose-to-sucrose ratio has been suggested to strengthen plant defense. This shift is brought about by the activity of cell wall-bound invertase (cw-Inv). We examined the possibility that Xcv may employ type 3 effector (T3E) proteins to suppress cw-Inv activity during infection. Indeed, pepper leaves infected with a T3SS-deficient Xcv strain showed a higher level of cw-Inv mRNA and enzyme activity relative to Xcv wild type infected leaves. Higher cw-Inv activity was paralleled by an increase in hexoses and mRNA abundance for the pathogenesis-related gene PRQ. These results suggest that Xcv suppresses cw-Inv activity in a T3SS-dependent manner, most likely to prevent sugar-mediated defense signals. To identify Xcv T3Es that regulate cw-Inv activity, a screen was performed with eighteen Xcv strains, each deficient in an individual T3E. Seven Xcv T3E deletion strains caused a significant change in cw-Inv activity compared to Xcv wild type. Among them, Xcv lacking the xopB gene (Xcv ?xopB) caused the most prominent increase in cw-Inv activity. Deletion of xopB increased the mRNA abundance of PRQ in Xcv ?xopB-infected pepper leaves, but not of Pti5 and Acre31, two PAMP-triggered immunity markers. Inducible expression of XopB in transgenic tobacco inhibited Xcv-mediated induction of cw-Inv activity observed in wild type plants and resulted in severe developmental phenotypes. Together, these data suggest that XopB interferes with cw-Inv activity in planta to suppress sugar-enhanced defense responses during Xcv infection. PMID:23272161

Sonnewald, Sophia; Priller, Johannes P. R.; Schuster, Julia; Glickmann, Eric; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Siebig, Stefan; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Sonnewald, Uwe

2012-01-01

285

Spectroscopic properties of rubber oxygenase RoxA from Xanthomonas sp., a new type of dihaem dioxygenase.  

PubMed

Natural rubber [poly-(cis-1,4-isoprene)] is cleaved to 12-oxo-4,8-dimethyltrideca-4,8-diene-1-al (ODTD) by rubber oxygenase A (RoxA) isolated from Xanthomonas sp. RoxA has two c-type haem centres that show two distinct alpha-bands at 549 and 553 nm in the dithionite-reduced state. A well-resolved midpoint potential (E(0)') of -65 mV was determined for one haem by spectrophotometric titrations in the absence of dioxygen with dithionite and ferricyanide as reductant and oxidant, respectively. The midpoint potential of the second haem was not resolvable (E(0)' about -130 to -160 mV). One of the two haems was reduced by NADH (549 nm alpha-band), similar to bacterial dihaem peroxidases. Evidence for an electron transfer between the two haems was provided by slow reduction of the second haem (553 nm alpha-band) upon incubation of the partially reduced enzyme at room temperature. Addition of imidazole or related compounds to RoxA led to UV/vis spectral features similar to those observed for partially reduced RoxA. Notably, reduction of RoxA with dithionite or NADH, or binding of compounds such as imidazole, resulted in a reversible inactivation of the enzyme, unlike dihaem peroxidases. In line with this result, RoxA did not show any peroxidase activity. EPR spectra of RoxA as isolated showed two low-spin Fe(III) haem centres, with apparent g-values of 3.39, 3.09, 2.23, 1.92 and 1.50. A weak signal in the g=6 region resulting from a high-spin Fe(III) haem was also observed with a preparation-dependent intensity that disappeared in the presence of imidazole. Attempts to provide spectroscopic evidence for binding of the natural substrate (polyisoprene latex) to RoxA failed. However, experimental data are presented that RoxA is able to subtract redox equivalents from its substrate or from model compounds. In conclusion, RoxA is a novel type of dihaem dioxygenase with features clearly different from classical cytochrome c peroxidases. PMID:20413555

Schmitt, Georg; Seiffert, Grazyna; Kroneck, Peter M H; Braaz, Reinhard; Jendrossek, Dieter

2010-08-01

286

Genome-Wide Mutagenesis of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri Reveals Novel Genetic Determinants and Regulation Mechanisms of Biofilm Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) causes citrus canker disease, a major threat to citrus production worldwide. Accumulating evidence suggests that the formation of biofilms on citrus leaves plays an important role in the epiphytic survival of this pathogen prior to the development of canker disease. However, the process of Xac biofilm formation is poorly understood. Here, we report a genome-scale

Jinyun Li; Nian Wang

2011-01-01

287

Chemotaxonomic significance of the xanthomonadins, novel brominated aryl-polyene pigments produced by bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell pigments produced by strains of Xanthomonas spp. (including representatives of all five presently recognized taxospecies of these phytopathogenic bacteria) have been isolated as isobutyl esters, purified, and characterized in terms of electronic absorption, chromatographic and co-chromatographic, and mass spectrometric properties. This comparative examination reveals that these bacteria produce brominated aryl-polyene pigments which are given the trivial name “xanthomonadins”.

Mortimer P. Starr; Christie L. Jenkins; Lee B. Bussey; Arthur G. Andrewes

1977-01-01

288

Differentiation in MALDI-TOF MS and FTIR spectra between two pathovars of Xanthomonas oryzae.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) strains are closely related phenotypically and genetically, which make it difficult to differentiate between the two pathovars based on phenotypic and DNA-based methods. In this study, a fast and accurate method was developed based on the differences in MALDI-TOF MS and FTIR spectra between the two pathovars. MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed that 9 and 10 peaks are specific to Xoo and Xoc, respectively, which can be used as biomarkers to identify and differentiate the two closely related pathovars. Furthermore, FTIR analysis showed that there is a significant difference in both the band frequencies and absorption intensity of various functional groups between the two pathovars. In particular, the 6 peaks at 3433, 2867, 1273, 1065, 983 and 951cm(-1) were specific to the Xoo strains, while one peak at 1572cm(-1) was specific to the Xoc strains. Overall, this study gives the first attempt to identify and differentiate the two pathovars of X. oryzae based on mass and FTIR spectra, which will be helpful for the early detection and prevention of the two rice diseases caused by both X. oryzae pathovars. PMID:24996215

Ge, Mengyu; Li, Bin; Wang, Li; Tao, Zhongyun; Mao, Shengfeng; Wang, Yangli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

2014-12-10

289

Discovery and characterization of the major late blight resistance complex in potato: genomic structure, functional diversity, and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato is the most important non-cereal crop in the world. Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In the mid-191h century, P. infestans attacked the European potato fields and this resulted in a widespread famine in Ireland. Late blight remains the No.l constraint to potato production and causes a yearly multi-billion

S. Huang

2005-01-01

290

A simple yeast-based strategy to identify host cellular processes targeted by bacterial effector proteins.  

PubMed

Bacterial effector proteins, which are delivered into the host cell via the type III secretion system, play a key role in the pathogenicity of gram-negative bacteria by modulating various host cellular processes to the benefit of the pathogen. To identify cellular processes targeted by bacterial effectors, we developed a simple strategy that uses an array of yeast deletion strains fitted into a single 96-well plate. The array is unique in that it was optimized computationally such that despite the small number of deletion strains, it covers the majority of genes in the yeast synthetic lethal interaction network. The deletion strains in the array are screened for hypersensitivity to the expression of a bacterial effector of interest. The hypersensitive deletion strains are then analyzed for their synthetic lethal interactions to identify potential targets of the bacterial effector. We describe the identification, using this approach, of a cellular process targeted by the Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopE2. Interestingly, we discover that XopE2 affects the yeast cell wall and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. More generally, the use of a single 96-well plate makes the screening process accessible to any laboratory and facilitates the analysis of a large number of bacterial effectors in a short period of time. It therefore provides a promising platform for studying the functions and cellular targets of bacterial effectors and other virulence proteins. PMID:22110728

Bosis, Eran; Salomon, Dor; Sessa, Guido

2011-01-01

291

A Simple Yeast-Based Strategy to Identify Host Cellular Processes Targeted by Bacterial Effector Proteins  

PubMed Central

Bacterial effector proteins, which are delivered into the host cell via the type III secretion system, play a key role in the pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria by modulating various host cellular processes to the benefit of the pathogen. To identify cellular processes targeted by bacterial effectors, we developed a simple strategy that uses an array of yeast deletion strains fitted into a single 96-well plate. The array is unique in that it was optimized computationally such that despite the small number of deletion strains, it covers the majority of genes in the yeast synthetic lethal interaction network. The deletion strains in the array are screened for hypersensitivity to the expression of a bacterial effector of interest. The hypersensitive deletion strains are then analyzed for their synthetic lethal interactions to identify potential targets of the bacterial effector. We describe the identification, using this approach, of a cellular process targeted by the Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopE2. Interestingly, we discover that XopE2 affects the yeast cell wall and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. More generally, the use of a single 96-well plate makes the screening process accessible to any laboratory and facilitates the analysis of a large number of bacterial effectors in a short period of time. It therefore provides a promising platform for studying the functions and cellular targets of bacterial effectors and other virulence proteins. PMID:22110728

Sessa, Guido

2011-01-01

292

Bacterial vaginosis.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common of the vaginitides affecting women of reproductive age. It appears to be due to an alteration in the vaginal ecology by which Lactobacillus spp., the predominant organisms in the healthy vagina, are replaced by a mixed flora including Prevotella bivia, Prevotella disiens, Porphyromonas spp., Mobiluncus spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. All of these organisms except Mobiluncus spp. are also members of the endogenous vaginal flora. While evidence from treatment trials does not support the notion that BV is sexually transmitted, recent studies have shown an increased risk associated with multiple sexual partners. It has also been suggested that the pathogenesis of BV may be similar to that of urinary tract infections, with the rectum serving as a reservoir for some BV-associated flora. The organisms associated with BV have also been recognized as agents of female upper genital tract infection, including pelvic inflammatory disease, and the syndrome BV has been associated with adverse outcome of pregnancy, including premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and fetal loss; postpartum endometritis; cuff cellulitis; and urinary tract infections. The mechanisms by which the BV-associated flora causes the signs of BV are not well understood, but a role for H2O2-producing Lactobacillus spp. in protecting against colonization by catalase-negative anaerobic bacteria has been recognized. These and other aspects of BV are reviewed. PMID:1747864

Spiegel, C A

1991-01-01

293

[Effect of methyljasmononate on induction of late-blight resistance of potatoes using arachidonic acid].  

PubMed

Methyl ester of jasmonic acid (Me-JA) influences the induced resistance of potato tubers to late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans. Treatment of potato tuber disk surface with Me-JA solution or exposure to an atmosphere containing Me-JA vapors (10(-6)-10(-5) M) increased the rate of rishitin biosynthesis induced by arachidonic acid or P. infestans. Methyl jasmonate increased the sensitivity of potato tissue to arachidonic acid. As a result, in the presence of Me-JA, the protective properties of arachidonic acid were observed at lower concentrations than in the absence of Me-JA. In addition, Me-JA reduced the adverse effects of lipoxygenase inhibitors (salicylhydroxamic acid and esculetin) on the induced resistance of potato tubers to late blight. Therefore, the synergistic interaction of Me-JA and biogenic elicitors can be regarded as part of a mechanism of potato defense against diseases. PMID:10780012

Il'inskaia, L I; Chalenko, G I; Perekhod, E A; Gerasimova, N G; Ozeretskovskaia, O L

2000-01-01

294

Immunoelectron microscopic demonstration of an esterase on the outer membrane of Xanthomonas maltophilia.  

PubMed Central

Xanthomonas maltophilia (later synonym of Pseudomonas maltophilia), an ubiquitous species, is known to show proteolytic and lipolytic activities. A cell-bound esterase which hydrolyzes beta-naphthyl acetate during growth has been extracted from a strain isolated from soil. Because of its strongly hydrophobic character, the enzyme could be efficiently solubilized only by Triton X-100. This nonionic detergent must be added in polyacrylamide gels to permit migration. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against the Triton-soluble esterase complex were used to localize the enzyme at the ultrastructural level. Electron microscopy of cell sections of this organism and immunogold labeling demonstrated that the enzyme was located on the outer membrane. Such an envelope-bound esterase may produce assimilable substrates for X. maltophilia which can grow in various environments. Images PMID:2495761

Debette, J; Prensier, G

1989-01-01

295

Backcross reciprocal monosomic analysis of Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab) caused by Fusarium spp. is a widespread disease of cereals causing yield and quality losses and contaminating cereal products with mycotoxins. The\\u000a breeding of resistant varieties is the method of choice for controlling the disease. Unfortunately, the genetic basis of scab\\u000a resistance is still poorly understood. We present the results of a back-cross reciprocal

H. Buerstmayr; M. Lemmens; G. Fedak; P. Ruckenbauer

1999-01-01

296

Management of Leaf Blight ( Bipolaris sorokiniana ) Disease of Wheat with Cultural Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted at agronomy farm of Agriculture research Station, Tarahara, Nepal for three consecutive years viz 2000\\/2001,2001\\/2002, and 2002\\/2003 to evaluate the effects of different cultural practices on leaf blight diseases of wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana under terai conditions. The experiment was conducted in factorial Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. Four factors, two wheat verities

Etienne Duveiller

2009-01-01

297

Inheritance of resistance to Fusarium head blight in three European winter wheat populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance is of particular importance in wheat breeding programmes due to the detrimental effects\\u000a of this fungal disease on human and animal health, yield and grain quality. Segregation for FHB resistance in three European\\u000a winter wheat populations enabled the identification of resistance loci in well-adapted germplasm. Populations obtained from\\u000a crosses of resistant cultivars Apache, History and

Josef Holzapfel; Hans-Henning Voss; Thomas Miedaner; Viktor Korzun; Jennifer Häberle; Günther Schweizer; Volker Mohler; Gerhard Zimmermann; Lorenz Hartl

2008-01-01

298

DNA markers for Fusarium head blight resistance QTLs in two wheat populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is necessary to reduce the wheat grain yield and quality losses caused by this disease. Development of resistant cultivars\\u000a has been slowed by poorly adapted and incomplete resistance sources and confounding environmental effects that make screening\\u000a of germplasm difficult. DNA markers for FHB resistance QTLs have been identified and

J. A. Anderson; R. W. Stack; S. Liu; B. L. Waldron; A. D. Fjeld; C. Coyne; B. Moreno-Sevilla; J. Mitchell Fetch; Q. J. Song; P. B. Cregan; R. C. Frohberg

2001-01-01

299

Overexpression of defense response genes in transgenic wheat enhances resistance to Fusarium head blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat, caused by Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium species, is a major disease problem for wheat production worldwide. To combat this problem, large-scale\\u000a breeding efforts have been established. Although progress has been made through standard breeding approaches, the level of\\u000a resistance attained is insufficient to withstand epidemic conditions. Genetic engineering provides an alternative approach\\u000a to

Caroline A. Mackintosh; Janet Lewis; Lorien E. Radmer; Sanghyun Shin; Shane J. Heinen; Lisa A. Smith; Meagen N. Wyckoff; Ruth Dill-Macky; Conrad K. Evans; Sasha Kravchenko; Gerald D. Baldridge; Richard J. Zeyen; Gary J. Muehlbauer

2007-01-01

300

Impacts of climate change on wheat anthesis and fusarium ear blight in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change will affect both growth of agricultural crops and diseases that attack them but there has been little work\\u000a to study how its impacts on crop growth influence impacts on disease epidemics. This paper investigates how impacts of climate\\u000a change on wheat anthesis date will influence impacts on fusarium ear blight in UK mainland arable areas. A wheat growth

James W. Madgwick; Jon S. West; Rodger P. White; Mikhail A. Semenov; James A. Townsend; Judith A. Turner; Bruce D. L. Fitt

2011-01-01

301

Transgenic Potatoes Expressing a Novel Cationic Peptide are Resistant to Late Blight and Pink Rot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato is the world’s largest non-cereal crop. Potato late blight is a pandemic, foliar wasting potato disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, which has become highly virulent, fungicide resistant, and widely disseminated. Similarly, fungicide resistant isolates\\u000a of Phytophthora erythroseptica, which causes pink rot, have also become an economic scourge of potato tubers. Thus, an alternate, cost effective strategy\\u000a for disease control

Milan Osusky; Lubica Osuska; Robert E. Hancock; William W. Kay; Santosh Misra

2004-01-01

302

[Erwinia amylovora--the fire blight pathogen of trees in Ukraine].  

