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Sample records for bacterial drug resistance

  1. 75 FR 33317 - Antibacterial Resistance and Diagnostic Device and Drug Development Research for Bacterial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Antibacterial Resistance and Diagnostic Device and Drug... resistance, rapid diagnostic device development for bacterial diseases, and antibacterial drug development. The workshop will address antibacterial drug resistance, mechanisms of resistance, epidemiology...

  2. Drug resistance analysis of bacterial strains isolated from burn patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, L F; Li, J L; Ma, W H; Li, J Y

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the spectrum and drug resistance of bacteria isolated from burn patients to provide a reference for rational clinical use of antibiotics. Up to 1914 bacterial strain specimens isolated from burn patients admitted to hospital between 2001 and 2010 were subjected to resistance monitoring by using the K-B paper disk method. Retrospective analysis was performed on drug resistance analysis of burn patients. The top eight bacterium strains according to detection rate. A total of 1355 strains of Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria and 559 strains of Gram-positive (G(+)) bacteria were detected. The top eight bacterium strains, according to detection rate, were Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterococcus. Drug resistance rates were higher than 90% in A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, S. epidermidis, and S. aureus, which accounted for 52.2, 21.7, 27.8, and 33.3%, respectively, of the entire sample. Those with drug resistance rates lower than 30% accounted for 4.3, 30.4, 16.7, and 16.7%, respectively. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE) accounted for 49.2 and 76.4% of the S. epidermis and S. aureus resistance, respectively. Antibacterial drugs that had drug resistance rates to MRSE and MRSA higher than 90% accounted for 38.9 and 72.2%, respectively, whereas those with lower than 30% drug resistance rates accounted for 11.1 and 16.7%, respectively. The burn patients enrolled in the study were mainly infected with G(-) bacteria. These results strongly suggest that clinicians should practice rational use of antibiotics based on drug susceptibility test results. PMID:24535909

  3. Whole-genome sequencing targets drug-resistant bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Punina, N V; Makridakis, N M; Remnev, M A; Topunov, A F

    2015-01-01

    During the past two decades, the technological progress of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) had changed the fields of Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology, and, currently, is changing the underlying principles, approaches, and fundamentals of Public Health, Epidemiology, Health Economics, and national productivity. Today's WGS technologies are able to compete with conventional techniques in cost, speed, accuracy, and resolution for day-to-day control of infectious diseases and outbreaks in clinical laboratories and in long-term epidemiological investigations. WGS gives rise to an exciting future direction for personalized Genomic Epidemiology. One of the most vital and growing public health problems is the emerging and re-emerging of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections in the communities and healthcare settings, reinforced by a decline in antimicrobial drug discovery. In recent years, retrospective analysis provided by WGS has had a great impact on the identification and tracking of MDR microorganisms in hospitals and communities. The obtained genomic data are also important for developing novel easy-to-use diagnostic assays for clinics, as well as for antibiotic and therapeutic development at both the personal and population levels. At present, this technology has been successfully applied as an addendum to the real-time diagnostic methods currently used in clinical laboratories. However, the significance of WGS for public health may increase if: (a) unified and user-friendly bioinformatics toolsets for easy data interpretation and management are established, and (b) standards for data validation and verification are developed. Herein, we review the current and future impact of this technology on diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and control of MDR infectious bacteria in clinics and on the global scale. PMID:26243131

  4. An analogy between the evolution of drug resistance in bacterial communities and malignant tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Guillaume; Estévez-Salmeron, Luis; Oh, Steve; Liao, David; Emerson, Beverly M.; Tlsty, Thea D.; Austin, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells rapidly evolve drug resistance through somatic evolution and, in order to continue growth in the metastatic phase, violate the organism-wide consensus of regulated growth and beneficial communal interactions. We suggest that there is a fundamental mechanistic connection between the rapid evolution of resistance to chemotherapy in cellular communities within malignant tissues and the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacterial communities. We propose that this evolution is the result of a programmed and collective stress response performed by interacting cells, and that, given this fundamental connection, studying bacterial communities can provide deeper insights into the dynamics of adaptation and the evolution of cells within tumours. PMID:21508974

  5. Drug Resistance

    MedlinePLUS

    HIV Treatment Drug Resistance (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points As HIV multiplies in the ... the risk of drug resistance. What is HIV drug resistance? Once a person becomes infected with HIV, ...

  6. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of auranofin against multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F. N.; Sobreira, Tiago J. P.; Hedrick, Victoria E.; Paul, Lake N.; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods employed to discover new antibiotics are both a time-consuming and financially-taxing venture. This has led researchers to mine existing libraries of clinical molecules in order to repurpose old drugs for new applications (as antimicrobials). Such an effort led to the discovery of auranofin, a drug initially approved as an anti-rheumatic agent, which also possesses potent antibacterial activity in a clinically achievable range. The present study demonstrates auranofin’s antibacterial activity is a complex process that involves inhibition of multiple biosynthetic pathways including cell wall, DNA, and bacterial protein synthesis. We also confirmed that the lack of activity of auranofin observed against Gram-negative bacteria is due to the permeability barrier conferred by the outer membrane. Auranofin’s ability to suppress bacterial protein synthesis leads to significant reduction in the production of key methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) toxins. Additionally, auranofin is capable of eradicating intracellular MRSA present inside infected macrophage cells. Furthermore, auranofin is efficacious in a mouse model of MRSA systemic infection and significantly reduces the bacterial load in murine organs including the spleen and liver. Collectively, this study provides valuable evidence that auranofin has significant promise to be repurposed as a novel antibacterial for treatment of invasive bacterial infections. PMID:26936660

  7. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of auranofin against multi-drug resistant bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Thangamani, Shankar; Mohammad, Haroon; Abushahba, Mostafa F N; Sobreira, Tiago J P; Hedrick, Victoria E; Paul, Lake N; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods employed to discover new antibiotics are both a time-consuming and financially-taxing venture. This has led researchers to mine existing libraries of clinical molecules in order to repurpose old drugs for new applications (as antimicrobials). Such an effort led to the discovery of auranofin, a drug initially approved as an anti-rheumatic agent, which also possesses potent antibacterial activity in a clinically achievable range. The present study demonstrates auranofin's antibacterial activity is a complex process that involves inhibition of multiple biosynthetic pathways including cell wall, DNA, and bacterial protein synthesis. We also confirmed that the lack of activity of auranofin observed against Gram-negative bacteria is due to the permeability barrier conferred by the outer membrane. Auranofin's ability to suppress bacterial protein synthesis leads to significant reduction in the production of key methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) toxins. Additionally, auranofin is capable of eradicating intracellular MRSA present inside infected macrophage cells. Furthermore, auranofin is efficacious in a mouse model of MRSA systemic infection and significantly reduces the bacterial load in murine organs including the spleen and liver. Collectively, this study provides valuable evidence that auranofin has significant promise to be repurposed as a novel antibacterial for treatment of invasive bacterial infections. PMID:26936660

  8. Origin and Proliferation of Multiple-Drug Resistance in Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiao-Han; Cohen, Ted; Grad, Yonatan H.; Hanage, William P.; O'Brien, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Many studies report the high prevalence of multiply drug-resistant (MDR) strains. Because MDR infections are often significantly harder and more expensive to treat, they represent a growing public health threat. However, for different pathogens, different underlying mechanisms are traditionally used to explain these observations, and it is unclear whether each bacterial taxon has its own mechanism(s) for multidrug resistance or whether there are common mechanisms between distantly related pathogens. In this review, we provide a systematic overview of the causes of the excess of MDR infections and define testable predictions made by each hypothetical mechanism, including experimental, epidemiological, population genomic, and other tests of these hypotheses. Better understanding the cause(s) of the excess of MDR is the first step to rational design of more effective interventions to prevent the origin and/or proliferation of MDR. PMID:25652543

  9. Aminomethyl spectinomycins as therapeutics for drug-resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, David F; Waidyarachchi, Samanthi L; Madhura, Dora B; Shcherbakov, Dimitri; Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Jiuyu; Abdelrahman, Yasser M; Singh, Aman P; Duscha, Stefan; Rathi, Chetan; Lee, Robin B; Belland, Robert J; Meibohm, Bernd; Rosch, Jason W; Böttger, Erik C; Lee, Richard E

    2015-05-20

    The antibiotic spectinomycin is a potent inhibitor of bacterial protein synthesis with a unique mechanism of action and an excellent safety index, but it lacks antibacterial activity against most clinically important pathogens. A series of N-benzyl-substituted 3'-(R)-3'-aminomethyl-3'-hydroxy spectinomycins was developed on the basis of a computational analysis of the aminomethyl spectinomycin binding site and structure-guided synthesis. These compounds had ribosomal inhibition values comparable to spectinomycin but showed increased potency against the common respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, and Moraxella catarrhalis, as well as the sexually transmitted bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Non-ribosome-binding 3'-(S) isomers of the lead compounds demonstrated weak inhibitory activity in in vitro protein translation assays and poor antibacterial activity, indicating that the antibacterial activity of the series remains on target against the ribosome. Compounds also demonstrated no mammalian cytotoxicity, improved microsomal stability, and favorable pharmacokinetic properties in rats. The lead compound from the series exhibited excellent chemical stability superior to spectinomycin; no interaction with a panel of human receptors and drug metabolism enzymes, suggesting low potential for adverse reactions or drug-drug interactions in vivo; activity in vitro against a panel of penicillin-, macrolide-, and cephalosporin-resistant S. pneumoniae clinical isolates; and the ability to cure mice of fatal pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Together, these studies indicate that N-benzyl aminomethyl spectinomycins are suitable for further development to treat drug-resistant respiratory tract and sexually transmitted bacterial infections. PMID:25995221

  10. Exposure to phages has little impact on the evolution of bacterial antibiotic resistance on drug concentration gradients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan-Guo

    2014-01-01

    The use of phages for treating bacterial pathogens has recently been advocated as an alternative to antibiotic therapy. Here, we test a hypothesis that bacteria treated with phages may show more limited evolution of antibiotic resistance as the fitness costs of resistance to phages may add to those of antibiotic resistance, further reducing the growth performance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We did this by studying the evolution of phage-exposed and phage-free Pseudomonas fluorescens cultures on concentration gradients of single drugs, including cefotaxime, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin. During drug treatment, the level of bacterial antibiotic resistance increased through time and was not affected by the phage treatment. Exposure to phages did not cause slower growth in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, although it did so in antibiotic-susceptible bacteria. We observed significant reversion of antibiotic resistance after drug use being terminated, and the rate of reversion was not affected by the phage treatment. The results suggest that the fitness costs caused by resistance to phages are unlikely to be an important constraint on the evolution of bacterial antibiotic resistance in heterogeneous drug environments. Further studies are needed for the interaction of fitness costs of antibiotic resistance with other factors. PMID:24665341

  11. Interactions of antibiotics and methanolic crude extracts of Afzelia Africana (Smith.) against drug resistance bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Aiyegoro, Olayinka; Adewusi, Adekanmi; Oyedemi, Sunday; Akinpelu, David; Okoh, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Infection due to multidrug resistance pathogens is difficult to manage due to bacterial virulence factors and because of a relatively limited choice of antimicrobial agents. Thus, it is imperative to discover fresh antimicrobials or new practices that are effective for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by drug-resistant microorganisms. The objective of this experiment is to investigate for synergistic outcomes when crude methanolic extract of the stem bark of Afzelia africana and antibiotics were combined against a panel of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains that have been implicated in infections. Standard microbiological protocols were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and antibiotics, as well as to investigate the effect of combinations of the methanolic extract of A. africana stem bark and selected antibiotics using the time-kill assay method. The extract of Afzelia africana exhibited antibacterial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria made up of environmental and standard strains at a screening concentration of 5 mg/mL. The MICs of the crude extracts and the antibiotics varied between 1 ?g/mL and 5.0 mg/mL. Overall, synergistic response constituted about 63.79% of all manner of combinations of extract and antibiotics against all test organisms; antagonism was not detected among the 176 tests carried out. The extract from A. africana stem bark showed potentials of synergy in combination with antibiotics against strains of pathogenic bacteria. The detection of synergy between the extract and antibiotics demonstrates the potential of this plant as a source of antibiotic resistance modulating compounds. PMID:21845091

  12. Occurrence of plasmid linked multiple drug resistance in bacterial isolates of tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Naraian, R; Ram, S; Kaistha, S D; Srivastava, J

    2012-01-01

    Effluents of three different tanneries (T-1, T-2, & T-3) were investigated to isolate and scrutinize antibiotic, chromate and salinity resistant bacteria. Total 18 isolates of 9 different bacterial genera were screened out and identified; some strains established in all effluents. Amongst the three effluents tested; T-1 exhibited largest population of all isolates compared to T-2 and T-3 effluents. The T-1 effluent contained largest 4.4 x10(6) cfu/ml population of Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by 3.9 x10(6) cfu/ml in T-2 effluent. The lowest 0.7 x10(6) cfu/ml count of Aeromonas spp. was recorded in T-3 effluent. Furthermore, antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed with 7 antibiotics which include ampicillin, sulfafurazole, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, tetracycline and amikacin. Three strains of P. aeruginosa and one strain of Escherichia coli deserved as multiple drug resistant (MDR). The P. aeruginosaT-3 and E. coliT-1 showed strongest MDR feature for 5 antibiotics. The response of chromate (50, 100, 200, 250 and 300 ?g/ml) and NaCl concentrations (20, 40, 60 and 80 g/l) was incredible for 4 MDR isolates. Nearly each strain showed tolerance up to 300 ?g/ml of chromate and 80 g/l of NaCl. The P. aeruginosaT-1, P. aeruginosaT-2, P. aeruginosaT-3 and E. coliT-1 were most tolerant isolates. Plasmid profiling of resistant strains was conducted with agarose gel electrophoresis. As consequence, plasmids from two strains of P. aeruginosa and E. coliT-1 represented different bands. At least for confirmation of plasmids nature; these were transformed and transformants were screened on medium having antibiotics. The study of plasmid transformation has confirmed the plasmid mediated resistance in isolates. PMID:23273203

  13. Inhibition of bacterial growth by iron oxide nanoparticles with and without attached drug: Have we conquered the antibiotic resistance problem?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijo, Leisha M.; Jain, Priyanka; Malagodi, Angelina; Fornelli, F. Zuly; Hayat, Allison; Rivera, Antonio C.; French, Michael; Smyth, Hugh D. C.; Osiński, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the top three leading causative opportunistic human pathogens, possessing one of the largest bacterial genomes and an exceptionally large proportion of regulatory genes therein. It has been known for more than a decade that the size and complexity of the P. aeruginosa genome is responsible for the adaptability and resilience of the bacteria to include its ability to resist many disinfectants and antibiotics. We have investigated the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa bacterial biofilms to iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles (NPs) with and without attached drug (tobramycin). We also characterized the susceptibility of zero-valent iron NPs, which are known to inactivate microbes. The particles, having an average diameter of 16 nm were capped with natural alginate, thus doubling the hydrodynamic size. Nanoparticle-drug conjugates were produced via cross-linking drug and alginate functional groups. Drug conjugates were investigated in the interest of determining dosage, during these dosage-curve experiments, NPs unbound to drug were tested in cultures as a negative control. Surprisingly, we found that the iron oxide NPs inhibited bacterial growth, and thus, biofilm formation without the addition of antibiotic drug. The inhibitory dosages of iron oxide NPs were investigated and the minimum inhibitory concentrations are presented. These findings suggest that NP-drug conjugates may overcome the antibiotic drug resistance common in P. aeruginosa infections.

  14. Drug resistance of bacterial dental biofilm and the potential use of natural compounds as alternative for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Al Qurashi, Yasir Mohammed A; Chaieb, Kamel

    2015-03-01

    Oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease are directly linked with the ability of bacteria to form biofilm. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria colonizing the supragingival biofilm (Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria forming a subgingival plaque (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Cells embedded in biofilm are up to 1000-fold more resistant to antibiotics compared to their planctonic ones. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain biofilms drug resistance. Given the increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics currently used in dentistry, a great importance is given to natural compounds for the prevention of oral bacterial growth, adhesion and colonization. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. It has been well documented that medicinal plants and natural compounds confer considerable antibacterial activity against various microorganisms including cariogenic and periodontal pathogens. This paper provides a review of the literature focusing on the studies on (i) biofilm in the oral cavity, (ii) drug resistance of bacterial biofilm and (iii) the potential use of plant extracts, essential oils and natural compounds as biofilm preventive agents in dentistry, involving their origin and their mechanism of biofilm inhibition. PMID:25708507

  15. Bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors: attractive alternatives for control of infectious pathogens showing multiple drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ashima K; Vinothkumar, Kittappa; Rajpara, Neha

    2013-04-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial communication process that depends on the bacterial population density. It involves small diffusible signaling molecules which activate the expression of myriad genes that control diverse array of functions like bioluminescence, virulence, biofilm formation, sporulation, to name a few. Since QS is responsible for virulence in the clinically relevant bacteria, inhibition of QS appears to be a promising strategy to control these pathogenic bacteria. With indiscriminate use of antibiotics, there has been an alarming increase in the number of antibiotic resistant pathogens. Antibiotics are no longer the magic bullets they were once thought to be and therefore there is a need for development of new antibiotics and/or other novel strategies to combat the infections caused by multidrug resistant organisms. Quorum sensing inhibition or quorum quenching has been pursued as one of such novel strategies. While antibiotics kill or slow down the growth of bacteria, quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) or quorum quenchers (QQs) attenuate bacterial virulence. A large body of work on QS has been carried out in deadly pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fischeri, V. harveyi, Escherichia coli and V. cholerae etc to unravel the mechanisms of QS as well as identify and study QSIs. This review describes various aspects of QS, QSI, different model systems to study these phenomena and recent patents on various QSIs. It suggests QSIs as attractive alternatives for controlling human, animal and plant pathogens and their utility in agriculture and other industries. PMID:23394143

  16. Dendrimer-based multivalent vancomycin nanoplatform for targeting the drug-resistant bacterial surface.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seok Ki; Myc, Andrzej; Silpe, Justin Ezekiel; Sumit, Madhuresh; Wong, Pamela Tinmoi; McCarthy, Kelly; Desai, Ankur M; Thomas, Thommey P; Kotlyar, Alina; Holl, Mark M Banaszak; Orr, Bradford G; Baker, James R

    2013-01-22

    Vancomycin represents the preferred ligand for bacteria-targeting nanosystems. However, it is inefficient for emerging vancomycin-resistant species because of its poor affinity to the reprogrammed cell wall structure. This study demonstrates the use of a multivalent strategy as an effective way for overcoming such an affinity limitation in bacteria targeting. We designed a series of fifth generation (G5) poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers tethered with vancomycin at the C-terminus at different valencies. We performed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies to determine their binding avidity to two cell wall models, each made with either a vancomycin-susceptible (D)-Ala-(D)-Ala or vancomycin-resistant (D)-Ala-(D)-Lac cell wall precursor. These conjugates showed remarkable enhancement in avidity in the cell wall models tested, including the vancomycin-resistant model, which had an increase in avidity of four to five orders of magnitude greater than free vancomycin. The tight adsorption of the conjugate to the model surface corresponded with its ability to bind vancomycin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cells in vitro as imaged by confocal fluorescent microscopy. This vancomycin platform was then used to fabricate the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles by coating them with the dendrimer conjugates, and the resulting dendrimer-covered magnetic nanoparticles were demonstrated to rapidly sequester bacterial cells. In summary, this article investigates the biophysical basis of the tight, multivalent association of dendrimer-based vancomycin conjugates to the bacterial cell wall, and proposes a potential new use of this nanoplatform in targeting Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23259666

  17. Drug Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drug resistance refers to both intrinsic and acquired abilities of cells or organisms to become insensitive or refractory to chemotherapeutic intervention. The advent of antibiotics is considered one of the most important medicinal developments in human history, which has led to significantly reduce...

  18. Bacterial energetics and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Proctor, R A; von Humboldt, A

    1998-01-01

    Defining resistance to antimicrobics with specific terms is very useful as the precise mechanisms often lead to better susceptibility testing and improved treatment of bacterial infections. When one can characterize a class of phenotypic resistant organisms as electron transport variants, this has value in that it provides information about the basis for resistance and removes them from the non-specific categorization as phenotypically resistant. Studies of bacterial small colony variants (SCVs) has provided new insights into antimicrobial resistance as well as the connection between expression of virulence factors and energy metabolism. It also provides a framework for further studies which link antibiotic resistance to phase of growth, availability of nutrients, other environmental conditions, and adaptations to stress into a single model wherein the bacterial cell uses the products of energy metabolism to detect its sense of well being and to alter its response to antibiotics (Fig. I). Levels of NADH and ATP are able to act as signaling molecules in both gram positive an gram negative bacteria to activate stress sigma factors and two component systems. In the future, a full understanding of the signaling pathways in bacterial pathogens may provide new targets for the development of drugs to reduce bacterial virulence and to enhance the activity of existing antibiotics. PMID:16904405

  19. The population genetics of drug resistance evolution innatural populations of viral, bacterial and eukaryotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Benjamin A; Garud, Nandita R; Feder, Alison F; Assaf, Zoe J; Pennings, Pleuni S

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance is a costly consequence of pathogen evolution and a major concern in public health. In this review, we show how population genetics can be used to study the evolution of drug resistance and also how drug resistance evolution is informative as an evolutionary model system. We highlight five examples from diverse organisms with particular focus on: (i) identifying drug resistance loci in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum using the genomic signatures of selective sweeps, (ii) determining the role of epistasis in drug resistance evolution in influenza, (iii) quantifying the role of standing genetic variation in the evolution of drug resistance in HIV, (iv) using drug resistance mutations to study clonal interference dynamics in tuberculosis and (v) analysing the population structure of the core and accessory genome of Staphylococcus aureus to understand the spread of methicillin resistance. Throughout this review, we discuss the uses of sequence data and population genetic theory in studying the evolution of drug resistance. PMID:26578204

  20. Epidemics of Drug-Resistant Bacterial Infections Observed in Infectious Disease Surveillance in Japan, 2001-2005

    PubMed Central

    Izumida, Michiko; Nagai, Masaki; Ohta, Akiko; Hashimoto, Shuji; Kawado, Miyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Tada, Yuki; Shigematsu, Mika; Yasui, Yoshinori; Taniguchi, Kiyosu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Drug-resistant bacteria have been increasing together with advancement of antimicrobial chemotherapy in recent years. In Japan, the target diseases in the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID) include some drug-resistant bacterial infections. METHODS We used the data in the NESID in Japan, 2001-2005. Target diseases were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) and multi-drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) infections. The numbers of patients reported by sentinel hospitals (about 500) on a monthly basis were observed. RESULTS The numbers of patients per month per sentinel hospital of 2001-2005 were 3.37-3.98 in MRSA, 0.96-1.19 in PRSP, and 0.11-0.13 in MDRPA infections. The sex ratios (male / female) of patients were 1.69-1.82, 1.34-1.43, and 1.71-2.52, respectively. More than 50% of all patients were adults aged 70 years or older in MRSA and MDRPA infections, but more than 60% were children under 10 years in PRSP infections. The number of patients per sentinel hospital in MRSA infections showed little variation between months, but evidenced a large variation in PRSP and MDRPA infections. The annual trend in the number of patients per sentinel hospital was increasing significantly for the 5-year period in MRSA and PRSP infections, but not in MDRPA infections. CONCLUSIONS We revealed sex-age distributions of the patients reported to NESID in Japan, 2001-2005. An increasing incidence of MRSA and PRSP infections and monthly variation in PRSP and MDRPA infections were observed for the 5-year period. Extended observation would be necessary to confirm these trends and variations. PMID:18239341

  1. Bacterial resistance in acne.

    PubMed

    Eady, E A

    1998-01-01

    Antibiotics play a major role in acne therapy. Physicians base treatment choices on personal perceptions of efficacy, cost-effectiveness or risk-benefit ratios and rarely take bacterial resistance into account. It is well documented that resistant strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci within the resident skin flora increase in both prevalence and population density as duration of therapy increases. Acne patients represent a considerable reservoir of resistant strains of these important nosocomial pathogens which can be transferred to close contacts. Resistance in cutaneous propionibacteria has received scant attention in view of the central role of Propionibacterium acnes in inflammatory acne. Isolates resistant to one or more anti-acne antibiotics (most commonly erythromycin) have been reported in Europe, the USA, Japan and New Zealand. Carriage of resistant strains results in therapeutic failure of some but not all antibiotic regimens. In our region, skin carriage of resistant strains by 60% of acne patients and 1 in 2 of their close contacts suggests that resistant strains are widely disseminated. We are beginning to gain an understanding of those factors which encourage resistance development and can identify those patients most likely to possess resistant propionibacterial floras. Recommendations for the use of antibiotics in acne therapy to help prevent the emergence of resistance in P. acnes include the implementation of antibiotic usage policies and the encouragement of improved prescribing habits. PMID:9557228

  2. Globally dispersed mobile drug-resistance genes in Gram-negative bacterial isolates from patients with bloodstream infections in a US urban general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Sapper, S.; Sergeevna-Selezneva, J.; Tartof, S.; Raphael, E.; Diep, B. An; Perdreau-Remington, F.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile drug-resistance genes with identical nucleic acid sequences carried by multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains that cause community-acquired infections are becomingly increasingly dispersed worldwide. Over a 2-year period, we analysed Gram-negative bacterial (GNB) pathogens from the blood of inpatients at an urban public hospital to determine what proportion of these isolates carried such globally dispersed drug-resistance genes. Of 376 GNB isolates, 167 (44 %) were Escherichia coli, 50 (13 %) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 25 (7 %) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 25 (7 %) were Proteus mirabilis and 20 (5 %) were Enterobacter cloacae; the remainder (24 %) comprised 26 different GNB species. Among E. coli isolates, class 1 integrons were detected in 64 (38 %). The most common integron gene cassette configuration was dfrA17-aadA5, found in 30 (25 %) of 119 drug-resistant E. coli isolates and in one isolate of Moraxella morganii. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes were found in 16 E. coli isolates (10 %). These genes with identical sequences were found in nearly 40 % of bloodstream E. coli isolates in the study hospital, as well as in a variety of bacterial species from clinical and non-clinical sources worldwide. Thus, a substantial proportion of bloodstream infections among hospitalized patients were caused by E. coli strains carrying drug-resistance genes that are dispersed globally in a wide variety of bacterial species. PMID:22493279

  3. Mechanisms of drug resistance: quinolone resistance.

    PubMed

    Hooper, David C; Jacoby, George A

    2015-09-01

    Quinolone antimicrobials are synthetic and widely used in clinical medicine. Resistance emerged with clinical use and became common in some bacterial pathogens. Mechanisms of resistance include two categories of mutation and acquisition of resistance-conferring genes. Resistance mutations in one or both of the two drug target enzymes, DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV, are commonly in a localized domain of the GyrA and ParE subunits of the respective enzymes and reduce drug binding to the enzyme-DNA complex. Other resistance mutations occur in regulatory genes that control the expression of native efflux pumps localized in the bacterial membrane(s). These pumps have broad substrate profiles that include quinolones as well as other antimicrobials, disinfectants, and dyes. Mutations of both types can accumulate with selection pressure and produce highly resistant strains. Resistance genes acquired on plasmids can confer low-level resistance that promotes the selection of mutational high-level resistance. Plasmid-encoded resistance is due to Qnr proteins that protect the target enzymes from quinolone action, one mutant aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme that also modifies certain quinolones, and mobile efflux pumps. Plasmids with these mechanisms often encode additional antimicrobial resistances and can transfer multidrug resistance that includes quinolones. Thus, the bacterial quinolone resistance armamentarium is large. PMID:26190223

  4. Transfer between an Algerian and a French hospital of four multi-drug resistant bacterial strains together via a single patient

    PubMed Central

    Moissenet, Didier; Richard, Patrick; Granados, Maria; Mérens, Audrey; Fournier, Damien; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Arlet, Guillaume; Vu-Thien, Hoang

    2015-01-01

    A 5 years-old girl, seriously burnt with fire, was first hospitalized during four days in an hospital at Alger, and then transferred to our hospital at Paris. Admitted in our intensive care burns unit, she was third degree burnt on 78% of total body surface area, already treated with imipenem and vancomycin at her arrival. Clinical aggravation was rapidly observed and death occurred within 24 hours. Cultures of blood and multiple wound swabs yielded 3 multi-drug resistant bacterial strains: Acinetobacter baumannii with carbapenemase OXA-23, Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O11 with metallo-ß-lactamase VIM-4 and Klebsiella pneumoniae with CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum ß-lactamase. Culture of a rectal swab showed colonization by Enterococcus faecium with vanA glycopeptides resistance. Patients colonized with one or two multi-drug-resistant strains were not rare in our burns unit, especially those transferred from Algeria, but this case of a single patient harboring four multi-drug-resistant strains is exceptional. PMID:26550534

  5. Transfer between an Algerian and a French hospital of four multi-drug resistant bacterial strains together via a single patient.

    PubMed

    Moissenet, Didier; Richard, Patrick; Granados, Maria; Mérens, Audrey; Fournier, Damien; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Arlet, Guillaume; Vu-Thien, Hoang

    2015-01-01

    A 5 years-old girl, seriously burnt with fire, was first hospitalized during four days in an hospital at Alger, and then transferred to our hospital at Paris. Admitted in our intensive care burns unit, she was third degree burnt on 78% of total body surface area, already treated with imipenem and vancomycin at her arrival. Clinical aggravation was rapidly observed and death occurred within 24 hours. Cultures of blood and multiple wound swabs yielded 3 multi-drug resistant bacterial strains: Acinetobacter baumannii with carbapenemase OXA-23, Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O11 with metallo-ß-lactamase VIM-4 and Klebsiella pneumoniae with CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum ß-lactamase. Culture of a rectal swab showed colonization by Enterococcus faecium with vanA glycopeptides resistance. Patients colonized with one or two multi-drug-resistant strains were not rare in our burns unit, especially those transferred from Algeria, but this case of a single patient harboring four multi-drug-resistant strains is exceptional. PMID:26550534

  6. Moxifloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections: in silico simulation of different bacterial resistance and drug exposure scenarios.

    PubMed

    Salem, Ahmed H; Noreddin, Ayman M

    2014-04-01

    Moxifloxacin has potent bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae; a major causative organism of lower respiratory tract infections. This study aims to use the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic indices to predict the therapeutic outcome under different scenarios of moxifloxacin exposure and pneumococcal resistance. STELLA() software was used to simulate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of moxifloxacin in patients with severe pneumonia and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB). The current dose of moxifloxacin was found to be insufficient for eradication of ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria in ventilated patients with severe bronchopneumonia. This can be attributed to the lower tissue penetration observed in this population. Increasing the dose to 600 mg was able to achieve higher levels of free drug AUC/MIC in both bronchial and plasma compartments. In AECB, moxifloxacin achieved the same AUC/MIC values observed in pneumonia at the different MIC values. This may allow the extrapolation of findings of moxifloxacin studies in pneumonia to the management of patients with AECB. PMID:24090676

  7. A case report of a multi-drug resistant bacterial infection in a diabetic patient treated in northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Renato Motta; Ansaldi, Miguel Angel; da Costa, Maria Eduarda S.M.; da Silva, Samuel Oliveira; Luz, Victor Hugo F.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most critical health conditions around the world, not only in terms of the number of affected people, disability, and premature mortality, but also in regards to the health care costs involved in controlling and treating its complications. Among the most constant ailments the diabetic patient suffers is the diabetic foot, defined as any infection, ulceration, and/or necrosis of deep tissues associated with neurological abnormalities and various degrees of peripheral vascular disease of the lower limbs. Diabetic foot ulcerations have become a major and increasing public health concern and its associated morbidities, impairment of the patients quality of life, and the implied costs for management have attracted the attention of numerous health care providers. In this case report, the authors review a unique presentation of a polymicrobial infection of a multi-drug resistant character species formed by oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter lwoffii. PMID:22745851

  8. Bacterial cheating limits antibiotic resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao Chao, Hui; Yurtsev, Eugene; Datta, Manoshi; Artemova, Tanya; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics has led to the evolution of resistance in bacteria. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removing the antibiotic. The cooperative nature of this growth suggests that a cheater strain---which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic---may be able to take advantage of cells cooperatively inactivating the antibiotic. Here we find experimentally that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We observe stable coexistence between the two strains and find that a simple model successfully explains the behavior as a function of antibiotic concentration and cell density. We anticipate that our results will provide insight into the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

  9. Influence of First-Line Antibiotics on the Antibacterial Activities of Acetone Stem Bark Extract of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. against Drug-Resistant Bacterial Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso O.; Coopoosamy, Roger M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of the acetone extract of A. mearnsii and its interactions with antibiotics against some resistant bacterial strains. Methods. The antibacterial susceptibility testing was determined by agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods while the checkerboard method was used for the determination of synergy between the antibiotics and the extract. Results. The results showed that the susceptibility of the different bacterial isolates was concentration dependent for the extract and the different antibiotics. With the exception of S. marcescens, the inhibition zones of the extract produced by 20?mg/mL ranged between 18 and 32?mm. While metronidazole did not inhibit any of the bacterial isolates, all the antibiotics and their combinations, except for ciprofloxacin and its combination, did not inhibit Enterococcus faecalis. The antibacterial combinations were more of being antagonistic than of being synergistic in the agar diffusion assay. From the macrobroth dilution, the extract and the antibiotics exerted a varied degree of inhibitory effect on the test organisms. The MIC values of the acetone extract which are in mg/mL are lower than those of the different antibiotics which are in ?g/mL. From the checkerboard assay, the antibacterial combinations showed varied degrees of interactions including synergism, additive, indifference, and antagonism interactions. While antagonistic and additive interactions were 14.44%, indifference interaction was 22.22% and synergistic interaction was 37.78% of the antibacterial combinations against the test isolates. While the additivity/indifference interactions indicated no interactions, the antagonistic interaction may be considered as a negative interaction that could result in toxicity and suboptimal bioactivity. Conclusion. The synergistic effects of the herbal-drug combinations may be harnessed for the discovery and development of more rational evidence-based drug combinations with optimized efficiency in the prevention of multidrug resistance and therapy of multifactorial diseases. PMID:25101132

  10. Regulation of Bacterial Drug Export Systems

    PubMed Central

    Grkovic, Steve; Brown, Melissa H.; Skurray, Ronald A.

    2002-01-01

    The active transport of toxic compounds by membrane-bound efflux proteins is becoming an increasingly frequent mechanism by which cells exhibit resistance to therapeutic drugs. This review examines the regulation of bacterial drug efflux systems, which occurs primarily at the level of transcription. Investigations into these regulatory networks have yielded a substantial volume of information that has either not been forthcoming from or complements that obtained by analysis of the transport proteins themselves. Several local regulatory proteins, including the activator BmrR from Bacillus subtilis and the repressors QacR from Staphylococcus aureus and TetR and EmrR from Escherichia coli, have been shown to mediate increases in the expression of drug efflux genes by directly sensing the presence of the toxic substrates exported by their cognate pump. This ability to bind transporter substrates has permitted detailed structural information to be gathered on protein-antimicrobial agent-ligand interactions. In addition, bacterial multidrug efflux determinants are frequently controlled at a global level and may belong to stress response regulons such as E. coli mar, expression of which is controlled by the MarA and MarR proteins. However, many regulatory systems are ill-adapted for detecting the presence of toxic pump substrates and instead are likely to respond to alternative signals related to unidentified physiological roles of the transporter. Hence, in a number of important pathogens, regulatory mutations that result in drug transporter overexpression and concomitant elevated antimicrobial resistance are often observed. PMID:12456787

  11. Drug resistance in malaria.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Umar; Mahajan, R C

    2004-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first case of chloroquine resistance along the Thai-Combodian border in the late 1950s, Southeast Asia has played an important role as a focus for the development of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Although the first case of quinine resistance had been reported much earlier from South America, the onset of chloroquine resistance marked the beginning of a new chapter in the history of malaria in Southeast Asia and by 1973 chloroquine finally had to be replaced by the combination of sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine (SP) as first line drug for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Thailand and more than 10 African countries have also switched their first line drug to SP. In 1985, eventually SP was replaced by mefloquine. The rapid development of resistance to this new drug leads to the introduction of artemisinin as a combination drug in the mid-1990s. It is mandatory to mention here that therapeutic regimens for prevention and treatment of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum are associated with higher costs and side-effects compared to chloroquine. Additionally, some of these alternative treatments are associated with more side-effects, take longer time for cure and are more difficult to comply with than chloroquine. Urgent efforts are needed to identify effective, affordable, alternative antimalarial regimens. Molecular markers for antimalarial resistance have been identified, including pfmdr-1 and pfcrt polymorphisms associated with chloroquine resistance and dhfr and dhps polymorphisms associated with SP resistance. Polymorphisms in pfmdr-1 may also be associated with resistance to chloroquine, mefloquine and artemisinin. Use of such genetic information for the early detection of resistance foci and future monitoring of drug resistant malaria is a potentially useful epidemiological tool, in conjunction with the conventional in vitro and in vivo drug sensitivity assessments. The purpose of this review is to describe the state of knowledge regarding drug resistant malaria and to outline the changing patterns of drug resistance including its determinants, current status in diverse geographical areas, molecular markers and their implications to limit the advent, spread and intensification of drug resistant malaria. PMID:15672556

  12. Drug Resistance in Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam

    2010-01-01

    The treatment options of leishmaniasis are limited and far from satisfactory. For more than 60 years, treatment of leishmaniasis has centered around pentavalent antimonials (Sbv). Widespread misuse has led to the emergence of Sbv resistance in the hyperendemic areas of North Bihar. Other antileishmanials could also face the same fate, especially in the anthroponotic cycle. The HIV/ visceral leishmaniasis (VL) coinfected patients are another potential source for the emergence of drug resistance. At present no molecular markers of resistance are available and the only reliable method for monitoring resistance of isolates is the technically demanding in vitro amastigote-macrophage model. As the armametrium of drugs for leishmaniasis is limited, it is important that effective monitoring of drug use and response should be done to prevent the spread of resistance. Regimens of simultaneous or sequential combinations should be seriously considered to limit the emergence of resistance. PMID:20606973

  13. PCR amplfication on a microarray of gel-immobilized oligonucleotides : detection of bacterial toxin- and drug-resistent genes and their mutations.

    SciTech Connect

    Strizhkov, B. N.; Drobyshev, A. L.; Mikhailovich, V. M.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    2000-10-01

    PCR amplification on a microarray of gel-immobilized primers (microchip) has been developed. One of a pair of PCR primers was immobilized inside a separate microchip polyacrylamide porous gel pad of 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.02 (or 0.04) micron in size and 0.2 (or 0.4) nL in volume. The amplification was carried out simultaneously both in solution covering the microchip array and inside gel pads. Each gel pad contained the immobilized forward primers, while the fluorescently labeled reverse primers, as well as all components of the amplification reaction, diffused into the gel pads from the solution. To increase the amplification efficiency, the forward primers were also added into the solution. The kinetics of amplification was measured in real time in parallel for all gel pads with a fluorescent microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The accuracy of the amplification was assessed by using the melting curves obtained for the duplexes formed by the labeled amplification product and the gel-immobilized primers during the amplification process; alternatively, the duplexes were produced by hybridization of the extended immobilized primers with labeled oligonucleotide probes. The on-chip amplification was applied to detect the anthrax toxin genes and the plasmid-borne beta-lactamase gene responsible for bacterial ampicillin resistance. The allele-specific type of PCR amplification was used to identify the Shiga toxin gene and discriminate it from the Shiga-like one. The genomic mutations responsible for rifampicin resistance of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were detected by the same type of PCR amplification of the rpoB gene fragment isolated from sputum of tuberculosis patients. The on-chip PCR amplification has been shown to be a rapid, inexpensive and powerful tool to test genes responsible for bacterial toxin production and drug resistance, as well as to reveal point nucleotide mutations.

  14. Bacterial Enzymes and Antibiotic Resistance- Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Maltz, Lauren

    2015-08-25

    By using protein crystallography and X-ray diffraction, structures of bacterial enzymes were solved to gain a better understanding of how enzymatic modification acts as an antibacterial resistance mechanism. Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) are one of three aminoglycoside modifying enzymes that confer resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics via enzymatic modification, rendering many drugs obsolete. Specifically, the APH(2”) family vary in their substrate specificities and also in their preference for the phosphate donor (ADP versus GDP). By solving the structures of members of the APH(2”) family of enzymes, we can see how domain movements are important to their substrate specificity. Our structure of the ternary complex of APH(2”)-IIIa with GDP and kanamycin, when compared to the known structures of APH(2”)-IVa, reveals that there are real physical differences between these two enzymes, a structural finding that explains why the two enzymes differ in their preferences for certain aminoglycosides. Another important group of bacterial resistance enzymes are the Class D β-lactamases. Oxacillinase carbapenemases (OXAs) are part of this enzyme class and have begun to confer resistance to ‘last resort’ drugs, most notably carbapenems. Our structure of OXA-143 shows that the conformational flexibility of a conserved hydrophobic residue in the active site (Val130) serves to control the entry of a transient water molecule responsible for a key step in the enzyme’s mechanism. Our results provide insight into the structural mechanisms of these two different enzymes.

  15. Overview perspective of bacterial resistance.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Guilherme H; Nicolau, David P

    2010-10-01

    The rapidly escalating prevalence of antimicrobial resistance is a global concern. This reduced susceptibility to currently available antimicrobial agents coupled with the progressive shortage of newly approved compounds is a worrisome situation. Major problems are encountered for a growing number of Gram-positive (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus spp.) and Gram-negative pathogens (i.e., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae). We provide an overview of bacterial resistance focusing on the most common pathogens responsible for infection in both the community and healthcare settings. In addition, several strategies to curb antimicrobial resistance are also discussed. It is increasingly evident that without the introduction of novel antimicrobial agents, a return to the clinical outcomes associated with the pre-antibiotic era are inevitable. PMID:20687782

  16. Clinical management of resistance evolution in a bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Robert J.; Read, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with a chronic bacterial infection that could not be cured. Drug treatment became progressively less effective due to antibiotic resistance, and the patient died, in effect from overwhelming evolution. Even though the evolution of drug resistance was recognized as a major threat, and the fundamentals of drug resistance evolution are well understood, it was impossible to make evidence-based decisions about the evolutionary risks associated with the various treatment options. We present this case to illustrate the urgent need for translational research in the evolutionary medicine of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26454762

  17. Multidrug Resistant and Extensively Drug Resistant Bacteria: A Study

    PubMed Central

    Basak, Silpi; Singh, Priyanka; Rajurkar, Monali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Antimicrobial resistance is now a major challenge to clinicians for treating patients. Hence, this short term study was undertaken to detect the incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR), and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacterial isolates in a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods. The clinical samples were cultured and bacterial strains were identified in the department of microbiology. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of different bacterial isolates was studied to detect MDR, XDR, and PDR bacteria. Results. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of 1060 bacterial strains was studied. 393 (37.1%) bacterial strains were MDR, 146 (13.8%) strains were XDR, and no PDR was isolated. All (100%) Gram negative bacterial strains were sensitive to colistin whereas all (100%) Gram positive bacterial strains were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion. Close monitoring of MDR, XDR, or even PDR must be done by all clinical microbiology laboratories to implement effective measures to reduce the menace of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26942013

  18. Antibacterial drug discovery in the resistance era.

    PubMed

    Brown, Eric D; Wright, Gerard D

    2016-01-21

    The looming antibiotic-resistance crisis has penetrated the consciousness of clinicians, researchers, policymakers, politicians and the public at large. The evolution and widespread distribution of antibiotic-resistance elements in bacterial pathogens has made diseases that were once easily treatable deadly again. Unfortunately, accompanying the rise in global resistance is a failure in antibacterial drug discovery. Lessons from the history of antibiotic discovery and fresh understanding of antibiotic action and the cell biology of microorganisms have the potential to deliver twenty-first century medicines that are able to control infection in the resistance era. PMID:26791724

  19. Antimalarial drug resistance: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Hiasindh Ashmi; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health burden throughout the world. Resistance to the antimalarial drugs has increased the mortality and morbidity rate that is achieved so far through the malaria control program. Monitoring the drug resistance to the available antimalarial drugs helps to implement effective drug policy, through the in vivo efficacy studies, in vitro drug susceptibility tests and detection of molecular markers. It is important to understand the mechanism of the antimalarial drugs, as it is one of the key factors in the emergence and spread of drug resistance. This review summarizes the commonly used antimalarial drugs, their mechanism of action and the genetic markers validated so far for the detection of drug-resistant parasites. PMID:26998432

  20. The evolutionary epidemiology of multilocus drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Day, Troy; Gandon, Sylvain

    2012-05-01

    The evolution of resistance to drugs is a major public health concern as it erodes the efficacy of our therapeutic arsenal against bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. Increasingly, it is recognized that the evolution of resistance involves genetic changes at more than one locus, both in cases where multiple changes are required to obtain high-level resistance, and where compensatory changes at secondary loci ameliorate the costs of resistance. Similarly, multiple loci are often involved in the evolution of multidrug resistance. There has been widespread interest recently in understanding the evolutionary consequences of multilocus resistance, with many empirical studies documenting extensive patterns of genetic interactions (i.e., epistasis) among the loci involved. Currently, however, there are few general theoretical results available that bridge the gap between classical multilocus population genetics and mathematical epidemiology. Here, such theory is developed to shed new light on these previous studies, and to provide further guidance on the type of data required to predict the evolution of pathogens in response to drug pressure. Our results reveal the importance of feedbacks between the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics, and illustrate how these feedbacks can be exploited to control resistance. In particular, we show how interventions such as social distancing and isolation can influence rates of recombination, and how this then can slow the spread of multilocus resistance and increase the likelihood of reversion to drug sensitivity once drug therapy has ceased. PMID:22519792

  1. Modulation of Bacterial Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps of the Major Facilitator Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanath; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Varela, Manuel F.

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infections pose a serious public health concern, especially when an infectious disease has a multidrug resistant causative agent. Such multidrug resistant bacteria can compromise the clinical utility of major chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents. Drug and multidrug resistant bacteria harbor several distinct molecular mechanisms for resistance. Bacterial antimicrobial agent efflux pumps represent a major mechanism of clinical resistance. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is one of the largest groups of solute transporters to date and includes a significant number of bacterial drug and multidrug efflux pumps. We review recent work on the modulation of multidrug efflux pumps, paying special attention to those transporters belonging primarily to the MFS. PMID:25750934

  2. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    MedlinePLUS

    ... studies on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Antibacterial Resistance Leadership Group (ARLG) Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Resources for Researchers NIAID Antimicrobial Resistance Funding Information National Strategy for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (PDF) National Action ...

  3. Potential of novel antimicrobial peptide P3 from bovine erythrocytes and its analogs to disrupt bacterial membranes in vitro and display activity against drug-resistant bacteria in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Xu, Yanzhao; Wang, Qing; Hang, Bolin; Sun, Yawei; Wei, Xiaoxiao; Hu, Jianhe

    2015-05-01

    With the emergence of many antibiotic-resistant strains worldwide, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are being evaluated as promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics. P3, a novel hemoglobin peptide derived from bovine erythrocytes, exhibited modest antimicrobial activity in vitro. We evaluated the antimicrobial activities of P3 and an analog, JH-3, both in vitro and in vivo. The MICs of P3 and JH-3 ranged from 3.125 ?g/ml to 50 ?g/ml when a wide spectrum of bacteria was tested, including multidrug-resistant strains. P3 killed bacteria within 30 min by disrupting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and disturbing the intracellular calcium balance. Circular dichroism (CD) spectrometry showed that P3 assumed an ?-helical conformation in bacterial lipid membranes, which was indispensable for antimicrobial activity. Importantly, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of JH-3 was 180 mg/kg of mouse body weight after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, and no death was observed at any dose up to 240 mg/kg body weight following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Furthermore, JH-3 significantly decreased the bacterial count and rescued infected mice in a model of mouse bacteremia. In conclusion, P3 and an analog exhibited potent antimicrobial activities and relatively low toxicities in a mouse model, indicating that they may be useful for treating infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria. PMID:25753638

  4. Potential of Novel Antimicrobial Peptide P3 from Bovine Erythrocytes and Its Analogs To Disrupt Bacterial Membranes In Vitro and Display Activity against Drug-Resistant Bacteria in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Qing; Hang, Bolin; Sun, Yawei; Wei, Xiaoxiao

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of many antibiotic-resistant strains worldwide, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are being evaluated as promising alternatives to conventional antibiotics. P3, a novel hemoglobin peptide derived from bovine erythrocytes, exhibited modest antimicrobial activity in vitro. We evaluated the antimicrobial activities of P3 and an analog, JH-3, both in vitro and in vivo. The MICs of P3 and JH-3 ranged from 3.125 ?g/ml to 50 ?g/ml when a wide spectrum of bacteria was tested, including multidrug-resistant strains. P3 killed bacteria within 30 min by disrupting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane and disturbing the intracellular calcium balance. Circular dichroism (CD) spectrometry showed that P3 assumed an ?-helical conformation in bacterial lipid membranes, which was indispensable for antimicrobial activity. Importantly, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of JH-3 was 180 mg/kg of mouse body weight after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, and no death was observed at any dose up to 240 mg/kg body weight following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Furthermore, JH-3 significantly decreased the bacterial count and rescued infected mice in a model of mouse bacteremia. In conclusion, P3 and an analog exhibited potent antimicrobial activities and relatively low toxicities in a mouse model, indicating that they may be useful for treating infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria. PMID:25753638

  5. Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Fair, Richard J; Tor, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Dangerous, antibiotic resistant bacteria have been observed with increasing frequency over the past several decades. In this review the factors that have been linked to this phenomenon are addressed. Profiles of bacterial species that are deemed to be particularly concerning at the present time are illustrated. Factors including economic impact, intrinsic and acquired drug resistance, morbidity and mortality rates, and means of infection are taken into account. Synchronously with the waxing of bacterial resistance there has been waning antibiotic development. The approaches that scientists are employing in the pursuit of new antibacterial agents are briefly described. The standings of established antibiotic classes as well as potentially emerging classes are assessed with an emphasis on molecules that have been clinically approved or are in advanced stages of development. Historical perspectives, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum of activity, and preeminent members of each class are discussed. PMID:25232278

  6. Communicating trends in resistance using a drug resistance index.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Klugman, Keith P

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem worldwide, but communicating this challenge to policymakers and non-experts is complicated by the multiplicity of bacterial pathogens and the distinct classes of antibiotics used to treat them. It is difficult, even for experts aware of the pharmacodynamics of antibiotics, to infer the seriousness of resistance without information on how commonly the antibiotic is being used and whether alternative antibiotics are available. Difficulty in aggregating resistance to multiple drugs to assess trends poses a further challenge to quantifying and communicating changes in resistance over time and across locations. Methods We developed a method for aggregating bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics, creating an index comparable to the composite economic indices that measure consumer prices and stock market values. The resulting drug resistance index (DRI) and various subindices show antibiotic resistance and consumption trends in the USA but can be applied at any geographical level. Findings The DRI based on use patterns in 1999 for Escherichia coli rose from 0.25 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.26) to 0.30 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.32) between 1999 and 2006. However, the adaptive DRI, which includes treatment of baseline resistant strains with alternative agents, climbed from 0.25 to 0.27 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.28) during that period. In contrast, both the static-use and the adaptive DRIs for Acinetobacter spp. rose from 0.41 (95% CI 0.4 to 0.42) to 0.48 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.49) between 1999 and 2006. Interpretation Divergence between the static-use and the adaptive-use DRIs for E coli reflects the ability of physicians to adapt to increasing resistance. However, antibiotic use patterns did not change much in response to growing resistance to Acinetobacter spp. because physicians were unable to adapt; new drugs for Acinetobacter spp. are therefore needed. Composite indices that aggregate resistance to various drugs can be useful for assessing changes in drug resistance across time and space. PMID:22102636

  7. Bacterial charity work leads to population-wide resistance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Henry H; Molla, Michael N; Cantor, Charles R; Collins, James J

    2010-09-01

    Bacteria show remarkable adaptability in the face of antibiotic therapeutics. Resistance alleles in drug target-specific sites and general stress responses have been identified in individual end-point isolates. Less is known, however, about the population dynamics during the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. Here we follow a continuous culture of Escherichia coli facing increasing levels of antibiotic and show that the vast majority of isolates are less resistant than the population as a whole. We find that the few highly resistant mutants improve the survival of the population's less resistant constituents, in part by producing indole, a signalling molecule generated by actively growing, unstressed cells. We show, through transcriptional profiling, that indole serves to turn on drug efflux pumps and oxidative-stress protective mechanisms. The indole production comes at a fitness cost to the highly resistant isolates, and whole-genome sequencing reveals that this bacterial altruism is made possible by drug-resistance mutations unrelated to indole production. This work establishes a population-based resistance mechanism constituting a form of kin selection whereby a small number of resistant mutants can, at some cost to themselves, provide protection to other, more vulnerable, cells, enhancing the survival capacity of the overall population in stressful environments. PMID:20811456

  8. Bacterial genome sequencing and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Allsop, A E

    1998-12-01

    The availability of bacterial genome sequence information has opened up many new strategies for antibacterial drug hunting. There are obvious benefits for the identification and evaluation of new drug targets, but genomic-based technology is also beginning to provide new tools for the downstream, preclinical, optimisation of compounds. The greatest benefit from these new approaches lies in the ability to examine the entire genome (or several genomes) simultaneously and in total. In this way, one potential target can be evaluated against another, and either the total effects of functional impairment can be established or the effects of a compound can be compared across species. PMID:9889137

  9. Drug-resistant M leprae.

    PubMed

    Saunderson, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Dapsone was used as a single drug to treat leprosy, and secondary resistance soon developed, greatly reducing its effectiveness. Multidrug therapy has been used successfully since 1982, and until now, only a few sporadic cases of rifampicin resistance have been reported. Surveillance is needed to make sure that chemotherapy for leprosy remains effective for the foreseeable future. This review is based on reports from the annual drug resistance surveillance meetings convened by the World Health Organization and related literature. Very few cases of rifampicin resistance are currently known globally, except for a small group of cases in a former leprosy colony in Brazil. A low level of ofloxacin resistance has been found, especially in India. A larger number of patient samples should be tested each year. The results give grounds for cautious optimism, although the number of samples tested should be significantly increased. Possible foci of rifampicin resistance near former leprosy colonies in Brazil should be further investigated. PMID:26773627

  10. Antifungal Agents: Mode of Action, Mechanisms of Resistance, and Correlation of These Mechanisms with Bacterial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Rice, Louis B.

    1999-01-01

    The increased use of antibacterial and antifungal agents in recent years has resulted in the development of resistance to these drugs. The significant clinical implication of resistance has led to heightened interest in the study of antimicrobial resistance from different angles. Areas addressed include mechanisms underlying this resistance, improved methods to detect resistance when it occurs, alternate options for the treatment of infections caused by resistant organisms, and strategies to prevent and control the emergence and spread of resistance. In this review, the mode of action of antifungals and their mechanisms of resistance are discussed. Additionally, an attempt is made to discuss the correlation between fungal and bacterial resistance. Antifungals can be grouped into three classes based on their site of action: azoles, which inhibit the synthesis of ergosterol (the main fungal sterol); polyenes, which interact with fungal membrane sterols physicochemically; and 5-fluorocytosine, which inhibits macromolecular synthesis. Many different types of mechanisms contribute to the development of resistance to antifungals. These mechanisms include alteration in drug target, alteration in sterol biosynthesis, reduction in the intercellular concentration of target enzyme, and overexpression of the antifungal drug target. Although the comparison between the mechanisms of resistance to antifungals and antibacterials is necessarily limited by several factors defined in the review, a correlation between the two exists. For example, modification of enzymes which serve as targets for antimicrobial action and the involvement of membrane pumps in the extrusion of drugs are well characterized in both the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. PMID:10515900

  11. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance

    MedlinePLUS

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  12. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

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  13. Repurposing salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs to combat drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Conery, Annie L; Kim, Wooseong; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Kwon, Bumsup; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that has become the leading cause of hospital acquired infections in the US. Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs for antimicrobial therapy involves lower risks and costs compared to de novo development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available anthelmintic drugs. The FDA approved drug niclosamide and the veterinary drug oxyclozanide displayed strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 0.125 and 0.5 ?g/ml respectively; minimum effective concentration: ? 0.78 ?g/ml for both drugs). The two drugs were also effective against another Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecium (MIC 0.25 and 2 ?g/ml respectively), but not against the Gram-negative species Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of niclosamide and oxyclozanide were determined against methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid or daptomycin resistant S. aureus clinical isolates, with MICs at 0.0625-0.5 and 0.125-2 ?g/ml for niclosamide and oxyclozanide respectively. A time-kill study demonstrated that niclosamide is bacteriostatic, whereas oxyclozanide is bactericidal. Interestingly, oxyclozanide permeabilized the bacterial membrane but neither of the anthelmintic drugs exhibited demonstrable toxicity to sheep erythrocytes. Oxyclozanide was non-toxic to HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells within the range of its in vitro MICs but niclosamide displayed toxicity even at low concentrations. These data show that the salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs niclosamide and oxyclozanide are suitable candidates for mechanism of action studies and further clinical evaluation for treatment of staphylococcal infections. PMID:25897961

  14. Repurposing salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs to combat drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Rajamuthiah R; Fuchs BB; Conery AL; Kim W; Jayamani E; Kwon B; Ausubel FM; Mylonakis E

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that has become the leading cause of hospital acquired infections in the US. Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs for antimicrobial therapy involves lower risks and costs compared to de novo development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available anthelmintic drugs. The FDA approved drug niclosamide and the veterinary drug oxyclozanide displayed strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 0.125 and 0.5 ?g/ml respectively; minimum effective concentration: ? 0.78 ?g/ml for both drugs). The two drugs were also effective against another Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecium (MIC 0.25 and 2 ?g/ml respectively), but not against the Gram-negative species Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of niclosamide and oxyclozanide were determined against methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid or daptomycin resistant S. aureus clinical isolates, with MICs at 0.0625-0.5 and 0.125-2 ?g/ml for niclosamide and oxyclozanide respectively. A time-kill study demonstrated that niclosamide is bacteriostatic, whereas oxyclozanide is bactericidal. Interestingly, oxyclozanide permeabilized the bacterial membrane but neither of the anthelmintic drugs exhibited demonstrable toxicity to sheep erythrocytes. Oxyclozanide was non-toxic to HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells within the range of its in vitro MICs but niclosamide displayed toxicity even at low concentrations. These data show that the salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs niclosamide and oxyclozanide are suitable candidates for mechanism of action studies and further clinical evaluation for treatment of staphylococcal infections.

  15. Repurposing Salicylanilide Anthelmintic Drugs to Combat Drug Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Conery, Annie L.; Kim, Wooseong; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Kwon, Bumsup; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that has become the leading cause of hospital acquired infections in the US. Repurposing Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs for antimicrobial therapy involves lower risks and costs compared to de novo development of novel antimicrobial agents. In this study, we examined the antimicrobial properties of two commercially available anthelmintic drugs. The FDA approved drug niclosamide and the veterinary drug oxyclozanide displayed strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 0.125 and 0.5 μg/ml respectively; minimum effective concentration: ≤ 0.78 μg/ml for both drugs). The two drugs were also effective against another Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecium (MIC 0.25 and 2 μg/ml respectively), but not against the Gram-negative species Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of niclosamide and oxyclozanide were determined against methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid or daptomycin resistant S. aureus clinical isolates, with MICs at 0.0625-0.5 and 0.125-2 μg/ml for niclosamide and oxyclozanide respectively. A time-kill study demonstrated that niclosamide is bacteriostatic, whereas oxyclozanide is bactericidal. Interestingly, oxyclozanide permeabilized the bacterial membrane but neither of the anthelmintic drugs exhibited demonstrable toxicity to sheep erythrocytes. Oxyclozanide was non-toxic to HepG2 human liver carcinoma cells within the range of its in vitro MICs but niclosamide displayed toxicity even at low concentrations. These data show that the salicylanilide anthelmintic drugs niclosamide and oxyclozanide are suitable candidates for mechanism of action studies and further clinical evaluation for treatment of staphylococcal infections. PMID:25897961

  16. Antibiotic resistance in prevalent bacterial and protozoan sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is causing a treatment crisis across the globe. While cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is one of the most pressing issues, extensively antibiotic resistant Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis are also becoming commonplace. Experts have suggested that the failure of current treatment regimens are "largely inevitable" and have called for entirely new classes of antimicrobial agents. With the exception of several new classes of drugs primarily targeting nosocomial infections, progress has been slow. While pharmaceutical companies continue to introduce new drugs, they are based on decade-old discoveries. While there is disagreement about what constitutes new classes of antibiotics, many experts suggest that the last truly new family of antimicrobials was discovered in 1987. This review summarizes the existing literature on antibiotic resistance in common bacterial and protozoal STIs. It also briefly discusses several of the most promising alternatives to current therapies, and further examines how advances in drug delivery, formulation, concentration, and timing are improving the efficacy of existing treatments. Finally, the paper discusses the current state of pharmaceutical development for multidrug-resistant STI. PMID:26392647

  17. Antibiotic resistance in prevalent bacterial and protozoan sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Krupp, Karl; Madhivanan, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multi-drug resistant sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is causing a treatment crisis across the globe. While cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is one of the most pressing issues, extensively antibiotic resistant Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis are also becoming commonplace. Experts have suggested that the failure of current treatment regimens are largely inevitable and have called for entirely new classes of antimicrobial agents. With the exception of several new classes of drugs primarily targeting nosocomial infections, progress has been slow. While pharmaceutical companies continue to introduce new drugs, they are based on decade-old discoveries. While there is disagreement about what constitutes new classes of antibiotics, many experts suggest that the last truly new family of antimicrobials was discovered in 1987. This review summarizes the existing literature on antibiotic resistance in common bacterial and protozoal STIs. It also briefly discusses several of the most promising alternatives to current therapies, and further examines how advances in drug delivery, formulation, concentration, and timing are improving the efficacy of existing treatments. Finally, the paper discusses the current state of pharmaceutical development for multidrug-resistant STI. PMID:26392647

  18. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of phyto fabricated silver nanoparticles using Mukia scabrella (Musumusukkai) against drug resistance nosocomial gram negative bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Prabakar, Kandasamy; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Mohamed Rabeek, Siyed Ibrahim; Muthuselvam, Manickam; Devarajan, Naresh; Arjunan, Annavi; Karthick, Rajamanickam; Suresh, Micky Maray; Wembonyama, John Pote

    2013-04-01

    Given the fact in the limitation of the therapeutic options for emerging multidrug resistance gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) of respiratory tract infections, the present study was focused on green synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Mukia scabrella. An obvious color change to brown color and surface plasmon resonance by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) indicated a well observable peak at 440 nm confirming the synthesis of AgNPs. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicates protein as possible capping agents. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy results showed major signal for elemental silver. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates the formation of metallic silver nanomaterials. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) study showed the nanoparticles in the size range of 18-21 nm with spherical shape. Zeta potential analysis showed -21.7 mV characteristic for stable AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against MDR-GNB nosocomial pathogens of Acinetobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from the current study suggested that M. scabrella material could be exploited for the fabrication of AgNPs with potential therapeutic applications in nanomedicine especially for nosocomial bacterial infections. PMID:23334182

  19. Persistence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Dan I; Hughes, Diarmaid

    2011-09-01

    Unfortunately for mankind, it is very likely that the antibiotic resistance problem we have generated during the last 60 years due to the extensive use and misuse of antibiotics is here to stay for the foreseeable future. This view is based on theoretical arguments, mathematical modeling, experiments and clinical interventions, suggesting that even if we could reduce antibiotic use, resistant clones would remain persistent and only slowly (if at all) be outcompeted by their susceptible relatives. In this review, we discuss the multitude of mechanisms and processes that are involved in causing the persistence of chromosomal and plasmid-borne resistance determinants and how we might use them to our advantage to increase the likelihood of reversing the problem. Of particular interest is the recent demonstration that a very low antibiotic concentration can be enriching for resistant bacteria and the implication that antibiotic release into the environment could contribute to the selection for resistance. Several mechanisms are contributing to the stability of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations and even if antibiotic use is reduced it is likely that most resistance mechanisms will persist for considerable times. PMID:21707669

  20. A Hybrid Drug Limits Resistance by Evading the Action of the Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kathy K; Stone, Laura K; Lieberman, Tami D; Shavit, Michal; Baasov, Timor; Kishony, Roy

    2016-02-01

    Hybrid drugs are a promising strategy to address the growing problem of drug resistance, but the mechanism by which they modulate the evolution of resistance is poorly understood. Integrating high-throughput resistance measurements and genomic sequencing, we compared Escherichia coli populations evolved in a hybrid antibiotic that links ciprofloxacin and neomycin B with populations evolved in combinations of the component drugs. We find that populations evolved in the hybrid gain less resistance than those evolved in an equimolar mixture of the hybrid's components, in part because the hybrid evades resistance mediated by the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon. Furthermore, we find that the ciprofloxacin moiety of the hybrid inhibits bacterial growth whereas the neomycin B moiety diminishes the effectiveness of mar activation. More generally, comparing the phenotypic and genotypic paths to resistance across different drug treatments can pinpoint unique properties of new compounds that limit the emergence of resistance. PMID:26538141

  1. Drug resistance in Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Almeida, Rosana de; Portillo, Vincius do Amaral; Barbosa, Trcio A P; Trevilato, Peterson Beltramini; Neto, Ccero Eduardo Ramalho; Colho, Rosngela Duarte; Silva, Denise Wanderlei; Bartoleti, Luciana Aparecida; Hanna, Ebert Seixas; Brocchi, Marcelo; Manfio, Gilson P

    2004-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a free-living bacterium commonly found in aquatic habitats of tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This bacterium is able to produce a large variety of products of biotechnological and pharmacological use. Although C. violaceum is considered to be non-pathogenic, some cases of severe infections in humans and other animals have been reported. Genomic data on the type strain ATCC 12472(T) has provided a comprehensive basis for detailed studies of pathogenicity, virulence and drug resistance genes. A large number of open reading frames associated with various mechanisms of drug resistance were found, comprising a remarkable feature of this organism. Amongst these, beta-lactam (penicillin and cephalosporin) and multidrug resistance genes (drug efflux pumps) were the most numerous. In addition, genes associated with bacitracin, bicyclomycin, chloramphenicol, kasugamycin, and methylenomycin were also found. It is postulated that these genes contribute to the ability of C. violaceum to compete with other bacteria in the environment, and also may help to explain the common drug resistance phenotypes observed in infections caused by this bacterium. PMID:15100994

  2. Mechanisms of drug resistance: daptomycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Tran, Truc T; Munita, Jose M; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-09-01

    Daptomycin (DAP) is a cyclic lipopeptide with in vitro activity against a variety of Gram-positive pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms. Since its introduction into clinical practice in 2003, DAP has become an important key frontline antibiotic for severe or deep-seated infections caused by Gram-positive organisms. Unfortunately, DAP resistance (DAP-R) has been extensively documented in clinically important organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. Studies on the mechanisms of DAP-R in Bacillus subtilis and other Gram-positive bacteria indicate that the genetic pathways of DAP-R are diverse and complex. However, a common phenomenon emerging from these mechanistic studies is that DAP-R is associated with important adaptive changes in cell wall and cell membrane homeostasis with critical changes in cell physiology. Findings related to these adaptive changes have provided novel insights into the genetics and molecular mechanisms of bacterial cell envelope stress response and the manner in which Gram-positive bacteria cope with the antimicrobial peptide attack and protect vital structures of the cell envelope, such as the cell membrane. In this review, we will examine the most recent findings related to the molecular mechanisms of resistance to DAP in relevant Gram-positive pathogens and discuss the clinical implications for therapy against these important bacteria. PMID:26495887

  3. Combination Approaches to Combat Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Roberta J.; Melander, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of infections caused by multi-drug resistant bacteria is a global health problem that is exacerbated by the dearth of novel classes of antibiotics entering the clinic over the past 40 years. Herein we describe recent developments toward combination therapies for the treatment of multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. These efforts include antibiotic-antibiotic combinations, and the development of adjuvants that either directly target resistance mechanisms such as the inhibition of ?-lactamase enzymes, or indirectly target resistance by interfering with bacterial signaling pathways such as two-component systems. We also discuss screening of libraries of previously approved drugs to identify non-obvious antimicrobial adjuvants. PMID:23333434

  4. Drug Resistance in Cancer: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Housman, Genevieve; Byler, Shannon; Heerboth, Sarah; Lapinska, Karolina; Longacre, Mckenna; Snyder, Nicole; Sarkar, Sibaji

    2014-01-01

    Cancers have the ability to develop resistance to traditional therapies, and the increasing prevalence of these drug resistant cancers necessitates further research and treatment development. This paper outlines the current knowledge of mechanisms that promote or enable drug resistance, such as drug inactivation, drug target alteration, drug efflux, DNA damage repair, cell death inhibition, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, as well as how inherent tumor cell heterogeneity plays a role in drug resistance. It also describes the epigenetic modifications that can induce drug resistance and considers how such epigenetic factors may contribute to the development of cancer progenitor cells, which are not killed by conventional cancer therapies. Lastly, this review concludes with a discussion on the best treatment options for existing drug resistant cancers, ways to prevent the formation of drug resistant cancers and cancer progenitor cells, and future directions of study. PMID:25198391

  5. Clinical management of resistance evolution in a bacterial infection: A case study.

    PubMed

    Woods, Robert J; Read, Andrew F

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with a chronic bacterial infection that could not be cured. Drug treatment became progressively less effective due to antibiotic resistance, and the patient died, in effect from overwhelming evolution. Even though the evolution of drug resistance was recognized as a major threat, and the fundamentals of drug resistance evolution are well understood, it was impossible to make evidence-based decisions about the evolutionary risks associated with the various treatment options. We present this case to illustrate the urgent need for translational research in the evolutionary medicine of antibiotic resistance. PMID:26454762

  6. Drug Resistance Mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem worldwide. Its situation is worsened by the presence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of the disease. In recent years, even more serious forms of drug resistance have been reported. A better knowledge of the mechanisms of drug resistance of M. tuberculosis and the relevant molecular mechanisms involved will improve the available techniques for rapid drug resistance detection and will help to explore new targets for drug activity and development. This review article discusses the mechanisms of action of anti-tuberculosis drugs and the molecular basis of drug resistance in M. tuberculosis.

