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Sample records for bacterial dermatitis staphylococcus

  1. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Asthma Food Allergy Immune System Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ​ Javascript ... atopic dermatitis. Bacterial Infections Scanning electron micrograph of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Credit: NIAID A major health risk ...

  2. Food compounds inhibit Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and the toxicity of Staphylococcus Enterotoxin A (SEA) associated with atopic dermatitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atopic dermatitis or eczema is characterized by skin rashes and itching is an inflammatory disease that affects 10-20% of children and 1-3% of adults. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are present on the skin of nearly all patients with atopic dermatitis. Antibiotics that suppress colonization of S. au...

  3. Digital Dermatitis in Cattle: Current Bacterial and Immunological Findings.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H; Alt, David P; Nally, Jarlath E

    2015-01-01

    Globally; digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined; the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous species of treponemes; in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. The goal of this review article is to provide an overview of the current literature; focusing on discussion of the polybacterial nature of the digital dermatitis disease complex and host immune response. Several phylotypes of treponemes have been identified; some of which correlate with location in the lesion and some with stages of lesion development. Local innate immune responses may contribute to the proliferative, inflammatory conditions that perpetuate digital dermatitis lesions. While serum antibody is produced to bacterial antigens in the lesions, little is known about cellular-based immunity. Studies are still required to delineate the pathogenic traits of treponemes associated with digital dermatitis; and other host factors that mediate pathology and protection of digital dermatitis lesions. PMID:26569318

  4. Digital Dermatitis in Cattle: Current Bacterial and Immunological Findings

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H.; Alt, David P.; Nally, Jarlath E.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Digital dermatitis causes lameness in cattle. Numerous studies have identified multiple bacteria associated with these painful lesions. Several types of a spiral shaped bacteria, Treponema species, are thought to play a role in disease development. Little is known about the immune response to bacteria involved in digital dermatitis. Local inflammatory cells can contribute to the non-healing nature of the disease. Animal models of infection are required to develop effective vaccines and treatments. Abstract Globally; digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined; the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous species of treponemes; in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. The goal of this review article is to provide an overview of the current literature; focusing on discussion of the polybacterial nature of the digital dermatitis disease complex and host immune response. Several phylotypes of treponemes have been identified; some of which correlate with location in the lesion and some with stages of lesion development. Local innate immune responses may contribute to the proliferative, inflammatory conditions that perpetuate digital dermatitis lesions. While serum antibody is produced to bacterial antigens in the lesions, little is known about cellular-based immunity. Studies are still required to delineate the pathogenic traits of treponemes associated with digital dermatitis; and other host factors that mediate pathology and protection of digital dermatitis lesions. PMID:26569318

  5. Pattern of Bacterial Colonization of Atopic Dermatitis in Saudi Children

    PubMed Central

    Bilal, Jalal Ali; Ahmad, Mohammad Issa; Robaee, Ahmad A. Al; Alzolibani, Abdullateef A.; Shobaili, Hani A. Al; Al-Khowailed, Mohammed Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disorder. Although it is not a life threatening condition, it may become infected with microorganisms, especially in children. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine bacterial colonisation in children with atopic dermatitis. Methods: A total of 80 children were randomly included in this study. Two swabs were taken from each child, one from the eczematous skin lesion and the other from apparently healthy skin, as a control. Bacteria were isolated and identified on the basis of the colonial morphology, gram staining and the Vitek System. Results: The mean age of children in this study was 1.4 years, with no gender difference (p=0.98) (n=80). A total of 240 bacterial colonies were grown from atopic dermatitis lesions in contrast to 193 colonies from non–lesional skin. Gram–positive cocci were found in 78 (97.5%) lesions and in 77 (96.2%) non–lesional skin. Staphylococci species were significantly detected in the lesions than in the non–lesional skin. Ent. Faecalis, Ent. Faecium, Ent. gallinarium and C. minutissium were significantly isolated from lesions as compared to non–lesional skin, whereas C. xerosis was insignificantly found to be more in the lesions (p=0.21). Gram–negative bacteria were isolated from 7(8.8%) lesions, but none were isolated from non–lesional skin. Recovered species were Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacter cloacae, Chryseobacterium indologenes and Acinetobacter Iwoffii. Conclusion: Atopic dermatitis in children is complicated with streptococcal and gram–negative bacterial colonisations and the latter was correlated with the severity of the lesions. Enterococci and Corynebacterium species were significant residents. S. aureus remained the chief inhabitant. No causal relationship could be established between the skin microbiota and atopic dermatitis. PMID:24179911

  6. Comprehensive pyrosequencing analysis of the bacterial microbiota of the skin of patients with seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akiomi; Cho, Otomi; Saito, Chie; Saito, Mami; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Sugita, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic inflammatory dermatologic condition in which erythema and itching develop on areas of the body with sebaceous glands, such as the scalp, face and chest. The inflammation is evoked directly by oleic acid, which is hydrolyzed from sebum by lipases secreted by skin microorganisms. Although the skin fungal genus, Malassezia, is thought to be the causative agent of SD, analysis of the bacterial microbiota of skin samples of patients with SD is necessary to clarify any association with Malassezia because the skin microbiota comprises diverse bacterial and fungal genera. In the present study, bacterial microbiotas were analyzed at non-lesional and lesional sites of 24 patients with SD by pyrosequencing and qPCR. Principal coordinate analysis revealed clear separation between the microbiota of non-lesional and lesional sites. Acinetobacter, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Propionibacterium were abundant at both sites. Propionibacterium was abundant at non-lesional sites, whereas Acinetobacter, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus predominated at lesional sites; however, the extent of Propionibacterium colonization did not differ significantly between lesional and non-lesional sites according to qPCR. Given that these abundant bacteria hydrolyze sebum, they may also contribute to SD development. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial microbiotas of the skin of SD patients. PMID:27301664

  7. Antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial isolates from cases of canine dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ghidini, Francesca; Piancastelli, Chiara; Taddei, Simone; Gandolfo, Emanuele; Cavirani, Sandro; Cabassi, Clotilde Silvia

    2011-10-01

    Among 97 bacterial isolates, 74 strains of Staphylococcus spp developed from 95 swabs taken from skin lesions in dogs. Twenty-eight staphylococcal strains resistant to methicillin and/or oxacillin were identified and mecA expression was confirmed for 14 of these strains. S. aureus and S. intermedius group (SIG) strains were particularly relevant in our cases due to their antibiotic resistance leading to an increased veterinary and public health risk. We suggest a diagnostic protocol based on cytological examination, bacterial identification to species level, and antibiotic sensitivity testing prior to prescribing antibiotic treatment for canine skin diseases. PMID:22143814

  8. A retrospective analysis of skin bacterial colonisation, susceptibility and resistance in atopic dermatitis and impetigo patients.

    PubMed

    Salah, Louai A; Faergemann, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and impetigo are skin conditions where bacterial colonisation and infection, especially with Staphylococcus aureus play an important role. We compared skin bacterial population, resistance patterns and choice of antimicrobial agents in patients diagnosed with AD and impetigo during 2005 and 2011 in our department. Number of positive cultures in the AD group were 40 and 53 in 2005 and 2011, with S. aureus found in 97.5% and 100%, respectively. Differences in resistance were marginal. In impetigo, S. aureus was found in all 70 patients in 2005 and all 40 patients in 2011. Antibiotic resistance to specifically fusidic acid was more common in 2005 impetigo patients (22.8%) versus 2011 (5%) (p = 0.078). The most commonly used oral antimicrobial was cefadroxil (in 57.5% and 52.8% of AD and 58.6% and 35% of impetigo patients in 2005 and 2011, respectively). Our observations confirm the high prevalence of S. aureus in both diseases and, interestingly, show a declining resistance trend in impetigo. PMID:25367860

  9. Comparative Proteomic Profiling of Atopic Dermatitis Patients Based on History of Eczema Herpeticum Infection and Staphylococcus aureus Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Broccardo, Carolyn J; Mahaffey, Spencer; Schwarz, John; Wruck, Lisa; David, Gloria; Schlievert, Patrick M; Reisdorph, Nichole A; Leung, Donald YM

    2010-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is the most common inflammatory skin disorder in the general population worldwide and the majority of patients are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Eczema herpeticum is a disseminated herpes simplex virus infection that occurs in a small subset of patients. Objectives The goal was to conduct proteomic profiling of atopic dermatitis patients based on Staphylococcus aureus colonization status and history of eczema herpeticum. We hoped to identify new biomarkers for improved diagnosis and prediction of eczema herpeticum and Staphylococcus aureus susceptibility, and to generate new hypotheses regarding disease pathogenesis. Methods Skin taping was performed on nonlesional skin of non-atopic controls and on lesional and nonlesional skin of atopic dermatitis patients. Subjects were classified according to history of eczema herpeticum and Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Proteins were analyzed using mass spectrometry; diagnostic groups were compared for statistically significant differences in protein expression. Results Proteins related to the skin barrier (filaggrin-2, corneodesmosin, desmoglein-1, desmocollin-1, and transglutaminase-3) and generation of natural moisturizing factor (arginase-1, caspase-14, gamma-glutamyl cyclotransferase) were expressed at significantly lower levels in lesional versus nonlesional sites of atopic dermatitis patients with and without history of eczema herpeticum; epidermal fatty acid binding protein was expressed at significantly higher levels in patients with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion This non-invasive, semi-quantitative profiling method has revealed novel proteins likely involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. The lower expression of skin barrier proteins and enzymes involved in the generation of the natural moisturizing factor could further exacerbate barrier defects and perpetuate water loss from the skin. The greater expression of epidermal fatty acid

  10. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Ocular Infection after Corneal Cross-Linking for Keratoconus: Potential Association with Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Fasciani, Romina; Agresta, Antonio; Caristia, Alice; Mosca, Luigi; Scupola, Andrea; Caporossi, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report the risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ocular infection after UVA-riboflavin corneal collagen cross-linking in a patient with atopic dermatitis. Methods. A 22-year-old man, with bilateral evolutive keratoconus and atopic dermatitis, underwent UVA-riboflavin corneal cross-linking and presented with rapidly progressive corneal abscesses and cyclitis in the treated eye five days after surgery. The patient was admitted to the hospital and treated with broad-spectrum antimicrobic therapy. Results. The patient had positive cultures for MRSA, exhibiting a strong resistance to antibiotics. Antibiotic therapy was modified and targeted accordingly. The intravitreal reaction is extinguished, but severe damage of ocular structures was unavoidable. Conclusion. Riboflavin/UVA corneal cross-linking is considered a safe procedure and is extremely effective in halting keratoconus' progression. However, this procedure is not devoid of infectious complications, due to known risk factors and/or poor patients' hygiene compliance in the postoperative period. Atopic dermatitis is a common disease among patients with keratoconus and Staphylococcus aureus colonization is commonly found in patients with atopic dermatitis. Therefore, comorbidity with atopic dermatitis should be thoroughly assessed through clinical history before surgery. A clinical evaluation within three days after surgery and the imposition of strict personal hygiene rules are strongly recommended. PMID:25866692

  11. Staphylococcus aureus genomic pattern and atopic dermatitis: may factors other than superantigens be involved?

    PubMed

    Rojo, A; Aguinaga, A; Monecke, S; Yuste, J R; Gastaminza, G; España, A

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the genotypic profiles of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and from control subjects, and to study the relationship between clinical severity, immune response, and genomic pattern of S. aureus isolated from AD patients. We selected 32 patients with AD and S. aureus skin colonization and 31 atopic controls with no history of AD who where asymptomatic carriers of S. aureus. Microarray-based genotyping was performed on S. aureus isolates. In AD patients, clinical severity was assessed using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis index and total IgE levels and staphylococcal superantigen-specific IgE levels (SEA, SEB, SEC, TSST1) were determined. The genes lukE, lukD, splA, splB, ssl8, and sasG were more frequent in isolates from AD patients. CC30 was more common in isolates from atopic controls than in AD patients. There was a correlation between total IgE and clinical severity, but an association between clinical severity, immune response, and the presence of S. aureus superantigen genes, including enterotoxin genes, could not be demonstrated. Finally, a correlation was found between AD severity and other S. aureus genes, such as sasG and scn. S. aureus factors besides superantigens could be related to the worsening and onset of AD. PMID:24162256

  12. Digital dermatitis in cattle: current bacterial and immunological findings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, digital dermatitis is a leading form of lameness observed in production dairy cattle. While the precise etiology remains to be determined, the disease is clearly associated with infection by numerous Treponema species in addition to other anaerobic bacteria. Multiple treponeme phylotypes, ...

  13. The effect of antibacterial soap with 1.5% triclocarban on Staphylococcus aureus in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Breneman, D L; Hanifin, J M; Berge, C A; Keswick, B H; Neumann, P B

    2000-10-01

    This double-blind study determined whether daily bathing with an antibacterial soap would reduce the number of Staphylococcus aureus on the skin and result in clinical improvement of atopic dermatitis. For 9 weeks, 50 patients with moderately severe atopic dermatitis bathed daily with either an antimicrobial soap containing 1.5% triclocarban or the placebo soap. They also used a nonmedicated moisturizer and 0.025% triamcinolone acetonide cream as needed, but the availability of the corticosteroid cream was discontinued after 6 weeks. The antimicrobial soap regimen caused significantly greater improvement in the severity and extent of skin lesions than the placebo soap regimen, which correlated with reductions both in S aureus in patients with positive cultures at baseline and in total aerobic organisms. Outcome measures included reductions in S aureus, total aerobic organisms, and dermatologic assessments. Overall, daily bathing with an antibacterial soap was well tolerated, provided clinical improvement, and reduced levels of skin microorganisms. PMID:11109156

  14. Superantigens Modulate Bacterial Density during Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Stacey X; Kasper, Katherine J; Zeppa, Joseph J; McCormick, John K

    2015-05-01

    Superantigens (SAgs) are potent microbial toxins that function to activate large numbers of T cells in a T cell receptor (TCR) Vβ-specific manner, resulting in excessive immune system activation. Staphylococcus aureus possesses a large repertoire of distinct SAgs, and in the context of host-pathogen interactions, staphylococcal SAg research has focused primarily on the role of these toxins in severe and invasive diseases. However, the contribution of SAgs to colonization by S. aureus remains unclear. We developed a two-week nasal colonization model using SAg-sensitive transgenic mice expressing HLA-DR4, and evaluated the role of SAgs using two well-studied stains of S. aureus. S. aureus Newman produces relatively low levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), and although we did not detect significant TCR-Vβ specific changes during wild-type S. aureus Newman colonization, S. aureus Newman Δsea established transiently higher bacterial loads in the nose. S. aureus COL produces relatively high levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and colonization with wild-type S. aureus COL resulted in clear Vβ8-specific T cell skewing responses. S. aureus COL Δseb established consistently higher bacterial loads in the nose. These data suggest that staphylococcal SAgs may be involved in regulating bacterial densities during nasal colonization. PMID:26008236

  15. Superantigens Modulate Bacterial Density during Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Stacey X.; Kasper, Katherine J.; Zeppa, Joseph J.; McCormick, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Superantigens (SAgs) are potent microbial toxins that function to activate large numbers of T cells in a T cell receptor (TCR) Vβ-specific manner, resulting in excessive immune system activation. Staphylococcus aureus possesses a large repertoire of distinct SAgs, and in the context of host-pathogen interactions, staphylococcal SAg research has focused primarily on the role of these toxins in severe and invasive diseases. However, the contribution of SAgs to colonization by S. aureus remains unclear. We developed a two-week nasal colonization model using SAg-sensitive transgenic mice expressing HLA-DR4, and evaluated the role of SAgs using two well-studied stains of S. aureus. S. aureus Newman produces relatively low levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), and although we did not detect significant TCR-Vβ specific changes during wild-type S. aureus Newman colonization, S. aureus Newman Δsea established transiently higher bacterial loads in the nose. S. aureus COL produces relatively high levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), and colonization with wild-type S. aureus COL resulted in clear Vβ8-specific T cell skewing responses. S. aureus COL Δseb established consistently higher bacterial loads in the nose. These data suggest that staphylococcal SAgs may be involved in regulating bacterial densities during nasal colonization. PMID:26008236

  16. Fabrics for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mason, Rupert

    2008-01-01

    The type of fabric worn by sufferers from atopic dermatitis should not exacerbate the condition but, if possible, help to control it. Synthetic fabrics and wool tend to produce itching and irritate the skin. Cotton is traditionally recommended but its structure contains short fibres which expand and contract, causing a rubbing movement that can irritate delicate skin. Dyes used in cotton garments can increase the potential of a sensitivity reaction. Cotton is also prone to bacterial and fungal attack. Silk garments are often closely woven which impedes the flow of air, and some people are allergic to the sericin protein in silk. Published studies suggest that a specially treated silk material (DermaSilk), which is loosely knitted, has had the sericin removed and has a microbial agent (AEM 5772/5) permanently bonded to it, is well tolerated and has beneficial effects on the skin of children and adults with atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis often becomes infected, commonly with Staphylococcus aureus. Some studies have investigated the use of clothing materials impregnated with substances such as silver, which has antimicrobial properties. However, these are still unproven and there are concerns about bacterial resistance and the local and environmental effects of silver. The use of the antimicrobial AEM 5772/5, which does not transfer to the skin of the patient, is a new development in the control of atopic dermatitis. Further studies are needed to determine whether an antimicrobial shield bonded to clothing material will reduce the colonisation of atopic skin by S. aureus. PMID:18512638

  17. Staphylococcus aureus α toxin potentiates opportunistic bacterial lung infections.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Taylor S; Hilliard, Jamese J; Jones-Nelson, Omari; Keller, Ashley E; O'Day, Terrence; Tkaczyk, Christine; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Hamilton, Melissa; Pelletier, Mark; Wang, Qun; Diep, Binh An; Le, Vien T M; Cheng, Lily; Suzich, JoAnn; Stover, C Kendall; Sellman, Bret R

    2016-03-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotic use may adversely affect a patient's beneficial microbiome and fuel cross-species spread of drug resistance. Although alternative pathogen-specific approaches are rationally justified, a major concern for this precision medicine strategy is that co-colonizing or co-infecting opportunistic bacteria may still cause serious disease. In a mixed-pathogen lung infection model, we find that the Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor α toxin potentiates Gram-negative bacterial proliferation, systemic spread, and lethality by preventing acidification of bacteria-containing macrophage phagosomes, thereby reducing effective killing of both S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria. Prophylaxis or early treatment with a single α toxin neutralizing monoclonal antibody prevented proliferation of co-infecting Gram-negative pathogens and lethality while also promoting S. aureus clearance. These studies suggest that some pathogen-specific, antibody-based approaches may also work to reduce infection risk in patients colonized or co-infected with S. aureus and disparate drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial opportunists. PMID:26962155

  18. Longitudinal Evaluation of the Skin Microbiome and Association with Microenvironment and Treatment in Canine Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Charles W; Morris, Daniel O; Rankin, Shelley C; Cain, Christine L; Misic, Ana M; Houser, Timothy; Mauldin, Elizabeth A; Grice, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    Host-microbe interactions may play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder characterized by universal colonization with Staphylococcus species. To examine the relationship between epidermal barrier function and the cutaneous microbiota in atopic dermatitis, this study used a spontaneous model of canine atopic dermatitis. In a cohort of 14 dogs with canine atopic dermatitis, the skin microbiota were longitudinally evaluated with parallel assessment of skin barrier function at disease flare, during antimicrobial therapy, and post-therapy. Sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene showed decreased bacterial diversity and increased proportions of Staphylococcus (S. pseudintermedius in particular) and Corynebacterium species compared with a cohort of healthy control dogs (n = 16). Treatment restored bacterial diversity with decreased proportions of Staphylococcus species, concurrent with decreased canine atopic dermatitis severity. Skin barrier function, as measured by corneometry, pH, and transepidermal water loss also normalized with treatment. Bacterial diversity correlated with transepidermal water loss and pH level but not with corneometry results. These findings provide insights into the relationship between the cutaneous microbiome and skin barrier function in atopic dermatitis, show the impact of antimicrobial therapy on the skin microbiome, and highlight the utility of canine atopic dermatitis as a spontaneous nonrodent model of atopic dermatitis. PMID:26854488

  19. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus in Atopic Dermatitis: Current Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Korea and Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mi-Young; Chung, Jong-Youn; Lee, Hae-Young; Park, Jiho; Lee, Dong-Youn

    2015-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a well-known microbe that colonizes or infects the skin in atopic dermatitis (AD). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in AD has recently been increasing. Objective This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in AD skin lesions and evaluate the prevalence of MRSA in Korea. We also recommend proper first-line topical antibiotics for Korean patients with AD. Methods We studied S. aureus-positive skin swabs (n=583) from the lesional skin of infants, children, and adults who presented to our outpatient clinic with AD from July 2009 to April 2012. Results S. aureus exhibited high susceptibility against most antimicrobial agents. However, it exhibited less susceptibility to benzylpenicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, and fusidic acid. The prevalence of MRSA was 12.9% among 583 S. aureus isolates, and the susceptibility to oxacillin was significantly lower in infants in both acute and chronic AD lesions. Conclusion S. aureus from AD has a high prevalence of MRSA and multidrug resistance, especially in infants. In addition, the rate of fusidic acid resistance is high among all age groups, and mupirocin resistance increases with age group regardless of lesional status. This is the first study comparing the antimicrobial susceptibility rates of S. aureus isolates from AD cases with respect to age and lesion status in Korea. PMID:26273155

  20. Contact dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Dermatitis - contact; Allergic dermatitis; Dermatitis - allergic; Irritant contact dermatitis; Skin rash - contact dermatitis ... There are 2 types of contact dermatitis. Irritant dermatitis: This ... can be by contact with acids, alkaline materials such as soaps ...

  1. In situ rheology of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovsky, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    We developed a method to grow Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms and characterize their rheological properties in situ in a continuously fed bioreactor incorporated into a parallel plate rheometer. The temperature and shear rates of growth modeled bloodstream conditions, a common site of S. epidermidis infection. We measured the linear elastic (G′) and viscous moduli (G″) of the material using small-amplitude oscillatory rheology and the yield stress using non-linear creep rheology. We found that the elastic and viscous moduli of the S. epidermidis biofilm were 11 ± 3 Pa and 1.9 ± 0.5 Pa at a frequency of 1 Hz (6.283 rad per s) and that the yield stress was approximately 20 Pa. We modeled the linear creep response of the biofilm using a Jeffreys model and found that S. epidermidis has a characteristic relaxation time of approximately 750 seconds and a linear creep viscosity of 3000 Pa s. The effects on the linear viscoelastic moduli of environmental stressors, such as NaCl concentration and extremes of temperature, were also studied. We found a non-monotonic relationship between moduli and NaCl concentrations, with the stiffest material properties found at human physiological concentrations (135 mM). Temperature dependent rheology showed hysteresis in the moduli when heated and cooled between 5 °C and 60 °C. Through these experiments, we demonstrated that biofilms are rheologically complex materials that can be characterized by a combination of low modulus (~10 Pa), long relaxation time (~103 seconds), and a finite yield stress (20 Pa). This suggests that biofilms should be viewed as soft viscoelastic solids whose properties are determined in part by local environmental conditions. The in situ growth method introduced here can be adapted to a wide range of biofilm systems and applied over a broad spectrum of rheological and environmental conditions because the technique minimizes the risk of irreversible, non-linear deformation of the microbial

  2. Bacterial Decolorization of Textile Azo Dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajat Pratap; Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Ram Lakhan

    2014-01-01

    A bacterial strain RMLRT03 with ability to decolorize textile dye Acid Orange dye was isolated from textile effluent contaminated soil of Tanda, Ambedkar Nagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). The decolorization studies were performed in Bushnell and Haas medium (BHM) amended with Acid Orange dye. The bacterial strain was identified as Staphylococcus hominis on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence. The bacterial strain exhibited good decolorization ability with glucose and yeast extract supplementation as cosubstrate in static conditions. The optimal condition for the decolorization of Acid Orange dye by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT03 strain were at pH 7.0 and 35°C in 60 h of incubation. The bacterial strain could tolerate high concentrations of Acid Orange dye up to 600 mg l-1. The high decolorizing activity under natural environmental conditions indicates that the bacterial strain has practical application in the treatment of dye containing wastewaters. PMID:25253925

  3. Oral application of bacterial lysate in infancy diminishes the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in children at risk for atopy.

    PubMed

    Lau, S

    2014-06-01

    Numerous interventions such as avoidance of food allergens, prolonged breast feeding and supplementation of pro-and/or prebiotics have been tried as primary prevention of atopic dermatitis. Recent data suggest that prevention of infantile eczema is possible in a subgroup of children by feeding bacterial lysates early in life. Bacterial lysates of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis were found to impair allergic immune responses in rats. An interventional trial in 606 infants at risk for atopy showed a reduction of atopic dermatitis at the end of the treatment phase (month 2 until month 7) of 50% in a subgroup of children with single heredity for atopy. This was even more pronounced in the group of children with paternal heredity for atopy. This effect was still seen at age 1 year. There was no effect on food sensitisation. In conclusion, an immune modulation in terms of prevention of atopic dermatitis in infancy if single atopic family history is present seems to be possible by feeding bacterial lysates early in life. PMID:23886978

  4. Natural and ion-exchanged illite clays reduce bacterial burden and inflammation in cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in mice.

    PubMed

    Otto, Caitlin C; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Haydel, Shelley E

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries associated with antibacterial activity of hydrated clays necessitate assessments of in vivo efficacy, practical use and safety. Surface properties of clays can lead to variations in the composition and abundance of bound compounds or ions, thus affecting antibacterial activity. Since exchangeable metal ions released from the clay surface are responsible for in vitro antibacterial activity, we evaluated the in vivo antibacterial efficacy of four natural clays (one illite clay, two montmorillonite clays and one kaolinite clay) and three ion-exchanged, antibacterial clays against superficial, cutaneous meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in mice. Superficial, cutaneous wounds on the back of SKH1-Elite mice were generated and subsequently infected with MRSA. Following twice daily applications of a hydrated clay poultice to infected wounds for 7  days, we observed significant differences in the in vivo antibacterial efficacy between different types of clays. The natural and ion-exchanged illite clays performed best, as measured by bacterial load, inflammatory response and gross wound morphology with significant decreases in bacterial viability and dermatitis. Topical application of kaolinite clay was the least effective, resulting in the lowest decrease in bacterial load and exhibiting severe dermatitis. These data suggest that specific types of clays may offer a complementary and integrative strategy for topically treating MRSA and other cutaneous infections. However, since natural clays exhibit in vitro antibacterial variability and vary vastly in surface chemistries, adsorptive/absorptive characteristics and structural composition, the properties and characteristics of illite clays could aid in the development of standardized and customized aluminosilicates for topical infections. PMID:26508716

  5. High Frequency and Diversity of Antimicrobial Activities Produced by Nasal Staphylococcus Strains against Bacterial Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Janek, Daniela; Zipperer, Alexander; Kulik, Andreas; Krismer, Bernhard; Peschel, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The human nasal microbiota is highly variable and dynamic often enclosing major pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. The potential roles of bacteriocins or other mechanisms allowing certain bacterial clones to prevail in this nutrient-poor habitat have hardly been studied. Of 89 nasal Staphylococcus isolates, unexpectedly, the vast majority (84%) was found to produce antimicrobial substances in particular under habitat-specific stress conditions, such as iron limitation or exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Activity spectra were generally narrow but highly variable with activities against certain nasal members of the Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, or several groups of bacteria. Staphylococcus species and many other Firmicutes were insusceptible to most of the compounds. A representative bacteriocin was identified as a nukacin-related peptide whose inactivation reduced the capacity of the producer Staphylococcus epidermidis IVK45 to limit growth of other nasal bacteria. Of note, the bacteriocin genes were found on mobile genetic elements exhibiting signs of extensive horizontal gene transfer and rearrangements. Thus, continuously evolving bacteriocins appear to govern bacterial competition in the human nose and specific bacteriocins may become important agents for eradication of notorious opportunistic pathogens from human microbiota. PMID:27490492

  6. Modification of the bacterial adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus by antioxidant blooming on polyurethane films.

    PubMed

    Saunier, Johanna; Herry, Jean-Marie; Marlière, Christian; Renault, Margareth; Bellon-Fontaine, Marie-Noëlle; Yagoubi, Najet

    2015-11-01

    Medical device-related infections are a major problem in hospital. The risk of developing an infection is linked to the bacterial adhesion ability of pathogen strains on the device and their ability to form a biofilm. Here we focused on polymer surfaces exhibiting a blooming of antioxidant (Irganox 3114® and Irganox 1076®) on their surface. We tried to put into evidence the effect of such a phenomenon on the bacterial adhesion in terms of number of viable cultivable bacteria and bacteria localization on the surface. We showed that the blooming has a tendency to increase the Staphylococcus aureus adhesion phenomenon in part for topographic reasons. PMID:26249623

  7. Multidrug Efflux Pumps from Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial Food Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jody L.; He, Gui-Xin; Kakarla, Prathusha; KC, Ranjana; Kumar, Sanath; Lakra, Wazir Singh; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ranaweera, Indrika; Shrestha, Ugina; Tran, Thuy; Varela, Manuel F.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses caused by bacterial microorganisms are common worldwide and constitute a serious public health concern. In particular, microorganisms belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae families of Gram-negative bacteria, and to the Staphylococcus genus of Gram-positive bacteria are important causative agents of food poisoning and infection in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Recently, variants of these bacteria have developed resistance to medically important chemotherapeutic agents. Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter spp., and Staphylococcus aureus are becoming increasingly recalcitrant to clinical treatment in human patients. Of the various bacterial resistance mechanisms against antimicrobial agents, multidrug efflux pumps comprise a major cause of multiple drug resistance. These multidrug efflux pump systems reside in the biological membrane of the bacteria and actively extrude antimicrobial agents from bacterial cells. This review article summarizes the evolution of these bacterial drug efflux pump systems from a molecular biological standpoint and provides a framework for future work aimed at reducing the conditions that foster dissemination of these multidrug resistant causative agents through human populations. PMID:25635914

  8. A secreted bacterial protease tailors the Staphylococcus aureus virulence repertoire to modulate bone remodeling during osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Cassat, James E.; Hammer, Neal D.; Campbell, J. Preston; Benson, Meredith A.; Perrien, Daniel S.; Mrak, Lara N.; Smeltzer, Mark S.; Torres, Victor J.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Osteomyelitis is a common manifestation of invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection. Pathogen-induced bone destruction limits antimicrobial penetration to the infectious focus and compromises treatment of osteomyelitis. To investigate mechanisms of S. aureus-induced bone destruction, we developed a murine model of osteomyelitis. Micro-computed tomography of infected femurs revealed that S. aureus triggers profound alterations in bone turnover. The bacterial regulatory locus sae was found to be critical for osteomyelitis pathogenesis, as Sae-regulated factors promote pathologic bone remodeling and intraosseous bacterial survival. Exoproteome analyses revealed the Sae-regulated protease aureolysin as a major determinant of the S. aureus secretome and identified the phenol soluble modulins as aureolysin-degraded, osteolytic peptides that trigger osteoblast cell death and bone destruction. These studies establish a murine model for pathogen-induced bone remodeling, define Sae as critical for osteomyelitis pathogenesis, and identify protease-dependent exoproteome remodeling as a major determinant of the staphylococcal virulence repertoire. PMID:23768499

  9. Analysis of Bacterial Biofilms on a Cochlear Implant Following Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    An, Yun Suk; Choi, June; Song, Jae Jun; Chae, Sung Won; Jung, Hak Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate biofilm formations on a cochlear implant magnet of a pediatric patient suffering from a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The appearance of biofilm colonies was analyzed on different magnet sections. The appearance of MRSA biofilms on the surface of an explanted cochlear implant was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focusing on the pattern of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) within the biofilms. SEM revealed unique biofilms with a three-dimensional EPS complex and tower-like formations. Biofilm configurations changed from the margin to the center of the magnet. Biofilms were solitary and scattered at the margin; large and plate-like in the center; and stacked in layers, forming towers and water channels, in the middle region. After a MRSA infection, biofilm formations were observed on the surface of a magnet. Bacterial biofilms provide optimal conditions for bacterial growth and antibiotic resistance and can cause intractable infections that lead to device failure. PMID:26771017

  10. High prevalence of methicillin resistance and PVL genes amongStaphylococcus aureus isolates from the nares and skin lesions of pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, F.S.; Abad, E.D.; Lyra, Y.C.; Saintive, S.B.; Ribeiro, M.; Ferreira, D.C.; dos Santos, K.R.N.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and this pathogen may trigger and aggravate AD lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the nares of pediatric subjects and verify the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the isolates in pediatric patients with AD. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, SCCmectyping, and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) genes. Lineages were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). AD severity was assessed with the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. Among 106 patients, 90 (85%) presented S. aureus isolates in their nares, and 8 also presented the pathogen in their skin infections. Two patients had two positive lesions, making a total of 10 S. aureusisolates from skin infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus(MRSA) was detected in 24 (26.6%) patients, and PVL genes were identified in 21 (23.3%), including 6 (75%) of the 8 patients with skin lesions but mainly in patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values (P=0.0095). All 24 MRSA isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, while 8 isolates had a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to mupirocin >1024 μg/mL. High lineage diversity was found among the isolates including USA1100/ST30, USA400/ST1, USA800/ST5, ST83, ST188, ST718, ST1635, and ST2791. There was a high prevalence of MRSA and PVL genes among the isolates recovered in this study. PVL genes were found mostly among patients with severe and moderate SCORAD values. These findings can help clinicians improve the therapies and strategies for the management of pediatric patients with AD. PMID:25992644

  11. Osteomyelitis Caused by Staphylococcus schleiferi and Evidence of Misidentification of This Staphylococcus Species by an Automated Bacterial Identification System

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Jorge; Hernández, José L.; Fariñas, Maria C.; García-Palomo, Daniel; Agüero, Jesús

    2000-01-01

    We report a case of sternal osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus schleiferi in a patient who underwent thoracic surgery. This constitutes the first documented case of osteomyelitis caused by this Staphylococcus species. We also relate our experience in the utilization of commercially available MicroScan panels for the identification of this microorganism. PMID:11015429

  12. Change in Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Skin-Colonizing Staphylococcus aureus in Korean Patients with Atopic Dermatitis during Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Min; Jo, Ju-Hyun; Jin, Hyunju; Ko, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Do-Won; Jang, Ho-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background A small subset of adolescents atopic dermatitis (AD) tends to persist. This also leads to get more antibiotics exposure with advancing years. Antibiotic resistance has been regarded as a serious problem during Staphylococcus aureus treatment, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Objective It was investigated the S. aureus colonization frequency in the skin lesions and anterior nares of adolescent AD patients and evaluated the changes in S. aureus antimicrobial susceptibility for years. Methods Patients who visited our clinic from September 2003 to August 2005 were classified into group A, and patients who visited from August 2010 to March 2012 were classified into group B. To investigate the differences with regard to patients' age and disease duration, the patients were subdivided into groups according to age. Lesional and nasal specimens were examined. Results Among the 295 AD patients, the total S. aureus colonization rate in skin lesions was 66.9% (95/142) for group A and 78.4% (120/153) for group B. No significant changes in the systemic antimicrobial susceptibilities of S. aureus strains isolated from adolescent AD patients were observed during about 10-year period. The increased trend of MRSA isolation in recent adolescent AD outpatients suggest that the community including school could be the source of S. aureus antibiotic resistance and higher fusidic acid resistance rates provides evidence of imprudent topical use. Conclusion Relatively high MRSA isolation and fusidic acid resistance rates in recent AD patients suggest that the community harbors antibiotic-resistant S. aureus. PMID:27489430

  13. Inability to sustain intraphagolysosomal killing of Staphylococcus aureus predisposes to bacterial persistence in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jubrail, Jamil; Morris, Paul; Bewley, Martin A.; Stoneham, Simon; Johnston, Simon A.; Foster, Simon J.; Peden, Andrew A.; Read, Robert C.; Marriott, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Macrophages are critical effectors of the early innate response to bacteria in tissues. Phagocytosis and killing of bacteria are interrelated functions essential for bacterial clearance but the rate‐limiting step when macrophages are challenged with large numbers of the major medical pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is unknown. We show that macrophages have a finite capacity for intracellular killing and fail to match sustained phagocytosis with sustained microbial killing when exposed to large inocula of S. aureus (Newman, SH1000 and USA300 strains). S. aureus ingestion by macrophages is associated with a rapid decline in bacterial viability immediately after phagocytosis. However, not all bacteria are killed in the phagolysosome, and we demonstrate reduced acidification of the phagolysosome, associated with failure of phagolysosomal maturation and reduced activation of cathepsin D. This results in accumulation of viable intracellular bacteria in macrophages. We show macrophages fail to engage apoptosis‐associated bacterial killing. Ultittop mately macrophages with viable bacteria undergo cell lysis, and viable bacteria are released and can be internalized by other macrophages. We show that cycles of lysis and reuptake maintain a pool of viable intracellular bacteria over time when killing is overwhelmed and demonstrate intracellular persistence in alveolar macrophages in the lungs in a murine model. PMID:26248337

  14. Inability to sustain intraphagolysosomal killing of Staphylococcus aureus predisposes to bacterial persistence in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jubrail, Jamil; Morris, Paul; Bewley, Martin A; Stoneham, Simon; Johnston, Simon A; Foster, Simon J; Peden, Andrew A; Read, Robert C; Marriott, Helen M; Dockrell, David H

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are critical effectors of the early innate response to bacteria in tissues. Phagocytosis and killing of bacteria are interrelated functions essential for bacterial clearance but the rate-limiting step when macrophages are challenged with large numbers of the major medical pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is unknown. We show that macrophages have a finite capacity for intracellular killing and fail to match sustained phagocytosis with sustained microbial killing when exposed to large inocula of S. aureus (Newman, SH1000 and USA300 strains). S. aureus ingestion by macrophages is associated with a rapid decline in bacterial viability immediately after phagocytosis. However, not all bacteria are killed in the phagolysosome, and we demonstrate reduced acidification of the phagolysosome, associated with failure of phagolysosomal maturation and reduced activation of cathepsin D. This results in accumulation of viable intracellular bacteria in macrophages. We show macrophages fail to engage apoptosis-associated bacterial killing. Ultittop mately macrophages with viable bacteria undergo cell lysis, and viable bacteria are released and can be internalized by other macrophages. We show that cycles of lysis and reuptake maintain a pool of viable intracellular bacteria over time when killing is overwhelmed and demonstrate intracellular persistence in alveolar macrophages in the lungs in a murine model. PMID:26248337

  15. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Quach, D.T.; Sakoulas, G.; Nizet, V.; Pogliano, J.; Pogliano, K.

    2016-01-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  16. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP) as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Quach, D T; Sakoulas, G; Nizet, V; Pogliano, J; Pogliano, K

    2016-02-01

    Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP), which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and -resistant (MRSA) clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71) within 1-2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS) from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS) S. aureus strains (n = 20) within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice. PMID:26981574

  17. Ramoplanin at bactericidal concentrations induces bacterial membrane depolarization in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mu; Huang, Johnny X; Ramu, Soumya; Butler, Mark S; Cooper, Matthew A

    2014-11-01

    Ramoplanin is an actinomycetes-derived antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria that has been evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of gastrointestinal vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Clostridium difficile infections. Recent studies have proposed that ramoplanin binds to bacterial membranes as a C2 symmetrical dimer that can sequester Lipid II, which causes inhibition of cell wall peptidoglycan biosynthesis and cell death. In this study, ramoplanin was shown to bind to anionic and zwitterionic membrane mimetics with a higher affinity for anionic membranes and to induce membrane depolarization of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) ATCC 25923 at concentrations at or above the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The ultrastructural effects of ramoplanin on S. aureus were also examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and this showed dramatic changes to bacterial cell morphology. The correlation observed between membrane depolarization and bacterial cell viability suggests that this mechanism may contribute to the bactericidal activity of ramoplanin. PMID:25182650

  18. Ramoplanin at Bactericidal Concentrations Induces Bacterial Membrane Depolarization in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Mu; Huang, Johnny X.; Ramu, Soumya; Butler, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Ramoplanin is an actinomycetes-derived antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria that has been evaluated in clinical trials for the treatment of gastrointestinal vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and Clostridium difficile infections. Recent studies have proposed that ramoplanin binds to bacterial membranes as a C2 symmetrical dimer that can sequester Lipid II, which causes inhibition of cell wall peptidoglycan biosynthesis and cell death. In this study, ramoplanin was shown to bind to anionic and zwitterionic membrane mimetics with a higher affinity for anionic membranes and to induce membrane depolarization of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) ATCC 25923 at concentrations at or above the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). The ultrastructural effects of ramoplanin on S. aureus were also examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and this showed dramatic changes to bacterial cell morphology. The correlation observed between membrane depolarization and bacterial cell viability suggests that this mechanism may contribute to the bactericidal activity of ramoplanin. PMID:25182650

  19. Comparative Structural and Functional Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Glucokinase with other Bacterial Glucokinases

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. S.; Kumar, Y. N.; Prasad, U. V.; Yeswanth, S.; Swarupa, V.; Vasu, D.; Venkatesh, K.; Srikanth, L.; Rao, V. K.; Sarma, P. V. G. K.

    2014-01-01

    Glucokinase is classified in bacteria based upon having ATP binding site and ‘repressor/open reading frames of unknown function/sugar kinases’ motif, the sequence of glucokinase gene (JN645812) of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 showed presence of ATP binding site and ‘repressor/open reading frames of unknown function/sugar kinases’ motif. We have earlier observed glucokinase of S. aureus has higher affinity towards the substrate compared to other bacterial glucokinase and under anaerobic condition with increased glucose concentration S. aureus exhibited higher rate of biofilm formation. To establish this, 3D structure of glucokinase was built using homology modeling method, the PROCHECK and ProSA-Web analysis indicated this built glucokinase structure was close to the crystal structure. This structure was superimposed with different bacterial glucokinase structures and from the root-mean-square deviation values, it is concluded that S. aureus glucokinase exhibited very close homology with Enterococcus faecalis and Clostridium difficle while with other bacteria it showed high degree of variations both in domain and nondomain regions. Glucose docking results indicated -12.3697 kcal/mol for S. aureus glucokinase compared with other bacterial glucokinase suggesting higher affinity of glucose which correlates with enzyme kinetics and higher rate of biofilm formation. PMID:25425757

  20. The Crystal Structures of EAP Domains from Staphylococcus aureus Reveal an Unexpected Homology to Bacterial Superantigens

    SciTech Connect

    Geisbrecht, B V; Hamaoka, B Y; Perman, B; Zemla, A; Leahy, D J

    2005-10-14

    The Eap (extracellular adherence protein) of Staphylococcus aureus functions as a secreted virulence factor by mediating interactions between the bacterial cell surface and several extracellular host proteins. Eap proteins from different Staphylococcal strains consist of four to six tandem repeats of a structurally uncharacterized domain (EAP domain). We have determined the three-dimensional structures of three different EAP domains to 1.8, 2.2, and 1.35 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. These structures reveal a core fold that is comprised of an {alpha}-helix lying diagonally across a five-stranded, mixed {beta}-sheet. Comparison of EAP domains with known structures reveals an unexpected homology with the C-terminal domain of bacterial superantigens. Examination of the structure of the superantigen SEC2 bound to the {beta}-chain of a T-cell receptor suggests a possible ligand-binding site within the EAP domain (Fields, B. A., Malchiodi, E. L., Li, H., Ysern, X., Stauffacher, C. V., Schlievert, P. M., Karjalainen, K., and Mariuzza, R. (1996) Nature 384, 188-192). These results provide the first structural characterization of EAP domains, relate EAP domains to a large class of bacterial toxins, and will guide the design of future experiments to analyze EAP domain structure/function relationships.

  1. Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Contact dermatitis Overview Contact dermatitis: Many health care workers ... to touching her face while wearing latex gloves. Contact dermatitis: Overview Almost everyone gets this type of ...

  2. Perioral Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Perioral Dermatitis (Pediatric) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... red bumps around the mouth typical of perioral dermatitis. Overview Perioral dermatitis is an acne-like problem ...

  3. Stasis Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Stasis Dermatitis Information for adults A A A This image displays an early case of stasis dermatitis. Overview Dermatitis is a term used to describe ...

  4. Microbiome and pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Powers, Claire E; McShane, Diana B; Gilligan, Peter H; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2015-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with drastic impacts on pediatric health. The pathogenesis of this common disease is not well understood, and the complex role of the skin microbiome in the pathogenesis and progression of atopic dermatitis is being elucidated. Skin commensal organisms promote normal immune system functions and prevent the colonization of pathogens. Alterations in the skin microbiome may lead to increased Staphylococcus aureus colonization and atopic dermatitis progression. Despite the evidence for their important role, probiotics have not been deemed efficacious for the treatment of atopic dermatitis, although studies suggest that probiotics may be effective at preventing the development of atopic dermatitis when given to young infants. This review will cover the most recent published work on the microbiome and pediatric atopic dermatitis. PMID:26388516

  5. Distribution of bacterial contamination in a teaching hospital in Tehran - a special focus on Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Mirzaii, Mehdi; Emaneini, Mohammad; Maleknejad, Parviz; Jonaidi, Nematollah; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Aligholi, Marzieh; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Halimi, Shahnaz; Taherikalani, Morovat; Kasaeian, Amir

    2012-03-01

    There are documents that confirm the cycle of bacterial transmission between patients, staff, and the inanimate environment. The environment may have more effect on intensive care units (ICUs), because the patients who require intensive care have unstable clinical conditions and are more sensitive to infections. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacteria in air and inanimate surface in the ICUs and to compare the microbial levels to standard levels.Air and inanimate surface in the four ICUs of a teaching hospital underwent weekly surveillance by means of air sampler and swabs for a period of six-month. Total bacterial counts were evaluated onto trypticase soy agar and mannitol salt agar (MSA).A total of 725 samples [air (168) and inanimate surfaces (557)] were collected. The total mean ± SD CFU/m3 of airborne bacteria in all of the ICUs were 115.93 ± 48.04. The most common bacteria in air of the ICUs were Gram-positive cocci (84.2%). The total mean ± SD airborne of Staphylococcus aureus was 12.10±8.11 CFU/m3. The highest levels of S. aureus contamination were found in ventilators and bed ledges. More suitable disinfection of hospital environments and monthly rotation in utilization of the various disinfectant agents are needed for the prevention of airborne and inanimate transmission of S. aureus. PMID:22510282

  6. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and Analysis of Associated Bacterial Communities on Food Industry Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Diana; Delgado, Susana; Vázquez-Sánchez, Daniel; Martínez, Beatriz; Cabo, Marta López; Rodríguez, Ana; Herrera, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms are a common cause of food contamination with undesirable bacteria, such as pathogenic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major bacteria causing food-borne diseases in humans. A study designed to determine the presence of S. aureus on food contact surfaces in dairy, meat, and seafood environments and to identify coexisting microbiota has therefore been carried out. A total of 442 samples were collected, and the presence of S. aureus was confirmed in 6.1% of samples. Sixty-three S. aureus isolates were recovered and typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Profiles were clustered into four groups which were related to specific food environments. All isolates harbored some potential virulence factors such as enterotoxin production genes, biofilm formation-associated genes, antibiotic resistance, or lysogeny. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprints of bacterial communities coexisting with S. aureus revealed the presence of bacteria either involved in food spoilage or of concern for food safety in all food environments. Food industry surfaces could thus be a reservoir for S. aureus forming complex communities with undesirable bacteria in multispecies biofilms. Uneven microbiological conditions were found in each food sector, which indicates the need to improve hygienic conditions in food processing facilities, particularly the removal of bacterial biofilms, to enhance the safety of food products. PMID:23023749

  7. Effects of temperature on the morphological, polymeric, and mechanical properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, Leonid; Sturtevant, Rachael A; Younger, John G; Solomon, Michael J

    2015-02-17

    Changes in temperature were found to affect the morphology, cell viability, and mechanical properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial biofilms. S. epidermidis biofilms are commonly associated with hospital-acquired medical device infections. We observed the effect of heat treatment on three physical properties of the biofilms: the bacterial cell morphology and viability, the polymeric properties of the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and the rheological properties of the bulk biofilm. After application of a 1 h heat treatment at 45 °C, cell reproduction had ceased, and at 60 °C, cell viability was significantly reduced. Size exclusion chromatography was used to fractionate the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) based on size. Chemical analysis of each fraction showed that the relative concentrations of the polysaccharide, protein, and DNA components of the EPS were unchanged by the heat treatment at 45 and 60 °C. The results suggest that the EPS molecular constituents are not significantly degraded by the temperature treatment. However, some aggregation on the scale of 100 nm was found by dynamic light scattering at 60 °C. Finally, relative to control biofilms maintained at 37 °C, we observed an order of magnitude reduction in the biofilm yield stress after 60 °C temperature treatment. No such difference was found for treatment at 45 °C. From these results, we conclude that the yield stress of bacterial biofilms is temperature-sensitive and that this sensitivity is correlated with cell viability. The observed significant decrease in yield stress with temperature suggests a means to weaken the mechanical integrity of S. epidermidis biofilms with applications in areas such as the treatment of biofilm-infected medical devices. PMID:25602470

  8. The receptor for advanced glycation end products promotes bacterial growth at distant body sites in Staphylococcus aureus skin infection.

    PubMed

    Achouiti, Ahmed; Van't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-09-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) has been implicated in the regulation of skin inflammation. We here sought to study the role of RAGE in host defense during skin infection caused by Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, the most common pathogen in this condition. Wild-type (Wt) and RAGE deficient (rage(-/-)) mice were infected subcutaneously with S. aureus and bacterial loads and local inflammation were quantified at regular intervals up to 8 days after infection. While bacterial burdens were similar in both mouse strains at the primary site of infection, rage(-/-) mice had lower bacterial counts in lungs and liver. Skin cytokine and chemokine levels did not differ between groups. In accordance with the skin model, direct intravenous infection with S. aureus was associated with lower bacterial loads in lungs and liver of rage(-/-) mice. Together these data suggest that RAGE does not impact local host defense during S. aureus skin infection, but facilitates bacterial growth at distant body sites. PMID:26086798

  9. Use of a bacterial antimicrobial resistance gene microarray for the identification of resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Garneau, P; Labrecque, O; Maynard, C; Messier, S; Masson, L; Archambault, M; Harel, J

    2010-11-01

    As diagnostic and surveillance activities are vital to determine measures needed to control antimicrobial resistance (AMR), new and rapid laboratory methods are necessary to facilitate this important effort. DNA microarray technology allows the detection of a large number of genes in a single reaction. This technology is simple, specific and high-throughput. We have developed a bacterial antimicrobial resistance gene DNA microarray that will allow rapid antimicrobial resistance gene screening for all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. A prototype microarray was designed using a 70-mer based oligonucleotide set targeting AMR genes of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In the present version, the microarray consists of 182 oligonucleotides corresponding to 166 different acquired AMR gene targets, covering most of the resistance genes found in both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. A test study was performed on a collection of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk samples from dairy farms in Québec, Canada. The reproducibility of the hybridizations was determined, and the microarray results were compared with those obtained by phenotypic resistance tests (either MIC or Kirby-Bauer). The microarray genotyping demonstrated a correlation between penicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin resistance phenotypes with the corresponding acquired resistance genes. The hybridizations showed that the 38 antimicrobial resistant S. aureus isolates possessed at least one AMR gene. PMID:21083822

  10. Zosteriform Staphylococcus aureus Cutaneous Infection: Report of Two Patients With Dermatomal Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Schepp, Elizabeth D; Cohen, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe cutaneous infections, which are zosteriform in distribution, including two patients with dermatomal Staphylococcus aureus infection. Herpes zoster infectious lesions usually occur in a dermatomal distribution. Other viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, can also appear with zosteriform lesions and closely mimic the clinical presentation of herpes zoster. Additionally, other skin infections, less commonly, are zosteriform. Two patients who developed zosteriform S aureus skin infection are described. A medical literature search for zosteriform dermatomal infections yielded other cutaneous infections with a zosteriform presentation. Two patients had S aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus infection with skin lesions occupying the T11-T12 dermatomes and the T4 dermatome, respectively. They responded to antibacterial agents and adjuvant therapy. Patients with viral, fungal, and spirochete zosteriform infections are summarized. In addition to varicella-zoster virus infection, zosteriform skin infection can occur with viral (varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, and Epstein-Barr virus), superficial (dermatophyte), and deep (phaeohyphomycosis and zygomycosis) fungal, and bacterial (S aureus and methicillin-resistant S aureus) infections. These infections should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a zosteriform infection that does not present with the classic clinical picture for herpes zoster or that does not respond to standard treatments for varicellazoster virus. PMID:26861424

  11. Dermatitis herpetiformis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001480.htm Dermatitis herpetiformis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dermatitis herpetiformis is an extremely itchy rash consisting of ...

  12. Atopic dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... People with atopic dermatitis often have asthma or seasonal allergies. There is often a family history of allergies such as asthma, hay fever, or eczema. People with atopic dermatitis often test ...

  13. Nipple Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this problem including: Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Thrush (oral yeast infection) An allergic reaction (contact dermatitis) Local irritation ... Breast-feeding women with a previous history of yeast vaginitis or whose infants also use a bottle ...

  14. Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Required for the Staphylococcus aureus Response to Heme Stress.