PubMed

Niduses of fire blight of fruit and ornamental trees have been found in the Kyiv and Vinnitsa regions of Ukraine. Pathogen Erwinia amylovora was isolated between April and October. The pathogen was often accompanied by bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Artificial infection with a mixture of bacteria E. amylovora and P. syringae pv. syringae accelerates and enhances the disease process in the laboratory. PMID:25199342

Iakovleva, L M; Moroz, S N; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E; Gvozdiak, R I; Patyka, V F

2014-01-01

303

Dissection of the factors affecting development-controlled and race-specific disease resistance conferred by leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase-type R genes in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development-controlled resistance and resistance specificity frequently restrict the application of a disease resistance (R) gene in crop breeding programs. Xa3\\/Xa26 and Xa21, encoding leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-kinase type plasma membrane proteins, mediate race-specific resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes bacterial blight, one of the most devastating rice diseases. Plants carrying Xa3\\/Xa26 and plants carrying Xa21 have different resistance

Jing Zhao; Jing Fu; Xianghua Li; Caiguo Xu; Shiping Wang

2009-01-01

304

8Hydroxy(+)- ?-cadinene is a precursor to hemigossypol in Gossypium hirsutum  

Microsoft Academic Search

[3H](+)-?-Cadinene and its 8-hydroxy derivative, prepared from (1RS)-[1-3H]FPP by the action of one and two recombinant enzymes, respectively, were infiltrated into cotyledons of bacterial blight-resistant cotton plants as they biosynthesized sesquiterpene phytoalexins in response to infection by Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum. Following both treatments, tritium appeared in the HPLC fraction that contained hemigossypol. Hemigossypol was isolated from the cotyledons that

Yan-Hong Wang; Guadalupe Davila-Huerta; Margaret Essenberg

2003-01-01

305

Use of multispectral radiometry for assessment of rhizoctonia blight in creeping bentgrass.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The ability to identify diseases early and quantify severity accurately is crucial in plant disease assessment and management. This study was conducted to assess changes in the spectral reflectance of sunlight from plots of creeping bentgrass during infection by Rhizoctonia solani, the cause of Rhizoctonia blight, and to evaluate multispectral radiometry as a tool to quantify Rhizoctonia blight severity. After inoculation of 6-year-old creeping bentgrass turf with R. solani anastomosis group 2-2, reflectance of sunlight from the foliar canopy was measured at light wavelengths of 460 nm (blue) to 810 nm (near infrared [NIR]), at 50-nm intervals. Visual estimates of disease severity and percentage of canopy reflectance were made daily throughout each of three epidemics of Rhizoctonia blight from the onset of visible symptoms until maximum disease severity was reached. In each experiment, linear regression analysis revealed a significant reduction in the percentage of NIR (760 and 810 nm) reflectance as disease severity increased. However, in the majority of analyses, regression models explained <50% of the variability between components. Multispectrum radiometry appears to function best when used to assess differences in disease severity at discrete points in time rather than over an entire epidemic. PMID:18944925

Raikes, C; Burpee, L L

1998-05-01

306

Rewiring Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade by Positive Feedback Confers Potato Blight Resistance1  

PubMed Central

Late blight, caused by the notorious pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and during the 1840s caused the Irish potato famine and over one million fatalities. Currently, grown potato cultivars lack adequate blight tolerance. Earlier cultivars bred for resistance used disease resistance genes that confer immunity only to some strains of the pathogen harboring corresponding avirulence gene. Specific resistance gene-mediated immunity and chemical controls are rapidly overcome in the field when new pathogen races arise through mutation, recombination, or migration from elsewhere. A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays a pivotal role in plant innate immunity. Here we show that the transgenic potato plants that carry a constitutively active form of MAPK kinase driven by a pathogen-inducible promoter of potato showed high resistance to early blight pathogen Alternaria solani as well as P. infestans. The pathogen attack provoked defense-related MAPK activation followed by induction of NADPH oxidase gene expression, which is implicated in reactive oxygen species production, and resulted in hypersensitive response-like phenotype. We propose that enhancing disease resistance through altered regulation of plant defense mechanisms should be more durable and publicly acceptable than engineering overexpression of antimicrobial proteins. PMID:16407438

Yamamizo, Chihiro; Kuchimura, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Akira; Katou, Shinpei; Kawakita, Kazuhito; Jones, Jonathan D.G.; Doke, Noriyuki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

2006-01-01

307

Comparative proteomic analysis reveals that T3SS, Tfp, and xanthan gum are key factors in initial stages of Citrus sinensis infection by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.  

PubMed

The bacteria Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus canker. The disease symptoms are characterized by localized host cell hyperplasia followed by tissue necrosis at the infected area. An arsenal of bacterial pathogenicity- and virulence-related proteins is expressed to ensure a successful infection process. At the post-genomic stage of Xac, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the proteins that are displayed differentially over time when the pathogen attacks the host plant. Protein extracts were prepared from infectious Xac grown in inducing medium (XAM1) for 24 h or from host citrus plants for 3 or 5 days after infection, detached times to evaluate the adaptation and virulence of the pathogen. The protein extracts were proteolyzed, and the peptides derived from tryptic digestion were investigated using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Changes in the protein expression profile were compared with the Xac genome and the proteome recently described under non-infectious conditions. An analysis of the proteome of Xac under infectious conditions revealed proteins directly involved in virulence such as the type III secretion system (T3SS) and effector proteins (T3SS-e), the type IV pilus (Tfp), and xanthan gum biosynthesis. Moreover, four new mutants related to proteins detected in the proteome and with different functions exhibited reduced virulence relative to the wild-type proteins. The results of the proteome analysis of infectious Xac define the processes of adaptation to the host and demonstrate the induction of the virulence factors of Xac involved in plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:24676796

Facincani, Agda P; Moreira, Leandro M; Soares, Márcia R; Ferreira, Cristiano B; Ferreira, Rafael M; Ferro, Maria I T; Ferro, Jesus A; Gozzo, Fabio C; de Oliveira, Julio C F

2014-03-01

308

Analysis of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola population in Mali and Burkina Faso reveals a high level of genetic and pathogenic diversity.  

PubMed

Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola was first reported in Africa in the 1980s. Recently, a substantial reemergence of this disease was observed in West Africa. Samples were collected at various sites in five and three different rice-growing regions of Burkina Faso and Mali, respectively. Sixty-seven X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains were isolated from cultivated and wild rice varieties and from weeds showing BLS symptoms. X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains were evaluated for virulence on rice and showed high variation in lesion length on a susceptible cultivar. X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains were further characterized by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using six housekeeping genes. Inferred dendrograms clearly indicated different groups among X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using the transcriptional activator like effector avrXa7 as probe resulted in the identification of 18 haplotypes. Polymerase chain reaction-based analyses of two conserved type III effector (T3E) genes (xopAJ and xopW) differentiated the strains into distinct groups, with xopAJ not detected in most African X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. XopAJ functionality was confirmed by leaf infiltration on 'Kitaake' rice Rxo1 lines. Sequence analysis of xopW revealed four groups among X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. Distribution of 43 T3E genes shows variation in a subset of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains. Together, our results show that African X. oryzae pv. oryzicola strains are diverse and rapidly evolving, with a group endemic to Africa and another one that may have evolved from an Asian strain. PMID:24199713

Wonni, I; Cottyn, B; Detemmerman, L; Dao, S; Ouedraogo, L; Sarra, S; Tekete, C; Poussier, S; Corral, R; Triplett, L; Koita, O; Koebnik, R; Leach, J; Szurek, B; Maes, M; Verdier, V

2014-05-01

309

Pathological Variations Within Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae Support Its Separation Into Three Distinct Pathovars that Can Be Distinguished by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Bacterial black spot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae, is an important disease of mango (Mangifera indica). Several other plant genera of the family Anacardiaceae were described as host species for xanthomonads. We studied pathological variations among strains in a worldwide collection from several Anacardiaceae genera. Strains were classified into three pathogenicity groups. Group I strains (from the Old World) multiplied markedly in leaf tissue of mango and cashew (Anacardium occidentale). Group II strains (from Brazil) multiplied markedly in cashew leaf tissue, but not in mango. Moreover, mango leaves inoculated with group I and group II strains exhibited lesions with different morphologies, consistent with variations in symptomology previously reported on mango under field conditions. Group I strains produced black, raised lesions, consistent with the original description of the pathovar, whereas group II strains produced brownish, flat lesions. Group III strains produced a unique syndrome on ambarella (Spondias dulcis) and mombin (Spondias mombin). Based on evolutionary genome divergence derived from amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data, the three groups were genetically distinct and were related to groups 9.5, 9.6, and 9.4 of X. axonopodis identified by Rademaker, respectively. As each group was characterized by unique symptomology and/or host range, we propose that X. campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae be split into three pathovars of X. axonopodis: X. axonopodis pv. mangiferaeindicae, X. axonopodis pv. anacardii, and X. axonopodis pv. spondiae. Within pv. mangiferaeindicae sensu novo, AFLP data were consistent with that previously published for restriction fragment length polymorphism groups and suggested long-distance movement of the pathogen, likely through propagative material. PMID:18943717

Ah-You, N; Gagnevin, L; Chiroleu, F; Jouen, E; Neto, J Rodrigues; Pruvost, O

2007-12-01

310

Transcriptional analysis of the tomato resistance response triggered by recognition of the Xanthomonas type III effector AvrXv3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The type III effector AvrXv3 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) elicits a resistance response in the tomato line Hawaii 7981. To test whether similar genes participate in responses triggered\\u000a by recognition of different avirulence proteins, we examined the effect of AvrXv3 expression on the plant transcriptome as\\u000a compared to that of other avirulence proteins. By microarray analysis we monitored

Vasudevan Balaji; Avi Gibly; Paul Debbie; Guido Sessa

2007-01-01

311

Effects of yeast extract and glucose on xanthan production and cell growth in batch culture of Xanthomonas campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although available kinetic data provide a useful insight into the effects of medium composition on xanthan production by\\u000a Xanthomonas campestris, they cannot account for the synergetic effects of carbon (glucose) and nitrogen (yeast extract) substrates on cell growth\\u000a and xanthan production. In this work, we studied the effects of the glucose\\/yeast-extract ratio (G\\/YE) in the medium on cell\\u000a growth and

Yang-Ming Lo; Shang-Tian Yang; David B. Min

1997-01-01

312

Interactive Effects of pH and Temperature on Cell Growth and Polymer Production by Xanthomonas campestris  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental statistical design was used to determine pH and temperature optima for growth and polymer production by Xanthomonas campestris. A pH between 6·0-7·5 and a temperature between 25–27°C were optimal for growth. While for xanthan production and broth consistency index, the pH and temperature optimal ranges were between 7·0-8·0 and 25–30°C, respectively. At these optimal ranges a cell concentration

M. Eugénia Esgalhado; J. Carlos Roseiro; M. T. Amaral Collaço

1995-01-01

313

Expression of Xylella fastidiosa RpfF in Citrus Disrupts Signaling in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Thereby Its Virulence.  

PubMed

Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, that cause citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) and citrus canker diseases, respectively, utilize diffusible signal factor (DSF) for quorum sensing. DSF, produced by RpfF, are similar fatty acids in both organisms, although a different set of genes is regulated by DSF in each species. Because of this similarity, Xylella fastidiosa DSF might be recognized and affect the biology of Xanthomonas citri. Therefore, transgenic Citrus sinensis and Carrizo citrange plants overexpressing the Xylella fastidiosa rpfF were inoculated with Xanthomonas citri and changes in symptoms of citrus canker were observed. X. citri biofilms formed only at wound sites on transgenic leaves and were thicker; however, bacteria were unable to break through the tissue and form pustules elsewhere. Although abundant growth of X. citri occurred at wound sites on inoculated transgenic leaves, little growth was observed on unwounded tissue. Genes in the DFS-responsive core in X. citri were downregulated in bacteria isolated from transgenic leaves. DSF-dependent expression of engA was suppressed in cells exposed to xylem sap from transgenic plants. Thus, altered symptom development appears to be due to reduced expression of virulence genes because of the presence of antagonists of DSF signaling in X. citri in rpfF-expressing plants. PMID:25099341

Caserta, R; Picchi, S C; Takita, M A; Tomaz, J P; Pereira, W E L; Machado, M A; Ionescu, M; Lindow, S; De Souza, A A

2014-11-01

314

Red band needle blight is an economically important disease affecting a number of coniferous trees, in particular pines. The disease has a world-wide distribution but until recently it was mainly of concern in the southern  

E-print Network

Red band needle blight is an economically important disease affecting a number of coniferous trees septosporum. Red band needle blight causes premature needle defoliation which results in the loss of timber susceptible species in future rotations. Red band needle blight of conifers in Britain Research Note Anna

315

The effects of host diversity and other management components on epidemics of potato late blight in the humid highland tropics.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A field study at three highland sites near Quito, Ecuador, was conducted to determine whether host-diversity effects on potato late blight would be as important as recently found in studies conducted in temperate areas. We compared three potato mixtures and use of mixtures in combination with different planting densities and two fungicide regimes. Treatment comparisons were made by absolute and relative measures of host-diversity effects and incorporating a truncated area under the disease progress curve as a means of standardizing comparisons across sites. Potato-faba intercrops consisting of only 10% potato provided an estimate of the effects of dilution of susceptible host tissue. Host-diversity effects were very different across study sites, with a large host-diversity effect for reduced disease only at the site most distant from commercial potato production. Planting density had little influence on host-diversity effects or on late blight in single-genotype stands. Fungicide use in combination with potato mixtures enhanced a host-diversity effect for reduced late blight. Potato-faba intercrops produced only a small decrease in potato late blight. Effects of host diversity on yield were variable, with the greatest increase in yield for mixtures treated with fungicides at the site most distant from commercial potato production. The effects of host diversity on late blight severity may be less consistent in the tropical highlands than in the temperate zone, but can contribute to integrated disease management. PMID:18944127

Garrett, K A; Nelson, R J; Mundt, C C; Chacón, G; Jaramillo, R E; Forbes, G A

2001-10-01

316

A Statistical Comparison of the Blossom Blight Forecasts of MARYBLYT and Cougarblight with Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve Analysis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Blossom blight forecasting is an important aspect of fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, management for both apple and pear. A comparison of the forecast accuracy of two common fire blight forecasters, MARYBLYT and Cougarblight, was performed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and 243 data sets. The rain threshold of Cougarblight was analyzed as a separate model termed Cougarblight and rain. Data were used as a whole and then grouped into geographic regions and cultivar susceptibilities. Frequency distributions of cases and controls, orchards or regions (depending on the data set), with and without observed disease, respectively, in all data sets overlapped. MARYBLYT, Cougarblight, and Cougarblight and rain all predicted blossom blight infection better than chance (P = 0.05). It was found that the blossom blight forecasters performed equivalently in the geographic regions of the east and west coasts of North America and moderately susceptible cultivars based on the 95% confidence intervals and pairwise contrasts of the area under the ROC curve. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between the forecasts of Cougarblight and MARYBLYT were found with pairwise contrasts in the England and very susceptible cultivar data sets. Youden's index was used to determine the optimal cutpoint of both forecasters. The greatest sensitivity and specificity for MARYBLYT coincided with the use of the highest risk threshold for predictions of infection; with Cougarblight, there was no clear single risk threshold across all data sets. PMID:18944181

Dewdney, M M; Biggs, A R; Turechek, W W

2007-09-01

317

Assessment of the SocioEconomic Impact of Late Blight and State-of-the-Art Management in European Organic Potato Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease affecting organic (and conventional) potato production. Under suitable environmental conditions the disease can spread rapidly and it can cause complete crop loss. The extent of damage due to late blight depends on several factors: in organic production systems these factors include climate, choice of variety, soil management

L. Tamm; A. B. Smit; M. Hospers; S. R. M. Janssens; J. S. Buurma; J. P. Molgaard; P. E. Laerke; H. H. Hansen; A. Hermans; L. Bodker; C. Bertrand; J. Lambion; M. R. Finckh; C. Schuler; E. T. Lammerts van Bueren; T. Ruissen; B. J. Nielsen; S. Solberg; B. Speiser; M. S. Wolfe; S. Philips; S. J. Wilcoxon; C. Leifert

2004-01-01

318

Influence of genetic background, races of the pathogen and plant parts on evaluation of resistance to bacterial blight of cotton  

E-print Network

being recessive. Bird and Blank (6) and Green and Gt inkerhoff (13), using (atra-~gnus lun hirsutum L. crosses, reported that Stoneville 20 resistance was controlled by a major recessive gene, but that minor genes greatly influenced the level... of resistance obtained. Knight (26) reported that in a ~nose iu barbadense L. backg oned Stoneullle BD resistance was due to a major dominant gene, which he designated BT. Knight also pointed out that Stoneville 20 carried favorable minor genes...

