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1

Global and Phylogenetic Distribution of Quorum Sensing Signals, Acyl Homoserine Lactones, in the Family of Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) and the corresponding signals, acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), were first described for a luminescent Vibrio species. Since then, detailed knowledge has been gained on the functional level of QS; however, the abundance of AHLs in the family of Vibrionaceae in the environment has remained unclear. Three hundred and one Vibrionaceae strains were collected on a global research cruise and the prevalence and profile of AHL signals in this global collection were determined. AHLs were detected in 32 of the 301 strains using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Chromobacterium violaceum reporter strains. Ethyl acetate extracts of the cultures were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) with automated tandem MS confirmation for AHLs. N-(3-hydroxy-hexanoyl) (OH-C6) and N-(3-hydroxy-decanoyl) (OH-C10) homoserine lactones were the most common AHLs found in 17 and 12 strains, respectively. Several strains produced a diversity of different AHLs, including N-heptanoyl (C7) HL. AHL-producing Vibrionaceae were found in polar, temperate and tropical waters. The AHL profiles correlated with strain phylogeny based on gene sequence homology, however not with geographical location. In conclusion, a wide range of AHL signals are produced by a number of clades in the Vibrionaceae family and these results will allow future investigations of inter- and intra-species interactions within this cosmopolitan family of marine bacteria. PMID:25419995

Barker Rasmussen, Bastian; Fog Nielsen, Kristian; Machado, Henrique; Melchiorsen, Jette; Gram, Lone; Sonnenschein, Eva C.

2014-01-01

2

Presence of acyl-homoserine lactones in 57 members of the Vibrionaceae family  

PubMed Central

Aims?The aim of this study was to use a sensitive method to screen and quantify 57 Vibrionaceae strains for the production of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) and map the resulting AHL profiles onto a host phylogeny. Methods and Results?We used a high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) protocol to measure AHLs in spent media after bacterial growth. First, the presence/absence of AHLs (qualitative analysis) was measured to choose internal standard for subsequent quantitative AHL measurements. We screened 57 strains from three genera (Aliivibrio,Photobacterium and Vibrio) of the same family (i.e. Vibrionaceae). Our results show that about half of the isolates produced multiple AHLs, typically at 25–5000?nmol?l?1. Conclusions?This work shows that production of AHL quorum sensing signals is found widespread among Vibrionaceae bacteria and that closely related strains typically produce similar AHL profiles. Significance and Impact of the Study?The AHL detection protocol presented in this study can be applied to a broad range of bacterial samples and may contribute to a wider mapping of AHL production in bacteria, for example, in clinically relevant strains. PMID:23725044

Purohit, AA; Johansen, J A; Hansen, H; Leiros, H-KS; Kashulin, A; Karlsen, C; Smalas, A; Haugen, P; Willassen, NP

2013-01-01

3

Development of a Simple and Rapid Fluorogenic Procedure for Identification of Vibrionaceae Family Members  

PubMed Central

We describe a simple colony overlay procedure for peptidases (COPP) for the rapid fluorogenic detection and quantification of Vibrionaceae from seawater, shellfish, sewage, and clinical samples. The assay detects phosphoglucose isomerase with a lysyl aminopeptidase activity that is produced by Vibrionaceae family members. Overnight cultures are overlaid for 10 min with membranes containing a synthetic substrate, and the membranes are examined for fluorescent foci under UV illumination. Fluorescent foci were produced by all the Vibrionaceae tested, including Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas spp. Fluorescence was not produced by non-Vibrionaceae pathogens. Vibrio cholerae strains O1, O139, O22, and O155 were strongly positive. Seawater and oysters were assayed, and 87 of 93 (93.5%) of the positive isolates were identified biochemically as Vibrionaceae, principally Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Photobacterium damselae, and Shewanella putrefaciens. None of 50 nonfluorescent isolates were Vibrionaceae. No Vibrionaceae were detected in soil, and only A. hydrophila was detected in sewage. The COPP technique may be particularly valuable in environmental and food-testing laboratories and for monitoring water quality in the aquaculture industry. PMID:16000757

Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Parveen, Salina

2005-01-01

4

Antibacterial compounds from marine Vibrionaceae isolated on a global expedition.  

PubMed

On a global research expedition, over 500 bacterial strains inhibitory towards pathogenic bacteria were isolated. Three hundred of the antibacterial strains were assigned to the Vibrionaceae family. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the phylogeny and bioactivity of five Vibrionaceae strains with pronounced antibacterial activity. These were identified as Vibrio coralliilyticus (two strains), V. neptunius (two strains), and Photobacterium halotolerans (one strain) on the basis of housekeeping gene sequences. The two related V. coralliilyticus and V. neptunius strains were isolated from distant oceanic regions. Chemotyping by LC-UV/MS underlined genetic relationships by showing highly similar metabolite profiles for each of the two V. coralliilyticus and V. neptunius strains, respectively, but a unique profile for P. halotolerans. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified two known antibiotics as being responsible for the antibacterial activity; andrimid (from V. coralliilyticus) and holomycin (from P. halotolerans). Despite the isolation of already known antibiotics, our findings show that marine Vibrionaceae are a resource of antibacterial compounds and may have potential for future natural product discovery. PMID:21339958

Wietz, Matthias; Mansson, Maria; Gotfredsen, Charlotte H; Larsen, Thomas O; Gram, Lone

2010-01-01

5

Fluorogenic Membrane Overlays to Enumerate Total and Fecal Escherichia coli and Total Vibrionaceae in Shellfish and Seawater  

PubMed Central

Three assays were developed to enumerate total and fecal Escherichia coli and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish, seawater, and other foods and environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on nonselective agar plates to detect ?-glucuronidase and lysyl aminopeptidase activities for E. coli and Vibrionaceae, respectively. Cellulose membranes containing the substrates 4-methylumbeferyl-?-D-glucuronide (MUG) produced a bright blue fluorescence when overlaid onto E. coli, while L-lysyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin produced green fluorescent foci when overlaid onto Vibrionaceae family members. A multiplex assay was also developed for simultaneously enumerating total E. coli and total Vibrionaceae in oysters and seawater. Overall, 65% of overlaid E. coli (non-O157:H7) were MUG-positive, compared with 62% as determined by the most-probable-number-MUG assay. The overlays are rapid, simple, and cost effective for quantification purposes. This research provides practical alternatives for monitoring bacterial indicators and potential pathogens in complex samples, including molluscan shellfish. PMID:20396663

Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.

2010-01-01

6

Fluorogenic Membrane Overlays to Enumerate Total and Fecal Escherichia coli and Total Vibrionaceae in Shellfish and Seawater.  

PubMed

Three assays were developed to enumerate total and fecal Escherichia coli and total Vibrionaceae in shellfish, seawater, and other foods and environmental samples. Assays involve membrane overlays of overnight colonies on nonselective agar plates to detect beta-glucuronidase and lysyl aminopeptidase activities for E. coli and Vibrionaceae, respectively. Cellulose membranes containing the substrates 4-methylumbeferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) produced a bright blue fluorescence when overlaid onto E. coli, while L-lysyl-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin produced green fluorescent foci when overlaid onto Vibrionaceae family members. A multiplex assay was also developed for simultaneously enumerating total E. coli and total Vibrionaceae in oysters and seawater. Overall, 65% of overlaid E. coli (non-O157:H7) were MUG-positive, compared with 62% as determined by the most-probable-number-MUG assay. The overlays are rapid, simple, and cost effective for quantification purposes. This research provides practical alternatives for monitoring bacterial indicators and potential pathogens in complex samples, including molluscan shellfish. PMID:20396663

Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A

2010-01-01

7

Physiological Responses to Stress in the Vibrionaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The family Vibrionaceae (Domain Bacteria, Phylum Proteobacteria, Class Gammaproteobacteria) is comprised mostly of motile\\u000a gram-negative chemoorganotrophs, possessing at least one polar flagellum (Farmer III and Janda, 2005; Thompson and Swings,\\u000a 2006). Vibrios are facultative anaerobes, having both respiratory and fermentative metabolisms, and the mol% G + C of the\\u000a DNA is 38–51% (Farmer III and Janda, 2005). Cells are usually

William Soto; C. Phoebe Lostroh; Michele K. Nishiguchi

8

Water-quality parameters and total aerobic bacterial and Vibrionaceae loads in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from oyster-gardening sites.  

PubMed

Oyster gardening is a practice designed to restore habitat for marine life and to improve water quality. This study determined physical and chemical water-quality parameters at two oyster gardening sites in the Delaware Inland Bays and compared them with total aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae concentrations in Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). One site was located at the end of a man-made canal, whereas the other was located in an open bay. Measured water parameters included temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, pH, total nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus, and total suspended solids. The highest Vibrionaceae levels, as determined by the colony overlay procedure for peptidases, were at the canal site in September (3.5 × 10(5) g(-1)) and at the bay site in August (1.9 × 10(5) g(-1)). Vibrionaceae levels were significantly greater during the duration of the study at the canal site (P = 0.01). This study provides the first baseline levels for total Vibrionaceae in the Delaware Inland Bays. Minimum DO readings at the bay and canal sites were 3.0 and 2.3 mg l(-1), respectively, far less than the state-targeted minimum threshold of 5.0 mg l(-1). Total phosphorus levels exceeded recommendations of ?0.1 mg l(-1) at the bay and canal sites for all monthly samplings, with mean monthly highs at both sites ?0.68 mg l(-1) in August. Nitrogen occasionally exceeded the recommended level of 1.0 mg l(-1) at both sites. Overall, waters were highly degraded from high phosphates, nitrogen, and total suspended solids as well as low DO. PMID:22183874

Fay, Johnna P; Richards, Gary P; Ozbay, Gulnihal

2012-05-01

9

Small RNAs in the Vibrionaceae: an ocean still to be explored.  

PubMed

In bacteria, the discovery of noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) as modulators of gene expression in response to environmental signals has brought new insights into bacterial gene regulation, including control of pathogenicity. The Vibrionaceae constitute a family of marine bacteria of which many are responsible for infections affecting not only humans, such as Vibrio cholerae but also fish and marine invertebrates, representing the major cause of mortality in farmed marine species. They are able to colonize many habitats, existing as planktonic forms, in biofilms or associated with various hosts. This high adaptability is linked to their capacity to generate genetic diversity, in part through lateral gene transfer, but also by varying gene expression control. In the recent years, several major studies have illustrated the importance of small regulatory sRNAs in the Vibrionaceae for the control of pathogenicity and adaptation to environment and nutrient sources such as chitin, especially in V. cholerae and Vibrio harveyi. The existence of a complex regulatory network controlled by quorum sensing has been demonstrated in which sRNAs play central roles. This review covers major advances made in the discovery and elucidation of functions of Vibrionaceae sRNAs within the last 10?years. PMID:24458378

Nguyen, An Ngoc; Jacq, Annick

2014-01-01

10

Associations and dynamics of Vibrionaceae in the environment, from the genus to the population level  

E-print Network

The Vibrionaceae, which encompasses several potential pathogens, including V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, and V. vulnificus, the deadliest seafood-borne pathogen, are a well-studied family of marine bacteria ...

Chien, Diana M.

11

Production of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites by Marine Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

Bacteria belonging to the Vibrionaceae family are widespread in the marine environment. Today, 128 species of vibrios are known. Several of them are infamous for their pathogenicity or symbiotic relationships. Despite their ability to interact with eukaryotes, the vibrios are greatly underexplored for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites and studies have been limited to only a few species. Most of the compounds isolated from vibrios so far are non-ribosomal peptides or hybrids thereof, with examples of N-containing compounds produced independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Though covering a limited chemical space, vibrios produce compounds with attractive biological activities, including antibacterial, anticancer, and antivirulence activities. This review highlights some of the most interesting structures from this group of bacteria. Many compounds found in vibrios have also been isolated from other distantly related bacteria. This cosmopolitan occurrence of metabolites indicates a high incidence of horizontal gene transfer, which raises interesting questions concerning the ecological function of some of these molecules. This account underlines the pending potential for exploring new bacterial sources of bioactive compounds and the challenges related to their investigation. PMID:22131950

Mansson, Maria; Gram, Lone; Larsen, Thomas O.

2011-01-01

12

A large family of bacterial activator proteins.  

PubMed Central

At least nine different bacterial proteins belong to the LysR family. The gene sequence for one of these proteins is presented here. Six others (Escherichia coli LysR, IlvY, CysB; Salmonella typhimurium MetR; Rhizobium NodD; and Enterobacter cloacae AmpR) are known to activate other genes. Based on sequence alignments, each member of this family is predicted to have a helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif near its amino terminus. The combined evidence indicates that all nine proteins are related by common ancestry, are similarly folded, and are not detectably related to other known bacterial regulatory proteins. The DNA database searching procedure and other methods used in this study should be useful in detecting other groups of related proteins. PMID:3413113

Henikoff, S; Haughn, G W; Calvo, J M; Wallace, J C

1988-01-01

13

Evaluation of the Phoenix 100 ID/AST System and NID Panel for Identification of Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and Commonly Isolated Nonenteric Gram-Negative Bacilli  

PubMed Central

The Phoenix 100 ID/AST system (Becton Dickinson Co., Sparks, Md.) is an automated system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. This system with its negative identification (NID) panel was evaluated for its accuracy in the identification of 507 isolates of the family Enterobacteriaceae, 57 other nonenteric gram-negative isolates that are commonly isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories, and 138 isolates of the family Vibrionaceae. All of the isolates had been characterized by using approximately 48 conventional tube biochemicals. Of the 507 isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae, 456 (89.9%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels. The five isolates of Proteus penneri required an off-line indole test, as suggested by the system to differentiate them from Proteus vulgaris. The identifications of 20 (3.9%) isolates were correct to the genus level but incorrect at the species level. Two (0.4%) isolates were reported as “no identification.” Misidentifications to the genus and species levels occurred for 29 (5.7%) isolates of the Enterobacteriaceae. These incorrect identifications were spread over 14 different genera. The most common error was the misidentification of Salmonella species. The shortest time for a correct identification was 2 h 8 min. The longest time was 12 h 27 min, for the identification of a Serratia marcescens isolate. Of the 57 isolates of nonenteric gram-negative bacilli (Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Burkholderia, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, and Stenotrophomonas spp.), 48 (84.2%) were correctly identified to the genus and species levels and 7 (12.3%) were correctly identified to the genus level but not to the species level. The average time for a correct identification was 5 h 11 min. Of the Vibrionaceae spp., 123 (89.1%) were correctly identified at the end of the initial incubation period, which averaged 4 h. Based on the findings of this study, the Phoenix 100 ID/AST system NID panel falls short of being an acceptable new method for the identification of the Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrionaceae, and gram-negative nonenteric isolates that are commonly encountered in many hospital microbiology laboratories. PMID:16517878

O'Hara, Caroline M.

2006-01-01

14

Characterization of the Bacterial Diversity in Indo-West Pacific Loliginid and Sepiolid Squid Light Organs  

PubMed Central

Loliginid and sepiolid squid light organs are known to host a variety of bacterial species from the family Vibrionaceae, yet little is known about the species diversity and characteristics among different host squids. Here we present a broad-ranging molecular and physiological analysis of the bacteria colonizing light organs in loliginid and sepiolid squids from various field locations of the Indo-West Pacific (Australia and Thailand). Our PCR-RFLP analysis, physiological characterization, carbon utilization profiling, and electron microscopy data indicate that loliginid squid in the Indo-West Pacific carry a consortium of bacterial species from the families Vibrionaceae and Photobacteriaceae. This research also confirms our previous report of the presence of Vibrio harveyi as a member of the bacterial population colonizing light organs in loliginid squid. pyrH sequence data were used to confirm isolate identity, and indicates that Vibrio and Photobacterium comprise most of the light organ colonizers of squids from Australia, confirming previous reports for Australian loliginid and sepiolid squids. In addition, combined phylogenetic analysis of PCR-RFLP and 16S rDNA data from Australian and Thai isolates associated both Photobacterium and Vibrio clades with both loliginid and sepiolid strains, providing support that geographical origin does not correlate with their relatedness. These results indicate that both loliginid and sepiolid squids demonstrate symbiont specificity (Vibrionaceae), but their distribution is more likely due to environmental factors that are present during the infection process. This study adds significantly to the growing evidence for complex and dynamic associations in nature and highlights the importance of exploring symbiotic relationships in which non-virulent strains of pathogenic Vibrio species could establish associations with marine invertebrates. PMID:22885637

Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo; Gorman, Clayton; Chavez, Alba A.; Willie, Shantell

2013-01-01

15

A growing family: the expanding universe of the bacterial cytoskeleton  

PubMed Central

Cytoskeletal proteins are important mediators of cellular organization in both eukaryotes and bacteria. In the past, cytoskeletal studies have largely focused on three major cytoskeletal families, namely the eukaryotic actin, tubulin, and intermediate filament (IF) proteins and their bacterial homologs MreB, FtsZ, and crescentin. However, mounting evidence suggests that these proteins represent only the tip of the iceberg, as the cellular cytoskeletal network is far more complex. In bacteria, each of MreB, FtsZ, and crescentin represents only one member of large families of diverse homologs. There are also newly identified bacterial cytoskeletal proteins with no eukaryotic homologs, such as WACA proteins and bactofilins. Furthermore, there are universally conserved proteins, such as the metabolic enzyme CtpS, that assemble into filamentous structures that can be repurposed for structural cytoskeletal functions. Recent studies have also identified an increasing number of eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins that are unrelated to actin, tubulin, and IFs, such that expanding our understanding of cytoskeletal proteins is advancing the understanding of the cell biology of all organisms. Here, we summarize the recent explosion in the identification of new members of the bacterial cytoskeleton and describe a hypothesis for the evolution of the cytoskeleton from self-assembling enzymes. PMID:22092065

Ingerson-Mahar, Michael; Gitai, Zemer

2014-01-01

16

Reproducibility of Vibrionaceae population structure in coastal bacterioplankton  

PubMed Central

How reproducibly microbial populations assemble in the wild remains poorly understood. Here, we assess evidence for ecological specialization and predictability of fine-scale population structure and habitat association in coastal ocean Vibrionaceae across years. We compare Vibrionaceae lifestyles in the bacterioplankton (combinations of free-living, particle, or zooplankton associations) measured using the same sampling scheme in 2006 and 2009 to assess whether the same groups show the same environmental association year after year. This reveals complex dynamics with populations falling primarily into two categories: (i) nearly equally represented in each of the two samplings and (ii) highly skewed, often to an extent that they appear exclusive to one or the other sampling times. Importantly, populations recovered at the same abundance in both samplings occupied highly similar habitats suggesting predictable and robust environmental association while skewed abundances of some populations may be triggered by shifts in ecological conditions. The latter is supported by difference in the composition of large eukaryotic plankton between years, with samples in 2006 being dominated by copepods, and those in 2009 by diatoms. Overall, the comparison supports highly predictable population-habitat linkage but highlights the fact that complex, and often unmeasured, environmental dynamics in habitat occurrence may have strong effects on population dynamics. PMID:23178668

Szabo, Gitta; Preheim, Sarah P; Kauffman, Kathryn M; David, Lawrence A; Shapiro, Jesse; Alm, Eric J; Polz, Martin F

2013-01-01

17

Comparative Analysis of Superintegrons: Engineering Extensive Genetic Diversity in the Vibrionaceae  

PubMed Central

Integrons are natural tools for bacterial evolution and innovation. Their involvement in the capture and dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes among Gram-negative bacteria is well documented. Recently, massive ancestral versions, the superintegrons (SIs), were discovered in the genomes of diverse proteobacterial species. SI gene cassettes with an identifiable activity encode proteins related to simple adaptive functions, including resistance, virulence, and metabolic activities, and their recruitment was interpreted as providing the host with an adaptive advantage. Here, we present extensive comparative analysis of SIs identified among the Vibrionaceae. Each was at least 100 kb in size, reaffirming the participation of SIs in the genome plasticity and heterogeneity of these species. Phylogenetic and localization data supported the sedentary nature of the functional integron platform and its coevolution with the host genome. Conversely, comparative analysis of the SI cassettes was indicative of both a wide range of origin for the entrapped genes and of an active cassette assembly process in these bacterial species. The signature attC sites of each species displayed conserved structural characteristics indicating that symmetry rather than sequence was important in the recognition of such a varied collection of target recombination sequences by a single site-specific recombinase. Our discovery of various addiction module cassettes within each of the different SIs indicates a possible role for them in the overall stability of large integron cassette arrays. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org. The sequence data from this study have been submitted to GenBank under accession nos. listed in Table 1.] PMID:12618374

Rowe-Magnus, Dean A.; Guerout, Anne-Marie; Biskri, Latefa; Bouige, Philippe; Mazel, Didier

2003-01-01

18

Bacterial Type 6 Secreted Phospholipases Play Family Feud  

PubMed Central

Secreted bacterial phospholipases play many important roles in host-pathogen interactions. In a recent study, Russell et al. (Russell et al., 2013) revealed a new role for highly conserved proteobacterial phospholipases in bacterium-bacterium interactions. PMID:23684302

Hogan, Deborah A.; Hammond, John H.

2013-01-01

19

Linkage, Mobility, and Selfishness in the MazF Family of Bacterial Toxins: A Snapshot of Bacterial Evolution  

PubMed Central

Prokaryotic MazF family toxins cooccur with cognate antitoxins having divergent DNA-binding folds and can be of chromosomal or plasmid origin. Sequence similarity search was carried out to identify the Toxin–Antitoxin (TA) operons of MazF family followed by sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies. The genomic DNA upstream of the TA operons was searched for the presence of regulatory motifs. The MazF family toxins showed a conserved hydrophobic pocket in a multibinding site and are present in pathogenic bacteria. The toxins of the MazF family are associated with four main types of cognate antitoxin partners and cluster as a subfamily on the branches of the phylogenetic tree. This indicates that transmission of the entire operon is the dominant mode of inheritance. The plasmid borne TA modules were interspersed between the chromosomal TA modules of the same subfamily, compatible with a frequent interchange of TA genes between the chromosome and the plasmid akin to that observed for antibiotic resistance gens. The split network of the MazF family toxins showed the AbrB-linked toxins as a hub of horizontal gene transfer. Distinct motifs are present in the upstream region of each subfamily. The presence of MazF family TA modules in pathogenic bacteria and identification of a conserved binding pocket are significant for the development of novel antibacterials to disrupt the TA interaction. However, the role of TAs in stress resistance needs to be established. Phylogenetic studies provide insight into the evolution of MazF family TAs and effect on the bacterial genome. PMID:24265503

Chopra, Nikita; Saumitra; Pathak, Abhinandan; Bhatnagar, Rakesh; Bhatnagar, Sonika

2013-01-01

20

Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework  

PubMed Central

Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral-associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. Here, we compare bacterial assemblages of samples from healthy (HH) colonies and such displaying signs of White Plague Disease (WPD) of two different coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) from the same reef in Koh Tao, Thailand, using 16S rRNA gene microarrays. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased (DD) corals, and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens (Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae). In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries. PMID:23924783

Roder, Cornelia; Arif, Chatchanit; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Daniels, Camille; Shibl, Ahmed; Chavanich, Suchana; Voolstra, Christian R

2014-01-01

21

Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework.  

PubMed

Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral-associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. Here, we compare bacterial assemblages of samples from healthy (HH) colonies and such displaying signs of White Plague Disease (WPD) of two different coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) from the same reef in Koh Tao, Thailand, using 16S rRNA gene microarrays. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased (DD) corals, and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens (Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae). In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries. PMID:23924783

Roder, Cornelia; Arif, Chatchanit; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Daniels, Camille; Shibl, Ahmed; Chavanich, Suchana; Voolstra, Christian R

2014-01-01

22

Polar Localization of the Autotransporter Family of Large Bacterial Virulence Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autotransporters are an extensive family of large secreted virulence-associated proteins of gram-negative bacteria. Secretion of such large proteins poses unique challenges to bacteria. We demonstrate that autotrans- porters from a wide variety of rod-shaped pathogens, including IcsA and SepA of Shigella flexneri, AIDA-I of diffusely adherent Escherichia coli, and BrkA of Bordetella pertussis, are localized to the bacterial pole. The

Sumita Jain; Peter van Ulsen; Inga Benz; M. Alexander Schmidt; Rachel Fernandez; Jan Tommassen; Marcia B. Goldberg

2006-01-01

23

An iron-containing dodecameric heptosyltransferase family modifies bacterial autotransporters in pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Autotransporters deliver virulence factors to the bacterial surface by translocating an effector passenger domain through a membrane-anchored barrel structure. Although passenger domains are diverse, those found in enteric bacteria autotransporters, including AIDA-I in diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) and TibA in enterotoxigenic E. coli, are commonly glycosylated. We show that AIDA-I is heptosylated within the bacterial cytoplasm by autotransporter adhesin heptosyltransferase (AAH) and its paralogue AAH2. AIDA-I heptosylation determines DAEC adhesion to host cells. AAH/AAH2 define a bacterial autotransporter heptosyltransferase (BAHT) family that contains ferric ion and adopts a dodecamer assembly. Structural analyses of the heptosylated TibA passenger domain reveal 35 heptose conjugates forming patterned and solenoid-like arrays on the surface of a ? helix. Additionally, CARC, the AIDA-like autotransporter from Citrobacter rodentium, is essential for colonization in mice and requires heptosylation by its cognate BAHT. Our study establishes a bacterial glycosylation system that regulates virulence and is essential for pathogenesis. PMID:25211077

Lu, Qiuhe; Yao, Qing; Xu, Yue; Li, Lin; Li, Shan; Liu, Yanhua; Gao, Wenqing; Niu, Miao; Sharon, Michal; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Zamyatina, Alla; Liu, Xiaoyun; Chen, She; Shao, Feng

2014-09-10

24

Defense Against Cannibalism: The SdpI Family of Bacterial Immunity/Signal Transduction Proteins  

PubMed Central

The SdpI family consists of putative bacterial toxin immunity and signal transduction proteins. One member of the family in Bacillus subtilis, SdpI, provides immunity to cells from cannibalism in times of nutrient limitation. SdpI family members are transmembrane proteins with 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 12 putative transmembrane ?-helical segments (TMSs). These varied topologies appear to be genuine rather than artifacts due to sequencing or annotation errors. The basic and most frequently occurring element of the SdpI family has 6 TMSs. Homologues of all topological types were aligned to determine the homologous TMSs and loop regions, and the positive-inside rule was used to determine sidedness. The two most conserved motifs were identified between TMSs 1 and 2 and TMSs 4 and 5 of the 6 TMS proteins. These showed significant sequence similarity, leading us to suggest that the primordial precursor of these proteins was a 3 TMS–encoding genetic element that underwent intragenic duplication. Various deletional and fusional events, as well as intragenic duplications and inversions, may have yielded SdpI homologues with topologies of varying numbers and positions of TMSs. We propose a specific evolutionary pathway that could have given rise to these distantly related bacterial immunity proteins. We further show that genes encoding SdpI homologues often appear in operons with genes for homologues of SdpR, SdpI’s autorepressor. Our analyses allow us to propose structure–function relationships that may be applicable to most family members. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00232-010-9260-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20563570

Povolotsky, Tatyana Leonidovna; Orlova, Ekaterina; Tamang, Dorjee G.

2010-01-01

25

Molecular evolution of the bacterial pseudouridine-5'-phosphate glycosidase protein family.  

PubMed

Pseudouridine is a noncanonical C-nucleoside commonly present in RNA, which is not metabolized in mammals, but can be recycled by the unique enzyme family of bacterial pseudouridine glycosidases such as YeiN from Escherichia coli. Here, we present rigorous bioinformatic and biochemical analyses of the protein family in order to find sequences that might code for nonpseudouridine glycosidase activities. To date, the only other function reported for the enzyme family occurs during the biosynthesis of the antibiotic alnumycin A in Streptomyces species, where AlnA functions as an unusual C-glycosynthase. Bioinformatics analysis of 755 protein sequences identified one group of sequences that were unlikely to harbour pseudouridine glycosidase activities. This observation was confirmed in vitro with one representative protein, IdgA from Streptomyces albus, which was unable to synthesize pseudouridine monophosphate, but was able to attach d-ribose-5-phosphate to juglone. Furthermore, our analyses provide evidence for horizontal gene transfer of pseudouridine glycosidases that may have occurred in Streptomyces and Doria species. Inspection of the genomic loci in the vicinity of pseudouridine glycosidases revealed that in 77% of the strains a kinase gene putatively involved in the phosphorylation of pseudouridine was found nearby, whereas the sequences encoding nonpseudouridine glycosidases coexisted with a phosphatase of the haloacid dehalogenase enzyme family. The investigation suggested that these unknown sequences might be involved in the biosynthesis of soluble blue pigments because of the presence of genes homologous to nonribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:25081867

Thapa, Keshav; Oja, Terhi; Metsä-Ketelä, Mikko

2014-10-01

26

Novel Cyclic di-GMP Effectors of the YajQ Protein Family Control Bacterial Virulence  

PubMed Central

Bis-(3?,5?) cyclic di-guanylate (cyclic di-GMP) is a key bacterial second messenger that is implicated in the regulation of many critical processes that include motility, biofilm formation and virulence. Cyclic di-GMP influences diverse functions through interaction with a range of effectors. Our knowledge of these effectors and their different regulatory actions is far from complete, however. Here we have used an affinity pull-down assay using cyclic di-GMP-coupled magnetic beads to identify cyclic di-GMP binding proteins in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). This analysis identified XC_3703, a protein of the YajQ family, as a potential cyclic di-GMP receptor. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the purified XC_3703 protein bound cyclic di-GMP with a high affinity (Kd?2 µM). Mutation of XC_3703 led to reduced virulence of Xcc to plants and alteration in biofilm formation. Yeast two-hybrid and far-western analyses showed that XC_3703 was able to interact with XC_2801, a transcription factor of the LysR family. Mutation of XC_2801 and XC_3703 had partially overlapping effects on the transcriptome of Xcc, and both affected virulence. Electromobility shift assays showed that XC_3703 positively affected the binding of XC_2801 to the promoters of target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by cyclic di-GMP. Genetic and functional analysis of YajQ family members from the human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia showed that they also specifically bound cyclic di-GMP and contributed to virulence in model systems. The findings thus identify a new class of cyclic di-GMP effector that regulates bacterial virulence. PMID:25329577

An, Shi-qi; Caly, Delphine L.; McCarthy, Yvonne; Murdoch, Sarah L.; Ward, Joseph; Febrer, Melanie; Dow, J. Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P.

2014-01-01

27

HOST MICROBE INTERACTIONS Characterization of the Bacterial Diversity in Indo-West Pacific  

E-print Network

­7]. Members of the family Vibrionaceae have been frequent- ly detected and isolated from freshwater, estuarine harveyi [12, 13], and Photo- bacterium leiognathi [14] play important ecological roles because causing disease to their invertebrate host. Examples of such associations include V. cholerae and its

Nishiguchi, Michele

28

A Novel Alkaliphilic Bacillus Esterase Belongs to the 13th Bacterial Lipolytic Enzyme Family  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial derived lipolytic hydrolysts are an important class of biocatalysts because of their huge abundance and ability to display bioactivities under extreme conditions. In spite of recent advances, our understanding of these enzymes remains rudimentary. The aim of our research is to advance our understanding by seeking for more unusual lipid hydrolysts and revealing their molecular structure and bioactivities. Methodology/Principal Findings Bacillus. pseudofirmus OF4 is an extreme alkaliphile with tolerance of pH up to 11. In this work we successfully undertook a heterologous expression of a gene estof4 from the alkaliphilic B. pseudofirmus sp OF4. The recombinant protein called EstOF4 was purified into a homologous product by Ni-NTA affinity and gel filtration. The purified EstOF4 was active as dimer with the molecular weight of 64 KDa. It hydrolyzed a wide range of substrates including p-nitrophenyl esters (C2–C12) and triglycerides (C2–C6). Its optimal performance occurred at pH 8.5 and 50°C towards p-nitrophenyl caproate and triacetin. Sequence alignment revealed that EstOF4 shared 71% identity to esterase Est30 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus with a typical lipase pentapeptide motif G91LS93LG95. A structural model developed from homology modeling revealed that EstOF4 possessed a typical esterase 6?/7? hydrolase fold and a cap domain. Site-directed mutagenesis and inhibition studies confirmed the putative catalytic triad Ser93, Asp190 and His220. Conclusion EstOF4 is a new bacterial esterase with a preference to short chain ester substrates. With a high sequence identity towards esterase Est30 and several others, EstOF4 was classified into the same bacterial lipolytic family, Family XIII. All the members in this family originate from the same bacterial genus, bacillus and display optimal activities from neutral pH to alkaline conditions with short and middle chain length substrates. However, with roughly 70% sequence identity, these enzymes showed hugely different thermal stabilities, indicating their diverse thermal adaptations via just changing a few amino acid residues. PMID:23577139

Rao, Lang; Xue, Yanfen; Zheng, Yingying; Lu, Jian R.; Ma, Yanhe

2013-01-01

29

Routine phenotypic identification of bacterial species of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from animals.  

PubMed

Pasteurellaceae are bacteria with an important role as primary or opportunistic, mainly respiratory, pathogens in domestic and wild animals. Some species of Pasteurellaceae cause severe diseases with high economic losses in commercial animal husbandry and are of great diagnostic concern. Because of new data on the phylogeny of Pasteurellaceae, their taxonomy has recently been revised profoundly, thus requiring an improved phenotypic differentiation procedure to identify the individual species of this family. A new and simplified procedure to identify species of Actinobacillus, Avibacterium, Gallibacterium, Haemophilus, Mannheimia, Nicoletella, and Pasteurella, which are most commonly isolated from clinical samples of diseased animals in veterinary diagnostic laboratories, is presented in the current study. The identification procedure was evaluated with 40 type and reference strains and with 267 strains from routine diagnostic analysis of various animal species, including 28 different bacterial species. Type, reference, and field strains were analyzed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rrs) and rpoB gene sequencing for unambiguous species determination as a basis to evaluate the phenotypic differentiation schema. Primary phenotypic differentiation is based on beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (beta-NAD) dependence and hemolysis, which are readily determined on the isolation medium. The procedure divides the 28 species into 4 groups for which particular biochemical reactions were chosen to identify the bacterial species. The phenotypic identification procedure allowed researchers to determine the species of 240 out of 267 field strains. The procedure is an easy and cost-effective system for the rapid identification of species of the Pasteurellaceae family isolated from clinical specimens of animals. PMID:18987220

Dousse, Florence; Thomann, Andreas; Brodard, Isabelle; Korczak, Bozena M; Schlatter, Yvonne; Kuhnert, Peter; Miserez, Raymond; Frey, Joachim

2008-11-01

30

Long-Term Evolutionary Stability of Bacterial Endosymbiosis in Curculionoidea: Additional Evidence of Symbiont Replacement in the Dryophthoridae Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial intracellular symbiosis (endosymbiosis) is well documented in the insect world where it is believed to play a crucial role in adaptation and evolution. However, although Coleopteran insects are of huge ecological and economical interest, endosymbiont molecular analysis is limited to the Dryophthoridae family. Here, we have analyzed the intracellular symbiotic bacteria in 2 Hylobius species belonging to the Molytinae

Cyrille Conord; Laurence Despres; Agnes Vallier; Severine Balmand; Christian Miquel; Stephanie Zundel; Guy Lemperiere; Abdelaziz Heddi

2008-01-01

31

Bacterial origin of a diverse family of UDP-glycosyltransferase genes in the Tetranychus urticae genome.  

PubMed

UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the conjugation of a variety of small lipophilic molecules with uridine diphosphate (UDP) sugars, altering them into more water-soluble metabolites. Thereby, UGTs play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the regulation of endobiotics. Recently, the genome sequence was reported for the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a polyphagous herbivore damaging a number of agricultural crops. Although various gene families implicated in xenobiotic metabolism have been documented in T. urticae, UGTs so far have not. We identified 80 UGT genes in the T. urticae genome, the largest number of UGT genes in a metazoan species reported so far. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that lineage-specific gene expansions increased the diversity of the T. urticae UGT repertoire. Genomic distribution, intron-exon structure and structural motifs in the T. urticae UGTs were also described. In addition, expression profiling after host-plant shifts and in acaricide resistant lines supported an important role for UGT genes in xenobiotic metabolism. Expanded searches of UGTs in other arachnid species (Subphylum Chelicerata), including a spider, a scorpion, two ticks and two predatory mites, unexpectedly revealed the complete absence of UGT genes. However, a centipede (Subphylum Myriapoda) and a water flea and a crayfish (Subphylum Crustacea) contain UGT genes in their genomes similar to insect UGTs, suggesting that the UGT gene family might have been lost early in the Chelicerata lineage and subsequently re-gained in the tetranychid mites. Sequence similarity of T. urticae UGTs and bacterial UGTs and their phylogenetic reconstruction suggest that spider mites acquired UGT genes from bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Our findings show a unique evolutionary history of the T. urticae UGT gene family among other arthropods and provide important clues to its functions in relation to detoxification and thereby host adaptation. PMID:24727020

Ahn, Seung-Joon; Dermauw, Wannes; Wybouw, Nicky; Heckel, David G; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

2014-07-01

32

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Vibrionaceae Species, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, Isolated as Coral Reef Microbiota  

PubMed Central

Here, the draft genome sequences of two Vibrionaceae, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, which were isolated from the coral reef vicinity in Okinawa, Japan, are reported. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity, and ecophysiology, including pathogenicity and evolution, of these genera. PMID:25359913

Al-saari, Nurhidayu; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko

2014-01-01

33

Draft Genome Sequences of Two Vibrionaceae Species, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, Isolated as Coral Reef Microbiota.  

PubMed

Here, the draft genome sequences of two Vibrionaceae, Vibrio ponticus C121 and Photobacterium aphoticum C119, which were isolated from the coral reef vicinity in Okinawa, Japan, are reported. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity, and ecophysiology, including pathogenicity and evolution, of these genera. PMID:25359913

Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Meirelles, Pedro Milet; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Thompson, Fabiano L; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

2014-01-01

34

The third pillar of bacterial signal transduction: classification of the extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor protein family.  

PubMed

The ability of a bacterial cell to monitor and adaptively respond to its environment is crucial for survival. After one- and two-component systems, extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors - the largest group of alternative sigma factors - represent the third fundamental mechanism of bacterial signal transduction, with about six such regulators on average per bacterial genome. Together with their cognate anti-sigma factors, they represent a highly modular design that primarily facilitates transmembrane signal transduction. A comprehensive analysis of the ECF sigma factor protein family identified more than 40 distinct major groups of ECF sigma factors. The functional relevance of this classification is supported by the sequence similarity and domain architecture of cognate anti-sigma factors, genomic context conservation, and potential target promoter motifs. Moreover, this phylogenetic analysis revealed unique features indicating novel mechanisms of ECF-mediated signal transduction. This classification, together with the web tool ECFfinder and the information stored in the Microbial Signal Transduction (MiST) database, provides a comprehensive resource for the analysis of ECF sigma factor-dependent gene regulation. PMID:19737356

Staro?, Anna; Sofia, Heidi J; Dietrich, Sascha; Ulrich, Luke E; Liesegang, Heiko; Mascher, Thorsten

2009-11-01

35

Two novel human members of an emerging mammalian gene family related to mono-ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins  

SciTech Connect

Mono-ADP-ribosylation is one of the posttranslational protein modifications regulating cellular metabolism, e.g., nitrogen fixation, in prokaryotes. Several bacterial toxins mono-ADP-ribosylate and inactivate specific proteins in their animal hosts. Recently, two mammalian GPI-anchored cell surface enzymes with similar activities were cloned (designated ART1 and ART2). We have now identified six related expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public database and cloned the two novel human genes from which these are derived (designated ART3 and ART4). The deduced amino acid sequences of the predicted gene products show 28% sequence identity to one another and 32-41% identity vs the muscle and T cell enzymes. They contain signal peptide sequences characteristic of GPI anchorage. Southern Zoo blot analyses suggest the presence of related genes in other mammalian species. By PCR screening of somatic cell hybrids and by in situ hybridization, we have mapped the two genes to human chromosomes 4p14-p15.l and 12q13.2- q13.3. Northern blot analyses show that these genes are specifically expressed in testis and spleen, respectively. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences reveals a conserved exon/intron structure, with an unusually large exon encoding the predicted mature membrane proteins. Secondary structure prediction analyses indicate conserved motifs and amino acid residues consistent with a common ancestry of this emerging mammalian enzyme family and bacterial mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases. It is possible that the four human gene family members identified so far represent the {open_quotes}tip of an iceberg,{close_quote} i.e., a larger family of enzymes that influences the function of target proteins via mono-ADP-ribosylation. 35 refs., 4 figs.

Koch-Nolte, F.; Haag, F.; Braren, R. [Univ. Hospital, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others] [Univ. Hospital, Hamburg (Germany); and others

1997-02-01

36

Broad Spectrum Activity of a Lectin-Like Bacterial Serine Protease Family on Human Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

The serine protease autotransporter from Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE) family, which number more than 25 proteases with apparent diverse functions, have been phylogenetically divided into two distinct classes, designated 1 and 2. We recently demonstrated that Pic and Tsh, two members of the class-2 SPATE family produced by intestinal and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, were able to cleave a number of O-glycosylated proteins on neutrophils and lymphocytes resulting in impaired leukocyte functions. Here we show that most members of the class-2 SPATE family have lectin-like properties and exhibit differential protease activity reliant on glycoprotein type and cell lineage. Protease activity was seen in virtually all tested O-glycosylated proteins including CD34, CD55, CD164, TIM1, TIM3, TIM4 and C1-INH. We also show that although SPATE proteins bound and cleaved glycoproteins more efficiently on granulocytes and monocytes, they also targeted glycoproteins on B, T and natural killer lymphocytes. Finally, we found that the characteristic domain-2 of class-2 SPATEs is not required for glycoprotease activity, but single amino acid mutations in Pic domain-1 to those residues naturally occurring in domain-1 of SepA, were sufficient to hamper Pic glycoprotease activity. This study shows that most class-2 SPATEs have redundant activities and suggest that they may function as immunomodulators at several levels of the immune system. PMID:25251283

Ayala-Lujan, Jorge Luis; Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Gong, Mei; Smith, Rachel; Santiago, Araceli E.; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando

2014-01-01

37

Broad spectrum activity of a lectin-like bacterial serine protease family on human leukocytes.  

PubMed

The serine protease autotransporter from Enterobacteriaceae (SPATE) family, which number more than 25 proteases with apparent diverse functions, have been phylogenetically divided into two distinct classes, designated 1 and 2. We recently demonstrated that Pic and Tsh, two members of the class-2 SPATE family produced by intestinal and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, were able to cleave a number of O-glycosylated proteins on neutrophils and lymphocytes resulting in impaired leukocyte functions. Here we show that most members of the class-2 SPATE family have lectin-like properties and exhibit differential protease activity reliant on glycoprotein type and cell lineage. Protease activity was seen in virtually all tested O-glycosylated proteins including CD34, CD55, CD164, TIM1, TIM3, TIM4 and C1-INH. We also show that although SPATE proteins bound and cleaved glycoproteins more efficiently on granulocytes and monocytes, they also targeted glycoproteins on B, T and natural killer lymphocytes. Finally, we found that the characteristic domain-2 of class-2 SPATEs is not required for glycoprotease activity, but single amino acid mutations in Pic domain-1 to those residues naturally occurring in domain-1 of SepA, were sufficient to hamper Pic glycoprotease activity. This study shows that most class-2 SPATEs have redundant activities and suggest that they may function as immunomodulators at several levels of the immune system. PMID:25251283

Ayala-Lujan, Jorge Luis; Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Gong, Mei; Smith, Rachel; Santiago, Araceli E; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando

2014-01-01

38

[Bacterial synthesis, purification, and solubilization of transmembrane segments of ErbB family members].  

