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1

Unique core genomes of the bacterial family vibrionaceae: insights into niche adaptation and speciation  

PubMed Central

Background The criteria for defining bacterial species and even the concept of bacterial species itself are under debate, and the discussion is apparently intensifying as more genome sequence data is becoming available. However, it is still unclear how the new advances in genomics should be used most efficiently to address this question. In this study we identify genes that are common to any group of genomes in our dataset, to determine whether genes specific to a particular taxon exist and to investigate their potential role in adaptation of bacteria to their specific niche. These genes were named unique core genes. Additionally, we investigate the existence and importance of unique core genes that are found in isolates of phylogenetically non-coherent groups. These groups of isolates, that share a genetic feature without sharing a closest common ancestor, are termed genophyletic groups. Results The bacterial family Vibrionaceae was used as the model, and we compiled and compared genome sequences of 64 different isolates. Using the software orthoMCL we determined clusters of homologous genes among the investigated genome sequences. We used multilocus sequence analysis to build a host phylogeny and mapped the numbers of unique core genes of all distinct groups of isolates onto the tree. The results show that unique core genes are more likely to be found in monophyletic groups of isolates. Genophyletic groups of isolates, in contrast, are less common especially for large groups of isolate. The subsequent annotation of unique core genes that are present in genophyletic groups indicate a high degree of horizontally transferred genes. Finally, the annotation of the unique core genes of Vibrio cholerae revealed genes involved in aerotaxis and biosynthesis of the iron-chelator vibriobactin. Conclusion The presented work indicates that genes specific for any taxon inside the bacterial family Vibrionaceae exist. These unique core genes encode conserved metabolic functions that can shed light on the adaptation of a species to its ecological niche. Additionally, our study suggests that unique core genes can be used to aid classification of bacteria and contribute to a bacterial species definition on a genomic level. Furthermore, these genes may be of importance in clinical diagnostics and drug development. PMID:22574681

2012-01-01

2

Global and Phylogenetic Distribution of Quorum Sensing Signals, Acyl Homoserine Lactones, in the Family of Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) and the corresponding signals, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), were first described for a luminescent Vibrio species. Since then, detailed knowledge has been gained on the functional level of QS; however, the abundance of AHLs in the family of Vibrionaceae in the environment has remained unclear. Three hundred and one Vibrionaceae strains were collected on a global research cruise and the prevalence and profile of AHL signals in this global collection were determined. AHLs were detected in 32 of the 301 strains using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Chromobacterium violaceum reporter strains. Ethyl acetate extracts of the cultures were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) with automated tandem MS confirmation for AHLs. N-(3-hydroxy-hexanoyl) (OH-C6) and N-(3-hydroxy-decanoyl) (OH-C10) homoserine lactones were the most common AHLs found in 17 and 12 strains, respectively. Several strains produced a diversity of different AHLs, including N-heptanoyl (C7) HL. AHL-producing Vibrionaceae were found in polar, temperate and tropical waters. The AHL profiles correlated with strain phylogeny based on gene sequence homology, however not with geographical location. In conclusion, a wide range of AHL signals are produced by a number of clades in the Vibrionaceae family and these results will allow future investigations of inter- and intra-species interactions within this cosmopolitan family of marine bacteria. PMID:25419995

Barker Rasmussen, Bastian; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Machado, Henrique; Melchiorsen, Jette; Gram, Lone; Sonnenschein, Eva C.

2014-01-01

3

Development of a Simple and Rapid Fluorogenic Procedure for Identification of Vibrionaceae Family Members  

PubMed Central

We describe a simple colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP) for the rapid fluorogenic detection and quantification of Vibrionaceae from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. The assay detects phosphoglucose isomerase with a lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is produced by Vibrionaceae family members. Overnight cultures are overlaid for 10 min with membranes containing a synthetic substrate, and the membranes are examined for fluorescent foci under UV illumination. Fluorescent foci were produced by all the Vibrionaceae tested, including Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas spp. Fluorescence was not produced by non-Vibrionaceae pathogens. Vibrio cholerae strains O1, O139, O22, and O155 were strongly positive. Seawater and oysters were assayed, and 87 of 93 (93.5%) of the positive isolates were identified biochemically as Vibrionaceae, principally Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Photobacterium damselae, and Shewanella putrefaciens. None of 50 nonfluorescent isolates were Vibrionaceae. No Vibrionaceae were detected in soil, and only A. hydrophila was detected in sewage. The COPP technique may be particularly valuable in environmental and food-testing laboratories and for monitoring water quality in the aquaculture industry. PMID:16000757

Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Parveen, Salina

2005-01-01

4

Genomic and systems evolution in Vibrionaceae species  

PubMed Central

Background The steadily increasing number of prokaryotic genomes has accelerated the study of genome evolution; in particular, the availability of sets of genomes from closely related bacteria has facilitated the exploration of the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity. The family Vibrionaceae is found in the Gammaproteobacteria and is abundant in aquatic environments. Taxa from the family Vibrionaceae are diversified in their life styles; some species are free living, others are symbiotic, and others are human pathogens. This diversity makes this family a useful set of model organisms for studying bacterial evolution. This evolution is driven by several forces, among them gene duplication and lateral gene transfer, which are believed to provide raw material for functional redundancy and novelty. The resultant gene copy increase in one genome is then detected as lineage-specific expansion (LSE). Results Here we present the results of a detailed comparison of the genomes of eleven Vibrionaceae strains that have distinct life styles and distinct phenotypes. The core genome shared by all eleven strains is composed of 1,882 genes, which make up about 31%–50% of the genome repertoire. We further investigated the distribution and features of genes that have been specifically expanded in one unique lineage of the eleven strains. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified in the eleven Vibrionaceae strains, with 1–11% of the whole genomes composed lineage specific radiations. These LSEs occurred in two distinct patterns: the first type yields one or more copies of a single gene; we call this a single gene expansion. The second pattern has a high evolutionary impact, as the expansion involves two or more gene copies in a block, with the duplicated block located next to the original block (a contiguous block expansion) or at some distance from the original block (a discontiguous block expansion). We showed that LSEs involve genes that are tied to defense and pathogenesis mechanisms as well as in the fundamental life cycle of Vibrionaceae species. Conclusion Our results provide evidence of genome plasticity and rapid evolution within the family Vibrionaceae. The comparisons point to sources of genomic variation and candidates for lineage-specific adaptations of each Vibrionaceae pathogen or nonpathogen strain. Such lineage specific expansions could reveal components in bacterial systems that, by their enhanced genetic variability, can be tied to responses to environmental challenges, interesting phenotypes, or adaptive pathogenic responses to host challenges. PMID:19594870

Gu, Jianying; Neary, Jennifer; Cai, Hong; Moshfeghian, Audrey; Rodriguez, Stephen A; Lilburn, Timothy G; Wang, Yufeng

2009-01-01

5

Fluorogenic Membrane Overlays to Enumerate Total and Fecal Escherichia coli and Total Vibrionaceae in Shellfish and Seawater.  

PubMed

Three assays were developed to enumerate total and fecal Escherichia coli and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish, seawater, and other foods and environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on nonselective agar plates to detect beta-glucuronidase and lysyl aminopeptidase activities for E. coli and Vibrionaceae, respectively. Cellulose membranes containing the substrates 4-methylumbeferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) produced a bright blue fluorescence when overlaid onto E. coli, while L-lysyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin produced green fluorescent foci when overlaid onto Vibrionaceae family members. A multiplex assay was also developed for simultaneously enumerating total E. coli and total Vibrionaceae in oysters and seawater. Overall, 65% of overlaid E. coli (non-O157:H7) were MUG-positive, compared with 62% as determined by the most-probable-number-MUG assay. The overlays are rapid, simple, and cost effective for quantification purposes. This research provides practical alternatives for monitoring bacterial indicators and potential pathogens in complex samples, including molluscan shellfish. PMID:20396663

Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A

2010-01-01

6

Fluorogenic Membrane Overlays to Enumerate Total and Fecal Escherichia coli and Total Vibrionaceae in Shellfish and Seawater  

PubMed Central

Three assays were developed to enumerate total and fecal Escherichia coli and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish, seawater, and other foods and environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on nonselective agar plates to detect ?-glucuronidase and lysyl aminopeptidase activities for E. coli and Vibrionaceae, respectively. Cellulose membranes containing the substrates 4-methylumbeferyl-?-D-glucuronide (MUG) produced a bright blue fluorescence when overlaid onto E. coli, while L-lysyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin produced green fluorescent foci when overlaid onto Vibrionaceae family members. A multiplex assay was also developed for simultaneously enumerating total E. coli and total Vibrionaceae in oysters and seawater. Overall, 65% of overlaid E. coli (non-O157:H7) were MUG-positive, compared with 62% as determined by the most-probable-number-MUG assay. The overlays are rapid, simple, and cost effective for quantification purposes. This research provides practical alternatives for monitoring bacterial indicators and potential pathogens in complex samples, including molluscan shellfish. PMID:20396663

Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.

2010-01-01

7

Water-quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and Vibrionaceae loads in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster-gardening sites.  

PubMed

Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water-quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae concentrations in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). One site was located at the end of a man-made canal, whereas the other was located in an open bay. Measured water parameters included temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, pH, total nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids. The highest Vibrionaceae levels, as determined by the colony overlay procedure for peptidases, were at the canal site in September (3.5 × 10(5) g(-1)) and at the bay site in August (1.9 × 10(5) g(-1)). Vibrionaceae levels were significantly greater during the duration of the study at the canal site (P = 0.01). This study provides the first baseline levels for total Vibrionaceae in the Delaware Inland Bays. Minimum DO readings at the bay and canal sites were 3.0 and 2.3 mg l(-1), respectively, far less than the state-targeted minimum threshold of 5.0 mg l(-1). Total phosphorus levels exceeded recommendations of ?0.1 mg l(-1) at the bay and canal sites for all monthly samplings, with mean monthly highs at both sites ?0.68 mg l(-1) in August. Nitrogen occasionally exceeded the recommended level of 1.0 mg l(-1) at both sites. Overall, waters were highly degraded from high phosphates, nitrogen, and total suspended solids as well as low DO. PMID:22183874

Fay, Johnna P; Richards, Gary P; Ozbay, Gulnihal

2012-05-01

8

Associations and dynamics of Vibrionaceae in the environment, from the genus to the population level  

E-print Network

The Vibrionaceae, which encompasses several potential pathogens, including V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, and V. vulnificus, the deadliest seafood-borne pathogen, are a well-studied family of marine bacteria ...

Chien, Diana M.

9

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Incidence of lux Gene Horizontal Transfer in Vibrionaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 21 January 2008\\/Accepted 11 March 2008 Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is thought to occur frequently in bacteria in nature and to play an important role in bacterial evolution, contributing to the formation of new species. To gain insight into the frequency of HGT in Vibrionaceae and its possible impact on speciation, we assessed the incidence of interspecies transfer of

Henryk Urbanczyk; Jennifer C. Ast; Allison J. Kaeding; James D. Oliver; Paul V. Dunlap

2008-01-01

10

Microbial experimental evolution as a novel research approach in the Vibrionaceae and squid-Vibrio symbiosis.  

PubMed

The Vibrionaceae are a genetically and metabolically diverse family living in aquatic habitats with a great propensity toward developing interactions with eukaryotic microbial and multicellular hosts (as either commensals, pathogens, and mutualists). The Vibrionaceae frequently possess a life history cycle where bacteria are attached to a host in one phase and then another where they are free from their host as either part of the bacterioplankton or adhered to solid substrates such as marine sediment, riverbeds, lakebeds, or floating particulate debris. These two stages in their life history exert quite distinct and separate selection pressures. When bound to solid substrates or to host cells, the Vibrionaceae can also exist as complex biofilms. The association between bioluminescent Vibrio spp. and sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) is an experimentally tractable model to study bacteria and animal host interactions, since the symbionts and squid hosts can be maintained in the laboratory independently of one another. The bacteria can be grown in pure culture and the squid hosts raised gnotobiotically with sterile light organs. The partnership between free-living Vibrio symbionts and axenic squid hatchlings emerging from eggs must be renewed every generation of the cephalopod host. Thus, symbiotic bacteria and animal host can each be studied alone and together in union. Despite virtues provided by the Vibrionaceae and sepiolid squid-Vibrio symbiosis, these assets to evolutionary biology have yet to be fully utilized for microbial experimental evolution. Experimental evolution studies already completed are reviewed, along with exploratory topics for future study. PMID:25538686

Soto, William; Nishiguchi, Michele K

2014-01-01

11

Microbial experimental evolution as a novel research approach in the Vibrionaceae and squid-Vibrio symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The Vibrionaceae are a genetically and metabolically diverse family living in aquatic habitats with a great propensity toward developing interactions with eukaryotic microbial and multicellular hosts (as either commensals, pathogens, and mutualists). The Vibrionaceae frequently possess a life history cycle where bacteria are attached to a host in one phase and then another where they are free from their host as either part of the bacterioplankton or adhered to solid substrates such as marine sediment, riverbeds, lakebeds, or floating particulate debris. These two stages in their life history exert quite distinct and separate selection pressures. When bound to solid substrates or to host cells, the Vibrionaceae can also exist as complex biofilms. The association between bioluminescent Vibrio spp. and sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) is an experimentally tractable model to study bacteria and animal host interactions, since the symbionts and squid hosts can be maintained in the laboratory independently of one another. The bacteria can be grown in pure culture and the squid hosts raised gnotobiotically with sterile light organs. The partnership between free-living Vibrio symbionts and axenic squid hatchlings emerging from eggs must be renewed every generation of the cephalopod host. Thus, symbiotic bacteria and animal host can each be studied alone and together in union. Despite virtues provided by the Vibrionaceae and sepiolid squid-Vibrio symbiosis, these assets to evolutionary biology have yet to be fully utilized for microbial experimental evolution. Experimental evolution studies already completed are reviewed, along with exploratory topics for future study.

Soto, William; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

2014-01-01

12

Polar Flagellar Motility of the Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

Polar flagella of Vibrio species can rotate at speeds as high as 100,000 rpm and effectively propel the bacteria in liquid as fast as 60 ?m/s. The sodium motive force powers rotation of the filament, which acts as a propeller. The filament is complex, composed of multiple subunits, and sheathed by an extension of the cell outer membrane. The regulatory circuitry controlling expression of the polar flagellar genes of members of the Vibrionaceae is different from the peritrichous system of enteric bacteria or the polar system of Caulobacter crescentus. The scheme of gene control is also pertinent to other members of the gamma purple bacteria, in particular to Pseudomonas species. This review uses the framework of the polar flagellar system of Vibrio parahaemolyticus to provide a synthesis of what is known about polar motility systems of the Vibrionaceae. In addition to its propulsive role, the single polar flagellum of V. parahaemolyticus is believed to act as a tactile sensor controlling surface-induced gene expression. Under conditions that impede rotation of the polar flagellum, an alternate, lateral flagellar motility system is induced that enables movement through viscous environments and over surfaces. Although the dual flagellar systems possess no shared structural components and although distinct type III secretion systems direct the simultaneous placement and assembly of polar and lateral organelles, movement is coordinated by shared chemotaxis machinery. PMID:11528005

McCarter, Linda L.

2001-01-01

13

Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories. PMID:16517878

O'Hara, Caroline M.

2006-01-01

14

Topological and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial holin families and superfamilies.  

PubMed

Holins are small "hole-forming" transmembrane proteins that mediate bacterial cell lysis during programmed cell death or following phage infection. We have identified fifty two families of established or putative holins and have included representative members of these proteins in the Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; www.tcdb.org). We have identified the organismal sources of members of these families, calculated their average protein sizes, estimated their topologies and determined their relative family sizes. Topological analyses suggest that these proteins can have 1, 2, 3 or 4 transmembrane ?-helical segments (TMSs), and members of a single family are frequently, but not always, of a single topology. In one case, proteins of a family proved to have either 2 or 4 TMSs, and the latter arose by intragenic duplication of a primordial 2 TMS protein-encoding gene resembling the former. Using established statistical approaches, some of these families have been shown to be related by common descent. Seven superfamilies, including 21 of the 52 recognized families were identified. Conserved motif and Pfam analyses confirmed most superfamily assignments. These results serve to expand upon the scope of channel-forming bacterial holins. PMID:23856191

Reddy, Bhaskara L; Saier, Milton H

2013-11-01

15

A growing family: the expanding universe of the bacterial cytoskeleton  

PubMed Central

Cytoskeletal proteins are important mediators of cellular organization in both eukaryotes and bacteria. In the past, cytoskeletal studies have largely focused on three major cytoskeletal families, namely the eukaryotic actin, tubulin, and intermediate filament (IF) proteins and their bacterial homologs MreB, FtsZ, and crescentin. However, mounting evidence suggests that these proteins represent only the tip of the iceberg, as the cellular cytoskeletal network is far more complex. In bacteria, each of MreB, FtsZ, and crescentin represents only one member of large families of diverse homologs. There are also newly identified bacterial cytoskeletal proteins with no eukaryotic homologs, such as WACA proteins and bactofilins. Furthermore, there are universally conserved proteins, such as the metabolic enzyme CtpS, that assemble into filamentous structures that can be repurposed for structural cytoskeletal functions. Recent studies have also identified an increasing number of eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins that are unrelated to actin, tubulin, and IFs, such that expanding our understanding of cytoskeletal proteins is advancing the understanding of the cell biology of all organisms. Here, we summarize the recent explosion in the identification of new members of the bacterial cytoskeleton and describe a hypothesis for the evolution of the cytoskeleton from self-assembling enzymes. PMID:22092065

Ingerson-Mahar, Michael; Gitai, Zemer

2014-01-01

16

A growing family: the expanding universe of the bacterial cytoskeleton.  

PubMed

Cytoskeletal proteins are important mediators of cellular organization in both eukaryotes and bacteria. In the past, cytoskeletal studies have largely focused on three major cytoskeletal families, namely the eukaryotic actin, tubulin, and intermediate filament (IF) proteins and their bacterial homologs MreB, FtsZ, and crescentin. However, mounting evidence suggests that these proteins represent only the tip of the iceberg, as the cellular cytoskeletal network is far more complex. In bacteria, each of MreB, FtsZ, and crescentin represents only one member of large families of diverse homologs. There are also newly identified bacterial cytoskeletal proteins with no eukaryotic homologs, such as WACA proteins and bactofilins. Furthermore, there are universally conserved proteins, such as the metabolic enzyme CtpS, that assemble into filamentous structures that can be repurposed for structural cytoskeletal functions. Recent studies have also identified an increasing number of eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins that are unrelated to actin, tubulin, and IFs, such that expanding our understanding of cytoskeletal proteins is advancing the understanding of the cell biology of all organisms. Here, we summarize the recent explosion in the identification of new members of the bacterial cytoskeleton and describe a hypothesis for the evolution of the cytoskeleton from self-assembling enzymes. PMID:22092065

Ingerson-Mahar, Michael; Gitai, Zemer

2012-01-01

17

Characterization of the bacterial diversity in Indo-West Pacific loliginid and sepiolid squid light organs.  

PubMed

Loliginid and sepiolid squid light organs are known to host a variety of bacterial species from the family Vibrionaceae, yet little is known about the species diversity and characteristics among different host squids. Here we present a broad-ranging molecular and physiological analysis of the bacteria colonizing light organs in loliginid and sepiolid squids from various field locations of the Indo-West Pacific (Australia and Thailand). Our PCR-RFLP analysis, physiological characterization, carbon utilization profiling, and electron microscopy data indicate that loliginid squid in the Indo-West Pacific carry a consortium of bacterial species from the families Vibrionaceae and Photobacteriaceae. This research also confirms our previous report of the presence of Vibrio harveyi as a member of the bacterial population colonizing light organs in loliginid squid. pyrH sequence data were used to confirm isolate identity, and indicates that Vibrio and Photobacterium comprise most of the light organ colonizers of squids from Australia, confirming previous reports for Australian loliginid and sepiolid squids. In addition, combined phylogenetic analysis of PCR-RFLP and 16S rDNA data from Australian and Thai isolates associated both Photobacterium and Vibrio clades with both loliginid and sepiolid strains, providing support that geographical origin does not correlate with their relatedness. These results indicate that both loliginid and sepiolid squids demonstrate symbiont specificity (Vibrionaceae), but their distribution is more likely due to environmental factors that are present during the infection process. This study adds significantly to the growing evidence for complex and dynamic associations in nature and highlights the importance of exploring symbiotic relationships in which non-virulent strains of pathogenic Vibrio species could establish associations with marine invertebrates. PMID:22885637

Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo; Gorman, Clayton; Chavez, Alba A; Willie, Shantell; Nishiguchi, Michele K

2013-01-01

18

Characterization of the Bacterial Diversity in Indo-West Pacific Loliginid and Sepiolid Squid Light Organs  

PubMed Central

Loliginid and sepiolid squid light organs are known to host a variety of bacterial species from the family Vibrionaceae, yet little is known about the species diversity and characteristics among different host squids. Here we present a broad-ranging molecular and physiological analysis of the bacteria colonizing light organs in loliginid and sepiolid squids from various field locations of the Indo-West Pacific (Australia and Thailand). Our PCR-RFLP analysis, physiological characterization, carbon utilization profiling, and electron microscopy data indicate that loliginid squid in the Indo-West Pacific carry a consortium of bacterial species from the families Vibrionaceae and Photobacteriaceae. This research also confirms our previous report of the presence of Vibrio harveyi as a member of the bacterial population colonizing light organs in loliginid squid. pyrH sequence data were used to confirm isolate identity, and indicates that Vibrio and Photobacterium comprise most of the light organ colonizers of squids from Australia, confirming previous reports for Australian loliginid and sepiolid squids. In addition, combined phylogenetic analysis of PCR-RFLP and 16S rDNA data from Australian and Thai isolates associated both Photobacterium and Vibrio clades with both loliginid and sepiolid strains, providing support that geographical origin does not correlate with their relatedness. These results indicate that both loliginid and sepiolid squids demonstrate symbiont specificity (Vibrionaceae), but their distribution is more likely due to environmental factors that are present during the infection process. This study adds significantly to the growing evidence for complex and dynamic associations in nature and highlights the importance of exploring symbiotic relationships in which non-virulent strains of pathogenic Vibrio species could establish associations with marine invertebrates. PMID:22885637

Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo; Gorman, Clayton; Chavez, Alba A.; Willie, Shantell

2013-01-01

19

Comparison of a fungal (family I) and bacterial (family II) cellulose-binding domain.  

PubMed Central

A family II cellulose-binding domain (CBD) of an exoglucanase/xylanase (Cex) from the bacterium Cellulomonas fimi was replaced with the family I CBD of cellobiohydrolase I (CbhI) from the fungus Trichoderma reesei. Expression of the hybrid gene in Escherichia coli yielded up to 50 mg of the hybrid protein, CexCBDCbhI, per liter of culture supernatant. The hybrid was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography on cellulose. The relative association constants (Kr) for the binding of Cex, CexCBDCbhI, the catalytic domain of Cex (p33), and CbhI to bacterial microcrystalline cellulose (BMCC) were 14.9, 7.8, 0.8, and 10.6 liters g-1, respectively. Cex and CexCBDCbhI had similar substrate specificities and similar activities on crystalline and amorphous cellulose. Both released predominantly cellobiose and cellotriose from amorphous cellulose. CexCBDCbhI was two to three times less active than Cex on BMCC, but significantly more active than Cex on soluble cellulose and on xylan. Unlike Cex, the hybrid protein neither bound to alpha-chitin nor released small particles from dewaxed cotton fibers. PMID:7635821

Tomme, P; Driver, D P; Amandoron, E A; Miller, R C; Antony, R; Warren, J; Kilburn, D G

1995-01-01

20

Comparative Analysis of Superintegrons: Engineering Extensive Genetic Diversity in the Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

Integrons are natural tools for bacterial evolution and innovation. Their involvement in the capture and dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes among Gram-negative bacteria is well documented. Recently, massive ancestral versions, the superintegrons (SIs), were discovered in the genomes of diverse proteobacterial species. SI gene cassettes with an identifiable activity encode proteins related to simple adaptive functions, including resistance, virulence, and metabolic activities, and their recruitment was interpreted as providing the host with an adaptive advantage. Here, we present extensive comparative analysis of SIs identified among the Vibrionaceae. Each was at least 100 kb in size, reaffirming the participation of SIs in the genome plasticity and heterogeneity of these species. Phylogenetic and localization data supported the sedentary nature of the functional integron platform and its coevolution with the host genome. Conversely, comparative analysis of the SI cassettes was indicative of both a wide range of origin for the entrapped genes and of an active cassette assembly process in these bacterial species. The signature attC sites of each species displayed conserved structural characteristics indicating that symmetry rather than sequence was important in the recognition of such a varied collection of target recombination sequences by a single site-specific recombinase. Our discovery of various addiction module cassettes within each of the different SIs indicates a possible role for them in the overall stability of large integron cassette arrays. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org. The sequence data from this study have been submitted to GenBank under accession nos. listed in Table 1.] PMID:12618374

Rowe-Magnus, Dean A.; Guerout, Anne-Marie; Biskri, Latefa; Bouige, Philippe; Mazel, Didier

2003-01-01

21

Linkage, Mobility, and Selfishness in the MazF Family of Bacterial Toxins: A Snapshot of Bacterial Evolution  

PubMed Central

Prokaryotic MazF family toxins cooccur with cognate antitoxins having divergent DNA-binding folds and can be of chromosomal or plasmid origin. Sequence similarity search was carried out to identify the Toxin–Antitoxin (TA) operons of MazF family followed by sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies. The genomic DNA upstream of the TA operons was searched for the presence of regulatory motifs. The MazF family toxins showed a conserved hydrophobic pocket in a multibinding site and are present in pathogenic bacteria. The toxins of the MazF family are associated with four main types of cognate antitoxin partners and cluster as a subfamily on the branches of the phylogenetic tree. This indicates that transmission of the entire operon is the dominant mode of inheritance. The plasmid borne TA modules were interspersed between the chromosomal TA modules of the same subfamily, compatible with a frequent interchange of TA genes between the chromosome and the plasmid akin to that observed for antibiotic resistance gens. The split network of the MazF family toxins showed the AbrB-linked toxins as a hub of horizontal gene transfer. Distinct motifs are present in the upstream region of each subfamily. The presence of MazF family TA modules in pathogenic bacteria and identification of a conserved binding pocket are significant for the development of novel antibacterials to disrupt the TA interaction. However, the role of TAs in stress resistance needs to be established. Phylogenetic studies provide insight into the evolution of MazF family TAs and effect on the bacterial genome. PMID:24265503

Chopra, Nikita; Saumitra; Pathak, Abhinandan; Bhatnagar, Rakesh; Bhatnagar, Sonika

2013-01-01

22

Associations and dynamics of Vibrionaceae in the environment, from the genus to the population level.  

PubMed

The Vibrionaceae, which encompasses several potential pathogens, including V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, and V. vulnificus, the deadliest seafood-borne pathogen, are a well-studied family of marine bacteria that thrive in a diverse habitats. To elucidate the environmental conditions under which vibrios proliferate, numerous studies have examined correlations with bulk environmental variables-e.g., temperature, salinity, nitrogen, and phosphate-and association with potential host organisms. However, how meaningful these environmental associations are remains unclear because data are fragmented across studies with variable sampling and analysis methods. Here, we synthesize findings about Vibrio correlations and physical associations using a framework of increasingly fine environmental and taxonomic scales, to better understand their dynamics in the wild. We first conduct a meta-analysis to determine trends with respect to bulk water environmental variables, and find that while temperature and salinity are generally strongly predictive correlates, other parameters are inconsistent and overall patterns depend on taxonomic resolution. Based on the hypothesis that dynamics may better correlate with more narrowly defined niches, we review evidence for specific association with plants, algae, zooplankton, and animals. We find that Vibrio are attached to many organisms, though evidence for enrichment compared to the water column is often lacking. Additionally, contrary to the notion that they flourish predominantly while attached, Vibrio can have, at least temporarily, a free-living lifestyle and even engage in massive blooms. Fine-scale sampling from the water column has enabled identification of such lifestyle preferences for ecologically cohesive populations, and future efforts will benefit from similar analysis at fine genetic and environmental sampling scales to describe the conditions, habitats, and resources shaping Vibrio dynamics. PMID:24575082

Takemura, Alison F; Chien, Diana M; Polz, Martin F

2014-01-01

23

Associations and dynamics of Vibrionaceae in the environment, from the genus to the population level  

PubMed Central

The Vibrionaceae, which encompasses several potential pathogens, including V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, and V. vulnificus, the deadliest seafood-borne pathogen, are a well-studied family of marine bacteria that thrive in diverse habitats. To elucidate the environmental conditions under which vibrios proliferate, numerous studies have examined correlations with bulk environmental variables—e.g., temperature, salinity, nitrogen, and phosphate—and association with potential host organisms. However, how meaningful these environmental associations are remains unclear because data are fragmented across studies with variable sampling and analysis methods. Here, we synthesize findings about Vibrio correlations and physical associations using a framework of increasingly fine environmental and taxonomic scales, to better understand their dynamics in the wild. We first conduct a meta-analysis to determine trends with respect to bulk water environmental variables, and find that while temperature and salinity are generally strongly predictive correlates, other parameters are inconsistent and overall patterns depend on taxonomic resolution. Based on the hypothesis that dynamics may better correlate with more narrowly defined niches, we review evidence for specific association with plants, algae, zooplankton, and animals. We find that Vibrio are attached to many organisms, though evidence for enrichment compared to the water column is often lacking. Additionally, contrary to the notion that they flourish predominantly while attached, Vibrio can have, at least temporarily, a free-living lifestyle and even engage in massive blooms. Fine-scale sampling from the water column has enabled identification of such lifestyle preferences for ecologically cohesive populations, and future efforts will benefit from similar analysis at fine genetic and environmental sampling scales to describe the conditions, habitats, and resources shaping Vibrio dynamics. PMID:24575082

Takemura, Alison F.; Chien, Diana M.; Polz, Martin F.

2013-01-01

24

Fluorogenic membrane overlays to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and seawater  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three assays were developed to enumerate total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish and other foods and in seawater and other environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on non-selective agar plates to detect ß-glucuronidase and lysyl am...

25

Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral-associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. Here, we compare bacterial assemblages of samples from healthy (HH) colonies and such displaying signs of White Plague Disease (WPD) of two different coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) from the same reef in Koh Tao, Thailand, using 16S rRNA gene microarrays. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased (DD) corals, and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens (Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae). In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries. PMID:23924783

Roder, Cornelia; Arif, Chatchanit; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Daniels, Camille; Shibl, Ahmed; Chavanich, Suchana; Voolstra, Christian R

2014-01-01

26

Stealth Proteins: In Silico Identification of a Novel Protein Family Rendering Bacterial Pathogens Invisible to Host Immune Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a variety of bacterial defense strategies to survive in a hostile environment. Generation of extracellular polysaccharides has proved to be a simple but effective strategy against the host's innate immune system. A comparative genomics approach led us to identify a new protein family termed Stealth, most likely involved in the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides. This protein family is

Peter Sperisen; Christoph D. Schmid; Philipp Bucher; Olav Zilian

2005-01-01

27

Bioinformatic analyses of the bacterial L-ascorbate phosphotransferase system permease family.  

PubMed

The tripartite L-ascorbate permease of Escherichia coli is the first functionally characterized member of a large family of enzyme II complexes (SgaTBA, encoding enzymes IIC, IIB and IIA) of the bacterial phosphotransferase system (PTS). We here report bioinformatic analyses of these proteins. Forty-five homologous systems from a wide variety of bacteria were identified, but no homologues were found in archaea or eukaryotes. These systems fell into five structural types: (1) IIC, IIB and IIA are encoded by distinct genes; (2) IIC and IIB are encoded by distinct genes, but the IIA-encoding gene is absent; (3) IIC and IIB are encoded by a fused gene, but IIA is a distinct gene product; (4) IIA and IIB are fused, but IIC is encoded by a distinct gene, and (5) IIC and IIB are encoded by distinct genes, but IIA is fused to a transcriptional regulator. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that gene fusion/splicing events have occurred repeatedly during the evolutionary divergence of family members, although no evidence for shuffling of constituents between systems was obtained. The SgaTBA family proved to be distantly related to the GatCBA family of PTS permeases, and this family was also analyzed. In contrast to the SgaTBA family, no gene splicing/fusion has occurred during the evolutionary divergence of GatCBA family members as each domain is always encoded by a distinct gene. However, GatC homologues were identified in organisms that lack other PTS proteins, suggesting a transport mechanism not coupled to substrate phosphorylation. Topological analyses suggest that in contrast to all other PTS permeases, IIC proteins of the Sga and Gat families exhibit 12 transmembrane alpha-helical segments and are distantly related to secondary carriers. Like many secondary carriers, GatC (IIC) homologues could be shown to have arisen by an ancient intragenic duplication event. These results suggest that the Sga and Gat families of PTS permeases comprise a small superfamily in which the transmembrane IIC domains evolved independently of all other known PTS permeases. PMID:15153772

Hvorup, Rikki; Chang, Abraham B; Saier, Milton H

2003-01-01

28

Bacterial origin of a diverse family of UDP-glycosyltransferase genes in the Tetranychus urticae genome.  

PubMed

UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the conjugation of a variety of small lipophilic molecules with uridine diphosphate (UDP) sugars, altering them into more water-soluble metabolites. Thereby, UGTs play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the regulation of endobiotics. Recently, the genome sequence was reported for the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a polyphagous herbivore damaging a number of agricultural crops. Although various gene families implicated in xenobiotic metabolism have been documented in T. urticae, UGTs so far have not. We identified 80 UGT genes in the T. urticae genome, the largest number of UGT genes in a metazoan species reported so far. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that lineage-specific gene expansions increased the diversity of the T. urticae UGT repertoire. Genomic distribution, intron-exon structure and structural motifs in the T. urticae UGTs were also described. In addition, expression profiling after host-plant shifts and in acaricide resistant lines supported an important role for UGT genes in xenobiotic metabolism. Expanded searches of UGTs in other arachnid species (Subphylum Chelicerata), including a spider, a scorpion, two ticks and two predatory mites, unexpectedly revealed the complete absence of UGT genes. However, a centipede (Subphylum Myriapoda) and a water flea and a crayfish (Subphylum Crustacea) contain UGT genes in their genomes similar to insect UGTs, suggesting that the UGT gene family might have been lost early in the Chelicerata lineage and subsequently re-gained in the tetranychid mites. Sequence similarity of T. urticae UGTs and bacterial UGTs and their phylogenetic reconstruction suggest that spider mites acquired UGT genes from bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Our findings show a unique evolutionary history of the T. urticae UGT gene family among other arthropods and provide important clues to its functions in relation to detoxification and thereby host adaptation. PMID:24727020

Ahn, Seung-Joon; Dermauw, Wannes; Wybouw, Nicky; Heckel, David G; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

2014-07-01

29

Diversity of bacterial type II toxin–antitoxin systems: a comprehensive search and functional analysis of novel families  

PubMed Central

Type II toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems are generally composed of two genes organized in an operon, encoding a labile antitoxin and a stable toxin. They were first discovered on plasmids where they contribute to plasmid stability by a phenomenon denoted as ‘addiction’, and subsequently in bacterial chromosomes. To discover novel families of antitoxins and toxins, we developed a bioinformatics approach based on the ‘guilt by association’ principle. Extensive experimental validation in Escherichia coli of predicted antitoxins and toxins increased significantly the number of validated systems and defined novel toxin and antitoxin families. Our data suggest that toxin families as well as antitoxin families originate from distinct ancestors that were assembled multiple times during evolution. Toxin and antitoxin families found on plasmids tend to be promiscuous and widespread, indicating that TA systems move through horizontal gene transfer. We propose that due to their addictive properties, TA systems are likely to be maintained in chromosomes even though they do not necessarily confer an advantage to their bacterial hosts. Therefore, addiction might play a major role in the evolutionary success of TA systems both on mobile genetic elements and in bacterial chromosomes. PMID:21422074

Leplae, Raphaël; Geeraerts, Damien; Hallez, Régis; Guglielmini, Julien; Drèze, Pierre; Van Melderen, Laurence

2011-01-01

30

The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and the interferon family: type I, type II and type III interferons  

PubMed Central

Interferons (IFNs) are secreted proteins of the cytokine family that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses to infection. Although the importance of IFNs in the antiviral response has long been appreciated, their role in bacterial infections is more complex and is currently a major focus of investigation. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the role of these cytokines in host defense against the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and highlights recent discoveries on the molecular mechanisms evolved by this intracellular bacterium to subvert IFN responses. PMID:24809023

Dussurget, Olivier; Bierne, Hélène; Cossart, Pascale

2014-01-01

31

Rhodococcus sp. strain CR-53 LipR, the first member of a new bacterial lipase family (family X) displaying an unusual Y-type oxyanion hole, similar to the Candida antarctica lipase clan.  

PubMed

Bacterial lipases constitute the most important group of biocatalysts for synthetic organic chemistry. Accordingly, there is substantial interest in developing new valuable lipases. Considering the lack of information concerning the lipases of the genus Rhodococcus and taking into account the interest raised by the enzymes produced by actinomycetes, a search for putative lipase-encoding genes from Rhodococcus sp. strain CR-53 was performed. We isolated, cloned, purified, and characterized LipR, the first lipase described from the genus Rhodococcus. LipR is a mesophilic enzyme showing preference for medium-chain-length acyl groups without showing interfacial activation. It displays good long-term stability and high tolerance for the presence of ions and chemical agents in the reaction mixture. Amino acid sequence analysis of LipR revealed that it displays four unique amino acid sequence motifs that clearly separate it from any other previously described family of bacterial lipases. Using bioinformatics tools, LipR could be related only to several uncharacterized putative lipases from different bacterial origins, all of which display the four blocks of consensus amino acid sequence motifs that contribute to define a new family of bacterial lipases, namely, family X. Therefore, LipR is the first characterized member of the new bacterial lipase family X. Further confirmation of this new family of lipases was performed after cloning Burkholderia cenocepacia putative lipase, bearing the same conserved motifs and clustering in family X. Interestingly, all lipases grouping in the new bacterial lipase family X display a Y-type oxyanion hole, a motif conserved in the Candida antarctica lipase clan but never found among bacterial lipases. This observation contributes to confirm that LipR and its homologs belong to a new family of bacterial lipases. PMID:22226953

Bassegoda, Arnau; Pastor, F I Javier; Diaz, Pilar

2012-03-01

32

IDENTIFICATION OF NICOTINAMIDE MONONUCLEOTIDE DEAMIDASE OF THE BACTERIAL PYRIDINE NUCLEOTIDE CYCLE REVEALS A NOVEL BROADLY CONSERVED AMIDOHYDROLASE FAMILY  

SciTech Connect

The pyridine nucleotide cycle (PNC) is a network of salvage and recycling routes maintaining homeostasis of NAD(P) cofactor pool in the cell. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) deamidase (EC 3.5.1.42), one of the key enzymes of the bacterial PNC was originally described in Enterobacteria, but the corresponding gene eluded identification for over 30 years. A genomics-based reconstruction of NAD metabolism across hundreds bacterial species suggested that NMN deamidase reaction is the only possible way of nicotinamide salvage in the marine bacterium Shewanella oneidensis. This prediction was verified via purification of native NMN deamidase from S. oneidensis followed by the identification of the respective gene, termed pncC. Enzymatic characterization of the PncC protein, as well as phenotype analysis of deletion mutants, confirmed its proposed biochemical and physiological function in S. oneidensis. Of the three PncC homologs present in E. coli, NMN deamidase activity was confirmed only for the recombinant purified product of the ygaD gene. A comparative analysis at the level of sequence and three dimensional structure, which is available for one of the PncC family member, shows no homology with any previously described amidohydrolases. Multiple alignment analysis of functional and non functional PncC homologs, together with NMN docking experiments, allowed us to tentatively identify the active site area and conserved residues therein. An observed broad phylogenomic distribution of predicted functional PncCs in bacterial kingdom is consistent with a possible role in detoxification of NMN, resulting from NAD utilization by DNA ligase.

Galeazzi, Luca; Bocci, Paolo; Amici, Adolfo; Brunetti, Lucia; Ruggieri, Silverio; Romine, Margaret F.; Reed, Samantha B.; Osterman, Andrei; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Sorci, Leonardo; Raffaelli, Nadia

2011-09-27

33

Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of a bacterial symbiosis in the ecologically important scale insect family Coelostomidiidae.  

PubMed

Scale insects are important ecologically and as agricultural pests. The majority of scale insect taxa feed exclusively on plant phloem sap, which is carbon rich but deficient in essential amino acids. This suggests that, as seen in the related aphids and psyllids, scale insect nutrition might also depend upon bacterial symbionts, yet very little is known about scale insect-bacteria symbioses. We report here the first identification and molecular characterization of symbiotic bacteria associated with the New Zealand giant scale Coelostomidia wairoensis, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. Dissection and FISH confirmed the location of the bacteria in large, paired, multilobate organs in the abdominal region of the insect. TEM indicated that the dominant pleomorphic bacteria were confined to bacteriocytes in the sheath-enclosed bacteriome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of three distinct bacterial types, the bacteriome-associated B-symbiont (Bacteroidetes), an Erwinia-related symbiont (Gammaproteobacteria) and Wolbachia sp. (Alphaproteobacteria). This study extends the current knowledge of scale insect symbionts and is the first microbiological investigation of the ecologically important coelostomidiid scales. PMID:22468989

Dhami, Manpreet K; Turner, Adrian P; Deines, Peter; Beggs, Jacqueline R; Taylor, Michael W

2012-09-01

34

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Vibrionaceae Species, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, Isolated as Coral Reef Microbiota.  

PubMed

Here, the draft genome sequences of two Vibrionaceae, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, which were isolated from the coral reef vicinity in Okinawa, Japan, are reported. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity, and ecophysiology, including pathogenicity and evolution, of these genera. PMID:25359913

Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Thompson, Fabiano L; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

2014-01-01

35

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Vibrionaceae Species, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, Isolated as Coral Reef Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Here, the draft genome sequences of two Vibrionaceae, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, which were isolated from the coral reef vicinity in Okinawa, Japan, are reported. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity, and ecophysiology, including pathogenicity and evolution, of these genera. PMID:25359913

Al-saari, Nurhidayu; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko

2014-01-01

36

Crystal structure of the catalytic domain of a bacterial cellulase belonging to family 5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cellulases are glycosyl hydrolases — enzymes that hydrolyze glycosidic bonds. They have been widely studied using biochemical and microbiological techniques and have attracted industrial interest because of their potential in biomass conversion and in the paper and textile industries. Glycosyl hydrolases have lately been assigned to specific families on the basis of similarities in their amino acid sequences. The

Valérie Ducros; Mirjam Czjzek; Anne Belaich; Christian Gaudin; Henri-Pierre Fierobe; Jean-Pierre Belaich; Gideon J Davies; Richard Haser

1995-01-01

37

Comparative biology and expression of TENP, an egg protein related to the bacterial permeability-increasing family of proteins.  