Pool, William Larry

2012-06-07

319

Discovery of plant phenolic compounds that act as type III secretion system inhibitors or inducers of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.  

PubMed

Erwinia amylovora causes a devastating disease called fire blight in rosaceous plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is one of the important virulence factors utilized by E. amylovora in order to successfully infect its hosts. By using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct combined with a high-throughput flow cytometry assay, a library of phenolic compounds and their derivatives was studied for their ability to alter the expression of the T3SS. Based on the effectiveness of the compounds on the expression of the T3SS pilus, the T3SS inhibitors 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid (TMCA) and benzoic acid (BA) and one T3SS inducer, trans-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethenylsulfonate (EHPES), were chosen for further study. Both the T3SS inhibitors (TMCA and BA) and the T3SS inducer (EHPES) were found to alter the expression of T3SS through the HrpS-HrpL pathway. Additionally, TMCA altered T3SS expression through the rsmBEa-RsmAEa system. Finally, we found that TMCA and BA weakened the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco by suppressing the T3SS of E. amylovora. In our study, we identified phenolic compounds that specifically targeted the T3SS. The T3SS inhibitor may offer an alternative approach to antimicrobial therapy by targeting virulence factors of bacterial pathogens. PMID:23770912

Khokhani, Devanshi; Zhang, Chengfang; Li, Yan; Wang, Qi; Zeng, Quan; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Hutchins, William; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Chen, Xin; Yang, Ching-Hong

2013-09-01

320

Discovery of Plant Phenolic Compounds That Act as Type III Secretion System Inhibitors or Inducers of the Fire Blight Pathogen, Erwinia amylovora  

PubMed Central

Erwinia amylovora causes a devastating disease called fire blight in rosaceous plants. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is one of the important virulence factors utilized by E. amylovora in order to successfully infect its hosts. By using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter construct combined with a high-throughput flow cytometry assay, a library of phenolic compounds and their derivatives was studied for their ability to alter the expression of the T3SS. Based on the effectiveness of the compounds on the expression of the T3SS pilus, the T3SS inhibitors 4-methoxy-cinnamic acid (TMCA) and benzoic acid (BA) and one T3SS inducer, trans-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethenylsulfonate (EHPES), were chosen for further study. Both the T3SS inhibitors (TMCA and BA) and the T3SS inducer (EHPES) were found to alter the expression of T3SS through the HrpS-HrpL pathway. Additionally, TMCA altered T3SS expression through the rsmBEa-RsmAEa system. Finally, we found that TMCA and BA weakened the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco by suppressing the T3SS of E. amylovora. In our study, we identified phenolic compounds that specifically targeted the T3SS. The T3SS inhibitor may offer an alternative approach to antimicrobial therapy by targeting virulence factors of bacterial pathogens. PMID:23770912

Khokhani, Devanshi; Zhang, Chengfang; Li, Yan; Wang, Qi; Zeng, Quan; Yamazaki, Akihiro; Hutchins, William; Zhou, Shan-Shan

2013-01-01

321

Rapid and sensitive detection of Citrus Bacterial Canker by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with simple visual evaluation methods  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) is a major, highly contagious disease of citrus plants present in many countries in Asia, Africa and America, but not in the Mediterranean area. There are three types of Citrus Bacterial Canker, named A, B, and C that have different genotypes and posses variation in host range within citrus species. The causative agent for type A CBC is Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, while Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii, strain B causes type B CBC and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain C causes CBC type C. The early and accurate identification of those bacteria is essential for the protection of the citrus industry. Detection methods based on bacterial isolation, antibodies or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed previously; however, these approaches may be time consuming, laborious and, in the case of PCR, it requires expensive laboratory equipment. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which is a novel isothermal DNA amplification technique, is sensitive, specific, fast and requires no specialized laboratory equipment. Results A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the diagnosis of Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC-LAMP) was developed and evaluated. DNA samples were obtained from infected plants or cultured bacteria. A typical ladder-like pattern on gel electrophoresis was observed in all positive samples in contrast to the negative controls. In addition, amplification products were detected by visual inspection using SYBRGreen and using a lateral flow dipstick, eliminating the need for gel electrophoresis. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were evaluated in different conditions and using several sample sources which included purified DNA, bacterium culture and infected plant tissue. The sensitivity of the CBC-LAMP was 10 fg of pure Xcc DNA, 5 CFU in culture samples and 18 CFU in samples of infected plant tissue. No cross reaction was observed with DNA of other phytopathogenic bacteria. The assay was capable of detecting CBC-causing strains from several geographical origins and pathotypes. Conclusions The CBC-LAMP technique is a simple, fast, sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of Citrus Bacterial Canker. This method can be useful in the phytosanitary programs of the citrus industry worldwide. PMID:20565886

2010-01-01

322

Small RNA sX13: A Multifaceted Regulator of Virulence in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

Small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) are ubiquitous posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. Using the model plant-pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), we investigated the highly expressed and conserved sRNA sX13 in detail. Deletion of sX13 impinged on Xcv virulence and the expression of genes encoding components and substrates of the Hrp type III secretion (T3S) system. qRT-PCR analyses revealed that sX13 promotes mRNA accumulation of HrpX, a key regulator of the T3S system, whereas the mRNA level of the master regulator HrpG was unaffected. Complementation studies suggest that sX13 acts upstream of HrpG. Microarray analyses identified 63 sX13-regulated genes, which are involved in signal transduction, motility, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation and virulence. Structure analyses of in vitro transcribed sX13 revealed a structure with three stable stems and three apical C-rich loops. A computational search for putative regulatory motifs revealed that sX13-repressed mRNAs predominantly harbor G-rich motifs in proximity of translation start sites. Mutation of sX13 loops differentially affected Xcv virulence and the mRNA abundance of putative targets. Using a GFP-based reporter system, we demonstrated that sX13-mediated repression of protein synthesis requires both the C-rich motifs in sX13 and G-rich motifs in potential target mRNAs. Although the RNA-binding protein Hfq was dispensable for sX13 activity, the hfq mRNA and Hfq::GFP abundance were negatively regulated by sX13. In addition, we found that G-rich motifs in sX13-repressed mRNAs can serve as translational enhancers and are located at the ribosome-binding site in 5% of all protein-coding Xcv genes. Our study revealed that sX13 represents a novel class of virulence regulators and provides insights into sRNA-mediated modulation of adaptive processes in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas. PMID:24068933

Schmidtke, Cornelius; Abendroth, Ulrike; Brock, Juliane; Serrania, Javier; Becker, Anke; Bonas, Ulla

2013-01-01

323

The fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora requires the rpoN gene for pathogenicity in apple.  

PubMed

RpoN is a ?(54) factor regulating essential virulence gene expression in several plant pathogenic bacteria, including Pseudomonas syringae and Pectobacterium carotovorum. In this study, we found that mutation of rpoN in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora caused a nonpathogenic phenotype. The E.?amylovora rpoN Tn5 transposon mutant rpoN1250::Tn5 did not cause fire blight disease symptoms on shoots of mature apple trees. In detached immature apple fruits, the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant failed to cause fire blight disease symptoms and grew to population levels 12 orders of magnitude lower than the wild-type. In addition, the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant failed to elicit a hypersensitive response when infiltrated into nonhost tobacco plant leaves, and rpoN1250::Tn5 cells failed to express HrpN protein when grown in hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity)-inducing liquid medium. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type rpoN gene complemented all the rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant phenotypes tested. The rpoN1250::Tn5 mutant was prototrophic on minimal solid and liquid media, indicating that the rpoN1250::Tn5 nonpathogenic phenotype was not caused by a defect in basic metabolism or growth. This study provides clear genetic evidence that rpoN is an essential virulence gene of E.?amylovora, suggesting that rpoN has the same function in E.?amylovora as in P.?syringae and Pe.?carotovorum. PMID:23721085

Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Sinn, Judith P; Pfeufer, Emily E; Halbrendt, Noemi O; McNellis, Timothy W

2013-10-01

324

Evolution of bacterial genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines evolution of bacterial genomes with an emphasis on RNA based life, the transition to functional DNA and small evolving genomes (possibly plasmids) that led to larger, functional bacterial genomes.

J. T. Trevors

1997-01-01

325

Root treatment with rhizobacteria antagonistic to Phytophthora blight affects anthracnose occurrence, ripening, and yield of pepper fruit in the plastic house and field.  

PubMed

We previously selected rhizobacterial strains CCR04, CCR80, GSE09, ISE13, and ISE14, which were antagonistic to Phytophthora blight of pepper. In this study, we investigated the effects of root treatment of rhizobacteria on anthracnose occurrence, ripening, and yield of pepper fruit in the plastic house and field in 2008 and 2009. We also examined the effects of volatiles produced by the strains on fruit ripening and on mycelial growth and spore development of Colletotrichum acutatum and Phytophthora capsici in the laboratory, identifying the volatile compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the house tests, all strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose incidence on pepper fruit; strains GSE09 and ISE14 consistently produced higher numbers of pepper fruit or increased the fresh weight of red fruit more than the controls in both years. In the field tests, all strains significantly (P < 0.05) reduced anthracnose occurrence on either green or red pepper fruit; strain ISE14 consistently produced higher numbers or increased fresh weights of red fruit more than the controls in both years. In the laboratory tests, volatiles produced by strains GSE09 and ISE13 only stimulated maturation of pepper fruit from green (unripe) to red (ripe) fruit; the volatiles of certain strains inhibited the growth and development of C. acutatum and P. capsici. On the other hand, GC-MS analysis of volatiles of strains GSE09 and ISE13 revealed 17 distinct compounds in both strains, including decane, dodecane, 1,3-di-tert-butylbenzene, tetradecane, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, and hexadecane. Among these compounds, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol only stimulated fruit ripening and inhibited growth and development of the pathogens. Taken together, strains GSE09 and ISE14 effectively reduced anthracnose occurrence and stimulated pepper fruit ripening and yield, possibly via bacterial volatiles. Therefore, these two strains could be potential agents for controlling Phytophthora blight and anthracnose, and for increasing fruit ripening and yield. To our knowledge, this is the first report of volatiles such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol produced by rhizobacteria being related to both fruit ripening and pathogen inhibition. PMID:21405997

Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Jeong Do; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Ki Deok

2011-06-01

326

Isolation and characterization of a generalized transducing phage for Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated and characterized a lytic double-stranded DNA Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris bacteriophage (XTP1) capable of mediating generalized transduction. The phage transduces chromosomal markers at frequencies of 10(-5) to 10(-6) transductants per PFU. We demonstrated its genetic utility by the isolation and cotransduction of linked transposon insertions to a nonselectable locus, xgl, required for the cleavage of 5-bromo-3-chloro-indoyl-beta-D-galactoside and showed that rif and str alleles in X. campestris are 75% linked. One-step growth experiments showed that the latent and rise periods were each 2 h and the average burst size was 35. The DNA genome is approximately 180 kb, presumably modified in a sequence-specific manner, and may be covalently attached to protein(s). Electron micrographs show the phage particle to have an icosahedral head and contractile tail with tail fibers uniquely attached to a location 40 nm proximal from the end of the tail. Images PMID:8195091

Weiss, B D; Capage, M A; Kessel, M; Benson, S A

1994-01-01

327

3D Structure Modeling of Alpha-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase from Xanthomonas rubrilineans  

PubMed Central

Alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase (EC 3.1.1.43, AEH) is a promising biocatalyst for the production of semi-synthetic ?-lactam antibiotics, penicillins and cephalosporins. The AEH gene from Xanthomonas rubrilineans (XrAEH) was recently cloned in this laboratory. The three-dimensional structure of XrAEH was simulated using the homology modeling method for rational design experiments. The analysis of the active site was performed, and its structure was specified. The key amino acid residues in the active site - the catalytic triad (Ser175, His341 and Asp308), oxyanion hole (Tyr83 and Tyr176), and carboxylate cluster (carboxylate groups of Asp209, Glu310 and Asp311) - were identified. It was shown that the optimal configuration of residues in the active site occurs with a negative net charge -1 in the carboxylate cluster. Docking of different substrates in the AEH active site was carried out, which allowed us to obtain structures of XrAEH complexes with the ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalexin, D-phenylglycine, and 4-hydroxy-D-phenylglycine methyl ester. Modeling of XrAEH enzyme complexes with various substrates was used to show the structures for whose synthesis this enzyme will show the highest efficiency. PMID:24455184

Zarubina, S.A.; Uporov, I.V.; Fedorchuk, E.A.; Fedorchuk, V.V.; Sklyarenko, A.V.; Yarotsky, S.V.; Tishkov, V.I.

2013-01-01

328

Rice cationic peroxidase accumulates in xylem vessels during incompatible interactions with Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae.  

PubMed Central

A cationic peroxidase, PO-C1 (molecular mass 42 kD, isoelectric point 8.6), which is induced in incompatible interactions between the vascular pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae and rice (Oryza sativa L.), was purified. Amino acid sequences from chemically cleaved fragments of PO-C1 exhibited a high percentage of identity with deduced sequences of peroxidases from rice, barley, and wheat. Polyclonal antibodies were raised to an 11-amino acid oligopeptide (POC1a) that was derived from a domain where the sequence of the cationic peroxidase diverged from other known peroxidases. The anti-POC1a antibodies reacted only with a protein of the same mobility as PO-C1 in extracellular and guttation fluids from plants undergoing incompatible responses collected at 24 h after infection. In the compatible responses, the antibodies did not detect PO-C1 until 48 h after infection. Immunoelectron microscopy was used to demonstrate that PO-C1 accumulated within the apoplast of mesophyll cells and within the cell walls and vessel lumen of xylem elements of plants undergoing incompatible interactions. PMID:7770527

Young, S A; Guo, A; Guikema, J A; White, F F; Leach, J E

1995-01-01

329

Non-target effects of transgenic blight-resistant American chestnut (Fagales: Fagaceae) on insect herbivores.  

PubMed

American chestnut [Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen], a canopy dominant species across wide swaths of eastern North America, was reduced to an understory shrub after introduction of the blight fungus [Cryphonectria parasitica (Murrill) Barr] in the early 1900s. Restoration of American chestnut by using biotechnology is promising, but the imprecise nature of transgenesis may inadvertently alter tree phenotype, thus potentially impacting ecologically dependent organisms. We quantified effects of genetic engineering and fungal inoculation of trees on insect herbivores by using transgenic American chestnuts expressing an oxalate oxidase gene and wild-type American and Chinese (C. mollissima Blume) chestnuts. Of three generalist folivores bioassayed, only gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (L.)] was affected by genetic modification, exhibiting faster growth on transgenic than on wild-type chestnuts, whereas growth of polyphemus moth [Antheraea polyphemus (Cramer)] differed between wild-type species, and fall webworm [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)] performed equally on all trees. Inoculation of chestnuts with blight fungus had no effect on the growth of two herbivores assayed (polyphemus moth and fall webworm). Enhanced fitness of gypsy moth on genetically modified trees may hinder restoration efforts if this invasive herbivore's growth is improved because of transgene expression. PMID:22251697

Post, K H; Parry, D

2011-08-01

330

Bur oak blight, a new disease on Quercus macrocarpa caused by Tubakia iowensis sp. nov.  