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis: drug-resistance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cole, S T

    1994-10-01

    Tuberculosis has resurged during the past decade in many industrialized countries, and strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are resistant to one or more of the main antituberculous drugs are emerging. The molecular basis of mycobacterial drug resistance is now beginning to be understood. Resistance derives from mutations in chromosomal genes leading to overproduction, alteration or loss of the drug target. PMID:7850211

  8. Cancer Metabolism and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mahbuba; Hasan, Mohammad Rubayet

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic alterations, driven by genetic and epigenetic factors, have long been known to be associated with the etiology of cancer. Furthermore, accumulating evidence suggest that cancer metabolism is intimately linked to drug resistance, which is currently one of the most important challenges in cancer treatment. Altered metabolic pathways help cancer cells to proliferate at a rate higher than normal, adapt to nutrient limited conditions, and develop drug resistance phenotypes. Application of systems biology, boosted by recent advancement of novel high-throughput technologies to obtain cancer-associated, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data, is expected to make a significant contribution to our understanding of metabolic properties related to malignancy. Indeed, despite being at a very early stage, quantitative data obtained from the omics platforms and through applications of 13C metabolic flux analysis (MFA) in in vitro studies, researchers have already began to gain insight into the complex metabolic mechanisms of cancer, paving the way for selection of molecular targets for therapeutic interventions. In this review, we discuss some of the major findings associated with the metabolic pathways in cancer cells and also discuss new evidences and achievements on specific metabolic enzyme targets and target-directed small molecules that can potentially be used as anti-cancer drugs. PMID:26437434

  9. Suppression of Drug Resistance in Dengue Virus

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Roberto; Nagamine, Claude M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus is a major human pathogen responsible for 400 million infections yearly. As with other RNA viruses, daunting challenges to antiviral design exist due to the high error rates of RNA-dependent RNA synthesis. Indeed, treatment of dengue virus infection with a nucleoside analog resulted in the expected genetic selection of resistant viruses in tissue culture and in mice. However, when the function of the oligomeric core protein was inhibited, no detectable selection of drug resistance in tissue culture or in mice was detected, despite the presence of drug-resistant variants in the population. Suppressed selection of drug-resistant virus correlated with cooligomerization of the targeted drug-susceptible and drug-resistant core proteins. The concept of “dominant drug targets,” in which inhibition of oligomeric viral assemblages leads to the formation of drug-susceptible chimeras, can therefore be used to prevent the outgrowth of drug resistance during dengue virus infection. PMID:26670386

  10. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors leading to acquired bacterial resistance to antibiotics in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, I. N.; Lamikanra, A.; Edelman, R.

    1999-01-01

    In developing countries, acquired bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is common in isolates from healthy persons and from persons with community-acquired infections. Complex socioeconomic and behavioral factors associated with antibiotic resistance, particularly regarding diarrheal and respiratory pathogens, in developing tropical countries, include misuse of antibiotics by health professionals, unskilled practitioners, and laypersons; poor drug quality; unhygienic conditions accounting for spread of resistant bacteria; and inadequate surveillance. PMID:10081668

  11. Bacterial and archaeal resistance to ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Confalonieri, F.; Sommer, S.

    2011-01-01

    Organisms living in extreme environments must cope with large fluctuations of temperature, high levels of radiation and/or desiccation, conditions that can induce DNA damage ranging from base modifications to DNA double-strand breaks. The bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans is known for its resistance to extremely high doses of ionizing radiation and for its ability to reconstruct a functional genome from hundreds of radiation-induced chromosomal fragments. Recently, extreme ionizing radiation resistance was also generated by directed evolution of an apparently radiation-sensitive bacterial species, Escherichia coli. Radioresistant organisms are not only found among the Eubacteria but also among the Archaea that represent the third kingdom of life. They present a set of particular features that differentiate them from the Eubacteria and eukaryotes. Moreover, Archaea are often isolated from extreme environments where they live under severe conditions of temperature, pressure, pH, salts or toxic compounds that are lethal for the large majority of living organisms. Thus, Archaea offer the opportunity to understand how cells are able to cope with such harsh conditions. Among them, the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp and several Pyrococcus or Thermococcus species, such as Thermococcus gammatolerans, were also shown to display high level of radiation resistance. The dispersion, in the phylogenetic tree, of radioresistant prokaryotes suggests that they have independently acquired radioresistance. Different strategies were selected during evolution including several mechanisms of radiation byproduct detoxification and subtle cellular metabolism modifications to help cells recover from radiation-induced injuries, protection of proteins against oxidation, an efficient DNA repair tool box, an original pathway of DNA double-strand break repair, a condensed nucleoid that may prevent the dispersion of the DNA fragments and specific radiation-induced proteins involved in radioresistance. Here, we compare mechanisms and discuss hypotheses suggested to contribute to radioresistance in several Archaea and Eubacteria.

  12. Understanding drug resistance in human intestinal protozoa.

    PubMed

    El-Taweel, Hend Aly

    2015-05-01

    Infections with intestinal protozoa continue to be a major health problem in many areas of the world. The widespread use of a limited number of therapeutic agents for their management and control raises concerns about development of drug resistance. Generally, the use of any antimicrobial agent should be accompanied by meticulous monitoring of its efficacy and measures to minimize resistance formation. Evidence for the occurrence of drug resistance in different intestinal protozoa comes from case studies and clinical trials, sometimes with a limited number of patients. Large-scale field-based assessment of drug resistance and drug sensitivity testing of clinical isolates are needed. Furthermore, the association of drug resistance with certain geographic isolates or genotypes deserves consideration. Drug resistance has been triggered in vitro and has been linked to modification of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, nitroreductases, antioxidant defense, or cytoskeletal system. Further mechanistic studies will have important implications in the development of second generation therapeutic agents. PMID:25782683

  13. Bacterial Carbonic Anhydrases as Drug Targets: Toward Novel Antibiotics?

    PubMed Central

    Supuran, Claudiu T.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the ?-, ?-, and/or ?-CA families. In the last decade, the ?-CAs from Neisseria spp. and Helicobacter pylori as well as the ?-class enzymes from Escherichia coli, H. pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Brucella spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, and Haemophilus influenzae have been cloned and characterized in detail. For some of these enzymes the X-ray crystal structures were determined, and in vitro and in vivo inhibition studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates reported. Although efficient inhibitors have been reported for many such enzymes, only for Neisseria spp., H. pylori, B. suis, and S. pneumoniae enzymes it has been possible to evidence inhibition of bacterial growth in vivo. Thus, bacterial CAs represent promising targets for obtaining antibacterials devoid of the resistance problems of the clinically used such agents but further studies are needed to validate these and other less investigated enzymes as novel drug targets. PMID:21779249

  14. Surgery for drug-resistant focal epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Malla Bhaskara; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Sinha, Sanjib; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Mahadevan, Anita; Bhat, Maya; Satishchandra, Parthasarthy

    2014-01-01

    During the colloquium on drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) at National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore on August 16-18, 2013, a number of presentations were made on the surgically remediable lesional epilepsy syndromes, presurgical evaluation, surgical techniques, neuropathology of drug resistance focal epilepsy and surgical outcome. This pictorial essay with the illustrative case examples provides an overview of the various surgical techniques for the management of drug-resistant focal epilepsy. PMID:24791080

  15. Drug Abuse Resistance Education. Administrative Orientation. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Justice, Raleigh.

    The goal of the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) Program is to prevent drug abuse among school children, by targeting children at an age (K-6) when they are most receptive to drug prevention education and before they are likely to have been led by their peers to experiment with tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. Project DARE seeks to prevent

  16. Clinical Management of HIV Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Maldarelli, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection has resulted in profound reductions in viremia and is associated with marked improvements in morbidity and mortality. Therapy is not curative, however, and prolonged therapy is complicated by drug toxicity and the emergence of drug resistance. Management of clinical drug resistance requires in depth evaluation, and includes extensive history, physical examination and laboratory studies. Appropriate use of resistance testing provides valuable information useful in constructing regimens for treatment-experienced individuals with viremia during therapy. This review outlines the emergence of drug resistance in vivo, and describes clinical evaluation and therapeutic options of the individual with rebound viremia during therapy. PMID:21994737

  17. Preventing drug resistance in severe influenza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolny, Hana; Deecke, Lucas

    2015-03-01

    Severe, long-lasting influenza infections are often caused by new strains of influenza. The long duration of these infections leads to an increased opportunity for the emergence of drug resistant mutants. This is particularly problematic for new strains of influenza since there is often no vaccine, so drug treatment is the first line of defense. One strategy for trying to minimize drug resistance is to apply periodic treatment. During treatment the wild-type virus decreases, but resistant virus might increase; when there is no treatment, wild-type virus will hopefully out-compete the resistant virus, driving down the number of resistant virus. We combine a mathematical model of severe influenza with a model of drug resistance to study emergence of drug resistance during a long-lasting infection. We apply periodic treatment with two types of antivirals: neuraminidase inhibitors, which block release of virions; and adamantanes, which block replication of virions. We compare the efficacy of the two drugs in reducing emergence of drug resistant mutants and examine the effect of treatment frequency on the emergence of drug resistant mutants.

  18. HIV Drug Resistance: Problems and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pennings, Pleuni S.

    2013-01-01

    Access to combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) has improved greatly over recent years. At the end of 2011, more than eight million HIV-infected people were receiving ART in low-income and middle-income countries. ART generally works well in keeping the virus suppressed and the patient healthy. However, treatment only works as long as the virus is not resistant against the drugs used. In the last decades, HIV treatments have become better and better at slowing down the evolution of drug resistance, so that some patients are treated for many years without having any resistance problems. However, for some patients, especially in low-income countries, drug resistance is still a serious threat to their health. This essay will review what is known about transmitted and acquired drug resistance, multi-class drug resistance, resistance to newer drugs, resistance due to treatment for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission, the role of minority variants (low-frequency drug-resistance mutations), and resistance due to pre-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:24470969

  19. Architecture and Conservation of the Bacterial DNA Replication Machinery, an Underexploited Drug Target

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Andrew; Causer, Rebecca J; Dixon, Nicholas E

    2012-01-01

    New antibiotics with novel modes of action are required to combat the growing threat posed by multi-drug resistant bacteria. Over the last decade, genome sequencing and other high-throughput techniques have provided tremendous insight into the molecular processes underlying cellular functions in a wide range of bacterial species. We can now use these data to assess the degree of conservation of certain aspects of bacterial physiology, to help choose the best cellular targets for development of new broad-spectrum antibacterials. DNA replication is a conserved and essential process, and the large number of proteins that interact to replicate DNA in bacteria are distinct from those in eukaryotes and archaea; yet none of the antibiotics in current clinical use acts directly on the replication machinery. Bacterial DNA synthesis thus appears to be an underexploited drug target. However, before this system can be targeted for drug design, it is important to understand which parts are conserved and which are not, as this will have implications for the spectrum of activity of any new inhibitors against bacterial species, as well as the potential for development of drug resistance. In this review we assess similarities and differences in replication components and mechanisms across the bacteria, highlight current progress towards the discovery of novel replication inhibitors, and suggest those aspects of the replication machinery that have the greatest potential as drug targets. PMID:22206257

  20. SCREENING OF TRANSGENIC ANTHURIUMS FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT AND NEMATODE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthuriums exhibit limited resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae and to the nematodes Radopholus simile and Meloidogyne javanica. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of embryogenic calli with strains LBA4404, EHA105, and AGLO resulted in transgenic p...

  1. A guide to antibiotic resistance in bacterial skin infections.

    PubMed

    Perera, G; Hay, R

    2005-09-01

    The emergence of bacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics is not new. In this review we have tried to cover the ever increasing problems facing the treatment and containment of bacterial skin infections. We have tried to give an overview of the varied mechanisms by which bacteria gain and spread antimicrobial resistance, whilst dealing with the patterns of resistance exhibited by some of the commonly encountered organisms. Where there is evidence, we have formulated an approach on how to tackle antibiotic resistance. Where there is a lack of evidence we have formulated what we perceive to be appropriate guidelines. PMID:16164705

  2. The biology of cytomegalovirus drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hakki, Morgan; Chou, Sunwen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review To assess recently published data on cytomegalovirus (CMV) antiviral drug resistance Recent findings Resistance is typically encountered after prolonged ganciclovir treatment for post-transplant primary CMV infection, and is diagnosed by the detection of characteristic mutations in the viral UL97 kinase and UL54 DNA polymerase genes in clinical specimens. One of seven canonical UL97 mutations is detected in most cases of ganciclovir resistance, but many viral sequence variants of unknown relevance are being reported after drug exposure in vitro and in vivo. Rapid technical advances in recombinant phenotyping have shown that many of these variants confer no detectable drug resistance, while some unusual resistance mutations are newly confirmed. All currently marketed CMV antiviral drugs, including foscarnet and cidofovir, target the viral DNA polymerase, and cross-resistance may result from some UL54 mutations. To decrease cross-resistance and toxicity, there is an ongoing effort to develop anti-CMV drugs with different resistance pathways and alternative targets, such as the UL97 kinase or UL56-UL89 terminase enzymes. Summary An increasing volume of information correlating CMV genotypes and drug susceptibility phenotypes is becoming available. This will improve the interpretation of sequence-based assays currently used for clinical diagnosis, and guide the development of new antiviral drugs. PMID:22001948

  3. Recovery and identification of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kaymann T; Richardson, Michelle M; Kirkbride, K Paul; McNevin, Dennis; Nelson, Michelle; Pianca, Dennis; Roffey, Paul; Gahan, Michelle E

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial infections, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), are a common risk associated with illicit drug use, particularly among injecting drug users. There is, therefore, an urgent need to survey illicit drugs used for injection for the presence of bacteria and provide valuable information to health and forensic authorities. The objectives of this study were to develop a method for the extraction of bacterial DNA from illicit drugs and conduct a metagenomic survey of heroin and methamphetamine seized in the Australian Capital Territory during 2002-2011 for the presence of pathogens. Trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug users were also investigated. Methods based on the ChargeSwitch()gDNA mini kit (Invitrogen), QIAamp DNA extraction mini kit (QIAGEN) with and without bead-beating, and an organic phenol/chloroform extraction with ethanol precipitation were assessed for the recovery efficiency of both free and cellular bacterial DNA. Bacteria were identified using polymerase chain reaction and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS). An isopropanol pre-wash to remove traces of the drug and diluents, followed by a modified ChargeSwitch() method, was found to efficiently lyse cells and extract free and cellular DNA from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in heroin and methamphetamine which could then be identified by PCR/ESI-MS. Analysis of 12 heroin samples revealed the presence of DNA from species of Comamonas, Weissella, Bacillus, Streptococcus and Arthrobacter. No organisms were detected in the nine methamphetamine samples analysed. This study develops a method to extract and identify Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from illicit drugs and demonstrates the presence of a range of bacterial pathogens in seized drug samples. These results will prove valuable for future work investigating trends or patterns in drug contamination and their health implications for injecting drug users as well as enabling forensic links between seizures to be examined. PMID:24447454

  4. MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE: TRENDS AND IMPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) has emerged as a global problem. Although AR occurs shortly after the introduction and use of an antimicrobial, resistance levels vary over time. Historically, antimicrobials were regarded as wonder drugs and for years, when resistance to a single antimicrobial occurr...

  5. The role of glucuronidation in drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Mazerska, Zofia; Mrz, Anna; Paw?owska, Monika; Augustin, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    The final therapeutic effect of a drug candidate, which is directed to a specific molecular target strongly depends on its absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). The disruption of at least one element of ADME may result in serious drug resistance. In this work we described the role of one element of this resistance: phase II metabolism with UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). UGT function is the transformation of their substrates into more polar metabolites, which are better substrates for the ABC transporters, MDR1, MRP and BCRP, than the native drug. UGT-mediated drug resistance can be associated with (i) inherent overexpression of the enzyme, named intrinsic drug resistance or (ii) induced expression of the enzyme, named acquired drug resistance observed when enzyme expression is induced by the drug or other factors, as food-derived compounds. Very often this induction occurs via ligand binding receptors including AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) PXR (pregnane X receptor), or other transcription factors. The effect of UGT dependent resistance is strengthened by coordinate action and also a coordinate regulation of the expression of UGTs and ABC transporters. This coupling of UGT and multidrug resistance proteins has been intensively studied, particularly in the case of antitumor treatment, when this resistance is "improved" by differences in UGT expression between tumor and healthy tissue. Multidrug resistance coordinated with glucuronidation has also been described here for drugs used in the management of epilepsy, psychiatric diseases, HIV infections, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Proposals to reverse UGT-mediated drug resistance should consider the endogenous functions of UGT. PMID:26808161

  6. Drug repurposing as an alternative for the treatment of recalcitrant bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Vega, Adrián; Bernstein, Lawrence R.; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna Ayerim; García-Contreras, Silvia Julieta; García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and the options for treating such infections are decreasing, due the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The pharmaceutical industry has produced few new types of antibiotics in more than a decade. Researchers are taking several approaches toward developing new classes of antibiotics, including (1) focusing on new targets and processes, such as bacterial cell–cell communication that upregulates virulence; (2) designing inhibitors of bacterial resistance, such as blockers of multidrug efflux pumps; and (3) using alternative antimicrobials such as bacteriophages. In addition, the strategy of finding new uses for existing drugs is beginning to produce results: antibacterial properties have been discovered for existing anticancer, antifungal, anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory drugs. In this review, we discuss the antimicrobial properties of gallium compounds, 5-fluorouracil, ciclopirox, diflunisal, and some other FDA-approved drugs and argue that their repurposing for the treatment of bacterial infections, including those that are multidrug resistant, is a feasible strategy. PMID:25914685

  7. Drug repurposing as an alternative for the treatment of recalcitrant bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Vega, Adrián; Bernstein, Lawrence R; Mandujano-Tinoco, Edna Ayerim; García-Contreras, Silvia Julieta; García-Contreras, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and the options for treating such infections are decreasing, due the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The pharmaceutical industry has produced few new types of antibiotics in more than a decade. Researchers are taking several approaches toward developing new classes of antibiotics, including (1) focusing on new targets and processes, such as bacterial cell-cell communication that upregulates virulence; (2) designing inhibitors of bacterial resistance, such as blockers of multidrug efflux pumps; and (3) using alternative antimicrobials such as bacteriophages. In addition, the strategy of finding new uses for existing drugs is beginning to produce results: antibacterial properties have been discovered for existing anticancer, antifungal, anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory drugs. In this review, we discuss the antimicrobial properties of gallium compounds, 5-fluorouracil, ciclopirox, diflunisal, and some other FDA-approved drugs and argue that their repurposing for the treatment of bacterial infections, including those that are multidrug resistant, is a feasible strategy. PMID:25914685

  8. Acquisition of second-line drug resistance and extensive drug resistance during recent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in rural China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Mathema, B; Zhao, Q; Chen, L; Lu, W; Wang, W; Kreiswirth, B; Xu, B

    2015-12-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is prevalent in countries with a high TB burden, like China. As little is known about the emergence and spread of second-line drug (SLD) -resistant TB, we investigate the emergence and transmission of SLD-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in rural China. In a multi-centre population-based study, we described the bacterial population structure and the transmission characteristics of SLD-resistant TB using Spoligotyping in combination with genotyping based on 24-locus MIRU-VNTR (mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat) plus four highly variable loci for the Beijing family, in four rural Chinese regions with diverse geographic and socio-demographic characteristics. Transmission networks among genotypically clustered patients were constructed using social network analysis. Of 1332M.tuberculosis patient isolates recovered, the Beijing family represented 74.8% of all isolates and an association with MDR and simultaneous resistance between first-line drugs and SLDs. The genotyping analysis revealed that 189 isolates shared MIRU-VNTR patterns in 78 clusters with clustering rate and recent transmission rate of 14.2% and 8.3%, respectively. Fifty-three SLD-resistant isolates were observed in 31 clusters, 30 of which contained the strains with different drug susceptibility profiles and genetic mutations. In conjunction with molecular data, socio-network analysis indicated a key role of Central Township in the transmission across a highly interconnected network where SLD resistance accumulation occurred during transmission. SLD-resistant M.tuberculosis has been spreading in rural China with Beijing family being the dominant strains. Primary transmission of SLD-resistant strains in the population highlights the importance of routine drug susceptibility testing and effective anti-tuberculosis regimens for drug-resistant TB. PMID:26348262

  9. Types and drug susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates from eye discharge samples at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The type and pattern of organisms that cause ocular infection changes over time. Moreover, the causative organisms have developed increased drug resistance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalent bacterial agents of eye discharge and their drug susceptibility patterns to commonly used antimicrobial agents. Methods A retrospective study was conducted at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia from September, 2009 to August, 2012. Culture and drug susceptibility test results of patients who had eye infections were taken for analysis. Eye discharge samples were cultured on MacConkey agar, blood agar and chocolate agar plates. A standard biochemical procedure was used for full identification of bacterial isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done on Mueller-Hinton agar by using disk diffusion method. Data was entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 16 software. Result A total of 102 eye discharges were submitted for microbiological evaluation, of which (60.8%) had bacterial growth. The most frequently isolated bacterial isolates were gram-positive bacteria (74.2%). The predominant bacterial species isolated was Coagulase-negative staphylococci (27.4%) followed by S. aureus (21%). Within the age group of 1day-2years old, (66.1%) of bacteria were isolated. Most of the bacterial isolates were resistance to ampicilin (71%), amoxicilin (62.9%), erythromycin (43.5%), gentamicin (45.2%), penicillin (71%), trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (58.1%), and tetracycline (64.6%) while Ceftriaxon and Ciprofloxacin showed (75.8%) and (80%) susceptibility respectively. From the total bacterial isolates, (87.1%) were showed multi drug resistance (MDR) to two or more drugs. Conclusion The prevalence of bacterial isolates in eye discharge was high in the study area and majority of isolates were gram-positive bacteria. Most of the bacterial isolates were resistant to frequently used antimicrobials. Therefore, drug susceptibility test is necessary before prescribing any antimicrobials. PMID:24885599

  10. Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance in Angola.

    PubMed

    Fançony, Cláudia; Brito, Miguel; Gil, Jose Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Facing chloroquine drug resistance, Angola promptly adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line to treat malaria. Currently, the country aims to consolidate malaria control, while preparing for the elimination of the disease, along with others African countries in the region. However, the remarkable capacity of Plasmodium to develop drug resistance represents an alarming threat for those achievements. Herein, the available, but relatively scarce and dispersed, information on malaria drug resistance in Angola, is reviewed and discussed. The review aims to inform but also to encourage future research studies that monitor and update the information on anti-malarial drug efficacy and prevalence of molecular markers of drug resistance, key fields in the context and objectives of elimination. PMID:26858018

  11. The Association between Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Genotype and Drug Resistance in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Louis; Iwamoto, Tomotada; Lithgow, Anna; Gilman, Robert H; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Noriko; Martin, Laura; Castillo, Edith; Alarcon, Valentina; Coronel, Jorge; Solano, Walter; Aminian, Minoo; Guezala, Claudia; Rastogi, Nalin; Couvin, David; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko; Moore, David AJ

    2015-01-01

    Background The comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial genotypes with phenotypic, demographic, geospatial and clinical data improves our understanding of how strain lineage influences the development of drug-resistance and the spread of tuberculosis. Methods To investigate the association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterial genotype with drug-resistance. Drug susceptibility testing together with genotyping using both 15-loci MIRU-typing and spoligotyping, was performed on 2,139 culture positive isolates, each from a different patient in Lima, Peru. Demographic, geospatial and socio-economic data were collected using questionnaires, global positioning equipment and the latest national census. Results The Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) clade (OR 2.4, p<0.001) was significantly associated with drug-resistance and alone accounted for more than half of all drug resistance in the region. Previously treated patients, prisoners and genetically clustered cases were also significantly associated with drug-resistance (OR's 2.5, 2.4 and 1.8, p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively). Conclusions Tuberculosis disease caused by the LAM clade was more likely to be drug resistant independent of important clinical, genetic and socio-economic confounding factors. Explanations for this include; the preferential co-evolution of LAM strains in a Latin American population, a LAM strain bacterial genetic background that favors drug-resistance or the "founder effect" from pre-existing LAM strains disproportionately exposed to drugs. PMID:25984723

  12. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance, Regulation, and Research1

    PubMed Central

    Powers, John H.; Dudley, Michael N.; Christiansen, Keryn; Finch, Roger G.

    2006-01-01

    Innovative regulatory and legislative measures to stimulate and facilitate the development of new antimicrobial drugs are needed. We discuss research approaches that can aid regulatory decision making on the treatment of resistant infections and minimization of resistance selection. We also outline current and future measures that regulatory agencies may employ to help control resistance and promote drug development. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic research models offer promising approaches to define the determinants of resistance selection and drug doses that optimize efficacy and reduce resistance selection. Internationally, variations exist in how regulators use drug scheduling, subsidy restrictions, central directives, educational guidelines, amendments to prescribing information, and indication review. Recent consultations and collaborations between regulators, academics, and industry are welcome. Efforts to coordinate regulatory measures would benefit from greater levels of international dialogue. PMID:16494740

  13. Emerging pathogens: Dynamics, mutation and drug resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Perelson, A.S.; Goldstein, B.; Korber, B.T.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objectives of this project were to develop models of the spread of pathogens, such as HIV-1 and influenza, in humans, and then to use the models to address the possibility of designing appropriate drug therapies that may limit the ability of the pathogen to escape treatment by mutating into a drug resistant form. We have developed a model of drug-resistance to amantidine and rimantadine, the two major antiviral drugs used to treat influenza, and have used the model to suggest treatment strategies during an epidemic.

  14. Identifying representative drug resistant mutants of HIV

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug resistance is one of the most important causes for failure of anti-AIDS treatment. During therapy, multiple mutations accumulate in the HIV genome, eventually rendering the drugs ineffective in blocking replication of the mutant virus. The huge number of possible mutants precludes experimental analysis to explore the molecular mechanisms of resistance and develop improved antiviral drugs. Results In order to solve this problem, we have developed a new algorithm to reveal the most representative mutants from the whole drug resistant mutant database based on our newly proposed unified protein sequence and 3D structure encoding method. Mean shift clustering and multiple regression analysis were applied on genotype-resistance data for mutants of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase. This approach successfully chooses less than 100 mutants with the highest resistance to each drug out of about 10K in the whole database. When considering high level resistance to multiple drugs, the numbers reduce to one or two representative mutants. Conclusion This approach for predicting the most representative mutants for each drug has major importance for experimental verification since the results provide a small number of representative sequences, which will be amenable for in vitro testing and characterization of the expressed mutant proteins. PMID:26678327

  15. Bacterial Cheating Limits the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurtsev, Eugene; Xiao Chao, Hui; Datta, Manoshi; Artemova, Tatiana; Gore, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a significant health concern. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removal of the antibiotic. The presence of a cooperative mechanism of resistance suggests that a cheater strain - which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic - may be able to take advantage of resistant cells. We find experimentally that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We use a simple model in conjunction with difference equations to explain the observed population dynamics as a function of cell density and antibiotic concentration. Our experimental difference equations resemble the logistic map, raising the possibility of oscillations or even chaotic dynamics.

  16. NOTE: Dielectrophoretic assay of bacterial resistance to antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, Juliana; Hbner, Yvonne; Hull, Judith C.; Dale, Jeremy W.; Hughes, Michael P.

    2003-07-01

    The dielectrophoretic collection spectra of antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis have been determined. These indicate that in the absence of antibiotic treatment there is a strong similarity between the dielectric properties of sensitive and resistant strains, and that there is a significant difference between the sensitive strains before and after treatment with the antibiotic streptomycin after 24 h exposure. This method offers possibilities for the assessment of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

  17. Mechanisms of echinocandin antifungal drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Perlin, David S

    2015-09-01

    Fungal infections due to Candida and Aspergillus species cause extensive morbidity and mortality, especially among immunosuppressed patients, and antifungal therapy is critical to patient management. Yet only a few drug classes are available to treat invasive fungal diseases, and this problem is compounded by the emergence of antifungal resistance. Echinocandin drugs are the preferred choice to treat candidiasis. They are the first cell wall-active agents and target the fungal-specific enzyme glucan synthase, which catalyzes the biosynthesis of ?-1,3-glucan, a key cell wall polymer. Therapeutic failures occur rarely among common Candida species, with the exception of Candida glabrata, which is frequently multidrug resistant. Echinocandin resistance in susceptible species is always acquired during therapy. The mechanism of resistance involves amino acid changes in hot-spot regions of Fks subunits of glucan synthase, which decrease the sensitivity of the enzyme to drug. Cellular stress response pathways lead to drug adaptation, which promotes the formation of resistant fks strains. Clinical factors promoting echinocandin resistance include empiric therapy, prophylaxis, gastrointestinal reservoirs, and intra-abdominal infections. A better understanding of the echinocandin-resistance mechanism, along with cellular and clinical factors promoting resistance, will facilitate more effective strategies to overcome and prevent echinocandin resistance. PMID:26190298

  18. The road to drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Koch, Anastasia; Wilkinson, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing of serial isolates of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis highlights how drug resistance develops within a single patient and reveals unexpected levels of pathogen diversity. PMID:25417849

  19. Elucidating drug resistance in human fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jinglin Lucy; Polvi, Elizabeth J; Shekhar-Guturja, Tanvi; Cowen, Leah E

    2014-01-01

    Fungal pathogens cause life-threatening infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Millions of people die each year due to fungal infections, comparable to the mortality attributable to tuberculosis or malaria. The three most prevalent fungal pathogens are Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Fungi are eukaryotes like their human host, making it challenging to identify fungal-specific therapeutics. There is a limited repertoire of antifungals in clinical use, and drug resistance and host toxicity compromise the clinical utility. The three classes of antifungals for treatment of invasive infections are the polyenes, azoles and echinocandins. Understanding mechanisms of resistance to these antifungals has been accelerated by global and targeted approaches, which have revealed that antifungal drug resistance is a complex phenomenon involving multiple mechanisms. Development of novel strategies to block the emergence of drug resistance and render resistant pathogens responsive to antifungals will be critical to treating life-threatening fungal infections. PMID:24810351

  20. Alleviating Cancer Drug Toxicity by Inhibiting a Bacterial Enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Bret D.; Wang, Hongwei; Lane, Kimberly T.; Scott, John E.; Orans, Jillian; Koo, Ja Seol; Venkatesh, Madhukumar; Jobin, Christian; Yeh, Li-An; Mani, Sridhar; Redinbo, Matthew R.

    2011-08-12

    The dose-limiting side effect of the common colon cancer chemotherapeutic CPT-11 is severe diarrhea caused by symbiotic bacterial {beta}-glucuronidases that reactivate the drug in the gut. We sought to target these enzymes without killing the commensal bacteria essential for human health. Potent bacterial {beta}-glucuronidase inhibitors were identified by high-throughput screening and shown to have no effect on the orthologous mammalian enzyme. Crystal structures established that selectivity was based on a loop unique to bacterial {beta}-glucuronidases. Inhibitors were highly effective against the enzyme target in living aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, but did not kill the bacteria or harm mammalian cells. Finally, oral administration of an inhibitor protected mice from CPT-11-induced toxicity. Thus, drugs may be designed to inhibit undesirable enzyme activities in essential microbial symbiotes to enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy.

  1. Antibiotic Restriction Might Facilitate the Emergence of Multi-drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Obolski, Uri; Stein, Gideon Y.; Hadany, Lilach

    2015-01-01

    High antibiotic resistance frequencies have become a major public health issue. The decrease in new antibiotics' production, combined with increasing frequencies of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, cause substantial limitations in treatment options for some bacterial infections. To diminish overall resistance, and especially the occurrence of bacteria that are resistant to all antibiotics, certain drugs are deliberately scarcely used—mainly when other options are exhausted. We use a mathematical model to explore the efficiency of such antibiotic restrictions. We assume two commonly used drugs and one restricted drug. The model is examined for the mixing strategy of antibiotic prescription, in which one of the drugs is randomly assigned to each incoming patient. Data obtained from Rabin medical center, Israel, is used to estimate realistic single and double antibiotic resistance frequencies in incoming patients. We find that broad usage of the hitherto restricted drug can reduce the number of incorrectly treated patients, and reduce the spread of bacteria resistant to both common antibiotics. Such double resistant infections are often eventually treated with the restricted drug, and therefore are prone to become resistant to all three antibiotics. Thus, counterintuitively, a broader usage of a formerly restricted drug can sometimes lead to a decrease in the emergence of bacteria resistant to all drugs. We recommend re-examining restriction of specific drugs, when multiple resistance to the relevant alternative drugs already exists. PMID:26110266

  2. Overcoming Drug Resistance in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jiang; Zhang, Yuqing; Yu, Xianjun; Yang, Jingxuan; LeBrun, Drake; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Li, Min

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Pancreatic cancer has the worst survival rate of all cancers. The current standard care for metastatic pancreatic cancer is gemcitabine, however, the success of this treatment is poor and overall survival has not improved for decades. Drug resistance (both intrinsic and acquired) is thought to be a major reason for the limited benefit of most pancreatic cancer therapies. Areas covered Previous studies have indicated various mechanisms of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer, including changes in individual genes or signaling pathways, the influence of the tumor microenvironment, and the presence of highly resistant stem cells. This review summarizes recent advances in the mechanisms of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer, and potential strategies to overcome this. Expert Opinion Increasing drug delivery efficiency and decreasing drug resistance is the current aim in pancreatic cancer treatment, and will also benefit the treatment of other cancers. Understanding the molecular and cellular basis of drug resistance in pancreatic cancer will lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies with the potential to sensitize pancreatic cancer to chemotherapy, and to increase the efficacy of current treatments in a wide variety of human cancers. PMID:21391891

  3. Expression of cytokeratin confers multiple drug resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, P.A.; Dalton, W.S.; Anderson, J.M.; Cress, A.E. )

    1994-06-07

    The cytokeratin network is an extensive filamentous structure in the cytoplasm whose biological function(s) is unknown. Based upon previous data showing the modification of cytokeratin by mitoxantrone, the authors investigated the ability of cytokeratin networks to influence the survival response of cells to chemotherapeutic agents. They have compared the survival of mouse L fibroblasts lacking cytokeratins with that of L cells transfected with cytokeratins 8 and 18 in the presence of chemotherapeutic drugs. The expression of cytokeratins 8 and 18 conferred a multiple drug resistance phenotype on cells exposed to mitoxantrone, doxorubicin, methotrexate, melphalan, Colcemid, and vincristine. The degree of drug resistance was 5-454 times that of parental cells, depending upon the agent used. Drug resistance could not be attributed to altered growth characteristics, altered drug accumulation, or an altered drug efflux in the transfected cells. Cytokeratin does not confer resistance to ionizing radiation, which damages DNA independently on intracellular transport mechanisms. These data suggest a role for cytokeratin networks in conferring a drug resistance phenotype.

  4. Antibiotic Adjuvants: Diverse Strategies for Controlling Drug-Resistant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Erin E; Franco, Octavio L; Hancock, Robert E W

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to numerous antibiotics is a cause for concern around the globe. There have been no new broad-spectrum antibiotics developed in the last 40 years, and the drugs we have currently are quickly becoming ineffective. In this article, we explore a range of therapeutic strategies that could be employed in conjunction with antibiotics and may help to prolong the life span of these life-saving drugs. Discussed topics include antiresistance drugs, which are administered to potentiate the effects of current antimicrobials in bacteria where they are no longer (or never were) effective; antivirulence drugs, which are directed against bacterial virulence factors; host-directed therapies, which modulate the host's immune system to facilitate infection clearance; and alternative treatments, which include such therapies as oral rehydration for diarrhea, phage therapy, and probiotics. All of these avenues show promise for the treatment of bacterial infections and should be further investigated to explore their full potential in the face of a postantibiotic era. PMID:25393203

  5. Antibiotic adjuvants: diverse strategies for controlling drug-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gill, Erin E; Franco, Octavio L; Hancock, Robert E W

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to numerous antibiotics is a cause for concern around the globe. There have been no new broad-spectrum antibiotics developed in the last 40years, and the drugs we have currently are quickly becoming ineffective. In this article, we explore a range of therapeutic strategies that could be employed in conjunction with antibiotics and may help to prolong the life span of these life-saving drugs. Discussed topics include antiresistance drugs, which are administered to potentiate the effects of current antimicrobials in bacteria where they are no longer (or never were) effective; antivirulence drugs, which are directed against bacterial virulence factors; host-directed therapies, which modulate the host's immune system to facilitate infection clearance; and alternative treatments, which include such therapies as oral rehydration for diarrhea, phage therapy, and probiotics. All of these avenues show promise for the treatment of bacterial infections and should be further investigated to explore their full potential in the face of a postantibiotic era. PMID:25393203

  6. Malaria Epidemic and Drug Resistance, Djibouti

    PubMed Central

    Pradines, Bruno; Bogreau, H.; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Kamil, Mohamed-Ali; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected before, during, and after a 1999 malaria epidemic in Djibouti shows that, despite a high prevalence of resistance to chloroquine, the epidemic cannot be attributed to a sudden increase in drug resistance of local parasite populations. PMID:15752455

  7. Volatilization of mercury by resting mercury-resistant bacterial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Sadhukhan, P.C.; Ghosh, D.K.

    1996-02-01

    The mercuric ion reduction systems encoded by the Hg{sup 2+}inducible mer operon confers bacterial resistance to mercuric ion. The mer A gene product which is a FAD-containing enzyme catalyzes the reduction of Hg{sup 2+} to volatile elemental mercury with the helo of intracellular thiols and NADP as a cofactor Our earlier studies have shown that growing cells of different mercury-resistant bacteria reduce Hg{sup 2+} compounds to Ha(O). We have also shown the effect of thiol compounds and flavins on mercury-degrading enzyme activities in mercury-resistant bacteria. Here we report that resting cells of mercury-resistant bacteria survive in a buffer system for several hours, synthesize inducible mercury-degrading enzymes and volatilize mercury from a mercury-containing buffer system. We know of no information regarding studies of mercury-degrading enzymes in resting mercury-resistant bacterial cells.

  8. Bacterial resistance to disinfectants: present knowledge and future problems.

    PubMed

    Russell, A D

    1999-12-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a long-established, widely-studied problem. Increasingly, attention is being directed to the responses of various types of microbes to biocides (antiseptics, disinfectants and preservatives). Different groups of bacteria vary in their susceptibility to biocides, with bacterial spores being the most resistant, followed by mycobacteria, then Gram-negative organisms, with cocci generally being the most sensitive. There are wide divergencies within this general classification. Thus, (i) spores of Bacillus subtilis are less susceptible to biocides than those of Clostridium difficile: (ii) Mycobacterium chelonae strains may show high resistance to glutaraldehyde and M. avium intracellulare is generally less sensitive than M. tuberculosis; (iii) Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia spp and Proteus spp may be difficult to inactivate; (iv) enterococci are less sensitive than staphylococci to biocides and antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus might show low-level biocide resistance. The mechanisms involved in biocide resistance to biocides are becoming better understood. Intrinsic resistance (intrinsic insusceptibility) is found with bacterial spores, mycobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria. This resistance might, in some instances, be associated with constitutive degradative enzymes but in reality is more closely linked to cellular impermeability. The coats(s) and, to some extent, the cortex in spores, the arabinogalactan and possibly other components of the mycobacterial cell wall and the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria limit the concentration of active biocide that can reach the target site(s) in these bacterial cells. A special situation is found with bacteria present in biofilms, which can be considered as being an intrinsic resistance mechanism resulting from physiological (phenotypic) adaptation of cells. Acquired resistance to biocides may arise by cellular mutation or by the acquisition of genetic elements. Plasmid/transposon-mediated resistance to inorganic and organic mercury compounds by hydrolases and reductases has been extensively studied. Plasmid-mediated resistance to some other biocides in Gram-negative bacteria and in staphylococci has been described, but its significance remains uncertain. As to the future, there is a need to establish conclusively whether there is a clear-cut linkage between antibiotic and biocide resistance in non-sporulating bacteria and whether biocides can select for antibiotic resistance. Additionally, the responses to biocides of new and emerging pathogens must be assessed. At the same time, continuing research is necessary to establish further the underlying mechanisms of resistance and to provide more efficient means of bacterial inactivation. PMID:10658759

  9. Nitroheterocyclic drug resistance mechanisms in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Wyllie, Susan; Foth, Bernardo J.; Kelner, Anna; Sokolova, Antoaneta Y.; Berriman, Matthew; Fairlamb, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to identify the mechanisms of resistance to nifurtimox and fexinidazole in African trypanosomes. Methods Bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucei were selected for resistance to nifurtimox and fexinidazole by stepwise exposure to increasing drug concentrations. Clones were subjected to WGS to identify putative resistance genes. Transgenic parasites modulating expression of genes of interest were generated and drug susceptibility phenotypes determined. Results Nifurtimox-resistant (NfxR) and fexinidazole-resistant (FxR) parasites shared reciprocal cross-resistance suggestive of a common mechanism of action. Previously, a type I nitroreductase (NTR) has been implicated in nitro drug activation. WGS of resistant clones revealed that NfxR parasites had lost >100 kb from one copy of chromosome 7, rendering them hemizygous for NTR as well as over 30 other genes. FxR parasites retained both copies of NTR, but lost >70 kb downstream of one NTR allele, decreasing NTR transcription by half. A single knockout line of NTR displayed 1.6- and 1.9-fold resistance to nifurtimox and fexinidazole, respectively. Since NfxR and FxR parasites are ∼6- and 20-fold resistant to nifurtimox and fexinidazole, respectively, additional factors must be involved. Overexpression and knockout studies ruled out a role for a putative oxidoreductase (Tb927.7.7410) and a hypothetical gene (Tb927.1.1050), previously identified in a genome-scale RNAi screen. Conclusions NTR was confirmed as a key resistance determinant, either by loss of one gene copy or loss of gene expression. Further work is required to identify which of the many dozens of SNPs identified in the drug-resistant cell lines contribute to the overall resistance phenotype. PMID:26581221

  10. [Efficacy of chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis drug-resistant m.tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Khomenko, A G; Chukanov, V I; Korneev, A A

    1996-01-01

    M. tuberculosis examined in 717 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis appeared resistant to chemotherapy in 67.2% of cases. Whereas chronic patients developed drug resistance (DR) as secondary DR in 90.2% of cases, new cases with DR (50.1% of the examinees) seemed to be infected with drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. 2-stage chemotherapy with 4-5 drugs terminates bacterial discharge within first 3 months of treatment in the majority of the patients, especially if early correction of chemotherapy is used by the results of early determination M. tuberculosis drug sensitivity. PMID:9019768

  11. Drug Resistance in Glioblastoma: A Mini Review

    PubMed Central

    Haar, Catherine P.; Hebbar, Preetha; Wallace, Gerald C.; Das, Arabinda; Vandergrift, William A.; Smith, Joshua A.; Giglio, Pierre; Patel, Sunil J.; Ray, Swapan K.; Banik, Naren L.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is recognized as the most common and lethal form of central nervous system cancer. Currently used surgical techniques, chemotherapeutic agents, and radiotherapy strategies have done very little in extending the life expectancies of patients diagnosed with GBM. The difficulty in treating this malignant disease lies both in its inherent complexity and numerous mechanisms of drug resistance. In this review, we summarize several of the primary mechanisms of drug resistance. We reviewed available published literature in the English language regarding drug resistance in glioblastoma. The reasons for drug resistance in glioblastoma include drug efflux, hypoxic areas of tumor cells, cancer stem cells, DNA damage repair, and miRNAs. Many potential therapies target these mechanisms, including a series of investigated alternative and plant-derived agents. Future research and clinical trials in glioblastoma patients should pursue combination of therapies to help combat drug resistance. The emerging new data on the potential of plant-derived therapeutics should also be closely considered and further investigated. PMID:22228201

  12. Mechanisms of Drug-Resistance in Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Barouch-Bentov, Rina; Sauer, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Because of their important roles in disease and excellent druggability, kinases have become the second-largest drug target family. The great success of the BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib in treating CML illustrates the high potential of kinase inhibitor (KI) therapeutics, but also unveiled a major limitation: the development of drug-resistance. This is a significant concern as KIs reach large patient populations for an expanding array of indications. Areas covered We provide an up-to-date understanding of the mechanisms through which KIs function, and through which cells can become KI-resistant. We review current and future approaches to overcome KI-resistance, focussing on currently approved KIs and KIs in clinical trials. We then discuss approaches to improve KI efficacy and overcome drug-resistance and novel approaches to develop less drug-resistance prone KI-therapeutics. Expert opinion Although drug-resistance is a concern for current KI-therapeutics, recent progress in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and promising technological advances may overcome this limitation and provide powerful new therapeutics. PMID:21235428

  13. Sensitive, resistant and multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumanii at Saudi Arabia hospital eastern region.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mughis Uddin; Farooq, Reshma; Al-Hawashim, Nadia; Ahmed, Motasim; Yiannakou, Nearchos; Sayeed, Fatima; Sayed, Ali Rifat; Lutfullah, Sualiha

    2015-05-01

    Since the Physicians start use of antibiotics long ago with un-notice drug resistance. However actual problem was recognized about 85 years ago. Antibiotic resistant and Multi-drug resistant bacterial strains are at rise throughout the world. It is physicians and researchers to take scientific research based appropriate action to overcome this ever-spreading problem. This study is designed to find out sensitive (S), resistant (R) and multi-drug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumanii strain along with other isolates in the resident patients of Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is excluded from other gram-negative organisms isolated from different sites as it will be dealt separately. This study is based in was retrospective observations designed to collect data of different stains of Acinetobacter baumanii with reference to their Sensitivity (S), Resistance (R), Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) along with other Gram negative isolated from different sites (from 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2011) at King Abdulaziz Hospital located Eastern Region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). All necessary techniques were used to culture and perform sensitivity of these isolates. There were 4532 isolates out of which 3018 (67%) were from patients. Out of Acinetobacter baumanii infected were 906 (20%) while other 3626 (80%) isolates were miscellaneous. Numbers of patients or cases were 480 (53%) out of 906 isolates and numbers of patients or cases in other organisms were 2538 (70%) out of 3626 isolates. Acinetobacter baumanii infected patients 221 (46%) were male and 259 (54%) were female and the male and female ratio of 1:1.2. In other organisms this male female ratio was almost same. There was steady rise in number of patients and the hence the isolates from 2004 to 2011. Majority of the bacterial strains were isolated as single organism but some were isolated as double or triple or quadruple or more organisms from different sites. Sensitive, Resistant and Multi-Drug Resistant Acinetobacter baumanii have been isolated from different sites. The other Gram negative isolates included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. A significant rise in R and MDR but there is rise in R and MDR Acinetobacter baumanii Strains has been interceded other isolates. It is important to adopt proper and sustainable policies and guideline regarding antibiotics prescription and used. We should also check our infection control practices in our hospital or healthcare settings. We should start antibiotics stewardship in our hospital in order to reducing or overcoming antibiotics Resistant (R) and Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) strains prevalence. PMID:26004714

  14. Drug targeting of leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Anna; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria

    2015-11-01

    Leptin regulates glucose, lipid and energy homeostasis as well as feeding behavior, serving as a bridge between peripheral metabolically active tissues and the central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, this adipocyte-derived hormone, whose circulating levels mirror fat mass, not only exerts its anti-obesity effects mainly modulating the activity of specific hypothalamic neurons expressing the long form of the leptin receptor (Ob-Rb), but it also shows pleiotropic functions due to the activation of Ob-Rb in peripheral tissues. Nevertheless, several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate leptin resistance, including obesity-associated hyperleptinemia, impairment of leptin access to CNS and the reduction in Ob-Rb signal transduction effectiveness, among others. During the onset and progression of obesity, the dampening of leptin sensitivity often occurs, preventing the efficacy of leptin replacement therapy from overcoming obesity and/or its comorbidities. This review focuses on obesity-associated leptin resistance and the mechanisms underpinning this condition, to highlight the relevance of leptin sensitivity restoration as a useful therapeutic strategy to treat common obesity and its complications. Interestingly, although promising strategies to counteract leptin resistance have been proposed, these pharmacological approaches have shown limited efficacy or even relevant adverse effects in preclinical and clinical studies. Therefore, the numerous findings from this review clearly indicate a lack of a single and efficacious treatment for leptin resistance, highlighting the necessity to find new therapeutic tools to improve leptin sensitivity, especially in patients with most severe disease profiles. PMID:26071010

  15. Recent trends in resistance to cell envelope-active antibacterial agents among key bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Master, Ronald N; Deane, Jennifer; Opiela, Carol; Sahm, Daniel F

    2013-01-01

    Cell envelope-active agents, particularly β-lactams, play a pivotal role in the treatment of bacterial infections and the extent to which their activity is affected by the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms is of concern. We analyzed the Surveillance Network (TSN) database to evaluate resistant trends for key cell envelope-active drugs among ESKAPE pathogens. Analysis demonstrated that the activity of these drugs has been notably influenced by the emergence of multidrug resistance; this was especially evident for the β-lactam drugs. For example, Acinetobacter baumannii resistance to imipenem increased from 23.9% to 34.3%, and resistance to piperacillin-tazobactam increased from 37.0% to 49.7% between 2007 and 2011. During the same time period Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to imipenem increased from 0.8% to 3.8%. As β-lactams are a cornerstone of anti-infective therapy, it is important to closely monitor the activity of the agents being used today and to aggressively pursue new strategies that can augment current drugs and thwart ever-emerging β-lactam resistance mechanisms that are continuously encountered. PMID:23346857

  16. Strategies to overcome the action of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes for treating resistant bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Labby, Kristin J; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2013-07-01

    Shortly after the discovery of the first antibiotics, bacterial resistance began to emerge. Many mechanisms give rise to resistance; the most prevalent mechanism of resistance to the aminoglycoside (AG) family of antibiotics is the action of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs). Since the identification of these modifying enzymes, many efforts have been put forth to prevent their damaging alterations of AGs. These diverse strategies are discussed within this review, including: creating new AGs that are unaffected by AMEs; developing inhibitors of AMEs to be co-delivered with AGs; or regulating AME expression. Modern high-throughput methods as well as drug combinations and repurposing are highlighted as recent drug-discovery efforts towards fighting the increasing antibiotic resistance crisis. PMID:23859208

  17. Strategies to overcome the action of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes for treating resistant bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Labby, Kristin J; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of the first antibiotics, bacterial resistance began to emerge. Many mechanisms give rise to resistance; the most prevalent mechanism of resistance to the aminoglycoside (AG) family of antibiotics is the action of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs). Since the identification of these modifying enzymes, many efforts have been put forth to prevent their damaging alterations of AGs. These diverse strategies are discussed within this review, including: creating new AGs that are unaffected by AMEs; developing inhibitors of AMEs to be co-delivered with AGs; or regulating AME expression. Modern high-throughput methods as well as drug combinations and repurposing are highlighted as recent drug-discovery efforts towards fighting the increasing antibiotic resistance crisis. PMID:23859208

  18. Hypoxia-induced drug resistance: comparison to P-glycoprotein-associated drug resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, K.; Kwok, T. T.; Murphy, B. J.; Laderoute, K. R.; Gordon, G. R.; Sutherland, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    In this report, we investigate several examples of hypoxia-induced drug resistance and compare them with P-glycoprotein associated multidrug resistance (MDR). EMT6/Ro cells exposed to drugs in air immediately after hypoxic treatment developed resistance to adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil, and actinomycin D. However, these cells did not develop resistance to colchicine, vincristine or cisplatin. When the cells were returned to a normal oxygen environment, they lost resistance. There was no correlation between the content of adriamycin and the development of adriamycin resistance induced by hypoxia. There was no difference between the efflux of adriamycin from aerobic cells and that from hypoxia-treated cells. The mRNA for P-glycoprotein was not detected in the hypoxia-treated cells. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced drug resistance is different from P-glycoprotein associated multidrug resistance. PMID:1681885

  19. The Pharmacology of HIV Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zdanowicz, Martin M.

    2006-01-01

    Drug resistance to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major factor in the failure of antiretroviral therapy.1 In order for practitioners to provide effective pharmaceutical care to their HIV patients, it is essential that they understand the mechanisms of HIV drug resistance as well as the various factors that can contribute to its emergence. This article is based on didactic content from the infectious disease section of the Integrated Sequence II Course in the PharmD program at South University. In the course, students are first given an overview that includes key structural components of HIV and a discussion of the HIV life cycle. A detailed presentation on the pharmacology of the various classes of antiretroviral agents follows. The clinical impact and prevalence of HIV drug resistance is then discussed along with factors that might contribute to it. Mechanisms of drug resistance for each class of antiretroviral agents are presented in detail followed by a discussion of the basis and clinical utility of HIV drug resistance testing. Finally, new targets for HIV pharmacotherapy are presented along with an overview of new antiretroviral agents that are being developed. Content taught in lecture is reinforced by relevant case studies that students work on in small groups during the recitation period. PMID:17149429

  20. The Hippo pathway in chemotherapeutic drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yulei; Yang, Xiaolong

    2015-12-15

    Chemotherapy is one of the major treatments for cancer patients. Although chemotherapeutic drugs can sometimes effectively suppress tumor growth in cancer patients, a significant proportion of patients are either intrinsically resistant or later develop resistance to primary chemotherapy, leading to disease relapse and patient mortality. The best way to conquer the resistance is the better understanding of the molecular network in cancer cells in response to drugs. Therefore, identification of signaling pathways and molecules involved in drug resistance is essential for successful treatment of cancers. The Hippo pathway is an emerging signaling pathway that plays important roles in tumorigenesis, stem cell self-renewal and differentiation, organ size control as well as many other biological processes. Therefore, exploring novel roles of the Hippo pathway in various biological functions has become one of the cutting-edge research areas in cancer and other biomedical research. Recently, we and others have provided new evidence that the Hippo pathway is involved in the resistance of different types of cancer cells to various chemotherapeutic drugs. In this review, we will discuss the specific roles of the Hippo pathway in chemotherapy, potential applications for studying this network in response to drugs as well as the future direction in identification of therapeutic targets. PMID:25348697

  1. Aedesin: Structure and Antimicrobial Activity against Multidrug Resistant Bacterial Strains

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Andr; Hamel, Rodolphe; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Chauffour, Aurlie; Vittecoq, Marion; Hoh, Franois; Thomas, Frdric; Sougakoff, Wladimir; Lionne, Corinne; Yssel, Hans; Miss, Dorothe

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance, which is acquired by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, causes infections that are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in many clinical settings around the world. Because of the rapidly increasing incidence of pathogens that have become resistant to all or nearly all available antibiotics, there is a need for a new generation of antimicrobials with a broad therapeutic range for specific applications against infections. Aedesin is a cecropin-like anti-microbial peptide that was recently isolated from dengue virus-infected salivary glands of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. In the present study, we have refined the analysis of its structural characteristics and have determined its antimicrobial effects against a large panel of multidrug resistant bacterial strains, directly isolated from infected patients. Based the results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis, Aedesin has a helix-bend-helix structure typical for a member of the family of ?-helix anti-microbial peptides. Aedesin efficiently killed Gram-negative bacterial strains that display the most worrisome resistance mechanisms encountered in the clinic, including resistance to carbapenems, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, 4th generation fluoroquinolones, folate inhibitors and monobactams. In contrast, Gram-positive strains were insensitive to the lytic effects of the peptide. The anti-bacterial activity of Aedesin was found to be salt-resistant, indicating that it is active under physiological conditions encountered in body fluids characterized by ionic salt concentrations. In conclusion, because of its strong lytic activity against multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains displaying all types of clinically relevant resistance mechanisms known today, Aedesin might be an interesting candidate for the development of alternative treatment for infections caused by these types of bacteria. PMID:25162372

  2. Antiviral Drug Resistance of Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Lurain, Nell S.; Chou, Sunwen

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The study of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) antiviral drug resistance has enhanced knowledge of the virological targets and the mechanisms of antiviral activity. The currently approved drugs, ganciclovir (GCV), foscarnet (FOS), and cidofovir (CDV), target the viral DNA polymerase. GCV anabolism also requires phosphorylation by the virus-encoded UL97 kinase. GCV resistance mutations have been identified in both genes, while FOS and CDV mutations occur only in the DNA polymerase gene. Confirmation of resistance mutations requires phenotypic analysis; however, phenotypic assays are too time-consuming for diagnostic purposes. Genotypic assays based on sequencing provide more rapid results but are dependent on prior validation by phenotypic methods. Reports from many laboratories have produced an evolving list of confirmed resistance mutations, although differences in interpretation have led to some confusion. Recombinant phenotyping methods performed in a few research laboratories have resolved some of the conflicting results. Treatment options for drug-resistant HCMV infections are complex and have not been subjected to controlled clinical trials, although consensus guidelines have been proposed. This review summarizes the virological and clinical data pertaining to HCMV antiviral drug resistance. PMID:20930070

  3. Antiviral drug resistance of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Lurain, Nell S; Chou, Sunwen

    2010-10-01

    The study of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) antiviral drug resistance has enhanced knowledge of the virological targets and the mechanisms of antiviral activity. The currently approved drugs, ganciclovir (GCV), foscarnet (FOS), and cidofovir (CDV), target the viral DNA polymerase. GCV anabolism also requires phosphorylation by the virus-encoded UL97 kinase. GCV resistance mutations have been identified in both genes, while FOS and CDV mutations occur only in the DNA polymerase gene. Confirmation of resistance mutations requires phenotypic analysis; however, phenotypic assays are too time-consuming for diagnostic purposes. Genotypic assays based on sequencing provide more rapid results but are dependent on prior validation by phenotypic methods. Reports from many laboratories have produced an evolving list of confirmed resistance mutations, although differences in interpretation have led to some confusion. Recombinant phenotyping methods performed in a few research laboratories have resolved some of the conflicting results. Treatment options for drug-resistant HCMV infections are complex and have not been subjected to controlled clinical trials, although consensus guidelines have been proposed. This review summarizes the virological and clinical data pertaining to HCMV antiviral drug resistance. PMID:20930070

  4. Erythromycin-resistance of cutaneous bacterial flora in acne.

    PubMed

    Dreno, B; Reynaud, A; Moyse, D; Habert, H; Richet, H

    2001-01-01

    Some studies have raised the problem of an increase of bacterial resistance in acne patients. This study was carried out in France, where no previous studies about resistance to erythromycin has been performed, on 40 patients with mild to moderately severe acne. Microbiological samples were obtained by using Williamson and Kligman method. This study showed that the prevalence of bacterial resistance to erythromycin was 95% for Staphylococcus epidermidis strains and 52% for Propionibacterium acnes strains. Resistant strains were more frequent in patients with predominantly inflammatory lesions (papules and pustules). The influence of previous or current treatment with erythromycin was also studied and showed that even patients without any previous use of erythromycin had resistant strains for Propionibacterium acnes (42%). In addition the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for zinc were evaluated. All the Propionibacterium acnes strains tested were inhibited at concentrations less or equal to 512 mug/ml of zinc. However, zinc combined with erythromycin in vitro did not modify the erythromycin MIC. This first French study on bacterial resistance to erythromycin in acne patients confirms the results of studies performed in other countries. PMID:11701406

  5. Antiplaque biocides and bacterial resistance: a review.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Prem; Gaffar, Abdul

    2002-11-01

    Modern dentistry emphasizes the importance of dental plaque control to improve oral health. The use of oral care formulations with antiplaque biocides plays a crucial role in patient-directed approaches for plaque control. The antiplaque efficacies of these formulations have been extensively studied in many long-term clinical studies designed in accordance with well-accepted guidelines. The results from these studies conclusively demonstrate that long-term use of oral care formulations with well-known antiplaque biocides such as chlorhexidine and triclosan reduce supragingival plaque and gingivitis. This review summarizes microbiological results from clinical studies conducted with oral care formulations containing antiplaque biocides. Results from a number of long-term clinical studies conducted under real-life use conditions indicate no adverse alterations in the bacteria found in dental plaque or emergent microbial resistance. Additionally, microbial sampling of dental plaque subsequent to extended use of antiplaque biocides reveals no increase in resistant microflora. Large numbers of common oral bacteria isolated from patients using chlorhexidine indicate no increase in microbial resistance to chlorhexidine or to commonly used antibiotics. The effects of antiplaque biocides containing oral care formulations on dental plaque that exists naturally as a biofilm are examined. These formulations contain biocide, surfactants, polymers and other components that are effective against the biofilm. In summary, the results of studies on the real-life use of oral care formulations with antiplaque biocides show no emergence of resistant microflora or alterations of the oral microbiota, while such formulations have been found to provide the benefits of reducing plaque and gingivitis. PMID:12472989

  6. Drug-resistant tuberculosis: emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Adhvaryu, Meghna; Vakharia, Bhasker

    2011-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has emerged worldwide, with an increasing incidence due to failure of implementation of apparently effective first-line antituberculous therapy as well as primary infection with drug-resistant strains. Failure of current therapy is attributed to a long duration of treatment leading to nonadherence and irregular therapy, lack of patient education about the disease, poverty, irregular supply by care providers, drug–drug interactions in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), inadequate regulations causing market overlap and irresponsible drug usage in the private sector, and lack of research, with no addition of new drugs in the last four decades. Present standards of care for the treatment of drugsusceptible tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, tuberculosis-HIV coinfection, and latent tuberculosis infection are all unsatisfactory. Since 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) has focused on drug development for tuberculosis, as well as research in all relevant aspects to discover new regimens by 2015 and to eliminate tuberculosis as a public health concern by 2050. As a result, some 20 promising compounds from 14 groups of drugs have been discovered. Twelve candidates from eight classes are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Ongoing research should prioritize identification of novel targets and newer application of existing drugs, discovery of multitargeted drugs from natural compounds, strengthening host factors by immunopotentiation with herbal immunomodulators, as well as protective vaccines before and after exposure, consideration of surgical measures when indicated, development of tools for rapid diagnosis, early identification of resistant strains, and markers for adequacy of treatment and an integrative approach to fulfill WHO goals. However, regulatory control over the drug market, as well as public-private partnership to use health program facilities to track patients and ensure completion of adequate therapy will be necessary to exploit fully the potential of the newer regimens to eliminate tuberculosis. PMID:22287857

  7. Protein Oxidation: Key to Bacterial Desiccation Resistance?

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, Jim K.; Li, Shu-Mei W.; Gaidamakova, E.; Matrosova, V.; Zhai, M.; Sulloway, Heather M.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Brown,, Mindy G.; Balkwill, David L.; Daly, Michael J.