    PubMed

    Surdel, Matthew C; Dutter, Brendan F; Sulikowski, Gary A; Skaar, Eric P

    2016-08-12

    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Within the vertebrate host, S. aureus requires heme as a nutrient iron source and as a cofactor for multiple cellular processes. Although required for pathogenesis, excess heme is toxic. S. aureus employs a two-component system, the heme sensor system (HssRS), to sense and protect against heme toxicity. Upon activation, HssRS induces the expression of the heme-regulated transporter (HrtAB), an efflux pump that alleviates heme toxicity. The ability to sense and respond to heme is critical for the pathogenesis of numerous Gram-positive organisms, yet the mechanism of heme sensing remains unknown. Compound '3981 was identified in a high-throughput screen as an activator of staphylococcal HssRS that triggers HssRS independently of heme accumulation. '3981 is toxic to S. aureus; however, derivatives of '3981 were synthesized that lack toxicity while retaining HssRS activation, enabling the interrogation of the heme stress response without confounding toxic effects of the parent molecule. Using '3981 derivatives as probes of the heme stress response, numerous genes required for '3981-induced activation of HssRS were uncovered. Specifically, multiple genes involved in the production of nitric oxide were identified, including the gene encoding bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS). bNOS protects S. aureus from oxidative stress imposed by heme. Taken together, this work identifies bNOS as crucial for the S. aureus heme stress response, providing evidence that nitric oxide synthesis and heme sensing are intertwined. PMID:27626297

  15. Extended Staphylococcus aureus persistence in cystic fibrosis is associated with bacterial adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hirschhausen, Nina; Block, Desiree; Bianconi, Irene; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Birtel, Johannes; Lee, Jean C; Dübbers, Angelika; Küster, Peter; Kahl, Janina; Peters, Georg; Kahl, Barbara C

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus often persists in the airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. There is only limited knowledge about bacterial persistence in and adaptation to this new ecological environment. Therefore, we used S. aureus isolates from a unique strain collection, in which all S. aureus isolates recovered from CF patients from two CF centers were stored from more than 150 CF patients for more than a decade. S. aureus early and late isolates from 71 CF patients with long-term staphylococcal colonization of the airways (≥ 5 years) were preselected by genotyping of agr and cap. Identical pairs were subjected to spa-typing and MLST. S. aureus strain pairs of individual patients with the same or closely related spa-type and identical MLST were compared for adaptive changes in important phenotypic and virulence traits. The virulence of three S. aureus strain pairs (early and late isolates) was analyzed in a murine chronic pneumonia model. Strain pairs of 29 individual patients belonged to the same MLST and same or closely related spa-types. The mean persistence of the same clone of S. aureus in 29 CF patients was 8.25 years. Late compared to early isolates were altered in production of capsule (48%), hemolysis (45%), biofilm formation (41%), as well as antibiotic susceptibility (41%), cytotoxicity (34%), colony size (28%), and spa-type (17%). Adaptive changes positively correlated with the length of S. aureus persistence. For seven patients from whom the initial colonizing isolate was recovered, staphylococcal adaptation was most apparent, with capsule production being reduced in five of seven late isolates. In a mouse chronic pneumonia model, all tested isolates strongly induced chronic pneumonia with severe lesions in bronchi and pulmonary parenchyma. Adaptive changes in S. aureus accumulated with the length of persistence in the CF airways, but differed in patients infected with the same S. aureus clonal lineage indicating that individual host factors have an

  16. Paederus Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis is a peculiar, irritant contact dermatitis characterized by a sudden onset of erythematobullous lesions on exposed areas of the body. The disease is provoked by an insect belonging to the genus Paederus. This beetle does not bite or sting, but accidental brushing against or crushing the beetle over the skin provokes the release of its coelomic fluid, which contains paederin, a potent vesicant agent. This article describes this dermatitis, which occurred in three healthcare personnel aboard a medical mission boat on the Amazon River. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of paederus dermatitis is reviewed as well its treatment and prevention. PMID:22125660

  17. Dermatitis artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Tamakuwala, Bimal; Shah, Parag; Dave, Kamlesh; Mehta, Ritambhara

    2005-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, also known as factitious dermatitis, is a condition in which cutaneous lesions are self-inflicted and are the result or manifestation of some psychological conflicts. This report presents the case of a 20-year-old man, whose initial presentation resembled a dermatological disorder. Psychological and personality factors as well as issues in the management are discussed. PMID:20711314

  18. Dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Tamakuwala, Bimal; Shah, Parag; Dave, Kamlesh; Mehta, Ritambhara

    2005-10-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, also known as factitious dermatitis, is a condition in which cutaneous lesions are self-inflicted and are the result or manifestation of some psychological conflicts. This report presents the case of a 20-year-old man, whose initial presentation resembled a dermatological disorder. Psychological and personality factors as well as issues in the management are discussed. PMID:20711314

  19. [Selected bacterial infections of the skin in childhood].

    PubMed

    Mempel, M; Schnopp, C

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial infections of the skin are often seen by dermatologists. The majority of infections are caused by the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. These induce blistering/erosive (impetigo, ecthymata) and abceeding (folliculitis) infections of the skin, respectively. Owing to their differences in virulence factors and host immunity, these strains can lead to varying presentations and courses of the infections. This review focuses on impetigo, folliculitis, perianal streptococcal dermatitis, and ecthymata. PMID:25783212

  20. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in a Patient with Cirrhosis: The Potential Role for Daptomycin and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, Marco; Russo, Alessandro; Pacini, Giovanni; Merli, Manuela; Venditti, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive cocci are emerging causes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), especially in patients with healthcare-associated infections. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with hepatitis C virus and alcohol-related cirrhosis who developed SBP due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus treated with daptomycin. We discuss the potential role of daptomycin in this setting with a review of the literature about the use of daptomycin in primary or secondary bacterial peritonitis. PMID:26500743

  1. Effects of easy-to-perform procedures to reduce bacterial colonization with Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus on toothbrushes

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Annina; Schneider, Katja; Schlösser, Karolin; Zimmermann, Ortrud; Hornecker, Else; Mausberg, Rainer F.; Frickmann, Hagen; Groß, Uwe; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that dental caries and periodontitis are the consequence of bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on the enamel surface. The continuous presence of bacterial biofilms on the tooth surface results in demineralization of the tooth enamel and induces an inflammatory reaction of the surrounding gums (gingivitis). The retention and survival of microorganisms on toothbrushes pose a threat of recontamination especially for certain patients at risk for systemic infections originating from the oral cavity, e.g., after T-cell depleted bone marrow transplantation. Thus, the effects of different decolonization schemes on bacterial colonization of toothbrushes were analyzed, in order to demonstrate their applicability to reduce the likelihood of (auto-)reinfections. Toothbrushes were intentionally contaminated with standardized suspensions of Streptococcus mutans or Staphylococcus aureus. Afterwards, the toothbrushes were exposed to rinsing under distilled water, rinsing and drying for 24 h, 0.2% chlorhexidine-based decolonization, or ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The remaining colony forming units were compared with freshly contaminated positive controls. Each experiment was nine-fold repeated. Bi-factorial variance analysis was performed; significance was accepted at P < 0.05. All tested procedures led to a significant reduction of bacteral colonization irrespective of the toothbrush model, the brush head type, or the acitivity state. Chlorhexidine-based decolonization was shown to be superior to rinsing and slightly superior to rinsing and drying for 24 h, while UV radiation was similarly effective as chlorhexidine. UV radiation was slightly less prone to species-dependent limitations of its decolonizing effects by bristle thickness of toothbrushes than chlorhexidin. Reduction of bacterial colonization of toothbrushes might reduce the risk of maintaining bacterial infections of the upper respiratory tract. Accordingly, respective procedures are

  2. The structure of SAV1646 from Staphylococcus aureus belonging to a new `ribosome-associated' subfamily of bacterial proteins.

    PubMed

    Chirgadze, Yuri N; Clarke, Teresa E; Romanov, Vladimir; Kisselman, Gera; Wu-Brown, Jean; Soloveychik, Maria; Chan, Tiffany S Y; Gordon, Roni D; Battaile, Kevin P; Pai, Emil F; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y

    2015-02-01

    The crystal structure of the SAV1646 protein from the pathogenic microorganism Staphylococcus aureus has been determined at 1.7 Å resolution. The 106-amino-acid protein forms a two-layer sandwich with α/β topology. The protein molecules associate as dimers in the crystal and in solution, with the monomers related by a pseudo-twofold rotation axis. A sequence-homology search identified the protein as a member of a new subfamily of yet uncharacterized bacterial `ribosome-associated' proteins with at least 13 members to date. A detailed analysis of the crystal protein structure along with the genomic structure of the operon containing the sav1646 gene allowed a tentative functional model of this protein to be proposed. The SAV1646 dimer is assumed to form a complex with ribosomal proteins L21 and L27 which could help to complete the assembly of the large subunit of the ribosome. PMID:25664743

  3. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. This condition is known as steroid-induced rosacea. Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp may include ... Information for Patients All About Rosacea Faces of Rosacea Treatment Photos Rosacea FAQ Management Options Medical Therapy When ...

  4. Seborrheic dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin condition that causes flaky, white to yellowish scales to form on oily areas such as the ... symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis include: Skin lesions with scales Plaques over large area Greasy, oily areas of ...

  5. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... might want you to use a prescription steroid lotion once or twice daily. Seborrheic dermatitis of the skin creases in adolescents and adults. Steroid lotions may be used in adolescents and adults. Seborrheic ...

  6. Perioral dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... It may occur after using face creams containing steroids for another condition. Young women are most likely ... Periorificial dermatitis may be brought on by: Topical steroids, either when they are applied to the face ...

  7. Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... when conscious control of scratching is lost. The appearance of the skin that is affected by atopic ... social and emotional stress associated with changes in appearance caused by atopic dermatitis. The child may face ...

  8. Nummular Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... triggers such as frequent bathing, irritating and drying soaps, and exposure to irritating fabrics such as wool. ... dermatitis. Moisturizing skin-care routines are essential. Non-soap cleansers, such as Cetaphil®, or moisturizing soaps, such ...

  9. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... red patches on the skin. The normal skin yeast, Pityrosporum ovale, lives in oil-rich skin regions ... due to the body's inflammatory response to the yeast found on the skin. Seborrheic dermatitis seems to ...

  10. Atopic dermatitis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Berke, Rebecca; Singh, Arshdeep; Guralnick, Mark

    2012-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis, also known as atopic eczema, is a chronic pruritic skin condition affecting approximately 17.8 million persons in the United States. It can lead to significant morbidity. A simplified version of the U.K. Working Party's Diagnostic Criteria can help make the diagnosis. Asking about the presence and frequency of symptoms can allow physicians to grade the severity of the disease and response to treatment. Management consists of relieving symptoms and lengthening time between flare-ups. Regular, liberal use of emollients is recommended. The primary pharmacologic treatment is topical corticosteroids. Twice-daily or more frequent application has not been shown to be more effective than once-daily application. A maintenance regimen of topical corticosteroids may reduce relapse rates in patients who have recurrent moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. Pimecrolimus and tacrolimus are calcineurin inhibitors that are recommended as second-line treatment for persons with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis and who are at risk of atrophy from topical corticosteroids. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a boxed warning about a possible link between these medications and skin malignancies and lymphoma, studies have not demonstrated a clear link. Topical and oral antibiotics may be used to treat secondary bacterial infections, but are not effective in preventing atopic dermatitis flare-ups. The effectiveness of alternative therapies, such as Chinese herbal preparations, homeopathy, hypnotherapy/biofeedback, and massage therapy, has not been established. PMID:22962911

  11. Atopic dermatitis: allergic dermatitis or neuroimmune dermatitis?*

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Neide Kalil; Aidé, Márcia Kalil

    2016-01-01

    Advances in knowledge of neurocellulars relations have provided new directions in the understanding and treatment of numerous conditions, including atopic dermatitis. It is known that emotional, physical, chemical or biological stimuli can generate more accentuated responses in atopic patients than in non-atopic individuals; however, the complex network of control covered by these influences, especially by neuropeptides and neurotrophins, and their genetic relations, still keep secrets to be revealed. Itching and airway hyperresponsiveness, the main aspects of atopy, are associated with disruption of the neurosensory network activity. Increased epidermal innervation and production of neurotrophins, neuropeptides, cytokines and proteases, in addition to their relations with the sensory receptors in an epidermis with poor lipid mantle, are the aspects currently covered for understanding atopic dermatitis. PMID:27579744

  12. External Bacterial Flora and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Two Household Cockroaches, Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis.

    PubMed

    Menasria, Taha; Tine, Samir; Mahcene, Djaouida; Benammar, Leyla; Megri, Rochdi; Boukoucha, Mourad; Debabza, Manel

    2015-04-01

    A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of the external bacterial flora of two domestic cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Blatta orientalis) collected from households in Tebessa (northeast Algeria). Three major bacterial groups were cultured (total aerobic, enterobacteria, and staphylococci) from 14 specimens of cockroaches, and antibiotic susceptibility was tested for both Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas isolates. Culturing showed that the total bacterial load of cockroaches from different households were comparable (P<0.001) and enterobacteria were the predominant colonizers of the insect surface, with a bacterial load of (2.1 × 10⁵ CFU/insect), whereas the staphylococci group was the minority. Twenty-eight bacterial species were isolated, and susceptibility patterns showed that most of the staphylococci isolates were highly susceptible to chloramphenicol, gentamycin, pristinamycin, ofloxacin, clindamycin, and vancomycin; however, Pseudomonas strains exhibited resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, imipenem, and the second-generation antibiotic cephalosporin cefuroxime. PMID:25966760

  13. Bacterial division. Mechanical crack propagation drives millisecond daughter cell separation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoxue; Halladin, David K; Rojas, Enrique R; Koslover, Elena F; Lee, Timothy K; Huang, Kerwyn Casey; Theriot, Julie A

    2015-05-01

    When Staphylococcus aureus undergoes cytokinesis, it builds a septum, generating two hemispherical daughters whose cell walls are only connected via a narrow peripheral ring. We found that resolution of this ring occurred within milliseconds ("popping"), without detectable changes in cell volume. The likelihood of popping depended on cell-wall stress, and the separating cells split open asymmetrically, leaving the daughters connected by a hinge. An elastostatic model of the wall indicated high circumferential stress in the peripheral ring before popping. Last, we observed small perforations in the peripheral ring that are likely initial points of mechanical failure. Thus, the ultrafast daughter cell separation in S. aureus appears to be driven by accumulation of stress in the peripheral ring and exhibits hallmarks of mechanical crack propagation. PMID:25931560

  14. Shiitake dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Camila Nemoto de; Silva, Priscila Mara Chaves E; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Nishimori, Fátima Satomi; Cassia, Flavia de Freire

    2015-01-01

    Shiitake Dermatitis is a skin eruption that resembles whiplash marks and occurs after consumption of raw shiitake mushrooms. It is caused by a toxic reaction to lentinan, a thermolabil polysaccharide which decomposes upon heating. We report the second case of this dermatitis in Brazil. A 25-year-old man presented with linearly arranged erythematous, pruritic papules on the trunk and limbs, after ingestion of a salad containing raw shiitake mushrooms. The eruption was self-limited, resolving within 10 days of onset. The recognition of this entity gains importance due to the increased consumption of shiitake mushrooms in occidental countries. PMID:25831007

  15. [Diaper dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Fölster-Holst, R; Buchner, M; Proksch, E

    2011-09-01

    Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin diseases during infancy and childhood. It is a type of irritant contact eczema resulting from a complex interaction between urine and feces under occlusive conditions in combination with the hyperhydration of the stratum corneum, pressure and friction under the diaper. These conditions pave the way for Candida albicans infection, which is often associated with diaper dermatitis. The anogenital region can be involved by a variety of dermatoses, so a precise skin examination, detailed history and sometimes histologic examination are needed for a precise diagnosis. Therapeutically, frequent diaper changes and adequate skin care are most important. PMID:21882101

  16. Paederus dermatitis in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Syed Nurul Rasool; Raza, Naeem; Rahman, Simeen Ber

    2006-01-01

    Paederus dermatitis, a type of irritant contact dermatitis attributed to a Staphylinid beetle, is prevalent in most parts of the world. We studied 50 cases of Paederus dermatitis at the United Nations Hospital at Koidu Sierra Leone (West Africa), over a period of 6 months from Oct 2003 to Mar 2004. The objectives of the study were to determine clinical patterns of dermatitis and its response to topical steroids, with and without antibiotics. Patients with a definite history of contact with the insect were included in the study. Amongst these, 14 of the more severe cases were treated with oral prednisolone or intralesional triamcinolone acetonide. The remainder of the 36 patients were divided in two equal groups A and B. Patients in Group A were treated with topical diflucortolone valerate 0.001 percent and oral cetirizine hydrochloride; patients in group B were given oral ciprofloxacin in addition. In 50 patients studied, 43 (86%) were males and 7 (14%) were females. The neck was the most common site involved followed by face. Healing time ranged from 14 to 28 days and lesions in all the patients healed with residual dyschromia. Healing time was shorter in Group B patients in comparison with those in Group A. Paederus dermatitis in Sierra Leone is a relatively severe form of this dermatitis. The better response to a combination of topical steroids and oral antibiotics may indicate concurrent bacterial infection. PMID:17459295

  17. Insights into the Mechanism of Inhibition of Novel Bacterial Topoisomerase Inhibitors from Characterization of Resistant Mutants of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Kutschke, Amy; McCormack, Kathy; Alm, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The type II topoisomerases DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV are clinically validated bacterial targets that catalyze the modulation of DNA topology that is vital to DNA replication, repair, and decatenation. Increasing resistance to fluoroquinolones, which trap the topoisomerase-DNA complex, has led to significant efforts in the discovery of novel inhibitors of these targets. AZ6142 is a member of the class of novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs) that utilizes a distinct mechanism to trap the protein-DNA complex. AZ6142 has very potent activity against Gram-positive organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes. In this study, we determined the frequencies of resistance to AZ6142 and other representative NBTI compounds in S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. The frequencies of selection of resistant mutants at 4× the MIC were 1.7 × 10−8 for S. aureus and <5.5 × 10−10 for S. pneumoniae. To improve our understanding of the NBTI mechanism of inhibition, the resistant S. aureus mutants were characterized and 20 unique substitutions in the topoisomerase subunits were identified. Many of these substitutions were located outside the NBTI binding pocket and impact the susceptibility of AZ6142, resulting in a 4- to 32-fold elevation in the MIC over the wild-type parent strain. Data on cross-resistance with other NBTIs and fluoroquinolones enabled the differentiation of scaffold-specific changes from compound-specific variations. Our results suggest that AZ6142 inhibits both type II topoisomerases in S. aureus but that DNA gyrase is the primary target. Further, the genotype of the resistant mutants suggests that domain conformations and DNA interactions may uniquely impact NBTIs compared to fluoroquinolones. PMID:26077256

  18. Persistent Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Two Independent Cases of Bacteremia Display Increased Bacterial Fitness and Novel Immune Evasion Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Richards, R. L.; Haigh, R. D.; Pascoe, B.; Sheppard, S. K.; Price, F.; Jenkins, D.; Rajakumar, K.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia cases are complicated by bacterial persistence and treatment failure despite the confirmed in vitro susceptibility of the infecting strain to administered antibiotics. A high incidence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia cases are classified as persistent and are associated with poorer patient outcomes. It is still unclear how S. aureus evades the host immune system and resists antibiotic treatment for the prolonged duration of a persistent infection. In this study, the genetic changes and associated phenotypic traits specific to S. aureus persistent bacteremia were identified by comparing temporally dispersed isolates from persistent infections (persistent isolates) originating from two independent persistent S. aureus bacteremia cases with the initial infection isolates and with three resolved S. aureus bacteremia isolates from the same genetic background. Several novel traits were associated specifically with both independent sets of persistent S. aureus isolates compared to both the initial isolates and the isolates from resolved infections (resolved isolates). These traits included (i) increased growth under nutrient-poor conditions; (ii) increased tolerance of iron toxicity; (iii) higher expression of cell surface proteins involved in immune evasion and stress responses; and (iv) attenuated virulence in a Galleria mellonella larva infection model that was not associated with small-colony variation or metabolic dormancy such as had been seen previously. Whole-genome sequence analysis identified different single nucleotide mutations within the mprF genes of all the isolates with the adaptive persistence traits from both independent cases. Overall, our data indicate a novel role for MprF function during development of S. aureus persistence by increasing bacterial fitness and immune evasion. PMID:26056388

  19. The role of the skin microbiome in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael R; Gallo, Richard L

    2015-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease that affects a large proportion of the population worldwide. The incidence of AD has increased over the last several decades along with AD's burden on the physical and psychological health of the patient and family. However, current advances in understanding the mechanisms behind the pathophysiology of AD are leading to a hopeful outlook for the future. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization on AD skin has been directly correlated to disease severity but the functions of other members of the skin bacterial community may be equally important. Applying knowledge gained from understanding the role of the skin microbiome in maintaining normal skin immune function, and addressing the detrimental consequences of microbial dysbiosis in driving inflammation, is a promising direction for development of new treatments. This review discusses current preclinical and clinical research focused on determining how the skin microbiome may influence the development of AD. PMID:26404536

  20. Cheyletiella dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Powell, R F; Palmer, S M; Palmer, C H; Smith, E B

    1977-10-01

    A mild dermatitis probably due to Cheyletiella yasguri was observed in 2 persons whose pet dog was infested with this parasite. Cheyletiella mites differ morphologically from sarcoptic mites, which cause canine and human scabies. Treatment of man and dog with 1% gamma benzene hexachloride is usually successful in clearing this condition. PMID:72050

  1. Dermatitis artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti; Debi, Basanti; Swain, Sarada P.

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year old lady presented to our department with multiple erosive lesions over extremities, which had a very bizarre pattern and was only over accessible parts of body. A thorough history was taken and a diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta was made. We present this interesting case for its rarity and future reference. PMID:23825858

  2. Dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Surajit; Acharjya, Basanti; Debi, Basanti; Swain, Sarada P

    2013-04-01

    A 27-year old lady presented to our department with multiple erosive lesions over extremities, which had a very bizarre pattern and was only over accessible parts of body. A thorough history was taken and a diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta was made. We present this interesting case for its rarity and future reference. PMID:23825858

  3. Dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, M; Rai, Reena; Raj, Anju

    2012-05-01

    Dermatitis artefacta (DA) is a psychocutaneous disorder where the skin lesions are self self-induced to satisfy an unconscious psychological or emotional need. We report a case of DA where we video recorded the patient self-inducing the lesions. PMID:23130292

  4. Dermatitis artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Kumaresan, M.; Rai, Reena; Raj, Anju

    2012-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta (DA) is a psychocutaneous disorder where the skin lesions are self self-induced to satisfy an unconscious psychological or emotional need. We report a case of DA where we video recorded the patient self-inducing the lesions. PMID:23130292

  5. Seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Seborrhoeic dermatitis affects at least 1-3% of the population. Malassezia (Pityrosporum) ovale is thought to be the causative organism, and causes inflammation involving T cells and complement. Seborrhoeic dermatitis tends to relapse after treatment. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp in adults? What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and body in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2006 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found nine systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bifonazole, emollients, ketoconazole, lithium succinate, selenium sulphide, tar shampoo, terbinafine, and topical steroids (betamethasone valerate, clobetasol propionate, clobetasone butyrate, hydrocortisone, mometasone furate). PMID:19454093

  6. Seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Seborrhoeic dermatitis affects at least 10% of the population. Malassezia (Pityrosporum) ovale is thought to be the causative organism, and causes inflammation by still poorly defined mechanisms. Seborrhoeic dermatitis tends to relapse after treatment. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp in adults? What are the effects of topical treatments for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and body in adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: bifonazole, emollients, ketoconazole, lithium succinate, selenium sulphide, tar shampoo, terbinafine, and topical corticosteroids (betamethasone valerate, clobetasol propionate, clobetasone butyrate, hydrocortisone, mometasone furoate). PMID:21418692

  7. DNA microarray analysis of Staphylococcus aureus causing bloodstream infection: bacterial genes associated with mortality?

    PubMed

    Blomfeldt, A; Aamot, H V; Eskesen, A N; Monecke, S; White, R A; Leegaard, T M; Bjørnholt, J V

    2016-08-01

    Providing evidence for microbial genetic determinants' impact on outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (SABSI) is challenging due to the complex and dynamic microbe-host interaction. Our recent population-based prospective study reported an association between the S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 30 genotype and mortality in SABSI patients. This follow-up investigation aimed to examine the genetic profiles of the SABSI isolates and test the hypothesis that specific genetic characteristics in S. aureus are associated with mortality. SABSI isolates (n = 305) and S. aureus CC30 isolates from asymptomatic nasal carriers (n = 38) were characterised by DNA microarray analysis and spa typing. Fisher's exact test, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and elastic net regressions were performed to discern within four groups defined by patient outcome and characteristics. No specific S. aureus genetic determinants were found to be associated with mortality in SABSI patients. By applying LASSO and elastic net regressions, we found evidence suggesting that agrIII and cna were positively and setC (=selX) and seh were negatively associated with S. aureus CC30 versus non-CC30 isolates. The genes chp and sak, encoding immune evasion molecules, were found in higher frequencies in CC30 SABSI isolates compared to CC30 carrier isolates, indicating a higher virulence potential. In conclusion, no specific S. aureus genes were found to be associated with mortality by DNA microarray analysis and state-of-the-art statistical analyses. The next natural step is to test the hypothesis in larger samples with higher resolution methods, like whole genome sequencing. PMID:27177754

  8. [Anthrenus dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Horster, S; Prinz, J C; Holm, N; Wollenberg, A

    2002-05-01

    A 31-year-old male presented with widespread itchy papules, especially on the legs, which had appeared 4 weeks previously. He reported that his wife and both daughters had developed similar lesions during the last week. Numerous small beetle larvae had been detected in his apartment, which were identified as museum beetle Anthrenus museorum L. Prick test with a larva extract caused a positive prick-test reaction, followed by a papular delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. History, clinical and histological examination led to the diagnosis of papular Anthrenus-dermatitis. Eradication of the beetle larvae from the patient's apartment, followed by topical glucocorticoid therapy led to a permanent remission of the dermatitis in all household members. PMID:12063744

  9. Role of Staphylococcus aureus Virulence Factors in Inducing Inflammation and Vascular Permeability in a Mouse Model of Bacterial Endophthalmitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus (S.) aureus is a common causative agent of bacterial endophthalmitis, a vision threatening complication of eye surgeries. The relative contribution of S. aureus virulence factors in the pathogenesis of endophthalmitis remains unclear. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the development of intraocular inflammation, vascular permeability, and the loss of retinal function in C57BL/6 mouse eyes, challenged with live S. aureus, heat-killed S. aureus (HKSA), peptidoglycan (PGN), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), staphylococcal protein A (SPA), α-toxin, and Toxic-shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST1). Our data showed a dose-dependent (range 0.01 μg/eye to 1.0 μg/eye) increase in the levels of inflammatory mediators by all virulence factors. The cell wall components, particularly PGN and LTA, seem to induce higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6, KC, and MIP2, whereas the toxins induced IL-1β. Similarly, among the virulence factors, PGN induced higher PMN infiltration. The vascular permeability assay revealed significant leakage in eyes challenged with live SA (12-fold) and HKSA (7.3-fold), in comparison to other virulence factors (~2-fold) and controls. These changes coincided with retinal tissue damage, as evidenced by histological analysis. The electroretinogram (ERG) analysis revealed a significant decline in retinal function in eyes inoculated with live SA, followed by HKSA, SPA, and α-toxin. Together, these findings demonstrate the differential innate responses of the retina to S. aureus virulence factors, which contribute to intraocular inflammation and retinal function loss in endophthalmitis. PMID:26053426

  10. Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Thomas; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition, characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches. It may be associated with pruritus, and it primarily affects sebum-rich areas, such as the scalp, face, upper chest, and back. Although its pathogenesis is not completely understood, some postulate that the condition results from colonization of the skin of affected individuals with species of the genus Malassezia (formerly, Pityrosporum). A variety of treatment modalities are available, including eradication of the fungus, reducing or treating the inflammatory process, and decreasing sebum production. PMID:20592880

  11. Staphylococcus aureus and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as “methicillin resistance to staphylococcus aureus” or “MRSA”. Other medications are available for treatment in this situation. What will a staph or MRSA skin infection look like? Staph bacterial infections, including ...

  12. Contact Dermatitis (Including Latex Dermatitis) (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient education: Contact dermatitis (including latex dermatitis) (Beyond the Basics) Authors ... defined as an inflammation of the skin [ 1 ]. Contact dermatitis refers to dermatitis that is caused by ...

  13. Diaper (napkin) dermatitis: A fold (intertriginous) dermatosis.

    PubMed

    Tüzün, Yalçın; Wolf, Ronni; Bağlam, Süleyman; Engin, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Diaper (napkin) dermatitis is an acutely presenting inflammatory irritant contact dermatitis of the diaper region. It is one of the most common dermatologic diseases in infants and children. In the past, the disease was thought to be caused by ammonia; however, a number of factors, such as friction, wetness, inappropriate skin care, microorganisms, antibiotics, and nutritional defects, are important. Diaper dermatitis commonly affects the lower parts of the abdomen, thighs, and diaper area. Involvement of skin fold regions is typical with diaper dermatitis. At the early stages of the disease, only dryness is observed in the affected area. At later stages, erythematous maceration and edema can be seen. Secondary candidal and bacterial infections can complicate the dermatitis. In the differential diagnosis of the disease, allergic contact dermatitis, intertrigo, psoriasis, atopic and seborrheic dermatitis, and the other diseases should be considered. Causes of the disease should be determined and eliminated primarily. Families need to be informed about the importance of a clean, dry diaper area and the frequency of diaper changes. The use of superabsorbent disposable diapers has decreased the incidence of the disease. Soap and alcohol-containing products should be avoided in cleaning the area. In some cases, corticosteroids and antifungal agents can be administered. If necessary, antibacterial agents and calcineurin inhibitors can also be beneficial. PMID:26051065

  14. Undetectable bacterial resistance to phage lytic proteins from the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA88

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increase in antibiotic resistance world-wide revitalized the interest in the use of phage lysins to combat pathogenic bacteria. In this work, we tested for the emergence of resistant Staphylococcus aureus to any of three phage lytic proteins constructs. The investigated cell wall lytic enzymes w...

  15. Irritant Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Irritant Contact Dermatitis Information for adults A A A This ... severe involvement in the patient's armpit. Overview Irritant contact dermatitis is an inflammatory rash caused by direct ...

  16. Atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Weidinger, Stephan; Novak, Natalija

    2016-03-12

    Atopic dermatitis (also known as atopic eczema) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is characterised by intense itching and recurrent eczematous lesions. Although it most often starts in infancy and affects two of ten children, it is also highly prevalent in adults. It is the leading non-fatal health burden attributable to skin diseases, inflicts a substantial psychosocial burden on patients and their relatives, and increases the risk of food allergy, asthma, allergic rhinitis, other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, and mental health disorders. Originally regarded as a childhood disorder mediated by an imbalance towards a T-helper-2 response and exaggerated IgE responses to allergens, it is now recognised as a lifelong disposition with variable clinical manifestations and expressivity, in which defects of the epidermal barrier are central. Present prevention and treatment focus on restoration of epidermal barrier function, which is best achieved through the use of emollients. Topical corticosteroids are still the first-line therapy for acute flares, but they are also used proactively along with topical calcineurin inhibitors to maintain remission. Non-specific immunosuppressive drugs are used in severe refractory cases, but targeted disease-modifying drugs are being developed. We need to improve understanding of the heterogeneity of the disease and its subtypes, the role of atopy and autoimmunity, the mechanisms behind disease-associated itch, and the comparative effectiveness and safety of therapies. PMID:26377142

  17. Atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin disorder that can significantly impact the quality of life of affected individuals as well as their families. Although the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood, it appears to result from the complex interplay between defects in skin barrier function, environmental and infectious agents, and immune abnormalities. There are no specific diagnostic tests for AD; therefore, the diagnosis is based on specific clinical criteria that take into account the patient’s history and clinical manifestations. Successful management of the disorder requires a multifaceted approach that involves education, optimal skin care practices, anti-inflammatory treatment with topical corticosteroids and/or topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs), the use of first-generation antihistamines to help manage sleep disturbances, and the treatment of skin infections. Systemic corticosteroids may also be used, but are generally reserved for the acute treatment of severe flare-ups. Topical corticosteroids are the first-line pharmacologic treatments for AD, and evidence suggests that these agents may also be beneficial for the prophylaxis of disease flare-ups. Although the prognosis for patients with AD is generally favourable, those patients with severe, widespread disease and concomitant atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, are likely to experience poorer outcomes. PMID:22166055

  18. The association between bedding material and the bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and coliform bacteria on teat skin and in teat canals in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Mohr, Elmar; Krömker, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Several mastitis-causing pathogens are able to colonize the bovine teat canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the treatment of sawdust bedding with a commercial alkaline conditioner and the bacterial counts on teat skin and in the teat canal. The study used a crossover design. Ten lactating Holstein cows that were free of udder infections and mastitis were included in the study. The animals were bedded on either untreated sawdust or sawdust that had been treated with a hydrated lime-based conditioner. Once a day, fresh bedding material was added. After 3 weeks, the bedding material was removed from the cubicles, fresh bedding material was provided, and the cows were rotated between the two bedding material groups. Teat skin and teat canals were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique after weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were detected in the resulting agar plate cultures. The treatment of the bedding material was associated with the teat skin bacterial counts of Str. uberis, Esch. coli and other coliform bacteria. An association was also found between the bedding material and the teat canal bacterial counts of coliform bacteria other than Esch. coli. For Staph. aureus, no associations with the bedding material were found. In general, the addition of a hydrated lime-based conditioner to sawdust reduces the population sizes of environmental pathogens on teat skin and in teat canals. PMID:23445624

  19. Seborrheic dermatitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Kralj, Martina; Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra; Lakoš Jukić, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disorder clinically characterized by scaling and poorly defined erythematous patches. The prevalence of adult seborrheic dermatitis is estimated at 5%. Although the exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis has yet to be understood, Malassezia yeasts, hormones (androgens), sebum levels and immune response are known to play important roles in its development. Additional factors including drugs, winter temperatures and stress may exacerbate seborrheic dermatitis. A variety of treatment modalities are available, including antifungal agents, topical low-potency steroids and calcineurin inhibitors (immunomodulators). This review summarizes current knowledge on the etiopathogenesis and therapy of adult seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:22726283

  20. Improving the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Ee Ting; Tidman, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Seborrhoeic dermatitis usually starts at puberty with a peak incidence at 40 years of age and is more common in males. Patients develop symmetrical, well demarcated, dull or yellowish red patches and plaques with overlying adherent, yellowish greasy scales. Seborrhoeic dermatitis has a distinctive distribution in areas rich in sebaceous glands - the scalp, eyebrows, glabella, nasolabial and nasofacial folds, cheeks, peri-auricular skin, pre-sternal and interscapular areas. It may occur in flexures, especially the axillae, groin, anogenital skin, infra-mammary skin and the umbilicus. Some patients may develop blepharitis with erythematous eyelids and destruction of eyelash follicles. Patients with HIV infection, neurological diseases, including parkinsonism and cranial nerve palsies, have a higher incidence of seborrhoeic dermatitis. Patients presenting with sudden onset severe seborrhoeic dermatitis should be screened for risk factors for HIV. Patients should be referred in the following situations: diagnostic uncertainty - consider other differential diagnoses; failure to respond to first-line treatment after four weeks - consider secondary changes e.g. bacterial infection, flexural intertrigo, lichenification, otitis externa; and severe/widespread disease. Patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis have a good prognosis, particularly infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis, which usually remits within a few weeks or months and does not recur. PMID:24689165

  1. The major autolysin of Staphylococcus lugdunensis, AtlL, is involved in cell separation, stress-induced autolysis and contributes to bacterial pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Laure; Didi, Jennifer; Marlinghaus, Lennart; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Legris, Stéphanie; Szabados, Florian; Pons, Jean-Louis; Pestel-Caron, Martine

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a human skin commensal organism, but it is considered as a virulent Staphylococcus species. In a previous study, we described the first S. lugdunensis autolysin, AtlL. This enzyme displays two enzymatic domains and generates two peptidoglycan hydrolases, an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase and an N-acetylglucosaminidase. In this study, to further investigate the functions of this autolysin, a ΔatlL mutant was constructed. The microscopic examination of the mutant showed cell aggregates and revealed a rough outer cell surface demonstrating, respectively, the roles of AtlL in cell separation and peptidoglycan turnover. This ΔatlL mutant exhibited a lower susceptibility to Triton X-100-induced autolysis assays and appears to be more resistant to cell wall antibiotic-induced lysis and death compared with its parental strain. The atlL mutation affected the biofilm formation capacity of S. lugdunensis. Furthermore, the ΔatlL mutant showed trends toward reduced virulence using the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Overall, AtlL appears as a major cell wall autolysin of S. lugdunensis implicated in cell separation, in stress-induced autolysis and in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:24393327

  2. Inhibitory effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) polyphenol extracts on the bacterial growth and survival of clinical isolates of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pagliarulo, Caterina; De Vito, Valentina; Picariello, Gianluca; Colicchio, Roberta; Pastore, Gabiria; Salvatore, Paola; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    In the present study major polyphenols of pomegranate arils and peel by-products were extracted in 50% (v/v) aqueous ethanol, characterized and used in microbiological assays in order to test antimicrobial activity against clinically isolated human pathogenic microorganisms. Total concentration of polyphenols and in vitro antioxidant properties were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH methods, respectively. The most abundant bioactive molecules, including anthocyanins, catechins, tannins, gallic and ellagic acids were identified by RP-HPLC-DAD, also coupled to off-line matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The inhibitory spectrum of extracts against test microorganisms was assessed by the agar well-diffusion method. Data herein indicated that both pomegranate aril and peel extracts have an effective antimicrobial activity, as evidenced by the inhibitory effect on the bacterial growth of two important human pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, which are often involved in foodborne illness. PMID:26213044

  3. The Staphylococcus aureus ABC-Type Manganese Transporter MntABC Is Critical for Reinitiation of Bacterial Replication Following Exposure to Phagocytic Oxidative Burst

    PubMed Central

    Coady, Alison; Xu, Min; Phung, Qui; Cheung, Tommy K.; Bakalarski, Corey; Alexander, Mary Kate; Lehar, Sophie M.; Kim, Janice; Park, Summer; Tan, Man-Wah; Nishiyama, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    Manganese plays a central role in cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, manganese acquisition is considered to be important for bacterial pathogenesis by counteracting the oxidative burst of phagocytic cells during host infection. However, detailed analysis of the interplay between bacterial manganese acquisition and phagocytic cells and its impact on bacterial pathogenesis has remained elusive for Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen. Here, we show that a mntC mutant, which lacks the functional manganese transporter MntABC, was more sensitive to killing by human neutrophils but not murine macrophages, unless the mntC mutant was pre-exposed to oxidative stress. Notably, the mntC mutant formed strikingly small colonies when recovered from both type of phagocytic cells. We show that this phenotype is a direct consequence of the inability of the mntC mutant to reinitiate growth after exposure to phagocytic oxidative burst. Transcript and quantitative proteomics analyses revealed that the manganese-dependent ribonucleotide reductase complex NrdEF, which is essential for DNA synthesis and repair, was highly induced in the mntC mutant under oxidative stress conditions including after phagocytosis. Since NrdEF proteins are essential for S. aureus viability we hypothesize that cells lacking MntABC might attempt to compensate for the impaired function of NrdEF by increasing their expression. Our data suggest that besides ROS detoxification, functional manganese acquisition is likely crucial for S. aureus pathogenesis by repairing oxidative damages, thereby ensuring efficient bacterial growth after phagocytic oxidative burst, which is an attribute critical for disseminating and establishing infection in the host. PMID:26379037

  4. Effects of vancomycin, daptomycin, and tigecycline on coagulase-negative staphylococcus biofilm and bacterial viability within biofilm: an in vitro biofilm model.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Barcin; Gunay, Necati; Ertugrul, Bulent M; Sakarya, Serhan

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria may hide in a hydrated polysaccharide matrix known as a biofilm. The structure of the bacterial biofilm renders phagocytosis difficult and increases antibiotic resistance. We hypothesized that repeated doses of antibiotics have an effect on bacteria within the biofilm and that it could inhibit or eradicate biofilm formation. Two clinical biofilm-positive coagulase-negative staphylococcus isolates were evaluated. The effects of antibiotics on preformed and nascent biofilm and on bacterial eradication within the biofilm were determined using different doses of vancomycin, daptomycin, and tigecycline for different durations in an in vitro biofilm model. Vancomycin neither penetrated the biofilm nor had any microbicidal effect on bacteria within the biofilm. Daptomycin had a microbicidal effect on bacteria within the biofilm but had no effect on biofilm inhibition and eradication (independent from dose and treatment time). Tigecycline inhibited and eradicated biofilm formation and had a microbicidal effect on bacteria within the biofilm. In conclusion, (i) biofilm formation appeared to be a major barrier to vancomycin activity, (ii) daptomycin had an antimicrobial effect on the bacteria within the biofilm but not on the biofilm burden, and (iii) tigecycline had effects both on bacteria within the biofilm and on biofilm burden. Thus, both tigecycline and daptomycin might be promising candidates for the treatment of biofilm infections. PMID:27295353

  5. Activation of phagocytic cells by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: effects of extracellular matrix proteins and the bacterial stress protein GroEL on netosis and MRP-14 release.

    PubMed

    Dapunt, Ulrike; Gaida, Matthias M; Meyle, Eva; Prior, Birgit; Hänsch, Gertrud M

    2016-07-01

    The recognition and phagocytosis of free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria by polymorphonuclear neutrophils have been investigated in depth. However, less is known about the neutrophil response towards bacterial biofilms. Our previous work demonstrated that neutrophils recognize activating entities within the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of biofilms (the bacterial heat shock protein GroEL) and that this process does not require opsonization. Aim of this study was to evaluate the release of DNA by neutrophils in response to biofilms, as well as the release of the inflammatory cytokine MRP-14. Neutrophils were stimulated with Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms, planktonic bacteria, extracted EPS and GroEL. Release of DNA and of MRP-14 was evaluated. Furthermore, tissue samples from patients suffering from biofilm infections were collected and evaluated by histology. MRP-14 concentration in blood samples was measured. We were able to show that biofilms, the EPS and GroEL induce DNA release. MRP-14 was only released after stimulation with EPS, not GroEL. Histology of tissue samples revealed MRP-14 positive cells in association with neutrophil infiltration and MRP-14 concentration was elevated in blood samples of patients suffering from biofilm infections. Our data demonstrate that neutrophil-activating entities are present in the EPS and that GroEL induces DNA release by neutrophils. PMID:27109773

  6. Complement regulator C4BP binds to Staphylococcus aureus surface proteins SdrE and Bbp inhibiting bacterial opsonization and killing☆

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Pamela S.; Foley, Caitlin K.; Krishna, Neel K.; Nyalwidhe, Julius O.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Foster, Timothy J.; Cunnion, Kenji M.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a premier human pathogen and the most common cause of osteoarticular, wound, and implanted device infections. We recently demonstrated S. aureus efficiently binds the classical complement regulator C4b-binding protein (C4BP) inhibiting antibody-initiated complement-mediated opsonization. Here we identify S. aureus surface protein SdrE as a C4BP-binding protein. Recombinant SdrE and recombinant bone sialoprotein-binding protein (Bbp), an allelic variant of SdrE, both efficiently bound to C4BP in heat-inactivated human serum. We previously described SdrE as binding alternative pathway regulator factor H. Recombinant SdrE and Bbp efficiently bound C4BP and factor H in serum without apparent interference. Gain of function studies utilizing Lactococcus lactis clones expressing SdrE or Bbp increased serum C4BP and factor H binding, compared with empty-vector control (WT) approximately 2-fold. Correspondingly, classical pathway-mediated C3-fragment opsonization and bacterial killing by human neutrophils decreased by half for L. lactis clones expressing SdrE or Bbp compared with WT. In summary, we identify SdrE and allelic variant Bbp as S. aureus surface proteins that bind the complement regulator C4BP inhibiting classical pathway-mediated bacterial opsonization and killing. PMID:24600566

  7. Whole metagenome profiling reveals skin microbiome-dependent susceptibility to atopic dermatitis flare.

    PubMed

    Chng, Kern Rei; Tay, Angeline Su Ling; Li, Chenhao; Ng, Amanda Hui Qi; Wang, Jingjing; Suri, Bani Kaur; Matta, Sri Anusha; McGovern, Naomi; Janela, Baptiste; Wong, Xuan Fei Colin C; Sio, Yang Yie; Au, Bijin Veonice; Wilm, Andreas; De Sessions, Paola Florez; Lim, Thiam Chye; Tang, Mark Boon Yang; Ginhoux, Florent; Connolly, John E; Lane, E Birgitte; Chew, Fook Tim; Common, John E A; Nagarajan, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Whole metagenome analysis has the potential to reveal functional triggers of skin diseases, but issues of cost, robustness and sampling efficacy have limited its application. Here, we have established an alternative, clinically practical and robust metagenomic analysis protocol and applied it to 80 skin microbiome samples epidemiologically stratified for atopic dermatitis (AD). We have identified distinct non-flare, baseline skin microbiome signatures enriched for Streptococcus and Gemella but depleted for Dermacoccus in AD-prone versus normal healthy skin. Bacterial challenge assays using keratinocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells established distinct IL-1-mediated, innate and Th1-mediated adaptive immune responses with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bacterial differences were complemented by perturbations in the eukaryotic community and functional shifts in the microbiome-wide gene repertoire, which could exacerbate a dry and alkaline phenotype primed for pathogen growth and inflammation in AD-susceptible skin. These findings provide insights into how the skin microbial community, skin surface microenvironment and immune system cross-modulate each other, escalating the destructive feedback cycle between them that leads to AD flare. PMID:27562258

  8. Transplantation of human skin microbiota in models of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Ian A.; Williams, Kelli W; Reckhow, Jensen D; Jammeh, Momodou L; Pincus, Nathan B; Sastalla, Inka; Saleem, Danial; Stone, Kelly D; Datta, Sandip K

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by reduced barrier function, reduced innate immune activation, and susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus. Host susceptibility factors are suggested by monogenic disorders associated with AD-like phenotypes and can be medically modulated. S. aureus contributes to AD pathogenesis and can be mitigated by antibiotics and bleach baths. Recent work has revealed that the skin microbiome differs significantly between healthy controls and patients with AD, including decreased Gram-negative bacteria in AD. However, little is known about the potential therapeutic benefit of microbiome modulation. To evaluate whether parameters of AD pathogenesis are altered after exposure to different culturable Gram-negative bacteria (CGN) collected from human skin, CGN were collected from healthy controls and patients with AD. Then, effects on cellular and culture-based models of immune, epithelial, and bacterial function were evaluated. Representative strains were evaluated in the MC903 mouse model of AD. We found that CGN taken from healthy volunteers but not from patients with AD were associated with enhanced barrier function, innate immunity activation, and control of S. aureus. Treatment with CGN from healthy controls improved outcomes in a mouse model of AD. These findings suggest that a live-biotherapeutic approach may hold promise for treatment of patients with AD. PMID:27478874

  9. Identification of vaccine candidate antigens of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius by whole proteome characterization and serological proteomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Couto, Natacha; Martins, Joana; Lourenço, Ana Mafalda; Pomba, Constança; Varela Coelho, Ana

    2016-02-01

    The recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) has complicated considerably the treatment of infections caused by these bacteria. Therefore new treatment strategies are urgently needed, namely through the development of vaccines towards the control of bacterial infections. Our study describes an extensive characterization of the proteome of S. pseudintermedius through a 2-DE MALDI-TOF/TOF approach, followed by SERological Proteome Analysis (SERPA) to identify potential vaccine candidate antigens. We were able to identify 361 unique proteins, of which 39 are surface proteins. In order to assess the immunogenic potential of S. pseudintermedius proteins, a Western blot analysis of two-dimensional gels was carried out with serum from healthy dogs, dogs with atopic dermatitis infected and not infected with S. pseudintermedius. Only immunogenic areas detected by ≥ 50% of the dogs with atopic dermatitis infected with S. pseudintermedius sera and by <50% of the healthy dogs sera were excised and identified from Coomassie-colloidal stained gels. The areas identified by IgE were not considered as vaccine targets, because those proteins could induce hypersensitivity. We were able to identify 13 unique proteins after in-gel digestion of selected protein gel spots, with 4 antigenic proteins showing promising features for vaccine development. No specific antibodies were identified in the dogs with atopic dermatitis not infected with S. pseudintermedius sera that could contribute to prevention of infection. The SERPA approach employed in this study revealed novel candidate therapeutic targets for the control of S. pseudintermedius infections. PMID:26721443

  10. Bacterial flora and the epidemiology of staphylococcus aureus in the nose among patients with symptomatic nasal septal perforations.

    PubMed

    Hulterström, Anna Karin; Sellin, Mats; Monsen, Tor; Widerström, Micael; Gurram, Bharath Kumar; Berggren, Diana

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions Patients with symptomatic perforations of the nasal septum had a high prevalence of S. aureus in the nasal mucosa. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed a high genetic heterogeneity of S. aureus among both patients and controls. This indicates that presence of different strains of S. aureus can maintain a chronic inflammation in symptomatic nasal septal perforations. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial flora around nasal septal perforations in patients having severe symptoms regarding bleeding, obstruction, and crustation associated with their perforation. Methods Twenty-five patients with untreated symptomatic nasal septal perforations were included. For culture, swabs around the perforations were collected. Bacteria were identified with standard laboratory techniques including a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. Epidemiological analysis was done using PFGE protocols. Bacteriological data were compared with data from a healthy control group. Results Staphylococcus aureus was present in the mucosa surrounding the nasal perforation significantly more often (p < 0.0001) in the patients (88%) compared to a control group (13%). Corynebacterium spp. and Propionibacterium spp. were significantly more frequently identified in the control group. The PFGE analysis of S. aureus strains revealed a high genetic heterogeneity and no specific S. aureus genotypes were associated with septal perforation. PMID:26852671

  11. Monoclonal Antibodies against Accumulation-Associated Protein Affect EPS Biosynthesis and Enhance Bacterial Accumulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Tao; Lou, Qiang; Wang, Xueqin; Wu, Yang; Huang, Renzheng; Liu, Jingran; Liu, Huayong; Yu, Fangyou; Ding, Baixing; Huang, Yalin; Tong, Wenyan; Qu, Di

    2011-01-01

    Because there is no effective antibiotic to eradicate Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm infections that lead to the failure of medical device implantations, the development of anti-biofilm vaccines is necessary. Biofilm formation by S. epidermidis requires accumulation-associated protein (Aap) that contains sequence repeats known as G5 domains, which are responsible for the Zn2+-dependent dimerization of Aap to mediate intercellular adhesion. Antibodies against Aap have been reported to inhibit biofilm accumulation. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the Aap C-terminal single B-repeat construct followed by the 79-aa half repeat (AapBrpt1.5) were generated. MAb18B6 inhibited biofilm formation by S. epidermidis RP62A to 60% of the maximum, while MAb25C11 and MAb20B9 enhanced biofilm accumulation. All three MAbs aggregated the planktonic bacteria to form visible cell clusters. Epitope mapping revealed that the epitope of MAb18B6, which recognizes an identical area within AapBrpt constructs from S. epidermidis RP62A, was not shared by MAb25C11 and MAb20B9. Furthermore, all three MAbs were found to affect both Aap expression and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS, including extracellular DNA and PIA) biosynthesis in S. epidermidis and enhance the cell accumulation. These findings contribute to a better understanding of staphylococcal biofilm formation and will help to develop epitope-peptide vaccines against staphylococcal infections. PMID:21687690

  12. Intracellular replication of Staphylococcus aureus in mature phagolysosomes in macrophages precedes host cell death, and bacterial escape and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Flannagan, Ronald S; Heit, Bryan; Heinrichs, David E

    2016-04-01

    The success of Staphylococcus aureus as a pathogen is partly attributable to its ability to thwart host innate immune responses, which includes resisting the antimicrobial functions of phagocytes. Here, we have studied the interaction of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain USA300 with murine RAW 264.7 and primary human macrophages using molecular imaging and single cell analysis to obtain an unprecedented understanding of the interaction between the macrophage and MRSA. Herein we demonstrate that macrophages fail to control intracellular infection by MRSA USA300 despite trafficking the bacteria into mature phagolysosomes. Using fluorescence-based proliferation assays we also show that intracellular staphylococci proliferate and that replication commences while the bacteria are residing in mature phagolysosomes hours after initial phagocytosis. Finally, live-cell fluorescence video microscopy allowed for unprecedented visual insight into the escape of MRSA from macrophages, demonstrating that the macrophages die through a pathway characterized by membrane blebbing and activation of caspase-3 followed by acquisition of the vital dye propidium iodide. Moreover, cell death precedes the emergence of MRSA from infected macrophages, and these events can be ablated by prolonged exposure of infected phagocytes to gentamicin. PMID:26408990

  13. Effect of storage and changes in bacterial growth phase and antibiotic concentrations on antimicrobial tolerance in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Mayhall, C G; Apollo, E

    1980-01-01

    Forty clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were tested for tolerance to oxacillin and cephalothin by broth dilution susceptibility tests and killing curves. Most experiments were carried out with stationary-phase inocula, but nine tolerant isolates were retested with log-phase inocula. All 40 isolates were retested in killing curves at double the antibiotic concentrations used in initial tests. Isolates were retested for tolerance to oxacillin after storage at --70 degrees C for 1 year. In broth dilution tests, 23 of 40 (57.5%) and 20 of 40 (50%) isolates were tolerant to oxacillin and cephalothin, respectively. By killing curves, 25 of 40 (62.5%) and 22 of 40 (55%) isolates were tolerant to oxacillin and cephalothin, respectively. When nine tolerant isolates were retested with log-phase inocula, none manifested tolerance. Only 25 to 30% of the isolates were tolerant in killing curves performed with oxacillin and cephalothin at concentrations double those used in initial tests. After storage at --70 degrees C for 1 year, only two-thirds of the isolates remained tolerant. In isolates that remained tolerant, the degree of tolerance diminished to about 25% of that observed in initial tests. PMID:7004348

  14. A Non-Coding RNA Promotes Bacterial Persistence and Decreases Virulence by Regulating a Regulator in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini, Arnaud; Caldelari, Isabelle; Benito, Yvonne; Hammann, Philippe; Geissmann, Thomas; Boisset, Sandrine; Romby, Pascale; Vandenesch, François

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus produces a high number of RNAs for which the functions are poorly understood. Several non-coding RNAs carry a C-rich sequence suggesting that they regulate mRNAs at the post-transcriptional level. We demonstrate that the Sigma B-dependent RsaA RNA represses the synthesis of the global transcriptional regulator MgrA by forming an imperfect duplex with the Shine and Dalgarno sequence and a loop-loop interaction within the coding region of the target mRNA. These two recognition sites are required for translation repression. Consequently, RsaA causes enhanced production of biofilm and a decreased synthesis of capsule formation in several strain backgrounds. These phenotypes led to a decreased protection of S. aureus against opsonophagocytic killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes compared to the mutant strains lacking RsaA. Mice animal models showed that RsaA attenuates the severity of acute systemic infections and enhances chronic catheter infection. RsaA takes part in a regulatory network that contributes to the complex interactions of S. aureus with the host immune system to moderate invasiveness and favour chronic infections. It is the first example of a conserved small RNA in S. aureus functioning as a virulence suppressor of acute infections. Because S. aureus is essentially a human commensal, we propose that RsaA has been positively selected through evolution to support commensalism and saprophytic interactions with the host. PMID:24651379

  15. Bacterial Hypoxic Responses Revealed as Critical Determinants of the Host-Pathogen Outcome by TnSeq Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Invasive Infection.