PubMed

A newly recognized, late-season leaf disease of Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak) has become increasingly severe across Iowa and in neighboring states since the 1990s. Vein necrosis and leaf death may occur over the whole crown or only on the lower branches. Symptoms typically intensify year-to-year in individual trees, and there appears to be substantial variation in susceptibility. Distinctive conidiomata (pycnothyria with a shield of radiating, setae-like hyphae) of a Tubakia sp. are found along the necrotic leaf veins. The same species produces a second type of pycnothyrium with a crustose covering and smaller conidia on the petioles of killed leaves, which remain on the tree through the winter and provide the primary inoculum to infect newly emerging shoots and leaves in spring. Comparison of the Tubakia sp. on bur oak with T. dryina and other species of Tubakia led to the conclusion that the species on bur oak is new, distinct from T. dryina, which herein is defined more narrowly. Inoculation studies confirmed that Tubakia iowensis sp. nov. is the cause of bur oak blight. Bur oak blight appears to be particularly severe on Q. macrocarpa var. oliviformis, which is well adapted to the dry, upland sites where the disease is found most frequently. The recent climatic trend in Iowa to higher spring precipitation might have led to increased severity of the disease. PMID:21937728

Harrington, Thomas C; McNew, Doug; Yun, Hye Young

2012-01-01

331

Climate change may have limited effect on global risk of potato late blight.  

PubMed

Weather affects the severity of many plant diseases, and climate change is likely to alter the patterns of crop disease severity. Evaluating possible future patterns can help focus crop breeding and disease management research. We examined the global effect of climate change on potato late blight, the disease that caused the Irish potato famine and still is a common potato disease around the world. We used a metamodel and considered three global climate models for the A2 greenhouse gas emission scenario for three 20-year time-slices: 2000-2019, 2040-2059 and 2080-2099. In addition to global analyses, five regions were evaluated where potato is an important crop: the Andean Highlands, Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayan Highlands, Southeast Asian Highlands, Ethiopian Highlands, and Lake Kivu Highlands in Sub-Saharan Africa. We found that the average global risk of potato late blight increases initially, when compared with historic climate data, and then declines as planting dates shift to cooler seasons. Risk in the agro-ecosystems analyzed, varied from a large increase in risk in the Lake Kivu Highlands in Rwanda to decreases in the Southeast Asian Highlands of Indonesia. PMID:24687916

Sparks, Adam H; Forbes, Gregory A; Hijmans, Robert J; Garrett, Karen A

2014-12-01

332

Transgenic expression of lactoferrin imparts enhanced resistance to head blight of wheat caused by Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Background The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Using the tools of plant genetic engineering, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial gene was tested for resistance against head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that reduces both grain yield and quality. Results A construct containing a bovine lactoferrin cDNA was used to transform wheat using an Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer system to express this antimicrobial protein in transgenic wheat. Transformants were analyzed by Northern and Western blots to determine lactoferrin gene expression levels and were inoculated with the head blight disease fungus F. graminearum. Transgenic wheat showed a significant reduction of disease incidence caused by F. graminearum compared to control wheat plants. The level of resistance in the highly susceptible wheat cultivar Bobwhite was significantly higher in transgenic plants compared to control Bobwhite and two untransformed commercial wheat cultivars, susceptible Wheaton and tolerant ND 2710. Quantification of the expressed lactoferrin protein by ELISA in transgenic wheat indicated a positive correlation between the lactoferrin gene expression levels and the levels of disease resistance. Conclusions Introgression of the lactoferrin gene into elite commercial wheat, barley and other susceptible cereals may enhance resistance to F. graminearum. PMID:22405032

2012-01-01

333

Genomic characterization of the intron-containing T7-like phage phiL7 of Xanthomonas campestris.  

PubMed

The lytic phage phiL7, which morphologically belongs to the Siphoviridae family, infects Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Nucleotide sequence analysis has revealed that phiL7 contains a linear double-stranded DNA genome (44,080 bp, 56% G+C) with a 3'-protruding cos site (5'-TTACCGGAC-3') and 59 possible genes. Among the deduced proteins, 32 have homologs with known functions and 18 show no database similarities; moreover, the genes encoding these 18 proteins mostly have varying G+C contents and form clusters dispersed along the genome. Only 39 genes have sequences related (27% to 78%) to those of sequenced genes of X. oryzae pv. oryzae phages, although the genome size and architecture of these Xanthomonas phages are similar. These findings suggest that phiL7 acquired genes by horizontal transfer, followed by evolution via various types of mutations. Major differences were found between phiL7 and the X. oryzae pv. oryzae phages: (i) phiL7 has a group I intron inserted in the DNA polymerase gene, the first such intron observed in Xanthomonas phages; (ii) although infection of phiL7 exerted inhibition to the host RNA polymerase, similar to the situations in X. oryzae pv. oryzae phages Xp10 and Xop411, sequence analysis did not identify a homologue of the Xp10 p7 that controls the shift from host RNA polymerase (RNAP) to viral RNAP during transcription; and (iii) phiL7 lacks the tail fiber protein gene that exhibits domain duplications thought to be important for host range determination in OP1, and sequence analysis suggested that p20 (tail protein III) instead has the potential to play this role. PMID:19854925

Lee, Chia-Ni; Lin, Juey-Wen; Weng, Shu-Fen; Tseng, Yi-Hsiung

2009-12-01

334

Effect of acidic electrolyzed water on the viability of bacterial and fungal plant pathogens and on bacterial spot disease of tomato.  

PubMed

Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), known to have germicidal activity, was obtained after electrolysis of 0.045% aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Freshly prepared AEW (pH 2.3-2.6, oxidation-reduction potential 1007-1025 mV, and free active chlorine concentration 27-35 ppm) was tested in vitro and (or) on tomato foliage and seed surfaces for its effects on the viability of plant pathogen propagules that could be potential seed contaminants. Foliar sprays of AEW were tested against bacterial spot disease of tomato under greenhouse and field conditions. The viability of propagules of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (bacterial spot pathogen), Streptomyces scabies (potato scab pathogen), and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (root rot pathogen) was significantly reduced 4-8 log units within 2 min of exposure to AEW. Immersion of tomato seed from infected fruit in AEW for 1 and 3 min significantly reduced the populations of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria from the surface of the seed without affecting seed germination. Foliar sprays of AEW reduced X. campestris pv. vesicatoria populations and leaf spot severity on tomato foliage in the greenhouse. In the field, multiple sprays of AEW consistently reduced bacterial spot severity on tomato foliage. Disease incidence and severity was also reduced on fruit, but only in 2003. Fruit yield was either enhanced or not affected by the AEW sprays. These results indicate a potential use of AEW as a seed surface disinfectant or contact bactericide. PMID:17110959

Abbasi, P A; Lazarovits, G

2006-10-01

335

Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease.  

PubMed

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccA(w), induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B

2014-01-28

336

Genetic analysis of inbred lines and their crosses for resistance to head blight (Fusarium culmorum, F. graminearum) in winter rye  

Microsoft Academic Search

For genetic analysis of head blight in winter rye (Secale cereale) caused by Fusarium culmorum, six homozygous inbred lines from the Petkus gene pool were crossed in all combinations to obtain 15 diallel F1 crosses and the corresponding 15 F2 crosses. These materials and 10 additional inbreds were artificially inoculated in a 2-year field experiment. The inbreds were also tested

T. Miedaner; D. C. Borchardt; H. H. Geiger

1992-01-01

337

SOUTHERN CORN LEAF BLIGHT: GENETIC CONTROL OF PATHOGENICITY AND TOXIN PRODUCTION IN RACE T AND RACE 0 OF COCHLIOBOLUS HETEROSTROPHUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

TWO physiologic races, T and 0, of Helminthosporium maydis Nisikado and Miyake (perfect stage; Cochliobolus heterostrophus Drechsler) cause south- ern corn leaf blight (SMITH, HOOKER and LIM 1970). The two races are mor- phologically similar but race T is specifically pathogenic to corn containing (cms-TI (Texas male-sterile) cytoplasm while race 0 is not. Race T produces a pathotoxin in culture

S. M. LIM; A. L. HOOKER

338

Role of weather on Alternaria Leaf Blight Disease and its effect on Yield and Yield Components of Mustard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternaria leaf blight disease caused by Alternaria brassicae in mustard (Brassica juncea (L) Czern and Coss) was studied in two crop seasons, 1992 and 1993 in Nepal at Nawalpur, Sarlahi (Tarai) and Khumaltar, Lalitpur (mid hill). At Nawalpur, epidemics of the disease was recorded for both seasons. Weather conditions like humidity, temperature and frequent rainfall played key role for the

Sundar K Shrestha; Lisa Munk; Suresh B Mathur

2010-01-01

339

New hosts and differential susceptibility of five-needle pine species to Dooks needle blight (Lophophacidium dooksii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outbreak of Dooks needle blight (Lophophacidium dooksii) in a five-needle pine genetic archive containing nine five-needle pine species and their interspecific hybrids provided an opportunity to observe the differential susceptibility of these pine species to the disease. Survey results indicated that four of the nine species in the archive were susceptible, including new hosts western white pine (Pinus monticola)

John A. McLaughlin; Pengxin Lu; Sylvia Greifenhagen; Richard Wilson

2012-01-01

340

Integrated Host Plant Resistance and Fungicide Application on Leaf Blight Control in Menthol Mint (Mentha arvensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of host resistance and fungicide (chlorothalonil) applications on leaf blight (Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler) disease on the transplanted crops of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) were evaluated under natural epidemics in Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh, India. Essential oil yields were reduced 36 percent in susceptible plants (cv. Shivalik) not treated with fungicide as compared with control plants

A. Kalra; H. B. Singh; N. K. Patra; Sushil Kumar

2003-01-01

341

Detection of QTL linked to Fusarium head blight resistance in Sumai 3-derived North Dakota bread wheat lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decade Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe has resulted in severe grain yield and quality losses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Northern Great Plains of the U.S. Given the complexity of breeding for FHB resistance, molecular markers associated with this trait will be valuable in accelerating efforts to breed resistant cultivars. The

I. A. del Blanco; R. C. Frohberg; R. W. Stack; W. A. Berzonsky; S. F. Kianian

2003-01-01

342

Introduction Fire blight, caused by a bacterium, is found almost every year to some extent in New Hampshire and in  

E-print Network

. Infected fruit turn brown (apple) or black (pear) and eventually shrivel and become mummified. Dark, sunken Hampshire and in other major apple and pear growing regions of the United States. The annual loss destructive of all apple and pear diseases. Description Fire blight is most damaging during warm (700 F

New Hampshire, University of

343

Co-production of ice nuclei and xanthan gum by transformed Xanthomonas campestris grown in sugar beet molasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recombinant plasmids, expressing ice nucleation activity, were constructed and named pCPP30inaZ and pCPP38inaZ. They were transferred to the ice-negative, xanthan-producing Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris by electroporation. The transformants were used for co-production of xanthan gum and ice nuclei from sugar beet molasses. The highest values obtained were 20 g l-1 and 1018 ice nuclei ml-1, respectively. The above values fulfil the criteria

Amalia S. Afendra; Efthalia E. Yiannaki; Maria A. Palaiomylitou; Dimitrios A. Kyriakidis; Constantin Drainas

2002-01-01

344

Production of monoclonal antibodies against Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae and their use to investigate differences in virulence.  

PubMed

Four Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae isolates from mango black spot lesions were grouped according to differences in virulence and used to raise monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Two immunization approaches were followed. In the first, four groups of mice were immunized, each with a different isolate and the spleens from each group homogenized together for cell fusion. The second approach entailed immunization of a single group of mice with bacteria pooled from all four isolates. The resultant mAbs were characterized with regard to the antigen binding specificity and antibody class. A relationship between mAb binding specificity and virulence of the bacteria was shown by Western blot analysis. PMID:7528196

Sanders, G M; Verschoor, J A; van Wyngaard, S; Korsten, L; Kotzé, J M

1994-11-01

345

Epidemics of ray blight on pyrethrum are linked to seed contamination and overwintering inoculum of Phoma ligulicola var. inoxydabilis.  

PubMed

Ray blight, caused by Phoma ligulicola var. inoxydabilis, is the most damaging disease of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) in Australia. Data collected from 72 plots in commercial pyrethrum fields since 2001 to 2009 revealed substantial annual variations in isolation frequency of the pathogen during semidormancy of the crop in autumn and winter. Isolation frequency of the pathogen during this time and subsequent outbreaks of ray blight in spring were similar across the eight production regions where sampling was conducted, and isolation frequency of the pathogen was linearly correlated (r = 0.88; P < 0.0001) with subsequent defoliation severity when plants commenced growth in spring. Isolation frequency and defoliation severity also were correlated with the incidence of seed infested with P. ligulicola var. inoxydabilis (r = 0.71 and 0.44, respectively; P < 0.0001 in both correlations). Highly accurate risk algorithms for the occurrence of severe epidemics of ray blight were constructed using logistic regression. A model based solely on isolation frequency of the pathogen over autumn and winter correctly predicted epidemic development in 92% of fields. Another model utilizing the incidence of infested seed and rain-temperature interactions in early autumn (austral March and April) and late winter (austral June and July) had similar predictive ability (92% accuracy). Path analysis modeling was used to disentangle interrelationships among the explanatory variables used in the second logistic regression model. The analysis indicated that seedborne inoculum of P. ligulicola var. inoxydabilis contributes indirectly to ray blight defoliation severity through directly increasing overwintering frequency of the pathogen. Autumn and fall weather variables were modeled to have indirect effects on defoliation severity through increasing overwintering success of the pathogen but also direct effects on defoliation severity. Collectively, the analyses point to several critical stages in the disease cycle that can be targeted to minimize the probability of regional epidemics of ray blight in this perennial pathosystem. PMID:21501088

Pethybridge, Sarah J; Gent, David H; Hay, Frank S

2011-09-01

346

Molecules Involved in the Modulation of Rapid Cell Death in Xanthomonas  

PubMed Central

In earlier studies from this laboratory, Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines was found to exhibit a nutrition stress-related postexponential rapid cell death (RCD). The RCD was exhibited in protein-rich media but not in starch or other minimal media. This RCD in X. campestris pv. glycines was found to display features similar to those of the programmed cell death (PCD) of eukaryotes. Results of the present study showed that the observed RCD in this organism is both positively and negatively regulated by small molecules. The amino acids glycine and l-alanine as well as the D isomers of valine, methionine, and threonine were found to induce the synthesis of an active caspase-3-like protein that was associated with the onset of RCD. Addition of pyruvate and citrate to the culture medium induced both the synthesis of active caspase-3-like protein and RCD. Higher levels of intracellular accumulation of pyruvate and citrate were also observed under conditions favoring RCD. On the other hand, dextrin and maltose, the hydrolytic products of starch, inhibited the synthesis of the caspase-3-like protein. Addition of glucose and cyclic AMP (cAMP) to the RCD-favoring medium prevented RCD. Glucose, cAMP, caffeine (a known inhibitor of a phosphodiesterase that breaks down cAMP), and forskolin (from the herb Coleus forskholii, known to activate the enzyme adenylate cyclase that forms cAMP) inhibited the caspase enzyme activity in vivo and consequently the RCD process. The addition of glucose and other inhibitors of RCD enhanced intracellular cAMP accumulation. This is the first report demonstrating the involvement of small molecules in the regulation of nutrition stress-related stationary-phase rapid cell death in X. campestris pv. glycines, which is programmed. PMID:16855230

Raju, K. K.; Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

2006-01-01

347

Non-Host Defense Response in a Novel Arabidopsis-Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Pathosystem  

PubMed Central

Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus. Progress of breeding citrus canker-resistant varieties is modest due to limited resistant germplasm resources and lack of candidate genes for genetic manipulation. The objective of this study is to establish a novel heterologous pathosystem between Xcc and the well-established model plant Arabidopsis thaliana for defense mechanism dissection and resistance gene identification. Our results indicate that Xcc bacteria neither grow nor decline in Arabidopsis, but induce multiple defense responses including callose deposition, reactive oxygen species and salicylic aicd (SA) production, and defense gene expression, indicating that Xcc activates non-host resistance in Arabidopsis. Moreover, Xcc-induced defense gene expression is suppressed or attenuated in several well-characterized SA signaling mutants including eds1, pad4, eds5, sid2, and npr1. Interestingly, resistance to Xcc is compromised only in eds1, pad4, and eds5, but not in sid2 and npr1. However, combining sid2 and npr1 in the sid2npr1 double mutant compromises resistance to Xcc, suggesting genetic interactions likely exist between SID2 and NPR1 in the non-host resistance against Xcc in Arabidopsis. These results demonstrate that the SA signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating non-host defense against Xcc in Arabidopsis and suggest that the SA signaling pathway genes may hold great potential for breeding citrus canker-resistant varieties through modern gene transfer technology. PMID:22299054

An, Chuanfu; Mou, Zhonglin

2012-01-01

348

Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

Porter, John R.; And Others

1992-01-01

349

A cyclic GMP-dependent signalling pathway regulates bacterial phytopathogenesis.  