    2008-04-01

    For extremely ionizing radiation resistant bacteria, survival has been attributed to protection of proteins from oxidative damage during irradiation, with the result that repair systems survive and function with far greater efficiency during recovery than in sensitive bacteria. Here we examined the relationship between survival of dry-climate soil bacteria and the level of cellular protein oxidation induced by desiccation. Bacteria were isolated from surface soils of the shrub-steppe of the U.S. Department of Energys Hanford Site in Washington state. A total of 63 isolates were used for phylogenetic analysis. The majority of isolates were closely related to members of the genus Deinococcus, with Chelatococcus, Methylobacterium and Bosea also among the genera identified. Desiccation-resistant isolates accumulated high intracellular manganese and low iron concentrations compared to sensitive bacteria. In vivo, proteins of desiccation-resistant bacteria were protected from oxidative modifications that introduce carbonyl groups in sensitive bacteria during drying. We present the case that survival of bacteria that inhabit dry-climate soils are highly dependent on mechanisms which limit protein oxidation during dehydration.

  8. Genetics and breeding of bacterial leaf spot resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) is a globally important disease of whole head and baby leaf lettuce that reduces crop yield and quality. Host resistance is the most feasible method to reduce disease losses. Screening Lactuca accessions has id...

  9. [Investigation of extensive drug resistance in multidrug resistance tuberculosis isolates].

    PubMed

    Bektre, Bayhan; Haznedaro?lu, Tuner; Baylan, Orhan; Ozyurt, Mustafa; Ozktk, Nuri; Satana, Dilek; Cavu?o?lu, Cengiz; Seber, Engin

    2013-01-01

    Increasing number of drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) cases, observed in recent years, is an important public health problem. Extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) is the development of resistance against any fluoroquinolones and at least one of the injectable second line anti-TB drugs in addition to resistance against isoniazide and rifampicin which are the first line anti-TB drugs [definition of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB)]. Anti-TB therapy failed with first-line anti-TB drugs due to MDR-TB cases is being planned according to second-line anti-TB drug susceptibility test results if available and if not, standart treatment protocols are used. Although it is recommended that individual anti-TB therapy should be designed according to the isolate's susceptibility test results, standart therapeutic protocols are always needed since second-line anti-TB drug susceptibility testing generally could not be performed in developing countries like Turkey. For this reason, nationwide and regional surveillance studies to determine the resistance patterns are always needed to make decisions about the standard therapy algorithms. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the presence of extensive drug resistance among 81 MDR-TB isolates obtained from various health care facilities from Istanbul, Izmir and Manisa and to determine the XDR-TB incidence in Marmara and Aegean regions. Furthermore, we aimed to provide epidemiological data to clinicians to support their choice of second-line anti-TB drugs for MDR-TB infections. Susceptibility testing of isolates for the first and the second-line anti-TB drugs were performed by using modified Middlebrook 7H9 broth in fluorometric BACTEC MGIT 960 system (Becton Dickinson, USA). Eighty-one MDR-TB isolates included in this study were isolated from 43 (53.1%) patients residing in Istanbul, 26 (32.1%) in Izmir and 12 (14.8%) in Manisa provinces. We could not find any isolate consistent with XDR-TB definition in this study. Second-line drug resistance rates of MDR-TB isolates to amikacin and kanamycin were 1.2%, ofloxacin and levofloxacin were 2.5%, capreomycin was 14.8%, ethionamide was 37% whereas linezolid resistance was not detected. Statistically significant correlation was detected between resistance rates of these antibiotic pairs; levofloxacin-ofloxacin (p< 0.01), amikacin-kanamycin (p= 0.01) and streptomycin-ethionamide (p= 0.04). In our study, extensive drug resistance was not encountered in any MDR-TB isolates while high resistance rates was observed against ethionamide and capreomycin. It can be concluded that parenteral aminoglycosides amikasin and kanamycin, fluoroquinolones and linezolid seemed to be reliable anti-TB agents in MDR-TB treatment, however, further larger scale studies are needed. PMID:23390903

  10. Test for bacterial resistance build-up against plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, J. L.; Shimizu, T.; Schmidt, H.-U.; Li, Y.-F.; Morfill, G. E.; Isbary, G.

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that the evolution of resistance of microorganisms to a range of different antibiotics presents a major problem in the control of infectious diseases. Accordingly, new bactericidal ‘agents’ are in great demand. Using a cold atmospheric pressure (CAP) plasma dispenser operated with ambient air, a more than five orders of magnitude inactivation or reduction of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; resistant against a large number of the tested antibiotics) was obtained in less than 10 s. This makes CAP the most promising candidate for combating nosocomial (hospital-induced) infections. To test for the occurrence and development of bacterial resistance against such plasmas, experiments with Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus mundtii) were performed. The aim was to determine quantitative limits for primary (naturally) or secondary (acquired) resistance against the plasma treatment. Our results show that E. coli and E. mundtii possess no primary resistance against the plasma treatment. By generating four generations of bacteria for every strain, where the survivors of the plasma treatment were used for the production of the next generation, a lower limit to secondary resistance was obtained. Our results indicate that CAP technology could contribute to the control of infections in hospitals, in outpatient care and in disaster situations, providing a new, fast and efficient broad-band disinfection technology that is not constrained by bacterial resistance mechanisms.

  11. HIV resistance to anti-viral drugs.

    PubMed

    Wainberg, M A; Salomon, H; Spira, B; Mercure, L; Wainberg, J; Nagai, K; Bentwich, Z; Montaner, J

    1993-03-01

    The use of zidovudine (ZDV) and other forms of nucleoside therapy, including dideoxyinosine (ddI), to treat HIV-infected individuals has led to both longer survival and improved quality of life. However, ZDV-resistant variants of HIV-1 can be isolated from patients undergoing prolonged therapy with this drug. HIV drug resistance against ZDV, ddI and other nucleosides is attributable to a series of point mutations within the pol gene of HIV-1 that encodes the viral enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT). This is not surprising, since the virus is known to replicate at high rates in infected individuals; moreover the RT which mediates transcription of proviral DNA from viral genomic RNA is known to be highly error-prone. Thus, mutants of HIV-1, which possess a drug resistance phenotype and genotype, may be expected to emerge under the selective pressure of long-term anti-viral chemotherapy. HIV drug resistance occurs most commonly in individuals with low CD4 counts, who have progressed to more serious forms of disease. Moreover, viruses obtained from patients with AIDS generally display higher levels of resistance, relative to pre-treatment isolates, than do viruses from patients with more limited illness. Although observations of drug resistance can be correlated with disease progression and a weakened immune system, it is still unclear whether a cause and effect relationship exists. Current clinical research is designed to answer this question while testing the notion that combinations of nucleosides and immuno-stimulatory drugs may provide important clinical benefits. PMID:7504966

  12. Efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Richard D; Lamping, Erwin; Holmes, Ann R; Niimi, Kyoko; Baret, Philippe V; Keniya, Mikhail V; Tanabe, Koichi; Niimi, Masakazu; Goffeau, Andre; Monk, Brian C

    2009-04-01

    Fungi cause serious infections in the immunocompromised and debilitated, and the incidence of invasive mycoses has increased significantly over the last 3 decades. Slow diagnosis and the relatively few classes of antifungal drugs result in high attributable mortality for systemic fungal infections. Azole antifungals are commonly used for fungal infections, but azole resistance can be a problem for some patient groups. High-level, clinically significant azole resistance usually involves overexpression of plasma membrane efflux pumps belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) or the major facilitator superfamily class of transporters. The heterologous expression of efflux pumps in model systems, such Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has enabled the functional analysis of efflux pumps from a variety of fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the ABC pleiotropic drug resistance family has provided a new view of the evolution of this important class of efflux pumps. There are several ways in which the clinical significance of efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance can be mitigated. Alternative antifungal drugs, such as the echinocandins, that are not efflux pump substrates provide one option. Potential therapeutic approaches that could overcome azole resistance include targeting efflux pump transcriptional regulators and fungal stress response pathways, blockade of energy supply, and direct inhibition of efflux pumps. PMID:19366916

  13. Efflux-Mediated Antifungal Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Richard D.; Lamping, Erwin; Holmes, Ann R.; Niimi, Kyoko; Baret, Philippe V.; Keniya, Mikhail V.; Tanabe, Koichi; Niimi, Masakazu; Goffeau, Andre; Monk, Brian C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Fungi cause serious infections in the immunocompromised and debilitated, and the incidence of invasive mycoses has increased significantly over the last 3 decades. Slow diagnosis and the relatively few classes of antifungal drugs result in high attributable mortality for systemic fungal infections. Azole antifungals are commonly used for fungal infections, but azole resistance can be a problem for some patient groups. High-level, clinically significant azole resistance usually involves overexpression of plasma membrane efflux pumps belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) or the major facilitator superfamily class of transporters. The heterologous expression of efflux pumps in model systems, such Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has enabled the functional analysis of efflux pumps from a variety of fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the ABC pleiotropic drug resistance family has provided a new view of the evolution of this important class of efflux pumps. There are several ways in which the clinical significance of efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance can be mitigated. Alternative antifungal drugs, such as the echinocandins, that are not efflux pump substrates provide one option. Potential therapeutic approaches that could overcome azole resistance include targeting efflux pump transcriptional regulators and fungal stress response pathways, blockade of energy supply, and direct inhibition of efflux pumps. PMID:19366916

  14. Virologic Tools for HCV Drug Resistance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Fourati, Slim; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have led to the development of new antiviral drugs that target specific steps of the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) lifecycle. These drugs, collectively termed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), include non-structural (NS) HCV protein inhibitors, NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors (nucleotide analogues and non-nucleoside inhibitors), and NS5A inhibitors. Due to the high genetic variability of HCV, the outcome of DAA-based therapies may be altered by the selection of amino-acid substitutions located within the targeted proteins, which affect viral susceptibility to the administered compounds. At the drug developmental stage, preclinical and clinical characterization of HCV resistance to new drugs in development is mandatory. In the clinical setting, accurate diagnostic tools have become available to monitor drug resistance in patients who receive treatment with DAAs. In this review, we describe tools available to investigate drug resistance in preclinical studies, clinical trials and clinical practice. PMID:26690198

  15. Cooperative Bacterial Growth Dynamics Predict the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemova, Tatiana; Gerardin, Ylaine; Hsin-Jung Li, Sophia; Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    Since the discovery of penicillin, antibiotics have been our primary weapon against bacterial infections. Unfortunately, bacteria can gain resistance to penicillin by acquiring the gene that encodes beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. However, mutations in this gene are necessary to degrade the modern antibiotic cefotaxime. Understanding the conditions that favor the spread of these mutations is a challenge. Here we show that bacterial growth in beta-lactam antibiotics is cooperative and that the nature of this growth determines the conditions in which resistance evolves. Quantitative analysis of the growth dynamics predicts a peak in selection at very low antibiotic concentrations; competition between strains confirms this prediction. We also find significant selection at higher antibiotic concentrations, close to the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the strains. Our results argue that an understanding of the evolutionary forces that lead to antibiotic resistance requires a quantitative understanding of the evolution of cooperation in bacteria.

  16. Resistance to antibiotics targeted to the bacterial cell wall

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, I; Favini-Stabile, S; Dessen, A

    2014-01-01

    Peptidoglycan is the main component of the bacterial cell wall. It is a complex, three-dimensional mesh that surrounds the entire cell and is composed of strands of alternating glycan units crosslinked by short peptides. Its biosynthetic machinery has been, for the past five decades, a preferred target for the discovery of antibacterials. Synthesis of the peptidoglycan occurs sequentially within three cellular compartments (cytoplasm, membrane, and periplasm), and inhibitors of proteins that catalyze each stage have been identified, although not all are applicable for clinical use. A number of these antimicrobials, however, have been rendered inactive by resistance mechanisms. The employment of structural biology techniques has been instrumental in the understanding of such processes, as well as the development of strategies to overcome them. This review provides an overview of resistance mechanisms developed toward antibiotics that target bacterial cell wall precursors and its biosynthetic machinery. Strategies toward the development of novel inhibitors that could overcome resistance are also discussed. PMID:24375653

  17. Drug Transporters and Multiple Drug Resistance in Pediatric Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fruci, Doriana; Cho, William C S; Nobili, Valerio; Locatelli, Franco; Alisi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Solid tumors account for approximately 30% of all childhood cancers. Although chemotherapy has largely contributed to strongly improve the outcome of children with cancer, multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major mechanism limiting the overall survival of patients. An increased efflux rate of the anti-neoplastic drugs from cancer cells by action of members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is one of the most important mechanisms of MDR. These drug transporters play a pivotal role in preserving the balance between sensitivity and resistance to anti-neoplastic drug in specific tumor cells. The functional activity of ABC transporters have been extensively studied in adults, but barely investigated in pediatric solid malignancies. Here, we provide evidence from the current literature about MDR and ABC transporters in the most common types of pediatric solid tumors, including neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, retinoblastoma, hepatoblastoma and Wilms' tumor. PMID:26694726

  18. Repurposing Clinical Molecule Ebselen to Combat Drug Resistant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    Without a doubt, our current antimicrobials are losing the battle in the fight against newly-emerged multidrug-resistant pathogens. There is a pressing, unmet need for novel antimicrobials and novel approaches to develop them; however, it is becoming increasingly difficult and costly to develop new antimicrobials. One strategy to reduce the time and cost associated with antimicrobial innovation is drug repurposing, which is to find new applications outside the scope of the original medical indication of the drug. Ebselen, an organoselenium clinical molecule, possesses potent antimicrobial activity against clinical multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus, but not against Gram-negative pathogens. Moreover, the activity of ebselen against Gram-positive pathogens exceeded those activities determined for vancomycin and linezolid, drugs of choice for treatment of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus infections. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ebselen at which 90% of clinical isolates of Enterococcus and Staphylococcus were inhibited (MIC90) were found to be 0.5 and 0.25 mg/L, respectively. Ebselen showed significant clearance of intracellular methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in comparison to vancomycin and linezolid. We demonstrated that ebselen inhibits the bacterial translation process without affecting mitochondrial biogenesis. Additionally, ebselen was found to exhibit excellent activity in vivo in a Caenorhabditis elegans MRSA-infected whole animal model. Finally, ebselen showed synergistic activities with conventional antimicrobials against MRSA. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ebselen, with its potent antimicrobial activity and safety profiles, can be potentially used to treat multidrug resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections alone or in combination with other antibiotics and should be further clinically evaluated. PMID:26222252

  19. [Effect of Three Typical Disinfection Byproducts on Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance].

    PubMed

    Lü, Lu; Zhang, Meng-lu; Wang, Chun-ming; Lin, Hui-rong; Yu, Xin

    2015-07-01

    The effect of typical disinfection byproducts (DBPs) on bacterial antibiotic resistance was investigated in this study. chlorodibromomethane (CDBM), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and chloral hydrate (CH) were selected, which belong to trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and aldehydes, respectively. After exposure to the selected DBPs, the resistance change of the tested strains to antibiotics was determined. As a result, all of the three DBPs induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to gain increased resistance to the five antibiotics tested, and the DBPs ranked as IAA > CH > CDBM according to their enhancement effects. Multidrug resistance could also be enhanced by treatment with IAA. The same result was observed in Escherichia coli K12, suggesting that the effect of DBPs on antibiotic resistance was a common phenomenon. The mechanism was probably that DBPs stimulated oxidative stress, which induced mutagenesis. And the antibiotic resistance mutation frequency could be increased along with mutagenesis. This study revealed that the acquisition of bacterial antibiotic resistance might be related to DBPs in drinking water systems. Besides the genotoxicological risks, the epidemiological risks of DBPs should not be overlooked. PMID:26489321

  20. The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Xiaolin; Xu, Fengming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hang; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 ?g/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance was also analyzed using drug sensitivity tests. The results indicated that bacteria derived from water treatment plant effluent that used the Huangpu River rather than the Yangtze River as source water exhibited higher antibiotic resistance rates against AMP, STR, RFP and CM but lower antibiotic resistance rates against KAN. When the antibiotic concentration levels ranged from 1 to 10 ?g/mL, the antibiotic resistance rates of the bacteria in the water increased as water treatment progressed. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration played a key role in increasing the antibiotic resistance rate of bacteria. Chloramine disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance. Among the isolated ARB, 75% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ozone oxidation, BAC filtration and chloramine disinfection can greatly affect the relative abundance of bacteria in the community. PMID:26150304

  1. Drug resistance in human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Michael P; Vincent, Isabel M; Burchmore, Richard J S; Kazibwe, Anne J N; Matovu, Enock

    2011-09-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis or 'sleeping sickness' is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei. A decade of intense international cooperation has brought the incidence to fewer than 10,000 reported cases per annum with anti-trypanosomal drugs, particularly against stage 2 disease where the CNS is involved, being central to control. Treatment failures with melarsoprol started to appear in the 1990s and their incidence has risen sharply in many foci. Loss of plasma membrane transporters involved in drug uptake, particularly the P2 aminopurine transporter and also a transporter termed the high affinity pentamidine transporter, relate to melarsoprol resistance selected in the laboratory. The same two transporters are also responsible for the uptake of the stage 1 drug pentamidine and, to varying extents, other diamidines. However, reports of treatment failures with pentamidine have been rare from the field. Eflornithine (difluoromethylornithine) has replaced melarsoprol as first-line treatment in many regions. However, a need for protracted and complicated drug dosing regimens slowed widespread implementation of eflornithine monotherapy. A combination of eflornithine with nifurtimox substantially decreases the required dose and duration of eflornithine administration and this nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy has enjoyed rapid implementation. Unfortunately, selection of resistance to eflornithine in the laboratory is relatively easy (through loss of an amino acid transporter believed to be involved in its uptake), as is selection of resistance to nifurtimox. The first anecdotal reports of treatment failures with eflornithine monotherapy are emerging from some foci. The possibility that parasites resistant to melarsoprol on the one hand, and eflornithine on the other, are present in the field indicates that genes capable of conferring drug resistance to both drugs are in circulation. If new drugs, that act in ways that will not render them susceptible to resistance mechanisms already in circulation do not appear soon, there is also a risk that the current downward trend in Human African trypanosomiasis prevalence will be reversed and, as has happened in the past, the disease will become resurgent, only this time in a form that resists available drugs. PMID:21958143

  2. Bacterial resistance to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QAC) disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Bragg, Robert; Jansen, Arina; Coetzee, Marisa; van der Westhuizen, Wouter; Boucher, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Control of bacterial diseases has, for many years, been dependent on the use of antibiotics. Due to the high levels of efficacy of antibiotics in the past other disease control options have, to a large extent, been neglected. Mankind is now facing an increasing problem with antibiotic resistance. In an effort to retain some antibiotics for human use, there are moves afoot to limit or even ban the use of antibiotics in animal production. The use of antibiotics as growth promoters have been banned in the European Union and the USA. The potential ban on the use of antibiotics to treat diseases in production animals creates a dilemma for man-suffer significant problem with bacterial infection or suffer from a severe shortage of food! There are other options for the control of bacterial diseases. These include vaccine development, bacteriophage therapy, and improved biosecurity. Vaccine development against bacterial pathogens, particularly opportunistic pathogens, is often very challenging, as in many cases the molecular basis of the virulence is not always clearly understood. This is particularly true for Escherichia coli. Biosecurity (disinfection) has been a highly neglected area in disease control. With the ever-increasing problems with antibiotic resistance-the focus should return to improvements in biosecurity. As with antibiotics, bacteria also have mechanisms for resistance to disinfectants. To ensure that we do not replace one set of problems (increasing antibiotic resistance) with another (increasing resistance to disinfectants) we need to fully understand the modes of action of disinfectants and how the bacteria develop resistance to these disinfectants. Molecular studies have been undertaken to relate the presence of QAC resistance genes in bacteria to their levels of sensitivity to different generations of QAC-based products. The mode of action of QAC on bacteria has been studied using NanoSAM technology, where it was revealed that the QAC causes disruption of the bacterial cell wall and leaking of the cytoplasm out of the cells. Our main focus is on the control of bacterial and viral diseases in the poultry industry in a post-antibiotic era, but the principles remain similar for disease control in any veterinary field as well as in human medicine. PMID:24595606

  3. White Paper: Recommendations on the Conduct of Superiority and Organism-Specific Clinical Trials of Antibacterial Agents for the Treatment of Infections Caused by Drug-Resistant Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There is a critical need for new pathways to develop antibacterial agents to treat life-threatening infections caused by highly resistant bacteria. Traditionally, antibacterial agents have been studied in noninferiority clinical trials that focus on one site of infection (eg, pneumonia, intra-abdominal infection). Conduct of superiority trials for infections caused by highly antibiotic-resistant bacteria represents a new, and as yet, untested paradigm for antibacterial drug development. We sought to define feasible trial designs of antibacterial agents that could enable conduct of superiority and organism-specific clinical trials. These recommendations are the results of several years of active dialogue among the white paper's drafters as well as external collaborators and regulatory officials. Our goal is to facilitate conduct of new types of antibacterial clinical trials to enable development and ultimately approval of critically needed new antibacterial agents. PMID:22891041

  4. PARAMETERS OF TREATED STAINLESS STEEL SURFACES IMPORTANT FOR RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of materials that are resistant to bacterial contamination could enhance food safety during processing. Common finishing treatments of stainless steel surfaces used for components of poultry processing equipment were tested for resistance to bacterial attachment. Surface char...

  5. Essential Oils, A New Horizon in Combating Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Polly Soo Xi; Yiap, Beow Chin; Ping, Hu Cai; Lim, Swee Hua Erin

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the battle between humans and the multitudes of infection and disease causing pathogens continues. Emerging at the battlefield as some of the most significant challenges to human health are bacterial resistance and its rapid rise. These have become a major concern in global public health invigorating the need for new antimicrobial compounds. A rational approach to deal with antibiotic resistance problems requires detailed knowledge of the different biological and non-biological factors that affect the rate and extent of resistance development. Combination therapy combining conventional antibiotics and essential oils is currently blooming and represents a potential area for future investigations. This new generation of phytopharmaceuticals may shed light on the development of new pharmacological regimes in combating antibiotic resistance. This review consolidated and described the observed synergistic outcome between essential oils and antibiotics, and highlighted the possibilities of essential oils as the potential resistance modifying agent. PMID:24627729

  6. Host-Directed Antimicrobial Drugs with Broad-Spectrum Efficacy against Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Czyż, Daniel M.; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Jain-Gupta, Neeta; Riley, Sean P.; Martinez, Juan J.; Steck, Theodore L.; Crosson, Sean; Gabay, Joëlle E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We sought a new approach to treating infections by intracellular bacteria, namely, by altering host cell functions that support their growth. We screened a library of 640 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved compounds for agents that render THP-1 cells resistant to infection by four intracellular pathogens. We identified numerous drugs that are not antibiotics but were highly effective in inhibiting intracellular bacterial growth with limited toxicity to host cells. These compounds are likely to target three kinds of host functions: (i) G protein-coupled receptors, (ii) intracellular calcium signals, and (iii) membrane cholesterol distribution. The compounds that targeted G protein receptor signaling and calcium fluxes broadly inhibited Coxiella burnetii, Legionella pneumophila, Brucella abortus, and Rickettsia conorii, while those directed against cholesterol traffic strongly attenuated the intracellular growth of C. burnetii and L. pneumophila. These pathways probably support intracellular pathogen growth so that drugs that perturb them may be therapeutic candidates. Combining host- and pathogen-directed treatments is a strategy to decrease the emergence of drug-resistant intracellular bacterial pathogens. PMID:25073644

  7. Countering amyloid polymorphism and drug resistance with minimal drug cocktails

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Several fatal, progressive neurodegenerative diseases, including various prion and prion-like disorders, are connected with the misfolding of specific proteins. These proteins misfold into toxic oligomeric species and a spectrum of distinct self-templating amyloid structures, termed strains. Hence, small molecules that prevent or reverse these protein-misfolding events might have therapeutic utility. Yet it is unclear whether a single small molecule can antagonize the complete repertoire of misfolded forms encompassing diverse amyloid polymorphs and soluble oligomers. We have begun to investigate this issue using the yeast prion protein Sup35 as an experimental paradigm. We have discovered that a polyphenol, (−)epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), effectively inhibited the formation of infectious amyloid forms (prions) of Sup35 and even remodeled preassembled prions. Surprisingly, EGCG selectively modulated specific prion strains and even selected for EGCG-resistant prion strains with novel structural and biological characteristics. Thus, treatment with a single small molecule antagonist of amyloidogenesis can select for novel, drug-resistant amyloid polymorphs. Importantly, combining EGCG with another small molecule, 4,5-bis-(4-methoxyanilino)phthalimide, synergistically antagonized and remodeled a wide array of Sup35 prion strains without producing any drug-resistant prions. We suggest that minimal drug cocktails, small collections of drugs that collectively antagonize all amyloid polymorphs, should be identified to besiege various neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:20935457

  8. Molecular basis of bacterial resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Stefan; Kehrenberg, Corinna; Doublet, Benoît; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2004-11-01

    Chloramphenicol (Cm) and its fluorinated derivative florfenicol (Ff) represent highly potent inhibitors of bacterial protein biosynthesis. As a consequence of the use of Cm in human and veterinary medicine, bacterial pathogens of various species and genera have developed and/or acquired Cm resistance. Ff is solely used in veterinary medicine and has been introduced into clinical use in the mid-1990s. Of the Cm resistance genes known to date, only a small number also mediates resistance to Ff. In this review, we present an overview of the different mechanisms responsible for resistance to Cm and Ff with particular focus on the two different types of chloramphenicol acetyltransferases (CATs), specific exporters and multidrug transporters. Phylogenetic trees of the different CAT proteins and exporter proteins were constructed on the basis of a multisequence alignment. Moreover, information is provided on the mobile genetic elements carrying Cm or Cm/Ff resistance genes to provide a basis for the understanding of the distribution and the spread of Cm resistance--even in the absence of a selective pressure imposed by the use of Cm or Ff. PMID:15539072

  9. Additional Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates From Resected Cavities Among Patients With Multidrug-Resistant or Extensively Drug-Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Alexander S.; Nikolaishvili, Ketino; Kalandadze, Iagor; Gogishvili, Shota; Blumberg, Henry M.; Vashakidze, Sergo

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of increasing drug resistance among patients with multidrug-resistant or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis undergoing treatment is poorly understood. Increasing drug resistance found among Mycobacterium tuberculosis recovered from cavitary isolates compared with paired sputum isolates suggests pulmonary cavities may play a role in the development of worsening tuberculosis drug resistance. PMID:22198790

  10. Heavy metals in liquid pig manure in light of bacterial antimicrobial resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzel, Christina S.; Mueller, Christa; Harms, Katrin S.; Mikolajewski, Sabine; Schaefer, Stefanie; Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann

    2012-02-15

    Heavy metals are regularly found in liquid pig manure, and might interact with bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined by atomic spectroscopic methods in 305 pig manure samples and were connected to the phenotypic resistance of Escherichia coli (n=613) against 29 antimicrobial drugs. Concentrations of heavy metals (/kg dry matter) were 0.08-5.30 mg cadmium, 1.1-32.0 mg chrome, 22.4-3387.6 mg copper, <2.0-26.7 mg lead, <0.01-0.11 mg mercury, 3.1-97.3 mg nickel and 93.0-8239.0 mg zinc. Associated with the detection of copper and zinc, resistance rates against {beta}-lactams were significantly elevated. By contrast, the presence of mercury was significantly associated with low antimicrobial resistance rates of Escherichia coli against {beta}-lactams, aminoglycosides and other antibiotics. Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of mercury on bacterial resistance against penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and doxycycline were also demonstrated in a laboratory trial. Antimicrobial resistance in the porcine microflora might be increased by copper and zinc. By contrast, the occurrence of mercury in the environment might, due to co-toxicity, act counter-selective against antimicrobial resistant strains.

  11. Differential resistance of drinking water bacterial populations to monochloramine disinfection.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Tzu-Hsin; Clancy, Tara M; Pinto, Ameet; Xi, Chuanwu; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2014-04-01

    The impact of monochloramine disinfection on the complex bacterial community structure in drinking water systems was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Changes in viable bacterial diversity were monitored using culture-independent methods that distinguish between live and dead cells based on membrane integrity, providing a highly conservative measure of viability. Samples were collected from lab-scale and full-scale drinking water filters exposed to monochloramine for a range of contact times. Culture-independent detection of live cells was based on propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment to selectively remove DNA from membrane-compromised cells. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to quantify the DNA of live bacteria and characterize the bacterial communities, respectively. The inactivation rate determined by the culture-independent PMA-qPCR method (1.5-log removal at 664 mgmin/L) was lower than the inactivation rate measured by the culture-based methods (4-log removal at 66 mgmin/L). Moreover, drastic changes in the live bacterial community structure were detected during monochloramine disinfection using PMA-pyrosequencing, while the community structure appeared to remain stable when pyrosequencing was performed on samples that were not subject to PMA treatment. Genera that increased in relative abundance during monochloramine treatment include Legionella, Escherichia, and Geobacter in the lab-scale system and Mycobacterium, Sphingomonas, and Coxiella in the full-scale system. These results demonstrate that bacterial populations in drinking water exhibit differential resistance to monochloramine, and that the disinfection process selects for resistant bacterial populations. PMID:24625288

  12. Bacterial Transcription as a Target for Antibacterial Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cong; Yang, Xiao; Lewis, Peter J

    2016-03-01

    Transcription, the first step of gene expression, is carried out by the enzyme RNA polymerase (RNAP) and is regulated through interaction with a series of protein transcription factors. RNAP and its associated transcription factors are highly conserved across the bacterial domain and represent excellent targets for broad-spectrum antibacterial agent discovery. Despite the numerous antibiotics on the market, there are only two series currently approved that target transcription. The determination of the three-dimensional structures of RNAP and transcription complexes at high resolution over the last 15 years has led to renewed interest in targeting this essential process for antibiotic development by utilizing rational structure-based approaches. In this review, we describe the inhibition of the bacterial transcription process with respect to structural studies of RNAP, highlight recent progress toward the discovery of novel transcription inhibitors, and suggest additional potential antibacterial targets for rational drug design. PMID:26764017

  13. The Culturable Soil Antibiotic Resistome: A Community of Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Fiona; Duffy, Brion

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the soil bacterial resistome is essential to understanding the evolution and development of antibiotic resistance, and its spread between species and biomes. We have identified and characterized multi-drug resistance (MDR) mechanisms in the culturable soil antibiotic resistome and linked the resistance profiles to bacterial species. We isolated 412 antibiotic resistant bacteria from agricultural, urban and pristine soils. All isolates were multi-drug resistant, of which greater than 80% were resistant to 16–23 antibiotics, comprising almost all classes of antibiotic. The mobile resistance genes investigated, (ESBL, blaNDM-1, and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) resistance genes) were not responsible for the respective resistance phenotypes nor were they present in the extracted soil DNA. Efflux was demonstrated to play an important role in MDR and many resistance phenotypes. Clinically relevant Burkholderia species are intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin but the soil Burkholderia species were not intrinsically resistant to ciprofloxacin. Using a phenotypic enzyme assay we identified the antibiotic specific inactivation of trimethoprim in 21 bacteria from different soils. The results of this study identified the importance of the efflux mechanism in the soil resistome and variations between the intrinsic resistance profiles of clinical and soil bacteria of the same family. PMID:23776501

  14. Marine bacterial communities are resistant to elevated carbon dioxide levels.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Anna E; Newbold, Lindsay K; Whiteley, Andrew S; van der Gast, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that the release of anthropogenic-derived CO2 into the atmosphere will be mainly absorbed by the oceans, with a concomitant drop in pH, a process termed ocean acidification. As such, there is considerable interest in how changes in increased CO2 and lower pH will affect marine biota, such as bacteria, which play central roles in oceanic biogeochemical processes. Set within an ecological framework, we investigated the direct effects of elevated CO2, contrasted with ambient conditions on the resistance and resilience of marine bacterial communities in a replicated temporal seawater mesocosm experiment. The results of the study strongly indicate that marine bacterial communities are highly resistant to the elevated CO2 and lower pH conditions imposed, as demonstrated from measures of turnover using taxatime relationships and distancedecay relationships. In addition, no significant differences in community abundance, structure or composition were observed. Our results suggest that there are no direct effects on marine bacterial communities and that the bacterial fraction of microbial plankton holds enough flexibility and evolutionary capacity to withstand predicted future changes from elevated CO2 and subsequent ocean acidification. PMID:25756110

  15. Population Dynamics of Patients with Bacterial Resistance in Hospital Environment

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Leilei; Pan, Qiuhui; Gao, Xubin; He, Mingfeng

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, the increase of antibiotic resistance has become a major concern worldwide. The researchers found that superbugs with new type of resistance genes (NDM-1) have two aspects of transmission characteristics; the first is that the antibiotic resistance genes can horizontally transfer among bacteria, and the other is that the superbugs can spread between humans through direct contact. Based on these two transmission mechanisms, we study the dynamics of population in hospital environment where superbugs exist. In this paper, we build three mathematic models to illustrate the dynamics of patients with bacterial resistance in hospital environment. The models are analyzed using stability theory of differential equations. Positive equilibrium points of the system are investigated and their stability analysis is carried out. Moreover, the numerical simulation of the proposed model is also performed which supports the theoretical findings. PMID:26904150

  16. Population Dynamics of Patients with Bacterial Resistance in Hospital Environment.

    PubMed

    Qu, Leilei; Pan, Qiuhui; Gao, Xubin; He, Mingfeng

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, the increase of antibiotic resistance has become a major concern worldwide. The researchers found that superbugs with new type of resistance genes (NDM-1) have two aspects of transmission characteristics; the first is that the antibiotic resistance genes can horizontally transfer among bacteria, and the other is that the superbugs can spread between humans through direct contact. Based on these two transmission mechanisms, we study the dynamics of population in hospital environment where superbugs exist. In this paper, we build three mathematic models to illustrate the dynamics of patients with bacterial resistance in hospital environment. The models are analyzed using stability theory of differential equations. Positive equilibrium points of the system are investigated and their stability analysis is carried out. Moreover, the numerical simulation of the proposed model is also performed which supports the theoretical findings. PMID:26904150

  17. Challenges of drug-resistant malaria

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Shweta; Medhi, Bikash; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Over the past six decades, the drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum has become an issue of utmost concern. Despite the remarkable progress that has been made in recent years in reducing the mortality rate to about 30% with the scaling-up of vector control, introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies and other malaria control strategies, the confirmation of artemisinin resistance on the Cambodia–Thailand border threatened all the previous success. This review addresses the global scenario of antimalarial resistance and factors associated with it, with the main emphasis on futuristic approaches like nanotechnology and stem cell therapy that may impede resistant malaria, along with novel medications which are preparing to enter the global antimalarial market. These novel studies are likely to escalate over the coming years and will hopefully help to reduce the burden of malaria. PMID:25402734

  18. Absence of bacterial resistance following repeat exposure to photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedigo, Lisa A.; Gibbs, Aaron J.; Scott, Robert J.; Street, Cale N.

    2009-06-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria necessitates exploration of alternative approaches to treat hospital and community acquired infections. The aim of this study was to determine whether bacterial pathogens develop resistance to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) during repeated sub-lethal challenge. Antibiotic sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus and antibiotic sensitive E. coli were subjected to repeat PDT treatments using a methylene blue photosensitizer formulation and 670 nm illumination from a non-thermal diode laser. Parameters were adjusted such that kills were <100% so that surviving colonies could be passaged for subsequent exposures. With each repeat, kills were compared to those using non-exposed cultures of the same strain. Oxacillin resistance was induced in S. aureus using a disc diffusion method. For each experiment, "virgin" and "repeat" cultures were exposed to methylene blue at 0.01% w/v and illuminated with an energy dose of 20.6 J/cm2. No significant difference in killing of E. coli (repeat vs. virgin culture) was observed through 11 repeat exposures. Similar results were seen using MSSA and MRSA, wherein kill rate did not significantly differ from control over 25 repeat exposures. In contrast, complete oxacillin resistance could be generated in S. aureus over a limited number of exposures. PDT is effective in the eradication of pathogens including antibiotic resistance strains. Furthermore, repeated sub-lethal exposure does not induce resistance to subsequent PDT treatments. The absence of resistance formation represents a significant advantage of PDT over traditional antibiotics.

  19. Drug resistance in castration resistant prostate cancer: resistance mechanisms and emerging treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Cameron M; Gao, Allen C

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms facilitate the progression of hormone-sensitive prostate cancer to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). At present, the approved chemotherapies for CRPC include systemic drugs (docetaxel and cabazitaxel) and agents that target androgen signaling, including enzalutamide and abiraterone. While up to 30% of patients have primary resistance to these treatments, each of these drugs confers a significant survival benefit for many. Over time, however, all patients inevitably develop resistance to treatment and their disease will continue to progress. Several key mechanisms have been identified that give rise to drug resistance. Expression of constitutively active variants of the androgen receptor, such as AR-V7, intracrine androgens and overexpression of androgen synthesis enzymes like AKR1C3, and increased drug efflux through ABCB1 are just some of the many discovered mechanisms of drug resistance. Treatment strategies are being developed to target these pathways and reintroduce drug sensitivity. Niclosamide has been discovered to reduce AR-V7 activity and synergized to enzalutamide. Indomethacin has been explored to inhibit AKR1C3 activity and showed to be able to reverse resistance to enzalutamide. ABCB1 transport activity can be mitigated by the phytochemical apigenin and by antiandrogens such as bicalutamide, with each improving cellular response to chemotherapeutics. By better understanding the mechanisms by which drug resistance develops improved treatment strategies will be made possible. Herein, we review the existing knowledge of CRPC therapies and resistance mechanisms as well as methods that have been identified which may improve drug sensitivity. PMID:26309896

  20. Drug resistance in castration resistant prostate cancer: resistance mechanisms and emerging treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Cameron M; Gao, Allen C

    2015-01-01

    Several mechanisms facilitate the progression of hormone-sensitive prostate cancer to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). At present, the approved chemotherapies for CRPC include systemic drugs (docetaxel and cabazitaxel) and agents that target androgen signaling, including enzalutamide and abiraterone. While up to 30% of patients have primary resistance to these treatments, each of these drugs confers a significant survival benefit for many. Over time, however, all patients inevitably develop resistance to treatment and their disease will continue to progress. Several key mechanisms have been identified that give rise to drug resistance. Expression of constitutively active variants of the androgen receptor, such as AR-V7, intracrine androgens and overexpression of androgen synthesis enzymes like AKR1C3, and increased drug efflux through ABCB1 are just some of the many discovered mechanisms of drug resistance. Treatment strategies are being developed to target these pathways and reintroduce drug sensitivity. Niclosamide has been discovered to reduce AR-V7 activity and synergized to enzalutamide. Indomethacin has been explored to inhibit AKR1C3 activity and showed to be able to reverse resistance to enzalutamide. ABCB1 transport activity can be mitigated by the phytochemical apigenin and by antiandrogens such as bicalutamide, with each improving cellular response to chemotherapeutics. By better understanding the mechanisms by which drug resistance develops improved treatment strategies will be made possible. Herein, we review the existing knowledge of CRPC therapies and resistance mechanisms as well as methods that have been identified which may improve drug sensitivity. PMID:26309896

  1. Drug Resistant Fetal Arrhythmia in Obstetric Cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Altug, Nahide; Kirbas, Ayse; Daglar, Korkut; Biberoglu, Ebru; Uygur, Dilek; Danisman, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Obstetric cholestasis (OC) is a pregnancy specific liver disease characterized by increased levels of bile acid (BA) and pruritus. Raised maternal BA levels could be associated with intrauterine death, fetal distress, and preterm labor and also alter the rate and rhythm of cardiomyocyte contraction and may cause fetal arrhythmic events. We report a case of drug resistant fetal supraventricular tachycardia and concomitant OC. Conclusion. If there are maternal OC and concomitant fetal arrhythmia, possibility of the resistance to antiarrhythmic treatment should be kept in mind. PMID:25821617

  2. Structural Studies of Bacterial Enzymes and their Relation to Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Maltz, Lauren

    2015-08-27

    By using protein crystallography and X-ray diffraction, structures of bacterial enzymes were solved to gain a better understanding of how enzymatic modification acts as an antibacterial resistance mechanism. Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs) are one of three aminoglycoside modifying enzymes that confer resistance to the aminoglycoside antibiotics via enzymatic modification, rendering many drugs obsolete. Specifically, the APH(2”) family vary in their substrate specificities and also in their preference for the phosphate donor (ADP versus GDP). By solving the structures of members of the APH(2”) family of enzymes, we can see how domain movements are important to their substrate specificity. Our structure of the ternary complex of APH(2”)-IIIa with GDP and kanamycin, when compared to the known structures of APH(2”)-IVa, reveals that there are real physical differences between these two enzymes, a structural finding that explains why the two enzymes differ in their preferences for certain aminoglycosides. Another important group of bacterial resistance enzymes are the Class D β- lactamases. Oxacillinase carbapenemases (OXAs) are part of this enzyme class and have begun to confer resistance to ‘last resort’ drugs, most notably carbapenems. Our structure of OXA-143 shows that the conformational flexibility of a conserved hydrophobic residue in the active site (Val130) serves to control the entry of a transient water molecule responsible for a key step in the enzyme’s mechanism. Our results provide insight into the structural mechanisms of these two different enzymes

  3. An insight into the drug resistance profile & mechanism of drug resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Achchhe Lal; Chaudhry, Uma; Sachdev, Divya; Sachdeva, Poonam Nagpal; Bala, Manju; Saluja, Daman

    2011-01-01

    Among the aetiological agents of treatable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), Neissseria gonorrhoeae is considered to be most important because of emerging antibiotic resistant strains that compromise the effectiveness of treatment of the disease - gonorrhoea. In most of the developing countries, treatment of gonorrhoea relies mainly on syndromic management rather than the aetiological based therapy. Gonococcal infections are usually treated with single-dose therapy with an agent found to cure > 95 per cent of cases. Unfortunately during the last few decades, N. gonorrhoeae has developed resistance not only to less expensive antimicrobials such as sulphonamides, penicillin and tetracyclines but also to fluoroquinolones. The resistance trend of N. gonorrhoeae towards these antimicrobials can be categorised into pre-quinolone, quinolone and post-quinolone era. Among the antimicrobials available so far, only the third-generation cephalosporins could be safely recommended as first-line therapy for gonorrhoea globally. However, resistance to oral third-generation cephalosporins has also started emerging in some countries. Therefore, it has become imperative to initiate sustained national and international efforts to reduce infection and misuse of antibiotics so as to prevent further emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. It is necessary not only to monitor drug resistance and optimise treatment regimens, but also to gain insight into how gonococcus develops drug resistance. Knowledge of mechanism of resistance would help us to devise methods to prevent the occurrence of drug resistance against existing and new drugs. Such studies could also help in finding out new drug targets in N. gonorrhoeae and also a possibility of identification of new drugs for treating gonorrhoea. PMID:22089602

  4. Swiss Report Highlights Danger of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_155659.html Swiss Report Highlights Danger of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Cases where the infection isn't ... Switzerland who nearly died after catching a highly drug-resistant strain of tuberculosis illustrates exactly what public ...

  5. Myeloma Propagating Cells, Drug Resistance and Relapse.

    PubMed

    Karadimitris, Anastasios; Chaidos, Aristeidis; Caputo, Valentina; Goudevenou, Katerina; Ponnusamy, Kanagaraju; Xiao, Xiaolin

    2015-11-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable tumor of the plasma cells, the terminally differentiated immunoglobulin secreting B lineage cells. The genetic make-up of MM has been extensively characterized but its impact on the biology of the disease is incomplete without more precise knowledge of the identity and functional role of cells with multiple myeloma propagating activity (MMPA). We review here recent data that link MMPA with myeloma clonotypic populations organized in a cellular hierarchy that mirrors normal B cell development and also with drug resistance and disease relapse. We further propose a conceptual framework which, with optimal use of recent technological advances in genomics and phenomics, could allow dissection of the cellular and molecular properties of cells with MMPA, drug resistance and in vivo relapse in an integrated and patient-specific manner. There is real hope that these approaches will significantly contribute to further improvements in disease control, overall survival, and possibly cure of patients with MM. PMID:26302895

  6. Chemical Communication of Antibiotic Resistance by a Highly Resistant Subpopulation of Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    El-Halfawy, Omar M.; Valvano, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    The overall antibiotic resistance of a bacterial population results from the combination of a wide range of susceptibilities displayed by subsets of bacterial cells. Bacterial heteroresistance to antibiotics has been documented for several opportunistic Gram-negative bacteria, but the mechanism of heteroresistance is unclear. We use Burkholderia cenocepacia as a model opportunistic bacterium to investigate the implications of heterogeneity in the response to the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B (PmB) and also other bactericidal antibiotics. Here, we report that B. cenocepacia is heteroresistant to PmB. Population analysis profiling also identified B. cenocepacia subpopulations arising from a seemingly homogenous culture that are resistant to higher levels of polymyxin B than the rest of the cells in the culture, and can protect the more sensitive cells from killing, as well as sensitive bacteria from other species, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Communication of resistance depended on upregulation of putrescine synthesis and YceI, a widely conserved low-molecular weight secreted protein. Deletion of genes for the synthesis of putrescine and YceI abrogate protection, while pharmacologic inhibition of putrescine synthesis reduced resistance to polymyxin B. Polyamines and YceI were also required for heteroresistance of B. cenocepacia to various bactericidal antibiotics. We propose that putrescine and YceI resemble "danger" infochemicals whose increased production by a bacterial subpopulation, becoming more resistant to bactericidal antibiotics, communicates higher level of resistance to more sensitive members of the population of the same or different species. PMID:23844246

  7. Current Perspectives on HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Iyidogan, Pinar; Anderson, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    Current advancements in antiretroviral therapy (ART) have turned HIV-1 infection into a chronic and manageable disease. However, treatment is only effective until HIV-1 develops resistance against the administered drugs. The most recent antiretroviral drugs have become superior at delaying the evolution of acquired drug resistance. In this review, the viral fitness and its correlation to HIV-1 mutation rates and drug resistance are discussed while emphasizing the concept of lethal mutagenesis as an alternative therapy. The development of resistance to the different classes of approved drugs and the importance of monitoring antiretroviral drug resistance are also summarized briefly. PMID:25341668

  8. Molecular mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Kraus, D; Peschel, A

    2006-01-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) are integral compounds of the antimicrobial arsenals in virtually all kinds of organisms, with important roles in microbial ecology and higher organisms' host defense. Many bacteria have developed countermeasures to limit the efficacy of CAMPs such as defensins, cathelicidins, kinocidins, or bacteriocins. The best-studied bacterial CAMP resistance mechanisms involve electrostatic repulsion of CAMPs by modification of cell envelope molecules, proteolytic cleavage of CAMPs, production of CAMP-trapping proteins, or extrusion of CAMPs by energy-dependent efflux pumps. The repertoire of CAMPs produced by a given host organism and the efficiency of microbial CAMP resistance mechanisms appear to be crucial in host-pathogen interactions, governing the composition of commensal microbial communities and the virulence of bacterial pathogens. However, all CAMP resistance mechanisms have limitations and bacteria have never succeeded in becoming fully insensitive to a broad range of CAMPs. CAMPs or conserved CAMP resistance factors are discussed as new mediators and targets, respectively, of novel and sustainable anti-infective strategies. PMID:16909924

  9. Bacterial cheating limits the evolution of antibiotic resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Hui Xiao; Datta, Manoshi; Yurtsev, Eugene; Gore, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    The widespread use of antibiotics has led to the evolution of resistance in bacteria. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removing the antibiotic. The cooperative nature of this growth suggests that a cheater strain--which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic--may be able to take advantage of cells cooperatively inactivating the antibiotic. Here we experimentally find that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We observe stable coexistence between the two strains and find that a simple model successfully explains the behavior as a function of antibiotic concentration and cell density. We anticipate that our results will provide insight into the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors found in nature.

  10. Overcoming drug resistance in multi-drug resistant cancers and microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Avner, Benjamin S.; Fialho, Arsenio M.; Chakrabarty, Ananda M.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance development against multiple drugs is a common feature among many pathogensincluding bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, viruses, and parasitesand also among cancers. The reasons are two-fold. Most commonly-used rationally-designed small molecule drugs or monoclonal antibodies, as well as antibiotics, strongly inhibit a key single step in the growth and proliferation of the pathogen or cancer cells. The disease agents quickly change or switch off this single target, or activate the efflux mechanisms to pump out the drug, thereby becoming resistant to the drug. A second problem is the way drugs are designed. The pharmaceutical industry chooses to use, by high-throughput screening, compounds that are maximally inhibitory to the key single step in the growth of the pathogen or cancer, thereby promoting selective pressure. An ideal drug would be one that inhibits multiple steps in the disease progression pathways with less stringency in these steps. Low levels of inhibition at multiple steps provide cumulative strong inhibitory effect, but little incentives or ability on the part of the pathogen/cancer to develop resistance. Such intelligent drug design involving multiple less stringent inhibitory steps is beyond the scope of the drug industry and requires evolutionary wisdom commonly possessed by bacteria. This review surveys assessments of the current clinical situation with regard to drug resistance in P. aeruginosa, and examines tools currently employed to limit this trend. We then provide a conceptual framework in which we explore the similarities between multi-drug resistance in pathogens and in cancers. We summarize promising work on anti-cancer drugs derived from the evolutionary wisdom of bacteria such as P. aeruginosa, and how such strategies can be the basis for how to look for candidate protein/peptide antibiotic drugs from bioengineered bugs. Such multi-domain proteins, unlike diffusible antibiotics, are not diffusible because of their large size and are often released only on contact with the perceived competitor. Thus, multi-domain proteins are missed during traditional methods of looking for growth zone inhibition of susceptible bacteria as demonstrated by antibiotics, but may represent the weapons of the future in the fights against both drug-resistant cancers and pathogens such as P. aeruginosa. PMID:22750915

  11. Community HIV-1 Drug Resistance is Associated with Transmitted Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tilghman, M.W.; Pérez-Santiago, J.; Osorio, G.; Little, S.J.; Richman, D.D.; Mathews, W.C.; Haubrich, R.H.; Smith, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Since community viral load (CVL) measurements are associated with incidence of new HIV-1 infections in a population, we hypothesized that similarly measured community drug resistance (CDR) could predict prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR). Methods Between 2001 and 2011, the prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance for patients with established infection receiving HIV care (i.e. CDR) and TDR in recently infected patients was determined in San Diego. At each position in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (pro), drug resistance was evaluated both as the overall prevalence of resistance associated mutations and by weighting each resistance position to concurrent viral load of the patient and its proportion to the total viral load of the clinic (CVL). The weighting was the proportion of the CVL associated with patients identified with resistance at each residue. Spearman ranked correlation coefficients were used to determine associations between CDR and TDR. Results We analyzed 1,088 resistance tests from 971 clinic patients and baseline resistance tests for 542 recently infected patients. CDR at positions 30, 46, and 88 in pro was associated with TDR between 2001 and 2011. When CDR was weighted by viral load of patients, CDR was associated with TDR at position 103 in RT. Each of these associations was corroborated at least once using shorter measurement intervals. Conclusions Despite evaluation of a limited percentage of chronically infected patients in San Diego, CDR correlated with TDR at key resistance positions and therefore may be a useful tool to predict the prevalence of TDR. PMID:24417811

  12. Biophysics of Cell Membrane Lipids in Cancer Drug Resistance: Implications for Drug Transport and Drug Delivery with Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Peetla, Chiranjeevi; Vijayaraghavalu, Sivakumar; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we focus on the biophysics of cell membrane lipids, particularly when cancers develop acquired drug resistance, and how biophysical changes in resistant cell membrane influence drug transport and nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery. Recent advances in membrane lipid research show the varied roles of lipids in regulating membrane P-glycoprotein function, membrane trafficking, apoptotic pathways, drug transport, and endocytic functions, particularly endocytosis, the primary mechanism of cellular uptake of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems. Since acquired drug resistance alters lipid biosynthesis, understanding the role of lipids in cell membrane biophysics and its effect on drug transport is critical for developing effective therapeutic and drug delivery approaches to overcoming drug resistance. Here we discuss novel strategies for (a) modulating the biophysical properties of membrane lipids of resistant cells to facilitate drug transport and regain endocytic function and (b) developing effective nanoparticles based on their biophysical interactions with membrane lipids to enhance drug delivery and overcome drug resistance. PMID:24055719

  13. Alkylaminoquinolines inhibit the bacterial antibiotic efflux pump in multidrug-resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Malla, Monique; Mahamoud, Abdallah; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Alibert-Franco, Sandrine; Brouant, Pierre; Barbe, Jacques; Pags, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decade, MDR (multidrug resistance) has increased worldwide in microbial pathogens by efflux mechanisms, leading to treatment failures in human infections. Several Gram-negative bacteria efflux pumps have been described. These proteinaceous channels are capable of expelling structurally different drugs across the envelope and conferring antibiotic resistance in various bacterial pathogens. Combating antibiotic resistance is an urgency and the blocking of efflux pumps is an attractive response to the emergence of MDR phenotypes in infectious bacteria. In the present study, various alkylaminoquinolines were tested as potential inhibitors of drug transporters. We showed that alkylaminoquinolines are capable of restoring susceptibilities to structurally unrelated antibiotics in clinical isolates of MDR Gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotic efflux studies indicated that 7-nitro-8-methyl-4-[2'-(piperidino)ethyl]aminoquinoline acts as an inhibitor of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump and restores a high level of intracellular drug concentration. Inhibitory activity of this alkylaminoquinoline is observed on clinical isolates showing different resistance phenotypes. PMID:12959639

  14. Protoplast dehydration correlated with heat resistance of bacterial spores.

    PubMed Central

    Nakashio, S; Gerhardt, P

    1985-01-01

    Water content of the protoplast in situ within the fully hydrated dormant bacterial spore was quantified by use of a spore in which the complex of coat and outer (pericortex) membrane was genetically defective or chemically removed, as evidenced by susceptibility of the cortex to lysozyme and by permeability of the periprotoplast integument to glucose. Water content was determined by equilibrium permeability measurement with 3H-labeled water (confirmed by gravimetric measurement) for the entire spore, with 14C-labeled glucose for the integument outside the inner (pericytoplasm) membrane, and by the difference for the protoplast. The method was applied to lysozyme-sensitive spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus, B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. megaterium (four types). Comparable lysozyme-resistant spores, in which the outer membrane functioned as the primary permeability barrier to glucose, were employed as controls. Heat resistances were expressed as D100 values. Protoplast water content of the lysozyme-sensitive spore types correlated with heat resistance exponentially in two distinct clusters, with the four B. megaterium types in one alignment, and with the four other species types in another. Protoplast water contents of the B. megaterium spore types were sufficiently low (26 to 29%, based on wet protoplast weight) to account almost entirely for their lesser heat resistance. Corresponding values of the other species types were similar or higher (30 to 55%), indicating that these spores depended on factors additional to protoplast dehydration for their much greater heat resistance. PMID:3988704

  15. Evaluation of Glyphosate-Resistant Soybean Cultivars for Resistance to Bacterial Pustule

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines causes bacterial pustule of soybean, which is a common disease in many soybean-growing areas of the world and is controlled by a single recessive gene that was commonly found in many conventional glyphosate-sensitive soybean cultivars. Since glyphosate-resistant c...

  16. Exploiting Nanotechnology to Overcome Tumor Drug Resistance: Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kirtane, Ameya; Kalscheuer, Stephen; Panyam, Jayanth

    2013-01-01

    Tumor cells develop resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs through multiple mechanisms. Overexpression of efflux transporters is an important source of drug resistance. Efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein reduce intracellular drug accumulation and compromise drug efficacy. Various nanoparticle-based approaches have been investigated to overcome efflux-mediated resistance. These include the use of formulation excipients that inhibit transporter activity and co-delivery of the anticancer drug with a specific inhibitor of transporter function or expression. However, the effectiveness of nanoparticles can be diminished by poor transport in the tumor tissue. Hence, adjunct therapies that improve the intratumoral distribution of nanoparticles may be vital to the successful application of nanotechnology to overcome tumor drug resistance. This review discusses the mechanisms of tumor drug resistance and highlights the opportunities and challenges in the use of nanoparticles to improve the efficacy of anticancer drugs against resistant tumors. PMID:24036273

  17. Exploiting nanotechnology to overcome tumor drug resistance: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kirtane, Ameya R; Kalscheuer, Stephen M; Panyam, Jayanth

    2013-11-01

    Tumor cells develop resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs through multiple mechanisms. Overexpression of efflux transporters is an important source of drug resistance. Efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein reduce intracellular drug accumulation and compromise drug efficacy. Various nanoparticle-based approaches have been investigated to overcome efflux-mediated resistance. These include the use of formulation excipients that inhibit transporter activity and co-delivery of the anticancer drug with a specific inhibitor of transporter function or expression. However, the effectiveness of nanoparticles can be diminished by poor transport in the tumor tissue. Hence, adjunct therapies that improve the intratumoral distribution of nanoparticles may be vital to the successful application of nanotechnology to overcome tumor drug resistance. This review discusses the mechanisms of tumor drug resistance and highlights the opportunities and challenges in the use of nanoparticles to improve the efficacy of anticancer drugs against resistant tumors. PMID:24036273

  18. Dynamic Population Changes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis During Acquisition and Fixation of Drug Resistance in Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Gang; Luo, Tao; Yang, Chongguang; Dong, Xinran; Li, Jing; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zheng, Huajun; Tian, Weidong; Wang, Shengyue; Barry, Clifton E.; Mei, Jian; Gao, Qian

    2012-01-01

    Background.?Drug-resistant tuberculosis poses a growing challenge to global public health. However, the diversity and dynamics of the bacterial population during acquisition of drug resistance have yet to be carefully examined. Methods.?Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 7 serial Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) populations from 3 patients during different stages in the development of drug resistance. The population diversity was assessed by the number and frequencies of unfixed mutations in each sample. Results.?For each bacterial population, 841 unfixed mutations were monitored by the fraction of single-nucleotide polymorphisms at specific loci. Among them, as many as 4 to 5 resistance-conferring mutations were transiently detected in the same single sputum, but ultimately only a single type of mutant was fixed. In addition, we identified 14 potential compensatory mutations that occurred during or after the emergence of resistance-conferring mutations. Conclusions.?M. tuberculosis population within patients exhibited considerable genetic diversity, which underwent selections for most fit resistant mutant. These findings have important implications and emphasize the need for early diagnosis of tuberculosis to decrease the chance of evolving highly fit drug-resistant strains. PMID:22984115

  19. Bacterial spore structures and their protective role in biocide resistance.

    PubMed

    Leggett, M J; McDonnell, G; Denyer, S P; Setlow, P; Maillard, J-Y

    2012-09-01

    The structure and chemical composition of bacterial spores differ considerably from those of vegetative cells. These differences largely account for the unique resistance properties of the spore to environmental stresses, including disinfectants and sterilants, resulting in the emergence of spore-forming bacteria such as Clostridium difficile as major hospital pathogens. Although there has been considerable work investigating the mechanisms of action of many sporicidal biocides against Bacillus subtilis spores, there is far less information available for other species and particularly for various Clostridia. This paucity of information represents a major gap in our knowledge given the importance of Clostridia as human pathogens. This review considers the main spore structures, highlighting their relevance to spore resistance properties and detailing their chemical composition, with a particular emphasis on the differences between various spore formers. Such information will be vital for the rational design and development of novel sporicidal chemistries with enhanced activity in the future. PMID:22574673

  20. Bacterial stress responses as determinants of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Poole, Keith

    2012-09-01

    Bacteria encounter a myriad of stresses in their natural environments, including, for pathogens, their hosts. These stresses elicit a variety of specific and highly regulated adaptive responses that not only protect bacteria from the offending stress, but also manifest changes in the cell that impact innate antimicrobial susceptibility. Thus exposure to nutrient starvation/limitation (nutrient stress), reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (oxidative/nitrosative stress), membrane damage (envelope stress), elevated temperature (heat stress) and ribosome disruption (ribosomal stress) all impact bacterial susceptibility to a variety of antimicrobials through their initiation of stress responses that positively impact recruitment of resistance determinants or promote physiological changes that compromise antimicrobial activity. As de facto determinants of antimicrobial, even multidrug, resistance, stress responses may be worthy of consideration as therapeutic targets. PMID:22618862

  1. Newer systems for bacterial resistances to toxic heavy metals.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, S; Ji, G

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial plasmids contain specific genes for resistances to toxic heavy metal ions including Ag+, AsO2-, AsO4(3-), Cd2+, Co2+, CrO4(2-), Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, Sb3+, and Zn2+. Recent progress with plasmid copper-resistance systems in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas syringae show a system of four gene products, an inner membrane protein (PcoD), an outer membrane protein (PcoB), and two periplasmic Cu(2+)-binding proteins (PcoA and PcoC). Synthesis of this system is governed by two regulatory proteins (the membrane sensor PcoS and the soluble responder PcoR, probably a DNA-binding protein), homologous to other bacterial two-component regulatory systems. Chromosomally encoded Cu2+ P-type ATPases have recently been recognized in Enterococcus hirae and these are closely homologous to the bacterial cadmium efflux ATPase and the human copper-deficiency disease Menkes gene product. The Cd(2+)-efflux ATPase of gram-positive bacteria is a large P-type ATPase, homologous to the muscle Ca2+ ATPase and the Na+/K+ ATPases of animals. The arsenic-resistance system of gram-negative bacteria functions as an oxyanion efflux ATPase for arsenite and presumably antimonite. However, the structure of the arsenic ATPase is fundamentally different from that of P-type ATPases. The absence of the arsA gene (for the ATPase subunit) in gram-positive bacteria raises questions of energy-coupling for arsenite efflux. The ArsC protein product of the arsenic-resistance operons of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria is an intracellular enzyme that reduces arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)], the substrate for the transport pump. Newly studied cation efflux systems for Cd2+, Zn2+, and Co2+ (Czc) or Co2+ and Ni2+ resistance (Cnr) lack ATPase motifs in their predicted polypeptide sequences. Therefore, not all plasmid-resistance systems that function through toxic ion efflux are ATPases. The first well-defined bacterial metallothionein was found in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus. Bacterial metallothionein is encoded by the smtA gene and contains 56 amino acids, including nine cysteine residues (fewer than animal metallothioneins). The synthesis of Synechococcus metallothionein is regulated by a repressor protein, the product of the adjacent but separately transcribed smtB gene. Regulation of metallothionein synthesis occurs at different levels; quickly by derepression of repressor activity, or over a longer time by deletion of the repressor gene at fixed positions and by amplification of the metallothionein DNA region leading to multiple copies of the gene. PMID:7843081

  2. [Prostate cancer stem cell and drug resistance].