PubMed

The 'transiently expressed in neural precursors' (TENP) gene product is a member of the bacterial/permeability-increasing (BPI) family of antimicrobial proteins but was first identified as having a role in an early neurological event occurring in post-mitotic cells. However, recent characterisation of the egg white proteome has shown that TENP is an important egg component constituting ~0.1-0.5% of the total protein and suggesting it is expressed in the adult oviduct. In this study we confirmed quantitatively that the expression of TENP is largely confined to the tubular glands of the magnum of the oviduct, where egg white synthesis occurs, with around 10,000 times more expression than in the embryo where TENP was first identified. TENP expression is significantly increased with the administration of oestrogen or progesterone (P<0.001) and is reduced in regressed oviducts (P<0.001) demonstrating gonadal steroid control, typical of an oviduct and egg specific gene. A putative translational start site for TENP has been characterised and the evidence indicates that it is expressed as one predominant transcript. In comparison with the published sequence, insertion and deletion events have been identified causing a partial frame-shift that results in an altered amino acid sequence to that previously documented. TENP is conserved across divergent avian species being found in chicken, turkey, duck and zebra finch and its expression profile confirmed in both chicken and duck. Similarity searches have shown homology with the BPI-like family of innate immune genes, particularly with palate, lung and nasal epithelial clone (PLUNC) members of this family. We therefore believe that at least in adults the role of TENP is as a major component of egg, particularly the white and it is probable that it contributes to its antimicrobial function. PMID:24418699

Whenham, Natasha; Wilson, Peter W; Bain, Maureen M; Stevenson, Lynn; Dunn, Ian C

2014-03-15

38

The underling mechanism of bacterial TetR/AcrR family transcriptional repressors.  

PubMed

Bacteria transcriptional regulators are classified by their functional and sequence similarities. Member of the TetR/AcrR family is two-domain proteins including an N-terminal HTH DNA-binding motif and a C-terminal ligand recognition domain. The C-terminal ligand recognition domain can recognize the very same compounds as their target transporters transferred. TetRs act as chemical sensors to monitor both the cellular environmental dynamics and their regulated genes underlying many events, such as antibiotics production, osmotic stress, efflux pumps, multidrug resistance, metabolic modulation, and pathogenesis. Compounds targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis ethR represent promising novel antibiotic potentiater. TetR-mediated multidrug efflux pumps regulation might be good target candidate for the discovery of better new antibiotics against drug resistance. PMID:23602932

Deng, Wanyan; Li, Chunmei; Xie, Jianping

2013-07-01

39

Expression and crystallization of a bacterial glycoside hydrolase family 116 ?-glucosidase from Thermoanaerobacterium xylanolyticum.  

PubMed

The Thermoanaerobacterium xylanolyticum gene product TxGH116, a glycoside hydrolase family 116 protein of 806 amino-acid residues sharing 37% amino-acid sequence identity over 783 residues with human glucosylceramidase 2 (GBA2), was expressed in Escherichia coli. Purification by heating, immobilized metal-affinity and size-exclusion chromatography produced >90% pure TxGH116 protein with an apparent molecular mass of 90?kDa on SDS-PAGE. The purified TxGH116 enzyme hydrolyzed the p-nitrophenyl (pNP) glycosides pNP-?-D-glucoside, pNP-?-D-galactoside and pNP-N-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranoside, as well as cellobiose and cellotriose. The TxGH116 protein was crystallized using a precipitant consisting of 0.6?M sodium citrate tribasic, 0.1?M Tris-HCl pH 7.0 by vapour diffusion with micro-seeding to form crystals with maximum dimensions of 120 × 25 × 5?µm. The TxGH116 crystals diffracted X-rays to 3.15?Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P21. Structure solution will allow a structural explanation of the effects of human GBA2 mutations. PMID:25615966

Sansenya, Sompong; Mutoh, Risa; Charoenwattanasatien, Ratana; Kurisu, Genji; Ketudat Cairns, James R

2015-01-01

40

Aminoacetone oxidase from Streptococcus oligofermentans belongs to a new three-domain family of bacterial flavoproteins.  

PubMed

The aaoSo gene from Streptococcus oligofermentans encodes a 43 kDa flavoprotein, aminoacetone oxidase (SoAAO), which was reported to possess a low catalytic activity against several different L-amino acids; accordingly, it was classified as an L-amino acid oxidase. Subsequently, SoAAO was demonstrated to oxidize aminoacetone (a pro-oxidant metabolite), with an activity ~25-fold higher than the activity displayed on L-lysine, thus lending support to the assumption of aminoacetone as the preferred substrate. In the present study, we have characterized the SoAAO structure-function relationship. SoAAO is an FAD-containing enzyme that does not possess the classical properties of the oxidase/dehydrogenase class of flavoproteins (i.e. no flavin semiquinone formation is observed during anaerobic photoreduction as well as no reaction with sulfite) and does not show a true L-amino acid oxidase activity. From a structural point of view, SoAAO belongs to a novel protein family composed of three domains: an ?/? domain corresponding to the FAD-binding domain, a ?-domain partially modulating accessibility to the coenzyme, and an additional ?-domain. Analysis of the reaction products of SoAAO on aminoacetone showed 2,5-dimethylpyrazine as the main product; we propose that condensation of two aminoacetone molecules yields 3,6-dimethyl-2,5-dihydropyrazine that is subsequently oxidized to 2,5-dimethylpyrazine. The ability of SoAAO to bind two molecules of the substrate analogue O-methylglycine ligand is thought to facilitate the condensation reaction. A specialized role for SoAAO in the microbial defence mechanism related to aminoacetone catabolism through a pathway yielding dimethylpyrazine derivatives instead of methylglyoxal can be proposed. PMID:25269103

Molla, Gianluca; Nardini, Marco; Motta, Paolo; D'Arrigo, Paola; Panzeri, Walter; Pollegioni, Loredano

2014-12-15

41

Rice bacterial blight pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae produces multiple DSF-family signals in regulation of virulence factor production  

PubMed Central

Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight disease. Xoo produces a range of virulence factors, including EPS, extracellular enzyme, iron-chelating siderophores, and type III-secretion dependent effectors, which are collectively essential for virulence. Genetic and genomics evidence suggest that Xoo might use the diffusible signal factor (DSF) type quorum sensing (QS) system to regulate the virulence factor production. However, little is known about the chemical structure of the DSF-like signal(s) produced by Xoo and the factors influencing the signal production. Results Xoo genome harbours an rpf cluster comprising rpfB, rpfF, rpfC and rpfG. The proteins encoded by these genes are highly homologous to their counterparts in X. campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), suggesting that Xcc and Xoo might use similar mechanisms for DSF biosynthesis and autoregulation. Consistent with in silico analysis, the rpfF mutant was DSF-deficient and the rpfC mutant produced about 25 times higher DSF-like activity than the wild type Xoo strain KACC10331. From the supernatants of rpfC mutant, we purified three compounds showing strong DSF-like activity. Mass spectrometry and NMR analysis revealed that two of them were the previously characterized DSF and BDSF; the third one was a novel unsaturated fatty acid with 2 double bonds and was designated as CDSF in this study. Further analysis showed that all the three DSF-family signals were synthesized via the enzyme RpfF encoded by Xoo2868. DSF and BDSF at a final concentration of 3 ?M to the rpfF mutant could fully restore its extracellular xylanase activity and EPS production to the wild type level, but CDSF was less active than DSF and BDSF in induction of EPS and xylanase. DSF and CDSF shared a similar cell density-dependent production time course with the maximum production being detected at 42 h after inoculation, whereas the maximum production of BDSF was observed at 36 h after inoculation. When grown in a rich medium such as YEB, LB, PSA, and NYG, Xoo produced all the three signals with the majority being DSF. Whereas in nutritionally poor XOLN medium Xoo only produced BDSF and DSF but the majority was BDSF. Conclusions This study demonstrates that Xoo and Xcc share the conserved mechanisms for DSF biosynthesis and autoregulation. Xoo produces DSF, BDSF and CDSF signals in rich media and CDSF is a novel signal in DSF-family with two double bonds. All the three DSF-family signals promote EPS production and xylanase activity in Xoo, but CDSF is less active than its analogues DSF and BDSF. The composition and ratio of the three DSF-family signals produced by Xoo are influenced by the composition of culture media. PMID:20615263

2010-01-01

42

Phylogenetic and Complementation Analysis of a Single-Stranded DNA Binding Protein Family from Lactococcal Phages Indicates a Non-Bacterial Origin  

PubMed Central

Background The single-stranded-nucleic acid binding (SSB) protein superfamily includes proteins encoded by different organisms from Bacteria and their phages to Eukaryotes. SSB proteins share common structural characteristics and have been suggested to descend from an ancestor polypeptide. However, as other proteins involved in DNA replication, bacterial SSB proteins are clearly different from those found in Archaea and Eukaryotes. It was proposed that the corresponding genes in the phage genomes were transferred from the bacterial hosts. Recently new SSB proteins encoded by the virulent lactococcal bacteriophages (Orf14bIL67-like proteins) have been identified and characterized structurally and biochemically. Methodology/Principal Findings This study focused on the determination of phylogenetic relationships between Orf14bIL67-like proteins and other SSBs. We have performed a large scale phylogenetic analysis and pairwise sequence comparisons of SSB proteins from different phyla. The results show that, in remarkable contrast to other phage SSBs, the Orf14bIL67–like proteins form a distinct, self-contained and well supported phylogenetic group connected to the archaeal SSBs. Functional studies demonstrated that, despite the structural and amino acid sequence differences from bacterial SSBs, Orf14bIL67 protein complements the conditional lethal ssb-1 mutation of Escherichia coli. Conclusions/Significance Here we identified for the first time a group of phages encoded SSBs which are clearly distinct from their bacterial counterparts. All methods supported the recognition of these phage proteins as a new family within the SSB superfamily. Our findings suggest that unlike other phages, the virulent lactococcal phages carry ssb genes that were not acquired from their hosts, but transferred from an archaeal genome. This represents a unique example of a horizontal gene transfer between Archaea and bacterial phages. PMID:22073223

Mariadassou, Mahendra; Bardowski, Jacek K.; Bidnenko, Elena

2011-01-01

43

BANMOKI: a searchable database of homology-based 3D models and their electrostatic properties of five bacterial nucleoside monophosphate kinase families.  

PubMed

The nucleoside monophosphate kinases (NMPK) are important enzymes that control the ratio of mono- and di-phosphate nucleosides and participate in gene regulation and signal transduction in the cell. However, despite their importance only several 3D structures were experimentally determined in contrast to the wealth of sequences available for each of the NMPK families. To fill this gap we present a Web-based database containing structural models for all proteins of the five bacterial nucleoside monophosphate kinase (bNMPK) families. The models were computed by means of homology-based approach using a few experimentally determined bNMPK structures. The database also contains pK(a) values and their components calculated for the homology-based 3D models, which is a unique feature of the database. The BActerial Nucleoside MOnophosphate KInases (BANMOKI) database is freely accessible (http://www.ces.clemson.edu/compbio/banmoki) and offers an easy user-friendly interface for browsing, searching and downloading content of the database. The users can investigate, using the searching tools of the database, the properties of the bNMP kinases in respect to sequence composition, electrostatic interactions and structural differences. PMID:17320167

Kundrotas, Petras; Georgieva, Paulina; Shosheva, Alexandra; Christova, Petya; Alexov, Emil

2007-06-01

44

Seasonal Incidence of Autochthonous Antagonistic Roseobacter spp. and Vibrionaceae Strains in a Turbot Larva (Scophthalmus maximus) Rearing System  

PubMed Central

Bacteria inhibitory to fish larval pathogenic bacteria were isolated from two turbot larva rearing farms over a 1-year period. Samples were taken from the rearing site, e.g., tank walls, water, and feed for larvae, and bacteria with antagonistic activity against Vibrio anguillarum were isolated using a replica plating assay. Approximately 19,000 colonies were replica plated from marine agar plates, and 341 strains were isolated from colonies causing clearing zones in a layer of V. anguillarum. When tested in a well diffusion agar assay, 173 strains retained the antibacterial activity against V. anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus. Biochemical tests identified 132 strains as Roseobacter spp. and 31 as Vibrionaceae strains. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of three strains confirmed the identification as Roseobacter gallaeciensis. Roseobacter spp. were especially isolated in the spring and early summer months. Subtyping of the 132 Roseobacter spp. strains by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA with two primers revealed that the strains formed a very homogeneous group. Hence, it appears that the same subtype was present at both fish farms and persisted during the 1-year survey. This indicates either a common, regular source of the subtype or the possibility that a particular subtype has established itself in some areas of the fish farm. Thirty-one antagonists were identified as Vibrio spp., and 18 of these were V. anguillarum but not serotype O1 or O2. Roseobacter spp. strains were, in particular, isolated from the larval tank walls, and it may be possible to establish an antagonistic, beneficial microflora in the rearing environment of turbot larvae and thereby limit survival of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:15574928

Hjelm, Mette; Riaza, Ana; Formoso, Fernanda; Melchiorsen, Jette; Gram, Lone

2004-01-01

45

Resistance of genetically different common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., families against experimental bacterial challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the differences in disease resistance against artificial infection with Aeromonas hydrophila between genetically different common carp families. Four strains differing in their origin and breeding history were selected from the live gene bank of common carp maintained at the Research Institute for Fisheries, Aquaculture and Irrigation (HAKI, Szarvas, Hungary) to establish families with wide genetic background: Szarvas 15 (15), an inbred mirror line; Tata (T) scaly noble carp; Duna (D), a Hungarian wild carp and Amur (A), an East Asian wild carp. A diallele mating structure was used to allow the assessment of genetic variation within and between the tested 96 families for a variety of traits. The existing technologies of fertilization and incubation of carp eggs, as well as larval and fingerling rearing had been modified because of the large number of baseline populations. Two challenge trials of the 96 families of carp with Aeromonas hydrophila were done. The 10 most resistant and 10 most susceptible families to A. hydrophila were identified from these two challenges. The crosses that produced the most resistant families were mainly those having parents from Tata and Szarvas 15 domesticated strains, while the most susceptible families were from the wild strains Duna and Amur. PMID:21118271

Jeney, G; Ardó, L; Rónyai, A; Bercsényi, M; Jeney, Z

2011-01-01

46

Assessing the quality of the homology-modeled 3D structures from electrostatic standpoint: test on bacterial nucleoside monophosphate kinase families.  

PubMed

In this study, we address the issue of performing meaningful pK(a) calculations using homology modeled three-dimensional (3D) structures and analyze the possibility of using the calculated pK(a) values to detect structural defects in the models. For this purpose, the 3D structure of each member of five large protein families of a bacterial nucleoside monophosphate kinases (NMPK) have been modeled by means of homology-based approach. Further, we performed pK(a) calculations for the each model and for the template X-ray structures. Each bacterial NMPK family used in the study comprised on average 100 members providing a pool of sequences and 3D models large enough for reliable statistical analysis. It was shown that pK(a) values of titratable groups, which are highly conserved within a family, tend to be conserved among the models too. We demonstrated that homology modeled structures with sequence identity larger than 35% and gap percentile smaller than 10% can be used for meaningful pK(a) calculations. In addition, it was found that some highly conserved titratable groups either exhibit large pK(a) fluctuations among the models or have pK(a) values shifted by several pH units with respect to the pK(a) calculated for the X-ray structure. We demonstrated that such case usually indicates structural errors associated with the model. Thus, we argue that pK(a) calculations can be used for assessing the quality of the 3D models by monitoring fluctuations of the pK(a) values for highly conserved titratable residues within large sets of homologous proteins. PMID:17688312

Kundrotas, Petras; Georgieva, Paulina; Shosheva, Alexandra; Christova, Petya; Alexov, Emil

2007-06-01

47

Genes Similar to the Vibrio parahaemolyticus Virulence-Related Genes tdh, tlh, and vscC2 Occur in Other Vibrionaceae Species Isolated from a Pristine Estuary  

PubMed Central

Detection of the human pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus often relies on molecular biological analysis of species-specific virulence factor genes. These genes have been employed in determinations of V. parahaemolyticus population numbers and the prevalence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains. Strains of the Vibrionaceae species Photobacterium damselae, Vibrio diabolicus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio natriegens, as well as strains similar to Vibrio tubiashii, were isolated from a pristine salt marsh estuary. These strains were examined for the V. parahaemolyticus hemolysin genes tdh, trh, and tlh and for the V. parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2? gene vscC2 using established PCR primers and protocols. Virulence-related genes occurred at high frequencies in non-V. parahaemolyticus Vibrionaceae species. V. diabolicus was of particular interest, as several strains were recovered, and the large majority (>83%) contained virulence-related genes. It is clear that detection of these genes does not ensure correct identification of virulent V. parahaemolyticus. Further, the occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus-like virulence factors in other vibrios potentially complicates tracking of outbreaks of V. parahaemolyticus infections. PMID:24212573

Klein, Savannah L.; Gutierrez West, Casandra K.; Mejia, Diana M.

2014-01-01

48

Biochemistry and genetics of bacterial bioluminescence.  

PubMed

Bacterial light production involves enzymes-luciferase, fatty acid reductase, and flavin reductase-and substrates-reduced flavin mononucleotide and long-chain fatty aldehyde-that are specific to bioluminescence in bacteria. The bacterial genes coding for these enzymes, luxA and luxB for the subunits of luciferase; luxC, luxD, and luxE for the components of the fatty acid reductase; and luxG for flavin reductase, are found as an operon in light-emitting bacteria, with the gene order, luxCDABEG. Over 30 species of marine and terrestrial bacteria, which cluster phylogenetically in Aliivibrio, Photobacterium, and Vibrio (Vibrionaceae), Shewanella (Shewanellaceae), and Photorhabdus (Enterobacteriaceae), carry lux operon genes. The luminescence operons of some of these bacteria also contain genes involved in the synthesis of riboflavin, ribEBHA, and in some species, regulatory genes luxI and luxR are associated with the lux operon. In well-studied cases, lux genes are coordinately expressed in a population density-responsive, self-inducing manner called quorum sensing. The evolutionary origins and physiological function of bioluminescence in bacteria are not well understood but are thought to relate to utilization of oxygen as a substrate in the luminescence reaction. PMID:25084994

Dunlap, Paul

2014-01-01

49

Crystal structure of a bacterial family-III cellulose-binding domain: a general mechanism for attachment to cellulose.  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of a family-III cellulose-binding domain (CBD) from the cellulosomal scaffoldin subunit of Clostridium thermocellum has been determined at 1.75 A resolution. The protein forms a nine-stranded beta sandwich with a jelly roll topology and binds a calcium ion. conserved, surface-exposed residues map into two defined surfaces located on opposite sides of the molecule. One of these faces is dominated by a planar linear strip of aromatic and polar residues which are proposed to interact with crystalline cellulose. The other conserved residues are contained in a shallow groove, the function of which is currently unknown, and which has not been observed previously in other families of CBDs. On the basis of modeling studies combined with comparisons of recently determined NMR structures for other CBDs, a general model for the binding of CBDs to cellulose is presented. Although the proposed binding of the CBD to cellulose is essentially a surface interaction, specific types and combinations of amino acids appear to interact selectively with glucose moieties positioned on three adjacent chains of the cellulose surface. The major interaction is characterized by the planar strip of aromatic residues, which align along one of the chains. In addition, polar amino acid residues are proposed to anchor the CBD molecule to two other adjacent chains of crystalline cellulose. Images PMID:8918451

Tormo, J; Lamed, R; Chirino, A J; Morag, E; Bayer, E A; Shoham, Y; Steitz, T A

1996-01-01

50

THE COLONY OVERLAY PROCEDURE FOR PEPTIDASES TO DETECT AND ENUMERATE TOTAL VIBRIONACEAE IN MOLLUSCAN SHELLFISH AND THEIR GROWING WATERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since 1925, molluscan shellfish harvesting has been regulated in the United States based on sanitary surveys of shellfish growing waters. Surveys have relied on the use of coliform standards which have effectively eliminated outbreaks of typhoid fever and other bacterial illnesses. Only the Vibrio...

51

Bacterial Identification by Microcalorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

FORREST1 and other workers have shown that interesting data regarding bacterial metabolism can be obtained by microcalorimetry of growing cultures. In our investigations into the use of microcalorimetry as a means of differentiating one microbial species from another, we have obtained characteristic profiles for different members of the family Enterobacteriaceae by observing the heat produced during their growth in liquid

E. A. Boling; G. C. Blanchard

1973-01-01

52

ABC transporters: bacterial exporters.  

PubMed Central

The ABC transporters (also called traffic ATPases) make up a large superfamily of proteins which share a common function and a common ATP-binding domain. ABC transporters are classified into three major groups: bacterial importers (the periplasmic permeases), eukaryotic transporters, and bacterial exporters. We present a comprehensive review of the bacterial ABC exporter group, which currently includes over 40 systems. The bacterial ABC exporter systems are functionally subdivided on the basis of the type of substrate that each translocates. We describe three main groups: protein exporters, peptide exporters, and systems that transport nonprotein substrates. Prototype exporters from each group are described in detail to illustrate our current understanding of this protein family. The prototype systems include the alpha-hemolysin, colicin V, and capsular polysaccharide exporters from Escherichia coli, the protease exporter from Erwinia chrysanthemi, and the glucan exporters from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium meliloti. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding domains from 29 bacterial ABC exporters indicates that the bacterial ABC exporters can be divided into two primary branches. One branch contains the transport systems where the ATP-binding domain and the membrane-spanning domain are present on the same polypeptide, and the other branch contains the systems where these domains are found on separate polypeptides. Differences in substrate specificity do not correlate with evolutionary relatedness. A complete survey of the known and putative bacterial ABC exporters is included at the end of the review. PMID:8302219

Fath, M J; Kolter, R

1993-01-01

53

Prostatitis - bacterial  

MedlinePLUS

Prostatitis is most often caused by a bacterial infection of the prostate gland. Any bacteria that can cause a urinary tract infection can cause acute bacterial prostatitis. Some sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) ...

54

Bacterial Sialidase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

2004-01-01

55

Bacterial Communities Associated with Porites White Patch Syndrome (PWPS) on Three Western Indian Ocean (WIO) Coral Reefs  

PubMed Central

The scleractinian coral Porites lutea, an important reef-building coral on western Indian Ocean reefs (WIO), is affected by a newly-reported white syndrome (WS) the Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS). Histopathology and culture-independent molecular techniques were used to characterise the microbial communities associated with this emerging disease. Microscopy showed extensive tissue fragmentation generally associated with ovoid basophilic bodies resembling bacterial aggregates. Results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed a high variability between bacterial communities associated with PWPS-infected and healthy tissues in P. lutea, a pattern previously reported in other coral diseases such as black band disease (BBD), white band disease (WBD) and white plague diseases (WPD). Furthermore, substantial variations in bacterial communities were observed at the different sampling locations, suggesting that there is no strong bacterial association in Porites lutea on WIO reefs. Several sequences affiliated with potential pathogens belonging to the Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae were identified, mainly in PWPS-infected coral tissues. Among them, only two ribotypes affiliated to Shimia marina (NR043300.1) and Vibrio hepatarius (NR025575.1) were consistently found in diseased tissues from the three geographically distant sampling localities. The role of these bacterial species in PWPS needs to be tested experimentally. PMID:24391819

Séré, Mathieu G.; Tortosa, Pablo; Chabanet, Pascale; Turquet, Jean; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Schleyer, Michael H.

2013-01-01

56

Single sea urchin phagocytes express messages of a single sequence from the diverse Sp185/333 gene family in response to bacterial challenge.  

PubMed

Immune systems in animals rely on fast and efficient responses to a wide variety of pathogens. The Sp185/333 gene family in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, consists of an estimated 50 (±10) members per genome that share a basic gene structure but show high sequence diversity, primarily due to the mosaic appearance of short blocks of sequence called elements. The genes show significantly elevated expression in three subpopulations of phagocytes responding to marine bacteria. The encoded Sp185/333 proteins are highly diverse and have central effector functions in the immune system. In this study we report the Sp185/333 gene expression in single sea urchin phagocytes. Sea urchins challenged with heat-killed marine bacteria resulted in a typical increase in coelomocyte concentration within 24 h, which included an increased proportion of phagocytes expressing Sp185/333 proteins. Phagocyte fractions enriched from coelomocytes were used in limiting dilutions to obtain samples of single cells that were evaluated for Sp185/333 gene expression by nested RT-PCR. Amplicon sequences showed identical or nearly identical Sp185/333 amplicon sequences in single phagocytes with matches to six known Sp185/333 element patterns, including both common and rare element patterns. This suggested that single phagocytes show restricted expression from the Sp185/333 gene family and infers a diverse, flexible, and efficient response to pathogens. This type of expression pattern from a family of immune response genes in single cells has not been identified previously in other invertebrates. PMID:25355922

Majeske, Audrey J; Oren, Matan; Sacchi, Sandro; Smith, L Courtney

2014-12-01

57

Bacterial conjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most cases of conjunctivitis in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than they are viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults and children, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. Contact lens wearers may be more likely to develop gram-negative infections. Bacterial keratitis occurs in up to 30 per 100,000 contact lens wearers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical treatment in adults and children with suspected bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with bacteriologically confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with clinically confirmed gonococcal conjunctivitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ocular decongestants; oral antibiotics; parenteral antibiotics; saline; topical antibiotics; and warm compresses. PMID:21718563

2010-01-01

58

Bacterial conjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Most cases of conjunctivitis in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than they are viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults and children, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. Contact lens wearers may be more likely to develop gram-negative infections. Bacterial keratitis occurs in up to 30 per 100,000 contact lens wearers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical treatment in adults and children with suspected bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with bacteriologically confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with clinically confirmed gonococcal conjunctivitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 44 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ocular decongestants, oral antibiotics, parenteral antibiotics, saline, topical antibiotics, and warm compresses. PMID:22348418

2012-01-01

59

Bacterial communities associated with healthy and Acropora white syndrome-affected corals from American Samoa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acropora white syndrome (AWS) is characterized by rapid tissue loss revealing the white underlying skeleton and affects corals worldwide; however, reports of causal agents are conflicting. Samples were collected from healthy and diseased corals and seawater around American Samoa and bacteria associated with AWS characterized using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, from coral mucus and tissue slurries, respectively. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from coral tissue were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, and Jaccard's distances calculated between the clone libraries showed that those from diseased corals were more similar to each other than to those from healthy corals. 16S rRNA genes from 78 culturable coral mucus isolates also revealed a distinct partitioning of bacterial genera into healthy and diseased corals. Isolates identified as Vibrionaceae were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing, revealing that whilst several Vibrio spp. were found to be associated with AWS lesions, a recently described species, Vibrio owensii, was prevalent amongst cultured Vibrio isolates. Unaffected tissues from corals with AWS had a different microbiota than normal Acropora as found by others. Determining whether a microbial shift occurs prior to disease outbreaks will be a useful avenue of pursuit and could be helpful in detecting prodromal signs of coral disease prior to manifestation of lesions.

Wilson, Bryan; Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Bourne, David G.

2012-01-01

60

The cold-active Lip1 lipase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 is a member of a new bacterial lipolytic enzyme family.  

PubMed

The genome of the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125 was searched for the presence of genes encoding ester-hydrolysing enzymes. Amongst the others, the gene PSHAa0051 coding for a putative secreted esterase/lipase was selected. The psychrophilic gene was cloned, functionally over-expressed in P. haloplanktis TAC125, and the recombinant product (after named PhTAC125 Lip1) was purified. PhTAC125 Lip1 was found to be associated to the outer membrane and exhibited higher enzymatic activity towards synthetic substrates with long acyl chains. A structural model was constructed using the structure of carboxylesterase Est30 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus as template. The model covered the central part of the protein with the exceptions of PhTAC125 Lip1 N- and C-terminal regions, where the psychrophilic protein displays extra-domains. The constructed model showed a typical alpha/beta-hydrolase fold, and confirmed the presence of a canonical catalytic triad consisting of Ser, Asp and His. The sequence analysis showed that PhTAC125 Lip1 is distantly related to other lipolytic enzymes, but closely related to other putative psychrophilic esterases/lipases. The aligned proteins share common features, such as: (1) a conserved new active-site pentapeptide motif (LGG(F/L/Y)STG); (2) the likely extra-cytoplasmic localization, (3) the absence of a typical calcium-binding pocket, and (4) the absence of a canonical lid. These observations strongly suggest that aligned proteins constitute a novel lipase family, typical of psychrophilic marine gamma-proteobacteria, and PhTAC125 Lip1 could be considered the first characterised member of this family. PMID:18437283

de Pascale, Donatella; Cusano, Angela M; Autore, Flavia; Parrilli, Ermenegilda; di Prisco, Guido; Marino, Gennaro; Tutino, M Luisa

2008-05-01

61

Bacterial pathogenomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomes from all of the crucial bacterial pathogens of humans, plants and animals have now been sequenced, as have genomes from many of the important commensal, symbiotic and environmental microorganisms. Analysis of these sequences has revealed the forces that shape pathogen evolution and has brought to light unexpected aspects of pathogen biology. The finding that horizontal gene transfer and genome

Mark J. Pallen; Brendan W. Wren

2007-01-01

62

Bacterial Biofertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many bacteria and fungi can enhance plant growth. The present review is limited to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). However, it includes endophytic bacteria that show plant growth enhancing activity as well. Also the best studied bacterial mechanisms of plant growth promotion are discussed, with a special emphasis on biological nitrogen fixation and synthesis of phytohormones, including less understood mechanisms

LUIS E. FUENTES-RAMIREZ; Jesus Caballero-Mellado

63

Bacterial concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracks in concrete are inevitable and are one of the inherent weaknesses of concrete. Water and other salts seep through these cracks, corrosion initiates, and thus reduces the life of concrete. So there was a need to develop an inherent biomaterial, a self-repairing material which can remediate the cracks and fissures in concrete. Bacterial concrete is a material, which can

Venkataswamy Ramakrishnan; K. P. Ramesh; S. S. Bang

2001-01-01

64

Description of Pseudobacteriovorax antillogorgiicola gen. nov., sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from the gorgonian octocoral Antillogorgia elisabethae, belonging to a novel bacterial family, Pseudobacteriovoracaceae fam. nov., within the order Bdellovibrionales.  

PubMed

A bacterial strain designated RKEM611T was isolated from the gorgonian octocoral Antillogorgia elisabethae, collected off the coast of San Salvador, The Bahamas. The strain was Gram-negative, an obligate aerobe, and pleomorphic. It required NaCl for growth and exhibited optimal growth at 1-2% (w/v) NaCl, 30 - 37oC, and pH 6.0 - 8.0. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C16:1?5c, C16:0, the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-6, and the DNA G+C content was 46.3 mol%. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, in addition to phenotypic characteristics, RKEM611T represents a novel family within the order Bdellovibrionales. The name Pseudobacteriovoracaceae fam. nov., Pseudobacteriovorax antillogorgiicola gen., nov., sp., nov. is proposed. Isolate RKEM611T (=NCCB 100521T, =LMG 28452T) is the type strain. PMID:25389148

McCauley, Erin P; Haltli, Brad; Kerr, Russell Greig

2014-11-11

65

Bacterial actins and their diversity  

PubMed Central

For many years bacteria were considered rather simple organisms, but the dogmatic notion that subcellular organization is a eukaryotic trait has been overthrown for more than a decade. The discovery of homologs of the eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, and intermediate filaments in bacteria has been instrumental in changing this view. Over the recent years we gained an incredible level of insight into the diverse family of bacterial actins and their molecular workings. Here we review the functional, biochemical and structural features of the most well-studied bacterial actins. PMID:24015924

Ozyamak, Ertan; Kollman, Justin M.; Komeili, Arash

2015-01-01

66

Bacterial Sulfite-Oxidizing Enzymes – Enzymes for Chemolithotrophs Only?  

Microsoft Academic Search

All known sulfite-oxidizing enzymes that have been studied in molecular detail belong to the sulfite oxidase family of molybdoenzymes.\\u000a The first bacterial enzymes in this family were only characterized in 2000, but by now it has become clear that bacterial\\u000a enzymes originating from many different types of bacteria may actually be the most abundant proteins in this enzyme family.\\u000a This

Ulrike Kappler

67

Bacterial symbionts and natural products  

PubMed Central

The study of bacterial symbionts of eukaryotic hosts has become a powerful discovery engine for chemistry. This highlight looks at four case studies that exemplify the range of chemistry and biology involved in these symbioses: a bacterial symbiont of a fungus and a marine invertebrate that produce compounds with significant anticancer activity, and bacterial symbionts of insects and nematodes that produce compounds that regulate multilateral symbioses. In the last ten years, a series of shocking revelations – the molecular equivalents of a reality TV show’s uncovering the true parents of a well known individual or a deeply hidden family secret – altered the study of genetically encoded small molecules, natural products for short. These revelations all involved natural products produced by bacterial symbionts, and while details differed, two main plot lines emerged: parentage, in which the real producers of well known natural products with medical potential were not the organisms from which they were originally discovered, and hidden relationships, in which bacterially produced small molecules turned out to be the unsuspected regulators of complex interactions. For chemists, these studies led to new molecules, new biosynthetic pathways, and an understanding of the biological functions these molecules fulfill. PMID:21594283

Crawford, Jason M.; Clardy, Jon

2011-01-01

68

Diverse bacterial microcompartment organelles.  

PubMed

Bacterial microcompartments (MCPs) are sophisticated protein-based organelles used to optimize metabolic pathways. They consist of metabolic enzymes encapsulated within a protein shell, which creates an ideal environment for catalysis and facilitates the channeling of toxic/volatile intermediates to downstream enzymes. The metabolic processes that require MCPs are diverse and widely distributed and play important roles in global carbon fixation and bacterial pathogenesis. The protein shells of MCPs are thought to selectively control the movement of enzyme cofactors, substrates, and products (including toxic or volatile intermediates) between the MCP interior and the cytoplasm of the cell using both passive electrostatic/steric and dynamic gated mechanisms. Evidence suggests that specialized shell proteins conduct electrons between the cytoplasm and the lumen of the MCP and/or help rebuild damaged iron-sulfur centers in the encapsulated enzymes. The MCP shell is elaborated through a family of small proteins whose structural core is known as a bacterial microcompartment (BMC) domain. BMC domain proteins oligomerize into flat, hexagonally shaped tiles, which assemble into extended protein sheets that form the facets of the shell. Shape complementarity along the edges allows different types of BMC domain proteins to form mixed sheets, while sequence variation provides functional diversification. Recent studies have also revealed targeting sequences that mediate protein encapsulation within MCPs, scaffolding proteins that organize lumen enzymes and the use of private cofactor pools (NAD/H and coenzyme A [HS-CoA]) to facilitate cofactor homeostasis. Although much remains to be learned, our growing understanding of MCPs is providing a basis for bioengineering of protein-based containers for the production of chemicals/pharmaceuticals and for use as molecular delivery vehicles. PMID:25184561

Chowdhury, Chiranjit; Sinha, Sharmistha; Chun, Sunny; Yeates, Todd O; Bobik, Thomas A

2014-09-01

69

Bacterial concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cracks in concrete are inevitable and are one of the inherent weaknesses of concrete. Water and other salts seep through these cracks, corrosion initiates, and thus reduces the life of concrete. So there was a need to develop an inherent biomaterial, a self-repairing material which can remediate the cracks and fissures in concrete. Bacterial concrete is a material, which can successfully remediate cracks in concrete. This technique is highly desirable because the mineral precipitation induced as a result of microbial activities is pollution free and natural. As the cell wall of bacteria is anionic, metal accumulation (calcite) on the surface of the wall is substantial, thus the entire cell becomes crystalline and they eventually plug the pores and cracks in concrete. This paper discusses the plugging of artificially cracked cement mortar using Bacillus Pasteurii and Sporosarcina bacteria combined with sand as a filling material in artificially made cuts in cement mortar which was cured in urea and CaCl2 medium. The effect on the compressive strength and stiffness of the cement mortar cubes due to the mixing of bacteria is also discussed in this paper. It was found that use of bacteria improves the stiffness and compressive strength of concrete. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to document the role of bacteria in microbiologically induced mineral precipitation. Rod like impressions were found on the face of calcite crystals indicating the presence of bacteria in those places. Energy- dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the microbial precipitation on the surface of the crack indicated the abundance of calcium and the precipitation was inferred to be calcite (CaCO3).

Ramakrishnan, Venkataswamy; Ramesh, K. P.; Bang, S. S.

2001-04-01

70

Bacterial Skin Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Disorders Pigment Disorders Blistering Diseases Parasitic Skin Infections Bacterial Skin Infections Fungal Skin Infections Viral Skin Infections Sunlight and Skin Damage Noncancerous Skin Growths Skin Cancers Nail Disorders Topics in Bacterial Skin ...

71

Bacterial Gene Transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides detailed instructions for carrying out several laboratory exercises relating to bacterial transformation and conjugation. In this multi-session experiment, students are exposed to various techniques in microbiology, including bacterial transformation and assay and sterile techniques.

Roberta Ellington (Northwestern University; )

1991-01-01

72

Bacterial moonlighting proteins and bacterial virulence.  

PubMed

Implicit in the central dogma is the hypothesis that each protein gene product has but one function. However, over the past decade, it has become clear that many proteins have one or more unique functions, over-and-above the principal biological action of the specific protein. This phenomenon is now known as protein moonlighting and many well-known proteins such as metabolic enzymes and molecular chaperones are now recognised as moonlighting proteins. A growing number of bacterial species are being found to have moonlighting proteins and the moonlighting activities of such proteins can contribute to bacterial virulence behaviour. The glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) and enolase, and the cell stress proteins: chaperonin 60, Hsp70 and peptidyl prolyl isomerase, are among the most common of the bacterial moonlighting proteins which play a role in bacterial virulence. Moonlighting activities include adhesion and modulation of cell signalling processes. It is likely that only the tip of the bacterial moonlighting iceberg has been sighted and the next decade will bring with it many new discoveries of bacterial moonlighting proteins with a role in bacterial virulence. PMID:22143554

Henderson, Brian; Martin, Andrew

2013-01-01

73

The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyze recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice. PMID:23641241

Olivares, Jorge; Bernardini, Alejandra; Garcia-Leon, Guillermo; Corona, Fernando; B. Sanchez, Maria; Martinez, Jose L.

2013-01-01

74

Family Folklore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Family Folklore Program of the Smithsonian Institution's annual Festival of American Folklife, in which the whole family can be involved in tracing family history through story telling, photographs, etc. (MS)

Kotkin, Amy J.; Baker, Holly C.

1977-01-01

75

Foster Families  

MedlinePLUS

... foster family? Let's find out. What Are Foster Families? The word "foster" means to help someone (or ... home. Continue Why Do Kids Live With Foster Families? Most often, a kid goes into a foster ...

76

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

77

Family Functioning in Neglectful Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of family functioning in 103 neglectful and 102 nonneglectful low-income families found that neglectful mothers reported their families as having more family conflict and less expression of feelings, but not less cohesiveness. Observational measures indicated neglectful families were less organized, more chaotic, and less verbally…

Gaudin, James M., Jr.; And Others

1996-01-01

78

Modulation of post-antibiotic bacterial community reassembly and host response by Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The introduction of Candida albicans into cefoperazone-treated mice results in changes in bacterial community reassembly. Our objective was to use high-throughput sequencing to characterize at much greater depth the specific changes in the bacterial microbiome. The colonization of C. albicans significantly altered bacterial community reassembly that was evident at multiple taxonomic levels of resolution. There were marked changes in the levels of Bacteriodetes and Lactobacillaceae. Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, the two most abundant bacterial families, did not change in relative proportions after antibiotics, but there were marked genera-level shifts within these two bacterial families. The microbiome shifts occurred in the absence of overt intestinal inflammation. Overall, these experiments demonstrate that the introduction of a single new microbe in numerically inferior numbers into the bacterial microbiome during a broad community disturbance has the potential to significantly alter the subsequent reassembly of the bacterial community as it recovers from that disturbance. PMID:23846617

Erb Downward, John R; Falkowski, Nicole R; Mason, Katie L; Muraglia, Ryan; Huffnagle, Gary B

2013-01-01

79

Family functioning in neglectful families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family functioning in 103 neglectful and 102 non-neglectful low-income families is examined using self-report and observational measures. Neglectful mothers reported their families as having more family conflict and less expression of feelings, but not less cohesive. Ratings of observed and videotaped family interactions indicated neglect families were less organized, more chaotic, less verbally expressive, showed less positive and more negative

James M. Gaudin; Norman A. Polansky; Allie C. Kilpatrick; Paula Shilton

1996-01-01

80

7, 787822, 2010 Increased bacterial  

E-print Network

BGD 7, 787­822, 2010 Increased bacterial growth efficiency with environmental variability M if available. Increased bacterial growth efficiency with environmental variability: results from DOC­822, 2010 Increased bacterial growth efficiency with environmental variability M. Eichinger et al. Title

Poggiale, Jean-Christophe

81

The role of cytoskeletal elements in shaping bacterial cells.  

PubMed

Beginning from the recognition of FtsZ as a bacterial tubulin homologue in early 1990s, many bacterial cytoskeletal elements have been identified, including homologues to the major eukaryotic cytoskeletal elements (tubulin, actin, and intermediate filament) and the elements unique in procaryotes (ParA/MinD family and bactofilins). Discovery and functional characterization of the bacterial cytoskeleton have revolutionized our understanding of bacterial cells, revealing their elaborate and dynamic subcellular organization. As in eukaryotic systems, the bacterial cytoskeleton participates in cell division, cell morphogenesis, DNA segregation, and other important cellular processes. However, in accordance with the vast difference between bacterial and eukaryotic cells, many bacterial cytoskeletal proteins play distinct roles from their eukaryotic counterparts, for example, control of cell wall synthesis for cell division and morphogenesis. This review is aimed at providing an overview of the bacterial cytoskeleton, and discussing the roles and assembly dynamics of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins in more detail in relation to their most widely conserved functions, DNA segregation and coordination of cell wall synthesis. PMID:25262683

Cho, Hongbaek

2014-09-29

82

[Family Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue provides four articles that address family involvement in the transition of youth with disabilities from school to work. The first article, "Family Involvement" by Marge Goldberg and Shauna McDonald, offers evidence of the importance of family involvement at this stage of the individual's life, reports on families' experiences,…

Alliance: The Newsletter of the National Transition Alliance, 1996

1996-01-01

83

Family Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

Seita, John R.