PubMed

A family of epidermal growth factor receptors, ErbB, represents an important class of receptor tyrosine kinases, playing a leading role in cellular growth, development and differentiation. Transmembrane domains of these receptors transduce biochemical signals across plasma membrane via lateral homo- and heterodimerization. Relatively small size of complexes of ErbB transmembrane domains with detergents or lipids allows one to study their detailed spatial structure using three-dimensional heteronuclear high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. Here, we describe the effective expression system and purification procedure for preparative-scale production of transmembrane peptides from four representatives of ErbB family, ErbB1, ErbB2, ErbB3, ErbB4, for structural studies. The recombinant peptides were produced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS as C-terminal extensions of thioredoxin A. The fusion protein cleavage was accomplished with the light subunit of human enterokinase. Several (10-30) milligrams of purified isotope-labeled transmembrane peptides were isolated with the use of a simple and convenient procedure, which consists of consecutive steps of immobilized metal affinity chromatography and cation-exchange chromatography. The purified peptides were reconstituted in lipid/detergent environment (micelles or bicelles) and characterized using dynamic light scattering, CD and NMR spectroscopy. The data obtained indicate that the purified ErbB transmembrane peptides are suitable for structural and dynamic studies of their homo- and heterodimer complexes using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. PMID:22393787

Goncharuk, M V; Shul'ga, A A; Ermoliuk, Ia S; Tkach, E N; Goncharuk, S A; Pustovalova, Iu E; Mineev, K S; Bocharov, É V; Maslennikov, I V; Arsen'ev, A S; Kirpichnikov, M P

2011-01-01

39

Functional role of oligomerization for bacterial and plant SWEET sugar transporter family  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic sugar transporters of the MFS and SWEET superfamilies consist of 12 and 7 ?-helical transmembrane domains (TMs), respectively. Structural analyses indicate that MFS transporters evolved from a series of tandem duplications of an ancestral 3-TM unit. SWEETs are heptahelical proteins carrying a tandem repeat of 3-TM separated by a single TM. Here, we show that prokaryotes have ancestral SWEET homologs with only 3-TM and that the Bradyrhizobium japonicum SemiSWEET1, like Arabidopsis SWEET11, mediates sucrose transport. Eukaryotic SWEETs most likely evolved by internal duplication of the 3-TM, suggesting that SemiSWEETs form oligomers to create a functional pore. However, it remains elusive whether the 7-TM SWEETs are the functional unit or require oligomerization to form a pore sufficiently large to allow for sucrose passage. Split ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid and split GFP assays indicate that Arabidopsis SWEETs homo- and heterooligomerize. We examined mutant SWEET variants for negative dominance to test if oligomerization is necessary for function. Mutation of the conserved Y57 or G58 in SWEET1 led to loss of activity. Coexpression of the defective mutants with functional A. thaliana SWEET1 inhibited glucose transport, indicating that homooligomerization is necessary for function. Collectively, these data imply that the basic unit of SWEETs, similar to MFS sugar transporters, is a 3-TM unit and that a functional transporter contains at least four such domains. We hypothesize that the functional unit of the SWEET family of transporters possesses a structure resembling the 12-TM MFS structure, however, with a parallel orientation of the 3-TM unit. PMID:24027245

Xuan, Yuan Hu; Hu, Yi Bing; Chen, Li-Qing; Sosso, Davide; Ducat, Daniel C.; Hou, Bi-Huei; Frommer, Wolf B.

2013-01-01

40

The Legionella effector SidC defines a unique family of ubiquitin ligases important for bacterial phagosomal remodeling.  

PubMed

The activity of proteins delivered into host cells by the Dot/Icm injection apparatus allows Legionella pneumophila to establish a niche called the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV), which is permissive for intracellular bacterial propagation. Among these proteins, substrate of Icm/Dot transporter (SidC) anchors to the cytoplasmic surface of the LCV and is important for the recruitment of host endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins to this organelle. However, the biochemical function underlying this activity is unknown. Here, we determined the structure of the N-terminal domain of SidC, which has no structural homology to any protein. Sequence homology analysis revealed a potential canonical catalytic triad formed by Cys46, His444, and Asp446 on the surface of SidC. Unexpectedly, we found that SidC is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that uses the C-H-D triad to catalyze the formation of high-molecular-weight polyubiquitin chains through multiple ubiquitin lysine residues. A C46A mutation completely abolished the E3 ligase activity and the ability of the protein to recruit host ER proteins as well as polyubiquitin conjugates to the LCV. Thus, SidC represents a unique E3 ubiquitin ligase family important for phagosomal membrane remodeling by L. pneumophila. PMID:25006264

Hsu, FoSheng; Luo, Xi; Qiu, Jiazhang; Teng, Yan-Bin; Jin, Jianping; Smolka, Marcus B; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Mao, Yuxin

2014-07-22

41

Evolution of a family of metazoan active-site-serine enzymes from penicillin-binding proteins: a novel facet of the bacterial legacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and ?-lactamases (PBP-?Ls) constitute a large family of serine proteases that perform essential functions in the synthesis and maintenance of peptidoglycan. Intriguingly, genes encoding PBP-?L homologs occur in many metazoan genomes including humans. The emerging role of LACTB, a mammalian mitochondrial PBP-?L homolog, in metabolic signaling prompted us to investigate the evolutionary history of metazoan PBP-?L

Nina Peitsaro; Zydrune Polianskyte; Jarno Tuimala; Isabella Pörn-Ares; Julius Liobikas; Oliver Speer; Dan Lindholm; James Thompson; Ove Eriksson

2008-01-01

42

Exploring the reactivity of bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases  

E-print Network

Chapter 1. Introduction: The Reactivity of Bacterial Multicomponent Monooxygenases Bacterial multicomponent monooxygenases constitute a remarkable family of enzymes that oxidize small, inert hydrocarbon substrates using ...

Tinberg, Christine Elaine

2010-01-01

43

Role of Key Salt Bridges in Thermostability of G. thermodenitrificans EstGtA2: Distinctive Patterns within the New Bacterial Lipolytic Enzyme Family XV  

PubMed Central

Bacterial lipolytic enzymes were originally classified into eight different families defined by Arpigny and Jaeger (families I-VIII). Recently, the discovery of new lipolytic enzymes allowed for extending the original classification to fourteen families (I-XIV). We previously reported that G. thermodenitrificans EstGtA2 (access no. AEN92268) belonged to a novel group of bacterial lipolytic enzymes. Here we propose a 15th family (family XV) and suggest criteria for the assignation of protein sequences to the N’ subfamily. Five selected salt bridges, hallmarks of the N’ subfamily (E3/R54, E12/R37, E66/R140, D124/K178 and D205/R220) were disrupted in EstGtA2 using a combinatorial alanine-scanning approach. A set of 14 (R/K?A) mutants was produced, including five single, three double, three triple and three quadruple mutants. Despite a high tolerance to non-conservative mutations for folding, all the alanine substitutions were destabilizing (decreasing Tm by 5 to 14°C). A particular combination of four substitutions exceeded this tolerance and prevents the correct folding of EstGtA2, leading to enzyme inactivation. Although other mutants remain active at low temperatures, the accumulation of more than two mutations had a dramatic impact on EstGtA2 activity at high temperatures suggesting an important role of these conserved salt bridge-forming residues in thermostability of lipolytic enzymes from the N’ subfamily. We also identified a particular interloop salt bridge in EstGtA2 (D194/H222), located at position i -2 and i -4 residues from the catalytic Asp and His respectively which is conserved in other related bacterial lipolytic enzymes (families IV and XIII) with high tolerance to mutations and charge reversal. We investigated the role of residue identity at position 222 in controlling stability-pH dependence in EstGtA2. The introduction of a His to Arg mutation led to increase thermostability under alkaline pH. Our results suggest primary targets for optimization of EstGtA2 for specific biotechnological purposes. PMID:24116134

Charbonneau, David M.; Beauregard, Marc

2013-01-01

44

Evolution of a family of metazoan active-site-serine enzymes from penicillin-binding proteins: a novel facet of the bacterial legacy  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial penicillin-binding proteins and ?-lactamases (PBP-?Ls) constitute a large family of serine proteases that perform essential functions in the synthesis and maintenance of peptidoglycan. Intriguingly, genes encoding PBP-?L homologs occur in many metazoan genomes including humans. The emerging role of LACTB, a mammalian mitochondrial PBP-?L homolog, in metabolic signaling prompted us to investigate the evolutionary history of metazoan PBP-?L proteins. Results Metazoan PBP-?L homologs including LACTB share unique structural features with bacterial class B low molecular weight penicillin-binding proteins. The amino acid residues necessary for enzymatic activity in bacterial PBP-?L proteins, including the catalytic serine residue, are conserved in all metazoan homologs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that metazoan PBP-?L homologs comprise four alloparalogus protein lineages that derive from ?-proteobacteria. Conclusion While most components of the peptidoglycan synthesis machinery were dumped by early eukaryotes, a few PBP-?L proteins were conserved and are found in metazoans including humans. Metazoan PBP-?L homologs are active-site-serine enzymes that probably have distinct functions in the metabolic circuitry. We hypothesize that PBP-?L proteins in the early eukaryotic cell enabled the degradation of peptidoglycan from ingested bacteria, thereby maximizing the yield of nutrients and streamlining the cell for effective phagocytotic feeding. PMID:18226203

2008-01-01

45

Molecular Insight into the Role of the N-terminal Extension in the Maturation, Substrate Recognition, and Catalysis of a Bacterial Alginate Lyase from Polysaccharide Lyase Family 18.  

PubMed

Bacterial alginate lyases, which are members of several polysaccharide lyase (PL) families, have important biological roles and biotechnological applications. The mechanisms for maturation, substrate recognition, and catalysis of PL18 alginate lyases are still largely unknown. A PL18 alginate lyase, aly-SJ02, from Pseudoalteromonas sp. 0524 displays a ?-jelly roll scaffold. Structural and biochemical analyses indicated that the N-terminal extension in the aly-SJ02 precursor may act as an intramolecular chaperone to mediate the correct folding of the catalytic domain. Molecular dynamics simulations and mutational assays suggested that the lid loops over the aly-SJ02 active center serve as a gate for substrate entry. Molecular docking and site-directed mutations revealed that certain conserved residues at the active center, especially those at subsites +1 and +2, are crucial for substrate recognition. Tyr(353) may function as both a catalytic base and acid. Based on our results, a model for the catalysis of aly-SJ02 in alginate depolymerization is proposed. Moreover, although bacterial alginate lyases from families PL5, 7, 15, and 18 adopt distinct scaffolds, they share the same conformation of catalytic residues, reflecting their convergent evolution. Our results provide the foremost insight into the mechanisms of maturation, substrate recognition, and catalysis of a PL18 alginate lyase. PMID:25210041

Dong, Sheng; Wei, Tian-Di; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Li, Chun-Yang; Wang, Peng; Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Pang, Xiu-Hua; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

2014-10-24

46

Astrocytes Produce IL-19 in Response to Bacterial Challenge and are Sensitive to the Immunosuppressive Effects of this IL-10 Family Member  

PubMed Central

There is growing appreciation that resident glial cells can initiate and/or regulate inflammation following trauma or infection in the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously demonstrated the ability of microglia and astrocytes to respond to bacterial pathogens or their products by rapid production of inflammatory mediators, followed by the production of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin (IL)210. IL-19, another member of the IL-10 family of cytokines, has been studied in the context of a number of inflammatory conditions in the periphery and is known to modulate immune cell activity. In the present study, we demonstrate the constitutive and/or inducible expression of IL-19 and its cognate receptor subunits, IL-19R? and IL-19R? (also known as IL-20R1 and IL-20R2, and IL-20RA and IL-20RB), in mouse brain tissue, and by primary murine and human astrocytes. We also provide evidence for the presence of a novel truncated IL-19R? transcript variant in mouse brain tissue, but not glial cells, that shows reduced expression following bacterial infection. Importantly, IL-19R functionality in GLIA is indicated by the ability of IL-19 to regulate signaling component expression in these cells. Furthermore, while IL-19 itself had no effect on glial cytokine production, IL-19 treatment of bacterially infected or Toll-like receptor ligand stimulated astrocytes significantly attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokine production. The bacterially induced production of IL-19 by these resident CNS cells, the constitutive expression of its cognate receptor subunits, and the immunomodulatory effects of this cytokine, suggest a novel mechanism by which astrocytes can regulate CNS inflammation. PMID:24677051

Cooley, Ian D.; Chauhan, Vinita S.; Donneyz, Miguel A.; Marriott, Ian

2014-01-01

47

Borrelia burgdorferi EbfC defines a newly-identified, widespread family of bacterial DNA-binding proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, encodes a novel type of DNA-binding protein named EbfC. Orthologs of EbfC are encoded by a wide range of bacterial species, so characterization of the borrelial protein has implications that span the eubacterial kingdom. The present work defines the DNA sequence required for high-affinity binding by EbfC to be the 4bp broken palindrome GTnAC,

Sean P. Riley; Tomasz Bykowski; Anne E. Cooley; Logan H. Burns; Kelly Babb; Catherine A. Brissette; Amy Bowman; Matthew Rotondi; M. Clarke Miller; Edward DeMoll; Kap Lim; Michael G. Fried; Brian Stevenson

2009-01-01

48

Analysis of the LacI family regulators of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937, involvement in the bacterial phytopathogenicity.  

PubMed

Analysis of the regulators of the LacI family was performed in order to identify those potentially involved in pathogenicity of Erwinia chrysanthemi (Dickeya dadantii). Among the 18 members of the LacI family, the function of 11 members is either known or predicted and only 7 members have, as yet, no proposed function. Inactivation of these seven genes, called lfaR, lfbR, lfcR, lfdR, lfeR, lffR, and lfgR, demonstrated that four of them are important for plant infection. The lfaR and lfcR mutants showed a reduced virulence on chicory, Saintpaulia sp., and Arabidopsis. The lfeR mutant showed a reduced virulence on Arabidopsis. The lfdR mutant was more efficient than the wild-type strain in initiating maceration on Saintpaulia sp. The genetic environment of each regulator was examined to detect adjacent genes potentially involved in a common function. Construction of transcriptional fusions in these neighboring genes demonstrated that five regulators, LfaR, LfcR, LfeR, LffR, and LfgR, act as repressors of adjacent genes. Analysis of these fusions also indicated that the genes controlled by LfaR, LfcR, LfgR, and LffR are expressed during plant infection. Moreover, addition of crude plant extracts to culture medium demonstrated that the expression of the LfaR- and LfgR-controlled genes is specifically induced by plant components. PMID:18842096

Van Gijsegem, Frédérique; Wlodarczyk, Aleksandra; Cornu, Amandine; Reverchon, Sylvie; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole

2008-11-01

49

Diversity of Symbiotic Organs and Bacterial Endosymbionts of Lygaeoid Bugs of the Families Blissidae and Lygaeidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea)  

PubMed Central

Here we present comparative data on the localization and identity of intracellular symbionts among the superfamily Lygaeoidea (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomomorpha). Five different lygaeoid species from the families Blissidae and Lygaeidae (sensu stricto; including the subfamilies Lygaeinae and Orsillinae) were analyzed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that all the bugs studied possess paired bacteriomes that are differently shaped in the abdomen and harbor specific endosymbionts therein. The endosymbionts were also detected in female gonads and at the anterior poles of developing eggs, indicating vertical transmission of the endosymbionts via ovarial passage, in contrast to the posthatch symbiont transmission commonly found among pentatomoid bugs (Pentatomomorpha: Pentatomoidea). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA and groEL genes showed that the endosymbionts of Ischnodemus sabuleti, Arocatus longiceps, Belonochilus numenius, Orsillus depressus, and Ortholomus punctipennis constitute at least four distinct clades in the Gammaproteobacteria. The endosymbiont phylogeny did not agree with the host phylogeny based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, but there was a local cospeciating pattern within the subfamily Orsillinae. Meanwhile, the endosymbiont of Belonochilus numenius (Lygaeidae: Orsillinae), although harbored in paired bacteriomes as in other lygaeoid bugs of the related genera Nysius, Ortholomus, and Orsillus, was phylogenetically close to “Candidatus Rohrkolberia cinguli,” the endosymbiont of Chilacis typhae (Lygaeoidea: Artheneidae), suggesting an endosymbiont replacement in this lineage. The diverse endosymbionts and the differently shaped bacteriomes may reflect independent evolutionary origins of the endosymbiotic systems among lygaeoid bugs. PMID:22307293

Renz, Patricia; Dettner, Konrad; Kehl, Siegfried

2012-01-01

50

RESEARCH ARTICLE Chloroplast Division in Higher Plants Requires Members of Two Functionally Divergent Gene Families with Homology to Bacterial ftsZ  

E-print Network

The division of plastids is critical for viability in photosynthetic eukaryotes, but the mechanisms associated with this process are still poorly understood. We previously identified a nuclear gene from Arabidopsis encoding a chloroplastlocalized homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an essential cytoskeletal component of the prokaryotic cell division apparatus. Here, we report the identification of a second nuclear-encoded FtsZ-type protein from Arabidopsis that does not contain a chloroplast targeting sequence or other obvious sorting signals and is not imported into isolated chloroplasts, which strongly suggests that it is localized in the cytosol. We further demonstrate using antisense technology that inhibiting expression of either Arabidopsis FtsZ gene (AtFtsZ1-1 or AtFtsZ2-1) in transgenic plants reduces the number of chloroplasts in mature leaf cells from 100 to one, indicating that both genes are essential for division of higher plant chloroplasts but that each plays a distinct role in the process. Analysis of currently available plant FtsZ sequences further suggests that two functionally divergent FtsZ gene families encoding differentially localized products participate in chloroplast division. Our results provide evidence that both chloroplastic and cytosolic forms of FtsZ are involved in chloroplast division in higher plants and imply that important differences exist between chloroplasts and prokaryotes with regard to the roles played by FtsZ proteins in the division process.

Katherine W. Osteryoung; Kevin D. Stokes; Stephen M. Rutherford; Ann L. Percival; Won Y. Lee

51

Bacterial Vaginosis  

MedlinePLUS

... vaginosis can increase your chance of getting an STD. What is bacterial vaginosis? Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is ... contributes to BV. BV is not considered an STD, but having BV can increase your chances of ...

52

Bacterial conjunctivitis  

PubMed Central

Clinical question What is the best treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis? Results Topical antibiotics expedite recovery from bacterial conjunctivitis. The choice of antibiotic usually does not affect outcome. Implementation Recognition of key distinguishing features of bacterial conjunctivitis Pitfalls that can be recognized in the history and physical examinationChoice of antibioticWhen to refer for specialist treatment. PMID:21188158

Hutnik, Cindy; Mohammad-Shahi, Mohammad H

2010-01-01

53

Bacterial Communities Associated with Porites White Patch Syndrome (PWPS) on Three Western Indian Ocean (WIO) Coral Reefs  

PubMed Central

The scleractinian coral Porites lutea, an important reef-building coral on western Indian Ocean reefs (WIO), is affected by a newly-reported white syndrome (WS) the Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS). Histopathology and culture-independent molecular techniques were used to characterise the microbial communities associated with this emerging disease. Microscopy showed extensive tissue fragmentation generally associated with ovoid basophilic bodies resembling bacterial aggregates. Results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed a high variability between bacterial communities associated with PWPS-infected and healthy tissues in P. lutea, a pattern previously reported in other coral diseases such as black band disease (BBD), white band disease (WBD) and white plague diseases (WPD). Furthermore, substantial variations in bacterial communities were observed at the different sampling locations, suggesting that there is no strong bacterial association in Porites lutea on WIO reefs. Several sequences affiliated with potential pathogens belonging to the Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae were identified, mainly in PWPS-infected coral tissues. Among them, only two ribotypes affiliated to Shimia marina (NR043300.1) and Vibrio hepatarius (NR025575.1) were consistently found in diseased tissues from the three geographically distant sampling localities. The role of these bacterial species in PWPS needs to be tested experimentally. PMID:24391819

Sere, Mathieu G.; Tortosa, Pablo; Chabanet, Pascale; Turquet, Jean; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Schleyer, Michael H.

2013-01-01

54

Bacterial communities associated with Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS) on three western Indian Ocean (WIO) coral reefs.  

PubMed

The scleractinian coral Porites lutea, an important reef-building coral on western Indian Ocean reefs (WIO), is affected by a newly-reported white syndrome (WS) the Porites white patch syndrome (PWPS). Histopathology and culture-independent molecular techniques were used to characterise the microbial communities associated with this emerging disease. Microscopy showed extensive tissue fragmentation generally associated with ovoid basophilic bodies resembling bacterial aggregates. Results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed a high variability between bacterial communities associated with PWPS-infected and healthy tissues in P. lutea, a pattern previously reported in other coral diseases such as black band disease (BBD), white band disease (WBD) and white plague diseases (WPD). Furthermore, substantial variations in bacterial communities were observed at the different sampling locations, suggesting that there is no strong bacterial association in Porites lutea on WIO reefs. Several sequences affiliated with potential pathogens belonging to the Vibrionaceae and Rhodobacteraceae were identified, mainly in PWPS-infected coral tissues. Among them, only two ribotypes affiliated to Shimia marina (NR043300.1) and Vibrio hepatarius (NR025575.1) were consistently found in diseased tissues from the three geographically distant sampling localities. The role of these bacterial species in PWPS needs to be tested experimentally. PMID:24391819

Séré, Mathieu G; Tortosa, Pablo; Chabanet, Pascale; Turquet, Jean; Quod, Jean-Pascal; Schleyer, Michael H

2013-01-01

55

Bacterial Overgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human gastrointestinal tract typically contains 300–500 bacterial species. Most bacterial species are acquired during\\u000a the birth process and although some changes to the flora may occur during later stages of life, the composition of the intestinal\\u000a microflora remains relatively constant. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) is defined as an excessive increase in the\\u000a number of bacteria in the upper

Rosemary J. Young; Jon A. Vanderhoof

56

Bacterial amyloids.  

PubMed

Many bacteria can assemble functional amyloid fibers on their cell surface. The majority of bacterial amyloids contribute to biofilm or other community behaviors where cells interact with a surface or with another cell. Bacterial amyloids, like all functional amyloids, share structural and biochemical properties with disease-associated eukaryotic amyloids. The general ability of amyloids to bind amyloid-specific dyes, such as Congo red, and their resistance to denaturation have provided useful tools for scoring and quantifying bacterial amyloid formation. Here, we present basic approaches to study bacterial amyloids by focusing on the well-studied curli amyloid fibers expressed by Enterobacteriaceae. These methods exploit the specific tinctorial and biophysical properties of amyloids. The methods described here are straightforward and can be easily applied by any modern molecular biology lab for the study of other bacterial amyloids. PMID:22528099

Zhou, Yizhou; Blanco, Luz P; Smith, Daniel R; Chapman, Matthew R

2012-01-01

57

Expansion of the aminoglycoside-resistance 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferase family: expression and functional characterization of four hypothetical enzymes of diverse bacterial origin.  

PubMed

The global dissemination, potential activity in diverse species and broad resistance spectrum conferred by the aminoglycoside-resistance ribosomal RNA methyltransferases make them a significant potential new threat to the efficacy of aminoglycoside antibiotics in the treatment of serious bacterial infections. The N1 methylation of adenosine 1408 (m(1)A1408) confers resistance to structurally diverse aminoglycosides, including kanamycin, neomycin and apramycin. The limited analyses to date of the enzymes responsible have identified common features but also potential differences in their molecular details of action. Therefore, with the goal of expanding the known 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferase family as a platform for developing a more complete mechanistic understanding, we report here the cloning, expression and functional analyses of four hypothetical aminoglycoside-resistance rRNA methyltransferases from recent genome sequences of diverse bacterial species. Each of the genes produced a soluble, folded protein with a secondary structure, as determined from circular dichroism (CD) spectra, consistent with enzymes for which high-resolution structures are available. For each enzyme, antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays revealed a resistance spectrum characteristic of the known 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferases and the modified nucleotide was confirmed by reverse transcription as A1408. In common with other family members, higher binding affinity for the methylation reaction by-product S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) than the cosubstrate S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) was observed for three methyltransferases, while one unexpectedly showed no measurable affinity for SAH. Collectively, these results confirm that each hypothetical enzyme is a functional 16S rRNA (m(1)A1408) methyltransferase but also point to further potential mechanistic variation within this enzyme family. PMID:24963996

Witek, Marta A; Conn, Graeme L

2014-09-01

58

Bacterial Vaginosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Field Search Button Advanced Search NIAID Home Health & Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Bacterial Vaginosis Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print ...

59

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Associated with Adult Laboratory Mexican Fruit Flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the guts of new and old colonies (female and male) of Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae), we identified a total of 18 different bacterial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae,\\u000a Pseudomonadaceae, Vibrionaceae, Micrococcaceae, Deinococcacea, Bacillaceae, and the genus Listeria. Enterobacter, Providencia, Serratia, and Staphylococcus spp. were the most frequently isolated genera, with Citrobacter, Streptococcus, Aerococcus, and Listeria

Lyudmila V. Kuzina; John J. Peloquin; Don C. Vacek; Thomas A. Miller

2001-01-01

60

Bacterial communities associated with healthy and Acropora white syndrome-affected corals from American Samoa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acropora white syndrome (AWS) is characterized by rapid tissue loss revealing the white underlying skeleton and affects corals worldwide; however, reports of causal agents are conflicting. Samples were collected from healthy and diseased corals and seawater around American Samoa and bacteria associated with AWS characterized using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, from coral mucus and tissue slurries, respectively. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from coral tissue were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, and Jaccard's distances calculated between the clone libraries showed that those from diseased corals were more similar to each other than to those from healthy corals. 16S rRNA genes from 78 culturable coral mucus isolates also revealed a distinct partitioning of bacterial genera into healthy and diseased corals. Isolates identified as Vibrionaceae were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing, revealing that whilst several Vibrio spp. were found to be associated with AWS lesions, a recently described species, Vibrio owensii, was prevalent amongst cultured Vibrio isolates. Unaffected tissues from corals with AWS had a different microbiota than normal Acropora as found by others. Determining whether a microbial shift occurs prior to disease outbreaks will be a useful avenue of pursuit and could be helpful in detecting prodromal signs of coral disease prior to manifestation of lesions.

Wilson, Bryan; Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Bourne, David G.

2012-01-01

61

Bacterial glycoproteomics.  

PubMed

Glycosylated proteins are ubiquitous components of eukaryote cellular surfaces, where the glycan moieties are implicated in a wide range of cell-cell recognition events. Once thought to be restricted to eukaryotes, glycosylation is now being increasingly reported in prokaryotes. Many of these discoveries have grown from advances in analytical technologies and genome sequencing. This review highlights the capabilities of high-sensitivity mass spectrometry for carbohydrate structure determination of bacterial glycoproteins and the emergence of glycoproteomic strategies that have evolved from proteomics and genomics for the functional analysis of bacterial glycosylation. PMID:16735721

Hitchen, Paul G; Dell, Anne

2006-06-01

62

Bacterial Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial mining (biomining) represents the use of microorganisms to leach out metals from ores or mine tailings (wastes), followed by the subsequent recovery of metals of interest from the leaching solution. This leaching of metals from ores is a natural process, which can be considerably accelerated by inducing and\\/or supporting the microbial activity of certain species with the ability to

I. G. Petrisor; I. Lazar; T. F. Yen

2007-01-01

63

Single sea urchin phagocytes express messages of a single sequence from the diverse sp185/333 gene family in response to bacterial challenge.  

PubMed

Immune systems in animals rely on fast and efficient responses to a wide variety of pathogens. The Sp185/333 gene family in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, consists of an estimated 50 (±10) members per genome that share a basic gene structure but show high sequence diversity, primarily due to the mosaic appearance of short blocks of sequence called elements. The genes show significantly elevated expression in three subpopulations of phagocytes responding to marine bacteria. The encoded Sp185/333 proteins are highly diverse and have central effector functions in the immune system. In this study we report the Sp185/333 gene expression in single sea urchin phagocytes. Sea urchins challenged with heat-killed marine bacteria resulted in a typical increase in coelomocyte concentration within 24 h, which included an increased proportion of phagocytes expressing Sp185/333 proteins. Phagocyte fractions enriched from coelomocytes were used in limiting dilutions to obtain samples of single cells that were evaluated for Sp185/333 gene expression by nested RT-PCR. Amplicon sequences showed identical or nearly identical Sp185/333 amplicon sequences in single phagocytes with matches to six known Sp185/333 element patterns, including both common and rare element patterns. This suggested that single phagocytes show restricted expression from the Sp185/333 gene family and infers a diverse, flexible, and efficient response to pathogens. This type of expression pattern from a family of immune response genes in single cells has not been identified previously in other invertebrates. PMID:25355922

Majeske, Audrey J; Oren, Matan; Sacchi, Sandro; Smith, L Courtney

2014-12-01

64

A New Family of Membrane Electron Transporters and Its Substrates, Including a New Cell Envelope Peroxiredoxin, Reveal a Broadened Reductive Capacity of the Oxidative Bacterial Cell Envelope  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The Escherichia coli membrane protein DsbD functions as an electron hub that dispatches electrons received from the cytoplasmic thioredoxin system to periplasmic oxidoreductases involved in protein disulfide isomerization, cytochrome c biogenesis, and sulfenic acid reduction. Here, we describe a new class of DsbD proteins, named ScsB, whose members are found in proteobacteria and Chlamydia. ScsB has a domain organization similar to that of DsbD, but its amino-terminal domain differs significantly. In DsbD, this domain directly interacts with substrates to reduce them, which suggests that ScsB acts on a different array of substrates. Using Caulobacter crescentus as a model organism, we searched for the substrates of ScsB. We discovered that ScsB provides electrons to the first peroxide reduction pathway identified in the bacterial cell envelope. The reduction pathway comprises a thioredoxin-like protein, TlpA, and a peroxiredoxin, PprX. We show that PprX is a thiol-dependent peroxidase that efficiently reduces both hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides. Moreover, we identified two additional proteins that depend on ScsB for reduction, a peroxiredoxin-like protein, PrxL, and a novel protein disulfide isomerase, ScsC. Altogether, our results reveal that the array of proteins involved in reductive pathways in the oxidative cell envelope is significantly broader than was previously thought. Moreover, the identification of a new periplasmic peroxiredoxin indicates that in some bacteria, it is important to directly scavenge peroxides in the cell envelope even before they reach the cytoplasm. PMID:22493033

Cho, Seung-Hyun; Parsonage, Derek; Thurston, Casey; Dutton, Rachel J.; Poole, Leslie B.; Collet, Jean-Francois; Beckwith, Jon

2012-01-01

65

B. subtilis ykuD Protein at 2.0 Angstrom Resolution: Insights into the Structure and Function of a Novel, Ubiquitous Family of Bacterial Enzymes  

SciTech Connect

The crystal structure of the product of the Bacillus subtilis ykuD gene was solved by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method and refined using data to 2.0 Angstroms resolution. The ykuD protein is a representative of a distinctly prokaryotic and ubiquitous family found among both pathogenic and nonpathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The deduced amino acid sequence reveals the presence of an N-terminal LysM domain, which occurs among enzymes involved in cell wall metabolism, and a novel, putative catalytic domain with a highly conserved His/Cys-containing motif of hitherto unknown structure. As the wild-type protein did not crystallize, a double mutant was designed (Lys117Ala/Gln118Ala) to reduce excess surface conformational entropy. As expected, the structure of the LysM domain is similar to the NMR structure reported for an analogous domain from Escherichia coli murein transglycosylase MltD. The molecular model also shows that the 112-residue-long C-terminal domain has a novel tertiary fold consisting of a {beta}-sandwich with two mixed sheets, one containing five strands and the other, six strands. The two {beta}-sheets form a cradle capped by an {alpha}-helix. This domain contains a putative catalytic site with a tetrad of invariant His123, Gly124, Cys139, and Arg141. The stereochemistry of this active site shows similarities to peptidotransferases and sortases, and suggests that the enzymes of the ykuD family may play an important role in cell wall biology.

Bielnicki,J.; Devedjiev, Y.; Derewenda, U.; Dauter, Z.; Joachimiak, A.; Derewenda, Z.

2006-01-01

66

Cellular adhesion molecules as targets for bacterial infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of bacterial pathogens targets cell adhesion molecules to establish an intimate contact with host cells and tissues. Members of the integrin, cadherin and immunoglobulin-related cell adhesion molecule (IgCAM) families are frequently recognized by specific bacterial surface proteins. Binding can trigger bacterial internalization following cytoskeletal rearrangements that are initiated upon receptor clustering. Moreover, signals emanating from the occupied

Christof R. Hauck; Franziska Agerer; Petra Muenzner; Tim Schmitter

2006-01-01

67

Bacterial vaginosis.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common of the vaginitides affecting women of reproductive age. It appears to be due to an alteration in the vaginal ecology by which Lactobacillus spp., the predominant organisms in the healthy vagina, are replaced by a mixed flora including Prevotella bivia, Prevotella disiens, Porphyromonas spp., Mobiluncus spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. All of these organisms except Mobiluncus spp. are also members of the endogenous vaginal flora. While evidence from treatment trials does not support the notion that BV is sexually transmitted, recent studies have shown an increased risk associated with multiple sexual partners. It has also been suggested that the pathogenesis of BV may be similar to that of urinary tract infections, with the rectum serving as a reservoir for some BV-associated flora. The organisms associated with BV have also been recognized as agents of female upper genital tract infection, including pelvic inflammatory disease, and the syndrome BV has been associated with adverse outcome of pregnancy, including premature rupture of membranes, chorioamnionitis, and fetal loss; postpartum endometritis; cuff cellulitis; and urinary tract infections. The mechanisms by which the BV-associated flora causes the signs of BV are not well understood, but a role for H2O2-producing Lactobacillus spp. in protecting against colonization by catalase-negative anaerobic bacteria has been recognized. These and other aspects of BV are reviewed. PMID:1747864

Spiegel, C A

1991-01-01

68

Evolution of bacterial genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines evolution of bacterial genomes with an emphasis on RNA based life, the transition to functional DNA and small evolving genomes (possibly plasmids) that led to larger, functional bacterial genomes.

J. T. Trevors

1997-01-01

69

Bacterial lipolytic enzymes: classification and properties.  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of bacterial lipolytic enzymes is increasing at a rapid and exciting rate. To obtain an overview of this industrially very important class of enzymes and their characteristics, we have collected and classified the information available from protein and nucleotide databases. Here we propose an updated and extensive classification of bacterial esterases and lipases based mainly on a comparison of their amino acid sequences and some fundamental biological properties. These new insights result in the identification of eight different families with the largest being further divided into six subfamilies. Moreover, the classification enables us to predict (1) important structural features such as residues forming the catalytic site or the presence of disulphide bonds, (2) types of secretion mechanism and requirement for lipase-specific foldases, and (3) the potential relationship to other enzyme families. This work will therefore contribute to a faster identification and to an easier characterization of novel bacterial lipolytic enzymes. PMID:10493927

Arpigny, J L; Jaeger, K E

1999-01-01

70

An overview of protein moonlighting in bacterial infection.  

PubMed

We are rapidly returning to a world in which bacterial infections are a major health issue. Pathogenic bacteria are able to colonize and cause pathology due to the possession of virulence factors such as adhesins, invasins, evasins and toxins. These are generally specifically evolved proteins with selective actions. It is, therefore, surprising that most human bacterial pathogens employ moonlighting proteins as virulence factors. Currently, >90 bacterial species employ one or more moonlighting protein families to aid colonization and induce disease. These organisms employ 90 moonlighting bacterial protein families and these include enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, hexosemonophosphate shunt, glyoxylate cycle and a range of other metabolic enzymes, proteases, transporters and, also, molecular chaperones and protein-folding catalysts. These proteins have homologues in eukaryotes and only a proportion of the moonlighting proteins employed are solely bacterial in origin. Bacterial moonlighting proteins can be divided into those with single moonlighting functions and those with multiple additional biological actions. These proteins contribute significantly to the population of virulence factors employed by bacteria and some are obvious therapeutic targets. Where examined, bacterial moonlighting proteins bind to target ligands with high affinity. A major puzzle is the evolutionary mechanism(s) responsible for bacterial protein moonlighting and a growing number of highly homologous bacterial moonlighting proteins exhibit widely different moonlighting actions, suggesting a lack in our understanding of the mechanism of evolution of protein active sites. PMID:25399596

Henderson, Brian

2014-12-01

71

Photobacterium profundum sp. nov., a new, moderately barophilic bacterial species isolated from a deep-sea sediment.  

PubMed

A novel, moderately barophilic bacterium was isolated from a sediment sample obtained from the Ryukyu Trench, at a depth of 5110 m. The isolate, designated strain DSJ4, is a Gram-negative rod capable of growth between 4 degrees C and 18 degrees C under atmospheric pressure, with optimum growth displayed at 10 degrees C, and capable of growth at pressures between 0.1 MPa and 70 MPa at 10 degrees C, with optimum growth displayed at 10 MPa. Strain DSJ4 is a moderately barophilic bacterium, and shows no significant change in growth at pressures up to 50 MPa. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence of strain DSJ4 places this strain within the Photobacterium subgroup of the family Vibrionaceae, closely related to the strain SS9 that was independently isolated from the Sulu Trough. The temperature and pressure ranges for growth, cellular fatty acid composition, and assorted physiological and biochemical characteristics indicate that these strains differ from other Photobacterium species. Furthermore, both SS9 and DSJ4 displayed a low level of DNA similarity to other Photobacterium type strains. Based on these differences, these strains are proposed to represent a new deep-sea-type species. The name Photobacterium profundum (JCM10084) is proposed. PMID:9676237

Nogi, Y; Masui, N; Kato, C

1998-01-01

72

The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyze recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice. PMID:23641241

Olivares, Jorge; Bernardini, Alejandra; Garcia-Leon, Guillermo; Corona, Fernando; B. Sanchez, Maria; Martinez, Jose L.

2013-01-01

73

Demonstrating Bacterial Flagella.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)

Porter, John R.; And Others

1992-01-01

74

Bacterial cell shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial species have long been classified on the basis of their characteristic cell shapes. Despite intensive research, the molecular mechanisms underlying the generation and maintenance of bacterial cell shape remain largely unresolved. The field has recently taken an important step forward with the discovery that eukaryotic cytoskeletal proteins have homologues in bacteria that affect cell shape. Here, we discuss how

Matthew T. Cabeen; Christine Jacobs-Wagner

2005-01-01

75

Targeting NAD biosynthesis in bacterial pathogens  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens necessitates the search for new antibiotics acting on previously unexplored targets. Nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase of the NadD family, an essential enzyme of NAD biosynthesis in most bacteria, was selected as a target for structure-based inhibitor development. To this end, the inventors have identified small molecule compounds that inhibit bacterial target enzymes by interacting with a novel inhibitory binding site on the enzyme while having no effect on functionally equivalent human enzymes.

2014-07-22

76

Modulation of Post-Antibiotic Bacterial Community Reassembly and Host Response by Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

The introduction of Candida albicans into cefoperazone-treated mice results in changes in bacterial community reassembly. Our objective was to use high-throughput sequencing to characterize at much greater depth the specific changes in the bacterial microbiome. The colonization of C. albicans significantly altered bacterial community reassembly that was evident at multiple taxonomic levels of resolution. There were marked changes in the levels of Bacteriodetes and Lactobacillaceae. Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, the two most abundant bacterial families, did not change in relative proportions after antibiotics, but there were marked genera-level shifts within these two bacterial families. The microbiome shifts occurred in the absence of overt intestinal inflammation. Overall, these experiments demonstrate that the introduction of a single new microbe in numerically inferior numbers into the bacterial microbiome during a broad community disturbance has the potential to significantly alter the subsequent reassembly of the bacterial community as it recovers from that disturbance. PMID:23846617

Erb Downward, John R.; Falkowski, Nicole R.; Mason, Katie L.; Muraglia, Ryan; Huffnagle, Gary B.

2013-01-01

77

Microfluidics for bacterial chemotaxis  

E-print Network

Bacterial chemotaxis, a remarkable behavioral trait which allows bacteria to sense and respond to chemical gradients in the environment, has implications in a broad range of fields including but not limited to disease ...

Ahmed, Tanvir, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

78

Family Literacy: Exploring Family Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature on family influence on children's acquisition of literacy. Discusses the ambivalence regarding family literacy theories and the lack of family literacy theoretical frameworks. Identifies types of family involvement and effective literacy strategies for families. Finds that most studies suggest that family literacy contributes to…

Saracho, Olivia N.

2002-01-01

79

Bistability and Bacterial Infections  

PubMed Central

Bacterial infections occur when the natural host defenses are overwhelmed by invading bacteria. The main component of the host defense is impaired when neutrophil count or function is too low, putting the host at great risk of developing an acute infection. In people with intact immune systems, neutrophil count increases during bacterial infection. However, there are two important clinical cases in which they remain constant: a) in patients with neutropenic-associated conditions, such as those undergoing chemotherapy at the nadir (the minimum clinically observable neutrophil level); b) in ex vivo examination of the patient's neutrophil bactericidal activity. Here we study bacterial population dynamics under fixed neutrophil levels by mathematical modelling. We show that under reasonable biological assumptions, there are only two possible scenarios: 1) Bacterial behavior is monostable: it always converges to a stable equilibrium of bacterial concentration which only depends, in a gradual manner, on the neutrophil level (and not on the initial bacterial level). We call such a behavior type I dynamics. 2) The bacterial dynamics is bistable for some range of neutrophil levels. We call such a behavior type II dynamics. In the bistable case (type II), one equilibrium corresponds to a healthy state whereas the other corresponds to a fulminant bacterial infection. We demonstrate that published data of in vitro Staphylococcus epidermidis bactericidal experiments are inconsistent with both the type I dynamics and the commonly used linear model and are consistent with type II dynamics. We argue that type II dynamics is a plausible mechanism for the development of a fulminant infection. PMID:20463954

Malka, Roy; Shochat, Eliezer; Rom-Kedar, Vered

2010-01-01

80

Bistability and bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Bacterial infections occur when the natural host defenses are overwhelmed by invading bacteria. The main component of the host defense is impaired when neutrophil count or function is too low, putting the host at great risk of developing an acute infection. In people with intact immune systems, neutrophil count increases during bacterial infection. However, there are two important clinical cases in which they remain constant: a) in patients with neutropenic-associated conditions, such as those undergoing chemotherapy at the nadir (the minimum clinically observable neutrophil level); b) in ex vivo examination of the patient's neutrophil bactericidal activity. Here we study bacterial population dynamics under fixed neutrophil levels by mathematical modelling. We show that under reasonable biological assumptions, there are only two possible scenarios: 1) Bacterial behavior is monostable: it always converges to a stable equilibrium of bacterial concentration which only depends, in a gradual manner, on the neutrophil level (and not on the initial bacterial level). We call such a behavior type I dynamics. 2) The bacterial dynamics is bistable for some range of neutrophil levels. We call such a behavior type II dynamics. In the bistable case (type II), one equilibrium corresponds to a healthy state whereas the other corresponds to a fulminant bacterial infection. We demonstrate that published data of in vitro Staphylococcus epidermidis bactericidal experiments are inconsistent with both the type I dynamics and the commonly used linear model and are consistent with type II dynamics. We argue that type II dynamics is a plausible mechanism for the development of a fulminant infection. PMID:20463954

Malka, Roy; Shochat, Eliezer; Rom-Kedar, Vered

2010-01-01

81

Urticaria and bacterial infections.  