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Takeo; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-01-01

    Cancer tissues are comprised of cell population including a variety of cells, such as stem cell-like cancer cells, upon which a hierarchical society is constructed. This hypothesis has been applied not only to leukemia, in which the hypothesis was first experimentally confirmed, but also to solid cancers. Recent topics shed light on the modified heterogeneity by various treatments which evolve disease progression. In prostate cancer, the identification of cancer stem cells using surface markers and the relationship with prostate origin are of current interest. This article reviews studies related to the development of prostate cancer and introduce recent progress of our project, focusing on cancer stemness and drug resistance. PMID:26793878

  3. Sterilization Resistance of Bacterial Spores Explained with Water Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Friedline, Anthony W; Zachariah, Malcolm M; Middaugh, Amy N; Garimella, Ravindranath; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rice, Charles V

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial spores can survive for long periods without nutrients and in harsh environmental conditions. This survival is influenced by the structure of the spore, the presence of protective compounds, and water retention. These compounds, and the physical state of water in particular, allow some species of bacterial spores to survive sterilization schemes with hydrogen peroxide and UV light. The chemical nature of the spore core and its water has been a subject of some contention and the chemical environment of the water impacts resistance paradigms. Either the spore has a glassy core, where water is immobilized along with other core components, or the core is gel-like with mobile water diffusion. These properties affect the movement of peroxide and radical species, and hence resistance. Deuterium solid-state NMR experiments are useful for examining the nature of the water inside the spore. Previous work in our lab with spores of Bacillus subtilis indicate that, for spores, the core water is in a more immobilized state than expected for the gel-like core theory, suggesting a glassy core environment. Here, we report deuterium solid-state NMR observations of the water within UV- and peroxide-resistant spores from Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032. Variable-temperature NMR experiments indicate no change in the line shape after heating to 50 °C, but an overall decrease in signal after heating to 100 °C. These results show glass-like core dynamics within B. pumilus SAFR-032 that may be the potential source of its known UV-resistance properties. The observed NMR traits can be attributed to the presence of an exosporium containing additional labile deuterons that can aid in the deactivation of sterilizing agents. PMID:26435315

  4. Inhibitors of bacterial transcription are compounds for potent antimicrobial drugs.

    PubMed

    Turecka, Katarzyna; Waleron, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The increasing resistance of microorganisms against antibiotics available on the pharmaceutical market is now a global problem. There is an incessant necessity to search for new, effective treatments against resistant strains of microorganisms, for new potent classes of antibiotics with novel modes of action targeted at important components of microbial cells. Such a critical, essential system for cell functioning is a RNA polymerase (RNAP), an enzyme that catalyses one of the stages of gene expression: transcription. RNAP is a proven target for a number of antibiotics, and it still remains an attractive drug target for new potent antimicrobial compounds. In this review several examples of inhibitors for transcription and RNAP are presented. PMID:24809716

  5. A Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA)-Based Real-Time PCR Assay for the Rapid Detection of Multiple Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance Genes Directly from Positive Blood Culture

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Shen, Dingxia; Zhou, Qiming; Li, Zexia; Fang, Xiangdong; Li, Quan-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial strains resistant to various antibiotic drugs are frequently encountered in clinical infections, and the rapid identification of drug-resistant strains is highly essential for clinical treatment. We developed a locked nucleic acid (LNA)-based quantitative real-time PCR (LNA-qPCR) method for the rapid detection of 13 antibiotic resistance genes and successfully used it to distinguish drug-resistant bacterial strains from positive blood culture samples. A sequence-specific primer-probe set was designed, and the specificity of the assays was assessed using 27 ATCC bacterial strains and 77 negative blood culture samples. No cross-reaction was identified among bacterial strains and in negative samples, indicating 100% specificity. The sensitivity of the assays was determined by spiking each bacterial strain into negative blood samples, and the detection limit was 1–10 colony forming units (CFU) per reaction. The LNA-qPCR assays were first applied to 72 clinical bacterial isolates for the identification of known drug resistance genes, and the results were verified by the direct sequencing of PCR products. Finally, the LNA-qPCR assays were used for the detection in 47 positive blood culture samples, 19 of which (40.4%) were positive for antibiotic resistance genes, showing 91.5% consistency with phenotypic susceptibility results. In conclusion, LNA-qPCR is a reliable method for the rapid detection of bacterial antibiotic resistance genes and can be used as a supplement to phenotypic susceptibility testing for the early detection of antimicrobial resistance to allow the selection of appropriate antimicrobial treatment and to prevent the spread of resistant isolates. PMID:25775001

  6. Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sundar, S

    2001-11-01

    Throughout the world, pentavalent antimonial compounds (Sb(v)) have been the mainstay of antileishmanial therapy for more than 50 years. Sb(v) has been highly effective in the treatment of Indian visceral leishmaniasis (VL: kala-azar) at a low dose (10 mg/kg) for short durations (6-10 days). But in the early 1980s reports of its ineffectiveness emerged, and the dose of Sb(v) was eventually raised to 20 mg/kg for 30-40 days. This regimen cures most patients with VL except in India, where the proportion of patients unresponsive to Sb(v) has steadily increased. In hyperendemic districts of north Bihar, 50-65% patients fail treatment with Sb(v). Important reasons are rampant use of subtherapeutic doses, incomplete duration of treatment and substandard drugs. In vitro experiments have established emergence of Sb(v) resistant strains of Leishmania donovani, as isolates from unresponsive patients require 3-5 times more Sb(v) to reach similarly effectiveness against the parasite as in Sb(v) responders. Anthroponotic transmission in India has been an important factor in rapid increase in the Sb(v) refractoriness. Pentamidine was the first drug to be used and cured 99% of these refractory patients, but over time even with double the amount of initial doses, it cures only 69-78% patients now and its use has largely been abandoned in India. Despite several disadvantages, amphotericin B is the only drug available for use in these areas and should be used as first-line drug instead of Sb(v). The new oral antileishmanial drug miltefosine is likely to be the first-line drug in future. Unfortunately, development of newer antileishmanial drugs is rare; two promising drugs, aminosidine and sitamaquine, may be developed for use in the treatment of VL. Lipid associated amphotericin B has an excellent safety and efficacy profile, but remains out of reach for most patients because of its high cost. PMID:11703838

  7. Emergence of antibiotic resistance from multinucleated bacterial filaments

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Julia; Zhang, Qiucen; Vyawahare, Saurabh; Rogers, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Susan M.; Austin, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria can rapidly evolve resistance to antibiotics via the SOS response, a state of high-activity DNA repair and mutagenesis. We explore here the first steps of this evolution in the bacterium Escherichia coli. Induction of the SOS response by the genotoxic antibiotic ciprofloxacin changes the E. coli rod shape into multichromosome-containing filaments. We show that at subminimal inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin the bacterial filament divides asymmetrically repeatedly at the tip. Chromosome-containing buds are made that, if resistant, propagate nonfilamenting progeny with enhanced resistance to ciprofloxacin as the parent filament dies. We propose that the multinucleated filament creates an environmental niche where evolution can proceed via generation of improved mutant chromosomes due to the mutagenic SOS response and possible recombination of the new alleles between chromosomes. Our data provide a better understanding of the processes underlying the origin of resistance at the single-cell level and suggest an analogous role to the eukaryotic aneuploidy condition in cancer. PMID:25492931

  8. Lysosomes as mediators of drug resistance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhitomirsky, Benny; Assaraf, Yehuda G

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance remains a leading cause of chemotherapeutic treatment failure and cancer-related mortality. While some mechanisms of anticancer drug resistance have been well characterized, multiple mechanisms remain elusive. In this respect, passive ion trapping-based lysosomal sequestration of multiple hydrophobic weak-base chemotherapeutic agents was found to reduce the accessibility of these drugs to their target sites, resulting in a markedly reduced cytotoxic effect and drug resistance. Recently we have demonstrated that lysosomal sequestration of hydrophobic weak base drugs triggers TFEB-mediated lysosomal biogenesis resulting in an enlarged lysosomal compartment, capable of enhanced drug sequestration. This study further showed that cancer cells with an increased number of drug-accumulating lysosomes are more resistant to lysosome-sequestered drugs, suggesting a model of drug-induced lysosome-mediated chemoresistance. In addition to passive drug sequestration of hydrophobic weak base chemotherapeutics, other mechanisms of lysosome-mediated drug resistance have also been reported; these include active lysosomal drug sequestration mediated by ATP-driven transporters from the ABC superfamily, and a role for lysosomal copper transporters in cancer resistance to platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Furthermore, lysosomal exocytosis was suggested as a mechanism to facilitate the clearance of chemotherapeutics which highly accumulated in lysosomes, thus providing an additional line of resistance, supplementing the organelle entrapment of chemotherapeutics away from their target sites. Along with these mechanisms of lysosome-mediated drug resistance, several approaches were recently developed for the overcoming of drug resistance or exploiting lysosomal drug sequestration, including lysosomal photodestruction and drug-induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization. In this review we explore the current literature addressing the role of lysosomes in mediating cancer drug resistance as well as novel modalities to overcome this chemoresistance. PMID:26830313

  9. Adaptive and Mutational Resistance: Role of Porins and Efflux Pumps in Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The substantial use of antibiotics in the clinic, combined with a dearth of new antibiotic classes, has led to a gradual increase in the resistance of bacterial pathogens to these compounds. Among the various mechanisms by which bacteria endure the action of antibiotics, those affecting influx and efflux are of particular importance, as they limit the interaction of the drug with its intracellular targets and, consequently, its deleterious effects on the cell. This review evaluates the impact of porins and efflux pumps on two major types of resistance, namely, mutational and adaptive types of resistance, both of which are regarded as key phenomena in the global rise of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microorganisms. In particular, we explain how adaptive and mutational events can dramatically influence the outcome of antibiotic therapy by altering the mechanisms of influx and efflux of antibiotics. The identification of porins and pumps as major resistance markers has opened new possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic strategies directed specifically against these mechanisms. PMID:23034325

  10. Inhibition of adherence of multi-drug resistant E. coli by proanthocyanidin.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish; Dwivedi, Mayank; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Nagana Gowda, G A; Khetrapal, Chunni Lal; Bhandari, Mahendra

    2012-04-01

    Proanthocyanidin is commonly used for inhibiting urinary tract infection (UTI) of sensitive strains of Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of proanthocyanidin on adherence of uropathogenic multi-drug resistant E. coli to uroepithelial cells, which has not yet been investigated so far. Extracts of the purified proanthocyanidin were prepared from dried cranberry juice. Purity and structural assignment of proanthocyanidin was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, respectively. Subsequently, its affect on multi-drug resistant bacteria as well as quantification of anti-adherence bioactivity on human vaginal and bladder epithelial cells was appraised. Inhibition of adherence to an extent of about 70% with multi-drug resistant E. coli strains was observed on uroepithelial cell. The anti-adherence bioactivity of the proanthocyanidin was detected at concentrations of 10-50 g/ml with significant bacteriuria. Probable proanthocyanidin through A-type linkages either combines to P-fimbriae of bacterial cells or modifies the structural entity of P-fimbriae and inhibits bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells. The proanthocyanidin exhibited anti-adherence property with multi-drug resistant strains of uropathogenic P-fimbriated E. coli with in vitro study. Hence proanthocyanidin may be considered as an inhibitory agent for multi-drug resistant strains of E. coli adherence to uroepithelial cells. PMID:21688109

  11. The Bacterial Protein Azurin Enhances Sensitivity of Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells to Anticancer Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Hae; Lee, Moo-Hyung; Cho, Yun-Jung; Park, Bong-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Surgical therapy is the primary treatment for oral cancer, but it can cause facial distortion. Therefore, if anticancer drugs are effective against oral cancer, they may be used preferentially. However, oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCCs) are resistant to these drugs, so finding a way to enhance the sensitivity of these cells to anticancer drugs is important. The bacterial protein azurin is known to selectively enter cancer cells and induce apoptosis. In this study, we show the anticancer effect of azurin in OSCC. Materials and Methods OSCC cell line (YD-9) was subjected to azurin treatment. Cell viability, morphology and protein expression levels were monitored after treatment of azurin. Cells were also subjected to combination treatment of azurin with either 5-fluorouracil or etopside. Results Azurin-treated cells showed decreased cell viability accompanied by apoptotic phenotypes including morphological change, DNA breakage, and increases in p53 and cyclin B1 protein levels. Combination treatment of azurin with other anti-tumor agents caused an increase in sensitivity to anticancer drugs in azurin-treated YD-9 cells. Conclusion Azurin has a strong synergistic anticancer effect on oral cancer cells when it is used along with anticancer drugs. PMID:21786442

  12. 77 FR 60126 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Otitis Media: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...; Formerly 2008N-0004] Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Otitis Media: Developing Drugs for Treatment... Media: Developing Drugs for Treatment.'' This guidance addresses FDA's current thinking regarding the... treatment of acute bacterial otitis media (ABOM). This guidance finalizes the revised draft guidance of...

  13. Young Women's Experiences of Resisting Invitations to Use Illicit Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.; O'Neill, Linda K.

    2011-01-01

    Ten young women were interviewed regarding their experiences of resisting invitations to use illicit drugs. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to gather and analyze information. One key theme was the motivations that inspired women to refuse drug offers. Young women resisted drug invitations because of their desires to be authentic, protect their

  14. Rural Adolescent Perceptions of Alcohol and Other Drug Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.

    2001-01-01

    Used questionnaires and focus groups to examine 361 rural high schoolers' perceptions of drug resistance difficulties when offered beer, marijuana, and hard drugs. Found that drug nonusers had the widest range of explanations for resistance difficulty. Peer pressure was cited most frequently by nonusers, and seldom by heavy users. Frequent users

  15. Emergence of HIV-1 drug resistance during antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Rong, Libin; Feng, Zhilan; Perelson, Alan S

    2007-08-01

    Treating HIV-infected patients with a combination of several antiretroviral drugs usually contributes to a substantial decline in viral load and an increase in CD4(+) T cells. However, continuing viral replication in the presence of drug therapy can lead to the emergence of drug-resistant virus variants, which subsequently results in incomplete viral suppression and a greater risk of disease progression. In this paper, we use a simple mathematical model to study the mechanism of the emergence of drug resistance during therapy. The model includes two viral strains: wild-type and drug-resistant. The wild-type strain can mutate and become drug-resistant during the process of reverse transcription. The reproductive ratio [Symbol: see text](0) for each strain is obtained and stability results of the steady states are given. We show that drug-resistant virus is more likely to arise when, in the presence of antiretroviral treatment, the reproductive ratios of both strains are close. The wild-type virus can be suppressed even when the reproductive ratio of this strain is greater than 1. A pharmacokinetic model including blood and cell compartments is employed to estimate the drug efficacies of both the wild-type and the drug-resistant strains. We investigate how time-varying drug efficacy (due to the drug dosing schedule and suboptimal adherence) affects the antiviral response, particularly the emergence of drug resistance. Simulation results suggest that perfect adherence to regimen protocol will well suppress the viral load of the wild-type strain while drug-resistant variants develop slowly. However, intermediate levels of adherence may result in the dominance of the drug-resistant virus several months after the initiation of therapy. When more doses of drugs are missed, the failure of suppression of the wild-type virus will be observed, accompanied by a relatively slow increase in the drug-resistant viral load. PMID:17450401

  16. Re-sensitizing drug-resistant bacteria to antibiotics by designing Antisense Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Colleen; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2014-03-01

    ``Super-bugs'' or ``multi-drug resistant organisms'' are a serious international health problem, with devastating consequences to patient health care. The Center for Disease Control has identified antibiotic resistance as one of the world's most pressing public health problems as a significant fraction of bacterial infections contracted are drug resistant. Typically, antibiotic resistance is encoded by ``resistance-genes'' which express proteins that carryout the resistance causing functions inside the bacterium. We present a RNA based therapeutic strategy for designing antimicrobials capable of re-sensitizing resistant bacteria to antibiotics by targeting labile regions of messenger RNAs encoding for resistance-causing proteins. We perform in silico RNA secondary structure modeling to identify labile target regions in an mRNA of interest. A synthetic biology approach is then used to administer antisense nucleic acids to our model system of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli. Our results show a prolonged lag phase and decrease in viability of drug-resistant E. colitreated with antisense molecules. The antisense strategy can be applied to alter expression of other genes in antibiotic resistance pathways or other pathways of interest.

  17. Bacterial isolates and drug susceptibility patterns of ear discharge from patients with ear infection at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ear infection is a common problem for both children and adults especially in developing countries. However in Ethiopia particularly in the study area, there is no recent data that shows the magnitude of the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial isolates and their drug susceptibility patterns from patients who had ear infection. Method A retrospective study was conducted from September, 2009 to August, 2012 at Gondar University Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Ear discharge samples were cultured on MacConkey agar, blood agar and chocolate agar plates. A standard biochemical procedure was used for full identification of bacterial isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done on Mueller-Hinton agar by using disk diffusion method. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20 software and P-value of?bacterial isolation and 204 (89.5%) cases were found to have bacterial isolates. From the total bacterial isolates, 115 (56.4%) were gram negative bacteria and the predominant isolate was proteus species (27.5%). Of individuals who had ear infection, 185 (90.7%) had single bacterial infection while 19 (9.3%) had mixed infections. Under five children were more affected by ear infection. The prevalence of ear infection was significantly high in males (63.7 vs 36.3%) (P?=?0.017). Of all bacterial isolates, 192 (94.1%) had multiple antibiotic resistant pattern. Non Lactose Fermenter Gram Negative Rods (46.0%), Klebsella species (47.7%) and Pseudomonas species (48.5%) were resistant against the commonly used antibiotics. Conclusion The prevalence of ear infection was very high in the study area. Majority of the bacterial isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Hence antibiotics susceptibility test is mandatory before prescribing any antibiotics. PMID:23914777

  18. Antitubercular and antibacterial activity of quinonoid natural products against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Dey, Diganta; Ray, Ratnamala; Hazra, Banasri

    2014-07-01

    Multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial pathogens represent a major threat to human health. In view of the critical need to augment the current drug regime, we have investigated therapeutic potential of five quinonoids, viz. emodin, diospyrin, plumbagin, menadione and thymoquinone, derived from natural products. The antimicrobial activity of quinonoids was evaluated against a broad panel of multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) strains, rapid growing mycobacteria and other bacterial isolates, some of which were producers of β-lactamase, Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) enzymes, as well as their drug-sensitive ATCC counterparts. All the tested quinones exhibited antimycobacterial and broad spectrum antibacterial activity, particularly against M. tuberculosis (lowest MIC 0.25 µg/mL) and Gram-positive bacteria (lowest MIC <4 µg/mL) of clinical origin. The order of antitubercular activity of the tested quinonoids was plumbagin > emodin ~ menadione ~ thymoquinone > diospyrin, whereas their antibacterial efficacy was plumbagin > menadione ~ thymoquinone > diospyrin > emodin. Furthermore, this is the first evaluation performed on these quinonoids against a broad panel of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive clinical isolates, to the best of our knowledge. PMID:24318724

  19. Heat stable antimicrobial activity of Burkholderia gladioli OR1 against clinical drug resistant isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Pratibha; Anand, Vivek; Chander, Jagdish; Singh, Inder Pal; Singh, Tej Vir; Tewari, Rupinder

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Drug resistant microbes are a serious challenge to human health. During the search for novel antibiotics/inhibitors from the agricultural soil, a bacterial colony was found to inhibit the growth of clinical isolates including Staphylococcus (resistant to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, clinafloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin and methicillin) and Candida (resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole). The culture was identified as Burkholderia gladioli and produced at least five different antimicrobial compounds which were highly stable at high temperature (121C) and in the broad pH range (3.0-11.0). We report here the antimicrobial activity of B. gladioli against drug resistant bacterial pathogens. Methods: The bacterial culture was identified using morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques. The antimicrobial activity of the identified organism against a range of microbial pathogens was checked by Kirby-Bauer's disc diffusion method. The antimicrobial compounds in the cell free supernatant were chloroform-extracted and separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Results: B. gladioli OR1 exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against drug resistant clinical isolates belonging to various genera of bacteria (Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Acinetobacter and Citrobacter) and a fungus (Candida). Based on TLC profile and bioautography studies, the chloroform extract of B. gladioli OR1 consisted of at least three anti-staphylococcal and two anti-Candida metabolites. The antimicrobial activity was heat stable (121C/20 min) as well as pH stable (3.0-11.0). Interpretation & conclusions: The bacterial soil isolate, B. gladioli OR1 possessed the ability to kill various drug resistant bacteria and a fungus. This organism produced many antimicrobial metabolites which might have the potential to be used as antibiotics in future. PMID:22771597

  20. The anti-bacterial poly(caprolactone)-poly(quaternary ammonium salt) as drug delivery carriers.

    PubMed

    Leng, Mengtian; Hu, Shaodong; Lu, Aijing; Cai, Mengtan; Luo, Xianglin

    2016-04-01

    Anti-bacterial materials play significant role in biomedical field. Researches and applications of new anti-bacterial materials are necessary. Novel linear and star-shaped copolymers of poly(caprolactone)-poly(quaternary ammonium salt) (PCL-PJDMA) were synthesized by a combination of ring-opening polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization. The structures of the copolymers were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The copolymers self-assembled into ball-shaped micelles with low critical micelle concentration (10(-4)∼10(-3) mg/ml). An anti-bacterial drug, triclosan, was chosen as a model drug to investigate the potential application of the copolymers in drug-controlled release. The anti-bacterial experiments against Escherichia coli indicated that all the copolymer micelles had anti-bacterial ability and drug-loaded star-shaped PCL-PJDMA micelles were the best. The slow release of the drug from the drug-loaded micelles prolonged anti-bacterial effect. Therefore, PCL-PJDMA themselves have not only anti-bacterial ability but also the copolymer micelles can be used as carriers for anti-bacterial drugs. PMID:26615398

  1. Bacteriocin from Bacillus subtilis as a novel drug against diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Baby; Dhas, Berlina; Hena, Vimalin; Raj, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) from soil and to characterize and partially purify the bacteriocin. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity against four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens. Methods Genotypic identification was done based on Bergey's manual of systemic bacteriology. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Colonies were identified by colony morphology and biochemical characterization and also compared with MTCC 121 strain. Further identification was done by 16S rRNA sequencing. Inhibitory activities of partially purified bacteriocin on all the DFU isolates were done by agar well diffusion method. The strain was identified to produce bacteriocin by stab overlay assay. Bacteriocin was extracted by organic solvent extraction using chloroform, further purified by HPLC and physical, and chemical characterization was performed. Results The four isolates showed high level of resistance to amoxyclav and sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. HPLC purification revealed that the extracts are bacteriocin. The phylogenetic tree analysis results showed that the isolate was 99% related to B. subtilis BSF01. The results reveled activity to all the four isolates and high level of activity was seen in case of Klebsiella sp. Conclusions Partially purified bacteriocin was found to have antimicrobial activity against the four diabetic foot ulcer bacterial pathogens, which can thus be applied as a better drug molecule on further studies. The strain B. subtilis are found to be safe for use and these antimicrobial peptides can be used as an antimicrobial in humans to treat DFU bacterial pathogens. PMID:24093784

  2. Antimalarial drug resistance in Africa: key lessons for the future

    PubMed Central

    Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Laufer, Miriam K.

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistant parasites repeatedly arise as a result of widespread use of antimalarial drugs and have contributed significantly to the failure to control and eradicate malaria throughout the world. In this review, we describe the spread of resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxinepyrimethamine, two old drugs that are no longer used owing to high rates of resistance, and examine the effect of the removal of drug pressure on the survival of resistant parasites. Artemisinin-resistant malaria is now emerging in Southeast Asia in a unique and unexpected pattern. We will review the most recent genomic and clinical data to help predict the behavior of resistance to new antimalarial medications and inform strategies to prevent the spread of drug-resistant malaria in Africa in the future. PMID:25891142

  3. Antimalarial drug resistance in Africa: key lessons for the future.

    PubMed

    Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Laufer, Miriam K

    2015-04-01

    Drug-resistant parasites repeatedly arise as a result of widespread use of antimalarial drugs and have contributed significantly to the failure to control and eradicate malaria throughout the world. In this review, we describe the spread of resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, two old drugs that are no longer used owing to high rates of resistance, and examine the effect of the removal of drug pressure on the survival of resistant parasites. Artemisinin-resistant malaria is now emerging in Southeast Asia in a unique and unexpected pattern. We will review the most recent genomic and clinical data to help predict the behavior of resistance to new antimalarial medications and inform strategies to prevent the spread of drug-resistant malaria in Africa in the future. PMID:25891142

  4. Structure and function of efflux pumps that confer resistance to drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Borges-Walmsley, M Ines; McKeegan, Kenneth S; Walmsley, Adrian R

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to therapeutic drugs encompasses a diverse range of biological systems, which all have a human impact. From the relative simplicity of bacterial cells, fungi and protozoa to the complexity of human cancer cells, resistance has become problematic. Stated in its simplest terms, drug resistance decreases the chance of providing successful treatment against a plethora of diseases. Worryingly, it is a problem that is increasing, and consequently there is a pressing need to develop new and effective classes of drugs. This has provided a powerful stimulus in promoting research on drug resistance and, ultimately, it is hoped that this research will provide novel approaches that will allow the deliberate circumvention of well understood resistance mechanisms. A major mechanism of resistance in both microbes and cancer cells is the membrane protein-catalysed extrusion of drugs from the cell. Resistant cells exploit proton-driven antiporters and/or ATP-driven ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters to extrude cytotoxic drugs that usually enter the cell by passive diffusion. Although some of these drug efflux pumps transport specific substrates, many are transporters of multiple substrates. These multidrug pumps can often transport a variety of structurally unrelated hydrophobic compounds, ranging from dyes to lipids. If we are to nullify the effects of efflux-mediated drug resistance, we must first of all understand how these efflux pumps can accommodate a diverse range of compounds and, secondly, how conformational changes in these proteins are coupled to substrate translocation. These are key questions that must be addressed. In this review we report on the advances that have been made in understanding the structure and function of drug efflux pumps. PMID:13678421

  5. Antiplasmid activity: loss of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Molnr, J; Fldek, S; Nakamura, M J; Rausch, H; Domonkos, K; Szab, M

    1992-01-01

    The antiplasmid activity of tricyclic compounds, e.g. phenothiazines, dibenzoazepines, dibenzocykloheptene derivatives and some stereoisomers, was shown on E. coli in vitro. Some ring-substituted phenothiazine and cannabis derivatives had only an antibacterial effect. Promethazine, a selected phenothiazine, cured antibiotic resistance and lactose fermentation of E.coli, tumour inducing ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and nodule formation of Rhizobium meliloti. Plasmids of different E.coli strains were eliminated with varying frequency. The antiplasmid activity of the compounds can be due to the increased membrane permeability. Inhibition of DNA gyrase and complex formation with the supercoiled form of plasmid DNA can lead to the cessation of plasmid replication in the bacterial cells. In addition, in vivo plasmid curing was demonstrated at a low frequency. PMID:1295542

  6. Resistance to ketolide antibiotics by coordinated expression of rRNA methyltransferases in a bacterial producer of natural ketolides.

    PubMed

    Almutairi, Mashal M; Park, Sung Ryeol; Rose, Simon; Hansen, Douglas A; Vzquez-Laslop, Nora; Douthwaite, Stephen; Sherman, David H; Mankin, Alexander S

    2015-10-20

    Ketolides are promising new antimicrobials effective against a broad range of Gram-positive pathogens, in part because of the low propensity of these drugs to trigger the expression of resistance genes. A natural ketolide pikromycin and a related compound methymycin are produced by Streptomyces venezuelae strain ATCC 15439. The producer avoids the inhibitory effects of its own antibiotics by expressing two paralogous rRNA methylase genes pikR1 and pikR2 with seemingly redundant functions. We show here that the PikR1 and PikR2 enzymes mono- and dimethylate, respectively, the N6 amino group in 23S rRNA nucleotide A2058. PikR1 monomethylase is constitutively expressed; it confers low resistance at low fitness cost and is required for ketolide-induced activation of pikR2 to attain high-level resistance. The regulatory mechanism controlling pikR2 expression has been evolutionary optimized for preferential activation by ketolide antibiotics. The resistance genes and the induction mechanism remain fully functional when transferred to heterologous bacterial hosts. The anticipated wide use of ketolide antibiotics could promote horizontal transfer of these highly efficient resistance genes to pathogens. Taken together, these findings emphasized the need for surveillance of pikR1/pikR2-based bacterial resistance and the preemptive development of drugs that can remain effective against the ketolide-specific resistance mechanism. PMID:26438831

  7. Genomewide Identification of Genetic Determinants of Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa?

    PubMed Central

    Dtsch, Andreas; Becker, Tanja; Pommerenke, Claudia; Magnowska, Zofia; Jnsch, Lothar; Hussler, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial drug resistance is of enormous public concern due to the increased risk of delayed treatment of infections, the increased length of hospital stays, the substantial increase in the cost of care, and the high risk of fatal outcomes. A prerequisite for the development of effective therapy alternatives is a detailed understanding of the diversity of bacterial mechanisms that underlie drug resistance, especially for problematic gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This pathogen has impressive chromosomally encoded mechanisms of intrinsic resistance, as well as the potential to mutate, gaining resistance to current antibiotics. In this study we have screened the comprehensive nonredundant Harvard PA14 library for P. aeruginosa mutants that exhibited either increased or decreased resistance against 19 antibiotics commonly used in the clinic. This approach identified several genes whose inactivation sensitized the bacteria to a broad spectrum of different antimicrobials and uncovered novel genetic determinants of resistance to various classes of antibiotics. Knowledge of the enhancement of bacterial susceptibility to existing antibiotics and of novel resistance markers or modifiers of resistance expression may lay the foundation for effective therapy alternatives and will be the basis for the development of new strategies in the control of problematic multiresistant gram-negative bacteria. PMID:19332674

  8. Proteomic insights into Acinetobacter baumannii drug resistance and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Long, Quanxin; Huang, Changwu; Liao, Pu; Xie, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunist pathogen, due to severe antibiotic resistance and nosocomial infection. The epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of A.baumannii have been extensively reviewed, but the pathogenesis and virulence remain unclear. Proteomics analysis has been applied to study the mechanism of drug resistance, biofilm, micronutrient acquisition, and the extracellular compartment. This review summarizes applications of proteomics in A. baumannii, aiming to summarize novel insights into the mechanism of A. baumannii pathogenesis and drug resistance. PMID:23879539

  9. Advantage and limitations of nitrofurantoin in multi-drug resistant Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Shakti, Laishram; Veeraraghavan, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic resistant pathogens are of significant concern and are associated with higher mortality and morbidity. Nitrofurantoin is a broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotic and is effectively used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by E. coli, Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., Enterococcus sp. and Staphylococcus aureus. It interfere with the synthesis of cell wall, bacterial proteins and DNA of both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens. Nitrofurantoin has been used successfully for treatment and prophylaxis of acute lower urinary tract infections. With the emergence of antibiotic resistance, nitrofurantoin has become the choice of agent for treating UTIs caused by multi-drug resistant pathogens. PMID:26470951

  10. New approaches for understanding mechanisms of drug resistance in schistosomes

    PubMed Central

    GREENBERG, ROBERT M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that cause schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects hundreds of millions worldwide. Treatment and control of schistosomiasis relies almost entirely on the single drug praziquantel (PZQ), making the prospect of emerging drug resistance particularly worrisome. This review will survey reports of PZQ (and other drug) resistance in schistosomes and other platyhelminths, and explore mechanisms by which drug resistance might develop. Newer genomic and post-genomic strategies that offer the promise of better understanding of how drug resistance might arise in these organisms will be discussed. These approaches could also lead to insights into the mode of action of these drugs and potentially provide markers for monitoring the emergence of resistance. PMID:23552512

  11. Survey of drug and phage resistance and colicin and hemolysin production among coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast.

    PubMed Central

    Trudel, L; Arriaga-Alba, M; Lavoie, M C

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of 178 strains isolated as total and fecal coliforms in the Ivory Coast revealed that (i) hemolytic activity was scarce (0.6%) among this bacterial population; (ii) the most prevalent colicins detected were, in decreasing order, E, I, A, and G; (iii) the frequency of coliphage and drug resistance was similar to that observed in other countries, except for those of drug-resistant strains in animal feces, which were lower than in countries where animals are antibiotic fed; and (iv) one of the drug resistance plasmids seemed to possess a restriction-modification system and another seemed to code for capsular material. PMID:6095758

  12. Mutational Pathway Determines Whether Drug Gradients Accelerate Evolution of Drug-Resistant Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greulich, Philip; Waclaw, Bart?omiej; Allen, Rosalind J.

    2012-08-01

    Drug gradients are believed to play an important role in the evolution of bacteria resistant to antibiotics and tumors resistant to anticancer drugs. We use a statistical physics model to study the evolution of a population of malignant cells exposed to drug gradients, where drug resistance emerges via a mutational pathway involving multiple mutations. We show that a nonuniform drug distribution has the potential to accelerate the emergence of resistance when the mutational pathway involves a long sequence of mutants with increasing resistance, but if the pathway is short or crosses a fitness valley, the evolution of resistance may actually be slowed down by drug gradients. These predictions can be verified experimentally, and may help to improve strategies for combating the emergence of resistance.

  13. Molecular genetics of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Young, D

    1994-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the single largest killer among infectious diseases. The recent resurgence of TB together with outbreaks of multidrug resistant tuberculosis has focused attention on understanding the mechanisms of such drug resistance. Because of the relative neglect of TB research in the past and late arrival of mycobacterial genetic tools, the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in TB remained largely unknown until very recently. In this paper we review recent progress on the mechanisms of resistance to three major anti-TB drugs; isoniazid, rifampicin and streptomycin. While the resistance mechanisms for rifampicin and streptomycin are similar to those found in other bacteria, isoniazid susceptibility and resistance is unique to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. So far, mutations in two chromosomal loci, katG and inhA have been found to be involved in isoniazid resistance in TB. Identification and characterization of mutations responsible for resistance opens up new possibilities for rapid detection of drug resistant strains. Molecular understanding of drug resistance and drug action in M. tuberculosis may eventually lead to rational design of new anti-TB drugs. PMID:7829406

  14. GWAMAR: Genome-wide assessment of mutations associated with drug resistance in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of drug resistance in bacteria causes antibiotic therapies to be less effective and more costly. Moreover, our understanding of the process remains incomplete. One promising approach to improve our understanding of how resistance is being acquired is to use whole-genome comparative approaches for detection of drug resistance-associated mutations. Results We present GWAMAR, a tool we have developed for detecting of drug resistance-associated mutations in bacteria through comparative analysis of whole-genome sequences. The pipeline of GWAMAR comprises several steps. First, for a set of closely related bacterial genomes, it employs eCAMBer to identify homologous gene families. Second, based on multiple alignments of the gene families, it identifies mutations among the strains of interest. Third, it calculates several statistics to identify which mutations are the most associated with drug resistance. Conclusions Based on our analysis of two large datasets retrieved from publicly available data for M. tuberculosis, we identified a set of novel putative drug resistance-associated mutations. As a part of this work, we present also an application of our tool to detect putative compensatory mutations. PMID:25559874

  15. Acid-Responsive Therapeutic Polymer for Prolonging Nanoparticle Circulation Lifetime and Destroying Drug-Resistant Tumors.

    PubMed

    Piao, Ji-Gang; Gao, Feng; Yang, Lihua

    2016-01-13

    How to destroy drug-resistant tumor cells remains an ongoing challenge for cancer treatment. We herein report on a therapeutic nanoparticle, aHLP-PDA, which has an acid-activated hemolytic polymer (aHLP) grafted onto photothermal polydopamine (PDA) nanosphere via boronate ester bond, in efforts to ablate drug-resistant tumors. Upon exposure to oxidative stress and/or near-infrared laser irradiation, aHLP-PDA nanoparticle responsively releases aHLP, likely via responsive cleavage of boronate ester bond, and thus responsively exhibits acid-facilitated mammalian-membrane-disruptive activity. In vitro cell studies with drug-resistant and/or thermo-tolerant cancer cells show that the aHLP-PDA nanoparticle demonstrates preferential cytotoxicity at acidic pH over physiological pH. When administered intravenously, the aHLP-PDA nanoparticle exhibits significantly prolonged blood circulation lifetime and enhanced tumor uptake compared to bare PDA nanosphere, likely owing to aHLP's stealth effects conferred by its zwitterionic nature at blood pH. As a result, the aHLP-PDA nanoparticle effectively ablates drug-resistant tumors, leading to 100% mouse survival even on the 32nd day after suspension of photothermal treatment, as demonstrated with the mouse model. This work suggests that a combination of nanotechnology with lessons learned in bacterial antibiotic resistance may offer a feasible and effective strategy for treating drug-resistant cancers often found in relapsing patients. PMID:26654626

  16. Novel antimicrobial agents against multi-drug-resistant gram-positive bacteria: an overview.

    PubMed

    Giannakaki, Venetia; Miyakis, Spiros

    2012-12-01

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens to compromise the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases. Strains resistant to most (if not all) antibiotics available have emerged. Gram-positive such representatives include strains of Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) and highly-resistant to penicillin Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although the phenomenon of antimicrobial drug resistance is expanding, limited number of new antibiotics has been successfully developed in the last few decades. Several novel antimicrobial agents, however, are currently in diverse phases of development and undergoing clinical trials. This review will summarize the main candidates for novel antibacterial agents active against Gram-positive multi-resistant pathogens along with the discussion of some patents relevant to the topic. PMID:23016758

  17. The Drug Resistance Strategies Project as Translational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; Miller-Day, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This paper tells the story of the multi-layered translational process of the Drug Resistance Strategies Project. The Drug Resistance Strategies Project provides an exemplar of translational scholarship, translating adolescent narratives about their substance use experiences into an efficacious, substance abuse prevention middle school curriculum.

  18. Molecular structure and dynamics in bacterial mercury resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Johs, Alexander; Shi, Liang; Miller, Susan M; Summers, Anne O; Liang, Liyuan

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria participate significantly in mercury transformation in natural and industrial environments. Previous studies have shown that bacterial mercury resistance is mediated by the mer operon, typically located on transposons or plasmids. It encodes specific genes that facilitate uptake of mercury species, cleavage of organomercurials, and reduction of Hg(II) to Hg(0). Expression of mer operon genes is regulated by MerR, a metal-responsive regulator protein on the level of transcription. In vitro studies have shown that MerR forms a non-transcribing pre-initiation complex with RNA polymerase and the promoter DNA. Binding of Hg(II) induces conformational changes in MerR and other components of the complex resulting in the transcription of mer operon genes. As part of ongoing investigations on allosteric conformational changes induced by Hg(II) in dimeric MerR, and the implications on the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter of the mer operon, we applied small angle scattering to study the regulatory mechanism of MerR in the presence and absence of Hg(II). Our results show that in the presence of Hg(II) the MerR dimer undergoes a significant reorientation from a compact state to a conformation revealing two distinct domains. Bacterial reduction of Hg(II) can also occur at concentrations too low to induce mer operon functions. Dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella and Geobacter are able to reduce Hg(II) in the presence of mineral oxides. This process has been linked to the activity of outer membrane multiheme cytochromes. We isolated and purified a decaheme outer membrane cytochrome OmcA from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and characterized its envelope shape in solution by small angle x-ray scattering. Structural features were identified and compared to homology models. These results show that OmcA is an elongated macromolecule consisting of separate modules, which may be connected by flexible linkers.

  19. Understanding bacterial resistance to antimicrobial peptides: From the surface to deep inside.

    PubMed

    Maria-Neto, Simone; de Almeida, Keyla Caroline; Macedo, Maria Ligia Rodrigues; Franco, Octvio Luiz

    2015-11-01

    Resistant bacterial infections are a major health problem in many parts of the world. The major commercial antibiotic classes often fail to combat common bacteria. Although antimicrobial peptides are able to control bacterial infections by interfering with microbial metabolism and physiological processes in several ways, a large number of cases of resistance to antibiotic peptide classes have also been reported. To gain a better understanding of the resistance process various technologies have been applied. Here we discuss multiple strategies by which bacteria could develop enhanced antimicrobial peptide resistance, focusing on sub-cellular regions from the surface to deep inside, evaluating bacterial membranes, cell walls and cytoplasmic metabolism. Moreover, some high-throughput methods for antimicrobial resistance detection and discrimination are also examined. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. PMID:25724815

  20. Dominant drug targets suppress the emergence of antiviral resistance.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Elizabeth J; Liu, Hong-mei; Oberste, M Steven; Pallansch, Mark; Collett, Marc S; Kirkegaard, Karla

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistance can defeat the successful treatment of pathogens that display high mutation rates, as exemplified by RNA viruses. Here we detail a new paradigm in which a single compound directed against a 'dominant drug target' suppresses the emergence of naturally occurring drug-resistant variants in mice and cultured cells. All new drug-resistant viruses arise during intracellular replication and initially express their phenotypes in the presence of drug-susceptible genomes. For the targets of most anti-viral compounds, the presence of these drug-susceptible viral genomes does not prevent the selection of drug resistance. Here we show that, for an inhibitor of the function of oligomeric capsid proteins of poliovirus, the expression of drug-susceptible genomes causes chimeric oligomers to form, thus rendering the drug-susceptible genomes dominant. The use of dominant drug targets should suppress drug resistance whenever multiple genomes arise in the same cell and express products in a common milieu. PMID:25365453

  1. Acquired Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Poor Outcomes among Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kipiani, Maia; Mirtskhulava, Veriko; Tukvadze, Nestani; Magee, Matthew J.; Blumberg, Henry M.

    2015-01-01

    Rates and risk factors for acquired drug resistance and association with outcomes among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) are not well defined. In an MDR TB cohort from the country of Georgia, drug susceptibility testing for second-line drugs (SLDs) was performed at baseline and every third month. Acquired resistance was defined as any SLD whose status changed from susceptible at baseline to resistant at follow-up. Among 141 patients, acquired resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis was observed in 19 (14%); prevalence was 9.1% for ofloxacin and 9.8% for capreomycin or kanamycin. Baseline cavitary disease and resistance to >6 drugs were associated with acquired resistance. Patients with M. tuberculosis that had acquired resistance were at significantly increased risk for poor treatment outcome compared with patients without these isolates (89% vs. 36%; p<0.01). Acquired resistance occurs commonly among patients with MDR TB and impedes successful treatment outcomes. PMID:25993036

  2. Quantifying the Determinants of Evolutionary Dynamics Leading to Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chevereau, Guillaume; Dravecká, Marta; Batur, Tugce; Guvenek, Aysegul; Ayhan, Dilay Hazal; Toprak, Erdal; Bollenbach, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistant pathogens is a serious public health problem. It is a long-standing goal to predict rates of resistance evolution and design optimal treatment strategies accordingly. To this end, it is crucial to reveal the underlying causes of drug-specific differences in the evolutionary dynamics leading to resistance. However, it remains largely unknown why the rates of resistance evolution via spontaneous mutations and the diversity of mutational paths vary substantially between drugs. Here we comprehensively quantify the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) of mutations, a key determinant of evolutionary dynamics, in the presence of eight antibiotics representing the main modes of action. Using precise high-throughput fitness measurements for genome-wide Escherichia coli gene deletion strains, we find that the width of the DFE varies dramatically between antibiotics and, contrary to conventional wisdom, for some drugs the DFE width is lower than in the absence of stress. We show that this previously underappreciated divergence in DFE width among antibiotics is largely caused by their distinct drug-specific dose-response characteristics. Unlike the DFE, the magnitude of the changes in tolerated drug concentration resulting from genome-wide mutations is similar for most drugs but exceptionally small for the antibiotic nitrofurantoin, i.e., mutations generally have considerably smaller resistance effects for nitrofurantoin than for other drugs. A population genetics model predicts that resistance evolution for drugs with this property is severely limited and confined to reproducible mutational paths. We tested this prediction in laboratory evolution experiments using the “morbidostat”, a device for evolving bacteria in well-controlled drug environments. Nitrofurantoin resistance indeed evolved extremely slowly via reproducible mutations—an almost paradoxical behavior since this drug causes DNA damage and increases the mutation rate. Overall, we identified novel quantitative characteristics of the evolutionary landscape that provide the conceptual foundation for predicting the dynamics of drug resistance evolution. PMID:26581035

  3. Quantifying the Determinants of Evolutionary Dynamics Leading to Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Chevereau, Guillaume; Draveck, Marta; Batur, Tugce; Guvenek, Aysegul; Ayhan, Dilay Hazal; Toprak, Erdal; Bollenbach, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    The emergence of drug resistant pathogens is a serious public health problem. It is a long-standing goal to predict rates of resistance evolution and design optimal treatment strategies accordingly. To this end, it is crucial to reveal the underlying causes of drug-specific differences in the evolutionary dynamics leading to resistance. However, it remains largely unknown why the rates of resistance evolution via spontaneous mutations and the diversity of mutational paths vary substantially between drugs. Here we comprehensively quantify the distribution of fitness effects (DFE) of mutations, a key determinant of evolutionary dynamics, in the presence of eight antibiotics representing the main modes of action. Using precise high-throughput fitness measurements for genome-wide Escherichia coli gene deletion strains, we find that the width of the DFE varies dramatically between antibiotics and, contrary to conventional wisdom, for some drugs the DFE width is lower than in the absence of stress. We show that this previously underappreciated divergence in DFE width among antibiotics is largely caused by their distinct drug-specific dose-response characteristics. Unlike the DFE, the magnitude of the changes in tolerated drug concentration resulting from genome-wide mutations is similar for most drugs but exceptionally small for the antibiotic nitrofurantoin, i.e., mutations generally have considerably smaller resistance effects for nitrofurantoin than for other drugs. A population genetics model predicts that resistance evolution for drugs with this property is severely limited and confined to reproducible mutational paths. We tested this prediction in laboratory evolution experiments using the "morbidostat", a device for evolving bacteria in well-controlled drug environments. Nitrofurantoin resistance indeed evolved extremely slowly via reproducible mutations-an almost paradoxical behavior since this drug causes DNA damage and increases the mutation rate. Overall, we identified novel quantitative characteristics of the evolutionary landscape that provide the conceptual foundation for predicting the dynamics of drug resistance evolution. PMID:26581035

  4. Cancer stem cells and drug resistance: the potential of nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradov, Serguei; Wei, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Properties of the small group of cancer cells called tumor-initiating or cancer stem cells (CSCs) involved in drug resistance, metastasis and relapse of cancers can significantly affect tumor therapy. Importantly, tumor drug resistance seems to be closely related to many intrinsic or acquired properties of CSCs, such as quiescence, specific morphology, DNA repair ability and overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins, drug efflux transporters and detoxifying enzymes. The specific microenvironment (niche) and hypoxic stability provide additional protection against anticancer therapy for CSCs. Thus, CSC-focused therapy is destined to form the core of any effective anticancer strategy. Nanomedicine has great potential in the development of CSC-targeting drugs, controlled drug delivery and release, and the design of novel gene-specific drugs and diagnostic modalities. This review is focused on tumor drug resistance-related properties of CSCs and describes current nanomedicine approaches, which could form the basis of novel combination therapies for eliminating metastatic and CSCs. PMID:22471722

  5. Efflux-Mediated Drug Resistance in Bacteria: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xian-Zhi; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Drug efflux pumps play a key role in drug resistance and also serve other functions in bacteria. There has been a growing list of multidrug and drug-specific efflux pumps characterized from bacteria of human, animal, plant and environmental origins. These pumps are mostly encoded on the chromosome although they can also be plasmid-encoded. A previous article (Li X-Z and Nikaido H, Drugs, 2004; 64[2]: 159–204) had provided a comprehensive review regarding efflux-mediated drug resistance in bacteria. In the past five years, significant progress has been achieved in further understanding of drug resistance-related efflux transporters and this review focuses on the latest studies in this field since 2003. This has been demonstrated in multiple aspects that include but are not limited to: further molecular and biochemical characterization of the known drug efflux pumps and identification of novel drug efflux pumps; structural elucidation of the transport mechanisms of drug transporters; regulatory mechanisms of drug efflux pumps; determining the role of the drug efflux pumps in other functions such as stress responses, virulence and cell communication; and development of efflux pump inhibitors. Overall, the multifaceted implications of drug efflux transporters warrant novel strategies to combat multidrug resistance in bacteria. PMID:19678712

  6. Overcome Cancer Cell Drug Resistance Using Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pu; Yang, Hua Li; Yang, Ying Juan; Wang, Lan; Lee, Shao Chin

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the major treatment methods for cancer. However, failure in chemotherapy is not uncommon, mainly due to dose-limiting toxicity associated with drug resistance. Management of drug resistance is important towards successful chemotherapy. There are many reports in the Chinese literature that natural products can overcome cancer cell drug resistance, which deserve sharing with scientific and industrial communities. We summarized the reports into four categories: (1) in vitro studies using cell line models; (2) serum pharmacology; (3) in vivo studies using animal models; and (4) clinical studies. Fourteen single compounds were reported to have antidrug resistance activity for the first time. In vitro, compounds were able to overcome drug resistance at nontoxic or subtoxic concentrations, in a dose-dependent manner, by inhibiting drug transporters, cell detoxification capacity, or cell apoptosis sensitivity. Studies in vivo showed that single compounds, herbal extract, and formulas had potent antidrug resistance activities. Importantly, many single compounds, herbal extracts, and formulas have been used clinically to treat various diseases including cancer. The review provides comprehensive data on use of natural compounds to overcome cancer cell drug resistance in China, which may facilitate the therapeutic development of natural products for clinical management of cancer drug resistance. PMID:26421052

  7. On-Demand Isolation of Bacteriophages Against Drug-Resistant Bacteria for Personalized Phage Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Sari; Ruotsalainen, Pilvi; Jalasvuori, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses, capable of killing even multi-drug resistant bacterial cells. For this reason, therapeutic use of phages is considered as a possible alternative to conventional antibiotics. However, phages are very host specific in comparison to wide-spectrum antibiotics and thus preparation of phage-cocktails beforehand against pathogens can be difficult. In this study, we evaluate whether it may be possible to isolate phages on-demand from environmental reservoir. We attempted to enrich infectious bacteriophages from sewage against nosocomial drug-resistant bacterial strains of different medically important species in order to evaluate the probability of discovering novel therapeutic phages. Stability and host-range were determined for the acquired phages. Our results suggest that on-demand isolation of phages is possible against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella and extended spectrum beta-lactamase Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The probability of finding suitable phages was less than 40% against vancomycin resistant Enterococcus and Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Furthermore, isolation of new phages against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains was found to be very difficult. PMID:26617601

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to antituberculosis drugs in Mozambique*, **

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Germano Manuel; Folgosa, Elena; Nquobile, Ndlovu; Gitta, Sheba; Cadir, Nureisha

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the drug resistance profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mozambique. METHODS: We analyzed secondary data from the National Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Maputo, Mozambique, and from the Beira Regional Tuberculosis Referral Laboratory, in the city of Beira, Mozambique. The data were based on culture-positive samples submitted to first-line drug susceptibility testing (DST) between January and December of 2011. We attempted to determine whether the frequency of DST positivity was associated with patient type or provenance. RESULTS: During the study period, 641 strains were isolated in culture and submitted to DST. We found that 374 (58.3%) were resistant to at least one antituberculosis drug and 280 (43.7%) were resistant to multiple antituberculosis drugs. Of the 280 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases, 184 (65.7%) were in previously treated patients, most of whom were from southern Mozambique. Two (0.71%) of the cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were confirmed to be cases of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis was most common in males, particularly those in the 21-40 year age bracket. CONCLUSIONS: M. tuberculosis resistance to antituberculosis drugs is high in Mozambique, especially in previously treated patients. The frequency of M. tuberculosis strains that were resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin in combination was found to be high, particularly in samples from previously treated patients. PMID:24831398

  9. Totally drug-resistant tuberculosis and adjunct therapies.

    PubMed

    Parida, S K; Axelsson-Robertson, R; Rao, M V; Singh, N; Master, I; Lutckii, A; Keshavjee, S; Andersson, J; Zumla, A; Maeurer, M

    2015-04-01

    The first cases of totally drug-resistant (TDR) tuberculosis (TB) were reported in Italy 10 years ago; more recently, cases have also been reported in Iran, India and South Africa. Although there is no consensus on terminology, it is most commonly described as 'resistance to all first- and second-line drugs used to treat TB'. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) acquires drug resistance mutations in a sequential fashion under suboptimal drug pressure due to monotherapy, inadequate dosing, treatment interruptions and drug interactions. The treatment of TDR-TB includes antibiotics with disputed or minimal effectiveness against M.tb, and the fatality rate is high. Comorbidities such as diabetes and infection with human immunodeficiency virus further impact on TB treatment options and survival rates. Several new drug candidates with novel modes of action are under late-stage clinical evaluation (e.g., delamanid, bedaquiline, SQ109 and sutezolid). 'Repurposed' antibiotics have also recently been included in the treatment of extensively drug resistant TB. However, because of mutations in M.tb, drugs will not provide a cure for TB in the long term. Adjunct TB therapies, including therapeutic vaccines, vitamin supplementation and/or repurposing of drugs targeting biologically and clinically relevant molecular pathways, may achieve better clinical outcomes in combination with standard chemotherapy. Here, we review broader perspectives of drug resistance in TB and potential adjunct treatment options. PMID:24809736

  10. Rapid evolution of drug resistance of multiple myeloma in the microenvironment with drug gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Amy; Zhang, Qiucen; Lambert, Guillaume; Khin, Zayar; Silva, Ariosto; Gatenby, Robert; Kim, John; Pourmand, Nader; Austin, Robert; Sturm, James

    2013-03-01

    Drug resistance in cancer is usually caused by the spatial drug gradients in tumor environment. Here, we culture multiple myeloma in a gradient from 0 to 20 nM of doxorubicin (genotoxic drug) across 2 mm wide region for 12 days. The myeloma cells grew rapidly and formed 3D colonies in the regions with less drug concentration. However, we have seen emergent colonies forming in regions with drug concentration above the minimal inhibitory concentration in less than one week. Once the cells have occupied the regions with less drug concentration, they tend to migrate toward the regions with higher drug concentration in a collective behavior. To characterize their resistance, we collect them from this microfluidic system, for further analysis of the dose response. We find that the IC50 (drug concentration that inhibits 50% of controlled population) of the cells, undergone a drug gradient, increase 16-fold of the wildtype cells. We further discover that these resistant cells express more Multidrug Resistance (mdr) protein, which pumps out the drugs and causes drug resistance, than the wildtype. Our current works on RNA-sequencing analysis may discover other biomolecular mechanisms that may confer the drug resistance.

  11. Understanding Drug Resistance in Breast Cancer with Mathematical Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Brocato, Terisse; Dogra, Prashant; Koay, Eugene J.; Day, Armin; Chuang, Yao-Li; Wang, Zhihui; Cristini, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy is mainstay of treatment for the majority of patients with breast cancer, but results in only 26% of patients with distant metastasis living 5 years past treatment in the United States, largely due to drug resistance. The complexity of drug resistance calls for an integrated approach of mathematical modeling and experimental investigation to develop quantitative tools that reveal insights into drug resistance mechanisms, predict chemotherapy efficacy, and identify novel treatment approaches. This paper reviews recent modeling work for understanding cancer drug resistance through the use of computer simulations of molecular signaling networks and cancerous tissues, with a particular focus on breast cancer. These mathematical models are developed by drawing on current advances in molecular biology, physical characterization of tumors, and emerging drug delivery methods (e.g., nanotherapeutics). We focus our discussion on representative modeling works that have provided quantitative insight into chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer and how drug resistance can be overcome or minimized to optimize chemotherapy treatment. We also discuss future directions of mathematical modeling in understanding drug resistance. PMID:24891927

  12. Genotypic Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    There are 16 approved human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drugs belonging to three mechanistic classes: protease inhibitors, nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors, and nonnucleoside RT inhibitors. HIV-1 resistance to these drugs is caused by mutations in the protease and RT enzymes, the molecular targets of these drugs. Drug resistance mutations arise most often in treated individuals, resulting from selective drug pressure in the presence of incompletely suppressed virus replication. HIV-1 isolates with drug resistance mutations, however, may also be transmitted to newly infected individuals. Three expert panels have recommended that HIV-1 protease and RT susceptibility testing should be used to help select HIV drug therapy. Although genotypic testing is more complex than typical antimicrobial susceptibility tests, there is a rich literature supporting the prognostic value of HIV-1 protease and RT mutations. This review describes the genetic mechanisms of HIV-1 drug resistance and summarizes published data linking individual RT and protease mutations to in vitro and in vivo resistance to the currently available HIV drugs. PMID:11932232

  13. EPISOME-MEDIATED TRANSFER OF DRUG RESISTANCE IN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE VIII.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tsutomu; Ogata, Chizuko; Sato, Sachiko

    1964-01-01

    Watanabe, Tsutomu (Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan), Chizuko Ogata, and Sachiko Sato. Episome-mediated transfer of drug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. VIII. Six-drug-resistance R factor. J. Bacteriol. 88:922928. 1964.The multiple-drug-resistant Escherichia coli strain isolated by Lebek in 1963 was found to transfer resistance to sulfonamide, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, kanamycin, and neomycin together by conjugation, as well as by transduction with phage P1kc, suggesting that these drug-resistance markers are carried by a single R factor (R6). The results of transductional and spontaneous segregations of the drug-resistance markers of R6 have shown that R6 has independent genetic determinants for sulfonamide, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and kanamycin-neomycin resistance. Resistance to kanamycin and neomycin is probably controlled by a single gene, because no segregation was observed between these two. The resistance transfer factor of R6 was found to be of the fi+ type. PMID:14219055

  14. Delamanid: A new armor in combating drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Alphienes Stanley; Lakshmanan, Mageshwaran

    2014-07-01

    Intense search has been made in the discovery of newer anti-TB drugs to tackle the issues such as drug resistance, HIV co-infection and risk of drug-drug interactions in the management of TB. Delamanid, a newer mycobacterial cell wall synthesis inhibitor, received a conditional approval from European medicines agency (EMA) for the treatment of MDR-TB. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that delamanid has high potency, least risk for drug-drug interactions and better tolerability. PMID:25210407

  15. [Research Progress on Drug-resistance of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing-Jing; Chen, Yue; Yu, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant clonal disease, its treatment methods include chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, immunotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. Clinically, ALL patients need to get complete remission through chemotherapy, and then choose the other treatment according to the patient's condition. But the drug resistance has been a biggest obstacle in treatment of ALL. There are many research reports about drug-resistant of ALL at present. In this review, the classic drug resistance mechanisms, such as membrane transporter, gene modifications and some newly finding mechanisms including such as bone marrow microenvironment and Micro RNA and so on are summarized. PMID:26913433

  16. PfCRT and its role in antimalarial drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Andrea; Lehane, Adele M.; Clain, Jrme; Fidock, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine, the former gold standard antimalarial drug, is mediated primarily by mutant forms of the Chloroquine Resistance Transporter (PfCRT). These mutations impart upon PfCRT the ability to efflux chloroquine from the intracellular digestive vacuole, the site of drug action. Recent studies reveal that PfCRT variants can also affect parasite fitness, protect immature gametocytes against chloroquine action, and alter P. falciparum susceptibility to current first-line therapies. These results highlight the need to be vigilant in screening for the appearance of novel pfcrt alleles that could contribute to new multi-drug resistance phenotypes. PMID:23020971

  17. Prediction of Cancer Drug Resistance and Implications for Personalized Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Volm, Manfred; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance still impedes successful cancer chemotherapy. A major goal of early concepts in individualized therapy was to develop in vitro tests to predict tumors’ drug responsiveness. We have developed an in vitro short-term test based on nucleic acid precursor incorporation to determine clinical drug resistance. This test detects inherent and acquired resistance in vitro and transplantable syngeneic and xenografted tumors in vivo. In several clinical trials, clinical resistance was predictable with more than 90% accuracy, while drug sensitivity was detected with less accuracy (~60%). Remarkably, clinical cross-resistance to numerous drugs (multidrug resistance, broad spectrum resistance) was detectable by a single compound, doxorubicin, due to its multifactorial modes of action. The results of this predictive test were in good agreement with predictive assays of other authors. As no predictive test has been established as yet for clinical diagnostics, the identification of sensitive drugs may not reach sufficiently high reliability for clinical routine. A meta-analysis of the literature published during the past four decades considering test results of more than 15,000 tumor patients unambiguously demonstrated that, in the majority of studies, resistance was correctly predicted with an accuracy between 80 and 100%, while drug sensitivity could only be predicted with an accuracy of 50–80%. This synopsis of the published literature impressively illustrates that prediction of drug resistance could be validated. The determination of drug resistance was reliable independent of tumor type, test assay, and drug used in these in vitro tests. By contrast, chemosensitivity could not be predicted with high reliability. Therefore, we propose a rethinking of the “chemosensitivity” concept. Instead, predictive in vitro tests may reliably identify drug-resistant tumors. The clinical consequence imply to subject resistant tumors not to chemotherapy, but to other new treatment options, such as antibody therapy, adoptive immune therapy, hyperthermia, gene therapy, etc. The high accuracy to predict resistant tumors may be exploited to develop new strategies for individualized cancer therapy. This new concept bears the potential of a revival of predictive tests for personalized medicine. PMID:26734568

  18. Geographical variation in cloacal microflora and bacterial antibiotic resistance in a threatened avian scavenger in relation to diet and livestock farming practices.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A; Grande, Javier; Gangoso, Laura; Grande, Juan M; Donázar, José A; Arroyo, Bernardo; Frías, Oscar; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    The impact on wildlife health of the increase in the use of antimicrobial agents with the intensification of livestock production remains unknown. The composition, richness and prevalence of cloacal microflora as well as bacterial resistance to antibiotics in nestlings and full-grown Egyptian vultures Neophron percnopterus were assessed in four areas of Spain in which the degree of farming intensification differs. Differences in diet composition, especially the role of stabled livestock carrion, appear to govern the similarities of bacterial flora composition among continental populations, while the insular vulture population (Fuerteventura, Canary Islands) showed differences attributed to isolation. Evidence of a positive relationship between the consumption of stabled livestock carrion and bacterial resistance to multiple antibiotics was found. Bacterial resistance was high for semisynthetic penicillins and enrofloxacin, especially in the area with the most intensive stabled livestock production. The pattern of antibiotic resistance was similar for the different bacterial species within each area. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics may be determined by resistance of bacteria present in the livestock meat remains that constituted the food of this species, as indicated by the fact that resistance to each antibiotic was correlated in Escherichia coli isolated from swine carrion and Egyptian vulture nestlings. In addition, resistance in normal faecal bacteria (present in the microflora of both livestock and vultures) was higher than in Staphylococcus epidermidis, a species indicator of the transient flora acquired presumably through the consumption of wild rabbits. Potential negative effects of the use of antimicrobials in livestock farming included the direct ingestion of these drug residues and the effects of bacterial antibiotic resistance on the health of scavengers. PMID:17564607

  19. Origin of Robustness in Generating Drug-Resistant Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Kmpornsin, Krittikorn; Modchang, Charin; Heinberg, Adina; Ekland, Eric H.; Jirawatcharadech, Piyaporn; Chobson, Pornpimol; Suwanakitti, Nattida; Chaotheing, Sastra; Wilairat, Prapon; Deitsch, Kirk W.; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Fidock, David A.; Kirkman, Laura A.; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Chookajorn, Thanat

    2014-01-01

    Biological robustness allows mutations to accumulate while maintaining functional phenotypes. Despite its crucial role in evolutionary processes, the mechanistic details of how robustness originates remain elusive. Using an evolutionary trajectory analysis approach, we demonstrate how robustness evolved in malaria parasites under selective pressure from an antimalarial drug inhibiting the folate synthesis pathway. A series of four nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions at the targeted enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), render the parasites highly resistant to the antifolate drug pyrimethamine. Nevertheless, the stepwise gain of these four dhfr mutations results in tradeoffs between pyrimethamine resistance and parasite fitness. Here, we report the epistatic interaction between dhfr mutations and amplification of the gene encoding the first upstream enzyme in the folate pathway, GTP cyclohydrolase I (GCH1). gch1 amplification confers low level pyrimethamine resistance and would thus be selected for by pyrimethamine treatment. Interestingly, the gch1 amplification can then be co-opted by the parasites because it reduces the cost of acquiring drug-resistant dhfr mutations downstream in the same metabolic pathway. The compensation of compromised fitness by extra GCH1 is an example of how robustness can evolve in a system and thus expand the accessibility of evolutionary trajectories leading toward highly resistant alleles. The evolution of robustness during the gain of drug-resistant mutations has broad implications for both the development of new drugs and molecular surveillance for resistance to existing drugs. PMID:24739308

  20. Clusterin regulates drug-resistance in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hoeller, Christoph; Pratscher, Barbara; Thallinger, Christiane; Winter, Dorian; Fink, Dieter; Kovacic, Boris; Sexl, Veronika; Wacheck, Volker; Gleave, Martin E; Pehamberger, Hubert; Jansen, Burkhard

    2005-06-01

    Clusterin has recently been shown to act as an antiapoptotic protein that confers drug-resistance in models of epithelial tumors. The aim of our work was to provide an insight into a possible role of clusterin in the regulation of drug-resistance in melanoma. In tissue samples, clusterin expression was low in nevi, but high in primary melanoma and melanoma metastases. Clusterin was also strongly expressed in melanoma cell lines, but was barely detectable in cultured melanocytes. To elucidate a possible role of clusterin in drug-resistance of melanoma, clusterin expression was regulated by either plasmid-driven overexpression or by antisense-mediated downregulation. Clusterin overexpression was associated with an increase in drug-resistance, i.e., with an increased survival of melanoma cells in the presence of cytotoxic drugs. In contrast, downregulation of clusterin by 2'-O-(2-methoxy)ethyl (2'MOE)-modified antisense oligonucleotides (AS-ODN) directed against clusterin mRNA significantly reduced drug-resistance, i.e., decreased survival of melanoma cells in the presence of cytotoxic drugs. To evaluate the effects of clusterin-antisense treatment in vivo, we applied an SCID-mouse/human-melanoma xenotransplantation model. Pre-treatment of mice with the 2'MOE-modified clusterin AS-ODN was associated with a significantly improved tumor response to dacarbazine as compared with animals pretreated with a scrambled control oligonucleotide. Taken together, we show that clusterin is strongly expressed in melanoma. Downregulation of clusterin reduces drug-resistance, i.e., reduces melanoma cell survival in response to cytotoxic drugs in vitro and in vivo. Thus, reducing clusterin expression may provide a novel tool to overcome drug-resistance in melanoma. PMID:15955107

  1. Extensive Drug Resistance Acquired During Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cegielski, J. Peter; Dalton, Tracy; Yagui, Martin; Wattanaamornkiet, Wanpen; Volchenkov, Grigory V.; Via, Laura E.; Van Der Walt, Martie; Tupasi, Thelma; Smith, Sarah E.; Odendaal, Ronel; Leimane, Vaira; Kvasnovsky, Charlotte; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Kummik, Tiina; Kuksa, Liga; Kliiman, Kai; Kiryanova, Elena V.; Kim, HeeJin; Kim, Chang-ki; Kazennyy, Boris Y.; Jou, Ruwen; Huang, Wei-Lun; Ershova, Julia; Erokhin, Vladislav V.; Diem, Lois; Contreras, Carmen; Cho, Sang Nae; Chernousova, Larisa N.; Chen, Michael P.; Caoili, Janice Campos; Bayona, Jaime; Akksilp, Somsak; Calahuanca, Gloria Yale; Wolfgang, Melanie; Viiklepp, Piret; Vasilieva, Irina A.; Taylor, Allison; Tan, Kathrine; Suarez, Carmen; Sture, Ingrida; Somova, Tatiana; Smirnova, Tatyana G.; Sigman, Erika; Skenders, Girts; Sitti, Wanlaya; Shamputa, Isdore C.; Riekstina, Vija; Pua, Kristine Rose; Therese, M.; Perez, C.; Park, Seungkyu; Norvaisha, Inga; Nemtsova, Evgenia S.; Min, Seonyeong; Metchock, Beverly; Levina, Klavdia; Lei, Yung-Chao; Lee, Jongseok; Larionova, Elena E.; Lancaster, Joey; Jeon, Doosoo; Jave, Oswaldo; Khorosheva, Tatiana; Hwang, Soo Hee; Huang, Angela Song-En; Gler, M. Tarcela; Dravniece, Gunta; Eum, Seokyong; Demikhova, Olga V.; Degtyareva, Irina; Danilovits, Manfred; Cirula, Anda; Cho, Eunjin; Cai, Ying; Brand, Jeanette; Bonilla, Cesar; Barry, Clifton E.; Asencios, Luis; Andreevskaya, Sofia N.; Akksilp, Rattanawadee

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Increasing access to drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is crucial but could lead to increasing resistance to these same drugs. In 2000, the international Green Light Committee (GLC) initiative began to increase access while attempting to prevent acquired resistance. Methods.?To assess the GLC's impact, we followed adults with pulmonary MDR tuberculosis from the start to the end of treatment with monthly sputum cultures, drug susceptibility testing, and genotyping. We compared the frequency and predictors of acquired resistance to second-line drugs (SLDs) in 9 countries that volunteered to participate, 5 countries that met GLC criteria, and 4 countries that did not apply to the GLC. Results.?In total, 832 subjects were enrolled. Of those without baseline resistance to specific SLDs, 68 (8.9%) acquired extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, 79 (11.2%) acquired fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance, and 56 (7.8%) acquired resistance to second-line injectable drugs (SLIs). The relative risk (95% confidence interval [CI]) of acquired resistance was lower at GLC-approved sites: 0.27 (.16.47) for XDR tuberculosis, 0.28 (.17.45) for FQ, and 0.15 (.06.39) to 0.60 (.341.05) for 3 different SLIs. The risk increased as the number of potentially effective drugs decreased. Controlling for baseline drug resistance and differences between sites, the odds ratios (95% CIs) were 0.21 (.07.62) for acquired XDR tuberculosis and 0.23 (.09.59) for acquired FQ resistance. Conclusions.?Treatment of MDR tuberculosis involves substantial risk of acquired resistance to SLDs, increasing as baseline drug resistance increases. The risk was significantly lower in programs documented by the GLC to meet specific standards. PMID:25057101

  2. AcrB drug-binding pocket substitution confers clinically relevant resistance and altered substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Blair, Jessica M A; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Ricci, Vito; Modi, Niraj; Cacciotto, Pierpaolo; Kleinekathӧfer, Ulrich; Ruggerone, Paolo; Vargiu, Attilio V; Baylay, Alison J; Smith, Helen E; Brandon, Yvonne; Galloway, David; Piddock, Laura J V

    2015-03-17

    The incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections is increasing globally and the need to understand the underlying mechanisms is paramount to discover new therapeutics. The efflux pumps of Gram-negative bacteria have a broad substrate range and transport antibiotics out of the bacterium, conferring intrinsic multidrug resistance (MDR). The genomes of pre- and posttherapy MDR clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium from a patient that failed antibacterial therapy and died were sequenced. In the posttherapy isolate we identified a novel G288D substitution in AcrB, the resistance-nodulation division transporter in the AcrAB-TolC tripartite MDR efflux pump system. Computational structural analysis suggested that G288D in AcrB heavily affects the structure, dynamics, and hydration properties of the distal binding pocket altering specificity for antibacterial drugs. Consistent with this hypothesis, recreation of the mutation in standard Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains showed that G288D AcrB altered substrate specificity, conferring decreased susceptibility to the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin by increased efflux. At the same time, the substitution increased susceptibility to other drugs by decreased efflux. Information about drug transport is vital for the discovery of new antibacterials; the finding that one amino acid change can cause resistance to some drugs, while conferring increased susceptibility to others, could provide a basis for new drug development and treatment strategies. PMID:25737552

  3. AcrB drug-binding pocket substitution confers clinically relevant resistance and altered substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Jessica M. A.; Bavro, Vassiliy N.; Ricci, Vito; Modi, Niraj; Cacciotto, Pierpaolo; Kleinekath?fer, Ulrich; Ruggerone, Paolo; Vargiu, Attilio V.; Baylay, Alison J.; Smith, Helen E.; Brandon, Yvonne; Galloway, David; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections is increasing globally and the need to understand the underlying mechanisms is paramount to discover new therapeutics. The efflux pumps of Gram-negative bacteria have a broad substrate range and transport antibiotics out of the bacterium, conferring intrinsic multidrug resistance (MDR). The genomes of pre- and posttherapy MDR clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium from a patient that failed antibacterial therapy and died were sequenced. In the posttherapy isolate we identified a novel G288D substitution in AcrB, the resistance-nodulation division transporter in the AcrAB-TolC tripartite MDR efflux pump system. Computational structural analysis suggested that G288D in AcrB heavily affects the structure, dynamics, and hydration properties of the distal binding pocket altering specificity for antibacterial drugs. Consistent with this hypothesis, recreation of the mutation in standard Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains showed that G288D AcrB altered substrate specificity, conferring decreased susceptibility to the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin by increased efflux. At the same time, the substitution increased susceptibility to other drugs by decreased efflux. Information about drug transport is vital for the discovery of new antibacterials; the finding that one amino acid change can cause resistance to some drugs, while conferring increased susceptibility to others, could provide a basis for new drug development and treatment strategies. PMID:25737552

  4. Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Herbs and spices are very important and useful as therapeutic agent against many pathological infections. Increasing multidrug resistance of pathogens forces to find alternative compounds for treatment of infectious diseases. Methods In the present study the antimicrobial potency of garlic and ginger has been investigated against eight local clinical bacterial isolates. Three types of extracts of each garlic and ginger including aqueous extract, methanol extract and ethanol extract had been assayed separately against drug resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcusepidermidis and Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Results All tested bacterial strains were most susceptible to the garlic aqueous extract and showed poor susceptibility to the ginger aqueous extract. The (minimum inhibitory concentration) MIC of different bacterial species varied from 0.05?mg/ml to 1.0?mg/ml. Conclusion In the light of several socioeconomic factors of Pakistan mainly poverty and poor hygienic condition, present study encourages the use of spices as alternative or supplementary medicine to reduce the burden of high cost, side effects and progressively increasing drug resistance of pathogens. PMID:22540232

  5. Bacterial fitness shapes the population dynamics of antibiotic-resistant and -susceptible bacteria in a model of combined antibiotic and anti-virulence treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ternent, Lucy; Dyson, Rosemary J.; Krachler, Anne-Marie; Jabbari, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment is a huge concern: introduction of any new antibiotic is shortly followed by the emergence of resistant bacterial isolates in the clinic. This issue is compounded by a severe lack of new antibiotics reaching the market. The significant rise in clinical resistance to antibiotics is especially problematic in nosocomial infections, where already vulnerable patients may fail to respond to treatment, causing even greater health concern. A recent focus has been on the development of anti-virulence drugs as a second line of defence in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections. This treatment, which weakens bacteria by reducing their virulence rather than killing them, should allow infections to be cleared through the body?s natural defence mechanisms. In this way there should be little to no selective pressure exerted on the organism and, as such, a predominantly resistant population should be less likely to emerge. However, before the likelihood of resistance to these novel drugs emerging can be predicted, we must first establish whether such drugs can actually be effective. Many believe that anti-virulence drugs would not be powerful enough to clear existing infections, restricting their potential application to prophylaxis. We have developed a mathematical model that provides a theoretical framework to reveal the circumstances under which anti-virulence drugs may or may not be successful. We demonstrate that by harnessing and combining the advantages of antibiotics with those provided by anti-virulence drugs, given infection-specific parameters, it is possible to identify treatment strategies that would efficiently clear bacterial infections, while preventing the emergence of antibiotic-resistant subpopulations. Our findings strongly support the continuation of research into anti-virulence drugs and demonstrate that their applicability may reach beyond infection prevention. PMID:25701634

  6. TRANSFORMATION OF ANTHURIUM WITH TRANSGENES FOR BACTERIAL BLIGHT AND NEMATODE RESISTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthurium transformation was undertaken to engineer plants for resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae and to the nematodes Radopholus simile and Meloidogyne javanica. Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation of embryogenic calli of ‘Marian Seefurth’ was sh...