2014-01-01

84

Autoproteolytic Activation of Bacterial Toxins  

PubMed Central

Protease domains within toxins typically act as the primary effector domain within target cells. By contrast, the primary function of the cysteine protease domain (CPD) in Multifunctional Autoprocessing RTX-like (MARTX) and Clostridium sp. glucosylating toxin families is to proteolytically cleave the toxin and release its cognate effector domains. The CPD becomes activated upon binding to the eukaryotic-specific small molecule, inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6), which is found abundantly in the eukaryotic cytosol. This property allows the CPD to spatially and temporally regulate toxin activation, making it a prime candidate for developing anti-toxin therapeutics. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to defining the regulation of toxin function by the CPD and the development of inhibitors to prevent CPD-mediated activation of bacterial toxins. PMID:22069620

Shen, Aimee

2010-01-01

85

Family Governance with Family Councils  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the third generation onwards, family firms could get into business threatening situations. This might depend on the growing number of owners, the increasing distance of family members from the firm, and the heterogeneity of their interests. Thus, agency prob- lems and negative conflicts might occur. This calls for the appropriate choice of family gov- ernance mechanisms. Family councils might

Klaus Brockhoff; Alexander Koeberle-Schmid

86

Bacterial Abundance Measure bacterial numbers and mass per unit volume.  

E-print Network

.37 1021 l oceans-1 Crude estimate of element fluxes (x: bacterial biomass) · Growth rate: G = xBacterial Abundance Objective · Measure bacterial numbers and mass per unit volume. · Note, we). · Plate (or viable) count (Today). · Direct count. (Thursday). #12;Why do we want to measure bacterial

Vallino, Joseph J.

87

Bacterial Abundance Measure bacterial numbers and mass per unit volume.  

E-print Network

.37 � 1021 l oceans-1 Crude estimate of element fluxes (x: bacterial biomass) · Growth rate: G = µx; µBacterial Abundance Objective · Measure bacterial numbers and mass per unit volume. · Note, we). · Plate (or viable) count (Today). · Direct count. (Thursday). #12;Why do we want to measure bacterial

Vallino, Joseph J.

88

Family Violence and Family Physicians  

PubMed Central

The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

Herbert, Carol P.

1991-01-01

89

Deciphering the bacterial glycocode: recent advances in bacterial glycoproteomics  

PubMed Central

Bacterial glycoproteins represent an attractive target for new antibacterial treatments, as they are frequently linked to pathogenesis and contain distinctive glycans that are absent in humans. Despite their potential therapeutic importance, many bacterial glycoproteins remain uncharacterized. This review focuses on recent advances in deciphering the bacterial glycocode, including metabolic glycan labeling to discover and characterize bacterial glycoproteins, lectin-based microarrays to monitor bacterial glycoprotein dynamics, crosslinking sugars to assess the roles of bacterial glycoproteins, and harnessing bacterial glycosylation systems for the efficient production of industrially important glycoproteins. PMID:23276734

Longwell, Scott A.; Dube, Danielle H.

2012-01-01

90

Growth of Bacterial Colonies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On hard agar gel, there is insufficient surface hydration for bacteria to swim or swarm. Instead, growth occurs in colonies of close-packed cells, which expand purely due to repulsive interactions: individual bacteria push each other out of the way through the force of their growth. In this way, bacterial colonies represent a new type of ``active'' granular matter. In this study, we investigate the physical, biochemical, and genetic elements that determine the static and dynamic aspects of this mode of bacterial growth for E. coli. We characterize the process of colony expansion empirically, and use discrete and continuum models to examine the extent to which our observations can be explained by the growth characteristics of non-communicating cells, coupled together by physical forces, nutrients, and waste products. Our results challenge the commonly accepted modes of bacterial colony growth and provide insight into sources of growth limitation in crowded bacterial communities.

Warren, Mya; Hwa, Terence

2013-03-01

91

Microfluidics for bacterial chemotaxis  

E-print Network

Bacterial chemotaxis, a remarkable behavioral trait which allows bacteria to sense and respond to chemical gradients in the environment, has implications in a broad range of fields including but not limited to disease ...

Ahmed, Tanvir, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

92

Small bowel bacterial overgrowth  

MedlinePLUS

Overgrowth - intestinal bacteria; Bacterial overgrowth - intestine ... Unlike the large intestine, the small intestine does not have a high number of bacteria. When there are too many bacteria in the ...

93

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... Complications Post Treatment and Outcome GTranslate Understanding : Family History Familial intracranial aneurysms are generally defined as the ... patients with an Intracranial Aneurysm (IA) have a history of smoking at some time in their life. ...

94

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ Genomics All CDC Topics Search The CDC Note: Javascript ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Public Health Genomics Genomics Family Health History Share Compartir Family History ...

95

Rural Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "special focus" journal issue consists of 13 individual articles on the theme of rural family programs relating to school, health services, church, and other institutions. It includes: (1) "Towards a Rural Family Policy" (Judith K. Chynoweth and Michael D. Campbell); (2) "Montana: Council for Families Collaborates for Prevention (Jean…

Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

1992-01-01

96

Bacterial detection by Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins.  

PubMed

The mechanisms and molecular effectors of pathogen recognition systems in diverse hosts are highly conserved. Both plant and animal recognition of pathogens relies on sensing of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) by Pattern Recognition Molecules (PRMs). To detect bacteria, these sensor molecules can recognize a wide array of molecules ranging from lipopolysaccharides (LPS) to peptidoglycan (PGN) or proteins. In contrast to that of mammals, the repertoire of bacterial motifs recognized by the immune system of the fruit fly seems to be much narrower. Works published so far indicate that it is limited to bacterial PGN and its derivatives. The mode of detection of PGN by host proteins is also simpler in the fly immune system than it is in the mammalian counterpart. Although PGN can be detected by Toll-like receptors, Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins and Peptidoglycan Recognition proteins (PGRPs) in vertebrates, PGRP family members are, so far, the only PGN sensors identified in Drosophila. Interactions between PGN and PGRPs induce multiple processes required to mount a specific and is implicated in multiple processes require to induce a specific and fine-tuned bacterial immune response in fly. Here, we present an overview of our current knowledge of PGRP and their bacterial detection in Drosophila. PMID:19344780

Charroux, Bernard; Rival, Thomas; Narbonne-Reveau, Karine; Royet, Julien

2009-01-01

97

Tracking bacterial growth in liquid media and a new bacterial life model  

Microsoft Academic Search

By increasing viscosity of liquid media above 8.4 centipoise (cp) i.e. 0.084 g· cm-1 · s-1, individual growth and family formation ofEscherichia coli was continuously observed in real-time for up to 6 h. The observations showed primarily unidirectional growth and reproduction\\u000a ofE. coli and suggested more than one reproduction in the observed portion ofE. coli life span. A new bacterial

Shi Liu

1999-01-01

98

Urticaria and bacterial infections.  

PubMed

The association between urticaria and infectious diseases has been discussed for >100 years. However, a causal relationship with underlying or precipitating infection is difficult to establish. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic analysis of the published cases of urticaria associated with bacterial infections. We give an umbrella breakdown of up-to-date systematic reviews and other important publications on the complex association of urticaria and bacterial infections. We did a Medline search, for English language articles published until January 2014, using the key words "urticaria" and "bacteria/bacterial disease"; a second analysis was performed in groups of bacteria and using each germ name as a key word. Many bacterial infections have been associated with urticaria manifestation, such as Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Salmonella, Brucella, Mycobacterium leprae, Borrelia, Chlamydia pneumonia, and Yersinia enterocolitica. In some cases the skin manifestations, described as urticaria, could be caused by the presence of the microorganism in the skin, or for the action of their toxins, or to the complement activation mediated by circulating immune complexes. Although only a weak association with urticaria of unclear pathogenesis exists, clinicians should consider these bacterial agents in the workup of the patients with urticaria. The eradication of the infection could, in fact, lead to the resolution of urticaria. Prospective studies and well-structured research are obviously needed to better clarify the real role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence. PMID:24857191

Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Barberi, Giuseppina; Gangemi, Sebastiano

2014-01-01

99

Biodegradability of bacterial surfactants.  

PubMed

This work aimed at evaluating the biodegradability of different bacterial surfactants in liquid medium and in soil microcosms. The biodegradability of biosurfactants by pure and mixed bacterial cultures was evaluated through CO(2) evolution. Three bacterial strains, Acinetobacter baumanni LBBMA ES11, Acinetobacter haemolyticus LBBMA 53 and Pseudomonas sp. LBBMA 101B, used the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus sp. LBBMA 111A (mixed lipopeptide), Bacillus subtilis LBBMA 155 (lipopeptide), Flavobacterium sp. LBBMA 168 (mixture of flavolipids), Dietzia Maris LBBMA 191(glycolipid) and Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201(lipopeptide) as carbon sources in minimal medium. The synthetic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was also mineralized by these microorganisms, but at a lower rate. CO(2) emitted by a mixed bacterial culture in soil microcosms with biosurfactants was higher than in the microcosm containing SDS. Biosurfactant mineralization in soil was confirmed by the increase in surface tension of the soil aqueous extracts after incubation with the mixed bacterial culture. It can be concluded that, in terms of biodegradability and environmental security, these compounds are more suitable for applications in remediation technologies in comparison to synthetic surfactants. However, more information is needed on structure of biosurfactants, their interaction with soil and contaminants and scale up and cost for biosurfactant production. PMID:21053055

Lima, Tânia M S; Procópio, Lorena C; Brandão, Felipe D; Carvalho, André M X; Tótola, Marcos R; Borges, Arnaldo C

2011-06-01

100

An algebraic view of bacterial genome evolution.  

PubMed

Rearrangements of bacterial chromosomes can be studied mathematically at several levels, most prominently at a local, or sequence level, as well as at a topological level. The biological changes involved locally are inversions, deletions, and transpositions, while topologically they are knotting and catenation. These two modelling approaches share some surprising algebraic features related to braid groups and Coxeter groups. The structural approach that is at the core of algebra has long found applications in sciences such as physics and analytical chemistry, but only in a small number of ways so far in biology. And yet there are examples where an algebraic viewpoint may capture a deeper structure behind biological phenomena. This article discusses a family of biological problems in bacterial genome evolution for which this may be the case, and raises the prospect that the tools developed by algebraists over the last century might provide insight to this area of evolutionary biology. PMID:24375264

Francis, Andrew R

2014-12-01

101

[Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].  

PubMed

Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2-producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent's scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up-to-date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short-term and long-term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context. PMID:24073569

Djuki?, Slobodanka; ?irkovi?, Ivana; Arsi?, Biljana; Garaleji?, Eliana

2013-01-01

102

Prophylaxis in bacterial meningitis.  

PubMed

A questionnaire about the use of prophylactic antibiotics in bacterial meningitis was sent to medical officers of environmental health and microbiologists in England. There was broad agreement that prophylaxis should be offered to close contacts of acute meningitis due to Neisseria meningitidis but not to contacts of meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Overall 28% of those who replied said they could consider giving prophylaxis to contacts of meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae. Rifampicin was the most common choice of drug. The indications for prophylaxis in bacterial meningitis are discussed. PMID:2865293

Davies, A J; Dyas, A; Rao, V R

1985-09-01

103

Familial glomerulonephritis.  

PubMed

Between 1970 and 1984, the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis was made in 860 patients on the basis of a nephritic sediment and/or renal biopsy; of these patients, 86 (10%) had at least one first-degree relative with glomerulonephritis. These patients originated from 45 families and 1674 family members were screened; 172 had glomerulonephritis, of whom 101 could be classified. The diagnostic breakdown of the 101 patients showed that 50.5% had classical Alport's syndrome; 21.8% had atypical forms; 17.8% had familial IgA glomerulonephritis; 1.9% had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome; and 7.9% had benign familial haematuria. The proportion of patients with glomerulonephritis who had familial disease was higher than expected. The family history is an important point to consider in the examination of patients with glomerulonephritis. PMID:3153310

Rambausek, M; Hartz, G; Waldherr, R; Andrassy, K; Ritz, E

1987-07-01

104

Bacterial mortality and the fate of bacterial production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the rates of bacterial mortality, particularly predatory mortality, is important in determining the fate of bacterial\\u000a production. Communities of planktonic bacteria have specific growth rates on the order of 1 d?1, but there is relatively little variation in bacterial abundance, implying that growth and mortality are closely coupled.\\u000a A review of the mechanisms of bacterial mortality suggests that

Michael L. Pace; Mary Flagler Cary Arboretum

1988-01-01

105

Crystal Structures of Two Bacterial 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Lyases Suggest a Common Catalytic Mechanism among a Family of TIM Barrel Metalloenzymes Cleaving Carbon-Carbon Bonds  

SciTech Connect

The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) lyase catalyzes the terminal steps in ketone body generation and leucine degradation. Mutations in this enzyme cause a human autosomal recessive disorder called primary metabolic aciduria, which typically kills victims because of an inability to tolerate hypoglycemia. Here we present crystal structures of the HMG-CoA lyases from Bacillus subtilis and Brucella melitensis at 2.7 and 2.3 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. These enzymes share greater than 45% sequence identity with the human orthologue. Although the enzyme has the anticipated triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel fold, the catalytic center contains a divalent cation-binding site formed by a cluster of invariant residues that cap the core of the barrel, contrary to the predictions of homology models. Surprisingly, the residues forming this cation-binding site and most of their interaction partners are shared with three other TIM barrel enzymes that catalyze diverse carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions believed to proceed through enolate intermediates (4-hydroxy-2-ketovalerate aldolase, 2-isopropylmalate synthase, and transcarboxylase 5S). We propose the name 'DRE-TIM metallolyases' for this newly identified enzyme family likely to employ a common catalytic reaction mechanism involving an invariant Asp-Arg-Glu (DRE) triplet. The Asp ligates the divalent cation, while the Arg probably stabilizes charge accumulation in the enolate intermediate, and the Glu maintains the precise structural alignment of the Asp and Arg. We propose a detailed model for the catalytic reaction mechanism of HMG-CoA lyase based on the examination of previously reported product complexes of other DRE-TIM metallolyases and induced fit substrate docking studies conducted using the crystal structure of human HMG-CoA lyase (reported in the accompanying paper by Fu, et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 7526-7532). Our model is consistent with extensive mutagenesis results and can guide subsequent studies directed at definitive experimental elucidation of this enzyme's reaction mechanism.

Forouhar,F.; Hussain, M.; Farid, R.; Benach, J.; Abashidze, M.; Edstrom, W.; Vorobiev, S.; Montelione, G.; Hunt, J.; et al.

2006-01-01

106

Bacterial leaf spot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

107

Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

Crawford, Donald L. (Moscow, ID); Ramachandra, Muralidhara (Moscow, ID)

1993-01-01

108

BACTERIAL KIDNEY DISEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a prevalent disease that impacts the sustainable production of salmonid fish for consumption and species conservation efforts. The disease is chronic in nature and mortality most often occurs in 6–12 month old juvenile salmonid...

109

The Bacterial Growth Curve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A procedure that allows students to view an entire bacterial growth curve during a two- to three-hour student laboratory period is described. Observations of the lag phase, logarithmic phase, maximum stationary phase, and phase of decline are possible. A nonpathogenic, marine bacterium is used in the investigation. (KR)

Paulton, Richard J. L.

1991-01-01

110

BACTERIAL WATERBORNE PATHOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bacterial pathogens are examples of classical etiological agents of waterborne disease. While these agents no longer serve as major threats to U.S. water supplies, they are still important pathogens in areas with substandard sanitation and poor water treatment facilities. In th...

111

Bacterial social engagements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quorum sensing is a process that enables bacteria to communicate using secreted signaling molecules called autoinducers. This process enables a population of bac- teria to regulate gene expression collectively and, there- fore, control behavior on a community-wide scale. Quorum sensing is widespread in the bacterial world and, generally, processes controlled by quorum sensing are unproductive when undertaken by an individual

Jennifer M. Henke; Bonnie L. Bassler

2004-01-01

112

Bacterial microflora of nectarines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microflora of fruit surfaces has been the best source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus fruit. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine f...

113

Bacterial infections: uncommon presentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essence of dermatology is morphology. The most important instrument in the practice of dermatology has always been, and still is, the naked eye; however, “We see only what we are ready to see, what we have been taught to see” (Jean Martin Charcot). Although most practitioners will easily correctly diagnose common bacterial skin diseases (such as cellulitis, erysipelas, impetigo,

Hagit Matz; Edith Orion; Ronni Wolf

2005-01-01

114

Family Potyviridae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Potyviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 9th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of viral sp...

115

FAMILY GEMINIVIRIDAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses geminivirus study group has revised the description of the family Geminiviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 8th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of vi...

116

Family Workshops  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Family Workshop is an informal, multidisciplined educational program for adults and children, organized by a team of teachers. This article discusses the Lavender Hill Family Workshop, one of many, which attempts to provide education in various subject areas for adults and for children while also integrating both objectives in order to educate…

Bennett, Dave; Rees-Jones, Tanny

1978-01-01

117

Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

118

FAMILY POTYVIRIDAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses potyvirus study group has revised the description of the family Geminiviridae for inclusion in the ICTV 8th report. Characteristic features of each genus within the family is presented. Revised criteria for demarcation and nomenclature of vira...

119

Familial glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1970 and 1984, the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis was made in 860 patients on the basis of a nephritic sediment and\\/or renal biopsy; of these patients, 86 (10%) had at least one first-degree relative with glomerulonephritis. These patients originated from 45 families and 1674 family members were screened; 172 had glomerulonephritis, of whom 101 could be classified. The diagnostic breakdown

Michael Rambausek; Georg Hartz; Rüdiger Waldherr; Konrad Andrassy; Eberhard Ritz

1987-01-01

120

4, 37993828, 2007 Bacterial production  

E-print Network

limiting bacterial growth was investigated along vertical and longitudinal gradients across the SouthBGD 4, 3799­3828, 2007 Bacterial production limitation in the South Pacific Gyre F. Van Wambeke et forum of Biogeosciences Factors limiting heterotrophic bacterial production in the southern Pacific

Boyer, Edmond

121

Family Theory and Family Health Research  

PubMed Central

Different family theories can be applied to different aspects of how families experience health and illness. The family health and illness cycle describes the phases of a family's experience, beginning with health promotion and risk reduction, then family vulnerability and disease onset or relapse, family illness appraisal, family acute response, and finally family adaptation to illness and recovery. For each phase, specific family theories that are most appropriate for guiding family and health research are discussed. PMID:21229056

Doherty, William J.

1991-01-01

122

Positively regulated bacterial expression systems  

PubMed Central

Summary Regulated promoters are useful tools for many aspects related to recombinant gene expression in bacteria, including for high?level expression of heterologous proteins and for expression at physiological levels in metabolic engineering applications. In general, it is common to express the genes of interest from an inducible promoter controlled either by a positive regulator or by a repressor protein. In this review, we discuss established and potentially useful positively regulated bacterial promoter systems, with a particular emphasis on those that are controlled by the AraC?XylS family of transcriptional activators. The systems function in a wide range of microorganisms, including enterobacteria, soil bacteria, lactic bacteria and streptomycetes. The available systems that have been applied to express heterologous genes are regulated either by sugars (l?arabinose, l?rhamnose, xylose and sucrose), substituted benzenes, cyclohexanone?related compounds, ??caprolactam, propionate, thiostrepton, alkanes or peptides. It is of applied interest that some of the inducers require the presence of transport systems, some are more prone than others to become metabolized by the host and some have been applied mainly in one or a limited number of species. Based on bioinformatics analyses, the AraC?XylS family of regulators contains a large number of different members (currently over 300), but only a small fraction of these, the XylS/Pm, AraC/PBAD, RhaR?RhaS/rhaBAD, NitR/PnitA and ChnR/Pb regulator/promoter systems, have so far been explored for biotechnological applications. PMID:21261879

Brautaset, Trygve; Lale, Rahmi; Valla, Svein

2009-01-01

123

Electrostatic analysis of bacterial expansins.  

PubMed

Expansins are a family of proteins with plant cell wall remodeling-activity, which bind cell wall components through hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. A shallow area on the surface of the protein serves as the polysaccharide binding site (PBS) and it is composed of conserved residues. However, electric charge differences on the opposite face of the PBS produce basic, neutral, or acidic proteins. An analysis of forty-four bacterial expansins, homologues of BsEXLX1, revealed two main groups defined by: (a) the presence or absence of disulfide bonds; and (b) by the proteins isoelectric point (pI). We determined the location of the residues responsible for the pI on the structure of representative expansins. Our results suggest that the electric charge at the opposite site of the PBS may help in substrate differentiation among expansins from different species; in addition, electrostatic polarization between the front and the back of the molecule could affect expansin activity on cellulose. Proteins 2014; © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25388639

Pastor, Nina; Dávila, Sonia; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Segovia, Lorenzo; Martínez-Anaya, Claudia

2014-11-12

124

[Family ideology].  

PubMed

This paper treats the definition of the concept of family ideology linking it to that of social ideology. In both cases the ideology is seen as patterns of messages that obey certain semantic rules. Within the family context, it is considered that the conditions of production of the ideology are, concerning the profound structures, the unconscious oedipus conflict and kindred system that determines the family organization. Concerning the surface structures, the myths and beliefs that appear in each group as an answer to the need of accounting for the conflicts inherent to the family structure. The family ideology guides the subjects to places predetermined by the oedipus conflicts, "semanticizes" the conflicts and tends to dissimulate the conditions of production through the illusion that the subject is the producer. To analyze the family ideology, the following items must be taken into account: 1) Which are the semantic lines that are privileged in the couple and parent-children relationships. 2) The relations between the semantic lines established by the articulation rules prescribed by the cultural system. 3) The elementary forms of the ideological universe (the "actantial" model applied to family relationships). These three aspects articulate between themselves through transformation rules. PMID:7136827

Kornblit, A

1982-06-01

125

Bacterial Cell Wall Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial cell-surface polysaccharides cells are surrounded by a variety of cell-surface structures that allow them to thrive in extreme environments. Components of the cell envelope and extracellular matrix are responsible for providing the cells with structural support, mediating intercellular communication, allowing the cells to move or to adhere to surfaces, protecting the cells from attack by antibiotics or the immune system, and facilitating the uptake of nutrients. Some of the most important cell wall components are polysaccharide structures. This review discusses the occurrence, structure, function, and biosynthesis of the most prevalent bacterial cell surface polysaccharides: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, arabinogalactan, and lipoarabinomannan, and capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. The roles of these polysaccharides in medicine, both as drug targets and as therapeutic agents, are also described.

Ginsberg, Cynthia; Brown, Stephanie; Walker, Suzanne

126

Modelling bacterial flagellar growth  

E-print Network

The growth of bacterial flagellar filaments is a self-assembly process where flagellin molecules are transported through the narrow core of the flagellum and are added at the distal end. To model this situation, we generalize a growth process based on the TASEP model by allowing particles to move both forward and backward on the lattice. The bias in the forward and backward jump rates determines the lattice tip speed, which we analyze and also compare to simulations. For positive bias, the system is in a non-equilibrium steady state and exhibits boundary-induced phase transitions. The tip speed is constant. In the no-bias case we find that the length of the lattice grows as $N(t)\\propto\\sqrt{t}$, whereas for negative drift $N(t)\\propto\\ln{t}$. The latter result agrees with experimental data of bacterial flagellar growth.

Schmitt, Maximilian; 10.1209/0295-5075/96/28001

2012-01-01

127

SLC9/NHE gene family, a plasma membrane and organellar family of Na+/H+ exchangers *  

PubMed Central

This brief review of the human Na/H exchanger gene family introduces a new classification with three subgroups to the SLC9 gene family. Progress in the structure and function of this gene family is reviewed with structure based on homology to the bacterial Na/H exchanger NhaA. Human diseases which result from genetic abnormalities of the SLC9 family are discussed although the exact role of these transporters in causing any disease is not established, other than poorly functioning NHE3 in congenital Na diarrhea PMID:23506868

Donowitz, Mark; Tse, C. Ming; Fuster, Daniel

2013-01-01

128

Bacterial Resistance in Acne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotics play a major role in acne therapy. Physicians base treatment choices on personal perceptions of efficacy, cost-effectiveness or risk-benefit ratios and rarely take bacterial resistance into account. It is well documented that resistant strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci within the resident skin flora increase in both prevalence and population density as duration of therapy increases. Acne patients represent a considerable

E. A. Eady

1998-01-01

129

Bacterial transformation of terpenoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references.

Grishko, V. V.; Nogovitsina, Y. M.; Ivshina, I. B.

2014-04-01

130

Mangrove bacterial richness  

PubMed Central

Mangroves are complex and dynamic ecosystems varying in salinity, water level and nutrient availability; they also contain diverse and distinct microbial communities. Studies of microbes and their interactions with other ecosystem components (e.g., tree roots) are critical for our understanding of mangrove ecosystem functioning and remediation. Using a barcoding pyrosequencing approach, we previously noted the persistence of terrestrial bacterial populations on mangrove roots when nursery raised saplings were transplanted back to their natural environment. Here we go into further detail about the potential functional associations of bacterial guilds with distinct mangrove microhabitats including the rhizosphere. We also use a nonparametric richness estimator to show that estimated operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness is more than twice that observed. In the transplant microhabitat, our estimate suggests that there are almost 7,000 OTU's for a sample size of 10,400 individual sequences with no sign of an asymptote, indicating that “true” richness for this microhabitat is substantially larger. Results on the number of bacterial OTU's should, however, be viewed with caution given that the barcoding pyrosequencing technique used can yield sequencing artifacts that may inflate richness estimates if not properly removed. PMID:21966560

Cleary, Daniel FR; Calado, Ricardo; Costa, Rodrigo

2011-01-01

131

Unusual families.  

PubMed

The introduction of assisted reproduction has led to unusual forms of procreation. This article describes the social consequences of lesbian motherhood and of families headed by single heterosexual mothers. PMID:15819999

Golombok, Susan

2005-03-01

132

Family Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Family Money is an investment center from Better Homes and Gardens Online. A wide variety of columns advise readers on home finance issues, and additional site tools include savings, loan, and car lease calculators for financial planning purposes.

133

Fact Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the relationship of addition to subtraction is explored with books and with connecting cubes. Students search for related addition and subtraction facts for a given number using a virtual or actual calculator to find differences. They also investigate fact families when one addend is 0 as well as when the addends are the same. Students will: find missing addends, review the additive identity, generate fact families given two addends or given one addend and the sum.

Illuminations

2012-03-31

134

Jobcode Jobcode Descr Family Job Family Descr Ben Family  

E-print Network

Jobcode Jobcode Descr Job Family Job Family Descr Ben Family Sal Admin Plan Sal Grade Reg Temp FLSA Prof/Admin 93 33 HJC T N N No IPEDS-S Reporting 999 BWC N 010620 NUCLEAR MED TECH (TEMP) 33 Temporary T N N No IPEDS-S Reporting 000 BWC N #12;Jobcode Jobcode Descr Job Family Job Family Descr Ben Family

Awtar, Shorya

135

Interactions between model bacterial membranes and synthetic antimicrobials.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antimicrobial peptides comprise a key component of innate immunity for a wide range of multicellular organisms. It has been shown that natural antimicrobial peptides and their analogs can permeate bacterial membranes selectively. There are a number of proposed models for this action, but the detailed molecular mechanism of the induced membrane permeation remains unclear. We investigate interactions between model bacterial membranes and a prototypical family of phenylene ethynylene-based antimicrobials with controllable hydrophilic and hydrophobic volume fractions, controllable charge placement. Preliminary results from synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) results will be presented.

Yang, Lihua; Mishra, Abhijit; Som, Abhigyan; Tew, Gregory N.; Wong, Gerard C. L.

2006-03-01

136

Novel Microarray Design Strategy To Study Complex Bacterial Communities?  

PubMed Central

Assessing bacterial flora composition appears to be of increasing importance to fields as diverse as physiology, development, medicine, epidemiology, the environment, and the food industry. We report here the development and validation of an original microarray strategy that allows analysis of the phylogenic composition of complex bacterial mixtures. The microarray contains ?9,500 feature elements targeting 16S rRNA gene-specific regions. Probe design was performed by selecting oligonucleotide sequences specific to each node of the seven levels of the bacterial phylogenetic tree (domain, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species). This approach, based on sequence information, allows analysis of the bacterial contents of complex bacterial mixtures to detect both known and unknown microorganisms. The presence of unknown organisms can be suspected and mapped on the phylogenetic tree, indicating where to refine analysis. Initial proof-of-concept experiments were performed on oral bacterial communities. Our results show that this hierarchical approach can reveal minor changes (?1%) in gingival flora content when samples collected in individuals from similar geographical origins are compared. PMID:18203854

Huyghe, Antoine; Francois, Patrice; Charbonnier, Yvan; Tangomo-Bento, Manuela; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Paster, Bruce J.; Bolivar, Ignacio; Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

2008-01-01

137

BacterialLectinDb: An integrated bacterial lectin database  

PubMed Central

Studies of various diversified bacterial lectins/ lectin data may serve as a tool with enormous promise to help biotechnologists/ geneticists in their innovative technology to explore a deeper understanding in proteomics/ genomics research for finding the molecular basis of infectious diseases and also to new approaches for their prevention and in development of new bacterial vaccines. Hence we developed a bacterial lectin database named ‘BacterialLectinDb’. An organized database schema for BacterialLectinDb was designed to collate all the available information about all bacterial lectins as a central repository. The database was designed using HTML, XML. Availability The database is available for free at http://www.research-bioinformatics.in PMID:22493537

Kumar, Dharmendra; Mittal, Yashoda

2012-01-01

138

Bacterial symbionts and natural products.  

PubMed

The study of bacterial symbionts of eukaryotic hosts has become a powerful discovery engine for chemistry. This highlight looks at four case studies that exemplify the range of chemistry and biology involved in these symbioses: a bacterial symbiont of a fungus and a marine invertebrate that produce compounds with significant anticancer activity, and bacterial symbionts of insects and nematodes that produce compounds that regulate multilateral symbioses. PMID:21594283

Crawford, Jason M; Clardy, Jon

2011-07-21

139

Animal Models of Bacterial Keratitis  

PubMed Central

Bacterial keratitis is a disease of the cornea characterized by pain, redness, inflammation, and opacity. Common causes of this disease are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Animal models of keratitis have been used to elucidate both the bacterial factors and the host inflammatory response involved in the disease. Reviewed herein are animal models of bacterial keratitis and some of the key findings in the last several decades. PMID:21274270

Marquart, Mary E.

2011-01-01

140

BYKdb: the Bacterial protein tYrosine Kinase database  

PubMed Central

Bacterial tyrosine-kinases share no resemblance with their eukaryotic counterparts and they have been unified in a new protein family named BY-kinases. These enzymes have been shown to control several biological functions in the bacterial cells. In recent years biochemical studies, sequence analyses and structure resolutions allowed the deciphering of a common signature. However, BY-kinase sequence annotations in primary databases remain incomplete. This prompted us to develop a specialized database of computer-annotated BY-kinase sequences: the Bacterial protein tyrosine-kinase database (BYKdb). BY-kinase sequences are first identified, thanks to a workflow developed in a previous work. A second workflow annotates the UniProtKB entries in order to provide the BYKdb entries. The database can be accessed through a web interface that allows static and dynamic queries and offers integrated sequence analysis tools. BYKdb can be found at http://bykdb.ibcp.fr. PMID:22080550

Jadeau, Fanny; Grangeasse, Christophe; Shi, Lei; Mijakovic, Ivan; Deléage, Gilbert; Combet, Christophe

2012-01-01

141

A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack  

SciTech Connect

Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C. (PMCI-A); (Monash); (Nottingham)

2008-10-02

142

Bacterial chemoreceptors and chemoeffectors.  

PubMed

Bacteria use chemotaxis signaling pathways to sense environmental changes. Escherichia coli chemotaxis system represents an ideal model that illustrates fundamental principles of biological signaling processes. Chemoreceptors are crucial signaling proteins that mediate taxis toward a wide range of chemoeffectors. Recently, in deep study of the biochemical and structural features of chemoreceptors, the organization of higher-order clusters in native cells, and the signal transduction mechanisms related to the on-off signal output provides us with general insights to understand how chemotaxis performs high sensitivity, precise adaptation, signal amplification, and wide dynamic range. Along with the increasing knowledge, bacterial chemoreceptors can be engineered to sense novel chemoeffectors, which has extensive applications in therapeutics and industry. Here we mainly review recent advances in the E. coli chemotaxis system involving structure and organization of chemoreceptors, discovery, design, and characterization of chemoeffectors, and signal recognition and transduction mechanisms. Possible strategies for changing the specificity of bacterial chemoreceptors to sense novel chemoeffectors are also discussed. PMID:25374297

Bi, Shuangyu; Lai, Luhua

2015-02-01

143

Roles within the Family  

MedlinePLUS

... Us My Cart Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Roles Within the Family Family Life Listen Roles Within the Family Article Body Families are not democracies. Each family has its own ways of deciding who has the power and authority within the family unit, and which ...

144

Family Hypnotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

1985-01-01

145

FAMILY TYMOVIRIDAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article provides a brief review of the taxonomic structure, virion properties, genome organization and replication strategy, antigenic properties, and biological properties of viruses in the family Tymoviridae. Criteria for demarcation of genus and species are provided. A brief review of each...

146

Family Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quarterly publication, issued by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), contains articles dealing with family violence and alcohol abuse, children of alcoholic parents, training programs for counselors, and confidentiality of client records. The three articles on alcohol abuse suggest that: (1) there is a clear…

Sorgen, Carol, Ed.

1979-01-01

147

Family Caregivers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on family caregiving. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, adult children, dementia and…

Frazier, Billie H.

148

Bacterial lipopolysaccharides and innate immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are the major outer surface membrane components present in almost all Gram-negative bacteria and act as extremely strong stimulators of innate or natural immunity in diverse eukaryotic species ranging from insects to humans. LPS consist of a poly- or oligosaccharide region that is anchored in the outer bacterial membrane by a specific carbohydrate lipid moiety termed lipid

Christian Alexander; E. T. Rietschel

2001-01-01

149

Structural and functional diversity among bacterial interspersed mosaic elements (BIMEs).  

PubMed

Palindromic units (PU or REP) were defined as 40-nucleotide DNA sequences which are highly repeated in the genome of several members of the Enterobacteriaceae. They were shown to be a constituent of the bacterial interspersed mosaic element (BIME), in which they are associated with other repetitive sequences. We report here that Escherichia coli PU sequences contain three motifs (Y, Z1 and Z2), leading to the definition of two BIME families. The BIME-1 family, highly conserved over 145 nucleotides, contains two PUs (motifs Y and Z1). The BIME-2 family contains a variable number of PUs (motifs Y and Z2). We present evidence, using band shift experiments, that each PU motif binds DNA gyrase with a different affinity. This suggests that the two families are functionally distinct. PMID:8057840

Bachellier, S; Saurin, W; Perrin, D; Hofnung, M; Gilson, E

1994-04-01

150

Ribonucleotides in bacterial DNA.  

PubMed

Abstract In all living cells, DNA is the storage medium for genetic information. Being quite stable, DNA is well-suited for its role in storage and propagation of information, but RNA is also covalently included in DNA through various mechanisms. Recent studies also demonstrate useful aspects of including ribonucleotides in the genome during repair. Therefore, our understanding of the consequences of RNA inclusion into bacterial genomic DNA is just beginning, but with its high frequency of occurrence the consequences and potential benefits are likely to be numerous and diverse. In this review, we discuss the processes that cause ribonucleotide inclusion in genomic DNA, the pathways important for ribonucleotide removal and the consequences that arise should ribonucleotides remain nested in genomic DNA. PMID:25387798

Schroeder, Jeremy W; Randall, Justin R; Matthews, Lindsay A; Simmons, Lyle A

2014-11-12

151

Bacterial microsystems and microrobots.  

PubMed

Microorganisms and specifically motile bacteria have been recently added to the list of micro-actuators typically considered for the implementation of microsystems and microrobots. Such trend has been motivated by the fact these microorganisms are self-powered actuators with overall sizes at the lower end of the micrometer range and which have proven to be extremely effective in low Reynolds number hydrodynamic regime of usually less than 10(-2). Furthermore, the various sensors or taxes in bacteria influencing their movements can also be exploited to perform tasks that were previously considered only for futuristic artificial microrobots. Bacterial implementations and related issues are not only reviewed, but this paper also proposes many techniques and approaches that can be considered as building blocks for the implementations of more sophisticated microsystems and microrobots. PMID:22960952

Martel, Sylvain

2012-12-01

152

Marine Bacterial Sialyltransferases  

PubMed Central

Sialyltransferases transfer N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from the common donor substrate of these enzymes, cytidine 5?-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac), to acceptor substrates. The enzymatic reaction products including sialyl-glycoproteins, sialyl-glycolipids and sialyl-oligosaccharides are important molecules in various biological and physiological processes, such as cell-cell recognition, cancer metastasis, and virus infection. Thus, sialyltransferases are thought to be important enzymes in the field of glycobiology. To date, many sialyltransferases and the genes encoding them have been obtained from various sources including mammalian, bacterial and viral sources. During the course of our research, we have detected over 20 bacteria that produce sialyltransferases. Many of the bacteria we isolated from marine environments are classified in the genus Photobacterium or the closely related genus Vibrio. The paper reviews the sialyltransferases obtained mainly from marine bacteria. PMID:21139844

Yamamoto, Takeshi

2010-01-01

153

Control of bacterial spores.  

PubMed

Bacterial spores are much more resistant than their vegetative counterparts. The most dangerous spore-former is Clostridium botulinum which produces a potent neurotoxin that can prove fatal. The most common food poisoning from a spore-former is caused by C. perfringens. Other food poisoning spore-formers include Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and B. licheniformis. There are a number of non-pathogenic spore-formers including butyric and thermophilic anaerobes that cause significant economic losses to food producers. Some unusual spoilage complaints have been reported, for example, B. sporothermodurans in UHT milk, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple and orange juice and Desulfotomaculum nigrificans in hot vending machines. Control of spore-formers requires an understanding of both the resistance and outgrowth characteristics of the spores. PMID:10885113

Brown, K L

2000-01-01

154

Evolution of Bacterial Suicide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individual and would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilis and S. pneumoniae.

Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya

2013-03-01

155

The bacterial proteogenomic pipeline  

PubMed Central

Background Proteogenomics combines the cutting-edge methods from genomics and proteomics. While it has become cheap to sequence whole genomes, the correct annotation of protein coding regions in the genome is still tedious and error prone. Mass spectrometry on the other hand relies on good characterizations of proteins derived from the genome, but can also be used to help improving the annotation of genomes or find species specific peptides. Additionally, proteomics is widely used to find evidence for differential expression of proteins under different conditions, e.g. growth conditions for bacteria. The concept of proteogenomics is not altogether new, in-house scripts are used by different labs and some special tools for eukaryotic and human analyses are available. Results The Bacterial Proteogenomic Pipeline, which is completely written in Java, alleviates the conducting of proteogenomic analyses of bacteria. From a given genome sequence, a naïve six frame translation is performed and, if desired, a decoy database generated. This database is used to identify MS/MS spectra by common peptide identification algorithms. After combination of the search results and optional flagging for different experimental conditions, the results can be browsed and further inspected. In particular, for each peptide the number of identifications for each condition and the positions in the corresponding protein sequences are shown. Intermediate and final results can be exported into GFF3 format for visualization in common genome browsers. Conclusions To facilitate proteogenomics analyses the Bacterial Proteogenomic Pipeline is a set of comprehensive tools running on common desktop computers, written in Java and thus platform independent. The pipeline allows integrating peptide identifications from various algorithms and emphasizes the visualization of spectral counts from different experimental conditions. PMID:25521444

2014-01-01

156

Familial Hypercholesterolemia  

PubMed Central

Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant-inherited genetic disorder that leads to elevated blood cholesterol levels. FH may present as severely elevated total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels or as premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods This review presents information on the disease and on the effects of drug treatment and lifestyle changes. Results Routine lipid testing should identify most patients with FH. Once an index case is identified, testing should be offered to family members. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with therapeutic lifestyle changes and statins can prevent premature CHD and other atherosclerotic sequelae in patients with FH. Conclusion Emerging therapies such as LDL apheresis and novel therapeutic agents may be useful in patients with homozygous FH or treatment-resistant FH. Liver transplantation is the only effective therapy for severe cases of homozygous FH. PMID:25598733

Pejic, Rade N.

2014-01-01

157

Bacterial communities of the gorgonian octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae.  

PubMed

Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae is a common inhabitant of Caribbean reefs and is a well-known source of diterpenes with diverse biological activities. Notably, this octocoral is the sole source of the pseudopterosin family of anti-inflammatory diterpenes and is harvested to supply commercial demand for these metabolites. We have characterized the composition of the bacterial community associated with P. elisabethae collected from Providencia Island, Colombia, using both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Culture-independent analysis revealed that the bacterial communities were composed of eight phyla, of which Proteobacteria was the most abundant. At the class level, bacterial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria (82-87 %). Additionally, operational taxonomic units related to Pseudomonas and Endozoicomonas species were the most abundant phylotypes consistently associated with P. elisabethae colonies. Culture-dependent analysis resulted in the identification of 40 distinct bacteria classified as Bacilli (15), Actinobacteria (12), Gammaproteobacteria (9), Alphaproteobacteria (3), and Betaproteobacteria (1). Only one of the 40 cultured bacteria was closely related to a dominant phylotype detected in the culture-independent study, suggesting that conventional culturing techniques failed to culture the majority of octocoral-associated bacterial diversity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first characterization of the bacterial diversity associated with P. elisabethae. PMID:23913197

Correa, Hebelin; Haltli, Brad; Duque, Carmenza; Kerr, Russell

2013-11-01

158

Whole-genome sequence comparison as a method for improving bacterial species definition.  

PubMed

We compared pairs of 1,226 bacterial strains with whole genome sequences and calculated their average nucleotide identity (ANI) between genomes to determine whether whole genome comparison can be directly used for bacterial species definition. We found that genome comparisons of two bacterial strains from the same species (SGC) have a significantly higher ANI than those of two strains from different species (DGC), and that the ANI between the query and the reference genomes can be used to determine whether two genomes come from the same species. Bacterial species definition based on ANI with a cut-off value of 0.92 matched well (81.5%) with the current bacterial species definition. The ANI value was shown to be consistent with the standard for traditional bacterial species definition, and it could be used in bacterial taxonomy for species definition. A new bioinformatics program (ANItools) was also provided in this study for users to obtain the ANI value of any two bacterial genome pairs (http://genome.bioinfo-icdc.org/). This program can match a query strain to all bacterial genomes, and identify the highest ANI value of the strain at the species, genus and family levels respectively, providing valuable insights for species definition. PMID:24859865

Zhang, Wen; Du, Pengcheng; Zheng, Han; Yu, Weiwen; Wan, Li; Chen, Chen

2014-01-01

159

Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Bacterial Phosphotransferase System  

PubMed Central

We report analyses of 202 fully sequenced genomes for homologues of known protein constituents of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). These included 174 bacterial, 19 archaeal, and 9 eukaryotic genomes. Homologues of PTS proteins were not identified in archaea or eukaryotes, showing that the horizontal transfer of genes encoding PTS proteins has not occurred between the three domains of life. Of the 174 bacterial genomes (136 bacterial species) analyzed, 30 diverse species have no PTS homologues, and 29 species have cytoplasmic PTS phosphoryl transfer protein homologues but lack recognizable PTS permeases. These soluble homologues presumably function in regulation. The remaining 77 species possess all PTS proteins required for the transport and phosphorylation of at least one sugar via the PTS. Up to 3.2% of the genes in a bacterium encode PTS proteins. These homologues were analyzed for family association, range of protein types, domain organization, and organismal distribution. Different strains of a single bacterial species often possess strikingly different complements of PTS proteins. Types of PTS protein domain fusions were analyzed, showing that certain types of domain fusions are common, while others are rare or prohibited. Select PTS proteins were analyzed from different phylogenetic standpoints, showing that PTS protein phylogeny often differs from organismal phylogeny. The results document the frequent gain and loss of PTS protein-encoding genes and suggest that the lateral transfer of these genes within the bacterial domain has played an important role in bacterial evolution. Our studies provide insight into the development of complex multicomponent enzyme systems and lead to predictions regarding the types of protein-protein interactions that promote efficient PTS-mediated phosphoryl transfer. PMID:16339738

Barabote, Ravi D.; Saier, Milton H.