PubMed

The association between urticaria and infectious diseases has been discussed for >100 years. However, a causal relationship with underlying or precipitating infection is difficult to establish. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic analysis of the published cases of urticaria associated with bacterial infections. We give an umbrella breakdown of up-to-date systematic reviews and other important publications on the complex association of urticaria and bacterial infections. We did a Medline search, for English language articles published until January 2014, using the key words "urticaria" and "bacteria/bacterial disease"; a second analysis was performed in groups of bacteria and using each germ name as a key word. Many bacterial infections have been associated with urticaria manifestation, such as Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Salmonella, Brucella, Mycobacterium leprae, Borrelia, Chlamydia pneumonia, and Yersinia enterocolitica. In some cases the skin manifestations, described as urticaria, could be caused by the presence of the microorganism in the skin, or for the action of their toxins, or to the complement activation mediated by circulating immune complexes. Although only a weak association with urticaria of unclear pathogenesis exists, clinicians should consider these bacterial agents in the workup of the patients with urticaria. The eradication of the infection could, in fact, lead to the resolution of urticaria. Prospective studies and well-structured research are obviously needed to better clarify the real role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence. PMID:24857191

Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Barberi, Giuseppina; Gangemi, Sebastiano

2014-01-01

82

Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Bacterial vaginosis is a clinical condition caused by replacement of the normal hydrogen peroxide producing Lactobacillus sp. in the vagina with high concentrations of characteristic sets of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Bacterial vaginosis is the most prevalent cause of vaginal discharge or malodor, although 50 percent of women who meet the criteria for this condition are asymptomatic. Bacterial vaginosis is reported in 10 to 41 percent of women, and new evidence has shown association with maternal and fetal morbidity. Studies have shown that spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, premature birth, preterm premature rupture of the membranes, amniotic fluid infection, postpartum endometritis, and postcesarean wound infections are increased because of infection with bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy. Clinical trials demonstrated important reductions in many of these adverse events with appropriate screening and antimicrobial treatment protocols. New low-cost, diagnostic, point-of-care screening tools are available for rapid screening of patients, affording the physician the opportunity to potentially make a dramatic clinical and cost impact in preventing preterm birth and the costly sequelae of prematurity. Practicing physicians need to be aware of current guidelines for screening and treating pregnant patients for bacterial vaginosis. The authors recommend that all pregnant women be screened and treated with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-P) recommended oral regimens early in pregnancy. Each treated women should be evaluated for "test of cure" 1 month after treatment. Mothers likely to benefit from "screen and treat" approaches include 1) those with the highest concentrations of genital anaerobes and mycoplasmas, 2) women with prior preterm birth or who have low body mass (BMI < 19.8 kg/m2), 3) those with evidence of endometritis before pregnancy, and 4) those who are treated with oral agents effective for both presumed intrauterine mycoplasmas and other bacterial vaginosis flora (i.e., oral clindamycin or erythromycin and metronidazole). PMID:10804540

McGregor, J A; French, J I

2000-05-01

83

Assembling the bacterial segrosome.  

PubMed

Genome segregation in prokaryotes is a highly ordered process that integrates with DNA replication, cytokinesis and other fundamental facets of the bacterial cell cycle. The segrosome is the nucleoprotein complex that mediates DNA segregation in bacteria, its assembly and organization is best understood for plasmid partition. The recent elucidation of structures of the ParB plasmid segregation protein bound to centromeric DNA, and of the tertiary structures of other segregation proteins, are key milestones in the path to deciphering the molecular basis of bacterial DNA segregation. PMID:16584885

Hayes, Finbarr; Barillà, Daniela

2006-05-01

84

Family Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

Seita, John R.

2014-01-01

85

Regulation of bacterial trafficking in the nasopharynx  

PubMed Central

Summary Bacterial ‘colonisation’ of the nasopharynx by potential bacterial pathogens in early childhood is a normal, important series of events. They are part of a dynamic process in which the microbiota of the upper airways becomes established and evolves in early childhood. The potential pathogens ‘colonising’ the upper airways interact with resident, apparently non-pathogenic, bacteria; other potential pathogens including those from their own species; viruses and the hosts immune response. Environmental factors such as family dynamics, child care, antibiotic usage, smoking and indeed vaccines all have an impact. Understanding the significant of potential beneficial interactions as well as those factors that are detrimental to the host will be important in disease prevention in the future. PMID:22726870

Pelton, Stephen I.

2012-01-01

86

An algebraic view of bacterial genome evolution.  

PubMed

Rearrangements of bacterial chromosomes can be studied mathematically at several levels, most prominently at a local, or sequence level, as well as at a topological level. The biological changes involved locally are inversions, deletions, and transpositions, while topologically they are knotting and catenation. These two modelling approaches share some surprising algebraic features related to braid groups and Coxeter groups. The structural approach that is at the core of algebra has long found applications in sciences such as physics and analytical chemistry, but only in a small number of ways so far in biology. And yet there are examples where an algebraic viewpoint may capture a deeper structure behind biological phenomena. This article discusses a family of biological problems in bacterial genome evolution for which this may be the case, and raises the prospect that the tools developed by algebraists over the last century might provide insight to this area of evolutionary biology. PMID:24375264

Francis, Andrew R

2014-12-01

87

BACTERIAL WATERBORNE PATHOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bacterial pathogens are examples of classical etiological agents of waterborne disease. While these agents no longer serve as major threats to U.S. water supplies, they are still important pathogens in areas with substandard sanitation and poor water treatment facilities. In th...

88

Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase  

DOEpatents

A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

Crawford, Donald L. (Moscow, ID); Ramachandra, Muralidhara (Moscow, ID)

1993-01-01

89

Bacterial Transformation Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "glowing genes" activity on this engaging website shows students the process of bacterial transformation, a specific type of genetic engineering. This online activity supplements a hands-on lab at the Dolan DNA Learning Center's Harlem DNA Lab, in which plasmids, or tiny loops of DNA that contain genes, are inserted into a harmless strain of E.coli.

Dolan DNA Learning Center * (Dolan DNA Learning Center;)

2010-05-27

90

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature10394 Innate immune recognition of bacterial ligands by  

E-print Network

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature10394 Innate immune recognition of bacterial ligands by NAIPs determines family, apoptosis inhibitory protein 5), has been implicated in activation of NLRC4 (refs 7 the specificity of the NLRC4 inflammasome for distinct bacterial ligands. In particular, we found that activation

Vance,. Russell

91

Detection of type III secretion genes as a general indicator of bacterial virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type III secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria are specific export machineries for virulence factors which allow their translocation to eukaryotic cells. Since they correlate with bacterial pathogenicity, their presence is used as a general indicator of bacterial virulence. By comparing the genetic relationship of the major type III secretion systems we found the family of genes encoding the inner-membrane channel

Katja Stuber; Joachim Frey; André P Burnens; Peter Kuhnert

2003-01-01

92

Cancer, Families, and Family Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of the family counselor in working with cancer patients and their families. Suggests ways in which the family counselor can work proactively with families in the area of cancer prevention and helping them cope more effectively with its impact on their lives. Uses a clinical case example to illustrate intervention with cancer…

Duffy, Maureen; Gillig, Scott

2003-01-01

93

Urban aerosols harbor diverse and dynamic bacterial populations  

PubMed Central

Considering the importance of its potential implications for human health, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem stability, surprisingly little is known regarding the composition or dynamics of the atmosphere's microbial inhabitants. Using a custom high-density DNA microarray, we detected and monitored bacterial populations in two U.S. cities over 17 weeks. These urban aerosols contained at least 1,800 diverse bacterial types, a richness approaching that of some soil bacterial communities. We also reveal the consistent presence of bacterial families with pathogenic members including environmental relatives of select agents of bioterrorism significance. Finally, using multivariate regression techniques, we demonstrate that temporal and meteorological influences can be stronger factors than location in shaping the biological composition of the air we breathe. PMID:17182744

Brodie, Eoin L.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Parker, Jordan P. Moberg; Zubietta, Ingrid X.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Andersen, Gary L.

2007-01-01

94

[Bacterial diseases of rape].  

PubMed

Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium. PMID:23293826

Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P

2012-01-01

95

Physics of Bacterial Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Summary: Bacterial cells utilize three-dimensional (3D) protein assemblies to perform important cellular functions such as growth, division, chemoreception, and motility. These assemblies are composed of mechanoproteins that can mechanically deform and exert force. Sometimes, small-nucleotide hydrolysis is coupled to mechanical deformations. In this review, we describe the general principle for an understanding of the coupling of mechanics with chemistry in mechanochemical systems. We apply this principle to understand bacterial cell shape and morphogenesis and how mechanical forces can influence peptidoglycan cell wall growth. We review a model that can potentially reconcile the growth dynamics of the cell wall with the role of cytoskeletal proteins such as MreB and crescentin. We also review the application of mechanochemical principles to understand the assembly and constriction of the FtsZ ring. A number of potential mechanisms are proposed, and important questions are discussed. PMID:22126993

Sun, Sean X.; Jiang, Hongyuan

2011-01-01

96

Immunoprophylaxis Against Bacterial Sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sepsis can be viewed as toxigenic illness resulting from the release of excess quantities of microbial-derived inflammatory mediators into the systemic circulation. Principal among these microbial mediators is bacterial endotoxin. Endotoxin is an essential component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Humans are exquisitely susceptible to endotoxin-induced systemic inflammatory reactions that may prove to be rapidly fatal. Many gram-positive

Steven M. Opal; Alan S. Cross; Apurba K. Bhattacharjee; Kumar Visvanathan; John B. Zabriskie

1999-01-01

97

Family Life  

MedlinePLUS

... that different families have different communication and coping styles. Consider how your family reacts in a crisis ... Learn more about how to get support for parenting while living with cancer . The importance of communication ...

98

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... Home CDC 24/7: Saving Lives. Protecting People.™ Genomics All CDC Topics Search The CDC Note: Javascript ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Public Health Genomics Genomics Family Health History Share Compartir Family History ...

99

Family History  

MedlinePLUS

... Complications Post Treatment and Outcome GTranslate Understanding : Family History Familial intracranial aneurysms are generally defined as the ... patients with an Intracranial Aneurysm (IA) have a history of smoking at some time in their life. ...

100

Family Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement in schools will work only when perceived as an enlarged concept focusing on all children, including those from at-risk families. Each publication reviewed here is specifically concerned with family involvement strategies concerned with all children or targeted at primarily high risk students. Susan McAllister Swap looks at three…

Liontos, Lynn Balster

1992-01-01

101

Bacterial-like PPP protein phosphatases  

PubMed Central

Reversible phosphorylation is a widespread modification affecting the great majority of eukaryotic cellular proteins, and whose effects influence nearly every cellular function. Protein phosphatases are increasingly recognized as exquisitely regulated contributors to these changes. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family comprises enzymes, which catalyze dephosphorylation at serine and threonine residues. Nearly a decade ago, “bacterial-like” enzymes were recognized with similarity to proteins from various bacterial sources: SLPs (Shewanella-like phosphatases), RLPHs (Rhizobiales-like phosphatases), and ALPHs (ApaH-like phosphatases). A recent article from our laboratory appearing in Plant Physiology characterizes their extensive organismal distribution, abundance in plant species, predicted subcellular localization, motif organization, and sequence evolution. One salient observation is the distinct evolutionary trajectory followed by SLP genes and proteins in photosynthetic eukaryotes vs. animal and plant pathogens derived from photosynthetic ancestors. We present here a closer look at sequence data that emphasizes the distinctiveness of pathogen SLP proteins and that suggests that they might represent novel drug targets. A second observation in our original report was the high degree of similarity between the bacterial-like PPPs of eukaryotes and closely related proteins of the “eukaryotic-like” phyla Myxococcales and Planctomycetes. We here reflect on the possible implications of these observations and their importance for future research. PMID:24675170

Kerk, David; Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B

2013-01-01

102

Italian families and family interventions.  

PubMed

In Italy, as in many countries, relatives are closely involved in caring for persons with physical and mental disorders. The Italian scenario lends itself to routine involvement of family members in psychiatric treatment because, despite becoming smaller and smaller, Italian families keep close ties, and men and women do not leave the parental home until relatively late. The authors describe the impact of international family psychosocial research on the Italian mental health services (MHSs) and the main psychosocial interventions currently in use, including family psychoeducational interventions and the "Milan family therapy approach." They also highlight the contribution Italian researchers have given to the study of important variables in integrated mental disorder care, such as family burden of care, relatives' attitudes, family functioning, and satisfaction with the MHSs. Finally, they discuss the difficulties of implementing and disseminating family interventions within the Italian MHS, despite the growing evidence of their effectiveness. PMID:24879572

Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

2014-06-01

103

Interactions between model bacterial membranes and synthetic antimicrobials.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antimicrobial peptides comprise a key component of innate immunity for a wide range of multicellular organisms. It has been shown that natural antimicrobial peptides and their analogs can permeate bacterial membranes selectively. There are a number of proposed models for this action, but the detailed molecular mechanism of the induced membrane permeation remains unclear. We investigate interactions between model bacterial membranes and a prototypical family of phenylene ethynylene-based antimicrobials with controllable hydrophilic and hydrophobic volume fractions, controllable charge placement. Preliminary results from synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) results will be presented.

Yang, Lihua; Mishra, Abhijit; Som, Abhigyan; Tew, Gregory N.; Wong, Gerard C. L.

2006-03-01

104

Bacterial contamination of enteral diets.  

PubMed Central

Enteral feeding solutions can be contaminated by bacterial micro-organisms already present in the ingredients, or introduced during preparation or transport, or in the hospital ward. During jejunostomy feeding without pump or filter, ascending bacterial invasion of the feeding bag is possible. In patients with lowered immune response contaminated feedings can cause serious septic clinical problems. The progressive loss of the nutritional value of the enteral feeding solution by bacterial contamination has to be considered for all patients. PMID:3098643

de Leeuw, I H; Vandewoude, M F

1986-01-01

105

Bacterial genotoxicity bioreporters  

PubMed Central

Summary Ever since the introduction of the Salmonella typhimurium mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay (the ‘Ames test’) over three decades ago, there has been a constant development of additional genotoxicity assays based upon the use of genetically engineered microorganisms. Such assays rely either on reversion principles similar to those of the Ames test, or on promoter–reporter fusions that generate a quantifiable dose?dependent signal in the presence of potential DNA damaging compounds and the induction of repair mechanisms; the latter group is the subject of the present review. Some of these assays were only briefly described in the scientific literature, whereas others have been developed all the way to commercial products. Out of these, only one, the umu?test, has been fully validated and ISO? and OECD standardized. Here we review the main directions undertaken in the construction and testing of bacterial?based genotoxicity bioassays, including the attempts to incorporate at least a partial metabolic activation capacity into the molecular design. We list the genetic modifications introduced into the tester strains, compare the performance of the different assays, and briefly describe the first attempts to incorporate such bacterial reporters into actual genotoxicity testing devices. PMID:21255340

Biran, Alva; Yagur-Kroll, Sharon; Pedahzur, Rami; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Ben-Yoav, Hadar; Shacham-Diamand, Yosi; Belkin, Shimshon

2010-01-01

106

Multispectral bacterial identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi spectral optical technique was developed to simultaneously classify individual bacterial cells within mixed populations. Multi spectral Bacterial Identification (mBID) combines innovations in microscopy with a software analysis program to measure and characterize the fluorescence signals from multiplexed 16S ribosomal RNA probes hybridized to populations of different bacteria. Software was developed to identify individual bacteria at the level of species within these mixed populations. TO test the feasibility of mBID, we examined the fluorescence emissions from a mixture of probes specific for individual species of known bacteria from the American Type Culture Collection. Currently, up to seven species can be detected simultaneously by fluorescence microscopy. An eighth signal was reserved for a universal probe to control for fluorescence intensity. mBID can also be used to identify uncultured microorganisms. We plan to couple this new multi spectral technology to existing identification technologies that utilize 16S rRNA sequence alignment. Using this integrated identification protocol, bacteria that may be associated with chronic conditions will be identified first by analyzing their 16S rDNA sequences and then by visualizing them with flourescent probes hybridized to their 16S rRNA in situ.

Tanner, Michael A.; Coleman, William J.; Everett, Christine L.; Robles, Steven J.; Dilworth, Michael R.; Yang, Mary M.; Youvan, Douglas C.

2000-04-01

107

Family Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... their marriage, other children, work, finances, and personal relationships and responsibilities. Parents now have to shift much of their resources ... needs of a child with ASD complicates familial relationships, especially with siblings. However, parents can help their family by informing their other ...

108

Family Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on various aspects of mammal family life ranging from ways different species are born to how different mammals are raised. Learning activities include making butter from cream, creating birth announcements for mammals, and playing a password game on family life. (ML)

Naturescope, 1986

1986-01-01

109

Epigenetics and Bacterial Infections  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic mechanisms regulate expression of the genome to generate various cell types during development or orchestrate cellular responses to external stimuli. Recent studies highlight that bacteria can affect the chromatin structure and transcriptional program of host cells by influencing diverse epigenetic factors (i.e., histone modifications, DNA methylation, chromatin-associated complexes, noncoding RNAs, and RNA splicing factors). In this article, we first review the molecular bases of the epigenetic language and then describe the current state of research regarding how bacteria can alter epigenetic marks and machineries. Bacterial-induced epigenetic deregulations may affect host cell function either to promote host defense or to allow pathogen persistence. Thus, pathogenic bacteria can be considered as potential epimutagens able to reshape the epigenome. Their effects might generate specific, long-lasting imprints on host cells, leading to a memory of infection that influences immunity and might be at the origin of unexplained diseases. PMID:23209181

Bierne, Hélène; Hamon, Mélanie; Cossart, Pascale

2012-01-01

110

Evolution of Bacterial Suicide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individual and would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilis and S. pneumoniae.

Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya

2013-03-01

111

Laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial meningitis is relatively common, can progress rapidly, and can result in death or permanent debilitation. This infection justifiably elicits strong emotional reactions and, hopefully, immediate medical intervention. This review is a brief presentation of the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis and a review of current knowledge, literature, and recommendations on the subject of laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Those who work in clinical microbiology laboratories should be familiar with the tests used in detecting bacteria and bacterial antigens in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and should always have the utmost appreciation for the fact that results of such tests must always be reported immediately. Academic and practical aspects of the laboratory diagnosis of bacterial meningitis presented in this review include the following: anatomy of the meninges; pathogenesis; changes in the composition of CSF; etiological agents; processing CSF; microscopic examination of CSF; culturing CSF; methods of detecting bacterial antigens and bacterial components in CSF (counter-immunoelectrophoresis, coagglutination, latex agglutination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Limulus amebocyte lysate assay, and gas-liquid chromatography); use of the polymerase chain reaction; and practical considerations for testing CSF for bacterial antigens. PMID:1576585

Gray, L D; Fedorko, D P

1992-01-01

112

Targeted anti bacterial therapy.  

PubMed

The increasing development of bacterial resistance to traditional antibiotics has reached alarming levels, thus necessitating a strong need to develop new antimicrobial agents. These new antimicrobials should possess novel modes of action and/or different cellular targets compared with the existing antibiotics. As a result, new classes of compounds designed to avoid defined resistance mechanisms are undergoing pre clinical and clinical evaluation. Microbial and phage genomic sequencing are now being used to find previously unidentified genes and their corresponding proteins. In both traditional and newly developed antibiotics, the target selectivity lies in the drug itself, in its ability to affect a mechanism that is unique to prokaryotes. As a result, a vast number of potent agents that, due to low selectivity, in addition to the pathogen also affect the eukaryote host have been excluded from use as therapeutics. Such compounds could be re-considered for clinical use if applied as part of a targeted delivery platform where the drug selectivity is replaced by target-selectivity borne by the targeting moiety. With a large number of antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates already approved or near approval as cancer therapeutics, targeted therapy is becoming increasingly attractive and additional potential targeting moieties that are non-antibody based, such as peptides, non-antibody ligand-binding proteins and even carbohydrates are receiving increasing attention. Still, targeted therapy is mostly focused on cancer, with targeted anti bacterial therapies being suggested only very recently. This review will focus in the various methods of antimicrobial targeting, by systemic and local application of targeted antimicrobial substances. PMID:17897058

Yacoby, Iftach; Benhar, Itai

2007-09-01

113

BYKdb: the Bacterial protein tYrosine Kinase database  

PubMed Central

Bacterial tyrosine-kinases share no resemblance with their eukaryotic counterparts and they have been unified in a new protein family named BY-kinases. These enzymes have been shown to control several biological functions in the bacterial cells. In recent years biochemical studies, sequence analyses and structure resolutions allowed the deciphering of a common signature. However, BY-kinase sequence annotations in primary databases remain incomplete. This prompted us to develop a specialized database of computer-annotated BY-kinase sequences: the Bacterial protein tyrosine-kinase database (BYKdb). BY-kinase sequences are first identified, thanks to a workflow developed in a previous work. A second workflow annotates the UniProtKB entries in order to provide the BYKdb entries. The database can be accessed through a web interface that allows static and dynamic queries and offers integrated sequence analysis tools. BYKdb can be found at http://bykdb.ibcp.fr. PMID:22080550

Jadeau, Fanny; Grangeasse, Christophe; Shi, Lei; Mijakovic, Ivan; Deleage, Gilbert; Combet, Christophe

2012-01-01

114

A Common Fold Mediates Vertebrate Defense and Bacterial Attack  

SciTech Connect

Proteins containing membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domains play important roles in vertebrate immunity, embryonic development, and neural-cell migration. In vertebrates, the ninth component of complement and perforin form oligomeric pores that lyse bacteria and kill virus-infected cells, respectively. However, the mechanism of MACPF function is unknown. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial MACPF protein, Plu-MACPF from Photorhabdus luminescens, to 2.0 angstrom resolution. The MACPF domain reveals structural similarity with poreforming cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) from Gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that lytic MACPF proteins may use a CDC-like mechanism to form pores and disrupt cell membranes. Sequence similarity between bacterial and vertebrate MACPF domains suggests that the fold of the CDCs, a family of proteins important for bacterial pathogenesis, is probably used by vertebrates for defense against infection.

Rosado, Carlos J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; Law, Ruby H.P.; Butcher, Rebecca E.; Kan, Wan-Ting; Bird, Catherina H.; Ung, Kheng; Browne, Kylie A.; Baran, Katherine; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; Faux, Noel G.; Wong, Wilson; Porter, Corrine J.; Pike, Robert N.; Ellisdon, Andrew M.; Pearce, Mary C.; Bottomley, Stephen P.; Emsley, Jonas; Smith, A. Ian; Rossjohn, Jamie; Hartland, Elizabeth L.; Voskoboinik, Ilia; Trapani, Joseph A.; Bird, Phillip I.; Dunstone, Michelle A.; Whisstock, James C. (PMCI-A); (Monash); (Nottingham)

2008-10-02

115

Composition of epiphytic bacterial communities differs on petals and leaves.  

PubMed

The epiphytic bacterial communities colonising roots and leaves have been described for many plant species. In contrast, microbiologists have rarely considered flowers of naturally growing plants. We identified bacteria isolated from the surface of petals and leaves of two plant species, Saponaria officinalis (Caryophyllaceae) and Lotus corniculatus (Fabaceae). The bacterial diversity was much lower on petals than on leaves of the same plants. Moreover, the bacterial communities differed strongly in composition: while Pseudomonadaceae and Microbacteriaceae were the most abundant families on leaves, Enterobacteriaceae dominated the floral communities. We hypothesise that antibacterial floral volatiles trigger the low diversity on petals, which is supported by agar diffusion assays using substances emitted by flowers and leaves of S. officinalis. These results suggest that bacteria should be included in the interpretation of floral traits, and possible effects of bacteria on pollination are proposed and discussed. PMID:21972888

Junker, R R; Loewel, C; Gross, R; Dötterl, S; Keller, A; Blüthgen, N

2011-11-01

116

Family Theory and Family Health Research  

PubMed Central

Different family theories can be applied to different aspects of how families experience health and illness. The family health and illness cycle describes the phases of a family's experience, beginning with health promotion and risk reduction, then family vulnerability and disease onset or relapse, family illness appraisal, family acute response, and finally family adaptation to illness and recovery. For each phase, specific family theories that are most appropriate for guiding family and health research are discussed. PMID:21229056

Doherty, William J.

1991-01-01

117

Optimized Expression of IL-12 Cytokine Family  

Cancer.gov

The IL-12 family of cytokines (IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27) plays a role in infection, inflammation and autoimmune diseases. IL-12 is produced by macrophages and dendritic cells in response to certain bacterial and parasitic infections and is a powerful inducer of IFN-gamma production.

118

SLC9/NHE gene family, a plasma membrane and organellar family of Na+/H+ exchangers *  

PubMed Central

This brief review of the human Na/H exchanger gene family introduces a new classification with three subgroups to the SLC9 gene family. Progress in the structure and function of this gene family is reviewed with structure based on homology to the bacterial Na/H exchanger NhaA. Human diseases which result from genetic abnormalities of the SLC9 family are discussed although the exact role of these transporters in causing any disease is not established, other than poorly functioning NHE3 in congenital Na diarrhea PMID:23506868

Donowitz, Mark; Tse, C. Ming; Fuster, Daniel

2013-01-01

119

Bacterial Meningitis Online Enrollment Only Exemption Request  

E-print Network

Bacterial Meningitis Online Enrollment Only Exemption Request Return form to: The University of completed vaccination against Bacterial Meningitis. By signing this letter, you are stating that you have

O'Toole, Alice J.

120

Bacterial Inhibition by Electrical Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Significance: Much evidence shows that electrical stimulation (ES) promotes the wound healing process. The inhibitory effect of ES on bacterial growth has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the useful effects of ES on wound healing. Bacterial burden has been associated with chronic wounds. The extensive use of antibiotics can lead to the spread of multiple drug resistant bacteria. Whether biophysical energies, such as ES, can be used as a treatment modality against pathogenic microorganisms remains an open question. Recent Advances: The research literature provides evidence for useful effects of ES in terms of inhibition of bacterial growth. The type of ES, its polarity, and the intensity of the current play a major role in establishment of antibacterial effects. Both direct current (DC) and high voltage pulse current are more effective at inhibiting bacterial growth than are other types of ES. The exact mechanism underlying the antibacterial effects of ES is not clear. Critical Issues: Available evidence indicates that microampere DC (?ADC) is better than other ES types for inhibition of bacterial growth. The results of most studies also support the application of cathodal current for bacterial growth inhibition. The current intensity of ES would appear to be tolerable by humans if used clinically for treatment of infected wounds. Future Directions: The cathodal ?ADC appears to be more effective for inhibition of microorganism growth. Further research, especially in vivo, is necessary to clarify the inhibitory effects of ES on wound bacterial infections. PMID:24761349

Asadi, Mohammad Reza; Torkaman, Giti

2014-01-01

121

Family Meals  

MedlinePLUS

... less likely to smoke, drink alcohol, or use marijuana and other drugs, and are more likely to have healthier diets as adults, studies have shown. Beyond health and nutrition, family meals provide a valuable opportunity ...

122

Structural and functional diversity among bacterial interspersed mosaic elements (BIMEs).  

PubMed

Palindromic units (PU or REP) were defined as 40-nucleotide DNA sequences which are highly repeated in the genome of several members of the Enterobacteriaceae. They were shown to be a constituent of the bacterial interspersed mosaic element (BIME), in which they are associated with other repetitive sequences. We report here that Escherichia coli PU sequences contain three motifs (Y, Z1 and Z2), leading to the definition of two BIME families. The BIME-1 family, highly conserved over 145 nucleotides, contains two PUs (motifs Y and Z1). The BIME-2 family contains a variable number of PUs (motifs Y and Z2). We present evidence, using band shift experiments, that each PU motif binds DNA gyrase with a different affinity. This suggests that the two families are functionally distinct. PMID:8057840

Bachellier, S; Saurin, W; Perrin, D; Hofnung, M; Gilson, E

1994-04-01

123

A survey of bacterial insertion sequences using IScan.  

PubMed

Bacterial insertion sequences (ISs) are the simplest kinds of bacterial mobile DNA. Evolutionary studies need consistent IS annotation across many different genomes. We have developed an open-source software package, IScan, to identify bacterial ISs and their sequence elements--inverted and target direct repeats--in multiple genomes using multiple flexible search parameters. We applied IScan to 438 completely sequenced bacterial genomes and 20 IS families. The resulting data show that ISs within a genome are extremely similar, with a mean synonymous divergence of K(s) = 0.033. Our analysis substantially extends previously available information, and suggests that most ISs have entered bacterial genomes recently. By implication, their population persistence may depend on horizontal transfer. We also used IScan's ability to analyze the statistical significance of sequence similarity among many IS inverted repeats. Although the inverted repeats of insertion sequences are evolutionarily highly flexible parts of ISs, we show that this ability can be used to enrich a dataset for ISs that are likely to be functional. Applied to the thousands of genomes that will soon be available, IScan could be used for many purposes, such as mapping the evolutionary history and horizontal transfer patterns of different ISs. PMID:17686783

Wagner, Andreas; Lewis, Christopher; Bichsel, Manuel

2007-01-01

124

[Taxonomic characteristics and physiological properties of microorganisms from the gut of pike (Esox lucius)].  

PubMed

The taxonomic composition and distribution of microorganisms differing in the degree of association with the intestinal mucosa of the pike (Lucius lucius) has been studied. Microorgansism of the families Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonadaceae, and Vibrionaceae dominate in the gut microflora. Numerically prevailing bacterial species are characterized by high proteolytic and amylolytic enzyme activities as well as by high persistence accounted for by antilysozyme and antihistone activities. The results of this study show that Hafnia alvei, Yersinia ruckeri, Vibrio vulnificus, V. furnissii, Aeromonas salmonicida, and Shewanella putrefaciens may be regarded as normal components of the pike gut microflora. PMID:19198074

Izveskova, G I; Nemtseva, N V; Plotnikov, A O

2008-01-01

125

Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Bacterial Phosphotransferase System  

PubMed Central

We report analyses of 202 fully sequenced genomes for homologues of known protein constituents of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). These included 174 bacterial, 19 archaeal, and 9 eukaryotic genomes. Homologues of PTS proteins were not identified in archaea or eukaryotes, showing that the horizontal transfer of genes encoding PTS proteins has not occurred between the three domains of life. Of the 174 bacterial genomes (136 bacterial species) analyzed, 30 diverse species have no PTS homologues, and 29 species have cytoplasmic PTS phosphoryl transfer protein homologues but lack recognizable PTS permeases. These soluble homologues presumably function in regulation. The remaining 77 species possess all PTS proteins required for the transport and phosphorylation of at least one sugar via the PTS. Up to 3.2% of the genes in a bacterium encode PTS proteins. These homologues were analyzed for family association, range of protein types, domain organization, and organismal distribution. Different strains of a single bacterial species often possess strikingly different complements of PTS proteins. Types of PTS protein domain fusions were analyzed, showing that certain types of domain fusions are common, while others are rare or prohibited. Select PTS proteins were analyzed from different phylogenetic standpoints, showing that PTS protein phylogeny often differs from organismal phylogeny. The results document the frequent gain and loss of PTS protein-encoding genes and suggest that the lateral transfer of these genes within the bacterial domain has played an important role in bacterial evolution. Our studies provide insight into the development of complex multicomponent enzyme systems and lead to predictions regarding the types of protein-protein interactions that promote efficient PTS-mediated phosphoryl transfer. PMID:16339738

Barabote, Ravi D.; Saier, Milton H.

2005-01-01

126

Fact Families  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the relationship of addition to subtraction is explored with books and with connecting cubes. Students search for related addition and subtraction facts for a given number using a virtual or actual calculator to find differences. They also investigate fact families when one addend is 0 as well as when the addends are the same. Students will: find missing addends, review the additive identity, generate fact families given two addends or given one addend and the sum.

Illuminations

2012-03-31

127

Bacterial phospholipases C.  

PubMed Central

A variety of pathogenic bacteria produce phospholipases C, and since the discovery in 1944 that a bacterial toxin (Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin) possessed an enzymatic activity, there has been considerable interest in this class of proteins. Initial speculation that all phospholipases C would have lethal properties has not been substantiated. Most of the characterized enzymes fall into one of four groups of structurally related proteins: the zinc-metallophospholipases C, the sphingomyelinases, the phosphatidylinositol-hydrolyzing enzymes, and the pseudomonad phospholipases C. The zinc-metallophospholipases C have been most intensively studied, and lethal toxins within this group possess an additional domain. The toxic phospholipases C can interact with eukaryotic cell membranes and hydrolyze phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, leading to cell lysis. However, measurement of the cytolytic potential or lethality of phospholipases C may not accurately indicate their roles in the pathogenesis of disease. Subcytolytic concentrations of phospholipase C can perturb host cells by activating the arachidonic acid cascade or protein kinase C. Nonlethal phospholipases C, such as the Listeria monocytogenes PLC-A, appear to enhance the release of the organism from the host cell phagosome. Since some phospholipases C play important roles in the pathogenesis of disease, they could form components of vaccines. A greater understanding of the modes of action and structure-function relationships of phospholipases C will facilitate the interpretation of studies in which these enzymes are used as membrane probes and will enhance the use of these proteins as models for eukaryotic phospholipases C. PMID:8336671

Titball, R W

1993-01-01

128

Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

2011-10-01

129

Bacterial Brain Abscess  

PubMed Central

Significant advances in the diagnosis and management of bacterial brain abscess over the past several decades have improved the expected outcome of a disease once regarded as invariably fatal. Despite this, intraparenchymal abscess continues to present a serious and potentially life-threatening condition. Brain abscess may result from traumatic brain injury, prior neurosurgical procedure, contiguous spread from a local source, or hematogenous spread of a systemic infection. In a significant proportion of cases, an etiology cannot be identified. Clinical presentation is highly variable and routine laboratory testing lacks sensitivity. As such, a high degree of clinical suspicion is necessary for prompt diagnosis and intervention. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging offer a timely and sensitive method of assessing for abscess. Appearance of abscess on routine imaging lacks specificity and will not spare biopsy in cases where the clinical context does not unequivocally indicate infectious etiology. Current work with advanced imaging modalities may yield more accurate methods of differentiation of mass lesions in the brain. Management of abscess demands a multimodal approach. Surgical intervention and medical therapy are necessary in most cases. Prognosis of brain abscess has improved significantly in the recent decades although close follow-up is required, given the potential for long-term sequelae and a risk of recurrence. PMID:25360205

Patel, Kevin

2014-01-01

130

Sculpting the Bacterial Cell  

PubMed Central

Prokaryotes come in a wide variety of shapes, determined largely by natural selection, physical constraints, and patterns of cell growth and division. Because of their relative simplicity, bacterial cells are excellent models for how genes and proteins can directly determine morphology. Recent advances in cytological methods for bacteria have shown that distinct cytoskeletal filaments composed of actin and tubulin homologs are important for guiding growth patterns of the cell wall in bacteria, and that the glycan strands that constitute the wall are generally perpendicular to the direction of growth. This cytoskeleton-directed cell wall patterning is strikingly reminiscent of how plant cell wall growth is regulated by microtubules. In rod-shaped bacilli, helical cables of actin-like MreB protein stretch along the cell length and orchestrate elongation of the cell wall, whereas the tubulin-like FtsZ protein directs formation of the division septum and the resulting cell poles. The overlap and interplay between these two systems and the peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes they recruit are the major driving forces of cylindrical shapes. Round cocci, on the other hand, have lost their MreBcables and instead mustgrowmainly via their division septum, giving them their characteristic round or ovoid shapes. Other bacteria that lack MreB homologs or even cell walls usedistinct cytoskeletal systemsto maintain their distinct shapes. Here I review what is known about the mechanisms that determine the shape of prokaryotic cells. PMID:19906583

Margolin, William

2014-01-01

131

The rare bacterial biosphere.  

PubMed

All communities are dominated by a few species that account for most of the biomass and carbon cycling. On the other hand, a large number of species are represented by only a few individuals. In the case of bacteria, these rare species were until recently invisible. Owing to their low numbers, conventional molecular techniques could not retrieve them. Isolation in pure culture was the only way to identify some of them, but current culturing techniques are unable to isolate most of the bacteria in nature. The recent development of fast and cheap high-throughput sequencing has begun to allow access to the rare species. In the case of bacteria, the exploration of this rare biosphere has several points of interest. First, it will eventually produce a reasonable estimate of the total number of bacterial taxa in the oceans; right now, we do not even know the right order of magnitude. Second, it will answer the question of whether "everything is everywhere." Third, it will require hypothesizing and testing the ecological mechanisms that allow subsistence of many species in low numbers. And fourth, it will open an avenue of research into the immense reserve of genes with potential applications hidden in the rare biosphere. PMID:22457983

Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

2012-01-01

132

Bacterial cytokinesis: from Z ring to divisome  

PubMed Central

Ancestral homologues of the major eukaryotic cytoskeletal families, tubulin and actin, play critical roles in cytokinesis of bacterial cells. FtsZ is the ancestral homologue of tubulin and assembles into the Z ring that determines the division plane. FtsA is an ancestral homologue of actin and is involved in coordinating cell wall synthesis during cytokinesis. FtsA assists in the formation of the Z ring and also has a critical role in recruiting downstream division proteins to the Z ring to generate the divisome that divides the cell. Spatial regulation of cytokinesis occurs at the stage of Z ring assembly and regulation of cell size occurs at this stage or during Z ring maturation. PMID:22888013

Pichoff, Sebastien; Du, Shishen

2014-01-01

133

Numerical Survey of Some Bacterial Taxa  

PubMed Central

Focht, D. D. (Iowa State University, Ames), and W. R. Lockhart. Numerical survey of some bacterial taxa. J. Bacteriol. 90:1314–1319. 1965.—A numerical analysis was made of 77 properties of each of 43 bacterial strains, representing 25 genera from 8 families in the orders Eubacteriales and Pseudomonadales. Four major groups were found, related to one another at approximately the same level of similarity: (1) a large cluster containing the subgroups (1a) Athiorhodaceae-Spirillaceae, (1b) Xanthomonas, and (1c) “inactive” Micrococcaceae-Achromobacteraceae; (2) a cluster containing the “active” Micrococcaceae and Lactobacillaceae; (3) the enterobacteria; and (4) Aeromonas. There was a sharp distinction between the branches of groups 1a, 1c, and 2. The composition of groups was essentially the same whether or not fermentation of carbohydrates (28 characters) was included in the analysis. Several individual strains, notably, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Erwinia amylovora, were related to none of the groups, and others (two species of Proteus, Flavobacterium devorans, and Lactobacillus casei) showed only minimal quantitative relationships with their groups. These results suggest that there may be significant variation in levels of similarity within microbial groups presently accorded equivalent taxonomic rank, and that some present distinctions among taxa, particularly at the generic level, cannot be confirmed on the basis of overall similarity. PMID:5848329

Focht, D. D.; Lockhart, W. R.

1965-01-01

134

Canadian guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide a clinical summary of the Canadian clinical practice guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS) that includes relevant considerations for family physicians. Quality of evidence Guideline authors performed a systematic literature search and drafted recommendations. Recommendations received both strength of evidence and strength of recommendation ratings. Input from external content experts was sought, as was endorsement from Canadian medical societies (Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada, Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, and the Family Physicians Airways Group of Canada). Main message Diagnosis of ABRS is based on the presence of specific symptoms and their duration; imaging or culture are not needed in uncomplicated cases. Treatment is dependent on symptom severity, with intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) recommended as monotherapy for mild and moderate cases, although the benefit might be modest. Use of INCSs plus antibiotics is reserved for patients who fail to respond to INCSs after 72 hours, and for initial treatment of patients with severe symptoms. Antibiotic selection must account for the suspected pathogen, the risk of resistance, comorbid conditions, and local antimicrobial resistance trends. Adjunct therapies such as nasal saline irrigation are recommended. Failure to respond to treatment, recurrent episodes, and signs of complications should prompt referral to an otolaryngologist. The guidelines address situations unique to the Canadian health care environment, including actions to take during prolonged wait periods for specialist referral or imaging. Conclusion The Canadian guidelines provide up-to-date recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of ABRS that reflect an evolving understanding of the disease. In addition, the guidelines offer useful tools to help clinicians discern viral from bacterial episodes, as well as optimally manage their patients with ABRS. PMID:24627376

Kaplan, Alan

2014-01-01

135

Bacterial Growth H. L. Smith  

E-print Network

as many bacterial cells on our skin and in our large intestine as cells in our own body. We are nothing for insulin into bacteria and let them produce it in large industrial fermenters. So it is important

Smith, Hal

136

Changes in Bacterial Communities Accompanied by Aggregation in a Fed-Batch Composting Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of fed-batch composting (FBC) reactors often aggregate after prolonged operation. This process leads to irreversible\\u000a breakdown of the decomposition reaction and possible alteration of the bacterial communities. We compared the structures of\\u000a bacterial communities in reactors under aggregate and optimal conditions. The results of 16S rRNA gene clone analysis showed\\u000a that populations of the family Bacillaceae (such as

Keiko Watanabe; Norio Nagao; Tatsuki Toda; Norio Kurosawa

2008-01-01

137

Hearing loss during bacterial meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo determine the natural history and pathogenesis of hearing loss in children with acute bacterial meningitis.DESIGNMulticentre prospective study.SETTING21 hospitals in the south and west of England and South Wales.SUBJECTS124 children between the ages of 4 weeks and 16 years with newly diagnosed bacterial meningitis.METHODSChildren underwent repeated audiological assessment with the first tests being performed within six hours of diagnosis. By

M P Richardson; A Reid; M J Tarlow; P T Rudd

1997-01-01

138

Bacterial Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Microbe bioremediation is the application of biological treatment to the cleanup of hazardous contaminants in soil and surface\\u000a or subsurface waters. Normally microbe bioremediation treats organic contaminants. Most microbe bioremediation processes take\\u000a advantage of indigenous microorganisms, although some rely on the introduction of bacterial or fungal strains. Bacterial digestion\\u000a is the process of bacteria-consuming organic matter. The bacteria feed on

Martina Mackova; Ondrej Uhlik; Petra Lovecka; Jitka Viktorova; Martina Novakova; Katerina Demnerova; Michel Sylvestre; Tomas Macek

139

Bacterial sedimentation through a porous medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous previous studies of bacterial transport in groundwaters and to deep aquifers and sediments have either neglected, or regarded as insignificant, the potential contribution of bacterial sedimentation. This study examines the potential significance of sedimentation as a mechanism for bacterial transport. A simple model is developed to predict the behavior of particles (bacterial or inorganic colloids) sedimenting through granular porous

Jiamin Wan; Tetsu K. Tokunaga; Chin-Fu Tsang

1995-01-01

140

Ecology and population structure of vibrionaceae in the coastal ocean  

E-print Network

Extensive genetic diversity has been discovered in the microbial world, yet mechanisms that shape and maintain this diversity remain poorly understood. This thesis investigates to what extent populations of the ...