PubMed

Cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic GMP) is a second messenger whose role in bacterial signalling is poorly understood. A genetic screen in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris (Xcc) identified that XC_0250, which encodes a protein with a class III nucleotidyl cyclase domain, is required for cyclic GMP synthesis. Purified XC_0250 was active in cyclic GMP synthesis in vitro. The linked gene XC_0249 encodes a protein with a cyclic mononucleotide-binding (cNMP) domain and a GGDEF diguanylate cyclase domain. The activity of XC_0249 in cyclic di-GMP synthesis was enhanced by addition of cyclic GMP. The isolated cNMP domain of XC_0249 bound cyclic GMP and a structure-function analysis, directed by determination of the crystal structure of the holo-complex, demonstrated the site of cyclic GMP binding that modulates cyclic di-GMP synthesis. Mutation of either XC_0250 or XC_0249 led to a reduced virulence to plants and reduced biofilm formation in vitro. These findings describe a regulatory pathway in which cyclic GMP regulates virulence and biofilm formation through interaction with a novel effector that directly links cyclic GMP and cyclic di-GMP signalling. PMID:23881098

An, Shi-Qi; Chin, Ko-Hsin; Febrer, Melanie; McCarthy, Yvonne; Yang, Jauo-Guey; Liu, Chung-Liang; Swarbreck, David; Rogers, Jane; Maxwell Dow, J; Chou, Shan-Ho; Ryan, Robert P

2013-09-11

350

Leaf microbiota in an agroecosystem: spatiotemporal variation in bacterial community composition on field-grown lettuce  

PubMed Central

The presence, size and importance of bacterial communities on plant leaf surfaces are widely appreciated. However, information is scarce regarding their composition and how it changes along geographical and seasonal scales. We collected 106 samples of field-grown Romaine lettuce from commercial production regions in California and Arizona during the 2009–2010 crop cycle. Total bacterial populations averaged between 105 and 106 per gram of tissue, whereas counts of culturable bacteria were on average one (summer season) or two (winter season) orders of magnitude lower. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 88 samples revealed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the most abundantly represented phyla. At the genus level, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Massilia, Arthrobacter and Pantoea were the most consistently found across samples, suggesting that they form the bacterial ‘core' phyllosphere microbiota on lettuce. The foliar presence of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians, which is the causal agent of bacterial leaf spot of lettuce, correlated positively with the relative representation of bacteria from the genus Alkanindiges, but negatively with Bacillus, Erwinia and Pantoea. Summer samples showed an overrepresentation of Enterobacteriaceae sequences and culturable coliforms compared with winter samples. The distance between fields or the timing of a dust storm, but not Romaine cultivar, explained differences in bacterial community composition between several of the fields sampled. As one of the largest surveys of leaf surface microbiology, this study offers new insights into the extent and underlying causes of variability in bacterial community composition on plant leaves as a function of time, space and environment. PMID:22534606

Rastogi, Gurdeep; Sbodio, Adrian; Tech, Jan J; Suslow, Trevor V; Coaker, Gitta L; Leveau, Johan H J

2012-01-01

351

Phytophthora ramorum: a pathogen with a remarkably wide host range causing sudden oak death on oaks and ramorum blight on woody ornamentals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora ramorum is an oomycete plant pathogen classified in the\\u000a kingdom Stramenopila. P. ramorum is the causal agent of sudden oak death\\u000a on coast live oak and tanoak as well as ramorum blight on woody\\u000a ornamental and forest understorey plants. It causes stem cankers on\\u000a trees, and leaf blight or stem dieback on ornamentals and understorey\\u000a forest species. This pathogen

Niklaus J. Gruenwald; Erica M. Goss; Niklaus J. Grunwald

2008-01-01

352

Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Resistance to Southern Leaf Blight and Days to Anthesis in Two Maize Recombinant Inbred Line Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balint-Kurti, P. J., Zwonitzer, J. C., Pè, M. E., Pea, G., Lee, M., and Cardinal, A. J. 2008. Identification of quantitative trait loci for resistance to southern leaf blight and days to anthesis in two maize recombinant inbred line populations. Phytopathology 98:315-320. The genetic architecture underlying resistance in maize to southern leaf blight (SLB) caused by Cochliobolus heterostrophus race O

P. J. Balint-Kurti; J. C. Zwonitzer; M. E. Pè; G. Pea; M. Lee; A. J. Cardinal

2008-01-01

353

Evaluation of Fusarium head blight in barley infected by Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight, which is primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease in the barley field. A real-time PCR protocol was developed to evaluate the growth of this pathogen in the host plant tissues. All four strains harbored the gene encoding ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTER (FgABC; FGSG_00541) as a single copy within their genomes. Our Southern blot result was identical with the genomic data for F. graminearum strain PH-1. Based on the crossing point (CP) values obtained in our TaqMan real-time PCR analysis, two standard curves describing the relationship among the CP value, FgABC copy number, and amount of fungal DNA were constructed. Chronological enumeration of fungal growth was coincided with the symptom development. PMID:23990309

Kang, Woo-Ri; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul; Lee, Theresa; Kim, Soonok; Ahn, Il-Pyung

2013-08-01

354

Genome-wide nested association mapping of quantitative resistance to northern leaf blight in maize  

PubMed Central

Quantitative resistance to plant pathogens, controlled by multiple loci of small effect, is important for food production, food security, and food safety but is poorly understood. To gain insights into the genetic architecture of quantitative resistance in maize, we evaluated a 5,000-inbred-line nested association mapping population for resistance to northern leaf blight, a maize disease of global economic importance. Twenty-nine quantitative trait loci were identified, and most had multiple alleles. The large variation in resistance phenotypes could be attributed to the accumulation of numerous loci of small additive effects. Genome-wide nested association mapping, using 1.6 million SNPs, identified multiple candidate genes related to plant defense, including receptor-like kinase genes similar to those involved in basal defense. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that quantitative disease resistance in plants is conditioned by a range of mechanisms and could have considerable mechanistic overlap with basal resistance. PMID:21482771

Poland, Jesse A.; Bradbury, Peter J.; Buckler, Edward S.; Nelson, Rebecca J.

2011-01-01

355

Application of COMPOCHIP microarray to investigate the bacterial communities of different composts.  

PubMed

A microarray spotted with 369 different 16S rRNA gene probes specific to microorganisms involved in the degradation process of organic waste during composting was developed. The microarray was tested with pure cultures, and of the 30,258 individual probe-target hybridization reactions performed, there were only 188 false positive (0.62%) and 22 false negative signals (0.07%). Labeled target DNA was prepared by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA genes using a Cy5-labeled universal bacterial forward primer and a universal reverse primer. The COMPOCHIP microarray was applied to three different compost types (green compost, manure mix compost, and anaerobic digestate compost) of different maturity (2, 8, and 16 weeks), and differences in the microorganisms in the three compost types and maturity stages were observed. Multivariate analysis showed that the bacterial composition of the three composts was different at the beginning of the composting process and became more similar upon maturation. Certain probes (targeting Sphingobacterium, Actinomyces, Xylella/Xanthomonas/Stenotrophomonas, Microbacterium, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Low G + C and Alphaproteobacteria) were more influential in discriminating between different composts. Results from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis supported those of microarray analysis. This study showed that the COMPOCHIP array is a suitable tool to study bacterial communities in composts. PMID:18818861

Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Knapp, Brigitte A; Fuchs, Jacques; Kaufmann, Ruediger; Insam, Heribert

2009-04-01

356

Sensitive and specific detection of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii with DNA primers and probes identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.  

PubMed Central

The random amplified polymorphic DNA method was used to distinguish strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii from 21 other Xanthomonas species and/or pathovars. Among the 42 arbitrarily chosen primers evaluated, 3 were found to reveal diagnostic polymorphisms when purified DNAs from compared strains were amplified by the PCR. The three primers revealed DNA amplification patterns which were conserved among all 53 strains tested of X. campestris pv. pelargonii isolated from various locations worldwide. The distinctive X. compestris pv. pelargonii patterns were clearly different from those obtained with any of 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. An amplified 1.2-kb DNA fragment, apparently unique to X. campestris pv. pelargonii by these random amplified polymorphic DNA tests, was cloned and evaluated as a diagnostic DNA probe. It hybridized with total DNA from all 53 X. campestris pv. pelargonii strains tested and not with any of the 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. The DNA sequence of the terminal ends of this 1.2-kb fragment was obtained and used to design a pair of 18-mer oligonucleotide primers specific for X. campestris pv. pelargonii. The custom-synthesized primers amplified the same 1.2-kb DNA fragment from all 53 X. campestris pv. pelargonii strains tested and failed to amplify DNA from any of the 46 other Xanthomonas strains tested. DNA isolated from saprophytes associated with the geranium plant also did not produce amplified DNA with these primers. The sensitivity of the PCR assay using the custom-synthesized primers was between 10 and 50 cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:7993095

Manulis, S; Valinsky, L; Lichter, A; Gabriel, D W

1994-01-01

357

Novel insights into the genomic basis of citrus canker based on the genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii  

PubMed Central

Background Citrus canker is a disease that has severe economic impact on the citrus industry worldwide. There are three types of canker, called A, B, and C. The three types have different phenotypes and affect different citrus species. The causative agent for type A is Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, whose genome sequence was made available in 2002. Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain B causes canker B and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain C causes canker C. Results We have sequenced the genomes of strains B and C to draft status. We have compared their genomic content to X. citri subsp. citri and to other Xanthomonas genomes, with special emphasis on type III secreted effector repertoires. In addition to pthA, already known to be present in all three citrus canker strains, two additional effector genes, xopE3 and xopAI, are also present in all three strains and are both located on the same putative genomic island. These two effector genes, along with one other effector-like gene in the same region, are thus good candidates for being pathogenicity factors on citrus. Numerous gene content differences also exist between the three cankers strains, which can be correlated with their different virulence and host range. Particular attention was placed on the analysis of genes involved in biofilm formation and quorum sensing, type IV secretion, flagellum synthesis and motility, lipopolysacharide synthesis, and on the gene xacPNP, which codes for a natriuretic protein. Conclusion We have uncovered numerous commonalities and differences in gene content between the genomes of the pathogenic agents causing citrus canker A, B, and C and other Xanthomonas genomes. Molecular genetics can now be employed to determine the role of these genes in plant-microbe interactions. The gained knowledge will be instrumental for improving citrus canker control. PMID:20388224

2010-01-01

358

Differential expression of biphenyl synthase gene family members in fire-blight-infected apple 'Holsteiner Cox'.  

PubMed

Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of apple (Malus × domestica). The phytoalexins of apple are biphenyls and dibenzofurans, whose carbon skeleton is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), a type III polyketide synthase. In the recently published genome sequence of apple 'Golden Delicious', nine BIS genes and four BIS gene fragments were detected. The nine genes fall into four subfamilies, referred to as MdBIS1 to MdBIS4. In a phylogenetic tree, the BIS amino acid sequences from apple and Sorbus aucuparia formed an individual cluster within the clade of the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthases. cDNAs encoding MdBIS1 to MdBIS4 were cloned from fire-blight-infected shoots of apple 'Holsteiner Cox,' heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally analyzed. Benzoyl-coenzyme A and salicoyl-coenzyme A were the preferred starter substrates. In response to inoculation with E. amylovora, the BIS3 gene was expressed in stems of cv Holsteiner Cox, with highest transcript levels in the transition zone between necrotic and healthy tissues. The transition zone was the accumulation site of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins. Leaves contained transcripts for BIS2 but failed to form immunodetectable amounts of BIS protein. In cell cultures of apple 'Cox Orange,' expression of the BIS1 to BIS3 genes was observed after the addition of an autoclaved E. amylovora suspension. Using immunofluorescence localization under a confocal laser-scanning microscope, the BIS3 protein in the transition zone of stems was detected in the parenchyma of the bark. Dot-shaped immunofluorescence was confined to the junctions between neighboring cortical parenchyma cells. PMID:22158676

Chizzali, Cornelia; Gaid, Mariam M; Belkheir, Asma K; Hänsch, Robert; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

2012-02-01

359

Molecular cytogenetic analysis of wheat - Elymus repens introgression lines with resistance to Fusarium head blight.  

PubMed

Elymus repens (L.) Gould (2n = 6x = 42, StStStStHH) is a hexaploid perennial wheatgrass species from the tribe Triticeae, distantly related to bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD). As a potential source of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB), E. repens was crossed to common wheat to transfer resistance genes. The progeny were advanced to homozygosity by single seed descent. A total of eight BC(1)F(9) progeny lines were selected and characterized in this study. The chromosome numbers of these derived lines ranged from 42 to 56, including lines with 44, 52, and 54 chromosomes. All of the lines were cytologically stable in terms of meiotic chromosome behavior. The univalent frequency in the lines varied between 0.34 and 2.36 per cell. Similarly, the multivalent frequency did not exceed 1% in any of the lines. GISH analysis revealed that the number of intact wheat chromosomes in the various lines varied between 40 and 44. Numerous translocated chromosomes were detected in all lines. The translocations involved chromosomal segments from wheat, and the St and H genomes of E. repens. Furthermore, trigenomic translocated chromosomes were detected in some of the lines. The introgression into wheat chromosomes included not only terminal types but also interstitial segments. The Fusarium head blight resistance of the eight lines, following point inoculation, varied from 5.65% infected florets to 11.46% compared with the check cultivars T. aestivum 'Roblin' and T. aestivum 'Crocus' at 100% and 85%, respectively. PMID:23379340

Zeng, J; Cao, W; Hucl, P; Yang, Y; Xue, A; Chi, D; Fedak, G

2013-01-01

360

Identification of the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora, by PCR assays with chromosomal DNA.  

PubMed Central

Erwinia amylovora, the causative agent of fire blight, was identified independently from the common plasmid pEA29 by three different PCR assays with chromosomal DNA. PCR with two primers was performed with isolated DNA and with whole cells, which were directly added to the assay mixture. The oligonucleotide primers were derived from the ams region, and the PCR product comprised the amsB gene, which is involved in exopolysaccharide synthesis. The amplified fragment of 1.6 kb was analyzed, and the sequence was found to be identical for two E. amylovora strains. The identity of the PCR products was further confirmed by restriction analysis. The 1.6-kb signal was also used for detection of the fire blight pathogen in the presence of other plant-associated bacteria and in infected plant tissue. For further identification of isolated strains, the 16S rRNA gene of E. amylovora and other plant-associated bacteria was amplified and the products were digested with the restriction enzyme HaeIII. The pattern obtained for E. amylovora was different from that of other bacteria. The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene was determined from a cloned fragment and was found to be closely related to the sequences of Escherichia coli and other Erwinia species. Finally, arbitrarily primed PCR with a 17-mer oligonucleotide derived from the sequence of transposon Tn5 produced a unique banding pattern for all E. amylovora strains investigated. These methods expand identification methods for E. amylovora, which include DNA hybridization and a PCR technique based on plasmid pEA29. PMID:7618876

Bereswill, S; Bugert, P; Bruchmuller, I; Geider, K

1995-01-01

361

Bacterial cell shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial species have long been classified on the basis of their characteristic cell shapes. Despite intensive research, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of bacterial cell shape remain largely unresolved. The field has recently taken an important step forward with the discovery that eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins have homologues in bacteria that affect cell shape. Here, we discuss how

Matthew T. Cabeen; Christine Jacobs-Wagner

2005-01-01

362

Conventional and real-time PCRs for detection of Erwinia piriflorinigrans allow its distinction from the fire blight pathogen, Erwinia amylovora.  