2005-01-01

160

Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family

Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

2001-01-01

161

Infectious delivery of alphaherpesvirus bacterial artificial chromosomes.  

PubMed

Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) can accommodate and stably propagate the genomes of large DNA viruses in E. coli. As DNA virus genomes are often per se infectious upon transfection into mammalian cells, their cloning in BACs and easy modification by homologous recombination in bacteria has become an important strategy to investigate the functions of individual virus genes. This chapter describes a strategy to clone the genomes of viruses of the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily within the family of the Herpesviridae, which is a group of large DNA viruses that can establish both lytic and latent infections in most animal species including humans. The cloning strategy includes the following steps: (1) Construction of a transfer plasmid that contains the BAC backbone with selection and screening markers, and targeting sequences which support homologous recombination between the transfer plasmid and the alphaherpesvirus genome. (2) Introduction of the transfer plasmid sequences into the alphaherpesvirus genome via homologous recombination in mammalian cells. (3) Isolation of recombinant virus genomes containing the BAC backbone sequences from infected mammalian cells and electroporation into E. coli. (4) Preparation of infectious BAC DNA from bacterial cultures and transfection into mammalian cells. (5) Isolation and characterization of progeny virus. PMID:25239748

Tobler, Kurt; Fraefel, Cornel

2015-01-01

162

Bacterial Inhibition by Electrical Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Significance: Much evidence shows that electrical stimulation (ES) promotes the wound healing process. The inhibitory effect of ES on bacterial growth has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the useful effects of ES on wound healing. Bacterial burden has been associated with chronic wounds. The extensive use of antibiotics can lead to the spread of multiple drug resistant bacteria. Whether biophysical energies, such as ES, can be used as a treatment modality against pathogenic microorganisms remains an open question. Recent Advances: The research literature provides evidence for useful effects of ES in terms of inhibition of bacterial growth. The type of ES, its polarity, and the intensity of the current play a major role in establishment of antibacterial effects. Both direct current (DC) and high voltage pulse current are more effective at inhibiting bacterial growth than are other types of ES. The exact mechanism underlying the antibacterial effects of ES is not clear. Critical Issues: Available evidence indicates that microampere DC (?ADC) is better than other ES types for inhibition of bacterial growth. The results of most studies also support the application of cathodal current for bacterial growth inhibition. The current intensity of ES would appear to be tolerable by humans if used clinically for treatment of infected wounds. Future Directions: The cathodal ?ADC appears to be more effective for inhibition of microorganism growth. Further research, especially in vivo, is necessary to clarify the inhibitory effects of ES on wound bacterial infections. PMID:24761349

Asadi, Mohammad Reza; Torkaman, Giti

2014-01-01

163

Transport powered by bacterial turbulence  

E-print Network

We demonstrate that collective turbulent-like motion in a bacterial bath can power and steer directed transport of mesoscopic carriers through the suspension. In our experiments and simulations, a microwedge-like "bulldozer" draws energy from a bacterial bath of varied density. We obtain that a maximal transport speed is achieved in the turbulent state of the bacterial suspension. This apparent rectification of random motion of bacteria is caused by polar ordered bacteria inside the cusp region of the carrier, which is shielded from the outside turbulent fluctuations.

Andreas Kaiser; Anton Peshkov; Andrey Sokolov; Borge ten Hagen; Hartmut Löwen; Igor S. Aranson

2014-03-17

164

Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.  

PubMed

The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future. PMID:21707313

Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

2011-06-01

165

Genomics of Pathogenic Vibrio Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Members of the heterotrophic bacterial family Vibrionaceae are native inhabitants of aquatic environments worldwide, constituting a diverse and abundant component of marine microbial organisms. Over 60 species of the genus Vibrio have been identified (Thompson et al., 2004) and their phenotypic heterogeneity is well documented. The ecology of the genus remains less well understood, however, despite reports that vibrios are the dominant microorganisms inhabiting the superficial water layer and colonizing the chitinous exoskeleton of zooplankton (e.g., copepods, Thompson et al., 2004). Although some species were originally isolated from seawater as free living organisms, most were isolated in association with marine life such as bivalves, fish, eels, or shrimp.

Dziejman, Michelle; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

166

[Taxonomic characteristics and physiological properties of microorganisms from the gut of pike (Esox lucius)].  

PubMed

The taxonomic composition and distribution of microorganisms differing in the degree of association with the intestinal mucosa of the pike (Lucius lucius) has been studied. Microorgansism of the families Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae dominate in the gut microflora. Numerically prevailing bacterial species are characterized by high proteolytic and amylolytic enzyme activities as well as by high persistence accounted for by antilysozyme and antihistone activities. The results of this study show that Hafnia alvei, Yersinia ruckeri, Vibrio vulnificus, V. furnissii, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Shewanella putrefaciens may be regarded as normal components of the pike gut microflora. PMID:19198074

Izveskova, G I; Nemtseva, N V; Plotnikov, A O

2008-01-01

167

The bacterial 'mitochondrium'.  

PubMed

Organelles are membrane-enclosed compartments that serve a dedicated physiological purpose. While eukaryotic organelles are common textbook knowledge, bacteria were long thought to lack such subcellular organization. However, Planctomycetes were proposed to comprise a compartmentalized cell plan, including membrane-enclosed organelles such as the paryphoplasm, the pirellulosome, a nucleus-like membrane system and the anammoxosome. The latter is the hallmark of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, which gain energy by coupling the oxidation of ammonium to the reduction of nitrite. Since calculations indicate that 50% of nitrogen gas in the earth atmosphere results from anammox activity, this process is key for the global nitrogen cycle. Despite strong evidence for a confined compartment housing this reaction, the concept of planctomycetal compartmentalization in general is currently under debate and the presence of organelles in these bacteria was questioned. However, Neumann et?al. (2014) report the isolation of physiological functional anammoxosomes from 'Candidatus?Kuenenia stuttgartiensis'. Subsequent proteomic and microscopic analysis revealed a confined organelle, paralleling eukaryotic mitochondria. This advance is of major importance for the understanding of bacterial compartmentalization in general and of the Planctomycetes in particular. Furthermore, the work of Neumann et?al. leads to a better understanding of the anammox process. PMID:25287615

Jogler, Christian

2014-11-01

168

Bacterial phospholipases C.  

PubMed Central

A variety of pathogenic bacteria produce phospholipases C, and since the discovery in 1944 that a bacterial toxin (Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin) possessed an enzymatic activity, there has been considerable interest in this class of proteins. Initial speculation that all phospholipases C would have lethal properties has not been substantiated. Most of the characterized enzymes fall into one of four groups of structurally related proteins: the zinc-metallophospholipases C, the sphingomyelinases, the phosphatidylinositol-hydrolyzing enzymes, and the pseudomonad phospholipases C. The zinc-metallophospholipases C have been most intensively studied, and lethal toxins within this group possess an additional domain. The toxic phospholipases C can interact with eukaryotic cell membranes and hydrolyze phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, leading to cell lysis. However, measurement of the cytolytic potential or lethality of phospholipases C may not accurately indicate their roles in the pathogenesis of disease. Subcytolytic concentrations of phospholipase C can perturb host cells by activating the arachidonic acid cascade or protein kinase C. Nonlethal phospholipases C, such as the Listeria monocytogenes PLC-A, appear to enhance the release of the organism from the host cell phagosome. Since some phospholipases C play important roles in the pathogenesis of disease, they could form components of vaccines. A greater understanding of the modes of action and structure-function relationships of phospholipases C will facilitate the interpretation of studies in which these enzymes are used as membrane probes and will enhance the use of these proteins as models for eukaryotic phospholipases C. PMID:8336671

Titball, R W

1993-01-01

169

The rare bacterial biosphere.  

PubMed

All communities are dominated by a few species that account for most of the biomass and carbon cycling. On the other hand, a large number of species are represented by only a few individuals. In the case of bacteria, these rare species were until recently invisible. Owing to their low numbers, conventional molecular techniques could not retrieve them. Isolation in pure culture was the only way to identify some of them, but current culturing techniques are unable to isolate most of the bacteria in nature. The recent development of fast and cheap high-throughput sequencing has begun to allow access to the rare species. In the case of bacteria, the exploration of this rare biosphere has several points of interest. First, it will eventually produce a reasonable estimate of the total number of bacterial taxa in the oceans; right now, we do not even know the right order of magnitude. Second, it will answer the question of whether "everything is everywhere." Third, it will require hypothesizing and testing the ecological mechanisms that allow subsistence of many species in low numbers. And fourth, it will open an avenue of research into the immense reserve of genes with potential applications hidden in the rare biosphere. PMID:22457983

Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

2012-01-01

170

Bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis.  

PubMed

Bacterial endocarditis (BE) is a disease resulting from the association of morphological alterations of the heart and bacteraemia originating from different sources that at times can be indiscernible (infectious endocarditis). It is classified on the basis of the morphological alteration involved, depending on the clinical manifestations and course of illness, which varies according to the causative microorganism and host conditions (for example, it is characteristic in I.V. drug users). The most common microorganisms involved are: Streptococcus viridans (55%), Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Enterococcus (6%) and HACEK bacteria (corresponding to the initials: Haemophilus, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella), although on occasions it can also be caused by fungi. The oral microbiological flora plays a very important role in the aetiopathogenesis of BE, given that the condition may be of oral or dental origin. This paper will deal with the prevention of said bacteraemia. Prophylaxis will be undertaken using amoxicillin or clindamycin according to action protocols, with special emphasis placed on oral hygiene in patients with structural defects of the heart. PMID:15580136

Blanco-Carrión, Andrés

2004-01-01

171

New Functions for the Ancient DedA Membrane Protein Family  

PubMed Central

The DedA protein family is a highly conserved and ancient family of membrane proteins with representatives in most sequenced genomes, including those of bacteria, archaea, and eukarya. The functions of the DedA family proteins remain obscure. However, recent genetic approaches have revealed important roles for certain bacterial DedA family members in membrane homeostasis. Bacterial DedA family mutants display such intriguing phenotypes as cell division defects, temperature sensitivity, altered membrane lipid composition, elevated envelope-related stress responses, and loss of proton motive force. The DedA family is also essential in at least two species of bacteria: Borrelia burgdorferi and Escherichia coli. Here, we describe the phylogenetic distribution of the family and summarize recent progress toward understanding the functions of the DedA membrane protein family. PMID:23086209

Sikdar, Rakesh; Kumar, Sujeet; Boughner, Lisa A.

2013-01-01

172

Doug Berndt Evaluated Bacterial Assay  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS microbiology technician evaluates a bacterial assay to determine the cause of a wildlife mortality. The USGS National Wildlife Health Center works to identify, track, and prevent wildlife disease....

173

New Bacterial Meningitis Vaccine Approved  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. New Bacterial Meningitis Vaccine Approved Bexsero prevents deadly infection of spinal ... Monday, January 26, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Immunization Meningitis MONDAY, Jan. 26, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The Bexsero ...

174

Bioinformatic Comparison of Bacterial Secretomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid increasing number of completed bacterial genomes provides a good op- portunity to compare their proteomes. This study was undertaken to specif ically compare and contrast their secretomes—the fraction of the proteome with pre- dicted N-terminal signal sequences, both type I and type II. A total of 176 theoreti- cal bacterial proteomes were examined using the ExProt program. Compared

Catharine Song; Aseem Kumar; Mazen Saleh

2009-01-01

175

Bacterial Endophthalmitis Following Cataract Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cataracts are the most common cause of blindness in the world and cataract surgery is one of the most common surgical procedures\\u000a performed. During surgery the opacified crystalline lens is removed and replaced with a lens implant. Bacterial infection\\u000a of the internal eye (bacterial endophthalmitis) following cataract surgery appears to have increased since the 1990s. The\\u000a infection is the result

M. E. Zegans; C. M. Toutain-Kidd; M. S. Gilmore

176

Influence of topology on bacterial social interaction  

E-print Network

Diffusion. J ­ current of bacteria, ­ bacterial density, c ­ attractant concentration, a ­ growth rate, Db of bacteria, ­ bacterial density, c ­ attractant concentration, a ­ growth rate, Db ­ bacterial diffusionInfluence of topology on bacterial social interaction Emil Yuzbashyan Princeton University #12

Yuzbashyan, Emil

177

Reclaiming Family Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pull for family is strong, almost primeval, most likely it is evolutionary, and for those lacking the benefit of family or Family Privilege, the loss of family is painful and profoundly sad. Young people who struggle to cope without stable family connections are profoundly aware of their lack of "Family Privilege." In this article, the author…

Seita, John

2012-01-01

178

Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis.  

PubMed Central

This 10 year retrospective study of all causes of bacterial meningitis for children resident in Nottingham District Health Authority area reports an annual incidence rate per 100,000 children aged 0-16 years of 16.0 (95% confidence interval 14.0 to 18.1). There was a steady increase in incidence from 9.6/100,000 in 1980 to 24.3/100,000 in 1989. This was mainly due to an increase in the incidence of meningococcal infections in the age group 1 month to 5 years. Incidence rates varied with age being: 37.2/100,000 (25.9 to 53.5) for 0-28 days of age, 115.5/100,000 (93.9 to 141.9) for 1-11 months of age, 28.5/100,000 (23.1 to 35.3) for 12-59 months of age, and 2.8/100,000 (1.9 to 4.1) for 5-16 years of age. Overall annual mortality incidence per 100,000 was 1.8 (1.2 to 2.8). For the different age groups this was: 10.1 (4.8 to 21.1) for 0-28 days, 11.5 (6.0 to 22.2) for 1-11 months, 1.0 (0.3 to 3.1) for 12-59 months, and 0.4 (0.1 to 1.2) for 5-16 years of age. There were interactions between the type of meningitis and the year of the infection on the mortality rate. Mortality decreased in those with infections caused by bacteria other than Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. PMID:8333768

Fortnum, H M; Davis, A C

1993-01-01

179

Diversity of Bacterial Communities of Fitness Center Surfaces in a U.S. Metropolitan Area  

PubMed Central

Public fitness centers and exercise facilities have been implicated as possible sources for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial community residing on the surfaces in these indoor environments is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the overall bacterial ecology of selected fitness centers in a metropolitan area (Memphis, TN, USA) utilizing culture-independent pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were collected from the skin-contact surfaces (e.g., exercise instruments, floor mats, handrails, etc.) within fitness centers. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Firmicutes phyla, followed by Proteobacter and Actinobacteria, with a total of 17 bacterial families and 25 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human and environmental origin (including, air, dust, soil, and water). Additionally, we found the presence of some pathogenic or potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella, and Micrococcus. Staphylococcus was found to be the most prevalent genus. Presence of viable forms of these pathogens elevates risk of exposure of any susceptible individuals. Several factors (including personal hygiene, surface cleaning and disinfection schedules of the facilities) may be the reasons for the rich bacterial diversity found in this study. The current finding underscores the need to increase public awareness on the importance of personal hygiene and sanitation for public gym users. PMID:25479039

Mukherjee, Nabanita; Dowd, Scot E.; Wise, Andy; Kedia, Sapna; Vohra, Varun; Banerjee, Pratik

2014-01-01

180

NLRP3 Inflammasome and Host Protection against Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

The inflammasome is a multi-protein complex that induces maturation of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18 through activation of caspase-1. Several nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family members, including NLRP3, recognize unique microbial and danger components and play a central role in inflammasome activation. The NLRP3 inflammasome is critical for maintenance of homeostasis against pathogenic infections. However, inflammasome activation acts as a double-edged sword for various bacterial infections. When the IL-1 family of cytokines is secreted excessively, they cause tissue damage and extensive inflammatory responses that are potentially hazardous for the host. Emerging evidence has shown that diverse bacterial pathogens or their components negatively regulate inflammasome activation to escape the immune response. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the roles and regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome during bacterial infections. Activation and regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome should be tightly controlled to prevent virulence and pathology during infections. Understanding the roles and regulatory mechanisms of the NLRP3 inflammasome is essential for developing potential treatment approaches against pathogenic infections. PMID:24133343

Kim, Jwa-Jin

2013-01-01

181

Properties and applications of undecylprodigiosin and other bacterial prodigiosins.  

PubMed

The growing demand to fulfill the needs of present-day medicine in terms of novel effective molecules has lead to reexamining some of the old and known bacterial secondary metabolites. Bacterial prodigiosins (prodiginines) have a long history of being re markable multipurpose compounds, best examined for their anticancer and antimalarial activities. Production of prodigiosin in the most common producer strain Serratia marcescens has been described in great detail. However, few reports have discussed the ecophysiological roles of these molecules in the producing strains, as well as their antibiotic and UV-protective properties. This review describes recent advances in the production process, biosynthesis, properties, and applications of bacterial prodigiosins. Special emphasis is put on undecylprodigiosin which has generally been a less studied member of the prodigiosin family. In addition, it has been suggested that proteins involved in undecylprodigiosin synthesis, RedG and RedH, could be a useful addition to the biocatalytic toolbox being able to mediate regio- and stereoselective oxidative cyclization. Judging by the number of recent references (216 for the 2007-2013 period), it has become clear that undecylprodigiosin and other bacterial prodigiosins still hold surprises in terms of valuable properties and applicative potential to medical and other industrial fields and that they still deserve continuing research curiosity. PMID:24562326

Stankovic, Nada; Senerovic, Lidija; Ilic-Tomic, Tatjana; Vasiljevic, Branka; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

2014-05-01

182

Bacterially mediated mineralization of vaterite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Myxococcus xanthus, a common soil bacterium, plays an active role in the formation of spheroidal vaterite. Bacterial production of CO 2 and NH 3 and the transformation of the NH 3 to NH4+ and OH -, thus increasing solution pH and carbonate alkalinity, set the physicochemical conditions (high supersaturation) leading to vaterite precipitation in the microenvironment around cells, and directly onto the surface of bacterial cells. In the latter case, fossilization of bacteria occurs. Vaterite crystals formed by aggregation of oriented nanocrystals with c-axis normal to the bacterial cell-wall, or to the core of the spherulite when bacteria were not encapsulated. While preferred orientation of vaterite c-axis appears to be determined by electrostatic affinity (ionotropic effect) between vaterite crystal (0001) planes and the negatively charged functional groups of organic molecules on the bacterium cell-wall or on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), analysis of the changes in the culture medium chemistry as well as high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations point to polymorph selection by physicochemical (kinetic) factors (high supersaturation) and stabilization by organics, both connected with bacterial activity. The latter is in agreement with inorganic precipitation of vaterite induced by NH 3 and CO 2 addition in the protein-rich sterile culture medium. Our results as well as recent studies on vaterite precipitation in the presence of different types of bacteria suggest that bacterially mediated vaterite precipitation is not strain-specific, and could be more common than previously thought.

Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Jimenez-Lopez, Concepcion; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Gonzalez-Muñoz, Maria Teresa; Rodriguez-Gallego, Manuel

2007-03-01

183

Bacterial responses to ultraviolet irradiation.  

PubMed

The UV dose-response behavior of laboratory cultures of waterborne bacteria were examined for UV doses ranging from ca. 0-100 mW.s/cm2 using a collimated-beam reactor. Specific physiological responses measured in these tests included viability (ability to reproduce) and respiration (oxygen uptake rate). The results of these exposures indicated that resistance to UV-imposed loss of viability in E. coli cultures can be partially attributed to agglomeration during the irradiation process. From these results, it is conjectured that a bacterial population may be comprised of two sub-populations: one with low resistance (discrete or paired cells) and a second with high resistance (bacterial aggregates). A small fraction of the high-resistance portion of the population appears to be essentially unaffected by UV irradiation, thereby causing a discontinuity in the measured dose-response behavior. Moreover, the dose-response behavior of the highly resistant fraction is variable and difficult to describe quantitatively. The basis of these statements and most information in the literature is microbial viability as quantified by the membrane filtration assay. In contrast to these findings, the results of analyses for bacterial activity (respiration) suggest that comparatively little change in the population can be found to result from UV irradiation. This suggests that UV radiation accomplishes inactivation of the bacteria, but does not "kill" the bacterial cells per se, thereby highlighting the importance of considering bacterial repair processes in the design of UV disinfection systems. PMID:11436779

Blatchley, E R; Dumoutier, N; Halaby, T N; Levi, Y; Laîné, J M

2001-01-01

184

Pathogenicity Islands in Bacterial Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

In this review, we focus on a group of mobile genetic elements designated pathogenicity islands (PAI). These elements play a pivotal role in the virulence of bacterial pathogens of humans and are also essential for virulence in pathogens of animals and plants. Characteristic molecular features of PAI of important human pathogens and their role in pathogenesis are described. The availability of a large number of genome sequences of pathogenic bacteria and their benign relatives currently offers a unique opportunity for the identification of novel pathogen-specific genomic islands. However, this knowledge has to be complemented by improved model systems for the analysis of virulence functions of bacterial pathogens. PAI apparently have been acquired during the speciation of pathogens from their nonpathogenic or environmental ancestors. The acquisition of PAI not only is an ancient evolutionary event that led to the appearance of bacterial pathogens on a timescale of millions of years but also may represent a mechanism that contributes to the appearance of new pathogens within a human life span. The acquisition of knowledge about PAI, their structure, their mobility, and the pathogenicity factors they encode not only is helpful in gaining a better understanding of bacterial evolution and interactions of pathogens with eukaryotic host cells but also may have important practical implications such as providing delivery systems for vaccination, tools for cell biology, and tools for the development of new strategies for therapy of bacterial infections. PMID:14726454

Schmidt, Herbert; Hensel, Michael

2004-01-01

185

Taxonomy of bacterial fish pathogens  

PubMed Central

Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data) to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics). The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial groups, i.e. "Candidatus", which have been associated as the cause of some fish diseases, including rainbow trout summer enteritic syndrome. One immediate benefit is that 16S rRNA gene sequencing has led to increased confidence in the accuracy of names allocated to bacterial pathogens. This is in marked contrast to the previous dominance of phenotyping, and identifications, which have been subsequently challenged in the light of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To date, there has been some fluidity over the names of bacterial fish pathogens, with some, for example Vibrio anguillarum, being divided into two separate entities (V. anguillarum and V. ordalii). Others have been combined, for example V. carchariae, V. harveyi and V. trachuri as V. harveyi. Confusion may result with some organisms recognized by more than one name; V. anguillarum was reclassified as Beneckea and Listonella, with Vibrio and Listonella persisting in the scientific literature. Notwithstanding, modern methods have permitted real progress in the understanding of the taxonomic relationships of many bacterial fish pathogens. PMID:21314902

2011-01-01

186

Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds  

PubMed Central

Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms. PMID:19440284

Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Qing X.

2009-01-01

187

Electrical spiking in bacterial biofilms.  

PubMed

In nature, biofilms are the most common form of bacterial growth. In biofilms, bacteria display coordinated behaviour to perform specific functions. Here, we investigated electrical signalling as a possible driver in biofilm sociobiology. Using a multi-electrode array system that enables high spatio-temporal resolution, we studied the electrical activity in two biofilm-forming strains and one non-biofilm-forming strain. The action potential rates monitored during biofilm-forming bacterial growth exhibited a one-peak maximum with a long tail, corresponding to the highest biofilm development. This peak was not observed for the non-biofilm-forming strain, demonstrating that the intensity of the electrical activity was not linearly related to the bacterial density, but was instead correlated with biofilm formation. Results obtained indicate that the analysis of the spatio-temporal electrical activity of bacteria during biofilm formation can open a new frontier in the study of the emergence of collective microbial behaviour. PMID:25392401

Masi, Elisa; Ciszak, Marzena; Santopolo, Luisa; Frascella, Arcangela; Giovannetti, Luciana; Marchi, Emmanuela; Viti, Carlo; Mancuso, Stefano

2015-01-01

188

Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

1989-02-01

189

The roles of bacterial GCN5-related N-acetyltransferases.  

PubMed

The GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily of proteins, widespread in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, can utilize acyl coenzyme A (acyl CoA) to acylate respective acceptor substrates and release both CoA and the acylated products. GNATs have been shown to be involved in multiple physiological events, including bacterial drug resistance, regulation of transcription, stress reaction, and metabolic flux, etc. In the last few years, the importance of GNATs has only emerged in eukaryotes, but bacterial GNATs, particularly those of pathogens, have only recently been explored. In this review, we summarize the main members, structures, inhibitors, and activators of proteins in the GNAT family. We focus on the roles of GNATs in bacteria, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis GNATs. PMID:24579671

Xie, Longxiang; Zeng, Jie; Luo, Hongping; Pan, Weihua; Xie, Jianping

2014-01-01

190

Family and family therapy in Russia.  

PubMed

This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized. PMID:22515460

Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

2012-04-01

191

Bacterial thermotaxis by speed modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important factors that affects bacterial migration and is sensitive to thermal changes is the bacterial swimming speed controlled by the rotation of the flagellar motors. In the natural habitats of bacteria, gradients often extend over relatively long distances such that their steepness is too small for bacteria to detect. We studied the bacterial behavior in such thermal gradients and found that they migrate along shallow thermal gradients due to a change in their swimming speed resulting from the effect of temperature on the intracellular pH. When nutrients are scarce the bacteria's intracellular pH and consequently the swimming speed decreases with increasing temperature, which causes them to drift towards the warm end of the gradient. However, when serine is added to the medium at concentrations >300microM, the intracellular pH increases causing the swimming speed to increase continuously with increasing temperature, and the bacteria to drift towards the cold end of the gradient. This directional migration is not a result of bacterial thermotaxis in the classical sense, because the steepness of the gradients is below the sensing threshold of bacteria. Nevertheless, our results show that the directional switch requires the presence of the bacterial sensing receptors which seem to be involved in regulating the intracellular pH. Additionally, it is also important to understand how thermal fluctuations and rate of thermal changes experienced by bacteria during their excursion in natural environments affect their run speed. To this end we have studied the dynamics of the bacterial flagellar motor's speed in response to thermal fluctuations by tethering bacteria to a glass surface through their flagella. Our results show that under heavy load the response of the motor to fast linear thermal changes is instantaneous. However, when subjected to thermal fluctuations with varying frequency, they exhibit a resonant response to specific frequencies reflecting the complex internal dynamics of the motor.

Demir, Mahmut

192

The Changing Family Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter issue contains feature articles and short reports on how and why family structures are undergoing substantial change in many parts of the world. These articles include: (1) "The Changing Family Structure," a review of how families are changing and why; (2) "Peru: Families in the Andes"; (3) "Thailand: Families of the Garbage Dump";…

Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1993

1993-01-01

193

Families with Gifted Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies of families with gifted adolescents have revealed conflicting results. Adolescents, mothers, and fathers of 84 families with a gifted adolescent and of 95 families with a non-gifted adolescent evaluated their family system independently. Dependent variables were cohesion, democratic family style (adaptability), organisation, achievement…

Schilling, Susanne R.; Sparfeldt, Jorn; Rost, Detlef H.

2006-01-01

194

Molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial persisters.  

PubMed

All bacteria form persisters, cells that are multidrug tolerant and therefore able to survive antibiotic treatment. Due to the low frequencies of persisters in growing bacterial cultures and the complex underlying molecular mechanisms, the phenomenon has been challenging to study. However, recent technological advances in microfluidics and reporter genes have improved this scenario. Here, we summarize recent progress in the field, revealing the ubiquitous bacterial stress alarmone ppGpp as an emerging central regulator of multidrug tolerance and persistence, both in stochastically and environmentally induced persistence. In several different organisms, toxin-antitoxin modules function as effectors of ppGpp-induced persistence. PMID:24766804

Maisonneuve, Etienne; Gerdes, Kenn

2014-04-24

195

A Cross-Taxon Analysis of Insect-Associated Bacterial Diversity  

PubMed Central

Although it is well known that plants and animals harbor microbial symbionts that can influence host traits, the factors regulating the structure of these microbial communities often remain largely undetermined. This is particularly true for insect-associated microbial communities, as few cross-taxon comparisons have been conducted to date. To address this knowledge gap and determine how host phylogeny and ecology affect insect-associated microbial communities, we collected 137 insect specimens representing 39 species, 28 families, and 8 orders, and characterized the bacterial communities associated with each specimen via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant in nearly all insects sampled. On average, the insect-associated bacterial communities were not very diverse, with individuals typically harboring fewer than 8 bacterial phylotypes. Bacterial communities also tended to be dominated by a single phylotype; on average, the most abundant phylotype represented 54.7% of community membership. Bacterial communities were significantly more similar among closely related insects than among less-related insects, a pattern driven by within-species community similarity but detected at every level of insect taxonomy tested. Diet was a poor predictor of bacterial community composition. Individual insect species harbored remarkably unique communities: the distribution of 69.0% of bacterial phylotypes was limited to unique insect species, whereas only 5.7% of phylotypes were detected in more than five insect species. Together these results suggest that host characteristics strongly regulate the colonization and assembly of bacterial communities across insect lineages, patterns that are driven either by co-evolution between insects and their symbionts or by closely related insects sharing conserved traits that directly select for similar bacterial communities. PMID:23613815

Jones, Ryan Thomas; Sanchez, Leticia Gonzales; Fierer, Noah

2013-01-01

196

A polyketide synthase-peptide synthetase gene cluster from an uncultured bacterial symbiont of Paederus beetles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many drug candidates from marine and terrestrial invertebrates are suspected metabolites of uncultured bacterial symbionts. The antitumor polyketides of the pederin family, isolated from beetles and sponges, are an example. Drug development from such sources is commonly hampered by low yields and the difficulty of sustaining invertebrate cultures. To obtain insight into the true producer and find alternative supplies of

Jörn Piel

2002-01-01

197

Mapping of QTL for bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant economic loss in salmonid aquaculture. We previously detected genetic variation in survival following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp), the causative agent of BCWD in rainbow trout, and a family-based selection program to improv...

198

Bacterial Abundance Measure bacterial numbers and mass per unit volume.  

E-print Network

that contains medium for the culturing of fecal coliform bacteria (contains eosin-methylene blue dye) · Incubate ml-1 B U G CO2 B Time Conc. R #12;How is bacterial concentration measured? Laboratory cultures to directly count bacteria. Problem: Bacteria in natural environments are very small and difficult to see

Vallino, Joseph J.

199

Family Resiliency: A Neglected Family Construct.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines research on the construct of resiliency and examines factors that promote resiliency in individuals and families. Implications for family counselors, societal systems, and future research are discussed. (Author/MKA)

Buckley, Matthew R.; Thorngren, Jill M.; Kleist, David M.

1997-01-01

200

Family Capital: Implications for Interventions with Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social capital has been extensively discussed in the literature as building blocks that individuals and communities utilize to leverage system resources. Similarly, some families also create capital, which can enable members of the family, such as children, to successfully negotiate the outside world. Families in poverty confront serious…

Belcher, John R.; Peckuonis, Edward V.; Deforge, Bruce R.

2011-01-01

201

The protective role of endogenous bacterial communities in chironomid egg masses and larvae.  

PubMed

Insects of the family Chironomidae, also known as chironomids, are distributed worldwide in a variety of water habitats. These insects display a wide range of tolerance toward metals and organic pollutions. Bacterial species known for their ability to degrade toxicants were identified from chironomid egg masses, leading to the hypothesis that bacteria may contribute to the survival of chironomids in polluted environments. To gain a better understanding of the bacterial communities that inhabit chironomids, the endogenous bacteria of egg masses and larvae were studied by 454-pyrosequencing. The microbial community of the egg masses was distinct from that of the larval stage, most likely due to the presence of one dominant bacterial Firmicutes taxon, which consisted of 28% of the total sequence reads from the larvae. This taxon may be an insect symbiont. The bacterial communities of both the egg masses and the larvae were found to include operational taxonomic units, which were closely related to species known as toxicant degraders. Furthermore, various bacterial species with the ability to detoxify metals were isolated from egg masses and larvae. Koch-like postulates were applied to demonstrate that chironomid endogenous bacterial species protect the insect from toxic heavy metals. We conclude that chironomids, which are considered pollution tolerant, are inhabited by stable endogenous bacterial communities that have a role in protecting their hosts from toxicants. This phenomenon, in which bacteria enable the continued existence of their host in hostile environments, may not be restricted only to chironomids. PMID:23804150

Senderovich, Yigal; Halpern, Malka

2013-11-01

202

The protective role of endogenous bacterial communities in chironomid egg masses and larvae  

PubMed Central

Insects of the family Chironomidae, also known as chironomids, are distributed worldwide in a variety of water habitats. These insects display a wide range of tolerance toward metals and organic pollutions. Bacterial species known for their ability to degrade toxicants were identified from chironomid egg masses, leading to the hypothesis that bacteria may contribute to the survival of chironomids in polluted environments. To gain a better understanding of the bacterial communities that inhabit chironomids, the endogenous bacteria of egg masses and larvae were studied by 454-pyrosequencing. The microbial community of the egg masses was distinct from that of the larval stage, most likely due to the presence of one dominant bacterial Firmicutes taxon, which consisted of 28% of the total sequence reads from the larvae. This taxon may be an insect symbiont. The bacterial communities of both the egg masses and the larvae were found to include operational taxonomic units, which were closely related to species known as toxicant degraders. Furthermore, various bacterial species with the ability to detoxify metals were isolated from egg masses and larvae. Koch-like postulates were applied to demonstrate that chironomid endogenous bacterial species protect the insect from toxic heavy metals. We conclude that chironomids, which are considered pollution tolerant, are inhabited by stable endogenous bacterial communities that have a role in protecting their hosts from toxicants. This phenomenon, in which bacteria enable the continued existence of their host in hostile environments, may not be restricted only to chironomids. PMID:23804150

Senderovich, Yigal; Halpern, Malka

2013-01-01

203

Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia  

MedlinePLUS

Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is a metabolic disorder that is passed down through families. Babies with this disorder ... Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is an inherited disorder. It occurs when the body does not properly break down ( ...

204

Managing a Family Budget  

E-print Network

- ry. Producers may rarely go back and compare their actual family living expenses against their budgeted amounts. Dean A. McCorkle, Steven L. Klose and Danny Klinefelter* Why Develop a Family Living Budget Budgeting for family expenditures...

McCorkle, Dean; Klinefelter, Danny A.

2008-09-16

205

Two novel families of antimicrobial peptides from skin secretions of the Chinese torrent frog, Amolops jingdongensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization of new natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can help to solve the serious problem of bacterial resistance to currently used antibiotics. In the current study, we analyzed two families of AMPs from the Chinese torrent frog Amolops jingdongensis with a range of bioactivities. The first family of peptides, named jindongenin-1a, is 24 amino acids in length; a BLAST search

Zhongming Chen; Xinwang Yang; Zichao Liu; Lin Zeng; Wenhui Lee; Yun Zhang

206

SIMPLAS: A Simulation of Bacterial Plasmid Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a computer simulation of bacterial physiology during growth in a chemostat. The program was designed to help students to appreciate and understand the related effects of parameters which influence plasmid persistence in bacterial populations. (CW)

Dunn, A.; And Others

1988-01-01

207

Cell cycle: The bacterial approach to coordination  

E-print Network

Despite the power of bacterial genetics, the prokaryotic cell cycle has remained poorly understood. But recent work with three different bacterial species has shed light on how chromosomes and plasmids are oriented and ...

Levin, Petra Anne

208

Bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics.  

PubMed

The aminoglycoside antibiotics are broad-spectrum antibacterial compounds that are used extensively for the treatment of many bacterial infections. In view of the current concerns over the global rise in antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, there has been renewed interest in the mechanisms of resistance to the aminoglycosides, including the superfamily of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. PMID:9211644

Davies, J; Wright, G D

1997-06-01

209

Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith  

E-print Network

. There are 105 cells in a milliliter of seawater, or on a square centimeter of our skin. There are ten times as many bacterial cells on our skin and in our large intestine as cells in our own body. We are nothing case, the shape of the graph of N(t) versus t has the classic "S" shape. However, the logistic equation

Smith, Hal

210

Proteomics of foodborne bacterial pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter focuses on recent research on foodborne bacterial pathogens that use mass spectrometry-based proteomic techniques as well as protein microarrays. Mass spectrometry ionization techniques (e.g. electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization), analyzers (e.g. ion ...

211

Mutation discovery in bacterial genomes  

E-print Network

of finding new point mutations. Classical Escherichia coli­style strategies involving bacterial crosses, a gastric pathogen implicated in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer4,5. H. pylori infections are often treated with combination therapies that include metronida- zole, a prodrug that is converted to mutagenic

Cai, Long

212

Bacterial kidney disease (Renibacterium salmoninarum)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial kidney disease (BKD), caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, is a prevalent disease of salmonid fish that impacts sustainable production for consumption and species conservation efforts. The disease is chronic in nature and mortality most often occurs in juvenile salmonids and prespawning a...

213

Disease notes - Bacterial root rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial root rot initiated by lactic acid bacteria, particularly Leuconostoc, occurs every year in Idaho sugarbeet fields. Hot fall weather seems to make the problem worse. Although Leuconostoc initiates the rot, other bacteria and yeast frequently invade the tissue as well. The acetic acid bac...

214

Bacterial toxins and Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary pathogenetic mechanism responsible for the distinctive demyelinating lesions in the Central Nervous System (CNS) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), first described in remarkable detail by Charcot more than 170 years ago, remains one of the most baffling conundrums in medicine. A possible role for bacterial cell molecules and transportable proteins in the pathogenesis of MS is reviewed. The ability

Frederick Gay

2007-01-01

215

Bacterial infection and atopic eczema  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and ninety children with atopic eczema were studied prospectively for two and a half years. The mean period of observation was 13 months. Seventy six children (40%) had between them 164 episodes of exacerbation of eczema due to bacterial infection, and in 52 (32%) infection recurred within three months of a previous infection. Twenty five episodes (15%) led

T J David; G C Cambridge

1986-01-01

216

BACTERIAL INHIBITORS IN LAKE WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The populations of six bacterial genera fell rapidly after their addition to sterile lake water but not after their addition to buffer. The decline in numbers of two species that were studied further, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Micrococcus flavus, occurred even when the buffer was...

217

Bacterial diversity in three distinct sub-habitats within the pitchers of the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea.  

PubMed

Pitcher plants have been widely used in ecological studies of food webs; however, their bacterial communities are poorly characterized. Pitchers of Sarracenia purpurea contain several distinct sub-habitats, namely the bottom sediment, the liquid, and the internal pitcher wall. We hypothesized that those three sub-habitats within pitcher plants are inhabited by distinct bacterial populations. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize bacterial populations in pitchers from three bogs. DGGE and sequencing revealed that in any given pitcher, the three sub-habitats contain significantly different bacterial populations. However, there was significant variability between bacterial populations inhabiting the same type of habitat in different pitchers, even at the same site. Therefore, no consistent set of bacterial populations was enriched in any of the three sub-habitats. All sub-habitats appeared to be dominated by alpha- and betaproteobacteria in differing proportions. In addition, sequences from the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were obtained from all three sub-habitats. We conclude that container aquatic habitats such as the pitchers of S. purpurea possess a very high bacterial diversity, with many unique bacterial populations enriched in individual pitchers. Within an individual pitcher, populations of certain bacterial families may be enriched in one of the three studied sub-habitats. PMID:22092381

Krieger, Joseph R; Kourtev, Peter S

2012-03-01

218

Bacterial proteases: targets for diagnostics and therapy.  

PubMed

Proteases are essential for the proliferation and growth of bacteria, and are also known to contribute to bacterial virulence. This makes them interesting candidates as diagnostic and therapeutic targets for infectious diseases. In this review, the authors discuss the most recent developments and potential applications for bacterial proteases in the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial infections. Current and future bacterial protease targets are described and their limitations outlined. PMID:24535571

Kaman, W E; Hays, J P; Endtz, H P; Bikker, F J

2014-07-01

219

Bacterial Production Lab State variables and processes  

E-print Network

: Bacterial Growth Rate (gC h-1) Why do we want to measure processes? Objective: Measure bacterial growth rateBacterial Production Lab State variables and processes BDOM Other compounds (e.g., EtOH) CO2 G. Process #12;Growth Equations dt tt txtx 0 20 )()( td Where: td Doubling time of population. x(t) Number

Vallino, Joseph J.

220

Bacterial Production Lab State variables and processes  

E-print Network

B: Bacterial Growth Rate (gC h-1) Why do we want to measure processes? Objective: Measure bacterial growth rateBacterial Production Lab State variables and processes BDOM Other compounds (e.g., EtOH) CO2 r Var. Process #12;Growth Equation td Where: td Doubling time of population. x(t) Number or mass

Vallino, Joseph J.

221

Leading Edge Bacterial Genomics and Pathogen Evolution  

E-print Network

utilized to identify genes that are es- sential for bacterial growth or pathogenesis. There are two generalLeading Edge Review Bacterial Genomics and Pathogen Evolution David M. Raskin,1 Rekha Seshadri,2.02.002 The availability of hundreds of bacterial genome sequences has altered the study of bacte- rial pathogenesis

Mekalanos, John

222

Bacterial Production Lab State variables and processes  

E-print Network

: Bacterial Growth Rate (gC h-1) Why do we want to measure processes? Objective: Measure bacterial growth rateBacterial Production Lab State variables and processes BDOM Other compounds (e.g., EtOH) CO2 G. Process #12;Growth Equations dt tt txtx 0 20 - = )()( td Where: td Doubling time of population. x

Vallino, Joseph J.

223

BACTERIAL GROWTH EFFICIENCY IN NATURAL AQUATIC SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterotrophic bacteria perform two major functions in the transformation of or- ganic matter: They produce new bacterial biomass (bacterial secondary produc- tion (BP)), and they respire organic C to inorganic C (bacterial respiration (BR)). For planktonic bacteria, a great deal has been learned about BP and its regulation during the past several decades but far less has been learned about

Paul A. del Giorgio; Jonathan J. Cole

1998-01-01

224

Bacterial Growth on Allochthonous Carbon in Humic  

E-print Network

Bacterial Growth on Allochthonous Carbon in Humic and Nutrient-enriched Lakes: Results from Whole biomass con- sisted of 43­46% allochthonous C. In Tuesday Lake more than 75% of bacterial growth the relative importance of autochtho- nous and allochthonous C in supporting bacterial production. For 35 days

Pace, Michael L.