Preheim, Sarah Pacocha

2010-01-01

141

Family Hypnotherapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

1985-01-01

142

Taxonomy of bacterial fish pathogens  

PubMed Central

Bacterial taxonomy has progressed from reliance on highly artificial culture-dependent techniques involving the study of phenotype (including morphological, biochemical and physiological data) to the modern applications of molecular biology, most recently 16S rRNA gene sequencing, which gives an insight into evolutionary pathways (= phylogenetics). The latter is applicable to culture-independent approaches, and has led directly to the recognition of new uncultured bacterial groups, i.e. "Candidatus", which have been associated as the cause of some fish diseases, including rainbow trout summer enteritic syndrome. One immediate benefit is that 16S rRNA gene sequencing has led to increased confidence in the accuracy of names allocated to bacterial pathogens. This is in marked contrast to the previous dominance of phenotyping, and identifications, which have been subsequently challenged in the light of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. To date, there has been some fluidity over the names of bacterial fish pathogens, with some, for example Vibrio anguillarum, being divided into two separate entities (V. anguillarum and V. ordalii). Others have been combined, for example V. carchariae, V. harveyi and V. trachuri as V. harveyi. Confusion may result with some organisms recognized by more than one name; V. anguillarum was reclassified as Beneckea and Listonella, with Vibrio and Listonella persisting in the scientific literature. Notwithstanding, modern methods have permitted real progress in the understanding of the taxonomic relationships of many bacterial fish pathogens. PMID:21314902

2011-01-01

143

Bacterial meningitis in older children.  

PubMed

A review was performed of 25 cases of bacterial meningitis in previously healthy children aged 6 years or older during a 10-year period. The rate of infection in this age group relative to all cases of pediatric bacterial meningitis was 4%. Pathogens included Haemophilus influenzae type b in 10 cases (40%), Neisseria meningitidis in 9 cases (36%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae in 6 cases (24%). Physical findings revealed 21 patients (84%) with some degree of altered consciousness and 25 patients (100%) with nuchal rigidity. In all instances, the cerebrospinal fluid exhibited pleocytosis with a predominance of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Eleven patients (44%) were afebrile on presentation. Of 22 surviving patients, 10 (45%) were afebrile without subsequent fever after administration of the initial dose of antibiotics, in 5 (23%) fever resolved within 24 hours, and in 6 (27%) fever resolved within 48 hours of treatment; there was no instance of prolonged or secondary fever noted. Death occurred in 3 cases (12%). Bacterial meningitis is uncommon in older children. As compared with younger children, older children with bacterial meningitis commonly present without fever and tend to have their fever resolve shortly after effective antibiotic therapy is initiated without manifesting prolonged or secondary fever patterns. Haemophilus influenzae type b is a common cause of bacterial meningitis in children aged 6 years or older; empirical antibiotic therapy in this clinical situation should include treatment of this pathogen. PMID:2321610

Bonadio, W A; Mannenbach, M; Krippendorf, R

1990-04-01

144

Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families  

PubMed Central

Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21361925

Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

2010-01-01

145

Bacterial toxins: friends or foes?  

PubMed Central

Many emerging and reemerging bacterial pathogens synthesize toxins that serve as primary virulence factors. We highlight seven bacterial toxins produced by well-established or newly emergent pathogenic microbes. These toxins, which affect eukaryotic cells by a variety of means, include Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin, Shiga toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1, Escherichia coli heat-stable toxin, botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins, and S. aureus toxic-shock syndrome toxin. For each, we discuss the information available on its synthesis and structure, mode of action, and contribution to virulence. We also review the role certain toxins have played in unraveling signal pathways in eukaryotic cells and summarize the beneficial uses of toxins and toxoids. Our intent is to illustrate the importance of the analysis of bacterial toxins to both basic and applied sciences. PMID:10221874

Schmitt, C. K.; Meysick, K. C.; O'Brien, A. D.

1999-01-01

146

Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

1989-02-01

147

Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds  

PubMed Central

Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms. PMID:19440284

Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Li, Qing X.

2009-01-01

148

Roseobacticides: Small Molecule Modulators of an Algal-Bacterial Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Marine bacteria and microalgae engage in dynamic symbioses mediated by small molecules. A recent study of Phaeobacter gallaeciensis, a member of the large roseobacter clade of ?-proteobacteria, and Emiliania huxleyi, a prominent member of the microphytoplankton found in large algal blooms, revealed that an algal senescence signal produced by E. huxleyi elicits the production of novel algaecides, the roseobacticides, from the bacterial symbiont. In this report, the generality of these findings are examined by expanding the number of potential elicitors. This expansion led to the identification of nine new members of the roseobacticide family, rare bacterial troponoids, which provide insights into both their biological roles and their biosynthesis. The qualitative and quantitative changes in the levels of roseobacticides induced by the additional elicitors and the elicitors’ varied efficiencies support the concept of host-targeted roseobacticide production. Structures of the new family members arise from variable substituents at the C3 and C7 positions of the roseobacticide core as the diversifying elements and suggest that the roseobacticides result from modifications and combinations of aromatic amino acids. Together these studies support a model in which algal senescence converts a mutualistic bacterial symbiont into an opportunistic parasite of its hosts. PMID:21928816

2011-01-01

149

NLRP3 Inflammasome and Host Protection against Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

The inflammasome is a multi-protein complex that induces maturation of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18 through activation of caspase-1. Several nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family members, including NLRP3, recognize unique microbial and danger components and play a central role in inflammasome activation. The NLRP3 inflammasome is critical for maintenance of homeostasis against pathogenic infections. However, inflammasome activation acts as a double-edged sword for various bacterial infections. When the IL-1 family of cytokines is secreted excessively, they cause tissue damage and extensive inflammatory responses that are potentially hazardous for the host. Emerging evidence has shown that diverse bacterial pathogens or their components negatively regulate inflammasome activation to escape the immune response. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of the roles and regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome during bacterial infections. Activation and regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome should be tightly controlled to prevent virulence and pathology during infections. Understanding the roles and regulatory mechanisms of the NLRP3 inflammasome is essential for developing potential treatment approaches against pathogenic infections. PMID:24133343

Kim, Jwa-Jin

2013-01-01

150

[Bacterial infections in liver cirrhosis].  

PubMed

Bacterial infections are well described complications of cirrhosis that greatly increase mortality rates. Two factors play important roles in the development of bacterial infections in these patients: the severity of liver disease and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The most common infections are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, urinary tract infections, pneumonia and sepsis. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are equal causative organisms. For primary prophylaxis, short-term antibiotic treatment (oral norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin) is indicated in cirrhotic patients (with or without ascites) admitted with gastrointestinal haemorrhage (variceal or non-variceal). Administration of norfloxacin is advisable for hospitalized patients with low ascitic protein even without gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The first choice in empirical treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is the iv. III. generation cephalosporin; which can be switched for a targeted antibiotic regime based on the result of the culture. The duration of therapy is 5-8 days. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and fluoroquinolones--patients not on prior quinolone prophylaxis--were shown to be as effective and safe as cefotaxime. In patients with evidence of improvement, iv. antibiotics can be switched safely to oral antibiotics after 2 days. In case of renal dysfunction, iv albumin should also be administered. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended in patients who have recovered from an episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (secondary prevention). For "selective intestinal decontamination", poorly absorbed oral norfloxacin is the preferred schedule. Oral ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin (added gram positive spectrum) all the more are reasonable alternatives. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is only for patients who are intolerant to quinolones. Prophylaxis is indefinite until disappearance of ascites, transplant or death. Long-term prophylaxis is currently not recommended for patients without previous spontaneous bacterial peritonitis episode, not even when refractory ascites or low ascites protein content is present. PMID:17344166

Papp, Mária; Farkas, Anikó; Udvardy, Miklós; Tornai, István

2007-03-01

151

Properties and applications of undecylprodigiosin and other bacterial prodigiosins.  

PubMed

The growing demand to fulfill the needs of present-day medicine in terms of novel effective molecules has lead to reexamining some of the old and known bacterial secondary metabolites. Bacterial prodigiosins (prodiginines) have a long history of being re markable multipurpose compounds, best examined for their anticancer and antimalarial activities. Production of prodigiosin in the most common producer strain Serratia marcescens has been described in great detail. However, few reports have discussed the ecophysiological roles of these molecules in the producing strains, as well as their antibiotic and UV-protective properties. This review describes recent advances in the production process, biosynthesis, properties, and applications of bacterial prodigiosins. Special emphasis is put on undecylprodigiosin which has generally been a less studied member of the prodigiosin family. In addition, it has been suggested that proteins involved in undecylprodigiosin synthesis, RedG and RedH, could be a useful addition to the biocatalytic toolbox being able to mediate regio- and stereoselective oxidative cyclization. Judging by the number of recent references (216 for the 2007-2013 period), it has become clear that undecylprodigiosin and other bacterial prodigiosins still hold surprises in terms of valuable properties and applicative potential to medical and other industrial fields and that they still deserve continuing research curiosity. PMID:24562326

Stankovic, Nada; Senerovic, Lidija; Ilic-Tomic, Tatjana; Vasiljevic, Branka; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina

2014-05-01

152

Curved microchannels and bacterial streamers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial biofilms are commonly identified as microbial communities attached to a surface and encased in a self-secreted extracellular matrix. Due to their increased resistance to antimicrobial agents, biofilms have an enormous impact on health and medicine (e.g., wound healing, implant-associated infections, disease transmission). On the other hand, they constitute a major component of the stream ecosystem by increasing transport of nutrients and retention of suspended particles. In this talk, we present an experimental study of bacterial biofilm development in a microfluidic device. In particular, we show the formation of filamentous structures, or streamers, in curved channels and how these suspended biofilms are linked to the underlying hydrodynamics.

Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

2010-03-01

153

[Regulatory functions of bacterial exometabolites].  

PubMed

This review deals with the issue of growth autoregulation and survival in bacterial cultures under starvation conditions. Based on our results and on published data, the conclusion has been drawn that low-molecular products of metabolism (carboxylic acids, amino acids, and other metabolites) perform regulatory functions. The same compounds also control the ecological relationship between microorganisms at the interspecific level, and affect their antagonistic activity. It is suggested that complexes of bacterial metabolites can be used for controlling the composition of various microbiocenosis, including those of humans. PMID:17025173

Vakhitov, T Ia; Petrov, L N

2006-01-01

154

TPCP: Bacterial Blight of Eucalyptus BACTERIAL BLIGHT OF EUCALYPTUS  

E-print Network

hinders the ability of forestry companies to produce vegetative material for rooting. There are, however planting stock on which forestry in South Africa is based. SYMPTOMS AND OCCURRENCE Typical symptoms surfaces of cuttings and reduces their ability to root by nearly 100%. MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Bacterial

155

The roles of bacterial GCN5-related N-acetyltransferases.  

PubMed

The GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily of proteins, widespread in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, can utilize acyl coenzyme A (acyl CoA) to acylate respective acceptor substrates and release both CoA and the acylated products. GNATs have been shown to be involved in multiple physiological events, including bacterial drug resistance, regulation of transcription, stress reaction, and metabolic flux, etc. In the last few years, the importance of GNATs has only emerged in eukaryotes, but bacterial GNATs, particularly those of pathogens, have only recently been explored. In this review, we summarize the main members, structures, inhibitors, and activators of proteins in the GNAT family. We focus on the roles of GNATs in bacteria, particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis GNATs. PMID:24579671

Xie, Longxiang; Zeng, Jie; Luo, Hongping; Pan, Weihua; Xie, Jianping

2014-01-01

156

Bacterial infection after liver transplantation  

PubMed Central

Infectious complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality after liver transplantation, despite recent advances in the transplant field. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites can cause infection before and after transplantation. Among them, bacterial infections are predominant during the first two months post-transplantation and affect patient and graft survival. They might cause surgical site infections, including deep intra-abdominal infections, bacteremia, pneumonia, catheter-related infections and urinary tract infections. The risk factors for bacterial infections differ between the periods after transplant, and between centers. Recently, the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria is great concern in liver transplant (LT) patients. The instructive data about effects of infections with extended-spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria, carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria, and glycopeptide-resistant gram-positive bacteria were reported on a center-by-center basis. To prevent post-transplant bacterial infections, proper strategies need to be established based upon center-specific data and evidence from well-controlled studies. This article reviewed the recent epidemiological data, risk factors for each type of infections and important clinical issues in bacterial infection after LT. PMID:24876741

Kim, Sang Il

2014-01-01

157

Integrons: agents of bacterial evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrons are assembly platforms — DNA elements that acquire open reading frames embedded in exogenous gene cassettes and convert them to functional genes by ensuring their correct expression. They were first identified by virtue of their important role in the spread of antibiotic-resistance genes. More recently, our understanding of their importance in bacterial genome evolution has broadened with the discovery

Didier Mazel

2006-01-01

158

Bacterial Spores as Vaccine Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, bacterial spores have been evaluated as vaccine vehicles. Bacillus subtilis spores displaying the tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) antigen were used for oral and intranasal immunization and were shown to generate mucosal and systemic responses in a murine model. TTFC-specific immunoglobulin G titers in serum (determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) reached significant levels 33 days after

L. H. Duc; Huynh A. Hong; Neil Fairweather; Ezio Ricca

2003-01-01

159

Bacterial Diversity across Individual Lichens? †  

PubMed Central

Symbioses are unique habitats for bacteria. We surveyed the spatial diversity of bacterial communities across multiple individuals of closely related lichens using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and pyrosequencing. Centers of lichens house richer, more consistent assemblages than species-poor and compositionally disparate lichen edges, suggesting that ecological succession plays a role in structuring these communities. PMID:21531831

Mushegian, Alexandra A.; Peterson, Celeste N.; Baker, Christopher C. M.; Pringle, Anne

2011-01-01

160

Familial pineocytoma.  

PubMed

We present the first report on familial pineocytoma. The propositus, a 31-year-old man, presented with incontinence due to a cystic and haemorrhagic tumour of the pineal region. His 34-year-old sister, who had suffered from tinnitus for several years, also had a pineal tumour. Histopathology following tumour resection revealed pineocytomas (WHO grade 1). Cerebral MRI examinations of the patient's brother and father did not reveal any pineal region abnormalities. Their mother had developed breast cancer at the age of 43. Although not impossible, it is rather unlikely that pineocytomas occurring in siblings are pure coincidence because of the rarity of this type of tumour. PMID:22699425

Gempt, Jens; Ringel, Florian; Oexle, Konrad; Delbridge, Claire; Förschler, Annette; Schlegel, Jürgen; Meyer, Bernhard; Schmidt-Graf, Friederike

2012-08-01

161

Cell cycle: The bacterial approach to coordination  

E-print Network

Despite the power of bacterial genetics, the prokaryotic cell cycle has remained poorly understood. But recent work with three different bacterial species has shed light on how chromosomes and plasmids are oriented and ...

Levin, Petra Anne

162

A Cross-Taxon Analysis of Insect-Associated Bacterial Diversity  

PubMed Central

Although it is well known that plants and animals harbor microbial symbionts that can influence host traits, the factors regulating the structure of these microbial communities often remain largely undetermined. This is particularly true for insect-associated microbial communities, as few cross-taxon comparisons have been conducted to date. To address this knowledge gap and determine how host phylogeny and ecology affect insect-associated microbial communities, we collected 137 insect specimens representing 39 species, 28 families, and 8 orders, and characterized the bacterial communities associated with each specimen via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant in nearly all insects sampled. On average, the insect-associated bacterial communities were not very diverse, with individuals typically harboring fewer than 8 bacterial phylotypes. Bacterial communities also tended to be dominated by a single phylotype; on average, the most abundant phylotype represented 54.7% of community membership. Bacterial communities were significantly more similar among closely related insects than among less-related insects, a pattern driven by within-species community similarity but detected at every level of insect taxonomy tested. Diet was a poor predictor of bacterial community composition. Individual insect species harbored remarkably unique communities: the distribution of 69.0% of bacterial phylotypes was limited to unique insect species, whereas only 5.7% of phylotypes were detected in more than five insect species. Together these results suggest that host characteristics strongly regulate the colonization and assembly of bacterial communities across insect lineages, patterns that are driven either by co-evolution between insects and their symbionts or by closely related insects sharing conserved traits that directly select for similar bacterial communities. PMID:23613815

Jones, Ryan Thomas; Sanchez, Leticia Gonzales; Fierer, Noah

2013-01-01

163

Bacterial flora of fishes: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial floras isolated from eggs, skin, gills, and intestines have been described for a limited number of fish species. Generally, the range of bacterial genera isolated is related to the aquatic habitat of the fish and varies with factors such as the salinity of the habitat and the bacterial load in the water. In many investigations, identification of isolates to

Marian M. Cahill

1990-01-01

164

Bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial translocation is defined as the passage of viable indigenous bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to extraintestinal sites, such as the mesenteric-lymph-node complex, liver, spleen and bloodstream. Three major mechanisms promote bacterial translocation: intestinal bacterial overgrowth, deficiencies in host immune defenses and increased permeability or damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier.

Rodney D. Berg

1995-01-01

165

An insight into the origin and functional evolution of bacterial aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial aromatic ring-hydroxylating oxygenases (RHOs) are multicomponent enzyme systems which have potential utility in bioremediation of aromatic compounds in the environment. To cope with the enormous diversity of aromatic compounds in the environment, this enzyme family has evolved remarkably exhibiting broad substrate specificity. RHOs are multicomponent enzymes comprising of a homo- or hetero-multimeric terminal oxygenase and one or more electron

Joydeep Chakraborty; Debajyoti Ghosal; Arindam Dutta; Tapan K. Dutta

2012-01-01

166

DEPLOYMENT & THE MILITARY FAMILY  

E-print Network

1 DEPLOYMENT & THE MILITARY FAMILY NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY FAMILY MEMBERS).............................................................................................. 3 III. HEALTH & MENTAL HEALTH RESOURCES FOR IMMEDIATE FAMILY MEMBERS OF ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY RESOURCES, INFORMATION & REFERRAL SOURCES FOR IMMEDIATE FAMILY MEMBERS OF ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY PERSONNEL

167

Military Families Considering Adoption  

MedlinePLUS

... Military Families Considering Adoption: A Factsheet for Families Military Families Considering Adoption Email Order (Free) Print (PDF ... Published: 2010 Adoption is a realistic option for military personnel who want to expand their families, and ...

168

Distinct antimicrobial peptide expression determines host species-specific bacterial associations.  

PubMed

Animals are colonized by coevolved bacterial communities, which contribute to the host's health. This commensal microbiota is often highly specific to its host-species, inferring strong selective pressures on the associated microbes. Several factors, including diet, mucus composition, and the immune system have been proposed as putative determinants of host-associated bacterial communities. Here we report that species-specific antimicrobial peptides account for different bacterial communities associated with closely related species of the cnidarian Hydra. Gene family extensions for potent antimicrobial peptides, the arminins, were detected in four Hydra species, with each species possessing a unique composition and expression profile of arminins. For functional analysis, we inoculated arminin-deficient and control polyps with bacterial consortia characteristic for different Hydra species and compared their selective preferences by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial microbiota. In contrast to control polyps, arminin-deficient polyps displayed decreased potential to select for bacterial communities resembling their native microbiota. This finding indicates that species-specific antimicrobial peptides shape species-specific bacterial associations. PMID:24003149

Franzenburg, Sören; Walter, Jonas; Künzel, Sven; Wang, Jun; Baines, John F; Bosch, Thomas C G; Fraune, Sebastian

2013-09-24

169

Distinct antimicrobial peptide expression determines host species-specific bacterial associations  

PubMed Central

Animals are colonized by coevolved bacterial communities, which contribute to the host’s health. This commensal microbiota is often highly specific to its host-species, inferring strong selective pressures on the associated microbes. Several factors, including diet, mucus composition, and the immune system have been proposed as putative determinants of host-associated bacterial communities. Here we report that species-specific antimicrobial peptides account for different bacterial communities associated with closely related species of the cnidarian Hydra. Gene family extensions for potent antimicrobial peptides, the arminins, were detected in four Hydra species, with each species possessing a unique composition and expression profile of arminins. For functional analysis, we inoculated arminin-deficient and control polyps with bacterial consortia characteristic for different Hydra species and compared their selective preferences by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial microbiota. In contrast to control polyps, arminin-deficient polyps displayed decreased potential to select for bacterial communities resembling their native microbiota. This finding indicates that species-specific antimicrobial peptides shape species-specific bacterial associations. PMID:24003149

Franzenburg, Soren; Walter, Jonas; Kunzel, Sven; Wang, Jun; Baines, John F.; Bosch, Thomas C. G.; Fraune, Sebastian

2013-01-01

170

The protective role of endogenous bacterial communities in chironomid egg masses and larvae  

PubMed Central

Insects of the family Chironomidae, also known as chironomids, are distributed worldwide in a variety of water habitats. These insects display a wide range of tolerance toward metals and organic pollutions. Bacterial species known for their ability to degrade toxicants were identified from chironomid egg masses, leading to the hypothesis that bacteria may contribute to the survival of chironomids in polluted environments. To gain a better understanding of the bacterial communities that inhabit chironomids, the endogenous bacteria of egg masses and larvae were studied by 454-pyrosequencing. The microbial community of the egg masses was distinct from that of the larval stage, most likely due to the presence of one dominant bacterial Firmicutes taxon, which consisted of 28% of the total sequence reads from the larvae. This taxon may be an insect symbiont. The bacterial communities of both the egg masses and the larvae were found to include operational taxonomic units, which were closely related to species known as toxicant degraders. Furthermore, various bacterial species with the ability to detoxify metals were isolated from egg masses and larvae. Koch-like postulates were applied to demonstrate that chironomid endogenous bacterial species protect the insect from toxic heavy metals. We conclude that chironomids, which are considered pollution tolerant, are inhabited by stable endogenous bacterial communities that have a role in protecting their hosts from toxicants. This phenomenon, in which bacteria enable the continued existence of their host in hostile environments, may not be restricted only to chironomids. PMID:23804150

Senderovich, Yigal; Halpern, Malka

2013-01-01

171

Inhibitors of bacterial tubulin target bacterial membranes in vivo†  

PubMed Central

FtsZ is a homolog of eukaryotic tubulin that is widely conserved among bacteria and coordinates the assembly of the cell division machinery. FtsZ plays a central role in cell replication and is a target of interest for antibiotic development. Several FtsZ inhibitors have been reported. We characterized the mechanism of these compounds in bacteria and found that many of them disrupt the localization of membrane-associated proteins, including FtsZ, by reducing the transmembrane potential or perturbing membrane permeability. We tested whether the reported phenotypes of a broad collection of FtsZ inhibitors disrupt the transmembrane potential in Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Using a combination of flow cytometry and microscopy, we found that zantrin Z1, cinnamaldehyde, totarol, sanguinarine, and viriditoxin decreased the B. subtilis transmembrane potential or perturbed membrane permeability, and influenced the localization of the membrane-associated, division protein MinD. These studies demonstrate that small molecules that disrupt membrane function in bacterial cells produce phenotypes that are similar to the inhibition of proteins associated with membranes in vivo, including bacterial cytoskeleton homologs, such as FtsZ. The results provide a new dimension for consideration in the design and testing of inhibitors of bacterial targets that are membrane-associated and provide additional insight into the structural characteristics of antibiotics that disrupt the membrane. PMID:23539337

Foss, Marie H.; Eun, Ye-Jin; Grove, Charles I.; Pauw, Daniel A.; Sorto, Nohemy A.; Rensvold, Jarred W.; Pagliarini, David J.; Shaw, Jared T.

2012-01-01

172

Familial FSGS.  

PubMed

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and nephrotic syndrome can be caused by rare highly penetrant mutations in number of genes. FSGS can follow both recessive and dominant inheritance patterns. In general, recessive forms present early, whereas the autosomal dominant forms present in adolescence or adulthood. Many of the genes found to be mutated in FSGS and nephrotic syndrome patients encode proteins essential for normal podocyte structure and/or function. An exception appears to be APOL1, which harbors common variants responsible for the high rate of FSGS and other nephropathies in people of recent African ancestry. Familial FSGS should be regarded as part of a spectrum of inherited glomerulopathies where the precise histologic presentation may depend on the age of onset, function of the responsible gene and gene products, and other factors. PMID:25168831

Pollak, Martin R

2014-09-01

173

Positive Family Functioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The persistence of the nuclear family as the primary social unit in the United States and most all other societies, especially complex ones, is a fact. Values shape the definition of family, especially the "good family," and the "great debate" of this period on family failure, family corruption and the family's near demise originates in…

Sussman, Marvin B.

174

Reclaiming Family Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pull for family is strong, almost primeval, most likely it is evolutionary, and for those lacking the benefit of family or Family Privilege, the loss of family is painful and profoundly sad. Young people who struggle to cope without stable family connections are profoundly aware of their lack of "Family Privilege." In this article, the author…

Seita, John

2012-01-01

175

Final Evaluation Report: Family to Family Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This evaluation report of the Family to Family Program assesses parental attitudes towards their Family to Family experience and the functioning of their emotionally impaired children. It reviews issues of goal achievement; the impact on the targeted problem; service population demographics; and sustainability. Related topics include…

Ramey, Luellen; Meyer, David P.

176

Bacterial cheating limits antibiotic resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread use of antibiotics has led to the evolution of resistance in bacteria. Bacteria can gain resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin by acquiring a plasmid carrying the gene beta-lactamase, which inactivates the antibiotic. This inactivation may represent a cooperative behavior, as the entire bacterial population benefits from removing the antibiotic. The cooperative nature of this growth suggests that a cheater strain---which does not contribute to breaking down the antibiotic---may be able to take advantage of cells cooperatively inactivating the antibiotic. Here we find experimentally that a ``sensitive'' bacterial strain lacking the plasmid conferring resistance can invade a population of resistant bacteria, even in antibiotic concentrations that should kill the sensitive strain. We observe stable coexistence between the two strains and find that a simple model successfully explains the behavior as a function of antibiotic concentration and cell density. We anticipate that our results will provide insight into the evolutionary origin of phenotypic diversity and cooperative behaviors.

Xiao Chao, Hui; Yurtsev, Eugene; Datta, Manoshi; Artemova, Tanya; Gore, Jeff

2012-02-01

177

Dynamics of bacterial gene regulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of diauxic growth is a classical problem of bacterial gene regulation. The most well studied example of this phenomenon is the glucose-lactose diauxie, which occurs because the expression of the lac operon is strongly repressed in the presence of glucose. This repression is often explained by appealing to molecular mechanisms such as cAMP activation and inducer exclusion. I will begin by analyzing data showing that these molecular mechanisms cannot explain the strong lac repression because they exert a relatively weak effect. I will then present a minimal model accounting only for enzyme induction and dilution, which yields strong repression despite the absence of catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. The model also explains the growth patterns observed in batch and continuous cultures of various bacterial strains and substrate mixtures. The talk will conclude with a discussion of the experimental evidence regarding positive feedback, the key component of the minimal model.

Narang, Atul

2009-03-01

178

Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

2009-11-01

179

Electromagnetic Signals from Bacterial DNA  

E-print Network

Chemical reactions can be induced at a distance due to the propagation of electromagnetic signals during intermediate chemical stages. Although is is well known at optical frequencies, e.g. photosynthetic reactions, electromagnetic signals hold true for muck lower frequencies. In E. coli bacteria such electromagnetic signals can be generated by electric transitions between energy levels describing electrons moving around DNA loops. The electromagnetic signals between different bacteria within a community is a "wireless" version of intercellular communication found in bacterial communities connected by "nanowires". The wireless broadcasts can in principle be of both the AM and FM variety due to the magnetic flux periodicity in electron energy spectra in bacterial DNA orbital motions.

A. Widom; J. Swain; Y. N. Srivastava; S. Sivasubramanian

2011-04-15

180

Major Fungal and Bacterial Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sweetpotato has a reputation as a durable crop able to withstand many adversities, numerous bacterial and fungal\\u000a diseases have been reported on this crop from different regions of the world. In-depth information on most of these diseases\\u000a has previously been published in comprehensive monographs. Much of the information in the classic 1929 monograph by Harter\\u000a and Weimer remains useful.

C. A. Clark; G. J. Holmes; D. M. Ferrin

181

Bacterial vaginosis and host immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with severe medical consequences including induction of preterm birth and increasing\\u000a susceptibility to infection by HIV and other genital tract pathogens. Although the mechanism by which BV induces these changes\\u000a is not yet fully defined, the presence of BV is accompanied by immunologic changes in the lower genital tract environment.\\u000a The most striking change

Elizabeth St. John; Debra Mares; Gregory T. Spear

2007-01-01

182

Bacterial NADH-quinone oxidoreductases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NADH-quinone oxidoreductases of the bacterial respiratory chain could be divided in two groups depending on whether they bear an energy-coupling site. Those enzymes that bear the coupling site are designated as NADH dehydrogenase 1 (NDH-1) and those that do not as NADH dehydrogenase 2 (NDH-2). All members of the NDH-1 group analyzed to date are multiple polypeptide enzymes and

Takao Yagi

1991-01-01

183

SUPPLEMENTAL METHODS Additional Bacterial Strains  

E-print Network

SUPPLEMENTAL METHODS Additional Bacterial Strains DM4000 and its derivatives DM4000 priA2::kan (JC18983) and DM4000 priA2::kan dnaC809 (JC19008) have been described previously {Sandler et al., 1996 post-UV) -20 0 20 40 60 80 1 0.1 0.01 Rateofsynthesis(3H) -20 0 20 40 60 80 priA2 dnaC809priA2 B

Courcelle, Justin

184

Bacterial endocarditis complicating body art.  

PubMed

Increasing numbers of patients are living with congenital heart disease at a time when body art is growing in popularity. We present a case of subacute bacterial endocarditis following repeated tattooing in a patient with known valvular heart disease. This case highlights the importance of education of patients with structural heart disease to the potential risks of such procedures, particularly at a time when endocarditis prophylaxis protocols are being revised. PMID:18180055

Tse, Donald; Khan, Sadia; Clarke, Sarah

2009-03-20

185

Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms.  

PubMed

A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis and other components of the body's defence system. The persistence of, for example, staphylococcal infections related to foreign bodies is due to biofilm formation. Likewise, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients is caused by biofilm-growing mucoid strains. Characteristically, gradients of nutrients and oxygen exist from the top to the bottom of biofilms and these gradients are associated with decreased bacterial metabolic activity and increased doubling times of the bacterial cells; it is these more or less dormant cells that are responsible for some of the tolerance to antibiotics. Biofilm growth is associated with an increased level of mutations as well as with quorum-sensing-regulated mechanisms. Conventional resistance mechanisms such as chromosomal beta-lactamase, upregulated efflux pumps and mutations in antibiotic target molecules in bacteria also contribute to the survival of biofilms. Biofilms can be prevented by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy and they can be treated by chronic suppressive therapy. A promising strategy may be the use of enzymes that can dissolve the biofilm matrix (e.g. DNase and alginate lyase) as well as quorum-sensing inhibitors that increase biofilm susceptibility to antibiotics. PMID:20149602

Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael; Molin, Søren; Ciofu, Oana

2010-04-01

186

Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.  

PubMed

Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted. PMID:25129040

Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

2014-10-01

187

Bacterial infections complicating tongue piercing  

PubMed Central

Tongue piercing has become an increasingly popular form of body art. However, this procedure can occasionally be complicated by serious bacterial infections. The present article reports a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by a Gemella species in a patient with a pierced tongue, and reviews 18 additional cases of local and systemic bacterial infections associated with tongue piercing. Infections localized to the oral cavity and head and neck region included molar abscess, glossal abscess, glossitis, submandibular lymphadenitis, submandibular sialadenitis, Ludwig’s angina and cephalic tetanus. Infections distal to the piercing site included eight cases of infective endocarditis, one case of chorioamnionitis and one case of cerebellar abscess. Oropharyngeal flora were isolated from all cases. While bacterial infections following tongue piercing are rare, there are reports of potentially life-threatening infections associated with the procedure. Both piercers and their clients should be aware of these potential complications, and standardized infection prevention and control practices should be adopted by piercers to reduce the risk. PMID:21358880

Yu, Catherine HY; Minnema, Brian J; Gold, Wayne L

2010-01-01

188

Mechanism of Bacterial Pyrite Oxidation  

PubMed Central

The oxidation by Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans of untreated pyrite (FeS2) as well as HCl-pretreated pyrite (from which most of the acid-soluble iron species were removed) was studied manometrically. Oxygen uptake was linear during bacterial oxidation of untreated pyrite, whereas with HCl-pretreated pyrite both a decrease in oxygen uptake at 2 hr and nonlinear oxygen consumption were observed. Ferric sulfate added to HCl-pretreated pyrite restored approximately two-thirds of the decrease in total bacterial oxygen uptake and caused oxygen uptake to revert to nearly linear kinetics. Ferric sulfate also oxidized pyrite in the absence of bacteria and O2; recovery of ferric and ferrous ions was in excellent agreement with the reaction Fe2(SO4)3 + FeS2 = 3FeSO4 + 2S, but the elemental sulfur produced was negligible. Neither H2S nor S2O32? was a product of the reaction. It is probable that two mechanisms of bacterial pyrite oxidation operate concurrently: the direct contact mechanism which requires physical contact between bacteria and pyrite particles for biological pyrite oxidation, and the indirect contact mechanism according to which the bacteria oxidize ferrous ions to the ferric state, thereby regenerating the ferric ions required for chemical oxidation of pyrite. PMID:6051342

Silverman, Melvin P.

1967-01-01

189

Phylogenetic mapping of bacterial morphology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The availability of a meaningful molecular phylogeny for bacteria provides a context for examining the historical significance of various developments in bacterial evolution. Herein, the classical morphological descriptions of selected members of the domain Bacteria are mapped upon the genealogical ancestry deduced from comparison of small-subunit rRNA sequences. For the species examined in this study, a distinct pattern emerges which indicates that the coccus shape has arisen and accumulated independently multiple times in separate lineages and typically survived as a persistent end-state morphology. At least two other morphologies persist but have evolved only once. This study demonstrates that although bacterial morphology is not useful in defining bacterial phylogeny, it is remarkably consistent with that phylogeny once it is known. An examination of the experimental evidence available for morphogenesis as well as microbial fossil evidence corroborates these findings. It is proposed that the accumulation of persistent morphologies is a result of the biophysical properties of peptidoglycan and their genetic control, and that an evolved body-plan strategy based on peptidoglycan may have been a fate-sealing step in the evolution of Bacteria. More generally, this study illustrates that significant evolutionary insights can be obtained by examining biological and biochemical data in the context of a reliable phylogenetic structure.

Siefert, J. L.; Fox, G. E.

1998-01-01

190

Bacterial strategies for chemotaxis response.  

PubMed

Regular environmental conditions allow for the evolution of specifically adapted responses, whereas complex environments usually lead to conflicting requirements upon the organism's response. A relevant instance of these issues is bacterial chemotaxis, where the evolutionary and functional reasons for the experimentally observed response to chemoattractants remain a riddle. Sensing and motility requirements are in fact optimized by different responses, which strongly depend on the chemoattractant environmental profiles. It is not clear then how those conflicting requirements quantitatively combine and compromise in shaping the chemotaxis response. Here we show that the experimental bacterial response corresponds to the maximin strategy that ensures the highest minimum uptake of chemoattractants for any profile of concentration. We show that the maximin response is the unique one that always outcompetes motile but nonchemotactic bacteria. The maximin strategy is adapted to the variable environments experienced by bacteria, and we explicitly show its emergence in simulations of bacterial populations in a chemostat. Finally, we recast the contrast of evolution in regular vs. complex environments in terms of minimax vs. maximin game-theoretical strategies. Our results are generally relevant to biological optimization principles and provide a systematic possibility to get around the need to know precisely the statistics of environmental fluctuations. PMID:20080704

Celani, Antonio; Vergassola, Massimo

2010-01-26

191

Surface micropattern limits bacterial contamination  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial surface contamination contributes to transmission of nosocomial infections. Chemical cleansers used to control surface contamination are often toxic and incorrectly implemented. Additional non-toxic strategies should be combined with regular cleanings to mitigate risks of human error and further decrease rates of nosocomial infections. The Sharklet micropattern (MP), inspired by shark skin, is an effective tool for reducing bacterial load on surfaces without toxic additives. The studies presented here were carried out to investigate the MP surfaces capability to reduce colonization of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) compared to smooth control surfaces. Methods The MP and smooth surfaces produced in acrylic film were compared for remaining bacterial contamination and colonization following inoculation. Direct sampling of surfaces was carried out after inoculation by immersion, spray, and/or touch methods. Ultimately, a combination assay was developed to assess bacterial contamination after touch transfer inoculation combined with drying (persistence) to mimic common environmental contamination scenarios in the clinic or hospital environment. The combination transfer and persistence assay was then used to test antimicrobial copper beside the MP for the ability to reduce MSSA and MRSA challenge. Results The MP reduced bacterial contamination with log reductions ranging from 87-99% (LR?=?0.90-2.18; p?

2014-01-01

192

Familial Hypercholesterolaemia  

PubMed Central

Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), defined as the heritable occurrence of severe hypercholesterolaemia with cholesterol deposits in tendons and premature heart disease, is caused by at least four genes in sterol and lipoprotein pathways and displays varying gene-dose effects. The genes are the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, apolipoprotein (apo) B, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9, and the autosomal recessive hypercholesterolaemia (ARH) adaptor protein. All of these disorders have in common defective clearance of LDL within a complex system of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and regulation. Normal cellular cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism is reviewed before describing the disorders, their metabolic derangements and their clinical effects. FH is classified as two simplified phenotypes of disease according to the severity of the metabolic derangement. The dominantly inherited heterozygous phenotype comprises defects in the LDL receptor, apoB100, and neural apoptosis regulatory cleavage protein. The homozygous phenotype is co-dominant in defects of the LDL receptor, and occurs also as the ARH of adapter protein mutations. Defective binding of apoB100 does not result in a significant gene dose effect, but enhances the severity of heterozygotes for LDL receptor mutations. The genetic diagnosis of FH has provided greater accuracy in definition and detection of disease and exposes information about migration of populations. All of these disorders pose a high risk of atherosclerosis, especially in the homozygous phenotype. Studies of influences on the phenotype and responses to treatment are also discussed in the context of the metabolic derangements. PMID:18516203

Marais, A David

2004-01-01

193

Antimicrobial peptide LL-37 promotes bacterial phagocytosis by human macrophages.  

PubMed

LL-37/hCAP-18 is the only human member of the cathelicidin family and plays an important role in killing various pathogens, as well as in immune modulation. In this study, we investigated the effect of LL-37 on bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages and demonstrate that LL-37 enhances phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in a dose- and time-dependent manner by dTHP-1 cells. In addition, LL-37 enhanced phagocytosis of nonopsonized Escherichia coli by human macrophages. Consistently, LL-37 elevated the expression of Fc?Rs on macrophages but not the complement receptors CD11b and -c. Further studies revealed that the expression of TLR4 and CD14 is also increased on LL-37-treated macrophages. Several lines of evidence indicated that the FPR2/ALX receptor mediated LL-37-induced phagocytosis. However, TLR4 signaling was also coupled to the phagocytic response, as a specific TLR4 antibody significantly suppressed phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized E. coli and nonopsonized E. coli by dTHP-1 cells. Finally, macrophages from Cnlp(-/-) mice exhibited diminished bacterial phagocytosis compared with macrophages from their WT littermates. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel, immune-modulatory mechanism of LL-37, which may contribute to bacterial clearance. PMID:24550523

Wan, Min; van der Does, Anne M; Tang, Xiao; Lindbom, Lennart; Agerberth, Birgitta; Haeggström, Jesper Z

2014-06-01

194

Inferring Bacterial Genome Flux While Considering Truncated Genes  

PubMed Central

Bacterial gene content variation during the course of evolution has been widely acknowledged and its pattern has been actively modeled in recent years. Gene truncation or gene pseudogenization also plays an important role in shaping bacterial genome content. Truncated genes could also arise from small-scale lateral gene transfer events. Unfortunately, the information of truncated genes has not been considered in any existing mathematical models on gene content variation. In this study, we developed a model to incorporate truncated genes. Maximum-likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the new model reveal fast rates of gene insertions/deletions on recent branches, suggesting a fast turnover of many recently transferred genes. The estimates also suggest that many truncated genes are in the process of being eliminated from the genome. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ignorance of truncated genes in the estimation does not lead to a systematic bias but rather has a more complicated effect. Analysis using the new model not only provides more accurate estimates on gene gains/losses (or insertions/deletions), but also reduces any concern of a systematic bias from applying simplified models to bacterial genome evolution. Although not a primary purpose, the model incorporating truncated genes could be potentially used for phylogeny reconstruction using gene family content. PMID:20551435

Hao, Weilong; Golding, G. Brian

2010-01-01

195

Bacterial display enables efficient and quantitative peptide affinity maturation  

PubMed Central

A quantitative screening method was developed to enable isolation and affinity maturation of peptide ligands specific for a given target from peptide libraries displayed on the outer surface of Escherichia coli using multi-parameter flow cytometry. From a large, random 15-mer peptide library, screening identified a core motif of W-E/D-W-E/D that conferred binding to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). One cycle of affinity maturation resulted in the identification of several families of VEGF-binding peptides having distinct consensus sequences, from which a preferred disulfide constraint emerged. In the second affinity maturation cycle, high affinity peptides were favored by the addition of a decoy protein that bound an adjacent epitope on the display scaffold. The decoy apparently reduced rebinding or avidity effects, and the resulting peptides exhibited consensus at 12 of 19 amino acid positions. Peptides identified and affinity matured using bacterial display were remarkably similar to the best affinity matured using phage display and exhibited comparable dissociation constants (within 2-fold; KD = 4.7 × 10?7 M). Screening of bacterial-displayed peptide libraries using cytometry enabled optimization of screening conditions to favor affinity and specificity and rapid clonal characterization. Bacterial display thus provides a new quantitative tool for the discovery and evolutionary optimization of protein-specific peptide ligands. PMID:19903738

Kenrick, Sophia A.; Daugherty, Patrick S.

2010-01-01

196

Family and family therapy in Russia.  

PubMed

This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized. PMID:22515460

Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

2012-04-01

197

Transport of Magnesium by a Bacterial Nramp-Related Gene  

PubMed Central

Magnesium is an essential divalent metal that serves many cellular functions. While most divalent cations are maintained at relatively low intracellular concentrations, magnesium is maintained at a higher level (?0.5–2.0 mM). Three families of transport proteins were previously identified for magnesium import: CorA, MgtE, and MgtA/MgtB P-type ATPases. In the current study, we find that expression of a bacterial protein unrelated to these transporters can fully restore growth to a bacterial mutant that lacks known magnesium transporters, suggesting it is a new importer for magnesium. We demonstrate that this transport activity is likely to be specific rather than resulting from substrate promiscuity because the proteins are incapable of manganese import. This magnesium transport protein is distantly related to the Nramp family of proteins, which have been shown to transport divalent cations but have never been shown to recognize magnesium. We also find gene expression of the new magnesium transporter to be controlled by a magnesium-sensing riboswitch. Importantly, we find additional examples of riboswitch-regulated homologues, suggesting that they are a frequent occurrence in bacteria. Therefore, our aggregate data discover a new and perhaps broadly important path for magnesium import and highlight how identification of riboswitch RNAs can help shed light on new, and sometimes unexpected, functions of their downstream genes. PMID:24968120

Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Freedman, Benjamin G.; Senger, Ryan S.; Winkler, Wade C.

2014-01-01

198

Bacterial colonization of functionalized polyurethanes.  