    PubMed

    Wilde, Aimee D; Snyder, Daniel J; Putnam, Nicole E; Valentino, Michael D; Hammer, Neal D; Lonergan, Zachery R; Hinger, Scott A; Aysanoa, Esar E; Blanchard, Catlyn; Dunman, Paul M; Wasserman, Gregory A; Chen, John; Shopsin, Bo; Gilmore, Michael S; Skaar, Eric P; Cassat, James E

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is capable of infecting nearly every organ in the human body. In order to infiltrate and thrive in such diverse host tissues, staphylococci must possess remarkable flexibility in both metabolic and virulence programs. To investigate the genetic requirements for bacterial survival during invasive infection, we performed a transposon sequencing (TnSeq) analysis of S. aureus during experimental osteomyelitis. TnSeq identified 65 genes essential for staphylococcal survival in infected bone and an additional 148 mutants with compromised fitness in vivo. Among the loci essential for in vivo survival was SrrAB, a staphylococcal two-component system previously reported to coordinate hypoxic and nitrosative stress responses in vitro. Healthy bone is intrinsically hypoxic, and intravital oxygen monitoring revealed further decreases in skeletal oxygen concentrations upon S. aureus infection. The fitness of an srrAB mutant during osteomyelitis was significantly increased by depletion of neutrophils, suggesting that neutrophils impose hypoxic and/or nitrosative stresses on invading bacteria. To more globally evaluate staphylococcal responses to changing oxygenation, we examined quorum sensing and virulence factor production in staphylococci grown under aerobic or hypoxic conditions. Hypoxic growth resulted in a profound increase in quorum sensing-dependent toxin production, and a concomitant increase in cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. Moreover, aerobic growth limited quorum sensing and cytotoxicity in an SrrAB-dependent manner, suggesting a mechanism by which S. aureus modulates quorum sensing and toxin production in response to environmental oxygenation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that bacterial hypoxic responses are key determinants of the staphylococcal-host interaction. PMID:26684646

  16. Bacterial Hypoxic Responses Revealed as Critical Determinants of the Host-Pathogen Outcome by TnSeq Analysis of Staphylococcus aureus Invasive Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Aimee D.; Snyder, Daniel J.; Putnam, Nicole E.; Valentino, Michael D.; Hammer, Neal D.; Lonergan, Zachery R.; Hinger, Scott A.; Aysanoa, Esar E.; Blanchard, Catlyn; Dunman, Paul M.; Wasserman, Gregory A.; Chen, John; Shopsin, Bo; Gilmore, Michael S.; Skaar, Eric P.; Cassat, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is capable of infecting nearly every organ in the human body. In order to infiltrate and thrive in such diverse host tissues, staphylococci must possess remarkable flexibility in both metabolic and virulence programs. To investigate the genetic requirements for bacterial survival during invasive infection, we performed a transposon sequencing (TnSeq) analysis of S. aureus during experimental osteomyelitis. TnSeq identified 65 genes essential for staphylococcal survival in infected bone and an additional 148 mutants with compromised fitness in vivo. Among the loci essential for in vivo survival was SrrAB, a staphylococcal two-component system previously reported to coordinate hypoxic and nitrosative stress responses in vitro. Healthy bone is intrinsically hypoxic, and intravital oxygen monitoring revealed further decreases in skeletal oxygen concentrations upon S. aureus infection. The fitness of an srrAB mutant during osteomyelitis was significantly increased by depletion of neutrophils, suggesting that neutrophils impose hypoxic and/or nitrosative stresses on invading bacteria. To more globally evaluate staphylococcal responses to changing oxygenation, we examined quorum sensing and virulence factor production in staphylococci grown under aerobic or hypoxic conditions. Hypoxic growth resulted in a profound increase in quorum sensing-dependent toxin production, and a concomitant increase in cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. Moreover, aerobic growth limited quorum sensing and cytotoxicity in an SrrAB-dependent manner, suggesting a mechanism by which S. aureus modulates quorum sensing and toxin production in response to environmental oxygenation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that bacterial hypoxic responses are key determinants of the staphylococcal-host interaction. PMID:26684646

  17. A Staphylococcus aureus ypfP mutant with strongly reduced lipoteichoic acid (LTA) content: LTA governs bacterial surface properties and autolysin activity

    PubMed Central

    Fedtke, Iris; Mader, Diana; Kohler, Thomas; Moll, Hermann; Nicholson, Graeme; Biswas, Raja; Henseler, Katja; Götz, Friedrich; Zähringer, Ulrich; Peschel, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Many Gram-positive bacteria produce lipoteichoic acid (LTA) polymers whose physiological roles have remained a matter of debate because of the lack of LTA-deficient mutants. The ypfP gene responsible for biosynthesis of a glycolipid found in LTA was deleted in Staphylococcus aureus SA113, causing 87% reduction of the LTA content. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the mutant LTA contained a diacylglycerol anchor instead of the glycolipid, whereas the remaining part was similar to the wild-type polymer except that it was shorter. The LTA mutant strain revealed no major changes in patterns of cell wall proteins or autolytic enzymes compared with the parental strain indicating that LTA may be less important in S. aureus protein attachment than previously thought. However, the autolytic activity of the mutant was strongly reduced demonstrating a role of LTA in controlling autolysin activity. Moreover, the hydrophobicity of the LTA mutant was altered and its ability to form biofilms on plastic was completely abrogated indicating a profound impact of LTA on physicochemical properties of bacterial surfaces. We propose to consider LTA and its biosynthetic enzymes as targets for new antibiofilm strategies. PMID:17640274

  18. The Inflammatory Response of Primary Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells to Staphylococcus aureus Strains Is Linked to the Bacterial Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Zbinden, Christina; Stephan, Roger; Johler, Sophia; Borel, Nicole; Bünter, Julia; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.; Wellnitz, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major mastitis-causing pathogen in dairy cows. The latex agglutination-based Staphaurex test allows bovine S. aureus strains to be grouped into Staphaurex latex agglutination test (SLAT)-negative [SLAT(−)] and SLAT-positive [SLAT(+)] isolates. Virulence and resistance gene profiles within SLAT(−) isolates are highly similar, but differ largely from those of SLAT(+) isolates. Notably, specific genetic changes in important virulence factors were detected in SLAT(−) isolates. Based on the molecular data, it is assumed that SLAT(+) strains are more virulent than SLAT(−) strains. The objective of this study was to investigate if SLAT(−) and SLAT(+) strains can differentially induce an immune response with regard to their adhesive capacity to epithelial cells in the mammary gland and in turn, could play a role in the course of mastitis. Primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) were challenged with suspensions of heat inactivated SLAT(+) (n = 3) and SLAT(−) (n = 3) strains isolated from clinical bovine mastitis cases. After 1, 6, and 24 h, cells were harvested and mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, RANTES, SAA, lactoferrin, GM-CSF, COX-2, and TLR-2) was evaluated by reverse transcription and quantitative PCR. Transcription (ΔΔCT) of most measured factors was induced in challenged bMEC for 6 and 24 h. Interestingly, relative mRNA levels were higher (P<0.05) in response to SLAT(+) compared to SLAT(−) strains. In addition, adhesion assays on bMEC also showed significant differences between SLAT(+) and SLAT(−) strains. The present study clearly shows that these two S. aureus strain types cause a differential immune response of bMEC and exhibit differences in their adhesion capacity in vitro. This could reflect differences in the severity of mastitis that the different strain types may induce. PMID:24498088

  19. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  20. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  1. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  2. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid... REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products § 113.115 Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. Staphylococcus... Staphylococcus aureus which has been inactivated and is nontoxic. Each serial of biological product...

  3. Cashew nut dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rosen, T; Fordice, D B

    1994-04-01

    The urushiol dermatitis caused by plants of the Anacardiaceae family is the most common cause of acute allergic contact dermatitis. We have reported a case of cashew nut urushiol dermatitis due to ingestion of homemade cashew nut butter contaminated by cashew nut shell oil. With the precautions taken today to avoid contamination of food products with cashew urushiols, it is rare to find a case of cashew nut dermatitis in the United States. We have found no other report of contact dermatitis due to cashew nut butter. Moreover, though hinted at in the literature, there has been no previous detailed report of perianal contact dermatitis due to cashew ingestion. The fact that our patient was ill enough to require treatment with 3 weeks of systemic steroid therapy highlights the potential public health hazard of consumption of improperly prepared cashew products. However, the risk of cashew nut dermatitis today remains small, and this should not discourage cashew lovers from enjoying their treats. A final lesson to be learned from this case is that perianal eruptions may be due to materials deliberately applied to the anogenital region or to ingested antigens that remain sufficiently intact within the feces to affect perianal skin. PMID:8153790

  4. Effect of irradiation on kinetic behavior of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in lettuce and damage of bacterial cell envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Won-Bo; Je, Gil-Soo; Kim, Kyeongyeol; Mtenga, Adelard B.; Lee, Won-Gyeong; Song, Jeong-Un; Chung, Duck-Hwa; Yoon, Yohan

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated effect of gamma irradiation on survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus on lettuce and damage of cell envelope. S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were inoculated on red leaf lettuce, and they were irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 kGy, and the samples were then stored at 7 and 25 °C for 7 days. Survival of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were enumerated on xylose lysine deoxycholate agar and Baird-Parker agar, respectively. D10 value (dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/leaf) was calculated, and kinetic parameters (maximum specific growth rate; μmax and lag phase duration; LPD) were calculated by the modified Gompertz model. In addition, cell envelope damage of the pathogens was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). D10 values were 0.35 and 0.33 kGy for S. Typhimurium and S. aureus, respectively. During storage at 7 °C, S. Typhimurium and S. aureus had significant (P<0.05) growth only on non-irradiated samples up to about 2.5 and 4 log CFU/leaf at 0.42 and 1.28 log CFU/leaf/day of μmax, respectively. At 25 °C, cell counts of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus on the samples irradiated at 0 and 0.5 kGy increased (P<0.05) up to 3-6 log CFU/leaf. The μmax of both pathogens were higher in 0 kGy (1.08-2.27 log CFU/leaf/day) and 0.5 kGy (0.58-0.92 log CFU/leaf/day), and LPDs ranged from 1.53 to 3.14 day. SEM and TEM observations showed that cells irradiated at 1.5 and 3 kGy showed disrupted cell membrane. These results indicate that gamma irradiation could be a useful decontamination technology to improve food safety of lettuce by destroying cells of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus.

  5. Contact dermatitis in hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Nethercott, J R; MacPherson, M; Choi, B C; Nixon, P

    1986-02-01

    18 cases of hand dermatitis in hairdressers seen over a 5-year period are reviewed. The diagnoses in these patients are discussed with reference to other studies of hand dermatitis in hairdressers. Contact allergy due to paraphenylenediamine and related hair dyes was the presenting complaint in younger hairdressers, while formaldehyde allergy occurred in those who were older. The prognosis in the former group of workers with respect to continued employment in the trade tended to be poorer than the latter. Follow-up revealed that hand dermatitis often resulted in the worker not continuing to work in the hairdressing trade. PMID:2940055

  6. Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.

    PubMed

    van der Mei, I A; de Boer, E M; Bruynzeel, D P

    1998-09-01

    Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence. PMID:10024736

  7. Dermatitis artefacta: case report.

    PubMed

    Novak, Teodora Gregurek; Duvancić, Tomislav; Vucić, Majda

    2013-06-01

    Automutilating behavior is becoming ever more frequent in patients seeking dermatologic care. Psychocutaneous disorders encompass a wide range of dermatologic conditions, all of which have in common the important role of psychological factors. Dermatitis artefacta syndrome is characterized by unconscious self-injury behavior, while dermatitis para-artefacta syndrome is labeled with manipulation of an existing specific dermatosis. Consciously stimulated injuries with the purpose of obtaining material gain is known as malingering. Here we present a 20-year-old female patient with a sudden pain and an oval, yellowish skin defect on her left lower leg, 3 x 3.5 cm in diameter, with an erythematous, clearly defined border, surrounded by erythematous, painful skin resembling pyoderma gangrenosum. The patient had a clinically typical skin presentation but with atypical therapeutic outcome. The diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta was made. Liaison psychiatry can reaffirm the diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta and provide necessary psychopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. PMID:24053087

  8. Adult Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common chronic-recurrent inflammatory disorder that most commonly affects adults; however, a more transient infantile form also occurs. The definitive cause of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown. However, proliferation of Malassezia species has been described as a contributing factor. The adult form of seborrheic dermatitis affects up to approximately five percent of the general population. The disorder commonly affects the scalp, face, and periauricular region, with the central chest, axillae, and genital region also involved in some cases. Pruritus is not always present and is relatively common, especially with scalp disease. A variety of treatments are available including topical corticosteroids, topical antifungal agents, topical calcineurin inhibitors, and more recently, a nonsteroidal “device ”cream. This article reviews the practical topical management of seborrheic dermatitis in the United States, focusing on the adult population. PMID:21607192

  9. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  10. Eczema and Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... extra ingredients. A good, cheap moisturizer is plain petroleum jelly (such as Vaseline). Use moisturizers that are ... a flare-up? SourceSome information taken from: National Institutes of Health. Handout on Health: Atopic Dermatitis. Accessed ...

  11. Occupational Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 90% of all cases of work-related cutaneous disorders. It can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis, which occurs in 80% of cases, and allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, both types will present as eczematous lesions on exposed parts of the body, notably the hands. Accurate diagnosis relies on meticulous history taking, thorough physical examination, careful reading of Material Safety Data Sheets to distinguish between irritants and allergens, and comprehensive patch testing to confirm or rule out allergic sensitization. This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of occupational contact dermatitis and provides diagnostic guidelines and a rational approach to management of these often frustrating cases. PMID:20525126

  12. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years. PMID:25000234

  13. Stasis dermatitis and ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the skin that occurs when blood collects (pools) in the veins of the lower leg. ... people with venous insufficiency develop stasis dermatitis. Blood pools in the veins of the lower leg. Fluid ...

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes of allergic contact dermatitis include nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and topical antibiotic ointments and creams. Frequent ... construction workers who are in contact with cement. Rubber chemicals are found in gloves, balloons, elastic in ...

  15. Chromate Dermatitis from Paint

    PubMed Central

    Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.

    1963-01-01

    Among 250 workers engaged on wet sandpapering of primer paint on car bodies 65 developed a contact dermatitis. The average latent period before dermatitis developed was 4·6 months: only 60% of the patients made a completely satisfactory recovery. The average duration of dermatitis was 5·3 months. Two thirds of the men used one of two barrier creams supplied, while one third used none. Routine patch testing showed that the majority was allergic to chromate. It was found that a primer paint contained zinc chromate, which had been introduced into the paint by the manufacturers shortly before the first cases occurred. Removal of chromate from the paint resulted in a prompt cessation of new cases of dermatitis. Images PMID:14046155

  16. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment. PMID:26125159

  17. Contact dermatitis complicating pinnaplasty.

    PubMed

    Singh-Ranger, G; Britto, J A; Sommerlad, B C

    2001-04-01

    Proflavine allergy is uncommon, occurring in approximately 6% of patients attending contact dermatitis clinics. Proflavine wool is used by many surgeons in the UK as a dressing that can be moulded to conform to the contours of a corrected prominent ear. It may have bacteriostatic properties. We present a case where contact dermatitis in response to proflavine developed after pinnaplasty. This caused diagnostic confusion, a lengthened hospital stay and an unsightly hypertrophic scar. PMID:11254419

  18. Bioadhesive sulfacetamide sodium microspheres: evaluation of their effectiveness in the treatment of bacterial keratitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Sensoy, Demet; Cevher, Erdal; Sarici, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Mesut; Ozdamar, Akif; Bergişadi, Nazan

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare bioadhesive sulfacetamide sodium (SA) microspheres to increase their residence time on the ocular surface and to enhance their treatment efficacy on ocular keratitis. Microspheres were fabricated by spray drying method using mixture of polymers such as pectin, polycarbophil and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) at different ratios. The particle size and distribution, morphological characteristics, thermal behavior, encapsulation efficiency, mucoadhesion and in vitro drug release studies on formulations have been investigated. After optimisation studies, SA-loaded polycarbophil microsphere formulation with polymer:drug ratio of 2:1 was found to be the most suitable for ocular application and used in in vivo studies. In vivo studies were carried out on New Zealand male rabbit eyes with keratitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Sterile microsphere suspension in light mineral oil was applied to infected eyes twice a day. Plain SA suspension was used as a positive control. On 3rd and 6th days of the antimicrobial therapy, the eyes were examined in respect to clinical signs of infection (blepharitis, conjunctivitis, iritis, corneal oedema and corneal infiltrates) which are the main symptoms of bacterial keratitis and then cornea samples were counted microbiologically. The rabbit eyes treated with microspheres demonstrated significantly lower clinical scores than those treated with SA alone. A significant decrease in the number of viable bacteria in eyes treated with microspheres was observed in both infection models when compared to those treated with SA alone. In conclusion, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that SA-loaded microspheres were proven to be highly effective in the treatment of ocular keratitis. PMID:19223014

  19. A multicentre study of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections in China: susceptibility to ceftaroline and molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Mao, Lei-Li; Zhao, Hao-Ran; Zhao, Ying; Wang, He; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin with activity against Gram-positive organisms, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility to ceftaroline of hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) isolates causing acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections (ABSSSIs) in China and to examine their relationship by genotyping. A total of 251 HA-MRSA isolates causing ABSSSIs were collected from a multicentre study involving 56 hospitals in 38 large cities across 26 provinces in mainland China. All isolates were characterised by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, spa typing and detection of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin locus (lukS-PV and lukF-PV). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 14 antimicrobial agents, including ceftaroline, were determined by broth microdilution and were interpreted using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. The ceftaroline MIC50 and MIC90 values (MICs that inhibit 50% and 90% of the isolates, respectively) were 1 μg/mL and 2 μg/mL, respectively; 33.5% (n=84) of the isolates studied were ceftaroline-non-susceptible, with MICs of 2 μg/mL, but no isolate exhibited ceftaroline resistance (MIC>2 μg/mL). All of the ceftaroline-non-susceptible isolates belonged to the predominant HA-MRSA clones: 95.2% (n=80) from MLST clonal complex 8 (CC8), with the remaining 4.8% (n=4) from CC5. The high rate of non-susceptibility to ceftaroline amongst HA-MRSA causing ABSSSIs in China is concerning. PMID:25649348

  20. Clumping Factor A Interaction with Complement Factor I Increases C3b Cleavage on the Bacterial Surface of Staphylococcus aureus and Decreases Complement-Mediated Phagocytosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Pamela S.; Echague, Charlene G.; Sholl, Amber M.; Watkins, Justin A.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Foster, Timothy J.; Cunnion, Kenji M.

    2010-01-01

    The human complement system is important in the immunological control of Staphylococcus aureus infection. We showed previously that S. aureus surface protein clumping factor A (ClfA), when expressed in recombinant form, bound complement control protein factor I and increased factor I cleavage of C3b to iC3b. In the present study, we show that, compared to the results for the wild type, when isogenic ClfA-deficient S. aureus mutants were incubated in serum, they bound less factor I, generated less iC3b on the bacterial surface, and bound fewer C3 fragments. It has been shown previously that two amino acids in ClfA (P336 and Y338) are essential for fibrinogen binding. However, S. aureus expressing ClfA(P336A Y338S) was less virulent than ClfA-deficient strains in animal models. This suggested that ClfA contributed to S. aureus virulence by a mechanism different than fibrinogen binding. In the present study, we showed that S. aureus expressing ClfA(P336A Y338S) was more susceptible to complement-mediated phagocytosis than a ClfA-null mutant or the wild type. Unlike ClfA, ClfA(P336A Y338S) did not enhance factor I cleavage of C3b to iC3b and inhibited the cofactor function of factor H. Fibrinogen enhanced factor I binding to ClfA and the S. aureus surface. Twenty clinical S. aureus strains all expressed ClfA and bound factor I. High levels of factor I binding by clinical strains correlated with poor phagocytosis. In summary, our results suggest that the interaction of ClfA with factor I contributes to S. aureus virulence by a complement-mediated mechanism. PMID:20100856

  1. Abnormal skin barrier in the etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Peter M.; Schmuth, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Many recent studies have revealed the key roles played by Th1/Th2 cell dysregulation, IgE production, mast cell hyperactivity, and dendritic cell signaling in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Accordingly, current therapy has been largely directed towards ameliorating Th2-mediated inflammation and/or pruritus. We will review here emerging evidence that the inflammation in atopic dermatitis results from inherited and acquired insults to the barrier and the therapeutic implications of this new paradigm. Recent findings Recent molecular genetic studies have shown a strong association between mutations in FILAGGRIN and atopic dermatitis, particularly in Northern Europeans. But additional acquired stressors to the barrier are required to initiate inflammation. Sustained hapten access through a defective barrier stimulates a Th1 → Th2 shift in immunophenotype, which in turn further aggravates the barrier. Secondary Staphylococcus aureus colonization not only amplifies inflammation but also further stresses the barrier in atopic dermatitis. Summary These results suggest a new ‘outside-to-inside, back to outside’ paradigm for the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. This new concept is providing impetus for the development of new categories of ‘barrier repair’ therapy. PMID:19550302

  2. [Protein toxins of Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Shamsutdinov, A F; Tiurin, Iu A

    2014-01-01

    Main scientific-research studies regarding protein bacterial toxins of the most widespread bacteria that belong to Staphylococcus spp. genus and in particular the most pathogenic species for humans--Staphylococcus aureus, are analyzed. Structural and biological properties of protein toxins that have received the name of staphylococcus pyrogenic toxins (PTSAg) are presented. Data regarding genetic regulation of secretion and synthesis of these toxins and 3 main regulatory genetic systems (agr--accessory gene regulator, xpr--extracellular protein regulator, sar--staphylococcal accessory regulator) that coordinate synthesis of the most important protein toxins and enzymes for virulence of S. aureus, are presented. PMID:25051707

  3. In Vivo Pharmacodynamic Target Investigation of Two Bacterial Topoisomerase Inhibitors, ACT-387042 and ACT-292706, in the Neutropenic Murine Thigh Model against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Lepak, A J; Seiler, P; Surivet, J P; Ritz, D; Kohl, C; Andes, D R

    2016-06-01

    ACT-387042 and ACT-292706 are two novel bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin- and fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae We used the neutropenic murine thigh infection model to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD) of these investigational compounds against a group of 10 S. aureus and S. pneumoniae isolates with phenotypic resistance to beta-lactams and fluoroquinolones. The in vitro activities of the two compounds were very similar (MIC range, 0.03 to 0.125 mg/liter). Plasma pharmacokinetics were determined for each compound by using four escalating doses administered by the subcutaneous route. In treatment studies, mice had 10(7.4) to 10(8) CFU/thigh at the start of therapy with ACT-387042 and 10(6.7) to 10(8.3) CFU/thigh at the start of therapy with ACT-292706. A dose-response relationship was observed with all isolates over the dose range. Maximal kill approached 3 to 4 log10 CFU/thigh compared to the burden at the start of therapy for the highest doses examined. There was a strong relationship between the PK/PD index AUC/MIC ratio (area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC) and therapeutic efficacy in the model (R(2), 0.63 to 0.82). The 24-h free-drug AUC/MIC ratios associated with net stasis for ACT-387042 against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were 43 and 10, respectively. The 24-h free-drug AUC/MIC ratios associated with net stasis for ACT-292706 against S. aureus and S. pneumoniae were 69 and 25, respectively. The stasis PD targets were significantly lower for S. pneumoniae (P < 0.05) for both compounds. The 1-log-kill AUC/MIC ratio targets were ∼2- to 4-fold higher than stasis targets. Methicillin, penicillin, or ciprofloxacin resistance did not alter the magnitude of the AUC/MIC ratio required for efficacy. These results should be

  4. Examination of hospital length of stay in Canada among patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Potashman, Michele H; Stokes, Michael; Liu, Jieruo; Lawrence, Robin; Harris, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Skin infections, particularly those caused by resistant pathogens, represent a clinical burden. Hospitalization associated with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major contributor to the economic burden of the disease. This study was conducted to provide current, real-world data on hospitalization patterns for patients with ABSSSI caused by MRSA across multiple geographic regions in Canada. Patients and methods This retrospective cohort study evaluated length of stay (LOS) for hospitalized patients with ABSSSI due to MRSA diagnosis across four Canadian geographic regions using the Discharge Abstract Database. Patients with ICD-10-CA diagnosis consistent with ABSSSI caused by MRSA between January 2008 and December 2014 were selected and assigned a primary or secondary diagnosis based on a prespecified ICD-10-CA code algorithm. Results Among 6,719 patients, 3,273 (48.7%) and 3,446 (51.3%) had a primary and secondary diagnosis, respectively. Among patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis, the cellulitis/erysipelas subtype was most common. The majority of patients presented with 0 or 1 comorbid condition; the most common comorbidity was diabetes. The mean LOS over the study period varied by geographic region and year; in 2014 (the most recent year analyzed), LOS ranged from 7.7 days in Ontario to 13.4 days in the Canadian Prairie for a primary diagnosis and from 18.2 days in Ontario to 25.2 days in Atlantic Canada for a secondary diagnosis. A secondary diagnosis was associated with higher rates of continuing care compared with a primary diagnosis (10.6%–24.2% vs 4.6%–12.1%). Conclusion This study demonstrated that the mean LOS associated with ABSSSI due to MRSA in Canada was minimally 7 days. Clinical management strategies, including medication management, which might facilitate hospital discharge, have the potential to reduce hospital LOS and related economic

  5. Staphylococcus aureus biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Nathan K; Mazaitis, Mark J; Costerton, J William; Leid, Jeff G; Powers, Mary Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Increasing attention has been focused on understanding bacterial biofilms and this growth modality's relation to human disease. In this review we explore the genetic regulation and molecular components involved in biofilm formation and maturation in the context of the Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, we discuss diseases and host immune responses, along with current therapies associated with S. aureus biofilm infections and prevention strategies. PMID:21921685

  6. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects. PMID:25000236

  7. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates. PMID:26367207

  8. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) ...

  9. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NIAID Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases web site to work incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) ...

  10. Religious Allergic Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Alina; Matiz, Catalina; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2015-01-01

    Henna, derived from a combination of natural leaves and coloring additives, is a common decorative dye traditionally used in many Islamic religious celebrations. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a major component of black henna tattoo, is a strong sensitizer and common allergen. We report a case of severe connubial allergic contact dermatitis after black henna heterotransfer in a girl. PMID:25968562

  11. [Etiopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Oehling, A; Jerez, J

    1975-01-01

    There is a wide variety of criteria in regard to the etiology of atopic dermatitis of neurodermitis. The allergic factor may play a very important role in its etiology. There is neither a general agreement on the importance of food allergy in this regard. Broadly considered, these patients may evoke intense positive reactions to intradermal tests to food and inhalative allergens, nevertheless it will be possible to establish that the lesions appear or disappear after the exposure of suppression of the antigens which evoked the positive reaction. On this basis, many dermatologists deny the allergic etiology in atopic dermatitis, even though in most instances no food skin tests are performed. In this study, 110 patients, both children and adults of both sexes, suffering from atopic dermatitis are investigated. The onset in most of the cases is before the age of six months, following the ages between 1-10 years; the groups between 6 months and one year, and 10-20 years followed a descending order per decade until 70 years. 60.9% of the cases showed food allergy to one or more food items. In 39% of the cases, no food allergy was found. The food-stuffs more commonly involved were: milk (37.7%), egg (26.3%) and fish (20.9%), followed by coca, wheat flour, seafood, fruits, vegetables and meat. A remission of the reaction followed the suppression of the allergen. Intestinal parasitosis is evaluated in relation to atopic dermatitis. 30.9% of the 110 cases were affected with intestinal parasitosis, being the most common the flagelates (lamblias), protozoa (amoeba) and nematodes (ascaris, tricocephalus and oxijrus). Finally, a concurrence is found between atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases in 81 cases (73.6%), being bronchial asthma and asthmatic bronchitis the most frequent, and allergic rhinitis, urticaria and Quincke's edema less frequent. PMID:1180202

  12. Acute Necrotizing Sinusitis Caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis▿

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Philippa C.; Lazarus, Rajeka; Protheroe, Andrew; Milford, Christopher; Bowler, Ian C. J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is most commonly associated with infections arising from the inguinal region, but here we report this organism as a cause of bacterial sinusitis, highlighting its potential niche as a commensal of the upper airways. The severity of necrosis demonstrates the potential for destructive pathology mimicking Staphylococcus aureus disease. PMID:21593256

  13. Genomics of Staphylococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Jodi A.

    The staphylococci are Gram-positive cocci that divide to form clusters that look like grapes. By 16S ribosomal sequencing, they are most closely related to the Gram-positive, low G+C content Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Staphylococcus genera (Woese, 1987). There are over 30 species of staphylococci identified, and they are typically found on the skin and mucous membranes of mammals. About a dozen species are frequently carried on humans, including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus cohnii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus xylosus.

  14. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  15. Dermatitis artefacta as a symptom of schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Kępska, Anna; Majtyka, Magdalena; Kowman, Maciej; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Kwiecińska, Ewa; Zalewska-Janowska, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a disease that occurs as a result of a self-inflicted injury of the skin. The skin lesions are most often located on the areas within easy reach of the patient's dominant hand sparing the middle part of the back. Dermatitis artefacta may coexist with psychiatric disorders and imitate many dermatologic diseases. As most of the patients with self-inflicted dermatoses usually initially deny any psychiatric problems, what delays psychiatric intervention, they are typically first seen by dermatologists. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old man with a 3-year-long history of schizophrenia who has been treated at a dermatologist's office sequentially with acne, bacterial lesions, suspected tuberculosis. However, the treatment was ineffective. He was diagnosed with dermatitis artefacta after 7 years of disease duration. During this time he was treated with many medicines e.g. isotretinoin, which is contraindicated in psychosis as it worsens the course of disease. After establishing the correct diagnosis and antipsychotic treatment, a significant improvement was obtained in both skin condition and mental state. These are the reasons why we would like to recommend close cooperation between dermatologists and psychiatrists. PMID:25254016

  16. Dermatitis artefacta as a symptom of schizophrenia?

    PubMed Central

    Majtyka, Magdalena; Kowman, Maciej; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Kwiecińska, Ewa; Zalewska-Janowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a disease that occurs as a result of a self-inflicted injury of the skin. The skin lesions are most often located on the areas within easy reach of the patient's dominant hand sparing the middle part of the back. Dermatitis artefacta may coexist with psychiatric disorders and imitate many dermatologic diseases. As most of the patients with self-inflicted dermatoses usually initially deny any psychiatric problems, what delays psychiatric intervention, they are typically first seen by dermatologists. We are reporting a case of a 35-year-old man with a 3-year-long history of schizophrenia who has been treated at a dermatologist's office sequentially with acne, bacterial lesions, suspected tuberculosis. However, the treatment was ineffective. He was diagnosed with dermatitis artefacta after 7 years of disease duration. During this time he was treated with many medicines e.g. isotretinoin, which is contraindicated in psychosis as it worsens the course of disease. After establishing the correct diagnosis and antipsychotic treatment, a significant improvement was obtained in both skin condition and mental state. These are the reasons why we would like to recommend close cooperation between dermatologists and psychiatrists. PMID:25254016

  17. Anti-staphylococcal treatment in dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Bat-Chen; Goldman, Ran D.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Question A 10-year-old boy with atopic dermatitis (AD) came for consultation with an exacerbation. He suffered from pruritus and multiple erythematous skin lesions, identified as inflamed but not infected. Because skin colonization with Staphylococcus aureus is very common in AD and can worsen the skin condition, is it reasonable to add topical antibiotic treatment to the anti-inflammatory treatment in this case? Answer Skin colonization with S aureus is prevalent in children and adults with AD, and can aggravate skin inflammation. Although topical combination creams with steroids and antibiotics are widely used for AD flare-ups, their superiority over anti-inflammatory treatment alone is not well established. Antibiotic treatment, whether systemic or topical, should be reserved for cases in which explicit signs of infection are present. PMID:21673210

  18. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Allergic Diseases Asthma Food Allergy Immune System Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) National ... allergic diseases such as asthma, hay fever, and food allergy. Children whose parents have asthma and allergies are ...

  19. Dermatitis, contact on the cheek (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin inflammation (dermatitis) on the cheek caused by contact with a substance that produced an allergic reaction (allergen). Contact dermatitis causes redness, itching, and small blisters (vesicles).

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis from ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Warshaw, Erin M

    2014-09-01

    Ketoconazole is a widely used imidazole antifungal agent. True contact allergy to topical ketoconazole is rare, and few cases of patients with contact allergy to ketoconazole have been reported. We present the case of a patient with a history of undiagnosed recurrent dermatitis who developed acute facial swelling and pruritus after using ketoconazole cream and shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Patch testing revealed true contact allergy to ketoconazole without cross-reactivity to 4 other imidazole antifungals. Review of the patient's medical record suggested that prior incidences of dermatitis might have been due to ketoconazole exposure. When the patient avoided this imidazole agent, the dermatitis resolved. PMID:25279470

  1. Dermatitis artefacta: a review.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Pichardo, A; García Bravo, B

    2013-12-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a rarely diagnosed disorder that is often a source of perplexity and anxiety for dermatologists because they know less about the cause of this self-inflicted condition than the patients themselves. It differs from other skin disorders in that diagnosis is made by exclusion rather than on the basis of histologic and biochemical findings and therefore involves a considerable investment of time and resources. Based on the findings of a study of 201 patients diagnosed with dermatitis artefacta between 1976 and 2006, we review the different clinical presentations of this skin disorder and discuss its diagnosis and treatment. The series analyzed comprised 152 women and 49 men (female to male ratio of 3.1:1) with a mean age of 31.2 years. The patients were mostly single and had a low educational level and few or no job qualifications or skills. PMID:23266056

  2. Understanding irritant napkin dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Atherton, David J

    2016-07-01

    Irritant napkin dermatitis (IND, often referred to as irritant diaper dermatitis) is an exceedingly common problem in the first 2 years of life. It is now established that a number of factors are considered important in the etiology of IND. The principal irritants are fecal enzymes, which damage infant skin and are further amplified by a number of factors, including skin maceration and friction, high pH, the presence of urine, and the duration of contact with feces. In recent years, the decreasing incidence and severity of IND reflects improvements in the design and performance of diapers, diaper skin care products, and overall awareness about maintaining infant skin health. PMID:27311779

  3. Atopic dermatitis and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Finch, Justin; Munhutu, M N; Whitaker-Worth, Diane L

    2010-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis, a chronic disease with no cure, currently affects almost one-fifth of the population of industrialized nations. Treatment can be challenging for physicians and patients alike. Children are commonly affected, making it even more difficult to find safe therapeutic options, especially in severe disease. Interest in diet and nutrition has increased during the last few years. Nutritional interventions are both intriguing and accessible for many patients. Given the recent expansion of the field of nutrition in the realm of medicine and in popular culture, it is important for the dermatologist to be knowledgeable about the risks and benefits of nutritional interventions. This contribution reviews the current literature on the role of nutrition in atopic dermatitis, from dietary restriction to dietary supplementation, from traditional interventions such as vitamins and minerals to the emerging fields of probiotics and essential fatty acids, and from the prenatal period through infancy and adulthood. PMID:21034985

  4. Morbilliviral dermatitis in seals.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, T P; Mense, M G; Habecker, P L; Taubenberger, J K; Schoelkopf, R

    2001-11-01

    A juvenile female hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) and a juvenile male harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) stranded separately on the New Jersey (USA) coast and were taken to a marine mammal rehabilitation center. Both were lethargic and emaciated, had dermatitis, and died. Histologic skin lesions in the seals were similar and consisted of epidermal and follicular epithelial hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, degeneration, and necrosis. The most distinctive finding was extensive syncytial zones bounded superficially by hyperkeratosis and deeply by hyperplastic basal cells. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in epithelial cells. Morbilliviral antigen was demonstrated in the skin lesions by immunohistochemistry. Phocine distemper virus was detected in the skin by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and a phocine distemper virus-specific probe using the Southern blot technique. This is the first report of morbilliviral dermatitis in marine mammals. PMID:11732810

  5. Rhus (Toxicodendron) dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tanner, T L

    2000-06-01

    This article reviews the current fund of knowledge on poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac dermatitis. It is intended as a global summary to provide the primary care provider with the required information and sources for more esoteric academic pursuits. Toxicodendron characteristics, morphology, and biology are reviewed. The overall medical impact is delineated as well as the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment. Historical perspectives are mentioned throughout, as are future trends in research. PMID:10815057

  6. Contact dermatitis in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contact dermatitis in pediatric population is a common but (previously) under recognized disease. It is usually divided into the allergic and the irritant forms. The diagnosis is usually obtained with the patch test technique after conducting a thorough medical history and careful physical examination but patch testing in infants may be particularly difficult, and false-positive reactions may occur. This study also provides an overview of the most common allergens in pediatric population and discusses various therapeutic modalities. PMID:20205907

  7. Pediatric contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vinod K; Asati, Dinesh P

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control. PMID:20826990

  8. Dermatitis and aircrew.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Smith, Derek R

    2006-01-01

    Dermatitis is a common problem both in the workplace and in the general community. Airline personnel represent a novel occupational group as they are also exposed to a wide range of potential chemical irritants and other aggravating factors, such as low relative humidity and airborne pollutants. Common skin irritants include dielectric fluids from electrodischarge machining, 'prepreg' materials and sealants in aircraft manufacture, kerosene and various jet-fuel components. Commercial jet fuel is a complex mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and there is potential for dermal exposure among refueling and maintenance crew. Low relative humidity appears to exacerbate dermatitis amongst aircrew, especially on longer flight durations. Pilots may also be exposed to additional skin irritants outside of the cabin environment, such as ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid or jet fuel, all of which may be encountered during routine inspections of aircraft before and after flight. Given these factors, preventive measures must carefully consider the undoubted potential for contact with irritants and allergens, which may lead to dermatitis in airline personnel. PMID:16426285

  9. Infective Dermatitis in an Adult Patient With HTLV-1

    PubMed Central

    Riveros, Rosalba; Medina, Raquel; Morel, Maida

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Infective dermatitis is a chronic exudative eczematous eruption presenting in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)–infected people. It presents with relapsing erythematous, scaly, and crusted lesions affecting simultaneously the scalp, external ear, retroauricular area, eyelid, paranasal skin, neck axilla, and groin. Superimposed Staphylococcus and Streptococcus infection are common. It mainly affects children and exceptionally adults, and there are only a few published cases. The authors present the first reported case in Paraguay of an adult patient who had symptoms of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1–associated progressive tropical spastic paraparesis, and 6 years after the onset of the neurological symptoms, the patient developed infective dermatitis lesions on the skin, with frequent exacerbations since then. PMID:26588341

  10. Contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Kassis, V; Vedel, P; Darre, E

    1984-07-01

    2 cases of contact dermatitis to methyl methacrylate monomer are presented. The patients are nurses who mixed bone cement at orthopedic operations. During the procedure, they used 2 pairs of gloves (latex). Butyl rubber gloves are recommended for methyl methacrylate monomer to avoid sensitization and/or cumulative irritant contact dermatitis on the hands. PMID:6204812

  11. Livedoid Dermatitis Treated With Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Wheless, Lee; Zhu, Lilly; Mashayekhi, Mona; Fissell, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous injection of buprenorphine as a cause of livedoid dermatitis is a recently described phenomenon. This report reviews the brief literature of this finding, and presents a case of livedoid dermatitis of both heels following injection more than one day prior, and thesuccessful treatment with nifedipine monotherapy. PMID:26885536

  12. An update on the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Olivry, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis is a common skin disease seen in veterinary clinical practice. Several factors appear to contribute to the cutaneous inflammation and pruritus. The therapeutic strategy should focus on control of those factors that can be identified and for which interventional measures are feasible; these include ectoparasites, bacterial/fungal infection and dietary hypersensitivity. Ectoparasites, particularly fleas, are not the cause of atopic dermatitis, but they are a confounding factor, which can exacerbate pruritus, and preventative measures are therefore indicated. Bacterial and yeast infections are frequently associated with atopic dermatitis and initial systemic and/or topical therapy should be considered, followed by regular topical treatment for preventing relapse. Concurrent dietary hypersensitivity should be investigated by undertaking an elimination/provocation trial, followed by feeding of a hypoallergenic diet where appropriate. Depending on the severity of the clinical signs of atopic dermatitis and the willingness and expectations of owners, symptomatic treatment and/or specific interventional therapy for environmental allergy (allergen avoidance, allergen-specific immunotherapy) may be implemented. Symptomatic treatment includes use of glucocorticoids (systemically or topically), ciclosporin and oclacitinib. Other treatment modalities of lower or less proven efficacy include antihistamines, dextromethorphan, fatty acids, feline interferon-omega, misoprostol, pentoxifylline, specific serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressant drugs. The therapeutic approach should be reviewed at regular intervals and tailored to the individual's needs. A successful long-term outcome can usually be achieved by combining the various treatment approaches in a way that maximises their benefits and minimises their drawbacks. PMID:26586215

  13. [Allergic and irritative textile dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    1994-01-22

    Textile dermatitis is only one example of adverse health effects due to clothing. It may present with a wide spectrum of clinical features, but the main mechanisms are irritant dermatitis, often observed in atopics intolerant to wool and synthetic fibers, and allergic contact dermatitis, usually caused by textile finishes and dyes. The newer azo dyes Disperse Blue 106 and 124 in particular are potent sensitizers that have caused significant problems, most recently in the form of "leggins dermatitis". Although severe textile dermatitis appears to be a rare event, more systematic population-based research is needed since many oligosymptomatic cases are probably overlooked. Criteria for healthy textiles are an optimum combination of efficacy (regulation of skin temperature and humidity and protection from environmental damage) and safety (lack of carcinogenicity, toxicity and allergenicity). If potentially allergenic substances are used in textiles, they should be declared as in the case of cosmetics. PMID:8115841

  14. Metalworking fluid hand dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Saori; Shiomi, Yuko; Yokota, Kozo

    2002-07-01

    In a household appliance plant, several rinse-free lubricating fluids have been used instead of neat mineral oils since 1994: mixtures of isoparaffinic hydrocarbons with 9 to 14 carbons per molecule. As such they denature keratin, irritate and defat the skin, and remove water from it. Work gloves have been worn over plastic gloves and separate, reusable, cotton inner gloves have been added to absorb sweat since skin problems were first recognized in 1994. All 74 males (mean +/- SD, 38.8 +/- 8.0 years) who work with the fluids were interviewed and given cutaneous examinations when indicated. While 4 cases of severe dermatitis and 31 cases of mild dermatitis were identified, 28 individuals gave a history of similar problems since the use of lubricating fluids. Their symptoms were typical of primary skin irritation. The hands were the commonly affected region (63 of 63 cases: 100%), followed by the thighs (15.9%) and trunk (11.1%). The work-related skin symptoms identified were less common in workers who immediately removed the liquid with soap and water, when it is spilled on the hands, than in those who did not, but the difference was not statistically significant (7/23 (30.4%) vs. 28/51 (54.9%), p=0.051 by chi-square test). Since skin contact with metalworking fluids (MWF) is often unavoidable, good personal hygiene is important in minimizing potential adverse health effects. Health education thus remains the most important preventive measure against irritant contact dermatitis among workers handling MWFs. PMID:12141380

  15. Contact dermatitis to methylisothiazolinone*

    PubMed Central

    Scherrer, Maria Antonieta Rios; Rocha, Vanessa Barreto; Andrade, Ana Regina Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) is a preservative found in cosmetic and industrial products. Contact dermatitis caused by either methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI or Kathon CG) or MI has shown increasing frequency. The latter is preferably detected through epicutaneous testing with aqueous MI 2000 ppm, which is not included in the Brazilian standard tray. We describe a series of 23 patients tested using it and our standard tray. A case with negative reaction to MCI/MI and positive to MI is emphasized. PMID:26734880

  16. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jenny L.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing system made patch testing more convenient, and after its introduction, more dermatologists offered patch testing services. However, the number of allergens in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test remains relatively low. Every two years, the North American Contact Dermatitis Group collects and reports the data from patch testing among its members to a standardized series of allergens. In 2005-2006, the Group used a series of 65 allergens. Of the top 30 allergens reported in 2005-2006, 10 were not included in the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test. Knowledge of and testing for additional allergens such as these may increase patch testing yield. PMID:20967194

  17. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis)Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: ... at Home You and your doctor should discuss the best treatment plan and medications for your atopic dermatitis. But taking ...

  18. Atopic dermatitis - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 5. James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM. Atopic dermatitis, eczema, and noninfectious immunodeficiency disordersIn: James WD, Berger TG, Elston DM, eds. Andrews' Diseases ...

  19. Dermatitis in rubber manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect

    White, I.R.

    1988-01-01

    This review describes the history of rubber technology and the manufacturing techniques used in rubber manufacturing industries. The important aspects of the acquisition of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis within the industry are presented for the reader.

  20. Protein Linked to Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is elevated in mice with atopic dermatitis. The factors involved in this regulation, however, aren’t well understood. Past work led by Dr. Arup Indra at Oregon State University showed that COUP-TF interacting protein 2 (Ctip2) ...

  1. Contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Santucci, B; Picardo, M; Iavarone, C; Trogolo, C

    1985-04-01

    A study was carried out on 50 workers in a floriculture centre to evaluate the incidence of contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria. 3 subjects gave positive reactions to aqueous and ethanolic extracts of cut flowers, stems and leaves. By column chromatography, the allergen was isolated and its chemical structure identified as 6-tuliposide A by proton magnetic resonance and carbon-13 magnetic resonance. Only 6-tuliposide A was isolated from cut flowers, and this gave positive reactions when patch tested at 0.01%; a-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone at 10(-5) (v/v) was positive in the same 3 subjects. Other lactones (gamma-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone, alantolactone, isoalantolactone) were negative at all concentrations used. PMID:3160533

  2. Dermatitis from propolis.

    PubMed

    Rudzki, E; Grzywa, Z

    1983-01-01

    22 patients with dermatitis from propolis were studied. In all the 21 tests with propolis were positive, and in 19 they were also positive to balsam of Peru. The chromatogram of the balsam and propolis show marked similarity and 3 identical peaks could be recognised in both substances. Among the patients sensitive to balsam of Peru and propolis, 12 were tested with some common components; 3 were positive to cinnamyl cinnamate, 2 to vanillin and 1 to benzyl cinnamate. Chromatograms of the 3 propolis samples from the Warsaw region were very similar, but not identical. Some of the patients were tested with 35 essential oils and eugenol. Sensitivity to clove oil was common. PMID:6220861

  3. Contact dermatitis in blacks.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, E; Maibach, H I

    1988-07-01

    Black skin is characterized by structural and functional differences such as increased stratum corneum cohesion, melanin content, and stratum corneum layers. These differences seem to make black skin difficult for irritants and light to penetrate, thus explaining the common opinion that skin in blacks is harder and develops contact dermatitis less frequently. The paucity of interpretable epidemiologic data and of clinical and experimental studies does not permit confirmation of this hypothesis, and the few data available are controversial. This article describes the main physiologic differences between black and white barrier function and reviews the literature on irritation, sensitization, and transcutaneous penetration. We found that the data are still too incomplete to generalize on the resistance, or lack thereof, of black skin (versus white skin) to chemical irritation, sensitization, and penetration. PMID:3048818

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to Alstroemeria.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G

    1988-06-01

    Two female florists developed dermatitis of the fingertips. Patch testing revealed allergic contact dermatitis to the flower, Alstroemeria, used in floral arrangements. They had positive patch tests to portions of Alstroemeria, and to tuliposide A, the allergen in this plant. Vinyl gloves were not helpful since tuliposide A readily penetrates through these gloves. Nitrile gloves may be protective since they prevented positive patch test to tuliposide A. PMID:2967676

  5. Contact Dermatitis, Patch Testing, and Allergen Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Burkemper, Nicole M

    2015-01-01

    In patients presenting with a complaint of rash, contact dermatitis is often the underlying diagnosis making it an entity with which health care providers should be familiar. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. In a patient suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis, patch testing can be done to identify specific allergens. Education focused on allergen avoidance and safe products is an integral part of treatment for the contact dermatitis patient. Knowledge of the most common allergens is helpful for clinicians to be able to provide this education. PMID:26455061

  6. [Place of immunosuppressors in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    de Prost, Yves

    2012-03-01

    Use of immunosuppressors in the treatment of atopic dermatitis is an important innovation that reinforces the therapeutic arsenal in this chronic disease. Two such drugs are used topically for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Tacrolimus exists in pommade form at a concentration of 0.1% for adults and 0.03% for children. Pimecrolimus, another calcineurine inhibitor with similar efficacy and tolerability, is not marketed in France. These products inhibit cytokine production by antigen-stimulated T lymphocytes. Their clinical efficacy has been demonstrated in many studies in the United States and Europe. They are particularly valuable for patients whose clinical course is marked by disease persistence and frequent flares, which would otherwise require almost continuous topical corticosteroid treatment. Topical calcineurine inhibitors may also have a significant benefit in patients with involvement of sensitive skin areas, such as around the eyes, face, neck and genital area, where systemic absorption and the risk of skin atrophy are particular concerns. The most frequent adverse effects are a local erythema-like reaction with burning and pruritus at the outset of treatment. No significant increase in bacterial or viral infections has been noted by comparison with control groups, and no systemic impact has been reported. However, these drugs should not be used in patients with a history of Kaposi-Juliusberg disease or in patients with herpes. Photoprotection measures must be respected. New trials with tacrolimus show that atopic lesions can be controlled by treating subclinical inflammation twice weekly between flares, thereby preventing flares and prolonging the flare-free interval. This new therapeutic approach is called proactive treatment. The efficacy of oral cyclosporine at 4-5 mg/kg/day in severe forms of atopic dermatitis is now well demonstrated. There is consistent evidence that oral cyclosporin is beneficial in patients whose disease is not adequately

  7. Facial bacterial infections: folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Laureano, Ana Cristina; Schwartz, Robert A; Cohen, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Facial bacterial infections are most commonly caused by infections of the hair follicles. Wherever pilosebaceous units are found folliculitis can occur, with the most frequent bacterial culprit being Staphylococcus aureus. We review different origins of facial folliculitis, distinguishing bacterial forms from other infectious and non-infectious mimickers. We distinguish folliculitis from pseudofolliculitis and perifolliculitis. Clinical features, etiology, pathology, and management options are also discussed. PMID:25441463

  8. LytN, a Murein Hydrolase in the Cross-wall Compartment of Staphylococcus aureus, Is Involved in Proper Bacterial Growth and Envelope Assembly*

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Matthew B.; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Missiakas, Dominique M.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Cell cycle progression for the spherical microbe Staphylococcus aureus requires the coordinated synthesis and remodeling of peptidoglycan. The majority of these rearrangements takes place at the mid-cell, in a compartment designated the cross-wall. Secreted polypeptides endowed with a YSIRK-G/S signal peptide are directly delivered to the cross-wall compartment. One such YSIRK-containing protein is the murein hydrolase LytN. lytN mutations precipitate structural damage to the cross-wall and interfere with staphylococcal growth. Overexpression of lytN also affects growth and triggers rupture of the cross-wall. The lytN phenotype can be reversed by the controlled expression of lytN but not by adding purified LytN to staphylococcal cultures. LytN harbors LysM and CHAP domains, the latter of which functions as both an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase and d-alanyl-glycine endopeptidase. Thus, LytN secretion into the cross-wall promotes peptidoglycan separation and completion of the staphylococcal cell cycle. PMID:21784864

  9. Differentiation of pulmonary bacterial pathogens in cystic fibrosis by volatile metabolites emitted by their in vitro cultures: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    PubMed

    Dryahina, Kseniya; Sovová, Kristýna; Nemec, Alexandr; Španěl, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    As a contribution to the continuing search for breath biomarkers of lung and airways infection in patients with cystic fibrosis, CF, we have analysed the volatile metabolites released in vitro by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other bacteria involved in respiratory infections in these patients, i.e. those belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex, Staphylococcus aureus or Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These opportunistic pathogens are generally harmless to healthy people but they may cause serious infections in patients with severe underlying disease or impaired immunity such as CF patients. Volatile organic compounds emitted from the cultures of strains belonging to the above-mentioned four taxa were analysed by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry. In order to minimize the effect of differences in media composition all strains were cultured in three different liquid media. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals that the four taxa can be well discriminated by the differences in the headspace VOC concentration profiles. The compounds that should be targeted in breath as potential biomarkers of airway infection were identified for each of these taxa of CF pathogens. PMID:27506232

  10. Traditional Smallpox Vaccines and Atopic Dermatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the traditional vaccine for people with atopic dermatitis/eczema, or for their close contacts? Yes. In the ... emergency. Why should someone who has atopic dermatitis/eczema and their family members not receive the vaccine? ...