  7. Registration of Common Bacterial Blight Resistant White Kidney Bean Germplasm Line USWK-CBB-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White kidney bean germplasm line USWK-CBB-17 was developed by USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2006. This line was bred with a high level of resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap). Common bacteri...

  8. Dominant gene for common bean resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bacterial blight pathogen [Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap)] is a limiting factor for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide and resistance to the pathogen in most commercial cultivars is inadequate. Variability in virulence of the bacterial pathogen has been ob...

  9. Antimicrobial resistance determinant microarray for analysis of multi-drug resistant isolates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taitt, Chris Rowe; Leski, Tomasz; Stenger, David; Vora, Gary J.; House, Brent; Nicklasson, Matilda; Pimentel, Guillermo; Zurawski, Daniel V.; Kirkup, Benjamin C.; Craft, David; Waterman, Paige E.; Lesho, Emil P.; Bangurae, Umaru; Ansumana, Rashid

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of multidrug-resistant infections in personnel wounded in Iraq and Afghanistan has made it challenging for physicians to choose effective therapeutics in a timely fashion. To address the challenge of identifying the potential for drug resistance, we have developed the Antimicrobial Resistance Determinant Microarray (ARDM) to provide DNAbased analysis for over 250 resistance genes covering 12 classes of antibiotics. Over 70 drug-resistant bacteria from different geographic regions have been analyzed on ARDM, with significant differences in patterns of resistance identified: genes for resistance to sulfonamides, trimethoprim, chloramphenicol, rifampin, and macrolide-lincosamidesulfonamide drugs were more frequently identified in isolates from sources in Iraq/Afghanistan. Of particular concern was the presence of genes responsible for resistance to many of the last-resort antibiotics used to treat war traumaassociated infections.

  10. Diverse and abundant multi-drug resistant E. coli in Matang mangrove estuaries, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpour, Aziz; Ho, Wing Sze; Chew, Li-Lee; Bong, Chui Wei; Chong, Ving Ching; Thong, Kwai-Lin; Chai, Lay Ching

    2015-01-01

    E.coli, an important vector distributing antimicrobial resistance in the environment, was found to be multi-drug resistant, abundant, and genetically diverse in the Matang mangrove estuaries, Malaysia. One-third (34%) of the estuarine E. coli was multi-drug resistant. The highest antibiotic resistance prevalence was observed for aminoglycosides (83%) and beta-lactams (37%). Phylogenetic groups A and B1, being the most predominant E. coli, demonstrated the highest antibiotic resistant level and prevalence of integrons (integron I, 21%; integron II, 3%). Detection of phylogenetic group B23 downstream of fishing villages indicates human fecal contamination as a source of E. coli pollution. Enteroaggregative E. coli (1%) were also detected immediately downstream of the fishing village. The results indicated multi-drug resistance among E. coli circulating in Matang estuaries, which could be reflective of anthropogenic activities and aggravated by bacterial and antibiotic discharges from village lack of a sewerage system, aquaculture farms and upstream animal husbandry. PMID:26483759

  11. Diverse and abundant multi-drug resistant E. coli in Matang mangrove estuaries, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpour, Aziz; Ho, Wing Sze; Chew, Li-Lee; Bong, Chui Wei; Chong, Ving Ching; Thong, Kwai-Lin; Chai, Lay Ching

    2015-01-01

    E.coli, an important vector distributing antimicrobial resistance in the environment, was found to be multi-drug resistant, abundant, and genetically diverse in the Matang mangrove estuaries, Malaysia. One-third (34%) of the estuarine E. coli was multi-drug resistant. The highest antibiotic resistance prevalence was observed for aminoglycosides (83%) and beta-lactams (37%). Phylogenetic groups A and B1, being the most predominant E. coli, demonstrated the highest antibiotic resistant level and prevalence of integrons (integron I, 21%; integron II, 3%). Detection of phylogenetic group B23 downstream of fishing villages indicates human fecal contamination as a source of E. coli pollution. Enteroaggregative E. coli (1%) were also detected immediately downstream of the fishing village. The results indicated multi-drug resistance among E. coli circulating in Matang estuaries, which could be reflective of anthropogenic activities and aggravated by bacterial and antibiotic discharges from village lack of a sewerage system, aquaculture farms and upstream animal husbandry. PMID:26483759

  12. Drug resistance and biochemical characteristics of Salmonella from turkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Poppe, C; Kolar, J J; Demczuk, W H; Harris, J E

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the antibiotic resistance and biochemical characteristics of 2690 Salmonella strains belonging to 52 serovars and isolated from environmental and feed samples from 270 turkey flocks in Canada. Resistance of the Salmonella strains to the aminoglycoside antibiotics varied widely; none of the strains were resistant to amikacin, 14.2% were resistant to neomycin, 25.8% were resistant to gentamicin, and 27.7% of the strains were resistant to kanamycin. Most strains (97.6%) were resistant to the aminocyclitol, spectinomycin. Regarding resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics, 14.3% and 14.4% of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and carbenicillin, respectively, whereas only 5 (0.2%) of the strains were resistant to cephalothin. None of the strains were resistant to the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin or to polymyxin B. Resistance to chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin was found in 2.4% and 7% of the strains, respectively. Only 1.7% of the strains were resistant to the trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole combination, whereas 58.1% were resistant to sulfisoxazole. Thirty-eight percent of the strains were resistant to tetracycline. Salmonella serovars differed markedly in their drug resistance profiles. Biochemical characterization of the Salmonella showed that the S. anatum, S. saintpaul and S. reading serovars could be divided into distinct biotypes. PMID:8548684

  13. Nanodrug Formed by Coassembly of Dual Anticancer Drugs to Inhibit Cancer Cell Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Chen, Fei; Pan, Yuanming; Li, Zhipeng; Xue, Xiangdong; Okeke, Chukwunweike Ikechukwu; Wang, Yifeng; Li, Chan; Peng, Ling; Wang, Paul C.; Ma, Xiaowei; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Carrier-free pure nanodrugs (PNDs) that are composed entirely of pharmaceutically active molecules are regarded as promising candidates to be the next generation of drug formulations and are mainly formulated from supramolecular self-assembly of drug molecules. It benefits from the efficient use of drug compounds with poor aqueous solubility and takes advantage of nanoscale drug delivery systems. Here, a type of all-in-one nanoparticle consisting of multiple drugs with enhanced synergistic antiproliferation efficiency against drug-resistant cancer cells has been created. To nanoparticulate the anticancer drugs, 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) and doxorubicin (DOX) were chosen as a typical model. The resulting HD nanoparticles (HD NPs) were formulated by a “green” and convenient self-assembling method, and the water-solubility of 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) was improved 50-fold after nanosizing by coassembly with DOX. The formation process was studied by observing the morphological changes at various reaction times and molar ratios of DOX to HCPT. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that DOX molecules tend to assemble around HCPT molecules through intermolecular forces. With the advantage of nanosizing, HD NPs could improve the intracellular drug retention of DOX to as much as 2-fold in drug-resistant cancer cells (MCF-7R). As a dual-drug-loaded nanoformulation, HD NPs effectively enhanced drug cytotoxicity to drug-resistant cancer cells. The combination of HCPT and DOX exhibited a synergistic effect as the nanosized HD NPs improved drug retention in drug-resistant cancer cells against P-gp efflux in MCF-7R cells. Furthermore, colony forming assays were applied to evaluate long-term inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, and these assays confirmed the greatly improved cytotoxicity of HD NPs in drug-resistant cells compared to free drugs. PMID:26270258

  14. Drug resistance analysis by next generation sequencing in Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Leprohon, Philippe; Fernandez-Prada, Christopher; Gazanion, lodie; Monte-Neto, Rubens; Ouellette, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The use of next generation sequencing has the power to expedite the identification of drug resistance determinants and biomarkers and was applied successfully to drug resistance studies in Leishmania. This allowed the identification of modulation in gene expression, gene dosage alterations, changes in chromosome copy numbers and single nucleotide polymorphisms that correlated with resistance in Leishmania strains derived from the laboratory and from the field. An impressive heterogeneity at the population level was also observed, individual clones within populations often differing in both genotypes and phenotypes, hence complicating the elucidation of resistance mechanisms. This review summarizes the most recent highlights that whole genome sequencing brought to our understanding of Leishmania drug resistance and likely new directions. PMID:25941624

  15. Complex genetics of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Warner, Digby F; Mizrahi, Valerie

    2013-10-01

    Three new studies have used whole-genome sequencing of M. tuberculosis to demonstrate unexpected complexity in the modern evolution of drug-resistant tuberculosis, and a fourth study suggests a close evolutionary relationship between the pathogen and its human host over a period of 70,000 years. Collectively, the observations in these studies suggest that future strategies to tackle drug-resistant tuberculosis must integrate host genetics with detailed strain epidemiology. PMID:24071843

  16. Serotype distribution and drug resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Palestinian Territories.

    PubMed

    Kattan, Randa; Abu Rayyan, Amal; Zheiman, Inas; Idkeidek, Suzan; Baraghithi, Sabri; Rishmawi, Nabeel; Turkuman, Sultan; Abu-Diab, Afaf; Ghneim, Riyad; Zoughbi, Madeleine; Dauodi, Rula; Ghneim, Raed; Issa, Abed-El-Razeq; Siryani, Issa; Al Qas, Randa; Liddawi, Rawan; Khamash, Hatem; Kanaan, Moein; Marzouqa, Hiyam; Hindiyeh, Musa Y

    2011-01-01

    To determine antimicrobial drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes, we analyzed isolates from blood cultures of sick children residing in the West Bank before initiation of pneumococcal vaccination. Of 120 serotypes isolated, 50.8%, 73.3%, and 80.8% of the bacteremia cases could have been prevented by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Serotype 14 was the most drug-resistant serotype isolated. PMID:21192863

  17. Targeting Imperfect Vaccines against Drug-Resistance Determinants: A Strategy for Countering the Rise of Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Joice, Regina; Lipsitch, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The growing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in major pathogens is outpacing discovery of new antimicrobial classes. Vaccines mitigate the effect of antimicrobial resistance by reducing the need for treatment, but vaccines for many drug-resistant pathogens remain undiscovered or have limited efficacy, in part because some vaccines selectively favor pathogen strains that escape vaccine-induced immunity. A strain with even a modest advantage in vaccinated hosts can have high fitness in a population with high vaccine coverage, which can offset a strong selection pressure such as antimicrobial use that occurs in a small fraction of hosts. We propose a strategy to target vaccines against drug-resistant pathogens, by using resistance-conferring proteins as antigens in multicomponent vaccines. Resistance determinants may be weakly immunogenic, offering only modest specific protection against resistant strains. Therefore, we assess here how varying the specific efficacy of the vaccine against resistant strains would affect the proportion of drug-resistant vs. sensitive strains population-wide for three pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and influenza virus in which drug resistance is a problem. Notably, if such vaccines confer even slightly higher protection (additional efficacy between 1% and 8%) against resistant variants than sensitive ones, they may be an effective tool in controlling the rise of resistant strains, given current levels of use for many antimicrobial agents. We show that the population-wide impact of such vaccines depends on the additional effect on resistant strains and on the overall effect (against all strains). Resistance-conferring accessory gene products or resistant alleles of essential genes could be valuable as components of vaccines even if their specific protective effect is weak. PMID:23935910

  18. An antibiotic protocol to minimize emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Espíndola, Aquino L.; Girardi, Daniel; Penna, T. J. P.; Bauch, Chris T.; Troca Cabella, Brenno C.; Martinez, Alexandre Souto

    2014-04-01

    A within-host model of the spread of tuberculosis is proposed here where the emergence of drug resistance and bacterial dormancy are simultaneously combined. We consider both sensitive and resistant strains of tuberculosis pathogens as well as a dormant state of these bacteria. The dynamics of the within-host system is modeled by a set of coupled differential equations which are numerically solved to find a relation between the within-host bacterial populations and the host health states. The values of the parameters were taken from the current literature when available; a sensitivity analysis was performed for the others. Antibiotic treatment for standard, intermittent and oscillating intermittent protocols is analyzed for different conditions. Our results suggest that the oscillating protocol is the most effective one, that would imply a lower treatment cost.

  19. Treatment of Tuberculosis in a Region with High Drug Resistance: Outcomes, Drug Resistance Amplification and Re-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Maryline; Pardini, Manuela; Meacci, Francesca; Orr, Germano; Yesilkaya, Hasan; Jarosz, Thierry; Andrew, Peter W.; Barer, Mike; Checchi, Francesco; Rinder, Heinz; Orefici, Graziella; Rsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Fattorini, Lanfranco; Oggioni, Marco Rinaldo; Melzer, Juliet

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Emerging antituberculosis drug resistance is a serious threat for tuberculosis (TB) control, especially in Eastern European countries. Methods We combined drug susceptibility results and molecular strain typing data with treatment outcome reports to assess the influence of drug resistance on TB treatment outcomes in a prospective cohort of patients from Abkhazia (Georgia). Patients received individualized treatment regimens based on drug susceptibility testing (DST) results. Definitions for antituberculosis drug resistance and treatment outcomes were in line with current WHO recommendations. First and second line DST, and molecular typing were performed in a supranational laboratory for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains from consecutive sputum smear-positive TB patients at baseline and during treatment. Results At baseline, MTB strains were fully drug-susceptible in 189/326 (58.0%) of patients. Resistance to at least H or R (PDR-TB) and multidrug-resistance (MDR-TB) were found in 69/326 (21.2%) and 68/326 (20.9%) of strains, respectively. Three MDR-TB strains were also extensively resistant (XDR-TB). During treatment, 3/189 (1.6%) fully susceptible patients at baseline were re-infected with a MDR-TB strain and 2/58 (3.4%) PDR-TB patients became MDR-TB due to resistance amplification. 5/47 (10.6%) MDR- patients became XDR-TB during treatment. Treatment success was observed in 161/189 (85.2%), 54/69 (78.3%) and 22/68 (32.3%) of patients with fully drug susceptible, PDR- and MDR-TB, respectively. Development of ofloxacin resistance was significantly associated with a negative treatment outcome. Conclusion In Abkhazia, a region with high prevalence of drug resistant TB, the use of individualized MDR-TB treatment regimens resulted in poor treatment outcomes and XDR-TB amplification. Nosocomial transmission of MDR-TB emphasizes the importance of infection control in hospitals. PMID:21886778

  20. Identifying clinically relevant drug resistance genes in drug-induced resistant cancer cell lines and post- chemotherapy tissues

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Mengsha; Zheng, Weicheng; Lu, Xingrong; Ao, Lu; Li, Xiangyu; Guan, Qingzhou; Cai, Hao; Li, Mengyao; Yan, Haidan; Guo, You; Chi, Pan; Guo, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, few molecular signatures of drug resistance identified in drug-induced resistant cancer cell models can be translated into clinical practice. Here, we defined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pre-chemotherapy colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue samples of non-responders and responders for 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin-based therapy as clinically relevant drug resistance genes (CRG5-FU/L-OHP). Taking CRG5-FU/L-OHP as reference, we evaluated the clinical relevance of several types of genes derived from HCT116 CRC cells with resistance to 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin, respectively. The results revealed that DEGs between parental and resistant cells, when both were treated with the corresponding drug for a certain time, were significantly consistent with the CRG5-FU/L-OHP as well as the DEGs between the post-chemotherapy CRC specimens of responders and non-responders. This study suggests a novel strategy to extract clinically relevant drug resistance genes from both drug-induced resistant cell models and post-chemotherapy cancer tissue specimens. PMID:26515599

  1. Phenotypic drug profiling in droplet microfluidics for better targeting of drug-resistant tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, S.; Cohen, N.; Sabhachandani, P.; Konry, T.

    2015-01-01

    Acquired drug resistance is a key factor in the failure of chemotherapy. Due to intratumoral heterogeneity, cancer cells depict variations in intracellular drug uptake and efflux at the single cell level, which may not be detectable in bulk assays. In this study we present a droplet microfluidics-based approach to assess the dynamics of drug uptake, efflux and cytotoxicity in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant breast cancer cells. An integrated droplet generation and docking microarray was utilized to encapsulate single cells as well as homotypic cell aggregates. Drug-sensitive cells showed greater death in the presence or absence of Doxorubicin (Dox) compared to the drug-resistant cells. We observed heterogeneous Dox uptake in individual drug-sensitive cells while the drug-resistant cells showed uniformly low uptake and retention. Dox-resistant cells were classified into distinct subsets based on their efflux properties. Cells that showed longer retention of extracellular reagents also demonstrated maximal death. We further observed homotypic fusion of both cell types in droplets, which resulted in increased cell survival in the presence of high doses of Dox. Our results establish the applicability of this microfluidic platform for quantitative drug screening in single cells and multicellular interactions. PMID:26456240

  2. The multiple facets of drug resistance: one history, different approaches

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Some cancers like melanoma and pancreatic and ovarian cancers, for example, commonly display resistance to chemotherapy, and this is the major obstacle to a better prognosis of patients. Frequently, literature presents studies in monolayer cell cultures, 3D cell cultures or in vivo studies, but rarely the same work compares results of drug resistance in different models. Several of these works are presented in this review and show that usually cells in 3D culture are more resistant to drugs than monolayer cultured cells due to different mechanisms. Searching for new strategies to sensitize different tumors to chemotherapy, many methods have been studied to understand the mechanisms whereby cancer cells acquire drug resistance. These methods have been strongly advanced along the years and therapies using different drugs have been increasingly proposed to induce cell death in resistant cells of different cancers. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been extensively studied because they would be the only cells capable of sustaining tumorigenesis. It is believed that the resistance of CSCs to currently used chemotherapeutics is a major contributing factor in cancer recurrence and later metastasis development. This review aims to appraise the experimental progress in the study of acquired drug resistance of cancer cells in different models as well as to understand the role of CSCs as the major contributing factor in cancer recurrence and metastasis development, describing how CSCs can be identified and isolated. PMID:24775603

  3. 78 FR 63220 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for Treatment.'' The purpose of this guidance is to assist sponsors in the development of new antibacterial drugs to treat acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). This guidance finalizes the revised......

  4. A Research-Inspired Laboratory Sequence Investigating Acquired Drug Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Elizabeth Vogel; Fortune, Jennifer A.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present a six-session laboratory exercise designed to introduce students to standard biochemical techniques in the context of investigating a high impact research topic, acquired resistance to the cancer drug Gleevec. Students express a Gleevec-resistant mutant of the Abelson tyrosine kinase domain, the active domain of an oncogenic

  5. Managing drug-resistant organisms in acute care.

    PubMed

    Nealy, Kimberly L; McCarty, Delilah J; Woods, J Andrew

    2016-02-18

    The purpose of this article is to provide practitioners with therapeutic considerations for infections caused by drug-resistant organisms in the acute care setting. Proper identification of organisms and appropriate use of antibiotics are imperative strategies to help reduce the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:26745736

  6. A Research-Inspired Laboratory Sequence Investigating Acquired Drug Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Elizabeth Vogel; Fortune, Jennifer A.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present a six-session laboratory exercise designed to introduce students to standard biochemical techniques in the context of investigating a high impact research topic, acquired resistance to the cancer drug Gleevec. Students express a Gleevec-resistant mutant of the Abelson tyrosine kinase domain, the active domain of an oncogenic…

  7. The interplay between drug resistance and fitness in malaria parasites

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Controlling the spread of antimalarial drug resistance, especially resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin-based combination therapies, is a high priority. Available data indicate that, as with other microorganisms, the spread of drug-resistant malaria parasites is limited by fitness costs that frequently accompany resistance. Resistance-mediating polymorphisms in malaria parasites have been identified in putative drug transporters and in target enzymes. The impacts of these polymorphisms on parasite fitness have been characterized in vitro and in animal models. Additional insights have come from analyses of samples from clinical studies, both evaluating parasites under different selective pressures and determining the clinical consequences of infection with different parasites. With some exceptions, resistance-mediating polymorphisms lead to malaria parasites that, compared to wild type, grow less well in culture and in animals, and are replaced by wild type when drug pressure diminishes in the clinical setting. In some cases, the fitness costs of resistance may be offset by compensatory mutations that increase virulence or changes that enhance malaria transmission. However, not enough is known about effects of resistance mediators on parasite fitness. A better appreciation of the costs of fitness-mediating mutations will facilitate the development of optimal guidelines for the treatment and prevention of malaria. PMID:23899091

  8. Effect of Vibration on Bacterial Growth and Antibiotic Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research grant was to provide a fundamental, systematic investigation of the effects of oscillatory acceleration on bacterial proliferation and their responses to antibiotics in a liquid medium.

  9. The Warburg effect and drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Mohd Omar, Mohd Feroz; Soong, Richie

    2016-03-01

    : The Warburg effect describes the increased utilization of glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation by tumour cells for their energy requirements under physiological oxygen conditions. This effect has been the basis for much speculation on the survival advantage of tumour cells, tumourigenesis and the microenvironment of tumours. More recently, studies have begun to reveal how the Warburg effect could influence drug efficacy and how our understanding of tumour energetics could be exploited to improve drug development. In particular, evidence is emerging demonstrating how better modelling of the tumour metabolic microenvironment could lead to a better prediction of drug efficacy and the identification of new combination strategies. This review will provide details of the current understanding of the complex interplay between glucose metabolism and pharmacology and discuss opportunities for utilizing the Warburg effect in future drug development. PMID:26750865

  10. Acquisition of drug resistance and dependence by prions.

    PubMed

    Oelschlegel, Anja M; Weissmann, Charles

    2013-02-01

    We have reported that properties of prion strains may change when propagated in different environments. For example, when swainsonine-sensitive 22L prions were propagated in PK1 cells in the presence of swainsonine, drug-resistant variants emerged. We proposed that prions constitute quasi- populations comprising a range of variants with different properties, from which the fittest are selected in a particular environment. Prion populations developed heterogeneity even after biological cloning, indicating that during propagation mutation-like processes occur at the conformational level. Because brain-derived 22L prions are naturally swainsonine resistant, it was not too surprising that prions which had become swa sensitive after propagation in cells could revert to drug resistance. Because RML prions, both after propagation in brain or in PK1 cells, are swainsonine sensitive, we investigated whether it was nonetheless possible to select swainsonine-resistant variants by propagation in the presence of the drug. Interestingly, this was not possible with the standard line of PK1 cells, but in certain PK1 sublines not only swainsonine-resistant, but even swainsonine-dependent populations (i.e. that propagated more rapidly in the presence of the drug) could be isolated. Once established, they could be passaged indefinitely in PK1 cells, even in the absence of the drug, without losing swainsonine dependence. The misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) associated with a swainsonine-dependent variant was less rapidly cleared in PK1 cells than that associated with its drug-sensitive counterpart, indicating that likely structural differences of the misfolded PrP underlie the properties of the prions. In summary, propagation of prions in the presence of an inhibitory drug may not only cause the selection of drug-resistant prions but even of stable variants that propagate more efficiently in the presence of the drug. These adaptations are most likely due to conformational changes of the abnormal prion protein. PMID:23408888

  11. The culturable intestinal microbiota of triploid and diploid juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - a comparison of composition and drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background With the increased use of ploidy manipulation in aquaculture and fisheries management this investigation aimed to determine whether triploidy influences culturable intestinal microbiota composition and bacterial drug resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The results could provide answers to some of the physiological differences observed between triploid and diploid fish, especially in terms of fish health. Results No ploidy effect was observed in the bacterial species isolated, however, triploids were found to contain a significant increase in total gut microbiota levels, with increases in Pseudomonas spp., Pectobacterium carotovorum, Psychrobacter spp., Bacillus spp., and Vibrio spp., (12, 42, 9, 10, and 11% more bacteria in triploids than diploids, respectively), whereas a decrease in Carnobacterium spp., within triploids compared to diploids was close to significant (8% more bacteria in diploids). With the exception of gentamicin, where no bacterial resistance was observed, bacterial isolates originating from triploid hosts displayed increased resistance to antibacterials, three of which were significant (tetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulphonamide). Conclusion Results indicate that triploidy influences both the community and drug resistance of culturable intestinal microbiota in juvenile salmon. These results demonstrate differences that are likely to contribute to the health of triploid fish and have important ramifications on the use of antibacterial drugs within aquaculture. PMID:22094054

  12. Diverse drug-resistance mechanisms can emerge from drug-tolerant cancer persister cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Michael; Rajaram, Satwik; Steininger, Robert J.; Osipchuk, Daria; Roth, Maike A.; Morinishi, Leanna S.; Evans, Louise; Ji, Weiyue; Hsu, Chien-Hsiang; Thurley, Kevin; Wei, Shuguang; Zhou, Anwu; Koduru, Prasad R.; Posner, Bruce A.; Wu, Lani F.; Altschuler, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer therapy has traditionally focused on eliminating fast-growing populations of cells. Yet, an increasing body of evidence suggests that small subpopulations of cancer cells can evade strong selective drug pressure by entering a ‘persister' state of negligible growth. This drug-tolerant state has been hypothesized to be part of an initial strategy towards eventual acquisition of bona fide drug-resistance mechanisms. However, the diversity of drug-resistance mechanisms that can expand from a persister bottleneck is unknown. Here we compare persister-derived, erlotinib-resistant colonies that arose from a single, EGFR-addicted lung cancer cell. We find, using a combination of large-scale drug screening and whole-exome sequencing, that our erlotinib-resistant colonies acquired diverse resistance mechanisms, including the most commonly observed clinical resistance mechanisms. Thus, the drug-tolerant persister state does not limit—and may even provide a latent reservoir of cells for—the emergence of heterogeneous drug-resistance mechanisms. PMID:26891683

  13. Identification of pyruvate kinase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a novel antimicrobial drug target.

    PubMed

    Zoraghi, Roya; See, Raymond H; Axerio-Cilies, Peter; Kumar, Nag S; Gong, Huansheng; Moreau, Anne; Hsing, Michael; Kaur, Sukhbir; Swayze, Richard D; Worrall, Liam; Amandoron, Emily; Lian, Tian; Jackson, Linda; Jiang, Jihong; Thorson, Lisa; Labriere, Christophe; Foster, Leonard; Brunham, Robert C; McMaster, William R; Finlay, B Brett; Strynadka, Natalie C; Cherkasov, Artem; Young, Robert N; Reiner, Neil E

    2011-05-01

    Novel classes of antimicrobials are needed to address the challenge of multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Using the architecture of the MRSA interactome, we identified pyruvate kinase (PK) as a potential novel drug target based upon it being a highly connected, essential hub in the MRSA interactome. Structural modeling, including X-ray crystallography, revealed discrete features of PK in MRSA, which appeared suitable for the selective targeting of the bacterial enzyme. In silico library screening combined with functional enzymatic assays identified an acyl hydrazone-based compound (IS-130) as a potent MRSA PK inhibitor (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] of 0.1 μM) with >1,000-fold selectivity over human PK isoforms. Medicinal chemistry around the IS-130 scaffold identified analogs that more potently and selectively inhibited MRSA PK enzymatic activity and S. aureus growth in vitro (MIC of 1 to 5 μg/ml). These novel anti-PK compounds were found to possess antistaphylococcal activity, including both MRSA and multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) strains. These compounds also exhibited exceptional antibacterial activities against other Gram-positive genera, including enterococci and streptococci. PK lead compounds were found to be noncompetitive inhibitors and were bactericidal. In addition, mutants with significant increases in MICs were not isolated after 25 bacterial passages in culture, indicating that resistance may be slow to emerge. These findings validate the principles of network science as a powerful approach to identify novel antibacterial drug targets. They also provide a proof of principle, based upon PK in MRSA, for a research platform aimed at discovering and optimizing selective inhibitors of novel bacterial targets where human orthologs exist, as leads for anti-infective drug development. PMID:21357306

  14. Comprehensive screening of genes resistant to an anticancer drug in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Mai; Kawakubo, Hirofumi; Hayashida, Testsu; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Nakamura, Rieko; Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Wada, Norihito; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Omori, Tai; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-09-01

    Drug resistance to chemotherapy is a major issue in esophageal cancer management. Drug resistance may be mediated by genetic changes in the tumor; therefore, the identification of gene mutations may lead to better therapeutic outcomes. We used a novel method involving transposons to screen and identify drug-resistant genes. Transposons are DNA sequences that move from one location on the gene to another. A modified piggyBac transposon was designed as an insertion mutagen, and a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter sequence was added to induce strong transcription. When the transposon is inserted to the upstream of a certain gene, the gene will be overexpressed while when intserted down or intragenically, it will be downregulated. After establishing a transposon-tagged cell library, we treated cell lines derived from esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) [Tohoku esophagus (TE)] with cisplatin (CDDP). We performed splinkerette PCR and TOPO cloning on the resistant colonies. Bacterial colonies were sequenced, and next-generation sequencing was used to identify the overexpressed/downregulated sequences as candidate genes for CDDP resistance. We established 4 cell lines of transposon-tagged cells, TE4, 5, 9 and 15. We treated the two relatively viable cell lines, TE4 and TE15, with CDDP. We identified 37 candidate genes from 8 resistant colonies. Eight genes were overexpressed whilst 29 were downregulated. Among these genes was Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) that is implicated in the progression of myeloproliferative neoplasms. We identified 37 candidate genes responsible for CDDP resistance in the two cell lines derived from ESCC cells. The method is inexpensive, relatively simple, and capable of introducing activating and de-activating mutations in the genome, allowing for drug-resistant genes to be identified. PMID:26202837

  15. Comprehensive screening of genes resistant to an anticancer drug in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    TSUTSUI, MAI; KAWAKUBO, HIROFUMI; HAYASHIDA, TESTSU; FUKUDA, KAZUMASA; NAKAMURA, RIEKO; TAKAHASHI, TSUNEHIRO; WADA, NORIHITO; SAIKAWA, YOSHIRO; OMORI, TAI; TAKEUCHI, HIROYA; KITAGAWA, YUKO

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistance to chemotherapy is a major issue in esophageal cancer management. Drug resistance may be mediated by genetic changes in the tumor; therefore, the identification of gene mutations may lead to better therapeutic outcomes. We used a novel method involving transposons to screen and identify drug-resistant genes. Transposons are DNA sequences that move from one location on the gene to another. A modified piggyBac transposon was designed as an insertion mutagen, and a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter sequence was added to induce strong transcription. When the transposon is inserted to the upstream of a certain gene, the gene will be overexpressed while when intserted down or intragenically, it will be downregulated. After establishing a transposon-tagged cell library, we treated cell lines derived from esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) [Tohoku esophagus (TE)] with cisplatin (CDDP). We performed splinkerette PCR and TOPO cloning on the resistant colonies. Bacterial colonies were sequenced, and next-generation sequencing was used to identify the overexpressed/downregulated sequences as candidate genes for CDDP resistance. We established 4 cell lines of transposon-tagged cells, TE4, 5, 9 and 15. We treated the two relatively viable cell lines, TE4 and TE15, with CDDP. We identified 37 candidate genes from 8 resistant colonies. Eight genes were overexpressed whilst 29 were downregulated. Among these genes was Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) that is implicated in the progression of myeloproliferative neoplasms. We identified 37 candidate genes responsible for CDDP resistance in the two cell lines derived from ESCC cells. The method is inexpensive, relatively simple, and capable of introducing activating and de-activating mutations in the genome, allowing for drug-resistant genes to be identified. PMID:26202837

  16. Exploring the links between antibiotic occurrence, antibiotic resistance, and bacterial communities in water supply reservoirs.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Huerta B; Marti E; Gros M; Lpez P; Pompo M; Armengol J; Barceló D; Balczar JL; Rodrguez-Mozaz S; Marcé R

    2013-07-01

    Antibiotic resistance represents a growing global health concern due to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics. There is, however, little information about how the selective pressure of clinical antibiotic usage can affect environmental communities in aquatic ecosystems and which bacterial groups might be responsible for dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into the environment. In this study, chemical and biological characterization of water and sediments from three water supply reservoirs subjected to a wide pollution gradient allowed to draw an accurate picture of the concentration of antibiotics and prevalence of ARGs, in order to evaluate the potential role of ARGs in shaping bacterial communities, and to identify the bacterial groups most probably carrying and disseminating ARGs. Results showed significant correlation between the presence of ARG conferring resistance to macrolides and the composition of bacterial communities, suggesting that antibiotic pollution and the spreading of ARG might play a role in the conformation of bacterial communities in reservoirs. Results also pointed out the bacterial groups Actinobacteria and Firmicutes as the ones probably carrying and disseminating ARGs. The potential effect of antibiotic pollution and the presence of ARGs on the composition of bacterial communities in lacustrine ecosystems prompt the fundamental question about potential effects on bacterial-related ecosystem services supplied by lakes and reservoirs.

  17. An efficient system for intracellular delivery of beta-lactam antibiotics to overcome bacterial resistance.

    PubMed

    Abed, Nadia; Sad-Hassane, Fatouma; Zouhiri, Fatima; Mougin, Julie; Nicolas, Valrie; Desmale, Didier; Gref, Ruxandra; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The "Golden era" of antibiotics is definitely an old story and this is especially true for intracellular bacterial infections. The poor intracellular bioavailability of antibiotics reduces the efficency of many treatments and thereby promotes resistances. Therefore, the development of nanodevices coupled with antibiotics that are capable of targeting and releasing the drug into the infected-cells appears to be a promising solution to circumvent these complications. Here, we took advantage of two natural terpenes (farnesyl and geranyl) to design nanodevices for an efficient intracellular delivery of penicillin G. The covalent linkage between the terpene moieties and the antibiotic leads to formation of prodrugs that self-assemble to form nanoparticles with a high drug payload between 55-63%. Futhermore, the addition of an environmentally-sensitive bond between the antibiotic and the terpene led to an efficient antibacterial activity against the intracellular pathogen Staphylococcus aureus with reduced intracellular replication of about 99.9% compared to untreated infected cells. Using HPLC analysis, we demonstrated and quantified the intracellular release of PenG when this sensitive-bond (SB) was present on the prodrug, showing the success of this technology to deliver antibiotics directly into cells. PMID:26311631

  18. An efficient system for intracellular delivery of beta-lactam antibiotics to overcome bacterial resistance

    PubMed Central

    Abed, Nadia; Sad-Hassane, Fatouma; Zouhiri, Fatima; Mougin, Julie; Nicolas, Valrie; Desmale, Didier; Gref, Ruxandra; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The Golden era of antibiotics is definitely an old story and this is especially true for intracellular bacterial infections. The poor intracellular bioavailability of antibiotics reduces the efficency of many treatments and thereby promotes resistances. Therefore, the development of nanodevices coupled with antibiotics that are capable of targeting and releasing the drug into the infected-cells appears to be a promising solution to circumvent these complications. Here, we took advantage of two natural terpenes (farnesyl and geranyl) to design nanodevices for an efficient intracellular delivery of penicillin G. The covalent linkage between the terpene moieties and the antibiotic leads to formation of prodrugs that self-assemble to form nanoparticles with a high drug payload between 5563%. Futhermore, the addition of an environmentally-sensitive bond between the antibiotic and the terpene led to an efficient antibacterial activity against the intracellular pathogen Staphylococcus aureus with reduced intracellular replication of about 99.9% compared to untreated infected cells. Using HPLC analysis, we demonstrated and quantified the intracellular release of PenG when this sensitive-bond (SB) was present on the prodrug, showing the success of this technology to deliver antibiotics directly into cells. PMID:26311631

  19. Beijing/W Genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Beijing/W genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis is widespread, may be increasing, and may have a predilection for drug resistance. Individual-level data on >29,000 patients from 49 studies in 35 countries were combined to assess the Beijing genotypes prevalence worldwide, trends over time and with age, and associations with drug resistance. We found 4 patterns for Beijing/W genotype tuberculosis (TB): 1) endemic, not associated with drug resistance (high level in most of East Asia, lower level in parts of the United States); 2) epidemic, associated with drug resistance (high level in Cuba, the former Soviet Union, Vietnam, and South Africa, lower level in parts of Western Europe); 3) epidemic but drug sensitive (Malawi, Argentina); and 4) very low level or absent (parts of Europe, Africa). This study confirms that Beijing/W genotype TB is an emerging pathogen in several areas and a predominant endemic strain in others; it is frequently associated with drug resistance. PMID:16704829

  20. Learning the ABC of oral fungal drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cannon, R D; Holmes, A R

    2015-12-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins are ubiquitous in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They are involved in energy-dependent transport of molecules across membranes. ABC proteins are often promiscuous transporters that can translocate a variety of substrates. In oral fungi, especially in Candida species, they have been implicated as major contributors to the high-level azole resistance of clinical isolates from infections that do not respond to drug therapy. Although this is predominantly due to efflux of azoles from the cells, ABC proteins can contribute to fungal drug resistance in other ways as well. Cells in biofilms are notoriously resistant to antifungal agents. ABC proteins can contribute to this resistance through the efflux of drugs. Biofilms are complex communities of myriad microorganisms which, to survive in such a milieu, need to communicate with, and respond to, other microorganisms and their products. ABC proteins are involved in the secretion of fungal mating factors and quorum sensing molecules. These molecules affect biofilm structure and behavior that can result in increased drug resistance. Hence, ABC proteins make multiple contributions to oral fungal drug resistance through a variety of responses to environmental signals. PMID:26042641

  1. Bacterial resistance and impetigo treatment trends: a review.

    PubMed

    Bangert, Scott; Levy, Moise; Hebert, Adelaide A

    2012-01-01

    Impetigo is a common cutaneous infection that is especially prevalent in children. The prevalence of colonization and infection with resistant strains is continually increasing, forcing clinicians to reevaluate treatment strategies. Newer topical agents are effective in treating infections with resistant strains and may help minimize resistance and adverse effects from systemic agents. Use of topical disinfectants to decrease colonization is an important adjunctive measure. Physicians should be aware of local resistance patterns in impetigo to help guide therapy. PMID:22299710

  2. Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Under-Resourced Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Catherine; Altmann, Dany M.; Doumbo, Ogobara; Morpeth, Susan; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Klugman, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial drug resistance is usually not monitored in under-resourced countries because they lack surveillance networks, laboratory capacity, and appropriate diagnostics. This accelerating problem accounts for substantial number of excess deaths, especially among infants. Infections particularly affected by antimicrobial drug resistance include tuberculosis, malaria, severe acute respiratory infections, and sepsis caused by gram-negative bacteria. Nonetheless, mapping antimicrobial drug resistance is feasible in under-resourced countries, and lessons can be learned from previous successful efforts. Specimen shipping conditions, data standardization, absence of contamination, and adequate diagnostics must be ensured. As a first step toward solving this problem, we propose that a road map be created at the international level to strengthen antimicrobial resistance surveillance in under-resourced countries. This effort should include a research agenda; a map of existing networks and recommendations to unite them; and a communication plan for national, regional, and international organizations and funding agencies. PMID:24564906

  3. Antiplatelet drug resistance: Molecular insights and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Christopher N; Ferro, Albert

    2015-07-01

    Antiplatelet drugs are prescribed to patients with cardiovascular disease in order to reduce their risk of clinically important atherothrombotic events. However, a proportion of patients fail to appropriately respond to these drugs in a heterogeneous phenomenon known as 'antiplatelet drug resistance'. Individuals who are identified as being resistant have a higher cardiovascular risk, but currently there is no clinically validated approach to identify and treat these individuals. Large randomised control trials have attempted to personalise antiplatelet therapy based on platelet function testing, but these have failed to demonstrate improved clinical outcomes. An alternative approach to this non-specific assessment of platelet function is to consider whether antiplatelet therapy may be personalised based on the identification of molecular mechanisms that are known to confer resistance. Here we present molecular insights into the mechanisms for aspirin and clopidogrel resistance, with a discussion of their clinical implications. PMID:25868910

  4. Cooperative Antibiotic Resistance in a Multi-Drug Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurtsev, Eugene; Dai, Lei; Gore, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a significant health concern. A frequent mechanism of antibiotic resistance involves the production of an enzyme which inactivates the antibiotic. By inactivating the antibiotic, resistant cells can ``share'' their resistance with other cells in the bacterial population, suggesting that it may be possible to observe cooperation between strains that inactivate different antibiotics. Here, we experimentally track the population dynamics of two E. coli strains in the presence of two different antibiotics. We find that together the strains are able to grow in antibiotic concentrations that inhibit growth of either of the strains individually. We observe that even when there is stable coexistence between the two strains, the population size of each strain can undergo large oscillations. We expect that our results will provide insight into the evolution of antibiotic resistance and the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

  5. Hsp90 Governs Dispersion and Drug Resistance of Fungal Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Nett, Jeniel; Rajendran, Ranjith; Ramage, Gordon; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L.; Andes, David; Cowen, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Fungal biofilms are a major cause of human mortality and are recalcitrant to most treatments due to intrinsic drug resistance. These complex communities of multiple cell types form on indwelling medical devices and their eradication often requires surgical removal of infected devices. Here we implicate the molecular chaperone Hsp90 as a key regulator of biofilm dispersion and drug resistance. We previously established that in the leading human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, Hsp90 enables the emergence and maintenance of drug resistance in planktonic conditions by stabilizing the protein phosphatase calcineurin and MAPK Mkc1. Hsp90 also regulates temperature-dependent C. albicans morphogenesis through repression of cAMP-PKA signalling. Here we demonstrate that genetic depletion of Hsp90 reduced C. albicans biofilm growth and maturation in vitro and impaired dispersal of biofilm cells. Further, compromising Hsp90 function in vitro abrogated resistance of C. albicans biofilms to the most widely deployed class of antifungal drugs, the azoles. Depletion of Hsp90 led to reduction of calcineurin and Mkc1 in planktonic but not biofilm conditions, suggesting that Hsp90 regulates drug resistance through different mechanisms in these distinct cellular states. Reduction of Hsp90 levels led to a marked decrease in matrix glucan levels, providing a compelling mechanism through which Hsp90 might regulate biofilm azole resistance. Impairment of Hsp90 function genetically or pharmacologically transformed fluconazole from ineffectual to highly effective in eradicating biofilms in a rat venous catheter infection model. Finally, inhibition of Hsp90 reduced resistance of biofilms of the most lethal mould, Aspergillus fumigatus, to the newest class of antifungals to reach the clinic, the echinocandins. Thus, we establish a novel mechanism regulating biofilm drug resistance and dispersion and that targeting Hsp90 provides a much-needed strategy for improving clinical outcome in the treatment of biofilm infections. PMID:21931556

  6. Occurrence of bacterial resistance to arsenite, copper, and selenite in adverse habitats

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, G.A. Jr.

    1987-12-01

    The effects of metal pollution on biotic communities has been extensively studied, particularly in the areas of ecotoxicology and species composition effects. Impact studies on bacterial communities have focused on adaptation via resistance mechanisms or biogeochemical cycling alterations. It has been shown that microbial communities in polluted environments are frequently resistant to higher levels of organics and metals than those in unimpacted areas. Increases in bacterial resistance to metals and metalloids has been attributed to selection and molecular mechanisms, such as gene transfer via plasmids. Relatively few natural environments have been surveyed for metal resistant bacterial populations, with most studies measuring mercury, lead or zinc resistance. Thus, the incidence of naturally-occurring and pollutant-related microbial resistance is poorly defined, as are the environmental factors which influence resistance. Elevated levels of arsenic, copper, and selenium have caused environmental impacts which are linked to agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities. The present study reports the incidence of aerobic heterotrophic bacterial resistance to arsenite, selenite and copper in a variety of habitats in the United States. These included soil, water, and sediments with know copper, arsenic, or selenium pollution, as well as control sites.

  7. Response to selection for bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies indicate that resistance to experimental bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) challenge is heritable and thus may be improved through selective breeding. Our objective was to estimate response after one generation of genetic selection for resistance to BCWD in a pedigreed population ...

  8. EPISTATIC INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO MAJOR QTL CONDITIONING RESISTANCE TO COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT IN COMMON BEAN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. Combining QTL is the current strategy for improving resistance, but interactions among different QTL are unknown. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL present in dry bean bre...

  9. Phenotypic Resistance and the Dynamics of Bacterial Escape from Phage Control

    PubMed Central

    Bull, James J.; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Schmerer, Matthew; Chaudhry, Waqas Nasir; Levin, Bruce R.

    2014-01-01

    The canonical view of phage - bacterial interactions in dense, liquid cultures is that the phage will eliminate most of the sensitive cells; genetic resistance will then ascend to restore high bacterial densities. Yet there are various mechanisms by which bacteria may remain sensitive to phages but still attain high densities in their presence – because bacteria enter a transient state of reduced adsorption. Importantly, these mechanisms may be cryptic and inapparent prior to the addition of phage yet result in a rapid rebound of bacterial density after phage are introduced. We describe mathematical models of these processes and suggest how different types of this ‘phenotypic’ resistance may be elucidated. We offer preliminary in vitro studies of a previously characterized E. coli model system and Campylobacter jejuni illustrating apparent phenotypic resistance. As phenotypic resistance may be specific to the receptors used by phages, awareness of its mechanisms may identify ways of improving the choice of phages for therapy. Phenotypic resistance can also explain several enigmas in the ecology of phage-bacterial dynamics. Phenotypic resistance does not preclude the evolution of genetic resistance and may often be an intermediate step to genetic resistance. PMID:24743264

  10. Antimicrobial Action of Water-Soluble β-Chitosan against Clinical Multi-Drug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong-Cheol; Nam, Joung-Pyo; Kim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Young-Min; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jang, Mi-Kyeong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of patients infected by drug-resistant pathogenic microbes has increased remarkably worldwide, and a number of studies have reported new antibiotics from natural sources. Among them, chitosan, with a high molecular weight and α-conformation, exhibits potent antimicrobial activity, but useful applications as an antibiotic are limited by its cytotoxicity and insolubility at physiological pH. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of low molecular weight water-soluble (LMWS) α-chitosan (α1k, α5k, and α10k with molecular masses of 1, 5, and 10 kDa, respectively) and β-chitosan (β1k, β5k, and β10k) was compared using a range of pathogenic bacteria containing drug-resistant bacteria isolated from patients at different pH. Interestingly, β5k and β10k exhibited potent antibacterial activity, even at pH 7.4, whereas only α10k was effective at pH 7.4. The active target of β-chitosan is the bacterial membrane, where the leakage of calcein is induced in artificial PE/PG vesicles, bacterial mimetic membrane. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy showed that they caused significant morphological changes on the bacterial surfaces. An in vivo study utilizing a bacteria-infected mouse model found that LMWS β-chitosan could be used as a candidate in anti-infective or wound healing therapeutic applications. PMID:25867474

  11. Antimicrobial action of water-soluble ?-chitosan against clinical multi-drug resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Cheol; Nam, Joung-Pyo; Kim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Young-Min; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jang, Mi-Kyeong

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of patients infected by drug-resistant pathogenic microbes has increased remarkably worldwide, and a number of studies have reported new antibiotics from natural sources. Among them, chitosan, with a high molecular weight and ?-conformation, exhibits potent antimicrobial activity, but useful applications as an antibiotic are limited by its cytotoxicity and insolubility at physiological pH. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of low molecular weight water-soluble (LMWS) ?-chitosan (?1k, ?5k, and ?10k with molecular masses of 1, 5, and 10 kDa, respectively) and ?-chitosan (?1k, ?5k, and ?10k) was compared using a range of pathogenic bacteria containing drug-resistant bacteria isolated from patients at different pH. Interestingly, ?5k and ?10k exhibited potent antibacterial activity, even at pH 7.4, whereas only ?10k was effective at pH 7.4. The active target of ?-chitosan is the bacterial membrane, where the leakage of calcein is induced in artificial PE/PG vesicles, bacterial mimetic membrane. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy showed that they caused significant morphological changes on the bacterial surfaces. An in vivo study utilizing a bacteria-infected mouse model found that LMWS ?-chitosan could be used as a candidate in anti-infective or wound healing therapeutic applications. PMID:25867474

  12. Establishing Drug Resistance in Microorganisms by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirev, Plamen A.; Hagan, Nathan S.; Antoine, Miquel D.; Lin, Jeffrey S.; Feldman, Andrew B.

    2013-08-01

    A rapid method to determine drug resistance in bacteria based on mass spectrometry is presented. In it, a mass spectrum of an intact microorganism grown in drug-containing stable isotope-labeled media is compared with a mass spectrum of the intact microorganism grown in non-labeled media without the drug present. Drug resistance is determined by predicting characteristic mass shifts of one or more microorganism biomarkers using bioinformatics algorithms. Observing such characteristic mass shifts indicates that the microorganism is viable even in the presence of the drug, thus incorporating the isotopic label into characteristic biomarker molecules. The performance of the method is illustrated on the example of intact E. coli, grown in control (unlabeled) and 13C-labeled media, and analyzed by MALDI TOF MS. Algorithms for data analysis are presented as well.

  13. Defensive remodeling: How bacterial surface properties and biofilm formation promote resistance to antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Nuri, Reut; Shprung, Tal; Shai, Yechiel

    2015-11-01

    Multidrug resistance bacteria are a major concern worldwide. These pathogens cannot be treated with conventional antibiotics and thus alternative therapeutic agents are needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered to be good candidates for this purpose. Most AMPs are short and positively charged amphipathic peptides, which are found in all known forms of life. AMPs are known to kill bacteria by binding to the negatively charged bacterial surface, and in most cases cause membrane disruption. Resistance toward AMPs can be developed, by modification of bacterial surface molecules, secretion of protective material and up-regulation or elimination of specific proteins. Because of the general mechanisms of attachment and action of AMPs, bacterial resistance to AMPs often involves biophysical and biochemical changes such as surface rigidity, cell wall thickness, surface charge, as well as membrane and cell wall modification. Here we focus on the biophysical, surface and surrounding changes that bacteria undergo in acquiring resistance to AMPs. In addition we discuss the question of whether bacterial resistance to administered AMPs might compromise our innate immunity to endogenous AMPs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides. PMID:26051126

  14. The global spread of drug-resistant influenza

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dennis L.; Bloom, Jesse D.; Kochin, Beth F.; Antia, Rustom; Longini, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to oseltamivir, the most widely used influenza antiviral drug, spread to fixation in seasonal influenza A(H1N1) between 2006 and 2009. This sudden rise in resistance seemed puzzling given the low overall level of the oseltamivir usage and the lack of a correlation between local rates of resistance and oseltamivir usage. We used a stochastic simulation model and deterministic approximations to examine how such events can occur, and in particular to determine how the rate of fixation of the resistant strain depends both on its fitness in untreated hosts as well as the frequency of antiviral treatment. We found that, for the levels of antiviral usage in the population, the resistant strain will eventually spread to fixation, if it is not attenuated in transmissibility relative to the drug-sensitive strain, but not at the speed observed in seasonal H1N1. The extreme speed with which the resistance spread in seasonal H1N1 suggests that the resistant strain had a transmission advantage in untreated hosts, and this could have arisen from genetic hitchhiking, or from the mutations responsible for resistance and compensation. Importantly, our model also shows that resistant virus will fail to spread if it is even slightly less transmissible than its sensitive counterparta finding of relevance given that resistant pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009 may currently suffer from a small, but nonetheless experimentally perceptible reduction in transmissibility. PMID:21865253

  15. Modeling the evolution of drug resistance in malaria

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Gary B.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causal agent of malaria, continues to evolve resistance to frontline therapeutics such as chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Here we study the amino acid replacements in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) that confer resistance to pyrimethamine while still binding the natural DHFR substrate, 7,8-dihydrofolate, and cofactor, NADPH. The chain of amino acid replacements that has led to resistance can be inferred in a computer, leading to a broader understanding of the coevolution between the drug and target. This in silico approach suggests that only a small set of specific active site replacements in the proper order could have led to the resistant strains in the wild today. A similar approach can be used on any target of interest to anticipate likely pathways of future resistance for more effective drug development. PMID:23179493

  16. Induction of anti-actin drug resistance in Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Zackroff, Robert V; Hufnagel, Linda A

    2002-01-01

    Both cytochalasin D and latrunculin B reversibly inhibited Tetrahymena phagocytosis at concentrations similar to those effective in mammalian systems, even though ciliate actins are known to be highly divergent from mammalian actins. Overnight exposure to relatively low (0.25 microM) concentrations of latrunculin B induced resistance in Tetrahymena to the inhibitory effects of that drug, as well as cross-resistance to cytochalasin D. However, much higher (> 30 microM) concentrations of cytochalasin D were required for induction of cross-resistance to latrunculin B. Anti-actin drug resistance in Tetrahymena may involve a general multidrug resistance mechanism and/or specific feedback regulation of F-actin assembly and stability. PMID:12503683

  17. Zingiber officinale (ginger) compounds have tetracycline-resistance modifying effects against clinical extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min; Chen, Chung-Yi; Chen, Hsi-An; Huang, Wan-Chun; Lin, Wei-Ru; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chien, Hsin-Ju; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chiu-Mei; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2010-12-01

    Extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) is a growing and serious nosocomial infection worldwide, such that developing new agents against it is critical. The antimicrobial activities of the rhizomes from Zingiber officinale, known as ginger, have not been proven in clinical bacterial isolates with extensive drug-resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of four known components of ginger, [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [10]-gingerol, [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol, against clinical XDRAB. All these compounds showed antibacterial effects against XDRAB. Combined with tetracycline, they showed good resistance modifying effects to modulate tetracycline resistance. Using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, these four ginger compounds demonstrated antioxidant properties, which were inhibited by MnO?, an oxidant without antibacterial effects. After the antioxidant property was blocked, their antimicrobial effects were abolished significantly. These results indicate that ginger compounds have antioxidant effects that partially contribute to their antimicrobial activity and are candidates for use in the treatment of infections with XDRAB. PMID:20564496

  18. Non-toxic antimicrobials that evade drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Stephen A.; Vincent, Benjamin M.; Endo, Matthew M.; Whitesell, Luke; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R.; Lindquist, Susan; Burke, Martin D.

    2015-01-01

    Drugs that act more promiscuously provide fewer routes for the emergence of resistant mutants. But this benefit often comes at the cost of serious off-target and dose-limiting toxicities. The classic example is the antifungal amphotericin B (AmB), which has evaded resistance for more than half a century. We report dramatically less toxic amphotericins that nevertheless evade resistance. They are scalably accessed in just three steps from the natural product, and bind their target (the fungal sterol, ergosterol) with far greater selectivity than AmB. Hence, they are less toxic and far more effective in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. Surprisingly, exhaustive efforts to select for mutants resistant to these more selective compounds revealed that they are just as impervious to resistance as AmB. Thus, highly selective cytocidal action and the evasion of resistance are not mutually exclusive, suggesting practical routes to the discovery of less toxic, resistance-evasive therapies. PMID:26030729

  19. Efflux pump-mediated drug resistance in Burkholderia

    PubMed Central

    Podnecky, Nicole L.; Rhodes, Katherine A.; Schweizer, Herbert P.