225

MINIREVIEWS Bacterial Signaling Ecology and Potential Applications  

E-print Network

of bacterial growth as shown in the fossil record. Consequently, many aquatic or- ganisms have evolvedMINIREVIEWS Bacterial Signaling Ecology and Potential Applications During Aquatic Biofilm], Marshall [8], White [9], and their colleagues conducted a number of pivotal studies on bacterial adhesion

Alvarez, Pedro J.

226

Bacterial flora of fishes: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial floras isolated from eggs, skin, gills, and intestines have been described for a limited number of fish species. Generally, the range of bacterial genera isolated is related to the aquatic habitat of the fish and varies with factors such as the salinity of the habitat and the bacterial load in the water. In many investigations, identification of isolates to

Marian M. Cahill

1990-01-01

227

Mast Cells in Bacterial Infections Elin Rnnberg  

E-print Network

Mast Cells in Bacterial Infections Elin Rönnberg Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science-91-576-8010-5 © 2014 Elin Rönnberg, Uppsala Print: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2014 #12;Mast Cells in Bacterial Infections Abstract Mast cells are implicated in immunity towards bacterial infection, but the molecular

228

Relationships between Host Phylogeny, Host Type and Bacterial Community Diversity in Cold-Water Coral Reef Sponges  

PubMed Central

Cold-water coral reefs are known to locally enhance the diversity of deep-sea fauna as well as of microbes. Sponges are among the most diverse faunal groups in these ecosystems, and many of them host large abundances of microbes in their tissues. In this study, twelve sponge species from three cold-water coral reefs off Norway were investigated for the relationship between sponge phylogenetic classification (species and family level), as well as sponge type (high versus low microbial abundance), and the diversity of sponge-associated bacterial communities, taking also geographic location and water depth into account. Community analysis by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) showed that as many as 345 (79%) of the 437 different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in the dataset were shared between sponges and sediments, while only 70 (16%) appeared purely sponge-associated. Furthermore, changes in bacterial community structure were significantly related to sponge species (63% of explained community variation), sponge family (52%) or sponge type (30%), whereas mesoscale geographic distances and water depth showed comparatively small effects (<5% each). In addition, a highly significant, positive relationship between bacterial community dissimilarity and sponge phylogenetic distance was observed within the ancient family of the Geodiidae. Overall, the high diversity of sponges in cold-water coral reefs, combined with the observed sponge-related variation in bacterial community structure, support the idea that sponges represent heterogeneous, yet structured microbial habitats that contribute significantly to enhancing bacterial diversity in deep-sea ecosystems. PMID:23393586

Schöttner, Sandra; Hoffmann, Friederike; Cárdenas, Paco; Rapp, Hans Tore; Boetius, Antje; Ramette, Alban

2013-01-01

229

The bacterial lux reporter system: applications in bacterial localisation studies.  

PubMed

Bacterial production of visible light is a natural phenomenon occurring in marine (Vibrio and Photobacterium) and terrestrial (Photorhabdus) species. The mechanism underpinning light production in these organisms is similar and involves the oxidation of an aldehyde substrate in a reaction catalysed by the bacterial luciferase enzyme. The genes encoding the luciferase and a fatty acid reductase complex which synthesizes the substrate are contained in a single operon (the lux operon). This provides a useful reporter system as cloning the operon into a recipient host bacterium will generate visible light without the requirement to add exogenous substrate. The light can be detected in vivo in the living animal using a sensitive detection system and is therefore ideally suited to bioluminescence imaging protocols. The system has therefore been widely used to track bacteria during infection or colonisation of the host. As bacteria are currently being examined as bactofection vectors for gene delivery, particularly to tumour tissue, the use of bioluminescence imaging offers a powerful means to investigate vector amplification in situ. The implications of this technology for bacterial localization, tumour targeting and gene transfer (bactofection) studies are discussed. PMID:22263920

Gahan, Cormac G M

2012-02-01

230

Family and nation revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the promise of the sixties, the condition of families and children in the United State has deteriorated. However, the subject of family policy seems relevant once more. Establishing social policy conducive to the stability and well?being of family life will require an honest addressing of issues including family structure, poverty, drugs, and race. Fiscal policies also must be

Daniel Patrick Moynihan

1990-01-01

231

Black Families. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters of this collection explore the experiences of black families in the United States and Africa, today and in the past. They are: (1) "African American Families: A Historical Note" (John Hope Franklin); (2) "African American Families and Family Values" (Niara Sudarkasa); (3) "Old-Time Religion: Benches Can't Say 'Amen'" (William Harrison…

McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

232

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO STRESS IN THE VIBRIONACEAE WILLIAM SOTO1  

E-print Network

in the utilization of the genes responsible for light production from the bioluminescent bacteria V. fischeri Bacteria, Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria) is comprised of mostly motile gram

Nishiguchi, Michele

233

Ecology and population structure of vibrionaceae in the coastal ocean  

E-print Network

Extensive genetic diversity has been discovered in the microbial world, yet mechanisms that shape and maintain this diversity remain poorly understood. This thesis investigates to what extent populations of the ...

Preheim, Sarah Pacocha

2010-01-01

234

Crystal structure of a bacterial phosphoglucomutase, an enzyme involved in the virulence of multiple human pathogens  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of the enzyme phosphoglucomutase from Salmonella typhimurium (StPGM) is reported at 1.7 Å resolution. This is the first high-resolution structural characterization of a bacterial protein from this large enzyme family, which has a central role in metabolism and is also important to bacterial virulence and infectivity. A comparison of the active site of StPGM with that of other phosphoglucomutases reveals conserved residues that are likely involved in catalysis and ligand binding for the entire enzyme family. An alternate crystal form of StPGM and normal mode analysis give insights into conformational changes of the C-terminal domain that occur upon ligand binding. A novel observation from the StPGM structure is an apparent dimer in the asymmetric unit of the crystal, mediated largely through contacts in an N-terminal helix. Analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering confirm that StPGM forms a dimer in solution. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic studies show that a distinct subset of bacterial PGMs share the signature dimerization helix, while other bacterial and eukaryotic PGMs are likely monomers. These structural, biochemical, and bioinformatic studies of StPGM provide insights into the large ?-d-phosphohexomutase enzyme superfamily to which it belongs, and are also relevant to the design of inhibitors specific to the bacterial PGMs. PMID:21246636

Mehra-Chaudhary, Ritcha; Mick, Jacob; Tanner, John J.; Henzl, Michael T.; Beamer, Lesa J.

2011-01-01

235

Functional Taxonomy of Bacterial Hyperstructures  

PubMed Central

The levels of organization that exist in bacteria extend from macromolecules to populations. Evidence that there is also a level of organization intermediate between the macromolecule and the bacterial cell is accumulating. This is the level of hyperstructures. Here, we review a variety of spatially extended structures, complexes, and assemblies that might be termed hyperstructures. These include ribosomal or “nucleolar” hyperstructures; transertion hyperstructures; putative phosphotransferase system and glycolytic hyperstructures; chemosignaling and flagellar hyperstructures; DNA repair hyperstructures; cytoskeletal hyperstructures based on EF-Tu, FtsZ, and MreB; and cell cycle hyperstructures responsible for DNA replication, sequestration of newly replicated origins, segregation, compaction, and division. We propose principles for classifying these hyperstructures and finally illustrate how thinking in terms of hyperstructures may lead to a different vision of the bacterial cell. PMID:17347523

Norris, Vic; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; Cabin-Flaman, Armelle; Doi, Roy H.; Harshey, Rasika; Janniere, Laurent; Jimenez-Sanchez, Alfonso; Jin, Ding Jun; Levin, Petra Anne; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Minsky, Abraham; Saier, Milton; Skarstad, Kirsten

2007-01-01

236

Electromagnetic Signals from Bacterial DNA  

E-print Network

Chemical reactions can be induced at a distance due to the propagation of electromagnetic signals during intermediate chemical stages. Although is is well known at optical frequencies, e.g. photosynthetic reactions, electromagnetic signals hold true for muck lower frequencies. In E. coli bacteria such electromagnetic signals can be generated by electric transitions between energy levels describing electrons moving around DNA loops. The electromagnetic signals between different bacteria within a community is a "wireless" version of intercellular communication found in bacterial communities connected by "nanowires". The wireless broadcasts can in principle be of both the AM and FM variety due to the magnetic flux periodicity in electron energy spectra in bacterial DNA orbital motions.

A. Widom; J. Swain; Y. N. Srivastava; S. Sivasubramanian

2012-02-09

237

Autophagy and bacterial infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is a housekeeping process that maintains cellular homeostasis through recycling of nutrients and degradation of damaged or aged cytoplasmic constituents. Over the past several years, accumulating evidence has suggested that autophagy can function as an intracellular innate defense pathway in response to infection with a variety of bacteria and viruses. Autophagy plays a role as a specialized immunologic effector and regulates innate immunity to exert antimicrobial defense mechanisms. Numerous bacterial pathogens have developed the ability to invade host cells or to subvert host autophagy to establish a persistent infection. In this review, we have summarized the recent advances in our understanding of the interaction between antibacterial autophagy (xenophagy) and different bacterial pathogens. PMID:22257885

Yuk, Jae-Min; Yoshimori, Tamotsu

2012-01-01

238

Bacterial cheating limits antibiotic resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread use of antibiotics has led to the evolution of resistance in bacteria. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removing the antibiotic. The cooperative nature of this growth suggests that a cheater strain---which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic---may be able to take advantage of cells cooperatively inactivating the antibiotic. Here we find experimentally that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We observe stable coexistence between the two strains and find that a simple model successfully explains the behavior as a function of antibiotic concentration and cell density. We anticipate that our results will provide insight into the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

Xiao Chao, Hui; Yurtsev, Eugene; Datta, Manoshi; Artemova, Tanya; Gore, Jeff

2012-02-01

239

Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice  

E-print Network

Kansas Division of Early Childhood February 24, 2005 Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice Jean Ann Summers PhD, Beach Center on Disability Nina Zuna Doctoral Student, Beach Center on Disability Kerry Lida Doctoral Student, Beach Center...” of services must be reported IFSP supports family outcomes through… Services to assist families in meeting child needs Measurable results of child and family progress Services in the natural environment Family directed assessment of resources, priorities...

Zuna, Nina

2005-05-05

240

Familial Facial disfigurement in Multiple Familial Trichoepithelioma  

PubMed Central

Trichoepithelioma is an uncommon, benign hamartomatous tumor of the pilosebaceous follicle. Presenting as multiple papules and nodules on face and neck, they pose a significant cosmetic problem in affected individuals. Familial involvement of this dermatosis occurs in an autosomal dominant pattern, the locus being located on chromosome 9p21, which causes multiple facial lesions in family members and their kins. Here, we report a case of multiple familial trichoepithelioma causing considerable disfigurement of the face. PMID:24551711

Kataria, Usha; Agarwal, Deepti; Chhillar, Dinesh

2013-01-01

241

Inferring Bacterial Genome Flux While Considering Truncated Genes  

PubMed Central

Bacterial gene content variation during the course of evolution has been widely acknowledged and its pattern has been actively modeled in recent years. Gene truncation or gene pseudogenization also plays an important role in shaping bacterial genome content. Truncated genes could also arise from small-scale lateral gene transfer events. Unfortunately, the information of truncated genes has not been considered in any existing mathematical models on gene content variation. In this study, we developed a model to incorporate truncated genes. Maximum-likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the new model reveal fast rates of gene insertions/deletions on recent branches, suggesting a fast turnover of many recently transferred genes. The estimates also suggest that many truncated genes are in the process of being eliminated from the genome. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ignorance of truncated genes in the estimation does not lead to a systematic bias but rather has a more complicated effect. Analysis using the new model not only provides more accurate estimates on gene gains/losses (or insertions/deletions), but also reduces any concern of a systematic bias from applying simplified models to bacterial genome evolution. Although not a primary purpose, the model incorporating truncated genes could be potentially used for phylogeny reconstruction using gene family content. PMID:20551435

Hao, Weilong; Golding, G. Brian

2010-01-01

242

Three computational tools for predicting bacterial essential genes.  

PubMed

Essential genes are those genes indispensable for the survival of any living cell. Bacterial essential genes constitute the cornerstones of synthetic biology and are often attractive targets in the development of antibiotics and vaccines. Because identification of essential genes with wet-lab ways often means expensive economic costs and tremendous labor, scientists changed to seek for alternative way of computational prediction. Aiming to help to solve this issue, our research group (CEFG: group of Computational, Comparative, Evolutionary and Functional Genomics, http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn ) has constructed three online services to predict essential genes in bacterial genomes. These freely available tools are applicable for single gene sequences without annotated functions, single genes with definite names, and complete genomes of bacterial strains. To ensure reliable predictions, the investigated species should belong to the same family (for EGP) or phylum (for CEG_Match and Geptop) with one of the reference species, respectively. As the pilot software for the issue, predicting accuracies of them have been assessed and compared with existing algorithms, and note that all of other published algorithms have not any formed online services. We hope these services at CEFG will help scientists and researchers in the field of essential genes. PMID:25636621

Guo, Feng-Biao; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Ning, Lu-Wen; Wei, Wen

2015-01-01

243

Antibody blocks acquisition of bacterial colonization through agglutination.  

PubMed

Invasive infection often begins with asymptomatic colonization of mucosal surfaces. A murine model of bacterial colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae was used to study the mechanism for mucosal protection by immunoglobulin. In previously colonized immune mice, bacteria were rapidly sequestered within large aggregates in the nasal lumen. To further examine the role of bacterial agglutination in protection by specific antibodies, mice were passively immunized with immunoglobulin G (IgG) purified from antipneumococcal sera or pneumococcal type-specific monoclonal human IgA (hIgA1 or hIgA2). Systemically delivered IgG accessed the mucosal surface and blocked acquisition of colonization and transmission between littermates. Optimal protection by IgG was independent of Fc fragment and complement and, therefore, did not involve an opsonophagocytic mechanism. Enzymatic digestion or reduction of IgG before administration showed that protection required divalent binding that maintained its agglutinating effect. Divalent hIgA1 is cleaved by the pneumococcal member of a family of bacterial proteases that generate monovalent Fab? fragments. Thus, passive immunization with hIgA1 blocked colonization by an IgA1-protease-deficient mutant (agglutinated) but not the protease-producing wild-type parent (not agglutinated), whereas protease-resistant hIgA2 agglutinated and blocked colonization by both. Our findings highlight the importance of agglutinating antibodies in mucosal defense and reveal how successful pathogens evade this effect. PMID:24962092

Roche, A M; Richard, A L; Rahkola, J T; Janoff, E N; Weiser, J N

2015-01-01

244

Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 promotes bacterial phagocytosis by human macrophages.  

PubMed

LL-37/hCAP-18 is the only human member of the cathelicidin family and plays an important role in killing various pathogens, as well as in immune modulation. In this study, we investigated the effect of LL-37 on bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages and demonstrate that LL-37 enhances phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in a dose- and time-dependent manner by dTHP-1 cells. In addition, LL-37 enhanced phagocytosis of nonopsonized Escherichia coli by human macrophages. Consistently, LL-37 elevated the expression of Fc?Rs on macrophages but not the complement receptors CD11b and -c. Further studies revealed that the expression of TLR4 and CD14 is also increased on LL-37-treated macrophages. Several lines of evidence indicated that the FPR2/ALX receptor mediated LL-37-induced phagocytosis. However, TLR4 signaling was also coupled to the phagocytic response, as a specific TLR4 antibody significantly suppressed phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized E. coli and nonopsonized E. coli by dTHP-1 cells. Finally, macrophages from Cnlp(-/-) mice exhibited diminished bacterial phagocytosis compared with macrophages from their WT littermates. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel, immune-modulatory mechanism of LL-37, which may contribute to bacterial clearance. PMID:24550523

Wan, Min; van der Does, Anne M; Tang, Xiao; Lindbom, Lennart; Agerberth, Birgitta; Haeggström, Jesper Z

2014-06-01

245

Bacterial degradation of bile salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bile salts are surface-active steroid compounds. Their main physiological function is aiding the digestion of lipophilic nutrients\\u000a in intestinal tracts of vertebrates. Many bacteria are capable of transforming and degrading bile salts in the digestive tract\\u000a and in the environment. Bacterial bile salt transformation and degradation is of high ecological relevance and also essential\\u000a for the biotechnological production of steroid

Bodo Philipp

2011-01-01

246

Antimicrobial use and bacterial resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current epidemic of bacterial resistance is attributed, in part, to the overuse of antibiotics. Recent studies have documented increases in resistance with over-use of particular antibiotics and improvements in susceptibility when antibiotic use is controlled. The most effective means of improving use of antibiotics is unknown. Comprehensive management programs directed by multi-disciplinary teams, computer-assisted decision-making, and antibiotic cycling have

Sara Monroe; Ronald Polk

2000-01-01

247

Protein Secretion in Bacterial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 20% of the proteins synthesized in a bacterial cell are transported outside of the cytoplasm. These proteins\\u000a are localized either within the different compartments of the cell envelope or are released into the extracellular growth\\u000a medium. Bacteria have evolved multiple pathways to secrete proteins across their cell envelopes. In this chapter, we examine\\u000a similarities and differences among the several

Christos Stathopoulos; Yihfen T. Yen; Casey Tsang; Todd Cameron

248

Bacterial strategies for chemotaxis response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteria respond to chemical cues by performing a biased random walk that enables them to migrate towards attractants and away from repellents. Bias is achieved by regulating the duration of the bacterial runs as a function of the environment, inferred from the history of chemoattractant detections experienced by the bacterium. This time-signal is processed using a time convolution function that can be assayed measuring the response of the bacterium to short pulses of chemoattractant. The convolution constitutes an elementary form of memory, which is encoded at the molecular level by the processes of (de-)methylation and (de-)phosphorylation of the underlying biochemical network. While the latter is being characterized in detail, the functional reasons shaping the bacterial chemotactic response are largely unknown. We show that the chemotactic response observed experimentally is the strategy that ensures the highest minimum (MaxiMin) uptake of chemoattractant, in any field thereof. The consequence is that adaptation of the chemotactic bacterial system appears to be evolutionary driven by the need to cope with space-time environmental fluctuations rather than the extension of the dynamic range of response.

Vergassola, Massimo

2011-03-01

249

Bacterial protein toxins and inflammation.  

PubMed

Although human mucosal linings are continuously exposed to microbes, the microbes rarely induce disease. This is because mucosal surfaces are protected by a first line of defence termed the innate immunity system. Inflammatory processes are activated as a consequence of a complex interplay between microbes and host target cells. Although inflammation is essential for clearing out infectious agents, it can also be harmful to the host and is therefore subjected to tight control at multiple levels. It was recently discovered that the bacterial protein toxin alpha-haemolysin (HlyA), secreted by uropathogenic Escherichia coli, induces constant, low-frequency Ca2+ oscillations in renal epithelial cells. Ca2+ oscillation occurs at a characteristic periodicity of 12 min, and affects gene expression in target epithelial cells. Specifically, the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokine IL-8 were induced by HlyA-induced Ca2+ oscillations. A few additional bacterial protein toxins have been reported to induce Ca2+ oscillations in target epithelial cells, although their effects are poorly understood. However, the pioneering work on HlyA demonstrates a novel feature of bacterial protein toxins on host target cells: as inducers of second messenger responses which fine-tune gene expression in target epithelial cells. PMID:14620146

Söderblom, Tomas; Oxhamre, Camilla; Torstensson, Elisabeth; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta

2003-01-01

250

Dialkylresorcinols as bacterial signaling molecules.  

PubMed

It is well recognized that bacteria communicate via small diffusible molecules, a process termed quorum sensing. The best understood quorum sensing systems are those that use acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) for communication. The prototype of those systems consists of a LuxI-like AHL synthase and a cognate LuxR receptor that detects the signal. However, many proteobacteria possess LuxR receptors, yet lack any LuxI-type synthase, and thus these receptors are referred to as LuxR orphans or solos. In addition to the well-known AHLs, little is known about the signaling molecules that are sensed by LuxR solos. Here, we describe a novel cell-cell communication system in the insect and human pathogen Photorhabdus asymbiotica. We identified the LuxR homolog PauR to sense dialkylresorcinols (DARs) and cyclohexanediones (CHDs) instead of AHLs as signals. The DarABC synthesis pathway produces the molecules, and the entire system emerged as important for virulence. Moreover, we have analyzed more than 90 different Photorhabdus strains by HPLC/MS and showed that these DARs and CHDs are specific to the human pathogen P. asymbiotica. On the basis of genomic evidence, 116 other bacterial species are putative DAR producers, among them many human pathogens. Therefore, we discuss the possibility of DARs as novel and widespread bacterial signaling molecules and show that bacterial cell-cell communication goes far beyond AHL signaling in nature. PMID:25550519

Brameyer, Sophie; Kresovic, Darko; Bode, Helge B; Heermann, Ralf

2015-01-13

251

Physics of the Bacterial Chromosome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genomic DNA in bacteria is concentrated in a distinct structure, the bacterial chromosome or nucleoid [Pettijohn, D.E. (1996) The Nucleoid. In Neidhardt, F.C., Curtis III, R., Ingraham, J.L., Lin, E.C.C., Low, K.B., Magasanik, B., Reznikoff, W.S., Riley, M., Schaechter, M. and Umbarger, H.E. (eds.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella. ASM Press, Washington D.C., pp. 158-166; Trun, N.J. and Marko, J.F. (1998) Architecture of a bacterial chromosome. Am. Soc. Microbiol. Rev., 64, 276-283]. Stripped of all bound proteins and RNA being produced during transcription and then stretched, the length of the DNA is circa 1.5 mm, a factor of about a thousandfold larger than typical bacterial dimensions. Thus, bacteria, like all living organisms, face the daunting challenge of compacting their genome to fit inside the cell in such a way that the information encoded in the DNA will be accessible for gene expression and replication of the genome. In the case of bacteria, members of the prokaryote world (cells without a nucleus), natural selection resulted in three mechanisms that act together to compact the genome and produce a functional, dynamic architecture: supercoiling, macromolecular crowding, and the association of the DNA with a class of nucleoid-associated or histone-like proteins. I will now describe briefly these mechanisms.

Stavans, Joel

2006-01-01

252

Bacterial infections complicating tongue piercing.  

PubMed

Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal abscess, glossitis, submandibular lymphadenitis, submandibular sialadenitis, Ludwig's angina and cephalic tetanus. Infections distal to the piercing site included eight cases of infective endocarditis, one case of chorioamnionitis and one case of cerebellar abscess. Oropharyngeal flora were isolated from all cases. While bacterial infections following tongue piercing are rare, there are reports of potentially life-threatening infections associated with the procedure. Both piercers and their clients should be aware of these potential complications, and standardized infection prevention and control practices should be adopted by piercers to reduce the risk. PMID:21358880

Yu, Catherine Hy; Minnema, Brian J; Gold, Wayne L

2010-01-01

253

Cytochemical Differences in Bacterial Glycocalyx  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To examine new cytochemical aspects of the bacterial adhesion, a strain 41452/01 of the oral commensal Streptococcus sanguis and a wild strain of Staphylococcus aureus were grown with and without sucrose supplementation for 6 days. Osmiumtetraoxyde (OsO4), uranyl acetate (UA), ruthenium red (RR), cupromeronic blue (CB) staining with critical electrolytic concentrations (CECs), and the tannic acid-metal salt technique (TAMST) were applied for electron microscopy. Cytochemically, only RR-positive fimbriae in S. sanguis were visualized. By contrast, some types of fimbriae staining were observed in S. aureus glycocalyx: RR-positive, OsO4-positive, tannophilic and CB-positive with ceasing point at 0.3 M MgCl2. The CB staining with CEC, used for the first time for visualization of glycoproteins of bacterial glycocalyx, also reveals intacellular CB-positive substances-probably the monomeric molecules, that is, subunits forming the fimbriae via extracellular assembly. Thus, glycosylated components of the biofilm matrix can be reliably related to single cells. The visualization of intracellular components by CB with CEC enables clear distinction between S. aureus and other bacteria, which do not produce CB-positive substances. The small quantities of tannophilic substances found in S. aureus makes the use of TAMST for the same purpose difficult. The present work protocol enables, for the first time, a partial cytochemical differentiation of the bacterial glycocalyx.

Krautgartner, Wolf Dietrich; Vitkov, Ljubomir; Hannig, Matthias; Pelz, Klaus; Stoiber, Walter

2005-02-01

254

Mechanism of Bacterial Pyrite Oxidation  

PubMed Central

The oxidation by Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans of untreated pyrite (FeS2) as well as HCl-pretreated pyrite (from which most of the acid-soluble iron species were removed) was studied manometrically. Oxygen uptake was linear during bacterial oxidation of untreated pyrite, whereas with HCl-pretreated pyrite both a decrease in oxygen uptake at 2 hr and nonlinear oxygen consumption were observed. Ferric sulfate added to HCl-pretreated pyrite restored approximately two-thirds of the decrease in total bacterial oxygen uptake and caused oxygen uptake to revert to nearly linear kinetics. Ferric sulfate also oxidized pyrite in the absence of bacteria and O2; recovery of ferric and ferrous ions was in excellent agreement with the reaction Fe2(SO4)3 + FeS2 = 3FeSO4 + 2S, but the elemental sulfur produced was negligible. Neither H2S nor S2O32? was a product of the reaction. It is probable that two mechanisms of bacterial pyrite oxidation operate concurrently: the direct contact mechanism which requires physical contact between bacteria and pyrite particles for biological pyrite oxidation, and the indirect contact mechanism according to which the bacteria oxidize ferrous ions to the ferric state, thereby regenerating the ferric ions required for chemical oxidation of pyrite. PMID:6051342

Silverman, Melvin P.

1967-01-01

255

Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.  

PubMed

Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted. PMID:25129040

Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

2014-10-01

256

Transport of magnesium by a bacterial Nramp-related gene.  

PubMed

Magnesium is an essential divalent metal that serves many cellular functions. While most divalent cations are maintained at relatively low intracellular concentrations, magnesium is maintained at a higher level (?0.5-2.0 mM). Three families of transport proteins were previously identified for magnesium import: CorA, MgtE, and MgtA/MgtB P-type ATPases. In the current study, we find that expression of a bacterial protein unrelated to these transporters can fully restore growth to a bacterial mutant that lacks known magnesium transporters, suggesting it is a new importer for magnesium. We demonstrate that this transport activity is likely to be specific rather than resulting from substrate promiscuity because the proteins are incapable of manganese import. This magnesium transport protein is distantly related to the Nramp family of proteins, which have been shown to transport divalent cations but have never been shown to recognize magnesium. We also find gene expression of the new magnesium transporter to be controlled by a magnesium-sensing riboswitch. Importantly, we find additional examples of riboswitch-regulated homologues, suggesting that they are a frequent occurrence in bacteria. Therefore, our aggregate data discover a new and perhaps broadly important path for magnesium import and highlight how identification of riboswitch RNAs can help shed light on new, and sometimes unexpected, functions of their downstream genes. PMID:24968120

Shin, Jung-Ho; Wakeman, Catherine A; Goodson, Jonathan R; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Freedman, Benjamin G; Senger, Ryan S; Winkler, Wade C

2014-06-01

257

Transport of Magnesium by a Bacterial Nramp-Related Gene  

PubMed Central

Magnesium is an essential divalent metal that serves many cellular functions. While most divalent cations are maintained at relatively low intracellular concentrations, magnesium is maintained at a higher level (?0.5–2.0 mM). Three families of transport proteins were previously identified for magnesium import: CorA, MgtE, and MgtA/MgtB P-type ATPases. In the current study, we find that expression of a bacterial protein unrelated to these transporters can fully restore growth to a bacterial mutant that lacks known magnesium transporters, suggesting it is a new importer for magnesium. We demonstrate that this transport activity is likely to be specific rather than resulting from substrate promiscuity because the proteins are incapable of manganese import. This magnesium transport protein is distantly related to the Nramp family of proteins, which have been shown to transport divalent cations but have never been shown to recognize magnesium. We also find gene expression of the new magnesium transporter to be controlled by a magnesium-sensing riboswitch. Importantly, we find additional examples of riboswitch-regulated homologues, suggesting that they are a frequent occurrence in bacteria. Therefore, our aggregate data discover a new and perhaps broadly important path for magnesium import and highlight how identification of riboswitch RNAs can help shed light on new, and sometimes unexpected, functions of their downstream genes. PMID:24968120

Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Freedman, Benjamin G.; Senger, Ryan S.; Winkler, Wade C.

2014-01-01

258

Bioremediation of contaminated marine sediments can enhance metal mobility due to changes of bacterial diversity.  

PubMed

Bioremediation strategies applied to contaminated marine sediments can induce important changes in the mobility and bioavailability of metals with potential detrimental consequences on ecosystem health. In this study we investigated changes of bacterial abundance and diversity (by a combination of molecular fingerprinting and next generation sequencing analyses) during biostimulation experiments carried out on anoxic marine sediments characterized by high metal content. We provide evidence that the addition of organic (lactose and/or acetate) and/or inorganic compounds to contaminated sediments determines a significant increase of bacterial growth coupled with changes in bacterial diversity and assemblage composition. Experimental systems supplied only with organic substrates were characterized by an increase of the relative importance of sulfate reducing bacteria belonging to the families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae with a concomitant decrease of taxa affiliated with Flavobacteriaceae. An opposite effect was observed in the experimental treatments supplied also with inorganic nutrients. The increase of bacterial metabolism coupled with the increase of bacterial taxa affiliated with Flavobacteriaceae were reflected in a significant decrease of Cd and Zn associated with sedimentary organic matter and Pb and As associated with the residual fraction of the sediment. However, independently from the experimental conditions investigated no dissolution of metals occurred, suggesting a role of bacterial assemblages in controlling metal solubilization processes. Overall results of this study have allowed to identify key biogeochemical interactions influencing the metal behavior and provide new insights for a better understanding of the potential consequences of bio-treatments on the metal fate in contaminated marine sediments. PMID:25462769

Fonti, Viviana; Beolchini, Francesca; Rocchetti, Laura; Dell'Anno, Antonio

2014-10-30

259

Distinct soil bacterial communities revealed under a diversely managed agroecosystem.  

PubMed

Land-use change and management practices are normally enacted to manipulate environments to improve conditions that relate to production, remediation, and accommodation. However, their effect on the soil microbial community and their subsequent influence on soil function is still difficult to quantify. Recent applications of molecular techniques to soil biology, especially the use of 16S rRNA, are helping to bridge this gap. In this study, the influence of three land-use systems within a demonstration farm were evaluated with a view to further understand how these practices may impact observed soil bacterial communities. Replicate soil samples collected from the three land-use systems (grazed pine forest, cultivated crop, and grazed pasture) on a single soil type. High throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to generate sequence datasets. The different land use systems showed distinction in the structure of their bacterial communities with respect to the differences detected in cluster analysis as well as diversity indices. Specific taxa, particularly Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and classes of Proteobacteria, showed significant shifts across the land-use strata. Families belonging to these taxa broke with notions of copio- and oligotrphy at the class level, as many of the less abundant groups of families of Actinobacteria showed a propensity for soil environments with reduced carbon/nutrient availability. Orders Actinomycetales and Solirubrobacterales showed their highest abundance in the heavily disturbed cultivated system despite the lowest soil organic carbon (SOC) values across the site. Selected soil properties ([SOC], total nitrogen [TN], soil texture, phosphodiesterase [PD], alkaline phosphatase [APA], acid phosphatase [ACP] activity, and pH) also differed significantly across land-use regimes, with SOM, PD, and pH showing variation consistent with shifts in community structure and composition. These results suggest that use of pyrosequencing along with traditional analysis of soil physiochemical properties may provide insight into the ecology of descending taxonomic groups in bacterial communities. PMID:22844402

Shange, Raymon S; Ankumah, Ramble O; Ibekwe, Abasiofiok M; Zabawa, Robert; Dowd, Scot E

2012-01-01

260

Distinct Soil Bacterial Communities Revealed under a Diversely Managed Agroecosystem  

PubMed Central

Land-use change and management practices are normally enacted to manipulate environments to improve conditions that relate to production, remediation, and accommodation. However, their effect on the soil microbial community and their subsequent influence on soil function is still difficult to quantify. Recent applications of molecular techniques to soil biology, especially the use of 16S rRNA, are helping to bridge this gap. In this study, the influence of three land-use systems within a demonstration farm were evaluated with a view to further understand how these practices may impact observed soil bacterial communities. Replicate soil samples collected from the three land-use systems (grazed pine forest, cultivated crop, and grazed pasture) on a single soil type. High throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to generate sequence datasets. The different land use systems showed distinction in the structure of their bacterial communities with respect to the differences detected in cluster analysis as well as diversity indices. Specific taxa, particularly Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and classes of Proteobacteria, showed significant shifts across the land-use strata. Families belonging to these taxa broke with notions of copio- and oligotrphy at the class level, as many of the less abundant groups of families of Actinobacteria showed a propensity for soil environments with reduced carbon/nutrient availability. Orders Actinomycetales and Solirubrobacterales showed their highest abundance in the heavily disturbed cultivated system despite the lowest soil organic carbon (SOC) values across the site. Selected soil properties ([SOC], total nitrogen [TN], soil texture, phosphodiesterase [PD], alkaline phosphatase [APA], acid phosphatase [ACP] activity, and pH) also differed significantly across land-use regimes, with SOM, PD, and pH showing variation consistent with shifts in community structure and composition. These results suggest that use of pyrosequencing along with traditional analysis of soil physiochemical properties may provide insight into the ecology of descending taxonomic groups in bacterial communities. PMID:22844402

Shange, Raymon S.; Ankumah, Ramble O.; Ibekwe, Abasiofiok M.; Zabawa, Robert; Dowd, Scot E.

2012-01-01

261

Phylogenetically and Spatially Close Marine Sponges Harbour Divergent Bacterial Communities  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have unravelled the diversity of sponge-associated bacteria that may play essential roles in sponge health and metabolism. Nevertheless, our understanding of this microbiota remains limited to a few host species found in restricted geographical localities, and the extent to which the sponge host determines the composition of its own microbiome remains a matter of debate. We address bacterial abundance and diversity of two temperate marine sponges belonging to the Irciniidae family - Sarcotragus spinosulus and Ircinia variabilis – in the Northeast Atlantic. Epifluorescence microscopy revealed that S. spinosulus hosted significantly more prokaryotic cells than I. variabilis and that prokaryotic abundance in both species was about 4 orders of magnitude higher than in seawater. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of S. spinosulus and I. variabilis differed markedly from each other – with higher number of ribotypes observed in S. spinosulus – and from those of seawater. Four PCR-DGGE bands, two specific to S. spinosulus, one specific to I. variabilis, and one present in both sponge species, affiliated with an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the order Acidimicrobiales (Actinobacteria). Two PCR-DGGE bands present exclusively in S. spinosulus fingerprints affiliated with one sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster in the phylum Chloroflexi and with sponge-derived sequences in the order Chromatiales (Gammaproteobacteria), respectively. One Alphaproteobacteria band specific to S. spinosulus was placed in an uncultured sponge-specific phylogenetic cluster with a close relationship to the genus Rhodovulum. Our results confirm the hypothesized host-specific composition of bacterial communities between phylogenetically and spatially close sponge species in the Irciniidae family, with S. spinosulus displaying higher bacterial community diversity and distinctiveness than I. variabilis. These findings suggest a pivotal host-driven effect on the shape of the marine sponge microbiome, bearing implications to our current understanding of the distribution of microbial genetic resources in the marine realm. PMID:23300853

Hardoim, Cristiane C. P.; Esteves, Ana I. S.; Pires, Francisco R.; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.; Cox, Cymon J.; Xavier, Joana R.; Costa, Rodrigo

2012-01-01

262

Family Therapy for the "Truncated" Nuclear Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The truncated nuclear family consists of a two-generation group in which conflict has produced a polarization of values. The single-parent family is at special risk. Go-between process enables the therapist to depolarize sharply conflicted values and reduce pathogenic relating. (Author)

Zuk, Gerald H.

1980-01-01

263

Family assessment: Centripetal and centrifugal family systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consideration of interactional style is useful to both researchers and clinicians interested in family assessment. This paper offers data and process evaluation scales designed to determine family interactional style, conceptualized as a continuum ranging from centripetal (CP) to centrifugal (CF), and containing at the midpoint a mixed area in which facets of both the CP and the CF styles

Martha Kelsey-smith; W. Robert Beavers M. D

1981-01-01

264

Bacterial expression of self-assembling peptide hydrogelators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For tissue regeneration and drug delivery applications, various architectures are explored to serve as biomaterial tools. Via de novo design, functional peptide hydrogel materials have been developed as scaffolds for biomedical applications. The objective of this study is to investigate bacterial expression as an alternative method to chemical synthesis for the recombinant production of self-assembling peptides that can form rigid hydrogels under physiological conditions. The Schneider and Pochan Labs have designed and characterized a 20 amino acid beta-hairpin forming amphiphilic peptide containing a D-residue in its turn region (MAX1). As a result, this peptide must be prepared chemically. Peptide engineering, using the sequence of MAX1 as a template, afforded a small family of peptides for expression (EX peptides) that have different turn sequences consisting of natural amino acids and amenable to bacterial expression. Each sequence was initially chemically synthesized to quickly assess the material properties of its corresponding gel. One model peptide EX1, was chosen to start the bacterial expression studies. DNA constructs facilitating the expression of EX1 were designed in such that the peptide could be expressed with different fusion partners and subsequently cleaved by enzymatic or chemical means to afford the free peptide. Optimization studies were performed to increase the yield of pure peptide that ultimately allowed 50 mg of pure peptide to be harvested from one liter of culture, providing an alternate means to produce this hydrogel-forming peptide. Recombinant production of other self-assembling hairpins with different turn sequences was also successful using this optimized protocol. The studies demonstrate that new beta-hairpin self-assembling peptides that are amenable to bacterial production and form rigid hydrogels at physiological conditions can be designed and produced by fermentation in good yield at significantly reduced cost when compared to chemical synthesis.

Sonmez, Cem

265

Families of minor planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical studies of individual family members show that at least the Themis, Eos, Koronis, Nysa/Hertha, and Budrosa families of minor planets are the result of the breakup of discrete parent bodies. Only a few families have been studied in detail, and even in those few cases, the full force of observational techniques has not been applied. Crucial for the understanding of families and their parent bodies are detailed physical studies of family members; precise mineralogical interpretation of observational data to identify the geochemistry of the parent bodies; and studies of the collisional evolution of family members.

Gradie, J. C.; Chapman, C. R.; Williams, J. G.

1979-01-01

266

[Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. A new family].  

PubMed

A new example of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia is reported. The family studied consists of 19 members over four generations. The first patient described in this study had already undergone a classical surgical operation for "primary hyperparathyroidism" before the correct diagnosis was established: that of a new syndrome described for the first time by Foley in 1972 and subsequently studied by Marx since 1977. The features of this syndrome are: hypercalcaemia accompanied by hypocalciuria, autosomal dominant transmission with strong penetrance, with early appearance of hypercalcaemia, absence of signs of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia, benign course and persistence of the hypercalcaemia despite classical sub-total parathyroidectomy. Following a family survey, the authors discovered eight other members of the family who also presented this syndrome. PMID:4081583

Langhendries, J P; Chanoine, F; Corvilain, J; Fuss, M; Van Geertruyden, J

1985-11-01

267

Insight into the bacterial gut microbiome of the North American moose (Alces alces)  

PubMed Central

Background The work presented here provides the first intensive insight into the bacterial populations in the digestive tract of the North American moose (Alces alces). Eight free-range moose on natural pasture were sampled, producing eight rumen samples and six colon samples. Second generation (G2) PhyloChips were used to determine the presence of hundreds of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), representing multiple closely related species/strains (>97% identity), found in the rumen and colon of the moose. Results A total of 789 unique OTUs were used for analysis, which passed the fluorescence and the positive fraction thresholds. There were 73 OTUs, representing 21 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the rumen samples: Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae and several unclassified families, whereas there were 71 OTUs, representing 22 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the colon samples: Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and several unclassified families. Overall, there were 164 OTUs that were found in 100% of the samples. The Firmicutes were the most dominant bacteria phylum in both the rumen and the colon. Microarray data available at ArrayExpress, accession number E-MEXP-3721. Conclusions Using PhyloTrac and UniFrac computer software, samples clustered into two distinct groups: rumen and colon, confirming that the rumen and colon are distinct environments. There was an apparent correlation of age to cluster, which will be validated by a larger sample size in future studies, but there were no detectable trends based upon gender. PMID:22992344

2012-01-01

268

Phenotypic signatures arising from unbalanced bacterial growth.  

PubMed

Fluctuations in the growth rate of a bacterial culture during unbalanced growth are generally considered undesirable in quantitative studies of bacterial physiology. Under well-controlled experimental conditions, however, these fluctuations are not random but instead reflect the interplay between intra-cellular networks underlying bacterial growth and the growth environment. Therefore, these fluctuations could be considered quantitative phenotypes of the bacteria under a specific growth condition. Here, we present a method to identify "phenotypic signatures" by time-frequency analysis of unbalanced growth curves measured with high temporal resolution. The signatures are then applied to differentiate amongst different bacterial strains or the same strain under different growth conditions, and to identify the essential architecture of the gene network underlying the observed growth dynamics. Our method has implications for both basic understanding of bacterial physiology and for the classification of bacterial strains. PMID:25101949

Tan, Cheemeng; Smith, Robert Phillip; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Schwartz, Russell; You, Lingchong

2014-08-01

269

Phenotypic Signatures Arising from Unbalanced Bacterial Growth  

PubMed Central

Fluctuations in the growth rate of a bacterial culture during unbalanced growth are generally considered undesirable in quantitative studies of bacterial physiology. Under well-controlled experimental conditions, however, these fluctuations are not random but instead reflect the interplay between intra-cellular networks underlying bacterial growth and the growth environment. Therefore, these fluctuations could be considered quantitative phenotypes of the bacteria under a specific growth condition. Here, we present a method to identify “phenotypic signatures” by time-frequency analysis of unbalanced growth curves measured with high temporal resolution. The signatures are then applied to differentiate amongst different bacterial strains or the same strain under different growth conditions, and to identify the essential architecture of the gene network underlying the observed growth dynamics. Our method has implications for both basic understanding of bacterial physiology and for the classification of bacterial strains. PMID:25101949

Tan, Cheemeng; Smith, Robert Phillip; Tsai, Ming-Chi; Schwartz, Russell; You, Lingchong

2014-01-01

270

Bacterial Adhesion at Synthetic Surfaces  

PubMed Central

A systematic investigation into the effect of surface chemistry on bacterial adhesion was carried out. In particular, a number of physicochemical factors important in defining the surface at the molecular level were assessed for their effect on the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The primary experiments involved the grafting of groups varying in hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, chain length, and chemical functionality onto glass substrates such that the surfaces were homogeneous and densely packed with functional groups. All of the surfaces were found to be chemically well defined, and their measured surface energies varied from 15 to 41 mJ · m?2. Protein adsorption experiments were performed with 3H-labelled bovine serum albumin and cytochrome c prior to bacterial attachment studies. Hydrophilic uncharged surfaces showed the greatest resistance to protein adsorption; however, our studies also showed that the effectiveness of poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) polymers was not simply a result of its hydrophilicity and molecular weight alone. The adsorption of the two proteins approximately correlated with short-term cell adhesion, and bacterial attachment for L. monocytogenes and E. coli also correlated with the chemistry of the underlying substrate. However, for S. aureus and S. typhimurium a different pattern of attachment occurred, suggesting a dissimilar mechanism of cell attachment, although high-molecular-weight PEO was still the least-cell-adsorbing surface. The implications of this for in vivo attachment of cells suggest that hydrophilic passivating groups may be the best method for preventing cell adsorption to synthetic substrates provided they can be grafted uniformly and in sufficient density at the surface. PMID:10543814

Cunliffe, D.; Smart, C. A.; Alexander, C.; Vulfson, E. N.