  11. Comparison of MRSASelect Agar, CHROMagar Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Medium, and Xpert MRSA PCR for Detection of MRSA in Nares: Diagnostic Accuracy for Surveillance Samples with Various Bacterial Densities ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wolk, D. M.; Marx, J. L.; Dominguez, L.; Driscoll, D.; Schifman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Rapid laboratory methods provide optimal support for active surveillance efforts to screen for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Most laboratories struggle to determine the optimal use of resources, considering options to balance cost, speed, and diagnostic accuracy. To assess the performance of common methods, the first comparison of MRSASelect agar (MS) and CHROMagar MRSA (CA), with and without broth enrichment followed by a 24-h subculture to MS, was performed. Results were compared to those of the Xpert MRSA assay. For direct culture methods, the agreement between MS and CA was 98.8%. At 18 h, direct MS identified 93% of all positive samples from direct culture and 84% of those identified by the Xpert MRSA. For Trypticase soy broth-enriched MS culture, incubated overnight and then subcultured for an additional 24 h, the agreement with Xpert MRSA was 96%. The agreement between direct MS and Xpert MRSA was 100% when semiquantitative culture revealed a bacterial density of 2+ or greater; however, discrepancies between culture and Xpert MRSA arose for MRSA bacterial densities of 1+ or less, indicating low density as a common cause of false-negative culture results. Since 1+ or less was established as the most common MRSA carrier state, broth enrichment or PCR may be critical for the identification of all MRSA carriers who may be reservoirs for transmission. In this active-surveillance convenience sample, the use of broth enrichment followed by subculture to MS offered a low-cost but sensitive method for MRSA screening, with performance similar to that of Xpert MRSA PCR. PMID:19828738

  12. Intracellular Biosynthesis of Fluorescent CdSe Quantum Dots in Bacillus subtilis: A Strategy to Construct Signaling Bacterial Probes for Visually Detecting Interaction Between Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng-Yu; Ai, Xiao-Xia; Su, Yi-Long; Liu, Xin-Ying; Shan, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Sheng-Mei

    2016-02-01

    In this work, fluorescent Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) cells were developed as probes for imaging applications and to explore behaviorial interaction between B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). A novel biological strategy of coupling intracellular biochemical reactions for controllable biosynthesis of CdSe quantum dots by living B. subtilis cells was demonstrated, through which highly luminant and photostable fluorescent B. subtilis cells were achieved with good uniformity. With the help of the obtained fluorescent B. subtilis cells probes, S. aureus cells responded to co-cultured B. subtilis and to aggregate. The degree of aggregation was calculated and nonlinearly fitted to a polynomial model. Systematic investigations of their interactions implied that B. subtilis cells inhibit the growth of neighboring S. aureus cells, and this inhibition was affected by both the growth stage and the amount of surrounding B. subtilis cells. Compared to traditional methods of studying bacterial interaction between two species, such as solid culture medium colony observation and imaging mass spectrometry detection, the procedures were more simple, vivid, and photostable due to the efficient fluorescence intralabeling with less influence on the cells' surface, which might provide a new paradigm for future visualization of microbial behavior. PMID:26687198

  13. Use of adhesion-defective mutants of Staphylococcus aureus to define the role of specific plasma proteins in promoting bacterial adhesion to canine arteriovenous shunts.

    PubMed Central

    Vaudaux, P E; François, P; Proctor, R A; McDevitt, D; Foster, T J; Albrecht, R M; Lew, D P; Wabers, H; Cooper, S L

    1995-01-01

    We used an ex vivo canine arteriovenous shunt model, previously developed to study plasma protein adsorption and thrombogenesis on polymeric biomaterials, to define the role of host proteins in promoting adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus. Either polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride tubings were exposed to canine blood for 5, 15, or 60 min at a flow rate of 300 ml/min and then were flushed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), cut into 1.5-cm segments, and stored at -70 degrees C. After thawing, each segment was preincubated in 0.5% albumin in PBS to prevent nonspecific staphylococcal attachment to surfaces that were not exposed to blood. Each segment was then incubated with 4 x 10(6) CFU of [3H]thymidine-labelled S. aureus per ml for 60 min at 37 degrees C in an in vitro adhesion assay. Two site-specific mutants of S. aureus were tested: one specifically defective in adhesion to surface-bound fibronectin (FnAd-def) and the other defective in adhesion to fibrinogen (FgAD-def) [corrected]. Compared with their respective parental strains, the FgAd-def, but not the FnAd-def, mutant of S. aureus showed a strong (> 80%) decrease in attachment to ex vivo tubings. The adhesion of each strain of S. aureus onto polyethylene was consistently more than twofold higher than the adhesion onto polyvinyl chloride segments exposed to flowing blood for 5 or 15 min, but adhesion became similar to that on polyvinyl chloride after 60 min of exposure. In conclusion, the specific adhesion-defective mutants of S. aureus suggested that fibrinogen was the most active adhesion-promoting protein in a short-term blood-material interaction. The experimental approach described in this study should prove useful for screening materials thought to be resistant to protein-mediated staphylococcal adhesion and colonization. PMID:7822026

  14. Prognosis of occupational chromate dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Halbert, A R; Gebauer, K A; Wall, L M

    1992-10-01

    To elucidate further the natural history and prognosis of occupational chromate dermatitis, 120 affected patients, diagnosed between 1980 and 1989, were reviewed. The incidence of chromate dermatitis in Western Australia appeared to remain unchanged over the decade. 65% of patients were construction workers with cement-induced chromate dermatitis. Workers at greatest risk of sensitization were those mixing bagged cement at the work site. The median age at onset of symptoms was 34 years, with 48% having been exposed to chromate for 5 years or less. Only 37% presented to the dermatologist within 12 months of developing symptoms. 76% of patients had ongoing dermatitis at the time of review. Although 48% of the study population had completely changed their occupation to avoid chromate exposure, symptoms persisted in 69%. A delayed diagnosis of chromate sensitivity was noted to be a predictor of chronicity. In view of the potential chronicity of chromate dermatitis and its associated social and occupational impairment, we recommend the addition of ferrous sulphate while mixing bagged cement at the work site. This simple technique targets the workers at greatest risk of becoming sensitized. PMID:1451485

  15. Perioral dermatitis: an uncommon condition?

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, D J; Epstein, J D; Lane, P R

    1986-01-01

    To document the persistence of perioral dermatitis at dermatology clinics at University Hospital, Saskatoon, we reviewed the charts of all patients with the condition seen between January 1983 and March 1985. Patients with rosacea referred to the clinics during the same period were used as a comparison group. A total of 80 patients with perioral dermatitis and 117 patients with rosacea were seen during the study period; most were female. Those with perioral dermatitis were significantly younger and had a significantly shorter mean duration of the eruption before presentation than those with rosacea (p less than 0.001). The distribution of the lesions was different in the two groups. Sixty-eight (85%) of the patients with perioral dermatitis and 45 (38%) of those with rosacea had used topical corticosteroids, a postulated risk factor for perioral dermatitis; the use of potent topical corticosteroids was frequent in both groups. Despite continuing medical education on the dangers of chronic use of these agents for eruptions on the face, physicians continue to prescribe them. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:2938708

  16. Bullous dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Sokumbi, Olayemi; Comfere, Nneka I; McEvoy, Marian T; Peters, Margot S

    2013-02-01

    Bullous artefactual dermatoses are rare and may be induced by various techniques, including chemicals, heat, or electrical current. Proving a factitial etiology and identifying the mechanism of injury may be difficult. We describe the clinical features and histopathology of 2 patients with bullous disease induced by electrical current or heat. Physical examination in both patients demonstrated geometrically shaped tense bullae. Skin biopsies revealed epidermal necrosis overlying a pauci-inflammatory subepidermal cleft, with homogenization of underlying superficial dermal collagen. In 1 of the 2 patients, there was prominent vertical elongation of keratinocyte nuclei and also of cytoplasmic processes. Direct immunofluorescence study of skin plus testing of serum by indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for BP180 and BP230 antibodies revealed no evidence for immunobullous disease in either patient. Vertical elongation of keratinocyte nuclei, often attributed to a polarization effect of electrical current, is characteristic of electrical burn but also may be induced by thermal injury. These 2 patients highlight the importance of histopathology in confirming a diagnosis of bullous dermatitis artefacta. PMID:22771895

  17. [Systemic contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Nowak, Daria; Gomułka, Krzysztof; Dziemieszonek, Paulina; Panaszek, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) is a skin inflammation occurring in a patient after systemic administration of a hapten, which previously caused an allergic contact skin reaction in the same person. Most frequently, hypersensitivity reactions typical for SCD occur after absorption of haptens with food or inhalation. Haptens occur mainly in the forms of metals and compounds present in natural resins, preservatives, food thickeners, flavorings and medicines. For many years, several studies have been conducted on understanding the pathogenesis of SCD in which both delayed type hypersensitivity (type IV) and immediate type I are observed. Components of the complement system are also suspected to attend there. Helper T cells (Th) (Th1 and Th2), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (Tc), and NK cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of SCD. They secrete a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, regulatory T cells (Tregs) have an important role. They control and inhibit activity of the immune system during inflammation. Tregs release suppressor cytokines and interact directly with a target cell through presentation of immunosuppressive particles at the cell surface. Diagnostic methods are generally the patch test, oral provocation test, elimination diet and lymphocyte stimulation test. There are many kinds of inflammatory skin reactions caused by systemic haptens' distribution. They are manifested in a variety of clinical phenotypes of the disease. PMID:26943310

  18. Review: dermatitis herpetiformis*

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Fernanda Berti Rocha; Hissa-Elian, Adaucto; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado; Gonçalves, Virgínica Scaff

    2013-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) or Duhring-Brocq disease is a chronic bullous disease characterized by intense itching and burning sensation in the erythematous papules and urticarial plaques, grouped vesicles with centrifuge growth, and tense blisters. There is an association with the genotypes HLA DR3, HLA DQw2, found in 80-90% of cases. It is an IgA-mediated cutaneous disease, with immunoglobulin A deposits appearing in a granular pattern at the top of the dermal papilla in the sublamina densa area of the basement membrane, which is present both in affected skin and healthy skin. The same protein IgA1 with J chain is found in the small intestinal mucosa in patients with adult celiac disease, suggesting a strong association with DH. Specific antibodies such as antiendomysium, antireticulina, antigliadin and, recently identified, the epidermal and tissue transglutaminase subtypes, as well as increased zonulin production, are common to both conditions, along with gluten-sensitive enteropathy and DH. Autoimmune diseases present higher levels of prevalence, such as thyroid (5-11%), pernicious anemia (1-3%), type 1 diabetes (1-2%) and collagen tissue disease. The chosen treatment is dapsone and a gluten-free diet. PMID:24068131

  19. Dermatitis from cashew nuts.

    PubMed

    Marks, J G; DeMelfi, T; McCarthy, M A; Witte, E J; Castagnoli, N; Epstein, W L; Aber, R C

    1984-04-01

    Between April 4 and May 10, 1982, fifty-four individuals developed a poison ivy-like dermatitis 1 to 8 days after eating imported cashew nuts. The patients had a very pruritic, erythematous, maculopapular eruption that was accentuated in the flexural areas of the body. Three had blistering of the mouth and four had rectal itching. Nineteen volunteers (eleven ill and eight well) were patch-tested with 2.5 micrograms of poison ivy urushiol and an acetone extract of cashew nut shells. Patch testing did not predict illness since positive tests to both materials occurred in those who had been ill as well as in those who had been well. Absence of cashew nut shells from two thirds of the bags probably accounted for the lack of correlation between patch testing and illness. All nine who reacted to the cashew extract also reacted to poison ivy urushiol. The three who were not sensitive to poison ivy had no reaction to cashew extract. Mass spectrometry of the cashew shell extract suggested the presence of cardol , one of the allergens in cashew shell oil. PMID:6715612

  20. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement. PMID:25392557

  1. A case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) pyoderma in a Labrador retriever dog

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old, neutered male Labrador retriever dog with generalized pruritis had a history of recurring atopic dermatitis and superficial pyoderma. Cocci and yeast were found on cytology and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was cultured. A regimen of marbofloxacin, dexamethasone, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine in addition to bathing with 2% chlorhexidine shampoo resulted in marked improvement. PMID:25392557

  2. Neurotic excoriations and dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Koblenzer, Caroline S; Gupta, Rishu

    2013-06-01

    Neurotic Excoriations is a psychocutaneous disorder that is characterized by an uncontrollable urge to pick at normal skin or skin with mild irregularities. Dermatitis Artefacta is another psychocutaneous disorder that consists of self-induced skin lesions often involving a more elaborate method for damaging the skin, such as the use of a sharp instrument. Both neurotic excoriations and dermatitis artefacta cause significant disfigurement and anxiety for the patient. Since patients often present to dermatologists first, it is important for dermatologists to be aware of the nature of each condition and the available treatment options. This article provides an update on the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment options for neurotic excoriations and dermatitis artefacta. PMID:24049967

  3. Tobacco-induced contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Mastrolonardo, Mario; Angelini, Gianni; Foti, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco and tobacco smoke are strongly associated with various skin conditions, among which contact dermatitis is of prime importance. The aetiological and clinical aspects vary according to the different tobacco production and processing steps. Contact dermatitis is frequent in tobacco harvesters, curers and cigar makers, whereas it rarely affects smokers and, only exceptionally, cigarette packaging workers. The skin sites involved also vary, according to whether the exposure is occupational or non-occupational. Tobacco contact irritation is far more frequent than contact allergy. The sensitizing compound in tobacco is unknown; nicotine, while highly toxic, does not seem to cause sensitization, except in rare cases. Besides natural substances, several compounds are added to tobacco during processing and manufacturing. For this reason, identifying the aetiological factors is exceedingly difficult. Another important aspect to take into account is the co-causative role of tobacco in eliciting or exacerbating contact dermatitis in response to other agents, occupational or extra-occupational. PMID:27020490

  4. Deficiency of dermcidin-derived antimicrobial peptides in sweat of patients with atopic dermatitis correlates with an impaired innate defense of human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rieg, Siegbert; Steffen, Heiko; Seeber, Silke; Humeny, Andreas; Kalbacher, Hubert; Dietz, Klaus; Garbe, Claus; Schittek, Birgit

    2005-06-15

    Antimicrobial peptides are an integral part of the epithelial innate defense system. Dermcidin (DCD) is a recently discovered antimicrobial peptide with a broad spectrum of activity. It is constitutively expressed in human eccrine sweat glands and secreted into sweat. Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have recurrent bacterial or viral skin infections and pronounced colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. We hypothesized that patients with AD have a reduced amount of DCD peptides in sweat contributing to the compromised constitutive innate skin defense. Therefore, we performed semiquantitative and quantitative analyses of DCD peptides in sweat of AD patients and healthy subjects using surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and ELISA. The data indicate that the amount of several DCD-derived peptides in sweat of patients with AD is significantly reduced. Furthermore, compared with atopic patients without previous infectious complications, AD patients with a history of bacterial and viral skin infections were found to have significantly less DCD-1 and DCD-1L in their sweat. To analyze whether the reduced amount of DCD in sweat of AD patients correlates with a decreased innate defense, we determined the antimicrobial activity of sweat in vivo. We showed that in healthy subjects, sweating leads to a reduction of viable bacteria on the skin surface, but this does not occur in patients with AD. These data indicate that reduced expression of DCD in sweat of patients with AD may contribute to the high susceptibility of these patients to skin infections and altered skin colonization. PMID:15944307

  5. Use of textiles in atopic dermatitis: care of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ricci, G; Patrizi, A; Bellini, F; Medri, M

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease which usually starts during the first years of life. In the management of AD, the correct approach requires a combination of multiple treatments to identify and eliminate trigger factors, and to improve the alteration of the skin barrier. In this article we try to explain the importance of skin care in the management of AD in relation to the use of textiles: they may be useful to improve disrupted skin but they are also a possible cause of triggering or worsening the lesions. Garments are in direct contact with the skin all day long, and for this reason it is important to carefully choose suitable fabrics in atopic subjects who have disrupted skin. Owing to their hygienic properties fabrics produced from natural fibres are preferential. Wool fibres are frequently used in human clothes but are irritant in direct contact with the skin. Wool fibre has frequently been shown to be irritant to the skin of atopic patients, and for this reason wool intolerance was included as a minor criterion in the diagnostic criteria of AD by Hanifin and Rajka in 1980. Cotton is the most commonly used textile for patients with AD; it has wide acceptability as clothing material because of its natural abundance and inherent properties like good folding endurance, better conduction of heat, easy dyeability and excellent moisture absorption. Silk fabrics help to maintain the body temperature by reducing the excessive sweating and moisture loss that can worsen xerosis. However, the type of silk fabric generally used for clothes is not particularly useful in the care and dressing of children with AD since it reduces transpiration and may cause discomfort when in direct contact with the skin. A new type of silk fabric made of transpiring and slightly elastic woven silk is now commercially available (Microair Dermasilk) and may be used for the skin care of children with AD. The presence of increased bacterial colonization

  6. [Dermatitis artefacta presenting as photodermatosis].

    PubMed

    Sommerlad, M; Beier, C; Kaufmann, R

    2007-02-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a form of a self-injury due to psychiatric disorders or internal conflicts. Delayed diagnosis often leads to unnecessary treatments. A 17-year old girl was referred with a putative photodermatosis presenting with erosions on an erythematous base on the face and forearms. The unusual rapid onset of new lesions following phototesting and in particular a reaction induced after a simulated light exposure substantiated the diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta. Faced with the diagnosed the patient admitted she had induced the lesions and was referred for psychiatric care. PMID:16705461

  7. [Tefillin-related contact dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Hashkes, Philip J; Sagi, Efraim

    2011-09-01

    We describe a 14 year-old male with a background of atopic dermatitis who developed a contact dermatitis reaction on the left arm to the leather straps of tefillin (phylacteries), a religious article worn by observant Jewish men from the age 13 years during most morning prayer services. Patch testing revealed contact allergy to potassium dichromate, a chemical involved in leather tanning. Placing the leather straps over clothing and later switching to potassium dichromate-free leather straps resolved the condition. It is important to recognize this uncommon phenomena in a population in which a large proportion regularly use this religious article. PMID:22026052

  8. MASD part 2: incontinence-associated dermatitis and intertriginous dermatitis: a consensus.

    PubMed

    Black, Joyce M; Gray, Mikel; Bliss, Donna Z; Kennedy-Evans, Karen L; Logan, Susan; Baharestani, Mona M; Colwell, Janice C; Goldberg, Margaret; Ratliff, Catherine R

    2011-01-01

    A consensus panel was convened to review current knowledge of moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) and to provide recommendations for prevention and management. This article provides a summary of the discussion and the recommendations in regards to 2 types of MASD: incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) and intertriginous dermatitis (ITD). A focused history and physical assessment are essential for diagnosing IAD or ITD and distinguishing these forms of skin damage from other types of skin damage. Panel members recommend cleansing, moisturizing, and applying a skin protectant to skin affected by IAD and to the perineal skin of persons with urinary or fecal incontinence deemed at risk for IAD. Prevention and treatment of ITD includes measures to ensure that skin folds are dry and free from friction; however, panel members do not recommend use of bed linens, paper towels, or dressings for separating skin folds. Individuals with ITD are at risk for fungal and bacterial infections and these infections should be treated appropriately; for example, candidal infections should be treated with antifungal therapies. PMID:21747256

  9. Efficiency of vanilla, patchouli and ylang ylang essential oils stabilized by iron oxide@C14 nanostructures against bacterial adherence and biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains.

    PubMed

    Bilcu, Maxim; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Oprea, Alexandra Elena; Popescu, Roxana Cristina; Mogoșanu, George Dan; Hristu, Radu; Stanciu, George A; Mihailescu, Dan Florin; Lazar, Veronica; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms formed by bacterial cells are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence and chronicization of the microbial infections and to therapy failure. The purpose of this study was to combine the unique properties of magnetic nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of three essential oils to obtain novel nanobiosystems that could be used as coatings for catheter pieces with an improved resistance to Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical strains adherence and biofilm development. The essential oils of ylang ylang, patchouli and vanilla were stabilized by the interaction with iron oxide@C14 nanoparticles to be further used as coating agents for medical surfaces. Iron oxide@C14 was prepared by co-precipitation of Fe+2 and Fe+3 and myristic acid (C14) in basic medium. Vanilla essential oil loaded nanoparticles pelliculised on the catheter samples surface strongly inhibited both the initial adherence of S. aureus cells (quantified at 24 h) and the development of the mature biofilm quantified at 48 h. Patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils inhibited mostly the initial adherence phase of S. aureus biofilm development. In the case of K. pneumoniae, all tested nanosystems exhibited similar efficiency, being active mostly against the adherence K. pneumoniae cells to the tested catheter specimens. The new nanobiosystems based on vanilla, patchouli and ylang-ylang essential oils could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with anti-adherence and anti-biofilm properties. PMID:25375335

  10. A pediculid case: autosensitization dermatitis caused by pediculosis capitis.

    PubMed

    Takcı, Zennure; Tekin, Ozlem; Karadağ, Ayşe Serap

    2012-01-01

    Pediculosis capitis is a worldwide infestation caused by Pediculus humanus capitis ectoparasite that only lives on the hairs of the scalp. As a result of severe itching excoriation, secondary bacterial infection, cervical and occipital lymphadenopathy are seen frequently where, sometimes bite reaction, viral exanthema mimicking hypersensitivity eruption and conjunctivitis may occur. Hereby, with the presentation of a quite rarely seen pediculid case, characterized with common autosensitization dermatitis as an -id reaction to pediculosis capitis, the importance of exploring the source of the infection and/or infestation on the patients who have presented with generalized pruritic maculopapular eruption, is emphasized. PMID:23169166

  11. Treatment strategies for atopic dermatitis: optimizing the available therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Paller, Amy S; Simpson, Eric L; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Ellis, Charles N; Mancini, Anthony J

    2012-09-01

    Bathing and moisturization to control dryness, applications of topical anti-inflammatory agents (including corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors [TCIs]) to control flares, minimization of the risk for infection, and relief of pruritus are the cornerstones of effective therapy for atopic dermatitis. Education of parents and patients is crucial to enhance adherence. Strategies for reduced Staphylococcus aureus colonization may help control re-emergence of flares following cessation of antimicrobial treatment for infection; these include dilute bleach baths and minimizing the risk for contamination of topical agents. In severe, refractory cases, more aggressive therapy with systemic immunosuppressants may be considered, but appropriate laboratory testing must be included as part of patient monitoring during treatment. The value of adjuvant therapy with wet wraps to "cool down" particularly erythematous and pruritic flares is becoming increasingly recognized. PMID:23021780

  12. Atopic Dermatitis in Children: Clinical Features, Pathophysiology and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Jonathan J.; Milner, Joshua D.; Stone, Kelly D.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing, highly pruritic skin condition resulting from disruption of the epithelial barrier and associated immune dysregulation in the skin of genetically predisposed hosts. AD generally develops in early childhood, has a characteristic age-dependent distribution and is commonly associated with elevated IgE, peripheral eosinophilia and other allergic diseases. Staphylococcus aureus colonization is common and may contribute to disease progression and severity. Targeted therapies to restore both impaired skin barrier and control inflammation are required for optimal outcomes for patients with moderate to severe disease. Pruritus is universal among patients with AD and has a dominant impact on diminishing quality of life. Medications such as anti-histamines have demonstrated poor efficacy in controlling AD-associated itch. Education of patients regarding the primary underlying defects and provision of a comprehensive skin care plan is essential for disease maintenance and management of flares. PMID:25459583

  13. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by dorzolamide eyedrops.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Kim, Moosang

    2015-01-01

    The side effects of topical dorzolamide hydrochloride, such as conjunctivitis, eyelid edema, and eye lid irritation, are well known. However, allergic contact dermatitis due to dorzolamide is rare, although the product has been commonly used worldwide in patients with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of allergic contact dermatitis caused by topical dorzolamide hydrochloride in Korea. Herein we report a case of allergic contact dermatitis due to topical dorzolamide eyedrops. PMID:25897195

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient management and education.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common diagnosis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals in a patient's personal care products, home, or work environment. Once patch testing has been performed, the education and management process begins. After the causative allergens have been identified, patient education is critical to the proper treatment and management of the patient. This must occur if the dermatitis is to resolve. Detailed education is imperative, and several resources are highlighted. Photoallergic contact dermatitis and occupational contact dermatitis are other considerations a clinician must keep in mind. PMID:27185422

  15. Malignant change in dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed Central

    Alcolado, J. C.; Ray, K.; Baxter, M.; Edwards, C. W.; Dodson, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a chronic skin lesion produced by self-trauma. Avoidance of further trauma, topical steroids and psychological therapy all play a part in the treatment of such lesions. Unresolved lesions may become large and disfiguring and subject to infection. We report a case of one such lesion in an elderly woman who persistently excoriated a cholecystectomy scar over 40 years. Malignant transformation occurred in a manner analogous to the neoplastic change observed in other types of chronic ulcer (Marjolin's ulcer). The squamous cell carcinoma presented with widespread metastases from which the patient eventually died. Recent literature concerning Marjolin's ulcers is reviewed and it is noted that this is the first reported case of death caused by malignant change in dermatitis artefacta. Images Figure 1 PMID:8234114

  16. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products. PMID:25207684

  17. [Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis].

    PubMed

    Ebschner, U; Hartschuh, W; Petzoldt, D

    2000-02-01

    Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis is a rare dermatologic disorder seen in patients suffering from diseases in which circulating immune complexes occur. The typical cutaneous signs are linear cords usually located on the lateral aspect of the trunk. The characteristic, although not specific, histology reveals a dense diffuse infiltrate composed mostly of histiocytes, accompanied by neutrophils and eosinophils, and degenerated collagen surrounded by palisades of histiocytes. We discuss this disorder and its differential diagnosis. PMID:10743580

  18. A Case of Dermatitis Neglecta

    PubMed Central

    Han, You Jin; Kim, So Young; Choi, Hae Young; Myung, Ki Bum

    2008-01-01

    Dermatitis neglecta (unwashed dermatosis) presents as pigmented hyperkeratotic plaques with adherent scales which clinically resembles psoriasis. This condition is the result of avoiding washing the affected areas, so the lesions are characteristically resolved with normal washing or with gentle wiping from an alcohol swab. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with an asymptomatic hyperkeratotic scaly plaque on umbilicus. A skin biopsy was done under the clinical impression of psoriasis. During skin biopsy, gentle swabbing with H2O2 and saline gauze was done. The patient revisited our clinic 10 days after the skin biopsy and the hyperkeratotic lesion had cleared. Histologic examination showed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and anastomosing rete ridges. There has been no previous report of dermatitis neglecta with histologic confirmation, and so this case could be the first report to provide the histologic characteristics of dermatitis neglecta. Because this condition might be overlooked and underdiagnosed, recognizing its existence and cause are important to avoid unnecessary biopsies and potentially aggressive therapeutic measures. PMID:27303207

  19. Animal Models of Bacterial Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Marquart, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial keratitis is a disease of the cornea characterized by pain, redness, inflammation, and opacity. Common causes of this disease are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Animal models of keratitis have been used to elucidate both the bacterial factors and the host inflammatory response involved in the disease. Reviewed herein are animal models of bacterial keratitis and some of the key findings in the last several decades. PMID:21274270

  20. Bacterial burden of worn therapeutic silver textiles for neurodermitis patients and evaluation of efficacy of washing.

    PubMed

    Daeschlein, G; Assadian, O; Arnold, A; Haase, H; Kramer, A; Jünger, M

    2010-01-01

    To reduce pruritus and colonization with Staphylococcus aureus, textiles containing silver are increasingly used as therapeutic option for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). While wearing such textiles, the contained silver is in close contact with the patient's skin. The silver serves two purposes: to reduce bacterial colonization of the skin, and to prevent contamination of the textile with ensuing growth of microorganisms. It is unknown whether the silver impregnation is able to reduce bacterial contamination of the textile during wearing and to prevent bacterial growth within the textile. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial contamination in textiles containing silver versus placebo worn by patients with AD and to determine the efficacy of processing worn textiles by manual and machine-based washing. Additionally, the effect of silver textiles on S. aureus and total bacterial counts colonizing the skin of AD patients was analyzed. The reduction factor of silver textile compared to placebo was 0.5 log steps against S. aureus and 0.4 log steps against total bacteria. Silver textiles exhibited significantly less S. aureus as well as total bacterial colonization after 2 days of wearing without washing, as compared with a placebo textile. On placebo textiles 385.6 +/- 63.5 CFU total bacteria and 236.5 +/- 49.9 CFU S. aureus, and on silver textiles 279.9 +/- 78.7 CFU total bacteria and 119.3 +/- 39.4 CFU S. aureus were found on the inner side of the textiles facing the neurodermitis lesions. However, the unexpectedly high residual contamination despite the silver exposure represents a potential risk as recontamination source of S. aureus that could maintain the proinflammatory process in AD. This contamination is nearly completely eliminated by machine-based washing at 60 degrees C using conventional washing powder. AD patients wearing silver textiles should change their used clothes at least daily and wash them in a washing machine at 60 degrees

  1. Staphylococcal dermatitis in quail with a parakeratotic hyperkeratotic dermatosis suggestive of pantothenic acid deficiency.

    PubMed

    Raidal, S R

    1995-09-01

    This report describes an outbreak of Staphylococcal dermatitis which occurred in commercial Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with a history and clinico-pathological evidence suggestive of pantothenic acid deficiency. The flock had a low hatchability rate (40 to 43%) and a high percentage (50%) of dead-in-shell embryos. Approximately 5 to 15% of the grower flock developed crusty facial scabs and conjunctivitis from 4 days of age. Culture of eyelid skin yielded pure growths of non-haemolytic, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. Histological examination revealed a generalised hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis of feathers, feather follicles and non-follicular skin. There was invasion of feather follicles by cocci and focal areas of suppurative exudative dermatitis and subcutaneous abscesses particularly in the eyelids and commissures of the beak. Clinical signs were alleviated by treatment with amoxycillin and a change in ration formulation. PMID:18645814

  2. Generalized seborrhoeic dermatitis. Clinical and therapeutic data of 25 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Messaritakis, J; Kattamis, C; Karabula, C; Matsaniotis, N

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-five infants with generalized seborrhoeic dermatitis have been studied with reference to the provision of optimum treatment. Leucocyte counts and chest x-ray examination are recommended in every case. Irrespective of clinical findings, antibiotics should be given to patients with overt bacterial infection and those with leucocytosis, shift to the left, and toxic granulation. One group of infants was treated with vitamin B complex plus biotin given slowly intravenously over 24 hours; a second group was given only biotin intravenously over 2-3 hours; and a third group only biotin over 1-2 minutes. A fourth group was treated with both biotin and antibiotics for confirmed or suspected superimposed bacterial infection. The results were excellent in all groups. Skin lesions improved within 4-8 days and cleared completely within 15-30 days. Intravenous administration of biotin is recommended as less painful and less dangerous than multiple intramuscular injections. PMID:129036

  3. Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Epstein, W L

    1994-07-01

    Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds. PMID:7923948

  4. Advances in understanding and managing atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Michael; Sidbury, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic, pruritic skin disease characterized by an improperly functioning skin barrier and immune dysregulation. We review proposed atopic dermatitis pathomechanisms, emphasizing how these impact current perspectives on natural history, role of allergic sensitization, and future therapeutic targets. PMID:26918129

  5. 21 CFR 520.88f - Amoxicillin trihydrate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... day. (ii) Indications for use. Treatment of bacterial dermatitis due to Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Escherichia coli; and soft tissue infections (abscesses, wounds, lacerations) due to S. aureus, Streptococcus spp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus spp....

  6. Follicular contact dermatitis revisited: A review emphasizing neomycin-associated follicular contact dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Follicular contact dermatitis clinically presents as individual papules that include a central hair follicle. Pathologic features involve the follicle and the surrounding dermis: spongiosis and vesicle formation of the follicular epithelium associated with perifollicular and perivascular lymphocytic inflammation. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on follicular contact dermatitis and neomycin. Relevant papers were reviewed and the clinical and pathologic features, the associated chemicals (including a more detailed description of neomycin), the hypothesized pathogenesis, and the management of follicular contact dermatitis were described. Several agents-either as allergens or irritants-have been reported to elicit follicular contact dermatitis. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the selective involvement of the follicles in follicular contact dermatitis: patient allergenicity, characteristics of the agent, vehicle containing the agent, application of the agent, and external factors. The differential diagnosis of follicular contact dermatitis includes not only recurrent infundibulofolliculitis, but also drug eruption, mite infestation, viral infection, and dermatoses that affect hair follicles. The primary therapeutic intervention for follicular contact dermatitis is withdrawal of the causative agent; treatment with a topical corticosteroid preparation may also promote resolution of the dermatitis. In conclusion, follicular contact dermatitis may be secondary to allergens or irritants; topical antibiotics, including neomycin, may cause this condition. Several factors may account for the selective involvement of the hair follicle in this condition. Treatment of the dermatitis requires withdrawal of the associated topical agent; in addition, topical corticosteroids may be helpful to promote resolution of lesions. PMID:25516854

  7. Munchausen syndrome as dermatitis simulata.

    PubMed

    Hariharasubramony, Ambika; Chankramath, Sujatha; Srinivasa, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with many dermatological disorders. It may be the cause for skin problem or may be the effect of a skin problem as skin being a visual organ. A 28-year-old female presented with multiple red lesions on the skin with unusual morphology and was diagnosed as dermatitis simulata. She gave history of multiple episodes of similar illnesses with admissions in various hospitals and being evaluated and dropping off in between treatments. After detailed psychological evaluation, patient was diagnosed as case of Munchausen syndrome. PMID:22661819

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis from propolis.

    PubMed

    Walgrave, Susan E; Warshaw, Erin M; Glesne, Lynn A

    2005-12-01

    Propolis is commonly used in cosmetic and medicinal preparations because of its antiseptic, antiinflammatory, and anesthetic properties. Its therapeutic qualities have been well documented. However, 1.2 to 6.6% of patients who are patch-tested for dermatitis are sensitive to propolis. The main allergens are 3-methyl-2-butenyl caffeate and phenylethyl caffeate. Benzyl salicylate and benzyl cinnamate are less frequent sensitizers. Propolis is found in a number of "natural" products, including lip balms, cosmetics, lotions and ointments, shampoos, conditioners, and toothpastes. Dermatologists should consider patch testing with propolis in users of such remedies. PMID:16536336

  9. Munchausen Syndrome as Dermatitis Simulata

    PubMed Central

    Hariharasubramony, Ambika; Chankramath, Sujatha; Srinivasa, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with many dermatological disorders. It may be the cause for skin problem or may be the effect of a skin problem as skin being a visual organ. A 28-year-old female presented with multiple red lesions on the skin with unusual morphology and was diagnosed as dermatitis simulata. She gave history of multiple episodes of similar illnesses with admissions in various hospitals and being evaluated and dropping off in between treatments. After detailed psychological evaluation, patient was diagnosed as case of Munchausen syndrome. PMID:22661819

  10. Oxidative Stress in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hongxiu; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic skin disorder affecting many people especially young children. It is a disease caused by the combination of genetic predisposition, immune dysregulation, and skin barrier defect. In recent years, emerging evidence suggests oxidative stress may play an important role in many skin diseases and skin aging, possibly including AD. In this review, we give an update on scientific progress linking oxidative stress to AD and discuss future treatment strategies for better disease control and improved quality of life for AD patients. PMID:27006746

  11. Extended wear contact lens related bacterial keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Tabbara, K.; El-Sheikh, H.; Aabed, B.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To report the clinical findings and visual outcome of patients with extended wear contact lens (EWCL) related bacterial keratitis.
METHODS—11 cases with EWCL related bacterial keratitis were included. Corneal scrapings were obtained for cytology and cultures.
RESULTS—Nine patients had unilateral bacterial keratitis and two patients showed bilateral involvement. Corneal scrapings revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa in seven patients, Staphylococcus aureus coagulase positive in one patient, and Staphylococcus epidermidis in three patients.
CONCLUSION—EWCLs may be associated with bacterial keratitis and may result in visual loss. Dispensing contact lenses by optometrists should be performed in consultation with ophthalmologists.

 PMID:10684847

  12. Role of TRPV3 in immune response to development of dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Imura, Kinichi; Yoshioka, Takeshi; Hirasawa, Tsutomu; Sakata, Tsuneaki

    2009-01-01

    Background Recently, it has been reported that the Gly573Ser substitution of transient receptor potential V3 (TRPV3) leads to increased ion-channel activity in keratinocytes. Our previous studies have indicated that the spontaneous hairless and dermatitis phenotypes of DS-Nh mice, which were newly established as an animal model of atopic dermatitis (AD), are caused by TRPV3Gly573Ser. Although this substitution causes hairlessness in several kinds of rodents, in our investigations, dermatitis developed in only a few animals. Here, we generated NC/Nga-Nh mice to elucidate the role of TRPV3Gly573Ser in NC/Nga mice, which is one of the most studied animal models of AD. Methods To establish and validate the new AD animal model, NC/Nga-Nh mice were generated using NC/Nga and DS-Nh mice, and their clinical features were compared. Next, T-cell receptor (TCR) Vβ usage in splenocytes, evaluation of bacterial colonization, and serological and histological analyses were carried out. Finally, repeated-hapten-application dermatitis was induced in these mice. Results NC/Nga-Nh mice did not develop spontaneous dermatitis, whereas DS-Nh mice displayed this phenotype when maintained under the same conditions. Serological analysis indicated that there really was a phenotypic difference between these mice, and TCR repertoire analysis indicated that TCRVβ haplotypes played an important role in the development of dermatitis. Artificial dermatitis developed in DS and NC/Nga-Nh mice, but not in DS-Nh and NC/Nga mice. Histological and serological analyses indicated that mouse strains were listed in descending order of number of skin mast cells: DS-Nh > DS ≈ NC/Nga-Nh > NC/Nga, and serum IgE levels were increased after 2,4,6 trinitrochlorobenzene application in these mice. Serum IgE level in DS-Nh mice was lower than that mesured in other strains. Conclusion Our results confirm the contribution of the TRPV3Gly573Ser gene to the development of repeated hapten dermatitis, but not

  13. Serotonergic Markers in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Aram; El-Nour, Husameldin; Lonne-Rahm, Sol-Britt; Fransson, Oscar; Johansson, Charlotta; Johansson, Björn; Zubeidi, Marwe; Seeberg, Emma; Djurfeldt, Diana Radu; Azmitia, Efrain C; Nordlind, Klas

    2016-08-23

    Stress and anxiety may worsen atopic dermatitis (AD) through the serotonin system. Serotonergic expression was measured in 28 patients with AD in relation to extent of the disease (SCORing of Atopic Dermatitis; SCORAD), pruritus intensity (visual analogue scale; VAS), anxiety traits (Swedish Universities Scales of Personality; SSP) and depression (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-Self assessment; MADRS-S). Biopsies were taken from lesional and non-lesional AD skin, and investigated for expression of serotonin, its receptors 5-HT1A and 5-HT2, and serotonin transporter protein (SERT), using immunohistochemistry. 5-HT1AR-immunoreactivity (ir) was higher in lesional skin in apical epidermis and in mast cell-like cells in dermis, and 5-HT2AR-ir in apical epidermis and on blood vessels. In contrast, a basement membrane 5-HT2AR-ir signal was higher in non-lesional skin. The distribution of SERT-ir in the basal epidermal layer was higher in lesional skin. Positive and negative correlations were found between serotonergic markers and SCORAD, inflammation, pruritus intensity, anxiety traits, and depression score, indicating that serotonergic mechanisms are involved in AD. PMID:26831833

  14. Contact dermatitis from a prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Carla A; Gaspari, Anthony; Goldner, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Patients wearing a prosthesis face a wide variety of medical problems. Skin complications have long been recognized, but their prevalence is still unknown. The most frequently reported disorders are allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), acroangiodermatitis, epidermoid cysts, epidermal hyperplasia, follicular hyperkeratosis, verrucous hyperplasia, bullous diseases, hyperhidrosis, infections, malignancies, and ulcerations. Contact dermatitis represents one-third of the dermatoses in amputees wearing prostheses. All patients who are suspected of having ACD should be patch tested with standard allergen series as well as materials from the patient's own prosthesis, topical medicaments, moisturizers, and cosmetics. We report a patient with an ACD to mixed dialkyl thiourea present in the rubber parts of his below-the-knee prosthesis. Thiourea derivates are used as accelerators in the manufacture of chloroprene rubber and as fixatives in photography and photocopy paper. Allergy to thiourea is relatively uncommon; different studies have shown a prevalence of 0.7% up to 2.4% in patch-tested patients. Thiourea derivates are often the allergic sources in ACD involving high-grade rubber products made of neoprene such as diving suits, protective goggles, knee braces, and continuous positive airway pressure masks. They are also present in the rubber material of prostheses, as in the case of our patient. PMID:18413115

  15. Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

    PubMed

    Gladman, Aaron C

    2006-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well. PMID:16805148

  16. Leukocyte migration inhibition in nickel dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mirza, A M; Perera, M G; Maccia, C A; Dziubynskyj, O G; Bernstein, I L

    1975-01-01

    Leukocyte migration inhibitory factor assay was employed as an in vitro diagnostic aid in nickel dermatitis, the second most common contact dermatitis in North America. 15 patch test-positive and 5 patch test-negative patients, all giving a past history suggestive of nickel dermatitis, were investigated. Significant inhibition of leukocyte migration in both groups of patients was obtained only with nickel sulfate-albumin conjugate and not with unconjugated nickel sulfate. Specificity of this system was tested by utilizing an unrelated metallic albumin complex, and no inhibition was found. When patch testing is equivocal or contraindicated, this in vitro technique may be a practical alternative. PMID:1102460

  17. Systemic contact dermatitis--kids and ketchup.

    PubMed

    Herro, Elise M; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Systemic manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis due to consumption of foods containing balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae)-associated chemicals have recently been reported in children. We present seven children with widespread, recalcitrant dermatitis who experienced 60-80% clearance after initiating a diet low in balsam of Peru, specifically the tomato product ketchup. Furthermore, because we have observed a high prevalence of ketchup in our pediatric patients' diets, we recommend consideration of moderate consumption of this product in patients with recalcitrant widespread dermatitis. PMID:22299798

  18. [Occupational dermatitis in health care personnel].

    PubMed

    Barbaud, Annick

    2002-09-01

    Occupational dermatosis are frequent among healthcare workers. Irritant hand dermatitis is more common than allergic contact dermatitis. It is enhanced by the exposure to irritants: water, detergents, disinfectants and a history of atopic dermatitis. Natural rubber latex contained in rubber gloves can induce contact urticaria or generalized immediate allergic reactions. Contact eczema can be induced by rubber accelerators such as thiurams, disinfectants (glutaraldehyde, dodecyldimethylammonium). Nurses can become sensitized to handled drugs (antibiotics, propacetamol...). These occupational allergies have to be diagnosed, because sensitized nurses can develop severe generalized cutaneous adverse drug reactions if they are systemically exposed to the same drug than those that has previously induced an occupational contact allergy. PMID:12385152

  19. The Role of Textiles in Dermatitis: An Update.

    PubMed

    Mobolaji-Lawal, Motunrayo; Nedorost, Susan

    2015-04-01

    Dermatitis has important implications for individuals who are affected. It can significantly impair function and quality of life. Dermatitis is multi-factorial and often includes elements of atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and irritant contact dermatitis in a co-existent manner. Textiles are in contact with the human skin for extended periods of time and as a result, they are an important part of the cutaneous environment. Thus, it is not surprising that textiles play a major role in both the etiology and the treatment of various types of dermatitis. This review discusses the role of textiles in dermatitis with an emphasis on interesting and recent advances, trends, perspectives, gaps, and conflicts in the field. In addition, we mention other disease processes to be aware of as they can often mimic textile pattern dermatitis. Lastly, we provide a diagnostic approach for patients presenting with textile pattern dermatitis. PMID:26130475

  20. Vaccination Against Staphylococcus aureus Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Spaulding, Adam R.; Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Merriman, Joseph A.; Stach, Christopher S.; Ji, Yinduo; Gillman, Aaron N.; Peterson, Marnie L.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Staphylococcus aureus causes serious infections in both hospital and community settings. Attempts have been made to prevent human infection through vaccination against bacterial cell-surface antigens; thus far all have failed. Here we show that superantigens and cytolysins, when used in vaccine cocktails, provide protection from S. aureus USA100–USA400 intrapulmonary challenge. Methods. Rabbits were actively vaccinated (wild-type toxins or toxoids) or passively immunized (hyperimmune serum) against combinations of superantigens (toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, enterotoxins B and C, and enterotoxin-like X) and cytolysins (α-, β-, and γ-toxins) and challenged intrapulmonarily with multiple strains of S. aureus, both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant. Results. Active vaccination against a cocktail containing bacterial cell-surface antigens enhanced disease severity as tested by infective endocarditis. Active vaccination against secreted superantigens and cytolysins resulted in protection of 86 of 88 rabbits when challenged intrapulmonarily with 9 different S. aureus strains, compared to only 1 of 88 nonvaccinated animals. Passive immunization studies demonstrated that production of neutralizing antibodies was an important mechanism of protection. Conclusions. The data suggest that vaccination against bacterial cell-surface antigens increases disease severity, but vaccination against secreted virulence factors provides protection against S. aureus. These results advance our understanding of S. aureus pathogenesis and have important implications in disease prevention. PMID:24357631

  1. Cytopathology of parasitic dermatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Sood, N K; Mekkib, Berhanu; Singla, L D; Gupta, K

    2012-04-01

    Out of 44 cases of dermatitis in dogs, 11 cases of parasitic origin were analyzed by cytopathology. Histopathologic examination of punch biopsies was also done for correlation with cytologic findings. Sarcoptic dermatitis was recorded in six cases, wherein, besides sarcoptic mites, neutrophils, macrophages, and plasma cells and keratinizing epithelial cells were also seen. Hematology revealed a relative neutrophilia and mild eosinophilia. Four cases of severe and generalized demodicosis complicated with bacteria and/or Malassezia sp. infection were also recorded. Histopathologically numerous Demodex sp. mites in varying stage of maturation were found damaging the hair follicles along with associated pathological changes and foreign body granulomas in one case. In addition, flea allergy dermatitis was also observed in one dog. In nutshell, cytology was found to be unequivocally effective in diagnosing parasitic dermatitis. PMID:23543297

  2. Biological Treatments in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Montes-Torres, Andrea; Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Pérez-Plaza, Alejandra; Solano-López, Guillermo; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases that affect both children and adults with a prevalence of 30% and 10%, respectively. Even though most of patients respond satisfactory to topical anti-inflammatory drugs, about 10% require one or more systemic treatments to achieve good control of their illness. The progressive and increasingly detailed knowledge in the immunopathogenesis of AD has allowed research on new therapeutic targets with very promising results in the field of biological therapy. In this article, we will review the different biological treatments with a focus on novel drugs. Their mechanism of action, current status and results from clinical trials and observational studies will be specified. PMID:26239349

  3. [Dermatitis artefacta 100 years ago].

    PubMed

    Heras-Mendaza, F

    2009-10-01

    In 1909, the Spanish dermatologist Juan de Azúa published a study of the main features of skin lesions in dermatitis artefacta. In the article, he paid particular attention to the psychological state of these patients, their family situation, and what they were hoping to gain with pathomimicry. Azúa directly confronted the patients with the diagnosis, which he demonstrated by applying an occlusive dressing. Written in a literary style typical of the times, the article includes the subjective impressions of Azúa, through which he manages to transmit a much more realistic image of these patients than that portrayed with the sterile language we tend to use in current medical literature. PMID:19775543

  4. Dermatitis artefacta in a child.

    PubMed

    Finore, Enzo D; Andreoli, Elisabetta; Alfani, Stefania; Palermi, Giuliana; Pedicelli, Cristina; Paradisi, Mauro

    2007-01-01

    The high visibility of dermatologic diseases and their easy accessibility make the skin a primary and direct target for dysfunctional behaviors. Self-harm tendencies can frequently be expressed through dermatologic lesions, and dermatitis artefacta falls within this clinical frame. The occurrence of this cutaneous manifestation in children is very rare, with a peak of greater frequency in adolescence. We describe the characteristics of a multidisciplinary intervention-dermatologic and psychologic. Our pediatric patient displays a dermatologic picture that has no etiologic confirmation. The source of this disorder must therefore be found in socio-relational difficulties within the family and school environments, which lead the patient to self-harm behaviors that have a high communication value. PMID:17958781

  5. Atopic Dermatitis: Update for Pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Grey, Katherine; Maguiness, Sheilagh

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin disorder present in up to 20% of children. Recent advances implicate skin barrier dysfunction as central to disease pathogenesis. Genetic defects in the filaggrin gene, the product of which is important for maintaining the epidermal barrier, are a strong predisposing factor in the development of AD. In addition to reducing identifiable triggers, treatment should focus on the four clinical characteristics of eczema: emollients for dry skin, topical anti-inflammatory agents to reduce inflammation and itch, and strategies to reduce infection/colonization, which can include diluted bleach baths. New studies demonstrate that early emollient application from birth may prevent development of AD. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e280-e286.]. PMID:27517355

  6. Difficult to control atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Darsow, Ulf; Wollenberg, Andreas; Simon, Dagmar; Taïeb, Alain; Werfel, Thomas; Oranje, Arnold; Gelmetti, Carlo; Svensson, Ake; Deleuran, Mette; Calza, Anne-Marie; Giusti, Francesca; Lübbe, Jann; Seidenari, Stefania; Ring, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Difficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for exacerbation management and more recently for proactive therapy in selected cases. Topical corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy, the topical calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are preferred in certain locations. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonization and superinfection contribute to disease exacerbation and thus justify additional antimicrobial / antiseptic treatment. Systemic antihistamines (H1) may relieve pruritus but do not have sufficient effect on eczema. Adjuvant therapy includes UV irradiation preferably of UVA1 wavelength. "Eczema school" educational programs have been proven to be helpful. PMID:23663504

  7. Biological Treatments in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Montes-Torres, Andrea; Llamas-Velasco, Mar; Pérez-Plaza, Alejandra; Solano-López, Guillermo; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases that affect both children and adults with a prevalence of 30% and 10%, respectively. Even though most of patients respond satisfactory to topical anti-inflammatory drugs, about 10% require one or more systemic treatments to achieve good control of their illness. The progressive and increasingly detailed knowledge in the immunopathogenesis of AD has allowed research on new therapeutic targets with very promising results in the field of biological therapy. In this article, we will review the different biological treatments with a focus on novel drugs. Their mechanism of action, current status and results from clinical trials and observational studies will be specified. PMID:26239349

  8. Periocular dermatitis artefacta in a child.

    PubMed

    Soong, Terrence Kwong-Weng; Soong, Victor; Samsudin, Amir; Soong, Felicia; Sharma, Vikas; O'Donnell, Niall

    2006-12-01

    Dermatitis artifacta is a factitious dermatological disorder with many forms of presentation in any part of the body. It is commonly documented in dermatological cases but rarely presented as an ophthalmic condition. The diagnosis of dermatitis artifacta is often concluded after rigorous and repeated investigation. Histological sampling of skin lesions is usually required in these cases to exclude masquerading skin lesions such as basal cell carcinoma, vasculitis, or herpetic skin lesions. PMID:17189158

  9. Lupus-erythematous-associated interstitial granulomatous dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Marmon, Shoshana; Robinson, Maria; Meehan, Shane A; Franks, Andrew G

    2012-12-01

    A 41-year-old woman with a prior diagnosis of lupus erythematous presented with a five-year history of small, erythematous, flesh-colored papules and nodules that coalesced into symmetrically-distributed plaques on her upper back. A biopsy specimen showed an interstitial, granulomatous mixed-cell dermatitis with eosinophils. These clinicopathologic findings are consistent with a diagnosis of lupus erythematous-associated interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. PMID:23286821

  10. Optimizing Treatment Approaches in Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic, recurring, cutaneous condition that causes erythema and flaking, sometimes appearing as macules or plaques with dry white or moist oily scales. In adults, it commonly occurs in areas with high concentrations of sebaceous glands. The face and scalp are the most frequently affected areas, and involvement of multiple sites is common. Dandruff is regarded as a mild noninflammatory form of seborrheic dermatitis. There is a high incidence of seborrheic dermatitis among persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection or Parkinson’s disease. The cause of seborrheic dermatitis is not well understood, but appears to be related to the composition of the sebaceous gland secretions, the proliferation of Malessezia yeasts, and the host immune response. Treatment options for nonscalp and scalp seborrheic dermatitis include topical agents and shampoos containing antifungal agents, anti-inflammatory agents, keratolytic agents, and calcineurin inhibitors. Because multiple body sites are usually involved, the physician should examine all commonly affected areas. Patients should be made aware that seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic condition that will probably recur even after successful treatment. PMID:23441240

  11. Influences of Environmental Chemicals on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition including severe pruritus, xerosis, visible eczematous skin lesions that mainly begin early in life. Atopic dermatitis exerts a profound impact on the quality of life of patients and their families. The estimated lifetime prevalence of atopic dermatitis has increased 2~3 fold during over the past 30 years, especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of life-style and environment in the pathogenesis of atopic diseases. While the interplay of individual genetic predisposition and environmental factors contribute to the development of atopic dermatitis, the recent increase in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis might be attributed to increased exposure to various environmental factors rather than alterations in human genome. In recent decades, there has been an increasing exposure to chemicals from a variety of sources. In this study, the effects of various environmental chemicals we face in everyday life - air pollutants, contact allergens and skin irritants, ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and food additives - on the prevalence and severity of atopic dermatitis are reviewed. PMID:26191377

  12. Production and secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in children with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, M; Kemp, A

    1994-01-01

    IFN-gamma is known to be a major inhibitor of IgE synthesis in vitro. Recent studies demonstrating reduced production of IFN-gamma in children and adults with atopic dermatitis and elevated serum IgE suggest a similar role for this cytokine in vivo. The reasons for this reduced IFN-gamma production are not known. One possibility is that atopic individuals have a reduced population of cells producing IFN-gamma in vivo. Using a fluorescence-labelled antibody to detect intracellular IFN-gamma, the percentage of IFN-gamma-producing cells was determined in children with atopic dermatitis and in non-atopic controls. Children with atopic dermatitis had a greater percentage of IFN-gamma-producing cells in unstimulated cultures compared with controls, indicating in vivo activation of lymphocytes in the atopic group. This could reflect the significant degree of inflammation present in these children, or the presence of bacterial infection or colonization. Although secretion of IFN-gamma after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/Ca was significantly lower in children with atopic dermatitis compared with controls, the percentage of IFN-gamma-producing cells in the stimulated cultures from this group was equivalent to controls. This demonstrates that the reduced ability of atopic children to secrete IFN-gamma in vitro does not relate to a lack of IFN-gamma-producing cells, but to a difference in the regulation of IFN-gamma production beyond the stage of signal transduction. PMID:8287610

  13. Chronic, irritant contact dermatitis: Mechanisms, variables, and differentiation from other forms of contact dermatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, M.V. )

    1988-01-01

    Irritant dermatitis is an eczematous reaction to toxic chemicals contacting the skin. The mechanisms by which various chemicals elicit dermatitis are multiple. Strong irritants quickly elicit signs and symptoms of dermatitis, but weak irritants may not. Chronic cumulative exposure to weak irritants can elicit dermatitis which may mimic allergic contact dermatitis and mislead the physician and patient with respect to cause and preventative strategy. The skins of different people vary in susceptibilities to irritation. Susceptibility is also influenced by chemical properties, vehicles, concentrations, amounts applied to the skin surface, surface area, regional variations, length of exposure, method of exposure, age, sex, race, genetic background, environmental factors, hardening, concomitant disease, and the excited skin syndrome as well as treatment. Patch testing can help distinguish between allergens and irritants, but pitfalls may mislead.35 references.