PubMed

Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a new pathogenic species of the bacterial genus Erwinia that has been described recently in Spain. Accurate detection and identification of E. piriflorinigrans are challenging because its symptoms on pear blossoms are similar to those caused by Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Moreover, these two species share phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Two specific and sensitive conventional and real-time PCR protocols were developed to identify and detect E. piriflorinigrans and to differentiate it from E. amylovora and other species of this genus. These protocols were based on sequences from plasmid pEPIR37, which is present in all strains of E. piriflorinigrans analyzed. After the stability of the plasmid was demonstrated, the specificities of the protocols were confirmed by the amplification of all E. piriflorinigrans strains tested, whereas 304 closely related pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia strains and microbiota from pear trees were not amplified. In sensitivity assays, 10(3) cells/ml extract were detected in spiked plant material by conventional or real-time PCR, and 10(2) cells/ml were detected in DNA extracted from spiked plant material by real-time PCR. The protocols developed here succeeded in detecting E. piriflorinigrans in 102 out of 564 symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally infected pear samples (flowers, cortex stem tissue, leaves, shoots, and fruitlets), in necrotic Pyracantha sp. blossoms, and in necrotic pear and apple tissues infected with both E. amylovora and E. piriflorinigrans. Therefore, these new tools can be used in epidemiological studies that will enhance our understanding of the life cycle of E. piriflorinigrans in different hosts and plant tissues and its interaction with E. amylovora. PMID:24509928

Barbé, Silvia; Bertolini, Edson; Roselló, Montserrat; Llop, Pablo; López, María M

2014-04-01

363

Conventional and Real-Time PCRs for Detection of Erwinia piriflorinigrans Allow Its Distinction from the Fire Blight Pathogen, Erwinia amylovora  

PubMed Central

Erwinia piriflorinigrans is a new pathogenic species of the bacterial genus Erwinia that has been described recently in Spain. Accurate detection and identification of E. piriflorinigrans are challenging because its symptoms on pear blossoms are similar to those caused by Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. Moreover, these two species share phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Two specific and sensitive conventional and real-time PCR protocols were developed to identify and detect E. piriflorinigrans and to differentiate it from E. amylovora and other species of this genus. These protocols were based on sequences from plasmid pEPIR37, which is present in all strains of E. piriflorinigrans analyzed. After the stability of the plasmid was demonstrated, the specificities of the protocols were confirmed by the amplification of all E. piriflorinigrans strains tested, whereas 304 closely related pathogenic and nonpathogenic Erwinia strains and microbiota from pear trees were not amplified. In sensitivity assays, 103 cells/ml extract were detected in spiked plant material by conventional or real-time PCR, and 102 cells/ml were detected in DNA extracted from spiked plant material by real-time PCR. The protocols developed here succeeded in detecting E. piriflorinigrans in 102 out of 564 symptomatic and asymptomatic naturally infected pear samples (flowers, cortex stem tissue, leaves, shoots, and fruitlets), in necrotic Pyracantha sp. blossoms, and in necrotic pear and apple tissues infected with both E. amylovora and E. piriflorinigrans. Therefore, these new tools can be used in epidemiological studies that will enhance our understanding of the life cycle of E. piriflorinigrans in different hosts and plant tissues and its interaction with E. amylovora. PMID:24509928

Barbe, Silvia; Bertolini, Edson; Rosello, Montserrat; Llop, Pablo

2014-01-01

364

Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: L-Fuconate Dehydratase from Xanthomonas campestris  

SciTech Connect

Many members of the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily have unknown functions. In this report the authors use both genome (operon) context and screening of a library of acid sugars to assign the L-fuconate dehydratase (FucD) function to a member of the mandelate racemase (MR) subgroup of the superfamily encoded by the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris str. ATCC 33913 genome (GI: 21233491). Orthologues of FucD are found in both bacteria and eukaryotes, the latter including the rTS beta protein in Homo sapiens that has been implicated in regulating thymidylate synthase activity. As suggested by sequence alignments and confirmed by high-resolution structures in the presence of active site ligands, FucD and MR share the same active site motif of functional groups: three carboxylate ligands for the essential Mg2+ located at the ends of th third, fourth, and fifth-strands in the (/)7-barrel domain (Asp 248, Glu 274, and Glu 301, respectively), a Lys-x-Lys motif at the end of the second-strand (Lys 218 and Lys 220), a His-Asp dyad at the end of the seventh and sixth-strands (His 351 and Asp 324, respectively), and a Glue at the end of the eighth-strand (Glu 382). The mechanism of the FucD reaction involves initial abstraction of the 2-proton by Lys 220, acid catalysis of the vinylogous-elimination of the 3-OH group by His 351, and stereospecific ketonization of the resulting 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-fuconate product. Screening of the library of acid sugars revealed substrate and functional promiscuity: In addition to L-fuconate, FucD also catalyzes the dehydration of L-galactonate, D-arabinonate, D-altronate, L-talonate, and D-ribonate. The dehydrations of L-fuconate, L-galactonate, and D-arabinonate are initiated by abstraction of the 2-protons by Lys 220. The dehydrations of L-talonate and D-ribonate are initiated by abstraction of the 2-protons by His 351; however, protonation of the enediolate intermediates by the conjugate acid of Lys 220 yields L-galactonate and D-arabinonate in competition with dehydration. The functional promiscuity discovered for FucD highlights possible structural mechanisms for evolution of function in the enolase superfamily.

Yew,W.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Rakus, J.; Pierce, R.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

2006-01-01

365

Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oils of Various Plants against Tomato Late Blight Disease Agent Phytophthora infestans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to find an alternative to synthetic fungicides currently used in the control of devastating oomycete\\u000a pathogen Phytophthora infestans, causal agent of late blight disease of tomato. Antifungal activities of essential oils obtained from aerial parts of aromatic\\u000a plants such as oregano (Origanum syriacum var. bevanii), thyme (Thymbra spicata subsp. spicata), lavender (Lavandula stoechas subsp.

E. Mine Soylu; Soner Soylu; Sener Kurt

2006-01-01

366

Rapid Determination of Rice Cultivar Responses to the Sheath Blight Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Using a Micro-Chamber Screening Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jia, Y., Correa-Victoria, F., McClung, A., Zhu, L., Liu, G., Wamishe, Y., Xie, J., Marchetti, M. A., Pinson, S. R. M., Rutger, J. N., and Correll, J. C. 2007. Rapid determination of rice cultivar responses to the sheath blight pathogen Rhizoctonia solani using a micro-chamber screening method. Plant Dis. 91:485-489. An accurate greenhouse screening method has not been developed previously

Y. Jia; F. Correa-Victoria; A. McClung; L. Zhu; G. Liu; Y. Wamishe; J. Xie; M. A. Marchetti; S. R. M. Pinson; J. N. Rutger; J. C. Correll

2007-01-01

367

G2 Blackspot Manager model to guide field pea sowing for southern Australia in relation to ascochyta blight disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

G2 Blackspot Manager, the second generation (G2) of Blackspot Manager model, predicts disease severity and yield loss in addition\\u000a to quantified release of seasonal ascospores in relation to ascochyta blight on field pea. The model predicts the disease\\u000a severity with respect to the expected exposure of field pea crop to ascospores of D. pinodes, with yield loss subsequently related to

Moin U. Salam; William J. MacLeod; Ian Pritchard; Mark Seymour; Jennifer A. Davidson; Kawsar P. Salam; Jean Galloway; Larn S. McMurray; Kurt D. Lindbeck; Helen Richardson

368

G1 Blackspot Manager model predicts the maturity and release of ascospores in relation to ascochyta blight on field pea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model, G1 Blackspot Manager, has been developed to predict the seasonal pattern of release of ascospores in relation\\u000a to ascochyta blight in field pea. The model considers a combination of two weather factors, daily mean temperature and daily\\u000a total rainfall, to drive progress of maturity of pseudothecia on infested field pea stubble from past crops. Each day is

Moin U. Salam; Jean Galloway; William J. MacLeod; Jennifer A. Davidson; Mark Seymour; Ian Pritchard; Kawsar P. Salam; Art J. Diggle; Tim Maling

369

Influence of incubation-period humidity on the development of brown rot blossom blight of sour cherry.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT When detached sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) blossoms were inoculated with conidia of Monilinia fructicola and subjected to a standard 8-h wetting treatment at 20 degrees C, blossom blight incidence was proportional to relative humidity (RH) when RH was held constant during the subsequent 6-day incubation period (frequency = 1.0 at the maximum RH of 92%; frequency = 0.38 at the minimum RH of 57%). Similarly, when a primary incubation period at 87% RH was followed by a secondary incubation period at 54% RH, blossom blight incidence was proportional to the number of hours at the higher level (frequencies of 0.94, 0.80, and 0.38 with primary incubation periods of 6 days, 36 h, and 12 h, respectively). When intact blossoms on potted trees were exposed to common inoculation and wetting treatments, disease incidence was consistently high on trees that subsequently were incubated in a controlled environment chamber (20 degrees C, 90 to 95% RH) but was extremely variable when trees were incubated under variable ambient conditions. Ambient incubation temperature had little effect on disease incidence 9 days after inoculation, whereas ambient RH had a pronounced effect: the frequency of blighted blossoms was 0.53 to 0.61 when the number of hours at RH >90% was approximately two to six times that at RH <60%, whereas this frequency was only 0.02 to 0.07 when the number of hours at RH >90% was approximately one-third the number at RH <60%. After 48 h at a constant RH of 89 or 57%, the water potential of excised uninoculated blossoms was -1.15 and -1.93 MPa, respectively; however, growth of M. fructicola on osmotically adjusted potato dextrose agar was unaffected by changes in water potential within this range. Thus, although RH during incubation has an important influence on blossom blight development, the causal mechanism remains uncertain. PMID:18945152

Koball, D C; Wilcox, W F; Seem, R C

1997-01-01

370

Evaluation of pathogenicity and aggressiveness of F. langsethiae on oat and wheat seedlings relative to known seedling blight pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium and Microdochium species are causal agents of seedling blight of small-grain cereal crops where they may contribute to a significant reduction\\u000a in crop establishment and final yield. Two experiments were carried out to investigate the potential pathogenicity and aggressiveness\\u000a of F. langsethiae, a recently identified fungus linked with the contamination of cereals with high levels of the trichothecene mycotoxins,

Samuel M. Imathiu; Martin C. Hare; Rumiana V. Ray; Matthew Back; Simon G. Edwards

2010-01-01

371

Control of plant defense mechanisms and fire blight pathogenesis through the regulation of 6-thioguanine biosynthesis in Erwinia amylovora.  

PubMed

Fire blight is a devastating disease of Rosaceae plants, such as apple and pear trees. It is characterized by necrosis of plant tissue, caused by the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora. The plant pathogen produces the well-known antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6TG), which plays a key role in fire blight pathogenesis. Here we report that YcfR, a member of the LTTR family, is a major regulator of 6TG biosynthesis in E. amylovora. Inactivation of the regulator gene (ycfR) led to dramatically decreased 6TG production. Infection assays with apple plants (Malus domestica cultivar Holsteiner Cox) and cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia (mountain ash, rowan) revealed abortive fire blight pathogenesis and reduced plant response (biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexin production). In the presence of the ?ycfR mutant, apple trees were capable of activating the abscission machinery to remove infected tissue. In addition to unveiling the regulation of 6TG biosynthesis in a major plant pathogen, we demonstrate for the first time that this antimetabolite plays a pivotal role in dysregulating the plant response to infection. PMID:24449489

Coyne, Sébastien; Litomska, Agnieszka; Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Richter, Klaus; Beerhues, Ludger; Hertweck, Christian

2014-02-10

372

Apple proteins that interact with DspA/E, a pathogenicity effector of Erwinia amylovora, the fire blight pathogen.  

PubMed

The disease-specific (dsp) gene dspA/E of Erwinia amylovora encodes an essential pathogenicity effector of 198 kDa, which is critical to the development of the devastating plant disease fire blight. A yeast two-hybrid assay and in vitro protein pull-down assay demonstrated that DspA/E interacts physically and specifically with four similar putative leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like serine/threonine kinases (RLK) from apple, an important host of E. amylovora. The genes encoding these four DspA/E-interacting proteins of Malus xdomestica (DIPM1 to 4) are conserved in all genera of hosts of E. amylovora tested. They also are conserved in all cultivars of apple tested that range in susceptibility to fire blight from highly susceptible to highly resistant. The four DIPMs have been characterized, and they are expressed constitutively in host plants. In silico analysis indicated that the DIPMs have similar sequence structure and resemble LRR RLKs from other organisms. Evidence is presented for direct physical interaction between DspA/E and the apple proteins encoded by the four identified clones, which may act as susceptibility factors and be essential to disease development. Knowledge of DIPMs and the interaction with DspA/E thus may facilitate understanding of fire blight development and lead to new approaches to control of disease. PMID:16404953

Meng, Xiangdong; Bonasera, Jean M; Kim, Jihyun F; Nissinen, Riitta M; Beer, Steven V

2006-01-01

373

Potential for the integration of biological and chemical control of sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani on rice.  

PubMed

Biological control using antagonistic microbes to minimize the use of chemical pesticides has recently become more prevalent. In an attempt to find an integrated control system for sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani in rice, Streptomyces philanthi RM-1-138, commercial formulations of Bacillus subtilis as Larminar® and B. subtilis strain NSRS 89-24+MK-007 as Biobest® and chemical fungicides including carbendazim®, validamycin®, propiconazole® and mancozeb® were applied alone and in combination with S. philanthi RM-1-138. In vitro experiments showed that all treatments tested did provide some control against mycelial growth and sclerotia production by R. solani PTRRS-9. In addition, the four chemical fungicides had no detrimental effects on S. philanthi RM-1-138 even at high concentrations (up to 100 ?g/ml). The efficacy of S. philanthi RM-1-138, the commercial formulations of B. subtilis, chemical fungicides alone or in combination with S. philanthi RM-1-138 was also tested in a greenhouse experiment against sheath blight disease on rice plants. All treatments showed some protection of rice for sheath blight by 47-60 % when carbendazim® was applied alone and up to 74 % when combined with S. philanthi RM-1-138. PMID:23653261

Boukaew, Sawai; Klinmanee, Chanasirin; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

2013-10-01

374

Microfluidics for bacterial chemotaxis  

E-print Network

Bacterial chemotaxis, a remarkable behavioral trait which allows bacteria to sense and respond to chemical gradients in the environment, has implications in a broad range of fields including but not limited to disease ...