1999-01-01

271

Contacting My Donor Family  

MedlinePLUS

... Donor Family Newsroom Minorities Contacting My Donor Family Writing anything can be a challenge. Staring at a ... can take to get started. The process of writing your letter may take some time, but at ...

272

The Changing American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent statistics which demonstrate how different modern families are from the stereotyped model American nuclear family. Provides suggestions for elementary social studies teachers and includes an annotated bibliography of instructional resources. (JDH)

Joseph, Pamela B.

1986-01-01

273

Strengthening Our Military Families  

MedlinePLUS

... to quality child care remains a focus of leadership and families across the Armed Forces. Military families ... an expert in military issues to make a difference. Every American can do something.” —Michelle Obama and ...

274

Familial Periodic Paralyses  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? What research is ...

275

Managing Your Family Business  

E-print Network

L-5437 2-03 Managing Your Family Business Danny Klinefelter Professor and Extension Economist Texas Cooperative Extension The Texas A&M University System Successful management of a family business involves six characteristics: ? Shared vision...

Klinefelter, Danny A.

2003-04-14

276

Importance of Family Routines  

MedlinePLUS

... Caregivers and Teachers (PedFACTs) Participant Manual Pediatric First Aid for Caregivers and Teachers (PedFACTs) Teaching Package Allergies and Asthma Family Life Health Management - Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & ...

277

Bacterial contamination of hospital physicians' stethoscopes.  

PubMed

Because stethoscopes might be potential vectors of nosocomial infections, this study, conducted in a 450-bed general hospital, was devised to evaluate the bacterial contamination of stethoscopes; bacterial survival on stethoscope membranes; the kinetics of the bacterial load on stethoscope membranes during clinical use; and the efficacy of 70% alcohol or liquid soap for membrane disinfection. Among the 355 stethoscopes tested, 234 carried > or =2 different bacterial species; 31 carried potentially pathogenic bacteria. Although some bacteria deposited onto membranes could survive 6 to 18 hours, none survived after disinfection. PMID:10501265

Bernard, L; Kereveur, A; Durand, D; Gonot, J; Goldstein, F; Mainardi, J L; Acar, J; Carlet, J

1999-09-01

278

Early diagnostic paracentesis in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.  

E-print Network

??Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequently occurs in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and ascites and is associated with high mortality. Early paracentesis (EP) allows rapid… (more)

Kim, John J.

2011-01-01

279

Bacterial biofilms and biomineralisation on titanium.  

E-print Network

??This study investigated bacterial interactions with titanium, and evaluated the use of Serratia biomineralisation to produce a hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on titanium. Adherence of Gram-positive… (more)

Wang, Anqi

2011-01-01

280

Commensal Bacterial Communities Regulate Antiviral Immunity.  

E-print Network

??Alterations in the composition of commensal bacterial communities in the human intestine are associated with enhanced susceptibility to multiple inflammatory diseases. Further, studies in murine… (more)

Abt, Michael Christopher

2012-01-01

281

3D Side View of Bacterial Biofilm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Confocal scanning laser microscopy image of a bacterial biofilm composed of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Klebsiella pneumoniae growing on the wall of a polycarbonate flow cell.

American Society For Microbiology

2002-01-01

282

Family Life Cycle Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual life stages happen within the context of family life. This article describes Betty Carter's and Monica McGoldrick's Family Life Cycle stages as a context for Eric Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Daniel Levinson's Stages of a Man's Life, and Jean Piaget's stages of cognitive development. The author juxtaposes the tasks of each family life stage with the individual life

M. A. Armour

1995-01-01

283

Year of the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue focuses on problems and challenges confronting the California family and on research and extension efforts to provide at least partial answers. Research briefs by staff include "Challenges Confront the California Family" (state trends in poverty, divorce, single-parent families, child abuse, delinquency, teen births, limited…

California Agriculture, 1994

1994-01-01

284

Familial Cholestatic Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ‘familial’ is an unfortunate one. Although the definition includes ‘hereditary’, the inference is that it will usually have occurred in other family members. For many of the conditions described in this article this is often not the case, and for this reason, ‘familial’ conditions may be overlooked when reaching a diagnosis. Cholestasis is defined differently by clinicians, pathologists

Richard Thompson

2008-01-01

285

Strengthening America's Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…

Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

2000-01-01

286

Familial progressive supranuclear palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A progressive extrapyramidal syndrome and dementia occurred in three members of one family. The age of onset was in the seventh decade and the affected individuals showed many of the clinical features of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Necropsy of one individual revealed the neuropathological features of PSP. We propose that this family has a familial form of PSP and review

J Brown; P Lantos; M Stratton; P Roques; M Rossor

1993-01-01

287

Family Housing and Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the need for a strong family housing program to support a student body composed of many nontraditional students, Texas Woman's University converted a traditional residence hall into a family housing unit with an after-school and summer recreation program. The majority of residents in family housing are single mothers with children who…

Murphy-Chadwick, Nancy; And Others

288

Resilience in Remarried Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to identify those resilience factors that enable remarried families to withstand and rebound from the disruptive challenges they face. A parent and a child from 38 families independently completed seven questionnaires and answered an open-ended question. The following resilience-associated factors were identified: (1) supportive family relationships, (2) affirming and supportive communication, (3) a sense of control

Abraham P. Greeff; Carien Du Toit

2009-01-01

289

Families and Fragile Syndrome  

E-print Network

Families and Fragile Syndrome U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PUBLIC HEALTH Health and Human Development (NICHD) family album about Fragile X syndrome. As a health research agency is designed to give you and your family some general information about Fragile X syndrome, its causes, its

Rau, Don C.

290

Fatherhood and Family Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the assumption that fathers have been relatively absent from family support programs, this publication of the Family Resource Coalition addresses the role of fathers in family support programs, examines the impact of fathers on their children, and describes programs involving fathers successfully. Articles include: (1) "What's Behind the…

Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

1996-01-01

291

The Family Farm Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kenyon College's Family Farm Project, "a three-year study exploring family farming and community life in Knox County, Ohio," presents an intimate multimedia view of the daily life of the family farm, which some consider a vanishing institution in America.

1996-01-01

292

Employment Characteristics of Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Bureau of Labor Statistics site offers data on the employment characteristics of American families. The statistics include data on employment and unemployment in families by race, relationship, sex, marital status, presence of children in the family, and presence of children under three, among others. The data can be accessed from a table of contents or reviewed in an extensive news release.

2001-01-01

293

Families in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Emphasis" deals with families in transition, providing some model programs for the new family and some historical perspectives on how families have developed over time. Articles include: (1) "Nostalgia on the Right" (Nancy Theriot); (2) "Heart to Heart" (Nancy Harrington-MacLennan); (3) "The Media Get the Message" (Janet Alyn); (4)…

Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

1987-01-01

294

Learning from Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a researcher in parent engagement in school and former parent activist, the author shares three lessons for sparking more authentic partnerships between schools and immigrant families. First, schools need to move away from deficit thinking and validate families' cultures. In the case of Latino immigrant families, this entails understanding…

Auerbach, Susan

2011-01-01

295

Family Violence: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family violence is a widespread problem; research has shown multiple factors are associated with family violence. Types of family violence include spouse abuse; elder abuse and neglect; child abuse and neglect; parent abuse; and sibling abuse. There are three types of spouse abuse: physical abuse, sexual violence, and psychological/emotional…

National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS/OHDS), Washington, DC.

296

Adlerian Family Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a model of family counseling based on Adlerian psychology. A brief overview of the psychological principles of Adlerian psychology is provided as well as an intervention schema to help the elementary counselor decide what family members to include in counseling and how to deal ethically with families. (RC)

Kern, Roy M.; Carlson, Jon

1981-01-01

297

Families and Assisted Living*  

PubMed Central

Purpose Despite growing research on assisted living (AL) as a residential care option for older adults, the social ramifications of residents' transitions to assisted living is relatively unexplored. This article examines family involvement in AL, including family structures of residents, types of involvement from family members living outside the AL, and outcomes for these family members. Design and Methods We reviewed current literature utilizing the MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, and CINAHL databases to identify AL studies that examined issues pertaining to families or informal care. Following the screening of abstracts, 180 reports were retrieved for further review, and 62 studies were selected for inclusion. Results Families visit residents frequently and provide a wide range of instrumental assistance but provide only minimal personal care. Studies of family outcomes indicated relatively high satisfaction, but potential care burden as well. Implications How family care and involvement occurs in AL in relation to formal care provision and whether various types of formal-informal care integration influence family outcomes remains unclear. We suggest a research agenda that attempts to tease out causal relationships for family involvement, differentiate family roles, and implement longitudinal analyses for a range of family outcomes. PMID:18162571

Gaugler, Joseph E.; Kane, Robert L.

2008-01-01

298

The Family Leukemia Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

Pollitt, Eleanor

1976-01-01

299

Toward the Postmodern Family  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines three aspects of family life that are evolving in directions that have no historical precedent--adolescent indifference to the family's identity that shows up in the discontinuity of values from parents to children, instability in the life of the couple, and systematic demolition of the nuclear family. (Author/IRT)

Shorter, Edward

1976-01-01

300

Bacterial community assemblages associated with the phyllosphere, dermosphere, and rhizosphere of tree species of the Atlantic forest are host taxon dependent.  

PubMed

Bacterial communities associated with tree canopies have been shown to be specific to their plant hosts, suggesting that plant species-specific traits may drive the selection of microbial species that comprise their microbiomes. To further examine the degree to which the plant taxa drive the assemblage of bacterial communities in specific plant microenvironments, we evaluated bacterial community structures associated with the phyllosphere, dermosphere, and rhizosphere of seven tree species representing three orders, four families and four genera of plants from a pristine Dense Ombrophilous Atlantic forest in Brazil, using a combination of PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA genes and clone library sequencing. Results indicated that each plant species selected for distinct bacterial communities in the phyllosphere, dermosphere, and rhizosphere, and that the bacterial community structures are significantly related to the plant taxa, at the species, family, and order levels. Further characterization of the bacterial communities of the phyllosphere and dermosphere of the tree species showed that they were inhabited predominantly by species of Gammaproteobacteria, mostly related to Pseudomonas. In contrast, the rhizosphere bacterial communities showed greater species richness and evenness, and higher frequencies of Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria Gp1. With individual tree species each selecting for their specific microbiomes, these findings greatly increase our estimates of the bacterial species richness in tropical forests and provoke questions concerning the ecological functions of the microbial communities that exist on different plant parts. PMID:24889284

Lambais, Marcio R; Lucheta, Adriano R; Crowley, David E

2014-10-01

301

Bacterial mutagenicity assays: test methods.  

PubMed

The most widely used assays for detecting chemically induced gene mutations are those employing bacteria. The plate incorporation assay using various Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and E. coli WP2 strains is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances capable of causing DNA damage leading to gene mutations. The test is used worldwide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs.The test uses several strains of S. typhimurium which carry different mutations in various genes of the histidine operon, and E. coli which carry the same AT base pair at the critical mutation site within the trpE gene. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms. When these auxotrophic bacterial strains are grown on a minimal media agar plates containing a trace of the required amino-acid (histidine or tryptophan), only those bacteria that revert to amino-acid independence (His(+) or Tryp(+)) will grow to form visible colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner.This chapter provides detailed procedures for performing the test in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9-mix), including advice on specific assay variations and any technical problems. PMID:22147566

Gatehouse, David

2012-01-01

302

Bacterial Strain Diversity Within Wounds  

PubMed Central

Significance: Rare bacterial taxa (taxa of low relative frequency) are numerous and ubiquitous in virtually any sample—including wound samples. In addition, even the high-frequency genera and species contain multiple strains. These strains, individually, are each only a small fraction of the total bacterial population. Against the view that wounds contain relatively few kinds of bacteria, this newly recognized diversity implies a relatively high rate of migration into the wound and the potential for diversification during infection. Understanding the biological and medical importance of these numerous taxa is an important new element of wound microbiology. Recent Advances: Only recently have these numerous strains been discovered; the technology to detect, identify, and characterize them is still in its infancy. Multiple strains of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria have been found in a single wound. In the few cases studied, the distribution of the bacteria suggests microhabitats and biological interactions. Critical Issues: The distribution of the strains, their phenotypic diversity, and their interactions are still largely uncharacterized. The technologies to investigate this level of genomic detail are still developing and have not been largely deployed to investigate wounds. Future Directions: As advanced metagenomics, single-cell genomics, and advanced microscopy develop, the study of wound microbiology will better address the complex interplay of numerous individually rare strains with both the host and each other. PMID:25566411

Kirkup, Benjamin C.

2015-01-01

303

Family Fitness = Family Fun! Presented by  

E-print Network

health benefits 35% of adults 18 years and older who engaged in regular leisure-time physical activity calories! · Build family bonds & create memories · Experience love and laughter · Master new skills. #12

304

A knot in the protein structure probing the near-infrared fluorescent protein iRFP designed from a bacterial  

E-print Network

A knot in the protein structure ­ probing the near-infrared fluorescent protein iRFP designed from The possibility of engineering near-infrared fluorescent proteins and biosen- sors from bacterial phytochrome photoreceptors (BphPs) has led to substan- tial interest in this family of proteins. The near-infrared

Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

305

Invited review: Bacterial lipopolysaccharides and innate immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are the major outer surface membrane components present in almost all Gram-negative bacteria and act as extremely strong stimulators of innate or natural immunity in diverse eukaryotic species ranging from insects to humans. LPS consist of a poly- or oligosaccharide region that is anchored in the outer bacterial membrane by a specific carbohydrate lipid moiety termed lipid

Christian Alexander; Ernst Th. Rietschel

2001-01-01

306

Bacterial Monitoring for the Buck Creek Watershed  

E-print Network

The “Bacterial Monitoring for the Buck Creek Watershed” project was developed in response to the creek’s listing on the Texas Water Quality Inventory and 303(d) List due to a bacterial impairment and subsequent total maximum daily load (TMDL...

307

Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several chemical changes in soil are associated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Some bacterial strains directly regulate plant physiology by mimicking synthesis of plant hormones, whereas others increase mineral and nitrogen availability in the soil as a way to augment growth. Identification of bacterial chemical messengers that trigger growth promotion has been limited in part by the understanding of how

Choong-Min Ryu; Mohamed A. Farag; Chia-Hui Hu; Munagala S. Reddy; Han-Xun Wei; Paul W. Paré; Joseph W. Kloepper

2003-01-01

308

Hyponatraemia associated with pneumonia or bacterial meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum sodium concentrations were measured in 93 children with pneumonia or bacterial meningitis on their admission to hospital. Hyponatraemia (sodium value 134 mmol\\/l or less) was present in 33 (45%) of the 73 children with pneumonia, and in 10 (50%) of the 20 children with bacterial meningitis. Increased secretion of antidiuretic hormone is common in children with pneumonia, as well

F Shann; S Germer

1985-01-01

309

Benthic Bacterial Diversity in Submerged Sinkhole Ecosystems? †  

PubMed Central

Physicochemical characterization, automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) community profiling, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches were used to study bacterial communities inhabiting submerged Lake Huron sinkholes inundated with hypoxic, sulfate-rich groundwater. Photosynthetic cyanobacterial mats on the sediment surface were dominated by Phormidium autumnale, while deeper, organically rich sediments contained diverse and active bacterial communities. PMID:19880643

Nold, Stephen C.; Pangborn, Joseph B.; Zajack, Heidi A.; Kendall, Scott T.; Rediske, Richard R.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.

2010-01-01

310

H +-PPases: a tightly membrane-bound family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The earliest known H+-PPase (proton-pumping inorganic pyrophosphatase), the integrally membrane-bound H+-PPi synthase (proton-pumping inorganic pyrophosphate synthase) from Rhodospirillum rubrum, is still the only alternative to H+-ATP synthase in biological electron transport phosphorylation. Cloning of several higher plant vacuolar H+-PPase genes has led to the recognition that the corresponding proteins form a family of extremely similar proton-pumping enzymes. The bacterial H+-PPi

Margareta Baltscheffsky; Anders Schultz; Herrick Baltscheffsky

1999-01-01

311

The sodium\\/glucose cotransport family SLC5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sodium\\/glucose cotransporter family (SLCA5) has 220 or more members in animal and bacterial cells. There are 11 human genes expressed in tissues ranging from epithelia to the central nervous system. The functions of nine have been revealed by studies using heterologous expression systems: six are tightly coupled plasma membrane Na +\\/substrate cotransporters for solutes such as glucose, myo-inositol and

Ernest M. Wright; Eric Turk

2004-01-01

312

The responses of the taxa composition of particle-attached bacterial community to the decomposition of Microcystis blooms.  

PubMed

The changes of taxa within the particle-attached bacterial assemblage during the decomposition of Microcystis blooms were investigated under darkness and anoxic condition in mesocosm experiments. During 14 days of darkness incubation, chlorophyll-a (Ch-a) concentration decreased from 2000 ?g/L to 5 ?g/L. Samples were collected on days 0, 2 and 14 for bacterial 16S rRNA analysis, based on rapid decreases in the Chl-a concentration of water column. The total bacterial community DNA was extracted and 16S rRNA genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned and sequenced of selected samples. The results showed that the abundance of attached bacteria increased significantly, and the composition of the particle-attached bacterial communities varied temporally during the decomposition of Microcystis blooms. The bacterial assemblage appeared to be dominated by members of Bacteroidetes, Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. Shift of some genera of Alphaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria was also observed. Additionally, we found that the family Sphingomonas, affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria, identified as a microcystin-degrading bacterium, dominated the particle-attached bacterial communities. The results from the present study, together with previously published data highlighted the need for more studies concerning the bacterial degradation process in order to trace the environmental fate of microcystins in field conditions. PMID:24836132

Shao, Keqiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yongping; Yao, Xin; Tang, Xiangming; Qin, Boqiang; Gao, Guang

2014-08-01

313

Bacterial 1,3-1,4-?-glucanases: structure, function and protein engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,3-1,4-?-Glucanases (or lichenases, EC 3.2.1.73) hydrolyse linear ?-glucans containing ?-1,3 and ?-1,4 linkages such as cereal ?-glucans and lichenan, with a strict cleavage specificity for ?-1,4 glycosidic bonds on 3-O-substituted glucosyl residues. The bacterial enzymes are retaining glycosyl hydrolases of family 16 with a jellyroll ?-sandwich fold and a substrate binding cleft composed of six subsites. The present paper reviews

Antoni Planas

2000-01-01

314

Family Literacy Schools, teachers and  

E-print Network

1 Family Literacy Schools, teachers and family literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 A snapshot of National Family Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 A representative community organization . . . 7 Supporting regional cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Family Literacy: Programming that Works

Ellis, Randy

315

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Colorimetric / fluorescent bacterial sensing by agarose-  

E-print Network

and fluorescence transformations in response to bacterial growth. The sensing constructs comprise glassORIGINAL ARTICLE Colorimetric / fluorescent bacterial sensing by agarose- embedded lipid The development of simple and rapid bacterial detection techniques is drawing intense scientific and technological

Jelinek, Raz

316

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Colorimetric / fluorescent bacterial sensing by agarose-  

E-print Network

in response to bacterial growth. The sensing constructs comprise glass-supported LangmuirORIGINAL ARTICLE Colorimetric / fluorescent bacterial sensing by agarose- embedded lipid The development of simple and rapid bacterial detection techniques is drawing intense scientific and technological

Jelinek, Raz

317

21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5260 Breathing circuit bacterial filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that...

2013-04-01

318

21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5260 Breathing circuit bacterial filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that...

2014-04-01

319

Transfusion-associated bacterial sepsis.  

PubMed Central

The incidence of sepsis caused by transfusion of bacterially contaminated blood components is similar to or less than that of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis C virus infection, yet significantly exceeds those currently estimated for transfusion-associated human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B viruses. Outcomes are serious and may be fatal. In addition, transfusion of sterile allogenic blood can have generalized immunosuppressive effects on recipients, resulting in increased susceptibility to postoperative infection. This review examines the frequency of occurrence of transfusion-associated sepsis, the organisms implicated, and potential sources of bacteria. Approaches to minimize the frequency of sepsis are discussed, including the benefits and disadvantages of altering the storage conditions for blood. In addition, the impact of high levels of bacteria on the gross characteristics of erythrocyte and platelet concentrates is described. The potentials and limitations of current tests for detecting bacteria in blood are also discussed. PMID:7923050

Wagner, S J; Friedman, L I; Dodd, R Y

1994-01-01

320

[Organ pathology of bacterial shock].  

PubMed

On the basis of histological and histochemical examinations of 100 postmortem observations of bacterial shock, 4 stages of disorders in the microcirculatory bed and in cell elements of organs in this complication are distinguished. The hemodynamic stage consists in redistribution of the blood flow, alternation of spasm and paresis, and vascular dystonia. In the stage of hemorheological disorders congestion is substituted by stasis, sludging of erythrocytes due to pachyemia. As a result of increased permeability of vessel walls, interstitial edema and early changes of parenchymatous cells of organs occur at the enzymatic level. The addition of DIBC syndrome leads to deeper ischemia of organs and formation of necroses, hemorrhages, acute ulcers. As a consequence, organ insufficiency (adrenal, renal, respiratory) develops. PMID:6670942

Kan'shina, N F

1983-01-01

321

Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins  

PubMed Central

Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.

2014-01-01

322

Fluid dynamics of bacterial turbulence.  

PubMed

Self-sustained turbulent structures have been observed in a wide range of living fluids, yet no quantitative theory exists to explain their properties. We report experiments on active turbulence in highly concentrated 3D suspensions of Bacillus subtilis and compare them with a minimal fourth-order vector-field theory for incompressible bacterial dynamics. Velocimetry of bacteria and surrounding fluid, determined by imaging cells and tracking colloidal tracers, yields consistent results for velocity statistics and correlations over 2 orders of magnitude in kinetic energy, revealing a decrease of fluid memory with increasing swimming activity and linear scaling between kinetic energy and enstrophy. The best-fit model allows for quantitative agreement with experimental data. PMID:23767750

Dunkel, Jörn; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Drescher, Knut; Wensink, Henricus H; Bär, Markus; Goldstein, Raymond E

2013-05-31

323

Bacterial Actins? An Evolutionary Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to the conventional wisdom, the existence of a cytoskeleton in eukaryotes and its absence in prokaryotes constitute a fundamental divide between the two domains of life. An integral part of the dogma is that a cytoskeleton enabled an early eukaryote to feed upon prokaryotes, a consequence of which was the occasional endosymbiosis and the eventual evolution of organelles. Two recent papers present compelling evidence that actin, one of the principal components of a cytoskeleton, has a homolog in Bacteria that behaves in many ways like eukaryotic actin. Sequence comparisons reveml that eukaryotic actin and the bacterial homolog (mreB protein), unlike many other proteins common to eukaryotes and Bacteria, have very different and more highly extended evolutionary histories.

Doolittle, Russell F.; York, Amanda L.

2003-01-01

324

Bacterial chemotaxis and entropy production  

PubMed Central

Entropy production is calculated for bacterial chemotaxis in the case of a migrating band of bacteria in a capillary tube. It is found that the speed of the migrating band is a decreasing function of the starting concentration of the metabolizable attractant. The experimentally found dependence of speed on the starting concentration of galactose, glucose and oxygen is fitted with power-law functions. It is found that the corresponding exponents lie within the theoretically predicted interval. The effect of the reproduction of bacteria on band speed is considered, too. The acceleration of the band is predicted due to the reproduction rate of bacteria. The relationship between chemotaxis, the maximum entropy production principle and the formation of self-organizing structure is discussed. PMID:20368258

Županovi?, Paško; Brumen, Milan; Jagodi?, Marko; Jureti?, Davor

2010-01-01

325

Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: Functionality and Prospects  

PubMed Central

Diverse structural, functional and valuable polysaccharides are synthesized by bacteria of all taxa and secreted into the external environment. These polysaccharides are referred to as exopolysaccharides and they may either be homopolymeric or heteropolymeric in composition and of diverse high molecular weights (10 to 1000 kDa). The material properties of exopolysaccharides have revolutionized the industrial and medical sectors due to their retinue of functional applications and prospects. These applications have been extensive in areas such as pharmacological, nutraceutical, functional food, cosmeceutical, herbicides and insecticides among others, while prospects includes uses as anticoagulant, antithrombotic, immunomodulation, anticancer and as bioflocculants. Due to the extensive applications of bacterial exopolysaccharides, this overview provides basic information on their physiologic and morphologic functions as well as their applications and prospects in the medical and industrial sectors. PMID:23203046

Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Green, Ezekiel; Okoh, Anthony I.

2012-01-01

326

Bacterial vesicles in marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Many heterotrophic bacteria are known to release extracellular vesicles, facilitating interactions between cells and their environment from a distance. Vesicle production has not been described in photoautotrophs, however, and the prevalence and characteristics of vesicles in natural ecosystems is unknown. Here, we report that cultures of Prochlorococcus, a numerically dominant marine cyanobacterium, continuously release lipid vesicles containing proteins, DNA, and RNA. We also show that vesicles carrying DNA from diverse bacteria are abundant in coastal and open-ocean seawater samples. Prochlorococcus vesicles can support the growth of heterotrophic bacterial cultures, which implicates these structures in marine carbon flux. The ability of vesicles to deliver diverse compounds in discrete packages adds another layer of complexity to the flow of information, energy, and biomolecules in marine microbial communities. PMID:24408433

Biller, Steven J; Schubotz, Florence; Roggensack, Sara E; Thompson, Anne W; Summons, Roger E; Chisholm, Sallie W

2014-01-10

327

Bacterial Survival in Laundered Fabrics  

PubMed Central

Bacterial survival was determined in linens (i) inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus (ii), taken from hospital isolation patients' beds, and (iii) used by students in their homes. Two different washers using temperatures of 38, 49, 54 and 60 C, respectively, for different times were employed along with a commercial tumbler dryer. Findings, after macerating the linens in a Waring blender and enumerating on nonselective media, indicate that acceptable levels of survivors can be achieved in motel and hotel linens by an 8- to 10-min wash cycle at 54 C followed by adequate drying. However, it is recommended that a wash cycle with 60 C for 10 to 13 min be employed for linens in health care factilities. The microbial significance of various laundering practices is discussed. PMID:1090256

Walter, William G.; Schillinger, John E.

1975-01-01

328

New pathways for bacterial polythioesters.  

PubMed

Polythioesters (PTE) contain sulfur in the backbone and represent persistent biopolymers, which are produced by certain chemical procedures as well as biotechnological in vitro and in vivo techniques. Different building blocks can be incorporated, resulting in PTE with variable features that could become interesting for special purposes. Particularly, the option to produce PTE in large-scale and in accordance with the methods of white biotechnology or green chemistry is valuable due to economical potentials and public environmental consciousness. This review is focused on the synthesis of PTE by the three established bacterial production strains Ralstonia eutropha, Escherichia coli and Advenella mimigardefordensis. In addition, an overview of the in vitro production and degradation of PTE is depicted. PMID:24681198

Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2014-10-01

329

Bacterial survival in laundered fabrics.  

PubMed

Bacterial survival was determined in linens (i) inoculated with Staphylococcus auerus (ii), taken from hospital isolation patients' beds, and (iii) used by students in their homes. Two different washers using temperatures of 38, 49, 54 and 60 C, respectively, for different times were empolyed along with a commercial tumbler dryer. Findings, after macerating the linens in Waring blender and enumerating on nonselective media, indicate that acceptable levels of survivors can be acheived in motel and hotel linens by an 8- to 10-min wash cycle at 54 C followed by adequate drying. However, it is recommended that a wash cycle with 60 C for 10 to 13 min be employed for linens in health care factilities. The microbial significance of various laundering practices is discussed. PMID:1090256

Walter, W G; Schillinger, J E

1975-03-01

330

Bacterial oncogenesis in the colon  

PubMed Central

The human colon plays host to a diverse and metabolically complex community of microorganisms. While the colonic microbiome has been suggested to contribute to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), a definitive link has not been made. The role in which the colon microflora could contribute to the initiation and/or progression of CRC is explored in this review. Potential mechanisms of bacterial oncogenesis are presented, along with lines of evidence derived from animal models of microbially induced CRC. Particular focus is given to the oncogenic capabilities of enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis. Recent progress in defining the microbiome of CRC in the human population is evaluated, and the future challenges of linking specific etiologic agents to CRC are emphasized. PMID:23534358

Dejea, Christine; Wick, Elizabeth; Sears, Cynthia L

2013-01-01

331

Bacterial interactions in dental biofilm  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are masses of microorganisms that bind to and multiply on a solid surface, typically with a fluid bathing the microbes. The microorganisms that are not attached but are free-floating in an aqueous environment are termed planktonic cells. Traditionally, microbiology research has addressed results from planktonic bacterial cells. However, many recent studies have indicated that biofilms are the preferred form of growth of most microbes and particularly those of a pathogenic nature. Biofilms on animal hosts have significantly increased resistance to various antimicrobials compared to planktonic cells. These microbial communities form microcolonies that interact with each other using very sophisticated communication methods (i.e., quorum-sensing). The development of unique microbiological tools to detect and assess the various biofilms around us is a tremendously important focus of research in many laboratories. In the present review, we discuss the major biofilm mechanisms and the interactions among oral bacteria. PMID:21778817

Huang, Ruijie; Li, Mingyun

2011-01-01

332

Bacterial sorption of heavy metals.  

PubMed Central

Four bacteria, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were examined for the ability to remove Ag+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and La3+ from solution by batch equilibration methods. Cd and Cu sorption over the concentration range 0.001 to 1 mM was described by Freundlich isotherms. At 1 mM concentrations of both Cd2+ and Cu2+, P. aeruginosa and B. cereus were the most and least efficient at metal removal, respectively. Freundlich K constants indicated that E. coli was most efficient at Cd2+ removal and B. subtilis removed the most Cu2+. Removal of Ag+ from solution by bacteria was very efficient; an average of 89% of the total Ag+ was removed from the 1 mM solution, while only 12, 29, and 27% of the total Cd2+, Cu2+, and La3+, respectively, were sorbed from 1 mM solutions. Electron microscopy indicated that La3+ accumulated at the cell surface as needlelike, crystalline precipitates. Silver precipitated as discrete colloidal aggregates at the cell surface and occasionally in the cytoplasm. Neither Cd2+ nor Cu2+ provided enough electron scattering to identify the location of sorption. The affinity series for bacterial removal of these metals decreased in the order Ag greater than La greater than Cu greater than Cd. The results indicate that bacterial cells are capable of binding large quantities of different metals. Adsorption equations may be useful for describing bacterium-metal interactions with metals such as Cd and Cu; however, this approach may not be adequate when precipitation of metals occurs. Images PMID:2515800

Mullen, M D; Wolf, D C; Ferris, F G; Beveridge, T J; Flemming, C A; Bailey, G W

1989-01-01

333

Absorption Changes in Bacterial Chromatophores  

PubMed Central

The magnitude and kinetics of photo-induced absorption changes in bacterial chromatophores (R. rubrum, R. spheroides and Chromatium) have been studied as a function of potential, established by added redox couples. No photochanges can be observed above +0.55 v or below -0.15 v. The loss of signal at the higher potential is centered at +0.439 v and follows a one-electron change. The loss of signal at the lower potential is centered at -0.044 v and is also consistent with a one-electron change. Both losses are reversible. A quantitative relationship exists between light-minus-dark and oxidized-minus-reduced spectra in the near infrared from +0.30 to +0.55 v. Selective treatment of the chromatophores with strong oxidants irreversibly bleaches the bulk pigments but appears to leave intact those pigments responsible for the photo- and chemically-induced absorption changes. Kinetic studies of the photochanges in deaerated samples of R. rubrum chromatophores revealed the same rise time for bands at 433, 792, and 865 m? (t½ = 50 msec.). However, these bands had different decay rates (t½ = 1.5, 0.5, 0.15 sec., respectively), indicating that they belong to different pigments. Analysis of the data indicates, as the simplest interpretation, a first-order (or pseudo first-order) forward reaction and two parallel first-order (or pseudo first-order) decay reactions at each wavelength. These results imply that all pigments whose kinetics are given are photooxidized and the decay processes are dark reductions. These experiments are viewed as supporting and extending the concept of a bacterial photosynthetic unit, with energy migration within it to specific sites of electron transfer. PMID:14185583

Kuntz, Irwin D.; Loach, Paul A.; Calvin, Melvin

1964-01-01

334

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome  

PubMed Central

Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. There are several endogenous defence mechanisms for preventing bacterial overgrowth: gastric acid secretion, intestinal motility, intact ileo-caecal valve, immunoglobulins within intestinal secretion and bacteriostatic properties of pancreatic and biliary secretion. Aetiology of SIBO is usually complex, associated with disorders of protective antibacterial mechanisms (e.g. achlorhydria, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, immunodeficiency syndromes), anatomical abnormalities (e.g. small intestinal obstruction, diverticula, fistulae, surgical blind loop, previous ileo-caecal resections) and/or motility disorders (e.g. scleroderma, autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus, post-radiation enteropathy, small intestinal pseudo-obstruction). In some patients more than one factor may be involved. Symptoms related to SIBO are bloating, diarrhoea, malabsorption, weight loss and malnutrition. The gold standard for diagnosing SIBO is still microbial investigation of jejunal aspirates. Non-invasive hydrogen and methane breath tests are most commonly used for the diagnosis of SIBO using glucose or lactulose. Therapy for SIBO must be complex, addressing all causes, symptoms and complications, and fully individualised. It should include treatment of the underlying disease, nutritional support and cyclical gastro-intestinal selective antibiotics. Prognosis is usually serious, determined mostly by the underlying disease that led to SIBO. PMID:20572300

Bures, Jan; Cyrany, Jiri; Kohoutova, Darina; Förstl, Miroslav; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Vorisek, Viktor; Kopacova, Marcela

2010-01-01

335

Bacterial diversity in Cr(VI) and Cr(III)-contaminated industrial wastewaters.  

PubMed

The bacterial community structure of a chromium water bath, a chromium drainage waste system, a chromium pretreatment tank, and a trivalent chromium precipitation tank from the Hellenic Aerospace Industry S.A. was assessed using 16S rRNA libraries and a high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip). 16S rRNA libraries revealed a bacterial diversity consisting of 14 distinct operational taxonomic units belonging to five bacterial phyla: Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. However, employing a novel microarray-based approach (PhyloChip), a high bacterial diversity consisting of 30 different phyla was revealed, with representatives of 181 different families. This made it possible to identify a core set of genera present in all wastewater treatment stages examined, consisting of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. In the chromium pretreatment tank, where the concentration of Cr(VI) is high (2.3 mg/l), we identified the presence of Pseudomonadales, Actinomycetales, and Enterobacteriales in abundance. In the chromium precipitation tank, where the concentration of Cr(III) is high, the dominant bacteria consortia were replaced by members of Rhodocyclales and Chloroflexi. The bacterial community structure changed significantly with changes in the chromium concentration. This in-depth analysis should prove useful for the design and development of improved bioremediation strategies. PMID:22258276

Katsaveli, Katerina; Vayenas, Dimitris; Tsiamis, George; Bourtzis, Kostas

2012-03-01

336

Interplay of heritage and habitat in the distribution of bacterial signal transduction systems  

PubMed Central

Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequences from a variety of poorly studied organisms aims at predicting ecological and behavioral properties of these organisms and help in characterizing their habitats. This task requires finding appropriate descriptors that could be correlated with the core traits of each system and would allow meaningful comparisons. Using the relatively simple bacterial models, first attempts have been made to introduce suitable metrics to describe the complexity of organism’s signaling machinery, which included introducing the “bacterial IQ” score. Here, we use an updated census of prokaryotic signal transduction systems to improve this parameter and evaluate its consistency within selected bacterial phyla. We also introduce a more elaborate descriptor, a set of profiles of relative abundance of members of each family of signal transduction proteins encoded in each genome. We show that these family profiles are well conserved within each genus and are often consistent within families of bacteria. Thus, they reflect evolutionary relationships between organisms as well as individual adaptations of each organism to its specific ecological niche. PMID:20237650

Galperin, Michael Y.; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Eugene

2011-01-01

337

Familial germ cell tumor  

PubMed Central

Familial testicular germ cell tumors are well known in literature. Only few cases are reported where both brother and sister of the same family suffered from germ cell malignancies. We present a family where the proband is a survivor of ovarian dysgerminoma stage IA. Her elder male sibling became acutely ill and was detected to have disseminated testicular malignancy with grossly elevated markers and vegetations in the mitral valve leaflets. Despite all measures he could not be saved. Presence of germ cell malignancies in the siblings of different sex in the same family points toward a genetic susceptibility. Literature review revealed only six similar cases. A discussion regarding the rare occurrence of familial germ cell malignancies with the affected family members may be worthwhile. PMID:22754236

Cyriac, Sanju; Rajendranath, Rejeev; Louis, A Robert; Sagar, T. G.

2012-01-01

338

Chirality: The Key to Specific Bacterial Protease-Based Diagnosis?.  

E-print Network

??abstractAbstract Bacterial proteases play an important role in a broad spectrum of processes, including colonization, proliferation and virulence. In this respect, bacterial proteases are potential… (more)

W.E. Kaman (Wendy E.)

2014-01-01

339

Putting 'family' back in family planning.  

PubMed

Family planning visits are designed to help women build families in a manner most compatible with their life goals. Women's knowledge regarding age-related fertility is suboptimal, and first wanted pregnancies are now occurring at older ages. Here we review the issue of diminishing chances of a pregnancy occurring in women over 30 years of age. A debate arises over whether to perform a standard fertility assessment at an age when, for example, oocyte freezing is still practical and feasible, knowing that the proven predictors in subfertile couples may be less informative, or even inappropriate, in women without complaints about fertility. Studies have demonstrated that if women knew that their fertility was diminishing, they might alter life plans, including having children sooner or considering oocyte preservation. Therefore, we argue that physicians need to make an effort to evaluate a woman's childbearing priorities, though not necessarily their fertility, during the initial family planning visit. PMID:25406182

Seifer, David B; Minkoff, Howard; Merhi, Zaher

2015-01-01

340

Neighborhoods and Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neighborhoods have a profound impact on children and their families, including health and safety, educational attainment,\\u000a child maltreatment risk, and many others. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the specific mechanisms through which neighborhood\\u000a physical and social characteristics features influence child and family outcomes. This chapter looks at current definitions\\u000a for community and family and reviews research for community effects

James R. McDonell

341

The family lecture.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This paper describes a lecture about my extended family, in which I discuss a variety of configurations consisting of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and our children. It raises an array of issues, including alternative insemination, biological and nonbiological parentage, donors and birthmothers, adoption, co-parenting and blended families, significant others, and gay marriage and domestic partnership. It helps many students obtain both a more expansive sense of family and adeeper understanding of homophobia. PMID:24804601

Rose, Nancy E

2002-10-01

342

Genetic and Computational Identification of a Conserved Bacterial Metabolic Module  

PubMed Central

We have experimentally and computationally defined a set of genes that form a conserved metabolic module in the ?-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus and used this module to illustrate a schema for the propagation of pathway-level annotation across bacterial genera. Applying comprehensive forward and reverse genetic methods and genome-wide transcriptional analysis, we (1) confirmed the presence of genes involved in catabolism of the abundant environmental sugar myo-inositol, (2) defined an operon encoding an ABC-family myo-inositol transmembrane transporter, and (3) identified a novel myo-inositol regulator protein and cis-acting regulatory motif that control expression of genes in this metabolic module. Despite being encoded from non-contiguous loci on the C. crescentus chromosome, these myo-inositol catabolic enzymes and transporter proteins form a tightly linked functional group in a computationally inferred network of protein associations. Primary sequence comparison was not sufficient to confidently extend annotation of all components of this novel metabolic module to related bacterial genera. Consequently, we implemented the Graemlin multiple-network alignment algorithm to generate cross-species predictions of genes involved in myo-inositol transport and catabolism in other ?-proteobacteria. Although the chromosomal organization of genes in this functional module varied between species, the upstream regions of genes in this aligned network were enriched for the same palindromic cis-regulatory motif identified experimentally in C. crescentus. Transposon disruption of the operon encoding the computationally predicted ABC myo-inositol transporter of Sinorhizobium meliloti abolished growth on myo-inositol as the sole carbon source, confirming our cross-genera functional prediction. Thus, we have defined regulatory, transport, and catabolic genes and a cis-acting regulatory sequence that form a conserved module required for myo-inositol metabolism in select ?-proteobacteria. Moreover, this study describes a forward validation of gene-network alignment, and illustrates a strategy for reliably transferring pathway-level annotation across bacterial species. PMID:19096521

Boutte, Cara C.; Srinivasan, Balaji S.; Flannick, Jason A.; Novak, Antal F.; Martens, Andrew T.; Batzoglou, Serafim; Viollier, Patrick H.; Crosson, Sean

2008-01-01

343

Contact-dependent inhibition: bacterial brakes and secret handshakes.  