  14. Risk factors for dermatitis in submariners during a submerged patrol: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, Matthew K; Fallowfield, Joanne L; Lindsay, Michael; Gunner, Frances; Wyllie, David H

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this pilot study was to determine risk factors, including Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, for dermatitis in submariners during a submarine patrol. Participants and methods 36 submariners undertaking a submerged 6-week patrol participated in the study. Severity of dermatitis and its impact was assessed using visual analogue scales and questionnaires at baseline and weekly throughout the patrol. S. aureus carriage levels in submariners were determined by nasal swabbing at baseline and shortly before disembarking the submarine. Occurrence of any skin or soft tissue infections (SSTI) were reported to the medical officer and swabs of the area were taken for subsequent analysis. Results S. aureus carriers were significantly more likely than non-carriers to have previously received treatment for a cutaneous abscess (39% vs 5%, OR=13 (95% CI 1.3 to 130)) with a trend to being submariners longer (p=0.051). Skin scores at baseline and on patrol were not significantly associated with carriage status. Higher dermatitis scores were observed in those who had been submariners longer (p=0.045). Smoking and allergies were not found to be linked to carriage status or skin health score in this cohort. Conclusions This small pilot study investigates S. aureus carriage status and skin health in submariners. Length of submarine service but not S. aureus carriage was identified as a risk factor for worsening skin health in this small cohort during a 6-week patrol. This does not support S. aureus decolonisation to improve skin health in this population. Further investigation into causes of dermatitis in submariners is required. This data supports a better understanding of the potential impact of exposure to environmental factors that could affect skin health in submariners. PMID:27256090

  15. Triclocarban: evaluation of contact dermatitis potential in man.

    PubMed

    Maibach, H; Bandmann, H J; Calnan, C D; Cronin, E; Fregert, S; Hjorth, N; Magnusson, B; Malten, K E; Meneghini, C L; Pirilä, V; Wilkinson, D S; Johannsen, F R

    1978-10-01

    Triclocarban was subjected to a profiling of its dermatitis producing potential including irritancy (21-day cumulative irritancy potential and application to 213 normal controls), phototoxicity (method of Marzulli), predictive contact sensitization (modified Draize method), predictive phototesting and battery screening in 2200 dermatitis patients, in an effort to define its relative dermatitis potential. The allergic contact dermatitis potential of triclocarban following bar soap use appears minimal. PMID:743875

  16. Adherence to a metal, polymer and composite by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, C C; Dhert, W J; de Blieck-Hogervorst, J M; van der Reijden, T J; Petit, P L; de Groot, K

    1993-04-01

    Bacterial adherence on to several materials with a potential application in reconstructive surgery was studied. Polymer (poly(L-lactide)), composite (hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide)) and metal (316L stainless steel) were evaluated both as smooth and sandblasted specimens. All materials were incubated in phosphate-buffered saline, challenged with Staphylococcus aureus or S. epidermidis and evaluated for up to 24 h. S. aureus showed a preference for the metal and composite tested over the polymer used. For S. epidermidis no preference was found for one of the investigated materials. The influence of surface roughness on bacterial growth was demonstrated by increased colonization on the sandblasted specimens. PMID:8507783

  17. Experimental photoallergic contact dermatitis: a mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, H.C. Jr.; Kaidbey, K.

    1982-09-01

    We have induced photoallergic contact dermatitis in mice to 3,3',4',5 tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCSA), chlorpromazine and 6-methylcoumarin. These compounds are known to produce photoallergic contact dermatitis in humans. The photoallergic contact dermatitis reaction in the mouse is immunologically specific viz. mice photosensitized to TCSA react, by photochallenge, to that compound and not to chlorpromazine, and conversely. The reaction requires UVA at both sensitization and challenge. It appears to be T-cell mediated in that it can be passively transferred to syngeneic mice by lymph node cells from actively sensitized mice, the histology of the reactions resembles that of classic allergic contact dermatitis in mice, challenge reactions are seen at 24 but not at 4 hr, and photoallergic contact dermatitis can be induced in B-cell deficient mice. The availability of a mouse model for the study of photo-ACD will facilitate the identification of pertinent control mechanisms and may aid in the management of the disease. It is likely that a bioassay for photoallergens of humans can be based on this mouse model.

  18. Malassezia furfur in infantile seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tollesson, A; Frithz, A; Stenlund, K

    1997-01-01

    Malassezia furfur is important in the pathogenesis of a number of dermatologic diseases including seborrheic dermatitis in adults. It has also recently been suggested that M. furfur might be the etiologic agent in infantile seborrheic dermatitis (ISD). We studied the presence of M. furfur in 21 children with the clinical diagnosis of infantile seborrheic dermatitis. Laboratory analyses showed aberrant patterns of essential fatty acids (EFA) in serum characterized by elevated levels of 18:1w9 and 20:2w6. Samples for M. furfur were taken from the foreheads and chests of children with infantile seborrheic dermatitis at the time of diagnosis, directly after treatment to complete healing, and after 1 year with no signs of infantile seborrheic dermatitis. All the patients were treated topically with borage oil containing 25% gammalinolenic acid (GLA). No reduced growth of M. furfur was seen on contact plates prepared with borage oil. The growth of M. furfur seems not to be related to the clinical symptoms in ISD. PMID:9436835

  19. Retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, M; Suzuma, K; Inaba, I; Ogura, Y; Yoneda, K; Okamoto, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis, one of the most common forms of dermatitis in Japan, has markedly increased in Japan in the past 10 years. To clarify pathogenic mechanisms of retinal detachment in such cases, we retrospectively studied clinical characteristics of retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis. METHODS: We examined the records of 80 patients (89 eyes) who had retinal detachment associated with atopic dermatitis. The patients were classified into three groups according to lens status: group A, eyes with clear lenses (40 eyes); group B, eyes with cataract (38 eyes), and group C, aphakic or pseudophakic eyes (11 eyes). RESULTS: No significant differences were noted in the ratio of males to females, age distribution, refractive error, or characteristic of retinal detachment among the three groups. The types of retinal breaks, however, were different in eyes with and without lens changes. While atrophic holes were dominant in group A, retinal dialysis was mainly seen in groups B and C. CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that anterior vitreoretinal traction may play an important role in the pathogenesis of retinal breaks in eyes with atopic cataract and that the same pathological process may affect the formation of cataract and tractional retinal breaks in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:8664234

  20. Allergic contact dermatitis to a laptop computer in a child.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sharon E; Admani, Shehla

    2014-01-01

    This report details the case of an 11-year-old boy with a history of atopic dermatitis who developed a widespread dermatitis 1 month after receiving a laptop for Christmas. Allergic contact dermatitis to nickel in the laptop was determined as the cause. PMID:24602035

  1. Dermatitis Neglecta -- A Dirty Dermatosis: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Abhijit; Seth, Joly; Sharma, Amita; Biswas, Desharghya

    2015-01-01

    Dermatitis neglecta is a condition that results from inadequate frictional cleansing leading to accumulation of corneocytes, sebum and sweat ultimately resulting in hyper-pigmented patch or verrucous plaque. Recognizing this condition avoids unnecessary, aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Here we report three cases of dermatitis neglecta in whom the dermatitis developed as a result of intentional neglect of personal hygiene. PMID:25814710

  2. Adult atopic dermatitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Maddalena; Megna, Matteo; Patruno, Cataldo; Gisondi, Paolo; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic, inflammatory skin disease which predominantly affects children usually clearing up during or after childhood. However, AD may persist with a chronic recurrent course until adulthood, being recalcitrant to any treatment strategy. Moreover, in some patients AD is not present during childhood but starts later in life (i.e. after 16 years of age) being defined late-onset AD. Even if AD incidence is increasing worldwide with cases in which clinical manifestations first appeared or persisted during adolescence and adulthood raising, especially in industrialized countries, studies on adult AD are still scant. Since this subgroup of AD patients often has a nonflexural rash distribution, and atypical morphologic variants and validated diagnostic criteria are lacking, there is no clear consensus on the diagnostic work-up that should be performed when evaluating adult patients with AD. In this review the many aspects of work-up in adult patients with AD, such as diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, quality of life and pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:25658440

  3. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in the management of seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Search methods We searched the following databases up to December 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (from 1982). We also searched trials registries and checked the bibliographies of published studies for further trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of topical antifungals used for treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adolescents and adults, with primary outcome measures of complete clearance of symptoms and improved quality of life. Data collection and analysis Review author pairs independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We performed fixed-effect meta-analysis for studies with low statistical heterogeneity and used a random-effects model when heterogeneity was high. Main results We included 51 studies with 9052 participants. Of these, 45 trials assessed treatment outcomes at five weeks or less after commencement of treatment, and six trials assessed outcomes over a longer time frame. We believe that 24 trials had some form of conflict of interest, such as funding by pharmaceutical companies. Among the included studies were 12 ketoconazole trials (N = 3253), 11 ciclopirox trials (N = 3029), two lithium trials (N = 141

  4. Specific Immunotherapy in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungsoo; Park, Chang Ook

    2015-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy (SIT) using house dust mite (HDM) extracts has been performed mainly with patients of asthma and allergic rhinitis. In the meanwhile, there has been a long debate on the efficacy of SIT in atopic dermatitis (AD) with only a few double-blind placebo-controlled trials. However, several randomized controlled trials of SIT in AD revealed significant improvement of clinical symptoms and also, positive result was shown by a following meta-analysis study of these trials. In order to predict and evaluate the treatment outcome, finding a biomarker that can predict treatment responses and treatment end-points is critical but it is very challenging at the same time due to the complexity of causes and mechanisms of AD. Other considerations including standardization of the easiest and safest treatment protocol and optimizing the treatment preparations should be studied as well. This review summarizes the basics of SIT in AD including the brief mechanisms, treatment methods and schedules, and also highlights the clinical efficacy of SIT in AD along with mild, controllable adverse reactions. Immunologic effects and studies of various biomarkers are also introduced and finally, future considerations with upcoming studies on SIT were discussed. PMID:25749758

  5. [Atopic dermatitis of the adult].

    PubMed

    Hello, M; Aubert, H; Bernier, C; Néel, A; Barbarot, S

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) of the adult is a common skin disease. Its prevalence has greatly increased during the past decades. AD is commonly associated with other atopic disorders. Its impact on quality of life is often underestimated. Various immunopathologic mechanisms are involved in AD: innate epidermal barrier dysfunction due to filaggrin gene mutations, innate and adaptative abnormalities of the immune system (an initial Th2 phase precedes a chronic Th1 phase), intestinal and cutaneous microbiomes dysbiosis, and environmental factors. Diagnosis of AD is clinical and there is no predictive biomarker of future severity. The main differential diagnoses are: scabies, psoriasis, cutaneous adverse reaction, cutaneous T cell lymphoma, primary immunodeficiency, and Netherton's syndrome. Therapeutic management is challenging and should integrate a therapeutic education program. Topical corticosteroids are the first line treatment, including a preliminary assessment of possible topical corticosteroids phobia. Systemic treatments are recommended in severe, chronic and resistant AD, after careful evaluation in a reference centre. Dupilumab, an IL4/IL13 inhibitor, might be the first effective targeted therapy in AD, whereas therapies that specifically target the mechanisms of pruritus represent an exciting perspective. PMID:26617291

  6. Activity of sparfloxacin on Staphylococcus epidermidis attached to plastic catheters.

    PubMed

    Pascual, A; García, I; Ramirez de Arellano, E; Perea, E J

    1995-08-01

    The activity of sparfloxacin on Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms on different plastic catheters was evaluated. Sparfloxacin showed high bactericidal activity against S. epidermidis biofilms on Vialon and polyvinylchloride catheters. The combination of sparfloxacin with amikacin or rifampicin significantly increased its activity against bacterial biofilms on polyurethane and Teflon catheters. PMID:8522473

  7. 9 CFR 113.115 - Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Staphylococcus Aureus Bacterin-Toxoid. 113.115 Section 113.115 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Inactivated Bacterial Products...

  8. Turning the inside out: the microbiology of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Brüssow, Harald

    2016-07-01

    Allergy is on the rise worldwide. The hygiene hypothesis of atopic diseases linked microbes with atopic dermatitis (AD) both as drivers and modulators of skin pathology. The earlier literature favoured an inside-outside model of AD where an immunological abnormality compounded by a gut microbiota dysbiosis is the primary event. Probiotic intervention trials with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria as well as the application of bifidogenic oligosaccharide prebiotics showed indeed promising clinical results, but no consistent gut microbiota dysbiosis could be linked with AD. An alternative hypothesis known as outside-inside model of AD considers a genetic skin barrier effect compounded by a skin microbiota dysbiosis as primary pathogenic event. Cultivation microbiology has demonstrated strong skin colonization with superantigen-encoding Staphylococcus aureus in AD patients; microbiota and molecular microbiome analyses demonstrated that S. aureus abundance fluctuates and parallels clinical symptoms. In a mouse model, δ-toxin of S. aureus induced mast cell degranulation, leading to AD-like symptoms. Mutant mice developing AD symptoms showed increased skin colonization with S. aureus; antibiotic treatment alleviated the symptoms. Clinical trials showed that various treatments reducing S. aureus skin load also reduced AD symptoms, suggesting S. aureus as a potential critical driver of AD and a target for antimicrobial interventions other than antibiotics. PMID:26373255

  9. Coated textiles in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Haug, S; Roll, A; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Johansen, P; Wüthrich, B; Kündig, T M; Senti, G

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with increasing prevalence over the last few decades. Various factors are known to aggravate the disease. In particular, wool and synthetic fabrics with harsh textile fibres, aggressive detergents and climatic factors may exacerbate AD. Cutaneous superinfection, particularly with Staphylococcus aureus, is also recognized as an important factor in the elicitation and maintenance of skin inflammation and acute exacerbations of AD. The severity of AD correlates with S. aureus colonization of the skin. Beside the treatment of AD patients with creams and emollients, new developments in the textile industry may have therapeutic implications. Silk or silvercoated textiles show antimicrobial properties that can significantly reduce the burden of S. aureus, leading to a positive effect on AD. Silver products have been used as wound dressing, whereby silver has antiseptic properties, and drug resistance is hardly found. Padycare textiles consist of micromesh material containing woven silver filaments with a total silver content of 20%. In vitro studies of these silver-coated textiles demonstrated a significant decrease in S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as Candida albicans. Silk has been increasingly implemented in medical treatment of AD thanks to its unique smoothness that reduces irritation. Silk can be coated with antimicrobials (Dermasilk). The combination of the smoothness of silk with an antimicrobial finish appears to make an ideal textile for patients suffering from AD. PMID:16766886

  10. The potential role of impaired Notch signalling in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    This review presents recent evidence of impaired Notch signalling in atopic dermatitis (AD), which is proposed to represent the "a-topic" defect linking both epidermal and immunological barrier dysfunctions in AD. AD epidermis exhibits a marked deficiency of Notch receptors. Mouse models with genetically suppressed Notch signalling exhibit dry skin, signs of scratching, skin barrier abnormalities, increased transepidermal water loss and TH2 cell-mediated immunological changes closely resembling human AD. Notch signals are critically involved in the differentiation of regulatory T cells, in the feedback inhibition of activated innate immunity, in late epidermal differentiation associated with filaggrin- and stratum corneum barrier lipid processing. Most importantly, Notch deficiency induces keratinocyte-mediated release of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). TSLP promotes TH2 cell-driven immune responses associated with enhanced production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-31. Both TSLP and IL-31 stimulate sensory cutaneous neurons involved in the induction of itch. Notably, Notch1 is a repressor of activator protein-1 (AP-1), which is upregulated in AD epidermis. Without Notch-mediated suppression of AP-1 this transcription factor promotes excess expression of TH2 cell-related cytokines. Impaired Notch signalling negatively affects the homeostasis of aquaporin 3 and of the tight junction component claudin-1, thus explains disturbed skin barrier function with increased transepidermal water loss and Staphylococcus aureus colonisation as well as increased cutaneous susceptibility for viral infections. Thus, accumulating evidence links deficient Notch signalling to key pathological features of AD. PMID:24853951

  11. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus Infection in an Irradiated Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Shipley, Steven T; Tatarov, Ivan I; DeTolla, Louis J

    2008-01-01

    We describe a case of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus infection in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). The nonhuman primate described was part of a research project that involved whole-body gamma irradiation and subsequently developed acute generalized dermatitis with skin dryness, peeling, and erythema around the eyes. After initial evaluation, which included microbiologic culture and 6 d of medical treatment, the animal was euthanized due to concern regarding a possible outbreak of infectious or zoonotic disease. On the basis of skin culture, diagnosis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus was confirmed. This report underscores the importance of the occupational risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus non-aureus to research and animal care staff in a research animal facility setting. PMID:18459716

  12. Dermatitis in hairdressers (II). Management and prevention.

    PubMed

    van der Walle, H B

    1994-05-01

    Hand dermatitis in hairdressers is caused by a variety of factors. Important are the sensitizing and irritant capacities of some hair-cosmetic ingredients, unsafe packaging which causes contamination of the hands, work tables and instruments with hazardous chemicals, absence of protection with adequate gloves and ignorance of safe handling of these chemicals. A strategy is proposed, based on improvement of the safety of ingredients and packaging, use of vinyl gloves and introduction of safe hairdressing procedures. Introduction of this strategy in hairdressing salons with 16 cases of moderate to severe contact dermatitis reduced the number of cases of active dermatitis to 3 in 4 months. The value of pre-employment screening is discussed and the necessity of cooperation of centers of occupational dermatology is emphasized. PMID:8088138

  13. Dissociative identity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Mine; Erdogan, Ayten; Aydemir, Ertugrul H; Oguz, Oya

    2006-06-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a rare psychiatric condition characterized by rubbing of skin blisters and denial of self-infliction. Dissociation may be comorbid with self-injurious behavior. A background of emotional disturbances during formative years and in later life often results in feelings of isolation and insecurity, which can lead to dissociation as a primary defense mechanism used to overcome traumatic events. In this case report, we describe a female patient with dermatitis artefacta associated with dissociative identity disorder. The patient was a 14-year-old girl. Multiple large, deep ulcerations with unnatural shapes were seen on her left forearm. The ulcerations were thought to be self-inflicted. Psychiatric examination revealed that she had a different identity, and inflicted the lesions when this was assumed. This case leads us to suggest that patients with dermatitis artefacta might have comorbid dissociative experiences, which cannot be identified easily. PMID:16796649

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis from oxygen cannulas.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, A J

    1980-10-01

    A patient experienced allergic contact dermatitis on two occasions two months apart as a result of wearing the same brand of polyvinyl chloride oxygen cannula. In one instance the cannula was removed and not replaced, as continuing oxygen was unnecessary; on the other occasion the original cannula was replaced by a cannula of another brand. In both cases the dermatitis disappeared after removal of the original cannula. The reaction was probably to a resin remaining in the polyvinyl chloride after the curing process in the manufacture of the plastic from which the cannula was made. Allergic reactions to plastics have been documented in other medical products but have not previously been reported in respiratory therapy plastic appliances. Because of variability in residual resins in different brands and batches of plastics, and because of varying individual sensitivity, therapists and others should be alert to the possibility of allergic contact dermatitis from respiratory therapy devices. PMID:10315103

  15. Occupational dermatitis in a prefabrication construction factory.

    PubMed

    Goh, C L; Gan, S L; Ngui, S J

    1986-10-01

    In a field study of occupational dermatoses in a prefabrication construction factory, 272 workers were interviewed, examined and patch tested to chromate, cobalt, nickel, rubber mixes, epoxy resin, melamine formaldehyde and conplasts. The prevalence of occupational dermatitis was 14% (38/272); 57% (22/38) were irritant dermatitis from cement; 39.5% (15/38) were allergic contact dermatitis from cement (2 with concomitant rubber glove allergy); and 2.5% (1/38) were allergic to rubber chemicals in gloves. The overall prevalence of chromate sensitivity was 8.5% (23/272), with the highest rate from the concreting bays of the factory. The rate was unrelated to the duration of workers' engagement in construction work. 34.8% (8/23) had asymptomatic chromate allergy. The prevalence of cobalt reactions was 17.4% (4/23) and all were associated with chromate allergy. PMID:2948758

  16. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dochang; Koo, Ja Seung; Suh, Chang-Ok; Yoon, Chang Yun; Bae, Jaehyun; Lee, Soohyeon

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of radiation recall dermatitis caused by trastuzumab. A 55-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer received palliative first-line trastuzumab/paclitaxel and a salvage partial mastectomy with lymph node dissection was subsequently performed. In spite of the palliative setting, the pathology report indicated that no residual carcinoma was present, and then she underwent locoregional radiotherapy to ensure a definitive response. After radiotherapy, she has maintained trastuzumab monotherapy. Nine days after the fifth cycle of trastuzumab monotherapy, dermatitis in previously irradiated skin developed, with fever. Radiation recall dermatitis triggered by trastuzumab is extremely rare. A high fever developed abruptly with a skin rash. This may be the first case of this sort to be reported. PMID:23543400

  17. Recent Trends in Occupational Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-07-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) remains prevalent among workers and impacts quality of life and workability. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent advances in occupational contact dermatitis as well as potential hazardous agents in the workplaces causing OCD. The review covers new developments in the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of occupational contact dermatitis. This article also provides updated information on the prevalence of work-related skin symptoms and on new contact allergens among working population. It is emphasized that in the context of prevention of OCD, special attention should be focused on the identified high-risk occupational groups, especially healthcare workers and hairdressers starting with the apprentices. Current approaches include working out the standards and guidelines to improve the education, knowledge, diagnosis, and management of OCD based on a multidisciplinary team of medical specialists and an employer. PMID:26143395

  18. Eradication of bacterial species via photosensitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Paul S.; Maddocks, L.; King, Terence A.; Drucker, D. B.

    1999-02-01

    Photosensitization and inactivation efficacy of three bacterial species: Prevotella nigrescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli have been investigated. Samples of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were treated with the triphenylmethane dye malachite green isothiocyanate and exposed to light from a variety of continuous and pulsed light sauces at a wavelength of approximately 630 nm. Inactivation of the Gram-positive species Staphylococcus aureus was found to increase with radiation dose, whilst Gram-negative Escherichia coli was resistant to such treatment. Samples of the pigmented species Prevotella nigrescens were found to be inactivated by exposure to light alone. The mechanism of photosensitization and inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus with malachite green isothiocyanate is addressed. The possible roles of the excited triplet state of the photosensitizer, the involvement of molecular oxygen, and the bacterial cell wall are discussed. Photosensitization may provide a way of eliminating naturally pigmented species responsible for a variety of infections, including oral diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis.

  19. PERIORAL DERMATITIS: STILL A THERAPEUTIC CHALLENGE.

    PubMed

    Mokos, Zrinka Bukvić; Kummer, Ana; Mosler, Elvira Lazić; Čeović, Romana; Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra

    2015-06-01

    Perioral dermatitis is a common and often chronic dermatosis. In its classic form, it primarily affects women aged 15 to 45 years, but there are also variants including lupus-like and granulomatous perioral dermatitis, where granulomatous form is more common in childhood and affects mostly prepubescent boys. The etiopathogenesis of the disease remains unclear, but there is a frequent finding of prolonged use of topical products, especially corticosteroids, in the treatment of rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis, preceding the clinical manifestation of perioral dermatitis. Other causes important for the occurrence of the disease include various skin irritants, as well as other physical and hormonal factors, which all share the epidermal barrier dysfunction as an underlying main pathogenic factor. Clinical presentation of papulovesicular eruption in the perioral region with a typical narrow spared zone around the edge of the lips is characteristic. Therapeutic approach should be individually addressed, depending on the severity of clinical presentation and patient's age, with special attention to patient's education and continuous psychological support. In mild forms of perioral dermatitis, 'zero therapy' is the treatment of choice. In the initial treatment period, patients with steroid-induced perioral dermatitis should be closely followed up because the rebound phenomenon usually develops after cessation of previous topical treatment. In moderate disease, treatment includes topical metronidazole, erythromycin, and pimecrolimus, whereas in more severe cases the best validated choice is oral tetracycline in a subantimicrobial dose until complete remission is achieved. Systemic isotretinoin should be considered as a therapeutic option for patients refractory to all standard therapies. PMID:26415314

  20. The effects of treatment on itch in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yarbrough, Kevin B.; Neuhaus, Kristin J.; Simpson, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Pruritus causes significant impairment in the quality of life of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Treatments for itch in atopic dermatitis range from simple avoidance of pruritus triggers to more complicated systemic therapy. Several treatments aim to target specific mediators of itch in atopic dermatitis, while others improve pruritus by reducing inflammation. Currently, the most effective treatments for atopic dermatitis-associated itch are primarily topical or systemic anti-inflammatory agents. Better management of pruritus in atopic dermatitis is an important goal, and necessitates the development of novel targeted treatments as well as efficient use of current therapies. PMID:23551368

  1. Mycosis fungoides presenting as pigmented purpuric dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Shannon; Walsh, Noreen; D'Intino, Yolanda; Langley, Richard G B

    2006-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides, a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, typically presents as indolent, progressive, and persistent erythematous patches or plaques with mild scaling and over time can evolve into tumor stage with tumor nodules. Other presentations include eczematous, psoriasiform, poikilodermatous, and hypopigmented patches. We report Mycosis fungoides in a 14-year-old boy presenting as pigmented purpuric dermatitis and review the relevant literature. This is a rare presentation of a condition that is uncommon in the pediatric population. In our patient, histologic features were typical of Mycosis fungoides presenting as pigmented purpuric dermatitis. The clinical features, pathology, molecular biology, and the relationship between these two entities are discussed. PMID:16918631

  2. [Dermatitis artefacta in a young girl].

    PubMed

    Gil-Bistes, D; Kluger, N; Guillot, B; Bessis, D

    2010-11-01

    Dermatitis artefacta is a self-inflicted skin disease during which the patient denies having produced and is not conscious of the psychological need he or she needs to satisfy through the lesions. Suggestive clinical features often include bizarre, linear, or geometric outlines of accessible parts of the body and an ambiguous history of the lesions. Dermatitis artefacta in children is often associated with familial dysfunction and/or problems at school. We report a case of acute linear purpuric lesions of the upper right limb in a 12-year-old girl. PMID:20880677

  3. Mud bath dermatitis due to cinnamon oil.

    PubMed

    García-Abujeta, José Luis; de Larramendi, Carlos Hernando; Berna, José Pomares; Palomino, Elena Muñoz

    2005-04-01

    A case of long-lasting, extensive eczematous and bullous dermatitis affecting exposed areas (arms and legs), beginning within 24 hr after having a mud bath with cinnamon essential oil in a spa, in a 74-year-old woman, is reported. Patch tests with the GEIDC standard battery and the dental battery (including clove essence and eugenol), cinnamon essence and its components were carried out 5 years later. Fragrance mix, cinnamon essence, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and cinnamic aldehyde yielded a positive result. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cinnamon dermatitis after a mud bath. PMID:15860002

  4. Poison ivy dermatitis. Nuances in treatment.

    PubMed

    Williford, P M; Sheretz, E F

    1994-02-01

    Acute allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy or poison oak is a common presenting complaint in the practices of many primary care physicians. While the clinical features are well described, reported treatment regimens vary in both topical and systemic therapies. We review herein the variability of presenting morphologic features of the disease and common treatment regimens, with attention given to complications of therapy. We also comment on the correct botanical designation, incidence, and immune mechanisms of the disease state and review measures to avoid allergic contact dermatitis due to poison ivy and poison oak. PMID:7994440

  5. Innovative topical formulations for treatment of dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Senyigit, Taner; Ozcan, Ipek; Ozer, Ozgen

    2012-09-01

    The treatment of dermatitis with conventional dosage forms (ointment, cream, lotion etc.) has many concerns due to side effects especially in long-term therapy. Recent studies focused on strategies to optimize the potency of formulation while minimizing side effects. Several attempts have been made to increase the safety of treatment, including special vehicles (nanoparticle, liposome, patch etc.), combined therapy and new synthesized agents. This review provides major innovations and advances of new approaches for dermatitis treatment based on the published articles and patent applications. PMID:22827752

  6. Infections and skin diseases mimicking diaper dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Van Gysel, Dirk

    2016-07-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a common condition that often prompts parents to seek medical attention. Irritant diaper dermatitis is by far the most common cause, but numerous potentially serious diseases can present with changes of the skin in the diaper area. The differential diagnosis can include psoriasis, metabolic disorders, rare immune diseases and infection. Clinical examination can be helpful in distinguishing the underlying cause. General screening laboratory tests, as well as select testing when a specific condition is suspected, can be used to challenge or confirm the putative diagnosis. PMID:27311780

  7. Resin Dermatitis in a Car Factory

    PubMed Central

    Engel, H. O.; Calnan, C. D.

    1966-01-01

    An outbreak of dermatitis in a car assembly factory is described; it affected 50 workers who handled rubber weatherstrips coated with an adhesive. The adhesive was found to contain para-tertiary butyl phenol (P.T.B.P.) formaldehyde resin. Of those patch tested 70% gave positive reactions to the adhesive and 65% to the resin. Improved methods of handling and personal protection succeeded in arresting the occurrence of dermatitis. Barrier creams gave no protection in these circumstances. The episode illustrates the different preventive control methods which have to be tried when dealing with a simple skin hazard which cannot be abolished. Images PMID:5904100

  8. Occupational dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins.

    PubMed

    Geraut, Christian; Tripodi, Dominique; Brunet-Courtois, Béatrice; Leray, Fabrice; Geraut, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Contact dermatitis to epoxydic and phenolic resins are the most frequent contact dermatoses due to plastics, in particular in the form of airborne dermatitis. The chemical formulas of the various components of these resins and their additives are complex and the patch tests available in the trade are insufficient and often arrive at a late stage in the progress of industry, in particular in advanced technologies like aeronautical engineering, shipbuilding or the new floor and wall coverings in buildings. This article is a review of the actions to be taken with these allergies, as well as with regards to their diagnosis, prevention and medico-legal compensation. PMID:19349256

  9. Effect of Topical Application of the Cream Containing Magnesium 2% on Treatment of Diaper Dermatitis and Diaper Rash in Children A Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Seyyed Mohammad-Kazem; Rouhi-Boroujeni, Hojjatollah; Kheiri, Maryam; Mobasheri, Mahmoud; Shirani, Majid; Ahrani, Saeedeh; Karami, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diaper dermatitis is referred to the inflammation in outer layers of the skin in the perineal area, lower abdomen, and inner thighs. The lesions are maculopapular and usually itchy, which could cause bacterial or candida infection, and predispose the infants to penis or vaginal and urinary infection and lead to discomfort, irritability, and restlessness. The drugs which have been so far administered for this disease (topical steroids) cause special complications for the sensitive skin in this area. Magnesium (Mg) is known for its anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties. Aim The aim of the present study was to study the effect of the cream containing Mg 2% on treatment of diaper dermatitis and diaper rash in children. Materials and Methods In this clinical trial study, 64 children aged less than two years old with diaper dermatitis referring Paediatric Ward of Hajar Hospital were randomly assigned to two groups of 32. Group one was treated with the combined cream Mg 2% and Calendula and group two with Calendula cream alone. The duration of recovery was compared between the two groups. Results The duration of recovery was significantly lower in the intervention group than the control group (p-value<0.001), but there was no significant difference in the lesions size and diapers’ number between the two groups. Conclusion Based on the finding of this study, Mg is effective on treatment of diaper dermatitis and could be used for treating diaper dermatitis and other types of dermatitis. PMID:26894161

  10. MASD part 3: peristomal moisture- associated dermatitis and periwound moisture-associated dermatitis: a consensus.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Janice C; Ratliff, Catherine R; Goldberg, Margaret; Baharestani, Mona M; Bliss, Donna Z; Gray, Mikel; Kennedy-Evans, Karen L; Logan, Susan; Black, Joyce M

    2011-01-01

    Moisture-associated skin damage (MASD) occurs when excessive moisture in urine, stool, and wound exudate leads to inflammation of the skin, with or without erosion or secondary cutaneous infection. This article, produced by a panel of clinical experts who met to discuss moisture as an etiologic factor in skin damage, focuses on peristomal moisture-associated dermatitis and periwound moisture-associated dermatitis. The principles outlined here address assessment, prevention, and treatment of MASD affecting the peristomal or periwound skin. PMID:21873913

  11. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Jeanne S

    2013-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the major multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens causing serious community-associated and health care-associated infections. It is now pervasive in the obstetric population associated with skin and soft tissue infections, mastitis, episiotomy, and cesarean wound infections and urinary tract infections. This review addresses the epidemiology, definitions, microbiology, and pathogenesis as well as common clinical presentations. A discussion of the 2011 Infectious Diseases Society of America MRSA treatment guidelines details available antibiotics, invasive and noninvasive MRSA management, and specific factors related to obstetrics. Finally, prevention strategies including decolonization are discussed. PMID:23292915

  12. Incontinence and incontinence-associated dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Langemo, Diane; Hanson, Darlene; Hunter, Susan; Thompson, Patricia; Oh, In Eui

    2011-03-01

    Incontinence is a prevalent problem and can lead to many complications. Both urinary and fecal incontinence can result in tissue breakdown, now commonly referred to as incontinence-associated dermatitis. This article addresses the types of incontinence, its etiology and pathophysiology, assessment, prevention and treatment, and the latest research. PMID:21326024

  13. Avian Schistosomes and Outbreaks of Cercarial Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mikeš, Libor; Lichtenbergová, Lucie; Skála, Vladimír; Soldánová, Miroslava; Brant, Sara Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a condition caused by infective larvae (cercariae) of a species-rich group of mammalian and avian schistosomes. Over the last decade, it has been reported in areas that previously had few or no cases of dermatitis and is thus considered an emerging disease. It is obvious that avian schistosomes are responsible for the majority of reported dermatitis outbreaks around the world, and thus they are the primary focus of this review. Although they infect humans, they do not mature and usually die in the skin. Experimental infections of avian schistosomes in mice show that in previously exposed hosts, there is a strong skin immune reaction that kills the schistosome. However, penetration of larvae into naive mice can result in temporary migration from the skin. This is of particular interest because the worms are able to migrate to different organs, for example, the lungs in the case of visceral schistosomes and the central nervous system in the case of nasal schistosomes. The risk of such migration and accompanying disorders needs to be clarified for humans and animals of interest (e.g., dogs). Herein we compiled the most comprehensive review of the diversity, immunology, and epidemiology of avian schistosomes causing cercarial dermatitis. PMID:25567226

  14. Footwear dermatitis: pathogenesis--part I.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Rasool, Farhan; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok; Verma, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Footwear dermatitis is an important aspect of contemporary dermatology. The causative factors are constantly changing just as the footwear industry is continually changing. These range from the leather itself to rubber accelerators and from dyes to even metal trim. PMID:23163071

  15. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by etofenamate].

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, A; Zick, C; Hausen, B M

    1988-06-15

    We report on 3 cases of contact dermatitis following topical application of etofenamat. Each patient developed positive reactions in patch tests with etofenamat in concentrations of both 10% and 1%. After testing, one patient showed secondary inflammatory reactions at the original site of application. Considering the frequent administration of etofenamat, contact sensitization seems to be relatively rare. PMID:2970161

  16. Contact dermatitis due to Alstroemeria (Peruvian lily).

    PubMed

    Apted, J H

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of hand dermatitis due to contact with the plant Alstroemeria (Peruvian Lily) are recorded. This plant has been increasingly used for making floral decorations during the last decade. As it is available throughout the year in Victoria more cases are likely to be discovered in the community. PMID:2151361

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Eye Drops

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Yasmeen Jabeen; Zeerak, Sumaya; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) occurs due to a milieu of allergens and involves different anatomical sites, including eyelids, and periorbital areas. Topically applied ophthalmic drugs are a potential cause of ACD of the periorbital region. Here we describe the report of a patient who developed ACD to eye drop preparations. PMID:26677304

  18. Pustular Dermatitis Caused by Dermatophilus congolensis▿

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Eileen M.; Juzych, Lydia A.; Rudrik, James T.; Habib, Fadi

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of pustular dermatitis in a 15-year-old girl who had just returned from horseback riding camp. Based on gram staining, colony characteristics, biochemical reactions, and whole-cell fatty acid analysis, the causative agent was identified as Dermatophilus congolensis. The literature contains few reports of human infection with this organism. PMID:17376877

  19. Management of Itch in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Judith; Buddenkotte, Joerg; Berger, Timothy G.; Steinhoff, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common, pruritic, inflammatory skin disorder. Chronic, localized, or even generalized pruritus is the diagnostic hallmark of atopic dermatitis, and its management remains a challenge for physicians. The threshold for itch and alloknesis is markedly reduced in these patients, and infections can promote exacerbation and thereby increase the itch. Modern management consists of anti-inflammatory, occasionally antiseptic, as well as antipruritic therapies to address the epidermal barrier as well as immunomodulation or infection. Mild forms of atopic dermatitis may be controlled with topical therapies, but moderate-to-severe forms often require a combination of systemic treatments consisting of antipruritic and immunosuppressive drugs, phototherapy, and topical compounds. In addition, patient education and a therapeutic regimen to help the patient cope with the itch and eczema are important adjuvant strategies for optimized long-term management. This review highlights various topical, systemic, and complementary and alternative therapies, as well as provide a therapeutic ladder for optimized long-term control of itch in atopic dermatitis. PMID:21767767

  20. Contact dermatitis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Orion, Edith; Ruocco, Eleonora; Baroni, Adone; Ruocco, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The history of contact dermatitis (CD) is inseparable from the history of the patch test, and the patch test is inseparable from the pioneer in the field, Josef Jadassohn (1860-1936). Despite the fact that we have been diagnosing, treating, and investigating the condition for more than 100 years, there are still many unsolved questions and controversies, which show no signs of coming to an end in the foreseeable future. This contribution reviews and highlights some of the disagreements and discrepancies associated with CD. For example: • What is the real sensitizer in balsam of Peru, one of the most common allergens, and what, if any, is the value of a low-balsam diet? • Is benzalkonium chloride, which has well-known and undisputed irritant properties, a contact allergen as well? • Is cocamidopropyl betaine (CABP) a common contact allergen and what is the actual sensitizer in CABP allergy the molecule itself, or impurities, or intermediaries in its synthesis? • How can the significant differences in the prevalence of sensitization of formaldehyde (FA, a common cause of contact allergy) between the United States (8%-9%) and Europe (2%-3%) be explained? • What is the relationship between formaldehyde releasers (FRs) allergy and an FA allergy? Should we recommend that FA-allergic patients also avoid FRs, and, if so, to what extent? • What is the true frequency of lanolin allergy? This issue remains enigmatic despite the expenditure of thousands of dollars and the innumerable hours spent investigating this subject. • What is the basis behind the so-called "lanolin paradox"? This label was coined in 1996 and is still a matter of controversy. • Is there such a thing as systemic CD from nickel, and, if so, to what extent? Is there a cross-reactivity or concomitant sensitization between nickel and cobalt?These are some of the controversial problems discussed. We have selected the ones that we consider to be of special interest and importance to the

  1. Useful tools for the management of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Giampaolo; Dondi, Arianna; Patrizi, Annalisa

    2009-01-01

    Eczema, frequently named atopic dermatitis, is the most frequent chronic skin disease of early childhood, with a high prevalence in industrialized countries and a relapsing-remitting course that is responsible for a serious burden on affected children and their families. Even though most facets of this disease are nowadays well known and numerous guidelines are available, some confusion still exists regarding certain aspects. First, several names have been proposed for the disorder. We suggest that the name and definition adopted by the World Allergy Organization should be used: 'eczema,' divided into 'atopic,' when an allergic sensitization can be demonstrated, and 'non-atopic,' in the absence of sensitization. Several diagnostic criteria have been proposed, but at present the two most reliable are the 2003 revision by the American Academy of Dermatology of the Hanifin-Rajka criteria, and those by Williams revised in 2005. To date, 20 different clinical scores have been published to assess the severity; however, only the EASI (Eczema Area and Severity Index), the SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis), and the POEM (Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure) seem to have been adequately validated and are recommended for use in clinical practice and trials. The diagnostic tests to identify associated allergy or sensitization include skin-prick tests, determination of the specific IgE in serum using different assays, and atopy patch tests; in the case of suspected food allergy, a food challenge may be necessary to define the diagnosis. To evaluate quality of life, tools exist that allow both the child's and family's impairment to be considered. In addition, several algorithms exist to help decide therapy on a step-wise basis. However, such guidelines and algorithms represent only an aid to the physician and not an obligatory directive, since the ultimate judgment regarding any therapy must be performed by the physician and tailored to individual needs. A clear and validated

  2. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence Strains as Causative Agents of Persistent Infections in Breast Implants

    PubMed Central

    Chessa, Daniela; Ganau, Giulia; Spiga, Luisella; Bulla, Antonio; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Campus, Gian Vittorio; Rubino, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are currently considered two of the most important pathogens in nosocomial infections associated with catheters and other medical implants and are also the main contaminants of medical instruments. However because these species of Staphylococcus are part of the normal bacterial flora of human skin and mucosal surfaces, it is difficult to discern when a microbial isolate is the cause of infection or is detected on samples as a consequence of contamination. Rapid identification of invasive strains of Staphylococcus infections is crucial for correctly diagnosing and treating infections. The aim of the present study was to identify specific genes to distinguish between invasive and contaminating S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains isolated on medical devices; the majority of our samples were collected from breast prostheses. As a first step, we compared the adhesion ability of these samples with their efficacy in forming biofilms; second, we explored whether it is possible to determine if isolated pathogens were more virulent compared with international controls. In addition, this work may provide additional information on these pathogens, which are traditionally considered harmful bacteria in humans, and may increase our knowledge of virulence factors for these types of infections. PMID:26811915

  3. Tea tree oil attenuates experimental contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wallengren, Joanna

    2011-07-01

    Herbs and minerals have been used in clinical dermatology for hundreds of years and herbal ingredients are becoming increasingly popular with the public in treatment of various dermatological conditions characterised by inflammation and pruritus. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of traditional topical therapeutic agents with a moderate potency topical glucocorticoid on experimental contact dermatitis and contact urticaria. The effects of ichthammol 10% pet, zinc oxide 20% pet, camphor 20% pet, levomenthol 10% pet, tea tree oil 20 or 50% and clobetason butyrate 0.05% ointment were studied in the following experimental models: elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel, irritant contact dermatitis to benzalkonium chloride, and in immediate reactions to histamine and benzoic acid (non-immunological contact utricaria) respectively. Delayed reactions were evaluated using a clinical scoring system and immediate reactions were estimated by planimetry. Histamine-induced pruritus was evaluated using VAS. Tea tree oil reduced allergic contact dermatitis by 40.5% (p = 0.003), zinc oxide by 17.4% (p = 0.04) and clobetason butyrate by 23.5% (p = 0.01). Zinc oxide reduced histamine induced flare by 18.5% (p = 0.01), ichthammol by 19.2% (p = 0.02) and clobetason butyrate by 44.1% (p = 0.02). Irritant contact dermatitis and non-immunological contact urticaria were not influenced by the pre-treatments. Pruritus induced by histamine also remained unchanged. In conclusion, tea tree oil seems to be a more effective anti-eczematic agent than zinc oxide and clobetasone butyrate, while clobetasone butyrate is superior to both ichthammol and zinc oxide in topical treatment of urticarial reactions. PMID:20865268

  4. Reduced secretion of IgA to skin surface of patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Imayama, S; Shimozono, Y; Hoashi, M; Yasumoto, S; Ohta, S; Yoneyama, K; Hori, Y

    1994-08-01

    To investigate whether the secretory form of immunoglobulin A (sIgA) was reduced on the skin surface in atopic dermatitis, the amount of sIgA present in sweat was measured in 40 patients with atopic dermatitis and in 50 healthy volunteers by attaching a cellulose membrane disk (10 x 10 mm) to the inner aspect of the upper arm skin for 24 hours. The secretory form of IgA, which was absorbed to the membrane and accumulated during the period of application, was revealed as dots by an enzyme immunoassay in which antibodies for IgA and for the secretory component were used. The density and number of dots (per mm2/day), which corresponded to the openings of eccrine excretory ducts, were determined with a densitometer. The mean amount of sIgA secreted by those patients was 3.86 +/- 0.71 pg/mm2/day (range, 0 to 21.17 pg/mm2/day), whereas that of the control subjects was significantly higher (p < 0.001), 16.79 +/- 2.80 pg/mm2/day (range, 0.79 to 133.77 pg/mm2/day). This may be related to the high incidence of bacterial and viral skin infections seen in patients with atopic dermatitis, and in addition, to the development of eczematous lesions through a defect in ridding the skin of allergens and/or microorganisms. PMID:8064071

  5. Bistability and Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Malka, Roy; Shochat, Eliezer; Rom-Kedar, Vered

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial infections occur when the natural host defenses are overwhelmed by invading bacteria. The main component of the host defense is impaired when neutrophil count or function is too low, putting the host at great risk of developing an acute infection. In people with intact immune systems, neutrophil count increases during bacterial infection. However, there are two important clinical cases in which they remain constant: a) in patients with neutropenic-associated conditions, such as those undergoing chemotherapy at the nadir (the minimum clinically observable neutrophil level); b) in ex vivo examination of the patient's neutrophil bactericidal activity. Here we study bacterial population dynamics under fixed neutrophil levels by mathematical modelling. We show that under reasonable biological assumptions, there are only two possible scenarios: 1) Bacterial behavior is monostable: it always converges to a stable equilibrium of bacterial concentration which only depends, in a gradual manner, on the neutrophil level (and not on the initial bacterial level). We call such a behavior type I dynamics. 2) The bacterial dynamics is bistable for some range of neutrophil levels. We call such a behavior type II dynamics. In the bistable case (type II), one equilibrium corresponds to a healthy state whereas the other corresponds to a fulminant bacterial infection. We demonstrate that published data of in vitro Staphylococcus epidermidis bactericidal experiments are inconsistent with both the type I dynamics and the commonly used linear model and are consistent with type II dynamics. We argue that type II dynamics is a plausible mechanism for the development of a fulminant infection. PMID:20463954

  6. Anaerobic Conditions Induce Expression of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Cramton, Sarah E.; Ulrich, Martina; Götz, Friedrich; Döring, Gerd

    2001-01-01

    Products of the intercellular adhesion (ica) operon in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis synthesize a linear β-1,6-linked glucosaminylglycan. This extracellular polysaccharide mediates bacterial cell-cell adhesion and is required for biofilm formation, which is thought to increase the virulence of both pathogens in association with prosthetic biomedical implants. The environmental signal(s) that triggers ica gene product and polysaccharide expression is unknown. Here we demonstrate that anaerobic in vitro growth conditions lead to increased polysaccharide expression in both S. aureus and S. epidermidis, although the regulation is less stringent in S. epidermidis. Anaerobiosis also dramatically stimulates ica-specific mRNA expression in ica- and polysaccharide-positive strains of both S. aureus and S. epidermidis. These data suggest a mechanism whereby ica gene expression and polysaccharide production may act as a virulence factor in an anaerobic environment in vivo. PMID:11349079

  7. Osteomyelitis of the distal phalanges in three children with severe atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Boiko, S; Kaufman, R A; Lucky, A W

    1988-03-01

    Three children with severe, secondarily infected atopic dermatitis since infancy developed osteomyelitis of the distal phalanges of the hands. The insidious onset of one or more distal subungual black macules was followed by edema, erythema, and pain in the involved fingers. No child had an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate or fever, but all had roentgenographic or scintigraphic evidence of bony destruction. In two children, Staphylococcus aureus grew from skin surface cultures; S aureus also grew from nail bed and osseous cultures of the distal phalanges; Streptococcus viridans grew from one child's nail bed. All children had prolonged hospitalizations. In two children, laboratory evaluation of immunologic function disclosed normal findings. We postulate that intense scratching of infected skin coupled with minor trauma to the fingertips created distal subungual microabscesses that spread contiguously to the underlying bone. PMID:3345091

  8. Therapeutic Implications of a Barrier-based Pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this review, I first provide relevant background information about normal epidermal barrier structure and function. I then update recent information about how inherited defects in either filaggrin and/or in the serine protease inhibitor, lymphoepithelial Kazal-type inhibitor 1, converge to stimulate the development of atopic dermatitis (AD). Next I explain the multiple mechanisms whereby a primary barrier abnormality in AD can lead to inflammation. Furthermore, I explore how certain acquired stressors, such as a reduced external humidity, high pH soaps/surfactants, psychological stress, as well as secondary Staphylococcus aureus infections initiate or further aggravate AD. Finally, and most importantly, I compare various therapeutic paradigms for AD, highlighting the risks and benefits of glucocorticoids and immunomodulators vs. corrective, lipid replacement therapy. PMID:20711259

  9. New insights into atopic dermatitis: role of skin barrier and immune dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Donald Y M

    2013-06-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is often associated with the development of food allergy and asthma. New insights into AD reveals an important role for structural abnormalities in the epidermis resulting in a leaky epithelial barrier as well as chronic immune activation that contribute to the pathophysiology of this common skin disease. Patients with AD have a predisposition to colonization or infection by microbial organisms, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Measures directed at healing and protecting the skin barrier and controlling the immune activation are needed for effective management of AD. Early intervention may improve outcomes for AD as well as reduce the systemic allergen sensitization that may lead to associated allergic diseases in other organs. PMID:23712284

  10. Epidermal Permeability Barrier Defects and Barrier Repair Therapy in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease perpetuated by gene-environmental interactions and which is characterized by genetic barrier defects and allergic inflammation. Recent studies demonstrate an important role for the epidermal permeability barrier in AD that is closely related to chronic immune activation in the skin during systemic allergic reactions. Moreover, acquired stressors (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus infection) to the skin barrier may also initiate inflammation in AD. Many studies involving patients with AD revealed that defective skin barriers combined with abnormal immune responses might contribute to the pathophysiology of AD, supporting the outside-inside hypothesis. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in human and animal models, focusing on the defects of the epidermal permeability barrier, its immunologic role and barrier repair therapy in AD. PMID:24991450

  11. Skin bacteriology and the role of Staphylococcus aureus in infection.

    PubMed

    Noble, W C

    1998-12-01

    Many of the staphylococci and coryneforms that inhabit normal human skin do not cause skin disease. Amongst the remainder the mechanisms of pathogenicity vary widely. For Proteus, Pseudomonas and Brevibacterium species proteolysis is a major determinant. The precise role of Corynebacterium minutissimum in erythrasma and the propionibacteria in acne is not known. Staphylococcus aureus, however, produces a wide range of non-specific agents, such as haemolysins and leucocidins as well as highly specific toxins such as the epidermolytic toxins involved in bullous impetigo and scalded skin syndrome. Most of the current attention, however, is devoted to the role of the enterotoxins and toxic shock toxin as superantigens, with emphasis on their role in atopic dermatitis. Molecularly similar toxins in the streptococci play a similar role and may also have a role in the aetiology of psoriasis. PMID:9990407

  12. Facing Antibiotic Resistance: Staphylococcus aureus Phages as a Medical Tool

    PubMed Central

    Kaźmierczak, Zuzanna; Górski, Andrzej; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common and often virulent pathogen in humans. This bacterium is widespread, being present on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. Staphylococcus aureus can cause infections with severe outcomes ranging from pustules to sepsis and death. The introduction of antibiotics led to a general belief that the problem of bacterial infections would be solved. Nonetheless, pathogens including staphylococci have evolved mechanisms of drug resistance. Among current attempts to address this problem, phage therapy offers a promising alternative to combat staphylococcal infections. Here, we present an overview of current knowledge on staphylococcal infections and bacteriophages able to kill Staphylococcus, including experimental studies and available data on their clinical use. PMID:24988520

  13. Hand dermatitis--differential diagnoses, diagnostics, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hand dermatitis is multifactorial, and includes factors such as genetic predisposition and exposure. A high incidence rate is associated with female gender, contact allergy, atopic dermatitis, and wet work. The most important risk factors for the persistence of hand dermatitis include its extent, contact allergic or atopic etiology, childhood dermatitis, and early onset (before the age of 20). The cost of illness of hand dermatitis corresponds to this seen in moderate to severe psoriasis. The diagnostic workup of hand dermatitis and its differential diagnoses requires a detailed assessment of occupational and recreational exposure. In case of possible work-related triggers, early notification of the accident insurer should be sought (via the dermatologist's report). Exposure to a contact allergen is a contributing factor in one-half of all cases of hand dermatitis. It is therefore imperative that all patients with hand dermatitis persisting for more than three months undergo patch testing. Successful and sustainable treatment of hand dermatitis starts with the proper identification and elimination of individual triggers, including the substitution of identified contact allergens and irritants, as well as optimizing preventive measures. Graded therapy taking the clinical severity into account is essential. Validated instruments may be used to monitor therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26713631

  14. Economic Impact of Atopic Dermatitis in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chulmin; Park, Kui Young; Ahn, Seohee; Kim, Dong Ha; Li, Kapsok; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Moon-Beom; Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2015-01-01

    Background Atopic dermatitis is a global public health concern owing to its increasing prevalence and socioeconomic burden. However, few studies have assessed the economic impact of atopic dermatitis in Korea. Objective We conducted a cost analysis of atopic dermatitis and evaluated its economic impacts on individual annual disease burden, quality of life, and changes in medical expenses with respect to changes in health related-quality of life. Methods The cost analysis of atopic dermatitis was performed by reviewing the home accounting records of 32 patients. The economic impact of the disease was evaluated by analyzing questionnaires. To handle uncertainties, we compared the results with the data released by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Board on medical costs claimed by healthcare facilities. Results The direct cost of atopic dermatitis per patient during the 3-month study period was 541,280 Korean won (KRW), and expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products were 120,313 KRW. The extrapolated annual direct cost (including expenditures on other atopic dermatitis-related products) per patient was 2,646,372 KRW. The estimated annual indirect cost was 1,507,068 KRW. Thus, the annual cost of illness of atopic dermatitis (i.e., direct+indirect costs) was estimated to be 4,153,440 KRW. Conclusion The annual total social cost of atopic dermatitis on a national level is estimated to be 5.8 trillion KRW. PMID:26082587

  15. [Contact dermatitis due to dimethyl fumarate].