Ahmed, Tanvir, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

375

Crystal Structure of the FAD-Containing Ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase from the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri  

PubMed Central

We have solved the structure of ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase, FPR, from the plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, responsible for citrus canker, at a resolution of 1.5?Å. This structure reveals differences in the mobility of specific loops when compared to other FPRs, probably unrelated to the hydride transfer process, which contributes to explaining the structural and functional divergence between the subclass I FPRs. Interactions of the C-terminus of the enzyme with the phosphoadenosine of the cofactor FAD limit its mobility, thus affecting the entrance of nicotinamide into the active site. This structure opens the possibility of rationally designing drugs against the X. axonopodis pv. citri phytopathogen. PMID:23984418

Tondo, Maria Laura; Ceccarelli, Eduardo A.; Medina, Milagros; Orellano, Elena G.; Martinez-Julvez, Marta

2013-01-01

376

Bistability and Bacterial Infections  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infections occur when the natural host defenses are overwhelmed by invading bacteria. The main component of the host defense is impaired when neutrophil count or function is too low, putting the host at great risk of developing an acute infection. In people with intact immune systems, neutrophil count increases during bacterial infection. However, there are two important clinical cases in which they remain constant: a) in patients with neutropenic-associated conditions, such as those undergoing chemotherapy at the nadir (the minimum clinically observable neutrophil level); b) in ex vivo examination of the patient's neutrophil bactericidal activity. Here we study bacterial population dynamics under fixed neutrophil levels by mathematical modelling. We show that under reasonable biological assumptions, there are only two possible scenarios: 1) Bacterial behavior is monostable: it always converges to a stable equilibrium of bacterial concentration which only depends, in a gradual manner, on the neutrophil level (and not on the initial bacterial level). We call such a behavior type I dynamics. 2) The bacterial dynamics is bistable for some range of neutrophil levels. We call such a behavior type II dynamics. In the bistable case (type II), one equilibrium corresponds to a healthy state whereas the other corresponds to a fulminant bacterial infection. We demonstrate that published data of in vitro Staphylococcus epidermidis bactericidal experiments are inconsistent with both the type I dynamics and the commonly used linear model and are consistent with type II dynamics. We argue that type II dynamics is a plausible mechanism for the development of a fulminant infection. PMID:20463954

Malka, Roy; Shochat, Eliezer; Rom-Kedar, Vered

2010-01-01

377

Bistability and bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Bacterial infections occur when the natural host defenses are overwhelmed by invading bacteria. The main component of the host defense is impaired when neutrophil count or function is too low, putting the host at great risk of developing an acute infection. In people with intact immune systems, neutrophil count increases during bacterial infection. However, there are two important clinical cases in which they remain constant: a) in patients with neutropenic-associated conditions, such as those undergoing chemotherapy at the nadir (the minimum clinically observable neutrophil level); b) in ex vivo examination of the patient's neutrophil bactericidal activity. Here we study bacterial population dynamics under fixed neutrophil levels by mathematical modelling. We show that under reasonable biological assumptions, there are only two possible scenarios: 1) Bacterial behavior is monostable: it always converges to a stable equilibrium of bacterial concentration which only depends, in a gradual manner, on the neutrophil level (and not on the initial bacterial level). We call such a behavior type I dynamics. 2) The bacterial dynamics is bistable for some range of neutrophil levels. We call such a behavior type II dynamics. In the bistable case (type II), one equilibrium corresponds to a healthy state whereas the other corresponds to a fulminant bacterial infection. We demonstrate that published data of in vitro Staphylococcus epidermidis bactericidal experiments are inconsistent with both the type I dynamics and the commonly used linear model and are consistent with type II dynamics. We argue that type II dynamics is a plausible mechanism for the development of a fulminant infection. PMID:20463954

Malka, Roy; Shochat, Eliezer; Rom-Kedar, Vered

2010-01-01

378

The role of isoflavone metabolism in plant protection depends on the rhizobacterial MAMP that triggers systemic resistance against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Osumi.  

PubMed

Glycine max (L.) Merr. plays a crucial role in both the field of food and the pharmaceutical industry due to their input as plant protein and to the benefits of isoflavones (IF) for health. In addition, IF play a key role in nodulation and plant defense and therefore, an increase in IF would be desirable for better field performance. IF are secondary metabolites and therefore, inducible, so finding effective agents to increase IF contents is interesting. Among these agents, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been used to trigger systemic induction of plant's secondary metabolism through their microbe associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) that fit in the plant's receptors to start a systemic response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of 4 PGPR that had a contrasted effect on IF metabolism, to protect plants against biotic stress and to establish the relation between IF profile and the systemic response triggered by the bacteria. Apparently, the response involves a lower sensitivity to ethylene and despite the decrease in effective photosynthesis, growth is only compromised in the case of M84, the most effective in protection. All strains protected soybean against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (M84 > N5.18 > Aur9>N21.4) and only M84 and N5.18 involved IF. N5.18 stimulated accumulation of IF before pathogen challenge. M84 caused a significant increase on IF only after pathogen challenge and N21.4 caused a significant increase on IF content irrespective of pathogen challenge. Aur9 did not affect IF. These results point out that all 4 strains have MAMPs that trigger defensive metabolism in soybean. Protection induced by N21.4 and Aur9 involves other metabolites different to IF and the role of IF in defence depends on the previous metabolic status of the plant and on the bacterial MAMP. PMID:24869797

Algar, Elena; Gutierrez-Mañero, F Javier; Garcia-Villaraco, Ana; García-Seco, Daniel; Lucas, J Antonio; Ramos-Solano, Beatriz

2014-09-01

379

Some applications of deoxyribonucleic acid base composition in bacterial taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “melting point”Tm, the mean molar (guanine+cytosine) composition and the compositional distribution of purified DNA from several strains ofXanthomonas, Chromobacterium and yellow-pigmented marine bacteria have been determined. These groups were selected because they had been analyzed adansonially. Ten strains ofXanthomonas had an average molar (guanine+cytosine) composition within the range 66.0–68.2%, which was very close to that ofPseudomonas (60–68%), as expected.

J. De Ley; J. Van Muylem

1963-01-01

380

The Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphate Domain of Xanthomonas campestris Global Regulator Clp Defines a New Class of Cyclic Di-GMP Effectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widely conserved second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) plays a key role in quorum-sensing (QS)-dependent production of virulence factors in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campes- tris. The detection of QS diffusible signal factor (DSF) by the sensor RpfC leads to the activation of response regulator RpfG, which activates virulence gene expression by degrading c-di-GMP. Here, we show that a global

Fei Tao; Ya-Wen He; Dong-Hui Wu; Sanjay Swarup; Lian-Hui Zhang

2010-01-01

381

XopD SUMO Protease Affects Host Transcription, Promotes Pathogen Growth, and Delays Symptom Development in Xanthomonas-Infected Tomato Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate that XopD, a type III effector from Xanthomonas campestris pathovar vesicatoria (Xcv), suppresses symptom production during the late stages of infection in susceptible tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. XopD-dependent delay of tissue degeneration correlates with reduced chlorophyll loss, reduced salicylic acid levels, and changes in the mRNA abundance of senescence- and defense-associated genes despite high pathogen titers. Subsequent structure-function

Jung-Gun Kim; Kyle W. Taylor; Andrew Hotson; Mark Keegan; Eric A. Schmelz; Mary Beth Mudgett

2008-01-01

382

A plant natriuretic peptide-like molecule of the pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri causes rapid changes in the proteome of its citrus host  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) belong to a novel class of peptidic signaling molecules that share some structural similarity to the N-terminal domain of expansins and affect physiological processes such as water and ion homeostasis at nano-molar concentrations. The citrus pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri possesses a PNP-like peptide (XacPNP) uniquely present in this bacteria. Previously we observed that the

Betiana S Garavaglia; Ludivine Thomas; Tamara Zimaro; Natalia Gottig; Lucas D Daurelio; Bongani Ndimba; Elena G Orellano; Jorgelina Ottado; Chris Gehring

2010-01-01

383

Expression analysis and characterization of the mutant of a growth-phase- and starvation-regulated monofunctional catalase gene from Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xp) catalase profile using an activity gel revealed at least two distinct monofunctional catalase isozymes denoted Kat1 and Kat2. Kat1 was expressed throughout growth, whereas Kat2 was expressed only during the stationary phase of growth. The nucleotide sequence of a previously isolated monofunctional catalase gene, Xp katE, was determined. The deduced amino acid

Paiboon Vattanaviboon; Skorn Mongkolsuk

2000-01-01

384

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris secretes the endoglucanases ENGXCA and ENGXCB: construction of an endoglucanase-deficient mutant for industrial xanthan production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris secretes at least two cellulose-degrading endoglucanases. One of these endoglucanases is encoded by the engXCA gene of X. c. pv. campestris 8400 that was previously characterized by Gough et al. [Gene (1990) 89: 53-59]. An additional endoglucanase encoded by the engXCB gene was identified in X. c. pv. campestris 8400 and FC2. The engXCB gene product

K. Schröter; E. Flaschel; A. Pühler; A. Becker

2001-01-01

385

Cloning and Characterization of katA , Encoding the Major Monofunctional Catalase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli and Characterization of the Encoded Catalase KatA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first cloning and characterization of the gene katA, encoding the major catalase (KatA), from Xanthomonas is reported. A reverse genetic approach using a synthesized katA-specific DNA probe to screen a X. campestris pv. phaseoli genomic library was employed. A positively hybridizing clone designated pKat29 that contained a full-length\\u000a katA was isolated. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed an open

Nopmanee Chauvatcharin; Paiboon Vattanaviboon; Jack Switala; Peter C. Loewen; Skorn Mongkolsuk

2003-01-01

386

Urticaria and bacterial infections.  

PubMed

The association between urticaria and infectious diseases has been discussed for >100 years. However, a causal relationship with underlying or precipitating infection is difficult to establish. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic analysis of the published cases of urticaria associated with bacterial infections. We give an umbrella breakdown of up-to-date systematic reviews and other important publications on the complex association of urticaria and bacterial infections. We did a Medline search, for English language articles published until January 2014, using the key words "urticaria" and "bacteria/bacterial disease"; a second analysis was performed in groups of bacteria and using each germ name as a key word. Many bacterial infections have been associated with urticaria manifestation, such as Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Salmonella, Brucella, Mycobacterium leprae, Borrelia, Chlamydia pneumonia, and Yersinia enterocolitica. In some cases the skin manifestations, described as urticaria, could be caused by the presence of the microorganism in the skin, or for the action of their toxins, or to the complement activation mediated by circulating immune complexes. Although only a weak association with urticaria of unclear pathogenesis exists, clinicians should consider these bacterial agents in the workup of the patients with urticaria. The eradication of the infection could, in fact, lead to the resolution of urticaria. Prospective studies and well-structured research are obviously needed to better clarify the real role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence. PMID:24857191

Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Barberi, Giuseppina; Gangemi, Sebastiano

2014-01-01

387

Molecular characterization and screening for sheath blight resistance using Malaysian isolates of Rhizoctonia solani.  

PubMed

Two field isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were isolated from infected paddy plants in Malaysia. These isolates were verified via ITS-rDNA analysis that yielded ~720?bp products of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 region, respectively. The sequenced products showed insertion and substitution incidences which may result in strain diversity and possible variation in disease severity. These strains showed some regional and host-specific relatedness via Maximum Likelihood and further phylogenetic analysis via Maximum Parsimony showed that these strains were closely related to R. solani AG1-1A (with 99-100% identity). Subsequent to strain verification and analysis, these isolates were used in the screening of twenty rice varieties for tolerance or resistance to sheath blight via mycelial plug method where both isolates (1801 and 1802) showed resistance or moderate resistance to Teqing, TETEP, and Jasmine 85. Isolate 1802 was more virulent based on the disease severity index values. This study also showed that the mycelial plug techniques were efficient in providing uniform inoculum and humidity for screening. In addition this study shows that the disease severity index is a better mode of scoring for resistance compared to lesion length. These findings will provide a solid basis for our future breeding and screening activities at the institution. PMID:25258710

Nadarajah, Kalaivani; Omar, Nurfarahana Syuhada; Rosli, Marhamah Md; Shin Tze, Ong

2014-01-01

388

Fusarium head blight control and prevention of mycotoxin contamination in wheat with botanicals and tannic acid.  

PubMed

Suspensions or solutions with 1% of Chinese galls (Galla chinensis, GC) or 1% of tannic acid (TA), inhibited germination of conidia or mycelium growth of Fusarium graminearum (FG) by 98%-100% or by 75%-80%, respectively, whereas dried bark from buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA) showed no effect at this concentration. In climate chamber experiments where the wheat variety "Apogee" was artificially inoculated with FG and F. crookwellense (FCr) and treated with 5% suspensions of TA, GC and FA, the deoxynivalenol (DON) content in grains was reduced by 81%, 67% and 33%, respectively. In field experiments with two commercial wheat varieties and artificial or semi-natural inoculations, mean DON reductions of 66% (TA) and 58% (FA), respectively, were obtained. Antifungal toxicity can explain the high efficacies of TA and GC but not those of FA. The Fusarium head blight (FHB) and mycotoxin reducing effect of FA is probably due to elicitation of resistance in wheat plants. With semi-natural inoculation, a single FA application in the first half of the flowering period performed best. However, we assume that applications of FA at the end of ear emergence and a treatment, triggered by an infection period, with TA or GC during flowering, might perform better than synthetic fungicides. PMID:24577585

Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Musa, Tomke; Schwab, Fabienne; Jenny, Eveline; Bucheli, Thomas D; Wettstein, Felix E; Vogelgsang, Susanne

2014-03-01

389

Identification of novel QTL for resistance to Fusarium head blight in a tetraploid wheat population.  

PubMed

Most tetraploid durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L var. durum) cultivars are susceptible to Fusarium head blight (FHB). This study reports novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with FHB resistance. A backcross recombinant inbred line (BCRIL) population was developed from the cross BGRC3487/2*DT735, and 160 lines were evaluated for resistance to Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (teleomorph Gibberella zeae (Schwein. Petch) in field trials over 3 years (2008-2010) and to a F. graminearum 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON) chemotype in greenhouse trials. The population was genotyped with 948 polymorphic loci using DArT and microsatellite markers. Eleven QTL were associated with FHB resistance under field conditions on chromosomes 2A, 3B, 5A, 5B, 7A, and 7B. Two of these, QFhb.usw-3B from BGRC3487 and QFhb.usw-7A2, were consistently detected over environments. The QFhb.usw-3B QTL was in a similar position to a resistance QTL in hexaploid wheat. The combination of the two QTL reduced field index by 53.5%-86.2%. Two QTL for resistance to the 3-ADON chemotype were detected on chromosomes 1B and 4B. Both BGRC3487 and DT735 could provide new sources of FHB resistance and the combination of QTL reported here could be valuable tools in breeding FHB-resistant durum wheat. PMID:23231604

Ruan, Yuefeng; Comeau, André; Langevin, François; Hucl, Pierre; Clarke, John M; Brule-Babel, Anita; Pozniak, Curtis J

2012-12-01

390

Fusarium Head Blight Control and Prevention of Mycotoxin Contamination in Wheat with Botanicals and Tannic Acid  

PubMed Central

Suspensions or solutions with 1% of Chinese galls (Galla chinensis, GC) or 1% of tannic acid (TA), inhibited germination of conidia or mycelium growth of Fusarium graminearum (FG) by 98%–100% or by 75%–80%, respectively, whereas dried bark from buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA) showed no effect at this concentration. In climate chamber experiments where the wheat variety “Apogee” was artificially inoculated with FG and F. crookwellense (FCr) and treated with 5% suspensions of TA, GC and FA, the deoxynivalenol (DON) content in grains was reduced by 81%, 67% and 33%, respectively. In field experiments with two commercial wheat varieties and artificial or semi-natural inoculations, mean DON reductions of 66% (TA) and 58% (FA), respectively, were obtained. Antifungal toxicity can explain the high efficacies of TA and GC but not those of FA. The Fusarium head blight (FHB) and mycotoxin reducing effect of FA is probably due to elicitation of resistance in wheat plants. With semi-natural inoculation, a single FA application in the first half of the flowering period performed best. However, we assume that applications of FA at the end of ear emergence and a treatment, triggered by an infection period, with TA or GC during flowering, might perform better than synthetic fungicides. PMID:24577585

Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Musa, Tomke; Schwab, Fabienne; Jenny, Eveline; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Wettstein, Felix E.; Vogelgsang, Susanne

2014-01-01

391

Molecular Characterization and Screening for Sheath Blight Resistance Using Malaysian Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani  

PubMed Central

Two field isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were isolated from infected paddy plants in Malaysia. These isolates were verified via ITS-rDNA analysis that yielded ~720?bp products of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 region, respectively. The sequenced products showed insertion and substitution incidences which may result in strain diversity and possible variation in disease severity. These strains showed some regional and host-specific relatedness via Maximum Likelihood and further phylogenetic analysis via Maximum Parsimony showed that these strains were closely related to R. solani AG1-1A (with 99-100% identity). Subsequent to strain verification and analysis, these isolates were used in the screening of twenty rice varieties for tolerance or resistance to sheath blight via mycelial plug method where both isolates (1801 and 1802) showed resistance or moderate resistance to Teqing, TETEP, and Jasmine 85. Isolate 1802 was more virulent based on the disease severity index values. This study also showed that the mycelial plug techniques were efficient in providing uniform inoculum and humidity for screening. In addition this study shows that the disease severity index is a better mode of scoring for resistance compared to lesion length. These findings will provide a solid basis for our future breeding and screening activities at the institution. PMID:25258710

Rosli, Marhamah Md.; Shin Tze, Ong

2014-01-01

392

Wheat Fusarium head blight and identification of dominant species in Moghan area, Iran.  