PubMed

Interbacterial communication can be mediated by soluble secreted factors and direct cell-cell contact. Recently, Aoki et al. identified a new contact-dependent communication pathway by which strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli can inhibit the growth of other microbes within a mixed population. Two novel gene products--CdiA and CdiB, which seem to be members of a two-partner secretion family with homologs in many pathogens--mediate this contact-dependent inhibition (CDI). A third gene product, CdiI, provides immunity to CDI, as does expression of either P or S pili. The interplay between CDI and immunity factors could directly affect the course of an infection and modulate both the dispersion and the chronic persistence of bacterial pathogens within the host. PMID:16387500

Slechta, E Susan; Mulvey, Matthew A

2006-02-01

344

Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial meningitis remains a disease with associated unacceptable morbidity and mortality rates despite the availability of effective bactericidal antimicrobial therapy. Through the use of experimental animal models of infection, a great deal of information has been gleaned concerning the pathogenic and pathophysiologic mechanisms operable in bacterial meningitis. Most cases of bacterial meningitis begin with host acquisition of a new organism by nasopharyngeal colonization followed by systemic invasion and development of a high-grade bacteremia. Bacterial encapsulation contributes to this bacteremia by inhibiting neutrophil phagocytosis and resisting classic complement-mediated bactericidal activity. Central nervous system invasion then occurs, although the exact site of bacterial traversal into the central nervous system is unknown. By production and/or release of virulence factors into and stimulation of formation of inflammatory cytokines within the central nervous system, meningeal pathogens increase permeability of the blood-brain barrier, thus allowing protein and neutrophils to move into the subarachnoid space. There is then an intense subarachnoid space inflammatory response, which leads to many of the pathophysiologic consequences of bacterial meningitis, including cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure. Attenuation of this inflammatory response with adjunctive dexamethasone therapy is associated with reduced concentrations of tumor necrosis factor in the cerebrospinal fluid, with diminished cerebrospinal fluid leukocytosis, and perhaps with improvement of morbidity, as demonstrated in recent clinical trials. Further information on the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis should lead to the development of more innovative treatment and/or preventive strategies for this disorder. Images PMID:8472245

Tunkel, A R; Scheld, W M

1993-01-01

345

Bacterial sensor kinases using Fe-S cluster binding PAS or GAF domains for O2 sensing.  

PubMed

[4Fe-4S](2+) clusters are used by very diverse types of bacterial sensors for response to oxygen, including DNA-binding proteins of the CRP/FNR family and sensor kinases like NreB. In NreB the cluster is bound by an input domain of the PAS type. The [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster of NreB responds to O(2) by degradation to a [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster which is labile and decomposes. NreB constitutes together with AirS the NreB/AirS family of bacterial sensor kinases that contain PAS or GAF domains for binding of [4Fe-4S](2+) or [2Fe-2S](2+) clusters and oxygen sensing. The NreB/AirS family is related to the FixL sensor kinases that use hemeB binding PAS domains for oxygen sensing. PMID:23138661

Unden, Gottfried; Nilkens, Stephanie; Singenstreu, Mareike

2013-03-01

346

MICROBIOLOGY: A Bacterial Pathogen Sees the Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Photosensitive proteins abound in the bacterial kingdom, but their cellular functions often remain a mystery. In this Perspective Kennis and Crosson discuss how Swartz et al. identified a functional role for a new type of light sensor in bacteria--light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) histidine kinase. In the notorious pathogen Brucella abortus, light increases the enzymatic activity of this kinase, which, remarkably, increases virulence of the bacterium. Related LOV histidine kinases are conserved across a range of bacterial taxa, suggesting that this virulence pathway could be one of many new photosensory pathways regulating bacterial physiology.

John T. M. Kennis (Faculty of Sciences, Vrije Universiteit;Biophysics Department); Sean Crosson (The University of Chicago;Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)

2007-08-24

347

Family Literacy: Abstracts of Family Literacy Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The abstracts in this publication describe 29 federally and privately funded family literacy projects in the United States. Each entry provides the name of the project, background information, project aims, and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of contact persons. (RH)

Office of Vocational and Adult Education (ED), Washington, DC. Div. of Adult Education and Literacy.

348

Families, Risk, and Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problems of studying families arise from the difficulty in studying systems in which there are multiple elements interacting with each other and with the child. This book attests to the growing sophistication of the conceptualization and measurement techniques for understanding family processes. Chapters in the first part of the book, "The…

Lewis, Michael, Ed.; Feiring, Candice, Ed.

349

Golden Matrix Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student research project explores the properties of a family of matrices of zeros and ones that arises from the study of the diagonal lengths in a regular polygon. There is one family for each n greater than 2. A series of exercises guides the student to discover the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrices, which leads in turn to…

Fontaine, Anne; Hurley, Susan

2011-01-01

350

Family Support and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement is essential to the developmental outcome of infants born into Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). In this article, evidence has been presented on the parent's perspective of having an infant in the NICU and the context of family. Key points to an educational assessment are also reviewed. Throughout, the parent's concerns and…

Goldstein, Lou Ann

2013-01-01

351

EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

ANXIETY DEPRESSION EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS GENERAL CONCERNS INTERPERSONAL DIFFICULTIES.946.5117 Counselling and Cyber Counselling Services to Help With: · Anxiety · Depression · Eating disorders · Family help. What We Are A new initiative of the Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, University

Toronto, University of

352

THE URBAN NEGRO FAMILY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN TRACING THE MOVEMENT OF THE NEGRO FAMILY TOWARD A MIDDLE-CLASS ORIENTATION AND TOWARD URBANIZATION, THIS ARTICLE NOTES THAT THE PATTERN IS BECOMING SIMILAR TO THAT OF THE GENERAL AMERICAN FAMILY. NEGROES HAVE LEFT THEIR SOUTHERN RURAL FARMS FOR BOTH SOUTHERN AND NORTHERN URBAN AREAS AND HAVE TENDED TO SETTLE IN THE INNER CORE OF THE LARGEST…

DOUGLASS, JOSEPH H.

353

Understanding Family Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the reactions by different family members to various social behaviors by a target child to determine what are the most probable consequences that child will experience. These analyses were based on the home observations of 47 nonclinical families with an identified target child between the ages of four and eight. The probabilities

Linda Musun Baskett

1985-01-01

354

Moving Your Family Overseas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses the challenges that families face in moving overseas. Chapters include: (1) "What This Move Means for Your Family"; (2) "Breaking the News"; (3) "Learning about Your New Country"; (4) "Preparing for the Move"; (5) "The Early Days"; (6) "Culture Shock"; (7) "Expatriate Life"; (8) "How Is Everyone Coping?"; (9) "Social…

Kalb, Rosalind C.; Welch, Penelope

355

Family-Friendly Art  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1980s, the Denver Art Museum initiated efforts to make the museum a destination for families. From 1997 to 2001, with a generous grant from The Pew Charitable Trusts, these efforts came to fruition. From the moment they walk through the doors, families' needs are anticipated. For example, they can pick up a welcoming brochure, Free…

Williams, Patterson; Garcia, Maria

2004-01-01

356

Workshops on Family Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help speech communication professionals become involved in developing, implementing, and evaluating marital or family enrichment programs, this booklet discusses the theory and practice of using marital enrichment programs to increase family harmony. The first section contains an overview of selected enrichment programs, as well as…

Galvin, Kathleen M.

357

Snowbird Intergenerational Family Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative study examined the family relationships of snowbirds. Interviews were conducted with 25 older adults from the Midwest who migrated seasonally to the Sunbelt. Snowbirds did not perceive their winter experience as having a negative impact on their families in any significant way. The vast majority of snowbirds expressed satisfaction with how well they maintained their intergenerational ties and

Kristine E. Bjelde; Gregory F. Sanders

2009-01-01

358

Changing Families, Changing Workplaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income…

Bianchi, Suzanne M.

2011-01-01

359

WORK FAMILY LIFE !"#"$%&$'()*!("$+(,-./*$"#(.-/,*$/&!&#&0&-/  

E-print Network

, China adopted its strict one-child policy in 1979. 5=F%B9%;=B9%=>GG8EBEH%E--and they feel they can manage this with one child, but not more. Many families would like to have more kids toward one-child families. The U.S. Census Bureau reports that, in the last 20 years, the number

Ginzel, Matthew

360

[Focus: Family Communication].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the "Journal of the Wisconsin Communication Association" focuses on family communication and contains the following articles: "Marital Typologies: An Alternative Approach to the Study of Communication in Enduring Relations" by Mary Anne Fitzpatrick, "Intimate Communication and the Family" by Marilyn D. LaCourt, and "A Study in…

Barnes, Richard E., Ed.

1977-01-01

361

Families under Economic Pressure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The economic decline of rural America has widespread consequences for families, children, and education. Broad changes in farming and in the rural nonfarm sector have pushed the poverty rate for rural areas in the 1980s higher than the central cities rate. Projections indicate that by the mid-1990s, one-half of all farm families in the midwest may…

Elder, Glen H., Jr.; And Others

362

Explaining Family Interactions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A detailed review of current research and state-of-the-art ideas concerning both communication processes and family functioning is presented in this collection of articles. The volume is organized around three sections. Part 1, "The Development of Family Communication Patterns," contains: (1) "Communication in Infancy" (Marguerite Stevenson…

Fitzpatrick, Mary Anne, Ed.; Vangelisti, Anita L., Ed.

363

Family Perspectives on Prematurity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

Zero to Three (J), 2003

2003-01-01

364

Education and the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is the report of the Family Ties Commission, which was established by the Association of Teacher Educators to study the relationship between home and school. Following the preface and two introductory essays, "Education and My Family" (K.B. O'Rourke as told to E. Johnson) and "Preparing for Successful Children" (B. Clawson), the book is…

Kaplan, Leonard, Ed.

365

Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du Bois and…

Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

366

Advancing Measurement of Family Leisure  

E-print Network

of this theory; therefore, 14 anything that happens to one family member will impact all family members. The three prominent and empirically based models of family functioning are: (a) the Beaver’s Family System Model, (b) the Circumplex Model, and (c... Comparison Beaver’s Model of Family Functioning McMaster’s Model of Family Functioning Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems Authors Beavers & Hampson Epstein and colleagues Olson & colleagues Year Developed 1977...

Melton, Karen

2014-08-06

367

Molecular Evolution of a Novel Family of Putative Calcium Transporters  

PubMed Central

The UPF0016 family is a group of uncharacterized membrane proteins, well conserved through evolution and defined by the presence of one or two copies of an E-?-G-D-(KR)-(ST) consensus motif. Our previous results have shown that two members of this family, the human TMEM165 and the budding yeast Gdt1p, are functionally related and might form a new group of cation/Ca2+ exchangers. Most members of the family are made of two homologous clusters of three transmembrane spans, separated by a central loop and assembled with an opposite orientation in the membrane. However, some bacterial members of the family have only one cluster of transmembrane domains. Among these ‘single-domain membrane proteins’ some cyanobacterial members were found as pairs of adjacent genes within the genome, but each gene was slightly different. We performed a bioinformatic analysis to propose the molecular evolution of the UPF0016 family and the emergence of the antiparallel topology. Our hypotheses were confirmed experimentally using functional complementation in yeast. This suggests an important and conserved function for UPF0016 proteins in a fundamental cellular process. We also show that members of the UPF0016 family share striking similarities, but no primary sequence homology, with members of the cation/Ca2+ exchangers (CaCA) superfamily. Such similarities could be an example of convergent evolution, supporting the previous hypothesis that members of the UPF0016 family are cation/Ca2+ exchangers. PMID:24955841

Demaegd, Didier; Colinet, Anne-Sophie; Deschamps, Antoine; Morsomme, Pierre

2014-01-01

368

[Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].  

PubMed

Microbiological analysis of discharge from the genitals in passenger car conductors (5787 women and 1496 men aged 20 to 40) showed Gardnerella vaginalis to be the most frequent agent of urogenital infection. It was isolated in 26% cases, whereas Trichomonas were isolated in 2.5%, fungi in 1.5%, and gonococci in 0.27% cases. The diagnosis of gardnerellosis is reliable if the key cells are found. Monoinfection with G. vaginalis was diagnosed in 80% patients, the overwhelming majority (74%) of carriers of this bacterium had no inflammatory symptoms, and in only 26% the carrier state was associated with the presence of leukocytes and histiocytes, more often in the cervix. In men the carrier state was detected in 0.4% cases. The clinical picture of Gardnerella infection is similar to that of infection with Mobiluncus, which is little known. This infection occurred 10 times less frequently (2.5%) than gardnerellosis, but in 92% cases it was a component of mixed infection, most frequently in association with G. vaginalis. A little known fungus Leptothrix was found in the genital discharge of 4% examinees, mostly women, but sometimes in men as well; it is represented by 3 types of ramifying threads. The practitioners are to know these infections causing specific diseases, such as bacterial vaginosis, which are often responsible for serious complications in gynecology and obstetrics. PMID:9410459

Pliutto, A M

1997-03-01

369

THE ETIOLOGY OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection among women of childbearing age. This condition is notorious for causing severe complications related to the reproductive health of women. Five decades of intense research established many risk factors for acquisition of BV, however due to the complexity of BV and due to lack of a reliable animal model for this condition, its exact etiology remains elusive. In this manuscript we use a historical perspective to critically review the development of major theories on the etiology of BV, ultimately implicating BV-related pathogens, healthy vaginal microbiota, bacteriophages and the immune response of the host. None of these theories on their own can reliably explain the epidemiological data. Instead, BV is caused by a complex interaction of multiple factors, which include the numerous components of the vaginal microbial ecosystem and their human host. Many of these factors are yet to be characterized because a clear understanding of their relative contribution to the etiology of BV is pivotal to formulation of an effective treatment for and prophylaxis of this condition. PMID:21332897

Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Noll, Katia Sutyak; Chikindas, Michael L.

2011-01-01

370

Phenotypic plasticity in bacterial plasmids.  

PubMed Central

Plasmid pB15 was previously shown to evolve increased horizontal (infectious) transfer at the expense of reduced vertical (intergenerational) transfer and vice versa, a key trade-off assumed in theories of parasite virulence. Whereas the models predict that susceptible host abundance should determine which mode of transfer is selectively favored, host density failed to mediate the trade-off in pB15. One possibility is that the plasmid's transfer deviates from the assumption that horizontal spread (conjugation) occurs in direct proportion to cell density. I tested this hypothesis using Escherichia coli/pB15 associations in laboratory serial culture. Contrary to most models of plasmid transfer kinetics, my data show that pB15 invades static (nonshaking) bacterial cultures only at intermediate densities. The results can be explained by phenotypic plasticity in traits governing plasmid transfer. As cells become more numerous, the plasmid's conjugative transfer unexpectedly declines, while the trade-off between transmission routes causes vertical transfer to increase. Thus, at intermediate densities the plasmid's horizontal transfer can offset selection against plasmid-bearing cells, but at high densities pB15 conjugates so poorly that it cannot invade. I discuss adaptive vs. nonadaptive causes for the phenotypic plasticity, as well as potential mechanisms that may lead to complex transfer dynamics of plasmids in liquid environments. PMID:15166133

Turner, Paul E

2004-01-01

371

PHAGOCYTOSIS IN SUBACUTE BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS  

PubMed Central

The opsonic properties of immune ?G-globulins isolated from patients with chronic septicemic conditions, principally subacute bacterial endocarditis were studied. Opsonic capacity as well as complement-fixing properties of ?-globulins appeared to be closely associated with integrity of Fc structures. Progressive pepsin digestion of immune ?G-globulins, as monitored by successive loss of Gm(a) and Gm(b) antigens, abolished opsonic activity. Colostral ?A, containing agglutinating antibacterial antibodies but no demonstrable complement-fixing activity, was devoid of opsonic capacity. Reduction of ?-globulin opsonins with 0.01 or 0.1 M mercaptoethanol progressively abolished opsonic activity in parallel with loss of ability of treated ?-globulins to fix complement with bacteria. Treatment of ?-globulin opsonins with 0.01 M sodium metaperiodate also produced complete loss of opsonic capacity in parallel with loss of Gm(b) Fc antigens. These findings, together with antiopsonic effects demonstrable with anti-?-globulin factors showing primary reactivity with Fc structures, indicate that the opsonic property of immune ?-globulins requires the participation of structures integral to the Fc region of ?-globulin. PMID:4175321

Quie, Paul G.; Messner, Ronald P.; Williams, Ralph C.

1968-01-01

372

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy  

E-print Network

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy Thom de Lisa Tedeschi GRADUATE PROGRAM The Department of Marriage and Family Therapy offers an M.A. and a Ph.D. and provides training in marriage and family therapy theory, research, and practice. The faculty seeks

Raina, Ramesh

373

Bacterial populations contaminating the upper gut in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBOS) is characterized by an abnormally high bacterial population level in the upper gut, exceeding 105 organisms\\/ml (5 log colony-forming unit (CFU)\\/ml). To understand its origin and select an appropriate antibiotic treatment, we have analyzed the bacterial populations contaminating the upper gut in SIBOS patients.METHODS:Jejunal samples of 63 consecutive patients with diarrhea or malabsorption and

Yoram Bouhnik; Sophie Alain; Alain Attar; Bernard Flourié; Laurent Raskine; Marie José Sanson-Le Pors; Jean-Claude Rambaud

1999-01-01

374

Bacterial populations contaminating the upper gut in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBOS) is characterized by an abnormally high bacterial population level in the upper gut, exceeding 105 organisms\\/ml (5 log colony-forming unit (CFU)\\/ml). To understand its origin and select an appropriate antibiotic treatment, we have analyzed the bacterial populations contaminating the upper gut in SIBOS patients.Methods:Jejunal samples of 63 consecutive patients with diarrhea or malabsorption and

Yoram Bouhnik; Sophie Alain; Alain Attar; Bernard Flourié; Laurent Raskine; Marie José Sanson-Le Pors; Jean-Claude Rambaud

1999-01-01

375

[Bacterial translocation: gap in the shield].  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal tract is not only regarded as a system where nutrient absorption takes place, but also as a vital barrier against intraluminal pathogens entering the circulation and the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Bacterial translocation is defined as the penetration of viable bacteria or bacterial compounds from the gastrointestinal tract to extraintestinal sites. This disorder has been described in several clinical conditions. The main promoting factors for bacterial translocation have been proposed to be changes in the intestinal microflora, mucosal barrier failure and defects in host immunity. The presence of bacterial translocation has been associated with higher complications and mortality rates; therefore it should be taken into account in the therapeutic strategies of patients with predisposing factors. PMID:24534878

Rosero, Olivér; Kovács, Tibor; Onody, Péter; Harsányi, László; Szijártó, Attila

2014-02-23

376

BACTERIAL IMPACTS OF OCEAN OUTFALLS: LEGAL CHALLENGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Simple analytical methods are used to help establish wastewater treatment permit conditions. However, a recent lawsuit alleged one such screening method was inadequate to show bacterial water quality standards would be protected shoreward of Honolulu's Honouliuli outfall. In resp...

377

Bacterial Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Bacterial Infections - Multiple Languages Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (???????) Chinese - Traditional (????) Haitian ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

378

Quorum sensing and bacterial cooperation Anand Pai  

E-print Network

) is a cell-cell communication mechanism that enables bacteria to control of cooperation benefits bacteria. Fig. 1: Schematic of bacterial communication and cooperation. Bacteria communicate through a QS based signaling mechanism wherein

Wolpert, Robert L

379

Vaccination against salmonid bacterial kidney disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...

380

BACTERIAL INDICATORS OF RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The selection of bacterial indicators of recreational water quality are considered with respect to suggested ideal characteristics, such as association with pathogens, growth in aquatic environments, resistance to disinfection and ease of enumeration, and through the use of epide...

381

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Convergent development of anodic bacterial  

E-print Network

and community ecology Keywords: community analysis; convergence; microbial fuel cells IntroductionORIGINAL ARTICLE Convergent development of anodic bacterial communities in microbial fuel cells Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are often inoculated from

382

Microbial evolution: stalking the wild bacterial species.  

PubMed

A recent report suggests that, when habitats are disturbed, bacterial populations that would be considered to be separate species can merge, reversing the process of speciation. But, for bacteria, 'species' remains undefined and undefinable. PMID:18606128

Doolittle, W Ford

2008-07-01

383

Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial Meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman ... advice from your health care professional. What is meningitis? Meningitis is an infection of the lining that ...

384

Genomic insights into bacterial DMSP transformations.  

PubMed

Genomic and functional genomic methods applied to both model organisms and natural communities have rapidly advanced understanding of bacterial dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) degradation in the ocean. The genes for the two main pathways in bacterial degradation, routing DMSP to distinctly different biogeochemical fates, have recently been identified. The genes dmdA, -B, -C, and -D mediate the demethylation of DMSP and facilitate retention of carbon and sulfur in the marine microbial food web. The genes dddD, -L, -P, -Q, -W, and -Y mediate the cleavage of DMSP to dimethylsulfide (DMS), with important consequences for ocean-atmosphere sulfur flux. In ocean metagenomes, sufficient copies of these genes are present for approximately 60% of surface ocean bacterial cells to directly participate in DMSP degradation. The factors that regulate these two competing pathways remain elusive, but gene transcription analyses of natural bacterioplankton communities are making headway in unraveling the intricacies of bacterial DMSP processing in the ocean. PMID:22457986

Moran, Mary Ann; Reisch, Chris R; Kiene, Ronald P; Whitman, William B

2012-01-01

385

Aquatic microenvironments in bacterial ecology and diversity  

E-print Network

Molecular surveys have revealed tremendous bacterial diversity in the world's oceans; yet how do these diverse bacteria with the same essential nutrient requirements co-exist in the same environment? This study examines ...

Hunt, Dana E., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

386

Diagnosis and treatment of bacterial diarrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diarrheal illness caused by bacterial pathogens is a global health problem and remains one of the most common complaints prompting\\u000a patients to seek medical care. Strategies to increase the yield of stool culture and new rapid diagnostic tests can improve\\u000a diagnostic ability. Emerging antimicrobial resistance among the common bacterial causes of diarrhea has made treatment more\\u000a challenging. Emerging fluoroquinolone resistance

James V. Lawler; Mark R. Wallace

2003-01-01

387

Family intervention for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background People with schizophrenia from families that express high levels of criticism, hostility, or over involvement, have more frequent relapses than people with similar problems from families that tend to be less expressive of emotions. Forms of psychosocial intervention, designed to reduce these levels of expressed emotions within families, are now widely used. Objectives To estimate the effects of family psychosocial interventions in community settings for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like conditions compared with standard care. Search strategy We updated previous searches by searching the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (September 2008). Selection criteria We selected randomised or quasi-randomised studies focusing primarily on families of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder that compared community-orientated family-based psychosocial intervention with standard care. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data and calculated fixed-effect relative risk (RR), the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for binary data, and, where appropriate, the number needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). Main results This 2009-10 update adds 21 additional studies, with a total of 53 randomised controlled trials included. Family intervention may decrease the frequency of relapse (n = 2981, 32 RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.5 to 0.6, NNT 7 CI 6 to 8), although some small but negative studies might not have been identified by the search. Family intervention may also reduce hospital admission (n = 481, 8 RCTs, RR 0.78 CI 0.6 to 1.0, NNT 8 CI 6 to 13) and encourage compliance with medication (n = 695, 10 RCTs, RR 0.60 CI 0.5 to 0.7, NNT 6 CI 5 to 9) but it does not obviously affect the tendency of individuals/families to leave care (n = 733, 10 RCTs, RR 0.74 CI 0.5 to 1.0). Family intervention also seems to improve general social impairment and the levels of expressed emotion within the family. We did not find data to suggest that family intervention either prevents or promotes suicide. Authors’ conclusions Family intervention may reduce the number of relapse events and hospitalisations and would therefore be of interest to people with schizophrenia, clinicians and policy makers. However, the treatment effects of these trials may be overestimated due to the poor methodological quality. Further data from trials that describe the methods of randomisation, test the blindness of the study evaluators, and implement the CONSORT guidelines would enable greater confidence in these findings. PMID:21154340

Pharoah, Fiona; Mari, Jair; Rathbone, John; Wong, Winson

2014-01-01

388

Gamma-irradiated bacterial preparation having anti-tumor activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This application describes a bacterial preparation from Pseudomonas species isolated {number{underscore}sign}15 ATCC 55638 that has been exposed to gamma radiation exhibits cytotoxicity that is specific for neoplastic carcinoma cells. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having antitumor activity consists of suspending a bacterial isolate in media and exposing the suspension to gamma radiation. A bacterial preparation of an aged

A. A. Vass; R. L. Tyndall; P. Terzaghi-Howe

1999-01-01

389

Gamma-irradiated bacterial preparation having anti-tumor activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bacterial preparation from Pseudomonas species isolated #15 ATCC 55638 that has been exposed to gamma radiation exhibits cytotoxicity that is specific for neoplastic carcinoma cells. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having antitumor activity consists of suspending a bacterial isolate in media and exposing the suspension to gamma radiation. A bacterial preparation of an aged culture of an

Arpad A. Vass; Richard L. Tyndall; Peggy Terzaghi-Howe

1999-01-01

390

A New Bacterial Agglutinin from Soybean  

PubMed Central

The activity of a bacterial agglutinin from soybean seed [Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Clark] against two bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas glycinea (causal agent of bacterial blight) and Xanthomonas phaseoli var. sojensis (causal agent of bacterial pustule) was determined. The agglutinin was active against several strains of X. phaseoli var. sojensis grown on nutrient agar, but there was no correlation between pathogenicity and agglutination. Agglutination was affected by the age of the bacterial cells and the growth medium used. None of seven strains of P. glycinea was agglutinated. Bacterial agglutination was inhibited by both purified lipopolysaccharide and extracellular polysaccharide from five strains of X. phaseoli var. sojensis. The lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides from other species of bacteria were ineffective. Ultrastructural studies showed that an avirulent strain of X. phaseoli var. sojensis was attached to leaf mesophyll cell walls of the susceptible cultivar Clark by 34 hours after vacuum infiltration. Cells of this avirulent strain were enveloped by fibrillar and granular material at the mesophyll cell wall. In contrast, cells of a virulent strain were not attached or enveloped, and they remained free to multiply in the intercellular spaces. Images PMID:16661541

Fett, William F.; Sequeira, Luis

1980-01-01

391

Small molecule control of bacterial biofilms  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilms are defined as a surface attached community of bacteria embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. When in the biofilm state, bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than are their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms are increasingly recognized as being significant in human disease, accounting for 80% of bacterial infections in the body and diseases associated with bacterial biofilms include: lung infections of cystic fibrosis, colitis, urethritis, conjunctivitis, otitis, endocarditis and periodontitis. Additionally, biofilm infections of indwelling medical devices are of particular concern, as once the device is colonized infection is virtually impossible to eradicate. Given the prominence of biofilms in infectious diseases, there has been an increased effort toward the development of small molecules that will modulate bacterial biofilm development and maintenance. In this review, we highlight the development of small molecules that inhibit and/or disperse bacterial biofilms through non-microbicidal mechanisms. The review discuses the numerous approaches that have been applied to the discovery of lead small molecules that mediate biofilm development. These approaches are grouped into: 1) the identification and development of small molecules that target one of the bacterial signaling pathways involved in biofilm regulation, 2) chemical library screening for compounds with anti-biofilm activity, and 3) the identification of natural products that possess anti-biofilm activity, and the chemical manipulation of these natural products to obtain analogues with increased activity. PMID:22733439

Worthington, Roberta J.; Richards, Justin J.

2012-01-01

392

Bacterial diversity in paclobutrazol applied agricultural soils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the bacterial communities on paclobutrazol [(2RS, 3RS)-1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4, 4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) pentan-3-ol]-applied agricultural soils by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments. Three different agricultural soil samples were collected from paclobutrazol applied mango and waxapple orchards, peanut fields and untreated rice fields as a control for DGGE analysis. The DGGE pattern of PCR- generated 16S rDNA gene fragments indicated that the bacterial populations from four paclobutrazol-applied soils of peanut fields were closely related to each other and two paclobutrazol-applied soils of mango and waxapple orchards harbored closely related bacterial communities. But, paclobutrazol-free agricultural soils comprised relatively a different bacterial group. However, the bacterial populations of mango and waxapple orchard are completely different from the bacterial communities of peanut field. Further purification and sequence analysis of 40 DGGE bands followed by phylogenetic tree assay showed similar results that soil bacteria from paclobutrazol applied mango and waxapple orchard are phylogenetically related. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the clone M-4 was clad 100 % (bootstrap value) with Mycobacterium sp. The Mycobacterium sp. has been proved to degrade the phenolic compounds such as phenol, 4-chlorphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and paclobutrazol molecule containing chlorobenzene ring. PMID:20845182

Lin, Chorng-Horng; Kuo, Jimmy; Wang, Yen-Wen; Chen, Michael; Lin, Chin-Ho

2010-10-01

393

Family Structure and Social Influence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Regardless of family form, there is a universal belief that one's family is the most powerful agent of socialization. A sample of 38 junior high school students from single parent and nuclear families completed a questionnaire in order to examine the relative effects of peer influence and family influence in single parent and nuclear families.…

Olson, Dawn R.

394

Does Addiction Run in Families?  

MedlinePLUS

Listen to this page Does Addiction Run in Families? Addiction can run in families. If people in your family have addictions, you are more likely to become ... En español "Heart disease runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history ...

395

Help Your Family Face Challenges Successfully: Building Your Family's Resilience  

MedlinePLUS

... how!. Apply Now Home » Resilience: Total Force Fitness Help Your Family Face Challenges Successfully: Building Your Family's ... own and your family's resilience, this information may help. What is resilience? One popular definition of resilience ...

396

Family Emergency Preparedness Plan 1 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan  

E-print Network

#12;#12;Family Emergency Preparedness Plan 1 Family Emergency Preparedness Plan Why Plan.....................................................................21 Hazardous Material Accidents ..............................................22 Nuclear Power Plants Emergency Telephone Numbers.....................................................26 Credits The Family

Noble, James S.

397

75 FR 9247 - Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-13] Single Family Mortgage Insurance Premium, Single Family AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer...the subject proposal. Lenders use the Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront...

2010-03-01

398

Partners in family planning.  

PubMed

Studies of the Africa OR/TA Project and other Cooperating Agencies suggest that support of family planning by traditional health practitioners (THPs), traditional birth attendants (TBAs), Islamic religious leaders, and male opinion leaders (MOLs) can result in an increase in the availability of family planning services in the community. A study in Kenya shows that 100 trained THPs who were actively involved in family planning (i.e., distributors of condoms, oral contraceptives, and primary health care drugs) increased contraceptive use in Siaya and Kakamega districts from 7% to 15% and from 14% to 34%, respectively. Contraceptive use did not change in the 2 control areas. Two years after TBAs underwent training in family planning promotion, the proportion of women who named TBAs as their source of family planning information increased from 2% to 18%. In The Gambia, integration of Islamic religious leaders into family planning promotion activities resulted in an increase of current modern contraceptive method use from 9% to 20% for males and from 9% to 26% for females. Involvement of 69 MOLs has increased knowledge of family planning methods in Nkambe, Cameroon. For example, among males, knowledge about the condom increased from 52% to 81% and knowledge about spermicides increased from 12% to 44%. The corresponding figures for women were 47% to 72% and 17% to 42%, respectively. PMID:12319039

1994-12-01

399

Familial opsonization defect associated with fatal infantile dermatitis, infections, and histiocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of four generations of a family had a defect of serum opsonization for yeast phagocytosis consistent with dominant inheritance. 2 were healthy, one had chronic osteomyelitis, and the fourth developed a fatal illness in infancy characterized by exfoliative dermatitis, diarrhoea, multiple bacterial infections, and failure to thrive, which resembled the two prevously reported cases with this opsonization defect. At

H Scott; E J Moynahan; R A Risdon; B A Harvey; J F Soothill

1975-01-01

400

Proteomic analysis of head kidney tissue from resistant and susceptible families following challenge with Edwarsiella ictaluri  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of the goals of the Catfish Genetics Research Unit is the identification of genetic markers for resistance to viral and bacterial diseases in channel catfish for use in selective breeding. A pilot study was performed to compare proteomic profiles of resistant and susceptible families of channel ...

401

Elicitor-specific induction of one member of the chitinase gene family in Arachis hypogaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitinases are believed to play an important role in plant defence against bacterial and fungal attack. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea) chitinase genes form a small multigene family. Four chitinase cDNAs (chit 1–4) were isolated from cultured peanut cells. Expression of individual chit genes was assayed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP).

Thomas Herget; Jeff Schell; Peter H. Schreier

1990-01-01

402

A family quarrel? "Developmentalism" or family planning.  

PubMed

The switch in emphasis in population policies from family planning to the development of socioeconomic policies that would encourage smaller families--summed up in the word "developmentalism"--is charted from a 1967 paper by Kinsley Davis to its culmination at the 1974 World Population Conference, when even as staunch a supporter of family planning as John D. Rockefeller came out in support of placing population policy in the context of economic and social development. The real question is, however: To what extent does developmentalism represent a true shift in policy and how much is simply a more sophisticated rhetoric designed to deflect the growing opposition to population control? On the one hand, the endorsement by a man of Rockefeller's stature indicates a significant change. On the other, the changes which the implementation of developmentalism would entail seem irreconcilable with the present political and economic structures of underdeveloped nations and of relations between them and the more developed countries. Further, developmentalism is neither as progressive as its advocates suggest, nor as threatening as its opponents cry. It is, in fact, a prescription for enhancing the effectiveness of family planning through a form of social engineering from the top; its details--more aid, investment, and trade--would involve an expanded Western role in the Third World. It is even suggested that developmentalism might be a cover for the creation of a more stratified society, where marginal members are restricted to their own quarters in an effort to secure political stability and economic growth. In the end, developmentalism might be shortlived, as pressure to step up birth control programs is felt from many quarters. PMID:12307032

Carder, M

1974-01-01

403

Electron Cryotomography of Bacterial Cells  

PubMed Central

While much is already known about the basic metabolism of bacterial cells, many fundamental questions are still surprisingly unanswered, including for instance how they generate and maintain specific cell shapes, establish polarity, segregate their genomes, and divide. In order to understand these phenomena, imaging technologies are needed that bridge the resolution gap between fluorescence light microscopy and higher-resolution methods such as X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. Electron cryotomography (ECT) is an emerging technology that does just this, allowing the ultrastructure of cells to be visualized in a near-native state, in three dimensions (3D), with "macromolecular" resolution (~4nm).1, 2 In ECT, cells are imaged in a vitreous, "frozen-hydrated" state in a cryo transmission electron microscope (cryoTEM) at low temperature (< -180°C). For slender cells (up to ~500 nm in thickness3), intact cells are plunge-frozen within media across EM grids in cryogens such as ethane or ethane/propane mixtures. Thicker cells and biofilms can also be imaged in a vitreous state by first "high-pressure freezing" and then, "cryo-sectioning" them. A series of two-dimensional projection images are then collected through the sample as it is incrementally tilted along one or two axes. A three-dimensional reconstruction, or "tomogram" can then be calculated from the images. While ECT requires expensive instrumentation, in recent years, it has been used in a few labs to reveal the structures of various external appendages, the structures of different cell envelopes, the positions and structures of cytoskeletal filaments, and the locations and architectures of large macromolecular assemblies such as flagellar motors, internal compartments and chemoreceptor arrays.1, 2 In this video article we illustrate how to image cells with ECT, including the processes of sample preparation, data collection, tomogram reconstruction, and interpretation of the results through segmentation and in some cases correlation with light microscopy. PMID:20461053

Chen, Songye; McDowall, Alasdair; Dobro, Megan J.; Briegel, Ariane; Ladinsky, Mark; Shi, Jian; Tocheva, Elitza I.; Beeby, Morgan; Pilhofer, Martin; Ding, H. Jane; Li, Zhuo; Gan, Lu; Morris, Dylan M.; Jensen, Grant J.

2010-01-01

404

Bacterial Catabolism of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP)  

PubMed Central

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is a metabolite produced primarily by marine phytoplankton and is the main precursor to the climatically important gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). DMS is released upon bacterial catabolism of DMSP, but it is not the only possible fate of DMSP sulfur. An alternative demethylation/demethiolation pathway results in the eventual release of methanethiol, a highly reactive volatile sulfur compound that contributes little to the atmospheric sulfur flux. The activity of these pathways control the natural flux of sulfur released to the atmosphere. Although these biochemical pathways and the factors that regulate them are of great interest, they are poorly understood. Only recently have some of the genes and pathways responsible for DMSP catabolism been elucidated. Thus far, six different enzymes have been identified that catalyze the cleavage of DMSP, resulting in the release of DMS. In addition, five of these enzymes appear to produce acrylate, while one produces 3-hydroxypropionate. In contrast, only one enzyme, designated DmdA, has been identified that catalyzes the demethylation reaction producing methylmercaptopropionate (MMPA). The metabolism of MMPA is performed by a series of three coenzyme-A mediated reactions catalyzed by DmdB, DmdC, and DmdD. Interestingly, Candidatus Pelagibacter ubique, a member of the SAR11 clade of Alphaproteobacteria that is highly abundant in marine surface waters, possessed functional DmdA, DmdB, and DmdC enzymes. Microbially mediated transformations of both DMS and methanethiol are also possible, although many of the biochemical and molecular genetic details are still unknown. This review will focus on the recent discoveries in the biochemical pathways that mineralize and assimilate DMSP carbon and sulfur, as well as the areas for which a comprehensive understanding is still lacking. PMID:21886640

Reisch, Chris R.; Moran, Mary Ann; Whitman, William B.

2011-01-01

405

Predictors of Family Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is used in an sociology class class for undergraduate students. This activity explores topics of households/families, income and race to understand how family structure and demographic information predict trends in family structure. This activity uses a customized data set made from combining census information from 1950-1990 and guides students through data manipulation using WebCHIP software found at DataCounts!. To open WebCHIP with the dataset for the activity, please see instructions and links in the exercise documents under teaching materials. For more information on how to use WebCHIP, see the How To section on DataCounts!

Maxine Atkinson

406

A family of strangers  

E-print Network

invo'Ived. 3. Wife's desires regarding employment, regardless of other considerations in the union. 4. Stress as it relates to the husband because he feels the need for total or major responsibility for financial solvency. 5. Stress as it relates... source of family income. 3. If the wife views her husband's occupation as the primary source of family income, she will view her potential or actual occupation as a secondary source of family income. 4. If the couple has consensus on male-female roles...

Sonnenfeld, Carol Price

1975-01-01

407

Evolutionary families of peptidases.  

PubMed Central

The available amino acid sequences of peptidases have been examined, and the enzymes have been allocated to evolutionary families. Some of the families can be grouped together in 'clans' that show signs of distant relationship, but nevertheless, it appears that there may be as many as 60 evolutionary lines of peptidases with separate origins. Some of these contain members with quite diverse peptidase activities, and yet there are some striking examples of convergence. We suggest that the classification by families could be used as an extension of the current classification by catalytic type. PMID:8439290

Rawlings, N D; Barrett, A J

1993-01-01

408

Ubiquitin activates patatin-like phospholipases from multiple bacterial species.  

PubMed

Phospholipase A2 enzymes are ubiquitously distributed throughout the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms and are utilized in a wide array of cellular processes and physiological and immunological responses. Several patatin-like phospholipase homologs of ExoU from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were selected on the premise that ubiquitin activation of this class of bacterial enzymes was a conserved process. We found that ubiquitin activated all phospholipases tested in both in vitro and in vivo assays via a conserved serine-aspartate catalytic dyad. Ubiquitin chains versus monomeric ubiquitin were superior in inducing catalysis, and ubiquitin-like proteins failed to activate phospholipase activity. Toxicity studies in a prokaryotic dual-expression system grouped the enzymes into high- and low-toxicity classes. Toxicity measured in eukaryotic cells also suggested a two-tiered classification but was not predictive of the severity of cellular damage, suggesting that each enzyme may correspond to unique properties perhaps based on its specific biological function. Additional studies on lipid binding preference suggest that some enzymes in this family may be differentially sensitive to phosphatidyl-4,5-bisphosphate in terms of catalytic activation enhancement and binding affinity. Further analysis of the function and amino acid sequences of this enzyme family may lead to a useful approach to formulating a unifying model of how these phospholipases behave after delivery into the cytoplasmic compartment. PMID:25404699

Anderson, David M; Sato, Hiromi; Dirck, Aaron T; Feix, Jimmy B; Frank, Dara W

2015-02-01

409

Family Demands, Social Support and Family Functioning in Taiwanese Families Rearing Children with Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Down syndrome (DS) affects not only children but also their families. Much remains to be learned about factors that influence how families of children with DS function, especially families in non-Western populations. The purpose of this cross-sectional, correlational study was to examine how family demographics, family demands and…

Hsiao, C-Y.

2014-01-01

410

Familial Poverty, Family Allowances, and the Normative Family Structure in Britain, 1917-1945  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1945, the Family Allowances Act was incorporated into law. The family allowances scheme depended on the maintenance of a normative family structure and a wage system that discriminated against women. Eleanor Rathbone, along with social surveyors of the 1930s and social policy makers, recognized the family wage system as a primary cause of poverty among working families. Unfortunately, the

Colleen Margaret Forrest

2001-01-01

411

Family Therapy, Family Practice, and Child and Family Poverty: Historical Perspectives and Recent Developments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the engagement of family therapy and family practice with families with children, who are living in poverty. It analyzes four promising models from two perspectives. The first perspective relates to critiques, which have been made of the practice of family therapy with families living in poverty; and the second relates to the…

Frankel, Harvy; Frankel, Sid

2006-01-01

412

National Military Family Association  

MedlinePLUS

... Military Families in 2014. Apply for Military Spouse Scholarships We want to help military spouses gain meaningful ... the ways we do this is by offering scholarships to spouses of all Uniformed Services. Apply Now! ...

413

Familial Mediterranean fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Recurrent polyserositis; Benign paroxysmal peritonitis; Periodic disease; Periodic fever; FMF ... Familial Mediterranean fever is most often caused by a mutation in the MEFV gene. This gene creates proteins involved in inflammation. ...

414

Normal Functioning Family  

MedlinePLUS

... love and caring for other family members; providing security and a sense of belonging; open communication; making ... Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute ...

415

Family in Crisis  

MedlinePLUS

... safe. Don't take away that sense of security they're constructing for themselves. Older children & adolescents ... again) can help increase your family's sense of security. Find ways to help others Finally, provide your ...

416

Family Reunion Health Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... and on the Phone 17 Share Materials 20 Planning Tips NATIONAL KIDNEY DISEASE EDUCATION PROGRAM l FAMILY ... with you. Contact these organizations early in your planning process to make arrangements. 5 of 23 CONTENTS ...

417

Family Decision Making  

MedlinePLUS

... Makers Error processing SSI file Family Decision Making Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Communicating How can I ... Blood Disorders & Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

418

Care of the Family  

MedlinePLUS

... one) is a natural, anticipated process after death. Palliative care provides support to family members preparing for the ... This website is funded by your generous support. Care to Donate ? ©2000-2011 Continuum Health Partners, Inc.

419

My Fact Family  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use cut out people shapes and number cards to create two addition problems and two subtraction problems using the same three numbers of a fact family to explore the commutative property.

Gehron, Elizabeth

2012-08-15

420

Technology and the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology affects family life, size, structure, and relationships and blurs distinctions between home and work. It is imperative to keep sight of human values and a human agenda and to insist that technology serve people, not drive policy. (SK)

McTeer, Maureen A.

1995-01-01

421

Teaching Family Medicine  

PubMed Central

Students should study the family system just as they would an organ system, making use of family studies and home visits. A comparison of private and academic faculty revealed the need to instruct private practitioners on patient selection and teaching methodology. Experience has shown that patients from the lower socioeconomic classes tend to allow the student to participate more in their family life and health care and that, in return, the student is often able to assist these patients in some way. Faculty must guide, monitor, and assist students with problems. Audit of students' and patients' reports on and evaluations of the family study will provide valuable information for planning future programs or revamping continuing ones. PMID:21308094

Baumslag, Naomi

1976-01-01

422

job families EXPLORATION  

E-print Network

of computer systems. BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT Workers in this job group engage in the preparation, negotiationjob families EXPLORATION JOB GROUPS EXAMPLE OCCUPATIONS getgrowing CAREER PATHS WWW Bioinformatics professionals build the technological tools that are needed to improve the data analysis process

Muzzio, Fernando J.