    PubMed

    Silvestre, J F; Mercader, P; Giménez-Arnau, A M

    2010-04-01

    Dimethyl fumarate is a fumaric acid ester. It been used for some years to treat psoriasis and also as a preservative in desiccant sachets in the transport of furniture and footwear. Its irritant properties and sensitizing potential in contact with the skin were recently highlighted when it was implicated as the causative agent in 2 epidemics of severe acute eczema: sofa dermatitis in northern Europe and shoe dermatitis in Spain. The present article aims to guide dermatologists in the diagnosis and management of patients allergic to dimethyl fumarate. We review the clinical manifestations, results of patch tests, possible cross-reactions, and sources of exposure to dimethyl fumarate responsible for these skin reactions. PMID:20398596

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis: Patient diagnosis and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mowad, Christen M; Anderson, Bryan; Scheinman, Pamela; Pootongkam, Suwimon; Nedorost, Susan; Brod, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis resulting from exposure to a chemical or chemicals is a common diagnosis in the dermatologist's office. We are exposed to hundreds of potential allergens daily. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosing the causative allergens responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing beyond standard trays is often needed to fully diagnose patients, but not all dermatology practices have access to this testing procedure or these allergens. In order to adequately evaluate patients, physicians must understand the pathophysiology of the disease process and be well versed in the proper evaluation of patients, indications for patch testing, proper testing procedure, and other diagnostic tools available and be aware of new and emerging allergens. PMID:27185421

  17. Fingertip dermatitis in a retail florist.

    PubMed

    Guin, J D; Franks, H

    2001-04-01

    Prevalence of plant contact dermatitis in retail florists varies with exposure, and the number of reports of contact allergy to cut tulips is rather small. Alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone is better known as the cause of both Alstroemeria dermatitis in retail florists and tulip finger in wholesale floral workers who handle the bulbs. Our patient presented with prominent erythema, scaling, and peeling of the skin of the thumb, index, and middle fingers of his right hand. Results of a patch test to alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone were strongly positive, and the patient determined that the exposure had occurred when he stripped leaves from the tulip stems to arrange cut flowers. Other natural sources of the antigen include Alstroemeria; Bomarea; Dioscorea hispida; Erythronium; Gagea; Fritillaria; and at least one species of onion, Allium triquetrum. PMID:11324397

  18. Contact dermatitis from Larrea (creosote bush).

    PubMed

    Leonforte, J F

    1986-02-01

    Six men suffering from acute dermatitis had positive patch tests to Larrea (creosote bush). The lesions preferentially involved sun-exposed sites, simulating a photodermatitis, but also were on the legs and scrotum. Our findings were more consistent with contact allergy than with a primary irritant or a phototoxic response. The patch tests were also positive to Zuccagnia punctata. In two cases the exposure to the creosote bush occurred as a result of casual occupations, in two because of household remedies (moist compresses and baths), and in the other two as a result of burning the bush and resorting to household remedies. Attention should be drawn to this contact dermatitis because the creosote bush grows abundantly all over the American continent. PMID:3950120

  19. Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis: beyond filaggrin*

    PubMed Central

    Zaniboni, Mariana Colombini; Samorano, Luciana Paula; Orfali, Raquel Leão; Aoki, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex. PMID:27579743

  20. [Allergic contact dermatitis in beauty parlor clients].

    PubMed

    Gottlöber, P; Gall, H; Bezold, G; Peter, R U

    2001-05-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis in hair dressers and beauticians has increased in importance in the past years. Type IV-allergies against glyceryl monothioglycate components of permanent waves are most common. Other occupational allergens include bleach components such as ammonium persulfate and hair dye ingredients such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylene-diamine (PTD) base. Allergies to hair dyes in customers of hair dressers have rarely been observed. Two female patients developed allergic contact dermatitis of the scalp and face after repeated use of Polycolor intensivtönung schwarz and of Movida color. We also review the current literature on type IV-allergies to components of hair dressing products components. PMID:11405157

  1. Skin barrier in atopic dermatitis: beyond filaggrin.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, Mariana Colombini; Samorano, Luciana Paula; Orfali, Raquel Leão; Aoki, Valéria

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a complex pathogenesis, where changes in skin barrier and imbalance of the immune system are relevant factors. The skin forms a mechanic and immune barrier, regulating water loss from the internal to the external environment, and protecting the individual from external aggressions, such as microorganisms, ultraviolet radiation and physical trauma. Main components of the skin barrier are located in the outer layers of the epidermis (such as filaggrin), the proteins that form the tight junction (TJ) and components of the innate immune system. Recent data involving skin barrier reveal new information regarding its structure and its role in the mechanic-immunological defense; atopic dermatitis (AD) is an example of a disease related to dysfunctions associated with this complex. PMID:27579743

  2. Essential Staphylococcus aureus toxin export system

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Som S.; Joo, Hwang-Soo; Duong, Anthony C.; Dieringer, Thomas D.; Tan, Vee Y.; Song, Yan; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Cheung, Gordon Y. C.; Li, Min; Otto, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Widespread antibiotic resistance among important bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus1 calls for alternative routes of drug development. Interfering with critical virulence determinants is considered a promising novel approach to control bacterial infection2. Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are peptide toxins with multiple key roles in pathogenesis3–5 and a major impact on the ability of highly virulent S. aureus to cause disease3,6. However, targeting PSMs for therapeutic intervention is hampered by their multitude and diversity. Here, we report that an ABC transporter with previously unknown function is responsible for the export of all PSM classes, thus representing a single target to interfere simultaneously with the production of all PSMs. The transporter had a strong effect on virulence phenotypes, such as neutrophil lysis, and the development of S. aureus infection, similar in extent to the sum of all PSMs. Furthermore, it proved essential for bacterial growth. Moreover, it protected the producer from the antimicrobial activity of secreted PSMs and contributed to defense against PSM-mediated bacterial interference. Our study reveals a non-canonical, dedicated secretion mechanism for an important toxin class and identifies this mechanism as a comprehensive potential target for the development of drugs efficiently inhibiting growth and virulence of pathogenic staphylococci. PMID:23396209

  3. [Allergic dermatitis caused by pyrogenic silica (aerosol)].

    PubMed

    Liashenko, I N; Lutsiuk, N B; Otkalenko, A K; Odnorogov, Iu V

    1989-01-01

    A case of allergic dermatitis developing after a contact exposure of the skin to aerosil is described. The authors suppose that violated intactness of the skin integument is largely responsible for the allergic reaction. The C-reactive protein, Hoigne's, and leucocyte migration inhibition tests have been all markedly positive. It is recommended that types of aerosil other than powder-forming be utilized and that means protecting the skin and the upper respiratory tract be used. PMID:2543155

  4. Dermatitis from purified sea algae toxin (debromoaplysiatoxin).

    PubMed

    Solomon, A E; Stoughton, R B

    1978-09-01

    Cutaneous inflammation was induced by debromoaplysiatoxin, a purified toxin extracted from Lyngbya majuscula Gomont. This alga causes a seaweed dermatitis that occurs in persons who have swum off the coast of Oahu in Hawaii. By topical application, the toxin was found to produce an irritant pustular folliculitis in humans and to cause a severe cutaneous inflammatory reaction in the rabbit and in hairless mice. PMID:686747

  5. Palisaded neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sangueza, Omar P; Caudell, Misty D; Mengesha, Yebabe M; Davis, Loretta S; Barnes, Cheryl J; Griffin, Julia E; Fleischer, Alan B; Jorizzo, Joseph L

    2002-08-01

    Palisaded neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (PNGD) is an entity that has not been clearly defined either clinically or histopathologically. It is seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases. In the past, many cases of PNGD have been described under several different names including palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis, linear subcutaneous bands, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with cutaneous cords and arthritis, rheumatoid papules, and Churg-Strauss granuloma. We report 7 additional cases of PNGD. Clinically, 6 patients presented with erythematous to violaceous plaques, papules, and nodules on multiple body sites; one presented with subcutaneous linear bands on the shoulder. Five had rheumatoid arthritis; one had adult-onset Still's disease; and one showed clinical signs of rheumatoid arthritis, although serologically the rheumatoid factor was negative. On histologic examination, a spectrum of changes was observed ranging from urticaria-like infiltrates to leukocytoclastic vasculitis and granuloma annulare with neutrophils. We report these cases to expand the histologic spectrum of this entity and to further delineate the different forms of clinical presentation. PMID:12140472

  6. New Developments in Biomarkers for Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Thijs, Judith L.; van Seggelen, Wouter; Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Carla; de Bruin-Weller, Marjolein; Hijnen, DirkJan

    2015-01-01

    The application of biomarkers in medicine is evolving. Biomarkers do not only give us a better understanding of pathogenesis, but also increase treatment efficacy and safety, further enabling more precise clinical care. This paper focuses on the current use of biomarkers in atopic dermatitis, new developments and future perspectives. Biomarkers can be used for many different purposes, including the objective determination of disease severity, confirmation of clinical diagnosis, and to predict response to treatment. In atopic dermatitis, many biomarkers have been investigated as a marker for disease severity. Currently serum thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) is the superior biomarker for assessing disease severity. However, we have recently shown that the use of a panel of serum biomarkers is more suitable for assessing disease severity than an individual biomarker. In this overview, we will discuss alternative sources for biomarkers, such as saliva and capillary blood, which can increase the user friendliness of biomarkers in atopic dermatitis (AD). Both methods offer simple, non-invasive and cost effective alternatives to venous blood. This provides great translational and clinical potential. Biomarkers will play an increasingly important role in AD research and personalized medicine. The use of biomarkers will enhance the efficacy of AD treatment by facilitating the individualization of therapy targeting the patients’ specific biological signature and also by providing tools for predicting and monitoring of therapeutic response. PMID:26239250

  7. [Three cases of dry cleaning dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Aoki, T; Kageyama, R

    1989-08-01

    Acute irritant dermatitis caused by contact with dry cleaned clothes (slacks, jacket, and skirt) was observed in three young females. Irritant sensations were noticed within an hour after wearing the clothes in all cases, but two patients thought that stocking were the cause. All patients continued wearing the clothes for various reasons. When they took off the clothes 3 to 9 hours later, erythema, edema, and bullae were noted on the posterior aspect of the thighs, the inner side of the right upper arm or the belt portion of the waist. Dry cleaning solvents used were not perchloroethylene, but were so-called new petrolatum solvents in all three cases. They were composed of paraffins in one case and paraffins plus naphtens in the other two cases. All solvents contained practically no aromatic substances. No spontaneous flare up was noted in any case. Therefore, dry cleaning solvents remaining in the clothes were thought to be the causative agent of this acute irritant contact dermatitis. This seems to be the first published report of dry cleaning dermatitis in Japan. PMID:2601111

  8. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins that closely resemble those from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Joan A; Smith, Emma J; Speziale, Pietro; Foster, Timothy J

    2009-09-18

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal of dogs that is implicated in the pathogenesis of canine pyoderma. This study aimed to determine if S. pseudintermedius expresses surface proteins resembling those from Staphylococcus aureus and to characterise them. S. pseudintermedius strain 326 was shown to adhere strongly to purified fibrinogen, fibronectin and cytokeratin 10. It adhered to the alpha-chain of fibrinogen which, along with binding to cytokeratin 10, is the hallmark of clumping factor B of S. aureus, a surface protein that is in part responsible for colonisation of the human nares. Ligand-affinity blotting with cell-wall extracts demonstrated that S. pseudintermedius 326 expressed a cell-wall anchored fibronectin binding protein which recognised the N-terminal 29kDa fragment. The ability to bind fibronectin is an important attribute of pathogenic S. aureus and is associated with the ability of S. aureus to colonise skin of human atopic dermatitis patients. S. pseudintermedius genomic DNA was probed with labelled DNA amplified from the serine-aspartate repeat encoding region of clfA of S. aureus. This probe hybridised to a single SpeI fragment of S. pseudintermedius DNA. In the cell-wall extract of S. pseudintermedius 326, a 180kDa protein was discovered which bound to fibrinogen by ligand-affinity blotting and reacted in a Western blot with antibodies raised against the serine-aspartate repeat region of ClfA and the B-repeats of SdrD of S. aureus. It is proposed that this is an Sdr protein with B-repeats that has an A domain that binds to fibrinogen. Whether it is the same protein that binds cytokeratin 10 is not clear. PMID:19372010

  9. Different bacterial gene expression patterns and attenuated host immune responses are associated with the evolution of low-level vancomycin resistance during persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia

    PubMed Central

    Howden, Benjamin P; Smith, Danielle J; Mansell, Ashley; Johnson, Paul DR; Ward, Peter B; Stinear, Timothy P; Davies, John K

    2008-01-01

    Background Low-level vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and hetero-VISA [hVISA]) emerges during persistent infection and failed vancomycin therapy. Up-regulation of genes associated with the "cell wall stimulon" and mutations in the vraSR operon have both been implicated in the development of resistance, however the molecular mechanisms of resistance are not completely understood. To further elucidate the mechanisms leading to resistance transcriptome comparisons were performed using multiple clinical pairs of vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) and hVISA/VISA (n = 5), and three VSSA control pairs from hospitalized patients with persistent bacteraemia that did not develop hVISA/VISA. Based on the transcriptome results multiple genes were sequenced and innate immune system stimulation was assessed in the VSSA and hVISA/VISA pairs. Results Here we show that up-regulation of vraS and the "cell wall stimulon" is not essential for acquisition of low-level vancomycin resistance and that different transcriptional responses occur, even between closely related hVISA/VISA strains. DNA sequencing of vraSR, saeSR, mgrA, rot, and merR regulatory genes and upstream regions did not reveal any differences between VSSA and hVISA/VISA despite transcriptional changes suggesting mutations in these loci may be linked to resistance in these strains. Enhanced capsule production and reduced protein A expression in hVISA/VISA were confirmed by independent bioassays and fully supported the transcriptome data. None of these changes were observed in the three control pairs that remained vancomycin-susceptible during persistent bacteremia. In a macrophage model of infection the changes in cell surface structures in hVISA/VISA strains were associated with significantly reduced NF-κB activation resulting in reduced TNF-α and IL-1β expression. Conclusion We conclude that there are multiple pathways to low-level vancomycin resistance in

  10. Bacterial colonization of psoriasis plaques. Is it relevant?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Eva; Demmler, Diana; Rudolph, Andreas; Fischer, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    Bacterial colonization was investigated retrospectively in patients with plaque psoriasis (n=98 inpatient treatments, n=73 patients). At least one pathogen was found in 46% of all cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent bacterium. Bacterial colonization of psoriasis plaques could be relevant in individual cases. PMID:25386266

  11. Bacterial colonization of psoriasis plaques. Is it relevant?

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Eva; Demmler, Diana; Rudolph, Andreas; Fischer, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial colonization was investigated retrospectively in patients with plaque psoriasis (n=98 inpatient treatments, n=73 patients). At least one pathogen was found in 46% of all cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent bacterium. Bacterial colonization of psoriasis plaques could be relevant in individual cases. PMID:25386266

  12. Bacterial flora of conjunctiva after death

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sagili Chandrasekhara; Paul, George

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the frequency of bacterial flora of conjunctiva after death (cadaver eyes) which will give information about the bacterial contamination of donor eyes, and the in-vitro sensitivity of isolated bacteria to the commonly used antibiotics in ophthalmic practice. METHODS Conjunctival swabs were taken from the cadavers (motor vehicle accident deaths and patients who died in the hospital), within 6h after death, and sent for culture and sensitivity test. Conjunctival swabs, taken from the healthy conjunctiva of patients admitted for cataract surgery, were sent for culture and sensitivity as controls (eyes in those of living status). The bacterial isolates were tested against the commonly used antibiotics (chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin) in ophthalmology practice. RESULTS Bacteria were isolated in 41 out of 100 conjunctival swabs (41%), taken from 50 cadavers (study group). Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common bacteria isolated (15%), followed by pseudomonas aeruginosa (5%). Gentamicin was effective against majority of the bacterial isolates (82%). Bacteria were isolated from 7 out of 100 conjunctival swabs taken as control group (eyes in living state). Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common organism (5%) isolated in control group; the others were staphylococcus aureus (1%) and beta hemolyticus streptococci (1%). CONCLUSION Bacteria were isolated from 41% of the cadaver eyes. High percentage sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to gentamicin (82%) supports the practice of thorough irrigation of the eyes with gentamicin solution before starting the procedure of enucleation followed by immersion of the enucleated eyeballs in gentamycin solution, to prevent the bacterial contamination. PMID:24195038

  13. Bacterial Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... make you sick. Examples of bacteria that cause infections include Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and E. coli. Antibiotics are the usual treatment. When you take antibiotics, follow the directions carefully. Each ... infection that those antibiotics cannot cure. NIH: National Institute ...

  14. Reactive Granulomatous Dermatitis: A Review of Palisaded Neutrophilic and Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Drug Reaction, and a Proposed Reclassification.

    PubMed

    Rosenbach, Misha; English, Joseph C

    2015-07-01

    The terms "palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis," "interstitial granulomatous dermatitis," and the subset "interstitial granulomatous drug reaction" are a source of confusion. There exists substantial overlap among the entities with few strict distinguishing features. We review the literature and highlight areas of distinction and overlap, and propose a streamlined diagnostic workup for patients presenting with this cutaneous reaction pattern. Because the systemic disease associations and requisite workup are similar, and the etiopathogenesis is poorly understood but likely similar among these entities, we propose the simplified unifying term "reactive granulomatous dermatitis" to encompass these entities. PMID:26143420

  15. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Benzoyl Peroxide Resembling Impetigo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changhyun; Craiglow, Brittany G; Watsky, Kalman L; Antaya, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with recurring severe dermatitis of the face of 5-months duration that resembled impetigo. He had been treated with several courses of antibiotics without improvement. Biopsy showed changes consistent with allergic contact dermatitis and patch testing later revealed sensitization to benzoyl peroxide, which the patient had been using for the treatment of acne vulgaris. PMID:25782705

  16. Topical treatment of contact dermatitis by pine processionary caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Pedro; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Skin contact dermatitis by pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is a public health problem of increasing significance. The authors present here the case of a 65-year-old man who was diagnosed with processionary caterpillar dermatitis. Patient was treated with topical potassium dobesilate 5% cream twice a day for 2 days. An improvement occurred soon after treatment. PMID:22688482

  17. Topical treatment of contact dermatitis by pine processionary caterpillar

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Pedro; Angulo, Javier; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Skin contact dermatitis by pine processionary (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) is a public health problem of increasing significance. The authors present here the case of a 65-year-old man who was diagnosed with processionary caterpillar dermatitis. Patient was treated with topical potassium dobesilate 5% cream twice a day for 2 days. An improvement occurred soon after treatment. PMID:22688482

  18. Prevalence of Suicidal Ideation in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimata, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of suicidal ideation in patients with mild, moderate, and severe atopic dermatitis between the age of 15 to 49 years were 0.21%, 6%, and 19.6%, respectively. In addition, the prevalence of homicide-suicidal ideation in mothers or fathers of patients (aged 0-14 years) with mild, moderate, and severe atopic dermatitis were 0.11%,…

  19. Phototoxic dermatitis due to Chenopodium album in a child.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, Serap G; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Akbayram, Sinan; Ceylan, Abdullah; Calka, Omer; Karaman, Kamuran

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report a 2-year-old girl with severe phototoxic dermatitis caused by ingestion of Chenopodium album. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of phototoxic dermatitis due to Chenopodium album in childhood. PMID:21854411

  20. Microorganism-induced exacerbations in atopic dermatitis: a possible preventive role for vitamin D?

    PubMed

    Benetti, Cecilia; Piacentini, Giorgio L; Capristo, Carlo; Boner, Attilio L; Peroni, Diego G

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease characterized by a complex pathogenesis not completely understood despite numerous studies to date. The clinical patterns result from interactions between genetic disorders determining abnormalities in the epidermis differentiation complex, modification of the cutaneous barrier, and dysfunction of immune responses. Several studies have shown that an alteration of the skin barrier combined with immune dysfunction is important for the onset, maintenance, and risk of exacerbations of the disease. In recent years, new aspects regarding the pathogenesis of the disease, such as the effects of vitamin D (VD) on immunity at the skin level and the role of certain microorganisms (particularly Staphylococcus and Malassezia species) on eczema exacerbations, have been evaluated. This article provides an overview of the evidences supporting the link between VD (deficiency) and microorganisms (skin colonization/sensitization) in AD pathogenesis, based on comprehensive review of the literature. By considering different aspects of disease, it might be possible to improve our understanding, particularly in those patients refractory to conventional treatments. An electronic research strategy was used to search in Medline Pub-Med Library using as research words AD, exacerbation, VD, Staphylococcus aureus (SA), and Malassezia. The results were downloaded and analyzed for systematic review. Few studies actually consider the relationship between VD deficiency (VDD), AD, and SA and Malassezia, but many suggest a correlation between these factors. VDs play a major role against microorganisms in the development of AD and should be considered when treating patients. PMID:25562552

  1. Prevention, Treatment and Parent Education for Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is a common cutaneous condition characterized by an acute inflammatory eruption of the skin in the diaper area of an infant. Although this condition is relatively common, it can cause considerable pain and stress for infants and can be troublesome for their caregivers. In the United States, the frequency of diaper dermatitis is substantial and accounts for a high number of visits to health care providers. The three most common types of diaper dermatitis are chafing dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis and diaper candidiasis. This article reviews common causes, differential diagnosis, current prevention and treatment recommendations, nursing implications and practical tips for families to utilize while caring for their infants at home. PMID:26264797

  2. What do trainee hairdressers know about hand dermatitis?

    PubMed

    Ling, T C; Coulson, I H

    2002-10-01

    Hand dermatitis is an important cause of morbidity in hairdressers. We conducted a questionnaire survey of 121 trainee hairdressers from 2 hairdressing colleges in Burnley (UK). The questionnaire concerned the number and types of hairdressing procedures performed, previous and current medical history, awareness of risks to the skin from hairdressing, and knowledge of hand dermatitis prevention. 17% of the trainees suffered currently from hand dermatitis. This is likely to be due to the large amount of wet work done by apprentice hairdressers, particularly those who worked in salons. 2/3 of trainees were not aware that atopic eczema predisposed to hand dermatitis. Formal pre-school and pre-employment counselling was limited. Knowledge on hand care among trainees was not often translated into practice, with gloves being worn by only 9% when shampooing and 58% when perming. Prevention of hand dermatitis by education and pre-employment counselling is of fundamental importance. PMID:12492522

  3. An update on airborne contact dermatitis: 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Santos, Raquel; Goossens, An

    2007-12-01

    Reports on airborne dermatoses are mainly published in the context of occupational settings. Hence, in recent years, dermatologists and also occupational physicians have become increasingly aware of the airborne source of contact dermatitis, resulting mainly from exposure to irritants or allergens. However, their occurrence is still underestimated, because reports often omit the term 'airborne' in relation to dust or volatile allergens. For the present update, we screened the journals 'Contact Dermatitis' (July 2000 to December 2006); 'Dermatitis', formerly named 'American Journal of Contact Dermatitis'; 'La Lettre du Gerda' (January 2000 to December 2006); and also included relevant articles from other journals published during the same period. This resulted in an updated list of airborne dermatitis causes. PMID:17988283

  4. The Role of Malassezia spp. in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Glatz, Martin; Bosshard, Philipp P.; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia spp. is a genus of lipophilic yeasts and comprises the most common fungi on healthy human skin. Despite its role as a commensal on healthy human skin, Malassezia spp. is attributed a pathogenic role in atopic dermatitis. The mechanisms by which Malassezia spp. may contribute to the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis are not fully understood. Here, we review the latest findings on the pathogenetic role of Malassezia spp. in atopic dermatitis (AD). For example, Malassezia spp. produces a variety of immunogenic proteins that elicit the production of specific IgE antibodies and may induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, Malassezia spp. induces auto-reactive T cells that cross-react between fungal proteins and their human counterparts. These mechanisms contribute to skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis and therefore influence the course of this disorder. Finally, we discuss the possible benefit of an anti-Malassezia spp. treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis. PMID:26239555

  5. rpoB Gene Sequence-Based Identification of Staphylococcus Species

    PubMed Central

    Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2002-01-01

    The complete sequence of rpoB, the gene encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase was determined for Staphylococcus saccharolyticus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, S taphylococcus caprae, and Staphylococcus intermedius and partial sequences were obtained for an additional 27 Staphylococcus species. The complete rpoB sequences varied in length from 3,452 to 3,845 bp and had a 36.8 to 39.2% GC content. The partial sequences had 71.6 to 93.6% interspecies homology and exhibited a 0.08 to 0.8% intraspecific divergence. With a few exceptions, the phylogenetic relationships inferred from the partial rpoB sequences were in agreement with those previously derived from DNA-DNA hybridization studies and analyses of 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequences and partial HSP60 gene sequences. The staphylococcal rpoB sequence database we established enabled us to develop a molecular method for identifying Staphylococcus isolates by PCR followed by direct sequencing of the 751-bp amplicon. In blind tests, this method correctly identified 10 Staphylococcus isolates, and no positive results were obtained with 10 non-Staphylococcus gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial isolates. We propose partial sequencing of the rpoB gene as a new tool for the accurate identification of Staphylococcus isolates. PMID:11923353

  6. Smoking and Hand Dermatitis in the United States Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yi Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand dermatitis is a common chronic relapsing skin disease resulting from a variety of causes, including endogenous predisposition and environmental exposures to irritants and allergens. Lifestyle factors such as smoking have been implicated in hand dermatitis. Objective To evaluate the association between tobacco exposure and hand dermatitis using the 2003~2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database. Methods Data were retrieved and analyzed from 1,301 participants, aged 20~59 years, from the 2003~2004 NHANES questionnaire study who completed health examination and blood tests. Diagnosis of hand dermatitis was based on standardized photographs of the dorsal and palmar views of the hands read by two dermatologists. Results There were 38 diagnosed cases of active hand dermatitis out of the 1,301 study participants (2.9%). Heavy smokers (>15 g tobacco daily) were 5.11 times more likely to have active hand dermatitis (odds ratio [OR], 5.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39~18.88; p=0.014). Those with serum cotinine >3 ng/ml were also more likely to have active hand dermatitis, compared with those with serum cotinine ≤3 ng/ml (OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.26~4.95; p=0.007). After adjusting for confounding factors such as age, atopic diathesis, occupational groups, and physical activity, the association between tobacco exposure and active hand dermatitis remained significant. Conclusion Smoking has a significant association with the presence of active hand dermatitis. It is important to consider smoking cessation as part of management of hand dermatitis. PMID:27081262

  7. Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

    2014-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. PMID:23827646

  8. Is Frictional Lichenoid Dermatitis a Minor Variant of Atopic Dermatitis or a Photodermatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Kabir; Goel, Khushbu; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Goel, Alka; Khanna, Deepshikha; Grover, Chander; Khurana, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Context: Frictional lichenoid dermatitis. Background: Frictional lichenoid dermatitis (FLE) is an entity that is probably under diagnosed and has been variably associated with either friction and/or atopy with a distinctive seasonal variation. Aims and Objectives: To study correlation of FLE with UV index and to assess its association with atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional analysis of children with FLE was done, over a period of 6 years in two tertiary hospitals. A detailed history and examination was done to assess the features of atopic dermatitis. The number of cases seen per month was compared with the mean monthly UV index. Two-tailed significance tests using Pearson's coefficient of correlation and T-test were used to interpret the data. (P < 0.05). Results: One hundred seventy-four patients were studied using the UKC criterion 17.2% of the patients had AD while xerosis (40.3%) was the predominant cutaneous finding. The number of patients seen in summer was more than in winter (P < 0.05) but there was no statistical difference between the cases in winter and spring. There was a significant correlation of the number of cases per month with UV index (P = 0.019). Almost 42% of patients gave a history of recurrence. Conclusions: FLE is probably not associated with atopic dermatitis and is likely to be related to the ambient UV index though a larger cohort with meticulous follow up may be needed to draw a final conclusion. Statistical Analysis Used: The Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used for comparing the cases per month with the UV index. The tests of hypothesis used included the paired T-tests. F-test of variance, Welch test, Wilcoxon rank sum test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. PMID:25657400

  9. Children with Atopic Dermatitis Should Always be Patch-tested if They Have Hand or Foot Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Marléne; Olhardt, Sanna; Rådehed, Jeanette; Svensson, Åke

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease among children in industrialised countries. Many factors influence this disease in a negative way and contact allergy is one such factor. The aim of the study was to examine the frequency of contact allergy among children with the diagnosis atopic dermatitis. Contact allergy was found in 22/82 children (26.8%), the most common from Amerchol L101 (11.0%), potassium dichromate (7.3%), and nickel sulfate (4.9%). A statistically significant difference in contact allergy frequency was demonstrated for those with hand and/or foot eczema compared to those without. Children with atopic dermatitis who suffer from hand and/or foot dermatitis should always be patch-tested to evaluate whether they have a relevant contact allergy and thus allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:25367826

  10. [Decubitus or incontinence-associated dermatitis?].

    PubMed

    Houwing, Ronald H; Koopman, Eddy S M

    2014-01-01

    A lack of understanding about the distinction between incontinence-associated dermatitis and pressure sores leads to inadequate treatment and therefore a higher incidence of pressure sores. Pressure relief may not be adequately carried out due to concentration exclusively on treatment of incontinence. In this article we will discuss the multifactorial approach, based on 2 patient cases. In order to prevent pressure sores, the cause of incontinence has to be investigated and treated if possible. Appropriate pressure relief must be carried out, in addition to adequate skin care. PMID:25159696

  11. MiRNA in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Samochocki, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs are relatively new molecules that have been widely studied in recent years as to determine their exact function in the human body. It is suggested that microRNAs control approx. 30% of all genes, making them one of the largest groups that control the expression of proteins. Various functions of miRNAs have already been described. In skin diseases, there are more and more studies describing an altered expression of microRNAs in the skin or serum. Relatively little is known about the function of these molecules in atopic dermatitis, which prompted us to gather current reports on this subject. PMID:27512348

  12. Atopic dermatitis: epidemiology and pathogenesis update.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Ellis, Charles N; Mancini, Anthony J; Paller, Amy S; Simpson, Eric L

    2012-09-01

    The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has increased markedly in the United States over the past 5 decades, with current reports varying from 10% to 20% prevalence in US children, and new diagnoses are estimated at almost 11% per year. Recent research in AD pathophysiology and pathogenesis has demonstrated that AD is associated with epidermal barrier dysfunction and that mutations in the filaggrin gene are implicated in barrier defects. These discoveries hold promise for future breakthroughs in the diagnosis and management of AD. PMID:23021783

  13. Atopic Dermatitis; Etio-Pathogenesis, An Overview.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Khurana, Ananta; Mendiratta, Vibhu; Saxena, Deepti; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a well-recognized clinical entity, several facets of which continue to be mystified. Accordingly, its etio-pathogenesis is largely elusive. It appears to be an outcome of interplay of several undertones, namely: genetics, maternal factor and inheritance, pregnancy/intrauterine, environmental factors, immune dysregulation, immuno-globulins, role of diet, and infection. Besides, recent innovative breakthroughs consisting of nutritional supplementation, the highlights of which were considered worthwhile to take stock of to define its current status. An endeavor to enlighten the audience has been made for their benefit. PMID:26288398

  14. Atopic Dermatitis; Etio-Pathogenesis, An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Khurana, Ananta; Mendiratta, Vibhu; Saxena, Deepti; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a well-recognized clinical entity, several facets of which continue to be mystified. Accordingly, its etio-pathogenesis is largely elusive. It appears to be an outcome of interplay of several undertones, namely: genetics, maternal factor and inheritance, pregnancy/intrauterine, environmental factors, immune dysregulation, immuno-globulins, role of diet, and infection. Besides, recent innovative breakthroughs consisting of nutritional supplementation, the highlights of which were considered worthwhile to take stock of to define its current status. An endeavor to enlighten the audience has been made for their benefit. PMID:26288398

  15. Bacterial Identification Using Light Scattering Measurements: a Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The light scattering properties of single bacterial cells were examined as a possible means of identification. Three species were studied with streptococcus faecalis exhibiting a unique pattern; the light-scattering traces for staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli were quite similar although differences existed. Based on preliminary investigations, the light scattering approach appeared promising with additional research needed to include a wide variety of bacterial species, computer capability to handle and analyze data, and expansion of light scattering theory to include bacterial cells.

  16. Atopic dermatitis: current treatment guidelines. Statement of the experts of the Dermatological Section, Polish Society of Allergology, and the Allergology Section, Polish Society of Dermatology.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, Roman; Trzeciak, Magdalena; Wilkowska, Aleksandra; Sokołowska-Wojdyło, Małgorzata; Ługowska-Umer, Hanna; Barańska-Rybak, Wioletta; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Kowalewski, Cezary; Kruszewski, Jerzy; Maj, Joanna; Silny, Wojciech; Śpiewak, Radosław; Petranyuk, Andriy

    2015-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition frequently encountered in medical practices across the country. More than 60% of children with AD are at risk to develop allergic rhinitis or asthma (the atopic march). Patients with AD have a unique predisposition to colonization or infection by Staphylococcus aureus. Treatments for AD need to rapidly control symptoms of the disease, improve quality of life and prevent exacerbations. Given the chronic and relapsing nature of the disease, therapies need to encourage good compliance and be well tolerated. PMID:26366146

  17. Atopic dermatitis: current treatment guidelines. Statement of the experts of the Dermatological Section, Polish Society of Allergology, and the Allergology Section, Polish Society of Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Trzeciak, Magdalena; Wilkowska, Aleksandra; Sokołowska-Wojdyło, Małgorzata; Ługowska-Umer, Hanna; Barańska-Rybak, Wioletta; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Kowalewski, Cezary; Kruszewski, Jerzy; Maj, Joanna; Silny, Wojciech; Śpiewak, Radosław; Petranyuk, Andriy

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a condition frequently encountered in medical practices across the country. More than 60% of children with AD are at risk to develop allergic rhinitis or asthma (the atopic march). Patients with AD have a unique predisposition to colonization or infection by Staphylococcus aureus. Treatments for AD need to rapidly control symptoms of the disease, improve quality of life and prevent exacerbations. Given the chronic and relapsing nature of the disease, therapies need to encourage good compliance and be well tolerated. PMID:26366146

  18. The T Cell Response to Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Bröker, Barbara M.; Mrochen, Daniel; Péton, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a dangerous pathogen and a leading cause of both nosocomial and community acquired bacterial infection worldwide. However, on the other hand, we are all exposed to this bacterium, often within the first hours of life, and usually manage to establish equilibrium and coexist with it. What does the adaptive immune system contribute toward lifelong control of S. aureus? Will it become possible to raise or enhance protective immune memory by vaccination? While in the past the S. aureus-specific antibody response has dominated this discussion, the research community is now coming to appreciate the role that the cellular arm of adaptive immunity, the T cells, plays. There are numerous T cell subsets, each with differing functions, which together have the ability to orchestrate the immune response to S. aureus and hence to tip the balance between protection and pathology. This review summarizes the state of the art in this dynamic field of research. PMID:26999219

  19. Staphylococcus cohnii hemolysins - isolation, purification and properties.

    PubMed

    Rózalska, M; Szewczyk, E M

    2008-01-01

    A total 355 of Staphylococcus cohnii isolates from hospital environment, patients (newborns), medical staff and from non-hospital environment were tested for hemolytic activity. Ninety-one % of S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and 74.5 % S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus strains exhibited hemolysis synergistic to S. aureus ATCC 25923 strain. Crude preparations of hemolysins of both bacterial subspecies presented delta-hemolysin, but not alpha- and beta-toxin activity. Highly pure hemolysins were obtained by semipreparative SDS-PAGE or by organic solvent extraction from the freeze-dried crude preparations. Native-PAGE and 2D-PAGE showed their high heterogeneity. Molar masses of single hemolysin units estimated by the Tris-Tricine-SDS-PAGE were calculated as 3.47 kDa for S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and 3.53 kDa for S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. PMID:19381478

  20. Bacterial toxins: friends or foes?

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, C. K.; Meysick, K. C.; O'Brien, A. D.

    1999-01-01

    Many emerging and reemerging bacterial pathogens synthesize toxins that serve as primary virulence factors. We highlight seven bacterial toxins produced by well-established or newly emergent pathogenic microbes. These toxins, which affect eukaryotic cells by a variety of means, include Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin, Shiga toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1, Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin, botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins, and S. aureus toxic-shock syndrome toxin. For each, we discuss the information available on its synthesis and structure, mode of action, and contribution to virulence. We also review the role certain toxins have played in unraveling signal pathways in eukaryotic cells and summarize the beneficial uses of toxins and toxoids. Our intent is to illustrate the importance of the analysis of bacterial toxins to both basic and applied sciences. PMID:10221874

  1. Photopatch and UV-irradiated patch testing in photosensitive dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Reena; Thomas, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: The photopatch test is used to detect photoallergic reactions to various antigens such as sunscreens and drugs. Photosensitive dermatitis can be caused due to antigens like parthenium, fragrances, rubbers and metals. The photopatch test does not contain these antigens. Therefore, the Indian Standard Series (ISS) along with the Standard photopatch series from Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden was used to detect light induced antigens. Aim: To detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. Methods: This study was done in a descriptive, observer blinded manner. Photopatch test and ISS were applied in duplicate on the patient's back by the standard method. After 24 hours, readings were recorded according to ICDRG criteria. One side was closed and other side irradiated with 14 J/cm2 of UVA and a second set of readings were recorded after 48 hrs. Result: The highest positivity was obtained with parthenium, with 18 out of 35 (51%) patients showing a positive patch test reaction with both photoallergic contact dermatitis and photoaggravation. Four patients (11%) showed positive patch test reaction suggestive of contact dermatitis to potassium dichromate and fragrance mix. Six patients had contact dermatitis to numerous antigens such as nickel, cobalt, chinoform and para-phenylenediamine. None of these patients showed photoaggravation on patch testing. Conclusion: Parthenium was found to cause photoallergy, contact dermatitis with photoaggravation and contact allergy. Hence, photopatch test and UV irradiated patch test can be an important tool to detect light induced antigens in patients with photosensitive dermatitis. PMID:26955581

  2. Zoledronic Acid–Induced Interface Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Succaria, Farah; Collier, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Zoledronic acid (ZA) is a bisphosphonate given intravenously, most commonly for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Increase in usage of ZA because it was FDA-approved has resulted in increasing reports of side effects. For the most part, these are systemic. Cutaneous side effects associated with ZA are infrequent and limited to 2 reports of dermatomyositis to date. In both, patients presented with clinical and laboratory stigmata of dermatomyositis soon after initiation of therapy. In this report, we describe a 62-year-old woman who presented with diffuse, erythematous scaly plaques over the right thigh after 12 hours of infusion of ZA. Histopathologic examination of a skin biopsy from the right thigh revealed patchy scale crust containing neutrophils and inspissated serum, interface change with scattered individually necrotic keratinocytes, and a mild, superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with scattered eosinophils and pigment incontinence—findings consistent with an interface dermatitis. Given that the patient had no other systemic manifestations or laboratory abnormalities, to the best of our knowledge, ours is the first report of interface dermatitis secondary to ZA with the caveat that longer follow-up is required to definitively exclude the development of drug-induced connective tissue disease. PMID:26588338

  3. Zoledronic Acid-Induced Interface Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Succaria, Farah; Collier, Mary; Mahalingam, Meera

    2015-12-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA) is a bisphosphonate given intravenously, most commonly for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Increase in usage of ZA because it was FDA-approved has resulted in increasing reports of side effects. For the most part, these are systemic. Cutaneous side effects associated with ZA are infrequent and limited to 2 reports of dermatomyositis to date. In both, patients presented with clinical and laboratory stigmata of dermatomyositis soon after initiation of therapy. In this report, we describe a 62-year-old woman who presented with diffuse, erythematous scaly plaques over the right thigh after 12 hours of infusion of ZA. Histopathologic examination of a skin biopsy from the right thigh revealed patchy scale crust containing neutrophils and inspissated serum, interface change with scattered individually necrotic keratinocytes, and a mild, superficial perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with scattered eosinophils and pigment incontinence-findings consistent with an interface dermatitis. Given that the patient had no other systemic manifestations or laboratory abnormalities, to the best of our knowledge, ours is the first report of interface dermatitis secondary to ZA with the caveat that longer follow-up is required to definitively exclude the development of drug-induced connective tissue disease. PMID:26588338

  4. Superficial Mycoses Associated with Diaper Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Rojas, Rubí; Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Chávez-López, Dinora; Mena, Carlos; Calderón, Luz; María, Ponce-Olivera Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Diapers create particular conditions of moisture and friction, and with urine and feces come increased pH and irritating enzymes (lipases and proteases). Fungi can take advantage of all these factors. Candida yeasts, especially C. albicans, are responsible for the most frequent secondary infections and are isolated in more than 80 % of cases. Correct diagnosis is important for ensuring the correct prescription of topical antimycotics. Nystatin, imidazoles and ciclopirox are effective. It is important to realize there are resistant strains. Dermatophytes can infect the diaper area, with the most common agent being Epidermophyton floccosum. The clinical characteristics of dermatophytosis are different from those of candidiasis, and it can be diagnosed and treated simply. Malassezia yeasts can aggravate conditions affecting the diaper area, such as seborrheic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and inverse psoriasis. Additional treatment is recommended in this case, because they usually involve complement activation and increased specific IgE levels. Erythrasma is a pseudomycosis that is indistinguishable from candidiasis and may also occur in large skin folds. It is treated with topical antibacterial products and some antimycotics. PMID:27193417

  5. Occupational contact dermatitis in the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Goossens, An; Hulst, Kim Vander

    2011-01-01

    Occupation-induced skin reactions are not infrequently observed in the pharmaceutical industry. Workers may come in contact with irritant substances and also with chemically reactive intermediates or drugs that may be potential sensitizers. The skin lesions can be located at the site of contact, usually the hands, although airborne reactions on exposed and even nonexposed areas (eg, by particles trapped under clothing) are not uncommon. Generalized reactions may occur due to inhalation or transcutaneous absorption. An accidental exposure to a highly allergenic compound may cause a chemical burn, followed by primary sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. The pharmaceutical contact allergens belong to many different pharmacologic classes. If several cases of contact dermatitis occur in multiple individuals in the same company, then the working conditions are implicated and should be changed to prevent their recurrence. Measures to be taken include dust control, installation of closed filter equipment, and keeping the workers informed about the potential risks associated with the manipulation of the chemicals. PMID:22014988

  6. Chromium induced contact dermatitis and indices for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, S; Shouman, A E; El, S H; Moussa, E M

    1999-01-01

    Chromium exposure plays an important role in development of contact dermatitis. The prevalence of contact dermatitis among tannery workers and cement-exposed workers is high. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of contact dermatitis among some Egyptian workers exposed to chromium and to investigate the role of patch test and IgE immunoassay in diagnosis of contact dermatitis. Eighty-three male workers who were exposed to chromium were selected after application of certain exclusion criteria to be the target population of this study. Forty male workers away from exposure to chromium were taken to be the controls. All the exposed and non exposed workers were investigated through an interview questionnaire, clinical examination, patch test and determination of blood and urine chromium levels, absolute eosinophilic count and total IgE level. The results showed that there was no significant difference between exposed workers with clinically diagnosed contact dermatitis and the clinically free exposed workers regarding age and work duration. 7.7% of exposed workers with positive patch test suffered from contact dermatitis while 31.6% of exposed workers with negative patch test suffered from contact dermatitis. There was no statistically significant difference between clinically diagnosed contact dermatitis workers and clinically free workers regarding blood and urine chromium levels. IgE level and absolute eosinophilic count were statistically higher among exposed workers with contact dermatitis than among clinically free exposed workers. According to the results of this study, it is concluded that the diagnosis of skin hypersensitivity to chromium should depend upon the history of chromium exposure, clinical examination and a battery of investigations including IgE level, eosinophilic count and patch test. PMID:17219860

  7. Borage oil in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rachel H; Hardy, Gil; Alany, Raid G

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation with omega-6 essential fatty acids (omega-6 EFAs) is of potential interest in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. EFAs play a vital role in skin structure and physiology. EFA deficiency replicates the symptoms of atopic dermatitis, and patients with atopic dermatitis have been reported to have imbalances in EFA levels. Although direct proof is lacking, it has been hypothesized that patients with atopic dermatitis have impaired activity of the delta-6 desaturase enzyme, affecting metabolism of linoleic acid to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). However, to date, studies of EFA supplementation in atopic dermatitis, most commonly using evening primrose oil, have produced conflicting results. Borage oil is of interest because it contains two to three times more GLA than evening primrose oil. This review identified 12 clinical trials of oral or topical borage oil for treatment of atopic dermatitis and one preventive trial. All studies were controlled and most were randomized and double-blind, but many were small and had other methodological limitations. The results of studies of borage oil for the treatment of atopic dermatitis were highly variable, with the effect reported to be significant in five studies, insignificant in five studies, and mixed in two studies. Borage oil given to at-risk neonates did not prevent development of atopic dermatitis. However, the majority of studies showed at least a small degree of efficacy or were not able to exclude the possibility that the oil produces a small benefit. Overall, the data suggest that nutritional supplementation with borage oil is unlikely to have a major clinical effect but may be useful in some individual patients with less severe atopic dermatitis who are seeking an alternative treatment. Which patients are likely to respond cannot yet be identified. Borage oil is well tolerated in the short term but no long-term tolerability data are available. PMID:20579590

  8. Diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis in Thai children.

    PubMed

    Wisuthsarewong, Wanee; Viravan, Suchitra

    2004-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease in Thai children. There is no clinical or laboratory gold standard for the diagnosis. It is generally based on the guideline proposed by Hanifin and Rajka. Many studies have shown that some criteria are probably not all that significant in making the diagnosis. This study was designed to evaluate the frequency and diagnostic significance of clinical features of AD in Thai children. The authors studied 108 patients with AD and 103 controls including patients with other skin diseases. The AD group consisted of 60 girls and 48 boys. The mean age was 60.3+/-36.1 months. All previously proposed features were evaluated and the difference infrequency was tested with the chi-square test. History of pruritus, rash on typical distribution, chronically relapsing course, duration more than 6 months, personal or family history of atopy, age of onset before 2 years, recurrent conjunctivitis, itch when sweating, intolerance to rough textile, food and milk intolerance, history of dry skin, seasonal variation, visible dermatitis, dermatitis of a typical distribution, xerosis, ichthyosis vulgaris, foot dermatitis, Dennie-Morgan infraorbital fold, orbital darkening, periorbital dermatitis, pityriasis alba, peri-auricular dermatitis, anterior neck fold, truncal dermatitis, perifollicular accentuation, white dermographism and diffuse scaling of scalp were all significantly more frequent in AD (p < 0.05). A minimum set of diagnostic criteria for AD was derived by using multiple stepwise logistic regression technique. It consisted of history of itchy rash, history of flexural dermatitis, chronicity more than 6 months, and visible xerosis, periorbital dermatitis and perifollicular accentuation. PMID:15822547

  9. Exotoxins of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Dinges, Martin M.; Orwin, Paul M.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the literature regarding the structure and function of two types of exotoxins expressed by Staphylococcus aureus, pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAgs) and hemolysins. The molecular basis of PTSAg toxicity is presented in the context of two diseases known to be caused by these exotoxins: toxic shock syndrome and staphylococcal food poisoning. The family of staphylococcal PTSAgs presently includes toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and most of the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) (SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, and SEH). As the name implies, the PTSAgs are multifunctional proteins that invariably exhibit lethal activity, pyrogenicity, superantigenicity, and the capacity to induce lethal hypersensitivity to endotoxin. Other properties exhibited by one or more staphylococcal PTSAgs include emetic activity (SEs) and penetration across mucosal barriers (TSST-1). A detailed review of the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of the staphylococcal hemolysins is also presented. PMID:10627489

  10. The Staphylococcus aureus proteome.

    PubMed

    Otto, Andreas; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte

    2014-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive commensal bacterium that is regarded as a major threat for modern health care systems. This relates both to the ability of S. aureus to overcome antibiotic therapy by developing high-level resistance against multiple antibiotics and this bacterium's extensive arsenal of virulence factors. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance and functional studies on stress and starvation responses are the main goals of proteomics in staphylococcal research. This review high-lights recent advances in gel-based and gel-free proteomics analyses of S. aureus and pinpoints the importance of location-specific proteomics studies targeting the cytosol, the membrane, the cell surface and the extracellular milieu in combination with integrated global proteome studies. Emerging hot topics in staphylococcal proteomics are discussed with special focus on in vivo proteomics, membrane vesicles, biofilm formation and the acquisition of absolute proteome data for systems biological modeling approaches. PMID:24439828

  11. Adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to implants with different physicochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Karlov, A V; Khlusov, I A; Pontak, V A; Ignatov, V P; Ivin, M A; Zinatulina, S Yu

    2002-09-01

    Adhesion of pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus (strain 209) to BT1-0 titanium disks (12 mm in diameter) with different coatings and noncoated was studied in vitro by photocolorimetry. Transparency of bacterial suspension in normal saline was evaluated after 2-h culturing with the implants at 37 degrees C. The decrease of S. aureus content in the suspension due to its adsorption on implants was negligible and increased by 0.9-5.5% in comparison with the control (adhesion to glass). When the specimens were placed into bacterial suspension, the density of staphylococcal adsorption on the surface considerably increased (by 9-53%) in comparison with the control, which attested to active participation of the implants in bacterial adsorption. The degree of bacterial adhesion to the implants decreased in the following order: disk with calcium phosphate ceramic coating-disk with calcium phosphate X-ray amorphous coating-disk without coating-disk with cermet coating. The adhesion of Staphylococcus is a stochastic process depending on the sum of implant characteristics, in particular, on the phase composition of the coating, electric conductivity, and Ca/P ionic ratio. The authors conclude that the formation of antibacterial properties of coating by saturating them with antibiotics or impregnation with metals, specifically silver ion implantation, is justified, because it reduces the postimplantation infection risk. PMID:12512002

  12. Nanoscale Plasma Coating Inhibits Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanxi; Jones, John E; Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Qingsong; Christensen, Gordon D; Chen, Meng; Sun, Hongmin

    2015-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus commonly infects medical implants or devices, with devastating consequences for the patient. The infection begins with bacterial attachment to the device, followed by bacterial multiplication over the surface of the device, generating an adherent sheet of bacteria known as a biofilm. Biofilms resist antimicrobial therapy and promote persistent infection, making management difficult to futile. Infections might be prevented by engineering the surface of the device to discourage bacterial attachment and multiplication; however, progress in this area has been limited. We have developed a novel nanoscale plasma coating technology to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used monomeric trimethylsilane (TMS) and oxygen to coat the surfaces of silicone rubber, a material often used in the fabrication of implantable medical devices. By quantitative and qualitative analysis, the TMS/O2 coating significantly decreased the in vitro formation of S. aureus biofilms; it also significantly decreased in vivo biofilm formation in a mouse model of foreign-body infection. Further analysis demonstrated TMS/O2 coating significantly changed the protein adsorption, which could lead to reduced bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. These results suggest that TMS/O2 coating can be used to effectively prevent medical implant-related infections. PMID:26369955

  13. Nanoscale Plasma Coating Inhibits Formation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanxi; Jones, John E.; Yu, Haiqing; Yu, Qingsong; Christensen, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus commonly infects medical implants or devices, with devastating consequences for the patient. The infection begins with bacterial attachment to the device, followed by bacterial multiplication over the surface of the device, generating an adherent sheet of bacteria known as a biofilm. Biofilms resist antimicrobial therapy and promote persistent infection, making management difficult to futile. Infections might be prevented by engineering the surface of the device to discourage bacterial attachment and multiplication; however, progress in this area has been limited. We have developed a novel nanoscale plasma coating technology to inhibit the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. We used monomeric trimethylsilane (TMS) and oxygen to coat the surfaces of silicone rubber, a material often used in the fabrication of implantable medical devices. By quantitative and qualitative analysis, the TMS/O2 coating significantly decreased the in vitro formation of S. aureus biofilms; it also significantly decreased in vivo biofilm formation in a mouse model of foreign-body infection. Further analysis demonstrated TMS/O2 coating significantly changed the protein adsorption, which could lead to reduced bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. These results suggest that TMS/O2 coating can be used to effectively prevent medical implant-related infections. PMID:26369955

  14. Allergic contact dermatitis following exposure to essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bleasel, Narelle; Tate, Bruce; Rademaker, Marius

    2002-08-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from the topical use of essential oils is not widely recognized as an occupational hazard. Four cases of allergic contact dermatitis to essential oils occurring in three aromatherapists and one chemist with a particular interest in aromatherapy are described. All presented with predominantly hand dermatitis and demonstrated sensitization to multiple essential oils. One patient developed a recurrence of cutaneous symptoms following ingestion of lemongrass tea. Workers within this industry should be aware of the sensitization potential of these products and the risk of limiting their ability to continue employment. PMID:12121401

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Patra, Suravi; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, a self-inflicted intentional dermatosis is a very rare diagnosis in childhood. In a large proportion, the underlying psychiatric disorders go unidentified due to lack of collaboration between dermatologist and psychiatrist. The underlying psychological reasons for childhood dermatitis artefacta include emotional distress and interpersonal conflicts. A multitude of psychosocial factors interact to precipitate this disorder. Here, we report a child with dermatitis artefacta who was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during psychiatric evaluation. Parental expectations and sibling rivalry were further increasing the stress of the index child. Appropriate diagnosis and management lead to treatment compliance and functional improvement in the child. PMID:27195043

  16. Autosensitisation (Autoeczematisation) reactions in a case of diaper dermatitis candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Chirac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E; Foia, Liliana; Pinteala, Tudor

    2014-05-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common cutaneous diagnosis in infants. Most cases are associated with the yeast colonisation of Candida or diaper dermatitis candidiasis (DDC). It is an irritating and inflammatory acute dermatitis in the perineal and perianal areas resulting from the occlusion and irritation caused by diapers. Autoeczematization to a distant focus of dermatophyte infection very rarely presents as DDC. We present a 1-month-old boy with lesion on diaper area (gluteal area, perineum, groin and genitalia) and with clusters of pustules and vesicles on a large erythematous base over the dorsal area of both hands. PMID:25013264

  17. Autosensitisation (Autoeczematisation) reactions in a case of diaper dermatitis candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Chirac, Anca; Brzezinski, Piotr; Chiriac, Anca E; Foia, Liliana; Pinteala, Tudor

    2014-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis is the most common cutaneous diagnosis in infants. Most cases are associated with the yeast colonisation of Candida or diaper dermatitis candidiasis (DDC). It is an irritating and inflammatory acute dermatitis in the perineal and perianal areas resulting from the occlusion and irritation caused by diapers. Autoeczematization to a distant focus of dermatophyte infection very rarely presents as DDC. We present a 1-month-old boy with lesion on diaper area (gluteal area, perineum, groin and genitalia) and with clusters of pustules and vesicles on a large erythematous base over the dorsal area of both hands. PMID:25013264

  18. Historical Perspectives on Atopic Dermatitis: Eczema Through the Ages.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Tanya; Strom, Mark A; Lio, Peter A

    2016-07-01

    Throughout history, individuals have had a myriad of dermatologic conditions characterized as chronic pruritic dermatoses. The term atopic dermatitis was not coined until the early 20th century. Many diseases typical of this condition were reported using a variety of eponyms and descriptive terms. Even as the incidence of atopic dermatitis rises, it remains poorly understood in the modern era, and viewing the disease from a historical perspective provides useful insight into its nature. This article highlights the evolution of concepts related to the pathogenesis of and recommended treatments for atopic dermatitis. PMID:27086570

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Suravi; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, a self-inflicted intentional dermatosis is a very rare diagnosis in childhood. In a large proportion, the underlying psychiatric disorders go unidentified due to lack of collaboration between dermatologist and psychiatrist. The underlying psychological reasons for childhood dermatitis artefacta include emotional distress and interpersonal conflicts. A multitude of psychosocial factors interact to precipitate this disorder. Here, we report a child with dermatitis artefacta who was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during psychiatric evaluation. Parental expectations and sibling rivalry were further increasing the stress of the index child. Appropriate diagnosis and management lead to treatment compliance and functional improvement in the child. PMID:27195043

  20. [Irritant contact dermatitis. Part I. Epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and clinical manifestation].