PubMed

In order to identify of head blight agents in Moghan area and determine predominant species, totally 60 samples from affected wheat heads of Atila 4, Zagros, Goadloop, Izen green and Gasquine cultivars that cultivated during 2004-2005, were collected from randomly selected commercial wheat fields in Moghan. Twenty randomly selected kernels and glumes from each sample were surface sterilized and were planted on synthesized nutrient agar medium (SNA), potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Nash-Snyder medium (NA) plates. Culture plates were incubated at 22 to 25 C with a 12-h photoperiod provided by fluorescent and ultra violet lights. For the species identification, cultures were incubated for 5 to 15 days on PDA plates to induce sporulation under light and temperature previously described. Single conidial isolates were obtained by spreading a conidial suspension across a water agar culture plate and transferring a single germinated conidium to a new PDA culture plates. Single spore cultures were grown on Carnation leaf agar (CLA) for spore morphology assessment and on PDA for color assessment. All species were identified based on descriptions given in Burgess et. al. and Nelson et al. The results indicated that in addition Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum were identified as wheat FHB agents in Moghan area and F. graminearum was dominant species in Moghan area. Also severe infection was determined in Atila 4 cultivar by F. graminearum. PMID:17390870

Davari, M; Didar-Taleshmkaeil, R; Hajieghrari, B

2006-01-01

393

Invasion genetics of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Cryphonectria parasitica is the best-known example of an invasive forest pathogen in Europe. In southern Switzerland, chestnut blight was first reported in 1948 whereas, north of the Alps, it did not appear until the 1980s. Between 1995 and 2008, we sampled 640 C. parasitica isolates from nine populations south of the Alps and nine north of the Alps. Twelve historical isolates, collected between 1950 and 1972 in the south, were obtained from our collection. All 652 isolates were screened at 10 microsatellite loci to test for the existence of divergent genetic pools and to infer possible origins of haplotypes. In total, 52 haplotypes were identified. Structure software analysis indicated that 43 haplotypes (including all historical haplotypes) belonged to a main cluster, 6 haplotypes belonged to a different cluster, and 3 haplotypes had an intermediate allele pattern. All newly founded populations in northern Switzerland were initiated by one or just a few haplotypes from the main cluster, which probably came directly from the populations south of the Alps. Subsequently, genetic diversity increased through mutations, sexual reproduction, or new migrations. The highest increase in diversity was observed in populations where haplotypes from different genetic pools were encountered. PMID:21848397

Prospero, S; Rigling, D

2012-01-01

394

A Hydrophobin of the Chestnut Blight Fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, Is Required for Stromal Pustule Eruption  

PubMed Central

Hydrophobins are abundant small hydrophobic proteins that are present on the surfaces of many filamentous fungi. The chestnut blight pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica was shown to produce a class II hydrophobin, cryparin. Cryparin is the most abundant protein produced by this fungus when grown in liquid culture. When the fungus is growing on chestnut trees, cryparin is found only in the fungal fruiting body walls. Deletion of the gene encoding cryparin resulted in a culture phenotype typical of hydrophobin deletion mutants of other fungi, i.e., easily wettable (nonhydrophobic) hyphae. When grown on the natural substrate of the fungus, however, cryparin-null mutation strains were unable to normally produce its fungal fruiting bodies. Although the stromal pustules showed normal development initially, they were unable to erupt through the bark of the tree. The hydrophobin cryparin thus plays an essential role in the fitness of this important plant pathogen by facilitating the eruption of the fungal fruiting bodies through the bark of its host tree. PMID:15879527

Kazmierczak, Pam; Kim, Dae Hyuk; Turina, Massimo; Van Alfen, Neal K.

2005-01-01

395

Antifungal compounds from Melia azedarach leaves for management of Ascochyta rabiei, the cause of chickpea blight.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of Melia azedarach L. leaves was investigated against Ascochyta rabiei (Pass.) Lab., the cause of destructive blight disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Bioassay guided fractionation revealed that the chloroform fraction of the methanolic extract of M. azedarach leaves was highly effective against A. rabiei. Six compounds, namely ?-sitosterol (1), ?-amyrin (2), ursolic acid (3), benzoic acid (4), 3,5 dimethoxybenzoic acid (5) and maesol (6) were isolated from the chloroform fraction through column chromatography. The in vitro antifungal activity of compounds 2-5 was evaluated against A. rabiei. A commercial fungicide, mancozeb, was used as a positive control. Different concentrations of mancozeb and the isolated compounds, ranging from 0.0039 to 4 mg mL(-1), were used in the antifungal bioassay, and data regarding minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was recorded 24, 48 and 72 h after incubation. All concentrations of mancozeb inhibited the fungal spore germination at all three incubation periods. The tested compounds exhibited variable antifungal activity against the target fungal pathogens. All compounds showed their highest antifungal activity after 24 h of incubation. Compound 2 was found to be the most effective, with an MIC of 0.0156 mg mL(-1), followed by compounds 3, 4 and 5, with MIC values of 0.0312, 0.25 and 0.125 mg mL(-1), respectively. PMID:20628965

Jabeen, Khajista; Javaid, Arshad; Ahmad, Ejaz; Athar, Makshoof

2011-02-01

396

Profiling the secretome and extracellular proteome of the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans.  

PubMed

Oomycetes are filamentous organisms that cause notorious diseases, several of which have a high economic impact. Well known is Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Previously, in silico analyses of the genome and transcriptome of P. infestans resulted in the annotation of a large number of genes encoding proteins with an N-terminal signal peptide. This set is collectively referred to as the secretome and comprises proteins involved in, for example, cell wall growth and modification, proteolytic processes, and the promotion of successful invasion of plant cells. So far, proteomic profiling in oomycetes was primarily focused on subcellular, intracellular or cell wall fractions; the extracellular proteome has not been studied systematically. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the in vivo secretome and extracellular proteome of P. infestans. We have used mass spectrometry to analyze P. infestans proteins present in seven different growth media with mycelial cultures and this resulted in the consistent identification of over two hundred proteins. Gene ontology classification pinpointed proteins involved in cell wall modifications, pathogenesis, defense responses, and proteolytic processes. Moreover, we found members of the RXLR and CRN effector families as well as several proteins lacking an obvious signal peptide. The latter were confirmed to be bona fide extracellular proteins and this suggests that, similar to other organisms, oomycetes exploit non-conventional secretion mechanisms to transfer certain proteins to the extracellular environment. PMID:24872595

Meijer, Harold J G; Mancuso, Francesco M; Espadas, Guadalupe; Seidl, Michael F; Chiva, Cristina; Govers, Francine; Sabidó, Eduard

2014-08-01

397

Is an Unprecedented Dothistroma Needle Blight Epidemic Related to Climate Change?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the relation between disease dispersal and climate change. Dothistroma needle blight, caused by the fungus Dothistroma septosporum, is a major pest of pine plantations in the Southern Hemisphere, where both the host and the pathogen have been introduced. In northern temperate forests where the pest and host trees are native, damage levels have historically been low; however, Dothistroma is currently causing extensive defoliation and mortality in plantations of lodgepole pine in northwestern British Columbia, Canada. The severity of the disease is such that mature lodgepole pine trees in the area are succumbing, which is an unprecedented occurrence. This raises the question of whether climate change might enable the spread of the disease by surpassing an environmental threshold that has previously restricted the pathogen's development in northern temperate regions. Establishing a causal relationship between climate change and local biological trends is usually difficult, but we found a clear mechanistic relationship between an observed climate trend and the host-pathogen interaction. A local increase in summer precipitation, not climate warming, appears to be responsible. We examine whether the recently observed climate change trend exceeds natural fluctuations in the local climate.

ALEX WOODS, K. DAVID COATES, and ANDREAS HAMANN (;)

2005-09-01

398

Antagonistic potential of native strain Streptomyces aurantiogriseus VSMGT1014 against sheath blight of rice disease.  

PubMed

A total of 132 actinomycetes was isolated from different rice rhizosphere soils of Tamil Nadu, India, among which 57 showed antagonistic activity towards Rhizoctonia solani, which is sheath blight (ShB) pathogen of rice and other fungal pathogens such as Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium udum and Alternaria alternata with a variable zone of inhibition. Potential actinomycete strain VSMGT1014 was identified as Streptomyces aurantiogriseus VSMGT1014 based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The strain VSMGT1014 produced lytic enzymes, secondary metabolites, siderophore, volatile substance and indole acetic acid. Crude metabolites of VSMGT1014 showed activity against R. solani at 5 µg ml(-1); however, the prominent inhibition zone was observed from 40 to 100 µg ml(-1). Reduced lesion heights observed in culture, cells-free filtrate, crude metabolites and carbendazim on challenge with pathogen in the detached leaf assay. The high content screening test clearly indicated denucleation of R. solani at 5 µg ml(-1) treatment of crude metabolite and carbendazim respectively. The results conclude that strain VSMGT1014 was found to be a potential candidate for the control of ShB of rice as a bio fungicide. PMID:25304022

Harikrishnan, Hariharan; Shanmugaiah, Vellasamy; Balasubramanian, Natesan; Sharma, Mahaveer P; Kotchoni, Simeon O

2014-12-01

399

Determinants of eukaryal cell killing by the bacterial ribotoxin PrrC.  

PubMed

tRNA damage inflicted by the Escherichia coli anticodon nuclease PrrC (EcoPrrC) underlies an antiviral response to phage T4 infection. PrrC homologs are present in many bacterial proteomes, though their biological activities are uncharted. PrrCs consist of two domains: an N-terminal NTPase module related to the ABC family and a distinctive C-terminal ribonuclease module. In this article, we report that the expression of EcoPrrC in budding yeast is fungicidal, signifying that PrrC is toxic in a eukaryon in the absence of other bacterial or viral proteins. Whereas Streptococcus PrrC is also toxic in yeast, Neisseria and Xanthomonas PrrCs are not. Via analysis of the effects of 118 mutations on EcoPrrC toxicity in yeast, we identified 22 essential residues in the NTPase domain and 11 in the nuclease domain. Overexpressing PrrCs with mutations in the NTPase active site ameliorated the toxicity of wild-type EcoPrrC. Our findings support a model in which EcoPrrC toxicity is contingent on head-to-tail dimerization of the NTPase domains to form two composite NTP phosphohydrolase sites. Comparisons of EcoPrrC activity in a variety of yeast genetic backgrounds, and the rescuing effects of tRNA overexpression, implicate tRNA(Lys(UUU)) as a target of EcoPrrC toxicity in yeast. PMID:20855293

Meineke, Birthe; Schwer, Beate; Schaffrath, Raffael; Shuman, Stewart

2011-01-01

400

Transgenic expression of the rice Xa21 pattern-recognition receptor in banana (Musa sp.) confers resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum.  

PubMed

Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW), caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm), is the most devastating disease of banana in east and central Africa. The spread of BXW threatens the livelihood of millions of African farmers who depend on banana for food security and income. There are no commercial chemicals, biocontrol agents or resistant cultivars available to control BXW. Here, we take advantage of the robust resistance conferred by the rice pattern-recognition receptor (PRR), XA21, to the rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We identified a set of genes required for activation of Xa21-mediated immunity (rax) that were conserved in both Xoo and Xcm. Based on the conservation, we hypothesized that intergeneric transfer of Xa21 would confer resistance to Xcm. We evaluated 25 transgenic lines of the banana cultivar 'Gonja manjaya' (AAB) using a rapid bioassay and 12 transgenic lines in the glasshouse for resistance against Xcm. About 50% of the transgenic lines showed complete resistance to Xcm in both assays. In contrast, all of the nontransgenic control plants showed severe symptoms that progressed to complete wilting. These results indicate that the constitutive expression of the rice Xa21 gene in banana results in enhanced resistance against Xcm. Furthermore, this work demonstrates the feasibility of PRR gene transfer between monocotyledonous species and provides a valuable new tool for controlling the BXW pandemic of banana, a staple food for 100 million people in east Africa. PMID:24612254

Tripathi, Jaindra N; Lorenzen, Jim; Bahar, Ofir; Ronald, Pamela; Tripathi, Leena

2014-08-01

401

Breaking the DNA-binding code of Ralstonia solanacearum TAL effectors provides new possibilities to generate plant resistance genes against bacterial wilt disease.  

PubMed

Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating bacterial phytopathogen with a broad host range. Ralstonia solanacearum injected effector proteins (Rips) are key to the successful invasion of host plants. We have characterized Brg11(hrpB-regulated 11), the first identified member of a class of Rips with high sequence similarity to the transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors of Xanthomonas spp., collectively termed RipTALs. Fluorescence microscopy of in planta expressed RipTALs showed nuclear localization. Domain swaps between Brg11 and Xanthomonas TAL effector (TALE) AvrBs3 (avirulence protein triggering Bs3 resistance) showed the functional interchangeability of DNA-binding and transcriptional activation domains. PCR was used to determine the sequence of brg11 homologs from strains infecting phylogenetically diverse host plants. Brg11 localizes to the nucleus and activates promoters containing a matching effector-binding element (EBE). Brg11 and homologs preferentially activate promoters containing EBEs with a 5' terminal guanine, contrasting with the TALE preference for a 5' thymine. Brg11 and other RipTALs probably promote disease through the transcriptional activation of host genes. Brg11 and the majority of homologs identified in this study were shown to activate similar or identical target sequences, in contrast to TALEs, which generally show highly diverse target preferences. This information provides new options for the engineering of plants resistant to R. solanacearum. PMID:23692030

de Lange, Orlando; Schreiber, Tom; Schandry, Niklas; Radeck, Jara; Braun, Karl Heinz; Koszinowski, Julia; Heuer, Holger; Strauß, Annett; Lahaye, Thomas

2013-08-01

402

Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Bacterial vaginosis is a clinical condition caused by replacement of the normal hydrogen peroxide producing Lactobacillus sp. in the vagina with high concentrations of characteristic sets of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial vaginosis is the most prevalent cause of vaginal discharge or malodor, although 50 percent of women who meet the criteria for this condition are asymptomatic. Bacterial vaginosis is reported in 10 to 41 percent of women, and new evidence has shown association with maternal and fetal morbidity. Studies have shown that spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, premature birth, preterm premature rupture of the membranes, amniotic fluid infection, postpartum endometritis, and postcesarean wound infections are increased because of infection with bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy. Clinical trials demonstrated important reductions in many of these adverse events with appropriate screening and antimicrobial treatment protocols. New low-cost, diagnostic, point-of-care screening tools are available for rapid screening of patients, affording the physician the opportunity to potentially make a dramatic clinical and cost impact in preventing preterm birth and the costly sequelae of prematurity. Practicing physicians need to be aware of current guidelines for screening and treating pregnant patients for bacterial vaginosis. The authors recommend that all pregnant women be screened and treated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-P) recommended oral regimens early in pregnancy. Each treated women should be evaluated for "test of cure" 1 month after treatment. Mothers likely to benefit from "screen and treat" approaches include 1) those with the highest concentrations of genital anaerobes and mycoplasmas, 2) women with prior preterm birth or who have low body mass (BMI < 19.8 kg/m2), 3) those with evidence of endometritis before pregnancy, and 4) those who are treated with oral agents effective for both presumed intrauterine mycoplasmas and other bacterial vaginosis flora (i.e., oral clindamycin or erythromycin and metronidazole). PMID:10804540

McGregor, J A; French, J I

2000-05-01