423

[Family violence and generations].  

PubMed

Starting with a description of the place and function of violence inside families, the author raises than the topics of the professional's ethic and responsibility when working with family violence. It is not always easy for professionals to evaluate responsibilities particularly when they try to take into account as many contextual factors as possible. They could worry to become too Manichean and to see themselves as following only a linear causality. PMID:21089424

Goldbeter-Merinfeld, E

2010-09-01

424

Antibiotics promote aggregation within aquatic bacterial communities  

PubMed Central

The release of antibiotics (AB) into the environment poses several threats for human health due to potential development of AB-resistant natural bacteria. Even though the use of low-dose antibiotics has been promoted in health care and farming, significant amounts of AB are observed in aquatic environments. Knowledge on the impact of AB on natural bacterial communities is missing both in terms of spread and evolution of resistance mechanisms, and of modifications of community composition and productivity. New approaches are required to study the response of microbial communities rather than individual resistance genes. In this study a chemostat-based experiment with 4 coexisting bacterial strains has been performed to mimicking the response of a freshwater bacterial community to the presence of antibiotics in low and high doses. Bacterial abundance rapidly decreased by 75% in the presence of AB, independently of their concentration, and remained constant until the end of the experiment. The bacterial community was mainly dominated by Aeromonas hydrophila and Brevundimonas intermedia while the other two strains, Micrococcus luteus and Rhodococcus sp. never exceed 10%. Interestingly, the bacterial strains, which were isolated at the end of the experiment, were not AB-resistant, while reassembled communities composed of the 4 strains, isolated from treatments under AB stress, significantly raised their performance (growth rate, abundance) in the presence of AB compared to the communities reassembled with strains isolated from the treatment without AB. By investigating the phenotypic adaptations of the communities subjected to the different treatments, we found that the presence of AB significantly increased co-aggregation by 5–6 fold. These results represent the first observation of co-aggregation as a successful strategy of AB resistance based on phenotype in aquatic bacterial communities, and can represent a fundamental step in the understanding of the effects of AB in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25071728

Corno, Gianluca; Coci, Manuela; Giardina, Marco; Plechuk, Sonia; Campanile, Floriana; Stefani, Stefania

2014-01-01

425

The Peale Family Papers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the Smithsonian Institution's National Portrait Gallery, The Charles Willson Peale Family Papers is a boon to researchers in the history and culture of America from the 1730s to the 1880s. Comprised of copies of more than 6,000 documents, spanning three generations of the Peale family, "the archive traces the family's history from the arrival of Charles Peale, a transported felon, through the career of Charles Willson Peale -- artist, Revolutionary soldier, naturalist and museum keeper, and Enlightenment polymath -- down through the nineteenth-century careers and lives of his many children." Unfortunately, the papers themselves are not accessible online, but the site features essays discussing the papers, the history of the Peale family, and the editorial philosophy behind the publication of the first four volumes of the Peale Family Papers. (The entire collection is currently available in microfiche, and bibliographic information about this resource and the print publications of the papers are provided on-site.) The Website also features a photo gallery of paintings either by or of Peale family members.

426

A tale of two chitons: is habitat specialisation linked to distinct associated bacterial communities?  

PubMed

Although most chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) are shallow-water molluscs, diverse species also occur in deep-sea habitats. We investigated the feeding strategies of two species, Leptochiton boucheti and Nierstraszella lineata, recovered on sunken wood sampled in the western Pacific, close to the Vanuatu Islands. The two species display distinctly different associations with bacterial partners. Leptochiton boucheti harbours Mollicutes in regions of its gut epithelium and has no abundant bacterium associated with its gill. Nierstraszella lineata displays no dense gut-associated bacteria, but harbours bacterial filaments attached to its gill epithelium, related to the Deltaproteobacteria symbionts found in gills of the wood-eating limpet Pectinodonta sp. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures and an absence of cellulolytic activity give evidence against a direct wood-feeding diet; both species are secondary consumers within the wood food web. We suggest that the distinct associations with bacterial partners are linked to niche specialisations of the two species. Nierstraszella lineata is in a taxonomic family restricted to sunken wood and is possibly adapted to more anoxic conditions thanks to its gill-associated bacteria. Leptochiton boucheti is phylogenetically more proximate to an ancestral form not specialised on wood and may itself be more of a generalist; this observation is congruent with its association with Mollicutes, a bacterial clade comprising gut-associated bacteria occurring in several metazoan phyla. PMID:22988940

Duperron, Sébastien; Pottier, Marie-Anne; Léger, Nelly; Gaudron, Sylvie M; Puillandre, Nicolas; Le Prieur, Stéphanie; Sigwart, Julia D; Ravaux, Juliette; Zbinden, Magali

2013-03-01

427

The Carnivorous Pale Pitcher Plant Harbors Diverse, Distinct, and Time-Dependent Bacterial Communities? †  

PubMed Central

The ability of American carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarracenia) to digest insect prey is facilitated by microbial associations. Knowledge of the details surrounding this interaction has been limited by our capability to characterize bacterial diversity in this system. To describe microbial diversity within and between pitchers of one species, Sarracenia alata, and to explore how these communities change over time as pitchers accumulate and digest insect prey, we collected and analyzed environmental sequence tag (454 pyrosequencing) and genomic fingerprint (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Microbial richness associated with pitcher plant fluid is high; more than 1,000 unique phylogroups were identified across at least seven phyla and 50 families. We documented an increase in bacterial diversity and abundance with time and observed repeated changes in bacterial community composition. Pitchers from different plants harbored significantly more similar bacterial communities at a given time point than communities coming from the same genetic host over time. The microbial communities in pitcher plant fluid also differ significantly from those present in the surrounding soil. These findings indicate that the bacteria associated with pitcher plant leaves are far from random assemblages and represent an important step toward understanding this unique plant-microbe interaction. PMID:20097807

Koopman, Margaret M.; Fuselier, Danielle M.; Hird, Sarah; Carstens, Bryan C.

2010-01-01

428

The carnivorous pale pitcher plant harbors diverse, distinct, and time-dependent bacterial communities.  

PubMed

The ability of American carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarracenia) to digest insect prey is facilitated by microbial associations. Knowledge of the details surrounding this interaction has been limited by our capability to characterize bacterial diversity in this system. To describe microbial diversity within and between pitchers of one species, Sarracenia alata, and to explore how these communities change over time as pitchers accumulate and digest insect prey, we collected and analyzed environmental sequence tag (454 pyrosequencing) and genomic fingerprint (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Microbial richness associated with pitcher plant fluid is high; more than 1,000 unique phylogroups were identified across at least seven phyla and 50 families. We documented an increase in bacterial diversity and abundance with time and observed repeated changes in bacterial community composition. Pitchers from different plants harbored significantly more similar bacterial communities at a given time point than communities coming from the same genetic host over time. The microbial communities in pitcher plant fluid also differ significantly from those present in the surrounding soil. These findings indicate that the bacteria associated with pitcher plant leaves are far from random assemblages and represent an important step toward understanding this unique plant-microbe interaction. PMID:20097807

Koopman, Margaret M; Fuselier, Danielle M; Hird, Sarah; Carstens, Bryan C

2010-03-01

429

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Field pennycress  

E-print Network

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Field pennycress Thlaspi arvense L. Life cycle Erect winter or summer. Back to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Field pennycress continued

430

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Hoary alyssum  

E-print Network

Brassicaceae (Mustard family) Hoary alyssum Berteroa incana (L.) DC. Life cycle Annual, biennial to identifying Christmas tree weeds. #12;Brassicaceae (Mustard family) oval and slightly flattened, grayish green

431

Changing families, changing workplaces.  

PubMed

American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income distribution. Between 1975 and 2009, the labor force rate of mothers with children under age eighteen increased from 47.4 percent to 71.6 percent. Mothers today also return to work much sooner after the birth of a child than did mothers half a century ago. High divorce rates and a sharp rise in the share of births to unmarried mothers mean that more children are being raised by a single parent, usually their mother. Workplaces too have changed, observes Bianchi. Today's employees increasingly work nonstandard hours. The well-being of highly skilled workers and less-skilled workers has been diverging. For the former, work hours may be long, but income has soared. For lower-skill workers, the lack of "good jobs" disconnects fathers from family obligations. Men who cannot find work or have low earnings potential are much less likely to marry. For low-income women, many of whom are single parents, the work-family dilemma is how to care adequately for children and work enough hours to support them financially. Jobs for working-class and lower middle-class workers are relatively stable, except in economic downturns, but pay is low, and both parents must work full time to make ends meet. Family income is too high to qualify for government subsidized child care, but too low to afford high-quality care in the private market. These families struggle to have a reasonable family life and provide for their family's economic well-being. Bianchi concludes that the "work and family" problem has no one solution because it is not one problem. Some workers need more work and more money. Some need to take time off around the birth of a child without permanently derailing a fulfilling career. Others need short-term support to attend to a family health crisis. How best to meet this multiplicity of needs is the challenge of the coming decade. PMID:22013627

Bianchi, Suzanne M

2011-01-01

432

Final Report - Ferrographic Tracking of Bacterial Transport  

SciTech Connect

The work performed during the past three years has been extremely productive. Ferrographic capture was utilized in analysis of several thousand field samples collected from arrays of multilevel samplers during three intensive field campaigns conducted at two shallow sandy aquifer sites in Oyster, VA. This work has shown resulted in three important conclusions: (1) Ferrographic capture provides unparalleled low quantitation limits for bacterial cell enumeration (Johnson et al., 2000). (2) The high-resolution analyses provided by ferrographic capture allowed observation of increased bacterial removal rates (from groundwater) that corresponded to increased populations of protozoa in the groundwater (Zhang et al., 2001). This novel data allowed determination of bacterial predation rates by protists in the field, a consideration that will be important for successful bioaugmentation strategies. (3) The high-resolution analyses provided by ferrographic capture allowed observation of detachment of indigenous cells in response to breakthrough of injected cells in groundwater (Johnson et al., 2001). The implication of this unique observation is that bacterial transport, specifically bacterial attachment and detachment, may be much more dynamic than has been indicated by short-term laboratory and field studies. Dynamic attachment and detachment of bacteria in groundwater may lead to greatly increased transport distances over long terms relative to what has been indicated by short-term laboratory and field studies.

William P. Johnson

2002-10-10

433

Stepwise formation of the bacterial flagellar system  

PubMed Central

Elucidating the origins of complex biological structures has been one of the major challenges of evolutionary studies. The bacterial flagellum is a primary example of a complex apparatus whose origins and evolutionary history have proven difficult to reconstruct. The gene clusters encoding the components of the flagellum can include >50 genes, but these clusters vary greatly in their numbers and contents among bacterial phyla. To investigate how this diversity arose, we identified all homologs of all flagellar proteins encoded in the complete genome sequences of 41 flagellated species from 11 bacterial phyla. Based on the phylogenetic occurrence and histories of each of these proteins, we could distinguish an ancient core set of 24 structural genes that were present in the common ancestor to all Bacteria. Within a genome, many of these core genes show sequence similarity only to other flagellar core genes, indicating that they were derived from one another, and the relationships among these genes suggest the probable order in which the structural components of the bacterial flagellum arose. These results show that core components of the bacterial flagellum originated through the successive duplication and modification of a few, or perhaps even a single, precursor gene. PMID:17438286

Liu, Renyi; Ochman, Howard

2007-01-01

434

Is Obesity an Oral Bacterial Disease?  

PubMed Central

The world-wide explosion of overweight people has been called an epidemic. The inflammatory nature of obesity is widely recognized. Could it really be an epidemic involving an infectious agent? In this climate of concern over the increasing prevalence of overweight conditions in our society, we focus on the possible role of oral bacteria as a potential direct contributor to obesity. To investigate this possibility, we measured salivary bacterial populations of overweight women. Saliva was collected from 313 women with a body mass index between 27 and 32, and bacterial populations were measured by DNA probe analysis. Levels in this group were compared with data from a population of 232 healthy individuals from periodontal disease studies. The median percentage difference of 7 of the 40 bacterial species measured was greater than 2% in the saliva of overweight women. Classification tree analysis of salivary microbiological composition revealed that 98.4% of the overweight women could be identified by the presence of a single bacterial species (Selenomonas noxia) at levels greater than 1.05% of the total salivary bacteria. Analysis of these data suggests that the composition of salivary bacteria changes in overweight women. It seems likely that these bacterial species could serve as biological indicators of a developing overweight condition. Of even greater interest, and the subject of future research, is the possibility that oral bacteria may participate in the pathology that leads to obesity. PMID:19587155

Goodson, J.M.; Groppo, D.; Halem, S.; Carpino, E.

2009-01-01

435

Crossroads between Bacterial and Mammalian Glycosyltransferases  

PubMed Central

Bacterial glycosyltransferases (GT) often synthesize the same glycan linkages as mammalian GT; yet, they usually have very little sequence identity. Nevertheless, enzymatic properties, folding, substrate specificities, and catalytic mechanisms of these enzyme proteins may have significant similarity. Thus, bacterial GT can be utilized for the enzymatic synthesis of both bacterial and mammalian types of complex glycan structures. A comparison is made here between mammalian and bacterial enzymes that synthesize epitopes found in mammalian glycoproteins, and those found in the O antigens of Gram-negative bacteria. These epitopes include Thomsen–Friedenreich (TF or T) antigen, blood group O, A, and B, type 1 and 2 chains, Lewis antigens, sialylated and fucosylated structures, and polysialic acids. Many different approaches can be taken to investigate the substrate binding and catalytic mechanisms of GT, including crystal structure analyses, mutations, comparison of amino acid sequences, NMR, and mass spectrometry. Knowledge of the protein structures and functions helps to design GT for specific glycan synthesis and to develop inhibitors. The goals are to develop new strategies to reduce bacterial virulence and to synthesize vaccines and other biologically active glycan structures. PMID:25368613

Brockhausen, Inka

2014-01-01

436

Bacterial Communities Associated with the Lichen Symbiosis? †  

PubMed Central

Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and “algae” (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N2 fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N2 fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses. PMID:21169444

Bates, Scott T.; Cropsey, Garrett W. G.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

2011-01-01

437

Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Several chemical changes in soil are associated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Some bacterial strains directly regulate plant physiology by mimicking synthesis of plant hormones, whereas others increase mineral and nitrogen availability in the soil as a way to augment growth. Identification of bacterial chemical messengers that trigger growth promotion has been limited in part by the understanding of how plants respond to external stimuli. With an increasing appreciation of how volatile organic compounds signal plants and serve in plant defense, investigations into the role of volatile components in plant–bacterial systems now can follow. Here, we present chemical and plant-growth data showing that some PGPR release a blend of volatile components that promote growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. In particular, the volatile components 2,3-butanediol and acetoin were released exclusively from two bacterial strains that trigger the greatest level of growth promotion. Furthermore, pharmacological applications of 2,3-butanediol enhanced plant growth whereas bacterial mutants blocked in 2,3-butanediol and acetoin synthesis were devoid in this growth-promotion capacity. The demonstration that PGPR strains release different volatile blends and that plant growth is stimulated by differences in these volatile blends establishes an additional function for volatile organic compounds as signaling molecules mediating plant–microbe interactions. PMID:12684534

Ryu, Choong-Min; Farag, Mohamed A.; Hu, Chia-Hui; Reddy, Munagala S.; Wei, Han-Xun; Paré, Paul W.; Kloepper, Joseph W.

2003-01-01

438

Family ownership and firm performance: Influence of family management, family control, and firm size  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between family ownership and firm performance by considering the influence of family\\u000a management, family control, and firm size. Using proxy data of 786 public family firms in Taiwan during 2002–2007, this study\\u000a found that family ownership is positively associated with firm performance. The positive association is strong particularly\\u000a when family members serve as CEOs, top

Wenyi Chu

2011-01-01

439

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy  

E-print Network

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy Thom deLara, Chair, 315-443-9830 Peck Hall-443-3024 The Department of Marriage and Family Therapy offers an M.A. and a Ph.D. and provides training in marriage of the practice and profession of marriage and family therapy through scholarly research, education, training

Mather, Patrick T.

440

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy  

E-print Network

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy Thom deLara, Chair, 315-443-9830 1045 James Supervisor T. Reichert-Schimpff GRADUATE PROGRAM The Department of Marriage and Family Therapy offers an M.A. and a Ph.D. and provides training in marriage and family therapy theory, research, and practice

McConnell, Terry

441

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy  

E-print Network

Marriage And Family Therapy Marriage And Family Therapy Thom deLara, Chair, 315-443-9830 1045 James Linda Stone Fish, Graduate Program Director, 315-443-3024 The Department of Marriage and Family Therapy offers an M.A. and a Ph.D. and provides training in marriage and family therapy theory, research

Raina, Ramesh

442

Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies  

E-print Network

sexuality) and family development (i.e., parenting, marriage, domestic violence). CFS also offers minorsChild And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies Robert P. Moreno, Chair, 315 UNDERGRADUATE Robert P. Moreno, Undergraduate Program Director, 315-443-1715 The Department of Child and Family

Raina, Ramesh

443

Fostering Families' and Children's Rights to Family Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent federal legislation strengthens children's and families' rights to family-centered practice by increasing the responsibility of child welfare agencies to identify and engage extended family members in providing care and support to children placed out of the home. Preliminary results from an experimental study of a federally funded family

Landsman, Miriam J.; Boel-Studt, Shamra

2011-01-01

444

We Are Family: Using Diverse Family Structure Literature with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The structure of the American family has changed over the years. Although the traditional father, mother, child structure still dominates, other family patterns are emerging. In this article the authors present: (1) current statistics relating to diverse family structures; (2) reasons for using diverse family structure literature with children;…

Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick; Bell, Kari

2006-01-01

445

Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies  

E-print Network

Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies Ambika Krishnakumar, Chair, 315 Irene Kehres, Director of Undergraduate Studies, 315-443-9634 The Department of Child and Family Studies healthy family and child development. Students are involved in learning both in class and field

McConnell, Terry

446

Family Treatment Approaches to Alcoholism: Assessing the "Alcoholic Family."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research and clinical support for the connections between alcohol abuse and the family milieu have generated increased interest in family treatment approaches to alcoholism. In assessing the "alcoholic family," the clinician must consider numerous aspects of family interaction which have been linked to abuse and to treatment outcomes. Results from…

Gomberg, Christopher A.; Billings, Andrew G.

447

Innate immune recognition of bacterial ligands by NAIPs dictates inflammasome specificity  

PubMed Central

Inflammasomes are a family of cytosolic multiprotein complexes that initiate innate immune responses to pathogenic microbes by activating the CASPASE1 (CASP1) protease1,2. Although genetic data support a critical role for inflammasomes in immune defense and inflammatory diseases3, the molecular basis by which individual inflammasomes respond to specific stimuli remains poorly understood. The inflammasome that contains the NLRC4 (NLR family, CARD domain containing C4) protein was previously shown to be activated in response to two distinct bacterial proteins, flagellin4,5 and PrgJ6, a conserved component of pathogen-associated type III secretion systems. However, direct binding between NLRC4 and flagellin or PrgJ has never been demonstrated. A homolog of NLRC4, NAIP5 (NLR family, Apoptosis Inhibitory Protein 5), has been implicated in activation of NLRC47–11, but is widely assumed to play only an auxiliary role1,2, since NAIP5 is often dispensable for NLRC4 activation7,8. However, Naip5 is a member of a small multigene family12, raising the possibility of redundancy and functional specialization among Naip genes. Indeed, we show here that different NAIP paralogs dictate the specificity of the NLRC4 inflammasome for distinct bacterial ligands. In particular, we found that activation of endogenous NLRC4 by bacterial PrgJ requires NAIP2, a previously uncharacterized member of the NAIP gene family, whereas NAIP5 and NAIP6 activate NLRC4 specifically in response to bacterial flagellin. We dissected the biochemical mechanism underlying the requirement for NAIP proteins by use of a reconstituted NLRC4 inflammasome system. We found that NAIP proteins control ligand-dependent oligomerization of NLRC4 and that NAIP2/NLRC4 physically associates with PrgJ but not flagellin, whereas NAIP5/NLRC4 associates with flagellin but not PrgJ. Taken together, our results identify NAIPs as immune sensor proteins and provide biochemical evidence for a simple receptor-ligand model for activation of the NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes. PMID:21874021

Kofoed, Eric M.; Vance, Russell E.

2011-01-01

448

Advances in treatment of bacterial meningitis.  

PubMed

Bacterial meningitis kills or maims about a fifth of people with the disease. Early antibiotic treatment improves outcomes, but the effectiveness of widely available antibiotics is threatened by global emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. New antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones, could have a role in these circumstances, but clinical data to support this notion are scarce. Additionally, whether or not adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapies (eg, dexamethasone) improve outcomes in patients with bacterial meningitis remains controversial; in resource-poor regions, where the disease burden is highest, dexamethasone is ineffective. Other adjunctive therapeutic strategies, such as glycerol, paracetamol, and induction of hypothermia, are being tested further. Therefore, bacterial meningitis is a substantial and evolving therapeutic challenge. We review this challenge, with a focus on strategies to optimise antibiotic efficacy in view of increasingly drug-resistant bacteria, and discuss the role of current and future adjunctive therapies. PMID:23141618

van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Thwaites, Guy E; Tunkel, Allan R

2012-11-10

449

Photo-Induced Effect on Bacterial Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial resistance against antibiotics is an increasing problem in medicine. This stimulates study of other bactericidal regimens, one of which is photodynamic therapy (PDT), which involves the killing of bacterial species by low power laser light (LLL) in the presence of photosensitizing agent. It has already been shown that, various gram- negative and gram-positive bacteria can be killed by photodynamic therapy in vitro, using exogenous sensitizers. The mechanisms of laser action on bacteria are not adequately understood. Here, PDT on H. pylori, as an example of gram negative bacteria was studied. The ultra structure changes of the organism after PDT were examined under electron microscope. Neither Irradiation with laser without sensitizer nor sensitizing without laser has any lethal effect on bacterial cells. However, the successful lethal photosensitization was achieved by applying certain laser dose with the corresponding concentration of the photosensitizer. On the other hand, PDT has no significant effect on the genomic DNA of the cells.

El Batanouny, M. H.; Amin, Rehab M.; Naga, M. I.; Ibrahim, M. K.

2010-04-01

450

Oxidative stress in children with bacterial meningitis.  

PubMed

Bacterial meningitis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The oxidative stress in bacterial meningitis is barely determined. Forty children with bacterial meningitis were studied for their oxidants and antioxidants status in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Fever (95%) was commonest presentation followed by seizure and vomiting. Neck rigidity and Kernig's sign were present in 37.5% and 27.5% cases, respectively. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and nitrite levels were significantly raised in cases (p < 0.001). Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid ascorbic acid, glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels were significantly decreased in children with septic meningitis (p < 0.001). Significantly elevated malondialdehyde, nitrite and protein carbonyl levels reflect increased oxidative stress, whereas decreased concentrations of glutathione, ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase indicates utilization of the antioxidants in septic meningitis. Thus, changes in oxidants and antioxidants observed suggest production of reactive oxygen species and their possible role in pathogenesis of septic meningitis. PMID:23436234

Srivastava, Ragni; Lohokare, Rajeev; Prasad, Rajniti

2013-08-01

451

Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors  

DOEpatents

Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

Iyer, Rashi S.; Ganguly, Kumkum; Silks, Louis A.

2013-01-08

452

Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

Iyer, Rashi (Los Alamos, NM); Ganguly, Kumkum (Los Alamos, NM); Silks, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-12-06

453

Bacterial imprinting at Pickering emulsion interfaces.  

PubMed

The tendency of bacteria to assemble at oil-water interfaces can be utilized to create microbial recognition sites on the surface of polymer beads. In this work, two different groups of bacteria were first treated with acryloyl-functionalized chitosan and then used to stabilize an oil-in-water emulsion composed of cross-linking monomers that were dispersed in aqueous buffer. Polymerization of the oil phase followed by removal of the bacterial template resulted in well-defined polymer beads bearing bacterial imprints. Chemical passivation of chitosan and cell displacement assays indicate that the bacterial recognition on the polymer beads was dependent on the nature of the pre-polymer and the target bacteria. The functional materials for microbial recognition show great potential for constructing cell-cell communication networks, biosensors, and new platforms for testing antibiotic drugs. PMID:25111359

Shen, Xiantao; Svensson Bonde, Johan; Kamra, Tripta; Bülow, Leif; Leo, Jack C; Linke, Dirk; Ye, Lei

2014-09-26

454

Molecular Control of Bacterial Death and Lysis  

PubMed Central

Summary: Although the phenomenon of bacterial cell death and lysis has been studied for over 100 years, the contribution of these important processes to bacterial physiology and development has only recently been recognized. Contemporary study of cell death and lysis in a number of different bacteria has revealed that these processes, once thought of as being passive and unregulated, are actually governed by highly complex regulatory systems. An emerging paradigm in this field suggests that, analogous to programmed cell death in eukaryotes, regulated cell death and lysis in bacteria play an important role in both developmental processes, such as competence and biofilm development, and the elimination of damaged cells, such as those irreversibly injured by environmental or antibiotic stress. Further study in this exciting field of bacterial research may provide new insight into the potential evolutionary link between control of cell death in bacteria and programmed cell death (apoptosis) in eukaryotes. PMID:18322035

Rice, Kelly C.; Bayles, Kenneth W.

2008-01-01

455

Bacterial Responses to Reactive Chlorine Species  

PubMed Central

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the active ingredient of household bleach, is the most common disinfectant in medical, industrial, and domestic use and plays an important role in microbial killing in the innate immune system. Given the critical importance of the antimicrobial properties of chlorine to public health, it is surprising how little is known about the ways in which bacteria sense and respond to reactive chlorine species (RCS). Although the literature on bacterial responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is enormous, work addressing bacterial responses to RCS has begun only recently. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies now provide new insights into how bacteria mount defenses against this important class of antimicrobial compounds. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge, emphasizing the overlaps between RCS stress responses and other more well-characterized bacterial defense systems, and identify outstanding questions that represent productive avenues for future research. PMID:23768204

Gray, Michael J.; Wholey, Wei-Yun; Jakob, Ursula

2013-01-01

456

Inactivation of Multiple Bacterial Histidine Kinases by Targeting the ATP-Binding Domain.  

PubMed

Antibacterial agents that exploit new targets will be required to combat the perpetual rise of bacterial resistance to current antibiotics. We are exploring the inhibition of histidine kinases, constituents of two-component systems. Two-component systems are the primary signaling pathways that bacteria utilize to respond to their environment. They are ubiquitous in bacteria and trigger various pathogenic mechanisms. To attenuate these signaling pathways, we sought to broadly target the histidine kinase family by focusing on their highly conserved ATP-binding domain. Development of a fluorescence polarization displacement assay facilitated high-throughput screening of ?53?000 diverse small molecules for binding to the ATP-binding pocket. Of these compounds, nine inhibited the catalytic activity of two or more histidine kinases. These scaffolds could provide valuable starting points for the design of broadly effective HK inhibitors, global reduction of bacterial signaling, and ultimately, a class of antibiotics that function by a new mechanism of action. PMID:25531939

Wilke, Kaelyn E; Francis, Samson; Carlson, Erin E

2015-01-16

457

Bacterial and fungal pattern recognition receptors in homologous innate signaling pathways of insects and mammals  

PubMed Central

In response to bacterial and fungal infections in insects and mammals, distinct families of innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) initiate highly complex intracellular signaling cascades. Those cascades induce a variety of immune functions that restrain the spread of microbes in the host. Insect and mammalian innate immune receptors include molecules that recognize conserved microbial molecular patterns. Innate immune recognition leads to the recruitment of adaptor molecules forming multi-protein complexes that include kinases, transcription factors, and other regulatory molecules. Innate immune signaling cascades induce the expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and other key factors that mount and regulate the immune response against microbial challenge. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the bacterial and fungal PRRs for homologous innate signaling pathways of insects and mammals in an effort to provide a framework for future studies.

Stokes, Bethany A.; Yadav, Shruti; Shokal, Upasana; Smith, L. C.; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

2015-01-01

458

Exoproteinases of the type A in pathogenesis of insect bacterial diseases.  

PubMed

Immune inhibitors produced in infected larvae of Galleria mellonella by such entomopathogens as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora effectively blocked in vitro bactericidal activity of insect haemolymph against Escherichia coli D31, both in Galleria mellonella and Pieris brassicae pupae previously vaccinated with Enterobacter cloacae. Even at a trace concentration, the extracellular proteinases, by proteolytic degradation, totally destroyed the activity of cecropin peptides from Galleria and cecropin-like and attacin-family proteins from Pieris, but no ability to destroy antibacterial activity was shown by extracts obtained from Galleria larvae killed by massive doses of bacterial saprophytes. It is suggested that by blocking antibacterial immune response of the host, the proteinases help the bacteria to multiply in the haemolymph, thus they could be considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of bacterial diseases of insects. PMID:10754793

Andrejko, M

1999-01-01

459

All in the Family? Family Environment Factors in Sibling Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sibling violence is presumed to be the most common form of family violence and the least studied. Based on data from “Physical\\u000a Violence in American Families, 1976,” this paper assesses the family environment factors associated with sibling physical\\u000a violence. Of a range of potential family influences, measures of family disorganization were the most significant predictors\\u000a of sibling violence, overriding the

Shelley Eriksen; Vickie Jensen

2006-01-01

460

Family processes and adolescent adjustment in intact and remarried families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether family processes that predict positive and negative developmental outcomes are the same in intact and remarried families. Surveys were administered to 758 tenth graders from intact families and 95 from stepfather families. Measures of cohesion, democratic decision-making style, permissiveness, and conflict were used to predict self-rated depression, worry, and self-esteem. Remarried and intact families provide similar

Bonnie L. Barber; Janice M. Lyons

1994-01-01

461

A quantitative measure of nitrifying bacterial growth.  

PubMed

Nitrifying bacteria convert ammonia (NH3) to nitrate (NO3-) in a nitrification reaction. Methods to quantitatively separate the growth rate of these important bacterial populations from that of the dominant heterotrophic bacteria are important to our understanding of the nitrification process. The changing concentration of ammonia is often used as an indirect measure of nitrification but ammonification processes generate ammonia and confound this approach while heterotrophs remove nitrate via denitrification. Molecular probe methods can tell us what proportion of the microbial community is nitrifying bacteria but not their growth rate. The technique proposed here was able to quantify the growth rate of the nitrifying bacterial populations amidst complex ecological processes. The method incubates [methyl-3H] thymidine with water samples in the presence and absence of an inhibitor of nitrification-thiourea. The radioactively labeled DNA in the growing bacteria was extracted. The rate of incorporation of the label into the dividing bacterial DNA was used to determine bacterial growth rate. Total bacterial community growth rates in full-scale and pilot-scale fixed-film nitrifying reactors and an activated sludge reactor were 2.1 x 10(8), 4.1 x 10(8) and 0.4 x 10(8)cell ml(-1)d(-1), respectively; the growth rate of autotrophic-nitrifying bacteria was 0.7 x 10(8), 2.6 x 10(8) and 0.01 x 10(8)cell ml(-1)d(-1), respectively. Autotrophic-nitrifying bacteria contributed 30% and 60% of the total bacterial community growth rate in the nitrifying reactors whereas only 2% was observed in the activated sludge reactor that was not designed to nitrify. The rates of ammonia loss from the nitrifying reactors corresponded to the rate of growth of the nitrifying bacteria. This method has the potential to more often identify factors that enhance or limit nitrifying processes in both engineered and natural aquatic environments. PMID:16603221

Pollard, Peter C

2006-05-01

462

Gamma-irradiated bacterial preparation having anti-tumor activity  

SciTech Connect

A bacterial preparation from Pseudomonas species isolated #15 ATCC 55638 that has been exposed to gamma radiation exhibits cytotoxicity that is specific for neoplastic carcinoma cells. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having antitumor activity consists of suspending a bacterial isolate in media and exposing the suspension to gamma radiation. A bacterial preparation of an aged culture of an amoeba-associated bacteria exhibits anti-reverse transcriptase activity. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having anti-reverse transcriptase activity from an amoeba-associated bacterial isolate grown to stationary phase is disclosed.

Vass, Arpad A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN); Terzaghi-Howe, Peggy (Montrose, CO)

1999-01-01

463

Gamma-irradiated bacterial preparation having anti-tumor activity  

SciTech Connect

This application describes a bacterial preparation from Pseudomonas species isolated {number{underscore}sign}15 ATCC 55638 that has been exposed to gamma radiation exhibits cytotoxicity that is specific for neoplastic carcinoma cells. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having antitumor activity consists of suspending a bacterial isolate in media and exposing the suspension to gamma radiation. A bacterial preparation of an aged culture of an amoeba-associated bacteria exhibits anti-reverse transcriptase activity. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having anti-reverse transcriptase activity from an amoeba-associated bacterial isolate grown to stationary phase is disclosed.

Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.; Terzaghi-Howe, P.

1999-11-16

464

Occurrence, metabolism, metabolic role, and industrial uses of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), of which polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most abundant, are bacterial carbon and energy reserve materials of widespread occurrence. They are composed of 3-hydroxyacid monomer units and exist as a small number of cytoplasmic granules per cell. The properties of the C4 homopolymer PHB as a biodegradable thermoplastic first attracted industrial attention more than 20 years ago. Copolymers of C4 (3-hydroxybutyrate [3HB]) and C5 (3-hydroxyvalerate [3HV]) monomer units have modified physical properties; e.g., the plastic is less brittle than PHB, whereas PHAs containing C8 to C12 monomers behave as elastomers. This family of materials is the centre of considerable commercial interest, and 3HB-co-3HV copolymers have been marketed by ICI plc as Biopol. The known polymers exist as 2(1) helices with the fiber repeat decreasing from 0.596 nm for PHB to about 0.45 nm for C8 to C10 polymers. Novel copolymers with a backbone of 3HB and 4HB have been obtained. The native granules contain noncrystalline polymer, and water may possibly act as a plasticizer. Although the biosynthesis and regulation of PHB are generally well understood, the corresponding information for the synthesis of long-side-chain PHAs from alkanes, alcohols, and organic acids is still incomplete. The precise mechanisms of action of the polymerizing and depolymerizing enzymes also remain to be established. The structural genes for the three key enzymes of PHB synthesis from acetyl coenzyme A in Alcaligenes eutrophus have been cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Polymer molecular weights appear to be species specific. The factors influencing the commercial choice of organism, substrate, and isolation process are discussed. The physiological functions of PHB as a reserve material and in symbiotic nitrogen fixation and its presence in bacterial plasma membranes and putative role in transformability and calcium signaling are also considered. PMID:2087222

Anderson, A J; Dawes, E A

1990-12-01

465

Occurrence, metabolism, metabolic role, and industrial uses of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates.  

PubMed Central

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), of which polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most abundant, are bacterial carbon and energy reserve materials of widespread occurrence. They are composed of 3-hydroxyacid monomer units and exist as a small number of cytoplasmic granules per cell. The properties of the C4 homopolymer PHB as a biodegradable thermoplastic first attracted industrial attention more than 20 years ago. Copolymers of C4 (3-hydroxybutyrate [3HB]) and C5 (3-hydroxyvalerate [3HV]) monomer units have modified physical properties; e.g., the plastic is less brittle than PHB, whereas PHAs containing C8 to C12 monomers behave as elastomers. This family of materials is the centre of considerable commercial interest, and 3HB-co-3HV copolymers have been marketed by ICI plc as Biopol. The known polymers exist as 2(1) helices with the fiber repeat decreasing from 0.596 nm for PHB to about 0.45 nm for C8 to C10 polymers. Novel copolymers with a backbone of 3HB and 4HB have been obtained. The native granules contain noncrystalline polymer, and water may possibly act as a plasticizer. Although the biosynthesis and regulation of PHB are generally well understood, the corresponding information for the synthesis of long-side-chain PHAs from alkanes, alcohols, and organic acids is still incomplete. The precise mechanisms of action of the polymerizing and depolymerizing enzymes also remain to be established. The structural genes for the three key enzymes of PHB synthesis from acetyl coenzyme A in Alcaligenes eutrophus have been cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Polymer molecular weights appear to be species specific. The factors influencing the commercial choice of organism, substrate, and isolation process are discussed. The physiological functions of PHB as a reserve material and in symbiotic nitrogen fixation and its presence in bacterial plasma membranes and putative role in transformability and calcium signaling are also considered. PMID:2087222

Anderson, A J; Dawes, E A

1990-01-01

466

Measuring Family Reunion Travel Motivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study developed a Family Reunion Travel Motivation Scale (FRTMS) measuring family reunion travelers’ motivations. Through a rigorous scale development process, the final model of the scale exhibits excellent levels of psychometric properties. Details of each step are described in this paper. The 15-items scale contains four dimensions labeled as: (a) family history and togetherness, (b) immediate family cohesion, (c)

Juyeon Y. Kluin; Xinran Y. Lehto

467

Marriage and Family Therapy Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a number of inventories designed to measure dimensions of family systems theory and then provides a discussion of family systems assessment. Includes discussions of two couple's inventories, eight nuclear family inventories, and two family of origin inventories. Concludes that counselor educators must have understanding of marriage and…

West, John D.

1988-01-01

468

Changes in American Family Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article attempts to provide a factual, historical perspective on the current family situation of American children. Demographic statistics from recent decades are given which show trends toward small family size, nuclear families, one-parent families, and a higher level of education among parents. (MS)

Norton, Arthur J.; Glick, Paul C.

1976-01-01

469

The Power of Family Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the early findings from the analysis of a family literacy demonstration project under the direction of the National Center for Family Literacy. The data in this report are based upon the experiences of over 300 families who participated in the Toyota Families for Learning Program during the 1992-1993 school year. The first…

National Center for Family Literacy, Louisville, KY.

470

Stable Black Families. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the final report of a study conducted to determine what factors contribute to strong Black family life and how these strong families solve problems, in order to add to the knowledge base on stable families so as to enhance practical intervention with families in need, and to identify models of self-help strategies used by stable…

Gary, Lawrence E.; And Others

471

Trends in Family Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

Neugebauer, Roger

2011-01-01

472

Production of bacterial cellulose from alternate feedstocks.  

PubMed

Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low-solids (LS) and high-solids (HS) potato effluents, cheese whey permeate (CW), or sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did strain 10821 and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, and LS was unsuitable for production by strain 10821. However, strain 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating that unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose. PMID:11963879

Thompson, D N; Hamilton, M A

2001-01-01

473

Iatrogenic bacterial meningitis: an unmasked threat.  

PubMed

Iatrogenic bacterial meningitis (IBM) is a rare but serious complication of neuraxial procedures, such as spinal and epidural anesthesia or lumbar puncture. We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with bacterial meningitis after spinal anesthesia. We review the existing literature outlining the pathogenesis, vector hypothesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention as they relate to IBM. We highlight the role of the emergency physician in the rapid diagnosis of this disease, and underscore the need for sterile technique when performing lumbar punctures. PMID:22813400

Barnwell, Robert; Ball, Vincent

2012-07-01

474

Fluid dynamics and noise in bacterial scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial communication through chemical and physical channels is permanently challenged by internal and external noise. While the role of stochastic fluctuations in quorum sensing has been widely studied both theoretically and experimentally, our understanding of hydrodynamic interactions between bacteria is limited by the absence of empirical data. Here, we report the first direct measurement of the fluid flow generated by an individual bacterium far away from and near to a wall. The experiments show that the micro-hydrodynamics of E. coli are considerably different from that of more complex eucaryotes as, for example, Chlamydomonas algae. We discuss the implications of our results for bacterial cell-cell and cell-wall interactions.

Dunkel, Jorn; Drescher, Knut; Cisneros, Luis; Ganguly, Sujoy; Goldstein, Raymond

2011-03-01

475

Engineering the perfect (bacterial) cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Bacterial therapies possess many unique mechanisms for treating cancer that are unachievable with standard methods. Bacteria can specifically target tumors, actively penetrate tissue, are easily detected and can controllably induce cytotoxicity. Over that last decade, Salmonella, Clostridium and other genera have been shown to control tumor growth and promote survival in animal models. In this Innovation article I propose that synthetic biology techniques can be used to solve many of the key challenges associated with bacterial therapies such as toxicity, stability and efficiency; and can be used to tune their beneficial features, allowing the engineering of ‘perfect’ cancer therapies. PMID:20944664

Forbes, Neil S.

2013-01-01

476

Engineering the perfect (bacterial) cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Bacterial therapies possess many unique mechanisms for treating cancer that are unachievable with standard methods. Bacteria can specifically target tumours, actively penetrate tissue, are easily detected and can controllably induce cytotoxicity. Over the past decade, Salmonella, Clostridium and other genera have been shown to control tumour growth and promote survival in animal models. In this Innovation article I propose that synthetic biology techniques can be used to solve many of the key challenges that are associated with bacterial therapies, such as toxicity, stability and efficiency, and can be used to tune their beneficial features, allowing the engineering of 'perfect' cancer therapies. PMID:20944664

Forbes, Neil S

2010-11-01

477

Navigating the future of bacterial molecular epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Technological advances in high-throughput genome sequencing have led to an enhanced appreciation of the genetic diversity found within populations of pathogenic bacteria. Methods based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions or deletions (indels) build upon the framework established by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and permit a detailed, targeted analysis of variation within related organisms. Robust phylogenetics, when combined with epidemiologically informative data, can be applied to study ongoing temporal and geographical fluctuations in bacterial pathogens. As genome sequencing, SNP detection and geospatial information become more accessible these methods will continue to transform the way molecular epidemiology is used to study populations of bacterial pathogens. PMID:20846899

Baker, Stephen; Hanage, William P; Holt, Kathryn E

2010-01-01

478

Bacterial contact-dependent growth inhibition.  

PubMed

Bacteria cooperate to form multicellular communities and compete against one another for environmental resources. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of bacterial competition mediated by contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) systems. Different CDI+ bacteria deploy a variety of toxins to inhibit neighboring cells and protect themselves from autoinhibition by producing specific immunity proteins. The genes encoding CDI toxin-immunity protein pairs appear to be exchanged between cdi loci and are often associated with other toxin-delivery systems in diverse bacterial species. CDI also appears to facilitate cooperative behavior between kin, suggesting that these systems may have other roles beyond competition. PMID:23473845

Ruhe, Zachary C; Low, David A; Hayes, Christopher S

2013-05-01

479

Production of bacterial cellulose from alternate feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS and HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

D. N. Thompson; M. A. Hamilton

2000-05-07

480

Production of Bacterial Cellulose from Alternate Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect

Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS & HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

Thompson, David Neil; Hamilton, Melinda Ann

2000-05-01