PubMed

A protocol was developed for studying the growth of bacteria upon polyurethanes subsequent to the establishment of an adherent bacterial population. An inocula of approximately 10(5) cfu S. aureus were spread on functionalized polyurethanes which included Pellethane, sulfonated Pellethane, phosphonated Pellethane, quaternized amine polyurethanes, and a zwitterionic phosphonated polyurethane. After 24 h incubation, Pellethane, sulfonated Pellethane, and phosphonated Pellethane showed bacterial growth by at least a factor of 10. In contrast, the zwitterionic phosphonated polyurethane showed a factor of 10 decrease in bacteria after 24 h and the quaternized amine polyurethanes reduced the bacteria to only a few hundred after only 1 h. When treated with bovine serum albumin, Pellethane, sulfonated Pellethane, and phosphonated Pellethane again showed bacterial growth by as much as a factor of 10 over 24 h. The quaternized amine polyurethanes and the zwitterionic phosphonated polyurethane still exhibited bactericidal abilities even when coated with bovine serum albumin, with the zwitterionic material reducing bacteria by more than a factor of 10 over 24 h and the quaternized amine polyurethane reducing the bacteria to only a few hundred after only 1 h. A zone of inhibition study suggested that the bactericidal activity of the zwitterionic phosphonated polyurethane was due to the leaching of cadmium ions. A quaternized amine polyurethane which contained chloride instead of iodide as the counterion to the amine moiety was less bactericidal than the iodide-containing polymer when treated with albumin. Thus, bacteria were able to colonize Pellethane, phosphonated sulfonated Pellethane, and phosphonated Pellethane, but the iodide-containing quaternized amine polyurethane and the zwitterionic polyurethane prevented colonization. PMID:10646944

Flemming, R G; Capelli, C C; Cooper, S L; Proctor, R A

2000-02-01

199

Bacterial Adhesion at Synthetic Surfaces  

PubMed Central

A systematic investigation into the effect of surface chemistry on bacterial adhesion was carried out. In particular, a number of physicochemical factors important in defining the surface at the molecular level were assessed for their effect on the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The primary experiments involved the grafting of groups varying in hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, chain length, and chemical functionality onto glass substrates such that the surfaces were homogeneous and densely packed with functional groups. All of the surfaces were found to be chemically well defined, and their measured surface energies varied from 15 to 41 mJ · m?2. Protein adsorption experiments were performed with 3H-labelled bovine serum albumin and cytochrome c prior to bacterial attachment studies. Hydrophilic uncharged surfaces showed the greatest resistance to protein adsorption; however, our studies also showed that the effectiveness of poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) polymers was not simply a result of its hydrophilicity and molecular weight alone. The adsorption of the two proteins approximately correlated with short-term cell adhesion, and bacterial attachment for L. monocytogenes and E. coli also correlated with the chemistry of the underlying substrate. However, for S. aureus and S. typhimurium a different pattern of attachment occurred, suggesting a dissimilar mechanism of cell attachment, although high-molecular-weight PEO was still the least-cell-adsorbing surface. The implications of this for in vivo attachment of cells suggest that hydrophilic passivating groups may be the best method for preventing cell adsorption to synthetic substrates provided they can be grafted uniformly and in sufficient density at the surface. PMID:10543814

Cunliffe, D.; Smart, C. A.; Alexander, C.; Vulfson, E. N.

1999-01-01

200

Boston University Family Medicine  

E-print Network

Boston University Family Medicine Global Health CollaborativeFamily Medicine As part of the Department of Family Medicine at Boston University, the Collaborative is committed to introducing and improving Family Medicine programs around the world. Family Medicine is a holistic specialty that attends

Spence, Harlan Ernest

201

Family Reading Night  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

2007-01-01

202

Strengthening Our Military Families  

MedlinePLUS

... Commitment STRENGTHENING OUR MILITARY FAMILIES 1 ? ? Strengthening Our Military Families: Meeting America’s Commitment “This government-wide review ... Behav Pediatr. 2009;30:271-278 Strengthening Our MilitAry FAMilieS 2 ? ? • civilian family members can live fulfilling ...

203

Bacterial Fruit Blotch of Watermelon  

E-print Network

for symptoms. Although this approach screens out heavily contaminated seed, it is not 100 per- cent reliable, as cases of BFB have been docu- mented from screened seed. Disease development Seed is the most important way to spread the BFB pathogen to areas where... it has not occurred before. Most commercial watermelon seed is routinely tested for the BFB pathogen. L-5222 6/99 Bacterial fruit blotch on mature fruit. However, very low populations of bacteria on seed, below detection limits, can increase and spread...

Isakeit, Thomas

1999-06-28

204

Distinct Soil Bacterial Communities Revealed under a Diversely Managed Agroecosystem  

PubMed Central

Land-use change and management practices are normally enacted to manipulate environments to improve conditions that relate to production, remediation, and accommodation. However, their effect on the soil microbial community and their subsequent influence on soil function is still difficult to quantify. Recent applications of molecular techniques to soil biology, especially the use of 16S rRNA, are helping to bridge this gap. In this study, the influence of three land-use systems within a demonstration farm were evaluated with a view to further understand how these practices may impact observed soil bacterial communities. Replicate soil samples collected from the three land-use systems (grazed pine forest, cultivated crop, and grazed pasture) on a single soil type. High throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing was used to generate sequence datasets. The different land use systems showed distinction in the structure of their bacterial communities with respect to the differences detected in cluster analysis as well as diversity indices. Specific taxa, particularly Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and classes of Proteobacteria, showed significant shifts across the land-use strata. Families belonging to these taxa broke with notions of copio- and oligotrphy at the class level, as many of the less abundant groups of families of Actinobacteria showed a propensity for soil environments with reduced carbon/nutrient availability. Orders Actinomycetales and Solirubrobacterales showed their highest abundance in the heavily disturbed cultivated system despite the lowest soil organic carbon (SOC) values across the site. Selected soil properties ([SOC], total nitrogen [TN], soil texture, phosphodiesterase [PD], alkaline phosphatase [APA], acid phosphatase [ACP] activity, and pH) also differed significantly across land-use regimes, with SOM, PD, and pH showing variation consistent with shifts in community structure and composition. These results suggest that use of pyrosequencing along with traditional analysis of soil physiochemical properties may provide insight into the ecology of descending taxonomic groups in bacterial communities. PMID:22844402

Shange, Raymon S.; Ankumah, Ramble O.; Ibekwe, Abasiofiok M.; Zabawa, Robert; Dowd, Scot E.

2012-01-01

205

Attached bacterial populations shared by four species of aquatic angiosperms.  

PubMed

Symbiotic relationships between microbes and plants are common and well studied in terrestrial ecosystems, but little is known about such relationships in aquatic environments. We compared the phylogenetic diversities of leaf- and root-attached bacteria from four species of aquatic angiosperms using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Plants were collected from three beds in Chesapeake Bay at sites characterized as freshwater (Vallisneria americana), brackish (Potomogeton perfoliatus and Stuckenia pectinata), and marine (Zostera marina). DGGE analyses showed that bacterial communities were very similar for replicate samples of leaves from canopy-forming plants S. pectinata and P. perfoliatus and less similar for replicate samples of leaves from meadow-forming plants Z. marina and V. americana and of roots of all species. In contrast, bacterial communities differed greatly among plant species and between leaves and roots. DNA sequencing identified 154 bacterial phylotypes, most of which were restricted to single plant species. However, 12 phylotypes were found on more than one plant species, and several of these phylotypes were abundant in clone libraries and represented the darkest bands in DGGE banding patterns. Root-attached phylotypes included relatives of sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria and sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. Leaf-attached phylotypes included relatives of polymer-degrading Bacteroidetes and phototrophic Alphaproteobacteria. Also, leaves and roots of three plant species hosted relatives of methylotrophic Betaproteobacteria belonging to the family Methylophilaceae. These results suggest that aquatic angiosperms host specialized communities of bacteria on their surfaces, including several broadly distributed and potentially mutualistic bacterial populations. PMID:18676705

Crump, Byron C; Koch, Evamaria W

2008-10-01

206

Bacterial expression of self-assembling peptide hydrogelators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For tissue regeneration and drug delivery applications, various architectures are explored to serve as biomaterial tools. Via de novo design, functional peptide hydrogel materials have been developed as scaffolds for biomedical applications. The objective of this study is to investigate bacterial expression as an alternative method to chemical synthesis for the recombinant production of self-assembling peptides that can form rigid hydrogels under physiological conditions. The Schneider and Pochan Labs have designed and characterized a 20 amino acid beta-hairpin forming amphiphilic peptide containing a D-residue in its turn region (MAX1). As a result, this peptide must be prepared chemically. Peptide engineering, using the sequence of MAX1 as a template, afforded a small family of peptides for expression (EX peptides) that have different turn sequences consisting of natural amino acids and amenable to bacterial expression. Each sequence was initially chemically synthesized to quickly assess the material properties of its corresponding gel. One model peptide EX1, was chosen to start the bacterial expression studies. DNA constructs facilitating the expression of EX1 were designed in such that the peptide could be expressed with different fusion partners and subsequently cleaved by enzymatic or chemical means to afford the free peptide. Optimization studies were performed to increase the yield of pure peptide that ultimately allowed 50 mg of pure peptide to be harvested from one liter of culture, providing an alternate means to produce this hydrogel-forming peptide. Recombinant production of other self-assembling hairpins with different turn sequences was also successful using this optimized protocol. The studies demonstrate that new beta-hairpin self-assembling peptides that are amenable to bacterial production and form rigid hydrogels at physiological conditions can be designed and produced by fermentation in good yield at significantly reduced cost when compared to chemical synthesis.

Sonmez, Cem

207

The Family in Family Medicine Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If the family physician is to focus on the family as a unit of diagnosis and treatment, new knowledge with practical applications for the health care provided is required. Producing this knowledge is the responsibility of the family medicine researcher who will need to use new tools, strategies, and innovative research design. (JMD)

Froom, Jack; Rosen, Melville G.

1980-01-01

208

Revamping Family Preservation Services for Native Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the philosophy and program structures of family preservation services (FPS) in the context of providing services to Native American families with child welfare issues. Explores Native cultural concepts of family, child rearing, time, and spirituality. Outlines cross-cultural training needs for FPS workers related to cultural awareness,…

Coleman, Heather; Unrau, Yvonne A.; Manyfingers, Brenda

2001-01-01

209

The bacterial translation stress response.  

PubMed

Throughout their life, bacteria need to sense and respond to environmental stress. Thus, such stress responses can require dramatic cellular reprogramming, both at the transcriptional as well as the translational level. This review focuses on the protein factors that interact with the bacterial translational apparatus to respond to and cope with different types of environmental stress. For example, the stringent factor RelA interacts with the ribosome to generate ppGpp under nutrient deprivation, whereas a variety of factors have been identified that bind to the ribosome under unfavorable growth conditions to shut-down (RelE, pY, RMF, HPF and EttA) or re-program (MazF, EF4 and BipA) translation. Additional factors have been identified that rescue ribosomes stalled due to stress-induced mRNA truncation (tmRNA, ArfA, ArfB), translation of unfavorable protein sequences (EF-P), heat shock-induced subunit dissociation (Hsp15), or antibiotic inhibition (TetM, FusB). Understanding the mechanism of how the bacterial cell responds to stress will not only provide fundamental insight into translation regulation, but will also be an important step to identifying new targets for the development of novel antimicrobial agents. PMID:25135187

Starosta, Agata L; Lassak, Jürgen; Jung, Kirsten; Wilson, Daniel N

2014-11-01

210

Bacterial hemagglutination by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.  

PubMed Central

Direct bacterial hemagglutination was investigated with 20 clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The hemagglutination tests were performed by both a macrotechnique with glass slides and a microtechnique with autotrays. Only organisms from form type 1 or 2 colonies caused hemagglutination. There was no statistical difference at a 10% or higher level in hemagglutination powers of type 1 and type 2 organisms, of male urethral and female cervical isolates, and of the eight major human blood types (ABO-Rh). Of seven erythrocyte species tested, only human cells were agglutinated. D-Mannose did not prevent the agglutination. Rabbit antigonococcal serum and high-titer antigonococcal human sera inhibited the hemagglutination. The results suggest the pili are the mediators of hemagglutination and that their specific agglutination of human erythrocytes may be a correlate of their adherence to human mucosal cells in natural infection. Also, although the procedure is presently insensitive, it is possible to detect human antigonococcal antibody by inhibition of direct bacterial hemagglutination. Images PMID:809353

Koransky, J R; Scales, R W; Kraus, S J

1975-01-01

211

Organization of the bacterial chromosome.  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in studies on the bacterial chromosome is summarized. Although the greatest amount of information comes from studies on Escherichia coli, reports on studies of many other bacteria are also included. A compilation of the sizes of chromosomal DNAs as determined by pulsed-field electrophoresis is given, as well as a discussion of factors that affect gene dosage, including redundancy of chromosomes on the one hand and inactivation of chromosomes on the other hand. The distinction between a large plasmid and a second chromosome is discussed. Recent information on repeated sequences and chromosomal rearrangements is presented. The growing understanding of limitations on the rearrangements that can be tolerated by bacteria and those that cannot is summarized, and the sensitive region flanking the terminator loci is described. Sources and types of genetic variation in bacteria are listed, from simple single nucleotide mutations to intragenic and intergenic recombinations. A model depicting the dynamics of the evolution and genetic activity of the bacterial chromosome is described which entails acquisition by recombination of clonal segments within the chromosome. The model is consistent with the existence of only a few genetic types of E. coli worldwide. Finally, there is a summary of recent reports on lateral genetic exchange across great taxonomic distances, yet another source of genetic variation and innovation. PMID:2087223

Krawiec, S; Riley, M

1990-01-01

212

Multiwavelength fluorescence studies of Bacillus bacterial spores.  

E-print Network

??Fluorescence techniques are being considered for the detection and identification of bacterial spores. This thesis sets out to empirically characterize the detailed autofluorescence spectroscopic properties… (more)

Sarasanandarajah, Sivananthan

2007-01-01

213

Family Decision Making  

MedlinePLUS

... National Center Homepage Hearing Loss Share Compartir Family Decision Making How can I start communicating with my baby ... Coded English Natural Gestures Speech Speech Reading Family Decision Making Family Adjustment Gathering Information Making Decisions Opinions of ...

214

Insight into the bacterial gut microbiome of the North American moose (Alces alces)  

PubMed Central

Background The work presented here provides the first intensive insight into the bacterial populations in the digestive tract of the North American moose (Alces alces). Eight free-range moose on natural pasture were sampled, producing eight rumen samples and six colon samples. Second generation (G2) PhyloChips were used to determine the presence of hundreds of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), representing multiple closely related species/strains (>97% identity), found in the rumen and colon of the moose. Results A total of 789 unique OTUs were used for analysis, which passed the fluorescence and the positive fraction thresholds. There were 73 OTUs, representing 21 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the rumen samples: Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae and several unclassified families, whereas there were 71 OTUs, representing 22 bacterial families, which were found exclusively in the colon samples: Clostridiaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and several unclassified families. Overall, there were 164 OTUs that were found in 100% of the samples. The Firmicutes were the most dominant bacteria phylum in both the rumen and the colon. Microarray data available at ArrayExpress, accession number E-MEXP-3721. Conclusions Using PhyloTrac and UniFrac computer software, samples clustered into two distinct groups: rumen and colon, confirming that the rumen and colon are distinct environments. There was an apparent correlation of age to cluster, which will be validated by a larger sample size in future studies, but there were no detectable trends based upon gender. PMID:22992344

2012-01-01

215

Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families  

PubMed Central

The study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9–12 year old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted with each family. Parental stress, parent-child dysfunctional relations, and child behavior problems were reduced in the families receiving the intervention; family hardiness and family attachment were improved. Findings contribute to the validation of the SFP with Latinos, and can be used to inform social work practice with Puerto Rican families. PMID:20871785

Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

2010-01-01

216

Bacterial Actins? An Evolutionary Perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to the conventional wisdom, the existence of a cytoskeleton in eukaryotes and its absence in prokaryotes constitute a fundamental divide between the two domains of life. An integral part of the dogma is that a cytoskeleton enabled an early eukaryote to feed upon prokaryotes, a consequence of which was the occasional endosymbiosis and the eventual evolution of organelles. Two recent papers present compelling evidence that actin, one of the principal components of a cytoskeleton, has a homolog in Bacteria that behaves in many ways like eukaryotic actin. Sequence comparisons reveml that eukaryotic actin and the bacterial homolog (mreB protein), unlike many other proteins common to eukaryotes and Bacteria, have very different and more highly extended evolutionary histories.

Doolittle, Russell F.; York, Amanda L.

2003-01-01

217

Autophagy in intracellular bacterial infection.  

PubMed

Numerous pathogens have developed the capacity to invade host cells to be protected from components of the systemic immune system. However, once in the host cells they utilize sophisticated strategies to avoid the powerful machinery built by the cells to kill invading pathogens. In the last few years cumulative evidence indicates that autophagy is one of the most remarkable tools of the intracellular host cell defense machinery that bacteria must confront upon cell invasion. However, several pathogens subvert the autophagic pathway and, manipulate this process at the molecular level, as a strategy to establish a persistent infection. In this review we have summarized the interaction between autophagy and different bacterial pathogens including those that take advantage of the host cell autophagy, allowing successful colonization, as well as those microorganisms which are controlled by autophagy as part of the innate surveillance mechanism. PMID:19303905

Campoy, Emanuel; Colombo, María I

2009-09-01

218

Bacterial chitinases: properties and potential.  

PubMed

Chitin is among the most abundant biomass present on Earth. Chitinase plays an important role in the decomposition of chitin and potentially in the utilization of chitin as a renewable resource. During the previous decade, chitinases have received increased attention because of their wide range of applications. Chito-oligomers produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of chitin have been of interest in recent years due to their broad applications in medical, agricultural, and industrial applications, including antibacterial, antifungal, hypocholesterolemic, and antihypertensive activity, and as a food quality enhancer. Microorganisms, particularly bacteria, form one of the major sources of chitinase. In this article, we have reviewed some of the chitinases produced by bacterial systems that have gained worldwide research interest for their diverse properties and potential industrial uses. PMID:17364687

Bhattacharya, Debaditya; Nagpure, Anand; Gupta, Rajinder K

2007-01-01

219

Fluid Dynamics of Bacterial Turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-sustained turbulent structures have been observed in a wide range of living fluids, yet no quantitative theory exists to explain their properties. We report experiments on active turbulence in highly concentrated 3D suspensions of Bacillus subtilis and compare them with a minimal fourth-order vector-field theory for incompressible bacterial dynamics. Velocimetry of bacteria and surrounding fluid, determined by imaging cells and tracking colloidal tracers, yields consistent results for velocity statistics and correlations over 2 orders of magnitude in kinetic energy, revealing a decrease of fluid memory with increasing swimming activity and linear scaling between kinetic energy and enstrophy. The best-fit model allows for quantitative agreement with experimental data.

Dunkel, Jörn; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Drescher, Knut; Wensink, Henricus H.; Bär, Markus; Goldstein, Raymond E.

2013-05-01

220

Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: Functionality and Prospects  

PubMed Central

Diverse structural, functional and valuable polysaccharides are synthesized by bacteria of all taxa and secreted into the external environment. These polysaccharides are referred to as exopolysaccharides and they may either be homopolymeric or heteropolymeric in composition and of diverse high molecular weights (10 to 1000 kDa). The material properties of exopolysaccharides have revolutionized the industrial and medical sectors due to their retinue of functional applications and prospects. These applications have been extensive in areas such as pharmacological, nutraceutical, functional food, cosmeceutical, herbicides and insecticides among others, while prospects includes uses as anticoagulant, antithrombotic, immunomodulation, anticancer and as bioflocculants. Due to the extensive applications of bacterial exopolysaccharides, this overview provides basic information on their physiologic and morphologic functions as well as their applications and prospects in the medical and industrial sectors. PMID:23203046

Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Green, Ezekiel; Okoh, Anthony I.

2012-01-01

221

Bacterial vesicles in marine ecosystems.  

PubMed

Many heterotrophic bacteria are known to release extracellular vesicles, facilitating interactions between cells and their environment from a distance. Vesicle production has not been described in photoautotrophs, however, and the prevalence and characteristics of vesicles in natural ecosystems is unknown. Here, we report that cultures of Prochlorococcus, a numerically dominant marine cyanobacterium, continuously release lipid vesicles containing proteins, DNA, and RNA. We also show that vesicles carrying DNA from diverse bacteria are abundant in coastal and open-ocean seawater samples. Prochlorococcus vesicles can support the growth of heterotrophic bacterial cultures, which implicates these structures in marine carbon flux. The ability of vesicles to deliver diverse compounds in discrete packages adds another layer of complexity to the flow of information, energy, and biomolecules in marine microbial communities. PMID:24408433

Biller, Steven J; Schubotz, Florence; Roggensack, Sara E; Thompson, Anne W; Summons, Roger E; Chisholm, Sallie W

2014-01-10

222

New pathways for bacterial polythioesters.  

PubMed

Polythioesters (PTE) contain sulfur in the backbone and represent persistent biopolymers, which are produced by certain chemical procedures as well as biotechnological in vitro and in vivo techniques. Different building blocks can be incorporated, resulting in PTE with variable features that could become interesting for special purposes. Particularly, the option to produce PTE in large-scale and in accordance with the methods of white biotechnology or green chemistry is valuable due to economical potentials and public environmental consciousness. This review is focused on the synthesis of PTE by the three established bacterial production strains Ralstonia eutropha, Escherichia coli and Advenella mimigardefordensis. In addition, an overview of the in vitro production and degradation of PTE is depicted. PMID:24681198

Wübbeler, Jan Hendrik; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2014-10-01

223

Estimation of Subcellular Proteomes in Bacterial Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational methods for predicting the subcellular localization of bacterial proteins play a crucial role in the ongoing efforts to annotate the function of these proteins and to suggest potential drug targets. These methods, used in combination with other experimental and computational methods, can play an important role in biomedical research by annotating the proteomes of a wide variety of bacterial

Brian R. King; Lance Latham; Chittibabu Guda

2009-01-01

224

Leading Edge Bacterial Genomics and Pathogen Evolution  

E-print Network

Leading Edge Review Bacterial Genomics and Pathogen Evolution David M. Raskin,1 Rekha Seshadri,2 Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2 The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive.02.002 The availability of hundreds of bacterial genome sequences has altered the study of bacte- rial pathogenesis

Mekalanos, John

225

Bacterial Probiotic Modulation of Dendritic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal dendritic cells are continually exposed to ingested microorganisms and high concentrations of endogenous bacterial flora. These cells can be activated by infectious agents and other stimuli to induce T-cell responses and to produce chemokines which recruit other cells to the local environment. Bacterial probiotics are of increasing use against intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. They act as

Maureen Drakes; Thomas Blanchard; Steven Czinn

2004-01-01

226

Chronic bacterial infections: living with unwanted guests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some bacterial pathogens can establish life-long chronic infections in their hosts. Persistence is normally established after an acute infection period involving activation of both the innate and acquired immune systems. Bacteria have evolved specific pathogenic mechanisms and harbor sets of genes that contribute to the establishment of a persistent lifestyle that leads to chronic infection. Persistent bacterial infection may involve

Douglas Young; Tracy Hussell; Gordon Dougan

2002-01-01

227

Breakthroughs in field-scale bacterial transport  

SciTech Connect

This article summarizes a bioaugmentation research project undertaken by a DOE-sponsored, multidisciplinary research team at a field site near Oyster, Virginia. The overall purpose of the ongoing project is to evaluate the relative importance of hydrogeological and geochemical heterogeneities in controlling bacterial transpor, and to develop an approach for quantitative prediction of bacterial transport needed to design optimal bioremediation strategies.

Balkwill, D (.); Chen, J (.); Deflaun, Mary (VISITORS); Dobbs, F (.); Dong, H (.); Fredrickson, Jim K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Fuller, M (.); Green, M (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ginn, T (.); Griffin, T (.); Holben, W (.); Hubbard, S (.); Johnson, W (.); Long, Philip E. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Mailloux, B (.); Majer, E (.); Mcinerney, M (.); Murray, Christopher J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Onstott, T (.); Phelps, T (.); Scheibe, Timothy D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Swift, D (.); White, D (.); Wobber, F (.)

2001-06-01

228

Cerebral infarction in childhood bacterial meningitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-nine children with complicated bacterial meningitis were studied. Thirteen had abnormalities on computed tomography compatible with the diagnosis of brain infarction; one had a brain biopsy with the histological appearance of infarction. Factors exist in childhood bacterial meningitis which are associated with the development of brain infraction.

R D Snyder; J Stovring; A H Cushing; L E Davis; T L Hardy

1981-01-01

229

Mechanism of Virulence Transfer by Bacterial Viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Further experimental evidence is described to support the concept that bacterial viruses exert a controlling effect on bacterial variation and evolution. A number of strains of diphtheria bacilli, both mitis and gravis, have been found to be carrying viruses capable of converting a susceptible avirulent diphtheria strain to full virulence and toxigenicity. The virus-resistant strains thus converted to viru-

L. F. Hewitt

1954-01-01

230

Design Principles of a Bacterial Signalling Network  

E-print Network

;Chemotaxis ­ Tumble and Swim Random walk vs. biased random walk 10 #12;Chemotaxis in E. coli 11 #12Design Principles of a Bacterial Signalling Network Why is chemotaxis more complicated than needed of Freiburg http://www.fdm.uni-freiburg.de/jeti/ 1 #12;Outline · The Eighth Question · Bacterial Chemotaxis

Timmer, Jens

231

Design Principles of a Bacterial Signalling Network  

E-print Network

walk vs. biased random walk 9 #12;Chemotaxis in E. coli 10 #12;Chemotaxis ­ Flagella MovementDesign Principles of a Bacterial Signalling Network Why is chemotaxis more complicated than needed of Freiburg http://www.fdm.uni-freiburg.de/jeti/ 1 #12;Outline · The Eighth Question · Bacterial Chemotaxis

Timmer, Jens

232

FAMILIES FIRST: Keys to Successful Family Functioning Family Roles  

E-print Network

, par- ents are expected to teach, discipline, and provide for their children. And children are expected foR effecTive family funcTioning There are many roles within a family; however, researchers have identified day at school, or fam- ily members supporting one another after the death of a loved one. · Life ski

Liskiewicz, Maciej

233

Intestinal microbiota in metabolic diseases: from bacterial community structure and functions to species of pathophysiological relevance.  

PubMed

The trillions of bacterial cells that colonize the mammalian digestive tract influence both host physiology and the fate of dietary compounds. Gnotobionts and fecal transplantation have been instrumental in revealing the causal role of intestinal bacteria in energy homeostasis and metabolic dysfunctions such as type-2 diabetes. However, the exact contribution of gut bacterial metabolism to host energy balance is still unclear and knowledge about underlying molecular mechanisms is scant. We have previously characterized cecal bacterial community functions and host responses in diet-induced obese mice using omics approaches. Based on these studies, we here discuss issues on the relevance of mouse models, give evidence that the metabolism of cholesterol-derived compounds by gut bacteria is of particular importance in the context of metabolic disorders and that dominant species of the family Coriobacteriaceae are good models to study these functions. PMID:25003516

Clavel, Thomas; Desmarchelier, Charles; Haller, Dirk; Gérard, Philippe; Rohn, Sascha; Lepage, Patricia; Daniel, Hannelore

2014-07-01

234

FAMILY MEDICINE* Definition Of  

E-print Network

FAMILY MEDICINE* Definition Of Family medicine is the medical specialty which provides continuing the biological, clinical and behavioral sciences. The scope of family medicine encompasses all ages, both sexes, each organ system and every disease entity. (1986) (2003) Quality Healthcare In Family Medicine Quality

Finley Jr., Russell L.

235

[Teaching about Family Law].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Focus on Law Studies""contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and the family", in the form of the following three articles: "Teaching Family Law: Growing Pains and All" (Susan Frelich Appleton); "The Family Goes to Court: Including Law in a Sociological Perspective on the Family" (Mary Ann Lamanna); and Michael Grossberg's…

Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

1992-01-01

236

Families in Transition .  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

1984-01-01

237

Family Participation in Policymaking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin focuses on family participation in mental health policymaking and highlights state efforts to increase family involvement. Articles include: (1) "Promoting Family Member Involvement in Children's Mental Health Policy Making Bodies," which describes how different states are promoting family member involvement in various statutory and…

Caplan, Elizabeth, Ed.; Blankenship, Kelly, Ed.; McManus, Marilyn, Ed.

1998-01-01

238

Black Families. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters of this collection explore the experiences of black families in the United States and Africa, today and in the past. They are: (1) "African American Families: A Historical Note" (John Hope Franklin); (2) "African American Families and Family Values" (Niara Sudarkasa); (3) "Old-Time Religion: Benches Can't Say 'Amen'" (William Harrison…

McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

239

The potential use of bacterial community succession in forensics as described by high throughput metagenomic sequencing.  

PubMed

Decomposition studies of vertebrate remains primarily focus on data that can be seen with the naked eye, such as arthropod or vertebrate scavenger activity, with little regard for what might be occurring with the microorganism community. Here, we discuss the necrobiome, or community of organisms associated with the decomposition of remains, specifically, the "epinecrotic" bacterial community succession throughout decomposition of vertebrate carrion. Pyrosequencing was used to (1) detect and identify bacterial community abundance patterns that described discrete time points of the decomposition process and (2) identify bacterial taxa important for estimating physiological time, a time-temperature metric that is often commensurate with minimum post-mortem interval estimates, via thermal summation models. There were significant bacterial community structure differences in taxon richness and relative abundance patterns through the decomposition process at both phylum and family taxonomic classification levels. We found a significant negative linear relationship for overall phylum and family taxon richness as decomposition progressed. Additionally, we developed a statistical model using high throughput sequencing data of epinecrotic bacterial communities on vertebrate remains that explained 94.4 % of the time since placement of remains in the field, which was within 2-3 h of death. These bacteria taxa are potentially useful for estimating the minimum post-mortem interval. Lastly, we provide a new framework and standard operating procedure of how this novel approach of using high throughput metagenomic sequencing has remarkable potential as a new forensic tool. Documenting and identifying differences in bacterial communities is key to advancing knowledge of the carrion necrobiome and its applicability in forensic science. PMID:23749255

Pechal, Jennifer L; Crippen, Tawni L; Benbow, M Eric; Tarone, Aaron M; Dowd, Scot; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

2014-01-01

240

30/07/2011 00:15Bacterial spite: When kamikaze-like behavior is a good strategy Page 1 of 2http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110727165135.htm  

E-print Network

Bacterial Suicide Mechanism (Mar. 23, 2011) -- The zeta toxins are a family of proteins that are normally present within various pathogenic bacteria and can mysteriously trigger suicide when the cells undergo

Gardner, Andy

241

Bacterial genome chimaerism and the origin of mitochondria.  

PubMed

Many studies have sought to determine the origin and evolution of mitochondria. Although the Alphaproteobacteria are thought to be the closest relatives of the mitochondrial progenitor, there is dispute as to what its particular sister group is. Some have argued that mitochondria originated from ancestors of the order Rickettsiales, or more specifically of the Rickettsiaceae family, while others believe that ancestors of the family Rhodospirillaceae are also equally likely the progenitors. To resolve some of these disputes, sequence similarity searches and phylogenetic analyses were performed against mitochondria-related proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The 86 common matches of 5 Alphaproteobacteria (Rickettsia prowazekii, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Ochrobactrum anthropi) to yeast mitochondrial proteins were distributed fairly evenly among the 5 species when sorted by highest identity or score. Moreover, exploratory phylogenetic analyses revealed that among these common matches, 44.19% (38) had branched most closely with O. anthropi, while only 34.88% (30) corresponded with Rickettsia prowazekii. More detailed phylogenetic analyses with additional Alphaproteobacteria and including genes from the mitochondria of Reclinomonas americana found matches of mitochondrial genes to those of members of the Rickettsiaceae, Anaplasmataceae, and Rhodospirillaceae families. The results support the idea that notable bacterial genome chimaerism has occurred en route to the formation of mitochondria. PMID:21217797

Abhishek, Ankur; Bavishi, Anish; Bavishi, Ashay; Choudhary, Madhusudan

2011-01-01

242

Composition, uniqueness and variability of the epiphytic bacterial community of the green alga Ulva australis  

PubMed Central

Green Ulvacean marine macroalgae are distributed worldwide in coastal tidal and subtidal ecosystems. As for many living surfaces in the marine environment, little is known concerning the epiphytic bacterial biofilm communities that inhabit algal surfaces. This study reports on the largest published libraries of near full-length 16S rRNA genes from a marine algal surface (5293 sequences from six samples) allowing for an in-depth assessment of the diversity and phylogenetic profile of the bacterial community on a green Ulvacean alga. Large 16S rRNA gene libraries of surrounding seawater were also used to determine the uniqueness of this bacterial community. The surface of Ulva australis is dominated by sequences of Alphaproteobacteria and the Bacteroidetes, especially within the Rhodobacteriaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Sapropiraceae families. Seawater libraries were also dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes sequences, but were shown to be clearly distinct from U. australis libraries through the clustering of sequences into operational taxonomic units and Bray–Curtis similarity analysis. Almost no similarity was observed between these two environments at the species level, and only minor similarity was observed at levels of sequence clustering representing clades of bacteria within family and genus taxonomic groups. Variability between libraries of U. australis was relatively high, and a consistent sub-population of bacterial species was not detected. The competitive lottery model, originally derived to explain diversity in coral reef fishes, may explain the pattern of colonization of this algal surface. PMID:21048801

Burke, Catherine; Thomas, Torsten; Lewis, Matt; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2011-01-01

243

Bacterial ghost technology for pesticide delivery.  

PubMed

Bacterial ghosts are nondenaturated empty cell envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria produced by E-mediated lysis. Such envelopes from the plant-adhering bacterium Pectobacterium cypripedii were tested for their ability to adhere to plant material and to be used as carriers for pesticide delivery. We show, using fluorescence-labeled P. cypripedii ghosts, that depending on the target plants 55 or 10% (rice or soya, respectively) of the applied bacterial ghosts was retained on the leaves after heavy simulated rain (84 mm). Furthermore, the bacterial ghosts could be loaded with the lipophilic triazole fungicide tebuconazole. In subsequent plant experiments in the glass house, the efficacy of the loaded bacterial ghost for resistance to rainfall and the protective and curative effects against the pathogens Erysiphe graminis, Leptosphaeria nodorum, and Pyrenophora teres on barley and wheat and against Sphaerotheca fuliginea on cucumber were tested. The bacterial ghosts were compared primarily with a commercial tebuconazole formulation, a wettable powder, as it has similar physical characteristics. The comparison revealed similar effects and showed consistently higher or comparable efficacy against the pathogens. The standard operational comparison with the most protective, cereal specific emulsion of oil in water displayed that the bacterial ghosts had equal to or lower efficacy than the emulsion. This study confirmed the potential of bacterial ghost platform technology as a new alternative carrier system for pesticides. PMID:15373403

Hatfaludi, Tamás; Liska, Martina; Zellinger, Daniela; Ousman, Jarju Pa; Szostak, Michael; Ambrus, Arpád; Jalava, Katri; Lubitz, Werner

2004-09-01

244

AIDS and the family: families take care.  

PubMed

In 1994, the International Year of the Family, the WHO's Global Program on AIDS (GPA) is marking World AIDS Day under the banner AIDS and the Family. Traditional and non-traditional families have a crucial role to play in addressing the HIV/AIDS pandemic. In the run-up to World AIDS Day--and on 1 December itself--GPA urges the world to focus on how families of all kinds are affected by AIDS, on how they can be more effective in prevention and care, and on how they can contribute to global efforts against the disease. For GPA, any group of people linked by feelings of trust, mutual support and a common destiny may be seen as a family. The concept need not be limited to ties of blood, marriage, sexual partnership or adoption. In this light, religious congregations, workers' associations, support groups of people with HIV/AIDS, gangs of street children, circles of drug injectors, collectives of sex workers and networks of governmental, nongovernmental and intergovernmental organizations may all be regarded as families within the over-arching family of humankind. Every kind of family should take care to protect its members from HIV. And all families should take care of those among them who fall ill with AIDS. Families take care. "Families whose bonds are based on love, trust, nurturing and openness are best placed to protect their members from infection and give compassionate care and support to those affected by HIV or AIDS," says Dr. Hiroshi Nakajima, Director-General of the WHO [World Health Organization]. PMID:12287963

1994-01-01

245

A Human Mitochondrial ATP-Dependent Protease that is Highly Homologous to Bacterial Lon Protease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned a human ATP-dependent protease that is highly homologous to members of the bacterial Lon protease family. The cloned gene encodes a protein of 963 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 106 kDa, slightly higher than that observed by Western blotting the protein from human tissues and cell lines (100 kDa). A single species of mRNA

Nan Wang; Susan Gottesman; Mark C. Willingham; Michael M. Gottesman; Michael R. Maurizi

1993-01-01

246

Bacterial Flagellin Triggers Cardiac Innate Immune Responses and Acute Contractile Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMyocardial contractile failure in septic shock may develop following direct interactions, within the heart itself, between molecular motifs released by pathogens and their specific receptors, notably those belonging to the toll-like receptor (TLR) family. Here, we determined the ability of bacterial flagellin, the ligand of mammalian TLR5, to trigger myocardial inflammation and contractile dysfunction.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsTLR5 expression was determined in H9c2

Joelle Rolli; Nathalie Rosenblatt-Velin; Jianhui Li; Noureddine Loukili; Sandra Levrand; Pal Pacher; Bernard Waeber; François Feihl; Patrick Ruchat; Lucas Liaudet; Ludovic Tailleux

2010-01-01

247

Direct bacterial protein PAMP recognition by human NK cells involves TLRs and triggers -defensin production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although human CD56CD3 natural killer (NK) cells participate in immune re- sponses against microorganisms, their capacity to directly recognize and be acti- vated by pathogens remains unclear. These cells encode members of the Toll- like receptor (TLR) family, involved in innate cell activation on recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). We therefore evaluated whether the 2 bacterial protein PAMPs, the

Anick Chalifour; Pascale Jeannin; Jean-Francois Gauchat; Aline Blaecke; Martine Malissard; Thien N'Guyen; Nathalie Thieblemont; Yves Delneste; CHU Angers; CNRS FRE

2004-01-01

248

Family Health History and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Health History and Diabetes Family Health History and Diabetes En español Family health history is an important ... Four Questions You Should Ask Your Family About Diabetes & Family Health History Knowing your family health history ...

249

Bacterial origin of a mitochondrial outer membrane protein translocase: new perspectives from comparative single channel electrophysiology.  

PubMed

Mitochondria are of bacterial ancestry and have to import most of their proteins from the cytosol. This process is mediated by Tom40, an essential protein that forms the protein-translocating pore in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Tom40 is conserved in virtually all eukaryotes, but its evolutionary origin is unclear because bacterial orthologues have not been identified so far. Recently, it was shown that the parasitic protozoon Trypanosoma brucei lacks a conventional Tom40 and instead employs the archaic translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (ATOM), a protein that shows similarities to both eukaryotic Tom40 and bacterial protein translocases of the Omp85 family. Here we present electrophysiological single channel data showing that ATOM forms a hydrophilic pore of large conductance and high open probability. Moreover, ATOM channels exhibit a preference for the passage of cationic molecules consistent with the idea that it may translocate unfolded proteins targeted by positively charged N-terminal presequences. This is further supported by the fact that the addition of a presequence peptide induces transient pore closure. An in-depth comparison of these single channel properties with those of other protein translocases reveals that ATOM closely resembles bacterial-type protein export channels rather than eukaryotic Tom40. Our results support the idea that ATOM represents an evolutionary intermediate between a bacterial Omp85-like protein export machinery and the conventional Tom40 that is found in mitochondria of other eukaryotes. PMID:22778261

Harsman, Anke; Niemann, Moritz; Pusnik, Mascha; Schmidt, Oliver; Burmann, Björn M; Hiller, Sebastian; Meisinger, Chris; Schneider, André; Wagner, Richard

2012-09-01

250

New perspectives on bacterial ferredoxin evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ferredoxins are low-molecular-weight, nonheme, iron proteins which function as electron carriers in a wide variety of electron transport chains. Howard et al. (1983) have suggested that the amino end of Azotobacter vinelandii ferredoxin shows a greater similarity to the carboxyl end of ferredoxin from Chromatium vinosum and that their half-chain sequences are homologous when the half-chains of either species are considered in inverse order. Examination of this proposition has made it necessary to reevaluate previous conclusions concerning the evolution of bacterial ferredoxin. Attention is given to the properties of the bacterial ferredoxin sequences, and the evolution of the bacterial ferredoxins.

George, D. G.; Hunt, L. T.; Yeh, L.-S. L.; Barker, W. C.

1985-01-01

251

MICROBIOLOGY: A Bacterial Pathogen Sees the Light  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Photosensitive proteins abound in the bacterial kingdom, but their cellular functions often remain a mystery. In this Perspective Kennis and Crosson discuss how Swartz et al. identified a functional role for a new type of light sensor in bacteria--light, oxygen, or voltage (LOV) histidine kinase. In the notorious pathogen Brucella abortus, light increases the enzymatic activity of this kinase, which, remarkably, increases virulence of the bacterium. Related LOV histidine kinases are conserved across a range of bacterial taxa, suggesting that this virulence pathway could be one of many new photosensory pathways regulating bacterial physiology.

John T. M. Kennis (Faculty of Sciences, Vrije Universiteit;Biophysics Department); Sean Crosson (The University of Chicago;Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology)

2007-08-24

252

Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection  

PubMed Central

Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted. PMID:19094204

Bagaitkar, Juhi; Demuth, Donald R; Scott, David A

2008-01-01

253

Bacterial pericarditis caused by infected trichilemmal cyst.  

PubMed

Bacterial pericarditis is a well-known although rare complication of Staphylococcus aureus infection in modern practice. We present a rare case of Staphylococcus pericarditis caused by an infected trichilemmal cyst present on patient's scalp. Our case emphasizes that all cases of bacterial pericarditis should be thoroughly investigated for a source of infection. Constrictive changes can be seen in the pericardium postinfection, as in our patient, and should be treated aggressively. To our knowledge, a case of an infected cyst causing bacterial pericarditis has never been reported previously in the literature. PMID:21915636

Lodha, Ankur; Enakpene, Evbu; Haran, Mehandi; Sadiq, Adnan; Shani, Jacob

2012-04-01

254

Conformational Plasticity and Ligand Binding of Bacterial Monoacylglycerol Lipase*  

PubMed Central

Monoacylglycerol lipases (MGLs) play an important role in lipid catabolism across all kingdoms of life by catalyzing the release of free fatty acids from monoacylglycerols. The three-dimensional structures of human and a bacterial MGL were determined only recently as the first members of this lipase family. In addition to the ?/?-hydrolase core, they showed unexpected structural similarities even in the cap region. Nevertheless, the structural basis for substrate binding and conformational changes of MGLs is poorly understood. Here, we present a comprehensive study of five crystal structures of MGL from Bacillus sp. H257 in its free form and in complex with different substrate analogs and the natural substrate 1-lauroylglycerol. The occurrence of different conformations reveals a high degree of conformational plasticity of the cap region. We identify a specific residue, Ile-145, that might act as a gatekeeper restricting access to the binding site. Site-directed mutagenesis of Ile-145 leads to significantly reduced hydrolase activity. Bacterial MGLs in complex with 1-lauroylglycerol, myristoyl, palmitoyl, and stearoyl substrate analogs enable identification of the binding sites for the alkyl chain and the glycerol moiety of the natural ligand. They also provide snapshots of the hydrolytic reaction of a bacterial MGL at different stages. The alkyl chains are buried in a hydrophobic tunnel in an extended conformation. Binding of the glycerol moiety is mediated via Glu-156 and water molecules. Analysis of the structural features responsible for cap plasticity and the binding modes of the ligands suggests conservation of these features also in human MGL. PMID:24014019

Rengachari, Srinivasan; Aschauer, Philipp; Schittmayer, Matthias; Mayer, Nicole; Gruber, Karl; Breinbauer, Rolf; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Dreveny, Ingrid; Oberer, Monika

2013-01-01

255

Family therapy and the Igbo family system.  