    PubMed

    Chomiczewska, Dorota; Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata

    2008-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a frequent problem in dermatology. It compromises the majority of all occupational skin diseases in most countries. It develops as a result of the environmental or work-related exposure to irritants. Cutaneous reaction depends on the intrinsic properties of the irritant, individual skin susceptibility and environmental conditions. A great morphological variety of irritant contact dermatitis and difficulties in diagnosis may lead to misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. The prognosis is variable. Preventive measures, including education, individual skin protection and proper skin care may contribute to the reduced incidence of occupational irritant contact dermatitis. PMID:19227886

  1. AIRBORNE CONTACT DERMATITIS – CURRENT PERSPECTIVES IN ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Sanjeev; De, Dipankar; Mahajan, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    The increasing recognition of occupational origin of airborne contact dermatitis has brought the focus on the variety of irritants, which can present with this typical morphological picture. At the same time, airborne allergic contact dermatitis secondary to plant antigens, especially to Compositae family, continues to be rampant in many parts of the world, especially in the Indian subcontinent. The recognition of the contactant may be difficult to ascertain and the treatment may be even more difficult. The present review focuses on the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic issues in airborne contact dermatitis. PMID:22345774

  2. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    PubMed

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-01

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel. PMID:23031377

  3. Vitamin D in atopic dermatitis, chronic urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Shannon K; Rainwater, Ellecia; Shure, Anna K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-08-01

    Vitamin D influences allergen-induced pathways in the innate and adaptive immune system, and its potential immunomodulatory role in allergic skin disorders has been explored. This comprehensive review article provides an overview of the role of vitamin D in three common dermatologic conditions: atopic dermatitis (AD), chronic urticaria, and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Whereas the literature regarding vitamin D and AD has resulted in mixed findings, several studies have described an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and AD severity, and improvement in AD with vitamin D supplementation. Similarly, several studies report an inverse relationship between vitamin D levels and severity of chronic urticaria. Although current research in humans remains limited, an increased likelihood of ACD has been demonstrated in vitamin D-deficient mice. Additional well-designed clinical trials will be necessary to determine whether vitamin D supplementation should be recommended for prevention or adjuvant treatment of these common dermatologic conditions. PMID:27014952

  4. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  5. Increased concentration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus sp. in small animals exposed to aerospace environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthrie, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS in the total bacterial flora of small animals exposed to simulated spacecraft environments were evaluated. Tests to detect changes in infectivity, effects of antibiotic treatments, immune responses to bacterial antigens, and effectiveness of immune responses in the experimental environment were conducted. The most significant results appear to be the differences in immune responses at simulated altitudes and the production of infection in the presence of a specific antibody.

  6. [L forms of Staphylococcus aureus. Behavior of coagulase, hemolytic and desoxyribonuclease activities and antibiotic sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Loschiavo, F; Giarrizzo, S

    1977-01-01

    L Forms derived from strains of coagulase positive Staphylococcus aureus, have, on the whole, preserved their DNAsic, haemolitic and coagulastic activities. L. forms showed high resistence to antibiotics acting on the bacterial cell-wall. The sensibility to other antibiotics was, roughly, analogous for the L forms as well as for the bacterial strains ones, with the exception of the clortetraciclin and the diidrostreptomicin, ehich proved to be comparatively more active on the L forms. PMID:614141

  7. Bacterial Toxins-Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B.

    PubMed

    Fries, Bettina C; Varshney, Avanish K

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B is one of the most potent bacterial superantigens that exerts profound toxic effects upon the immune system, leading to stimulation of cytokine release and inflammation. It is associated with food poisoning, nonmenstrual toxic shock, atopic dermatitis, asthma, and nasal polyps in humans. Currently, there is no treatment or vaccine available. Passive immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies made in several different species has shown significant inhibition in in vitro studies and reduction in staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced lethal shock in in vivo studies. This should encourage future endeavors to develop these antibodies as therapeutic reagents. PMID:26184960

  8. Cytotoxic activity of Staphylococcus hyicus.

    PubMed

    Allaker, R P; Whitlock, M; Lloyd, D H

    1991-01-01

    Culture supernatants from a number of Staphylococcus hyicus strains caused toxic effects to both murine fibroblast and porcine keratinocyte cells in culture. The extent of cytotoxicity was shown to differ between strains and may provide an indication of strain virulence. Purification of cytotoxic activity produced by S. hyicus (strain P119) using preparative isoelectric-focussing demonstrated it to be cytolytic, haemolytic and non-proteolytic. The cytotoxin demonstrates certain properties in common with the delta haemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:2024438

  9. Identification of bacterial species by untargeted NMR spectroscopy of the exo-metabolome.

    PubMed

    Palama, T L; Canard, I; Rautureau, G J P; Mirande, C; Chatellier, S; Elena-Herrmann, B

    2016-08-01

    Identification of bacterial species is a crucial bottleneck for clinical diagnosis of infectious diseases. Quick and reliable identification is a key factor to provide suitable antibiotherapies and avoid the development of multiple-drug resistance. We propose a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics strategy for rapid discrimination and identification of several bacterial species that relies on untargeted metabolic profiling of supernatants from bacterial culture media. We show that six bacterial species (Gram negative: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis; Gram positive: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus) can be well discriminated from multivariate statistical analysis, opening new prospects for NMR applications to microbial clinical diagnosis. PMID:27349704

  10. An outbreak of gangrenous dermatitis in commerical broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gangrenous dermatitis (GD) is an emerging disease with increasing economic importance. This experiment was undertaken to describe symptoms, patholgocial changes and diagnosis of GD and to study their immunopathology and cytokine expression alterations. In addition to description of symptoms, pathol...

  11. Scrotal Dermatitis - Can we Consider it as a Separate Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ajay; Kar, Sumit

    2013-01-01

    Scrotal dermatitis is a very common condition that has been easily overlooked by most dermatologists and treating physicians. The condition is easily mistaken for the common skin disorders affecting the area, like fungal infections. Scrotal dermatitis is not considered a separate disease entity and is usually considered a condition similar to the contact dermatitis occurring elsewhere. This article attempts to classify the condition as a separate disease entity and explains the various etiological factors and the pathogenesis of the condition. The various stages of the condition are also explained in detail. Newer treatment modalities like the use of narrow band UVB for the management of scrotal dermatitis is also highlighted in this article. PMID:24044054

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis to topical minoxidil solution: etiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Edward S; Friedman, Paul M; Cohen, David E; Washenik, Ken

    2002-02-01

    After more than a decade of use, topical minoxidil solution has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia. However, some patients present with complaints of pruritus and scaling of the scalp. The most common causes of these symptoms include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, or an exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis. Patients suffering from allergic contact dermatitis may benefit from patch testing to determine the causative allergen. Among the patients we patch tested, propylene glycol was found to be the contactant in a majority of cases, not the minoxidil itself. Many of these patients may be candidates for treatment with alternative formulations using other solvents, such as butylene glycol, polysorbate, or glycerol. Although predictive, patch testing results do not ensure that the compounded preparations will be tolerated. Unfortunately, patients found to be allergic to minoxidil are no longer candidates for topical treatment of their alopecia with any preparations of minoxidil. PMID:11807448

  13. Possible Antipruritic Mechanism of Cyclosporine A in Atopic Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyi Chan; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Kamata, Yayoi; Umehara, Yoshie; Matsuda, Hironori; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Kina, Katsunari; Ogawa, Mayuko; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji

    2016-06-15

    Cyclosporine A is an immunosuppressive agent that suppresses pruritus and is currently used in the treatment of patients with severe atopic dermatitis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the antipruritic mechanism of cyclosporine A using a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. Intraperitoneal injection of cyclosporine A (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced epidermal nerve density, number of scratching bouts, dermatitis scores, and transepidermal water loss, as well as decreasing the numbers of inflammatory cells in the dermis and decreasing epidermal thickness. Intraperitoneal injection of cyclosporine A dose-dependently inhibited increased itch-related receptor gene expression, such as interleukin-31 receptor A and neurokinin-1 receptor, in the dorsal root ganglion of atopic dermatitis model mice. Thus, the antipruritic efficacy of cyclosporine A may involve reduced epidermal nerve density and expression levels of itch-related receptor genes in the dorsal root ganglion, as well as improvement in acanthosis and reduction in cutaneous inflammatory cell number. PMID:26671728

  14. Identification of Dermatophilus congolensis from lower leg dermatitis of cattle in Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Tresamol, P V; Saseendranath, M R; Subramanian, H; Pillai, U N; Mini, M; Ajithkumar, S

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the aetiological agents associated with a particular type of lower leg dermatitis, locally called pododermatitis, among dairy cattle in Kerala. Skin scabs and scrapings were collected aseptically from 82 naturally occurring cases of lower leg dermatitis in cattle and were subjected to direct microscopical examination and bacterial and fungal culture. Microscopical examination of the skin scrapings with 10% potassium hydroxide revealed fungal spores in hair shafts from only two samples and did not reveal the presence of mites or other parasites. Fungal culture yielded dermatophytes from only five samples; these were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes in two cases, T verrucosum in one case, Epidermophyton floccosum in one case and Microsporum nanum in one case. Microscopical examination of Giemsa- and Gram-stained smears of the scab material from the lesions from 72 cases revealed characteristic Gram-positive septate branching filaments with multiple rows of spherical to ovoid cocci, with a typical 'tram-track' appearance suggestive of Dermatophilus congolensis. Culture of the scab materials on sheep blood agar in the presence of 10% carbon dioxide yielded typical beta haemolytic colonies of D. congolensis from 75 samples. The isolates were further confirmed by the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the colonies, and biochemical test results. This study confirmed the presence of dermatophilosis caused by D. congolensis in cattle in Kerala. PMID:27044156

  15. Role of vasculature in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, Martin; Steinhoff, Antje; Homey, Bernhard; Luger, Thomas A; Schneider, Stefan W

    2006-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions are characterized by differences in the activation state of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells and the release of inflammatory mediators by and toward the vasculature. The vascular system, including endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, is ultimately involved in clinical symptoms of AD, such as erythema, edema, leukocyte recruitment, and white dermographism. Various mediators and bidirectional neurovascular interactions regulate the inflammatory response during AD. T cell-endothelial cell interactions are a crucial component to establish acute AD. Various immune cells, including monocytes and mast cells, communicate with the endothelium by releasing inflammatory mediators, thereby stimulating inflammatory mediator release from activated endothelial cells. The process of adhesion, tethering, and transmigration of infiltrating cells is a highly regulated and an active communication process between endothelial cells and leukocytes. Endothelial cells play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of AD and represent future targets for the treatment of AD. PMID:16815154

  16. Trichotillomania and dermatitis artefacta: a rare coexistence.

    PubMed

    Varyani, Neeraj; Garg, Sunny; Gupta, Garima; Singh, Shivendra; Tripathi, Kamlakar

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old pregnant female patient presented with complains of bilateral lower limb swelling and fever for 1 month. On examination, blood pressure was 144/94 mmHg along with pitting pedal edema. She had bizarre skin lesions, aligned longitudinally and distributed over the approachable site of the body with tapering ends and in various stages of healing. Lower limbs examination also revealed similar lesions with signs of cellulitis. Her scalp had short and distorted hair suggesting pulling and plucking. These skin lesions and the denial of self-infliction by the patient made us reach the diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta with trichotillomania. Psychotherapy was advocated along with conservative management of skin lesions. The patient improved and is under our follow up. PMID:22934222

  17. Trichotillomania and Dermatitis Artefacta: A Rare Coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Varyani, Neeraj; Garg, Sunny; Gupta, Garima; Singh, Shivendra; Tripathi, Kamlakar

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old pregnant female patient presented with complains of bilateral lower limb swelling and fever for 1 month. On examination, blood pressure was 144/94 mmHg along with pitting pedal edema. She had bizarre skin lesions, aligned longitudinally and distributed over the approachable site of the body with tapering ends and in various stages of healing. Lower limbs examination also revealed similar lesions with signs of cellulitis. Her scalp had short and distorted hair suggesting pulling and plucking. These skin lesions and the denial of self-infliction by the patient made us reach the diagnosis of dermatitis artefacta with trichotillomania. Psychotherapy was advocated along with conservative management of skin lesions. The patient improved and is under our follow up. PMID:22934222

  18. Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Fukaya, Mototsugu; Sato, Kenji; Sato, Mitsuko; Kimata, Hajime; Fujisawa, Shigeki; Dozono, Haruhiko; Yoshizawa, Jun; Minaguchi, Satoko

    2014-01-01

    The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. PMID:25378953

  19. The Changing Paradigm of Atopic Dermatitis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Sheila F; Simpson, Eric L; Irvine, Alan D; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2016-06-01

    The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) is complex, and future treatment options will likely be incorporated in a multimodal approach to management. The new, directed therapies that have been developed will likely be used in conjunction with concomitant continuous or intermittent use of standard therapies; the goal is to optimize therapeutic outcomes while minimizing adverse impacts on safety and cost. Current data regarding disease course and expression throughout life suggest that treatment strategies also will need to be adjusted as a patient grows. Research also indicates that interventions begun in infancy-such as the use of emollients-may mitigate or prevent AD signs and symptoms in children at high risk for the disease. Semin Cutan Med Surg 35(supp5):S97-S99. PMID:27526330

  20. Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Furue, Masutaka; Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2011-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299

  1. Drug-Induced Rosacea-like Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rezaković, Saida; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Paštar, Zrinjka

    2016-04-01

    Rosacea is a common, chronic cutaneous disorder with a prevalence of 0.5-10%, predominantly affecting women. The disease presents with a heterogeneous clinical picture characterized by transient flushing, persistent facial redness, telangiectasias, and, in more severe clinical forms, the presence of inflammatory papules and pustules in the central third of the face. Although its pathophysiology is complex and still remains unknown, factors that exacerbate the disease are well defined. They include genetic predisposition as well as external factors such as exposure to UV light, high temperature, and diet. Besides these well-known factors, recent studies suggest that drugs and vitamins could also be possible factors inducing rosacea-like dermatitis or aggravating pre-existing rosacea. Although these are less common possible triggering factors, the aim of this article is to present the current knowledge on the association between use of certain drugs or vitamins and rosacea. PMID:27149131

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis from a wooden necklace.

    PubMed

    Hausen, B M

    1997-09-01

    A 36-year-old female kitchenworker twice developed eczematous lesions corresponding exactly to the area around her neck where she had worn a wooden necklace. Contact dermatitis lasted longer than 1 week. The necklace consisted of 42 brown wooden beads and 63 other wooden parts, 0.5 to 3 cm diameter. Most parts could be identified as Cocobolo wood, Brazilian and East Indian rosewood, and teak. Patch tests with the pure constituents gave +3-reactions to three dalbergions and obtusaquinone, which are known to be the sensitizers of Cocobolo and the above-mentioned rosewoods. Because of these test results, the identification of the species by eye examination could be corroborated. Further detailed questioning revealed that the patient had played a recorder, probably made from Cocobolo (Dalbergia retusa), when a child, to which she unknowingly became allergic. PMID:9249295

  3. Vitamin D and atopic dermatitis in childhood.

    PubMed

    Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Congedo, Maurizio; Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD. PMID:25973433

  4. Langerhans cells in allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Tuchinda, P; Gaspari, A A

    2010-12-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common skin disease that has significant socio-economic impact. ACD is mediated by a T-cell mediated inflammatory reaction. Langerhans cells (LCs) are an epidermal DCs subset specialized in antigen presentation. After hapten exposure, LCs play a major role as in induction adaptive immune response against allergens. LCs recognize, take up and process haptens and migrate to the local draining lymph nodes. However, LCs specific functions and the LCs migration to local draining lymph nodes are not yet clearly defined. Recent advance in the knowledge of LCs function has increased in the past decades including the evidence for a tolerogenic function of LCs. The present review will focus on the role for LCs response to contact allergens. PMID:21139551

  5. Incontinence-associated dermatitis: a consensus.

    PubMed

    Gray, Mikel; Bliss, Donna Z; Doughty, Dorothy B; Ermer-Seltun, JoAnn; Kennedy-Evans, Karen L; Palmer, Mary H

    2007-01-01

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is an inflammation of the skin that occurs when urine or stool comes into contact with perineal or perigenital skin. Little research has focused on IAD, resulting in significant gaps in our understanding of its epidemiology, natural history, etiology, and pathophysiology. A growing number of studies have examined clinical and economic outcomes associated with prevention strategies, but less research exists concerning the efficacy of various treatments. In the clinical and research settings, IAD is often combined with skin damage caused by pressure and shear or related factors, sometimes leading to confusion among clinicians concerning its etiology and diagnosis. This article reviews existing literature related to IAD, outlines strategies for assessing, preventing, and treating IAD, and provides suggestions for additional research needed to enhance our understanding and management of this common but under-reported and understudied skin disorder. PMID:17228207

  6. Pyridoxine induced rosacea-like dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rezaković, Saida; Mokos, Zrinka Bukvić; Paštar, Zrinjka

    2015-03-01

    Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory cutaneous disease of unknown etiology, characterized by remissions and exacerbations, presenting with centrofacial erythema and telangiectasias. It affects mainly adults around the age of 30 years and classically predominates in females. The pathophysiology of rosacea has not yet been fully understood. Risk factors are positive family history, very light skin phototype, sun exposure and consumption of spicy food or alcohol. Recently, there has been some evidence that some drugs or vitamins could be potential factors that can aggravate rosacea or induce rosacea-like symptoms. In this context, we present a 53-year-old female developing rosacea-like dermatitis due to a fixed combination of isoniazid and pyridoxine, which she was receiving along with rifampicin for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:26058251

  7. Seborrheic Dermatitis and Dandruff: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Borda, Luis J.; Wikramanayake, Tongyu C.

    2016-01-01

    Seborrheic Dermatitis (SD) and dandruff are of a continuous spectrum of the same disease that affects the seborrheic areas of the body. Dandruff is restricted to the scalp, and involves itchy, flaking skin without visible inflammation. SD can affect the scalp as well as other seborrheic areas, and involves itchy and flaking or scaling skin, inflammation and pruritus. Various intrinsic and environmental factors, such as sebaceous secretions, skin surface fungal colonization, individual susceptibility, and interactions between these factors, all contribute to the pathogenesis of SD and dandruff. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on SD and dandruff, including epidemiology, burden of disease, clinical presentations and diagnosis, treatment, genetic studies in humans and animal models, and predisposing factors. Genetic and biochemical studies and investigations in animal models provide further insight on the pathophysiology and strategies for better treatment. PMID:27148560

  8. Vitamin D and Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Congedo, Maurizio; Foti, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD. PMID:25973433

  9. Current status of atopic dermatitis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Takahito; Takeuchi, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease. AD is the second most frequently observed skin disease in dermatology clinics in Japan. Prevalence of childhood AD is 12-13% in mainland Japan; however, it is only half that (about 6%) in children from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa. Topical steroids and tacrolimus are the mainstay of treatment. However, the adverse effects and emotional fear of long-term use of topical steroids have induced a "topical steroid phobia" in patients throughout the world. Undertreatment can exacerbate facial/periocular lesions and lead to the development of atopic cataract and retinal detachment due to repeated scratching/rubbing/patting. Overcoming topical steroid phobia is a key issue for the successful treatment of AD through education, understanding and cooperation of patients and their guardians. PMID:22053299

  10. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from ethyl cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Bruze, M; Björkner, B; Lepoittevin, J P

    1995-03-01

    Glues based on cyanoacrylates are widely used as contact adhesives for metal, glass, rubber, plastics and textiles, as well for biological materials, including binding tissues and sealing wounds in surgery. In this paper, an apprentice cobbler with an occupational allergic contact dermatitis from an ethyl cyanoacrylate glue, in which the major monomer was shown to be the sensitizer, is reported. Initial patch testing with the cyanoacrylate glue dissolved in acetone with the Finn Chamber (aluminium) technique yielded false-negative reactions. Positive test reactions were obtained with the same preparations using Van der Bend chambers. With petrolatum as vehicle for the glue, there was no difference between Finn Chamber technique and Van der Bend chamber technique. The role of aluminium in the false-negative reactions is discussed. PMID:7774187

  11. TNF as biomarker for rapid quantification of active Staphylococcus enterotoxin A in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen which causes clinical infection and food poisoning. This bacterium produces a group of twenty-one enterotoxins (SEs). These enterotoxins have two separate but related biological activities. They cause gastroenteritis and function as superantigens t...

  12. Methicillin-Resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" on Campus: A New Challenge to College Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, H. Richard

    2008-01-01

    As new drugs to control bacterial pathogens are developed, the organisms evolve to survive. "Staphylococcus aureus", a common organism, has steadily developed resistance to antibiotics. For more than 40 years, resistant "S. aureus" presented a formidable problem to hospitalized patients; in the past decade, however, it has begun to appear outside…

  13. Rapid Staphylococcus aureus agr type determination by a novel multiplex real-time quantitative PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Francois, Patrice; Koessler, Thibaud; Huyghe, Antoine; Harbarth, Stephan; Bento, Manuela; Lew, Daniel; Etienne, Jérôme; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-05-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) is a crucial regulatory component of Staphylococcus aureus involved in the control of bacterial virulence factor expression. We developed a real-time multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid determination of S. aureus agr type. This assay represents a rapid and affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies for assessing relevant epidemiological information. PMID:16672433

  14. Rapid Staphylococcus aureus agr Type Determination by a Novel Multiplex Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay

    PubMed Central

    Francois, Patrice; Koessler, Thibaud; Huyghe, Antoine; Harbarth, Stephan; Bento, Manuela; Lew, Daniel; Etienne, Jérôme; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The accessory gene regulator (agr) is a crucial regulatory component of Staphylococcus aureus involved in the control of bacterial virulence factor expression. We developed a real-time multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid determination of S. aureus agr type. This assay represents a rapid and affordable alternative to sequence-based strategies for assessing relevant epidemiological information. PMID:16672433

  15. Techniques for rapid detection and quantification of active foodborne Staphylococcus Enterotoxin(Abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen and causative agent of foodborne illnesses.Staphylococcal enterotoxins(SEs)produced by this organism act upon the gastrointestinal tract and generate a superantigen immune response in low concentrations. Recent S. aureus foodborne ...

  16. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented. PMID:11807465

  17. Apparent contact dermatitis caused by Ancylostoma caninum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alipour, Human; Goldust, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Ancylostomum caninum larvae cause damage to the host at the point of entry through the skin leaving a wound vulnerable to secondary infections. As the larvae migrate through the skin an inflammatory response, dermatitis, is often stimulated which can be exacerbated in hosts which give hypersensitive responses. We assessed a 44-year-old man with contact dermatitis diagnosed as nickel allergy but caused by Ancylostoma caninum infection. PMID:26342510

  18. Gigantobilharzia, possible cause of cercarial dermatitis: Case report.

    PubMed

    Omar, Hussein M; Omer, Osama H; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed S

    2016-01-01

    Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) is a worldwide, often neglected parasitic skin disease characterized by strong maculopapular skin eruption accompanied by intensive itching. A fisherman suffered from forearm dermatitis. Clinical history associated with the recovery of the avian schistosome; Gigantobilharzia from little green bee-eater (Merops orientalis najdanus) and collected Lymnaea snails supported the authors' opinion that patient clinical signs are most likely due to the invasion of avian schistosome cercariae. PMID:27004065

  19. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis: rare cutaneous manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Veronez, Isis Suga; Dantas, Fernando Luiz; Valente, Neusa Yuriko; Kakizaki, Priscila; Yasuda, Thaís Helena; Cunha, Thaís do Amaral

    2015-01-01

    Besides being an uncommon clinicopathological entity, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, also described as interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis (IGDA), has shown a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as linear and erythematous lesions, papules, plaques and nodules. Histological features include dense dermal histiocytic infiltrate, usually in a palisade configuration, and scattered neutrophils and eosinophils. We describe a middle aged woman with rheumatoid arthritis of difficult management and cutaneous lesions compatible with IGDA. PMID:26131871

  20. Gigantobilharzia, possible cause of cercarial dermatitis: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Hussein M.; Omer, Osama H.; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed S.

    2016-01-01

    Cercarial dermatitis (swimmer’s itch) is a worldwide, often neglected parasitic skin disease characterized by strong maculopapular skin eruption accompanied by intensive itching. A fisherman suffered from forearm dermatitis. Clinical history associated with the recovery of the avian schistosome; Gigantobilharzia from little green bee-eater (Merops orientalis najdanus) and collected Lymnaea snails supported the authors’ opinion that patient clinical signs are most likely due to the invasion of avian schistosome cercariae. PMID:27004065

  1. Erlotinib-induced Rosacea-like Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Rezaković, Saida; Paštar, Zrinjka; Bukvić Mokos, Zrinka; Pavliša, Gordana; Kovačević, Suzana

    2016-04-01

    Skin and skin adnexa toxicities are the most common side effects associated with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and occur in most patients receiving this therapy. The majority of these cutaneous side effects are transient, reversible, and dose dependent. Although these symptoms are in general not severe, they significantly affect quality of life and can have a serious effect on treatment compliance as well as the treatment regimen. The most common early symptoms present as papulopustules on an erythematous base, usually localized in seborrheic areas. This clinical presentation is commonly described as "acneiform", although these adverse reactions have clinical presentations, such as rosacea-like and seborrheic-like dermatitis. In this context, we report a case of a 77-year-old man with a medical history of planocellular lung cancer with ipsilateral pulmonary metastasis and mediastinum infiltration who received erlotinib as a third-line therapy, presenting with centrofacial rosaceiform rash as a side effect associated with the use of EGFR-TKIs. The patient had a negative previous history of rosacea. Therefore, symptoms probably occurred as an adverse reaction due to the oncological therapy. Current terminology of early cutaneous adverse reactions caused by EGFR-TKIs refers to "acneiform" or "papulopustular" lesions, excluding less common side effects such as rosacea-like dermatitis so these symptoms might be overlooked and misdiagnosed. Thus, we would like to emphasize the importance of developing a more accurate classification of terms in order to provide early detection of all possible cutaneous side effects, including less common ones, providing specific and timely treatment, and allowing continuation of drug therapy. PMID:27149133

  2. Nasal commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis counteracts influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Wen; Liu, Pei-Feng; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Kuo, Sherwin; Zhang, Xing-Quan; Schooley, Robert T.; Rohde, Holger; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Several microbes, including Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a Gram-positive bacterium, live inside the human nasal cavity as commensals. The role of these nasal commensals in host innate immunity is largely unknown, although bacterial interference in the nasal microbiome may promote ecological competition between commensal bacteria and pathogenic species. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis culture supernatants significantly suppressed the infectivity of various influenza viruses. Using high-performance liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, we identified a giant extracellular matrix-binding protein (Embp) as the major component involved in the anti-influenza effect of S. epidermidis. This anti-influenza activity was abrogated when Embp was mutated, confirming that Embp is essential for S. epidermidis activity against viral infection. We also showed that both S. epidermidis bacterial particles and Embp can directly bind to influenza virus. Furthermore, the injection of a recombinant Embp fragment containing a fibronectin-binding domain into embryonated eggs increased the survival rate of virus-infected chicken embryos. For an in vivo challenge study, prior Embp intranasal inoculation in chickens suppressed the viral titres and induced the expression of antiviral cytokines in the nasal tissues. These results suggest that S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity may serve as a defence mechanism against influenza virus infection. PMID:27306590

  3. Changes of Antimicrobial Resistance among Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated in 8 Consecutive Years in the First Bethune Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Chunguang; Yao, Hanxin; Xu, Jiancheng

    This study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated in 8 consecutive years in the First Bethune Hospital. Disk diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5 software according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most of 1469 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from sputum 705 (18.0%), secretions 206 (14.0%), pus 177 (12.0%) during the past 8 years. The rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were between 50.8% and 83.3% during the past 8 years, respectively. In recent 8 years, the antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus had increased. Monitoring the antimicrobial resistance to Staphylococcus aureus should be strengthened. The change of the antimicrobial resistance should be investigated in order to direct rational drug usage in the clinic and prevent bacterial strain of drug resistance from being transmitted.

  4. Role of antifungal agents in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Nicol, Karyn; Batra, Roma

    2004-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a superficial fungal disease of the skin, occurring in areas rich in sebaceous glands. It is thought that an association exists between Malassezia yeasts and seborrheic dermatitis. This may, in part, be due to an abnormal or inflammatory immune response to these yeasts. The azoles represent the largest class of antifungals used in the treatment of this disease to date. In addition to their antifungal properties, some azoles, including bifonazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole, have demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity, which may be beneficial in alleviating symptoms. Other topical antifungal agents, such as the allylamines (terbinafine), benzylamines (butenafine), hydroxypyridones (ciclopirox), and immunomodulators (pimecrolimus and tacrolimus), have also been effective. In addition, recent studies have revealed that tea tree oil (Melaleuca oil), honey, and cinnamic acid have antifungal activity against Malassezia species, which may be of benefit in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. In cases where seborrheic dermatitis is widespread, the use of an oral therapy, such as ketoconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine, may be preferred. Essentially, antifungal therapy reduces the number of yeasts on the skin, leading to an improvement in seborrheic dermatitis. With a wide availability of preparations, including creams, shampoos, and oral formulations, antifungal agents are safe and effective in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:15663338

  5. Oral administration of the broad-spectrum antibiofilm compound toremifene inhibits Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    De Cremer, Kaat; Delattin, Nicolas; De Brucker, Katrijn; Peeters, Annelies; Kucharíková, Soña; Gerits, Evelien; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan; Van Dijck, Patrick; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2014-12-01

    We here report on the in vitro activity of toremifene to inhibit biofilm formation of different fungal and bacterial pathogens, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida krusei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. We validated the in vivo efficacy of orally administered toremifene against C. albicans and S. aureus biofilm formation in a rat subcutaneous catheter model. Combined, our results demonstrate the potential of toremifene as a broad-spectrum oral antibiofilm compound. PMID:25288093

  6. Clinical patterns of hand and foot dermatitis: emphasis on rubber and chromate allergens.

    PubMed

    Nedorost, Susan

    2009-07-01

    The anatomic distribution of dermatitis affecting the hands and feet can provide clues to the likelihood that a contact allergen is provoking the dermatitis. Dermatitis presenting on the hands or feet, but not both, is more likely because of allergic contact dermatitis, whereas dermatitis affecting both the hands and feet is more likely a result of a systemic cause. Exceptions are reviewed in this article. When allergic contact dermatitis affects only the hands and feet, rubber chemicals and chromates are the most common allergens. Pattern recognition can assist with choice of patch test allergens, counseling regarding routes of exposure, and selection of alternative contactants. PMID:19580922

  7. A mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of atopic dermatitis during the first six months of age

    PubMed Central

    Moro, G; Arslanoglu, S; Stahl, B; Jelinek, J; Wahn, U; Boehm, G

    2006-01-01

    Background Oligosaccharides may alter postnatal immune development by influencing the constitution of gastrointestinal bacterial flora. Aims To investigate the effect of a prebiotic mixture of galacto‐ and long chain fructo‐oligosaccharides on the incidence of atopic dermatitis (AD) during the first six months of life in formula fed infants at high risk of atopy. Methods Prospective, double‐blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial; 259 infants at risk for atopy were enrolled. A total of 102 infants in the prebiotic group and 104 infants in the placebo group completed the study. If bottle feeding was started, the infant was randomly assigned to one of two hydrolysed protein formula groups (0.8 g/100 ml prebiotics or maltodextrine as placebo). All infants were examined for clinical evidence of atopic dermatitis. In a subgroup of 98 infants, faecal flora was analysed. Results Ten infants (9.8%; 95 CI 5.4–17.1%) in the intervention group and 24 infants (23.1%; 95 CI 16.0–32.1%) in the control group developed AD. The severity of the dermatitis was not affected by diet. Prebiotic supplements were associated with a significantly higher number of faecal bifidobacteria compared with controls but there was no significant difference in lactobacilli counts. Conclusion Results show for the first time a beneficial effect of prebiotics on the development of atopic dermatitis in a high risk population of infants. Although the mechanism of this effect requires further investigation, it appears likely that oligosaccharides modulate postnatal immune development by altering bowel flora and have a potential role in primary allergy prevention during infancy. PMID:16873437

  8. Guidelines of care for the management of atopic dermatitis: section 2. Management and treatment of atopic dermatitis with topical therapies.

    PubMed

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Tom, Wynnis L; Berger, Timothy G; Krol, Alfons; Paller, Amy S; Schwarzenberger, Kathryn; Bergman, James N; Chamlin, Sarah L; Cohen, David E; Cooper, Kevin D; Cordoro, Kelly M; Davis, Dawn M; Feldman, Steven R; Hanifin, Jon M; Margolis, David J; Silverman, Robert A; Simpson, Eric L; Williams, Hywel C; Elmets, Craig A; Block, Julie; Harrod, Christopher G; Smith Begolka, Wendy; Sidbury, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common and chronic, pruritic inflammatory skin condition that can affect all age groups. This evidence-based guideline addresses important clinical questions that arise in its management. In this second of 4 sections, treatment of atopic dermatitis with nonpharmacologic interventions and pharmacologic topical therapies are reviewed. Where possible, suggestions on dosing and monitoring are given based on available evidence. PMID:24813302

  9. Bacterial Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology. PMID:26488274

  10. The Papain Inhibitor (SPI) of Streptomyces mobaraensis Inhibits Bacterial Cysteine Proteases and Is an Antagonist of Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zindel, Stephan; Kaman, Wendy E.; Fröls, Sabrina; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Peters, Anna; Hays, John P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel papain inhibitory protein (SPI) from Streptomyces mobaraensis was studied to measure its inhibitory effect on bacterial cysteine protease activity (Staphylococcus aureus SspB) and culture supernatants (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus anthracis). Further, growth of Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae was completely inhibited by 10 μM SPI. At this concentration of SPI, no cytotoxicity was observed. We conclude that SPI inhibits bacterial virulence factors and has the potential to become a novel therapeutic treatment against a range of unrelated pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23587952

  11. S2k guideline on diagnosis and treatment of atopic dermatitis--short version.

    PubMed

    Werfel, Thomas; Heratizadeh, Annice; Aberer, Werner; Ahrens, Frank; Augustin, Matthias; Biedermann, Tilo; Diepgen, Thomas; Fölster-Holst, Regina; Gieler, Uwe; Kahle, Julia; Kapp, Alexander; Nast, Alexander; Nemat, Katja; Ott, Hagen; Przybilla, Bernhard; Roecken, Martin; Schlaeger, Martin; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Schmitt, Jochen; Schwennesen, Thomas; Staab, Doris; Worm, Margitta

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) represents a pruritic, non-contagious, chronic or chronically relapsing, inflammatory skin disease. The course of the disease may be complicated by bacterial or viral superinfections. The first manifestation of the disease and further flare-ups are due to genetic predisposition and also to a variety of further trigger factors. The therapy regimen should be adapted to disease symptoms that are actually present and consider individual features of the disease as reported by the patients or their parents. This short version of the German guideline on AD provides an overview of evidence-based diagnostic and treatment options. All recommendations made here are the result of a consensus of the scientific medical societies, working groups and support groups based on scientific data published to date. Abstracts and details of the studies cited are provided in the long version of this guideline (see: www.awmf.org). PMID:26713654

  12. TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HERPESVIRAL DERMATITIS IN A CAPTIVE CHEETAH (ACINONYX JUBATUS) IN NAMIBIA.

    PubMed

    Flacke, Gabriella L; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Marker, Laurie

    2015-09-01

    A 9-yr-old male cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) housed at the Cheetah Conservation Fund in Namibia developed cutaneous lesions consisting of alopecia, erythema, ulceration, and crusting on the left fore and hind limbs. Histopathology of skin biopsies in conjunction with indirect fluorescent antibody and polymerase chain reaction testing confirmed a diagnosis of feline herpesvirus-1 dermatitis; microbial culture indicated secondary bacterial infection. Therapy included targeted systemic antimicrobial and antiviral treatment, topical medications, and repeated cryotherapy. Lesions exhibited varying degrees of clinical improvement but, overall, progressed in extent, size, and severity during the subsequent 2.5 yr of intense treatment. The cheetah was ultimately euthanized due to a guarded prognosis and concerns about poor quality of life. Potential factors initiating or contributing (or both) to the severity and nonhealing nature of the cutaneous lesions include chronic unidentified stress, altered immune system function, and other environmental influences. PMID:26352979

  13. Interfering with Bacterial Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Kerstin; Steinbach, Anke; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) describes the exchange of chemical signals in bacterial populations to adjust the bacterial phenotypes according to the density of bacterial cells. This serves to express phenotypes that are advantageous for the group and ensure bacterial survival. To do so, bacterial cells synthesize autoinducer (AI) molecules, release them to the environment, and take them up. Thereby, the AI concentration reflects the cell density. When the AI concentration exceeds a critical threshold in the cells, the AI may activate the expression of virulence-associated genes or of luminescent proteins. It has been argued that targeting the QS system puts less selective pressure on these pathogens and should avoid the development of resistant bacteria. Therefore, the molecular components of QS systems have been suggested as promising targets for developing new anti-infective compounds. Here, we review the QS systems of selected gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, namely, Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and discuss various antivirulence strategies based on blocking different components of the QS machinery. PMID:26819549

  14. Interfering with Bacterial Quorum Sensing.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Kerstin; Steinbach, Anke; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) describes the exchange of chemical signals in bacterial populations to adjust the bacterial phenotypes according to the density of bacterial cells. This serves to express phenotypes that are advantageous for the group and ensure bacterial survival. To do so, bacterial cells synthesize autoinducer (AI) molecules, release them to the environment, and take them up. Thereby, the AI concentration reflects the cell density. When the AI concentration exceeds a critical threshold in the cells, the AI may activate the expression of virulence-associated genes or of luminescent proteins. It has been argued that targeting the QS system puts less selective pressure on these pathogens and should avoid the development of resistant bacteria. Therefore, the molecular components of QS systems have been suggested as promising targets for developing new anti-infective compounds. Here, we review the QS systems of selected gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, namely, Vibrio fischeri, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, and discuss various antivirulence strategies based on blocking different components of the QS machinery. PMID:26819549

  15. Improving the safety of Staphylococcus aureus polyvalent phages by their production on a Staphylococcus xylosus strain.

    PubMed

    El Haddad, Lynn; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Plante, Pier-Luc; Dumaresq, Jeannot; Katsarava, Ramaz; Labrie, Steve; Corbeil, Jacques; St-Gelais, Daniel; Moineau, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Team1 (vB_SauM_Team1) is a polyvalent staphylococcal phage belonging to the Myoviridae family. Phage Team1 was propagated on a Staphylococcus aureus strain and a non-pathogenic Staphylococcus xylosus strain used in industrial meat fermentation. The two Team1 preparations were compared with respect to their microbiological and genomic properties. The burst sizes, latent periods, and host ranges of the two derivatives were identical as were their genome sequences. Phage Team1 has 140,903 bp of double stranded DNA encoding for 217 open reading frames and 4 tRNAs. Comparative genomic analysis revealed similarities to staphylococcal phages ISP (97%) and G1 (97%). The host range of Team1 was compared to the well-known polyvalent staphylococcal phages phi812 and K using a panel of 57 S. aureus strains collected from various sources. These bacterial strains were found to represent 18 sequence types (MLST) and 14 clonal complexes (eBURST). Altogether, the three phages propagated on S. xylosus lysed 52 out of 57 distinct strains of S. aureus. The identification of phage-insensitive strains underlines the importance of designing phage cocktails with broadly varying and overlapping host ranges. Taken altogether, our study suggests that some staphylococcal phages can be propagated on food-grade bacteria for biocontrol and safety purposes. PMID:25061757

  16. Improving the Safety of Staphylococcus aureus Polyvalent Phages by Their Production on a Staphylococcus xylosus Strain

    PubMed Central

    El Haddad, Lynn; Ben Abdallah, Nour; Plante, Pier-Luc; Dumaresq, Jeannot; Katsarava, Ramaz; Labrie, Steve; Corbeil, Jacques; St-Gelais, Daniel; Moineau, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Team1 (vB_SauM_Team1) is a polyvalent staphylococcal phage belonging to the Myoviridae family. Phage Team1 was propagated on a Staphylococcus aureus strain and a non-pathogenic Staphylococcus xylosus strain used in industrial meat fermentation. The two Team1 preparations were compared with respect to their microbiological and genomic properties. The burst sizes, latent periods, and host ranges of the two derivatives were identical as were their genome sequences. Phage Team1 has 140,903 bp of double stranded DNA encoding for 217 open reading frames and 4 tRNAs. Comparative genomic analysis revealed similarities to staphylococcal phages ISP (97%) and G1 (97%). The host range of Team1 was compared to the well-known polyvalent staphylococcal phages phi812 and K using a panel of 57 S. aureus strains collected from various sources. These bacterial strains were found to represent 18 sequence types (MLST) and 14 clonal complexes (eBURST). Altogether, the three phages propagated on S. xylosus lysed 52 out of 57 distinct strains of S. aureus. The identification of phage-insensitive strains underlines the importance of designing phage cocktails with broadly varying and overlapping host ranges. Taken altogether, our study suggests that some staphylococcal phages can be propagated on food-grade bacteria for biocontrol and safety purposes. PMID:25061757

  17. Efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin on bacterial extraocular disease in the horse

    PubMed Central

    HIDAKA, Shuhei; KOBAYASHI, Mitsutoshi; ANDO, Kunihide; FUJII, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    Lomefloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin eye drops for bacterial extraocular disease in horses. Lomefloxacin ophthalmic solution (0.3%) was instilled three times daily for 2–5 days in 65 horses diagnosed with bacterial extraocular disease based on clinical findings. Clinical observations and bacteriological examinations were performed at the start of treatment, 2 and 5 days after the start of treatment, and at the discontinuation or termination of treatment. Of the 65 horses, 64 were positive for bacteria, and 22 bacterial genera and 47 bacterial species were identified. The efficacy of lomefloxacin was evaluated in 63 horses; one horse with a negative culture and another with suspected bacterial contamination were excluded. Lomefloxacin was considered to be clinically effective in 54 horses. The major bacterial species identified were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus vitulinus, Enterobacter agglomerans, Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Staphylococcus sciuri, with a cumulative disappearance rate of 80% or more at the termination of instillation. Excluding one horse that did not undergo a bacteriological examination, the remaining 62 horses were assessed for bacteriological outcome. Full or partial bacterial clearance was detected in 95% or more of the 62 horses. One of the 65 horses reported adverse events that had no causal relation with the eye drops. Our results showed that lomefloxacin is safe and effective for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease in horses. PMID:25787926

  18. Efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin on bacterial extraocular disease in the horse.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Shuhei; Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi; Ando, Kunihide; Fujii, Yoshikazu

    2015-07-01

    Lomefloxacin is a broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of lomefloxacin eye drops for bacterial extraocular disease in horses. Lomefloxacin ophthalmic solution (0.3%) was instilled three times daily for 2-5 days in 65 horses diagnosed with bacterial extraocular disease based on clinical findings. Clinical observations and bacteriological examinations were performed at the start of treatment, 2 and 5 days after the start of treatment, and at the discontinuation or termination of treatment. Of the 65 horses, 64 were positive for bacteria, and 22 bacterial genera and 47 bacterial species were identified. The efficacy of lomefloxacin was evaluated in 63 horses; one horse with a negative culture and another with suspected bacterial contamination were excluded. Lomefloxacin was considered to be clinically effective in 54 horses. The major bacterial species identified were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus vitulinus, Enterobacter agglomerans, Flavimonas oryzihabitans and Staphylococcus sciuri, with a cumulative disappearance rate of 80% or more at the termination of instillation. Excluding one horse that did not undergo a bacteriological examination, the remaining 62 horses were assessed for bacteriological outcome. Full or partial bacterial clearance was detected in 95% or more of the 62 horses. One of the 65 horses reported adverse events that had no causal relation with the eye drops. Our results showed that lomefloxacin is safe and effective for the treatment of bacterial extraocular disease in horses. PMID:25787926

  19. Enzymatic removal and disinfection of bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, C; Falholt, P; Gram, L

    1997-01-01

    Model biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were made on steel and polypropylene substrata. Plaque-resembling biofilms of Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were made on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. The activity of enzymes against bacterial cells in biofilm was measured by fluorescence microscopy and an indirect conductance test in which evolution of carbon dioxide was measured. Glucose oxidase combined with lactoperoxidase was bactericidal against biofilm bacteria but did not remove the biofilm from the substrata. A complex mixture of polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes was able to remove bacterial biofilm from steel and polypropylene substrata but did not have a significant bactericidal activity. Combining oxidoreductases with polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes resulted in bactericidal activity as well as removal of the biofilm. PMID:9293025

  20. Effect of Substance P in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence: Implication for Skin Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    N'Diaye, Awa; Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Diaz, Suraya; Konto-Ghiorghi, Yoan; Percoco, Giuseppe; Chevalier, Sylvie; Lefeuvre, Luc; Harmer, Nicholas J.; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two major skin associated bacteria, and Substance P (SP) is a major skin neuropeptide. Since bacteria are known to sense and response to many human hormones, we investigated the effects of SP on Staphylococci virulence in reconstructed human epidermis model and HaCaT keratinocytes. We show that SP is stimulating the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis in a reconstructed human epidermis model. qRT-PCR array analysis of 64 genes expressed by keratinocytes in the response to bacterial infection revealed a potential link between the action of SP on Staphylococci and skin physiopathology. qRT-PCR and direct assay of cathelicidin and human β-defensin 2 secretion also provided that demonstration that the action of SP on bacteria is independent of antimicrobial peptide expression by keratinocytes. Considering an effect of SP on S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we observed that SP increases the adhesion potential of both bacteria on keratinocytes. However, SP modulates the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis through different mechanisms. The response of S. aureus is associated with an increase in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 (SEC2) production and a reduction of exolipase processing whereas in S. epidermidis the effect of SP appears mediated by a rise in biofilm formation activity. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor Ef-Tu was identified as the SP-interacting protein in S. aureus and S. epidermidis. SP appears as an inter-kingdom communication factor involved in the regulation of bacterial virulence and essential for skin microflora homeostasis. PMID:27148195

  1. Effect of Substance P in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Virulence: Implication for Skin Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    N'Diaye, Awa; Mijouin, Lily; Hillion, Mélanie; Diaz, Suraya; Konto-Ghiorghi, Yoan; Percoco, Giuseppe; Chevalier, Sylvie; Lefeuvre, Luc; Harmer, Nicholas J; Lesouhaitier, Olivier; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two major skin associated bacteria, and Substance P (SP) is a major skin neuropeptide. Since bacteria are known to sense and response to many human hormones, we investigated the effects of SP on Staphylococci virulence in reconstructed human epidermis model and HaCaT keratinocytes. We show that SP is stimulating the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis in a reconstructed human epidermis model. qRT-PCR array analysis of 64 genes expressed by keratinocytes in the response to bacterial infection revealed a potential link between the action of SP on Staphylococci and skin physiopathology. qRT-PCR and direct assay of cathelicidin and human β-defensin 2 secretion also provided that demonstration that the action of SP on bacteria is independent of antimicrobial peptide expression by keratinocytes. Considering an effect of SP on S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we observed that SP increases the adhesion potential of both bacteria on keratinocytes. However, SP modulates the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis through different mechanisms. The response of S. aureus is associated with an increase in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 (SEC2) production and a reduction of exolipase processing whereas in S. epidermidis the effect of SP appears mediated by a rise in biofilm formation activity. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor Ef-Tu was identified as the SP-interacting protein in S. aureus and S. epidermidis. SP appears as an inter-kingdom communication factor involved in the regulation of bacterial virulence and essential for skin microflora homeostasis. PMID:27148195

  2. Genetic control of bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Wolska, Krystyna I; Grudniak, Anna M; Rudnicka, Zofia; Markowska, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    Nearly all bacterial species, including pathogens, have the ability to form biofilms. Biofilms are defined as structured ecosystems in which microbes are attached to surfaces and embedded in a matrix composed of polysaccharides, eDNA, and proteins, and their development is a multistep process. Bacterial biofilms constitute a large medical problem due to their extremely high resistance to various types of therapeutics, including conventional antibiotics. Several environmental and genetic signals control every step of biofilm development and dispersal. From among the latter, quorum sensing, cyclic diguanosine-5'-monophosphate, and small RNAs are considered as the main regulators. The present review describes the control role of these three regulators in the life cycles of biofilms built by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Vibrio cholerae. The interconnections between their activities are shown. Compounds and strategies which target the activity of these regulators, mainly quorum sensing inhibitors, and their potential role in therapy are also assessed. PMID:26294280

  3. [Keeping dogs indoor aggravates infantile atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Hizawa, T; Fukuzumi, T; Kataoka, Y

    1999-12-01

    We had a two-month-old girl with severe dermatitis since birth. Her serum RAST to HD, Df and Dp were 1.06, 0.03 and 0.01 Ua/ml respectively. A Yorkshire terrier were kept at her mother's parents' home where the patient had lived for a month since birth. Her eczema, which became markedly aggravated whenever she visited there, improved after the elimination of the dog. We investigated the relationship between keeping dogs and infantile atopic dermatitis. We studied 368 patients under the age of two years (211 boys and 157 girls). Skin symptoms were graded globally mild, moderate or severe. Total serum IgE and specific antibody titer to dog dander were measured. We asked them whether they kept dogs and specifically, where they kept dogs, outdoor, indoor, in their own house, or in their grandparents' house. 197 patients had no contact with dogs, 90 patients kept dogs outdoor and 81 patients did indoor. The positive rate of RAST (> or = 0.7 Ua/ml) to dog dander was 6.1%, 17.8% and 46.9% respectively in these three groups. There were strong statistical differences between three groups. On the other hand, among the 81 patients who kept indoor, the RAST positive rates were almost same regarding where the dogs were kept, in their own house or their grandparents' house. Interestingly this difference happens only with patients under the age of 3 months. Patients older than 4 months showed no significant differences in the positive RAST rates, whether they kept dogs indoor or outdoor. This suggests the sensitization occurs before the age of 3 months. Speaking of symptoms, patients who kept dogs indoor showed significantly more severe symptoms than patients who had no contact with dogs and patients who kept dogs outdoor. There was no significant difference between the symptoms of patients who had no contact with dogs and those of patients who kept dogs outdoor. This implies the patient's symptom will improve only by moving the dog out of the house. PMID:10666918

  4. Activity of Natural Polyether Ionophores: Monensin and Salinomycin against Clinical Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains.