    2015-01-01

    Several members of the genus Burkholderia are prominent pathogens. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. Virtually all Burkholderia species are also resistant to polymyxin, prohibiting use of drugs like colistin that are available for treatment of infections caused by most other drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Despite clinical significance and antibiotic resistance of Burkholderia species, characterization of efflux pumps lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although efflux pumps have been described in several Burkholderia species, they have been best studied in Burkholderia cenocepacia and B. pseudomallei. As in other non-enteric Gram-negatives, efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division (RND) family are the clinically most significant efflux systems in these two species. Several efflux pumps were described in B. cenocepacia, which when expressed confer resistance to clinically significant antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. Three RND pumps have been characterized in B. pseudomallei, two of which confer either intrinsic or acquired resistance to aminoglycosides, macrolides, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, trimethoprim, and in some instances trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole. Several strains of the host-adapted B. mallei, a clone of B. pseudomallei, lack AmrAB-OprA, and are therefore aminoglycoside and macrolide susceptible. B. thailandensis is closely related to B. pseudomallei, but non-pathogenic to humans. Its pump repertoire and ensuing drug resistance profile parallels that of B. pseudomallei. An efflux pump in B. vietnamiensis plays a significant role in acquired aminoglycoside resistance. Summarily, efflux pumps are significant players in Burkholderia drug resistance. PMID:25926825

  20. Efflux pump-mediated drug resistance in Burkholderia.

    PubMed

    Podnecky, Nicole L; Rhodes, Katherine A; Schweizer, Herbert P

    2015-01-01

    Several members of the genus Burkholderia are prominent pathogens. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. Virtually all Burkholderia species are also resistant to polymyxin, prohibiting use of drugs like colistin that are available for treatment of infections caused by most other drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Despite clinical significance and antibiotic resistance of Burkholderia species, characterization of efflux pumps lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although efflux pumps have been described in several Burkholderia species, they have been best studied in Burkholderia cenocepacia and B. pseudomallei. As in other non-enteric Gram-negatives, efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division (RND) family are the clinically most significant efflux systems in these two species. Several efflux pumps were described in B. cenocepacia, which when expressed confer resistance to clinically significant antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones, and tetracyclines. Three RND pumps have been characterized in B. pseudomallei, two of which confer either intrinsic or acquired resistance to aminoglycosides, macrolides, chloramphenicol, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, trimethoprim, and in some instances trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole. Several strains of the host-adapted B. mallei, a clone of B. pseudomallei, lack AmrAB-OprA, and are therefore aminoglycoside and macrolide susceptible. B. thailandensis is closely related to B. pseudomallei, but non-pathogenic to humans. Its pump repertoire and ensuing drug resistance profile parallels that of B. pseudomallei. An efflux pump in B. vietnamiensis plays a significant role in acquired aminoglycoside resistance. Summarily, efflux pumps are significant players in Burkholderia drug resistance. PMID:25926825

  1. Will drug resistance against dolutegravir in initial therapy ever occur?

    PubMed Central

    Wainberg, Mark A.; Han, Ying-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Dolutegravir (DTG) is a second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) and INSTIs are the latest class of potent anti-HIV drugs. Compared to the first generation INSTIs, raltegravir, and elvitegravir, DTG shows a limited cross-resistance profile. More interestingly, clinical resistance mutations to DTG in treatment-naive patents have not been observed to this date. This review summarizes recent studies on resistance mutations to DTG and on our understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to DTG as well as future directions for research. PMID:25972810

  2. Potential risk for drug resistance globalization at the Hajj.

    PubMed

    Al-Tawfiq, J A; Memish, Z A

    2015-02-01

    Antibiotics were once considered the miracle cure for infectious diseases. The tragedy would be the loss of these miracles as we witness increased antibiotic resistance throughout the world. One of the concerns during mass gatherings is the transmission of antibiotic resistance. Hajj is one of the most common recurring mass gatherings, attracting millions of people from around the world. The transmission of drug-resistant organisms during the Hajj is not well described. In the current review, we summarize the available literature on the transmission and acquisition of antibiotic resistance during the Hajj and present possible solutions. PMID:25682276

  3. Evolution of resistance to a last-resort antibiotic in Staphyloccocus aureus via bacterial competition

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Gudrun; Yepes, Ana; Frstner, Konrad U.; Wermser, Charlotte; Stengel, Stephanie T.; Modamio, Jennifer; Ohlsen, Knut; Foster, Kevin R.; Lopez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Antibiotic resistance is a key medical concern, with antibiotic use likely being an important cause. However, here we describe an alternative route to clinically-relevant antibiotic resistance that occurs solely due to competitive interactions between bacterial cells. We consistently observe that isolates of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus diversify spontaneously into two distinct, sequentially arising strains. The first evolved strain outgrows the parent strain via secretion of surfactants and a toxic bacteriocin. The second is resistant to the bacteriocin. Importantly, this second strain is also resistant to intermediate levels of vancomycin. This so-called VISA (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus) phenotype is seen in many hard-to-treat clinical isolates. This strain diversification also occurs during in vivo infection in a mouse model, consistent with the fact that both coevolved phenotypes resemble strains commonly found in clinic. Our study shows how competition between coevolving bacterial strains can generate antibiotic resistance and recapitulate key clinical phenotypes. PMID:25171407

  4. Drug Repurposing Identifies Inhibitors of Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza Viruses.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ju; Marathe, Bindumadhav; Govorkova, Elena A; Zheng, Jie J

    2016-03-01

    The neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor, oseltamivir, is a widely used anti-influenza drug. However, oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 influenza viruses carrying the H275Y NA mutation spontaneously emerged as a result of natural genetic drift and drug treatment. Because H275Y and other potential mutations may generate a future pandemic influenza strain that is oseltamivir-resistant, alternative therapy options are needed. Herein, we show that a structure-based computational method can be used to identify existing drugs that inhibit resistant viruses, thereby providing a first line of pharmaceutical defense against this possible scenario. We identified two drugs, nalidixic acid and dorzolamide, that potently inhibit the NA activity of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 viruses with the H275Y NA mutation at very low concentrations, but have no effect on wild-type H1N1 NA even at a much higher concentration, suggesting that the oseltamivir-resistance mutation itself caused susceptibility to these drugs. PMID:26833677

  5. Antifungal drug resistance evokedvia RNAi-dependent epimutations

    PubMed Central

    Calo, Silvia; Shertz-Wall, Cecelia; Lee, Soo Chan; Bastidas, Robert J.; Nicols, Francisco E.; Granek, Joshua A.; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Torres-Martinez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa M.; Cardenas, Maria E.; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms evolve via mechanisms spanning sexual/parasexual reproduction, mutators, aneuploidy, Hsp90, and even prions. Mechanisms that may seem detrimental can be repurposed to generate diversity. Here we show the human fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides develops spontaneous resistance to the antifungal drug FK506 (tacrolimus) via two distinct mechanisms. One involves Mendelian mutations that confer stable drug resistance; the other occurs via an epigenetic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated pathway resulting in unstable drug resistance. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase FKBP12 interacts with FK506 forming a complex that inhibits the protein phosphatase calcineurin1. Calcineurin inhibition by FK506 blocks M. circinelloides transition to hyphae and enforces yeast growth2. Mutations in the fkbA gene encoding FKBP12 or the calcineurin cnbR or cnaA genes confer FK506 resistance (FK506R) and restore hyphal growth. In parallel, RNAi is spontaneously triggered to silence the FKBP12 fkbA gene, giving rise to drug-resistant epimutants. FK506R epimutants readily reverted to the drug-sensitive wild-type (WT) phenotype when grown without drug. The establishment of these epimutants is accompanied by generation of abundant fkbA small RNA (sRNA) and requires the RNAi pathway as well as other factors that constrain or reverse the epimutant state. Silencing involves generation of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) trigger intermediate from the fkbA mature mRNA to produce antisense fkbA RNA. This study uncovers a novel epigenetic RNAi-based epimutation mechanism controlling phenotypic plasticity, with possible implications for antimicrobial drug resistance and RNAi-regulatory mechanisms in fungi and other eukaryotes. PMID:25079329

  6. Drug-resistant tuberculosis in the WHO Western Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Hiatt, Tom; Hennig, Cornelia; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the latest information about tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance and programmatic management of drug-resistant TB in the Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods We analysed routine data reported by countries to WHO from 2007 to 2013, focusing on data from the following: surveillance and surveys of drug resistance, management of drug-resistant TB and financing related to multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) management. Results In the Western Pacific Region, 4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3–6) of new and 22% (95% CI: 18–26) of previously treated TB cases were estimated to have MDR-TB; this means that in 2013, there were an estimated 71 000 (95% CI: 47 000–94 000) MDR-TB cases among notified pulmonary TB cases in this Region. The coverage of drug susceptibility testing (DST) among new and previously treated TB cases was 3% and 20%, respectively. In 2013, 11 153 cases were notified—16% of the estimated MDR-TB cases. Among the notified cases, 6926 or 62% were enrolled in treatment. Among all enrolled MDR-TB cases, 34% had second-line DST and of these, 13% were resistant to fluoroquinolones (FQ) and/or second-line injectable agents. The 2011 cohort of MDR-TB showed a 52% treatment success. Over the last five years, case notification and enrolment have increased more than five times, but the gap between notification and enrolment widened. Discussion The increasing trend in detection and enrolment of MDR-TB cases demonstrates readiness to scale up programmatic management of drug-resistant TB at the country level. However, considerable challenges remain. PMID:25685604

  7. Antiviral drug resistance in herpesviruses other than cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2014-05-01

    The discovery of acyclovir (ACV), a nucleoside analogue, more than 30?years ago, represents a milestone in the management of HSV and VZV infections. The modest activity of ACV against CMV prompted the development of another nucleoside analogue, ganciclovir, for the management of systemic and organ-specific CMV diseases. Second-line agents such as the pyrophosphate analogue foscarnet and the nucleotide analogue cidofovir have been approved subsequently. In contrast to ACV and ganciclovir, the latter drugs do not require selective phosphorylation by viral protein kinases to be converted into their active forms. Since the introduction of these antivirals, the emergence of drug-resistant mutants has been constantly reported particularly in severely immunocompromised patients such as bone marrow and solid organ transplant recipients as well as HIV-infected individuals. In this manuscript, we discuss the characteristics of the antiviral agents currently approved for the management of HSV, VZV and CMV diseases. In recent years, the resistance of CMV to antiviral drugs has been extensively reviewed. The emergence of antiviral drug resistance is also observed with other members of the Herpesviridae family, namely HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and HHV-6, which are the focus of this review. More specifically, we describe the laboratory methods for assessing drug susceptibilities, the frequency and clinical significance of drug-resistant infections and their management. PMID:24604770

  8. Nanomechanics of Drug-target Interactions and Antibacterial Resistance Detection

    PubMed Central

    Ndieyira, Joseph W.; Watari, Moyu; McKendry, Rachel A.

    2013-01-01

    The cantilever sensor, which acts as a transducer of reactions between model bacterial cell wall matrix immobilized on its surface and antibiotic drugs in solution, has shown considerable potential in biochemical sensing applications with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity1-5. The drug-target interactions generate surface stress, causing the cantilever to bend, and the signal can be analyzed optically when it is illuminated by a laser. The change in surface stress measured with nano-scale precision allows disruptions of the biomechanics of model bacterial cell wall targets to be tracked in real time. Despite offering considerable advantages, multiple cantilever sensor arrays have never been applied in quantifying drug-target binding interactions. Here, we report on the use of silicon multiple cantilever arrays coated with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers mimicking bacterial cell wall matrix to quantitatively study antibiotic binding interactions. To understand the impact of vancomycin on the mechanics of bacterial cell wall structures1,6,7. We developed a new model1 which proposes that cantilever bending can be described by two independent factors; i) namely a chemical factor, which is given by a classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm, from which we calculate the thermodynamic equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) and ii) a geometrical factor, essentially a measure of how bacterial peptide receptors are distributed on the cantilever surface. The surface distribution of peptide receptors (p) is used to investigate the dependence of geometry and ligand loading. It is shown that a threshold value of p ~10% is critical to sensing applications. Below which there is no detectable bending signal while above this value, the bending signal increases almost linearly, revealing that stress is a product of a local chemical binding factor and a geometrical factor combined by the mechanical connectivity of reacted regions and provides a new paradigm for design of powerful agents to combat superbug infections. PMID:24192763

  9. Resistance trends among clinical isolates in China reported from CHINET surveillance of bacterial resistance, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Hu, F-P; Guo, Y; Zhu, D-M; Wang, F; Jiang, X-F; Xu, Y-C; Zhang, X-J; Zhang, C-X; Ji, P; Xie, Y; Kang, M; Wang, C-Q; Wang, A-M; Xu, Y-H; Shen, J-L; Sun, Z-Y; Chen, Z-J; Ni, Y-X; Sun, J-Y; Chu, Y-Z; Tian, S-F; Hu, Z-D; Li, J; Yu, Y-S; Lin, J; Shan, B; Du, Y; Han, Y; Guo, S; Wei, L-H; Wu, L; Zhang, H; Kong, J; Hu, Y-J; Ai, X-M; Zhuo, C; Su, D-H; Yang, Q; Jia, B; Huang, W

    2016-03-01

    With the aim of gathering temporal trends on bacterial epidemiology and resistance from multiple laboratories in China, the CHINET surveillance system was organized in 2005. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out according to a unified protocol using the Kirby-Bauer method or automated systems. Results were analyzed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2014 definitions. Between 2005 and 2014, the number of bacterial isolates ranged between 22 774 and 84 572 annually. Rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase production among Escherichia coli isolates were stable, between 51.7 and 55.8%. Resistance of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam and cefoperazone/sulbactam decreased with time. Carbapenem resistance among K. pneumoniae isolates increased from 2.4 to 13.4%. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains against all of antimicrobial agents tested including imipenem and meropenem decreased with time. On the contrary, resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii strains to carbapenems increased from 31 to 66.7%. A marked decrease of methicillin resistance from 69% in 2005 to 44.6% in 2014 was observed for Staphylococcus aureus. Carbapenem resistance rates in K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii in China are high. Our results indicate the importance of bacterial surveillance studies. PMID:27000156

  10. Molecular mechanisms in multiple myeloma drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Nikesitch, Nicholas; Ling, Silvia C W

    2016-02-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is predominantly an incurable malignancy despite high-dose chemotherapy, autologous stem cell transplant and novel agents. MM is a genetically heterogeneous disease and the complexity increases as the disease progresses to a more aggressive stage. MM arises from a plasma cell, which produces and secretes non-functioning immunoglobulins. Most MM cells are sensitive to proteasome inhibitors (PIs), which have become the main drug in the treatment of newly diagnosed and relapsed MM. However, not all MM is sensitive to PIs. This review summarises the literature regarding molecular biology of MM with a focus on the unfolded protein response and explores how this could affect drug sensitivity and progression of disease. PMID:26598624

  11. Molecular mechanisms in multiple myeloma drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nikesitch, Nicholas; Ling, Silvia C W

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is predominantly an incurable malignancy despite high-dose chemotherapy, autologous stem cell transplant and novel agents. MM is a genetically heterogeneous disease and the complexity increases as the disease progresses to a more aggressive stage. MM arises from a plasma cell, which produces and secretes non-functioning immunoglobulins. Most MM cells are sensitive to proteasome inhibitors (PIs), which have become the main drug in the treatment of newly diagnosed and relapsed MM. However, not all MM is sensitive to PIs. This review summarises the literature regarding molecular biology of MM with a focus on the unfolded protein response and explores how this could affect drug sensitivity and progression of disease. PMID:26598624

  12. Evolution of drug resistance in Salmonella panama isolates in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Cordano, A M; Virgilio, R

    1996-01-01

    In a search for Salmonella isolates in the environment in Chile in 1975, drug-susceptible strains of Salmonella panama were recovered for the first time from river water and vegetables in the vicinity of Santiago. Two to 3 years later, antibiotic-resistant S. panama began to appear in a variety of sources (meat, animals, vegetables, etc.), giving rise to a human epidemic that involved the entire nation. Of 139 clinical isolates studied, 7 were drug susceptible, 11 were resistant only to nitrofurans, and 3 were streptomycin, spectinomycin, and nitrofuran resistant; none of these 21 isolates harbored plasmid DNA. Most isolates (n = 107) were resistant to nitrofurans (chromosomal) and to streptomycin, spectinomycin, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and mercuric and tellurite salts; this multidrug resistance was encoded on a 218-kb plasmid classified in a number of strains as being in the IncHI2 group. From 1982 to 1993, 11 isolates acquired an additional self-transferable plasmid coding for resistance to any one of ampicillin (61 kb), ampicillin and trimethoprim (65 kb), ampicillin, trimethoprim, streptomycin, and sulfonamides (71 kb), ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and tetracycline (120 kb), or a nontransferable plasmid of approximately 6 kb encoding resistance to ampicillin or kanamycin. With the exception of ampicillin or ampicillin and trimethoprim resistance, S. panama isolates from foodstuffs, mainly pork meat products, and animals had resistance patterns that were the same as those found in clinical specimens. Remarkably, strains from goats and goat cheese and from shellfish isolated in particular rural regions were either drug susceptible or resistant only to streptomycin-spectinomycin encoded on a mobile genetic element and to nitrofurans. The report describes the arrival of a susceptible S. panama strain, its spread all over the country, and the evolution of progressively complex resistance patterns. PMID:8834876

  13. Electronic transduction of HIV-1 drug resistance in AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Alfonta, Lital; Blumenzweig, Immanuel; Zayats, Maya; Baraz, Lea; Kotler, Moshe; Willner, Itamar

    2004-07-01

    A drug composition consisting of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs) is commonly used in AIDS therapy. A major difficulty encountered with the therapeutic composite involves the emergence of drug-resistant viruses, especially to the PIs, regarded as the most effective drugs in the composition. We present a novel bioelectronic means to detect the appearance of mutated HIV-1 exhibiting drug resistance to the PI saquinavir. The method is based on the translation of viral RNA, the association of cleaved or uncleaved Gag polyproteins at an electrode surface functionalized with the respective antibodies, and the bioelectronic detection of the Gag polyproteins associated with the surface. The bioelectronic process includes the association of anti-MA or anti-CA antibodies, the secondary binding of an antibody-horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate, and the biocatalyzed precipitation of an insoluble product on the electronic transducers. Faradaic impedance measurements and quartz crystal microbalance analyses are employed to follow the autoprocessing of the Gag polyproteins. The method was applied to determine drug resistance in infected cultured cells and also in blood samples of consenting AIDS patients. The method described here is also applicable to the determination of drug effectiveness in AIDS patients and to screening of the efficiency of newly developed drugs. PMID:15239052

  14. Structure-based Methods for Predicting Target Mutation-induced Drug Resistance and Rational Drug Design to Overcome the Problem

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ge-Fei; Yang, Guang-Fu; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance has become one of the biggest challenges in drug discovery/development and attracted great research interests worldwide. During the last decade, computational strategies have been developed to predict target mutation-induced drug resistance. Meanwhile, various molecular design strategies, including targeting protein backbone, targeting highly conserved residues, and dual/multiple targeting, have been used to design novel inhibitors for combating the drug resistance. This is a brief review of recent advances in development of computational methods for target mutation-induced drug resistance prediction and strategies for rational design of novel inhibitors that could be effective also against the possible drug-resistant mutants of the target. PMID:22789991

  15. Antiviral Drug- and Multidrug Resistance in Cytomegalovirus Infected SCT Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghring, Katharina; Hamprecht, Klaus; Jahn, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    In pediatric and adult patients after stem cell transplantation (SCT) disseminated infections caused by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause life threatening diseases. For treatment, the three antivirals ganciclovir (GCV), foscarnet (PFA) and cidofovir (CDV) are approved and most frequently used. Resistance to all of these antiviral drugs may induce a severe problem in this patient cohort. Responsible for resistance phenomena are mutations in the HCMV phosphotransferase-gene (UL97) and the polymerase-gene (UL54). Most frequently mutations in the UL97-gene are associated with resistance to GCV. Resistance against all three drugs is associated to mutations in the UL54-gene. Monitoring of drug resistance by genotyping is mostly done by PCR-based Sanger sequencing. For phenotyping with cell culture the isolation of HCMV is a prerequisite. The development of multidrug resistance with mutation in both genes is rare, but it is often associated with a fatal outcome. The manifestation of multidrug resistance is mostly associated with combined UL97/UL54-mutations. Normally, mutations in the UL97 gene occur initially followed by UL54 mutation after therapy switch. The appearance of UL54-mutation alone without any detection of UL97-mutation is rare. Interestingly, in a number of patients the UL97 mutation could be detected in specific compartments exclusively and not in blood. PMID:25750703

  16. Antiviral Drug- and Multidrug Resistance in Cytomegalovirus Infected SCT Patients.

    PubMed

    Ghring, Katharina; Hamprecht, Klaus; Jahn, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    In pediatric and adult patients after stem cell transplantation (SCT) disseminated infections caused by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause life threatening diseases. For treatment, the three antivirals ganciclovir (GCV), foscarnet (PFA) and cidofovir (CDV) are approved and most frequently used. Resistance to all of these antiviral drugs may induce a severe problem in this patient cohort. Responsible for resistance phenomena are mutations in the HCMV phosphotransferase-gene (UL97) and the polymerase-gene (UL54). Most frequently mutations in the UL97-gene are associated with resistance to GCV. Resistance against all three drugs is associated to mutations in the UL54-gene. Monitoring of drug resistance by genotyping is mostly done by PCR-based Sanger sequencing. For phenotyping with cell culture the isolation of HCMV is a prerequisite. The development of multidrug resistance with mutation in both genes is rare, but it is often associated with a fatal outcome. The manifestation of multidrug resistance is mostly associated with combined UL97/UL54-mutations. Normally, mutations in the UL97 gene occur initially followed by UL54 mutation after therapy switch. The appearance of UL54-mutation alone without any detection of UL97-mutation is rare. Interestingly, in a number of patients the UL97 mutation could be detected in specific compartments exclusively and not in blood. PMID:25750703

  17. Effect of electron beam irradiation on bacterial cellulose membranes used as transdermal drug delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Tache, Florin; Zaharescu, Traian; Grosu, Elena

    2007-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is an effective energetic source for polymer surfaces modification in order to obtain transdermal systems with different controlled release properties. In this work, gamma rays have been applied to induce changes in bacterial cellulose membranes. Permeation of drug (tetracycline) was theoretically and experimentally investigated starting from the effect of ?-irradiation on membranes permeability. Release and permeation of drug from irradiated and non-irradiated membranes have been performed using a diffusion cell.

  18. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  19. Emerging Infections Program as Surveillance for Antimicrobial Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Angela A.; See, Isaac; Lynfield, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Across the United States, antimicrobial drug–resistant infections affect a diverse population, and effective interventions require concerted efforts across various public health and clinical programs. Since its onset in 1994, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program has provided robust and timely data on antimicrobial drug–resistant infections that have been used to inform public health action across a spectrum of partners with regard to many highly visible antimicrobial drug–resistance threats. These data span several activities within the Program, including respiratory bacterial infections, health care–associated infections, and some aspects of foodborne diseases. These data have contributed to estimates of national burden, identified populations at risk, and determined microbiological causes of infection and their outcomes, all of which have been used to inform national policy and guidelines to prevent antimicrobial drug–resistant infections. PMID:26291638

  20. Effects of temperature on biochemical reactions and drug resistance of virulent and avirulent Aeromonas salmonicida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hahnel, G.B.; Gould, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Incubation temperatures of 11°, 18° and 28° did not substantially affect biochemical reactions of either virulent or avirulent forms of Aeromonas salmonicida subspecies salmonicida. The only change observed, amygdalin fermentation, was positive at 11° and 18° but negative at 28°C. Several isolates utilized sucrose, a characteristic not normally recognized for A. salmonicida subspecies salmonicida.Antimicrobial susceptibility screening indicated resistance to novobiocin increased at the higher incubation temperatures. Standardized drug sensitivity testing procedures and precise zone diameter interpretive standards for bacterial fish pathogens are needed.

  1. Fluoroquinolone interactions with Mycobacterium tuberculosis gyrase: Enhancing drug activity against wild-type and resistant gyrase.

    PubMed

    Aldred, Katie J; Blower, Tim R; Kerns, Robert J; Berger, James M; Osheroff, Neil

    2016-02-16

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a significant source of global morbidity and mortality. Moxifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are important therapeutic agents for the treatment of tuberculosis, particularly multidrug-resistant infections. To guide the development of new quinolone-based agents, it is critical to understand the basis of drug action against M. tuberculosis gyrase and how mutations in the enzyme cause resistance. Therefore, we characterized interactions of fluoroquinolones and related drugs with WT gyrase and enzymes carrying mutations at GyrA(A90) and GyrA(D94). M. tuberculosis gyrase lacks a conserved serine that anchors a water-metal ion bridge that is critical for quinolone interactions with other bacterial type II topoisomerases. Despite the fact that the serine is replaced by an alanine (i.e., GyrA(A90)) in M. tuberculosis gyrase, the bridge still forms and plays a functional role in mediating quinolone-gyrase interactions. Clinically relevant mutations at GyrA(A90) and GyrA(D94) cause quinolone resistance by disrupting the bridge-enzyme interaction, thereby decreasing drug affinity. Fluoroquinolone activity against WT and resistant enzymes is enhanced by the introduction of specific groups at the C7 and C8 positions. By dissecting fluoroquinolone-enzyme interactions, we determined that an 8-methyl-moxifloxacin derivative induces high levels of stable cleavage complexes with WT gyrase and two common resistant enzymes, GyrA(A90V) and GyrA(D94G). 8-Methyl-moxifloxacin was more potent than moxifloxacin against WT M. tuberculosis gyrase and displayed higher activity against the mutant enzymes than moxifloxacin did against WT gyrase. This chemical biology approach to defining drug-enzyme interactions has the potential to identify novel drugs with improved activity against tuberculosis. PMID:26792518

  2. Identification, Characterization and Antibiotic Resistance of Bacterial Isolates Obtained from Waterpipe Device Hoses

    PubMed Central

    Masadeh, Majed M.; Hussein, Emad I.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Khabour, Omar; Shakhatreh, Muhamad Ali K.; Gharaibeh, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The general lack of knowledge about the health effects of waterpipe smoking is among the reasons for its global spread. In this study, bacterial contamination of waterpipe hoses was investigated. Twenty hoses were collected from waterpipe cafs and screened for bacterial pathogens using standard culture and isolation techniques. Additionally, resistance of isolated bacteria to common antibiotics was determined by identifying the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each isolate. Forty eight bacterial isolates were detected. Isolates included both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens from species that included Micrococcus (12), Corynebacterium (13) and Bacillus (9). In addition, some of the detected pathogens were found to be resistant to aztreonam (79%), cefixime (79%), norfloxacin, amoxicillin (47%), clarithromycin (46%) and enrofloxacin (38%). In conclusion, the hose of the waterpipe device is a good environment for the growth of bacterial pathogens, which can then be transmitted to users. PMID:25985311

  3. Is selection relevant in the evolutionary emergence of drug resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Day, Troy; Huijben, Silvie; Read, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistant pathogens is often considered a canonical case of evolution by natural selection. Here we argue that the strength of selection can be a poor predictor of the rate of resistance emergence. It is possible for a resistant strain to be under negative selection and still emerge in an infection or spread in a population. Measuring the right parameters is a necessary first step towards the development of evidence-based resistance management strategies. We argue that it is the absolute fitness of the resistant strains that matters most, and that a primary determinant of the absolute fitness of a resistant strain when it arises is the ecological context in which it finds itself. PMID:25680587

  4. Is selection relevant in the evolutionary emergence of drug resistance?

    PubMed

    Day, Troy; Huijben, Silvie; Read, Andrew F

    2015-03-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens is often considered a canonical case of evolution by natural selection. Here we argue that the strength of selection can be a poor predictor of the rate of resistance emergence. It is possible for a resistant strain to be under negative selection and still emerge in an infection or spread in a population. Measuring the right parameters is a necessary first step toward the development of evidence-based resistance-management strategies. We argue that it is the absolute fitness of the resistant strains that matters most and that a primary determinant of the absolute fitness of a resistant strain is the ecological context in which it finds itself. PMID:25680587

  5. Role of Integrin Alpha4 in Drug Resistance of Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Stephanie; Bönig, Halvard; Kim, Yong-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic drug resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a significant problem, resulting in poor responsiveness to first-line treatment or relapse after transient remission. Classical anti-leukemic drugs are non-specific cell cycle poisons; some more modern drugs target oncogenic pathways in leukemia cells, although in ALL these do not play a very significant role. By contrast, the molecular interactions between microenvironment and leukemia cells are often neglected in the design of novel therapies against drug resistant leukemia. It was shown however, that chemotherapy resistance is promoted in part through cell–cell contact of leukemia cells with bone marrow (BM) stromal cells, also called cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Incomplete response to chemotherapy results in persistence of resistant clones with or without detectable minimal residual disease (MRD). Approaches for how to address CAM-DR and MRD remain elusive. Specifically, studies using anti-functional antibodies and genetic models have identified integrin alpha4 as a critical molecule regulating BM homing and active retention of normal and leukemic cells. Pre-clinical evidence has been provided that interference with alpha4-mediated adhesion of ALL cells can sensitize them to chemotherapy and thus facilitate eradication of ALL cells in an MRD setting. To this end, Andreeff and colleagues recently provided evidence of stroma-induced and alpha4-mediated nuclear factor-κB signaling in leukemia cells, disruption of which depletes leukemia cells of strong survival signals. We here review the available evidence supporting the targeting of alpha4 as a novel strategy for treatment of drug resistant leukemia. PMID:24904821

  6. Role of integrin alpha4 in drug resistance of leukemia.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Stephanie; Bnig, Halvard; Kim, Yong-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic drug resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a significant problem, resulting in poor responsiveness to first-line treatment or relapse after transient remission. Classical anti-leukemic drugs are non-specific cell cycle poisons; some more modern drugs target oncogenic pathways in leukemia cells, although in ALL these do not play a very significant role. By contrast, the molecular interactions between microenvironment and leukemia cells are often neglected in the design of novel therapies against drug resistant leukemia. It was shown however, that chemotherapy resistance is promoted in part through cell-cell contact of leukemia cells with bone marrow (BM) stromal cells, also called cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Incomplete response to chemotherapy results in persistence of resistant clones with or without detectable minimal residual disease (MRD). Approaches for how to address CAM-DR and MRD remain elusive. Specifically, studies using anti-functional antibodies and genetic models have identified integrin alpha4 as a critical molecule regulating BM homing and active retention of normal and leukemic cells. Pre-clinical evidence has been provided that interference with alpha4-mediated adhesion of ALL cells can sensitize them to chemotherapy and thus facilitate eradication of ALL cells in an MRD setting. To this end, Andreeff and colleagues recently provided evidence of stroma-induced and alpha4-mediated nuclear factor-?B signaling in leukemia cells, disruption of which depletes leukemia cells of strong survival signals. We here review the available evidence supporting the targeting of alpha4 as a novel strategy for treatment of drug resistant leukemia. PMID:24904821

  7. Pattern of Drug Resistance and Risk Factors Associated with Development of Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Irfan; Javaid, Arshad; Tahir, Zarfishan; Ullah, Obaid; Shah, Aamer Ali; Hasan, Fariha; Ayub, Najma

    2016-01-01

    Background Drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a major public health problem in developing countries such as Pakistan. Objective The current study was conducted to assess the frequency of drug resistant tuberculosis including multi drug resistance (MDR- TB) as well as risk factors for development of DR-TB, in Punjab, Pakistan. Methodology Drug susceptibility testing (DST) was performed, using proportion method, for 2367 culture positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cases that were enrolled from January 2012 to December 2013 in the province of Punjab, Pakistan, against first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. The data was analyzed using statistical software; SPSS version 18. Results Out of 2367 isolates, 273 (11.5%) were resistant to at least one anti-TB drug, while 221 (9.3%) showed MDR- TB. Risk factors for development of MDR-TB were early age (ranges between 10–25 years) and previously treated TB patients. Conclusion DR-TB is a considerable problem in Pakistan. Major risk factors are previous history of TB treatment and younger age group. It emphasizes the need for effective TB control Program in the country. PMID:26809127

  8. Antifungal susceptibility and drug-resistant mechanism of Trichosporon.

    PubMed

    Kushima, Hisako; Tokimatsu, Issei; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of deep-seated trichosporonosis develop in patients with neutropenia, but it has recently been reported that breakthrough infections with Trichosporon species can develop during the use of candin family of antifungal agents. This is due to the primary resistance of the causal fungus, Trichosporon asahii (T. asahii), to the candin agents. On the other hand, there has been a case report of infection with Trichosporon that presented high-level resistance to the azole family of antifungal agents. Therefore, the possibility that the frequent use of azole agents may lead to secondary resistance to these agents is a cause for concern. Since trichosporonosis is a relatively rare infectious disease, there has been no established breakpoint for this fungus to various antifungal agents, wherein we cannot precisely confirm its sensitivity or resistance to the agents. However, our experiment demonstrated one of the processes for acquired drug resistance, wherein the minimal inhibitory concentration of fluconazole for T. asahii was markedly elevated after its long-term in vitro exposure to the drug. Although the mechanisms for drug-resistance of Trichosporon species are unknown, it is supposed that they are the same as the mechanisms found in Candida and Aspergillus species, namely, modification of target molecules or decrease of access to the molecules. Since cases of trichosporonosis are likely to increase in the future, we believe that there is an urgent need to establish the breakpoint for T. asahii based on large-scale drug sensitivity tests, as well as to elucidate its drug-resistance mechanisms. PMID:26617108

  9. Distribution and drug resistance profile of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Song, Wen Chao; Zhang, Si Sen; Gong, Yu Hong

    2015-05-01

    This paper is aimed to comprehend clinical distribution and drug-resistance situation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This study applied automatic microbe instrument Microscan W/A 96 for strain identification and drug susceptibility screening on the isolated strains. It was found that 312 MRSA strains were isolated in three years, which account for 58.1% of Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA were mainly focused in wound secretion, purulent sputum and prostatic fluid and a few of them were isolated from blood specimens; Endemic area distribution was mainly located in intensive care unit, neurosurgery, respiratory department, dermatology, orthopaedic burns and orthopaedics. MRSA strains showed high drug resistance of 82.37%~100% to most of the antibiotics including vancomycin, cotrimoxazole and rifampicin. Strain was 100% resistance towards ampicillin, amoxicillin/acid, cefalotin, cefazolin, tienam, benzylpenicillin, penicillin and tetracycline and 90% strains resisted clindamycin, cefotaxime, clarithromycin and gentamicin. PMID:26051737

  10. The new concepts on overcoming drug resistance in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weisan; Lei, Ping; Dong, Xifeng; Xu, Cuiping

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most deadly diseases worldwide. The current first-line therapies include chemotherapy using epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and radiotherapies. With the current progress in identifying new molecular targets, acquired drug resistance stands as an obstacle for good prognosis. About half the patients receiving epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatments develop resistance. Although extensive studies have been applied to elucidate the underlying mechanisms, evidence is far from enough to establish a well-defined picture to correct resistance. In the review, we will discuss four different currently developed strategies that have the potential to overcome drug resistance in lung cancer therapies and facilitate prolonged anticancer effects of the first-line therapies. PMID:24944510

  11. Efficacy of OH-CATH30 and its analogs against drug-resistant bacteria in vitro and in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-An; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2012-06-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been considered alternatives to conventional antibiotics for drug-resistant bacterial infections. However, their comparatively high toxicity toward eukaryotic cells and poor efficacy in vivo hamper their clinical application. OH-CATH30, a novel cathelicidin peptide deduced from the king cobra, possesses potent antibacterial activity in vitro. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of OH-CATH30 and its analog OH-CM6 against drug-resistant bacteria in vitro and in vivo. The MICs of OH-CATH30 and OH-CM6 ranged from 1.56 to 12.5 ?g/ml against drug-resistant clinical isolates of several pathogenic species, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The MICs of OH-CATH30 and OH-CM6 were slightly altered in the presence of 25% human serum. OH-CATH30 and OH-CM6 killed E. coli quickly (within 60 min) by disrupting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. Importantly, the 50% lethal doses (LD(50)) of OH-CATH30 and OH-CM6 in mice following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection were 120 mg/kg of body weight and 100 mg/kg, respectively, and no death was observed at any dose up to 160 mg/kg following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection. Moreover, 10 mg/kg OH-CATH30 or OH-CM6 significantly decreased the bacterial counts as well as the inflammatory response in a mouse thigh infection model and rescued infected mice in a bacteremia model induced by drug-resistant E. coli. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the natural cathelicidin peptide OH-CATH30 and its analogs exhibit relatively low toxicity and potent efficacy in mouse models, indicating that they may have therapeutic potential against the systemic infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria. PMID:22491685

  12. Dynamic optical tweezers based assay for monitoring early drug resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Yuquan; Min, Changjun; Zhu, Siwei; Feng, Jie; Yuan, X.-C.

    2013-06-01

    In this letter, a dynamic optical tweezers based assay is proposed and investigated for monitoring early drug resistance with Pemetrexed-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The validity and stability of the method are verified experimentally in terms of the physical parameters of the optical tweezers system. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique is more convenient and faster than traditional techniques when the capability of detecting small variations of the response of cells to a drug is maintained.

  13. Influence of Antituberculosis Drug Resistance and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage on Outcome in HIV-Associated Tuberculous Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Tho, Dau Quang; Trk, M. Este; Yen, Nguyen Thi Bich; Bang, Nguyen Duc; Lan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Kiet, Vo Sy; van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Dung, Nguyen Huy; Day, Jeremy; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has high mortality. Aside from the devastating impact of multidrug resistance (MDR) on survival, little is understood about the influence of other bacterial factors on outcome. This study examined the influence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance, bacterial lineage, and host vaccination status on outcome in patients with HIV-associated TBM. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the cerebrospinal fluid of 186 patients enrolled in two studies of HIV-associated TBM in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, were tested for resistance to first-line antituberculosis drugs. Lineage genotyping was available for 122 patients. The influence of antituberculosis drug resistance and M. tuberculosis lineage on 9-month mortality was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox multiple regression models. Isoniazid (INH) resistance without rifampin resistance was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 2.66; P = 0.005), and multidrug resistance was uniformly fatal (n = 8/8; adjusted HR, 5.21, 95% CI, 2.38 to 11.42; P < 0.0001). The hazard ratio for INH-resistant cases was greatest during the continuation phase of treatment (after 3 months; HR, 5.05 [95% CI, 2.23 to 11.44]; P = 0.0001). Among drug-susceptible cases, patients infected with the modern Beijing lineage strains had lower mortality than patients infected with the ancient Indo-Oceanic lineage (HR, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.14 to 0.61]; P = 0.001). Isoniazid resistance, multidrug resistance, and M. tuberculosis lineage are important determinants of mortality in patients with HIV-associated TBM. Interventions which target these factors may help reduce the unacceptably high mortality in patients with TBM. PMID:22470117

  14. Deadweight loss of bacterial resistance due to overtreatment.

    PubMed

    Elbasha, Elamin H

    2003-02-01

    Widespread use of antibiotics is considered the major driving force behind the development of antibiotic resistance. The benefits of exceeding the welfare-maximizing level of antibiotic use are below the costs of resistance created by this excess quantity of antibiotics used, thereby resulting in a welfare deadweight loss. This paper uses a simple economic model to examine the theoretical and empirical aspects of the welfare loss generated by resistance and analyzes its policy implications. The annual deadweight loss associated with outpatient prescriptions for amoxicillin in the United States is estimated at US dollars 225 million. PMID:12563660

  15. Bacterial Community Shift Drives Antibiotic Resistance Promotion during Drinking Water Chlorination.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shuyu; Shi, Peng; Hu, Qing; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Xu-Xiang

    2015-10-20

    For comprehensive insights into the effects of chlorination, a widely used disinfection technology, on bacterial community and antibiotic resistome in drinking water, this study applied high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic approaches to investigate the changing patterns of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and bacterial community in a drinking water treatment and distribution system. At genus level, chlorination could effectively remove Methylophilus, Methylotenera, Limnobacter, and Polynucleobacter, while increase the relative abundance of Pseudomonas, Acidovorax, Sphingomonas, Pleomonas, and Undibacterium in the drinking water. A total of 151 ARGs within 15 types were detectable in the drinking water, and chlorination evidently increased their total relative abundance while reduced their diversity in the opportunistic bacteria (p < 0.05). Residual chlorine was identified as the key contributing factor driving the bacterial community shift and resistome alteration. As the dominant persistent ARGs in the treatment and distribution system, multidrug resistance genes (mainly encoding resistance-nodulation-cell division transportation system) and bacitracin resistance gene bacA were mainly carried by chlorine-resistant bacteria Pseudomonas and Acidovorax, which mainly contributed to the ARGs abundance increase. The strong correlation between bacterial community shift and antibiotic resistome alteration observed in this study may shed new light on the mechanism behind the chlorination effects on antibiotic resistance. PMID:26397118

  16. Direct evaluation of drug resistance parameters in gonococcus.

    PubMed

    Il'ina, E N; Malakhova, M V; Vereshchagin, V A; Govorun, V M; Priputnevich, T V; Kubanova, A A

    2007-08-01

    We carried out complex genetic analysis of clinical samples containing N. gonorrhoeae DNA, the genotype and profile of drug resistance of this agent were evaluated. Changes in genes responsible for the formation of N. gonorrhoeae resistance to penicillins, fluoroquinolones, and spectinomycin were detected during minisequencing with subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The sensitivity of gonococcus was evaluated directly in the clinical sample without culturing. PMID:18399287

  17. [Drug-resistant tuberculosis : Epidemiology, diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Grobusch, M P; Schaumburg, F; Altpeter, E; Bélard, S

    2016-02-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is one of the serious problems in the fight against tuberculosis on a global scale. This review article describes in brief the global epidemiology, diagnostics and treatment of DR-TB. The situation in Germany, Switzerland and Austria is addressed in detail. The article concludes with a presentation of current research topics in the field of resistant TB. PMID:26795948

  18. Bacterial panicle blight resistance QTL in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and their association with resistance to other diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial panicle blight (BPB) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) occurs when the bacterium Burkholderia glumae infects and colonizes emerging and flowering panicles, causing kernels to abort. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for BPB resistance, a population of 300 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) d...

  19. Phages limit the evolution of bacterial antibiotic resistance in experimental microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan-Guo; Buckling, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens, often resulting from de novo mutations, is creating a public health crisis. Phages show promise for combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the efficacy of which, however, may also be limited by resistance evolution. Here, we suggest that phages may be used as supplements to antibiotics in treating initially sensitive bacteria to prevent resistance evolution, as phages are unaffected by most antibiotics and there should be little cross-resistance to antibiotics and phages. In vitro experiments using the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens, a lytic phage, and the antibiotic kanamycin supported this prediction: an antibioticphage combination dramatically decreased the chance of bacterial population survival that indicates resistance evolution, compared with antibiotic treatment alone, whereas the phage alone did not affect bacterial survival. This effect of the combined treatment in preventing resistance evolution was robust to immigration of bacteria from an untreated environment, but not to immigration from environment where the bacteria had coevolved with the phage. By contrast, an isogenic hypermutable strain constructed from the wild-type P. fluorescens evolved resistance to all treatments regardless of immigration, but typically suffered very large fitness costs. These results suggest that an antibioticphage combination may show promise as an antimicrobial strategy. PMID:23028398

  20. Phages limit the evolution of bacterial antibiotic resistance in experimental microcosms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan-Guo; Buckling, Angus

    2012-09-01

    The evolution of multi-antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens, often resulting from de novo mutations, is creating a public health crisis. Phages show promise for combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the efficacy of which, however, may also be limited by resistance evolution. Here, we suggest that phages may be used as supplements to antibiotics in treating initially sensitive bacteria to prevent resistance evolution, as phages are unaffected by most antibiotics and there should be little cross-resistance to antibiotics and phages. In vitro experiments using the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens, a lytic phage, and the antibiotic kanamycin supported this prediction: an antibiotic-phage combination dramatically decreased the chance of bacterial population survival that indicates resistance evolution, compared with antibiotic treatment alone, whereas the phage alone did not affect bacterial survival. This effect of the combined treatment in preventing resistance evolution was robust to immigration of bacteria from an untreated environment, but not to immigration from environment where the bacteria had coevolved with the phage. By contrast, an isogenic hypermutable strain constructed from the wild-type P. fluorescens evolved resistance to all treatments regardless of immigration, but typically suffered very large fitness costs. These results suggest that an antibiotic-phage combination may show promise as an antimicrobial strategy. PMID:23028398

  1. Bypassing Fluoroquinolone Resistance with Quinazolinediones: Studies of DrugGyraseDNA Complexes Having Implications for Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Widespread fluoroquinolone resistance has drawn attention to quinazolinediones (diones), fluoroquinolone-like topoisomerase poisons that are unaffected by common quinolone-resistance mutations. To better understand differences between quinolones and diones, we examined their impact on the formation of cleaved complexes (drugtopoisomeraseDNA complexes in which the DNA moiety is broken) with gyrase, one of two bacterial targets of the drugs. Formation of cleaved complexes, measured by linearization of a circular DNA substrate, required lower concentrations of quinolone than dione. The reverse reaction, detected as resealing of DNA breaks in cleaved complexes, required higher temperatures and EDTA concentrations for quinolones than diones. The greater stability of quinolone-containing complexes was attributed to the unique ability of the quinolone C3/C4 keto acid to complex with magnesium and form a previously described drugmagnesiumwater bridge with GyrA-Ser83 and GyrA-Asp87. A nearby substitution in GyrA (G81C) reduced activity differences between quinolone and dione, indicating that resistance due to this variation derives from perturbation of the magnesiumwater bridge. To increase dione activity, we examined a relatively small, flexible C-7-3-(aminomethyl)pyrrolidinyl substituent, which is distal to the bridging C3/C4 keto acid substituent of quinolones. The 3-(aminomethyl)pyrrolidinyl group at position C-7 was capable of forming binding interactions with GyrB-Glu466, as indicated by inspection of crystal structures, computer-aided docking, and measurement of cleaved-complex formation with mutant and wild-type GyrB proteins. Thus, modification of dione C-7 substituents constitutes a strategy for obtaining compounds active against common quinolone-resistant mutants. PMID:25310082

  2. Polyacrylic acid-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeting drug resistance in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Padwal, Priyanka; Bandyopadhyaya, Rajdip; Mehra, Sarika

    2014-12-23

    The emergence of drug resistance is a major problem faced in current tuberculosis (TB) therapy, representing a global health concern. Mycobacterium is naturally resistant to most drugs due to export of the latter outside bacterial cells by active efflux pumps, resulting in a low intracellular drug concentration. Thus, development of agents that can enhance the effectiveness of drugs used in TB treatment and bypass the efflux mechanism is crucial. In this study, we present a new nanoparticle-based strategy for enhancing the efficacy of existing drugs. To that end, we have developed poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-coated iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles (PAA-MNPs) as efflux inhibitors and used it together with rifampicin (a first line anti-TB drug) on Mycobacterium smegmatis. PAA-MNPs of mean diameter 9 nm interact with bacterial cells via surface attachment and are then internalized by cells. Although PAA-MNP alone does not inhibit cell growth, treatment of cells with a combination of PAA-MNP and rifampicin exhibits a synergistic 4-fold-higher growth inhibition compared to rifampicin alone. This is because the combination of PAA-MNP and rifampicin results in up to a 3-fold-increased accumulation of rifampicin inside the cells. This enhanced intracellular drug concentration has been explained by real-time transport studies on a common efflux pump substrate, ethidium bromide (EtBr). It is seen that PAA-MNP increases the accumulation of EtBr significantly and also minimizes the EtBr efflux in direct proportion to the PAA-MNP concentration. Our results thus illustrate that the addition of PAA-MNP with rifampicin may bypass the innate drug resistance mechanism of M. smegmatis. This generic strategy is also found to be successful for other anti-TB drugs, such as isoniazid and fluoroquinolones (e.g., norfloxacin), only when stabilized, coated nanoparticles (such as PAA-MNP) are used, not PAA or MNP alone. We hence establish coated nanoparticles as a new class of efflux inhibitors for potential therapeutic use. PMID:25375643

  3. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Methods The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Results Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Conclusions Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary. PMID:23569978

  4. [Combination use of kampo-medicines and drugs affecting intestinal bacterial flora].

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Miya; Homma, Masato; Kuno, Eiko; Watanabe, Machiko; Kohda, Yukinao

    2002-09-01

    The intestinal bacteria, Eubacterium sp. and Bifidobacterium sp., participate in the metabolism of active kampo-ingredients, glycyrrhizin (GL), sennoside (SEN) and baicalin (BL). Since antibiotics and bacterial preparations, Bifidobacterium longum (LAC-B), Clostridium butyricum (MIYA-BM), and Streptococcus faecalis (BIOFERMIN), affect the bacterial population in intestinal bacterial flora, metabolism of the active kampo-ingredients in the bacterial flora may be altered by their combined administration. We investigated 1199 prescriptions including kampo-medicines for 308 patients. Combination use of kampo-medicines with antibiotics and bacterial preparations occurred with 7% and 10% of the kampo-prescription, respectively. Most antibiotics have activity against intestinal bacteria, except that cephems and macrolides are not active against to E. coli. This means that antibiotics may lower the metabolism of GL, SEN and BL when administered in combination. On the other hand, it is also highly possible that bacterial preparations increase the number of Eubacterium sp. and Bifidobacterium sp., resulting in enhanced metabolism of GL and SEN when they are used concomitantly with kampo-medicines. The present results suggested that the drug interactions of kampo-medicines with antibiotics and bacterial preparations should be confirmed in clinical studies. PMID:12235860

  5. Ecology and evolution as targets: the need for novel eco-evo drugs and strategies to fight antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Baquero, Fernando; Coque, Teresa M; de la Cruz, Fernando

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, the explosive spread of antibiotic resistance determinants among pathogenic, commensal, and environmental bacteria has reached a global dimension. Classical measures trying to contain or slow locally the progress of antibiotic resistance in patients on the basis of better antibiotic prescribing policies have clearly become insufficient at the global level. Urgent measures are needed to directly confront the processes influencing antibiotic resistance pollution in the microbiosphere. Recent interdisciplinary research indicates that new eco-evo drugs and strategies, which take ecology and evolution into account, have a promising role in resistance prevention, decontamination, and the eventual restoration of antibiotic susceptibility. This minireview summarizes what is known and what should be further investigated to find drugs and strategies aiming to counteract the "four P's," penetration, promiscuity, plasticity, and persistence of rapidly spreading bacterial clones, mobile genetic elements, or resistance genes. The term "drug" is used in this eco-evo perspective as a tool to fight resistance that is able to prevent, cure, or decrease potential damage caused by antibiotic resistance, not necessarily only at the individual level (the patient) but also at the ecological and evolutionary levels. This view offers a wealth of research opportunities for science and technology and also represents a large adaptive challenge for regulatory agencies and public health officers. Eco-evo drugs and interventions constitute a new avenue for research that might influence not only antibiotic resistance but the maintenance of a healthy interaction between humans and microbial systems in a rapidly changing biosphere. PMID:21576439

  6. Bacterial antibiotic resistance in soils irrigated with reclaimed municipal wastewater

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastewater reclamation for municipal irrigation and groundwater recharge is an increasingly attractive option for extending water supplies. However, public health concerns include the potential for development of antibiotic resistance (AR) in soil bacteria after exposure to residual chemicals in rec...

  7. Analysis of drug-resistant gene detection of blaOXA-like genes from Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Yang, D K; Liang, H J; Gao, H L; Wang, X W; Wang, Y

    2015-01-01

    Our study determines the resistance gene profile of a set of Acinetobacter baumannii hospital isolates. A. baumannii is responsible for nosocomial outbreaks and sporadic infections. We extracted and PCR amplified bacterial DNA isolated from patients with ages below 60 years (23.36%) and above 60 years (76.64%). Most of the patients were admitted in the ICU (36.13%) and pneumology departments (28.47%). Of 164 isolated strains, 16 (9.75%) contained OXA-51, 8 (4.88%) contained OXA-58, and 140 (85.37%) contained both OXA-51 and OXA-23. Additionally, 8 (7.41%) strains containing OXA-58 and 100 (92.59%) strains containing both OXA-51 and OXA-23 showed multidrug-resistance. Drug resistance rates of A. baumannii to amikacin, tobramycin-levofloxacin, and cotrimoxazole were above 90%, while drug resistance rates to ampicillin, cefotetan, cefazolin, cefoperazone, and nitrofurantoin were 100%. In conclusion, we found that isolated strains containing OXA-51 and OXA-23 were more likely to be resistant or have decreased sensitivity to carbapenems. PMID:26782550

  8. Development of a Protocol for Predicting Bacterial Resistance to Microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Laura; Amzquita, Alejandro; McClure, Peter; Stewart, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Regulations dealing with microbicides in Europe and the United States are evolving and now require data on the risk of the development of resistance in organisms targeted by microbicidal products. There is no standard protocol to assess the risk of the development of resistance to microbicidal formulations. This study aimed to validate the use of changes in microbicide and antibiotic susceptibility as initial markers for predicting microbicide resistance and cross-resistance to antibiotics. Three industrial isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and 14028S) were exposed to a shampoo, a mouthwash, eye makeup remover, and the microbicides contained within these formulations (chlorhexidine digluconate [CHG] and benzalkonium chloride [BZC]) under realistic, in-use conditions. Baseline and postexposure data were compared. No significant increases in the MIC or the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were observed for any strain after exposure to the three formulations. Increases as high as 100-fold in the MICs and MBCs of CHG and BZC for SL1344 and 14028S were observed but were unstable. Changes in antibiotic susceptibility were not clinically significant. The use of MICs and MBCs combined with antibiotic susceptibility profiling and stability testing generated reproducible data that allowed for an initial prediction of the development of resistance to microbicides. These approaches measure characteristics that are directly relevant to the concern over resistance and cross-resistance development following the use of microbicides. These are low-cost, high-throughput techniques, allowing manufacturers to provide to regulatory bodies, promptly and efficiently, data supporting an early assessment of the risk of resistance development. PMID:25636848

  9. Development of a protocol for predicting bacterial resistance to microbicides.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Laura; Amzquita, Alejandro; McClure, Peter; Stewart, Sara; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2015-04-01

    Regulations dealing with microbicides in Europe and the United States are evolving and now require data on the risk of the development of resistance in organisms targeted by microbicidal products. There is no standard protocol to assess the risk of the development of resistance to microbicidal formulations. This study aimed to validate the use of changes in microbicide and antibiotic susceptibility as initial markers for predicting microbicide resistance and cross-resistance to antibiotics. Three industrial isolates (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and 14028S) were exposed to a shampoo, a mouthwash, eye makeup remover, and the microbicides contained within these formulations (chlorhexidine digluconate [CHG] and benzalkonium chloride [BZC]) under realistic, in-use conditions. Baseline and postexposure data were compared. No significant increases in the MIC or the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were observed for any strain after exposure to the three formulations. Increases as high as 100-fold in the MICs and MBCs of CHG and BZC for SL1344 and 14028S were observed but were unstable. Changes in antibiotic susceptibility were not clinically significant. The use of MICs and MBCs combined with antibiotic susceptibility profiling and stability testing generated reproducible data that allowed for an initial prediction of the development of resistance to microbicides. These approaches measure characteristics that are directly relevant to the concern over resistance and cross-resistance development following the use of microbicides. These are low-cost, high-throughput techniques, allowing manufacturers to provide to regulatory bodies, promptly and efficiently, data supporting an early assessment of the risk of resistance development. PMID:25636848

  10. A Treatment Plant Receiving Waste Water from Multiple Bulk Drug Manufacturers Is a Reservoir for Highly Multi-Drug Resistant Integron-Bearing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Walujkar, Sandeep A.; Charan, Shakti Singh; Moore, Edward R. B.; Larsson, D. G. Joakim; Shouche, Yogesh S.

    2013-01-01

    The arenas and detailed mechanisms for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental bacteria and pathogens are largely unclear. Selection pressures from antibiotics in situations where environmental bacteria and human pathogens meet are expected to increase the risks for such gene transfer events. We hypothesize that waste-water treatment plants (WWTPs) serving antibiotic manufacturing industries may provide such spawning grounds, given the high bacterial densities present there together with exceptionally strong and persistent selection pressures from the antibiotic-contaminated waste. Previous analyses of effluent from an Indian industrial WWTP that processes waste from bulk drug production revealed the presence of a range of drugs, including broad spectrum antibiotics at extremely high concentrations (mg/L range). In this study, we have characterized the antibiotic resistance profiles of 93 bacterial strains sampled at different stages of the treatment process from the WWTP against 39 antibiotics belonging to 12 different classes. A large majority (86%) of the strains were resistant to 20 or more antibiotics. Although there were no classically-recognized human pathogens among the 93 isolated strains, opportunistic pathogens such as Ochrobactrum intermedium, Providencia rettgeri, vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE), Aerococcus sp. and Citrobacter freundii were found to be highly resistant. One of the O. intermedium strains (ER1) was resistant to 36 antibiotics, while P. rettgeri (OSR3) was resistant to 35 antibiotics. Class 1 and 2 integrons were detected in 74/93 (80%) strains each, and 88/93 (95%) strains harbored at least one type of integron. The qPCR analysis of community DNA also showed an unprecedented high prevalence of integrons, suggesting that the bacteria living under such high selective pressure have an appreciable potential for genetic exchange of resistance genes via mobile gene cassettes. The present study provides insight into the mechanisms behind and the extent of multi-drug resistance among bacteria living under an extreme antibiotic selection pressure. PMID:24204801

  11. Correlation Models between Environmental Factors and Bacterial Resistance to Antimony and Copper

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zunji; Cao, Zhan; Qin, Dong; Zhu, Wentao; Wang, Qian; Li, Mingshun; Wang, Gejiao

    2013-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) and copper (Cu) are toxic heavy metals that are associated with a wide variety of minerals. Sb(III)-oxidizing bacteria that convert the toxic Sb(III) to the less toxic Sb(V) are potentially useful for environmental Sb bioremediation. A total of 125 culturable Sb(III)/Cu(II)-resistant bacteria from 11 different types of mining soils were isolated. Four strains identified as Arthrobacter, Acinetobacter and Janibacter exhibited notably high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Sb(III) (>10 mM),making them the most highly Sb(III)-resistant bacteria to date. Thirty-six strains were able to oxidize Sb(III), including Pseudomonas-, Comamonas-, Acinetobacter-, Sphingopyxis-, Paracoccus- Aminobacter-, Arthrobacter-, Bacillus-, Janibacter- and Variovorax-like isolates. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that the soil concentrations of Sb and Cu were the most obvious environmental factors affecting the culturable bacterial population structures. Stepwise linear regression was used to create two predictive models for the correlation between soil characteristics and the bacterial Sb(III) or Cu(II) resistance. The concentrations of Sb and Cu in the soil was the significant factors affecting the bacterial Sb(III) resistance, whereas the concentrations of S and P in the soil greatly affected the bacterial Cu(II) resistance. The two stepwise linear regression models that we derived are as follows: and [where the MICSb(III) and MICCu(II) represent the average bacterial MIC for the metal of each soil (µM), and the CSb, CCu, CS and CP represent concentrations for Sb, Cu, S and P (mg/kg) in soil, respectively, p<0.01]. The stepwise linear regression models we developed suggest that metals as well as other soil physicochemical parameters can contribute to bacterial resistance to metals. PMID:24205252

  12. Using experimental evolution to explore natural patterns between bacterial motility and resistance to bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Koskella, Britt; Taylor, Tiffany B; Bates, Jennifer; Buckling, Angus

    2011-11-01

    Resistance of bacteria to phages may be gained by alteration of surface proteins to which phages bind, a mechanism that is likely to be costly as these molecules typically have critical functions such as movement or nutrient uptake. To address this potential trade-off, we combine a systematic study of natural bacteria and phage populations with an experimental evolution approach. We compare motility, growth rate and susceptibility to local phages for 80 bacteria isolated from horse chestnut leaves and, contrary to expectation, find no negative association between resistance to phages and bacterial motility or growth rate. However, because correlational patterns (and their absence) are open to numerous interpretations, we test for any causal association between resistance to phages and bacterial motility using experimental evolution of a subset of bacteria in both the presence and absence of naturally associated phages. Again, we find no clear link between the acquisition of resistance and bacterial motility, suggesting that for these natural bacterial populations, phage-mediated selection is unlikely to shape bacterial motility, a key fitness trait for many bacteria in the phyllosphere. The agreement between the observed natural pattern and the experimental evolution results presented here demonstrates the power of this combined approach for testing evolutionary trade-offs. PMID:21509046

  13. Wear and corrosion resistance of anti-bacterial Ti-Cu-N coatings on titanium implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Xiangyu; He, Xiaojing; Li, Meng; Huang, Xiaobo; Hang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Bin

    2014-10-01

    Anti-bacterial coatings with excellent wear and corrosion resistance play a vital role in ensuring the durability of implant materials in constant use. To this end, a novel anti-bacterial surface modification by combining magnetron sputtering with plasma nitriding was adopted in this paper to fabricate Cu-bearing Ti-based nitrides coatings (Ti-Cu-N) on titanium surface. The anti-bacterial properties of Ti-Cu-N coatings were evaluated. The microstructures and composition of the coatings were investigated by using FESEM, EDS, GDOES, XRD. The wear and corrosion resistance of the coatings were investigated. The results confirmed that an anti-bacterial Ti-Cu-N coating with a thickness of 6 ?m and good adhesive strength to substrate was successfully achieved on titanium surface. As implied by XRD, the coatings were consisted of TiN, Ti2N, TiN0.3 phases. The surface micro-hardness and wear resistance of Ti-Cu-N coatings were significantly enhanced after plasma nitriding treatment. The analysis of potentiodynamic polarization curves and Nyquist plots obtained in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution suggested that the Ti-Cu-N coatings also exhibited an excellent corrosion resistance. As mentioned above, it can be concluded that the duplex-treatment reported here was a versatile approach to develop anti-bacterial Ti-Cu-N coatings with excellent comprehensive properties on titanium implants.

  14. Emerging novel and antimicrobial-resistant respiratory tract infections: new drug development and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Memish, Ziad A; Maeurer, Markus; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Denning, David W; Hayden, Frederick G; Hui, David S

    2014-11-01

    The emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens for which diminishing treatment options are available is of major global concern. New viral respiratory tract infections with epidemic potential, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, swine-origin influenza A H1N1, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection, require development of new antiviral agents. The substantial rise in the global numbers of patients with respiratory tract infections caused by pan-antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and multiazole-resistant fungi has focused attention on investments into development of new drugs and treatment regimens. Successful treatment outcomes for patients with respiratory tract infections across all health-care settings will necessitate rapid, precise diagnosis and more effective and pathogen-specific therapies. This Series paper describes the development and use of new antimicrobial agents and immune-based and host-directed therapies for a range of conventional and emerging viral, bacterial, and fungal causes of respiratory tract infections. PMID:25189352

  15. Drug resistance mediated by AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangbing; Thiel, Kristina W; Leslie, Kimberly K

    2014-01-01

    AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC has been shown to promote cancer progression and development. Overexpression of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC correlates with angiogenesis, metastasis and chemoresistance to various chemotherapy agents in cancer cells originating from a variety of tissues. In this review article, we focus on the role of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC in drug resistance. Mechanistic studies have shown that AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC is involved in classical oncogenic pathways including Ha-Ras, myc, NF?B and PI3K/Akt. AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC also promotes protective autophagy by activating AMP kinase and autophagy-related gene 5. Another reported mechanism by which AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC regulates drug resistance is by increasing loading of multidrug resistance gene (MDR) 1 mRNA to the polysome, thereby facilitating MDR1 protein translation. More recently, a novel function for AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC as an RNA binding protein was elucidated, which has the potential to impact expression of drug sensitivity or resistance genes. Finally, AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC acts in microRNA-directed gene silencing via an interaction with staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1 (SND1), a component of the RNA-induced silencing complex. Altered microRNA expression and activity induced by AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC represents an additional way that AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC may cause drug resistance in cancer. The multiple functions of AEG-1/MTDH/LYRIC in drug resistance highlight that it is a viable target as an anti-cancer agent for a wide variety of cancers. PMID:23889990

  16. Broad-spectrum in vitro antibacterial activities of clay minerals against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    HAYDEL, SHELLEY E.; REMENIH, CHRISTINE M.; WILLIAMS, LYNDA B.

    2008-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objectives The capacity to properly address the worldwide incidence of infectious diseases lies in the ability to detect, prevent, and effectively treat these infections. Therefore, identifying and analyzing inhibitory agents are worthwhile endeavors in an era when few new classes of effective antimicrobials have been developed. The use of geological nanomaterials to heal skin infections has been evident since the earliest recorded history, and specific clay minerals may prove valuable in the treatment of bacterial diseases, including infections for which there are no effective antibiotics, such as Buruli ulcer and multi-drug resistant infections. Methods We have subjected two iron-rich clay minerals, which have previously been used to treat Buruli ulcer patients, to broth culture testing of antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant pathogenic bacteria to assess the feasibility of using clay minerals as therapeutic agents. Results One specific mineral, CsAg02, demonstrated bactericidal activity against pathogenic Escherichia coli, extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) E. coli, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Mycobacterium marinum and a combined bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-resistant S. aureus (PRSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Mycobacterium smegmatis, while another mineral with similar structure and bulk crystal chemistry, CsAr02, had no effect on or enhanced bacterial growth. The <0.2 ?m fraction of CsAg02 and CsAg02 heated to 200C or 550C retained bactericidal activity, while cation-exchanged CsAg02 and CsAg02 heated to 900C no longer killed E. coli. Conclusions Our results indicate that specific mineral products have intrinsic, heat-stable antibacterial properties, which could provide an inexpensive treatment against numerous human bacterial infections. PMID:18070832

  17. Additional Drug Resistance of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Patients in 9 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Tracy; Ershova, Julia; Tupasi, Thelma; Caoili, Janice Campos; Van Der Walt, Martie; Kvasnovsky, Charlotte; Yagui, Martin; Bayona, Jaime; Contreras, Carmen; Leimane, Vaira; Via, Laura E.; Kim, HeeJin; Akksilp, Somsak; Kazennyy, Boris Y.; Volchenkov, Grigory V.; Jou, Ruwen; Kliiman, Kai; Demikhova, Olga V.; Cegielski, J. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Data from a large multicenter observational study of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) were analyzed to simulate the possible use of 2 new approaches to treatment of MDR TB: a short (9-month) regimen and a bedaquiline-containing regimen. Of 1,254 patients, 952 (75.9%) had no resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs and thus would qualify as candidates for the 9-month regimen; 302 (24.1%) patients with resistance to a fluoroquinolone or second-line injectable drug would qualify as candidates for a bedaquiline-containing regimen in accordance with published guidelines. Among candidates for the 9-month regimen, standardized drug-susceptibility tests demonstrated susceptibility to a median of 5 (interquartile range 56) drugs. Among candidates for bedaquiline, drug-susceptibility tests demonstrated susceptibility to a median of 3 (interquartile range 24) drugs; 26% retained susceptibility to <2 drugs. These data may assist national TB programs in planning to implement new drugs and drug regimens. PMID:25988299

  18. Drug Targets and Mechanisms of Resistance in the Anaerobic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Upcroft, Peter; Upcroft, Jacqueline A.