PubMed

Theories and treatment modalities may differ in the degree to which they are applicable to different groups. This paper examines the applicability of Bowen's family therapy concepts to a culturally different family system, the Igbo of Southeastern Nigeria. The analyses point to the importance of understanding client value orientations in planning appropriate care. PMID:8081698

Nkongho, N O

1994-01-01

256

Family Network Intervention: Healing Families in Crisis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a therapeutic approach for helping families relieve a crisis by calling on their extended family of relatives, friends, and neighbors to meet and initiate a healing process leading towards a productive and constructive resolution of their crisis. (Author/RK)

Rueveni, Uri

1976-01-01

257

FMLA: Family & Medical FLA: Family Leave Act  

E-print Network

Leave FCAL: Family Care Act Leave Parental Leave & Leave Without Salary Who is · Faculty (9 month" in order to be eligible for up to 15 days of unpaid leave per deployment) · Women who take leave due FCAL: Family Care Act Leave Parental Leave & Leave Without Salary Leave Restrictions · Runs

Borenstein, Elhanan

258

Conceptualising Family Life and Family Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Nations International Year of the Family 1994 will give policymakers the opportunity to bring together threads of social life that have previously been treated separately. The danger in talking about the concept of "the family" lies both in its abstractness and in its emotional, religious, and political overtones. To avoid this…

Edgar, Don

259

Bacterial colonization of laryngectomy stomas.  

PubMed

Infections with organisms resistant to conventional antibiotics are of increasing concern. This observational study investigates the bacterial colonization of the peristomal area of laryngectomy patients. Thirty-two consecutive patients who had previously undergone laryngectomy were recruited from the Head and Neck Clinic of a teaching hospital. Swabs were taken from the laryngectomy stoma site, the mouth and both nasal cavities. Microbiological culture and isolation were performed following standard procedures. Despite no clinical sign of infection, 27 patients were found to be carriers of one or more organism (84.4 per cent). Staphylococcus aureus was detected in the peristomal area of 15 patients (46.9 per cent). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated in seven (21.9 per cent) cases. In this series the authors found a high incidence of colonization with potentially pathogenic bacteria in laryngectomy stomas with no clinical signs of infection. In a significant number of patients, Gram positive organisms were identified that could potentially cause cellulitis or wound infections. PMID:15509369

Wild, D C; Mehta, D; Conboy, P J

2004-09-01

260

Sulfur minimization in bacterial leaching  

SciTech Connect

The production of sewage biosolids in Ontario in 1989 was estimated to be 7 million m{sup 3} of wet sludge per year. Of this amount, land application accounts for between 20 and 30% of the total. Unfortunately, the use of sewage biosolids on agricultural land is often prohibited because of heavy metal contamination of the biosolids. High cost and operational problems have made chemical methods of metal extraction unattractive. Consequently, microbiological methods of leaching of heavy metals have been studied for over a decade. A relatively simple microbiological process has been investigated in recent years in flask level experiments and recently in a semicontinuous system. The process exploits nonacidophilic and acidophilic indigenous thiobacilli to extract heavy metals from sewage biosolids. These thiobacilli use elemental sulfur as the energy source, producing sulfuric acid. However, the resulting decontaminated biosolids can cause environmental problems like acidification of the soil, when acid is generated from the residual sulfur in the biosolids. The present study examines the possibility of reducing the amount of sulfur added in batch and semicontinuous bacterial leaching systems, and maximizing sulfur oxidation efficiency, thereby reducing the residual sulfur in leached biosolids.

Seth, R.; Prasad, D.; Henry, J.G. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1996-11-01

261

Bacterial persistence by RNA endonucleases.  

PubMed

Bacteria form persisters, individual cells that are highly tolerant to different types of antibiotics. Persister cells are genetically identical to nontolerant kin but have entered a dormant state in which they are recalcitrant to the killing activity of the antibiotics. The molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial persistence are unknown. Here, we show that the ubiquitous Lon (Long Form Filament) protease and mRNA endonucleases (mRNases) encoded by toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci are required for persistence in Escherichia coli. Successive deletion of the 10 mRNase-encoding TA loci of E. coli progressively reduced the level of persisters, showing that persistence is a phenotype common to TA loci. In all cases tested, the antitoxins, which control the activities of the mRNases, are Lon substrates. Consistently, cells lacking lon generated a highly reduced level of persisters. Moreover, Lon overproduction dramatically increased the levels of persisters in wild-type cells but not in cells lacking the 10 mRNases. These results support a simple model according to which mRNases encoded by TA loci are activated in a small fraction of growing cells by Lon-mediated degradation of the antitoxins. Activation of the mRNases, in turn, inhibits global cellular translation, and thereby induces dormancy and persistence. Many pathogenic bacteria known to enter dormant states have a plethora of TA genes. Therefore, in the future, the discoveries described here may lead to a mechanistic understanding of the persistence phenomenon in pathogenic bacteria. PMID:21788497

Maisonneuve, Etienne; Shakespeare, Lana J; Jørgensen, Mikkel Girke; Gerdes, Kenn

2011-08-01

262

Bacterial sorption of heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

Four bacteria, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were examined for the ability to remove Ag{sup +}, Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and La{sup 3+} from solution by batch equilibration methods. Cd and Cu sorption over the concentration range 0.001 to 1 mM was described by Freundlich isotherms. At 1 mM concentrations of both Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}, P. aeruginosa and B. cereus were the most and least efficient at metal removal, respectively. Freundlich K constants indicated that E. coli was most efficient at Cd{sup 2+} removal and B. subtilis removed the most Cu{sup 2+}. Removal of Ag{sup +} from solution by bacteria was very efficient; an average of 89% of the total Ag{sup +} was removed from the 1 mM solution, whereas only 12, 29, and 27% of the total Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and La{sup 3+}, respectively, were sorbed from 1 mM solutions. Electron microscopy indicated that La{sup 3+} accumulated at the cell surface as needlelike, crystalline precipitates. Silver precipitated as discrete colloidal aggregates at the cell surface and occasionally in the cytoplasma. The results indicate that bacterial cells are capable of binding large quantities of different metals.

Mullen, M.D.; Wolf, D.C.; Ferris, F.G.; Beveridge, T.J.; Flemming, C.A.

1989-01-01

263

Engineering bacterial signals and sensors.  

PubMed

In the emerging field of synthetic biology, a central goal is to reliably engineer bacteria to respond to environmental signals according to a pre-determined genetic program. The sensor systems and genetic circuitry inside bacteria are the 'eyes' and 'brain' of a new class of biotechnological applications in which bacteria are used as living, self-replicating computers that can beneficially interact with the physical world. These engineered gene networks are constructed by extracting natural sensor systems and other genetic parts from multiple organisms and recombining them into novel configurations. This chapter is a how-to guide. It describes several strategies for engineering new bacterial sensor systems and synthetic gene networks that are capable of sensing a desired stimulus and generating interesting dynamical or pattern-forming responses. We also provide specification sheets describing many two-component and quorum-sensing systems, focusing on the information that one needs to know in order to use them for engineering applications. PMID:19494587

Salis, Howard; Tamsir, Alvin; Voigt, Christopher

2009-01-01

264

THE ETIOLOGY OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection among women of childbearing age. This condition is notorious for causing severe complications related to the reproductive health of women. Five decades of intense research established many risk factors for acquisition of BV, however due to the complexity of BV and due to lack of a reliable animal model for this condition, its exact etiology remains elusive. In this manuscript we use a historical perspective to critically review the development of major theories on the etiology of BV, ultimately implicating BV-related pathogens, healthy vaginal microbiota, bacteriophages and the immune response of the host. None of these theories on their own can reliably explain the epidemiological data. Instead, BV is caused by a complex interaction of multiple factors, which include the numerous components of the vaginal microbial ecosystem and their human host. Many of these factors are yet to be characterized because a clear understanding of their relative contribution to the etiology of BV is pivotal to formulation of an effective treatment for and prophylaxis of this condition. PMID:21332897

Turovskiy, Yevgeniy; Noll, Katia Sutyak; Chikindas, Michael L.

2011-01-01

265

Ethanol production by bacterial fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this study is to develop and optimize the process technology for the production of ethanol using the bacteria Zymomonas mobilis. Specifically, the process and operating conditions will be studied to maximize the yield of ethanol. The experimental design is described using both batch and continuous cultures with glucose as the substrate. Separation methods, therefore, will be developed to remove the alcohol from the fermentation media to prevent the inhibitory effects of ethanol on Z. mobilis. Vacuum fermentation and solvent extraction can be used to separate the alcohol from the media. Kinetic data will be obtained from both the batch and continuous fermentors. The kinetic data can be correlated using mathematical models. Mathematical models for Z. mobilis will be developed for the effect of pH, temperature and nutrient composition on the specific growth rate. A model will also be developed to account for the possible product inhibition by ethanol. Dynamic tests will also be conducted on the continuous system to determine how fast the fermentation will respond to environmental changes. The simultaneous hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and fermentation of glucose to ethanol is one of the most exciting possibilities. A literature survey will be made to determine the compatibility of conducting the hydrolysis reaction along with the bacterial fermentation. The final objective will be to make an economic assessment of the process of producing ethanol using Z. mobilis.

King, F.G.

1985-01-01

266

Acute bacterial sinusitis in children.  

PubMed

On the basis of strong research evidence, the pathogenesis of sinusitis involves 3 key factors: sinusostia obstruction, ciliary dysfunction, and thickening of sinus secretions. On the basis of studies of the microbiology of otitis media, H influenzae is playing an increasingly important role in the etiology of sinusitis, exceeding that of S pneumoniae in some areas, and b-lactamase production by H influenzae is increasing in respiratory isolates in the United States. On the basis of some research evidence and consensus,the presentation of acute bacterial sinusitis conforms to 1 of 3 predicable patterns; persistent, severe, and worsening symptoms. On the basis of some research evidence and consensus,the diagnosis of sinusitis should be made by applying strict clinical criteria. This approach will select children with upper respiratory infection symptoms who are most likely to benefit from an antibiotic. On the basis of some research evidence and consensus,imaging is not indicated routinely in the diagnosis of sinusitis. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging provides useful information when complications of sinusitis are suspected. On the basis of some research evidence and consensus,amoxicillin-clavulanate should be considered asa first-line agent for the treatment of sinusitis. PMID:24085791

DeMuri, Gregory; Wald, Ellen R

2013-10-01

267

Phenotypic plasticity in bacterial plasmids.  

PubMed

Plasmid pB15 was previously shown to evolve increased horizontal (infectious) transfer at the expense of reduced vertical (intergenerational) transfer and vice versa, a key trade-off assumed in theories of parasite virulence. Whereas the models predict that susceptible host abundance should determine which mode of transfer is selectively favored, host density failed to mediate the trade-off in pB15. One possibility is that the plasmid's transfer deviates from the assumption that horizontal spread (conjugation) occurs in direct proportion to cell density. I tested this hypothesis using Escherichia coli/pB15 associations in laboratory serial culture. Contrary to most models of plasmid transfer kinetics, my data show that pB15 invades static (nonshaking) bacterial cultures only at intermediate densities. The results can be explained by phenotypic plasticity in traits governing plasmid transfer. As cells become more numerous, the plasmid's conjugative transfer unexpectedly declines, while the trade-off between transmission routes causes vertical transfer to increase. Thus, at intermediate densities the plasmid's horizontal transfer can offset selection against plasmid-bearing cells, but at high densities pB15 conjugates so poorly that it cannot invade. I discuss adaptive vs. nonadaptive causes for the phenotypic plasticity, as well as potential mechanisms that may lead to complex transfer dynamics of plasmids in liquid environments. PMID:15166133

Turner, Paul E

2004-05-01

268

Bacterial LuxR solos have evolved to respond to different molecules including signals from plants  

PubMed Central

A future challenge will be understanding the extensive communication that most likely takes place in bacterial interspecies and interkingdom signaling between plants and bacteria. A major bacterial inter-cellular signaling system in Gram-negative bacteria is LuxI/R quorum sensing (QS) based on the production (via the LuxI-family proteins) and detection (via the LuxR-family proteins) of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) signaling molecules. LuxR proteins which have the same modular structure of QS LuxRs but are devoid of a cognate LuxI AHL synthase are called solos. LuxR solos have been shown to be responsible to respond to exogenous AHLs produced by neighboring cells as well endogenously produced AHLs. It is now also evident that some LuxR proteins have evolved from the ability to binding AHLs and respond to other molecules/signals. For example, recent research has shown that a sub-family of LuxR solos responds to small molecules produced by plants. This indicates the presence of a uni-directional interkingdom signaling system occurring from plants to bacteria. In addition LuxR solos have now been also implicated to respond to endogenously produced signals which are not AHLs. In this Mini Review article we will discuss current trends and implications of the role of LuxR solos in bacterial responses to other signals using proteins related to AHL QS systems. PMID:24273546

Patel, Hitendra K.; Suarez-Moreno, Zulma R.; Degrassi, Giuliano; Subramoni, Sujatha; Gonzalez, Juan F.; Venturi, Vittorio

2013-01-01

269

Interplay of heritage and habitat in the distribution of bacterial signal transduction systems  

PubMed Central

Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequences from a variety of poorly studied organisms aims at predicting ecological and behavioral properties of these organisms and help in characterizing their habitats. This task requires finding appropriate descriptors that could be correlated with the core traits of each system and would allow meaningful comparisons. Using the relatively simple bacterial models, first attempts have been made to introduce suitable metrics to describe the complexity of organism’s signaling machinery, which included introducing the “bacterial IQ” score. Here, we use an updated census of prokaryotic signal transduction systems to improve this parameter and evaluate its consistency within selected bacterial phyla. We also introduce a more elaborate descriptor, a set of profiles of relative abundance of members of each family of signal transduction proteins encoded in each genome. We show that these family profiles are well conserved within each genus and are often consistent within families of bacteria. Thus, they reflect evolutionary relationships between organisms as well as individual adaptations of each organism to its specific ecological niche. PMID:20237650

Galperin, Michael Y.; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Eugene

2011-01-01

270

Structural and biochemical analysis of a bacterial glycosyltransferase  

PubMed Central

Summary Glycosyltransferases (GTs) are a large family of enzymes that specifically transfer sugar moieties to a diverse range of substrates. The process of bacterial glycosylation (such as biosynthesis of glycolipids, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides) has been studied extensively, yet the majority of GTs involved remains poorly characterized. Besides predicting enzymatic parameters of GTs, the resolution of three-dimensional structures of GTs can help to determine activity, donor sugar binding, and acceptor substrate binding sites. It also facilitates amino acid sequence-based structural modeling and biochemical characterization of their homologues. Here we describe a general procedure to accomplish expression and purification of soluble and active recombinant GTs. Enzymatic characterization, and crystallization of GTs, and data refinement for structural analysis are also covered in this protocol. PMID:23765651

Zhu, Fan; Wu, Ren; Zhang, Hua; Wu, Hui

2014-01-01

271

Phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary origins of DNA polymerase X-family members.  

PubMed

Mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) ? is the founding member of a large group of DNA polymerases now termed the X-family. DNA polymerase ? has been kinetically, structurally, and biologically well characterized and can serve as a phylogenetic reference. Accordingly, we have performed a phylogenetic analysis to understand the relationship between pol ? and other members of the X-family of DNA polymerases. The bacterial X-family DNA polymerases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae pol IV, and four mammalian X-family polymerases appear to be directly related. These enzymes originated from an ancient common ancestor characterized in two Bacillus species. Understanding distinct functions for each of the X-family polymerases, evolving from a common bacterial ancestor is of significant interest in light of the specialized roles of these enzymes in DNA metabolism. PMID:25112931

Bienstock, Rachelle J; Beard, William A; Wilson, Samuel H

2014-10-01

272

BACTERIAL IMPACTS OF OCEAN OUTFALLS: LEGAL CHALLENGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Simple analytical methods are used to help establish wastewater treatment permit conditions. However, a recent lawsuit alleged one such screening method was inadequate to show bacterial water quality standards would be protected shoreward of Honolulu's Honouliuli outfall. In resp...

273

7 CFR 58.135 - Bacterial estimate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...plate count; (7) Hydrophobic grid membrane filter count; (8) Impedance/conductance count; (9) Reflectance calorimetry. (b) Frequency of Testing. A laboratory examination to determine the bacterial estimate shall be made on a...

2013-01-01

274

7 CFR 58.135 - Bacterial estimate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...plate count; (7) Hydrophobic grid membrane filter count; (8) Impedance/conductance count; (9) Reflectance calorimetry. (b) Frequency of Testing. A laboratory examination to determine the bacterial estimate shall be made on a...

2012-01-01

275

7 CFR 58.135 - Bacterial estimate.  

...plate count; (7) Hydrophobic grid membrane filter count; (8) Impedance/conductance count; (9) Reflectance calorimetry. (b) Frequency of Testing. A laboratory examination to determine the bacterial estimate shall be made on a...

2014-01-01

276

Aquatic microenvironments in bacterial ecology and diversity  

E-print Network

Molecular surveys have revealed tremendous bacterial diversity in the world's oceans; yet how do these diverse bacteria with the same essential nutrient requirements co-exist in the same environment? This study examines ...

Hunt, Dana E., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

277

Microreview Host sialoglycans and bacterial sialidases  

E-print Network

and pathogenesis of mammalian mucosal surfaces. Evidence is pre- sented to support the myriad roles of mucosal, (iii) participation in biofilm formation and (iv) modulation of immune function. Bacterial sialidases

Lewis, Amanda L.

278

Bacterial pathogen manipulation of host membrane trafficking.  

PubMed

Pathogens use a vast number of strategies to alter host membrane dynamics. Targeting the host membrane machinery is important for the survival and pathogenesis of several extracellular, vacuolar, and cytosolic bacteria. Membrane manipulation promotes bacterial replication while suppressing host responses, allowing the bacterium to thrive in a hostile environment. This review provides a comprehensive summary of various strategies used by both extracellular and intracellular bacteria to hijack host membrane trafficking machinery. We start with mechanisms used by bacteria to alter the plasma membrane, delve into the hijacking of various vesicle trafficking pathways, and conclude by summarizing bacterial adaptation to host immune responses. Understanding bacterial manipulation of host membrane trafficking provides insights into bacterial pathogenesis and uncovers the molecular mechanisms behind various processes within a eukaryotic cell. PMID:25103867

Asrat, Seblewongel; de Jesús, Dennise A; Hempstead, Andrew D; Ramabhadran, Vinay; Isberg, Ralph R

2014-10-11

279

Quorum sensing and bacterial cooperation Anand Pai  

E-print Network

of cooperation benefits bacteria. Fig. 1: Schematic of bacterial communication) is a cell-cell communication mechanism that enables bacteria to control bacteria. Using mathematical modeling and experiments, we study how QS control

Wolpert, Robert L

280

[Bacterial translocation: gap in the shield].  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal tract is not only regarded as a system where nutrient absorption takes place, but also as a vital barrier against intraluminal pathogens entering the circulation and the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Bacterial translocation is defined as the penetration of viable bacteria or bacterial compounds from the gastrointestinal tract to extraintestinal sites. This disorder has been described in several clinical conditions. The main promoting factors for bacterial translocation have been proposed to be changes in the intestinal microflora, mucosal barrier failure and defects in host immunity. The presence of bacterial translocation has been associated with higher complications and mortality rates; therefore it should be taken into account in the therapeutic strategies of patients with predisposing factors. PMID:24534878

Rosero, Olivér; Kovács, Tibor; Onody, Péter; Harsányi, László; Szijártó, Attila

2014-02-23

281

Isolation and Characterization of Bacterial DNA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An inexpensive DNA preparation is presented which starts with commercially available frozen packed bacterial cells. Methods for analyzing the DNA are also presented, along with physical chemical experiments which can be done using the purified DNA. (BB)

Wilson, W. David; Davidson, Michael W.

1979-01-01

282

Bacterial responses to periodic micropillar array.  

PubMed

For a basic understanding and potential biomedical applications of surface topographical effects on bacterial responses, this study focuses on not only the bacterial retention but also the bacterial growth, proliferation, and viability that are significant post-retentive behaviors playing critical roles in infections of medical implants. Specifically, periodic micropillar arrays (SiPA ) with nine different feature sizes were fabricated on silicon substrates with photolithography and dry etching methods. The SiPA was cultured with Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli for different periods to investigate the bacterial retention, growth and proliferation behavior on a patterned surface. The experimental results show that a significant reduction of bacterial retention, growth, and proliferation can be achieved when the pillar size is reduced to the submicrometer level. However, micropillars have no obvious influence on the viability of the bacteria within 24 h. On the basis of the bacterial experiment results, it is inferred that the topographical effects may have resulted from bacterial confinement by micropillars, either limiting the attachment area for individual bacterium or trapping a bacterium between pillars. Furthermore, the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theoretical analysis indicates the effects might have come from the topographic induced surface property changes, mainly hydrophobicity, which is represented by the changes in the interaction free energy of Lifshitz-van der Waals among different periodic micropillar arrays. This study could help to deepen the understanding about the surface topographical effects on bacterial responses and may provide a guidance for the future medical implant surface design to decrease the infection risk by avoiding the surface topography which could attract more bacteria. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 384-396, 2015. PMID:24719359

Ge, Xiang; Leng, Yang; Lu, Xiong; Ren, Fuzeng; Wang, Kefeng; Ding, Yonghui; Yang, Meng

2015-01-01

283

Horizontal gene transfer and bacterial diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial genomes are extremely dynamic and mosaic in nature. A substantial amount of genetic information is inserted into\\u000a or deleted from such genomes through the process of horizontal transfer. Through the introduction of novel physiological traits\\u000a from distantly related organisms, horizontal gene transfer often causes drastic changes in the ecological and pathogenic character\\u000a of bacterial species and thereby promotes microbial

Chitra Dutta; Archana Pan

2002-01-01

284

Bacterial adhesion on PEG modified polyurethane surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyurethane surface was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (mol. wt. 1000, PEG1k) carrying terminal hydroxyl, amino and sulfonate groups, poly(ethylene glucol) (mol. wt. 3350, PEG3.4k) and PEG3.4k-Heparin, respectively. These surfaces were investigatted for bacterial adhesion using S. epidermidis and E. coli in tryptic soya broth (TSB), brain heart infusion (BHI), and human plasma. All PEG modified surfaces reduced bacterial adhesion significantly

Ki Dong Park; Young Soo Kim; Dong Keun Han; Young Ha Kim; Eun Hee Bae Lee; Hwal Suh; Kyu Suk Choi

1998-01-01

285

Viability of bacterial spores exposed to hydrazine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purposes of planetary protection, a series of experiments were performed to answer a long-standing question about the potential of bacterial contamination of interplanetary spacecraft from liquid hydrazine. Spores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC No. 9372, also known as Bacillus subtilis var. niger, and BSN) were exposed to hydrazine and survivors were enumerated using the NASA standard planetary protection pour plate assay. Results indicate that bulk hydrazine rocket propellant may be considered free of living bacterial cells for planetary protection compliance.

Schubert, W.; Plett, G.; Yavrouian, A.; Barengoltz, J.

2008-09-01

286

4, 33433375, 2007 Algal-bacterial  

E-print Network

BGD 4, 3343­3375, 2007 Algal-bacterial competition for N and P T. Løvdal et al. Title Page Abstract spring bloom (PeECE II) T. Løvdal 1, , C. Eichner 1, , H.-P. Grossart 2 , V. Carbonnel 3 , L. Chou 3 4, 3343­3375, 2007 Algal-bacterial competition for N and P T. Løvdal et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Assessing postpartum family functioning.  

PubMed

The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals. PMID:21253238

Midmer, D; Talbot, Y

1988-09-01

288

Assessing Postpartum Family Functioning  

PubMed Central

The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals. PMID:21253238

Midmer, Deana; Talbot, Yves

1988-01-01

289

The Changing American Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent statistics which demonstrate how different modern families are from the stereotyped model American nuclear family. Provides suggestions for elementary social studies teachers and includes an annotated bibliography of instructional resources. (JDH)

Joseph, Pamela B.

1986-01-01

290

Families and Fragile Syndrome  

E-print Network

Health and Human Development (NICHD) family album about Fragile X syndrome. As a health research agency, the NICHD family includes not only scientists, researchers, and health care providers, but also children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Social and emotional

Rau, Don C.

291

EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS  

E-print Network

ANXIETY DEPRESSION EATING DISORDERS FAMILY PROBLEMS GENERAL CONCERNS INTERPERSONAL DIFFICULTIES.946.5117 Counselling and Cyber Counselling Services to Help With: · Anxiety · Depression · Eating disorders · Family

Toronto, University of

292

Efficient haplotyping for families  

E-print Network

Hapi is a novel dynamic programming algorithm for haplotyping nuclear families that outperforms contemporary family-based haplotyping algorithms. Haplotypes are useful for mapping and identifying genes which cause and ...

Williams, Amy Lynne, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

293

Molecular Dissection of Bacterial Nanowires  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The discovery of bacterial conductive structures, termed nanowires, has intrigued scientists for almost a decade. Nanowires enable bacteria to transfer electrons over micrometer distances to extracellular electron acceptors such as insoluble metal oxides or electrodes. Nanowires are pilus based and in Geobacter sulfurreducens are composed of the type IV pilin subunit PilA. Multiheme c-type cytochromes have been shown to attach to nanowire pili. Two hypotheses have been proposed for electron conduction in nanowires. The first (termed the metal-like conductivity or MLC hypothesis) claims that the pilus itself has the electron-conductive properties and the attached cytochromes mediate transfer to the final electron acceptor, whereas the second hypothesis (termed the superexchange conductivity or SEC hypothesis) suggests that electrons are “hopping” between heme groups in cytochromes closely aligned with the pilus as a scaffold. In their recent article in mBio, Vargas et al. [M. Vargas, N. S. Malvankar, P.-L. Tremblay, C. Leang, J. A. Smith, P. Patel, O. Snoeyenbos-West, K. P. Nevin, and D. R. Lovley, mBio 4(2):e00210-13, 2013] address this ambiguity through an analysis of strain Aro-5, a G. sulfurreducens PilA mutant lacking aromatic residues in the nonconserved portion of PilA. These residues were suspected of involvement in electron transport according to the MLC hypothesis. The G. sulfurreducens mutant had reduced conductive properties, lending important support to the MLC hypothesis. The data also highlight the need for further and more conclusive evidence for one or the other hypothesis. PMID:23653449

Boesen, Thomas; Nielsen, Lars Peter

2013-01-01

294

Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice  

E-print Network

Government Performance and Results Act (1993) APR Program goal: Enhance the development of infants and toddlers (0-3) with disabilities and support their families in meeting their special needs 1 Family Indicator: The percentage of families participating... Kansas Division of Early Childhood February 24, 2005 Family Outcomes: Policy & Practice Jean Ann Summers PhD, Beach Center on Disability Nina Zuna Doctoral Student, Beach Center on Disability Kerry Lida Doctoral Student, Beach Center...

Zuna, Nina

2005-05-05

295

Small molecule control of bacterial biofilms  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilms are defined as a surface attached community of bacteria embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. When in the biofilm state, bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than are their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms are increasingly recognized as being significant in human disease, accounting for 80% of bacterial infections in the body and diseases associated with bacterial biofilms include: lung infections of cystic fibrosis, colitis, urethritis, conjunctivitis, otitis, endocarditis and periodontitis. Additionally, biofilm infections of indwelling medical devices are of particular concern, as once the device is colonized infection is virtually impossible to eradicate. Given the prominence of biofilms in infectious diseases, there has been an increased effort toward the development of small molecules that will modulate bacterial biofilm development and maintenance. In this review, we highlight the development of small molecules that inhibit and/or disperse bacterial biofilms through non-microbicidal mechanisms. The review discuses the numerous approaches that have been applied to the discovery of lead small molecules that mediate biofilm development. These approaches are grouped into: 1) the identification and development of small molecules that target one of the bacterial signaling pathways involved in biofilm regulation, 2) chemical library screening for compounds with anti-biofilm activity, and 3) the identification of natural products that possess anti-biofilm activity, and the chemical manipulation of these natural products to obtain analogues with increased activity. PMID:22733439

Worthington, Roberta J.; Richards, Justin J.

2012-01-01

296

Novel Strategies to Combat Bacterial Virulence  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Incidences of antimicrobial resistant infections have increased dramatically over the past several decades and are associated with adverse patient outcomes. Alternative approaches to combat infection are critical, and have led to the development of more specific drugs targeted at particular bacterial virulence systems or essential regulatory pathways. The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent developments in anti-bacterial therapy and the novel approaches toward increasing our therapeutic armory against bacterial infection. Recent findings Although classic antibiotic development is not occurring rapidly, alternative therapeutics that target specific bacterial virulence systems are progressing from the discovery stage through the FDA approval process. Here we review novel antibodies that target specific virulence systems as well as a variety of newly discovered small molecules that block bacterial attachment, communication systems (quorum sensing) or important regulatory processes associated with virulence gene expression. Summary The success of novel therapeutics could significantly change clinical practice. Furthermore, the complications of collateral damage due to antibiotic administration e.g. suprainfections or decreased host immunity due to loss of synergistic bacterial communities, may be minimized using therapeutics that specifically target pathogenic behavior. PMID:18787455

Lynch, S.V.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.

2010-01-01

297

Thiol dioxygenases: unique families of cupin proteins.  

PubMed

Proteins in the cupin superfamily have a wide range of biological functions in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes. Although proteins in the cupin superfamily show very low overall sequence similarity, they all contain two short but partially conserved cupin sequence motifs separated by a less conserved intermotif region that varies both in length and amino acid sequence. Furthermore, these proteins all share a common architecture described as a six-stranded ?-barrel core, and this canonical cupin or "jelly roll" ?-barrel is formed with cupin motif 1, the intermotif region, and cupin motif 2 each forming two of the core six ?-strands in the folded protein structure. The recently obtained crystal structures of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), with contains conserved cupin motifs, show that it has the predicted canonical cupin ?-barrel fold. Although there had been no reports of CDO activity in prokaryotes, we identified a number of bacterial cupin proteins of unknown function that share low similarity with mammalian CDO and that conserve many residues in the active-site pocket of CDO. Putative bacterial CDOs predicted to have CDO activity were shown to have similar substrate specificity and kinetic parameters as eukaryotic CDOs. Information gleaned from crystal structures of mammalian CDO along with sequence information for homologs shown to have CDO activity facilitated the identification of a CDO family fingerprint motif. One key feature of the CDO fingerprint motif is that the canonical metal-binding glutamate residue in cupin motif 1 is replaced by a cysteine (in mammalian CDOs) or by a glycine (bacterial CDOs). The recent report that some putative bacterial CDO homologs are actually 3-mercaptopropionate dioxygenases suggests that the CDO family may include proteins with specificities for other thiol substrates. A paralog of CDO in mammals was also identified and shown to be the other mammalian thiol dioxygenase, cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO). A tentative fingerprint motif for ADOs, or DUF1637 family members, is proposed. In ADOs, the conserved glutamate residue in cupin motif 1 is replaced by either glycine or valine. Both ADOs and CDOs appear to represent unique clades within the cupin superfamily. PMID:20195658

Stipanuk, Martha H; Simmons, Chad R; Karplus, P Andrew; Dominy, John E

2011-06-01

298

Immigrant Families in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australia has a larger and more diverse immigrant population than most Western societies. Australia's immigration history is linked to the story of family migration as Australia sought immigrants for permanent settlement. However, it is important to aviod over-generalisation when studying immigrant families in Australia today. The main hypothesis is that in order to understand the immigrant family in Australia today

Jock Collins

1992-01-01

299

The Family Farm Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Kenyon College's Family Farm Project, "a three-year study exploring family farming and community life in Knox County, Ohio," presents an intimate multimedia view of the daily life of the family farm, which some consider a vanishing institution in America.

1996-01-01

300

Strengthening America's Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective, enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency. Describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Strengthening America's Families Initiative. Highlights several family-focused prevention programs identified as exemplary, explaining how they…

Alvarado, Rose; Kumpfer, Karol

2000-01-01

301

Treatment of violent families.  

PubMed Central

Family violence is responsible for a significant proportion of homicides, a major cause of premature deaths in African-Americans. This article reviews the prevalence of family violence and explores associated risk factors. Principles and tips of treatment, along with a cognitive framework to guide the actual therapy, are outlined. Finally, issues of preventing family violence are discussed. PMID:2038079

Bell, C. C.; Chance-Hill, G.

1991-01-01

302

Families in Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Emphasis" deals with families in transition, providing some model programs for the new family and some historical perspectives on how families have developed over time. Articles include: (1) "Nostalgia on the Right" (Nancy Theriot); (2) "Heart to Heart" (Nancy Harrington-MacLennan); (3) "The Media Get the Message" (Janet Alyn); (4)…

Britton, Patti O., Ed.; McGee, Michael, Ed.

1987-01-01

303

The Resiliency of Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to researchers, the family may be changing but it is still one of the central institutions in society. Studies report a shift in more than 20 attitudes and values, most of which relate to the context of family life. Specifically, these include attitudes toward marriage, divorce, childbearing, childrearing, working women, family violence,…

Morrison, T. R.

304

Families and Assisted Living*  

PubMed Central

Purpose Despite growing research on assisted living (AL) as a residential care option for older adults, the social ramifications of residents' transitions to assisted living is relatively unexplored. This article examines family involvement in AL, including family structures of residents, types of involvement from family members living outside the AL, and outcomes for these family members. Design and Methods We reviewed current literature utilizing the MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, and CINAHL databases to identify AL studies that examined issues pertaining to families or informal care. Following the screening of abstracts, 180 reports were retrieved for further review, and 62 studies were selected for inclusion. Results Families visit residents frequently and provide a wide range of instrumental assistance but provide only minimal personal care. Studies of family outcomes indicated relatively high satisfaction, but potential care burden as well. Implications How family care and involvement occurs in AL in relation to formal care provision and whether various types of formal-informal care integration influence family outcomes remains unclear. We suggest a research agenda that attempts to tease out causal relationships for family involvement, differentiate family roles, and implement longitudinal analyses for a range of family outcomes. PMID:18162571

Gaugler, Joseph E.; Kane, Robert L.

2008-01-01

305

Marriage and Family Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of marriage and family counseling, including the growth of interest in this specialty within the American Counseling Association (ACA). Discusses the evolution of marriage and family counseling within ACA, standards for training, credentialing, and unique ethical considerations when counseling couples and families. (Author)

Smith, Robert L.; And Others

1995-01-01

306

Discovering “Family” Creatively  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creativity is a powerful force within the family therapy field, central not only to the therapeutic process but also to counselor education. Time-honored tools, such as the genogram along with its many adaptations, remain useful in learning about family. However, as our rapidly changing culture continually redefines and stretches the concept of family, we must learn new methods to discover

Colleen M. Connolly

2006-01-01

307

Year of the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue focuses on problems and challenges confronting the California family and on research and extension efforts to provide at least partial answers. Research briefs by staff include "Challenges Confront the California Family" (state trends in poverty, divorce, single-parent families, child abuse, delinquency, teen births, limited…

California Agriculture, 1994

1994-01-01

308

Doing Better for Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All OECD governments want to give parents more choice in their work and family decisions. This book looks at the different ways in which governments support families. It seeks to provide answers to questions like: Is spending on family benefits going up, and how does it vary by the age of the child? Has the crisis affected public support for…

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

2011-01-01

309

Fatherhood and Family Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On the assumption that fathers have been relatively absent from family support programs, this publication of the Family Resource Coalition addresses the role of fathers in family support programs, examines the impact of fathers on their children, and describes programs involving fathers successfully. Articles include: (1) "What's Behind the…

Goetz, Kathy, Ed.

1996-01-01

310

Families for All Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin reflects the commitment of Syracuse University's Center on Human Policy to the idea that children belong with families. The bulletin contains a policy statement which recommends; that all children, regardless of disability, belong with families and need enduring relationships with adults; that families with severely disabled children…

Shoultz, Bonnie, Ed.; Kalyanpur, Maya, Ed.

311

Learning from Latino Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a researcher in parent engagement in school and former parent activist, the author shares three lessons for sparking more authentic partnerships between schools and immigrant families. First, schools need to move away from deficit thinking and validate families' cultures. In the case of Latino immigrant families, this entails understanding…

Auerbach, Susan

2011-01-01

312

Family Customs and Traditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

MacGregor, Cynthia

313

Single Parent Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major changes are taking place in American and Cana- dian families exerting dramatic influences on family life and the pro- fessional of nursing. This was a recently completed project involving a multidisciplinary team of scholars from across North America that brought together the latest information available on a wide variety of single parent families. The purpose of this chapter is

Shirley M. H. Hanson; Marsha L. Heims; Doris J. Julian; Marvin B. Sussman

1994-01-01

314

Family Support Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Family Resource Coalition of America (FRCA) and the National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice convened a meeting of evaluators, policymakers, and program practitioners to discuss the issue of evaluation in the field of family support. The goal was to bring together those who were implementing programs, evaluating programs, and…

Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.; Ahsan, Nilofer, Ed.

1998-01-01

315

The Family Leukemia Association  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An association of families of children with leukemia, the Family Leukemia Association (FLA), was recently established in Toronto. This paper discusses (a) philosophy of the FLA; (b) formative years of this organization; (c) problems encountered by leukemic children and their families; and (d) the FLA's past and future educational and social…

Pollitt, Eleanor

1976-01-01

316

Family Issues for the Nineties.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation reviews the characteristics of the Canadian family at present. Discussion focuses on divorce, family structure, reproductive technology, fertility, family size, family mobility, family support, government role, women's participation in the labor force, daily family routines, television viewing, work and the family, the need for…

Mirabelli, Alan

317

Identification and antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates from probiotic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a total of 55 European probiotic products were evaluated with regard to the identity and the antibiotic resistance of the bacterial isolates recovered from these products. Bacterial isolation from 30 dried food supplements and 25 dairy products, yielded a total of 268 bacterial isolates selected from several selective media. Counts of food supplements showed bacterial recovery

R. Temmerman; B. Pot; G. Huys; J. Swings

2003-01-01

318

Diversity and seasonal dynamics of bacterial community in indoor environment  

PubMed Central

Background We spend most of our lives in indoor environments and are exposed to microbes present in these environments. Hence, knowledge about this exposure is important for understanding how it impacts on human health. However, the bacterial flora in indoor environments has been only fragmentarily explored and mostly using culture methods. The application of molecular methods previously utilised in other environments has resulted in a substantial increase in our awareness of microbial diversity. Results The composition and dynamics of indoor dust bacterial flora were investigated in two buildings over a period of one year. Four samples were taken in each building, corresponding to the four seasons, and 16S rDNA libraries were constructed. A total of 893 clones were analysed and 283 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected among them using 97% sequence similarity as the criterion. All libraries were dominated by Gram-positive sequences, with the most abundant phylum being Firmicutes. Four OTUs having high similarity to Corynebacterium-, Propionibacterium-, Streptococcus- and Staphylococcus- sequences were present in all samples. The most abundant of the Gram-negative OTUs were members of the family Sphingomonadaceae, followed by Oxalobacteraceae, Comamonadaceae, Neisseriaceae and Rhizobiaceae. The relative abundance of alpha- and betaproteobacteria increased slightly towards summer at the expense of firmicutes. The proportion of firmicutes and gammaproteobacteria of the total diversity was highest in winter and that of actinobacteria, alpha- and betaproteobacteria in spring or summer, whereas the diversity of bacteroidetes peaked in fall. A statistical comparison of the libraries revealed that the bacterial flora of the two buildings differed during all seasons except spring, but differences between seasons within one building were not that clear, indicating that differences between the buildings were greater than the differences between seasons. Conclusion This work demonstrated that the bacterial flora of indoor dust is complex and dominated by Gram-positive species. The dominant phylotypes most probably originated from users of the building. Seasonal variation was observed as proportional changes of the phyla and at the species level. The microflora of the two buildings investigated differed statistically and differences between the buildings were more pronounced than differences between seasons. PMID:18397514

Rintala, Helena; Pitkaranta, Miia; Toivola, Mika; Paulin, Lars; Nevalainen, Aino

2008-01-01

319

Both Family 1 and Family 2 PspA Proteins Can Inhibit Complement Deposition and Confer Virulence to a Capsular Serotype 3 Strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), a virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, is exceptionally diverse, being classified into two major families which are over 50% divergent by sequence analysis. A family 1 PspA from strain WU2 was previously shown to impede the clearance of pneumococci from mouse blood and to interfere with complement deposition on the bacterial surface. To determine whether

Bing Ren; Alexander J. Szalai; Orlanda Thomas; Susan K. Hollingshead; David E. Briles

2003-01-01

320

Multilocus sequence analysis of the family Halomonadaceae.  

PubMed

Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) protocols have been developed for species circumscription for many taxa. However, at present, no studies based on MLSA have been performed within any moderately halophilic bacterial group. To test the usefulness of MLSA with these kinds of micro-organisms, the family Halomonadaceae, which includes mainly halophilic bacteria, was chosen as a model. This family comprises ten genera with validly published names and 85 species of environmental, biotechnological and clinical interest. In some cases, the phylogenetic relationships between members of this family, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, are not clear and a deep phylogenetic analysis using several housekeeping genes seemed appropriate. Here, MLSA was applied using the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, atpA, gyrB, rpoD and secA genes for species of the family Halomonadaceae. Phylogenetic trees based on the individual and concatenated gene sequences revealed that the family Halomonadaceae formed a monophyletic group of micro-organisms within the order Oceanospirillales. With the exception of the genera Halomonas and Modicisalibacter, all other genera within this family were phylogenetically coherent. Five of the six studied genes (16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, gyrB, rpoD and secA) showed a consistent evolutionary history. However, the results obtained with the atpA gene were different; thus, this gene may not be considered useful as an individual gene phylogenetic marker within this family. The phylogenetic methods produced variable results, with those generated from the maximum-likelihood and neighbour-joining algorithms being more similar than those obtained by maximum-parsimony methods. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays an important evolutionary role in the family Halomonadaceae; however, the impact of recombination events in the phylogenetic analysis was minimized by concatenating the six loci, which agreed with the current taxonomic scheme for this family. Finally, the findings of this study also indicated that the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD genes were the most suitable genes for future taxonomic studies using MLSA within the family Halomonadaceae. PMID:21478390

de la Haba, Rafael R; Márquez, M Carmen; Papke, R Thane; Ventosa, Antonio

2012-03-01

321

Diversity of bacterial iron mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial cells, growing naturally in freshwater and marine environments or experimentally in culture, can precipitate a variety of authigenic iron minerals. With the vast majority of bacteria biomineralization is a two-step process: initially metals are electrostatically bound to the anionic surfaces of the cell wall and surrounding organic polymers, where they subsequently serve as nucleation sites for crystal growth. The biogenic minerals have crystal habits and chemical compositions similar to those produced by precipitation from inorganic solutions because they are governed by the same equilibrium principles that control mineralization of their inorganic counterparts. As the latter stages of mineralization are inorganically driven, the type of biomineral formed is inevitably dependent on the available counter-ions, and hence, the chemical composition of the waters in which the microorganisms are growing. In oxygenated waters, iron hydroxides are a common precipitate and can form passively through the binding of dissolved ferric species to negatively charged polymers or when soluble ferrous iron spontaneously reacts with dissolved oxygen to precipitate as ferric hydroxide on available nucleation sites (e.g. bacteria). Alternatively, the metabolic activity of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria can induce ferric hydroxide precipitation as a secondary by-product. Ferric hydroxide may then serve as a precursor for more stable iron oxides, such as goethite and hematite via dissolution-reprecipitation or dehydration, respectively, or it may react with dissolved silica, phosphate or sulphate to form other authigenic mineral phases. Under suboxic to anoxic conditions, ferric hydroxide may be converted to magnetite, siderite, and iron sulphides through various reductive processes associated with organic matter mineralization. Under biologically controlled conditions, where mineralization is completely regulated, magnetotactic bacteria form magnetite and greigite as navigational tools to guide themselves into their preferred habitat. In general, the formation of iron biominerals is not difficult to achieve, bacteria simply provide charged surfaces that bind metals and they excrete metabolic waste products into the surrounding environment that induce mineralization. The ubiquitous presence of bacteria in aquatic systems and their inherent ability to biomineralize, therefore, makes them extremely important agents in driving both modern and ancient geochemical cycles.