    PubMed

    Stefańska, Joann; Stępień, Karolina; Huczyński, Adam; Tyski, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis, a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, is the most important pathogen responsible for chronic nosocomial infections. These bacteria produce extracellular slime and form biofilms on various biotic and abiotic surfaces. Bacterial biofilms are very resistant to standard antimicrobial therapy and difficult to eradicate, so it is important to search for new more effective anti-biofilm agents, for example in the group of natural substances. The aim of the study was to examine the activity of two ionophores-salinomycin and monensin against clinical S. epidermidis strains, using MIC/MBC method and biofilm formation inhibition assay. Bacterial strains were tested also for slime production using Congo Red Agar. Both tested ionophore antibiotics showed the highest activity against planktonic bacteria of clinical as well as standard S. epidermidis strains and effectively inhibited the formation of bacterial biofilm. PMID:26638535

  5. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. PMID:26177232

  6. Metal Allergy and Systemic Contact Dermatitis: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Yoshihisa, Yoko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2012-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is produced by external skin exposure to an allergen, but sometimes a systemically administered allergen may reach the skin and remain concentrated there with the aid of the circulatory system, leading to the production of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD). Metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc are ubiquitous in our environment. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and also SCD. Systemic reactions, such as hand dermatitis or generalized eczematous reactions, can occur due to dietary nickel or cobalt ingestion. Zinc-containing dental fillings can induce oral lichen planus, palmoplantar pustulosis, and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of sensitivity to metal is established by epicutaneous patch testing and oral metal challenge with metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc. In vitro tests, such as the lymphocyte stimulating test (LST), have some advantages over patch testing to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Additionally, the determination of the production of several cytokines by primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures is a potentially promising in vitro method for the discrimination of metal allergies, including SCD, as compared with the LST. PMID:22693488

  7. Metal allergy and systemic contact dermatitis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Yoshihisa, Yoko; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2012-01-01

    Contact dermatitis is produced by external skin exposure to an allergen, but sometimes a systemically administered allergen may reach the skin and remain concentrated there with the aid of the circulatory system, leading to the production of systemic contact dermatitis (SCD). Metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc are ubiquitous in our environment. Metal allergy may result in allergic contact dermatitis and also SCD. Systemic reactions, such as hand dermatitis or generalized eczematous reactions, can occur due to dietary nickel or cobalt ingestion. Zinc-containing dental fillings can induce oral lichen planus, palmoplantar pustulosis, and maculopapular rash. A diagnosis of sensitivity to metal is established by epicutaneous patch testing and oral metal challenge with metals such as nickel, cobalt, chromium, and zinc. In vitro tests, such as the lymphocyte stimulating test (LST), have some advantages over patch testing to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis. Additionally, the determination of the production of several cytokines by primary peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures is a potentially promising in vitro method for the discrimination of metal allergies, including SCD, as compared with the LST. PMID:22693488

  8. Probiotics and Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Irfan A.; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Lim, Jeongheui; Paek, Woon K.; Park, Yong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, recurrent, chronic inflammatory skin disease that is a cause of considerable economic and social burden. Its prevalence varies substantially among different countries with an incidence rate proclaimed to reach up to 20% of children in developed countries and continues to escalate in developing nations. This increased rate of incidence has changed the focus of research on AD toward epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. The effects of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AD remain elusive. However, evidence from different research groups show that probiotics could have positive effect on AD treatment, if any, that depend on multiple factors, such as specific probiotic strains, time of administration (onset time), duration of exposure, and dosage. However, till date we still lack strong evidence to advocate the use of probiotics in the treatment of AD, and questions remain to be answered considering its clinical use in future. Based on updated information, the processes that facilitate the development of AD and the topic of the administration of probiotics are addressed in this review. PMID:27148196

  9. Probiotics and Atopic Dermatitis: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Rather, Irfan A; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kumar, Sanjay; Lim, Jeongheui; Paek, Woon K; Park, Yong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, recurrent, chronic inflammatory skin disease that is a cause of considerable economic and social burden. Its prevalence varies substantially among different countries with an incidence rate proclaimed to reach up to 20% of children in developed countries and continues to escalate in developing nations. This increased rate of incidence has changed the focus of research on AD toward epidemiology, prevention, and treatment. The effects of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AD remain elusive. However, evidence from different research groups show that probiotics could have positive effect on AD treatment, if any, that depend on multiple factors, such as specific probiotic strains, time of administration (onset time), duration of exposure, and dosage. However, till date we still lack strong evidence to advocate the use of probiotics in the treatment of AD, and questions remain to be answered considering its clinical use in future. Based on updated information, the processes that facilitate the development of AD and the topic of the administration of probiotics are addressed in this review. PMID:27148196

  10. The diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis

    PubMed Central

    Antiga, Emiliano; Caproni, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with a chronic relapsing course, pruritic polymorphic lesions, and typical histopathological and immunopathological findings. According to several evidences, DH is considered the specific cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease, and the most recent guidelines of celiac disease have stated that, in celiac patients with a proven DH, a duodenal biopsy is unnecessary for the diagnosis. In this review, the most recent data about the diagnosis and the management of DH have been reported and discussed. In particular, in patients with clinical and/or histopathological findings suggestive for DH, the finding of granular IgA deposits along the dermal–epidermal junction or at the papillary tips by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) assay, together with positive results for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody testing, allows the diagnosis. Thereafter, a gluten-free diet should be started in association with drugs, such as dapsone, that are able to control the skin manifestations during the first phases of the diet. In conclusion, although DH is a rare autoimmune disease with specific immunopathological alterations at the skin level, its importance goes beyond the skin itself and may have a big impact on the general health status and the quality of life of the patients. PMID:25999753

  11. [Guideline 'Coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis'].

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Wouter P; Kneepkens, C M Frank; Houwen, Roderick H J; de Beer, Hans J A; Mulder, Chris J; Mearin, M Luisa

    2010-01-01

    The Dutch evidence-based guideline 'Coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis' contains instructions for detection and treatment of coeliac disease. Coeliac disease has a high prevalence: 0.5 - 1.3%. The disease has a broad spectrum of symptoms, frequently also outside the gastrointestinal tract. Relatives of patients and persons with autoimmune diseases, microscopic colitis, IgA deficiency and syndromes of Down, Turner and Williams have an increased risk of coeliac disease. Detection is carried out by determination of IgA antibodies to tissue transglutaminase and endomysium. Testing for IgA antibodies to gliadin is only recommended in children younger than 2 years. Absence of HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 indicates that coeliac disease is most unlikely. The diagnosis should be confirmed by small bowel biopsy. Single biopsy following gluten ingestion is sufficient for diagnosis at all ages. After the diagnosis, patients should be referred to a dietician. Additionally, a yearly follow-up by a paediatrician or internal medical specialist with appropriate gastroenterology specialisation is recommended. PMID:21029498

  12. Leukoderma in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Sachiko; Kasuya, Akira; Fujiyama, Toshiharu; Tatsuno, Kazuki; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Yamaguchi, Hayato; Ito, Taisuke; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2015-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is occasionally associated with vitiligo, however, the incidence and conditions of vitiligo or leukoderma, and the characteristics of concurrent AD, remain unclear. We conducted a prospective observational study to investigate the leukoderma-related clinical manifestations and bioparameters of AD. Because vitiligo in AD lesions is occasionally associated with inflammation, we used leukoderma in this study. Enrolled were all AD patients who had been followed up in our AD outpatient clinic and visited within the previous 4 months. During this period, we carefully inspected whether the patients had leukoderma. Eight of 52 patients had leukoderma (15.4%) and were designated as the leukoderma group, and the remaining 44 patients comprised the non-leukoderma group. While the ages were statistically not different between the two groups, female preponderance was significantly observed in the leukoderma group. The leukoderma patients tended to have higher values of SCORAD, CCL17/thymus and activation regulated chemokine and lactate dehydrogenase than the non-leukoderma patients. The leukoderma group was also characterized by a lower frequency of allergic rhinitis and a higher frequency of prurigo lesions. Thus, despite the possession of high AD severity, the leukoderma patients may possibly retain a relatively T-helper 1-skewing state in relation to the development of leukoderma and less association with rhinitis. PMID:25545320

  13. Molecular Genetic of Atopic dermatitis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shobaili, Hani A.; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Alnomair, Naief; Alobead, Zeiad Abdulaziz; Rasheed, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic multifactorial inflammatory skin disease. The pathogenesis of AD remains unclear, but the disease results from dysfunctions of skin barrier and immune response, where both genetic and environmental factors play a key role. Recent studies demonstrate the substantial evidences that show a strong genetic association with AD. As for example, AD patients have a positive family history and have a concordance rate in twins. Moreover, several candidate genes have now been suspected that play a central role in the genetic background of AD. In last decade advanced procedures similar to genome-wide association (GWA) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) have been applied on different population and now it has been clarified that AD is significantly associated with genes of innate/adaptive immune systems, human leukocyte antigens (HLA), cytokines, chemokines, drug-metabolizing genes or various other genes. In this review, we will highlight the recent advancements in the molecular genetics of AD, especially on possible functional relevance of genetic variants discovered to date. PMID:27004062

  14. [Therapeutic patient education in chronic hand dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Gelot, P; Avenel-Audran, M; Balica, S; Bensefa, L; Crépy, M-N; Debons, M; Ammari, H; Milpied, B; Raison, N; Vigan, M; Weibel, N; Stalder, J-F; Bernier, C

    2014-06-01

    Hand dermatitis (HD) is usually due to a combination of various interacting factors. It involves significant impairment of the quality of life with psychological and socioeconomic impact. A therapeutic education program in HD.was elaborated by 19 health professionals (dermatologists, occupational clinical physicians, nurses, psychologists, environmental medical advisor) with experience in therapeutic education or skills in HD, according to the recommendations of Haute Autorité de Santé. The program includes an individual medical consultation to perform educational diagnostic, two collective workshops and a medical evaluation consult. Two group workshops "the disease, irritant factors and its treatments" and "the experiences and feelings" were elaborated with learning objectives and educative tools. Different scores were proposed to evaluate the program and acquired skills. Therapeutic education is an efficient way to help patients to adopt skin protection measures essential to healing. We propose a guideline of therapeutic education in HD including skills and educative tools and intended for health professionals to serve as working basis. PMID:24953622

  15. Therapeutic implications of a barrier-based pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Elias, Peter M; Wakefield, Joan S

    2011-12-01

    Excessive Th2 cell signaling and IgE production play key roles in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Yet, recent information suggests that the inflammation in AD instead is initiated by inherited insults to the barrier, including a strong association between mutations in FILAGGRIN and SPINK5 in Netherton syndrome, the latter of which provides an important clue that AD is provoked by excess serine protease activity. But acquired stressors to the barrier may also be required to initiate inflammation in AD, and in addition, microbial colonization by Staphylococcus aureus both amplifies inflammation, but also further stresses the barrier in AD. Therapeutic implications of these insights are as follows: While current therapy has been largely directed toward ameliorating Th2-mediated inflammation and/or pruritus, these therapies are fraught with short-term and potential long-term risks. In contrast, "barrier repair" therapy, with a ceramide-dominant triple-lipid mixture of stratum corneum lipids, is more logical, of proven efficacy, and it provides a far-improved safety profile. PMID:21174234

  16. Deciphering the Complexities of Atopic Dermatitis: Shifting Paradigms in Treatment Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Donald Y. M.; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. It often precedes the development of food allergy and asthma. Recent insights into AD reveal abnormalities in terminal differentiation of the epidermal epithelium leading to a defective stratum corneum, which allows enhanced allergen penetration and systemic IgE sensitization. Atopic skin is also predisposed to colonization or infection by pathogenic microbes, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Causes of this abnormal skin barrier are complex and driven by a combination of genetic, environmental and immunologic factors. These factors likely account for the heterogeneity of AD onset, severity and natural history of this skin disease. Recent studies suggest prevention of AD can be achieved by early interventions protecting the skin barrier. Onset of lesional AD requires effective control of local and systemic immune activation for optimal management. Early intervention may improve long term outcomes for AD and reduce the systemic allergen sensitization leading to associated allergic diseases in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. PMID:25282559

  17. Therapeutic Implications of a Barrier-Based Pathogenesis of Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive Th2 cell signaling and IgE production play key roles in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Yet, recent information suggests that the inflammation in AD instead is initiated by inherited insults to the barrier, including a strong association between mutations in FILAGGRIN and SPINK5 in Netherton syndrome, the latter of which provides an important clue that AD is provoked by excess serine protease activity. But acquired stressors to the barrier may also be required to initiate inflammation in AD, and in addition, microbial colonization by Staphylococcus aureus both amplifies inflammation, but also further stresses the barrier in AD. Therapeutic implications of these insights are as follows: While current therapy has been largely directed toward ameliorating Th2-mediated inflammation and/or pruritus, these therapies are fraught with short-term and potential long-term risks. In contrast, “barrier repair” therapy, with a ceramide-dominant triple-lipid mixture of stratum corneum lipids, is more logical, of proven efficacy, and it provides a far-improved safety profile. PMID:21174234

  18. Deciphering the complexities of atopic dermatitis: shifting paradigms in treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Leung, Donald Y M; Guttman-Yassky, Emma

    2014-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. It often precedes the development of food allergy and asthma. Recent insights into AD reveal abnormalities in terminal differentiation of the epidermal epithelium leading to a defective stratum corneum, which allows enhanced allergen penetration and systemic IgE sensitization. Atopic skin is also predisposed to colonization or infection by pathogenic microbes, most notably Staphylococcus aureus and herpes simplex virus. Causes of this abnormal skin barrier are complex and driven by a combination of genetic, environmental, and immunologic factors. These factors likely account for the heterogeneity of AD onset and the severity and natural history of this skin disease. Recent studies suggest prevention of AD can be achieved through early interventions to protect the skin barrier. Onset of lesional AD requires effective control of local and systemic immune activation for optimal management. Early intervention might improve long-term outcomes for AD and reduce the systemic allergen sensitization that leads to associated allergic diseases in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. PMID:25282559

  19. Treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis and economic burden of illness in Asia Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bee Wah; Detzel, Patrick R

    2015-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common chronic inflammatory skin condition in children. In Asia, the prevalence of AD is increasing, which is largely attributed to environmental and socioeconomic factors including family income, parental education, lifestyle and metropolitan living. Current clinical guidelines recommend a stepped approach in the management of eczema in children, with treatment steps tailored to the severity of the eczema. To address the skin barrier dysfunction, skin hydration and the application of emollients is essential. There is evidence supporting the use of bleach baths as an antimicrobial therapy against Staphylococcus aureus. In patients in whom topical treatment fails, wet wrap therapy may be considered as a treatment option before considering systemic therapies. In the second part of this article, the economic burden of AD is addressed. AD not only negatively impacts the child's quality of life but also that of the whole family and is associated with a burden on health-care costs and society. AD in an infant will lead to frequent additional visits to the pediatrician, to additional and partially expensive treatment costs and, in rare cases, to hospitalization. It is thus of utmost importance to define efficient strategies to not only treat AD but also to decrease the risk of developing the disease. PMID:25925337

  20. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Adaptation to Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Grace; Paulino, Franklin; Wachtel, Sarah; Parker, Dane; Wickersham, Matthew; Zhang, Dongni; Brown, Armand; Lauren, Christine; Dowd, Margaret; West, Emily; Horst, Basil; Planet, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Skin is the most common site of Staphylococcus aureus infection. While most of these infections are self-limited, recurrent infections are common. Keratinocytes and recruited immune cells participate in skin defense against infection. We postulated that S. aureus is able to adapt to the milieu within human keratinocytes to avoid keratinocyte-mediated clearance. From a collection of S. aureus isolated from chronically infected patients with atopic dermatitis, we noted 22% had an agr mutant-like phenotype. Using several models of human skin infection, we demonstrate that toxin-deficient, agr mutants of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300 are able to persist within keratinocytes by stimulating autophagy and evading caspase-1 and inflammasome activation. MRSA infection induced keratinocyte autophagy, as evidenced by galectin-8 and LC3 accumulation. Autophagy promoted the degradation of inflammasome components and facilitated staphylococcal survival. The recovery of more than 58% agr or RNAIII mutants (P < 0.0001) of an inoculum of wild-type (WT) MRSA from within wortmannin-treated keratinocytes compared to control keratinocytes reflected the survival advantage for mutants no longer expressing agr-dependent toxins. Our results illustrate the dynamic interplay between S. aureus and keratinocytes that can result in the selection of mutants that have adapted specifically to evade keratinocyte-mediated clearance mechanisms. PMID:25900653

  1. Drug repurposing: a new front in the war against Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Das, Swetarka; Dasgupta, Arunava; Chopra, Sidharth

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus continues its domination of worldwide bacterial infection rates, thereby remaining a pathogen of significant public health interest. A major reason for its continued success is its ability to acquire and maintain diverse drug resistance mechanisms, leading to a paucity of antimicrobials active against it, concomitantly leading to a continuous search for new antimicrobial agents. However, with the withdrawal of the major pharmaceutical firms from the anti-infective area, drug repurposing has provided a potential boost to the drug pipeline. In this review, we provide an overview of the currently approved drugs with repurposing potential against Staphylococcus aureus, thus augmenting the classical drug discovery pathway. PMID:27494302

  2. Comparative characteristics of Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus lentus and Staphylococcus gallinarum isolated from healthy and sick hosts.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, G O

    1986-02-01

    Of 136 strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from healthy and sick human beings, goats, sheep, antelope and other animals, 88 (64.7%) were Staphylococcus sciuri and 35 (25.7%) were S. lentus and the remainder Staphylococcus gallinarum. The strains of S. sciuri were isolated from humans with boils and wounds, goats with pestes des petits ruminants (PPR) and dogs with nasal discharge. One isolate of S. gallinarum came from a fowl with chronic respiratory disease and 11 others were isolated from goats. The characteristics of S. sciuri, S. lentus and S. gallinarum isolated from different sources were similar. PMID:3705446

  3. Bacterial Keratitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... very quickly, and if left untreated, can cause blindness. The bacteria usually responsible for this type of ... to intense ultraviolet radiation exposure, e.g. snow blindness or welder's arc eye). Next Bacterial Keratitis Symptoms ...

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: review of the past decade.

    PubMed

    Admani, Shehla; Jacob, Sharon E

    2014-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction. During the last decade, there has been a heightened awareness of this disease in the pediatric population. The gold standard for diagnosis is patch testing. The prevalence of positive patch tests in referred children with suspected ACD ranges from 27 to 95.6 %. The most common allergens in children in North America are nickel, neomycin, cobalt, fragrance, Myroxylon pereirae, gold, formaldehyde, lanolin/wool alcohols, thimerosal, and potassium dichromate. The relationship between ACD and atopic dermatitis (AD) is complicated with conflicting reports of prevalence in the literature; however, in a patient with dermatitis not responding to traditional therapies, or with new areas of involvement, ACD should be considered as part of the work-up. PMID:24504525

  5. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, A; Estlander, T; Jolanki, R; Kanerva, L

    1996-05-01

    12 cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by decorative plants were diagnosed in a 14-year period. The patients were middle-aged, and their average exposure time was 13 years. The plant families and plants causing occupational contact dermatitis were Compositae (5 patients; chrysanthemum, elecampane, gerbera, feverfew), Alstroemeriaceae (5 patients, Alstroemeria), Liliaceae (4 patients; tulip, hyacinth), Amaryllidaceae (2 patients; narcissus) and Caryophyllaceae (2 patients; carnation, cauzeflower). The known chemical allergens causing dermatitis were tuliposide-A and sesquiterpene lactones, such as alantolactones and parthenolide, in the Liliaceae and Compositae families. 7 of the 12 patients were able to continue their work; 5 were not because of severe relapses of skin symptoms. The plant allergen and extract series currently available are of great help in the diagnosis. PMID:8807225

  6. Topical Pimecrolimus 1% Cream in the Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a multifactorial skin disease characterized by a chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission. Although topical corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment, alternative therapies are often needed to avoid protracted use of topical corticosteroid therapy in order to avert side effects and to sustain control of the disorder. Topical pimecrolimus, a calcinuerin inhibitor, is a safe alternative for seborrheic dermatitis and is more ideal for long-term use. More specifically, topical pimecrolimus not only has an attractive safety profile with no risk of many of the potential side effects seen with topical corticosteroids, but also has favorable efficacy data, including more data on long-term use. This is a review of literature evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of topical pimecrolimus 1% cream for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:23441238

  7. Contact allergic dermatitis "current topic in tropical dermatology".

    PubMed

    Soyinka, F

    1978-11-01

    Out of a total of 2,666 new dermatology patients, 128 (4.8%) were clinically diagnosed as allergic contact dermatitis. Of these, 107 (4%) reacted positively to different antigens in the patch-test. The commonest contact sensitizers among females were nickel and dyes. Among male patients, the commonest sensitizers were mecaptobenzol-thiazole, chrome and nickel. The incidence of occupational contact dermatitis among bricklayers, construction workers and builders were found to be low and the sensitization rate against chromate was 0.6%. There was no sensitization against cobalt and nickel in the group, however, the length of occupational contact with cement among these group was short. Allergic contact dermatitis is not as uncommon among the Nigeria populace as is generally believed. It seems to be on the increase especially with increase rate of industrialization. PMID:753055

  8. Topical pimecrolimus 1% cream in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Grace K; Rosso, James Del

    2013-02-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a multifactorial skin disease characterized by a chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission. Although topical corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment, alternative therapies are often needed to avoid protracted use of topical corticosteroid therapy in order to avert side effects and to sustain control of the disorder. Topical pimecrolimus, a calcinuerin inhibitor, is a safe alternative for seborrheic dermatitis and is more ideal for long-term use. More specifically, topical pimecrolimus not only has an attractive safety profile with no risk of many of the potential side effects seen with topical corticosteroids, but also has favorable efficacy data, including more data on long-term use. This is a review of literature evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of topical pimecrolimus 1% cream for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:23441238

  9. Follicular contact dermatitis due to coloured permanent-pressed sheets

    PubMed Central

    Panaccio, François; Montgomery, D. C.; Adam, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    A delayed hypersensitivity type of allergic contact dermatitis was observed following exposure to certain brands of 50% cotton, 50% polyester coloured permanent-pressed sheets produced by a particular manufacturer. The dermatitis presented as an extremely pruritic follicular eczema of the body and vesicular edema of the ears and face. Patch testing excluded formalin as the allergen but suggested permanent-pressing chemicals as a possibility. Several washings of the sheets did not prevent the development of the dermatitis. The removal of sheets did not immediately result in improvement: the condition could persist for up to eight weeks after their discontinuance. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4268628

  10. Dermatotoxicologic clinical solutions: textile dye dermatitis patch testing.

    PubMed

    Coman, Garrett; Blickenstaff, Nicholas; Edwards, Ashley; Maibach, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The authors provide a framework for working up and counseling a patient with suspected textile dermatitis, focusing on identifying which textile materials are most likely to be the cause of the eczematous lesions, the current clinical guidelines, the utility and appropriateness of patch testing, the limitations of these guidelines, and our pro tempore recommendations. While there are many challenges to correctly identify and counsel patients on how to avoid the offending textile products in a patient with suspected textile dye dermatitis, there is value in following the guidelines set forth to help identify the causative textile(s). Although patch tests can be useful, dermatologists should understand the limitations of standardized patch testing for patients with suspected textile dye-induced dermatitis. These guidelines are expected to increase the likelihood of identifying the causative textile(s), so that patch testing can be supplemented with swatch testing and chemical dye extraction to help discover the allergenic dye. PMID:24678750

  11. Osmolyte transport in Staphylococcus aureus and the role in pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schwan, William R; Wetzel, Keith J

    2016-01-01

    Osmolyte transport is a pivotal part of bacterial life, particularly in high salt environments. Several low and high affinity osmolyte transport systems have been identified in various bacterial species. A lot of research has centered on characterizing the osmolyte transport systems of Gram‐negative bacteria, but less has been done to characterize the same transport systems in Gram‐positive bacteria. This review will focus on the previous work that has been done to understand the osmolyte transport systems in the species Staphylococcus aureus and how these transporters may serve dual functions in allowing the bacteria to survive and grow in a variety of environments, including on the surface or within humans or other animals. PMID:27429907

  12. Cell wall sorting of lipoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Navarre, W W; Daefler, S; Schneewind, O

    1996-01-01

    Many surface proteins are thought to be anchored to the cell wall of gram-positive organisms via their C termini, while the N-terminal domains of these molecules are displayed on the bacterial surface. Cell wall anchoring of surface proteins in Staphylococcus aureus requires both an N-terminal leader peptide and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. By fusing the cell wall sorting of protein A to the C terminus of staphylococcal beta-lactamase, we demonstrate here that lipoproteins can also be anchored to the cell wall of S. aureus. The topology of cell wall-anchored beta-lactamase is reminiscent of that described for Braun's murein lipoprotein in that the N terminus of the polypeptide chain is membrane anchored whereas the C-terminal end is tethered to the bacterial cell wall. PMID:8550464

  13. Repurposing the Antihistamine Terfenadine for Antimicrobial Activity against Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a rapidly growing health threat in the U.S., with resistance to several commonly prescribed treatments. A high-throughput screen identified the antihistamine terfenadine to possess, previously unreported, antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and other Gram-positive bacteria. In an effort to repurpose this drug, structure–activity relationship studies yielded 84 terfenadine-based analogues with several modifications providing increased activity versus S. aureus and other bacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mechanism of action studies revealed these compounds to exert their antibacterial effects, at least in part, through inhibition of the bacterial type II topoisomerases. This scaffold suffers from hERG liabilities which were not remedied through this round of optimization; however, given the overall improvement in activity of the set, terfenadine-based analogues provide a novel structural class of antimicrobial compounds with potential for further characterization as part of the continuing process to meet the current need for new antibiotics. PMID:25238555

  14. Transgenic rat model of childhood-onset dermatitis by overexpressing telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT).

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Ryosuke; Sato, Atsuko; Hamada, Shun; Yagi, Takeshi; Ohsawa, Ichiro; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro; Kobayashi, Eiji; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Murakami, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Childhood-onset dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders in children. Although various mouse models that mirror aspects of dermatitis have become available, there is still a need for an animal model that develops dermatitis in childhood and is more suitable for performing tissue transplantation experiments. There is emerging evidence that peripheral blood T lymphocytes from patients with dermatitis have significantly increased telomerase activity. Here, we developed telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)-expressing transgenic (Tg) rats that spontaneously developed eczematous skin inflammation in childhood. Newborn TERT-Tg rats developed visible dermatitis in 56 % of cases, and the skin lesions microscopically showed spongiosis and acanthosis with infiltration of lymphocytes, eosinophils and mast cells. TERT-Tg rats with dermatitis exhibited increased CD4 (2.5-fold) and CD8 (fivefold) T cell numbers compared with dermatitis-free TERT-Tg rats. Stronger TERT activity was observed in the peripheral lymphocytes of dermatitis-positive TERT-Tg rats than those of dermatitis-free TERT-Tg rats. RT-PCR analysis revealed that IL-4 was markedly elevated in the spleen of dermatitis-positive TERT-Tg rats, and that interferon-gamma was increased in the dermatitis lesions. Moreover, skin grafting of TERT-Tg rats with dermatitis onto T cell-deficient nude rats demonstrated that the inflamed skin lesions could not be maintained. Taken together, the results suggest that TERT activation in T lymphocytes is one of the potential predisposing factors for dermatitis. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the TERT-Tg rats mirror aspects of human childhood-onset dermatitis and that these animals represent a potential animal model system for studying childhood-onset dermatitis. PMID:26885830

  15. Effects of scalp dermatitis on chemical property of hair keratin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Sook; Shin, Min Kyung; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2013-05-01

    The effects of scalp dermatitis (seborrheic dermatitis (SD), psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)) on chemical properties of hair keratin were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Hairs were collected from lesional regions affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD and non-lesional regions separately. The hairs with SD were taken from patients with ages of 16-80 years. The ages of patients with psoriasis ranged from 8 to 67 years, and all patients exhibited moderate disease. Hairs with AD were taken from the patients with ages of 24-45 years and the average SCORing atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) was 48.75. Hairs from 20 normal adults were collected as a control. The FT-IR absorbance bands were analyzed by the Gaussian model to obtain the center frequency, half width, height, and area of each band. The height and area of all bands in the spectra were normalized to the amide I centered at 1652 cm-1 to quantitatively analyze the chemical composition of keratin. The spectra of hair with scalp dermatitis were different with that of control, the amide A components centered at 3278 cm-1 were smaller than those of the control. The psoriasis hair showed a large difference in the IR absorbance band between lesional and non-lesional hairs indicating good agreement with the morphological changes. The hairs with diseases did not show differences in the content of cystine, which was centered at 1054 cm-1, from the control. The chemical properties of keratin were not significantly different between the hairs affected by SD, psoriasis, and AD. However, the changes induced by scalp dermatitis were different with weathering. Therefore, FT-IR analysis could be used to screen differences between the physiological and pathological conditions of scalp hair.

  16. Prevention and management of incontinence-associated dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Nix, Denise; Haugen, Vicki

    2010-06-01

    Perineal dermatitis, recently relabelled 'incontinence-associated dermatitis' (IAD), is an inflammation of the skin that occurs when urine and/or stool comes into contact with the skin. It can range in severity from erythema with or without loss of skin integrity to infection. IAD affects as many as 41% of adults in long-term care; it is costly, painful and, for the most part, preventable. An effective plan of care for individuals with IAD must include assessment and management of incontinence aetiology, perineal skin and risk assessment, gentle cleansing and moisturization, application of skin barriers and treatment of secondary infection, and the use of containment devices if indicated. PMID:20524708

  17. Primary psychiatric conditions: dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania and neurotic excoriations.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jillian W; Nguyen, Tien V; Koo, John Ym

    2013-01-01

    Primary psychiatric conditions encountered in dermatology include dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania (TTM) and neurotic excoriations. For these disorders, the primary pathologic condition involves the psyche; therefore, any cutaneous findings are self-induced. Herein, we review common primary psychiatric conditions in dermatology - dermatitis artefacta, neurotic excoriations and TTM - and examine their epidemiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and treatment strategies. For all primary psychiatric disorders, the most effective underlying strategy is to first establish a strong therapeutic rapport with the patient. Various pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies can then be attempted afterwards to successfully manage these patients. PMID:23372212

  18. Seborrheic dermatitis treatment with stellate ganglion block: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gun Woo; Mun, Ki Ho; Song, Jeong Yun; Kim, Byung Gun; Jung, Jong Kwon; Lee, Choon Soo; Cha, Young Deog

    2016-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disorder presumed to be caused by increased sebaceous gland secretion, metabolic changes in the cutaneous microflora, and changes in the host immune function. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is known to increase the blood flow rate without altering the blood pressure, heart rate, or cardiac output, to stabilize hypertonic conditions of the sympathetic nerves, and to affect the endocrine and immune systems. It is used in the differential diagnosis and treatment of autonomic nervous system disorders of the head, neck, and upper limbs. The authors report the first case of successful treatment of a patient with seborrheic dermatitis through repeated SGB trials. PMID:27064785

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in disposable blue diathermy pads.

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952

  20. The differential diagnosis of atopic dermatitis in childhood.

    PubMed

    Krol, Alfons; Krafchik, Bernice

    2006-01-01

    Atopic is the most common of the dermatitides seen in infancy and childhood, but there are numerous other diseases that can mimic the skin findings. These include seborrheic dermatitis, immunodeficiency, and psoriasis in infancy; scabies, tinea corporis infection, perioral, nummular, contact, and molluscum dermatitis in childhood. It is sometimes extremely difficult to differentiate between ichthyosis and AD, and it is also important to differentiate AD from erythrodermic conditions including acrodermatitis enteropathica, biotin deficiency, and Netherton syndrome. A rare condition in children that may mimic AD is mycosis fungoides. PMID:16669989

  1. [How I prevent...exacerbation of atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Nikkels, A F; Piérard, G E

    2006-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is under the influence of series of environmental factors. The contact with unsuited cleaning agents and rough textiles can exacerbate pruritus and inflammation. Preventive and adjuvant measures can thus help the care procedures of the disease. Appropriate hygiene measures and the use of emollients are particularly helpful. Clothing measures are also in place. Undergarments and pyjamas made of knitted natural silk are available. Other measures, sometimes corresponding to anecdotal claims--antihistamines, thermal cures, unconventional medicine, probiotics, chinese herbals, essential fatty acids--have not proven their preventive efficacy in atopic dermatitis. PMID:17020235

  2. [Severe atopic dermatitis caused by rare immunodeficiency in childhood].

    PubMed

    Wolsk, Helene Mygind; Marquart, Hanne V; Laub, Bodil; Gniadecki, Robert; Nysom, Karsten; Ifversen, Marianne

    2015-12-14

    Two children are presented with autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome caused by a mutation in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 gene (DOCK8). The manifestations are typically severe atopic dermatitis, food allergies, elevated serum IgE concentration, viral skin infections and risk of malignancies. DOCK8 deficiency was first reported in 2009, following the death of the oldest sibling. The youngest sibling was cured after allogenic stem cell transplantation. This case report illustrates the need of awareness of primary immunodeficiency in children with atypical manifestation of atopic dermatitis in combination with recurrent infections. PMID:26692033

  3. Dermatitis caused by Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) in human

    PubMed Central

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimpour, Soheil; Rezaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Rakhshanpour, Arash; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human infestation to ectoparasites such as ticks, lice, cimex, fleas, mites and others agents may result in intensive allergic reaction with symptoms of itching, skin infection and severe irritation. In this case report, we present a case of dermatitis caused by cat flea. Case presentation: A three-member family referred to dermatology clinic in Babol due to dermal complications. They complained of irritation and the unrest caused by intense itching. Samples of tiny live insects were detected from their clothing which was recognized as C. felis (cat flea). Conclusion: This report highlights the importance of ectoparasites causing dermatitis. PMID:25489439

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis to temporary tattoo by p-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Pegas, J R P; Criado, P R; Criado, R F J; Vasconcellos, C; Pires, M C

    2002-01-01

    Temporary tattoos are widely applied today all over the world. The tattoo makers explain that they use "natural henna paint," although in fact they use "black henna," which includes a mixture of many substances, among them p-phenylenediamine (PPD). There have recently been many reports of allergic contact dermatitis because of temporary tattoo with PPD sensitization. We are adding a new case of temporary tattoo with black henna with an extensive reaction, in which a 12-year-old white boy showed contact dermatitis from PPD, followed by cutaneous eruption after corticosteroid topical treatment. PMID:12109535

  5. Primary Psychiatric Conditions: Dermatitis Artefacta, Trichotillomania and Neurotic Excoriations

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jillian W; Nguyen, Tien V; Koo, John YM

    2013-01-01

    Primary psychiatric conditions encountered in dermatology include dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania (TTM) and neurotic excoriations. For these disorders, the primary pathologic condition involves the psyche; therefore, any cutaneous findings are self-induced. Herein, we review common primary psychiatric conditions in dermatology – dermatitis artefacta, neurotic excoriations and TTM – and examine their epidemiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis and treatment strategies. For all primary psychiatric disorders, the most effective underlying strategy is to first establish a strong therapeutic rapport with the patient. Various pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic therapies can then be attempted afterwards to successfully manage these patients. PMID:23372212

  6. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers].

    PubMed

    Latorre, N; Silvestre, J F; Monteagudo, A F

    2011-03-01

    Formaldehyde is a colorless gas with a pungent odor that is widely used as a preservative in toiletries and cosmetics and in products for household and industrial use. Both formaldehyde itself and substances that can release it are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. This condition often becomes chronic, given that these allergens are found nearly everywhere and it is difficult for patients to avoid them completely. This article reviews the sources of exposure to formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers and the clinical manifestations of allergen exposure. We also review current debates and recent developments and propose guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with formaldehyde contact dermatitis. PMID:21338980

  7. Seborrheic dermatitis treatment with stellate ganglion block: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gun Woo; Mun, Ki Ho; Song, Jeong Yun; Kim, Byung Gun; Jung, Jong Kwon; Lee, Choon Soo; Cha, Young Deog; Song, Jang Ho

    2016-04-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disorder presumed to be caused by increased sebaceous gland secretion, metabolic changes in the cutaneous microflora, and changes in the host immune function. Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is known to increase the blood flow rate without altering the blood pressure, heart rate, or cardiac output, to stabilize hypertonic conditions of the sympathetic nerves, and to affect the endocrine and immune systems. It is used in the differential diagnosis and treatment of autonomic nervous system disorders of the head, neck, and upper limbs. The authors report the first case of successful treatment of a patient with seborrheic dermatitis through repeated SGB trials. PMID:27064785

  8. [Blister dermatitis caused by Epicauta flagellaria (Erichson) (Coleoptera: Meloidae) species].

    PubMed

    Méndez, E; Sáenz, R E; Johnson, C M

    1989-09-01

    This paper is the first published report of vesicular dermatitis due to blister beetles of the family Meloidae in Panamá. A familial outbreak of bullous dermatitis caused by Epicauta flagellaria (Erichson) is described. All previous cases known in the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory were associated with E. isthmica Werner. Bullous lesions are produced when cantharidin, a vesicating toxin contained in the beetle's body, is released at the time the insect is crushed or rubbed upon the exposed skin. Rules for the treatment and prevention of this disease are indicated. PMID:2813877

  9. [Definition and psychopathology of chronic hand dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Lahfa, M

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathology in patients with DCM is as complex as its clinical forms where the factors are numerous and often intricate. It combines psychophysiological, psychopathological factors, behavioral disorders which can be the cause or the consequence of DCM but also the negative impact on quality of life and the simplest daily activities. DCM affects the quality of life of every patient, regardless of the severity. Women are more affected by the DCM that man older age, male sex, atopy and the existence of a contact sensitization are independent risk factors of severity. Depression may affect up to 10 % of patients, should involve greater attention from dermatologists and general practitioners. Health authorities and all health actors should be aware of interactions between secondary cognitive troubles or inherent to DCM and efforts required in terms of preventive measures. Thus, the presence of psychiatric comorbidity is more common in patients with chronic dermatoses. Today it is considered that the emotional environment, built by the mother - child relationship must be optimal, otherwise the mental stability of body image may be compromised. Diminished self-esteem, affects less well managed and somatic expression of emotional content. Recently, a surprising study showed that most patients with refractory occupational dermatitis were not able to recognize the warning sign of flare or the role of psychological factors in the formation and maintenance of the dermatose. In fact, they rejected their personal responsibility in the occurrence of the new flare. To address this public health problem, health authorities, trainers and caregivers should be aware of the cognitive impact of DCM in these patients and interactions with current means of prevention. The role of obsessive-compulsive washing as part of an anxiety disorder or personality disorder is most likely a contributing or maintaining factor systematically underestimated in the pathogenesis of DCM and in the

  10. Activation mechanism of thiol protease precursor from broiler chicken specific Staphylococcus aureus strain CH-91.

    PubMed

    Wladyka, Benedykt; Dubin, Grzegorz; Dubin, Adam

    2011-01-10

    Staphylococcus aureus strain CH-91 isolated from chicken dermatitis lesions produces large quantities of thiol protease implicated in disease formation. Observed overproduction requires efficient activation of the protease precursor which mechanism is studied here in detail. Wild type and mutant precursor forms are expressed in E. coli to test different hypotheses on the activation process. It is demonstrated that wild type precursor undergoes rapid autocatalytic processing whereas proteolytically inactive catalytic triad cysteine mutant (C(249)A) of the precursor is stable, but can be processed by minute quantities of active protease. It is concluded that limited intramolecular proteolysis is mainly responsible for efficient activation but, a positive feedback loop also contributes to the process. Both activation pathways allow efficient production of mature extracellular thiol protease, a putative virulence factor specific for avian strains of S. aureus. PMID:20598816

  11. NVC-422 Inactivates Staphylococcus aureus Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Jekle, Andreas; Yoon, Jungjoo; Zuck, Meghan; Najafi, Ramin; Wang, Lu; Shiau, Timothy; Francavilla, Charles; Rani, Suriani Abdul; Eitzinger, Christian; Nagl, Markus; Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens have specific virulence factors (e.g., toxins) that contribute significantly to the virulence and infectivity of microorganisms within the human hosts. Virulence factors are molecules expressed by pathogens that enable colonization, immunoevasion, and immunosuppression, obtaining nutrients from the host or gaining entry into host cells. They can cause pathogenesis by inhibiting or stimulating certain host functions. For example, in systemic Staphylococcus aureus infections, virulence factors such as toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) cause sepsis or toxic shock by uncontrolled stimulation of T lymphocytes and by triggering a cytokine storm. In vitro, these superantigens stimulate the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the release of many cytokines. NVC-422 (N,N-dichloro-2,2-dimethyltaurine) is a broad-spectrum, fast-acting topical anti-infective agent against microbial pathogens, including antibiotic-resistant microbes. Using mass spectrometry, we demonstrate here that NVC-422 oxidizes methionine residues of TSST-1, SEA, SEB, and exfoliative toxin A (ETA). Exposure of virulence factors to 0.1% NVC-422 for 1 h prevented TSST-1-, SEA-, SEB-, and ETA-induced cell proliferation and cytokine release. Moreover, NVC-422 also delayed and reduced the protein A- and clumping factor-associated agglutination of S. aureus cultures. These results show that, in addition to its well-described direct microbicidal activity, NVC-422 can inactivate S. aureus virulence factors through rapid oxidation of methionines. PMID:23208720

  12. Modulation of Staphylococcus aureus spreading by water.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Hui; Ke, Wan-Ju; Liu, Chao-Chin; Yang, Meng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is known to spread rapidly and form giant colonies on the surface of soft agar and animal tissues by a process called colony spreading. So far, the mechanisms underlying spreading remain poorly understood. This study investigated the spreading phenomenon by culturing S. aureus and its mutant derivatives on Tryptic Soy Agarose (TSA) medium. We found that S. aureus extracts water from the medium and floats on water at 2.5 h after inoculation, which could be observed using phase contrast microscopy. The floating of the bacteria on water could be verified by confocal microscopy using an S. aureus strain that constitutively expresses green fluorescence protein. This study also found that as the density of bacterial colony increases, a quorum sensing response is triggered, resulting in the synthesis of the biosurfactants, phenolic-soluble modulins (PSMs), which weakens water surface tension, causing water to flood the medium surface to allow the bacteria to spread rapidly. This study reveals a mechanism that explains how an organism lacking a flagellar motor is capable of spreading rapidly on a medium surface, which is important to the understanding of how S. aureus spreads in human tissues to cause infections. PMID:27125382

  13. Hidden Staphylococcus aureus Carriage: Overrated or Underappreciated?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a persistent companion bacterial species in one-third of humankind. Reservoirs include the nasal and nasopharyngeal cavities, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Despite earlier claims that colonization of individuals is caused by clonal organisms, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revealed that resident type heterogeneity is not exceptional. Carriage, whether overt or hidden, is correlated with a risk of autoinfection. In a recent article in mBio, it was shown that, based on staphylococcal genome sequencing, low-level GI persistence may cause long-term nosocomial outbreaks [L. Senn et al., 7(1):e02039-15, 2016, doi:10.1128/mBio.02039-15]. Institutional endemicity with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) sequence type 228 (ST228) is shown to originate not from high-level nasal carriage or poor compliance with infection control practice but from low-grade asymptomatic GI colonization. This shows the power of NGS in elucidating staphylococcal epidemiology and, even more important, demonstrates that (drug-resistant) microorganisms may possess stealthy means of persistence. Identifying these persistence mechanisms is key to successful infection control. PMID:26884429

  14. Cadmium Modulates Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xueqing; Santos, Regiane R.; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of cadmium exposure on Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984) biofilm formation. Bacteria were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations (0–50 µM) of cadmium. Biofilm formation and bacterial viability were assessed. Quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the mRNA expression of molecular markers of S. epidermidis biofilm formation and dispersion. S. epidermidis biofilm formation was stimulated (p < 0.001) by 1.56 and 3.13 µM cadmium. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis confirmed an increase in biofilm thickness (23 and 22 µm, versus 17.8 µm in the controls) after exposure to 1.56 or 3.13 µM cadmium, respectively. qRT-PCR was performed showing the up-regulation of atlE, embp, aap, icaA and icaB after exposure to 3.13 µM cadmium. Taken together, these findings show that cadmium at low, sub-toxic concentrations acts as inducer of S. epidermidis biofilm formation. PMID:25749322

  15. Modulation of Staphylococcus aureus spreading by water

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mei-Hui; Ke, Wan-Ju; Liu, Chao-Chin; Yang, Meng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is known to spread rapidly and form giant colonies on the surface of soft agar and animal tissues by a process called colony spreading. So far, the mechanisms underlying spreading remain poorly understood. This study investigated the spreading phenomenon by culturing S. aureus and its mutant derivatives on Tryptic Soy Agarose (TSA) medium. We found that S. aureus extracts water from the medium and floats on water at 2.5 h after inoculation, which could be observed using phase contrast microscopy. The floating of the bacteria on water could be verified by confocal microscopy using an S. aureus strain that constitutively expresses green fluorescence protein. This study also found that as the density of bacterial colony increases, a quorum sensing response is triggered, resulting in the synthesis of the biosurfactants, phenolic-soluble modulins (PSMs), which weakens water surface tension, causing water to flood the medium surface to allow the bacteria to spread rapidly. This study reveals a mechanism that explains how an organism lacking a flagellar motor is capable of spreading rapidly on a medium surface, which is important to the understanding of how S. aureus spreads in human tissues to cause infections. PMID:27125382

  16. Comparative Genomics of the Staphylococcus intermedius Group of Animal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Beatson, Scott A.; van den Broek, Adri H. M.; Thoday, Keith L.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross

    2012-01-01

    The Staphylococcus intermedius group consists of three closely related coagulase-positive bacterial species including S. intermedius, Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, and Staphylococcus delphini. S. pseudintermedius is a major skin pathogen of dogs, which occasionally causes severe zoonotic infections of humans. S. delphini has been isolated from an array of different animals including horses, mink, and pigeons, whereas S. intermedius has been isolated only from pigeons to date. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the S. pseudintermedius whole genome sequence in comparison to high quality draft S. intermedius and S. delphini genomes, and to other sequenced staphylococcal species. The core genome of the SIG was highly conserved with average nucleotide identity (ANI) between the three species of 93.61%, which is very close to the threshold of species delineation (95% ANI), highlighting the close-relatedness of the SIG species. However, considerable variation was identified in the content of mobile genetic elements, cell wall-associated proteins, and iron and sugar transporters, reflecting the distinct ecological niches inhabited. Of note, S. pseudintermedius ED99 contained a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat locus of the Nmeni subtype and S. intermedius contained both Nmeni and Mtube subtypes. In contrast to S. intermedius and S. delphini and most other staphylococci examined to date, S. pseudintermedius contained at least nine predicted reverse transcriptase Group II introns. Furthermore, S. pseudintermedius ED99 encoded several transposons which were largely responsible for its multi-resistant phenotype. Overall, the study highlights extensive differences in accessory genome content between closely related staphylococcal species inhabiting distinct host niches, providing new avenues for research into pathogenesis and bacterial host-adaptation. PMID:22919635

  17. Apremilast Use for Moderate-to-Severe Atopic Dermatitis in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saporito, Rachael C.; Cohen, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic skin disease often complicated by bacterial superinfection affecting 10.7% of American children. The pathogenesis involves a skin barrier breakdown in addition to dysfunctional innate and adaptive immune response, including an unbalanced increase in T-helper 2 cells and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. The increased numbers of T-helper 2 cells are involved in stimulating the production of immunoglobulin E and eosinophilia by releasing interleukin-4, -5, and -13 as well as in decreasing protection against bacterial superinfection by releasing interleukin-10. The current Food and Drug Administration-approved symptomatic treatment for AD includes topical ointments, topical and systemic corticosteroids, topical immunomodulant therapy, antibiotics, and phototherapy, but there are not approved targeted therapies or cures. By presenting a case of an 8-year-old African-American boy, this case report supports novel therapy of moderate-to-severe AD with apremilast, a phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor. Apremilast has recently completed the phase 2 clinical trial (NCT02087943) for treatment of AD in adults. This case report illustrates the potential for apremilast as a treatment for AD in children, where there is a great need for safe and effective medications. PMID:27504087

  18. Comparison of the In vitro Activity of Five Antimicrobial Drugs against Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Ferran, Aude A; Liu, JingJing; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Resistance in canine pathogenic staphylococci is necessitating re-evaluation of the current antimicrobial treatments especially for biofilm-associated infections. Long, repeated treatments are often required to control such infections due to the tolerance of bacteria within the biofilm. To comply with the goal of better antibiotic stewardship in veterinary medicine, the efficacies of the available drugs need to be directly assessed on bacterial biofilms. We compared the activities of amoxicillin, cefalexin, clindamycin, doxycycline, and marbofloxacin on in vitro biofilms of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus aureus. Exposure of biofilms for 15 h to maximum concentrations of the antibiotics achievable in canine plasma only reduced biofilm bacteria by 0.5-2.0 log10 CFU, compared to the control, except for marbofloxacin which reduced S. aureus biofilms by 5.4 log10 CFU. Two-antibiotic combinations did not improve, and even decreased, bacterial killing. In comparison, 5 min-exposure to 2% chlorhexidine reduced biofilms of the two tested strains by 4 log10 CFU. Our results showed that S. pseudintermedius and S. aureus biofilms were highly tolerant to all the drugs tested, consistent with the treatment failures observed in practice. Under our in vitro conditions, the use of chlorhexidine was more efficacious than antimicrobials to reduce S. pseudintermedius biofilm. PMID:27531995

  19. Comparison of the In vitro Activity of Five Antimicrobial Drugs against Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Ferran, Aude A.; Liu, JingJing; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Resistance in canine pathogenic staphylococci is necessitating re-evaluation of the current antimicrobial treatments especially for biofilm-associated infections. Long, repeated treatments are often required to control such infections due to the tolerance of bacteria within the biofilm. To comply with the goal of better antibiotic stewardship in veterinary medicine, the efficacies of the available drugs need to be directly assessed on bacterial biofilms. We compared the activities of amoxicillin, cefalexin, clindamycin, doxycycline, and marbofloxacin on in vitro biofilms of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and Staphylococcus aureus. Exposure of biofilms for 15 h to maximum concentrations of the antibiotics achievable in canine plasma only reduced biofilm bacteria by 0.5–2.0 log10 CFU, compared to the control, except for marbofloxacin which reduced S. aureus biofilms by 5.4 log10 CFU. Two-antibiotic combinations did not improve, and even decreased, bacterial killing. In comparison, 5 min-exposure to 2% chlorhexidine reduced biofilms of the two tested strains by 4 log10 CFU. Our results showed that S. pseudintermedius and S. aureus biofilms were highly tolerant to all the drugs tested, consistent with the treatment failures observed in practice. Under our in vitro conditions, the use of chlorhexidine was more efficacious than antimicrobials to reduce S. pseudintermedius biofilm. PMID:27531995

  20. Local host response following an intramammary challenge with Staphylococcus fleurettii and different strains of Staphylococcus chromogenes in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Piccart, Kristine; Verbeke, Joren; De Visscher, Anneleen; Piepers, Sofie; Haesebrouck, Freddy; De Vliegher, Sarne

    2016-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a common cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The CNS inhabit various ecological habitats, ranging between the environment and the host. In order to obtain a better insight into the host response, an experimental infection was carried out in eight healthy heifers in mid-lactation with three different CNS strains: a Staphylococcus fleurettii strain originating from sawdust bedding, an intramammary Staphylococcus chromogenes strain originating from a persistent intramammary infection (S. chromogenes IM) and a S. chromogenes strain isolated from a heifer's teat apex (S. chromogenes TA). Each heifer was inoculated in the mammary gland with 1.0 × 10(6) colony forming units of each bacterial strain (one strain per udder quarter), whereas the remaining quarter was infused with phosphate-buffered saline. Overall, the CNS evoked a mild local host response. The somatic cell count increased in all S. fleurettii-inoculated quarters, although the strain was eliminated within 12 h. The two S. chromogenes strains were shed in larger numbers for a longer period. Bacterial and somatic cell counts, as well as neutrophil responses, were higher after inoculation with S. chromogenes IM than with S. chromogenes TA. In conclusion, these results suggest that S. chromogenes might be better adapted to the mammary gland than S. fleurettii. Furthermore, not all S. chromogenes strains induce the same local host response. PMID:27176792