    2001-01-01

    The anaerobic protozoa Giardia duodenalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Entamoeba histolytica infect up to a billion people each year. G. duodenalis and E. histolytica are primarily pathogens of the intestinal tract, although E. histolytica can form abscesses and invade other organs, where it can be fatal if left untreated. T. vaginalis infection is a sexually transmitted infection causing vaginitis and acute inflammatory disease of the genital mucosa. T. vaginalis has also been reported in the urinary tract, fallopian tubes, and pelvis and can cause pneumonia, bronchitis, and oral lesions. Respiratory infections can be acquired perinatally. T. vaginalis infections have been associated with preterm delivery, low birth weight, and increased mortality as well as predisposing to human immunodeficiency virus infection, AIDS, and cervical cancer. All three organisms lack mitochondria and are susceptible to the nitroimidazole metronidazole because of similar low-redox-potential anaerobic metabolic pathways. Resistance to metronidazole and other drugs has been observed clinically and in the laboratory. Laboratory studies have identified the enzyme that activates metronidazole, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, to its nitroso form and distinct mechanisms of decreasing drug susceptibility that are induced in each organism. Although the nitroimidazoles have been the drug family of choice for treating the anaerobic protozoa, G. duodenalis is less susceptible to other antiparasitic drugs, such as furazolidone, albendazole, and quinacrine. Resistance has been demonstrated for each agent, and the mechanism of resistance has been investigated. Metronidazole resistance in T. vaginalis is well documented, and the principal mechanisms have been defined. Bypass metabolism, such as alternative oxidoreductases, have been discovered in both organisms. Aerobic versus anaerobic resistance in T. vaginalis is discussed. Mechanisms of metronidazole resistance in E. histolytica have recently been investigated using laboratory-induced resistant isolates. Instead of downregulation of the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and ferredoxin pathway as seen in G. duodenalis and T. vaginalis, E. histolytica induces oxidative stress mechanisms, including superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin. The review examines the value of investigating both clinical and laboratory-induced syngeneic drug-resistant isolates and dissection of the complementary data obtained. Comparison of resistance mechanisms in anaerobic bacteria and the parasitic protozoa is discussed as well as the value of studies of the epidemiology of resistance. PMID:11148007

  19. Antibiotic-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections in Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Federico; Adachi, Javier; Bonomo, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cancer are at high risk for infections caused by antibiotic resistant gram-negative bacteria. In this review, we summarize trends among the major pathogens and clinical syndromes associated with antibiotic resistant gram-negative bacterial infection in patients with malignancy, with special attention to carbapenem and expanded-spectrum β-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia—all major threats to our cancer patients. Optimal therapy for these antibiotic-resistant pathogens still remains to be determined. PMID:25352627

  20. Relationship between Ceftolozane-Tazobactam Exposure and Drug Resistance Amplification in a Hollow-Fiber Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    VanScoy, Brian; Mendes, Rodrigo E.; Castanheira, Mariana; McCauley, Jennifer; Bhavnani, Sujata M.; Forrest, Alan; Jones, Ronald N.; Okusanya, Olanrewaju O.; Friedrich, Lawrence V.; Steenbergen, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In an era of rapidly emerging antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, it is critical to understand the importance of the relationships among drug exposure, duration of therapy, and selection of drug resistance. Herein we describe the results of studies designed to determine the ceftolozane-tazobactam exposure necessary to prevent the amplification of drug-resistant bacterial subpopulations in a hollow-fiber infection model. The challenge isolate was a CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli isolate genetically engineered to transcribe a moderate level of blaCTX-M-15. This organism's blaCTX-M-15 transcription level was confirmed by relative quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR), ?-lactamase hydrolytic assays, and a ceftolozane MIC value of 16 mg/liter. In these studies, the experimental duration (10 days), ceftolozane-tazobactam dose ratio (2:1), and dosing interval (every 8 h) were selected to approximate those expected to be used clinically. The ceftolozane-tazobactam doses studied ranged from 125-62.5 to 1,500-750 mg. Negative- and positive-control arms included no treatment and piperacillin-tazobactam at 4.5 g every 6 h, respectively. An inverted-U-shaped function best described the relationship between bacterial drug resistance amplification and drug exposure. The least- and most-intensive ceftolozane-tazobactam dosing regimens, i.e., 125-62.5, 750-375, 1,000-500, and 1,500-750 mg, did not amplify drug resistance, while drug resistance amplification was observed with intermediate-intensity dosing regimens (250-125 and 500-250 mg). For the intermediate-intensity ceftolozane-tazobactam dosing regimens, the drug-resistant subpopulation became the dominant population by days 4 to 6. The more-intensive ceftolozane-tazobactam dosing regimens (750-375, 1,000-500, and 1,500-750 mg) not only prevented drug resistance amplification but also virtually sterilized the model system. These data support the selection of ceftolozane-tazobactam dosing regimens that minimize the potential for on-therapy drug resistance amplification. PMID:23774429

  1. Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence: a Successful or Deleterious Association in the Bacterial World?

    PubMed Central

    Beceiro, Alejandro; Tomás, María

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Hosts and bacteria have coevolved over millions of years, during which pathogenic bacteria have modified their virulence mechanisms to adapt to host defense systems. Although the spread of pathogens has been hindered by the discovery and widespread use of antimicrobial agents, antimicrobial resistance has increased globally. The emergence of resistant bacteria has accelerated in recent years, mainly as a result of increased selective pressure. However, although antimicrobial resistance and bacterial virulence have developed on different timescales, they share some common characteristics. This review considers how bacterial virulence and fitness are affected by antibiotic resistance and also how the relationship between virulence and resistance is affected by different genetic mechanisms (e.g., coselection and compensatory mutations) and by the most prevalent global responses. The interplay between these factors and the associated biological costs depend on four main factors: the bacterial species involved, virulence and resistance mechanisms, the ecological niche, and the host. The development of new strategies involving new antimicrobials or nonantimicrobial compounds and of novel diagnostic methods that focus on high-risk clones and rapid tests to detect virulence markers may help to resolve the increasing problem of the association between virulence and resistance, which is becoming more beneficial for pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23554414

  2. Interferon in resistance to bacterial and protozoan infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Gould, Cheryl L.; Kierszenbaum, Felipe; Degee, Antonie L. W.; Mansfield, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of genetic differences in mouse strains on the modulation of protozoan infections by interferon (IFN) were investigated. In one set of experiments, three different strains of mice were injected with T. cruzi, and their sera were assayed at five time intervals for IFN titer. A greater quantity of IFN was produced by mouse strains that were susceptible to T. cruzi infection than by the more resistant strain. In another set of experiments, spleen cell cultures from inbred strains of mice were challenged with an antigen made from T.b. rhodesiense. The cells from mice resistant to infection, produced greater amounts of IFN-gamma than did cells from the susceptible mice. In a third set of experiments, it was found that mice injected with T.b. rhodesiense before being infected with a diabetogenic virus (EMC-D) were resistant to the effects of the virus and did not produce virus-specific antibody.

  3. Examination of Bacterial Resistance to Exogenous Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Privett, Benjamin J.; Broadnax, Angela D.; Bauman, Susanne J.; Riccio, Daniel A.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    While much research has been directed to harnessing the antimicrobial properties of exogenous NO, the possibility of bacteria developing resistance to such therapy has not been thoroughly studied. Herein, we evaluate potential NO resistance using spontaneous and serial passage mutagenesis assays. Specifically, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were systematically exposed to NO-releasing 75mol% MPTMS-TEOS nitrosothiol particles at or below minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels. In the spontaneous mutagenesis assay, bacteria that survived exposure to lethal concentrations of NO showed no increase in MIC. Similarly, no increase in MIC was observed in the serial passage mutagenesis assay after exposure of these species to sub-inhibitory concentrations of NO through 20 d. PMID:22349019

  4. "Applied" Aspects of the Drug Resistance Strategies Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; Miller-Day, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the applied aspects of our Drug Resistance Strategies Project. We argue that a new definitional distinction is needed to expand the notion of "applied" from the traditional notion of utilizing theory, which we call "applied.1," in order to consider theory-grounded, theory testing and theory developing applied research. We

  5. PREVALENCE OF MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT SALMONELLA IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella in dairy cattle and which groups of cattle may be more likely to harbor MDR Salmonella, we sampled animals on four commercial dairy farms that all utilized a central calf/heifer raising facility. Fecal samples were obtained from h...

  6. Modeling mass drug treatment and resistant filaria disease transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuady, A. M.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.; Tasman, H.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2014-03-01

    It has been indicated that a long term application of combined mass drug treatment may contribute to the development of drug resistance in lymphatic filariasis. This phenomenon is not well understood due to the complexity of filaria life cycle. In this paper we formulate a mathematical model for the spread of mass drug resistant in a filaria endemic region. The model is represented in a 13-dimensional Host-Vector system. The basic reproductive ratio of the system which is obtained from the next generation matrix, and analysis of stability of both the disease free equilibrium and the coexistence equilibria are shown. Numerical simulation for long term dynamics for possible field conditions is also shown.

  7. Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in Relapse and Refractory Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Chi; Lin, Sheng-Fung

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy that remains incurable because most patients eventually relapse or become refractory to current treatments. Although the treatments have improved, the major problem in MM is resistance to therapy. Clonal evolution of MM cells and bone marrow microenvironment changes contribute to drug resistance. Some mechanisms affect both MM cells and microenvironment, including the up- and downregulation of microRNAs and programmed death factor 1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 interaction. Here, we review the pathogenesis of MM cells and bone marrow microenvironment and highlight possible drug resistance mechanisms. We also review a potential molecular targeting treatment and immunotherapy for patients with refractory or relapse MM. PMID:26649299

  8. Antibiotic Resistant Bacterial Profiles of Anaerobic Swine Lagoon Effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. The aim of this study was to assess antibi...

  9. Antibiotic resistant bacterial profiles of anaerobic swine lagoon effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although land application of swine manure lagoon effluent is a common and effective method of disposal, the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, both pathogenic and commensal can complicate already understood issues associated with its safe disposal. To better understand this, more data is ne...

  10. Role of the Mmr efflux pump in drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Liliana; Villellas, Cristina; Bailo, Rebeca; Viveiros, Miguel; Ansa, Jos A

    2013-02-01

    Efflux pumps are membrane proteins capable of actively transporting a broad range of substrates from the cytoplasm to the exterior of the cell. Increased efflux activity in response to drug treatment may be the first step in the development of bacterial drug resistance. Previous studies showed that the efflux pump Mmr was significantly overexpressed in strains exposed to isoniazid. In the work to be described, we constructed mutants lacking or overexpressing Mmr in order to clarify the role of this efflux pump in the development of resistance to isoniazid and other drugs in M. tuberculosis. The mmr knockout mutant showed an increased susceptibility to ethidium bromide, tetraphenylphosphonium, and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Overexpression of mmr caused a decreased susceptibility to ethidium bromide, acriflavine, and safranin O that was obliterated in the presence of the efflux inhibitors verapamil and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Isoniazid susceptibility was not affected by the absence or overexpression of mmr. The fluorometric method allowed the detection of a decreased efflux of ethidium bromide in the knockout mutant, whereas the overexpressed strain showed increased efflux of this dye. This increased efflux activity was inhibited in the presence of efflux inhibitors. Under our experimental conditions, we have found that efflux pump Mmr is mainly involved in the susceptibility to quaternary compounds such as ethidium bromide and disinfectants such as CTAB. The contribution of this efflux pump to isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis still needs to be further elucidated. PMID:23165464

  11. Enterococcus faecalis Constitutes an Unusual Bacterial Model in Lysozyme Resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Hbert, Laurent; Courtin, Pascal; Torelli, Riccardo; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Auffray, Yanick; Benachour, Abdellah

    2007-01-01

    Lysozyme is an important and widespread compound of the host constitutive defense system, and it is assumed that Enterococcus faecalis is one of the few bacteria that are almost completely lysozyme resistant. On the basis of the sequence analysis of the whole genome of E. faecalis V583 strain, we identified two genes that are potentially involved in lysozyme resistance, EF_0783 and EF_1843. Protein products of these two genes share significant homology with Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase (OatA) and Streptococcus pneumoniae N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (PgdA), respectively. In order to determine whether EF_0783 and EF_1843 are involved in lysozyme resistance, we constructed their corresponding mutants and a double mutant. The ?EF_0783 mutant and ?EF_0783 ?EF_1843 double mutant were shown to be more sensitive to lysozyme than the parental E. faecalis JH2-2 strain and ?EF_1843 mutant were. However, compared to other bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes or S. pneumoniae, the tolerance of ?EF_0783 and ?EF_0783 ?EF_1843 mutants towards lysozyme remains very high. Peptidoglycan structure analysis showed that EF_0783 modifies the peptidoglycan by O acetylation of N-acetyl muramic acid, while the EF_1843 deletion has no obvious effect on peptidoglycan structure under the same conditions. Moreover, the EF_0783 and EF_1843 deletions seem to significantly affect the ability of E. faecalis to survive within murine macrophages. In all, while EF_0783 is currently involved in the lysozyme resistance of E. faecalis, peptidoglycan O acetylation and de-N-acetylation are not the main mechanisms conferring high levels of lysozyme resistance to E. faecalis. PMID:17785473

  12. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Bacterial Blight Resistance in Rice Using Bulked Segregant Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xueying; Yang, Yong; Wang, Xuming; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Wenhao; Yu, Chulang; Cheng, Chen; Cheng, Ye; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Oryza meyeriana is highly resistant to rice bacterial blight (BB) and this resistance trait has been transferred to cultivated rice (O. sativa) using asymmetric somatic hybridization. However, no resistance genes have yet been cloned. In the present study, a progeny of the somatic hybridization with high BB resistance was crossed with a rice cultivar with high BB susceptibility to develop an F2 population. Using bulked segregant analysis (BSA), 17 polymorphic markers that were linked to rice BB resistance were obtained through scanning a total of 186 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and sequence-tagged site (STS) markers, evenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. A genetic linkage map was then constructed based on the 17 linkage markers and the F2 segregating population, which was followed by mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for BB resistance. Three QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1, 3 and 5, respectively, and the alleles of the resistant parent at any of the QTLs increased BB resistance. All of the three QTLs had a strong effect on resistance, explaining about 21.5%, 12.3% and 39.2% of the resistance variance, respectively. These QTLs were different from the loci of the BB resistance genes that have been identified in previous studies. The QTLs mapped in this work will facilitate the isolation of novel BB resistance genes and their utilization in rice resistance breeding. PMID:24995697

  13. Exploring N-acylhydrazone derivatives against clinical resistant bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Lannes, Andressa C; Leal, Bruno; Novais, Juliana S; Lione, Viviane; Monteiro, Georgia C T S; Loureno, Andr L; Sathler, Plnio C; Jordo, Alessandro K; Rodrigues, Carlos R; Cabral, Lcio M; Cunha, Anna Claudia; Campos, Vinicius; Ferreira, Vtor F; de Souza, Maria Ceclia B V; Santos, Dilvani O; Castro, Helena C

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial multiresistance is a health problem worldwide that demands new antimicrobials for treating bacterial-related infections. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity and the theoretical toxicology profile of N-substituted-phenylamino-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbohydrazide derivatives against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria clinical strains. On that purpose we determined the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations, the in vitro cytotoxicity, and in silico risk profiles, also comparing with antimicrobial agents of clinical use. Among the 16 derivatives analyzed, four nitrofurans (N-H-FUR-NO(2), N-Br-FUR-NO(2), N-F-FUR-NO(2), N-Cl-FUR-NO(2)) showed promising MIC and MBC values (MIC = MBC = 1-16 ?g/mL). The experimental data revealed the potential of these derivatives, which were comparable to the current antimicrobials with similar bactericidal and bacteriostatic profiles. Therefore, these molecules may be feasible options to be explored for treating infections caused by multiresistant strains. Our in vitro and in silico toxicity reinforced these results as these derivatives presented low cytotoxicity against human macrophages and low theoretical risk profile for irritant and reproductive effects compared to the current antimicrobials (e.g., vancomycin and ciprofloxacin). The molecular modeling analysis also revealed positive values for their theoretical druglikeness and drugscore. The presence of a 5-nitro-2-furfur-2-yl group seems to be essential for the antimicrobial activity, which pointed these acylhydrazone derivatives as promising for designing more potent and safer compounds. PMID:24807624

  14. Rapid detection of bacterial resistance to antibiotics using AFM cantilevers as nanomechanical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, G.; Alonso-Sarduy, L.; Rio, L. Marques; Bizzini, A.; Trampuz, A.; Notz, J.; Dietler, G.; Kasas, S.

    2013-07-01

    The widespread misuse of drugs has increased the number of multiresistant bacteria, and this means that tools that can rapidly detect and characterize bacterial response to antibiotics are much needed in the management of infections. Various techniques, such as the resazurin-reduction assays, the mycobacterial growth indicator tube or polymerase chain reaction-based methods, have been used to investigate bacterial metabolism and its response to drugs. However, many are relatively expensive or unable to distinguish between living and dead bacteria. Here we show that the fluctuations of highly sensitive atomic force microscope cantilevers can be used to detect low concentrations of bacteria, characterize their metabolism and quantitatively screen (within minutes) their response to antibiotics. We applied this methodology to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, showing that live bacteria produced larger cantilever fluctuations than bacteria exposed to antibiotics. Our preliminary experiments suggest that the fluctuation is associated with bacterial metabolism.

  15. Nanomechanical detection of antibiotic-mucopeptide binding in a model for superbug drug resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndieyira, Joseph Wafula; Watari, Moyu; Barrera, Alejandra Donoso; Zhou, Dejian; Vögtli, Manuel; Batchelor, Matthew; Cooper, Matthew A.; Strunz, Torsten; Horton, Mike A.; Abell, Chris; Rayment, Trevor; Aeppli, Gabriel; McKendry, Rachel A.

    2008-11-01

    The alarming growth of the antibiotic-resistant superbugs methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) is driving the development of new technologies to investigate antibiotics and their modes of action. We report the label-free detection of vancomycin binding to bacterial cell wall precursor analogues (mucopeptides) on cantilever arrays, with 10 nM sensitivity and at clinically relevant concentrations in blood serum. Differential measurements have quantified binding constants for vancomycin-sensitive and vancomycin-resistant mucopeptide analogues. Moreover, by systematically modifying the mucopeptide density we gain new insights into the origin of surface stress. We propose that stress is a product of a local chemical binding factor and a geometrical factor describing the mechanical connectivity of regions activated by local binding in terms of a percolation process. Our findings place BioMEMS devices in a new class of percolative systems. The percolation concept will underpin the design of devices and coatings to significantly lower the drug detection limit and may also have an impact on our understanding of antibiotic drug action in bacteria.

  16. Insights into the amplification of bacterial resistance to erythromycin in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei-Ting; Yuan, Qing-Bin; Yang, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are significant reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance. However, little is known about wastewater treatment effects on the variation of antibiotic resistance. The shifts of bacterial resistance to erythromycin, a macrolide widely used in human medicine, on a lab-scale activated sludge system fed with real wastewater was investigated from levels of bacteria, community and genes, in this study. The resistance variation of total heterotrophic bacteria was studied during the biological treatment process, based on culture dependent method. The alterations of bacterial community resistant to erythromycin and nine typical erythromycin resistance genes were explored with molecular approaches, including high-throughput sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that the total heterotrophs tolerance level to erythromycin concentrations (higher than 32 mg/L) was significantly amplified during the activated sludge treatment, with the prevalence increased from 9.6% to 21.8%. High-throughput sequencing results demonstrated an obvious increase of the total heterotrophic bacterial diversity resistant to erythromycin. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the two dominant phyla in the influent and effluent of the bioreactor. However, the prevalence of Proteobacteria decreased from 76% to 59% while the total phyla number increased greatly from 18 to 29 through activated sludge treatment. The gene proportions of erm(A), mef(E) and erm(D) were greatly amplified after biological treatment. It is proposed that the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes through the variable mixtures of bacteria in the activated sludge might be the reason for the antibiotic resistance amplification. The amplified risk of antibiotic resistance in wastewater treatment needs to be paid more attention. PMID:25957255

  17. Natural products as a source of drug leads to overcome drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Silver, Lynn L

    2015-11-01

    Novel antibacterials may be found that can enhance the pipeline of therapeutics capable of overcoming antibiotic resistance by a return to exploration of natural products. Such novel products may be derived from both standard and previously uncultivable sources, and enriched by expression of previously unseen antibiotics predicted by genome mining of productive bacterial genera. Hypersensitive whole cell phenotypic screens can be used to detect novel secondary metabolites from both standard and newly uncovered sources. PMID:26517443

  18. Smart doxorubicin nanoparticles with high drug payload for enhanced chemotherapy against drug resistance and cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Caitong; Zhou, Mengjiao; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wei, Weijia; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-03-01

    Considering the obvious advantages in efficacy and price, doxorubicin (DOX) has been widely used for a range of cancers, which is usually encapsulated in various nanocarriers for drug delivery. Although effective, in most nanocarrier-based delivery systems, the drug loading capacity of DOX is rather low; this can lead to undesired systemic toxicity and excretion concern. Herein, we report for the first time the usage of pure doxorubicin nanoparticles (DOX NPs) without addition of any carriers for enhanced chemotherapy against drug-resistance. The drug payload reaches as high as 90.47%, which largely surpassed those in previous reports. These PEG stabilized DOX NPs exhibit good biocompatibility and stability, long blood circulation time, fast release in an acidic environment and high accumulation in tumors. Compared with free DOX, DOX NPs display a dramatically enhanced anticancer therapeutic efficacy in the inhibition of cell and tumor growth. Moreover, they can also be readily incorporated with other anticancer drugs for synergistic chemotherapy to overcome the drug resistance of cancers. The fluorescence properties of DOX also endow these NPs with imaging capabilities, thus making it a multifunctional system for diagnosis and treatment. This work demonstrates great potential of DOX NPs for cancer diagnosis, therapy and overcoming drug tolerance.Considering the obvious advantages in efficacy and price, doxorubicin (DOX) has been widely used for a range of cancers, which is usually encapsulated in various nanocarriers for drug delivery. Although effective, in most nanocarrier-based delivery systems, the drug loading capacity of DOX is rather low; this can lead to undesired systemic toxicity and excretion concern. Herein, we report for the first time the usage of pure doxorubicin nanoparticles (DOX NPs) without addition of any carriers for enhanced chemotherapy against drug-resistance. The drug payload reaches as high as 90.47%, which largely surpassed those in previous reports. These PEG stabilized DOX NPs exhibit good biocompatibility and stability, long blood circulation time, fast release in an acidic environment and high accumulation in tumors. Compared with free DOX, DOX NPs display a dramatically enhanced anticancer therapeutic efficacy in the inhibition of cell and tumor growth. Moreover, they can also be readily incorporated with other anticancer drugs for synergistic chemotherapy to overcome the drug resistance of cancers. The fluorescence properties of DOX also endow these NPs with imaging capabilities, thus making it a multifunctional system for diagnosis and treatment. This work demonstrates great potential of DOX NPs for cancer diagnosis, therapy and overcoming drug tolerance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00290g

  19. [Bacterial efflux pumps - their role in antibiotic resistance and potential inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Hricov, Kristna; Kol?, Milan

    2014-12-01

    Efflux pumps capable of actively draining antibiotic agents from bacterial cells may be considered one of potential mechanisms of the development of antimicrobial resistance. The most important group of efflux pumps capable of removing several types of antibiotics include RND (resistance - nodulation - division) pumps. These are three proteins that cross the bacterial cell wall, allowing direct expulsion of the agent out from the bacterial cell. The most investigated efflux pumps are the AcrAB-TolC system in Escherichia coli and the MexAB-OprM system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Moreover, efflux pumps are able to export other than antibacterial agents such as disinfectants, thus decreasing their effectiveness. One potential approach to inactivation of an efflux pump is to use the so-called efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs). Potential inhibitors tested in vitro involve, for example, phenylalanyl-arginyl-b-naphthylamide (PAbN), carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or agents of the phenothiazine class. PMID:25702054

  20. Resistance of Aerosolized Bacterial Viruses to Relative Humidity and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Verreault, Daniel; Marcoux-Voiselle, Mlissa; Turgeon, Nathalie; Moineau, Sylvain; Duchaine, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    The use of aerosolized bacteriophages as surrogates for hazardous viruses might simplify and accelerate the discovery of links between viral components and their persistence in the airborne state under diverse environmental conditions. In this study, four structurally distinct lytic phages, MS2 (single-stranded RNA [ssRNA]), ?6 (double-stranded RNA [dsRNA]), ?X174 (single-stranded DNA [ssDNA]), and PR772 (double-stranded DNA [dsDNA]), were nebulized into a rotating chamber and exposed to various levels of relative humidity (RH) and temperature as well as to germicidal UV radiation. The aerosolized viral particles were allowed to remain airborne for up to 14 h before being sampled for analysis by plaque assays and quantitative PCRs. Phages ?6 and MS2 were the most resistant at low levels of relative humidity, while ?X174 was more resistant at 80% RH. Phage ?6 lost its infectivity immediately after exposure to 30C and 80% RH. The infectivity of all tested phages rapidly declined as a function of the exposure time to UVC radiation, phage MS2 being the most resistant. Taken altogether, our data indicate that these aerosolized phages behave differently under various environmental conditions and highlight the necessity of carefully selecting viral simulants in bioaerosol studies. PMID:26253683

  1. Enteric dysbiosis promotes antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection: systemic dissemination of resistant and commensal bacteria through epithelial transcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Linda Chia-Hui; Shih, Yi-An; Wu, Li-Ling; Lin, Yang-Ding; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Peng, Wei-Hao; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Wei, Shu-Chen; Turner, Jerrold R.

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic usage promotes intestinal colonization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, whether resistant bacteria gain dominance in enteric microflora or disseminate to extraintestinal viscera remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate temporal diversity changes in microbiota and transepithelial routes of bacterial translocation after antibiotic-resistant enterobacterial colonization. Mice drinking water with or without antibiotics were intragastrically gavaged with ampicillin-resistant (Amp-r) nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and given normal water afterward. The composition and spatial distribution of intestinal bacteria were evaluated using 16S rDNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Bacterial endocytosis in epithelial cells was examined using gentamicin resistance assay and transmission electromicroscopy. Paracellular permeability was assessed by tight junctional immunostaining and measured by tissue conductance and luminal-to-serosal dextran fluxes. Our results showed that antibiotic treatment enabled intestinal colonization and transient dominance of orally acquired Amp-r E. coli in mice. The colonized Amp-r E. coli peaked on day 3 postinoculation and was competed out after 1 wk, as evidenced by the recovery of commensals, such as Escherichia, Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus. Mucosal penetration and extraintestinal dissemination of exogenous and endogenous enterobacteria were correlated with abnormal epithelial transcytosis but uncoupled with paracellular tight junctional damage. In conclusion, antibiotic-induced enteric dysbiosis predisposes to exogenous infection and causes systemic dissemination of both antibiotic-resistant and commensal enterobacteria through transcytotic routes across epithelial layers. These results may help explain the susceptibility to sepsis in antibiotic-resistant enteric bacterial infection. PMID:25059827

  2. Enteric dysbiosis promotes antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection: systemic dissemination of resistant and commensal bacteria through epithelial transcytosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Linda Chia-Hui; Shih, Yi-An; Wu, Li-Ling; Lin, Yang-Ding; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Peng, Wei-Hao; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Wei, Shu-Chen; Turner, Jerrold R; Ni, Yen-Hsuan

    2014-10-15

    Antibiotic usage promotes intestinal colonization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, whether resistant bacteria gain dominance in enteric microflora or disseminate to extraintestinal viscera remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate temporal diversity changes in microbiota and transepithelial routes of bacterial translocation after antibiotic-resistant enterobacterial colonization. Mice drinking water with or without antibiotics were intragastrically gavaged with ampicillin-resistant (Amp-r) nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and given normal water afterward. The composition and spatial distribution of intestinal bacteria were evaluated using 16S rDNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Bacterial endocytosis in epithelial cells was examined using gentamicin resistance assay and transmission electromicroscopy. Paracellular permeability was assessed by tight junctional immunostaining and measured by tissue conductance and luminal-to-serosal dextran fluxes. Our results showed that antibiotic treatment enabled intestinal colonization and transient dominance of orally acquired Amp-r E. coli in mice. The colonized Amp-r E. coli peaked on day 3 postinoculation and was competed out after 1 wk, as evidenced by the recovery of commensals, such as Escherichia, Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus. Mucosal penetration and extraintestinal dissemination of exogenous and endogenous enterobacteria were correlated with abnormal epithelial transcytosis but uncoupled with paracellular tight junctional damage. In conclusion, antibiotic-induced enteric dysbiosis predisposes to exogenous infection and causes systemic dissemination of both antibiotic-resistant and commensal enterobacteria through transcytotic routes across epithelial layers. These results may help explain the susceptibility to sepsis in antibiotic-resistant enteric bacterial infection. PMID:25059827

  3. Balancing drug resistance and growth rates via compensatory mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Ines; Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J; Johnston, Geoffrey L; Dhingra, Satish K; Ecker, Andrea; Lewis, Rebecca E; de Almeida, Mariana Justino; Straimer, Judith; Henrich, Philipp P; Palatulan, Eugene; Johnson, David J; Coburn-Flynn, Olivia; Sanchez, Cecilia; Lehane, Adele M; Lanzer, Michael; Fidock, David A

    2015-07-01

    The widespread use of chloroquine to treat Plasmodium falciparum infections has resulted in the selection and dissemination of variant haplotypes of the primary resistance determinant PfCRT. These haplotypes have encountered drug pressure and within-host competition with wild-type drug-sensitive parasites. To examine these selective forces in vitro, we genetically engineered P.?falciparum to express geographically diverse PfCRT haplotypes. Variant alleles from the Philippines (PH1 and PH2, which differ solely by the C72S mutation) both conferred a moderate gain of chloroquine resistance and a reduction in growth rates in vitro. Of the two, PH2 showed higher IC50 values, contrasting with reduced growth. Furthermore, a highly mutated pfcrt allele from Cambodia (Cam734) conferred moderate chloroquine resistance and enhanced growth rates, when tested against wild-type pfcrt in co-culture competition assays. These three alleles mediated cross-resistance to amodiaquine, an antimalarial drug widely used in Africa. Each allele, along with the globally prevalent Dd2 and 7G8 alleles, rendered parasites more susceptible to lumefantrine, the partner drug used in the leading first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy. These data reveal ongoing region-specific evolution of PfCRT that impacts drug susceptibility and relative fitness in settings of mixed infections, and raise important considerations about optimal agents to treat chloroquine-resistant malaria. PMID:25898991

  4. Balancing drug resistance and growth rates via compensatory mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ines; Gabryszewski, Stanislaw J.; Johnston, Geoffrey L.; Dhingra, Satish K.; Ecker, Andrea; Lewis, Rebecca E.; de Almeida, Mariana Justino; Straimer, Judith; Henrich, Philipp H.; Palatulan, Eugene; Johnson, David J.; Coburn-Flynn, Olivia; Sanchez, Cecilia; Lehane, Adele M.; Lanzer, Michael; Fidock, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The widespread use of chloroquine to treat Plasmodium falciparum infections has resulted in the selection and dissemination of variant haplotypes of the primary resistance determinant PfCRT. These haplotypes have encountered drug pressure and within-host competition with wild-type drug-sensitive parasites. To examine these selective forces in vitro, we genetically engineered P. falciparum to express geographically diverse PfCRT haplotypes. Variant alleles from the Philippines (PH1 and PH2, which differ solely by the C72S mutation) both conferred a moderate gain of chloroquine resistance and a reduction in growth rates in vitro. Of the two, PH2 showed higher IC50 values, contrasting with reduced growth. Furthermore, a highly mutated pfcrt allele from Cambodia (Cam734) conferred moderate chloroquine resistance and enhanced growth rates, when tested against wild-type pfcrt in co-culture competition assays. These three alleles mediated cross-resistance to amodiaquine, an antimalarial drug widely used in Africa. Each allele, along with the globally prevalent Dd2 and 7G8 alleles, rendered parasites more susceptible to lumefantrine, the partner drug used in the leading first-line artemisinin-based combination therapy. These data reveal ongoing region-specific evolution of PfCRT that impacts drug susceptibility and relative fitness in settings of mixed infections, and raise important considerations about optimal agents to treat chloroquine-resistant malaria. PMID:25898991

  5. Prevalence of Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis among Archived Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Isolates in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Sagonda, Tichaona; Mupfumi, Lucy; Manzou, Rumbidzai; Makamure, Beauty; Tshabalala, Mqondisi; Gwanzura, Lovemore; Mason, Peter; Mutetwa, Reggie

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of second line drug resistance patterns and genetic diversity of MDR-TB isolates archived at the BRTI-TB Laboratory, Harare, between January 2007 and December 2011. DSTs were performed for second line antituberculosis drugs. XDR-TB strains were defined as MDR-TB strains with resistance to either kanamycin and ofloxacin or capreomycin and ofloxacin. Strain types were identified by spoligotyping. No resistance to any second line drugs was shown in 73% of the isolates, with 23% resistant to one or two drugs but not meeting the definition of XDR-TB. A total of 26 shared types were identified, and 18 (69%) matched preexisting shared types in the current published spoligotype databases. Of the 11 out of 18 clustered SITs, 4 predominant (>6 isolates per shared type) were identified. The most and least abundant types were SIT 1468 (LAM 11-ZWE) with 12 (18%) isolates and SIT 53 (T1) with 6 (9%) isolates, respectively. XDR-TB strains are rare in Zimbabwe, but the high proportion of pre-XDR-TB strains and treatment failure cases is of concern. The genetic diversity of the MDR-TB strains showed no significant association between SITs and drug resistance. PMID:24967101

  6. Response to selection for bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A family-based selection program was initiated at the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture in 2005 to improve resistance to bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) in rainbow trout. The objective of this study was to estimate response to 2 generations of selection. A total of 14,841 juven...

  7. Registration of Common Bacterial Blight Resistant Dark Red Kidney Bean Germplasm Line USDK-CBB-15

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dark red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm line USDK-CBB-15 was developed by USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2005. This line was bred specifically for a high level of resistance to common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. ...

  8. Antibiotic exposure can induce various bacterial virulence phenotypes in multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is one of the most prevalent bacterial foodborne diseases in the United States and causes an estimated 1 million human cases every year. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella has emerged as a public health issue as it has been associated with increased morbidity in humans and mortality in...

  9. RELEASE OF COMMON BACTERIAL BLIGHT RESISTANT WHITE KIDNEY BEAN GERMPLASM LINE USWK-CBB-17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station announce the release of USWK-CBB-17 white kidney (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm line with a high level of resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. ph...

  10. Trends in drug resistance mutations in antiretroviral-nave intravenous drug users of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Maia Teixeira, Sylvia Lopes; Bastos, Francisco Incio; Hacker, Mariana A; Guimares, Monick Lindenmeyer; Morgado, Mariza Gonalves

    2006-06-01

    DNA sequencing of a pol gene fragment from drug-naive injecting drug users samples obtained at two time points of the Brazilian AIDS epidemic (Pre-HAART era: 1994 to early 1997, n = 27; post-HAART era: 1999-2001, n = 38) was undertaken to assess HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance mutations and subtyping profiles. Genotypic analysis revealed the presence of PR primary L90M, D30N, M46I, and V82A mutations in 7.9% of the post-HAART group, and a high frequency of secondary mutations (84.2%). Nucleoside RT-associated mutations were observed in 13.2%. In the pre-HAART group, a higher frequency of RT mutations was observed (22.2%) and no PR primary mutations were found, in agreement with the introduction of protease inhibitors (PIs) in therapy during the same period. The identification of 7.9% of drug-naive injecting drug users already bearing RT/PR primary resistance mutations in the post-HAART era group constitutes a major concern in terms of dissemination of drug resistant viruses. The resistance mutations profile of the individuals may reflect the context of antiretroviral treatment in Brazil at the sample collection periods (1994-1997 and 1999-2001). In spite of the differences observed in the drug resistance profiles, similar frequencies of subtype B (63.0 vs. 73.7%), F (22.2 vs. 10.5%), and recombinant B/F (14.8 vs. 15.8%) viruses were found, respectively, in the pre- and post-HAART groups. PMID:16628575

  11. Recommendations for treating children with drug-resistant tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Galli, Luisa; Lancella, Laura; Garazzino, Silvia; Tadolini, Marina; Matteelli, Alberto; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Principi, Nicola; Villani, Alberto; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the most difficult infectious diseases to treat, and the second most frequent cause of death due to infectious disease throughout the world. The number of cases of multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), which are characterised by high mortality rates, is increasing. The therapeutic management of children with MDR- and XDR-TB is complicated by a lack of knowledge, and the fact that many potentially useful drugs are not registered for pediatric use and there are no formulations suitable for children in the first years of life. Furthermore, most of the available drugs are burdened by major adverse events that need to be taken into account, particularly in the case of prolonged therapy. This document describes the recommendations of a group of scientific societies on the therapeutic approach to pediatric MDR- and XDR-TB. On the basis of a systematic literature review and their personal clinical experience, the experts recommend that children with active TB caused by a drug-resistant strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis should always be referred to a specialised centre because of the complexity of patient management, the paucity of pediatric data, and the high incidence of adverse events due to second-line anti-TB treatment. PMID:26821118

  12. Application of Metabolomics in Drug Resistant Breast Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Shajahan-Haq, Ayesha N.; Cheema, Mehar S.; Clarke, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic profiles of breast cancer cells are different from normal mammary epithelial cells. Breast cancer cells that gain resistance to therapeutic interventions can reprogram their endogenous metabolism in order to adapt and proliferate despite high oxidative stress and hypoxic conditions. Drug resistance in breast cancer, regardless of subgroups, is a major clinical setback. Although recent advances in genomics and proteomics research has given us a glimpse into the heterogeneity that exists even within subgroups, the ability to precisely predict a tumors response to therapy remains elusive. Metabolomics as a quantitative, high through put technology offers promise towards devising new strategies to establish predictive, diagnostic and prognostic markers of breast cancer. Along with other omics technologies that include genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomics fits into the puzzle of a comprehensive systems biology approach to understand drug resistance in breast cancer. In this review, we highlight the challenges facing successful therapeutic treatment of breast cancer and the innovative approaches that metabolomics offers to better understand drug resistance in cancer. PMID:25693144

  13. Genetic Variability of HIV-1 for Drug Resistance Assay Development

    PubMed Central

    Clutter, Dana S.; Sánchez, Patricia Rojas; Rhee, Soo-Yon; Shafer, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    A hybridization-based point-of-care (POC) assay for HIV-1 drug resistance would be useful in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where resistance testing is not routinely available. The major obstacle in developing such an assay is the extreme genetic variability of HIV-1. We analyzed 27,203 reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences from the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database originating from six LMIC regions. We characterized the variability in a 27-nucleotide window surrounding six clinically important drug resistance mutations (DRMs) at positions 65, 103, 106, 181, 184, and 190. The number of distinct codons at each DRM position ranged from four at position 184 to 11 at position 190. Depending on the mutation, between 11 and 15 of the 24 flanking nucleotide positions were variable. Nonetheless, most flanking sequences differed from a core set of 10 flanking sequences by just one or two nucleotides. Flanking sequence variability was also lower in each LMIC region compared with overall variability in all regions. We also describe an online program that we developed to perform similar analyses for mutations at any position in RT, protease, or integrase. PMID:26875985

  14. Role of wild birds as carriers of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Escherichia vulneris

    PubMed Central

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y.; Abo-Amer, Aly E.

    2014-01-01

    Emergence and distribution of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environments pose a risk to human and animal health. A total of 82 isolates of Escherichia spp. were recovered from cloacal swabs of migrating and non-migrating wild birds. All bacterial isolates were identified and characterized morphologically and biochemically. 72% and 50% of isolates recovered from non-migrating and migrating birds, respectively, showed positive congo red dye binding (a virulence factor). Also, hemolysin production (a virulence factor) was showed in 8% of isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and 75% of isolates recovered from migrating birds. All isolates recovered from non-migrating birds were found resistant to Oxacillin while all isolates recovered from migrating birds demonstrated resistance to Oxacillin, Chloramphenicol, Oxytetracycline and Lincomycin. Some bacterial isolates recovered from non-migrating birds and migrating birds exhibited MDR phenotype. The MDR isolates were further characterized by API 20E and 16S rRNA as E. coli and E. vulneris. MDR Escherichia isolates contain ~1–5 plasmids of high-molecular weights. Accordingly, wild birds could create a potential threat to human and animal health by transmitting MDR bacteria to water streams and other environmental sources through their faecal residues, and to remote regions by migration. PMID:25763023

  15. Drug resistance following irradiation of RIF-1 tumors: Influence of the interval between irradiation and drug treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hopwood, L.E.; Davies, B.M.; Moulder, J.E. )

    1990-09-01

    RIF-1 tumors contain a small number of cells (1 to 100 per 10(6) cells) that are resistant to 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, or adriamycin. The frequency of drug-resistant cells among individual untreated tumors is highly variable. Radiation, delivered in vivo at doses of 3 to 12 Gy, increases the frequency of methotrexate- and 5-fluorouracil-resistant cells, but not the frequency of adriamycin-resistant cells. The magnitude of induction of 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate resistance shows a complex dependence on the radiation dose and on the interval between irradiation and assessment of drug resistance. For a dose of 3 Gy, induced 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate resistance is seen only after an interval of 5 to 7 days, whereas for a dose of 12 Gy, high levels of induced resistance are observed 1 to 3 days after irradiation. The maximum absolute risk for induction of resistance is 4 per 10(4) cells per Gy for methotrexate, and 3 per 10(6) cells per Gy for 5-fluorouracil. These results indicate that tumor hypoxia may play a role in the increased levels of drug resistance seen after irradiation, and that both genetic and environmental factors may influence radiation-induction of drug resistance. These studies provide essential data for models of the development of tumor drug resistance, and imply that some of the drug resistance seen when chemotherapy follows radiotherapy may be caused by radiation-induced drug resistance.

  16. Emergence and natural selection of drug-resistant prions.

    PubMed

    Shorter, James

    2010-07-01

    Drug resistance is a refractory barrier in the battle against many fatal diseases caused by rapidly evolving agents, including HIV, apicomplexans and specific cancers. Emerging evidence suggests that drug resistance might extend to lethal prion disorders and related neurodegenerative amyloidoses. Prions are self-replicating protein conformers, usually 'cross-beta' amyloid polymers, which are naturally transmitted between individuals and promote phenotypic change. Prion conformers are catalytic templates that specifically convert other copies of the same protein to the prion form. Once in motion, this chain reaction of conformational replication can deplete all non-prion copies of a protein. Typically, prions exist as ensembles of multiple structurally distinct, self-replicating forms or 'strains'. Each strain confers a distinct phenotype and replicates at different rates depending on the environment. As replicators, prions are units of selection. Thus, natural selection inescapably enriches or depletes various prion strains from populations depending on their conformational fitness (ability to self-replicate) in the prevailing environment. The most successful prions confer advantages to their host as with numerous yeast prions. Here, I review recent evidence that drug-like small molecules can antagonize some prion strains but simultaneously select for drug-resistant prions composed of mammalian PrP or the yeast prion protein, Sup35. For Sup35, the drug-resistant strain configures original intermolecular amyloid contacts that are not ordinarily detected. Importantly, a synergistic small-molecule cocktail counters prion diversity by eliminating multiple Sup35 prion strains. Collectively, these advances illuminate the plasticity of prionogenesis and suggest that synergistic combinatorial therapies might circumvent this pathological vicissitude. PMID:20422111

  17. MRJP1-containing glycoproteins isolated from honey, a novel antibacterial drug candidate with broad spectrum activity against multi-drug resistant clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin; Lannigan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of extended- spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) is the underlying cause of growing antibiotic resistance among Gram-negative bacteria to β-lactam antibiotics. We recently reported the discovery of honey glycoproteins (glps) that exhibited a rapid, concentration-dependent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli that resembled action of cell wall-active β-lactam drugs. Glps showed sequence identity with the Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) precursor that harbors three antimicrobial peptides: Jelleins 1, 2, and 4. Here, we used semi-quantitative radial diffusion assay and broth microdilution assay to evaluate susceptibility of a number of multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates to the MRJP1-contaning honey glycoproteins. The MDR bacterial strains comprised three methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), four Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two Klebsiella pneumoniae, two vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and five ESBL identified as one Proteus mirabilis, three E. coli, and one E. coli NDM. Their resistance to different classes of antibiotics was confirmed using automated system Vitek 2. MDR isolates differed in their susceptibility to glps with MIC90 values ranging from 4.8 μg/ml against B. subtilis to 14.4 μg/ml against ESBL K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella spp. ESBL and E. coli and up to 33 μg/ml against highly resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. Glps isolated from different honeys showed a similar ability to overcome bacterial resistance to β-lactams suggesting that (a) their mode of action is distinct from other classes of β-lactams and that (b) the common glps structure was the lead structure responsible for the activity. The results of the current study together with our previous evidence of a rapid bactericidal activity of glps demonstrate that glps possess suitable characteristics to be considered a novel antibacterial drug candidate. PMID:26217333

  18. Insights into the mechanism of drug resistance. X-ray structure analysis of multi-drug resistant HIV-1 protease ritonavir complex

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhigang; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Wang, Yong; Dewdney, Tamaria G.; Reiter, Samuel J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2013-01-08

    Ritonavir (RTV) is a first generation HIV-1 protease inhibitor with rapidly emerging drug resistance. Mutations at residues 46, 54, 82 and 84 render the HIV-1 protease drug resistant against RTV. We report the crystal structure of multi-drug resistant (MDR) 769 HIV-1 protease (carrying resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84 and 90) complexed with RTV and the in vitro enzymatic IC50 of RTV against MDR HIV-1 protease. The structural and functional studies demonstrate significant drug resistance of MDR HIV-1 protease against RTV, arising from reduced hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals interactions between RTV and MDR HIV-1 protease.

  19. Bacterial resistance evolution by recruitment of super-integron gene cassettes.

    PubMed

    Rowe-Magnus, Dean A; Guerout, Anne-Marie; Mazel, Didier

    2002-03-01

    The capture and spread of antibiotic resistance determinants by integrons underlies the rapid evolution of multiple antibiotic resistance among diverse Gram-negative clinical isolates. The association of multiple resistance integrons (MRIs) with mobile DNA elements facilitates their transit across phylogenetic boundaries and augments the potential impact of integrons on bacterial evolution. Recently, ancestral chromosomal versions, the super-integrons (SIs), were found to be genuine components of the genomes of diverse bacterial species. SIs possess evolutionary characteristics and stockpiles of adaptive functions, including cassettes related to antibiotic resistance determinants previously characterized in clinical isolates, which suggest that MRIs and their resistance genes were originally recruited from SIs and their pool of amassed genes. However, the recombination activity of integrons has never been demonstrated in a bacterium other than Escherichia coli. We introduced a naturally occurring MRI (TpR, SulR) on a conjugative plasmid into Vibrio cholerae, a species known to harbour a SI. We show that MRIs can randomly recruit genes directly from the cache of SI cassettes. By applying a selective constraint for the development of antibiotic resistance, we demonstrate bacterial resistance evolution through the recruitment a novel, but phenotypically silent, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene from the V. cholerae SI and its precise insertion into the MRI. The resulting resistance profile (CmR, TpR, SulR) could then be disseminated by conjugation to other clinically relevant pathogens at high frequency. These results demonstrate that otherwise phenotypically sensitive strains may still be a genetic source for the evolution of resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics through integron-mediated recombination events. PMID:11952913

  20. Evaluation of Fluoromycobacteriophages for Detecting Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis?

    PubMed Central

    Rondn, Liliana; Piuri, Mariana; Jacobs, William R.; de Waard, Jacobus; Hatfull, Graham F.; Takiff, Howard E.

    2011-01-01

    We tested a new method for detecting drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that uses a TM4 mycobacteriophage phAE87::hsp60-EGFP (EGFP-phage) engineered to contain the gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). After promising results in preliminary studies, the EGFP-phage was used to detect isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), and streptomycin (STR) resistance in 155 strains of M. tuberculosis, and the results were compared to the resazurin microplate technique, with the proportion method serving as the reference standard. The resazurin technique yielded sensitivities of 94% for INH and RIF and 98% for STR and specificities of 97% for INH, 95% for RIF, and 98% for STR. The sensitivity of EGFP-phage was 94% for all three antibiotics, with specificities of 90% for INH, 93% for RIF, and 95% for STR. The EGFP-phage results were available in 2 days for RIF and STR and in 3 days for INH, with an estimated cost of ?2$ to test the three antibiotics. Using a more stringent criterion for resistance improved the specificity of the EGFP-phage for INH and RIF without affecting the sensitivity. In preliminary studies, the EGFP-phage could also effectively detect resistance to the fluoroquinolones. The EGFP-phage method has the potential to be a valuable rapid and economic screen for detecting drug-resistant tuberculosis if the procedure can be simplified, if it can be adapted to clinical material, and if its sensitivity can be improved. PMID:21346042

  1. Alcohol and Other Drug Resistance Strategies Employed by Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to identify how rural adolescents make health decisions and utilize communication strategies to resist influence attempts in offers of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 113 adolescents from rural school districts to solicit information on ATOD norms, past ATOD experiences, and substance offer-response episodes. Rural youths resistance strategies were similar to previous findings with urban adolescents refuse, explain, avoid, and leave (the REAL typology) while unique features of these strategies were identified including the importance of personal narratives, the articulation of a non-user identity, and being accountable to self and others. PMID:21552345

  2. Coherent feedforward transcriptional regulatory motifs enhance drug resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlebois, Daniel A.; Balzsi, Gbor; Krn, Mads

    2014-05-01

    Fluctuations in gene expression give identical cells access to a spectrum of phenotypes that can serve as a transient, nongenetic basis for natural selection by temporarily increasing drug resistance. In this study, we demonstrate using mathematical modeling and simulation that certain gene regulatory network motifs, specifically coherent feedforward loop motifs, can facilitate the development of nongenetic resistance by increasing cell-to-cell variability and the time scale at which beneficial phenotypic states can be maintained. Our results highlight how regulatory network motifs enabling transient, nongenetic inheritance play an important role in defining reproductive fitness in adverse environments and provide a selective advantage subject to evolutionary pressure.

  3. Multi-resistant bacteria in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: A new step in management?

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos, Angelo Alves; Costabeber, Ane Micheli; Liono, Livia Caprara; Tovo, Cristiane Valle

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most typical infection observed in cirrhosis patients. SBP is responsible for an in-hospital mortality rate of approximately 32%. Recently, pattern changes in the bacterial flora of cirrhosis patients have been observed, and an increase in the prevalence of infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria has been noted. The wide-scale use of quinolones in the prophylaxis of SBP has promoted flora modifications and resulted in the development of bacterial resistance. The efficacy of traditionally recommended therapy has been low in nosocomial infections (up to 40%), and multi-resistance has been observed in up to 22% of isolated germs in nosocomial SBP. For this reason, the use of a broad empirical spectrum antibiotic has been suggested in these situations. The distinction between community-acquired infectious episodes, healthcare-associated infections, or nosocomial infections, and the identification of risk factors for multi-resistant germs can aid in the decision-making process regarding the empirical choice of antibiotic therapy. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, such as carbapenems with or without glycopeptides or piperacillin-tazobactam, should be considered for the initial treatment not only of nosocomial infections but also of healthcare-associated infections when the risk factors or severity signs for multi-resistant bacteria are apparent. The use of cephalosporins should be restricted to community-acquired infections. PMID:25339797

  4. Treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria in monkeys with a drug combination that reverses resistance in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williams, H L; Johnson, D J; Okoye, V C; Martin, S K

    1992-10-01

    Compounds that inhibit the P-glycoprotein-related efflux mechanism of multidrug-resistant cells reverse chloroquine resistance in vitro. Hence, the co-administration of chloroquine and an efflux-blocking drug could potentially treat chloroquine-resistant malaria infections. We administered a drug combination (chloroquine and a tiapamil analogue), that has been shown to reverse chloroquine resistance in vitro, to Aotus monkeys but failed to safely clear experimentally-induced chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemias. PMID:1288427

  5. Resistance, resilience and recovery: aquatic bacterial dynamics after water column disturbance.

    PubMed

    Shade, Ashley; Read, Jordan S; Welkie, David G; Kratz, Timothy K; Wu, Chin H; McMahon, Katherine D

    2011-10-01

    For lake microbes, water column mixing acts as a disturbance because it homogenizes thermal and chemical gradients known to define the distributions of microbial taxa. Our first objective was to isolate hypothesized drivers of lake bacterial response to water column mixing. To accomplish this, we designed an enclosure experiment with three treatments to independently test key biogeochemical changes induced by mixing: oxygen addition to the hypolimnion, nutrient addition to the epilimnion, and full water column mixing. We used molecular fingerprinting to observe bacterial community dynamics in the treatment and control enclosures, and in ambient lake water. We found that oxygen and nutrient amendments simulated the physical-chemical water column environment following mixing and resulted in similar bacterial communities to the mixing treatment, affirming that these were important drivers of community change. These results demonstrate that specific environmental changes can replicate broad disturbance effects on microbial communities. Our second objective was to characterize bacterial community stability by quantifying community resistance, recovery and resilience to an episodic disturbance. The communities in the nutrient and oxygen amendments changed quickly (had low resistance), but generally matched the control composition by the 10th day after treatment, exhibiting resilience. These results imply that aquatic bacterial assemblages are generally stable in the face of disturbance. PMID:21883795

  6. Drug resistance in trypanosomes; effects of metabolic inhibitors, ph and oxidation-reduction potential on normal and resistant trypanosoma rhodesiense

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, J.

    1959-01-01

    A wide variety of metabolic inhibitors tested in vitro for trypanocidal activity on normal and drug-resistant strains of Trypanosoma rhodesiense showed no relation between acquired drug resistance and changes in specific enzymatic function. Oxidation-reduction potential is an important factor in trypanocidal action but is not obviously related to the development of resistance. The dependence on pH of the trypanocidal action of ionizing drugs against both normal and resistant trypanosomes supports the postulate that the development of resistance involves physical changes in cell structures associated with the uptake of drug. PMID:13844959

  7. Stacking of antimicrobial genes in potato transgenic plants confers increased resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Mercedes; Furman, Nicols; Mencacci, Nicols; Picca, Pablo; Toum, Laila; Lentz, Ezequiel; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Mentaberry, Alejandro

    2012-01-20

    Solanum tuberosum plants were transformed with three genetic constructions expressing the Nicotiana tabacum AP24 osmotine, Phyllomedusa sauvagii dermaseptin and Gallus gallus lysozyme, and with a double-transgene construction expressing the AP24 and lysozyme sequences. Re-transformation of dermaseptin-transformed plants with the AP24/lysozyme construction allowed selection of plants simultaneously expressing the three transgenes. Potato lines expressing individual transgenes or double- and triple-transgene combinations were assayed for resistance to Erwinia carotovora using whole-plant and tuber infection assays. Resistance levels for both infection tests compared consistently for most potato lines and allowed selection of highly resistant phenotypes. Higher resistance levels were found in lines carrying the dermaseptin and lysozyme sequences, indicating that theses proteins are the major contributors to antibacterial activity. Similar results were obtained in tuber infection tests conducted with Streptomyces scabies. Plant lines showing the higher resistance to bacterial infections were challenged with Phytophthora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. Considerable levels of resistance to each of these pathogens were evidenced employing semi-quantitative tests based in detached-leaf inoculation, fungal growth inhibition and in vitro plant inoculation. On the basis of these results, we propose that stacking of these transgenes is a promising approach to achieve resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens. PMID:22115953

  8. Antibiotic resistance differentiates Echinacea purpurea endophytic bacterial communities with respect to plant organs.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Chiellini, Carolina; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Fondi, Marco; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-10-01

    Recent findings have shown that antibiotic resistance is widespread in multiple environments and multicellular organisms, as plants, harboring rich and complex bacterial communities, could be hot spot for emergence of antibiotic resistances as a response to bioactive molecules production by members of the same community. Here, we investigated a panel of 137 bacterial isolates present in different organs of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea, aiming to evaluate if different plant organs harbor strains with different antibiotic resistance profiles, implying then the presence of different biological interactions in the communities inhabiting different plant organs. Data obtained showed a large antibiotic resistance variability among strains, which was strongly related to the different plant organs (26% of total variance, P < 0.0001). Interestingly this uneven antibiotic resistance pattern was present also when a single genus (Pseudomonas), ubiquitous in all organs, was analyzed and no correlation of antibiotic resistance pattern with genomic relatedness among strains was found. In conclusion, we speculate that antibiotic resistance patterns are tightly linked to the type of plant organ under investigation, suggesting the presence of differential forms of biological interaction in stem/leaves, roots and rhizosphere. PMID:25283726

  9. Chemosensitisation of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive yeast cells to antifungals.

    PubMed

    Cernicka, Jana; Kozovska, Zuzana; Hnatova, Martina; Valachovic, Martin; Hapala, Ivan; Riedl, Zsuzsanna; Hajs, Gyrgy; Subik, Julius

    2007-02-01

    Multidrug resistance in yeast results from overexpression of genes encoding drug efflux transporters owing to gain-of-function mutations in transcription factors regulating their expression. We have screened a library of synthetic compounds for modulators of drug resistance using the multidrug-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae pdr3-9 mutant strain. One of the compounds, 7-chlorotetrazolo[5,1-c]benzo[1,2,4]triazine (CTBT), displayed weak antifungal activity and strongly inhibited the growth of yeast cells in combination with subinhibitory concentrations of other antifungals with a different mode of action. Biological activity of CTBT was demonstrated in Saccharomyces, Kluyveromyces and Candida yeast species grown on solid and in liquid media. The chemosensitising effect of CTBT, manifested as increased antifungal activity of fluconazole, was demonstrated in yeast mutant strains with deleted genes encoding the major multidrug resistance transcription factors Yap1p, Pdr1p and Pdr3p as well as the drug efflux pumps Pdr5p and Snq2p in S. cerevisiae or their counterparts in Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, named Cdr1p and Mdr1p, respectively. Importantly, CTBT also increased the sensitivity to fluconazole in multidrug-resistant cells overexpressing the efflux pumps. Yeast cells grown in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of CTBT exhibited an altered sterol composition and a slightly enhanced accumulation of Rhodamine 6G, which suggests that the plasma membrane plays a role in sensitisation. This novel chemosensitisation by CTBT that can overcome multidrug resistance in yeast may prove useful in combined treatment of infections caused by drug-resistant fungal pathogens. PMID:17204400

  10. Transmitted drug resistance in nonsubtype B HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Philip A; Kantor, Rami

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 nonsubtype B variants account for the majority of HIV infections worldwide. Drug resistance in individuals who have never undergone antiretroviral therapy can lead to early failure and limited treatment options and, therefore, is an important concern. Evaluation of reported transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is challenging owing to varying definitions and study designs, and is further complicated by HIV-1 subtype diversity. In this article, we discuss the importance of various mutation lists for TDR definition, summarize TDR in nonsubtype B HIV-1 and highlight TDR reporting and interpreting challenges in the context of HIV-1 diversity. When examined carefully, TDR in HIV-1 non-B protease and reverse transcriptase is still relatively low in most regions. Whether it will increase with time and therapy access, as observed in subtype-B-predominant regions, remains to be determined. PMID:20161523

  11. Cultivable bacterial microbiota of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus): a new reservoir of antimicrobial resistance?

    PubMed

    Su, Hongwen; McKelvey, Jessica; Rollins, Dale; Zhang, Michael; Brightsmith, Donald J; Derr, James; Zhang, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important avian species. At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds. As the first step to create a quail microbiology knowledge base, the current study conducted an inventory of cultivable quail tracheal, crop, cecal, and cloacal microbiota and associated antimicrobial resistance using a combined bacteriology and DNA sequencing approach. A total of 414 morphologically unique bacterial colonies were selected from nonselective aerobic and anaerobic cultures, as well as selective and enrichment cultures. Analysis of the first 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences in conjunction with biochemical identifications revealed 190 non-redundant species-level taxonomic units, representing 160 known bacterial species and 30 novel species. The bacterial species were classified into 4 phyla, 14 orders, 37 families, and 59 or more genera. Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%). Extensive diversity in the species composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds and anatomical locations. Quail microbiota harbored several opportunistic pathogens, such as E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa, as well as human commensal organisms, including Neisseria species. Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate. Data from the current investigation warrant further investigation on the source, transmission, pathology, and control of antimicrobial resistance in wild quail populations. PMID:24937705

  12. Cultivable Bacterial Microbiota of Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus): A New Reservoir of Antimicrobial Resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hongwen; McKelvey, Jessica; Rollins, Dale; Zhang, Michael; Brightsmith, Donald J.; Derr, James; Zhang, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important avian species. At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds. As the first step to create a quail microbiology knowledge base, the current study conducted an inventory of cultivable quail tracheal, crop, cecal, and cloacal microbiota and associated antimicrobial resistance using a combined bacteriology and DNA sequencing approach. A total of 414 morphologically unique bacterial colonies were selected from nonselective aerobic and anaerobic cultures, as well as selective and enrichment cultures. Analysis of the first 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences in conjunction with biochemical identifications revealed 190 non-redundant species-level taxonomic units, representing 160 known bacterial species and 30 novel species. The bacterial species were classified into 4 phyla, 14 orders, 37 families, and 59 or more genera. Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%). Extensive diversity in the species composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds and anatomical locations. Quail microbiota harbored several opportunistic pathogens, such as E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa, as well as human commensal organisms, including Neisseria species. Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate. Data from the current investigation warrant further investigation on the source, transmission, pathology, and control of antimicrobial resistance in wild quail populations. PMID:24937705

  13. Mathematical models of tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, James

    In this dissertation we develop mathematical models of tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance in cancer chemotherapy. Resistance to chemotherapy is one of the major causes of the failure of cancer treatment. Furthermore, recent experimental evidence suggests that drug resistance is a complex biological phenomena, with many influences that interact nonlinearly. Here we study the influence of such heterogeneity on treatment outcomes, both in general frameworks and under specific mechanisms. We begin by developing a mathematical framework for describing multi-drug resistance to cancer. Heterogeneity is reflected by a continuous parameter, which can either describe a single resistance mechanism (such as the expression of P-gp in the cellular membrane) or can account for the cumulative effect of several mechanisms and factors. The model is written as a system of integro-differential equations, structured by the continuous "trait," and includes density effects as well as mutations. We study the limiting behavior of the model, both analytically and numerically, and apply it to study treatment protocols. We next study a specific mechanism of tumor heterogeneity and its influence on cell growth: the cell-cycle. We derive two novel mathematical models, a stochastic agent-based model and an integro-differential equation model, each of which describes the growth of cancer cells as a dynamic transition between proliferative and quiescent states. By examining the role all parameters play in the evolution of intrinsic tumor heterogeneity, and the sensitivity of the population growth to parameter values, we show that the cell-cycle length has the most significant effect on the growth dynamics. In addition, we demonstrate that the agent-based model can be approximated well by the more computationally efficient integro-differential equations, when the number of cells is large. The model is closely tied to experimental data of cell growth, and includes a novel implementation of transition rates as a function of global density. Finally, we extend the model of cell-cycle heterogeneity to include spatial variables. Cells are modeled as soft spheres and exhibit attraction/repulsion/random forces. A fundamental hypothesis is that cell-cycle length increases with local density, thus producing a distribution of observed division lengths. Apoptosis occurs primarily through an extended period of unsuccessful proliferation, and the explicit mechanism of the drug (Paclitaxel) is modeled as an increase in cell-cycle duration. We show that the distribution of cell-cycle lengths is highly time-dependent, with close time-averaged agreement with the distribution used in the previous work. Furthermore, survival curves are calculated and shown to qualitatively agree with experimental data in different densities and geometries, thus relating the cellular microenvironment to drug resistance.