Konhauser, Kurt O.

1998-05-01

322

Conserved structure and domain organization among bacterial Slc26 transporters.  

PubMed

The Slc26 proteins are a ubiquitous superfamily of anion transporters conserved from bacteria to humans, among which four have been identified as human disease genes. Our functional knowledge of this protein family has increased but limited structural information is available. These proteins contain a transmembrane (TM) domain and a C-terminal cytoplasmic sulfate transporter and anti-sigma factor (STAS) domain. In a fundamental step towards understanding the structure/function relationships within the family we have used small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on two distantly related bacterial homologues to show that there is a common, dimeric and structural architecture among Slc26A transporters. Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) spectroscopy supports the dimeric SANS-derived model. Using chimaeric/truncated proteins we have determined the domain organization: the STAS domains project away from the TM core and are essential for protein stability. We use the SANS-generated envelopes to assess a homology model of the TM core. PMID:25031084

Compton, Emma L R; Page, Kimberly; Findlay, Heather E; Haertlein, Michael; Moulin, Martine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Norman, David G; Gabel, Frank; Javelle, Arnaud

2014-10-15

323

Crossroads between Bacterial and Mammalian Glycosyltransferases  

PubMed Central

Bacterial glycosyltransferases (GT) often synthesize the same glycan linkages as mammalian GT; yet, they usually have very little sequence identity. Nevertheless, enzymatic properties, folding, substrate specificities, and catalytic mechanisms of these enzyme proteins may have significant similarity. Thus, bacterial GT can be utilized for the enzymatic synthesis of both bacterial and mammalian types of complex glycan structures. A comparison is made here between mammalian and bacterial enzymes that synthesize epitopes found in mammalian glycoproteins, and those found in the O antigens of Gram-negative bacteria. These epitopes include Thomsen–Friedenreich (TF or T) antigen, blood group O, A, and B, type 1 and 2 chains, Lewis antigens, sialylated and fucosylated structures, and polysialic acids. Many different approaches can be taken to investigate the substrate binding and catalytic mechanisms of GT, including crystal structure analyses, mutations, comparison of amino acid sequences, NMR, and mass spectrometry. Knowledge of the protein structures and functions helps to design GT for specific glycan synthesis and to develop inhibitors. The goals are to develop new strategies to reduce bacterial virulence and to synthesize vaccines and other biologically active glycan structures. PMID:25368613

Brockhausen, Inka

2014-01-01

324

Final Report - Ferrographic Tracking of Bacterial Transport  

SciTech Connect

The work performed during the past three years has been extremely productive. Ferrographic capture was utilized in analysis of several thousand field samples collected from arrays of multilevel samplers during three intensive field campaigns conducted at two shallow sandy aquifer sites in Oyster, VA. This work has shown resulted in three important conclusions: (1) Ferrographic capture provides unparalleled low quantitation limits for bacterial cell enumeration (Johnson et al., 2000). (2) The high-resolution analyses provided by ferrographic capture allowed observation of increased bacterial removal rates (from groundwater) that corresponded to increased populations of protozoa in the groundwater (Zhang et al., 2001). This novel data allowed determination of bacterial predation rates by protists in the field, a consideration that will be important for successful bioaugmentation strategies. (3) The high-resolution analyses provided by ferrographic capture allowed observation of detachment of indigenous cells in response to breakthrough of injected cells in groundwater (Johnson et al., 2001). The implication of this unique observation is that bacterial transport, specifically bacterial attachment and detachment, may be much more dynamic than has been indicated by short-term laboratory and field studies. Dynamic attachment and detachment of bacteria in groundwater may lead to greatly increased transport distances over long terms relative to what has been indicated by short-term laboratory and field studies.

William P. Johnson

2002-10-10

325

Bacterial communities associated with the lichen symbiosis.  

PubMed

Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and "algae" (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N(2) fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N(2) fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses. PMID:21169444

Bates, Scott T; Cropsey, Garrett W G; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

2011-02-01

326

Structure and Complexity of a Bacterial Transcriptome? †  

PubMed Central

Although gene expression has been studied in bacteria for decades, many aspects of the bacterial transcriptome remain poorly understood. Transcript structure, operon linkages, and information on absolute abundance all provide valuable insights into gene function and regulation, but none has ever been determined on a genome-wide scale for any bacterium. Indeed, these aspects of the prokaryotic transcriptome have been explored on a large scale in only a few instances, and consequently little is known about the absolute composition of the mRNA population within a bacterial cell. Here we report the use of a high-throughput sequencing-based approach in assembling the first comprehensive, single-nucleotide resolution view of a bacterial transcriptome. We sampled the Bacillus anthracis transcriptome under a variety of growth conditions and showed that the data provide an accurate and high-resolution map of transcript start sites and operon structure throughout the genome. Further, the sequence data identified previously nonannotated regions with significant transcriptional activity and enhanced the accuracy of existing genome annotations. Finally, our data provide estimates of absolute transcript abundance and suggest that there is significant transcriptional heterogeneity within a clonal, synchronized bacterial population. Overall, our results offer an unprecedented view of gene expression and regulation in a bacterial cell. PMID:19304856

Passalacqua, Karla D.; Varadarajan, Anjana; Ondov, Brian D.; Okou, David T.; Zwick, Michael E.; Bergman, Nicholas H.

2009-01-01

327

The Family Systems Assessment Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we describe the properties of the Family Systems Assessment Tool (FSAT), a self-report instrument designed to assess aspects of relationships and intergenerational family dynamics within a subject’s current family and family of origin.

W. Perry Dickinson; Frank V. deGRUY; L. Miriam Dickinson; H. S. Mullins; Scott Acker; Vince Gilmer

1996-01-01

328

Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors  

DOEpatents

Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

Iyer, Rashi (Los Alamos, NM); Ganguly, Kumkum (Los Alamos, NM); Silks, Louis A. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-12-06

329

Synthetic analogs of bacterial quorum sensors  

DOEpatents

Bacterial quorum-sensing molecule analogs having the following structures: ##STR00001## and methods of reducing bacterial pathogenicity, comprising providing a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria which produce natural quorum-sensing molecule; providing a synthetic bacterial quorum-sensing molecule having the above structures and introducing the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule into the biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria. Further is provided a method of targeted delivery of an antibiotic, comprising providing a synthetic quorum-sensing molecule; chemically linking the synthetic quorum-sensing molecule to an antibiotic to produce a quorum-sensing molecule-antibiotic conjugate; and introducing the conjugate into a biological system comprising pathogenic bacteria susceptible to the antibiotic.

Iyer, Rashi S.; Ganguly, Kumkum; Silks, Louis A.

2013-01-08

330

Bacterial Responses to Reactive Chlorine Species  

PubMed Central

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the active ingredient of household bleach, is the most common disinfectant in medical, industrial, and domestic use and plays an important role in microbial killing in the innate immune system. Given the critical importance of the antimicrobial properties of chlorine to public health, it is surprising how little is known about the ways in which bacteria sense and respond to reactive chlorine species (RCS). Although the literature on bacterial responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is enormous, work addressing bacterial responses to RCS has begun only recently. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies now provide new insights into how bacteria mount defenses against this important class of antimicrobial compounds. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge, emphasizing the overlaps between RCS stress responses and other more well-characterized bacterial defense systems, and identify outstanding questions that represent productive avenues for future research. PMID:23768204

Gray, Michael J.; Wholey, Wei-Yun; Jakob, Ursula

2013-01-01

331

Impact of recombination on bacterial evolution  

PubMed Central

Genetic exchange plays a defining role in the evolution of many bacteria. The recent accumulation of nucleotide sequence data from multiple members of diverse bacterial genera has facilitated comparative studies that have revealed many features of this process. Here we focus on genetic exchange that has involved homologous recombination and illustrate how nucleotide sequence data have furthered our understanding of: (i) the frequency of recombination; (ii) the impact of recombination in different parts of the genome; and (iii) patterns of gene flow within bacterial populations. Summarizing the results obtained for a range of bacteria, we survey evidence indicating that the extent and nature of recombination vary widely among microbiological species and often among lineages assigned to the same microbiological species. These results have important implications in studies ranging from epidemiological investigations to examination of the bacterial species problem. PMID:20452218

Didelot, Xavier; Maiden, Martin C.J.

2014-01-01

332

Bacterial imprinting at pickering emulsion interfaces.  

PubMed

The tendency of bacteria to assemble at oil-water interfaces can be utilized to create microbial recognition sites on the surface of polymer beads. In this work, two different groups of bacteria were first treated with acryloyl-functionalized chitosan and then used to stabilize an oil-in-water emulsion composed of cross-linking monomers that were dispersed in aqueous buffer. Polymerization of the oil phase followed by removal of the bacterial template resulted in well-defined polymer beads bearing bacterial imprints. Chemical passivation of chitosan and cell displacement assays indicate that the bacterial recognition on the polymer beads was dependent on the nature of the pre-polymer and the target bacteria. The functional materials for microbial recognition show great potential for constructing cell-cell communication networks, biosensors, and new platforms for testing antibiotic drugs. PMID:25111359

Shen, Xiantao; Svensson Bonde, Johan; Kamra, Tripta; Bülow, Leif; Leo, Jack C; Linke, Dirk; Ye, Lei

2014-09-26

333

Bacterial responses to reactive chlorine species.  

PubMed

Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the active ingredient of household bleach, is the most common disinfectant in medical, industrial, and domestic use and plays an important role in microbial killing in the innate immune system. Given the critical importance of the antimicrobial properties of chlorine to public health, it is surprising how little is known about the ways in which bacteria sense and respond to reactive chlorine species (RCS). Although the literature on bacterial responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is enormous, work addressing bacterial responses to RCS has begun only recently. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies now provide new insights into how bacteria mount defenses against this important class of antimicrobial compounds. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge, emphasizing the overlaps between RCS stress responses and other more well-characterized bacterial defense systems, and identify outstanding questions that represent productive avenues for future research. PMID:23768204

Gray, Michael J; Wholey, Wei-Yun; Jakob, Ursula

2013-01-01

334

Mesoscopic Modeling of Bacterial Flagellar Microhydrodynamics  

PubMed Central

A particle-based hybrid method of elastic network model and smooth-particle hydrodynamics has been employed to describe the propulsion of bacterial flagella in a viscous hydrodynamic environment. The method explicitly models the two aspects of bacterial propulsion that involve flagellar flexibility and long-range hydrodynamic interaction of low-Reynolds-number flow. The model further incorporates the molecular organization of the flagellar filament at a coarse-grained level in terms of the 11 protofilaments. Each of these protofilaments is represented by a collection of material points that represent the flagellin proteins. A computational model of a single flexible helical segment representing the filament of a bacterial flagellum is presented. The propulsive dynamics and the flow fields generated by the motion of the model filament are examined. The nature of flagellar deformation and the influence of hydrodynamics in determining the shape of deformations are examined based on the helical filament. PMID:16935949

Gebremichael, Yeshitila; Ayton, Gary S.; Voth, Gregory A.

2006-01-01

335

Description of Clerkships FAMILY MEDICINE  

E-print Network

Description of Clerkships FAMILY MEDICINE Department of Family Medicine #12;2 Family Medicine the dimensions of the role of the family physician and the problem-solving approach of family medicine, community Normally six students rotate monthly in the Department of family medicine. Students receive didactic

Shihadeh, Alan

336

The Growth of a Family  

PubMed Central

Caring for a family during pregnancy and birth is an ideal opportunity for family physicians to assess family functioning and help the family adjust to the birth of a new child. Stress and support systems can influence the course of pregnancy, including obstetric and perinatal outcomes. A family-centered approach can help patients during this critical stage of family development. PMID:21229107

Carroll, June C.; Biringer, Anne

1991-01-01

337

Familial germ cell tumor  

PubMed Central

Familial testicular germ cell tumors are well known in literature. Only few cases are reported where both brother and sister of the same family suffered from germ cell malignancies. We present a family where the proband is a survivor of ovarian dysgerminoma stage IA. Her elder male sibling became acutely ill and was detected to have disseminated testicular malignancy with grossly elevated markers and vegetations in the mitral valve leaflets. Despite all measures he could not be saved. Presence of germ cell malignancies in the siblings of different sex in the same family points toward a genetic susceptibility. Literature review revealed only six similar cases. A discussion regarding the rare occurrence of familial germ cell malignancies with the affected family members may be worthwhile. PMID:22754236

Cyriac, Sanju; Rajendranath, Rejeev; Louis, A Robert; Sagar, T. G.

2012-01-01

338

Why families matter.  

PubMed

Serious illness puts pressure not only on individual family members but also on the family itself. The care of an acutely ill child requires the family to channel many of its resources toward a single member--an arrangement that can usually be sustained for a while but that cannot continue indefinitely while the other members do without. Illness disrupts ordinary familial functions and, if it is serious enough, threatens to break the family altogether. In this article, I argue that there are situations in which the threat to family integrity is so real and serious that the interests of parents or siblings or sometimes grandparents may override the interests of the pediatric patient. PMID:25274881

Lindemann, Hilde

2014-10-01

339

Marine bacterial degradation of brominated methanes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Brominated methanes are ozone-depleting compounds whose natural sources include marine algae such as kelp. Brominated methane degradation by bacteria was investigated to address whether bacterial processes might effect net emission of these compounds to the atmosphere. Bacteria in seawater collected from California kelp beds degraded CH2Br2 but not CHBr3. Specific inhibitors showed that methanotrophs and nitrifiers did not significantly contribute to CH2Br2 removal. A seawater enrichment culture oxidized 14CH2Br2 to 14CO2 as well as 14CH3Br to 14CO2. The rates of CH2Br2 degradation in laboratory experiments suggest that bacterial degradation of CH2Br2 in a kelp bed accounts for <1% of the CH2Br2 produced by the kelp. However, the half-life of CH2Br2 due to bacterial removal appears faster than hydrolysis and within an order of magnitude of volatilization to the atmosphere.Brominated methanes are ozone-depleting compounds whose natural sources include marine algae such as kelp. Brominated methane degradation by bacteria was investigated to address whether bacterial processes might effect net emission of these compounds to the atmosphere. Bacteria in seawater collected from California kelp beds degraded CH2Br2 but not CHBr3. Specific inhibitors showed that methanotrophs and nitrifiers did not significantly contribute to CH2Br2 removal. A seawater enrichment culture oxidized 14CH2Br2 to 14CO2 as well as 14CH3Br to 14CO2. The rates of CH2Br2 degradation in laboratory experiments suggest that bacterial degradation of CH2Br2 in a kelp bed accounts for <1% of the CH2Br2 produced by the kelp. However, the half-life of CH2Br2 due to bacterial removal appears faster than hydrolysis and within an order of magnitude of volatilization to the atmosphere.

Goodwin, K. D.; Lidstrom, M. E.; Oremland, R. S.

1997-01-01

340

Development of an Engineered Bioluminescent Reporter Phage for Detection of Bacterial Blight of Crucifers  

PubMed Central

Bacterial blight, caused by the phytopathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, is an emerging disease afflicting important members of the Brassicaceae family. The disease is often misdiagnosed as pepper spot, a much less severe disease caused by the related pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. We have developed a phage-based diagnostic that can both identify and detect the causative agent of bacterial blight and differentiate the two pathogens. A recombinant “light”-tagged reporter phage was generated by integrating bacterial luxAB genes encoding luciferase into the genome of P. cannabina pv. alisalensis phage PBSPCA1. The PBSPCA1::luxAB reporter phage is viable and stable and retains properties similar to those of the wild-type phage. PBSPCA1::luxAB rapidly and sensitively detects P. cannabina pv. alisalensis by conferring a bioluminescent signal response to cultured cells. Detection is dependent on cell viability. Other bacterial pathogens of Brassica species such as P. syringae pv. maculicola, Pseudomonas marginalis, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, and X. campestris pv. raphani either do not produce a response or produce significantly attenuated signals with the reporter phage. Importantly, the reporter phage detects P. cannabina pv. alisalensis on diseased plant specimens, indicating its potential for disease diagnosis. PMID:22427491

Bull, Carolee T.; Rubio, Isael; Wechter, W. Patrick; Westwater, Caroline; Molineux, Ian J.

2012-01-01

341

Cultivable bacterial microbiota of northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus): a new reservoir of antimicrobial resistance?  

PubMed

The northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) is an ecologically and economically important avian species. At the present time, little is known about the microbial communities associated with these birds. As the first step to create a quail microbiology knowledge base, the current study conducted an inventory of cultivable quail tracheal, crop, cecal, and cloacal microbiota and associated antimicrobial resistance using a combined bacteriology and DNA sequencing approach. A total of 414 morphologically unique bacterial colonies were selected from nonselective aerobic and anaerobic cultures, as well as selective and enrichment cultures. Analysis of the first 500-bp 16S rRNA gene sequences in conjunction with biochemical identifications revealed 190 non-redundant species-level taxonomic units, representing 160 known bacterial species and 30 novel species. The bacterial species were classified into 4 phyla, 14 orders, 37 families, and 59 or more genera. Firmicutes was the most commonly encountered phylum (57%) followed by Actinobacteria (24%), Proteobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (0.02%). Extensive diversity in the species composition of quail microbiota was observed among individual birds and anatomical locations. Quail microbiota harbored several opportunistic pathogens, such as E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa, as well as human commensal organisms, including Neisseria species. Phenotypic characterization of selected bacterial species demonstrated a high prevalence of resistance to the following classes of antimicrobials: phenicol, macrolide, lincosamide, quinolone, and sulphate. Data from the current investigation warrant further investigation on the source, transmission, pathology, and control of antimicrobial resistance in wild quail populations. PMID:24937705

Su, Hongwen; McKelvey, Jessica; Rollins, Dale; Zhang, Michael; Brightsmith, Donald J; Derr, James; Zhang, Shuping

2014-01-01

342

Myxobacterial community is a predominant and highly diverse bacterial group in soil niches.  

PubMed

Although many molecular ecological surveys have been conducted, there is little concerning the details of specific bacterial groups, resulting in an incomplete understanding of the microorganismal composition and community structures in the environment. Myxobacteria are micropredators that are metabolically active in the soil microbial food web and have typically been considered minority components of soil bacterial communities. In this study, we surveyed the percentage of myxobacteria in a single soil sample via pyrosequencing on combined universal libraries of the V3-V4 and V6-V8 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Surprisingly, myxobacteria accounted for 4.10% of the bacterial community and 7.5% of the total operational taxonomic units at the 3% similarity level in the soil, containing almost all of the cultivated myxobacterial families or genera. To testify the appearance of myxobacteria in soil niches, we retrieved myxobacteria-related 16S rRNA gene sequences of 103 high-throughput sequencing data sets obtained from public databases. The results indicated that myxobacteria-related sequences were among the predominant groups in these data sets accounting for 0.4-4.5% of bacterial communities. The abundance of myxobacterial communities were correlated with site temperature, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and pH values. Based on these results, we discussed the survival strategies of myxobacterial community in soil. PMID:24596262

Zhou, Xiu-wen; Li, Shu-guang; Li, Wei; Jiang, De-ming; Han, Kui; Wu, Zhi-hong; Li, Yue-zhong

2014-02-01

343

Coral transcriptome and bacterial community profiles reveal distinct Yellow Band Disease states in Orbicella faveolata.  

PubMed

Coral diseases impact reefs globally. Although we continue to describe diseases, little is known about the etiology or progression of even the most common cases. To examine a spectrum of coral health and determine factors of disease progression we examined Orbicella faveolata exhibiting signs of Yellow Band Disease (YBD), a widespread condition in the Caribbean. We used a novel combined approach to assess three members of the coral holobiont: the coral-host, associated Symbiodinium algae, and bacteria. We profiled three conditions: (1) healthy-appearing colonies (HH), (2) healthy-appearing tissue on diseased colonies (HD), and (3) diseased lesion (DD). Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed health state-specific diversity in Symbiodinium clade associations. 16S ribosomal RNA gene microarrays (PhyloChips) and O. faveolata complimentary DNA microarrays revealed the bacterial community structure and host transcriptional response, respectively. A distinct bacterial community structure marked each health state. Diseased samples were associated with two to three times more bacterial diversity. HD samples had the highest bacterial richness, which included components associated with HH and DD, as well as additional unique families. The host transcriptome under YBD revealed a reduced cellular expression of defense- and metabolism-related processes, while the neighboring HD condition exhibited an intermediate expression profile. Although HD tissue appeared visibly healthy, the microbial communities and gene expression profiles were distinct. HD should be regarded as an additional (intermediate) state of disease, which is important for understanding the progression of YBD. PMID:24950107

Closek, Collin J; Sunagawa, Shinichi; DeSalvo, Michael K; Piceno, Yvette M; DeSantis, Todd Z; Brodie, Eoin L; Weber, Michele X; Voolstra, Christian R; Andersen, Gary L; Medina, Mónica

2014-12-01

344

Handy Family Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this bilingual (English/Spanish) activity, learners create family trees by tracing the hands of their family members. Learners list inherited traits like eye color, freckles, and chin shape on the fingers of the left hands and list learned traits like favorite foods, games, and pets on the fingers of the right hands. Learners assemble the hands to form trees. Use this family activity to help learners distinguish between inherited and learned traits.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

345

Neighborhoods and Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Neighborhoods have a profound impact on children and their families, including health and safety, educational attainment,\\u000a child maltreatment risk, and many others. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the specific mechanisms through which neighborhood\\u000a physical and social characteristics features influence child and family outcomes. This chapter looks at current definitions\\u000a for community and family and reviews research for community effects

James R. McDonell

346

Supporting Family Choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supporting family choice in the decision-making process is recommended practice in the field of early childhood and early\\u000a childhood special education. These decisions may relate to the medical, educational, social, recreational, therapeutic\\/rehabilitative,\\u000a and community aspects of the child's disability. Although this practice conveys the message that families are the primary\\u000a decision-makers for their children, families are not always adequately supported

Mary M. Murray; Kimberly A. Christensen; Gardner T. Umbarger; Karin C. Rade; Kathryn Aldridge; Judith A. Niemeyer

2007-01-01

347

The family lecture.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This paper describes a lecture about my extended family, in which I discuss a variety of configurations consisting of lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and our children. It raises an array of issues, including alternative insemination, biological and nonbiological parentage, donors and birthmothers, adoption, co-parenting and blended families, significant others, and gay marriage and domestic partnership. It helps many students obtain both a more expansive sense of family and adeeper understanding of homophobia. PMID:24804601

Rose, Nancy E

2002-10-01

348

Bacterial subversion of host innate immune pathways.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of infection is a continuously evolving battle between the human host and the infecting microbe. The past decade has brought a burst of insights into the molecular mechanisms of innate immune responses to bacterial pathogens. In parallel, multiple specific mechanisms by which microorganisms subvert these host responses have been uncovered. This Review highlights recently characterized mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens avoid killing by innate host responses, including autophagy pathways and a proinflammatory cytokine transcriptional response, and by the manipulation of vesicular trafficking to avoid the toxicity of lysosomal enzymes. PMID:23661751

Baxt, Leigh A; Garza-Mayers, Anna Cristina; Goldberg, Marcia B

2013-05-10

349

Managing a Family Budget  

E-print Network

is the foundation of a sound financial management plan. When used in conjunction with records of actual spending, a family budget allows you to pinpoint unnecessary spending and areas where actual costs may be higher or lower than you previously thought. Given... the tight profit margins in agriculture, adhering to a finely tuned family budget can give a much needed boost to your financial future. Not having a family budget means you are not managing your family finances. This most often leads to spending more...

McCorkle, Dean; Klinefelter, Danny A.

2008-09-16

350

Interactive Effects of Viral and Bacterial Production on Marine Bacterial Diversity  

PubMed Central

A general model of species diversity predicts that the latter is maximized when productivity and disturbance are balanced. Based on this model, we hypothesized that the response of bacterial diversity to the ratio of viral to bacterial production (VP/BP) would be dome-shaped. In order to test this hypothesis, we obtained data on changes in bacterial communities (determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA gene) along a wide VP/BP gradient (more than two orders of magnitude), using seawater incubations from NW Mediterranean surface waters, i.e., control and treatments with additions of phosphate, viruses, or both. In December, one dominant Operational Taxonomic Unit accounted for the major fraction of total amplified DNA in the phosphate addition treatment (75±20%, ± S.D.), but its contribution was low in the phosphate and virus addition treatment (23±19%), indicating that viruses prevented the prevalence of taxa that were competitively superior in phosphate-replete conditions. In contrast, in February, the single taxon predominance in the community was held in the phosphate addition treatment even with addition of viruses. We observed statistically robust dome-shaped response patterns of bacterial diversity to VP/BP, with significantly high bacterial diversity at intermediate VP/BP. This was consistent with our model-based hypothesis, indicating that bacterial production and viral-induced mortality interactively affect bacterial diversity in seawater. PMID:24244268

Motegi, Chiaki; Nagata, Toshi; Miki, Takeshi; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Legendre, Louis; Rassoulzadegan, Fereidoun

2013-01-01

351

Gamma-irradiated bacterial preparation having anti-tumor activity  

DOEpatents

A bacterial preparation from Pseudomonas species isolated #15 ATCC 55638 that has been exposed to gamma radiation exhibits cytotoxicity that is specific for neoplastic carcinoma cells. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having antitumor activity consists of suspending a bacterial isolate in media and exposing the suspension to gamma radiation. A bacterial preparation of an aged culture of an amoeba-associated bacteria exhibits anti-reverse transcriptase activity. A method for obtaining a bacterial preparation having anti-reverse transcriptase activity from an amoeba-associated bacterial isolate grown to stationary phase is disclosed.

Vass, Arpad A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN); Terzaghi-Howe, Peggy (Montrose, CO)

1999-01-01

352

Family leisure, family photography and zoos: exploring the emotional geographies of families  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the significance of the zoo as a place for family leisure and the emotional work of sustaining a positive family life. Zoos are understood as culturally laden places, widely identified as locations for family-friendly leisure and as stages for practicing family and then capturing and memorializing this behavior in and through family photographs. Zoo family

Bonnie C. Hallman; S. Mary P. Benbow; P. Benbow

2007-01-01

353

Family Fitness = Family Fun! Presented by  

E-print Network

of the distraction) · According to the A.C. Nielsen Co., the average American watches more than 4 hours of TV each are you exercising now? Six out of ten American adults don't exercise regularly despite the proven TV · At least 40 percent of families watch TV while eating dinner! (And tend to eat more as a result

354

Family History Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 articles in this issue focus on the theme of family history resources: (1) "Introduction: Family History Resources" (Joseph F. Shubert); (2) "Work, Credentials, and Expectations of a Professional Genealogist" (Coreen P. Hallenbeck and Lewis W. Hallenbeck); (3) "Computers and Genealogy" (Theresa C. Strasser); (4) "Finding Historical Records…

Bookmark, 1991

1991-01-01

355

[Inclusive Recreation and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature issue focuses on inclusive recreation for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. The articles provide information about the benefits of inclusive recreation for individuals and families, the challenges in attempting to create or access community recreation services that offer inclusive programs, and strategies…

Heyne, Linda A., Ed.; And Others

1996-01-01

356

Golden Matrix Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student research project explores the properties of a family of matrices of zeros and ones that arises from the study of the diagonal lengths in a regular polygon. There is one family for each n greater than 2. A series of exercises guides the student to discover the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrices, which leads in turn to…

Fontaine, Anne; Hurley, Susan

2011-01-01

357

Uninsured Rural Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Although research shows higher uninsured rates among rural versus urban individuals, prior studies are limited because they do not examine coverage across entire rural families. Purpose: This study uses the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to compare rural and urban insurance coverage within families, to inform the design of…

Ziller, Erika C.; Coburn, Andrew F.; Anderson, Nathaniel J.; Loux, Stephenie L.

2008-01-01

358

Family Bonding with Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One justification offered for legacy admissions policies at universities is that that they bind entire families to the university. Proponents maintain that these policies have a number of benefits, including increased donations from members of these families. We use a rich set of data from an anonymous selective research institution to investigate…

Meer, Jonathan; Rosen, Harvey S.

2010-01-01

359

Family Reunification Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utah's Department of Human Services' Family Reunification Project was initiated to demonstrate that intensive, time-limited, home-based services would enable children in foster care to return to their natural families more rapidly than regular foster care management permits. The following steps were taken in project development: (1) sites were…

Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

360

Marinating the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the New York Aquarium's program specifically designed for family learning and teaching. The program's goal is to create an environment where child-parent roles are dropped and where the philosophy that no one of us is as smart as all of us prevails. Strategies for family involvement are outlined. (MH)

Hensel, Karen A.

1982-01-01

361

Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du Bois and…

Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

362

Families Orientation Tudor Fieldhouse  

E-print Network

with us today, and others have a half dozen more at home. Some of you are dropping off the third generation of Rice students in your family, and some of you are dropping off the first person in your family said "setting a good example for children takes all the fun out of middle age." If the child you

Alvarez, Pedro J.

363

Employers, Families and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family involvement in education is good for business, critical to children's school achievement, and important in creating strong and vibrant communities. This report discusses the role of businesses and employers in helping partners and family members be more involved in children's learning. Throughout the report, programs at specific companies…

Partnership for Family Involvement in Education (ED), Washington, DC.

364

Family Perspectives on Prematurity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

Zero to Three (J), 2003

2003-01-01

365

Military Family Counselling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of family counselling with families of active duty senior non-commissioned officers. It was an application of elements of the Bo-Between Process (Zuk, 1972, 1975) which was based on the finding tha...

J. J. Garrigan

1983-01-01

366

Families living with HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the historical emergence of the AIDS epidemic first among gay men in the developed world, HIV interventions have primarily focused on individuals rather than families. Typically not part of traditional family structures, HIV-positive gay men in Europe and the US lived primarily in societies providing essential infrastructure for survival needs that highly value individual justice and freedom. Interventions were

M. J. Rotheram-Borus; D. Flannery; E. Rice; P. Lester

2005-01-01

367

Engaging Families with Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How to involve families in the formal education of their children is a question researchers and educators have been trying to answer since the first bricks were laid for the nation's public education system. A solution must be found, for family involvement has been proven to be associated with a myriad of stellar outcomes, including greater…

T.H.E. Journal, 2003

2003-01-01

368

THE JAPANESE ADVERTISING FAMILY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the representation of the family in Japanese TV commercials. Based on empirical research conducted in 2004 and 2005, it argues that Japanese commercials tend to depict the family and its members in highly stereotypical ways. Mothers are almost always shown doing some kind of house- work, at times supported by their daughters, preparing for their future

Michael Prieler

369

Reaching Rural Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This newsletter issue focuses on programming undertaken to address the health and educational needs of rural families in developing and developed nations. After examining the nature of rural families and rural poverty, the newsletter discusses: (1) the Mon Women's Organization in Thailand; (2) The "Contact With Kids" parent education project in…

Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

1995-01-01

370

Homeless Families with Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of homelessness have not adequately addressed the relationship between deteriorating living conditions of inner-city neighborhoods and family homelessness. Interviews with 50 families with children who were residents of homeless shelters in two large cities in New York reveal that substandard housing, unscrupulous landlords, and drug-related violence and crime in neighborhoods, as well as nonpayment of rent and domestic

Namkee G. Choi; Lidia J. Snyder

1999-01-01

371

Experimental family services  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a survey of 127 special services for families. Although varying in their methods, all concentrate on the needs of the family as a unit, rather than as individuals. The projects are all innovative. Many use self help methods, involve peer group leadership, or involve users in the organisation of the work. The projects are shown to have

Miriam Richardson; Barry Knight

1981-01-01

372

Patent Family Databases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table noting country…

Simmons, Edlyn S.

1985-01-01

373

Brief Strategic Family Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homework tasks are an essential com ponent of BSFT. Therapists strategically implement tasks to achieve improvements in family interactions that are directly related to the prevention or reduction of adolescent behavior problems. The use of tasks in BSFT is consistent with the model?s emphasis on having family members ?do? rather than simply ?talk about.? Tasks are assigned based on the

Michael S. Robbins; Jose’ Szapocznik; Gonzalo Pe’rez

374

Firearms and family violence.  

PubMed

Firearms contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in family violence. This article discusses the debate on gun use for protection and guns in the home. Weapons-related risks in the setting of intimate partner violence are closely reviewed. Recommendations for physicians are discussed in the context of firearms and family violence. PMID:10516848

Kellermann, A; Heron, S

1999-08-01

375

Prosocial family therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manual for Prosocial Family Therapy (PFT) describes a practical method of multisystemic care for juvenile offenders based on our theories about risk and protection factors and therapy process. The PFT team integrates specific parent training techniques and nonspecific family therapy strategies in meetings scheduled with decreasing frequency over a 3-month intervention and 2-year follow-up period. The PFT manual blends

Elaine A Blechman; Kevin D Vryan

2000-01-01

376

Gender Differences in Bacterial STIs in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: The incidence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is rising in Canada. If these curable infections were prevented and treated, serious long-term sequelae including infertility, and associated treatment costs, could be dramatically reduced. STIs pose a greater risk to women than men in many ways, and further gender differences exist in screening and diagnosis. KEY FINDINGS: Reported incidence

Thomas Wong; Ameeta Singh; Janice Mann; Lisa Hansen; Sharon McMahon

2004-01-01

377

Relationship between bioleaching performance, bacterial community structure  

E-print Network

and continuous bioleaching tests were carried out with 10% solids, at 42 °C and with a pH between 1.2 and 1 related to a variation in bacterial community structure. The population in all tests was composed and sometimes benefaciens) but Sulfobacillus and more generally sulphur oxidizers were more represented in batch

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

378

Bacterial Paleontology and Studies of Carbonaceous Chondrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of the fossilization processes of modern cyanobacteria provides insights needed to recognize bacterial microfossils. The fossilization of cyanobacteria is discussed and images of recent and fossil bacteria and cyanobacteria from the Early Proterozoic to Neogene carbonaceous rocks (kerites, shungites, and black shales) and phosphorites are provided. These are compared with biomorphic microstructures and possible microfossils encountered in-situ in carbonaceous meteorites.

Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, Richard B.; Rozanov, Alexei Y.; Zhegallo, E. A.; Zhmur, S. I.

1999-01-01

379

Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been

Joseph G. Birmingham; Donald J. Hammerstrom

2000-01-01

380

Engineering the perfect (bacterial) cancer therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial therapies possess many unique mechanisms for treating cancer that are unachievable with standard methods. Bacteria can specifically target tumours, actively penetrate tissue, are easily detected and can controllably induce cytotoxicity. Over the past decade, Salmonella, Clostridium and other genera have been shown to control tumour growth and promote survival in animal models. In this Innovation article I propose that

Neil S. Forbes

2010-01-01

381

A Comprehensive Genetic Characterization of Bacterial Motility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a powerful experimental framework that combines competitive selection and microarray-based genetic footprinting to comprehensively reveal the genetic basis of bacterial behaviors. Application of this method to Escherichia coli motility identifies 95% of the known flagellar and chemotaxis genes, and reveals three dozen novel loci that, to varying degrees and through diverse mechanisms, affect motility. To probe the

Hany S Girgis; Yirchung Liu; William S Ryu; Saeed Tavazoie

2007-01-01

382

Molecular genetics of bacterial attachment and biofouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial adhesion to animate or inert surfaces is potentially mediated by nonspecific physical or specific ligand—receptor interactions. Growth and survival of the microbial community or biofilm then depends on adaptation to a series of changing environmental milieux. Within the realm of cell—cell interaction, recent advances suggest that flagella, fimbriae and other protein receptors are essential for bacterial attachment to surfaces.

Helen M Dalton; Paul E March

1998-01-01

383

Influence of topology on bacterial social interaction  

E-print Network

of E. coli E. coli in M9 minimal media as the accumulate into a central enclosure. After three hoursInfluence of topology on bacterial social interaction Emil Yuzbashyan Princeton University #12.coli (RP437) in a random maze. Dynamical accumulation in a "dead-end" part of the maze 2 hours after

Yuzbashyan, Emil

384

Bacterial respiration of arsenic and selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxyanions of arsenic and selenium can be used in microbial anaerobic respiration as terminal electron acceptors. The detection of arsenate and selenate respiring bacteria in numerous pristine and contaminated environments and their rapid appearance in enrichment culture suggest that they are widespread and metabolically active in nature. Although the bacterial species that have been isolated and characterized are still few

John F. Stolz; Ronald S. Oremland

1999-01-01

385

Bacterial colonization of Hemasite access devices.  

PubMed

Vascular access ports (Hemasites) were recovered from patients in whom they had become foci of infection and were examined according to microbiologic and morphologic techniques. All were covered on their extraluminal surfaces by well-developed biofilms consisting of host material and bacteria and their extracellular products. One Hemasite from which Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis were cultured was covered by a biofilm that consisted of coccoid bacterial cells and occasional fungal cells. Another Hemasite from which Proteus mirabilis was cultured was covered by a polymicrobial biofilm consisting of at least six morphologically distinct bacterial types and their extracellular products. This direct observation of the biofilm mode of bacterial growth on these devices suggests that the colonizing organisms will not be completely recovered by routine microbiologic techniques and that bacteria in the biofilm will tend to resist both host clearance mechanisms and antibiotic therapy. Removal of the device, with its accretion of bacterial biofilm, should allow the resolution of the associated infection. PMID:3082026

Reed, W P; Moody, M R; Newman, K A; Light, P D; Costerton, J W

1986-03-01

386

Bacterial Translocation in Adult Small Bowel Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of intestinal transplantation is limited by the high rate of infectious complications that can occur; the migration of enteric microorganisms to extraintestinal sites (bacterial translocation) has been suggested to be responsible for this event. We reviewed 95 intestinal biopsies performed on 28 transplanted patients to identify histologic features predictive of isolation of enteric microorganisms in extraintestinal sites within

A. Cucchetti; A. Siniscalchi; A. Bagni; A. Lauro; M. Cescon; N. Zucchini; A. Dazzi; C. Zanfi; S. Faenza; A. D. Pinna

2009-01-01

387

BIBI, a Bioinformatics Bacterial Identification Tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the medical field, bacterial identification is the main ac- tivity of clinical microbiology laboratories. Conventional bio- chemical methods and phenotypic tests for species differenti- ation are tedious and time-consuming and may require specialized testing that is beyond the capacity of clinical labo- ratories. Recent progress in molecular biology and bioinfor- matics allows the consideration of other methods that are

G. Devulder; G. Perriere; F. Baty; J. P. Flandrois

2003-01-01

388

Enzymatic Removal and Disinfection of Bacterial Biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomo- nas aeruginosa were made on steel and polypropylene substrata. Plaque-resembling biofilms of Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were made on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. The activity of enzymes against bacterial cells in biofilm was measured by fluorescence microscopy and an indirect conductance test in which evolution of carbon dioxide

CHARLOTTE JOHANSEN; PER FALHOLT; LONE GRAM

1997-01-01

389

Bacterial infections after intestine and multivisceral transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe frequency of bacterial infections (BI) in intestinal transplant (IT) patients is high with sepsis being the leading cause of death after this procedure. We herein report our experience with major BI to ascertain the incidence, microbiological and clinical factors, risk factors and outcome.

C Loinaz; T Kato; S Nishida; D Weppler; D Levi; L Dowdy; J Madariaga; J. R Nery; R Vianna; N Mittal; A Tzakis

2003-01-01

390

Corruption of Innate Immunity by Bacterial Proteases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The innate immune system of the human body has developed numerous mechanisms to control endogenous and exogenous bacteria and thus prevent infections by these microorganisms. These mechanisms range from physical barriers such as the skin or mucosal epithelium to a sophisticated array of molecules and cells that function to suppress or prevent bacterial infection. Many bacteria express a variety of

Jan Potempa; Robert N. Pike

2009-01-01

391

MFR PAPER 1143 A Septicemic Bacterial Disease  

E-print Network

MFR PAPER 1143 A Septicemic Bacterial Disease Syndrome of Penaeid Shrimp DONALD V. LIGHTNER and DONALD H. LEWIS ABSTRACT-A disease syndrome of penaeid shrimp characterized by the presence of an infectious Donald V. Lightner is with the Gal- veston Laboratory, Gulf Coastal Fisheries Center, National

392

Bacterial Contamination of Vegetables Served in Hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives : To study bacterial contamination of fresh vegetables before cleaning and before serving to patients in 14 hospitals. Material and Method : Aerobic plate count was performed and emphasized on total viable aerobic bacteria, fecal coliform, fecal Escherichia coli and enteric pathogens in fresh vegetables including romaine lettuce, onion, parsley, celery and tomato before cleaning and before serving. Hospital

Chertsak Dhiraputra; Chuntima Tiensasitorn; Wanida Techachaiwiwat; Naruemol Jirapanakorn; Kanchana Kachintorn RN; Somwang Danchaivijitr

2005-01-01

393

Structure and Complexity of a Bacterial Transcriptome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although gene expression has been studied in bacteria for decades, many aspects of the bacterial transcrip- tome remain poorly understood. Transcript structure, operon linkages, and information on absolute abun- dance all provide valuable insights into gene function and regulation, but none has ever been determined on a genome-wide scale for any bacterium. Indeed, these aspects of the prokaryotic transcriptome have

Karla D. Passalacqua; Anjana Varadarajan; Brian D. Ondov; David T. Okou; Michael E. Zwick; Nicholas H. Bergman

2009-01-01

394

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Investigation of archaeal and bacterial  

E-print Network

as an ingredient to improve the taste of other foods, such as kimchi, a famous fermented vegetable product of KoreaORIGINAL ARTICLE Investigation of archaeal and bacterial diversity in fermented seafood using, Seoul, Republic of Korea Little is known about the archaeal diversity of fermented seafood; most

Bae, Jin-Woo

395

Bacterial meningitis: Mechanisms of disease and therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial meningitis continues to be a serious infectious disease with a high morbidity and mortality in young children. Early recognition and initiation of adequate treatment are the major determinants for a good outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the host inflammatory response by cytokines may result in the use of new therapeutic strategies. Such modulation of the inflammatory response

R. F. Kornelisse; R. de Groot; H. J. Neijens

1995-01-01

396

Monochloramine Inactivation of Bacterial Select Agents?  

PubMed Central

Seven species of bacterial select agents were tested for susceptibility to monochloramine. Under test conditions, the monochloramine routinely maintained in potable water would reduce six of the species by 2 orders of magnitude within 4.2 h. Bacillus anthracis spores would require up to 3.5 days for the same inactivation with monochloramine. PMID:17400782

Rose, Laura J.; Rice, Eugene W.; Hodges, Lisa; Peterson, Alicia; Arduino, Matthew J.

2007-01-01

397

Biosensors for whole-cell bacterial detection.  

PubMed

Bacterial pathogens are important targets for detection and identification in medicine, food safety, public health, and security. Bacterial infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In spite of the availability of antibiotics, these infections are often misdiagnosed or there is an unacceptable delay in diagnosis. Current methods of bacterial detection rely upon laboratory-based techniques such as cell culture, microscopic analysis, and biochemical assays. These procedures are time-consuming and costly and require specialist equipment and trained users. Portable stand-alone biosensors can facilitate rapid detection and diagnosis at the point of care. Biosensors will be particularly useful where a clear diagnosis informs treatment, in critical illness (e.g., meningitis) or to prevent further disease spread (e.g., in case of food-borne pathogens or sexually transmitted diseases). Detection of bacteria is also becoming increasingly important in antibioterrorism measures (e.g., anthrax detection). In this review, we discuss recent progress in the use of biosensors for the detection of whole bacterial cells for sensitive and earlier identification of bacteria without the need for sample processing. There is a particular focus on electrochemical biosensors, especially impedance-based systems, as these present key advantages in terms of ease of miniaturization, lack of reagents, sensitivity, and low cost. PMID:24982325

Ahmed, Asif; Rushworth, Jo V; Hirst, Natalie A; Millner, Paul A

2014-07-01

398

Radiation Inactivation of Bacterial Spores on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conditions on Mars are thought to have been more conducive for life during its early history, about 3 billion years ago. If life ever evolved on Mars, would it be possible to see the remnants of a long-extinct biosphere today? Or even more interesting, would it be possible to find Martian bacterial spores that survived for billions of years on Mars?

Bada, J. L.; Kminek, G.

2004-01-01

399

Selective Inhibitors of Bacterial DNA Adenine Methyltransferases  

E-print Network

-throughput fluorescence-based assay and recombinant DAM and CcrM, the authors screened a diverse chemical library methyltransferases. These enzymes are essential for bacterial virulence (DNA adenine methyltransferase [DAM,5 This simple modification plays diverse roles in viruses, bacteria, plants, and animals. In eukaryotes, DNA

Reich, Norbert O.

400

Advanced Review Theoretical insights into bacterial  

E-print Network

species may vary, for instance, E. coli rely on a series of flagella to propel them through clusters and flagellar motors) in: (a) E. coli, (b) B. subtilis, and (c) R. sphaeroides chemotacticAdvanced Review Theoretical insights into bacterial chemotaxis Marcus J. Tindall,1,2,3 Eamonn A

Maini, Philip K.

401

Design Principles of a Bacterial Signalling Network  

E-print Network

in E. coli 11 #12;Chemotaxis ­ Flagella Movement by rotating corkscrew-flagella · counterDesign Principles of a Bacterial Signalling Network Why chemotaxis is more complicated than needed of Freiburg http://www.fdm.uni-freiburg.de/jeti/ 1 #12;Outline · Introduction · Chemotaxis · Barkai

Timmer, Jens

402

SHORT COMMUNICATION Bacterial chemotaxis towards the  

E-print Network

bacteria­algae associ- ations with potential implications for harmful algal bloom dynamics. The occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs), caused by toxic phytoplankton, has detrimental environ- mental, economic; Yoshinaga et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2008a, b), indicating that bacterial-algal interactions play

Entekhabi, Dara

403

The 'Swiss cheese' instability of bacterial biofilms  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a novel pattern that results in bacterial biofilms as a result of the competition between hydrodynamic forces and adhesion forces. After the passage of an air plug, the break up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a Swiss cheese pattern of holes is left in the residual biofilm.

Jang, Hongchul; Stocker, Roman

2012-01-01

404

Building a flagellum outside the bacterial cell  

E-print Network

, 2437–2442 23 Chen, S.Y. et al. (2011) Structural diversity of bacterial flagellar motors. EMBO J. 30, 2972–2981 24 Liu, J. et al. (2010) Cellular architecture of Treponema pallidum: novel flagellum, periplasmic cone, and cell envelope as revealed...

Evans, Lewis D. B.; Hughes, Colin; Fraser, Gillian M.

2014-06-24

405

Familial malignant melanoma  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics associated with familial compared with nonfamilial malignant melanoma were assessed. These data were obtained from consecutive prospectively completed questionnaires on 1169 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Of these, 69 patients indicated a positive family history for this cancer. Among the various clinical and histological variables compared, those that significantly correlated with the familial occurrence of malignant melanoma include younger age at first diagnosis, smaller diameter of the lesion, lower Clark level, decreased frequency of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and reduced prevalence of noncutaneous cancer. Increased awareness of malignant melanoma among family members could account for some of these observations. Identification of the familial variety of malignant melanoma has practical implications concerning early detection and prompt intervention.

Kopf, A.W.; Hellman, L.J.; Rogers, G.S.; Gross, D.F.; Rigel, D.S.; Friedman, R.J.; Levenstein, M.; Brown, J.; Golomb, F.M.; Roses, D.F.; Gumport, S.L.

1986-10-10

406

[Strengthening family planning management].  

PubMed

Prior to 1984, enforcement of family planning policies in an undisclosed PLA military settlement in China's Jinan Military Region was totally inadequate. After notification from the central government, this military settlement immediately began enforcing family planning policies, resulting in sudden and full compliance with the central government's family planning policies. The system of scientific management of promoting and enforcing family planning, established by local administrators, is described. Management by objectives, clearly defined individual tasks and responsibilities, an full cooperation and support on the part of the authorities are some of the factors responsible for the effectiveness and success of the family planning efforts in this military settlement. A number of potential problem areas are identified scientific management techniques in dealing with uncooperative parties are emphasized. PMID:12159410

Hong, C; Shi, Z

1985-09-29

407

Families First: Keys to Successful Family Functioning An Introduction  

E-print Network

unit. Unlike any other social group, families are able to provide the close emotional support needed to produce self-confident and well-adjusted children and adults. Likewise, families that function age children; the family with teenagers; the family/ launching center; the family/middle years

Liskiewicz, Maciej

408

Engaging Families in In-Home Family Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Boys Town has created a program called In-Home Family Services to deliver help to families in stress. In-home family intervention programs have become widely used to help more families who are at risk and experiencing difficulties with a wide range of problems including domestic violence, child behavior problems, parent-child and family

Thompson, Ronald W.; Koley, Sarah

2014-01-01

409

Bacterial superinfection in Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a polymorphic disease. It is generally accepted that bacterial superinfection may play a role in the clinical appearance of the lesions and may delay or prevent the healing process. However, the pattern of bacterial pathogens involved has rarely been investigated. Material/Methods The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species contaminating the suspected ZCL and their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics. Microscopic examination of stained smears and cultures were used to differentiate ZCL from non-ZCL lesions in a rural area north of Isfahan, Iran from July to December 2009. Bacteria were isolated from the lesions and identified and antibiotic susceptibility was determined by standard microbiological techniques. Results The results show that 602 (68%) of 855 patients were positive for ZCL, of which 83.4% with volcano-shape, 8.8% psoriasiform, 6.6% popular form and 1.2% with other atypical forms of ZCL. The bacteria were isolated from 66.8% of ZCL (70% of volcano-shape, 60% of psoriasiform and 25% of popular form) and 64.7% of non-ZCL lesions. The most common species were Staphylococcus aureus (41.7%) and S. epidermidis (28%) followed by Bacillus sp. Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Proteus sp., Enterobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Cefazolin and Clindamycin were the most effective antibiotics. Conclusions Bacterial superinfection appears to be very common in ZCL, but its prevalence is not different from that of non-ZCL lesions and it has little effect on the clinical appearance of anthroponotic cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL). Local lesion care and management of bacterial superinfection must be considered in the treatment of ZCL. PMID:22936185

Doudi, Monir; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Narimani, Manizheh

2012-01-01

410

BACTERIAL PREFERENCES OF THE BACTERIVOROUS SOIL NEMATODE CEPHALOBUS BREVICAUDA (CEPHALOBIDATE): EFFECT OF BACTERIAL TYPE AND SIZE  

EPA Science Inventory

Cell size and type may affect availability of bacteria for consumption by bacterivorous nematodes in the soil and in culture. This study explored the bacterial preferences of the bacterivorous soil nematode Cephalobus brevicauda (Cephalobidae) by comparing bactgeria isolated dir...

411

The role of bacterial biofilms and surface components in plant-bacterial associations.  

PubMed

The role of bacterial surface components in combination with bacterial functional signals in the process of biofilm formation has been increasingly studied in recent years. Plants support a diverse array of bacteria on or in their roots, transport vessels, stems, and leaves. These plant-associated bacteria have important effects on plant health and productivity. Biofilm formation on plants is associated with symbiotic and pathogenic responses, but how plants regulate such associations is unclear. Certain bacteria in biofilm matrices have been found to induce plant growth and to protect plants from phytopathogens (a process termed biocontrol), whereas others are involved in pathogenesis. In this review, we systematically describe the various components and mechanisms involved in bacterial biofilm formation and attachment to plant surfaces and the relationships of these mechanisms to bacterial activity and survival. PMID:23903045

Bogino, Pablo C; Oliva, María de las Mercedes; Sorroche, Fernando G; Giordano, Walter

2013-01-01

412

A bacterial algorithm for surface mapping using a Markov modulated Markov chain model of bacterial chemotaxis  

E-print Network

Bacterial chemotaxis is the locomotory response of bacteria to chemical stimuli. E. coli movement can be described as a biased random walk, and it is known that the general biological or evolutionary function is to increase ...

Kharbouch, Alaa Amin

2006-01-01

413

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Colorimetric / fluorescent bacterial sensing by agarose-  

E-print Network

interest owing to the recurring incidents of bacterial con- taminations in foods and water, the anthrax and fluorescence transformations in response to bacterial growth. The sensing constructs comprise glass

Jelinek, Raz

414

Microfluidic Systems for Investigating Bacterial Chemotaxis and Colonization  

E-print Network

The overall goal of this work was to develop and utilize microfluidic models for investigating bacterial chemotaxis and biofilm formation - phenotypes that play key roles in bacterial infections. Classical methods for investigating chemotaxis...

Englert, Derek Lynn

2011-02-22

415

Combinatorial discovery of polymers resistant to bacterial attachment  

E-print Network

Bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation pose key challenges to the optimal performance of medical devices. In this study, we determined the attachment of selected bacterial species to hundreds of polymeric ...

Hook, Andrew L

416

Original article Varroa jacobsoni as a carrier of bacterial infections  

E-print Network

; accepted 20 September 1991) Summary — Using Serratia marcescens as an indicator bacterium with S marcescens, preferably individuals with Serratia septicaemia, were the source of bacterial contamination. Varroa jacobsoni/ Serratia marcescens/ carrier/ bacterial infection/ septicaemia INTRODUCTION One

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

417

Controlling Plant Pathogens with Bacterial/Fungal Antagonist Combinations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fungal/bacterial antagonist combinations, a seed coated with one of the combinations and a plant protected from plant pathogens by one of the combinations. The invention is also a fungal/bacterial antagonist combination comprising a Trichoderma virens fun...

T. D. Johnson

2004-01-01

418

New developments in the understanding of the cation diffusion facilitator family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) proteins are a phylogenetically ubiquitous family of intermembrane transporters generally believed to play a role in the homeostasis of a wide range divalent metal cations. CDFs are found in a host of membranes, including the bacterial cell membrane, the vacuolar membrane of both plants and yeast, and the golgi apparatus of animals. As such, they are

Christopher J. Haney; Gregor Grass; Sylvia Franke; Christopher Rensing

2005-01-01

419

Family intervention for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background People with schizophrenia from families that express high levels of criticism, hostility, or over involvement, have more frequent relapses than people with similar problems from families that tend to be less expressive of emotions. Forms of psychosocial intervention, designed to reduce these levels of expressed emotions within families, are now widely used. Objectives To estimate the effects of family psychosocial interventions in community settings for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like conditions compared with standard care. Search strategy We updated previous searches by searching the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (September 2008). Selection criteria We selected randomised or quasi-randomised studies focusing primarily on families of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder that compared community-orientated family-based psychosocial intervention with standard care. Data collection and analysis We independently extracted data and calculated fixed-effect relative risk (RR), the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for binary data, and, where appropriate, the number needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). Main results This 2009-10 update adds 21 additional studies, with a total of 53 randomised controlled trials included. Family intervention may decrease the frequency of relapse (n = 2981, 32 RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.5 to 0.6, NNT 7 CI 6 to 8), although some small but negative studies might not have been identified by the search. Family intervention may also reduce hospital admission (n = 481, 8 RCTs, RR 0.78 CI 0.6 to 1.0, NNT 8 CI 6 to 13) and encourage compliance with medication (n = 695, 10 RCTs, RR 0.60 CI 0.5 to 0.7, NNT 6 CI 5 to 9) but it does not obviously affect the tendency of individuals/families to leave care (n = 733, 10 RCTs, RR 0.74 CI 0.5 to 1.0). Family intervention also seems to improve general social impairment and the levels of expressed emotion within the family. We did not find data to suggest that family intervention either prevents or promotes suicide. Authors’ conclusions Family intervention may reduce the number of relapse events and hospitalisations and would therefore be of interest to people with schizophrenia, clinicians and policy makers. However, the treatment effects of these trials may be overestimated due to the poor methodological quality. Further data from trials that describe the methods of randomisation, test the blindness of the study evaluators, and implement the CONSORT guidelines would enable greater confidence in these findings. PMID:21154340

Pharoah, Fiona; Mari, Jair; Rathbone, John; Wong, Winson

2014-01-01

420

Species sorting and neutral processes are both important during the initial assembly of bacterial communities  

PubMed Central

Many studies have shown that species sorting, that is, the selection by local environmental conditions is important for the composition and assembly of bacterial communities. On the other hand, there are other studies that could show that bacterial communities are neutrally assembled. In this study, we implemented a microcosm experiment with the aim to determine, at the same time, the importance of species sorting and neutral processes for bacterial community assembly during the colonisation of new, that is, sterile, habitats, by atmospheric bacteria. For this we used outdoor microcosms, which contained sterile medium from three different rock pools representing different environmental conditions, which were seeded by rainwater bacteria. We found some evidence for neutral assembly processes, as almost every 4th taxon growing in the microcosms was also detectable in the rainwater sample irrespective of the medium. Most of these taxa belonged to widespread families with opportunistic growth strategies, such as the Pseudomonadaceae and Comamonadaceae, indicating that neutrally assembled taxa may primarily be generalists. On the other hand, we also found evidence for species sorting, as one out of three media selected a differently composed bacterial community. Species sorting effects were relatively weak and established themselves via differences in relative abundance of generalists among the different media, as well as media-specific occurrences of a few specific taxa. In summary, our results suggest that neutral and species sorting processes interact during the assembly of bacterial communities and that their importance may differ depending on how many generalists and specialists are present in a community. PMID:21270841

Langenheder, Silke; Szekely, Anna J

2011-01-01

421

Ruminal bacterial community shifts in grain-, sugar-, and histidine-challenged dairy heifers.  

PubMed

Ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) and its associations with ruminal fermentation measures were studied in dairy heifers challenged with combinations of grain, fructose, and histidine in a partial factorial study. Holstein-Friesian heifers (n=30) were randomly allocated to 5 triticale grain-based treatment groups: (1) control (no grain), (2) grain [fed at a dry matter intake (DMI) of 1.2% of body weight (BW)], (3) grain (0.8% of BW DMI) + fructose (0.4% of BW DMI), (4) grain (1.2% of BW DMI) + histidine (6g/head), and (5) grain (0.8% of BW DMI) + fructose (0.4% of BW DMI) + histidine (6g/head). Ruminal fluid was collected using a stomach tube 5, 115, and 215min after consumption of the rations and bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequence data was analyzed to characterize bacteria. Large variation among heifers and distinct BCC were evident in a between-group constrained principal components analysis. Bacterial composition in the fructose-fed heifers was positively related to total lactate and butyrate concentrations. Bacterial composition was positively associated with ruminal ammonia, valerate, and histamine concentrations in the grain-fed heifers. The predominant phyla were the Firmicutes (57.6% of total recovered sequences), Bacteroidetes (32.0%), and candidate phylum TM7 (4.0%). Prevotella was the dominant genus. In general, grain or histidine or their interactions with time had minimal effects on the relative abundance of bacterial phyla and families. Fructose increased and decreased the relative abundance of the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla over time, respectively, and decreased the abundance of the Prevotellaceae family over time. The relative abundance of the Streptococcaceae and Veillonellaceae families was increased in the fructose-fed heifers and these heifers over time. A total of 31 operational taxonomic units differed among treatment groups in the 3.6h sampling period, Streptococcus bovis was observed in fructose fed animals. The TM7 candidate phylum had an increased abundance of sequence reads by over 2.5 fold due to the introduction of histidine into the diet. Rapid changes in BCC can occur in a short period after a single substrate challenge and the nature of these changes may influence ruminal acidosis risk and differ from those in cattle exposed to substrate challenges over a longer time period. PMID:24881800

Golder, H M; Denman, S E; McSweeney, C; Celi, P; Lean, I J

2014-08-01

422

Familial Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review Families with multiple individuals affected with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other related B-cell tumors have been described in the literature and strong familial aggregation has been seen in population studies. However, predisposing germ line mutations have not been identified. We will discuss the spectrum of conditions associated with CLL in families and the advances in identifying the underlying susceptibility genes. Recent Findings Familial CLL does not appear to differ substantially from sporadic CLL in terms of prognostic markers and clinical outcome, although it may be associated with more indolent disease. The precursor condition, monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) also aggregates in CLL families. Linkage studies have been conducted in high-risk CLL families to screen the whole genome for susceptibility loci but no gene mutations have yet been identified by this method. Association studies of candidate genes have implicated several genes as being important in CLL but more studies are needed. Results from whole genome association studies are promising. Summary The ability to conduct large scale genomic studies in unrelated CLL cases and in high risk CLL families will play an important role in detecting susceptibility genes for CLL over the next few years and thereby help to delineate etiologic pathways. PMID:20389242

Goldin, Lynn R.; Slager, Susan L.; Caporaso, Neil E.

2010-01-01

423

Partners in family planning.  

PubMed

Studies of the Africa OR/TA Project and other Cooperating Agencies suggest that support of family planning by traditional health practitioners (THPs), traditional birth attendants (TBAs), Islamic religious leaders, and male opinion leaders (MOLs) can result in an increase in the availability of family planning services in the community. A study in Kenya shows that 100 trained THPs who were actively involved in family planning (i.e., distributors of condoms, oral contraceptives, and primary health care drugs) increased contraceptive use in Siaya and Kakamega districts from 7% to 15% and from 14% to 34%, respectively. Contraceptive use did not change in the 2 control areas. Two years after TBAs underwent training in family planning promotion, the proportion of women who named TBAs as their source of family planning information increased from 2% to 18%. In The Gambia, integration of Islamic religious leaders into family planning promotion activities resulted in an increase of current modern contraceptive method use from 9% to 20% for males and from 9% to 26% for females. Involvement of 69 MOLs has increased knowledge of family planning methods in Nkambe, Cameroon. For example, among males, knowledge about the condom increased from 52% to 81% and knowledge about spermicides increased from 12% to 44%. The corresponding figures for women were 47% to 72% and 17% to 42%, respectively. PMID:12319039

1994-12-01

424

Families Get Involved! Learning Partners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that families who are involved in their children's education make a difference in their child's performance, this two-page information sheet encourages families to get involved by listing the benefits of family involvement on one side and the ways adult family members can help in the school on the other. As a result of family participation:…

Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Media and Information Services.

425

Canadian Families (Les Familles Canadiennes).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Structural changes that have taken place in Canadian families in recent decades are described in this booklet. Topical sections are as follows: (1) What Counts in Canadian Families (importance of (importance of family); (2) The Family--Variations on a Theme origins, family structure, seniors aged 60 and over, how lives are spent, religion); (3)…

Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

426

THE SCHOOL OF FAMILY LIFE  

E-print Network

- ment, clothing and textiles, early childhood education, family and consumer science education, familyTHE SCHOOL OF FAMILY LIFE ALUMNI MAGAZINE SPRING 2011 FAMILY CONNECTIONS CO-PLAY: THE LATEST VIDEO economics education, clothing and textiles, interior design, or family and consumer sciences (FACS

Martinez, Tony R.

427

Family Day Care Training Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's Family Day Care Training Program was designed to recruit and train in 7 weeks, Lao, Vietnamese, and Chinese refugees to establish their own state-licensed, family day care homes. Topics in the program's curriculum include an introduction to family day care, state licenses for family day care, state licensing requirements for family

Nakatsu, Gail

428

2005 Nature Publishing Group Aminoglycoside antibiotics induce bacterial biofilm  

E-print Network

© 2005 Nature Publishing Group Aminoglycoside antibiotics induce bacterial biofilm formation Lucas I. Miller2,3,4 Biofilms are adherent aggregates of bacterial cells that form on biotic and abiotic surfaces, including human tissues. Biofilms resist antibiotic treatment and contribute to bacterial

Cai, Long

429

Bacterial ghosts (BGs)—Advanced antigen and drug delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty bacterial envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria produced by controlled expression of cloned gene E, forming a lysis tunnel structure within the envelope of the living bacteria. BGs are devoid of cytoplasmic content and possess all bacterial bio-adhesive surface properties in their original state while not posing any infectious threat. BGs are ideally suited as an advanced

Pavol Kudela; Verena Juliana Koller; Werner Lubitz

2010-01-01

430

Molecular Population Genetic Analysis of Emerged Bacterial Pathogens: Selected Insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in bacterial population genetics has increased in the last 10 years. Population genetic theory and tools and related strategies have been used to investigate bacterial pathogens that have contributed to recent episodes of temporal variation in disease fre- quency and severity. A common theme demonstrated by these analyses is that distinct bacterial clones are responsible for disease outbreaks and

James M. Musser

1996-01-01

431

Evolutionary transitions in bacterial symbiosis Joel L. Sachs1  

E-print Network

Evolutionary transitions in bacterial symbiosis Joel L. Sachs1 , Ryan G. Skophammer, and John U mutualism. Each of these transitions has occurred many times in the history of bacterial­eukaryote symbiosis evolutionary transitions in bacterial symbiosis and test hypotheses about the selective, ecological

Sachs, Joel

432

Child And Family Studies Department Of Child And Family Studies  

E-print Network

, psychology, medicine, family law, counseling, health care, child and family studies and education. GRADUATE, mental health, health and juvenile justice agencies, youth programs, schools and parent and family and advanced degrees in counseling psychology, developmental psychology, educational psychology, sociology

Raina, Ramesh

433

Effects of family routines and family stress on child competencies  

E-print Network

Assessment...........................................................................................23 Parental Monitoring and Family Structure...............................................................24 Ego Control... and Family Structure Rotated Component Matrix...................27 4 Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results for the Ego Control Scale ............................29 5 Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results for the Family Status Scale...

Hill, Crystal Renee

2006-10-30

434

Family History Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Family Healthware™, a tool developed by the CDC, is a self-administered web-based family history tool that assesses familial risk for six diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and colon, breast and ovarian cancers) and provides personalized prevention messages based on risk. The Family Healthware Impact Trial (FHITr) set out to examine the clinical utility of presenting personalized preventive messages tailored to family history risk for improving health behaviors. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Family Healthware on modifying disease risk perceptions, particularly among those who initially underestimated their risk for certain diseases. Design A total of 3786 patients were enrolled in a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the clinical utility of Family Healthware. Setting/participants Participants were recruited from 41 primary care practices among 13 states between 2005 and 2007. Main outcome measures Perceived risk for each disease was assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up using a single-item comparative risk question. Analyses were completed in March 2012. Results Compared to controls, Family Healthware increased risk perceptions among those who underestimated their risk for heart disease (15% vs 9%, p<0.005); stroke (11% vs 8%, p<0.05); diabetes (18% vs 11%, p<0.05); and colon cancer (17% vs 10%, p=0.05); but not breast or ovarian cancers. The majority of underestimators did not shift in their disease risk perceptions. Conclusions Family Healthware was effective at increasing disease risk perceptions, particularly for metabolic conditions, among those who underestimated their risk. Results from this study also demonstrate the relatively resistant nature of risk perceptions. Trial registration This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT00164658. PMID:22992357

Wang, Catharine; Sen, Ananda; Ruffin, Mack T.; Nease, Donald E.; Gramling, Robert; Acheson, Louise S.; O'Neill, Suzanne M.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.

2012-01-01

435

Bacterial foodborne infections after hematopoietic cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Diarrhea, abdominal pain, and fever are common among patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but such symptoms are also typical with foodborne infections. The burden of disease caused by foodborne infections in patients undergoing HCT is unknown. We sought to describe bacterial foodborne infection incidence after transplantation within a single-center population of HCT recipients. All HCT recipients who underwent transplantation from 2001 through 2011 at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington were followed for 1 year after transplantation. Data were collected retrospectively using center databases, which include information from transplantation, on-site examinations, outside records, and collected laboratory data. Patients were considered to have a bacterial foodborne infection if Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Vibrio species, or Yersinia species were isolated in culture within 1 year after transplantation. Nonfoodborne infections with these agents and patients with pre-existing bacterial foodborne infection (within 30 days of transplantation) were excluded from analyses. A total of 12 of 4069 (.3%) patients developed a bacterial foodborne infection within 1 year after transplantation. Patients with infections had a median age at transplantation of 50.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 35 to 57), and the majority were adults ?18 years of age (9 of 12 [75%]), male gender (8 of 12 [67%]) and had allogeneic transplantation (8 of 12 [67%]). Infectious episodes occurred at an incidence rate of 1.0 per 100,000 patient-days (95% confidence interval, .5 to 1.7) and at a median of 50.5 days after transplantation (IQR, 26 to 58.5). The most frequent pathogen detected was C. jejuni/coli (5 of 12 [42%]) followed by Yersinia (3 of 12 [25%]), although Salmonella (2 of 12 [17%]) and Listeria (2 of 12 [17%]) showed equal frequencies; no cases of Shigella, Vibrio, or E. coli O157:H7 were detected. Most patients were diagnosed via stool (8 of 12 [67%]), fewer through blood (2 of 12 [17%]), 1 via both stool and blood simultaneously, and 1 through urine. Mortality due to bacterial foodborne infection was not observed during follow-up. Our large single-center study indicates that common bacterial foodborne infections were a rare complication after HCT, and the few cases that did occur resolved without complications. These data provide important baseline incidence for future studies evaluating dietary interventions for HCT patients. PMID:25020101

Boyle, Nicole M; Podczervinski, Sara; Jordan, Kim; Stednick, Zach; Butler-Wu, Susan; McMillen, Kerry; Pergam, Steven A

2014-11-01

436

Bacterial community in the personal-use composting reactor revealed by isolation and cultivation-independent method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composting is an efficient and cost-effective process for organic waste treatment. In order to expand our knowledge regarding microorganisms and their roles in the composting process, bacterial community structures in the personal-use composting reactor were examined by isolation and 16S rDNA clone analysis (cultivation-independent method). The results of 16S rDNA clone analysis showed that populations of the Bacillaceae family (such

Keiko Watanabe; Norio Nagao; Tatsuki Toda; Norio Kurosawa

2010-01-01

437

Effects of AntiBacterial Agents, Sample Preparation and Contact Time on AntiBacterial Efficacy in MDPE Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anti-bacterial efficacy of medium-density polyethylene (MDPE) with various contents of different anti-bacterial agents was studied with respect to the effects of the anti-bacterial concentration, size and form of MDPE test-specimen, and the contact time. The three anti-bacterial agents used were carbendazim and zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate (TROYSAN-S88), 2-hydroxypropyl3-piperazinyl-quinoline carboxylic acid methacrylate (HPQM), and silver substituted zeolite (ZEOMIC). The halo and

Pakawat Chammanee; Kwannate Sombatsompop; Apisit Kositchaiyong; Narongrit Sombatsompop

2009-01-01

438

Response of phyllosphere bacterial communities to elevated CO2 during rice growing season.  

PubMed

The phyllosphere, the aerial parts of terrestrial plants, represents the largest biological interface on Earth. This habitat is colonized by diverse microorganisms that affect plant health and growth. However, the community structure of these phyllosphere microorganisms and their responses to environmental changes, such as rising atmospheric CO2, are poorly understood. Using a massive parallel pyrosequencing technique, we investigated the feedback of a phyllosphere bacterial community in rice to elevated CO2 (eCO2) at the tillering, filling, and maturity stages under nitrogen fertilization with low (LN) and high application rates (HN). The results revealed 9,406 distinct operational taxonomic units that could be classified into 8 phyla, 13 classes, 26 orders, 59 families, and 120 genera. The family Enterobacteriaceae within Gammaproteobacteria was the most dominant phylotype during the rice growing season, accounting for 61.0-97.2 % of the total microbial communities. A statistical analysis indicated that the shift in structure and composition of phyllosphere bacterial communities was largely dependent on the rice growing stage. eCO2 showed a distinct effect on the structure of bacterial communities at different growth stages, and the most evident response of the community structure to eCO2 was observed at the filling stage. eCO2 significantly increased the relative abundance of the most dominant phylotype (Enterobacteriaceae) from 88.6 % at aCO2 (ambient CO2) to 97.2 % at eCO2 under LN fertilization at the filling stage, while it significantly decreased the total relative abundance of other phylotypes from 7.48 to 1.35 %. Similarly, higher value for the relative abundance of the most dominant family (Enterobacteriaceae) and lower value for the total relative abundance of other families were observed under eCO2 condition at other growth stages and under different N fertilizations, but the difference was not statistically significant. No consistent response pattern was observed along growth stages that could be attributed to N treatments. These results provide useful insights into our understanding of the response of a phyllosphere bacterial community to eCO2 with regards to the diversity, composition, and structure during rice growing seasons. PMID:25027571

Ren, Gaidi; Zhang, Huayong; Lin, Xiangui; Zhu, Jianguo; Jia, Zhongjun

2014-11-01

439

Engagement of integrins as a cellular route of invasion by bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

Integrins are heterodimeric receptors that mediate important cell functions, including cell adhesion, migration and tissue organisation. These transmembrane receptors regulate the direct association of cells with each other and with extracellular matrix proteins. However, by binding their ligands, integrins provide a transmembrane link for the bidirectional transmission of mechanical forces and biochemical signals across the plasma membrane. Interestingly, several of this family of receptors are exploited by pathogens to establish contact with the host cells. Hence, microbes subvert normal eukaryotic cell processes to create a specialised niche which allows their survival. This review highlights the fundamental role of integrins in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:16546423

Scibelli, Antonio; Roperto, Sante; Manna, Laura; Pavone, Luigi Michele; Tafuri, Simona; Della Morte, Rossella; Staiano, Norma

2007-05-01

440

Family in transition: parents, children and grandparents in lesbian families give meaning to 'doing family'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesbian parents, their children and grandparents 'do family' in rich and diverse ways. This article draws on innovative grounded theory research using qualitative, multi-generational family interviews with twenty les- bian-parented families living in Victoria, Australia. The intersection between the public and the private in lesbian family life has been seriously neglected by family researchers, and in particular the perspectives of

Amaryll Perlesz; Rhonda Brown; Jo Lindsay; Ruth McNair; David de Vaus; Marian Pitts

2006-01-01

441

Family Therapy, Family Practice, and Child and Family Poverty: Historical Perspectives and Recent Developments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper assesses the engagement of family therapy and family practice with families with children, who are living in poverty. It analyzes four promising models from two perspectives. The first perspective relates to critiques, which have been made of the practice of family therapy with families living in poverty; and the second relates to the…

Frankel, Harvy; Frankel, Sid

2006-01-01

442

The Family Map: Structured Family Interview to Identify Risks and Strengths in Head Start Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Family Map is a semistructured interview developed to assess important aspects of the family and home environment associated with well-being in 3- to 5-year old children. The measure is designed so that it can be used during home visits with Head Start families. Accordingly, it was developed in collaboration with Head Start providers and families. The Family Map systematically

Leanne Whiteside-Mansell; Robert Bradley; Nicola Conners; Patti Bokony

2007-01-01

443

Helping Friends and Family  

MedlinePLUS

... your local chapter Join our online community Helping Friends and Family Part of living well with Alzheimerâ??s ... grandchildren can learn more about Alzheimer's. Helping your friends back to top Friends, co-workers and neighbors ...

444

Understanding Fragile Families  

MedlinePLUS

... study is supported through the NICHD Demographic and Behavioral Sciences Branch and offers a snapshot of life for ... one of the links below: NICHD’s Demographic and Behavioral Sciences (DBS) Branch DBS Branch: Families, Children, and Intergenerational ...

445

Family Weight Control  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Family Issues Obesity in Children Parenting Weight Control Transcript Overweight parents wanting to ... weight control program among 96 overweight or obese children between the ages of 2 and 5. For ...

446

Family Traits and Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a matching game with their families to discover common inherited traits and traditions. Learners distinguish between inherited traits and learned traditions. This genetics activity is available in English and Spanish.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

447

Normal Functioning Family  

MedlinePLUS

... of relationships with each of them. Individualize your relationship with each of your children, reinforcing their strengths and talents and avoiding making unflattering comparisons with their siblings or friends. Does your family have regular routines? ...

448

NASA's SEMAA Family Café  

NASA Video Gallery

The Family Cafe provides parents and caregivers with an informal, relaxed setting in which they can gain valuable information regarding how they can best support their child's journey into the scie...

449

Bacterial Associates of Two Caribbean Coral Species Reveal Species-Specific Distribution and Geographic Variability  

PubMed Central

Scleractinian corals harbor microorganisms that form dynamic associations with the coral host and exhibit substantial genetic and ecological diversity. Microbial associates may provide defense against pathogens and serve as bioindicators of changing environmental conditions. Here we describe the bacterial assemblages associated with two of the most common and phylogenetically divergent reef-building corals in the Caribbean, Montastraea faveolata and Porites astreoides. Contrasting life history strategies and disease susceptibilities indicate potential differences in their microbiota and immune function that may in part drive changes in the composition of coral reef communities. The ribotype structure and diversity of coral-associated bacteria within the surface mucosal layer (SML) of healthy corals were assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting and 454 bar-coded pyrosequencing. Corals were sampled at disparate Caribbean locations representing various levels of anthropogenic impact. We demonstrate here that M. faveolata and P. astreoides harbor distinct, host-specific bacteria but that specificity varies by species and site. P. astreoides generally hosts a bacterial assemblage of low diversity that is largely dominated by one bacterial genus, Endozoicomonas, within the order Oceanospirillales. The bacterial assemblages associated with M. faveolata are significantly more diverse and exhibit higher specificity at the family level than P. astreoides assemblages. Both corals have more bacterial diversity and higher abundances of disease-related bacteria at sites closer to the mainland than at those furthest away. The most diverse bacterial taxa and highest relative abundance of disease-associated bacteria were seen for corals near St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) (2.5 km from shore), and the least diverse taxa and lowest relative abundance were seen for corals near our most pristine site in Belize (20 km from shore). We conclude that the two coral species studied harbor distinct bacterial assemblages within the SML, but the degree to which each species maintains specific microbial associations varies both within each site and across large spatial scales. The taxonomic scale (i.e., phylum versus genus) at which scientists examine coral-microbe associations, in addition to host-elicited factors and environmental fluctuations, must be considered carefully in future studies of the coral holobiont. PMID:22773636

Moss, Anthony G.; Chadwick, Nanette E.; Liles, Mark R.

2012-01-01

450

Bacterial associates of two Caribbean coral species reveal species-specific distribution and geographic variability.  

PubMed

Scleractinian corals harbor microorganisms that form dynamic associations with the coral host and exhibit substantial genetic and ecological diversity. Microbial associates may provide defense against pathogens and serve as bioindicators of changing environmental conditions. Here we describe the bacterial assemblages associated with two of the most common and phylogenetically divergent reef-building corals in the Caribbean, Montastraea faveolata and Porites astreoides. Contrasting life history strategies and disease susceptibilities indicate potential differences in their microbiota and immune function that may in part drive changes in the composition of coral reef communities. The ribotype structure and diversity of coral-associated bacteria within the surface mucosal layer (SML) of healthy corals were assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting and 454 bar-coded pyrosequencing. Corals were sampled at disparate Caribbean locations representing various levels of anthropogenic impact. We demonstrate here that M. faveolata and P. astreoides harbor distinct, host-specific bacteria but that specificity varies by species and site. P. astreoides generally hosts a bacterial assemblage of low diversity that is largely dominated by one bacterial genus, Endozoicomonas, within the order Oceanospirillales. The bacterial assemblages associated with M. faveolata are significantly more diverse and exhibit higher specificity at the family level than P. astreoides assemblages. Both corals have more bacterial diversity and higher abundances of disease-related bacteria at sites closer to the mainland than at those furthest away. The most diverse bacterial taxa and highest relative abundance of disease-associated bacteria were seen for corals near St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) (2.5 km from shore), and the least diverse taxa and lowest relative abundance were seen for corals near our most pristine site in Belize (20 km from shore). We conclude that the two coral species studied harbor distinct bacterial assemblages within the SML, but the degree to which each species maintains specific microbial associations varies both within each site and across large spatial scales. The taxonomic scale (i.e., phylum versus genus) at which scientists examine coral-microbe associations, in addition to host-elicited factors and environmental fluctuations, must be considered carefully in future studies of the coral holobiont. PMID:22773636

Morrow, Kathleen M; Moss, Anthony G; Chadwick, Nanette E; Liles, Mark R

2012-09-01

451

Family Violence and Delinquency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdisciplinary research has indicated that the experience of family violence is a risk factor for childrens’ delinquency\\u000a specifically and antisocial behavior more generally. Violence in the family is a national public health concern in view of\\u000a its common occurrence, its immediate health and safety concerns for victims, and its broad effects on youth development (Daro,\\u000a Edleson, & Pinderhughes, 2004; Straus

Carolyn A. Smith; Timothy O. Ireland

452

Culture and family therapy.  

PubMed

Children and families constitute an ever-increasing culturally diverse group in this country. Together with incentives in multicultural education and the evidence of the impact of different cultural values in the media, these groups have become more visible, more complex, and harder to study. Culture is defined as dynamic and expressive of shared values and behaviors. Cultural patterns may be situation specific and change according to contextual demands (rural versus urban youth) or may be population specific (the culture of gay youth versus heterosexual youth). Some people also ascribe to cultural beliefs, but these do not necessarily translate to behaviors. Families and their children vary in their level of acculturation and developmentally vary in their level of ethnic identification. Child-rearing patterns and parenting approaches are constantly in flux, as are gender roles and, increasingly, religious affiliations. Clinicians are challenged to treat these families and often find the cultural dissonance with their own native culture and theoretical approaches as obstacles for the appropriate assessment and treatment interventions. As the field of family therapy has developed, so have culturally sensitive and competent approaches in the field of mental health. These approaches must be integrated into the multiplicity of other factors that define normality and psychopathology and be studied further in the context of their relevance and efficacy for special groups of children and families who suffer with specific disorders. In the meantime, cultural awareness and competence will continue to help clinicians understand better the impact of values and patterns in family cycles, family organization, child-rearing practices, and the expression of symptoms in family systems. PMID:11449814

Canino, I A; Inclan, J E

2001-07-01

453

ADHD and family functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of what is known about attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and family functioning has been derived from studies\\u000a that used children with ADHD as the starting point for their investigations. Such research has consistently reported that\\u000a parent- child interactions are often characterized by a high degree of negativity and conflict. Also commonly found in such\\u000a families are the use of less

Arthur D. Anastopoulos; Jennifer L. Sommer; Nicole K. Schatz

2009-01-01

454

Bacterial Mg2+ Homeostasis, Transport, and Virulence  

PubMed Central

Organisms must maintain physiological levels of Mg2+ because this divalent cation is critical for the stabilization of membranes and ribosomes, the neutralization of nucleic acids, and as a cofactor in a variety of enzymatic reactions. In this review, we describe the mechanisms that bacteria utilize to sense the levels of Mg2+ both outside and inside the cytoplasm. We examine how bacteria achieve Mg2+ homeostasis by adjusting the expression and activity of Mg2+ transporters, and by changing the composition of their cell envelope. We discuss the connections that exist between Mg2+ sensing, Mg2+ transport and bacterial virulence. Additionally, we explore the logic behind the fact that bacterial genomes encode multiple Mg2+ transporters and distinct sensing systems for cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic Mg2+. These analyses may be applicable to the homeostatic control of other cations. PMID:24079267

Hollands, Kerry; Kriner, Michelle A.; Lee, Eun-Jin; Park, Sun-Yang; Pontes, Mauricio H.

2014-01-01

455

Bacterial decontamination using ambient pressure nonthermal discharges  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric pressure nonthermal plasmas can efficiently deactivate bacteria in gases, liquids, and on surfaces, as well as can decompose hazardous chemicals. This paper focuses on the changes to bacterial spores and toxic biochemical compounds, such as mycotoxins, after their treatment in ambient pressure discharges. The ability of nonthermal plasmas to decompose toxic chemicals and deactivate hazardous biological materials has been applied to sterilizing medical instruments, ozonating water, and purifying air. In addition, the fast lysis of bacterial spores and other cells has led us to include plasma devices within pathogen detection instruments, where nucleic acids must be accessed. Decontaminating chemical and biological warfare materials from large, high value targets such as building surfaces, after a terrorist attack, are especially challenging. A large area plasma decontamination technology is described.

Birmingham, J.G.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

2000-02-01

456

BacDive--the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase  

PubMed Central

BacDive—the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (http://bacdive.dsmz.de) merges detailed strain-linked information on the different aspects of bacterial and archaeal biodiversity. Currently (release 9/2013), BacDive contains entries for 23 458 strains and provides information on their taxonomy, morphology, physiology, sampling and concomitant environmental conditions as well as molecular biology. Where available, links to access the respective biological resources are given. The majority of the BacDive data is manually annotated and curated. The BacDive portal offers an easy-to-use simple search and in addition powerful advanced search functionalities allowing to combine more than 30 search fields for text and numerical data. The user can compile individual sets of strains to a download selection that can easily be imported into nearly all spreadsheet applications. PMID:24214959

Sohngen, Carola; Bunk, Boyke; Podstawka, Adam; Gleim, Dorothea; Overmann, Jorg

2014-01-01

457

A New Bacterial Agglutinin from Soybean  

PubMed Central

A new bacterial agglutinin was isolated from seeds of the soybean cultivar Clark. Purification was carried out by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. The agglutinin is a heat-labile glycoprotein most active at pH 4.0. Addition of Ca2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+ did not enhance the agglutinating activity of this glycoprotein. Gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate showed that the agglutinin is composed of two subunits of approximately 50,000 daltons each. In the undissociated state, it agglutinates Xanthomonas phaseoli var. sojensis, the causal agent of bacterial pustule disease of soybean, at concentrations as low as 10 micrograms protein per milliliter but has no hemagglutinating activity. The agglutinin could be distinguished from previously reported soybean lectins on the basis of solubility in ammonium sulfate, lack of hemagglutinating activity, molecular weight, hapten specificity, and immunological determinants. Images PMID:16661540

Fett, William Frederick; Sequeira, Luis

1980-01-01