  14. Steering Evolution with Sequential Therapy to Prevent the Emergence of Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nichol, Daniel; Jeavons, Peter; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Maini, Philip K.; Paul, Jerome L.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Anderson, Alexander R.A.; Scott, Jacob G.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing rate of antibiotic resistance and slowing discovery of novel antibiotic treatments presents a growing threat to public health. Here, we consider a simple model of evolution in asexually reproducing populations which considers adaptation as a biased random walk on a fitness landscape. This model associates the global properties of the fitness landscape with the algebraic properties of a Markov chain transition matrix and allows us to derive general results on the non-commutativity and irreversibility of natural selection as well as antibiotic cycling strategies. Using this formalism, we analyze 15 empirical fitness landscapes of E. coli under selection by different β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrate that the emergence of resistance to a given antibiotic can be either hindered or promoted by different sequences of drug application. Specifically, we demonstrate that the majority, approximately 70%, of sequential drug treatments with 2–4 drugs promote resistance to the final antibiotic. Further, we derive optimal drug application sequences with which we can probabilistically ‘steer’ the population through genotype space to avoid the emergence of resistance. This suggests a new strategy in the war against antibiotic–resistant organisms: drug sequencing to shepherd evolution through genotype space to states from which resistance cannot emerge and by which to maximize the chance of successful therapy. PMID:26360300

  15. Assessing transmissibility of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations from treated and from drug-naive individuals

    PubMed Central

    Winand, Raf; Theys, Kristof; Eusébio, Mónica; Aerts, Jan; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Gomes, Perpetua; Suchard, Marc A.; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Abecasis, Ana B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs) in drug-naive patients are typically used to survey HIV-1-transmitted drug resistance (TDR). We test here how SDRMs in patients failing treatment, the original source of TDR, contribute to assessing TDR, transmissibility and transmission source of SDRMs. Design: This is a retrospective observational study analyzing a Portuguese cohort of HIV-1-infected patients. Methods: The prevalence of SDRMs to protease inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in drug-naive and treatment-failing patients was measured for 3554 HIV-1 subtype B patients. Transmission ratio (prevalence in drug-naive/prevalence in treatment-failing patients), average viral load and robust linear regression with outlier detection (prevalence in drug-naive versus in treatment-failing patients) were analyzed and used to interpret transmissibility. Results: Prevalence of SDRMs in drug-naive and treatment-failing patients were linearly correlated, but some SDRMs were classified as outliers – above (PRO: D30N, N88D/S, L90 M, RT: G190A/S/E) or below (RT: M184I/V) expectations. The normalized regression slope was 0.073 for protease inhibitors, 0.084 for NRTIs and 0.116 for NNRTIs. Differences between SDRMs transmission ratios were not associated with differences in viral loads. Conclusion: The significant linear correlation between prevalence of SDRMs in drug-naive and in treatment-failing patients indicates that the prevalence in treatment-failing patients can be useful to predict levels of TDR. The slope is a cohort-dependent estimate of rate of TDR per drug class and outlier detection reveals comparative persistence of SDRMs. Outlier SDRMs with higher transmissibility are more persistent and more likely to have been acquired from drug-naive patients. Those with lower transmissibility have faster reversion dynamics after transmission and are associated with acquisition from treatment-failing patients. PMID:26355575

  16. Transmission of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Texas and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Quitugua, Teresa N.; Seaworth, Barbara J.; Weis, Stephen E.; Taylor, Jeffery P.; Gillette, J. Seb; Rosas, Ishmael I.; Jost, Jr., Kenneth C.; Magee, D. Mitchel; Cox, Rebecca A.

    2002-01-01

    To examine the transmission of drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis between Texas and Mexico, Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to one or more of the first-line antimycobacterial drugs were obtained from 606 patients who resided in Texas and 313 patients who resided in Mexico, primarily within the state of Tamaulipas. The isolates were genotyped by IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spoligotyping. Of the 919 isolates genotyped, 413 (45%) grouped into 105 clusters containing 2 or more isolates with identical genotypes. In addition to having identical genotypes, identical drug resistance patterns were identified in 250 isolates in 78 clusters (DR clusters). Twenty DR clusters, containing isolates from 32% of the total number of patients infected with DR strains, were geographically distributed across Mexico and Texas. Within this population of 919 patients infected with DR isolates, the probability of being in a DR cluster was the same for residents of Mexico and Texas. In Texas, the significant independent predictors of clustering within DR clusters as opposed to genotype clusters were found to be race, age, country of birth, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status, and resistance to more than one drug. Specifically, isolates from African Americans, individuals under age 65, individuals born in the United States, and HIV-positive individuals were each more likely to be associated with a DR cluster. By contrast, no significant independent predictors of clustering in a DR cluster were identified in Mexico. Although some DR M. tuberculosis strains are geographically restricted, this study suggests that a number of strains are transmitted between Mexico and the United States. PMID:12149319

  17. Antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance in the developing world.

    PubMed Central

    Shekelle, Paul; Maglione, Margaret; Geotz, Matthew Bidwell; Wagner, Glenn; Wang, Zhen; Hilton, Lara; Carter, Jason; Chen, Susan; Tringle, Carlo; Mojica, Walter; Newberry, Synde

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe the overall prevalence of ARV resistance in the developing world, focusing on: (1) treatment naïve populations, (2) the resistance consequences of prevention of mother to child transmission (pMTCT) drug regimens, and (3) the relationship of medication adherence to resistance. DATA SOURCES We searched PubMed(R), EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register Database, and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE). Additional sources of evidence included the Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database; reports of WATCH: Worldwide Analysis of Resistance Transmission over Time of Chronically and Acute Infected HIV-1 infected persons; a recent unpublished pMTCT overview; and various conference proceedings. Studies that did not report original research, that reported data already reported in another article, and case studies of fewer than 20 individuals were excluded. Of 1,122 titles identified, 117 journal articles and presentations were included. REVIEW METHODS We abstracted data on geographic region, number of participants, subject demographics, HIV viral clade, medications taken (if any), years of data collection, how people were selected for resistance testing, and how and when resistance was assessed. Because of study heterogeneity, pooling was not possible; thus, the data are summarized qualitatively. Differences by region, population group, and HIV viral clade are described. RESULTS The patterns of ARV resistance among treatment naïve populations worldwide appear to reflect geographic trends in use of ARV medications. A worldwide surveillance program (WATCH) found the rate of resistance (to any drug) among treatment naïve individuals was 5.5 percent in Africa, 7.4 percent in East Asia, 5.7 percent in Southeast Asia, and 6.4 percent in Latin America, lower than in North America (11.4 percent) and Europe (10.6 percent). Resistance data on HIV clades other than A, B, C, and D were too scarce to permit reliable conclusions. We also identified very few studies designed to assess the effect of health services delivery factors or medication adherence on the development of resistance in patients in developing countries. Evidence provided by longitudinal analyses suggests that, among women taking intrapartum single dose nevirapine (SD-NVP) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, both the overall prevalence of NNRTI resistance as well as the frequency of mutant virus in the overall viral population decreases with time since SD-NVP prophylaxis was received. CONCLUSIONS In future resistance studies, rare HIV clades should be over-sampled in order to provide statistically meaningful data. Resistance surveillance programs should be maintained throughout the developing world, and data should be reported and analyzed in a consistent and timely manner. Where resources permit, studies of adherence in developing regions should conduct resistance testing. PMID:18088163

  18. Overcoming Drug Resistance and Treating Advanced Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Semenas, Julius; Allegrucci, Cinzia; Boorjian, Stephen A; Mongan, Nigel P; Persson, Jenny Liao

    2012-01-01

    Most of the prostate cancers (PCa) in advanced stage will progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Within CRPC group, 50-70% of the patients will develop bone metastasis in axial and other regions of the skeleton. Once PCa cells spread to the bone, currently, no treatment regimens are available to eradicate the metastasis, and cancer-related death becomes inevitable. In 2012, it is estimated that there will be 28,170 PCa deaths in the United States. Thus, PCa bone metastasis-associated clinical complications and treatment resistance pose major clinical challenges. In this review, we will present recent findings on the molecular and cellular pathways that are responsible for bone metastasis of PCa. We will address several novel mechanisms with a focus on the role of bone and bone marrow microenvironment in promoting PCa metastasis, and will further discuss why prostate cancer cells preferentially metastasize to the bone. Additionally, we will discuss novel roles of several key pathways, including angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling in bone marrow and stem cell niches with their relationship to PCa bone metastasis and poor treatment response. We will evaluate how various chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation therapies may allow aggressive PCa cells to gain advantageous mutations leading to increased survival and rendering the cancer cells to become resistant to treatment. The novel concept relating several key survival and invasion signaling pathways to stem cell niches and treatment resistance will be reviewed. Lastly, we will provide an update of several recently developed novel drug candidates that target metastatic cancer microenvironments or niches, and discuss the advantages and significance provided by such therapeutic approaches in pursuit of overcoming drug resistance and treating advanced PCa. PMID:22746994

  19. Delamanid expanded access novel treatment of drug resistant tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rustomjee, Roxana; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global emergency and is one of the most common infectious disease causes of death in developing countries. Current treatment regimens for multi-drug resistant TB are associated with low treatment success rates, are toxic, and require long duration of treatment. The need for shorter and more effective treatment regimens is urgent. Delamanid (Deltyba, or formerly known as OPC-67683) is a new dihydro-imidazooxazole anti-TB drug active against resistant forms of pulmonary TB. Delamanid kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis by inhibiting the synthesis of mycolic acids required for cell wall synthesis. Whilst delamanid has been included in the WHO Model List of Essential Medicine by the World Health Organization Expert Committee on Selection and Use of Essential Medicines and in international guidance for the treatment of multi-drug resistant TB since April 2014, its access in countries with the greatest need, has proven challenging. This review provides an update on currently available clinical safety and efficacy data on delamanid and offers a discussion on research priorities and recommendations for expedited, expanded access. PMID:26604805

  20. Steroidal regulation of uterine resistance to bacterial infection in livestock

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gregory S

    2003-01-01

    Postpartum uterine infections reduce reproductive efficiency and have significant animal welfare and economic consequences. Postpartum uterine infections are classified as nonspecific, but Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli are usually associated with them in cattle and sheep. Pyometra is the most common type of uterine infection in dairy cattle, and it is detected almost exclusively in cows with active corpora lutea. Luteal progesterone typically down-regulates uterine immune functions and prevents the uterus from resisting infections. Progesterone also can down-regulate uterine eicosanoid synthesis. This seems to be a critical event in the onset of uterine infections, because eicosanoids can up-regulate immune cell functions in vitro. In addition, exogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates uterine secretion of prostaglandin F2 alpha and enhances immune functions in vivo. Thus, one may hypothesize that eicosanoids can override the negative effects of progesterone and that the up-regulatory effects of exogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha allow the uterus to resolve an infection, regardless of progesterone concentrations. Based on the results of studies to test that hypothesis, cows, sheep, and pigs in various physiological statuses are resistant to intrauterine infusions of Arcanobacterium pyogenes and Escherichia coli, unless progesterone concentrations are increased. In sheep and pigs, exogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha stimulates uterine production of prostaglandin F2 alpha and allows the uterus to resolve Arcanobacterium pyogenes-Escherichia coli-induced infections, even when progesterone is maintained at luteal phase concentrations before and after treatment. Prostaglandin F2 alpha is a proinflammatory molecule that stimulates the production of various proinflammatory cytokines, and it may enhance uterine production of leukotriene B4. Proinflammatory cytokines and leukotriene B4 enhance phagocytosis and lymphocyte functions. Even though there are clear associations among prostaglandin F2 alpha, leukotriene B4, proinflammatory cytokines, phagocytosis, and lymphocyte functions, the mechanism of action of exogenous prostaglandin F2 alpha in overriding the down-regulatory effects of progesterone and resolving uterine infections has not been elucidated. Defining this mechanism should yield new prevention and treatment strategies for uterine infections that do not rely on antibiotic and antimicrobial compounds. PMID:14641941

  1. Surfactant-based drug delivery systems for treating drug-resistant lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Prabhjot; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Murthy, R S R; Goyal, Amit K

    2016-03-01

    Among all cancers, lung cancer is the major cause of deaths. Lung cancer can be categorized into two classes for prognostic and treatment purposes: small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Both categories of cancer are resistant to certain drugs. Various mechanisms behind drug resistance are over-expression of superficial membrane proteins [glycoprotein (P-gp)], lung resistance-associated proteins, aberration of the intracellular enzyme system, enhancement of the cell repair system and deregulation of cell apoptosis. Structure-performance relationships and chemical compatibility are consequently major fundamentals in surfactant-based formulations, with the intention that a great deal investigation is committed to this region. With the purpose to understand the potential of P-gp in transportation of anti-tumor drugs to cancer cells with much effectiveness and specificity, several surfactant-based delivery systems have been developed which may include microspheres, nanosized drug carriers (nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, stealth liposomes, nanogels, polymer-drug conjugates), novel powders, hydrogels and mixed micellar systems intended for systemic and/or localized delivery. PMID:25013959

  2. Peptide IDR-1018: modulating the immune system and targeting bacterial biofilms to treat antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Sarah C; de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Hancock, Robert E W

    2015-05-01

    Host defense (antimicrobial) peptides, produced by all complex organisms, typically contain an abundance of positively charged and hydrophobic amino acid residues. A small synthetic peptide termed innate defense regulator (IDR-)1018 was derived by substantial modification of the bovine neutrophil host defense peptide bactenecin. Here, we review its intriguing properties that include anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and anti-biofilm activities. It was initially developed as an immune modulator with an ability to selectively enhance chemokine production and polarize cellular differentiation while suppressing/balancing the pro-inflammatory response. In this regard, it has demonstrated in vivo activity in murine models including enhancement of wound healing and an ability to protect against Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis, herpes virus, and inflammatory disorders, including cerebral malaria and neuronal damage in a pre-term birth model. More recently, IDR-1018 was shown, in a broad-spectrum fashion, to selectively target bacterial biofilms, which are adaptively resistant to many antibiotics and represent the most common growth state of bacteria in human infections. Furthermore, IDR-1018 demonstrated synergy with conventional antibiotics to both prevent biofilm formation and treat pre-existing biofilms. These data are consistent with a strong potential as an adjunctive therapy against antibiotic-resistant infections. PMID:25358509

  3. [Isolation of antibiotic resistance bacterial strains from East Siberia permafrost sediments].

    PubMed

    Mindlin, S Z; Soina, V S; Ptrova, M A; Gorlenko, Zh M

    2008-01-01

    A collection of bacterial antibiotic resistance strains isolated from arctic permafrost subsoil sediments of various age and genesis was created. The collection included approximately 100 strains of Gram-positive (Firmicutes, Arthrobacter) and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacteroidetes, gamma-Proteobacteria, and alpha-Proteobacteria) resistant to aminoglycoside antibiotics (gentamycin, kanamycin, and streptomycin), chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Antibiotic resistance spectra were shown to differ in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Multidrug resistance strains were found for the first time in ancient bacteria. In studies of the molecular nature of determinants for streptomycin resistance, determinants of the two types were detected: strA-strB genes coding for aminoglycoside phosphotransferases and genes aadA encoding aminoglycoside adenylyltransferases. These genes proved to be highly homologous to those of contemporary bacteria. PMID:18409385

  4. Resistance to bacterial infectious diseases in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Kilpi, Maaria; Nikoskelainen, Sami; Grannas, Sanna; Nuutila, Jari; Jrvisalo, Otso; Kause, Antti; Lilius, Esa-Matti

    2013-06-15

    Individually tagged rainbow trout representing 15 full-sibling families were sequentially challenged twice with Aeromonas salmonicida causing furunculosis: first as cohabitation and then as injected intraperitoneally. The bleeding procedure prior to challenges caused the outbreak of cold water disease by Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Before and after the outbreak and challenges, 11 immunological parameters were measured from blood samples. The immunological responses predicted the fate of the fish since nearly all the initial responses were lower in individuals which later died from cold water disease than in survivors. Fish died from furunculosis had impaired respiratory burst (RB) response to A. salmonicida. Fish that had initially the highest responses survived in the outbreak and challenges. The outbreak and challenges resulted in these individuals higher and faster responses compared with initial values. Unlike in mammals, the number of monocytes, but not that of granulocytes, in rainbow trout blood correlated well with the whole blood RB activity. The fish families differed markedly from each other in capacity to resist the induced diseases. PMID:23582478

  5. [Drug resistance in nosocomial strains of staphylococci to methicillin].

    PubMed

    Sawicka-Grzelak, A; Rokosz, A; Meisel-Miko?ajczyk, F

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the analysis of drug susceptibility of MRSA and MRCNS strains isolated from patients hospitalized in 14 wards of the State Clinical Hospital No 1 in Warsaw. The strains were identified (ID 32 STAPH), and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents (ATB STAPH) was determined in ATB system (bioMrieux, France). Four methods were applied to confirm the resistance to methicillin: ATB-plus system, disc-diffusion method (Oxa 1 microgram, Oxoid, U.K.), Crystal MRSA ID (Becton Dickinson-BBL, USA) and agar screen test in TSA medium (Difco, USA) with methicillin (25 mg/l, Sigma, USA). 108 Staphylococcus spp. strains were found in 300 clinical specimens. 56 strains were methicillin-resistant (52%). Among methicillin-resistant strains 13 MRSA, 28 MRSE and 15 of other species were found. All MRSA strains were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and fusidic acid. MRCNS were susceptible first of all to vancomycin (43/43), minocycline (42/43) and pristinamycin (42/43). On the basis of the obtained results it can be stated that methicillin-resistant staphylococci occur in hospital wards. The greatest number of methicillin-resistant strains was cultured from patients hospitalized in surgery wards (32), methicillin-resistant strains much more frequently occur among coagulase-negative staphylococci, especially in Staphylococcus epidermis. Glycopeptide antibiotics are most active against isolated MRSA strains. The most active therapeutic agent against MRCNS is vancomycin. PMID:9857608

  6. Exosomes in development, metastasis and drug resistance of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dan-dan; Wu, Ying; Shen, Hong-yu; Lv, Meng-meng; Chen, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Zhong, Shan-liang; Tang, Jin-hai; Zhao, Jian-hua

    2015-01-01

    Transport through the cell membrane can be divided into active, passive and vesicular types (exosomes). Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by a variety of cells. Emerging evidence shows that exosomes play a critical role in cancers. Exosomes mediate communication between stroma and cancer cells through the transfer of nucleic acid and proteins. It is demonstrated that the contents and the quantity of exosomes will change after occurrence of cancers. Over the last decade, growing attention has been paid to the role of exosomes in the development of breast cancer, the most life-threatening cancer in women. Breast cancer could induce salivary glands to secret specific exosomes, which could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Exosome-delivered nucleic acid and proteins partly facilitate the tumorigenesis, metastasis and resistance of breast cancer. Exosomes could also transmit anti-cancer drugs outside breast cancer cells, therefore leading to drug resistance. However, exosomes are effective tools for transportation of anti-cancer drugs with lower immunogenicity and toxicity. This is a promising way to establish a drug delivery system. PMID:26052865

  7. Exosomes in development, metastasis and drug resistance of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan-dan; Wu, Ying; Shen, Hong-yu; Lv, Meng-meng; Chen, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Zhong, Shan-liang; Tang, Jin-hai; Zhao, Jian-hua

    2015-08-01

    Transport through the cell membrane can be divided into active, passive and vesicular types (exosomes). Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles released by a variety of cells. Emerging evidence shows that exosomes play a critical role in cancers. Exosomes mediate communication between stroma and cancer cells through the transfer of nucleic acid and proteins. It is demonstrated that the contents and the quantity of exosomes will change after occurrence of cancers. Over the last decade, growing attention has been paid to the role of exosomes in the development of breast cancer, the most life-threatening cancer in women. Breast cancer could induce salivary glands to secret specific exosomes, which could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Exosome-delivered nucleic acid and proteins partly facilitate the tumorigenesis, metastasis and resistance of breast cancer. Exosomes could also transmit anti-cancer drugs outside breast cancer cells, therefore leading to drug resistance. However, exosomes are effective tools for transportation of anti-cancer drugs with lower immunogenicity and toxicity. This is a promising way to establish a drug delivery system. PMID:26052865

  8. Mutation rate and the emergence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    McGrath, M; Gey van Pittius, N C; van Helden, P D; Warren, R M; Warner, D F

    2014-02-01

    The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major concern of tuberculosis control programmes worldwide, as treatment depends on low-efficacy, toxic compounds that often lead to poor outcomes. M. tuberculosis develops drug resistance exclusively through chromosomal mutations, in particular single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Moreover, in laboratory assays the organism exhibits a spontaneous mutation rate that is at the lower end of the bacterial spectrum. Despite this, whole-genome sequencing technology has identified unexpected genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis populations. This suggests that the mycobacterial mutation rate may be modulated within the host and, in turn, implies a potential role for constitutive and/or transient mutator strains in adaptive evolution. It also raises the possibility that environmental factors might act as key mutagens during M. tuberculosis infection. Here we consider the elements that might influence the mycobacterial mutation rate in vivo and evaluate the potential roles of constitutive and transient mutator states in the generation of drug resistance mutations. In addition, we identify key research questions that will influence future efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies for a disease that continues to impose a significant global health burden. PMID:24072169

  9. Studies Show Microenvironment Plays Key Role in Anticancer Drug Resistance | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    As mounting evidence continues to show that evolutionary selective pressure will ultimately drive cancer cells to develop resistance to drug therapies, cancer researchers are looking for new treatment paradigms that might avoid or surmount drug resistance. One promising approach aims to better understand how the microenvironment surrounding a tumor impacts drug resistance and use that knowledge to create novel strategies for attacking tumors.

  10. Catalysis and sulfa drug resistance in dihydropteroate synthase.

    PubMed

    Yun, Mi-Kyung; Wu, Yinan; Li, Zhenmei; Zhao, Ying; Waddell, M Brett; Ferreira, Antonio M; Lee, Richard E; Bashford, Donald; White, Stephen W

    2012-03-01

    The sulfonamide antibiotics inhibit dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), a key enzyme in the folate pathway of bacteria and primitive eukaryotes. However, resistance mutations have severely compromised the usefulness of these drugs. We report structural, computational, and mutagenesis studies on the catalytic and resistance mechanisms of DHPS. By performing the enzyme-catalyzed reaction in crystalline DHPS, we have structurally characterized key intermediates along the reaction pathway. Results support an S(N)1 reaction mechanism via formation of a novel cationic pterin intermediate. We also show that two conserved loops generate a substructure during catalysis that creates a specific binding pocket for p-aminobenzoic acid, one of the two DHPS substrates. This substructure, together with the pterin-binding pocket, explains the roles of the conserved active-site residues and reveals how sulfonamide resistance arises. PMID:22383850

  11. Catalysis and Sulfa Drug Resistance in Dihydropteroate Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Mi-Kyung; Wu, Yinan; Li, Zhenmei; Zhao, Ying; Waddell, M. Brett; Ferreira, Antonio M.; Lee, Richard E.; Bashford, Donald; White, Stephen W.

    2013-04-08

    The sulfonamide antibiotics inhibit dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), a key enzyme in the folate pathway of bacteria and primitive eukaryotes. However, resistance mutations have severely compromised the usefulness of these drugs. We report structural, computational, and mutagenesis studies on the catalytic and resistance mechanisms of DHPS. By performing the enzyme-catalyzed reaction in crystalline DHPS, we have structurally characterized key intermediates along the reaction pathway. Results support an S{sub N}1 reaction mechanism via formation of a novel cationic pterin intermediate. We also show that two conserved loops generate a substructure during catalysis that creates a specific binding pocket for p-aminobenzoic acid, one of the two DHPS substrates. This substructure, together with the pterin-binding pocket, explains the roles of the conserved active-site residues and reveals how sulfonamide resistance arises.

  12. Multidrug and Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis in Canada 19972008: Demographic and Disease Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Minion, Jessica; Gallant, Victor; Wolfe, Joyce; Jamieson, Frances; Long, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Setting Nationwide Canadian public health surveillance. Objective Description of demographic features and disease characteristics of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) in Canada over a 12 year period. Design Continuous surveillance of all cases of culture-confirmed TB in Canada. Demographic and microbiologic features were analyzed and comparisons between drug-susceptible, multidrug-resistant (MDR), and drug-resistant not-MDR were made. Cases of extensively drug resistant TB are described. Results 15,993 cases of culture-confirmed TB were reported during the study period. There were 5 cases of XDR-TB, 177 cases of MDR-TB, and 1,234 cases of first-line drug resistance not-MDR. The majority of drug-resistant cases were reported in foreign-born individuals, with drug-resistant cases diagnosed earlier post-arrival in Canada compared to drug-susceptible cases. In MDR-TB isolates, there was a high rate of drug-resistance to other first- and second-line drugs, making reliable empiric therapeutic recommendations for MDR-TB difficult. There was a statistically significant association between both MDR and drug-resistance not-MDR, and the risk of a negative treatment outcome (defined as treatment failure, absconded, or treatment ongoing >3 yrs). Conclusion Drug-resistance complicates TB management even in developed nations with well-established TB control programs. The predominantly international origin of drug-resistant cases highlights the need for global strategies to combat TB. PMID:23326436

  13. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations: Potential Applications for Point-of-Care Genotypic Resistance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Soo-Yon; Jordan, Michael R.; Raizes, Elliot; Chua, Arlene; Parkin, Neil; Kantor, Rami; Van Zyl, Gert U.; Mukui, Irene; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Hamers, Raph L.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Wallis, Carole L.; Gupta, Ravindra K.; Fokam, Joseph; Zeh, Clement; Schapiro, Jonathan M.; Carmona, Sergio; Katzenstein, David; Tang, Michele; Aghokeng, Avelin F.; De Oliveira, Tulio; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Gallant, Joel E.; Wainberg, Mark A.; Richman, Douglas D.; Fitzgibbon, Joseph E.; Schito, Marco; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Yang, Chunfu; Shafer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in areas with rising transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and enable care-providers to determine which individuals with virological failure (VF) on a first- or second-line ART regimen require a change in treatment. An inexpensive near point-of-care (POC) genotypic resistance test would be useful in settings where the resources, capacity, and infrastructure to perform standard genotypic drug resistance testing are limited. Such a test would be particularly useful in conjunction with the POC HIV-1 viral load tests that are currently being introduced in LMICs. A POC genotypic resistance test is likely to involve the use of allele-specific point mutation assays for detecting drug-resistance mutations (DRMs). This study proposes that two major nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-associated DRMs (M184V and K65R) and four major NNRTI-associated DRMs (K103N, Y181C, G190A, and V106M) would be the most useful for POC genotypic resistance testing in LMIC settings. One or more of these six DRMs was present in 61.2% of analyzed virus sequences from ART-naïve individuals with intermediate or high-level TDR and 98.8% of analyzed virus sequences from individuals on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen with intermediate or high-level acquired drug resistance. The detection of one or more of these DRMs in an ART-naïve individual or in a individual with VF on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen may be considered an indication for a protease inhibitor (PI)-containing regimen or closer virological monitoring based on cost-effectiveness or country policy. PMID:26717411

  14. Regulatory Circuitry Governing Fungal Development, Drug Resistance, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Rebecca S.; Robbins, Nicole; Cowen, Leah E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pathogenic fungi have become a leading cause of human mortality due to the increasing frequency of fungal infections in immunocompromised populations and the limited armamentarium of clinically useful antifungal drugs. Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus are the leading causes of opportunistic fungal infections. In these diverse pathogenic fungi, complex signal transduction cascades are critical for sensing environmental changes and mediating appropriate cellular responses. For C. albicans, several environmental cues regulate a morphogenetic switch from yeast to filamentous growth, a reversible transition important for virulence. Many of the signaling cascades regulating morphogenesis are also required for cells to adapt and survive the cellular stresses imposed by antifungal drugs. Many of these signaling networks are conserved in C. neoformans and A. fumigatus, which undergo distinct morphogenetic programs during specific phases of their life cycles. Furthermore, the key mechanisms of fungal drug resistance, including alterations of the drug target, overexpression of drug efflux transporters, and alteration of cellular stress responses, are conserved between these species. This review focuses on the circuitry regulating fungal morphogenesis and drug resistance and the impact of these pathways on virulence. Although the three human-pathogenic fungi highlighted in this review are those most frequently encountered in the clinic, they represent a minute fraction of fungal diversity. Exploration of the conservation and divergence of core signal transduction pathways across C. albicans, C. neoformans, and A. fumigatus provides a foundation for the study of a broader diversity of pathogenic fungi and a platform for the development of new therapeutic strategies for fungal disease. PMID:21646428

  15. The Impact of Resource Availability on Bacterial Resistance to Phages in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Pedro; Bennie, Jonathan; Gaston, Kevin J.; Buckling, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Resource availability can affect the coevolutionary dynamics between host and parasites, shaping communities and hence ecosystem function. A key finding from theoretical and in vitro studies is that host resistance evolves to greater levels with increased resources, but the relevance to natural communities is less clear. We took two complementary approaches to investigate the effect of resource availability on the evolution of bacterial resistance to phages in soil. First, we measured the resistance and infectivity of natural communities of soil bacteria and phage in the presence and absence of nutrient-providing plants. Second, we followed the real-time coevolution between defined bacteria and phage populations with resource availability manipulated by the addition or not of an artificial plant root exudate. Increased resource availability resulted in increases in bacterial resistance to phages, but without a concomitant increase in phage infectivity. These results suggest that phages may have a reduced impact on the control of bacterial densities and community composition in stable, high resource environments. PMID:25856079

  16. Oscyp71Z2 involves diterpenoid phytoalexin biosynthesis that contributes to bacterial blight resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenqi; Shao, Min; Yang, Jie; Zhong, Weigong; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2013-06-01

    Bacterial blight is one of the most destructive rice diseases, which caused by Xoo, and results in yield losses, endangering worldwide food security. Diterpenoid phytoalexins, a type of antimicrobials produced in rice, are critical for resistance to fungal and bacterial pathogens. This article reports the characterization of the cytochrome P450 gene Oscyp71Z2, which belongs to the CYP71Z subfamily. Overexpression of Oscyp71Z2 in rice enhanced resistance to Xoo at the booting stage. The accumulation of phytoalexins was rapidly and strongly induced in Oscyp71Z2-overexpressing plants, and the transcript levels of genes related to the phytoalexin biosynthesis pathway were elevated. The H₂O₂ concentration in Oscyp71Z2-overexpressing plants was reduced in accordance with the increase in ROS-scavenging ability due to the induction of SOD as well as POD and CAT activation. We also showed that suppression of Oscyp71Z2 had no significantly effect on disease resistance to Xoo in rice. These results demonstrated that Oscyp71Z2 plays an important role in bacterial blight resistance by regulating the diterpenoid phytoalexin biosynthesis and H₂O₂ generation. PMID:23602104

  17. Quantification of antibiotic drug potency by a two-compartment radioassay of bacterial growth

    SciTech Connect

    Boonkitticharoen, V.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Kirchner, P.T. )

    1990-06-01

    The two-compartment radioassay for microbial kinetics based on continuous measurement of the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} released by bacterial metabolism of 14C-labeled substrate offers a valuable approach to testing the potency of antimicrobial drugs. By using a previously validated radioassay with gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, a group of protein synthesis inhibitors was evaluated for their effect on microbial growth kinetics. All tested drugs induced changes in both the slopes and intercepts of the growth curves. An exponential growth model was applied to quantify the drug effect on the processes of bacterial {sup 14}CO{sub 2} liberation and cell generation. The response was measured in terms of a generation rate constant. A linear dependence of the generation rate constant on the dose of spectinomycin was observed with Escherichia coli. Sigmoidal-shaped curves were found in the assays of chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The implications of dose-response curves are discussed on the basis of the receptor site concept for drug action. The assay sensitivities for chloramphenicol and tetracycline were similar to those obtained by the cell counting method, but the sensitivity of the radioassay was at least 10 times greater for spectinomycin.

  18. Antibacterial activity of natural spices on multiple drug resistant Escherichia coli isolated from drinking water, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Spices traditionally have been used as coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives and medicine in Bangladesh. The present work aimed to find out the antimicrobial activity of natural spices on multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli isolates. Methods Anti-bacterial potentials of six crude plant extracts (Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Allium cepa, Coriandrum sativum, Piper nigrum and Citrus aurantifolia) were tested against five Escherichia coli isolated from potable water sources at kushtia, Bangladesh. Results All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to undiluted lime-juice. None of them were found to be susceptible against the aqueous extracts of garlic, onion, coriander, pepper and ginger alone. However, all the isolates were susceptible when subjected to 1:1:1 aqueous extract of lime, garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with lime (11 mm). Conclusion Natural spices might have anti-bacterial activity against enteric pathogens and could be used for prevention of diarrheal diseases. Further evaluation is necessary. PMID:21406097

  19. Life in cellulose houses: Symbiotic bacterial biosynthesis of ascidian drugs and drug leads

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Eric W.; Donia, Mohamed S.

    2010-01-01

    Ascidians (tunicates; sea squirts) are sources of diverse, bioactive natural products, one of which is an approved drug and many of which are potent drug leads. It has been shown that symbiotic bacteria living with ascidians produce some of the bioactive compounds isolated from whole animals, and indirect evidence strongly implicates symbiotic bacteria in the synthesis of many others. However, for the majority the producing organism has not been identified. In cases where a symbiotic origin has been definitively assigned, the resulting data lead to improved paths to drug discovery and development from marine animals. This review traces evidence for symbiotic production where such evidence exists and describes the strengths and limitations of that evidence. PMID:21050742

  20. In Vitro Pharmacodynamics of Various Antibiotics in Combination against Extensively Drug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Tze-Peng; Cai, Yiying; Hong, Yanjun; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Suranthran, Sasikala; Teo, Jocelyn Qi-Min; Lee, Winnie Huiling; Tan, Thean-Yen; Hsu, Li-Yang; Koh, Tse-Hsien; Tan, Thuan-Tong

    2015-01-01

    Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging pathogen in Singapore. With limited therapeutic options available, combination antibiotics may be the only viable option. In this study, we aimed to elucidate effective antibiotic combinations against XDR K. pneumoniae isolates. Six NDM-1-producing and two OXA-181-producing K. pneumoniae strains were exposed to 12 antibiotics alone and in combination via time-kill studies. A hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM) with pharmacokinetic validation was used to simulate clinically relevant tigecycline-plus-meropenem dosing regimens against 2 XDR K. pneumoniae isolates over 240 h. The emergence of resistance against tigecycline was quantified using drug-free and selective (tigecycline at 3× the MIC) media. The in vitro growth rates were determined and serial passages on drug-free and selective media were carried out on resistant isolates obtained at 240 h. Both the polymyxin B and tigecycline MICs ranged from 1 to 4 mg/liter. In single time-kill studies, all antibiotics alone demonstrated regrowth at 24 h, except for polymyxin B against 2 isolates. Tigecycline plus meropenem was found to be bactericidal in 50% of the isolates. For the isolates that produced OXA-181-like carbapenemases, none of the 55 tested antibiotic combinations was bactericidal. Against 2 isolates in the HFIM, tigecycline plus meropenem achieved a >90% reduction in bacterial burden for 96 h before regrowth was observed until 109 CFU/ml at 240 h. Phenotypically stable and resistant isolates, which were recovered from tigecycline-supplemented plates post-HFIM studies, had lower growth rates than those of their respective parent isolates, possibly implying a substantial biofitness deficit in this population. We found that tigecycline plus meropenem may be a potential antibiotic combination for XDR K. pneumoniae infections, but its efficacy was strain specific. PMID:25691628

  1. In vitro pharmacodynamics of various antibiotics in combination against extensively drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tze-Peng; Cai, Yiying; Hong, Yanjun; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Suranthran, Sasikala; Teo, Jocelyn Qi-Min; Lee, Winnie Huiling; Tan, Thean-Yen; Hsu, Li-Yang; Koh, Tse-Hsien; Tan, Thuan-Tong; Kwa, Andrea Lay-Hoon

    2015-05-01

    Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging pathogen in Singapore. With limited therapeutic options available, combination antibiotics may be the only viable option. In this study, we aimed to elucidate effective antibiotic combinations against XDR K. pneumoniae isolates. Six NDM-1-producing and two OXA-181-producing K. pneumoniae strains were exposed to 12 antibiotics alone and in combination via time-kill studies. A hollow-fiber infection model (HFIM) with pharmacokinetic validation was used to simulate clinically relevant tigecycline-plus-meropenem dosing regimens against 2 XDR K. pneumoniae isolates over 240 h. The emergence of resistance against tigecycline was quantified using drug-free and selective (tigecycline at 3 the MIC) media. The in vitro growth rates were determined and serial passages on drug-free and selective media were carried out on resistant isolates obtained at 240 h. Both the polymyxin B and tigecycline MICs ranged from 1 to 4 mg/liter. In single time-kill studies, all antibiotics alone demonstrated regrowth at 24 h, except for polymyxin B against 2 isolates. Tigecycline plus meropenem was found to be bactericidal in 50% of the isolates. For the isolates that produced OXA-181-like carbapenemases, none of the 55 tested antibiotic combinations was bactericidal. Against 2 isolates in the HFIM, tigecycline plus meropenem achieved a >90% reduction in bacterial burden for 96 h before regrowth was observed until 10(9) CFU/ml at 240 h. Phenotypically stable and resistant isolates, which were recovered from tigecycline-supplemented plates post-HFIM studies, had lower growth rates than those of their respective parent isolates, possibly implying a substantial biofitness deficit in this population. We found that tigecycline plus meropenem may be a potential antibiotic combination for XDR K. pneumoniae infections, but its efficacy was strain specific. PMID:25691628

  2. HepG2 Cell Resistance against Camptothecin from a Lysosomal Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoyeon; Uhm, Soojin; Shin, Jung-Won; Jeon, Hyun Mi; Dongbang, Sun; Jung, Hyo Sung; Na, Yun-Cheol; Kang, Chulhun; Kim, Jong Seung

    2015-12-01

    A galactose-appended drug delivery system released camptothecin?(CPT) to lysosomes of HepG2 hepatoma cells, resulting in the cell resistance to the anticancer drug. We found that the resistance to CPT is caused by alteration of the drug release from the prodrug in lysosomes, emphasizing that the final delivery locations may critically influence drug efficacy. PMID:26373261

  3. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  8. Simple colorimetric bacterial detection and high-throughput drug screening based on a graphene-enzyme complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Wu, Ling-Jie; Guo, Shan-Shan; Fu, Hua-E.; Chen, Guo-Nan; Yang, Huang-Hao

    2012-12-01

    A simple, colorimetric, sensitive, cost-effective and high-throughput system based on a positively charged graphene oxide-enzyme complex was developed for bacterial detection and drug screening.A simple, colorimetric, sensitive, cost-effective and high-throughput system based on a positively charged graphene oxide-enzyme complex was developed for bacterial detection and drug screening. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and supporting figures and procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32704j

  9. Polymeric micelles and nanoemulsions as drug carriers: Therapeutic efficacy, toxicity, and drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Roohi; Shea, Jill; Scafe, Courtney; Shurlygina, Anna; Rapoport, Natalya

    2015-08-28

    The manuscript reports the side-by-side comparison of therapeutic properties of polymeric micelles and nanoemulsions generated from micelles. The effect of the structure of a hydrophobic block of block copolymer on the therapeutic efficacy, tumor recurrence, and development of drug resistance was studied in pancreatic tumor bearing mice. Mice were treated with paclitaxel (PTX) loaded poly(ethylene oxide)-co-polylactide micelles or corresponding perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions. Two structures of the polylactide block differing in a physical state of micelle cores or corresponding nanodroplet shells were compared. Poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(d,l-lactide) (PEG-PDLA) formed micelles with elastic amorphous cores while poly(ethylene oxide)-co-poly(l-lactide) (PEG-PLLA) formed micelles with solid crystalline cores. Micelles and nanoemulsions stabilized with PEG-PDLA copolymer manifested higher therapeutic efficacy than those formed with PEG-PLLA copolymer studied earlier. Better performance of PEG-PDLA micelles and nanodroplets was attributed to the elastic physical state of micelle cores (or droplet shells) allowing adequate rate of drug release via drug diffusion and/or copolymer biodegradation. The biodegradation of PEG-PDLA stabilized nanoemulsions was monitored by the ultrasonography of nanodroplets injected directly into the tumor; the PEG-PDLA stabilized nanodroplets disappeared from the injection site within 48h. In contrast, nanodroplets stabilized with PEG-PLLA copolymer were preserved at the injection site for weeks and months indicating extremely slow biodegradation of solid PLLA blocks. Multiple injections of PTX-loaded PEG-PDLA micelles or nanoemulsions to pancreatic tumor bearing mice resulted in complete tumor resolution. Two of ten tumors treated with either PEG-PDLA micellar or nanoemulsion formulation recurred after the completion of treatment but proved sensitive to the second treatment cycle indicating that drug resistance has not been developed. This is in contrast to the treatment with PEG-PLLA micelles or nanoemulsions where all resolved tumors quickly recurred after the completion of treatment and proved resistant to the repeated treatment. The prevention of drug resistance in tumors treated with PEG-PDLA stabilized formulations was attributed to the presence and preventive effect of copolymer unimers that were in equilibrium with PEG-PDLA micelles. PEG-PDLA stabilized nanoemulsions manifested lower hematological toxicity than corresponding micelles suggesting higher drug retention in circulation. Summarizing, micelles with elastic cores appear preferable to those with solid cores as drug carriers. Micelles with elastic cores and corresponding nanoemulsions both manifest high therapeutic efficacy, with nanoemulsions exerting lower systemic toxicity than micelles. The presence of a small fraction of micelles with elastic cores in nanoemulsion formulations is desirable for prevention of the development of drug resistance. PMID:26091919

  10. Epidemiology of urinary tract infections, bacterial species and resistances in primary care in France.

    PubMed

    Malmartel, A; Ghasarossian, C

    2016-03-01

    General practitioners often have to manage urinary tract infections (UTI) with probabilistic treatments, although bacterial resistances are increasing. Therefore, the French Society of Infectious Diseases published new guidelines in 2014. The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial epidemiology of UTI in the general population in primary care and analyse risk factors for Escherichia coli resistance to antibiotics. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 ambulatory laboratories. Patients over 18 years of age coming for urinalysis were included. Risk factors for UTI were collected using a questionnaire and the laboratory records. Bacteria meeting criteria for UTI were analysed. A positive urinalysis was found in 1119 patients, corresponding to 1125 bacterial isolates. The bacterial species were: E. coli (73 %), Enterococcus spp. (7 %), Klebsiella spp. (6 %), Proteus spp. (4 %), Staphylococcus spp. (3 %) and Pseudomonas spp. (2 %). Regardless of the bacteria, the most common resistance was that to co-trimoxazole: 27 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] = [0.24; 0.30]), followed by ofloxacin resistance: 16 % [0.14; 0.18]. Escherichia coli resistances to co-trimoxazole, ofloxacin, cefixime, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin were, respectively, 25.5 % [0.23; 0.28], 17 % [0.14; 0.20], 5.6 % [0.04; 0.07], 2.2 % [0.01; 0.03] and 1.2 % [0.005; 0.02]. Independent risk factors for E. coli resistance to ofloxacin were age over 85 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.08; [1.61; 5.87]) and a history of UTI in the last 6 months (OR = 2.34; [1.54; 3.52]). Our findings support the guidelines recommending fluoroquinolone sparing. The scarcity of E. coli resistance to fosfomycin justifies its use as a first-line treatment in acute cystitis. These results should be reassessed in a few years to identify changes in the bacterial epidemiology of UTI. PMID:26740324

  11. A hybrid platinum drug dichloroacetate-platinum(II) overcomes cisplatin drug resistance through dual organelle targeting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Guo, Guannan; Ma, Ben; Du, Rong; Xiao, Haihua; Yang, Xiaoguang; Li, Wenliang; Gao, Ying; Li, Yuxin; Jing, Xiabin

    2015-08-01

    A hybrid drug dichloroacetate-platinum(II) [DCA-Pt(II)] was found to overcome cisplatin drug resistance of ovarian cancer through a dual targeting mode, which is different from the mode of action of the present platinum (Pt) drugs used in clinics. DCA-Pt(II) exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity against both cisplatin-sensitive (A2780) and cisplatin-resistant (A2780DDP) ovarian cancer cells. The Pt and Pt-DNA adduct content test showed that there was less Pt cellular uptake and fewer Pt-DNA adducts were present after DCA-Pt(II) treatment compared with treatment with cisplatin, carboplatin, and some other drugs. In the study, the effects of DCA-Pt(II) on the cell cycle and apoptosis were also investigated, which showed that DCA-Pt(II) induced G2/M phase arrest and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in both sensitive and resistant cells lines. Interestingly, DCA-Pt(II) had much greater effects on mitochondria in A2780DDP cell lines than in A2780 cell lines. PMID:25811961

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Bacterial Kinetics to Predict the Impact of Antibiotic Colonic Exposure and Treatment Duration on the Amount of Resistant Enterobacteria Excreted

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu Thuy; Guedj, Jeremie; Chachaty, Elisabeth; de Gunzburg, Jean; Andremont, Antoine; Mentré, France

    2014-01-01

    Fecal excretion of antibiotics and resistant bacteria in the environment are major public health threats associated with extensive farming and modern medical care. Innovative strategies that can reduce the intestinal antibiotic concentrations during treatments are in development. However, the effect of lower exposure on the amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted has not been quantified, making it difficult to anticipate the impact of these strategies. Here, we introduce a bacterial kinetic model to capture the complex relationships between drug exposure, loss of susceptible enterobacteria and growth of resistant strains in the feces of piglets receiving placebo, 1.5 or 15 mg/kg/day ciprofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, for 5 days. The model could well describe the kinetics of drug susceptible and resistant enterobacteria observed during treatment, and up to 22 days after treatment cessation. Next, the model was used to predict the expected amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted over an average piglet's lifetime (150 days) when varying drug exposure and treatment duration. For the clinically relevant dose of 15 mg/kg/day for 5 days, the total amount of resistant enterobacteria excreted was predicted to be reduced by 75% and 98% when reducing treatment duration to 3 and 1 day treatment, respectively. Alternatively, for a fixed 5-days treatment, the level of resistance excreted could be reduced by 18%, 33%, 57.5% and 97% if 3, 5, 10 and 30 times lower levels of colonic drug concentrations were achieved, respectively. This characterization on in vivo data of the dynamics of resistance to antibiotics in the colonic flora could provide new insights into the mechanism of dissemination of resistance and can be used to design strategies aiming to reduce it. PMID:25210849

  13. Analysis of Bacterial Biofilms on a Cochlear Implant Following Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection.

    PubMed

    Im, Gi Jung; An, Yun Suk; Choi, June; Song, Jae Jun; Chae, Sung Won; Jung, Hak Hyun

    2015-12-01

    To demonstrate biofilm formations on a cochlear implant magnet of a pediatric patient suffering from a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The appearance of biofilm colonies was analyzed on different magnet sections. The appearance of MRSA biofilms on the surface of an explanted cochlear implant was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focusing on the pattern of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) within the biofilms. SEM revealed unique biofilms with a three-dimensional EPS complex and tower-like formations. Biofilm configurations changed from the margin to the center of the magnet. Biofilms were solitary and scattered at the margin; large and plate-like in the center; and stacked in layers, forming towers and water channels, in the middle region. After a MRSA infection, biofilm formations were observed on the surface of a magnet. Bacterial biofilms provide optimal conditions for bacterial growth and antibiotic resistance and can cause intractable infections that lead to device failure. PMID:26771017

  14. Analysis of Bacterial Biofilms on a Cochlear Implant Following Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection

    PubMed Central

    An, Yun Suk; Choi, June; Song, Jae Jun; Chae, Sung Won; Jung, Hak Hyun

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate biofilm formations on a cochlear implant magnet of a pediatric patient suffering from a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The appearance of biofilm colonies was analyzed on different magnet sections. The appearance of MRSA biofilms on the surface of an explanted cochlear implant was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focusing on the pattern of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) within the biofilms. SEM revealed unique biofilms with a three-dimensional EPS complex and tower-like formations. Biofilm configurations changed from the margin to the center of the magnet. Biofilms were solitary and scattered at the margin; large and plate-like in the center; and stacked in layers, forming towers and water channels, in the middle region. After a MRSA infection, biofilm formations were observed on the surface of a magnet. Bacterial biofilms provide optimal conditions for bacterial growth and antibiotic resistance and can cause intractable infections that lead to device failure. PMID:26771017

  15. Feline urinary tract pathogens: prevalence of bacterial species and antimicrobial resistance over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, Roswitha; von Vopelius-Feldt, Clara; Wolf, Georg; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Hartmann, Katrin

    2015-02-21

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify bacterial species in cats with bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) and to investigate their antimicrobial susceptibilities over a 10-year period. Three hundred and thirty cultures from 280 cats were included in the study. The mean age of affected cats was 9.9?years; female cats with bacterial UTIs were significantly older than male cats with UTIs. The most common pathogen identified was Escherichia coli (42.3 per cent), followed by Streptococcus species (19.3 per cent), Staphylococcus species (15.6 per cent), Enterococcus species (6.6 per cent) and Micrococcaceae (5.8 per cent). Forty specimens (12.1 per cent) yielded growth of more than one isolate. Streptococcus and Enterococcus isolates were resistant to a significantly higher number of antimicrobial agents than E coli and Staphylococcus species isolates. Applying the formula to select rational antimicrobial therapy, bacterial isolates were most likely to be susceptible to nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin and gentamicin. The antimicrobial impact factor for nitrofurantoin increased significantly over the 10-year period, whereas there was no significant change in antimicrobial impact factors for doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, cephalothin and amoxicillin clavulanic acid. The detected changes in in vitro antimicrobial efficacy could help to develop hospital-specific guidelines for antimicrobial use to prevent the further development of resistance in feline uropathogens. PMID:25351232

  16. Arabidopsis EF-Tu receptor enhances bacterial disease resistance in transgenic wheat.

    PubMed

    Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Wang, Hsi-Hua; Stefanato, Francesca L; Craze, Melanie; Bowden, Sarah; Wallington, Emma; Zipfel, Cyril; Ridout, Christopher J

    2015-04-01

    Perception of pathogen (or microbe)-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. The Arabidopsis PRR EF-Tu receptor (EFR) recognizes the bacterial PAMP elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and its derived peptide elf18. Previous work revealed that transgenic expression of AtEFR in Solanaceae confers elf18 responsiveness and broad-spectrum bacterial disease resistance. In this study, we developed a set of bioassays to study the activation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in wheat. We generated transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants expressing AtEFR driven by the constitutive rice actin promoter and tested their response to elf18. We show that transgenic expression of AtEFR in wheat confers recognition of elf18, as measured by the induction of immune marker genes and callose deposition. When challenged with the cereal bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. oryzae, transgenic EFR wheat lines had reduced lesion size and bacterial multiplication. These results demonstrate that AtEFR can be transferred successfully from dicot to monocot species, further revealing that immune signalling pathways are conserved across these distant phyla. As novel PRRs are identified, their transfer between plant families represents a useful strategy for enhancing resistance to pathogens in crops. PMID:25760815

  17. Risk Factors for Acquisition of Drug Resistance during Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Treatment, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Ershova, Julia; Vlasova, Natalia; Nikishova, Elena; Tarasova, Irina; Eliseev, Platon; Maryandyshev, Andrey O.; Shemyakin, Igor G.; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Cegielski, J. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Acquired resistance to antituberculosis drugs decreases effective treatment options and the likelihood of treatment success. We identified risk factors for acquisition of drug resistance during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and evaluated the effect on treatment outcomes. Data were collected prospectively from adults from Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, who had pulmonary MDR TB during 2005–2008. Acquisition of resistance to capreomycin and of extensively drug-resistant TB were more likely among patients who received <3 effective drugs than among patients who received >3 effective drugs (9.4% vs. 0% and 8.6% vs. 0.8%, respectively). Poor outcomes were more likely among patients with acquired capreomycin resistance (100% vs. 25.9%), acquired ofloxacin resistance (83.6% vs. 22.7%), or acquired extensive drug resistance (100% vs. 24.4%). To prevent acquired drug resistance and poor outcomes, baseline susceptibility to first- and second-line drugs should be determined quickly, and treatment should be adjusted to contain >3 effective drugs. PMID:25988954

  18. Risk factors for acquisition of drug resistance during multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah E; Ershova, Julia; Vlasova, Natalia; Nikishova, Elena; Tarasova, Irina; Eliseev, Platon; Maryandyshev, Andrey O; Shemyakin, Igor G; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Cegielski, J Peter

    2015-06-01

    Acquired resistance to antituberculosis drugs decreases effective treatment options and the likelihood of treatment success. We identified risk factors for acquisition of drug resistance during treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) and evaluated the effect on treatment outcomes. Data were collected prospectively from adults from Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia, who had pulmonary MDR TB during 2005-2008. Acquisition of resistance to capreomycin and of extensively drug-resistant TB were more likely among patients who received <3 effective drugs than among patients who received >3 effective drugs (9.4% vs. 0% and 8.6% vs. 0.8%, respectively). Poor outcomes were more likely among patients with acquired capreomycin resistance (100% vs. 25.9%), acquired ofloxacin resistance (83.6% vs. 22.7%), or acquired extensive drug resistance (100% vs. 24.4%). To prevent acquired drug resistance and poor outcomes, baseline susceptibility to first- and second-line drugs should be determined quickly, and treatment should be adjusted to contain >3 effective drugs. PMID:25988954

  19. Combinatorial Activity of Flavonoids with Antibiotics Against Drug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana Cristina; Serra, Sofia C; Borges, Anabela; Saavedra, Maria Jos; Mcbain, Andrew J; Salgado, Antnio J; Simes, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The use of resistance-modifying agents is a potential strategy that is used to prolong the effective life of antibiotics in the face of increasing antibiotic resistance. Since certain flavonoids are potent bacterial efflux pump inhibitors, we assessed morin, rutin, quercetin, hesperidin, and (+)-catechin for their combined activity with the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin, oxacillin, and ampicillin against drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Four established methods were used to determine the combined efficacy of each combination: microdilution checkerboard assays, time-kill determinations, the Etest, and dual disc-diffusion methods. The cytotoxicity of the flavonoids was additionally evaluated in a mouse fibroblast cell line. Quercetin and its isomer morin decreased by 3- to 16-fold the minimal inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin against some S. aureus strains. Rutin, hesperidin, and (+)-catechin did not promote any potentiation of antibiotics. Despite the potential cytotoxicity of these phytochemicals at a high concentration (fibroblast IC50 of 41.8 and 67.5?mg/L, respectively), quercetin is commonly used as a supplement for several therapeutic purposes. All the methods, with exception of the time-kill assay, presented a high degree of congruence without any apparent strain specificity. PMID:25734256

  20. Emergence of Extensively Drug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Harboring a Conjugative NDM-1 Plasmid and a Novel Salmonella Genomic Island 1 Variant, SGI1-Z.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shangshang; Qi, Hui; Zhang, Qijing; Zhao, Di; Liu, Zhen-Zhen; Tian, Hao; Xu, Lijuan; Xu, Hui; Zhou, Mengmeng; Feng, Xianju; Liu, Hong-Min

    2015-10-01

    Acquisition of blaNDM-1 in bacterial species, such as Proteus mirabilis that is intrinsically resistant to tetracycline, tigecycline and colistin, will make clinical treatment extremely difficult. Here, we characterized an NDM-1-producing clinical isolate of P. mirabilis (PM58) that displayed an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) phenotype, susceptible only to aztreonam. Molecular analysis revealed that PM58 harbored both a conjugative NDM-1 plasmid and a novel Salmonella genomic island 1 variant on chromosome. PMID:26195511

  1. Blast from the Past: Reassessing Forgotten Translation Inhibitors, Antibiotic Selectivity, and Resistance Mechanisms to Aid Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Arenz, Stefan; Wilson, Daniel N

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a major target within the bacterial cell for antibiotics. Investigations into ribosome-targeting antibiotics have provided much needed functional and structural insight into their mechanism of action. However, the increasing prevalence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria has limited the utility of our current arsenal of clinically relevant antibiotics, highlighting the need for the development of new classes. Recent structural studies have characterized a number of antibiotics discovered decades ago that have unique chemical scaffolds and/or utilize novel modes of action to interact with the ribosome and inhibit translation. Additionally, structures of eukaryotic cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ribosomes have provided further structural insight into the basis for specificity and toxicity of antibiotics. Together with our increased understanding of bacterial resistance mechanisms, revisiting our treasure trove of "forgotten" antibiotics could pave the way for the next generation of antimicrobial agents. PMID:26585390

  2. Restoration of paclitaxel resistance by CDK1 intervention in drug-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bae, Taejeong; Weon, Kwon-Yeon; Lee, Jeong-Won; Eum, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Sungchul; Choi, Jin Woo

    2015-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) commonly acquires resistance to chemotherapy, and this is the major obstacle to the better prognosis. Elucidating the molecular targets altered by chemotherapy is critically required to understand and overcome drug resistance. As a drug combination including paclitaxel is a prevalent prescription for treatment of EOC, to uncover gene expression altered in paclitaxel-resistant EOC, we analyzed multidirectional microarray profiles in both EOC cell lines and patients with paclitaxel resistance. Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) was found to be a potential target of transcription factors to regulate paclitaxel resistance. As a result of the subsequent pharmacogenomics analysis, CDK1 inhibitor alsterpaullone was also indicated as a promising chemical that may be used in combinatorial therapies to reverse paclitaxel-induced chemoresistance. Although a CDK1 inhibitor has the potential to kill cancer cells, short-term treatment over 2 weeks at sublethal doses effectively induced cell death only upon additional treatment with paclitaxel. A prominent reduction in the tumor growth rate was observed upon paclitaxel subsequent to alsterpaullone treatment in EOC xenograft model. Thus, we suggest that inhibition of CDK1 with alsterpaullone may be a novel therapeutic method to reverse paclitaxel-induced resistance in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26442525

  3. Quick discrimination of heavy metal resistant bacterial populations using infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Gurbanov, Rafig; Simsek Ozek, Nihal; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Severcan, Feride

    2015-10-01

    Lead and cadmium are frequently encountered heavy metals in industrially polluted areas. Many heavy metal resistant bacterial strains have a high biosorption capacity and thus are good candidates for the removal of toxic metals from the environment. However, as of yet there is no accurate method for discrimination of highly adaptive bacterial strains among the populations present in a given habitat. In this study, we aimed to find distinguishing molecular features of lead and cadmium resistant bacteria using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transformed Infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy and chemometric approaches. Our results demonstrated that both control and metal exposed E. coli and S. aureus strains could be successfully discriminated from each other using hierarchical cluster and principal component analysis methods. Moreover, we found that lead exposed bacterial strains could be successfully discriminated from cadmium exposed ones with a high heterogeneity value. These clear discriminations can be described by the ability of a bacterium to change its metabolism in terms of the content and structure of cellular macromolecules under heavy metal stress. In our case, cadmium and lead-induced genetic response systems in bacteria caused remarkable alterations in overall cellular metabolism. Bacteria deal with a heavy metal stress by altering nucleic acid methylations and lipid and protein synthesis. Heavy metal burden led to the development of relevant metabolic changes in proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids of the resistant bacteria described in this study. Our approach showed that infrared spectra obtained via ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis can be utilized for rapid, low-cost, informative, reliable, and operator-independent discrimination of resistant bacterial populations. PMID:26366586

  4. [Bacterial resistance during anti-acne antibiotic therapy. How to limit the risk].

    PubMed

    Pirard, G E; Arrese, J E; Claessens, N; Greimers, R; Pirard-Franchimont, C; Naeyaert, J M

    1999-02-01

    The treatment of moderate to severe acne often relies on antibiotherapy in order to eradicate as much as possible microorganisms such as Propionibacterium spp colonizing the sebaceous follicles. In recent years, bacterial resistances against specific antibiotics have emerged. Both the antibiotic and its administration modalities must be considered in order to control the risk. With regard to this conundrum, minocycline is a medication of choice among the diverse anti-acneic therapies. PMID:10221062

  5. The Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Preventing Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong-Cheol; Park, Yoonkyung; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, decreasing effectiveness of conventional antimicrobial-drugs has caused serious problems due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Furthermore, biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections and dental plaque, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. As a result, there is a continuous search to overcome or control such problems, which has resulted in antimicrobial peptides being considered as an alternative to conventional drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are ancient host defense effector molecules in living organisms. These peptides have been identified in diverse organisms and synthetically developed by using peptidomimic techniques. This review was conducted to demonstrate the mode of action by which antimicrobial peptides combat multidrug-resistant bacteria and prevent biofilm formation and to introduce clinical uses of these compounds for chronic disease, medical devices, and oral health. In addition, combinations of antimicrobial peptides and conventional drugs were considered due to their synergetic effects and low cost for therapeutic treatment. PMID:22016639

  6. Map the gap: missing children with drug-resistant tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, C. M.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Keshavjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lack of published information about children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is an obstacle to efforts to advocate for better diagnostics and treatment. Objective: To describe the lack of recognition in the published literature of MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) in children. Design: We conducted a systematic search of the literature published in countries that reported any MDR- or XDR-TB case by 2012 to identify MDR- or XDR-TB cases in adults and in children. Results: Of 184 countries and territories that reported any case of MDR-TB during 2005–2012, we identified adult MDR-TB cases in the published literature in 143 (78%) countries and pediatric MDR-TB cases in 78 (42%) countries. Of the 92 countries that reported any case of XDR-TB, we identified adult XDR-TB cases in the published literature in 55 (60%) countries and pediatric XDR-TB cases for 9 (10%) countries. Conclusion: The absence of publications documenting child MDR- and XDR-TB cases in settings where MDR- and XDR-TB in adults have been reported indicates both exclusion of childhood disease from the public discourse on drug-resistant TB and likely underdetection of sick children. Our results highlight a large-scale lack of awareness about children with MDR- and XDR-TB. PMID:26400601

  7. Escape from stress granule sequestration: another way to drug resistance?

    PubMed

    Yage, Ernesto; Raguz, Selina

    2010-12-01

    Overexpression of P-glycoprotein, encoded by the MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1) gene, is often responsible for multidrug resistance and chemotherapy failure in cancer. We have demonstrated that, in leukaemic cells, P-glycoprotein expression is regulated at the translational level. More recently, we have shown that in cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein, MDR1 mRNA does not aggregate into translationally silent stress granules. Importantly, this is not unique for MDR1, since other transcripts encoding transmembrane proteins, and which are thus translated at the endoplasmic reticulum, follow the same pattern. By using a series of chimaeric transcripts, we have demonstrated that transcript localization at the endoplasmic reticulum bypasses the signals dictating stress granule sequestration. Polysome profile analyses and protein synthesis experiments indicate that, upon stress withdrawal, endoplasmic-reticulum-bound transcripts resume translation faster than those at the cytosol, which have been sequestered into stress granules. This may represent a novel mechanism by which drug-resistant cells respond quickly to stress, helping them to survive the cytotoxic effect of chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:21118122

  8. Accelerating resistance, inadequate antibacterial drug pipelines and international responses.

    PubMed

    Theuretzbacher, Ursula

    2012-04-01

    The pandemic of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens and their continuing spread is beyond dispute. In contrast to the past, today's antibacterial research and development (R&D) pipelines are nearly dry, failing to provide the flow of novel antibiotics required to match the clinical challenges of the multidrug resistance (MDR) crisis. Concerned over the rapidly worsening potential global healthcare crisis caused by MDR bacteria and the lack of robust drug pipelines, several multinational campaigns have issued policy recommendations and have initiated broad discussion with a goal of stimulating the development of novel antibacterial drugs and technologies. These activities have resulted in intensified co-operation between the USA and the EU. The recently announced extensive 'Action plan against the rising threats from antimicrobial resistance' substantially ramps up action within the EU. In recognising the potential crisis caused by MDR and the limited treatment options, the European Commission decided on an unprecedented approach to drive the search for novel antibiotics by integrating the pharmaceutical industry, the research capacities of universities and small companies supported by public funding along with pricing/reimbursement and regulatory bodies. The European Commission has shown leadership and put action plans in place. Only the future will tell whether these initiatives will help curb the impact of the MDR pandemic. PMID:22341298

  9. Antibody-targeted drugs and drug resistance--challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Shefet-Carasso, LeeRon; Benhar, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-based therapy of various human malignancies has shown efficacy in the past 30 years and is now one of the most successful and leading strategies for targeted treatment of patients harboring hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) aim to take advantage of the affinity and specificity of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to selectively deliver potent cytotoxic drugs to antigen-expressing tumor cells. Key parameters for ADC include choosing the optimal components of the ADC (the antibody, the linker and the cytotoxic drug) and selecting the suitable cell-surface target antigen. Building on the success of recent FDA approval of brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris) and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (Kadcyla), ADCs are currently a class of drugs with a robust pipeline with clinical applications that are rapidly expanding. The more ADCs are being evaluated in preclinical models and clinical trials, the clearer are becoming the parameters and the challenges required for their therapeutic success. This rapidly growing knowledge and clinical experience are revealing novel modalities and mechanisms of resistance to ADCs, hence offering plausible solutions to such challenges. Here, we review the key parameters for designing a powerful ADC, focusing on how ADCs are addressing the challenge of multiple drug resistance (MDR) and its rational overcoming. PMID:25476546

  10. Colonization resistance of defined bacterial plaques to Streptococcus mutans implantation on teeth in a model mouth.

    PubMed

    Perrons, C J; Donoghue, H D

    1990-02-01

    We investigated the ability of Streptococcus mutans C67-1 to colonize simple bacterial plaques and the effects of age and stability of the pre-formed plaque on colonization resistance. Mixed-plaques of Actinomyces viscosus WVU627, 'Streptococcus mitior' LPA-1, and Veillonella dispar OMZ193 were grown on tooth segments, mounted back to back for simulation of approximal sites in a model mouth for 66 h. S. mutans C67-1 was either included in the original inoculum or super-inoculated onto the developing plaque. Inclusion of S. mutans C67-1 did not alter the total viable counts, but the proportional composition changed due to inter-species interactions. Colonization resistance of the mixed-plaque samples developed within 24 h, although S. mutans C67-1 was always able to colonize these stagnation sites. Colonization resistance of 24-hour plaque against a fresh isolate, S. mutans CP3, was also studied. There was greater colonization resistance by the basic plaque to this organism, compared with S. mutans C67-1, although the reasons for this were not clear. These initial experiments demonstrate the way in which the factors involved in bacterial colonization resistance in microbial films on teeth can be studied under controlled conditions. PMID:2307751